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Mitochondria and the Lectin Pathway of Complement*  

PubMed Central

Mitochondria, the powerhouses of our cells, are remnants of a eubacterial endosymbiont. Notwithstanding the evolutionary time that has passed since the initial endosymbiotic event, mitochondria have retained many hallmarks of their eubacterial origin. Recent studies have indicated that during perturbations of normal homeostasis, such as following acute trauma leading to massive necrosis and release of mitochondria, the immune system might mistake symbiont for enemy and initiate an inappropriate immune response. The innate immune system is the first line of defense against invading microbial pathogens, and as such is the primary suspect in the recognition of mitochondria-derived danger-associated molecular patterns and initiation of an aberrant response. Conversely, innate immune mechanisms are also central to noninflammatory clearance of innocuous agents. Here we investigated the role of a central humoral component of innate immunity, the lectin pathway of complement, in recognition of mitochondria in vitro and in vivo. We found that the soluble pattern recognition molecules, mannan-binding lectin (MBL), L-ficolin, and M-ficolin, were able to recognize mitochondria. Furthermore, MBL in complex with MBL-associated serine protease 2 (MASP-2) was able to activate the lectin pathway and deposit C4 onto mitochondria, suggesting that these molecules are involved either in homeostatic clearance of mitochondria or in induction of untoward inflammatory reactions. We found that following mitochondrial challenge, C3 was consumed in vivo in the absence of overt inflammation, indicating a potential role of complement in noninflammatory clearance of mitochondria. Thus, we report here the first indication of involvement of the lectin pathway in mitochondrial immune handling.

Brinkmann, Christel R.; Jensen, Lisbeth; Dagnaes-Hansen, Frederik; Holm, Ida E.; Endo, Yuichi; Fujita, Teizo; Thiel, Steffen; Jensenius, Jens C.; Degn, S?ren E.



Relevance of the lectin pathway of complement in rheumatic diseases.  


Due to its importance both in the clearance of pathogens that contribute as rheumatic etiological agents and in the disposal of apoptotic bodies and potential autoimmune initiators, deficiencies of the components of the lectin pathway of complement have been found to increase susceptibility and modulate the severity of most rheumatic disorders. This chapter introduces the general aspects of the structure, function, and genetics of lectin pathway components and summarizes current knowledge of the field regarding rheumatic diseases predisposition and modulation. PMID:22397030

Boldt, Angelica B W; Goeldner, Isabela; de Messias-Reason, Iara J T



Scabies Mite Inactive Serine Proteases Are Potent Inhibitors of the Human Complement Lectin Pathway  

PubMed Central

Scabies is an infectious skin disease caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei and has been classified as one of the six most prevalent epidermal parasitic skin diseases infecting populations living in poverty by the World Health Organisation. The role of the complement system, a pivotal component of human innate immunity, as an important defence against invading pathogens has been well documented and many parasites have an arsenal of anti-complement defences. We previously reported on a family of scabies mite proteolytically inactive serine protease paralogues (SMIPP-Ss) thought to be implicated in host defence evasion. We have since shown that two family members, SMIPP-S D1 and I1 have the ability to bind the human complement components C1q, mannose binding lectin (MBL) and properdin and are capable of inhibiting all three human complement pathways. This investigation focused on inhibition of the lectin pathway of complement activation as it is likely to be the primary pathway affecting scabies mites. Activation of the lectin pathway relies on the activation of MBL, and as SMIPP-S D1 and I1 have previously been shown to bind MBL, the nature of this interaction was examined using binding and mutagenesis studies. SMIPP-S D1 bound MBL in complex with MBL-associated serine proteases (MASPs) and released the MASP-2 enzyme from the complex. SMIPP-S I1 was also able to bind MBL in complex with MASPs, but MASP-1 and MASP-2 remained in the complex. Despite these differences in mechanism, both molecules inhibited activation of complement components downstream of MBL. Mutagenesis studies revealed that both SMIPP-Ss used an alternative site of the molecule from the residual active site region to inhibit the lectin pathway. We propose that SMIPP-Ss are potent lectin pathway inhibitors and that this mechanism represents an important tool in the immune evasion repertoire of the parasitic mite and a potential target for therapeutics.

Reynolds, Simone L.; Pike, Robert N.; Mika, Angela; Blom, Anna M.; Hofmann, Andreas; Wijeyewickrema, Lakshmi C.; Fischer, Katja



Scabies mite inactive serine proteases are potent inhibitors of the human complement lectin pathway.  


Scabies is an infectious skin disease caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei and has been classified as one of the six most prevalent epidermal parasitic skin diseases infecting populations living in poverty by the World Health Organisation. The role of the complement system, a pivotal component of human innate immunity, as an important defence against invading pathogens has been well documented and many parasites have an arsenal of anti-complement defences. We previously reported on a family of scabies mite proteolytically inactive serine protease paralogues (SMIPP-Ss) thought to be implicated in host defence evasion. We have since shown that two family members, SMIPP-S D1 and I1 have the ability to bind the human complement components C1q, mannose binding lectin (MBL) and properdin and are capable of inhibiting all three human complement pathways. This investigation focused on inhibition of the lectin pathway of complement activation as it is likely to be the primary pathway affecting scabies mites. Activation of the lectin pathway relies on the activation of MBL, and as SMIPP-S D1 and I1 have previously been shown to bind MBL, the nature of this interaction was examined using binding and mutagenesis studies. SMIPP-S D1 bound MBL in complex with MBL-associated serine proteases (MASPs) and released the MASP-2 enzyme from the complex. SMIPP-S I1 was also able to bind MBL in complex with MASPs, but MASP-1 and MASP-2 remained in the complex. Despite these differences in mechanism, both molecules inhibited activation of complement components downstream of MBL. Mutagenesis studies revealed that both SMIPP-Ss used an alternative site of the molecule from the residual active site region to inhibit the lectin pathway. We propose that SMIPP-Ss are potent lectin pathway inhibitors and that this mechanism represents an important tool in the immune evasion repertoire of the parasitic mite and a potential target for therapeutics. PMID:24854034

Reynolds, Simone L; Pike, Robert N; Mika, Angela; Blom, Anna M; Hofmann, Andreas; Wijeyewickrema, Lakshmi C; Kemp, Dave; Fischer, Katja



Near-planar Solution Structures of Mannose-binding Lectin Oligomers Provide Insight on Activation of Lectin Pathway of Complement  

PubMed Central

The complement system is a fundamental component of innate immunity that orchestrates complex immunological and inflammatory processes. Complement comprises over 30 proteins that eliminate invading microorganisms while maintaining host cell integrity. Protein-carbohydrate interactions play critical roles in both the activation and regulation of complement. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) activates the lectin pathway of complement via the recognition of sugar arrays on pathogenic surfaces. To determine the solution structure of MBL, synchrotron x-ray scattering and analytical ultracentrifugation experiments showed that the carbohydrate-recognition domains in the MBL dimer, trimer, and tetramer are positioned close to each other in near-planar fan-like structures. These data were subjected to constrained modeling fits. A bent structure for the MBL monomer was identified starting from two crystal structures for its carbohydrate-recognition domain and its triple helical region. The MBL monomer structure was used to identify 10–12 near-planar solution structures for each of the MBL dimers, trimers, and tetramers starting from 900 to 6,859 randomized structures for each. These near-planar fan-like solution structures joined at an N-terminal hub clarified how the carbohydrate-recognition domain of MBL binds to pathogenic surfaces. They also provided insight on how MBL presents a structural template for the binding and auto-activation of the MBL-associated serine proteases to initiate the lectin pathway of complement activation.

Miller, Ami; Phillips, Anna; Gor, Jayesh; Wallis, Russell; Perkins, Stephen J.



Calcium-independent haemolysis via the lectin pathway of complement activation in the guinea-pig and other *  

PubMed Central

We previously reported that complement-dependent haemolysis of sheep erythrocytes (E) coated with mannan (M) and sensitized with human mannan-binding lectin (MBL) via the lectin pathway in man occurs in Mg-EGTA and requires alternative pathway amplification. Calcium was required for MBL binding to E-M, but once the E-M-MBL intermediate was formed, MBL was retained and haemolysis occurred in the absence of calcium. Comparable or greater lectin pathway haemolysis in the absence of calcium was observed upon incubation of E-M-MBL in guinea-pig, rat, dog and pig sera, and was further investigated in the guinea-pig, in which titres were much higher (?14-fold) than in man, and in contrast to humans, greater than classical pathway haemolytic activity. As in human serum, no lysis was observed in C4- or C2-deficient guinea-pig serum until purified C4 or C2, respectively, were restored. However, lectin pathway haemolytic activity in the guinea-pig did not require the alternative pathway. Removal (>98%) of factor D activity by three sequential passages through Sephadex G-75, resulting in serum which retained a normal classical pathway but no alternative pathway haemolytic activity, did not reduce the ability of guinea-pig serum to mediate haemolysis via the lectin pathway. Further, the C3-convertase formed via the lectin pathway (E-M-MBL-C4,2) lysed in C2-deficient guinea-pig but not human serum chelated with EDTA, a condition which precludes alternative pathway amplification. Thus, lectin pathway haemolysis occurs efficiently in guinea-pig serum, in the absence of calcium and without requirement for alternative pathway amplification. The guinea-pig provides a model for studying the assembly and haemolytic function of a lectin pathway which contrasts with the lectin pathway of man, and allows for comparisons that may help clarify the role of this pathway in complement biology.

Zhang, Y; Suankratay, C; Zhang, X-H; Jones, D R; Lint, T F; Gewurz, H



Fibrinogen-specific antibody induces abdominal aortic aneurysm in mice through complement lectin pathway activation  

PubMed Central

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a common vascular disease associated with high mortality rate due to progressive enlargement and eventual rupture. There is currently no established therapy known to alter the rate of aneurysmal expansion. Thus, understanding the processes that initiate and sustain aneurysmal growth is pivotal for the development of medical therapies aimed at halting disease progression. Using an elastase-induced AAA mouse model that recapitulates key features of human AAA, we previously reported that a natural IgG antibody directs alternative pathway complement activation and initiates the inflammatory process that culminates in aneurysmal development. The target of this natural antibody, however, was unknown. Herein we identify a natural IgG that binds to fibrinogen deposited in elastase-perfused aortic tissues, activates the complement lectin pathway (LP), and induces AAA. Moreover, we establish that alterations in the glycosylation patterns of this antibody critically affect its ability to activate the LP in vivo. We find that LP activation precedes the alternative pathway and absence of the LP complement protein mannan-binding lectin abrogates elastase-induced AAA. In human AAA tissues the mouse anti-fibrinogen antibody recognizes epitopes that localize to the same areas that stain positively for mannan-binding lectin, which suggests that the complement LP is engaged in humans as well. Lastly, we demonstrate that circulating antibodies in a subset of AAA patients react against fibrinogen or fibrinogen-associated epitopes in human aneurysmal tissues. Our findings support the concept that an autoimmune process directed at aortic wall self-antigens may play a central role in the immunopathogenesis of AAA.

Zhou, Hui-fang; Yan, Huimin; Bertram, Paula; Hu, Ying; Springer, Luke E.; Thompson, Robert W.; Curci, John A.; Hourcade, Dennis E.; Pham, Christine T. N.



Depressed activation of the lectin pathway of complement in hereditary angioedema  

PubMed Central

The possibility of simultaneous measurement of the classical pathway (CP), mannan-binding lectin (MBL)–lectin pathway (LP) and alternative pathway (AP) of complement activation by the recently developed Wielisa method allowed us to investigate the in vivo significance of the C1-inhibitor (C1INH) in three complement activation pathways. Functional activity of the CP, LP and AP were measured in the sera of 68 adult patients with hereditary angioedema (HAE) and 64 healthy controls. In addition, the level of C1q, MBL, MBL-associated serine protease-2 (MASP-2), C4-, C3- and C1INH was measured by standard laboratory methods. MBL-2 genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction. Besides the complement alterations (low CP and C1INH activity, low C4-, C1INH concentrations), which characterize HAE, the level of MASP-2 was also lower (P = 0·0001) in patients compared with controls. Depressed LP activity was found in patients compared with controls (P = 0·0008) in homozygous carriers of the normal MBL genotype (A/A), but not in carriers of variant genotypes (A/O, O/O). Activity of CP correlated with LP in patients (Spearman's r = 0·64; P < 0·0001), but no significant correlation was found in the control group and no correlation with AP was observed. In contrast, the activity of CP and AP correlated (Spearman's r = 0·47; P < 0·0001) in healthy controls, but there was no significant correlation in the HAE patients. We conclude that the activation of LP might also occur in subjects with C1INH deficiency, which is reflected by the low MASP-2 and C4 levels.

Varga, L; Szeplaki, G; Laki, J; Kocsis, A; Kristof, K; Gal, P; Bajtay, Z; Wieslander, J; Daha, M R; Garred, P; Madsen, H O; Fust, G; Farkas, H



Differential role of the lectin pathway of complement activation in susceptibility to neonatal sepsis.  


BACKGROUND. The incidence of bacterial sepsis during the neonatal period is high. Mannan-binding lectin (MBL), L-ficolin, and H-ficolin recognize microorganisms and activate the complement system via MBL-associated serine proteases (MASPs). This study investigated whether cord blood concentrations of the lectin pathway proteins are associated with neonatal sepsis. METHODS. This was a case-control study including 47 infants with culture-proven sepsis during the first month of life and 94 matched controls. MBL, L-ficolin, H-ficolin, MASP-2, and MASP-3 levels were measured in cord blood with use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and time-resolved immunofluorometric assay. Multivariate logistic regression was performed. RESULTS. Infants with gram-positive sepsis had significantly lower H-ficolin cord blood concentrations than controls (multivariate odds ratio [OR], 4.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.51-10.56; P = .005), whereas infants with gram-negative sepsis had lower MBL cord blood concentrations (OR, 2.99; 95% CI, 0.86-10.33; P = .084). When excluding patients with postoperative sepsis, multivariate analysis confirmed that low H-ficolin was associated with a significantly higher risk of gram-positive sepsis (OR, 3.71; 95% CI, 1.26-10.92; P = .017) and late-onset sepsis (OR, 3.14; 95% CI, 1.07-9.21; P = .037). In contrast, low MBL was associated with a significantly higher risk of gram-negative sepsis (OR, 4.39; 95% CI, 1.10-17.45; P = .036) and early-onset sepsis (OR, 3.87; 95% CI, 1.05-14.29; P = .042). The concentrations of all the lectin pathway proteins increased with gestational age (P < .01). CONCLUSIONS. These preliminary results indicate that low MBL concentrations are a susceptibility factor for gram-negative sepsis, and low H-ficolin concentrations indicate susceptibility to gram-positive sepsis. The decreased expression of lectin pathway proteins in neonates must be considered to be an additional form of neonatal immunodeficiency. PMID:20528471

Schlapbach, Luregn J; Mattmann, Maika; Thiel, Steffen; Boillat, Colette; Otth, Margrith; Nelle, Mathias; Wagner, Bendicht; Jensenius, Jens C; Aebi, Christoph



Trypanosoma cruzi calreticulin inhibits the complement lectin pathway activation by direct interaction with L-Ficolin.  


Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas' disease, the sixth neglected tropical disease worldwide, infects 10-12 million people in Latin America. Differently from T. cruzi epimastigotes, trypomastigotes are complement-resistant and infective. CRPs, T-DAF, sialic acid and lipases explain at least part of this resistance. In vitro, T. cruzi calreticulin (TcCRT), a chaperone molecule that translocates from the ER to the parasite surface: (a) Inhibits the human classical complement activation, by interacting with C1, (b) As a consequence, an increase in infectivity is evident and, (c) It inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth. We report here that TcCRT also binds to the L-Ficolin collagenous portion, thus inhibiting approximately between 35 and 64% of the human complement lectin pathway activation, initiated by L-Ficolin, a property not shared by H-Ficolin. While L-Ficolin binds to 60% of trypomastigotes and to 24% of epimastigotes, 50% of the former and 4% of the latter display TcCRT on their surfaces. Altogether, these data indicate that TcCRT is a parasite inhibitory receptor for Ficolins. The resulting evasive activities, together with the TcCRT capacity to inhibit C1, with a concomitant increase in infectivity, may represent T. cruzi strategies to inhibit important arms of the innate immune response. PMID:24769495

Sosoniuk, Eduardo; Vallejos, Gerardo; Kenawy, Hany; Gaboriaud, Christine; Thielens, Nicole; Fujita, Teizo; Schwaeble, Wilhelm; Ferreira, Arturo; Valck, Carolina



Role of Ficolin-A and Lectin Complement Pathway in the Innate Defense against Pathogenic Aspergillus Species  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus species are saprophytic molds causing life-threatening invasive fungal infections in the immunocompromised host. Innate immune recognition, in particular, the mechanisms of opsonization and complement activation, has been reported to be an integral part of the defense against fungi. We have shown that the complement component ficolin-A significantly binds to Aspergillus conidia and hyphae in a concentration-dependent manner and was inhibited by N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine. Calcium-independent binding to Aspergillus fumigatus and A. terreus was observed, but binding to A. flavus and A. niger was calcium dependent. Ficolin-A binding to conidia was increased under low-pH conditions, and opsonization led to enhanced binding of conidia to A549 airway epithelial cells. In investigations of the lectin pathway of complement activation, ficolin-A-opsonized conidia did not lead to lectin pathway-specific C4 deposition. In contrast, the collectin mannose binding lectin C (MBL-C) but not MBL-A led to efficient lectin pathway activation on A. fumigatus in the absence of ficolin-A. In addition, ficolin-A opsonization led to a modulation of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-8. We conclude that ficolin-A may play an important role in the innate defense against Aspergillus by opsonizing conidia, immobilizing this fungus through enhanced adherence to epithelial cells and modulation of inflammation. However, it appears that other immune pattern recognition molecules, i.e., those of the collectin MBL-C, are involved in the Aspergillus-lectin complement pathway activation rather than ficolin-A.

Bidula, Stefan; Kenawy, Hany; Ali, Youssif M.; Sexton, Darren; Schwaeble, Wilhelm J.



The salivary scavenger and agglutinin binds MBL and regulates the lectin pathway of complement in solution and on surfaces  

PubMed Central

The salivary scavenger and agglutinin (SALSA), also known as gp340, salivary agglutinin and deleted in malignant brain tumor 1, is a 340-kDa glycoprotein expressed on mucosal surfaces and secreted into several body fluids. SALSA binds to a broad variety of microbes and endogenous ligands, such as complement factor C1q, surfactant proteins D and A, and IgA. Our search for novel ligands of SALSA by direct protein-interaction studies led to the identification of mannan-binding lectin (MBL) as a new binding partner. We observed that surface-associated SALSA activates complement via binding of MBL. On the other hand, soluble SALSA was found to inhibit Candida albicans-induced complement activation. Thus, SALSA has a dual complement activation modifying function. It activates the lectin pathway when bound to a surface and inhibits it when free in the fluid phase. These activities are mediated via a direct interaction with MBL. This suggests that SALSA could target the innate immune responses to certain microorganisms and simultaneously limit complement activation in the fluid phase.

Reichhardt, Martin P.; Loimaranta, Vuokko; Thiel, Steffen; Finne, Jukka; Meri, Seppo; Jarva, Hanna



Mouse Ficolin B Has an Ability to Form Complexes with Mannose-Binding Lectin-Associated Serine Proteases and Activate Complement through the Lectin Pathway  

PubMed Central

Ficolins are thought to be pathogen-associated-molecular-pattern-(PAMP-) recognition molecules that function to support innate immunity. Like mannose-binding lectins (MBLs), most mammalian ficolins form complexes with MBL-associated serine proteases (MASPs), leading to complement activation via the lectin pathway. However, the ability of murine ficolin B, a homologue of human M-ficolin, to perform this function is still controversial. The results of the present study show that ficolin B in mouse bone marrow is an oligomeric protein. Ficolin B, pulled down using GlcNAc-agarose, contained very low, but detectable, amounts of MASP-2 and small MBL-associated protein (sMAP) and showed detectable C4-deposition activity on immobilized N-acetylglucosamine. These biochemical features of ficolin B were confirmed using recombinant mouse ficolin B produced in CHO cells. Taken together, these results suggest that like other mammalian homologues, murine ficolin B has an ability to exert its function via the lectin pathway.

Endo, Yuichi; Iwaki, Daisuke; Ishida, Yumi; Takahashi, Minoru; Matsushita, Misao; Fujita, Teizo



Therapeutic Targeting of Classical and Lectin Pathways of Complement Protects from Ischemia-Reperfusion-Induced Renal Damage  

PubMed Central

Ischemia-reperfusion injury is the major cause of delayed graft function in transplanted kidneys, an early event significantly affecting long-term graft function and survival. Several studies in rodents suggest that the alternative pathway of the complement system plays a pivotal role in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, limited information is currently available from humans and larger animals. Here we demonstrated that 30 minutes of ischemia resulted in the induction of C4d/C1q, C4d/MLB, and MBL/MASP-2 deposits in a swine model of ischemia-reperfusion injury. The infusion of C1-inhibitor led to a significant reduction in peritubular capillary and glomerular C4d and C5b-9 deposition. Moreover, complement-inhibiting treatment significantly reduced the numbers of infiltrating CD163+, SWC3a+, CD4a+, and CD8a+ cells. C1-inhibitor administration led to significant inhibition of tubular damage and tubular epithelial cells apoptosis. Interestingly, we report that focal C4d-deposition colocalizes with C1q and MBL at the peritubular and glomerular capillary levels also in patients with delayed graft function. In conclusion, we demonstrated the activation and a pathogenic role of classical and lectin pathways of complement in a swine model of ischemia-reperfusion?induced renal damage. Therefore, inhibition of these two pathways might represent a novel therapeutic approach in the prevention of delayed graft function in kidney transplant recipients.

Castellano, Giuseppe; Melchiorre, Rita; Loverre, Antonia; Ditonno, Pasquale; Montinaro, Vincenzo; Rossini, Michele; Divella, Chiara; Battaglia, Michele; Lucarelli, Giuseppe; Annunziata, Gennaro; Palazzo, Silvano; Selvaggi, Francesco Paolo; Staffieri, Francesco; Crovace, Antonio; Daha, Mohamed R.; Mannesse, Maurice; van Wetering, Sandra; Paolo Schena, Francesco; Grandaliano, Giuseppe



Revised mechanism of complement lectin-pathway activation revealing the role of serine protease MASP-1 as the exclusive activator of MASP-2  

PubMed Central

The lectin pathway of complement activation is an important component of the innate immune defense. The initiation complexes of the lectin pathway consist of a recognition molecule and associated serine proteases. Until now the autoactivating mannose-binding lectin-associated serine protease (MASP)-2 has been considered the autonomous initiator of the proteolytic cascade. The role of the much more abundant MASP-1 protease was controversial. Using unique, monospecific inhibitors against MASP-1 and MASP-2, we corrected the mechanism of lectin-pathway activation. In normal human serum, MASP-2 activation strictly depends on MASP-1. MASP-1 activates MASP-2 and, moreover, inhibition of MASP-1 prevents autoactivation of MASP-2. Furthermore we demonstrated that MASP-1 produces 60% of C2a responsible for C3 convertase formation.

Heja, David; Kocsis, Andrea; Dobo, Jozsef; Szilagyi, Katalin; Szasz, Robert; Zavodszky, Peter; Pal, Gabor; Gal, Peter



Oxidative Stress Sensitizes Retinal Pigmented Epithelial (RPE) Cells to Complement-mediated Injury in a Natural Antibody-, Lectin Pathway-, and Phospholipid Epitope-dependent Manner*  

PubMed Central

Uncontrolled activation of the alternative complement pathway (AP) is thought to be associated with age-related macular degeneration. Previously, we have shown that in retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) monolayers, oxidative stress reduced complement inhibition on the cell surface, resulting in sublytic complement activation and loss of transepithelial resistance (TER), but the potential ligand and pathway involved are unknown. ARPE-19 cells were grown as monolayers on transwell plates, and sublytic complement activation was induced with H2O2 and normal human serum. TER deteriorated rapidly in H2O2-exposed monolayers upon adding normal human serum. Although the effect required AP activation, AP was not sufficient, because elimination of MASP, but not C1q, prevented TER reduction. Reconstitution experiments to unravel essential components of the lectin pathway (LP) showed that both ficolin and mannan-binding lectin can activate the LP through natural IgM antibodies (IgM-C2) that recognize phospholipid cell surface modifications on oxidatively stressed RPE cells. The same epitopes were found on human primary embryonic RPE monolayers. Likewise, mouse laser-induced choroidal neovascularization, an injury that involves LP activation, could be increased in antibody-deficient rag1?/? mice using the phospholipid-specific IgM-C2. In summary, using a combination of depletion and reconstitution strategies, we have shown that the LP is required to initiate the complement cascade following natural antibody recognition of neoepitopes, which is then further amplified by the AP. LP activation is triggered by IgM bound to phospholipids. Taken together, we have defined novel mechanisms of complement activation in oxidatively stressed RPE, linking molecular events involved in age-related macular degeneration, including the presence of natural antibodies and neoepitopes.

Joseph, Kusumam; Kulik, Liudmila; Coughlin, Beth; Kunchithapautham, Kannan; Bandyopadhyay, Mausumi; Thiel, Steffen; Thielens, Nicole M.; Holers, V. Michael; Rohrer, Barbel



MAp44, a human protein associated with pattern recognition molecules of the complement system and regulating the lectin pathway of complement activation.  


Essential effector functions of innate immunity are mediated by complement activation initiated by soluble pattern recognition molecules: mannan-binding lectin (MBL) and the ficolins. We present a novel, phylogenetically conserved protein, MAp44, which is found in human serum at 1.4 microg/ml in Ca(2+)-dependent complexes with the soluble pattern recognition molecules. The affinity for MBL is in the nanomolar range (K(D) = 0.6 nM) as determined by surface plasmon resonance. The first eight exons of the gene for MAp44 encode four domains shared with MBL-associated serine protease (MASP)-1 and MASP-3 (CUB1-EGF-CUB2-CCP1), and a ninth exon encodes C-terminal 17 aa unique to MAp44. mRNA profiling in human tissues shows high expression in the heart. MAp44 competes with MASP-2 for binding to MBL and ficolins, resulting in inhibition of complement activation. Our results add a novel mechanism to those known to control the innate immune system. PMID:19917686

Degn, Sřren E; Hansen, Annette G; Steffensen, Rudi; Jacobsen, Christian; Jensenius, Jens C; Thiel, Steffen



Common variable immunodeficiency and the complement system; low mannose-binding lectin levels are associated with bronchiectasis  

PubMed Central

The importance of the innate immune system, including mannose-binding lectin and the complement system, in common variable immunodeficiency is unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate mannose-binding lectin and the complement system in relation to clinical and immunological parameters in patients with common variable immunodeficiency. Circulating levels of mannose-binding lectin, complement components, complement activation products and functional capacity of complement pathways were correlated to clinical features within 71 patients and compared with 30 healthy controls. The main findings were; the patients had signs of increased complement activation significantly associated with signs of autoimmunity and immunological hyperactivity; there were no signs of deficiencies of the classical and alternative complement pathways in the patient group; the prevalence of lectin pathway deficiency was the same in patients and controls, but patients with increased frequency of lower respiratory tract infections or bronchiectasis had lower capacity of the lectin pathway than patients without these features (P = 0·002 and 0·004, respectively); the serum concentration of mannose-binding lectin was inversely correlated to the frequency of lower respiratory tract infections (P = 0·002) and bronchiectasis (P = 0·01). We conclude that patients with common variable immunodeficiency have no increased frequency of complement deficiencies but signs of increased complement activation. Our findings suggest that mannose-binding lectin and the lectin complement pathway may protect against lower respiratory tract infection and bronhiectasis in patients with common variable immunodeficiency.

Fevang, B; Mollnes, T E; Holm, A M; Ueland, T; Heggelund, L; Damas, J K; Aukrust, P; Fr?land, S S



Complement-Mediated Neutralization of Dengue Virus Requires Mannose-Binding Lectin  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a key soluble pathogen recognition protein of the innate immune system that binds specific mannose-containing glycans on the surfaces of microbial agents and initiates complement activation via the lectin pathway. Prior studies showed that MBL-dependent activation of the complement cascade neutralized insect cell-derived West Nile virus (WNV) in cell culture and restricted pathogenesis in mice. Here, we investigated the antiviral activity of MBL in infection by dengue virus (DENV), a related flavivirus. Using a panel of naďve sera from mouse strains deficient in different complement components, we showed that inhibition of infection by insect cell- and mammalian cell-derived DENV was primarily dependent on the lectin pathway. Human MBL also bound to DENV and neutralized infection of all four DENV serotypes through complement activation-dependent and -independent pathways. Experiments with human serum from naďve individuals with inherent variation in the levels of MBL in blood showed a direct correlation between the concentration of MBL and neutralization of DENV; samples with high levels of MBL in blood neutralized DENV more efficiently than those with lower levels. Our studies suggest that allelic variation of MBL in humans may impact complement-dependent control of DENV pathogenesis.

Avirutnan, Panisadee; Hauhart, Richard E.; Marovich, Mary A.; Garred, Peter; Atkinson, John P.; Diamond, Michael S.



A tick mannose-binding lectin inhibits the vertebrate complement cascade to enhance transmission of the Lyme disease agent  

PubMed Central

Summary The Lyme disease agent, Borrelia burgdorferi, is primarily transmitted to vertebrates by Ixodes ticks. The classical and alternative complement pathways are important in Borrelia eradication by the vertebrate host. We recently identified a tick salivary protein, designated P8 that reduced complement-mediated killing of Borrelia. We now discover that P8 interferes with the human lectin complement cascade resulting in impaired neutrophil phagocytosis and chemotaxis, and diminished Borrelia lysis. Therefore, P8 was renamed the lectin complement pathway inhibitor (TSLPI). TSLPI-silenced ticks, or ticks exposed to TSLPI-immune mice, were hampered in Borrelia transmission. Moreover, Borrelia acquisition and persistence in tick midguts was impaired in ticks feeding on TSLPI-immunized B. burgdorferi-infected mice. Together, our findings suggest an essential role for the lectin complement cascade in Borrelia eradication and demonstrate how a vector-borne pathogen co-opts a vector protein to facilitate early mammalian infection and vector colonization.

Schuijt, Tim J.; Coumou, Jeroen; Narasimhan, Sukanya; Dai, Jianfeng; DePonte, Kathleen; Wouters, Diana; Brouwer, Mieke; Oei, Anneke; Roelofs, Joris J.T.H.; van Dam, Alje P.; van der Poll, Tom; van 't Veer, Cornelis; Hovius, Joppe W.; Fikrig, Erol



Secondary Cell Wall Polymers of Enterococcus faecalis Are Critical for Resistance to Complement Activation via Mannose-binding Lectin*  

PubMed Central

The complement system is part of our first line of defense against invading pathogens. The strategies used by Enterococcus faecalis to evade recognition by human complement are incompletely understood. In this study, we identified an insertional mutant of the wall teichoic acid (WTA) synthesis gene tagB in E. faecalis V583 that exhibited an increased susceptibility to complement-mediated killing by neutrophils. Further analysis revealed that increased killing of the mutant was due to a higher rate of phagocytosis by neutrophils, which correlated with higher C3b deposition on the bacterial surface. Our studies indicated that complement activation via the lectin pathway was much stronger on the tagB mutant compared with wild type. In concordance, we found an increased binding of the key lectin pathway components mannose-binding lectin and mannose-binding lectin-associated serine protease-2 (MASP-2) on the mutant. To understand the mechanism of lectin pathway inhibition by E. faecalis, we purified and characterized cell wall carbohydrates of E. faecalis wild type and V583?tagB. NMR analysis revealed that the mutant strain lacked two WTAs with a repeating unit of ?6)[?-l-Rhap-(1?3)]?-d-GalpNAc-(1?5)-Rbo-1-P and ?6) ?-d-Glcp-(1?3) [?-d-Glcp-(1?4)]-?-d-GalpNAc-(1?5)-Rbo-1-P?, respectively (Rbo, ribitol). In addition, compositional changes in the enterococcal rhamnopolysaccharide were noticed. Our study indicates that in E. faecalis, modification of peptidoglycan by secondary cell wall polymers is critical to evade recognition by the complement system.

Geiss-Liebisch, Stefan; Rooijakkers, Suzan H. M.; Beczala, Agnieszka; Sanchez-Carballo, Patricia; Kruszynska, Karolina; Repp, Christian; Sakinc, Tuerkan; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Holst, Otto; Huebner, Johannes; Theilacker, Christian



Direct Complement Restriction of Flavivirus Infection Requires Glycan Recognition by Mannose Binding Lectin  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY An intact complement system is crucial for limiting West Nile virus (WNV) dissemination. Herein, we define how complement directly restricts flavivirus infection in an antibody-independent fashion. Mannose binding lectin (MBL) recognized N-linked glycans on the structural proteins of WNV and Dengue virus (DENV), resulting in neutralization through a C3 and C4-dependent mechanism that utilized both the canonical and bypass lectin activation pathways. For WNV, neutralization occurred with virus produced in insect cells, whereas for DENV, neutralization of insect and mammalian cell-derived virus was observed. Mechanism of action studies suggested that the MBL-dependent neutralization occurred in part, by blocking viral fusion. Experiments in mice showed an MBL-dependent accelerated intravascular clearance of DENV or a WNV mutant with two N-linked glycans on its E protein, but not with wild type WNV. Our studies show that MBL recognizes terminal mannose containing carbohydrates on flaviviruses, resulting in neutralization and efficient clearance in vivo.

Fuchs, Anja; Lin, Tsai-Yu; Beasley, David W.; Stover, Cordula M.; Schwaeble, Wilhelm J.; Pierson, Theodore C.; Diamond, Michael S.



Functional characterization of mannose-binding lectin in zebrafish: Implication for a lectin-dependent complement system in early embryos.  


The lectin pathway involves recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns by mannose-binding lectin (MBL), and the subsequent activation of associated enzymes, termed MBL-associated serine proteases (MASPs). In this study, we demonstrate that the transcript of MBL gene is present in the early embryo of zebrafish, and MBL protein is also present in the embryo. In addition, we show that recombinant zebrafish MBL was able to bind the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli and the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, and rMBL was able to promote the phagocytosis of E. coli and S. aureus by macrophages, indicating that like mammalian MBL, zebrafish MBL performs a dual function in both pattern recognition and opsonization. Importantly, we show that microinjection of anti-MBL antibody into the early developing embryos resulted in a significantly increased mortality in the embryos challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila (pathogenic to zebrafish); and injection of rMBL into the embryos (resulting in increase in MBL in the embryo) markedly promoted their resistance to A. hydrophila; and this promoted bacterial resistance was significantly reduced by the co-injection of anti-MBL antibody with rMBL but not by the injection of anti-actin antibody with rMBL. These suggest that the lectin pathway may be already functional in the early embryos in zebrafish before their immune system is fully matured, protecting the developing embryos from microbial infection. This work provides a new angle to understand the immune role of the lectin pathway in early development of animals. PMID:24858663

Yang, Lili; Bu, Lingzhen; Sun, Weiwei; Hu, Lili; Zhang, Shicui



Pneumococcal Type-Associated Variability in Alternate Complement Pathway Activation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Opsonization of Streptococcus pneumoniae may be mediated by the alternate complement pathway. Complement consumption by pneumococci of various serotypes was measured in human serum chelated with ethyleneglycoltetraacetic acid, a substance that blocks the ...

D. P. Fine



Activation of the Classic and Alternate Complement Pathways by Endotoxin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ability of bacterial endotoxin (LPS) to activate the complement system was studied in guinea pig serum (GPS). In serum chelated with ethyleneglycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) 10 mM, which permits alternate complement pathway activation but inhibits class...

D. P. Fine



Crystal Structure and Functional Characterization of the Complement Regulator Mannose-binding Lectin (MBL)/Ficolin-associated Protein-1 (MAP-1)*  

PubMed Central

The human lectin complement pathway activation molecules comprise mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and ficolin-1, -2, and -3 in complex with associated serine proteases MASP-1, -2, and -3 and the non-enzymatic small MBL associated protein or sMAP. Recently, a novel plasma protein named MBL/ficolin-associated protein-1 (MAP-1) was identified in humans. This protein is the result of a differential splicing of the MASP1 gene and includes the major part of the heavy chain but lacks the serine protease domain. We investigated the direct interactions of MAP-1 and MASP-3 with ficolin-3 and MBL using surface plasmon resonance and found affinities around 5 nm and 2.5 nm, respectively. We studied structural aspects of MAP-1 and could show by multi-angle laser light scattering that MAP-1 forms a calcium-dependent homodimer in solution. We were able to determine the crystal structure of MAP-1, which also contains a head-to-tail dimer ?146 ? long. This structure of MAP-1 also enables modeling and assembly of the MASP-1 molecule in its entirety. Finally we found that MAP-1 competes with all three MASPs for ligand binding and is able to mediate a strong dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the lectin pathway activation, as measured by levels of C3 and C9.

Skjoedt, Mikkel-Ole; Roversi, Pietro; Hummelsh?j, Tina; Palarasah, Yaseelan; Rosbjerg, Anne; Johnson, Steven; Lea, Susan M.; Garred, Peter



Mannose-Binding Lectin Binds to a Range of Clinically Relevant Microorganisms and Promotes Complement Deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a collagenous serum lectin believed to be of importance in innate immunity. Genetically determined low levels of the protein are known to predispose to infections. In this study the binding of purified MBL to pathogens isolated from immunocompromised children was investigated by flow cytometry. Diverse Candida species, Aspergillus fumigatus, Staphylococcus aureus, and beta-hemolytic group A streptococci




Novel Scabies Mite Serpins Inhibit the Three Pathways of the Human Complement System  

PubMed Central

Scabies is a parasitic infestation of the skin by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei that causes significant morbidity worldwide, in particular within socially disadvantaged populations. In order to identify mechanisms that enable the scabies mite to evade human immune defenses, we have studied molecules associated with proteolytic systems in the mite, including two novel scabies mite serine protease inhibitors (SMSs) of the serpin superfamily. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that within mite-infected human skin SMSB4 (54 kDa) and SMSB3 (47 kDa) were both localized in the mite gut and feces. Recombinant purified SMSB3 and SMSB4 did not inhibit mite serine and cysteine proteases, but did inhibit mammalian serine proteases, such as chymotrypsin, albeit inefficiently. Detailed functional analysis revealed that both serpins interfered with all three pathways of the human complement system at different stages of their activation. SMSB4 inhibited mostly the initial and progressing steps of the cascades, while SMSB3 showed the strongest effects at the C9 level in the terminal pathway. Additive effects of both serpins were shown at the C9 level in the lectin pathway. Both SMSs were able to interfere with complement factors without protease function. A range of binding assays showed direct binding between SMSB4 and seven complement proteins (C1, properdin, MBL, C4, C3, C6 and C8), while significant binding of SMSB3 occurred exclusively to complement factors without protease function (C4, C3, C8). Direct binding was observed between SMSB4 and the complement proteases C1s and C1r. However no complex formation was observed between either mite serpin and the complement serine proteases C1r, C1s, MASP-1, MASP-2 and MASP-3. No catalytic inhibition by either serpin was observed for any of these enzymes. In summary, the SMSs were acting at several levels mediating overall inhibition of the complement system and thus we propose that they may protect scabies mites from complement-mediated gut damage.

Mika, Angela; Reynolds, Simone L.; Mohlin, Frida C.; Willis, Charlene; Swe, Pearl M.; Pickering, Darren A.; Halilovic, Vanja; Wijeyewickrema, Lakshmi C.; Pike, Robert N.; Blom, Anna M.; Kemp, David J.; Fischer, Katja



Cleavage of kininogen and subsequent bradykinin release by the complement component: mannose-binding lectin-associated serine protease (MASP)-1.  


Bradykinin (BK), generated from high-molecular-weight kininogen (HK) is the major mediator of swelling attacks in hereditary angioedema (HAE), a disease associated with C1-inhibitor deficiency. Plasma kallikrein, activated by factor XIIa, is responsible for most of HK cleavage. However other proteases, which activate during episodes of angioedema, might also contribute to BK production. The lectin pathway of the complement system activates after infection and oxidative stress on endothelial cells generating active serine proteases: MASP-1 and MASP-2. Our aim was to study whether activated MASPs are able to digest HK to release BK. Initially we were trying to find potential new substrates of MASP-1 in human plasma by differential gel electrophoresis, and we identified kininogen cleavage products by this proteomic approach. As a control, MASP-2 was included in the study in addition to MASP-1 and kallikrein. The proteolytic cleavage of HK by MASPs was followed by SDS-PAGE, and BK release was detected by HPLC. We showed that MASP-1 was able to cleave HK resulting in BK production. MASP-2 could also cleave HK but could not release BK. The cleavage pattern of MASPs is similar but not strictly identical to that of kallikrein. The catalytic efficiency of HK cleavage by a recombinant version of MASP-1 and MASP-2 was about 4.0×10(2) and 2.7×10(2) M(-1) s(-1), respectively. C1-inhibitor, the major inhibitor of factor XIIa and kallikrein, also prevented the cleavage of HK by MASPs. In all, a new factor XII- and kallikrein-independent mechanism of bradykinin production by MASP-1 was demonstrated, which may contribute to the pro-inflammatory effect of the lectin pathway of complement and to the elevated bradykinin levels in HAE patients. PMID:21625439

Dobó, József; Major, Balázs; Kékesi, Katalin A; Szabó, István; Megyeri, Márton; Hajela, Krishnan; Juhász, Gábor; Závodszky, Péter; Gál, Péter



The alternative complement pathway regulates pathological angiogenesis in the retina.  


A defining feature in proliferative retinopathies is the formation of pathological neovessels. In these diseases, the balance between neovessel formation and regression determines blindness, making the modulation of neovessel growth highly desirable. The role of the immune system in these retinopathies is of increasing interest, but it is not completely understood. We investigated the role of the alternative complement pathway during the formation and resolution of aberrant neovascularization. We used alternative complement pathway-deficient (Fb(-/-)) mice and age- and strain-matched control mice to assess neovessel development and regression in an oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) mouse model. In the control mice, we found increased transcription of Fb after OIR treatment. In the Fb(-/-) mice, we prepared retinal flatmounts and identified an increased number of neovessels, peaking at postnatal day 17 (P17; P=0.001). Subjecting human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to low oxygen, mimicking a characteristic of neovessels, decreased the expression of the complement inhibitor Cd55. Finally, using laser capture microdissection (LCM) to isolate the neovessels after OIR, we found decreased expression of Cd55 (P=0.005). Together, our data implicate the alternative complement pathway in facilitating neovessel clearance by down-regulating the complement inhibitor Cd55 specifically on neovessels, allowing for their targeted removal while leaving the established vasculature intact.-Sweigard, J. H., Yanai, R., Gaissert, P., Saint-Geniez, M., Kataoka, K., Thanos, A., Stahl, G. L., Lambris, J. D., Connor, K. M. The alternative complement pathway regulates pathological angiogenesis in the retina. PMID:24668752

Sweigard, J Harry; Yanai, Ryoji; Gaissert, Philipp; Saint-Geniez, Magali; Kataoka, Keiko; Thanos, Aristomenis; Stahl, Gregory L; Lambris, John D; Connor, Kip M



Activation of the alternative complement pathway by Agaricus blazei Murill.  


Components of Agaricus blazei Murill have been demonstrated to have a wide range of immunopotentiating activities. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of A. blazei Murill upon activation of the complement system in human serum in vitro. Additional studies were performed to determine the cytotoxic effect of complement-opsonized particles of A. blazei Murill against human tumor cells in culture. A fine particle of A. blazei Murill (ABP), prepared by mechanical disruption, was used throughout the experiments. ABP activated the human complement system via the alternative pathway in human serum. Activation of the alternative pathway was both time- and dose-dependent. When the particles from fruiting bodies of A. blazei Murill (ABP-F) were reacted with human serum, the formation of complement-opsonized ABP, iC3b-ABP-F complexes, and binding of the complexes to human peripheral blood monocytes, were demonstrated in vitro by immunofluorescence. Further, the resident human peripheral nucleated cells incubated in the presence of iC3b-ABP-F complexes inhibited the proliferation of human tumor cell line TPC-1 in vitro. PMID:12403163

Shimizu, S; Kitada, H; Yokota, H; Yamakawa, J; Murayama, T; Sugiyama, K; Izumi, H; Yamaguchi, N



Complement-triggered pathways orchestrate regenerative responses throughout phylogenesis  

PubMed Central

Adult tissue plasticity, cell reprogramming, and organ regeneration are major challenges in the field of modern regenerative medicine. Devising strategies to increase the regenerative capacity of tissues holds great promise for dealing with donor organ shortages and low transplantation outcomes and also provides essential impetus to tissue bioengineering approaches for organ repair and replacement. The inherent ability of cells to reprogram their fate by switching into an embryonic-like, pluripotent progenitor state is an evolutionary vestige that in mammals has been retained mostly in fetal tissues and persists only in a few organs of the adult body. Tissue regeneration reflects the capacity of terminally differentiated cells to re-enter the cell cycle and proliferate in response to acute injury or environmental stress signals. In lower vertebrates, this regenerative capacity extends to several organs and remarkably culminates in precise tissue patterning, through cellular transdifferentiation and complex morphogenetic processes that can faithfully reconstruct entire body parts. Many lessons have been learned from robust regeneration models in amphibians such as the newt and axolotl. However, the dynamic interactions between the regenerating tissue, the surrounding stroma, and the host immune response, as it adapts to the actively proliferating tissue, remain ill-defined. The regenerating zone, through a sequence of distinct molecular events, adopts phenotypic plasticity and undergoes rigorous tissue remodeling that, in turn, evokes a significant inflammatory response. Complement is a primordial sentinel of the innate immune response that engages in multiple inflammatory cascades as it becomes activated during tissue injury and remodeling. In this respect, complement proteins have been implicated in tissue and organ regeneration in both urodeles and mammals. Distinct complement-triggered pathways have been shown to modulate critical responses that promote tissue reprogramming, pattern formation, and regeneration across phylogenesis. This article will discuss the mechanistic insights underlying the crosstalk of complement with cytokine and growth factor signaling pathways that drive tissue regeneration and will provide a unified conceptual framework for considering complement modulation as a novel target for regenerative therapeutics.

Mastellos, Dimitrios C.; DeAngelis, Robert A.; Lambris, John D.



A metalloproteinase karilysin present in the majority of Tannerella forsythia isolates inhibits all pathways of the complement system1  

PubMed Central

Tannerella forsythia is a poorly studied pathogen despite being one of the main causes of periodontitis, which is an inflammatory disease of the supporting structures of the teeth. We found that despite being recognized by all complement pathways T. forsythia is resistant to killing by human complement, which is present at up to 70% of serum concentration in gingival crevicular fluid. Incubation of human serum with karilysin, a metalloproteinase of T. forsythia, resulted in a decrease in bactericidal activity of the serum. T. forsythia strains expressing karilysin at higher levels were more resistant than low expressing strain. Furthermore, the low expressing strain was significantly more opsonized with C3b and membrane attack complex from serum compared to the other strains. The high expressing strain was more resistant to killing in human blood. The protective effect of karilysin against serum bactericidal activity was attributable to its ability to inhibit complement at several stages. The classical and lectin complement pathways were inhibited due to the efficient degradation of mannose-binding lectin, ficolin-2, ficolin-3 and C4 by karilysin, while inhibition of the terminal pathway was caused by degradation of C5. Interestingly, karilysin was able to release biologically active C5a peptide in human plasma and induce migration of neutrophils. Importantly, we detected the karilysin gene in over 90% of gingival crevicular fluid samples containing T. forsythia obtained from patients with periodontitis. Taken together, the newly characterized karilysin appears to be an important virulence factor of T. forsythia and might have several important implications for immune evasion.

Jusko, Monika; Potempa, Jan; Karim, Abdulkarim Y.; Ksiazek, Miroslaw; Riesbeck, Kristian; Garred, Peter; Eick, Sigrun; Blom, Anna M.



Pathogenesis and significance of glomerular C4d deposition in lupus nephritis: activation of classical and lectin pathways  

PubMed Central

Immune complex-mediated complement activation through the classic pathway plays a key role in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis (LN). C4d deposition in renal tissue reflects the prognosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The aim of the current study is to investigate the pathogenesis and clinicopathologic significance of glomerular C4d deposition in LN. We retrospectively analyzed clinical and histopathological data of 20 SLE patients with renal biopsy-proven LN and 10 non-SLE renal biopsy samples as control. LN biopsies showed varying degrees of glomerular C4d staining associated with immune complex deposits, IgG (p = 0.015), C1q (p = 0.032) and C3 (p = 0.049). 7 LN biopsies had all of C4d, C1q and C3 deposits in their glomeruli, indicative of the activation of the classical pathway, whereas 2 LN biopsies had C4d and C3 deposits without accompanying C1q deposits, indicating the activation of the lectin pathway. Glomerular C4d deposition was correlated with the LN subtype (p < 0.001). In particular, a diffusely intense and coarsely granular pattern of C4d deposition in all glomeruli was detected in class V membranous LN. However, glomerular C4d deposition was correlated with neither disease activity of SLE nor histological activity and chronicity of LN. In conclusion, the activation of the lectin pathway as well as the classical pathway seems to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of LN. Glomerular C4d staining could be helpful for diagnosing class V membranous LN, although glomerular C4d deposition does not reflect SLE disease activity and histological activity and chronicity.

Kim, Min-Kyung; Maeng, Young-In; Lee, Sun-Jae; Lee, In Hee; Bae, Jisuk; Kang, Yu-Na; Park, Byung-Tae; Park, Kwan-Kyu



Aluminum Hydroxide Adjuvant Differentially Activates the Three Complement Pathways with Major Involvement of the Alternative Pathway  

PubMed Central

Al(OH)3 is the most common adjuvant in human vaccines, but its mode of action remains poorly understood. Complement involvement in the adjuvant properties of Al(OH)3 has been suggested in several reports together with a depot effect. It is here confirmed that Al(OH)3 treatment of serum depletes complement components and activates the complement system. We show that complement activation by Al(OH)3 involves the three major pathways by monitoring complement components in Al(OH)3-treated serum and in Al(OH)3-containing precipitates. Al(OH)3 activation of complement results in deposition of C3 cleavage products and membrane attack complex (MAC) and in generation of the anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a. Complement activation was time dependent and inhibited by chelation with EDTA but not EGTA+Mg2+. We thus confirm that Al(OH)3 activates the complement system and show that the alternative pathway is of major importance.

Guven, Esin; Duus, Karen; Laursen, Inga; H?jrup, Peter; Houen, Gunnar



Classical and alternative complement pathway activation in paracoccidioidomycosis.  


The following study presents evidence of complement activation in paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). Twenty-eight untreated patients were studied from endemic areas of Parana in southern Brazil. The activation of the classical pathway, evaluated by the C4d/C4 ratio, was significantly elevated in the patients compared to the control population (p < 0.005). Six patients were examined prospectively with the C4d/C4 assay during treatment and they showed a decrease in this ratio associated with clinical improvement. The activation of the alternative pathway was determined by rocket immunoelectrophoresis of fragment Ba. These levels were also significantly higher in the patient group in comparison to the controls (p < 0.0005). The prospective study also showed a significant variation in the Ba levels associated with clinical improvement (p < 0.01). Furthermore, the levels of C3, C4, CH50 and anti-Paracoccidioides brasiliensis IgG were determined in all patients. The anti-P. brasiliensis IgG levels showed a weak positive correlation with the C4d/C4 ratio (r[S] = 0.45; p < 0.03). The C3, C4 and CH50 levels did not show significant variations from the normal ranges. Our results suggest the involvement of both complement pathways, classical and alternative, in PCM and their association with disease activity. PMID:7921333

de Messias, I T; Mohren, D



Complement-triggered pathways orchestrate regenerative responses throughout phylogenesis.  


Adult tissue plasticity, cell reprogramming, and organ regeneration are major challenges in the field of modern regenerative medicine. Devising strategies to increase the regenerative capacity of tissues holds great promise for dealing with donor organ shortages and low transplantation outcomes and also provides essential impetus to tissue bioengineering approaches for organ repair and replacement. The inherent ability of cells to reprogram their fate by switching into an embryonic-like, pluripotent progenitor state is an evolutionary vestige that in mammals has been retained mostly in fetal tissues and persists only in a few organs of the adult body. Tissue regeneration reflects the capacity of terminally differentiated cells to re-enter the cell cycle and proliferate in response to acute injury or environmental stress signals. In lower vertebrates, this regenerative capacity extends to several organs and remarkably culminates in precise tissue patterning, through cellular transdifferentiation and complex morphogenetic processes that can faithfully reconstruct entire body parts. Many lessons have been learned from robust regeneration models in amphibians such as the newt and axolotl. However, the dynamic interactions between the regenerating tissue, the surrounding stroma, and the host immune response, as it adapts to the actively proliferating tissue, remain ill-defined. The regenerating zone, through a sequence of distinct molecular events, adopts phenotypic plasticity and undergoes rigorous tissue remodeling that, in turn, evokes a significant inflammatory response. Complement is a primordial sentinel of the innate immune response that engages in multiple inflammatory cascades as it becomes activated during tissue injury and remodeling. In this respect, complement proteins have been implicated in tissue and organ regeneration in both urodeles and mammals. Distinct complement-triggered pathways have been shown to modulate critical responses that promote tissue reprogramming, pattern formation, and regeneration across phylogenesis. This article will discuss the mechanistic insights underlying the crosstalk of complement with cytokine and growth factor signaling pathways that drive tissue regeneration and will provide a unified conceptual framework for considering complement modulation as a novel target for regenerative therapeutics. PMID:23684626

Mastellos, Dimitrios C; Deangelis, Robert A; Lambris, John D



Specific binding of L-ficolin and H-ficolin to apoptotic cells leads to complement activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The serum lectins mannose-binding lectin (MBL), L-ficolin, and H-ficolin are recognition molecules in the lectin complement pathway, which play an important role in innate immunity. To assess involvement of the lectin pathway in the clearance of apoptotic cells, we used flow cytometry to quantify binding of MBL, L-ficolin, and H-ficolin to apoptotic HL60, U937, and Jurkat cells induced by actinomycin

Mikio Kuraya; Zhenping Ming; Xianzhou Liu; Misao Matsushita; Teizo Fujita



Genetic control of the alternative pathway of complement in humans and age-related macular degeneration  

PubMed Central

Activation of the alternative pathway of complement is implicated in common neurodegenerative diseases including age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We explored the impact of common variation in genes encoding proteins of the alternative pathway on complement activation in human blood and in AMD. Genetic variation across the genes encoding complement factor H (CFH), factor B (CFB) and component 3 (C3) was determined. The influence of common haplotypes defining transcriptional and translational units on complement activation in blood was determined in a quantitative genomic association study. Individual haplotypes in CFH and CFB were associated with distinct and novel effects on plasma levels of precursors, regulators and activation products of the alternative pathway of complement in human blood. Further, genetic variation in CFH thought to influence cell surface regulation of complement did not alter plasma complement levels in human blood. Plasma markers of chronic activation (split-products Ba and C3d) and an activating enzyme (factor D) were elevated in AMD subjects. Most of the elevation in AMD was accounted for by the genetic variation controlling complement activation in human blood. Activation of the alternative pathway of complement in blood is under genetic control and increases with age. The genetic variation associated with increased activation of complement in human blood also increased the risk of AMD. Our data are consistent with a disease model in which genetic variation in the complement system increases the risk of AMD by a combination of systemic complement activation and abnormal regulation of complement activation in local tissues.

Hecker, Laura A.; Edwards, Albert O.; Ryu, Euijung; Tosakulwong, Nirubol; Baratz, Keith H.; Brown, William L.; Issa, Peter Charbel; Scholl, Hendrik P.; Pollok-Kopp, Beatrix; Schmid-Kubista, Katharina E.; Bailey, Kent R.; Oppermann, Martin



C-Type Lectin-Like Receptors of the Dectin-1 Cluster: Ligands and Signaling Pathways  

PubMed Central

Innate immunity is constructed around genetically encoded receptors that survey the intracellular and extracellular environments for signs of invading microorganisms. These receptors recognise the invader and through complex intracellular networks of molecular signaling, they destroy the threat whilst instructing effective adaptive immune responses. Many of these receptors, like the Toll-like receptors in particular, are well-known for their ability to mediate downstream responses upon recognition of exogenous or endogenous ligands; however, the emerging family known as the C-type lectin-like receptors contains many members that have a huge impact on immune and homeostatic regulation. Of particular interest here are the C-type lectin-like receptors that make up the Dectin-1 cluster and their intracellular signaling motifs that mediate their functions. In this review, we aim to draw together current knowledge of ligands, motifs and signaling pathways, present downstream of Dectin-1 cluster receptors, and discuss how these dictate their role within biological systems.

Plato, Anthony; Willment, Janet A.



Blockade of alternative complement pathway in dense deposit disease.  


A patient aged 17 with dense deposit disease associated with complement activation, circulating C3 Nef, and Factor H mutation presented with nephrotic syndrome and hypertension. Steroid therapy, plasma exchange, and rituximab failed to improve proteinuria and hypertension despite a normalization of the circulating sC5b9 complex. Eculizumab, a monoclonal antibody directed against C5, was used to block the terminal product of the complement cascade. The dose was adapted to achieve a CH50 below 10%, but proteinuria and blood pressure were not improved after 3 months of treatment. PMID:24672732

Berthe-Aucejo, Aurore; Sacquépée, Mathieu; Fila, Marc; Peuchmaur, Michel; Perrier-Cornet, Emilia; Frémeaux-Bacchi, Véronique; Deschęnes, Georges



Blockade of Alternative Complement Pathway in Dense Deposit Disease  

PubMed Central

A patient aged 17 with dense deposit disease associated with complement activation, circulating C3 Nef, and Factor H mutation presented with nephrotic syndrome and hypertension. Steroid therapy, plasma exchange, and rituximab failed to improve proteinuria and hypertension despite a normalization of the circulating sC5b9 complex. Eculizumab, a monoclonal antibody directed against C5, was used to block the terminal product of the complement cascade. The dose was adapted to achieve a CH50 below 10%, but proteinuria and blood pressure were not improved after 3 months of treatment.

Sacquepee, Mathieu; Fila, Marc; Peuchmaur, Michel; Perrier-Cornet, Emilia; Fremeaux-Bacchi, Veronique; Deschenes, Georges



C-type lectin-like receptors of the dectin-1 cluster: ligands and signaling pathways.  


Innate immunity is constructed around genetically encoded receptors that survey the intracellular and extracellular environments for signs of invading microorganisms. These receptors recognise the invader and through complex intracellular networks of molecular signaling, they destroy the threat whilst instructing effective adaptive immune responses. Many of these receptors, like the Toll-like receptors in particular, are well-known for their ability to mediate downstream responses upon recognition of exogenous or endogenous ligands; however, the emerging family known as the C-type lectin-like receptors contains many members that have a huge impact on immune and homeostatic regulation. Of particular interest here are the C-type lectin-like receptors that make up the Dectin-1 cluster and their intracellular signaling motifs that mediate their functions. In this review, we aim to draw together current knowledge of ligands, motifs and signaling pathways, present downstream of Dectin-1 cluster receptors, and discuss how these dictate their role within biological systems. PMID:23570314

Plato, Anthony; Willment, Janet A; Brown, Gordon D



Complement alternative pathway acts as a positive feedback amplification of neutrophil activation.  


Complement alternative pathway plays an important, but not clearly understood, role in neutrophil-mediated diseases. We here show that neutrophils themselves activate complement when stimulated by cytokines or coagulation-derived factors. In whole blood, tumor necrosis factor/formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine or phorbol myristate acetate resulted in C3 fragments binding on neutrophils and monocytes, but not on T cells. Neutrophils, stimulated by tumor necrosis factor, triggered the alternative pathway on their surface in normal and C2-depleted, but not in factor B-depleted serum and on incubation with purified C3, factors B and D. This occurred independently of neutrophil proteases, oxidants, or apoptosis. Neutrophil-secreted properdin was detected on the cell surface and could focus "in situ" the alternative pathway activation. Importantly, complement, in turn, led to further activation of neutrophils, with enhanced CD11b expression and oxidative burst. Complement-induced neutrophil activation involved mostly C5a and possibly C5b-9 complexes, detected on tumor necrosis factor- and serum-activated neutrophils. In conclusion, neutrophil stimulation by cytokines results in an unusual activation of autologous complement by healthy cells. This triggers a new amplification loop in physiologic innate immunity: Neutrophils activate the alternative complement pathway and release C5 fragments, which further amplify neutrophil proinflammatory responses. This mechanism, possibly required for effective host defense, may be relevant to complement involvement in neutrophil-mediated diseases. PMID:21063021

Camous, Laurent; Roumenina, Lubka; Bigot, Sylvain; Brachemi, Soumeya; Frémeaux-Bacchi, Véronique; Lesavre, Philippe; Halbwachs-Mecarelli, Lise



Clinical hypothermia temperatures increase complement activation and cell destruction via the classical pathway  

PubMed Central

Background Therapeutic hypothermia is a treatment modality that is increasingly used to improve clinical neurological outcomes for ischemia-reperfusion injury-mediated diseases. Antibody-initiated classical complement pathway activation has been shown to contribute to ischemia-reperfusion injury in multiple disease processes. However, how therapeutic hypothermia affects complement activation is unknown. Our goal was to measure the independent effect of temperature on complement activation, and more specifically, examine the relationship between clinical hypothermia temperatures (31–33°C), and complement activation. Methods Antibody-sensitized erythrocytes were used to assay complement activation at temperatures ranging from 0-41°C. Individual complement pathway components were assayed by ELISA, Western blot, and quantitative dot blot. Peptide Inhibitor of complement C1 (PIC1) was used to specifically inhibit activation of C1. Results Antibody-initiated complement activation resulting in eukaryotic cell lysis was increased by 2-fold at 31°C compared with 37°C. Antibody-initiated complement activation in human serum increased as temperature decreased from 37°C until dramatically decreasing at 13°C. Quantitation of individual complement components showed significantly increased activation of C4, C3, and C5 at clinical hypothermia temperatures. In contrast, C1s activation by heat-aggregated IgG decreased at therapeutic hypothermia temperatures consistent with decreased enzymatic activity at lower temperatures. However, C1q binding to antibody-coated erythrocytes increased at lower temperatures, suggesting that increased classical complement pathway activation is mediated by increased C1 binding at therapeutic hypothermia temperatures. PIC1 inhibited hypothermia-enhanced complement-mediated cell lysis at 31°C by up to 60% (P?=?0.001) in a dose dependent manner. Conclusions In summary, therapeutic hypothermia temperatures increased antibody-initiated complement activation and eukaryotic cell destruction suggesting that the benefits of therapeutic hypothermia may be mediated via other mechanisms. Antibody-initiated complement activation has been shown to contribute to ischemia-reperfusion injury in several animal models, suggesting that for diseases with this mechanism hypothermia-enhanced complement activation may partially attenuate the benefits of therapeutic hypothermia.



Antibody enhances killing of Tritrichomonas foetus by the alternative bovine complement pathway.  

PubMed Central

The role of bovine antibody and complement in host defense against Tritrichomonas foetus was measured by using an assay of trichomonad viability based on protozoal uptake of tritiated adenine. Moderate killing was measured in the absence of antibody only with high concentrations of complement-preserved hypogammaglobulinemic bovine serum. However, very low concentrations of hyperimmune serum promoted significant enhancement (P less than 0.05) of killing by complement. Heat inactivation of complement (56 degrees C for 30 min) eliminated antibody-dependent and -independent killing. Similarly, depletion of bovine factor B in serum by heat treatment (50 degrees C for 45 min) abolished antibody-dependent and -independent killing. However, selective inactivation of the classical complement pathway with magnesium ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid did not affect antibody-dependent or -independent killing by complement. These findings demonstrate antibody enhancement of complement-mediated killing of T. foetus by the alternative pathway of bovine complement.

Aydintug, M K; Leid, R W; Widders, P R



Inhibition of the classical and alternative pathways of the human complement system by glycosaminoglycan polysulfate.  


Glycosaminoglycan polysulfate (GAGPS) concentration-dependently inhibited the activation of the classical and alternative pathways of the human complement system in vitro. Concentrations of > or = 0.2 mg/ml GAGPS prevented the cleavage of C4 by human aggregated gammaglobulin as evidence of inhibition of the classical pathway. At concentrations of > or = 0.15 mg/ml a concentration-dependent inhibition of the cleavage of factor B, the major step in the activation of the alternative pathway, was seen in the presence of inulin. Concentrations < 0.05 mg/ml did not have a measurable effect on either pathway. The lysis of sheep red blood cells, which is mediated largely by the classical pathway, was significantly inhibited at 3.84 mg/ml GAGPS, with a mean inhibition of 45.7%. On the other hand, the same concentration of GAGPS almost completely inhibited the lysis of rabbit red blood cells, which is mediated by the alternative pathway of complement. Our results suggest that the inhibition by GAGPS is an early event in the activation of complement, occurring before the assembly of the C3 convertases of either pathway. The possible use of this drug in acute life-threatening situations where complement is thought to have a pathogenic role is discussed. PMID:7850029

de Messias, I T; Mohren, D; Kajdacsy-Balla, A



Crosstalk pathways between Toll-like receptors and the complement system  

PubMed Central

The Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and complement are key innate defense systems that are rapidly triggered upon infection. Although both systems have been investigated primarily as separate entities, an emerging body of evidence indicates extensive crosstalk between complement and TLR signaling pathways. Analysis of these data suggests that the complement–TLR interplay reinforces innate immunity or regulates excessive inflammation, through synergistic or antagonistic interactions, respectively. However, the facility of complement and TLRs for communication is exploited by certain pathogens as a means to modify the host response in ways that favor the persistence of the pathogens. Further elucidation of regulatory links between complement and TLRs is essential for understanding their complex roles in health and disease.

Hajishengallis, George; Lambris, John D.



Characterization of a common intermediate of pea lectin in the folding pathway induced by TFE and HFIP.  


When pea lectin was exposed to a low pH range, it was found that the secondary structure of the lectin resisted conformational changes to a large extent up to pH 2.4 and below this pH, a sharp transition was observed which could be due to the presence of 27 acidic amino acid residues present in the protein. The effects of 1,1,1,3,3,3 hexafluoro-isopropanol (HFIP) and 2,2,2-Trifluoroethanol (TFE) on the conformation of pea lectin at pH 2.4 were studied using circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy. Analysis varying the TFE concentration showed that up to 80% TFE (v/v) protein retained the residual beta-structure accompanied by a loss in tertiary structure. A similar conformation is presumed to exist at 4% HFIP (v/v), with an increase in HFIP concentration structural rearrangements occurred and a transition from beta-structure to alpha-helical structure started from 12% HFIP which completed at 30% HFIP. Our studies show the occurrence of a common intermediate in the folding pathway of pea lectin induced by two different fluoroalcohols, which differ in their mode of action to stabilize the secondary structure of a given protein. While TFE was not found to induce any alpha-helical structure, HFIP caused the transition of pea lectin, which is predominantly a beta-sheet protein, to a structure rich in alpha-helical contacts. Thus, our results also point out the possibility of a non-hierarchical model of protein folding in lectins. PMID:15840464

Naseem, Farah; Khan, Rizwan Hasan



Independent Pathways of P-Selectin and Complement-Mediated Renal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury  

PubMed Central

Evidence from in vitro studies indicates that complement activation regulates the expression of P-selectin on endothelial cells. This suggests that in disorders such as ischemia/reperfusion injury, in which both complement and P-selectin have been shown to play a role, complement activation is a primary event and the effects of P-selectin are secondary. To test this hypothesis in vivo, we examined a mouse kidney model of ischemia/reperfusion injury. Surprisingly, the time course and extent of expression of P-selectin was unaltered in C3-deficient mice compared with wild-type mice, in which there was rapid but transient up-regulation of P-selectin on capillary walls and slower accumulation of complement split product on the tubular epithelium. In addition, treatment with anti-P-selectin antibody to reduce the neutrophil-mediated reperfusion damage was equally effective in the absence of C3. These data imply that complement and P-selectin-mediated pathways of renal reperfusion injury are mutually independent, a conclusion that is possibly explained by the differences in the location and time kinetics of complement activation and P-selectin expression. We conclude that in vivo interaction between complement and P-selectin is limited because of time and spatial considerations. Consequently, complement and P-selectin pose distinct targets for therapy.

Farrar, Conrad A.; Wang, Yi; Sacks, Steven H.; Zhou, Wuding



CspA from Borrelia burgdorferi Inhibits the Terminal Complement Pathway  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT In order to survive and persist in an immunocompetent human host, Borrelia burgdorferi controls the human immune attack and blocks the damaging effects of the activated complement system. These Gram-negative spirochetes use CspA (CRASP-1) and four additional immune evasion proteins to bind combinations of human plasma regulators, including factor H, factor H-like protein 1 (FHL-1), complement factor H-related protein 1 (CFHR1), CFHR2, CFHR5, and plasminogen. As many microbial immune evasion proteins have multiple functions, we hypothesized that CspA has additional roles in complement or immune control. Here, we identify CspA as a terminal complement inhibitor. Borrelial CspA binds the human terminal complement components C7 and C9 and blocks assembly and membrane insertion of the terminal complement complex (TCC). CspA inhibits TCC assembly at the level of C7, as revealed by hemolytic assays, and inhibits polymerization of C9. CspA, when ectopically expressed on the surface of serum-sensitive Borrelia garinii, blocks TCC assembly on the level of C7 and induces serum resistance in the transformed bacteria. This CspA-mediated serum resistance and terminal complement pathway inhibition allow B. burgdorferi to survive in the hostile environment of human plasma.

Hallstrom, Teresia; Siegel, Corinna; Morgelin, Matthias; Kraiczy, Peter; Skerka, Christine; Zipfel, Peter F.



Diabetes-induced changes in mannan-binding lectin levels and complement activation in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes.  


Circulating mannan-binding lectin (MBL) levels are elevated in type 1 diabetes. Further, high MBL levels are associated with the development of diabetic nephropathy. In animals, a direct effect of MBL on diabetic kidney changes is observed. We hypothesized that MBL levels and detrimental complement activation increase as a consequence of diabetes. We measured plasma MBL before and 7 weeks after inducing diabetes by streptozotocin. Mice have two MBLs, MBL-A and MBL-C. Diabetes induction led to an increase in MBL-C concentration, whereas no change during the study was found in the control group. The increase in MBL-C was associated with the increasing plasma glucose levels. In accordance with the observed changes in circulating MBL levels, liver expression of Mbl2mRNA (encoding MBL-C) was increased in diabetes. Mbl1expression (encoding MBL-A) did not differ between diabetic and control animals. The estimated half-life of recombinant human MBL was significantly prolonged in mice with diabetes compared with control mice. Complement activation in plasma and glomeruli did not differ between groups. We demonstrate for the first time that MBL levels increase after induction of diabetes and in parallel with increasing plasma glucose. Our findings support the previous clinical observations of increased MBL in type 1 diabetes. This change may be explained by alternations in both MBL production and turnover. PMID:23350935

Ostergaard, J A; Bjerre, M; Dagnaes-Hansen, F; Hansen, T K; Thiel, S; Flyvbjerg, A



Complement deficiencies in systemic lupus erythematosus.  


The complement system is a major, multifunctional part of innate immunity and serves as a bridge between the innate and adaptive immune systems. It consists of more than 30 distinct proteins that interact with one another in a specific sequence. There are three pathways of complement activation: the classical, the lectin, and the alternative pathways. The three pathways are initiated by distinct mechanisms, but they all generate the same core set of effector molecules. Inherited complete deficiencies in complement components are generally very rare and predispose to infections and autoimmune disease. One of the better described associations is between deficiencies in early classical pathway components and the development of systemic lupus erythematosus. The goal of this review will be to discuss the associations between and the causal mechanisms of complement deficiencies and systemic lupus erythematosus. PMID:24816552

Bryan, Angela R; Wu, Eveline Y



Mannan-binding lectin and complement C4A in Icelandic multicase families with systemic lupus erythematosus  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether low mannan?binding lectin (MBL) and C4A null alleles (C4AQ0) are associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in multicase families with SLE. Methods Low MBL level was determined by measuring serum levels and by genotyping for mutant structural (B/C/D, designated as 0) and promoter (LX) alleles (by real?time polymerase chain reaction). C4AQ0 was detected by protein electrophoresis and corroborated with haplotype and genotype analysis. In nine Icelandic families, 24 patients with SLE were compared with 83 first?degree and 23 second?degree relatives without SLE. Twenty four unrelated family members and a population group of 330 Icelanders served as controls. Results Overall, the frequency of low MBL genotypes (0/0, LX/0 and wild?type/0) tended to be higher in patients with SLE than in their first?degree and second?degree relatives (p?=?0.06), but the frequency was similar in the families and in the controls (p?=?0.6). The frequency of C4AQ0 was, however, increased in patients and their relatives compared with that in the controls (p?=?0.04). The combination of low MBL genotypes and C4AQ0 was found more often in the patients than in their relatives (p?=?0.03) and controls (p?=?0.02). However, low MBL level was observed only in patients and first?degree relatives in five of the nine multicase families. In these five families, patients with SLE had low MBL genotypes more often (64%) than their first?degree (38%) and second?degree (0%) relatives (p?=?0.001), and the patients with SLE also had, accordingly, lower MBL levels than their relatives (p?=?0.001). Conclusions These findings indicate that low MBL levels can predispose people to SLE and highlight the genetic heterogeneity of this disease.

Saevarsdottir, S; Kristjansdottir, H; Grondal, G; Vikingsdottir, T; Steinsson, K; Valdimarsson, H



Exogenous expression of marine lectins DlFBL and SpRBL induces cancer cell apoptosis possibly through PRMT5-E2F-1 pathway.  


Lectins are widely existed in marine bioresources, and some purified marine lectins were found toxic to cancer cells. In this report, genes encoding Dicentrarchus labrax fucose-binding lectin (DlFBL) and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus rhamnose-binding lectin (SpRBL) were inserted into an adenovirus vector to form Ad.FLAG-DlFBL and Ad.FLAG-SpRBL, which elicited significant in vitro suppressive effect on a variety of cancer cells. Anti-apoptosis factors Bcl-2 and XIAP were determined to be downregulated by Ad.FLAG-DlFBL and Ad.FLAG-SpRBL. Subcellular localization studies showed that DlFBL but not SpRBL widely distributed in membrane systems. Both DlFBL and SpRBL were shown associated with protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5), and PRMT5-E2F-1 pathway was suggested to be responsible for the DlFBL and SpRBL induced apoptosis. Further investigations revealed that PRMT5 acted as a common binding target for various exogenous lectin and non-lectin proteins, suggesting a role of PRMT5 as a barrier for foreign gene invasion. The cellular response to exogenous lectins may provide insights into a novel way for cancer gene therapy. PMID:24675921

Wu, Liqin; Yang, Xinyan; Duan, Xuemei; Cui, Lianzhen; Li, Gongchu



Properdin and Factor H: Opposing Players on the Alternative Complement Pathway "See-Saw"  

PubMed Central

Properdin and factor H are two key regulatory proteins having opposite functions in the alternative complement pathway. Properdin up-regulates the alternative pathway by stabilizing the C3bBb complex, whereas factor H downregulates the pathway by promoting proteolytic degradation of C3b. While factor H is mainly produced in the liver, there are several extrahepatic sources. In addition to the liver, factor H is also synthesized in fetal tubuli, keratinocytes, skin fibroblasts, ocular tissue, adipose tissue, brain, lungs, heart, spleen, pancreas, kidney, muscle, and placenta. Neutrophils are the major source of properdin, and it is also produced by monocytes, T cells and bone marrow progenitor cell line. Properdin is released by neutrophils from intracellular stores following stimulation by N-formyl-methionine-leucine-phenylalanine (fMLP) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?). The HEP G2 cells derived from human liver has been found to produce functional properdin. Endothelial cells also produce properdin when induced by shear stress, thus is a physiological source for plasma properdin. The diverse range of extrahepatic sites for synthesis of these two complement regulators suggests the importance and need for local availability of the proteins. Here, we discuss the significance of the local synthesis of properdin and factor H. This assumes greater importance in view of recently identified unexpected and novel roles of properdin and factor H that are potentially independent of their involvement in complement regulation.

Kouser, Lubna; Abdul-Aziz, Munirah; Nayak, Annapurna; Stover, Cordula M.; Sim, Robert B.; Kishore, Uday



Complement alternative pathway activation in the autologous phase of nephrotoxic serum nephritis  

PubMed Central

The complement cascade is an important part of the innate immune system, but pathological activation of this system causes tissue injury in several autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, including immune complex glomerulonephritis. We examined whether mice with targeted deletion of the gene for factor B (fB?/? mice) and selective deficiency in the alternative pathway of complement are protected from injury in the nephrotoxic serum (NTS) nephritis model of antibody-mediated glomerulonephritis. When the acute affects of the anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody were assessed, fB?/? mice developed a degree of injury similar to wild-type controls. If the mice were presensitized with sheep IgG or if the mice were followed for 5 mo postinjection, however, the fB?/? mice developed milder injury than wild-type mice. The immune response of fB?/? mice exposed to sheep IgG was similar to that of wild-type mice, but the fB?/? mice had less glomerular C3 deposition and lower levels of albuminuria. These results demonstrate that fB?/? mice are not significantly protected from acute heterologous injury in NTS nephritis but are protected from autologous injury in response to a planted glomerular antigen. Thus, although the glomerulus is resistant to antibody-initiated, alternative pathway-mediated injury, inhibition of this complement pathway may be beneficial in chronic immune complex-mediated diseases.

Tchepeleva, Svetlana N.; Haas, Mark; Panzer, Sarah; Boackle, Susan A.; Glogowska, Magdalena J.; Quigg, Richard J.; Holers, V. Michael



Assay of classical and alternative pathway activities of murine complement using antibody-sensitized rabbit erythrocytes.  


Methods for measurement of classical complement pathway activity (CH50) and alternative complement pathway activity (ACH50) in mouse serum using rabbit erythrocytes sensitized with guinea pig anti-rabbit erythrocyte antibody have been established. The assays measured CH50 values in mouse sera that could hardly be determined by the conventional method using antibody-sensitized sheep red blood cells. Mouse serum ACH50 values determined by the method were also 5-7 times higher than those obtained in conventional assays with rabbit erythrocytes. Both the CH50 and ACH50 values varied with the strain among the 25 different strains of mice studied. BALB/c (nu/nu, male), LT/SuJ and Jcl-ICR27 strains exhibited higher CH50 values, and NIH (nu/+), ICR (nu/nu), NOD (male) and AKR strains showed lower values. The ACH50 was higher in C3H/HeN (male), C57BL/6J (male), Jcl-ICR27 and BALB/c (nu/nu, male) mice, and lower in ICR (nu/nu), NOD (female) and AKR mice. Sera from 16 out of the 25 mouse strains showed ACH50 values comparable to or higher than those in man. As for CH50, however, even the highest value seen in BALB/c (nu/nu, male) mice corresponded to about three-fifths of an average value in man. It is concluded that the complement system of mice, especially the alternative pathway of complement activation, functions as actively as that in man. It was also found that male mice have higher CH50 and ACH50 values than female mice. The differences in these parameters between males and females were only slight at the age of 4 weeks and became conspicuous after 6 weeks at which time both the CH50 and ACH50 virtually reached their respective peak levels of activity. PMID:3944473

Tanaka, S; Suzuki, T; Nishioka, K



Determination of alternate pathway complement kinetics by electron spin resonance spectroscopy.  


We describe a technic that measures the kinetics of the metabolic burst of peripheral blood neutrophils (PMN) by electron spin resonance (ESR) spin trapping. Using this technic, a functional assay for the kinetics of the alternate pathway complement cascade is developed. PMN were stimulated by phagocytosis of opsonized zymosan (OpZym) to undergo the metabolic burst and the resulting free hydroxyl radicals generated during the burst were trapped using 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) to form a stable spin adduct. Rapid sequential measurements of the spin adduct concentration were made using a computer-controlled ESR spectrometer to follow the time course of the metabolic burst. Differences in the results obtained with OpZym and with PMN incubated with unopsonized zymosan (Zym) and serum yields information about the kinetics of opsonization. The kinetics of the alternate complement pathway opsonization in sera from normal and C8-deficient patients were compared and found not to be affected significantly by the absence of C8 complement protein. PMID:6303107

Hawley, D A; Kleinhans, F W; Biesecker, J L



Atypical post-infectious glomerulonephritis is associated with abnormalities in the alternative pathway of complement  

PubMed Central

Post-infectious glomerulonephritis is a common disorder that develops following an infection. In the majority of cases, there is complete recovery of renal function within a few days to weeks following resolution of the infection. In a small percentage of patients, however, the glomerulonephritis takes longer to resolve resulting in persistent hematuria and proteinuria, or even progression to end-stage kidney disease. In some cases of persistent hematuria and proteinuria, kidney biopsies show findings of a post-infectious glomerulonephritis even in the absence of any evidence of a preceding infection. The cause of such ‘atypical’ post-infectious glomerulonephritis, with or without evidence of preceding infection, is unknown. Here, we show that most patients diagnosed with this ‘atypical’ post-infectious glomerulonephritis have an underlying defect in the regulation of the alternative pathway of complement. These defects include mutations in complement regulating proteins and antibodies to the C3 convertase known as C3 nephritic factors. As a result, the activated alternative pathway is not brought under control even after resolution of the infection. Hence, the sequela is continual glomerular deposition of complement factors with resultant inflammation and development of an ‘atypical’ post-infectious glomerulonephritis.

Sethi, Sanjeev; Fervenza, Fernando C.; Zhang, Yuzhou; Zand, Ladan; Meyer, Nicole C.; Borsa, Nicolo; Nasr, Samih H.; Smith, Richard J.H.



Complement Activation after Oxidative Stress  

PubMed Central

The complement system plays an important role in mediating tissue injury after oxidative stress. The role of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and the lectin complement pathway (LCP) in mediating complement activation after endothelial oxidative stress was investigated. iC3b deposition on hypoxic (24 hours; 1% O2)/reoxygenated (3 hours; 21% O2) human endothelial cells was attenuated by N-acetyl-D-glucosamine or D-mannose, but not L-mannose, in a dose-dependent manner. Endothelial iC3b deposition after oxidative stress was also attenuated in MBL-deficient serum. Novel, functionally inhibitory, anti-human MBL monoclonal antibodies attenuated MBL-dependent C3 deposition on mannan-coated plates in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of human serum with anti-MBL monoclonal antibodies inhibited MBL and C3 deposition after endothelial oxidative stress. Consistent with our in vitro findings, C3 and MBL immunostaining throughout the ischemic area at risk increased during rat myocardial reperfusion in vivo. These data suggest that the LCP mediates complement activation after tissue oxidative stress. Inhibition of MBL may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for ischemia/reperfusion injury and other complement-mediated disease states.

Collard, Charles D.; Vakeva, Antti; Morrissey, Margaret A.; Agah, Azin; Rollins, Scott A.; Reenstra, Wende R.; Buras, Jon A.; Meri, Seppo; Stahl, Gregory L.



Dysregulation of complement system and CD4+ T cell activation pathways implicated in allergic response.  


Allergy is a complex disease that is likely to involve dysregulated CD4+ T cell activation. Here we propose a novel methodology to gain insight into how coordinated behaviour emerges between disease-dysregulated pathways in response to pathophysiological stimuli. Using peripheral blood mononuclear cells of allergic rhinitis patients and controls cultured with and without pollen allergens, we integrate CD4+ T cell gene expression from microarray data and genetic markers of allergic sensitisation from GWAS data at the pathway level using enrichment analysis; implicating the complement system in both cellular and systemic response to pollen allergens. We delineate a novel disease network linking T cell activation to the complement system that is significantly enriched for genes exhibiting correlated gene expression and protein-protein interactions, suggesting a tight biological coordination that is dysregulated in the disease state in response to pollen allergen but not to diluent. This novel disease network has high predictive power for the gene and protein expression of the Th2 cytokine profile (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13) and of the Th2 master regulator (GATA3), suggesting its involvement in the early stages of CD4+ T cell differentiation. Dissection of the complement system gene expression identifies 7 genes specifically associated with atopic response to pollen, including C1QR1, CFD, CFP, ITGB2, ITGAX and confirms the role of C3AR1 and C5AR1. Two of these genes (ITGB2 and C3AR1) are also implicated in the network linking complement system to T cell activation, which comprises 6 differentially expressed genes. C3AR1 is also significantly associated with allergic sensitisation in GWAS data. PMID:24116013

Couto Alves, Alexessander; Bruhn, Sören; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Wang, Hui; Holloway, John W; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Benson, Mikael; Balding, David J; Coin, Lachlan J M



The Role of Complement System in Septic Shock  

PubMed Central

Septic shock is a critical clinical condition with a high mortality rate. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms is important to develop effective therapies. Basic and clinical studies suggest that activation of complements in the common cascade, for example, complement component 3 (C3) and C5, is involved in the development of septic shock. The involvement of three upstream complement pathways in septic shock is more complicated. Both the classical and alternative pathways appear to be activated in septic shock, but the alternative pathway may be activated earlier than the classical pathway. Activation of these two pathways is essential to clear endotoxin. Recent investigations have shed light on the role of lectin complement pathway in septic shock. Published reports suggest a protective role of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) against sepsis. Our preliminary study of MBL-associated serine protease-2 (MASP-2) in septic shock patients indicated that acute decrease of MASP-2 in the early phase of septic shock might correlate with in-hospital mortality. It is unknown whether excessive activation of these three upstream complement pathways may contribute to the detrimental effects in septic shock. This paper also discusses additional complement-related pathogenic mechanisms and intervention strategies for septic shock.

Charchaflieh, Jean; Wei, Jiandong; Labaze, Georges; Hou, Yunfang Joan; Babarsh, Benjamin; Stutz, Helen; Lee, Haekyung; Worah, Samrat; Zhang, Ming



Expression of complement factor H by lung cancer cells: effects on the activation of the alternative pathway of complement.  


The complement system is important in immunosurveillance against tumors. However, malignant cells are usually resistant to complement-mediated lysis. In this study, we examine the expression of factor H, an inhibitor of complement activation, and factor H-like protein 1 (FHL-1), its alternatively spliced form, in lung cancer. We also evaluate the potential effect of factor H/FHL-1 in the protection of lung cancer cells against the activation of the complement cascade. By Northern blot analysis we demonstrate a high expression of factor H and FHL-1 in most non-small cell lung cancer cell lines, although neuroendocrine pulmonary tumors (small cell lung carcinoma and carcinoid cell lines) had undetectable levels. Western blot analysis of conditioned medium showed the active secretion of factor H and FHL-1 by cells that were positive by Northern blot. Expression of factor H/FHL-1 mRNA was also shown in a series of non-small cell lung cancer biopsies by in situ hybridization. Interestingly, many cultured lung cancer cells were able to bind fluorescence-labeled factor H to their surfaces. Deposition of C3 fragments from normal human serum on H1264, a lung adenocarcinoma cell line, was more efficient when factor H/FHL-1 activity was blocked by specific antibodies. Blocking factor H/FHL-1 activity also enhanced the release of anaphylatoxin C5a and moderately increased the susceptibility of these cells to complement-mediated cytotoxicity. In summary, we demonstrate the expression of factor H and FHL-1 by some lung cancer cells and analyze the contribution of these proteins to the protection against complement activation. PMID:15342420

Ajona, Daniel; Castańo, Zafira; Garayoa, Mercedes; Zudaire, Enrique; Pajares, Maria J; Martinez, Alfredo; Cuttitta, Frank; Montuenga, Luis M; Pio, Ruben



Maternal and Fetal Alternative Complement Pathway Activation in Early Severe Preeclampsia  

PubMed Central

Problem We sought to determine whether alternative complement activation fragment Bb (Bb) levels are elevated in the maternal, fetal, and placental blood in cases of severe preeclampsia (PE) compared with normotensive controls. Method of study This was a cross-sectional study of women admitted at ?24 weeks gestation with or without severe PE. Maternal plasma was collected at the time of enrollment. Umbilical venous cord and intervillous space blood were collected at delivery. Plasma Bb levels were assessed using ELISA. Bb levels were compared between cases and controls. Results Median Bb levels were higher in the maternal plasma of severe PE subjects (n = 24) than in controls (n = 20), 1.45 ± 1.03 versus 0.65 ± 0.23 ?g/mL, P < 0.001. In umbilical venous plasma, Bb levels were higher in severe PE subjects (n = 15) compared with controls (n = 15), 2.48 ± 1.40 versus 1.01 ± 0.57 ?g/mL, P = 0.01. Conclusion Activation fragment Bb is increased in the maternal and umbilical venous blood of cases of severe PE when compared with normotensive controls. These data provide support for alternative complement pathway involvement in the pathogenesis of severe PE and demonstrate that alternative complement activation occurs not only in the maternal but also in the fetal compartment.

Hoffman, M. Camille; Rumer, Kristen K.; Kramer, Anita; Lynch, Anne M.; Winn, Virginia D.



Complement alternative pathway genetic variation and Dengue infection in the Thai population.  


Dengue disease is a mosquito-borne infection caused by Dengue virus. Infection may be asymptomatic or variably manifest as mild Dengue fever (DF) to the most severe form, Dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF). Mechanisms that influence disease severity are not understood. Complement, an integral component of the immune system, is activated during Dengue infection and the degree of activation increases with disease severity. Activation of the complement alternative pathway is influenced by polymorphisms within activation (factor B rs12614/rs641153, C3 rs2230199) and regulatory [complement factor H (CFH) rs800292] proteins, collectively termed a complotype. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the complotype influences disease severity during secondary Dengue infection. In addition to the complotype, we also assessed two other disease-associated CFH polymorphisms (rs1061170, rs3753394) and a structural polymorphism within the CFH protein family. We did not detect any significant association between the examined polymorphisms and Dengue infection severity in the Thai population. However, the minor allele frequencies of the factor B and C3 polymorphisms were less than 10%, so our study was not sufficiently powered to detect an association at these loci. We were also unable to detect a direct interaction between CFH and Dengue NS1 using both recombinant NS1 and DV2-infected culture supernatants. We conclude that the complotype does not influence secondary Dengue infection severity in the Thai population. PMID:23919682

Kraivong, R; Vasanawathana, S; Limpitikul, W; Malasit, P; Tangthawornchaikul, N; Botto, M; Screaton, G R; Mongkolsapaya, J; Pickering, M C



Complement alternative pathway genetic variation and Dengue infection in the Thai population  

PubMed Central

Dengue disease is a mosquito-borne infection caused by Dengue virus. Infection may be asymptomatic or variably manifest as mild Dengue fever (DF) to the most severe form, Dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF). Mechanisms that influence disease severity are not understood. Complement, an integral component of the immune system, is activated during Dengue infection and the degree of activation increases with disease severity. Activation of the complement alternative pathway is influenced by polymorphisms within activation (factor B rs12614/rs641153, C3 rs2230199) and regulatory [complement factor H (CFH) rs800292] proteins, collectively termed a complotype. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the complotype influences disease severity during secondary Dengue infection. In addition to the complotype, we also assessed two other disease-associated CFH polymorphisms (rs1061170, rs3753394) and a structural polymorphism within the CFH protein family. We did not detect any significant association between the examined polymorphisms and Dengue infection severity in the Thai population. However, the minor allele frequencies of the factor B and C3 polymorphisms were less than 10%, so our study was not sufficiently powered to detect an association at these loci. We were also unable to detect a direct interaction between CFH and Dengue NS1 using both recombinant NS1 and DV2-infected culture supernatants. We conclude that the complotype does not influence secondary Dengue infection severity in the Thai population.

Kraivong, R; Vasanawathana, S; Limpitikul, W; Malasit, P; Tangthawornchaikul, N; Botto, M; Screaton, G R; Mongkolsapaya, J; Pickering, M C



Interaction of fucoidan with the proteins of the complement classical pathway.  


Fucoidan inhibits complement by mechanisms that so far remain to be unraveled, and the objective of this work was to delineate the mode of inhibition by this sulfated polysaccharide. For that purpose, low molecular weight fractions of algal (Ascophyllum nodosum) fucoidan containing the disaccharide unit [-->3)-alpha-L-Fuc(2SO3(-))-(1-->4)-alpha-L-Fuc(2,3diSO3(-))-(1-->](n) have been studied. Gel co-affinity electrophoresis and a new affinity capillary electrophoresis (ACE) method have been implemented to characterize fucoidan-complement protein complexes. Fucoidan binds C1q, likely to its collagen-like region through interactions involving lysine residues, and then prevents the association of the C1r(2)-C1s(2) subunit, required to form the fully active C1. In addition to C1q, fucoidan forms a complex with the protein C4 as observed by ACE. The fucoidan inhibits the first steps of the classical pathway activation that is of relevance in view of the proinflammatory effects of the subsequent products of the cascade. This study shows that a high level of inhibitory activity can be achieved with low molecular weight carbohydrate molecules and that the potential applicability of fucoidan oligosaccharides for therapeutic complement inhibition is worthy of consideration. PMID:14499584

Tissot, Bérangčre; Montdargent, Béatrice; Chevolot, Lionel; Varenne, Anne; Descroix, Stéphanie; Gareil, Pierre; Daniel, Régis



A zebrafish model for uremic toxicity: role of the complement pathway.  


Many organic solutes accumulate in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and some are poorly removed with urea-based prescriptions for hemodialysis. However, their toxicities have been difficult to assess. We have employed an animal model, the zebrafish embryo, to test the toxicity of uremic serum compared to control. Serum was obtained from stable ESRD patients predialysis or from normal subjects. Zebrafish embryos 24 h postfertilization were exposed to experimental media at a water:human serum ratio of 3:1. Those exposed to serum from uremic subjects had significantly reduced survival at 8 h (19 ± 18 vs. 94 ± 6%, p < 0.05, uremic serum vs. control, respectively). Embryos exposed to serum from ESRD subjects fractionated at 50 kDa showed significantly greater toxicity with the larger molecular weight fraction (83 ± 11 vs. 7 ± 17% survival, p < 0.05, <50 vs. >50 kDa, respectively). Heating serum abrogated its toxicity. EDTA, a potent inhibitor of complement by virtue of calcium chelation, reduced the toxicity of uremic serum compared to untreated uremic serum (96 ± 5 vs. 28 ± 20% survival, p < 0.016, chelated vs. nonchelated serum, respectively). Anti-factor B, a specific inhibitor of the alternative complement pathway, reduced the toxicity of uremic serum, compared to untreated uremic serum (98 ± 6 vs. 3 ± 9% survival, p < 0.016, anti-factor B treated vs. nontreated, respectively). Uremic serum is thus more toxic to zebrafish embryos than normal serum. Furthermore, this toxicity is associated with a fraction of large size, is inactivated by heat, and is reduced by both specific and nonspecific inhibitors of complement activation. Together these data lend support to the hypothesis that at least some uremic toxicities may be mediated by complement. PMID:23689420

Berman, Nathaniel; Lectura, Melisa; Thurman, Joshua M; Reinecke, James; Raff, Amanda C; Melamed, Michal L; Quan, Zhe; Evans, Todd; Meyer, Timothy W; Hostetter, Thomas H



The Complement System in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

summary Several lines of evidence suggest that immunological factors contribute to schizophrenia. Since 1989, the role of complement, a major effector of innate immunity and an adjuvant of adaptive immunity, has been explored in schizophrenia. Increased activity of C1, C3, C4 complement components in schizophrenia has been reported by two or more groups. Two studies on different subject cohorts showed increased MBL-MASP-2 activity in patients versus controls. More then one report indicated a significant high frequency of FB*F allotype and low prevalence of the FS phenotype of complement factor B in schizophrenia. From the data reported, it is likely that the disorder is accompanied by alterations of the complement classical and lectin pathways, which undergo dynamic changes, depending on the illness course and the state of neuro-immune crosstalk. Recent findings, implicating complement in neurogenesis, synapse remodeling and pruning during brain development, suggest a reexamination of the potential role of complement in neurodevelopmental processes contributing to schizophrenia susceptibility. It is plausible that the multicomponent complement system has more than one dimensional association with schizophrenia susceptibility, pathopsychology and illness course, understanding of which will bring a new perspective for possible immunomodulation and immunocorrection of the disease.

Mayilyan, Karine R.; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Sim, Robert B.



Role of the terminal complement pathway in accelerated autologous anti-glomerular basement membrane nephritis.  

PubMed Central

The terminal complement pathway (C5b to C9) has been demonstrated to have an important role in the mediation of glomerular immune injury in various models of experimental glomerulonephritis. In the present studies, the role of the terminal complement pathway in the accelerated autologous phase of anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) nephritis in the rabbit was investigated. Normocomplementemic rabbits and rabbits deficient in C6 (C6D) who are therefore unable to form the terminal complement pathway were immunized with sheep immunoglobulin G (IgG) before being injected with a subnephrotoxic dose of the gamma 2 fraction of sheep anti-rabbit GBM. C6D animals had a delay in the onset of the glomerular injury, as manifested by proteinuria. At 72 hours, controls had a greater degree of proteinuria (15.2 +/- 8.8 mg protein/mg creatinine vs. 2.6 +/- 2.1, P = 0.197), but at 120 hours there were no differences in proteinuria between C6D and control animals (11.1 +/- 3.6 mg protein/mg creatinine vs. 12.2 +/- 6.2, P = 0.89). Light microscopy demonstrated more severe glomerular injury in C6D animals with marked cellular proliferation and large areas of glomerular necrosis. Interestingly, C6D animals had significantly higher levels of sheep IgG remaining in their glomeruli at 120 hours (0.95 +/- 0.12 micrograms sheep IgG/1 x 10(4) glomeruli, N = 11, vs. 0.57 +/- 0.07, N = 11, P = 0.014) and 72 hours (1.22 +/- 0.25 micrograms, N = 3, vs. 0.60 +/- 0.15, N = 3, P = 0.104) compared with 24 hours when there was no difference (1.25 +/- 0.22 micrograms, N = 7, vs. 1.08 +/- 0.14, N = 7, P = 0.53). C6D rabbits had a greater rise in serum creatinine at 120 hours (2.3 +/- 0.5 mg/dl vs. 1.3 +/- 6.4, P = 0.132). We conclude that in C6D animals, the persistence of glomerular immune deposits is responsible for more severe renal injury and renal failure. Images Figure 4

Groggel, G. C.; Terreros, D. A.



Meningococcal disease associated with an acute post-streptococcal complement deficiency.  


Chronic deficiencies in the complement pathway proteins are associated with an increased risk of meningococcal disease. Such deficiencies are caused by primary congenital immunodeficiency of a complement protein, properdin or mannose binding lectin, or are secondary to consumption of complement by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN). Whatever the cause, the complement deficiency is always chronic. Here we report a case of meningococcal disease (MCD) in a child with a transient complement deficiency (CD), caused by post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN). PMID:17294226

Daskas, Nikolaos; Farmer, Katie; Coward, Richard; Erlewyn-Lajeunesse, Michel



Bacterial sialic acid modulates activation of the alternative complement pathway of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).  


The alternative complement pathway (ACP) provides the non-immune channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) with protection against many Gram-negative bacteria. Very little serum bactericidal activity (0-13%) was found against 8 fish pathogens, but a strong bactericidal response (100%) was found against 7 non-pathogens. MgEGTA chelation of catfish serum did not essentially change the bactericidal results. Catfish serum heated at 56 degrees C and serum adsorbed with zymosan had no bactericidal activity. This demonstrated that the ACP was responsible for the bactericidal response. The molecular nature of the microbial surface determines whether or not the ACP will be activated. A relative lack of surface sialic acid has been found to be important for binding complement Factor B of the ACP by susceptible microbial surfaces. This study therefore examined the 15 Gram-negative bacterial fish pathogens and non-pathogens by determining their sialic acid content and their ability to elicit a bactericidal response by the catfish ACP. It was found that there was very little bactericidal activity against the fish pathogens that contained sialic acid but a very strong bactericidal response (100%) against the non-pathogens that lacked sialic acid (p = .0043). A relative lack of sialic acid or no sialic acid therefore correlated with a strong bactericidal response by the catfish ACP. Neuraminidase treatment of the bacterial fish pathogens to remove sialic acid greatly increased the bactericidal response against them by the catfish ACP when compared with untreated bacteria (p = .0431). PMID:3678558

Ourth, D D; Bachinski, L M



Alternative complement pathway and factor B activities in rats with altered blood levels of thyroid hormone  

PubMed Central

Evaluating the activity of the complement system under conditions of altered thyroid hormone levels might help elucidate the role of complement in triggering autoimmune processes. Here, we investigated alternative pathway (AP) activity in male Wistar rats (180 ± 10?g) after altering their thyroid hormone levels by treatment with triiodothyronine (T3), propylthiouracil (PTU) or thyroidectomy. T3 and thyroxine (T4) levels were determined by chemiluminescence assays. Hemolytic assays were performed to evaluate the lytic activity of the AP. Factor B activity was evaluated using factor B-deficient serum. An anti-human factor B antibody was used to measure factor B levels in serum by radial immunodiffusion. T3 measurements in thyroidectomized animals or animals treated with PTU demonstrated a significant reduction in hormone levels compared to control. The results showed a reduction in AP lytic activity in rats treated with increasing amounts of T3 (1, 10, or 50?µg). Factor B activity was also decreased in the sera of hyperthyroid rats treated with 1 to 50?µg T3. Additionally, treating rats with 25?µg T3 significantly increased factor B levels in their sera (P < 0.01). In contrast, increased factor B concentration and activity (32%) were observed in hypothyroid rats. We conclude that alterations in thyroid hormone levels affect the activity of the AP and factor B, which may in turn affect the roles of AP and factor B in antibody production.

Bitencourt, C.S.; Duarte, C.G.; Azzolini, A.E.C.S.; Assis-Pandochi, A.I.



Visualizing Interactions along the Escherichia coli Twin-Arginine Translocation Pathway Using Protein Fragment Complementation  

PubMed Central

The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway is well known for its ability to export fully folded substrate proteins out of the cytoplasm of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Studies of this mechanism in Escherichia coli have identified numerous transient protein-protein interactions that guide export-competent proteins through the Tat pathway. To visualize these interactions, we have adapted bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) to detect protein-protein interactions along the Tat pathway of living cells. Fragments of the yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) were fused to soluble and transmembrane factors that participate in the translocation process including Tat substrates, Tat-specific proofreading chaperones and the integral membrane proteins TatABC that form the translocase. Fluorescence analysis of these YFP chimeras revealed a wide range of interactions such as the one between the Tat substrate dimethyl sulfoxide reductase (DmsA) and its dedicated proofreading chaperone DmsD. In addition, BiFC analysis illuminated homo- and hetero-oligomeric complexes of the TatA, TatB and TatC integral membrane proteins that were consistent with the current model of translocase assembly. In the case of TatBC assemblies, we provide the first evidence that these complexes are co-localized at the cell poles. Finally, we used this BiFC approach to capture interactions between the putative Tat receptor complex formed by TatBC and the DmsA substrate or its dedicated chaperone DmsD. Our results demonstrate that BiFC is a powerful approach for studying cytoplasmic and inner membrane interactions underlying bacterial secretory pathways.

Kostecki, Jan S.; Li, Haiming; Turner, Raymond J.; DeLisa, Matthew P.



Mechanisms involved in antibody- and complement-mediated allograft rejection  

PubMed Central

Antibody-mediated rejection has become critical clinically because this form of rejection is usually unresponsive to conventional anti-rejection therapy, and therefore, it has been recognized as a major cause of allograft loss. Our group developed experimental animal models of vascularized organ transplantation to study pathogenesis of antibody- and complement-mediated endothelial cell injury leading to graft rejection. In this review, we discuss mechanisms of antibody-mediated graft rejection resulting from activation of complement by C1q- and MBL (mannose-binding lectin)-dependent pathways and interactions with a variety of effector cells, including macrophages and monocytes through Fc? receptors and complement receptors.



The Demonstration of Alternate Complement Pathway Activity by 'Fusobacterium polymorphum' in the Presence of Ethylene Glycol tetraacetic Acid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A complement consumption assay was used to investigate alternate pathway activation by Fusobacterium polymorphum in quinea pig sera treated with the divalent cation chelators, EDTA and EGTA. In the presence of 0.001 M EGTA, a cell wall preparation of F. p...

C. E. Hawley W. A. Falkler



Purification and characterization of a human membrane protein that activates the alternative complement pathway and allows the deposition of homologous complement C3  

PubMed Central

A human myeloid cell subline, P39+, is found to be a target for human complement (C) via the alternative pathway and to allow the deposition of multiple C3 fragments on its membranes, though expressing the complement regulatory proteins decay-accelerating factor and membrane cofactor protein. The parent cell line, P39-, which is phenotypically similar to the P39+ subline, does not allow the deposition of homologous C3 fragments. In this study, we established a monoclonal antibody, M161 Ab, which reacted with P39+ but not P39- cells. This Ab recognized a 43-kD protein in P39+ cell lysate transblotted onto nitrocellulose. Using this Ab as a probe, we purified the 43-kD protein, namely, M161 antigen (Ag). M161 Ag had a basic isoelectric point (pI), 9.3-9.4 by chromatofocusing, and was precipitated as an insoluble material at the pI point. The purified M161 Ag was a single- chain protein and did not possess N- or O-linked carbohydrates. When the purified M161 Ag was transblotted onto nitrocellulose and incubated with Mg(2+)-EGTA serum, human C3 fragments were efficiently deposited on M161 Ag. The major species of the deposited C3 fragments was C3b. Furthermore, the C3 fragments bound to the M161 Ag were detached by 1 M hydroxylamine, suggesting that a covalent ester linkage sustains M161 Ag-C3b interaction. NH2-terminal amino acid analysis revealed that M161Ag is a novel membrane protein. Hence, it appeared that M161 Ag is a potent activator of human alternative complement pathway on human cells that activates homologous C3 and allows the deposition of C3b on itself. Thus, under some conditions, homeostasis of complement is maintained even on human cells, not only by the complement regulatory proteins, but also by membrane C3-activating molecules on which C3b is deposited.



Musca domestica larva lectin induces apoptosis in BEL-7402 cells through a Ca(2+)/JNK-mediated mitochondrial pathway.  


Although Musca domestica larvae lectin (MLL) is able to inhibit cancer cell proliferation and to induce cancer cell apoptosis, the molecular mechanism(s) responsible for these processes remain elusive. In the current study, the signaling network underlying the MLL-induced apoptosis of human hepatoma BEL-7402 cell was investigated. Our data found out that MLL causes a sustained increase of the intracellular Ca(2+) and this process was prevented by the intracellular calcium chelator, BAPTA-AM, suggesting the involvement of intracellular Ca(2+) in MLL-induced cell apoptosis. MLL also causes the production of reactive oxygen species and elevates the phosphorylation status of JNK, processes associated with the increased cytoplasmic Ca(2+). The mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening study showed that MLL treatment of BEL-7402 cells results in the opening of MPTP and a reduction of mitochondrial transmembrane potential. In such condition, cytochrome-c was detected to be released from mitochondria to cytoplasm through the MPTP. This eventually activates caspase-3 and thus results in apoptosis of the tested BEL-7402 cells. According to a comprehensive review of all the evidence, it is concluded that MLL induces apoptosis of BEL-7402 cells through a Ca(2+)/JNK-mediated MPTP pathway. PMID:23247835

Wang, Chun-Ling; Xia, Yan; Nie, Jian-Zeng; Zhou, Minghui; Zhang, Rong-Ping; Niu, Li-Li; Hou, Li-Hua; Cao, Xiao-Hong



The terminal pathway of the complement system is activated in focal penetrating but not in mild diffuse traumatic brain injury.  


The complement system plays an important role in the inflammatory response activated by many central nervous system disorders. However, its significance in traumatic diffuse traumatic axonal injury (TAI) is not fully known. Here we analyze the complement activity in two rat models of traumatic brain injury (TBI); a focal penetration injury (pen-TBI) and a rotational acceleration injury (rot-TBI) that leads to a mild TAI. We used in situ hybridization to examine the distribution of mRNA for C1q and C3 and immunohistochemistry to examine the presence of the C3 protein and C5b-9 complex at 1-5 days after injury. We found a time-dependent complement activity in both models. However, the responses caused by the two models were different. We detected C5b-9 surrounding the cavity in pen-TBI, but C5b-9 was not found in the rot-TBI. Our findings suggest that the terminal complement pathway is progressed to the formation of the C5b-9 membrane attack complex only in the penetrating TBI but not in isolated TAI model. This indicates that the complement activation does not lead to membrane-damaging effects and a subsequent secondary axotomy in TAI by the terminal complex C5b-9. The role of complement activation in TAI is unclear, but might indicate an alternative function following rot-TBI, such as opsonizing the synapses for elimination. PMID:23808389

Rostami, Elham; Davidsson, Johan; Gyorgy, Andrea; Agoston, Denes V; Risling, Mĺrten; Bellander, Bo-Michael



The relative importance of the classical and alternative complement pathways in serum bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli.  


The relative importance of the classical and alternative complement pathways in serum bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli strains of the common urinary O-serogroups has been assessed with strains that differ widely in their sensitivity to normal human serum. With most promptly serum-sensitive strains, rapid killing occurred, mediated by the classical pathway and, when this pathway was eliminated, delayed killing by alternative-pathway activity occurred. However, one strain of serogroup O1 was affected by the classical pathway only and a strain of serogroup O9 was killed rapidly by the alternative pathway. Strains with delayed sensitivity to normal human serum were largely, and in some cases exclusively, affected by the classical pathway. When added to heat-inactivated serum, some strains showed no significant growth whereas the viable numbers of other test strains increased more than 50-fold in 3 h. Whether this variation is due to differences in nutritional requirements or sensitivity to some non-complement-dependent bacteriostatic mechanism remains to be determined. PMID:6401815

Roberts, A P; Phillips, R



The indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase pathway controls complement-dependent enhancement of chemo-radiation therapy against murine glioblastoma  

PubMed Central

Background Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is an enzyme with immune-suppressive properties that is commonly exploited by tumors to evade immune destruction. Anti-tumor T cell responses can be initiated in solid tumors, but are immediately suppressed by compensatory upregulation of immunological checkpoints, including IDO. In addition to these known effects on the adaptive immune system, we previously showed widespread, T cell-dependent complement deposition during allogeneic fetal rejection upon maternal treatment with IDO-blockade. We hypothesized that IDO protects glioblastoma from the full effects of chemo-radiation therapy by preventing vascular activation and complement-dependent tumor destruction. Methods To test this hypothesis, we utilized a syngeneic orthotopic glioblastoma model in which GL261 glioblastoma tumor cells were stereotactically implanted into the right frontal lobes of syngeneic mice. These mice were treated with IDO-blocking drugs in combination with chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Results Pharmacologic inhibition of IDO synergized with chemo-radiation therapy to prolong survival in mice bearing intracranial glioblastoma tumors. We now show that pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of IDO allowed chemo-radiation to trigger widespread complement deposition at sites of tumor growth. Chemotherapy treatment alone resulted in collections of perivascular leukocytes within tumors, but no complement deposition. Adding IDO-blockade led to upregulation of VCAM-1 on vascular endothelium within the tumor microenvironment, and further adding radiation in the presence of IDO-blockade led to widespread deposition of complement. Mice genetically deficient in complement component C3 lost all of the synergistic effects of IDO-blockade on chemo-radiation-induced survival. Conclusions Together these findings identify a novel mechanistic link between IDO and complement, and implicate complement as a major downstream effector mechanism for the beneficial effect of IDO-blockade after chemo-radiation therapy. We speculate that this represents a fundamental pathway by which the tumor regulates intratumoral vascular activation and protects itself from immune-mediated tumor destruction.



Mannose-Binding Lectin 2 Gene and Risk of Adult Glioma  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The immune system is likely to play a key role in the etiology of gliomas. Genetic polymorphisms in the mannose-binding lectin gene, a key activator in the lectin complement pathway, have been associated with risk of several cancers. Methods To examine the role of the lectin complement pathway, we combined data from prospectively collected cohorts with available DNA specimens. Using a nested case-control design, we genotyped 85 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 9 genes in the lectin complement pathway and 3 additional SNPs in MBL2 were tested post hoc). Initial SNPs were selected using tagging SNPs for haplotypes; the second group of SNPs for MBL2 was selected based on functional SNPs related to phenotype. Associations were examined using logistic regression analysis. All statistical tests were two-sided. Nominal p-values are presented and are not corrected for multiple comparisons. Results A total of 143 glioma cases and 419 controls were available for this analysis. Statistically significant associations were observed for two SNPs in the mannose-binding lectin 2 (ML2) gene and risk of glioma (rs1982266 and rs1800450, test for trend p?=?0.003 and p?=?0.04, respectively, using the additive model). One of these SNPs, rs1800450, was associated with a 58% increase in glioma risk among those carrying one or two mutated alleles (odds ratio?=?1.58, 95% confidence interval?=?0.99–2.54), compared to those homozygous for the wild type allele. Conclusions Overall, our findings suggest that MBL may play a role in the etiology of glioma. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings which may be due to chance, and if reproduced, to determine mechanisms that link glioma pathogenesis with the MBL complement pathway.

Michaud, Dominique S.; Siddiq, Afshan; Cox, David G.; Backes, Danielle M.; Calboli, Federico C. F.; Sughrue, Michael E.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Ma, Jing; Stampfer, Meir; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Hunter, David J.; Camargo, Carlos A.; Parsa, Andrew T.



Down-Regulation of Complement Receptors on the Surface of Host Monocyte Even as In Vitro Complement Pathway Blocking Interferes in Dengue Infection  

PubMed Central

In dengue virus (DENV) infection, complement system (CS) activation appears to have protective and pathogenic effects. In severe dengue fever (DF), the levels of DENV non-structural-1 protein and of the products of complement activation, including C3a, C5a and SC5b-9, are higher before vascular leakage occurs, supporting the hypothesis that complement activation contributes to unfavourable outcomes. The clinical manifestations of DF range from asymptomatic to severe and even fatal. Here, we aimed to characterise CS by their receptors or activation product, in vivo in DF patients and in vitro by DENV-2 stimulation on monocytes. In comparison with healthy controls, DF patients showed lower expression of CR3 (CD11b), CR4 (CD11c) and, CD59 on monocytes. The DF patients who were high producers of SC5b-9 were also those that showed more pronounced bleeding or vascular leakage. Those findings encouraged us to investigate the role of CS in vitro, using monocytes isolated from healthy subjects. Prior blocking with CR3 alone (CD11b) or CR3 (CD11b/CD18) reduced viral infection, as quantified by the levels of intracellular viral antigen expression and soluble DENV non-structural viral protein. However, we found that CR3 alone (CD11b) or CR3 (CD11b/CD18) blocking did not influence major histocompatibility complex presentation neither active caspase-1 on monocytes, thus probably ruling out inflammasome-related mechanisms. Although it did impair the secretion of tumour necrosis factor alpha and interferon alpha. Our data provide strategies of blocking CR3 (CD11b) pathways could have implications for the treatment of viral infection by antiviral-related mechanisms.

Marinho, Cintia Ferreira; Azeredo, Elzinandes Leal; Torrentes-Carvalho, Amanda; Marins-Dos-Santos, Alessandro; Kubelka, Claire Fernandes; de Souza, Luiz Jose; Cunha, Rivaldo Venancio; de-Oliveira-Pinto, Luzia Maria



Human natural anti-Gal IgG regulates alternative complement pathway activation on bacterial surfaces.  

PubMed Central

One percent of circulating IgG in humans recognizes galactose alpha 1,3 galactose residues (anti-Gal) and is synthesized in response to stimulation by enteric bacteria. In this study, we found that the prevalence of binding of anti-Gal to blood isolates is significantly higher than its binding to normal stool isolates. When anti-Gal bound onto the lipopolysaccharide of a representative blood isolate, Serratia marcescens #21, it blocked its alternative complement pathway (ACP) lysis and made the organism serum resistant. In contrast, when anti-Gal bound to the capsular polysaccharide of a serum sensitive Serratia, #7, it increased ACP killing of this strain. The mechanism of blockade of ACP lysis by anti-Gal did not involve a decrease in the number of C3 molecules deposited onto Serratia #21 or an inhibition of the binding of C3b to its LPS, nor did it change the iC3b and C3d degradation products of bound C3b or prevent membrane attack complex formation on this organism. Our findings suggest that the effect of anti-Gal on immune lysis is dependent on the bacterial outer membrane structure to which it binds. We postulate that anti-Gal may play a role in the survival of selected Enterobacteriacae in Gram-negative sepsis by blocking ACP-mediated lysis of such bacteria by the nonimmune host, and that this effect depends on where anti-Gal finds its epitope on the bacterial outer membrane. Images

Hamadeh, R M; Jarvis, G A; Galili, U; Mandrell, R E; Zhou, P; Griffiss, J M



The alternative complement pathway control protein H binds to immune complexes and serves their detection  

SciTech Connect

During solubilization of immune complexes C3b becomes fixed to the immunoglobulin part and serves as a receptor for the alternative complement pathway control protein H. The H-C3b immune complex interaction can be made detectable using 4% polyethyleneglycol to separate free from bound /sup 125/I-H. Tetanus toxoid (Te)/anti-Te complexes kept soluble with fresh serum and containing 125 IU of specific antibody bound 18% of /sup 125/I-H; when fresh serum was chelated with 10 mM EDTA, /sup 125/I-H binding was only 5%. On sucrose density gradients, the H-binding material sedimented in the range of 12 to 30 S. In 36 serum samples from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and in 12 serum samples from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), /sup 125/I-H binding was significantly elevated to 9.5 +/- 4.7% (mean +/- 1 SD) and 13.3 +/- 5.6%, respectively, while /sup 125/I-H binding by 36 normal human sera was 4 +/- 2%. RA samples (17/36, 47%) and SLE samples (9/12, 75%) had H-binding values increased by more than 2 SD above the normal mean. The serum samples were also assessed for conglutinin- and C1q-binding activities; a significant correlation between H and C1q binding was observed (P less than 0.001); there was no correlation between H and conglutinin binding. Although binding to immune complexes through its interaction with C3b, H clearly detects a population of complexes other than conglutinin, thus expanding the possibilities of further characterizing pathological complexes.

Nydegger, U.E.; Corvetta, A.; Spaeth, P.J.; Spycher, M.



Distinct Different Contributions of the Alternative and Classical Complement Activation Pathway for the Innate Host Response during Sepsis  

PubMed Central

Complement activation represents a crucial innate defense mechanism to invading microorganisms, but there is an eminent lack of understanding of the separate contribution of the different complement activation pathways to the host response during sepsis. We therefore investigated different innate host immune responses during cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis in mice lacking either the alternative (fD?/?) or classical (C1q?/?) complement activation pathway. Both knockout mice strains showed a significantly reduced survival and increased organ dysfunction when compared with control mice. Surprisingly, fD?/? mice demonstrated a compensated bacterial clearance capacity as control mice at 6 h post CLP, whereas C1q?/? mice were already overwhelmed by bacterial growth at this time point. Interestingly, at 24 h after CLP, fD?/? mice failed to clear bacteria in a way comparable to control mice. However, both knockout mice strains showed compromised C3 cleavage during sepsis. Investigating potential causes for this discrepancy, we were able to demonstrate that despite normal bacterial clearance capacity early during the onset of sepsis, fD?/? mice displayed increased inflammatory cytokine generation and neutrophil recruitment into lungs and blood when compared with both control- and C1q?/? mice, indicating a potential loss of control over these immune responses. Further in vitro experiments revealed a strongly increased Nf-?B activation capacity in isolated neutrophils from fD?/? mice, supporting this hypothesis. Our results provide evidence for the new concept that the alternative complement activation pathway exerts a distinctly different contribution to the innate host response during sepsis when compared with the classical pathway.

Dahlke, Katja; Wrann, Christiane D.; Sommerfeld, Oliver; Sossdorf, Maik; Recknagel, Peter; Sachse, Svea; Winter, Sebastian W.; Klos, Andreas; Stahl, Gregory L.; Ma, Yuanyuan Xu; Claus, Ralf A.; Reinhart, Konrad; Bauer, Michael; Riedemann, Niels C.



Multiple Activities of LigB Potentiate Virulence of Leptospira interrogans: Inhibition of Alternative and Classical Pathways of Complement  

PubMed Central

Microbial pathogens acquire the immediate imperative to avoid or counteract the formidable defense of innate immunity as soon as they overcome the initial physical barriers of the host. Many have adopted the strategy of directly disrupting the complement system through the capture of its components, using proteins on the pathogen's surface. In leptospirosis, pathogenic Leptospira spp. are resistant to complement-mediated killing, in contrast to the highly vulnerable non-pathogenic strains. Pathogenic L. interrogans uses LenA/LfhA and LcpA to respectively sequester and commandeer the function of two regulators, factor H and C4BP, which in turn bind C3b or C4b to interrupt the alternative or classical pathways of complement activation. LigB, another surface-proximal protein originally characterized as an adhesin binding multiple host proteins, has other activities suggesting its importance early in infection, including binding extracellular matrix, plasma, and cutaneous repair proteins and inhibiting hemostasis. In this study, we used a recent model of ectopic expression of LigB in the saprophyte, L. biflexa, to test the hypothesis that LigB also interacts with complement proteins C3b and C4b to promote the virulence of L. interrogans. The surface expression of LigB partially rescued the non-pathogen from killing by 5% normal human serum, showing 1.3- to 48-fold greater survival 4 to 6 d following exposure to complement than cultures of the non-expressing parental strain. Recombinant LigB7?-12 comprising the LigB-specific immunoglobulin repeats binds directly to human complement proteins, C3b and C4b, with respective Kds of 43±26 nM and 69±18 nM. Repeats 9 to 11, previously shown to contain the binding domain for fibronectin and fibrinogen, are also important in LigB-complement interactions, which interfere with the alternative and classical pathways measured by complement-mediated hemolysis of erythrocytes. Thus, LigB is an adaptable interface for L. interrogans to efficiently counteract the multiple homeostatic processes of the host.

Choy, Henry A.



Serum amyloid P component bound to gram-negative bacteria prevents lipopolysaccharide-mediated classical pathway complement activation.  


Although serum amyloid P component (SAP) is known to bind many ligands, its biological function is not yet clear. Recently, it was demonstrated that SAP binds to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In the present study, SAP was shown to bind to gram-negative bacteria expressing short types of LPS or lipo-oligosaccharide (LOS), such as Salmonella enterica serovar Copenhagen Re and Escherichia coli J5, and also to clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae. It was hypothesized that SAP binds to the bacteria via the lipid A part of LPS or LOS, since the htrB mutant of the nontypeable H. influenzae strain NTHi 2019-B29-3, which expresses a nonacetylated lipid A, did not bind SAP. This was in contrast to the parental strain NTHi 2019. The binding of SAP resulted in a clear inhibition of the deposition of complement component C3 on the bacteria. SAP inhibited only the activation of the classical complement pathway; the alternative route remained unaffected. In the classical route, SAP prevented the deposition of the first complement component, Clq, probably by interfering with the binding of Clq to LPS. Since antibody-mediated Clq activation was not inhibited by SAP, SAP seems to inhibit only the LPS-induced classical complement pathway activation. The SAP-induced inhibition of C3 deposition strongly diminished the complement-mediated lysis as well as the phagocytosis of the bacteria. The binding of SAP to gram-negative bacteria, therefore, might influence the pathophysiology of an infection with such bacteria. PMID:10722560

de Haas, C J; van Leeuwen, E M; van Bommel, T; Verhoef, J; van Kessel, K P; van Strijp, J A



C1q induction and global complement pathway activation do not contribute to ALS toxicity in mutant SOD1 mice  

PubMed Central

Accumulating evidence from mice expressing ALS-causing mutations in superoxide dismutase (SOD1) has implicated pathological immune responses in motor neuron degeneration. This includes microglial activation, lymphocyte infiltration, and the induction of C1q, the initiating component of the classic complement system that is the protein-based arm of the innate immune response, in motor neurons of multiple ALS mouse models expressing dismutase active or inactive SOD1 mutants. Robust induction early in disease course is now identified for multiple complement components (including C1q, C4, and C3) in spinal cords of SOD1 mutant-expressing mice, consistent with initial intraneuronal C1q induction, followed by global activation of the complement pathway. We now test if this activation is a mechanistic contributor to disease. Deletion of the C1q gene in mice expressing an ALS-causing mutant in SOD1 to eliminate C1q induction, and complement cascade activation that follows from it, is demonstrated to produce changes in microglial morphology accompanied by enhanced loss, not retention, of synaptic densities during disease. C1q-dependent synaptic loss is shown to be especially prominent for cholinergic C-bouton nerve terminal input onto motor neurons in affected C1q-deleted SOD1 mutant mice. Nevertheless, overall onset and progression of disease are unaffected in C1q- and C3-deleted ALS mice, thus establishing that C1q induction and classic or alternative complement pathway activation do not contribute significantly to SOD1 mutant-mediated ALS pathogenesis in mice.

Lobsiger, Christian S.; Boillee, Severine; Pozniak, Christine; Khan, Amir M.; McAlonis-Downes, Melissa; Lewcock, Joseph W.; Cleveland, Don W.



Early complement factors in the local tissue immunocomplex generated during intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury  

PubMed Central

Recent work reveals that the innate immune system is able to recognize self targets and initiate an inflammatory response similar to that of pathogens. One novel example of this innate autoimmunity is ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, in which reperfusion of the ischemic tissues elicits an acute inflammatory response activated by natural IgM (nIgM) binding to ischemia-specific self antigens, which are non-muscle myosin heavy chains type II (NMHC-II) subtype A and C. Subsequently, the complement lectin pathway is activated and eventually tissue injury occurs. Although earlier studies in the intestinal model showed that the classical complement pathway did not initiate I/R injury, C1q deposition was still observed in the local injured tissues by imaging analysis. Moreover, the involvement of the alternative complement pathway became unclear due to conflicting reports using different knockout mice. To explore the immediate downstream pathway following nIgM-ischemic antigen interaction, we isolated the nIgM-ischemic antigen immunocomplexes from the local tissue of animals treated in the intestinal I/R injury model, and examined the presence of initial molecules of three complement pathways. Our results showed that mannan-binding lectin (MBL), the early molecule of the lectin pathway, was present in the nIgM-ischemic Ag immunocomplex. In addition, C1q, the initial molecule of the classical pathway was also detected on the immunocomplex. However, Factor B, the early molecule in the alternative pathway, was not detected in the immunocomplex. To further examine the role of the alternative pathway in I/R injury, we utilized Factor B knockout mice in the intestinal model. Our results showed that Factor B knockout mice were not protected from local tissue injury, and their complement system was activated in the local tissues by nIgM during I/R. These results indicated that the lectin complement pathway operates immediately downstream of the nIgM-ischemic antigen interaction during intestinal I/R. Furthermore, the classical complement pathway also appears to interact with the of nIgM-ischemic antigen immunocomplex. Finally, the alternative complement pathway is not involved in I/R injury induction in the current intestinal model.

Lee, Haekyung; Green, Danielle J.; Lai, Lawrence; Hou, Yunfang Joan; Jensenius, Jens C.; Liu, David; Cheong, Cheolho; Park, Chae Gyu; Zhang, Ming



Absence of Mannose-Binding Lectin Prevents Hyperglycemic Cardiovascular Complications  

PubMed Central

Diabetes, stress, pharmaceuticals, surgery, and physical trauma can lead to hyperglycemic conditions. A consistent relationship has been found between chronic inflammation and the cardiovascular complications of hyperglycemia. We hypothesized that cardiomyopathy and vasculopathy resulting from acute hyperglycemia are dependent on mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and lectin complement pathway activation. Hyperglycemia was induced in wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 and MBL-null mice after streptozotocin administration. Echocardiographic data and tissue samples were collected after 4, 7, or 14 days of acute hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemic WT mice demonstrated dilated cardiomyopathy with significantly increased short and long axis area measurements during systole and diastole compared to hyperglycemic MBL-null mice. The EC50 for acetylcholine-induced relaxation of mesenteric arterioles in WT mice after 4 days of hyperglycemia demonstrated a significant loss of nitric oxide–mediated relaxation compared to normoglycemic WT or hyperglycemic MBL-null mice. Myocardial histochemistry and Western blot analysis revealed a significant influx of macrophages, altered morphology, and increased elastin and collagen deposition in hyperglycemic WT hearts compared to MBL-null hearts. Serum transforming growth factor-?1 levels were significantly lower in hyperglycemic MBL-null compared to WT mice, suggesting decreased profibrotic signaling. Together, these data suggest that MBL and the lectin complement pathway play a significant role in vascular dysfunction and cardiomyopathy after acute hyperglycemia.

Pavlov, Vasile I.; La Bonte, Laura R.; Baldwin, William M.; Markiewski, Maciej M.; Lambris, John D.; Stahl, Gregory L.



Absence of mannose-binding lectin prevents hyperglycemic cardiovascular complications.  


Diabetes, stress, pharmaceuticals, surgery, and physical trauma can lead to hyperglycemic conditions. A consistent relationship has been found between chronic inflammation and the cardiovascular complications of hyperglycemia. We hypothesized that cardiomyopathy and vasculopathy resulting from acute hyperglycemia are dependent on mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and lectin complement pathway activation. Hyperglycemia was induced in wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 and MBL-null mice after streptozotocin administration. Echocardiographic data and tissue samples were collected after 4, 7, or 14 days of acute hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemic WT mice demonstrated dilated cardiomyopathy with significantly increased short and long axis area measurements during systole and diastole compared to hyperglycemic MBL-null mice. The EC(50) for acetylcholine-induced relaxation of mesenteric arterioles in WT mice after 4 days of hyperglycemia demonstrated a significant loss of nitric oxide-mediated relaxation compared to normoglycemic WT or hyperglycemic MBL-null mice. Myocardial histochemistry and Western blot analysis revealed a significant influx of macrophages, altered morphology, and increased elastin and collagen deposition in hyperglycemic WT hearts compared to MBL-null hearts. Serum transforming growth factor-?1 levels were significantly lower in hyperglycemic MBL-null compared to WT mice, suggesting decreased profibrotic signaling. Together, these data suggest that MBL and the lectin complement pathway play a significant role in vascular dysfunction and cardiomyopathy after acute hyperglycemia. PMID:22079428

Pavlov, Vasile I; La Bonte, Laura R; Baldwin, William M; Markiewski, Maciej M; Lambris, John D; Stahl, Gregory L



The plasma bradykinin-forming pathways and its interrelationships with complement.  


The plasma bradykinin-forming cascade and the complement pathways share many elements, including cross-activation, common control mechanisms, and shared binding proteins. The C1 inhibitor (C1 INH) is not only the inhibitor of activated C1r and C1s, but it is the key control protein of the plasma bradykinin-forming cascade. It inhibits the autoactivation of Factor XII, the ability of Factor XIIa to activate prekallikrein and Factor XI, the activation of high molecular weight kininogen (HK) by kallikrein, and the feedback activation of Factor XII by kallikrein. Thus in the absence of C1 INH (hereditary angioedema or acquired C1 INH deficiency) there is unimpeded formation of bradykinin leading to angioedema. Activated Factor XII (Factor XIIa, 80,000 kDa) is further cleaved by kallikrein or plasmin to yield Factor XII fragment (Factor XIIf, 30,000 kDa) and Factor XIIf can activate the C1r subcomponent of C1, particularly when C1 INH (which inhibits Factor XIIf) is absent. Once bradykinin is formed, it causes vasodilatation and increased vascular permeability by interaction with constitutively expressed B-2 receptors. However degradation of bradykinin by carboxypeptidase N (in plasma) or carboxypeptidase M (on endothelial cells) yields des-arg-9 (Kerbiriou and Griffin, 1979) bradykinin which interacts with B-1 receptors. B-1 receptors are induced in inflammatory states by cytokines such as Interleukin 1 and its interaction with bradykinin may prolong or perpetuate the vascular response until bradykinin is completely inactivated by angiotensin converting enzyme or aminopeptidase P, or neutral endopeptidase. The entire bradykinin-forming cascade is assembled and can be activated along the surface of endothelial cells in zinc dependent reactions involving gC1qR, cytokeratin 1, and the urokinase plasminogen activated receptor (u-PAR). Although Factors XII and HK can be shown to bind to each one of these proteins, they exist in endothelial cells as two bimolecular complexes; gC1qR-cytokeratin 1, which preferentially binds HK, and cytokeratin 1-u-PAR which preferentially binds Factor XII. The gC1qR, which binds the globular heads of C1q is present in excess and can bind either Factor XII or HK however the binding sites for HK and C1q have been shown to reside at opposite ends of gC1qR. Activation of the bradykinin-forming pathway can be initiated at the cell surface by gC1qR-induced autoactivation of Factor XII or direct activation of the prekallikrein-HK complex by endothelial cell-derived heat-shock protein 90 (HSP 90) or prolylcarboxypeptidase with recruitment or Factor XII by the kallikrein produced. PMID:20580091

Kaplan, Allen P; Ghebrehiwet, Berhane



C1q binding and activation of the complement classical pathway by Klebsiella pneumoniae outer membrane proteins.  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms of killing of Klebsiella pneumoniae serum-sensitive strains in nonimmune serum by the complement classical pathway have been studied. The bacterial cell surface components that bind C1q more efficiently were identified as two major outer membrane proteins, presumably the porins of this bacterial species. These two outer membrane proteins were isolated from a representative serum-sensitive strain. We have demonstrated that in their purified form, they bind C1q and activate the classical pathway in an antibody-independent manner, with the subsequent consumption of C4 and reduction of the serum total hemolytic activity. Activation of the classical pathway has been observed in human nonimmune serum and agammaglobulinemic serum (both depleted in factor D). Binding of C1q to other components of the bacterial outer membrane, in particular the rough lipopolysaccharide, could not be demonstrated. Activation of the classical pathway by this lipopolysaccharide was also much less efficient than activation by the two outer membrane proteins. The antibody-independent binding of C1q to serum-sensitive strains was independent of the presence of capsular polysaccharide, while strains possessing lipopolysaccharide O antigen bind less C1q and are resistant to complement-mediated killing. Images

Alberti, S; Marques, G; Camprubi, S; Merino, S; Tomas, J M; Vivanco, F; Benedi, V J



Synergistic therapeutic vascular cytoprotection against complement-mediated injury induced via a PKC?-, AMPK-, and CREB-dependent pathway.  


Endothelial injury and dysfunction precede accelerated arterial disease in allograft vasculopathy and systemic autoimmune diseases and involve pathogenic Abs and complement. Recent reports suggest that switching to rapamycin from calcineurin antagonists reduces posttransplant vasculopathy and prolongs survival following cardiac transplantion. The majority of these patients also receive statin therapy. We examined potential mechanisms underlying this protective response in human endothelial cells and identified synergy between rapamycin and atorvastatin. Mechanistically, atorvastatin and rapamycin activated a protein kinase C?, AMP-activated kinase, and CREB-dependent vasculoprotective pathway, which induced decay-accelerating factor (DAF) promoter activity via binding to the cAMP response element, mutation of which attenuated promoter activity. This response significantly increased endothelial cell surface DAF and enhanced protection against complement-mediated injury. Synergy with rapamycin was reproduced by simvastatin, whereas combining atorvastatin with cyclosporine or mycophenolate in place of rapamycin was ineffective. Importantly, synergy was reproduced in vivo, in which only atorvastatin and rapamycin therapy in combination was sufficient to induce DAF on murine aortic endothelium. We believe this pathway represents an important therapeutically inducible vasculoprotective mechanism for diseases mediated by pathogenic Abs and complement, including posttransplant vasculopathy and systemic lupus erythematosus. Although our study focuses on the vascular endothelium, the findings are likely to be broadly applicable, given the diverse cellular expression of DAF. PMID:24670799

Hamdulay, Shahir S; Wang, Bufei; Calay, Damien; Kiprianos, Allan P; Cole, Jennifer; Dumont, Odile; Dryden, Nicola; Randi, Anna M; Thornton, Clare C; Al-Rashed, Fahad; Hoong, Caroline; Shamsi, Aamir; Liu, Zilei; Holla, Vijay R; Boyle, Joseph J; Haskard, Dorian O; Mason, Justin C



Mannose-binding lectin deficiency with eosinophilic meningoencephalitis due to Angiostrongylus cantonensis in children: a case series  

PubMed Central

Introduction Eosinophilic meningitis, a potentially fatal disease caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis, is considered an emerging infectious disease. Case presentation Three Caucasian boys (aged five-years-old, 10-years-old and six-years-old) with a diagnosis of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis were studied. Serum immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgM, IgG, and complements C3c and C4 levels were quantified by using an immunodiffusion technique. Immunoglobulin E in serum was quantified by nephelometry and mannose-binding lectin by time-resolved fluorometry. Mannose-binding lectin deficiency was observed in the three patients. The first patient showed a reduction in the levels of IgA and IgM and an increase in the values of IgE and C4. The second patient showed a reduction in mannose-binding lectin level with increased IgG, C4 and IgE levels, and the third patient showed a decrease in mannose-binding lectin level and increased levels of IgM and complement C3c as well as a low level of C4. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of mannose-binding lectin deficiency associated with Angiostrongylus cantonensis meningoencephalitis in children, and it may contribute to the understanding of the participation of this component of the lectin pathway in the development of the disease.



Plasma levels of complement proteins from the alternative pathway in patients with age-related macular degeneration are independent of Complement Factor H Tyr402His polymorphism  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the influence of the Factor H (CFH) Tyr402His polymorphism on the plasma levels of the alternative pathway proteins CFH, C3, Factor B (FB), Factor D (FD), and Factor I (FI) and the inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) in 119 patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and 152 unrelated control individuals. Methods Patients with AMD and the control group were separated according to CFH polymorphism, age, and gender. Plasma complement proteins and CRP concentrations were determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunodiffusion, or nephelometry. Results Significant differences in the concentrations of FD and FI were observed between the patients with AMD and the control individuals. We observed significantly reduced FD plasma levels in patients with AMD. We also identified a significant decrease in CFH plasma levels in female patients with AMD in relation to female controls. Plasma FI levels were significantly increased in patients with AMD compared to the control group. Regarding gender, a significant increase in FI plasma levels was observed in male patients. Finally, we found no significant correlation between the CFH Tyr402His polymorphism and the CFH, C3, FB, FD, FI, and CRP plasma levels. Conclusions Patients with AMD present altered levels of FD and FI in a manner independent of this CFH polymorphism, and gender apparently contributes to the plasma levels of these two proteins in patients with AMD and control individuals.

Silva, Aldacilene Souza; Teixeira, Anderson Gustavo; Bavia, Lorena; Lin, Fabio; Velletri, Roberta; Belfort, Rubens




PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Pyelonephritis during pregnancy is associated with a more severe course than in the non-pregnant state. This has been attributed to an increased susceptibility of pregnant women to microbial products. The complement system is part of innate immunity and its alternative pathway is activated mainly by microorganisms. The purpose of this study was to determine if activation of the alternative pathway of the complement system (determined by maternal fragment Bb concentrations) occurs in pregnant women with acute pyelonephritis. METHODS This cross-sectional study included the following groups: 1) normal pregnant women (n=62); and 2) pregnant women with pyelonephritis (n=38). Maternal plasma Fragment Bb concentrations were determined by ELISA. Non-parametric statistics were used for analyses. RESULTS 1) Pregnant women with pyelonephritis had a higher median plasma concentration of fragment Bb than those with a normal pregnancy (1.3 ?g/ml, IQR: 1.1-1.9 vs. 0.8 ?g/m, IQR: 0.7-0.9; p<0.001); 2) No significant differences were observed in the median maternal plasma concentration of fragment Bb between pregnant women with pyelonephritis who had a positive blood culture and those with a negative blood culture (1.4 ?g/ml, IQR: 1.1-3.5 vs. 1.3 ?g/ml, IQR: 1.1-1.9; p=0.2). CONCLUSIONS Pregnant women with acute pyelonephritis have evidence of activation of the alternative pathway of the complement system, regardless of the presence or absence of a positive blood culture.

Soto, Eleazar; Romero, Roberto; Vaisbuch, Edi; Erez, Offer; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Dong, Zhong; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Yeo, Lami; Mittal, Pooja; Hassan, Sonia S.



Inherited mitochondrial DNA variants can affect complement, inflammation and apoptosis pathways: insights into mitochondrial-nuclear interactions.  


Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss in developed countries. While linked to genetic polymorphisms in the complement pathway, there are many individuals with high risk alleles that do not develop AMD, suggesting that other 'modifiers' may be involved. Mitochondrial (mt) haplogroups, defined by accumulations of specific mtDNA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) which represent population origins, may be one such modifier. J haplogroup has been associated with high risk for AMD while the H haplogroup is protective. It has been difficult to assign biological consequences for haplogroups so we created human ARPE-19 cybrids (cytoplasmic hybrids), which have identical nuclei but mitochondria of either J or H haplogroups, to investigate their effects upon bioenergetics and molecular pathways. J cybrids have altered bioenergetic profiles compared with H cybrids. Q-PCR analyses show significantly lower expression levels for seven respiratory complex genes encoded by mtDNA. J and H cybrids have significantly altered expression of eight nuclear genes of the alternative complement, inflammation and apoptosis pathways. Sequencing of the entire mtDNA was carried out for all the cybrids to identify haplogroup and non-haplogroup defining SNPs. mtDNA can mediate cellular bioenergetics and expression levels of nuclear genes related to complement, inflammation and apoptosis. Sequencing data suggest that observed effects are not due to rare mtDNA variants but rather the combination of SNPs representing the J versus H haplogroups. These findings represent a paradigm shift in our concepts of mt-nuclear interactions. PMID:24584571

Cristina Kenney, M; Chwa, Marilyn; Atilano, Shari R; Falatoonzadeh, Payam; Ramirez, Claudio; Malik, Deepika; Tarek, Mohamed; Cáceres-Del-Carpio, Javier; Nesburn, Anthony B; Boyer, David S; Kuppermann, Baruch D; Vawter, Marquis; Michal Jazwinski, S; Miceli, Michael; Wallace, Douglas C; Udar, Nitin



Rheumatoid factor, complement, and mixed cryoglobulinemia.  


Low serum level of complement component 4 (C4) that occurs in mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC) may be due to in vivo or ex vivo activation of complement by the classical pathway. Potential activators include monoclonal IgM rheumatoid factor (RF), IgG antibodies, and the complexing of the two in the cold, perhaps modulated by the rheology and stoichiometry of cryocomplexes in specific microcirculations. There is also the potential for activation of complement by the alternative and lectin pathways, particularly in the setting of chronic infection and immune stimulation caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV). Engagement of C1q and interaction with specific cell surface receptors serve to localize immune complexes (ICs) to the sites of pathology, notably the cutaneous and glomerular microcirculations. Defective or saturated clearance of ICs by CR1and/or Fc receptors may explain persistence in the circulation. The phlogistic potential of cryoprecipitable ICs depends upon the cleavage of complement components to generate fragments with anaphylatoxin or leukocyte mobilizing activity, and the assembly of the membrane attack complex (C5b-9) on cell surfaces. A research agenda would include further characterization of the effector arm of complement activation in MC, and elucidation of activation mechanisms due to virus and viral antigens in HCV infection. PMID:22956968

Gorevic, Peter D



Structural basis for the stabilization of the complement alternative pathway C3 convertase by properdin.  


Complement is an essential component of innate immunity. Its activation results in the assembly of unstable protease complexes, denominated C3/C5 convertases, leading to inflammation and lysis. Regulatory proteins inactivate C3/C5 convertases on host surfaces to avoid collateral tissue damage. On pathogen surfaces, properdin stabilizes C3/C5 convertases to efficiently fight infection. How properdin performs this function is, however, unclear. Using electron microscopy we show that the N- and C-terminal ends of adjacent monomers in properdin oligomers conform a curly vertex that holds together the AP convertase, interacting with both the C345C and vWA domains of C3b and Bb, respectively. Properdin also promotes a large displacement of the TED (thioester-containing domain) and CUB (complement protein subcomponents C1r/C1s, urchin embryonic growth factor and bone morphogenetic protein 1) domains of C3b, which likely impairs C3-convertase inactivation by regulatory proteins. The combined effect of molecular cross-linking and structural reorganization increases stability of the C3 convertase and facilitates recruitment of fluid-phase C3 convertase to the cell surfaces. Our model explains how properdin mediates the assembly of stabilized C3/C5-convertase clusters, which helps to localize complement amplification to pathogen surfaces. PMID:23901101

Alcorlo, Martín; Tortajada, Agustín; Rodríguez de Córdoba, Santiago; Llorca, Oscar



Structural basis for the stabilization of the complement alternative pathway C3 convertase by properdin  

PubMed Central

Complement is an essential component of innate immunity. Its activation results in the assembly of unstable protease complexes, denominated C3/C5 convertases, leading to inflammation and lysis. Regulatory proteins inactivate C3/C5 convertases on host surfaces to avoid collateral tissue damage. On pathogen surfaces, properdin stabilizes C3/C5 convertases to efficiently fight infection. How properdin performs this function is, however, unclear. Using electron microscopy we show that the N- and C-terminal ends of adjacent monomers in properdin oligomers conform a curly vertex that holds together the AP convertase, interacting with both the C345C and vWA domains of C3b and Bb, respectively. Properdin also promotes a large displacement of the TED (thioester-containing domain) and CUB (complement protein subcomponents C1r/C1s, urchin embryonic growth factor and bone morphogenetic protein 1) domains of C3b, which likely impairs C3-convertase inactivation by regulatory proteins. The combined effect of molecular cross-linking and structural reorganization increases stability of the C3 convertase and facilitates recruitment of fluid-phase C3 convertase to the cell surfaces. Our model explains how properdin mediates the assembly of stabilized C3/C5-convertase clusters, which helps to localize complement amplification to pathogen surfaces.

Alcorlo, Martin; Tortajada, Agustin; Rodriguez de Cordoba, Santiago; Llorca, Oscar



Fast liver catabolism of C1q in patients with paraproteinaemia and depletion of the classical pathway of complement.  

PubMed Central

The main clinical features in four patients with IgG1k paraproteinaemia and acquired complement deficiency included xanthomatous skin lesions (in three), panniculitis (in three) and hepatitis (in two). Hypocomplementaemia concerned the early classical pathway components--in particular C1q. Metabolic studies employing 125I-C1q revealed a much faster catabolism of this protein in the four patients than in five normal controls and three patients with cryoglobulinaemia (mean fractional catabolic rates respectively: 23.35%/h; 1.44%/h; 5.84%/h). Various experiments were designed to characterize the mechanism of the hypocomplementaemia: the patients' serum, purified paraprotein, blood cells, bone marrow cells, or xanthomatous skin lesions did not produce significant complement activation or C1q binding. When three of the patients (two with panniculitis and hepatitis) were injected with 123I-C1q, sequential gamma-camera imaging demonstrated rapid accumulation of the radionuclide in the liver, suggesting that complement activation takes place in the liver where it could produce damage.

Schifferli, J A; Pascual, M; Steiger, G; Schapira, M; Ryser, J E; Estreicher, J; Dash, A



Nucleocytoplasmic lectins  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarizes studies on lectins that have been documented to be in the cytoplasm and nucleus of cells. Of these intracellular lectins, the most extensively studied are members of the galectin family. Galectin-1 and galectin-3 have been identified as pre-mRNA splicing factors in the nucleus, in conjunction with their interacting ligand, Gemin4. Galectin-3, -7, and -12 regulate growth, cell

John L Wang; Richard M Gray; Kevin C Haudek; Ronald J Patterson



An improved fluorogenic substrate for the alternative complement pathway C3/5 converting enzyme CVFBb.  


By lengthening the sequence of a previously available tripeptide to a pentapeptide, we were able to increase the specificity of the substrate for the complement enzyme CVFBb (EC over Factor Xa (EC This increase in specificity was achieved by both an increase in the kcat/Km for CVFBb for the longer substrate compared to the original substrate, and a decrease in the kcat/Km for Factor Xa. The new substrate, Boc-Nle-Gln-Leu-Gly-Arg-amino methyl coumarin (AMC) was synthesized by coupling Boc-Nle-Gln-Leu-Gly to Arg-AMC in solution. p-Toluenesulfonic acid was added to the coupling mixture to improve the solubility of the arginine derivative and avoid the need for covalent protection. PMID:6552199

Gutierrez, J C; Götze, O; Caporale, L H



Lectin from Canavalia brasiliensis (ConBr) protects hippocampal slices against glutamate neurotoxicity in a manner dependent of PI3K/Akt pathway.  


The excitotoxicity induced by excessive activation of the glutamatergic neurotransmission pathway is involved in several neuropathologies. In this sense, molecules that prevent the release of glutamate or the excessive activation of its receptors can be useful in preventing the neuronal cell death observed in these diseases. Lectins are proteins capable of reversible binding to the carbohydrates in glycoconjugates, and some have been used in the study and purification of glutamate receptors. ConBr is a mannose/glucose-binding lectin purified from Canavalia brasiliensis seeds. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective activity of ConBr against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. Hippocampal slices were isolated from adult male mice and incubated for 6h in Krebs saline/DMEM buffer alone (control), in the presence of glutamate or glutamate plus ConBr. The phosphorylation of Akt and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) such as ERK1/2, p38(MAPK) and JNK1/2/3 was evaluated with western blotting. The results indicate that glutamate provoked a reduction in the hippocampal slice viability (-25%), diminished the phosphorylation of Akt and augmented p38(MAPK) and ERK1 phosphorylation. No changes were observed in the phosphorylation of JNK1/2/3 or ERK2. Notably, ConBr, through a mechanism dependent on carbohydrate interaction, prevented the reduction of cell viability and Akt phosphorylation induced by glutamate. Furthermore, in the presence of the PI3K inhibitor LY294002, ConBr was unable to reverse glutamate neurotoxicity. Taken together, our data suggest that the neuroprotective effect of ConBr against glutamate neurotoxicity requires oligosaccharide interaction and is dependent on the PI3K/Akt pathway. PMID:23454192

Jacques, Amanda V; Rieger, Débora K; Maestri, Mariana; Lopes, Mark W; Peres, Tanara V; Gonçalves, Filipe M; Pedro, Daniela Z; Tasca, Carla I; López, Manuela G; Egea, Javier; Nascimento, Kyria S; Cavada, Benildo S; Leal, Rodrigo B



A Low-Abundance Biofilm Species Orchestrates Inflammatory Periodontal Disease through the Commensal Microbiota and the Complement Pathway  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Porphyromonas gingivalis is a low-abundance oral anaerobic bacterium implicated in periodontitis, a polymicrobial inflammatory disease, and the associated systemic conditions. However, the mechanism by which P. gingivalis contributes to inflammation and disease has remained elusive. Here we show that P. gingivalis, at very low colonization levels, triggers changes to the amount and composition of the oral commensal microbiota leading to inflammatory periodontal bone loss. The commensal microbiota and the complement pathway were both required for P. gingivalis-induced bone loss as germ-free mice or conventionally raised C3a and C5a receptor deficient mice did not develop bone loss after inoculation with P. gingivalis. These findings demonstrate that a single, low-abundance species can disrupt host-microbial homeostasis to cause inflammatory disease. The identification and targeting of similar low-abundance pathogens with community-wide impact may be important for treating inflammatory diseases of polymicrobial etiology.

Hajishengallis, George; Liang, Shuang; Payne, Mark A.; Hashim, Ahmed; Jotwani, Ravi; Eskan, Mehmet A.; McIntosh, Megan L.; Alsam, Asil; Kirkwood, Keith L.; Lambris, John D.; Darveau, Richard P.; Curtis, Michael A.



A comparative study of mammalian and reptilian alternative pathway of complement-mediated killing of the Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi).  


The potential bactericidal activity of the alternative complement pathway of mammalian and reptilian sera to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) was evaluated in vitro. Complement-mediated killing was observed when cultured spirochetes were inoculated into sera from the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) and from the southern alligator lizard (Elgaria multicarinata), but not when they were inoculated into serum from either the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) or from humans. Spirochetes were still alive after 4 hr in lizard serum that had been preheated at 56 C for 30 min to inactivate complement. Furthermore, when lizard serum was chelated with 10 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid to block all complement activation, borreliacidal activity was arrested. When lizard serum was chelated with 10 mM ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid plus 4 mM MgCl2 to block only classical complement pathway activation, >85% of spirochetes were immobilized within 1 hr. Differences in B. burgdorferi s.s. mortality were not observed when chelators with or without MgCl2 were added to serum from either deer mice or humans. Proteins comprising the alternative complement pathway are responsible for the borreliacidal activity observed in the blood of S. occidentalis and E. multicarinata. PMID:11191895

Kuo, M M; Lane, R S; Giclas, P C



Microbial lectins and their prospective mitogenic potential.  


The binding of mitogenic lectins to the glycoconjugates on cell surface receptor triggers multitude of reactions involving different signal transduction pathways which ultimately results in cell proliferation. Since 1960 after the chance discovery of mitogenic property of lectins by Nowell, it has attracted more attention. The property of stimulation of mature lymphocytes aided the immunological investigations to study and analyse the mechanism of cell stimulation and division. Plant lectins are extensively studied for mitogenic activity and their widespread applications are also reported. During the past two decades, the study of biological properties of microbial lectins has increased tremendously. Their biological activities including mitogenic potential are equally applicable as that of plant lectins. The review mainly focuses on mitogenic potential of microbial lectins. It will provide a comprehensive view regarding distribution of this remarkable property among microbes including algae, fungi and bacteria, mechanisms and models of mitogenic stimulation, and also assays being employed to detect the mitogenic activity. PMID:23215777

Singh, Ram Sarup; Walia, Amandeep K



The Classical Complement Pathway in Transplantation: Unanticipated Protective Effects of C1q and Role in Inductive Antibody Therapy1  

PubMed Central

Though complement (C) deposition within the transplant is associated with allograft rejection, the pathways employed have not been established. In addition, evidence suggests that C mediated cytolysis may be necessary for the tolerance inducing activities of mAb therapies. Hence, we assessed the role of the classical C pathway in acute allograft rejection and its requirement for experimental mAb therapies. C1q deficient (C1q?/?) recipients rejected allografts at a faster rate than wild-type (WT) recipients. This rejection was associated with exacerbated graft pathology but not with enhanced T cell responses in C1q?/? recipients. However, the humoral response to donor alloantigens was accelerated in C1q?/? mice, as an early IgG response and IgG deposition within the graft were observed. Furthermore, deposition of C3d, but not C4d was observed in grafts isolated from C1q?/? recipients. To assess the role of the classical C pathway in inductive mAb therapies, C1q?/? recipients were treated with anti-CD4 or anti-CD40L mAb. The protective effects of anti-CD4 mAb were reduced in C1q?/?recipients, however this effect did not correlate with ineffective depletion of CD4+ cells. In contrast, the protective effects of anti-CD40L mAb were less compromised in C1q?/?recipients. Hence, this study reveals unanticipated roles for C1q in the rejection process.

Csencsits, K.; Burrell, B. E.; Lu, G.; Eichwald, E. J.; Stahl, G. L.; Bishop, D. K.



Complement protease MASP-1 activates human endothelial cells: PAR4 activation is a link between complement and endothelial function.  


Activation of the complement system can induce and enhance inflammatory reaction. Mannose-binding lectin-associated serine protease-1 (MASP-1) is an abundant protease of the complement lectin pathway; however, its physiological function is unclear. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that MASP-1 is able to activate Ca(2+) signaling, NF-kappaB, and p38 MAPK pathways in cultured HUVECs. Activation was initiated by MASP-1 only; the related protease, MASP-2, had no such effect. The phenomenon was dependent on the proteolytic activity of MASP-1, suggesting modulation of endothelial cell function through a protease-activated receptor (PAR). Using synthetic peptide substrates representing the protease-sensitive regions of PARs, we were able to demonstrate that PAR4 is a target of MASP-1. The presence of functionally active PAR4 in HUVECs was demonstrated using PAR4 agonist peptide and mRNA quantification. Finally, we showed that the amount of membrane-bound intact PAR4 decreases after MASP-1 treatment. All of these results provide a novel link between the regulation of endothelial cell function and complement system activation, and they suggest that MASP-1-induced PAR4 activation could contribute to the development of the inflammatory reaction. PMID:19667088

Megyeri, Márton; Makó, Veronika; Beinrohr, László; Doleschall, Zoltán; Prohászka, Zoltán; Cervenak, László; Závodszky, Péter; Gál, Péter



Nucleocytoplasmic lectins.  


This review summarizes studies on lectins that have been documented to be in the cytoplasm and nucleus of cells. Of these intracellular lectins, the most extensively studied are members of the galectin family. Galectin-1 and galectin-3 have been identified as pre-mRNA splicing factors in the nucleus, in conjunction with their interacting ligand, Gemin4. Galectin-3, -7, and -12 regulate growth, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. Bcl-2 and synexin have been identified as interacting ligands of galectin-3, involved in its anti-apoptotic activity in the cytoplasm. Although the annexins have been studied mostly as calcium-dependent phospholipid-binding proteins mediating membrane-membrane and membrane-cytoskeleton interactions, annexins A4, A5 and A6 also bind to carbohydrate structures. Like the galectins, certain members of the annexin family can be found both inside and outside cells. In particular, annexins A1, A2, A4, A5, and A11 can be found in the nucleus. This localization is consistent with the findings that annexin A1 possesses unwinding and annealing activities of a helicase and that annexin A2 is associated with a primer recognition complex that enhances the activity of DNA polymerase alpha. Despite these efforts and accomplishments, however, there is little evidence or information on an endogenous carbohydrate ligand for these lectins that show nuclear and/or cytoplasmic localization. Thus, the significance of the carbohydrate-binding activity of any particular intracellular lectin remains as a challenge for future investigations. PMID:15238251

Wang, John L; Gray, Richard M; Haudek, Kevin C; Patterson, Ronald J



Mannan-Specific Immunoglobulin G Antibodies in Normal Human Serum Accelerate Binding of C3 to Candida albicans via the Alternative Complement Pathway  

PubMed Central

Candida albicans activates the classical and alternative complement pathways, leading to deposition of opsonic complement fragments on the cell surface. Our previous studies found that antimannan immunoglobulin G (IgG) in normal human serum (NHS) allows C. albicans to initiate the classical pathway. The purpose of this study was to determine whether antimannan IgG also plays a role in initiation of the alternative pathway. Pooled NHS was rendered free of classical pathway activity by chelation of serum Ca2+ with EGTA alone or in combination with immunoaffinity removal of antimannan antibodies. Kinetic analysis revealed a 6-min lag in detection of C3 binding to C. albicans incubated in EGTA-chelated NHS, compared to a 12-min lag in NHS that was both EGTA chelated and mannan absorbed. The 12-min lag was shortened to 6 min by addition of affinity-purified antimannan IgG. The accelerating effect of antimannan IgG on alternative pathway initiation was dose dependent and was reproduced in a complement binding reaction consisting of six purified proteins of the alternative pathway. Both Fab and F(ab?)2 fragments of antimannan IgG facilitated alternative pathway initiation in a manner similar to that observed with intact antibody. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that addition of antimannan IgG to EGTA-chelated and mannan-absorbed serum promoted an early deposition of C3 molecules on the yeast cells but had little or no effect on distribution of the cellular sites for C3 activation. Thus, antimannan IgG antibodies play an important regulatory role in interactions between the host complement system and C. albicans.

Zhang, Mason X.; Kozel, Thomas R.



Replication of genetic associations in the inflammation, complement and coagulation pathways with intraventricular hemorrhage in low birth weight preterm neonates  

PubMed Central

Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a significant morbidity seen in very low birth weight infants. Genes related to the inflammation, infection, complement or coagulation pathways have been implicated as risk factors for IVH. We examined ten candidate genes for associations with IVH in 271 preterm infants (64 with IVH grade I-IV and 207 without IVH) weighing less than 1,500 grams. The heterozygous genotype (odds ratio (OR)=8.1, confidence interval (CI)=2.5–26.0, p=4×10?4) and the A allele (OR=7.3, CI=2.4–22.5, p=1×10?4) of the coagulation factor V (FV) Leiden mutation (rs6025) were associated with an increased risk of developing IVH grade I or II but not grades III or IV after correction for multiple testing with Bonferroni. Lack of association in the severe grades of IVH may be a result of lack of power to detect an effect given the small sample size (n=8). However, this result is consistent with previous research that demonstrates that the heterozygous genotype of the FV mutation is associated with increased risk for the development of IVH but a decreased risk for the progression or extension to more severe grades of IVH.

Ryckman, Kelli K.; Dagle, John M.; Kelsey, Keegan; Momany, Allison M; Murray, Jeffrey C.



Activation and binding of opsonic fragments of C3 on encapsulated Cryptococcus neoformans by using an alternative complement pathway reconstituted from six isolated proteins.  

PubMed Central

Encapsulated Cryptococcus neoformans yeast cells are potent activators of the complement system. We examined the interaction of the yeast cells with an alternative complement pathway reconstituted from isolated factor D, factor B, factor H, factor I, C3, and properdin. Incubation of encapsulated cryptococci with the reconstituted pathway led to activation and binding of C3 fragments to the yeast cells that was quantitatively and qualitatively identical to that observed with normal human serum. Incubation with either normal serum or a mixture of isolated proteins led to binding of 4 x 10(7) to 5 x 10(7) C3 molecules to the yeast cells. The kinetics for activation and binding of C3 were identical, with maximum binding observed after a 20-min incubation. Immunoglobulin G was not needed for optimal activation kinetics. C3 fragments eluted from the yeast cells by treatment with hydroxylamine and subsequent analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated the presence primarily of iC3b on yeast cells incubated with either normal serum or the reconstituted pathway. Ultrastructural examination of the opsonized yeast cells showed that the cryptococcal capsule was the site for binding of C3 activated from normal serum or the reconstituted pathway, with a dense accumulation of C3 at the periphery of the capsule. Thus, incubation of encapsulated cryptococci in the reconstituted pathway led to deposition of opsonic complement fragments at a site that was appropriate for interaction with phagocyte receptors. Cryptococci opsonized with the reconstituted pathway showed a markedly enhanced interaction with cultured human monocytes compared with unopsonized yeast cells, indicating that the alternative pathway alone is opsonic for yeast cells. However, the results indicate that additional serum factors are needed for optimal opsonization of yeast cells because a 35% reduction in the number of cryptococci bound to macrophages was observed with cryptococci opsonized with the reconstituted pathway compared with that observed when yeast cells were opsonized with normal serum. Images

Kozel, T R; Wilson, M A; Pfrommer, G S; Schlageter, A M



Micrurus snake venoms activate human complement system and generate anaphylatoxins  

PubMed Central

Background The genus Micrurus, coral snakes (Serpentes, Elapidae), comprises more than 120 species and subspecies distributed from the south United States to the south of South America. Micrurus snake bites can cause death by muscle paralysis and further respiratory arrest within a few hours after envenomation. Clinical observations show mainly neurotoxic symptoms, although other biological activities have also been experimentally observed, including cardiotoxicity, hemolysis, edema and myotoxicity. Results In the present study we have investigated the action of venoms from seven species of snakes from the genus Micrurus on the complement system in in vitro studies. Several of the Micrurus species could consume the classical and/or the lectin pathways, but not the alternative pathway, and C3a, C4a and C5a were generated in sera treated with the venoms as result of this complement activation. Micrurus venoms were also able to directly cleave the ? chain of the component C3, but not of the C4, which was inhibited by 1,10 Phenanthroline, suggesting the presence of a C3? chain specific metalloprotease in Micrurus spp venoms. Furthermore, complement activation was in part associated with the cleavage of C1-Inhibitor by protease(s) present in the venoms, which disrupts complement activation control. Conclusion Micrurus venoms can activate the complement system, generating a significant amount of anaphylatoxins, which may assist due to their vasodilatory effects, to enhance the spreading of other venom components during the envenomation process.



Borrelia valaisiana Resist Complement-Mediated Killing Independently of the Recruitment of Immune Regulators and Inactivation of Complement Components  

PubMed Central

Spirochetes belonging to the Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi sensu lato complex differ in their resistance to complement-mediated killing, particularly in regard to human serum. In the present study, we elucidate the serum and complement susceptibility of B. valaisiana, a genospecies with the potential to cause Lyme disease in Europe as well as in Asia. Among the investigated isolates, growth of ZWU3 Ny3 was not affected while growth of VS116 and Bv9 was strongly inhibited in the presence of 50% human serum. Analyzing complement activation, complement components C3, C4 and C6 were deposited on the surface of isolates VS116 and Bv9, and similarly the membrane attack complex was formed on their surface. In contrast, no surface-deposited components and no aberrations in cell morphology were detected for serum-resistant ZWU3 Ny3. While further investigating the protective role of bound complement regulators in mediating complement resistance, we discovered that none of the B. valaisiana isolates analyzed bound complement regulators Factor H, Factor H-like protein 1, C4b binding protein or C1 esterase inhibitor. In addition, B. valaisiana also lacked intrinsic proteolytic activity to degrade complement components C3, C3b, C4, C4b, and C5. Taken together, these findings suggest that certain B. valaisiana isolates differ in their capability to resist complement-mediating killing by human serum. The molecular mechanism utilized by B. valaisiana to inhibit bacteriolysis appears not to involve binding of the key host complement regulators of the alternative, classical, and lectin pathways as already known for serum-resistant Lyme disease or relapsing fever borreliae.

Schwab, Jasmin; Hammerschmidt, Claudia; Richter, Dania; Skerka, Christine; Matuschka, Franz-Rainer; Wallich, Reinhard; Zipfel, Peter F.; Kraiczy, Peter



Ataxia-Telangiectasia Group D Complementing Gene (ATDC) Promotes Lung Cancer Cell Proliferation by Activating NF-?B Pathway  

PubMed Central

Previous studies suggested Ataxia-telangiectasia group D complementing gene (ATDC) as an oncogene in many types of cancer. However, its expression and biological functions in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain unclear. Herein, we investigated its expression pattern in 109 cases of human NSCLC samples by immunohistochemistry and found that ATDC was overexpressed in 62 of 109 NSCLC samples (56.88%). ATDC overexpression correlated with histological type (p<0.0001), tumor status (p?=?0.0227) and histological differentiation (p?=?0.0002). Next, we overexpressed ATDC in normal human bronchial epithelial cell line HBE and depleted its expression in NSCLC cell lines A549 and H1299. MTT and colony formation assay showed that ATDC overexpression promoted cell proliferation while its depletion inhibited cell growth. Furthermore, cell cycle analysis showed that ATDC overexpression decreased the percentage of cells in G1 phase and increased the percentage of cells in S phase, while ATDC siRNA treatment increased the G1 phase percentage and decreased the S phase percentage. Further study revealed that ATDC overexpression could up-regulate cyclin D1 and c-Myc expression in HBE cells while its depletion down-regulated cyclin D1 and c-Myc expression in A549 and H1299 cells. In addition, ATDC overexpression was also associated with an increased proliferation index, cyclin D1 and c-Myc expression in human NSCLC samples. Further experiments demonstrated that ATDC up-regulated cyclin D1 and c-Myc expression independent of wnt/?-catenin or p53 signaling pathway. Interestingly, ATDC overexpression increased NF-?B reporter luciferase activity and p-I?B protein level. Correspondingly, NF-?B inhibitor blocked the effect of ATDC on up-regulation of cyclin D1 and c-Myc. In conclusion, we demonstrated that ATDC could promote lung cancer proliferation through NF-?B induced up-regulation of cyclin D1 and c-Myc.

Tang, Zhong-Ping; Dong, Qian-Ze; Cui, Quan-Zhe; Papavassiliou, Paulie; Wang, En-Di; Wang, En-Hua




PubMed Central

The complement system is involved in mediation of joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis, with evidence suggesting activation of both the classical and alternative pathways (AP). The AP is both necessary and sufficient to mediate collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA), an experimental animal model of immune complex (IC)-induced joint disease. The AP in mice is dependent on MASP-1/3 cleavage of pro-factor D (pro-FD) into mature FD. The objectives of the present study were to determine the cells synthesizing MASP-1/3 and pro-FD in synovial tissue. CAIA was studied in wild-type C57BL/6 mice, and the localization of mRNA and protein for FD and MASP-1/3 in synovial adipose tissue (SAT) and fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) was determined using various techniques, including laser capture micro-dissection (LCM). SAT was the sole source of mRNA for pro-FD. Cultured differentiated 3T3 adipocytes, a surrogate for SAT, produced pro-FD but no mature FD. FLS were the main source of MASP-1/3 mRNA and protein. Using cartilage micro-particles (CMP) coated with anti-collagen mAb and serum from MASP-1/3?/? mice as a source of factor B, pro-FD in 3T3 supernatants was cleaved into mature FD by MASP-1/3 in FLS supernatants. The mature FD was eluted from the CMP, and was not present in the supernatants from the incubation with CMP, indicating that cleavage of pro-FD into mature FD by MASP-1 occurred on the CMP. These results demonstrate that pathogenic activation of the AP may occur in the joint through IC adherent to cartilage and the local production of necessary AP proteins by adipocytes and FLS.

Arend, William P.; Mehta, Gaurav; Antonioli, Alexandra H.; Takahashi, Minoru; Takahashi, Kazue; Stahl, Gregory L.; Holers, V. Michael; Banda, Nirmal K.



Regulation of the activity of platelet-bound C3 convertase of the alternative pathway of complement by platelet factor H.  

PubMed Central

The alternative pathway of complement is regulated on the surface of homologous blood cells at the C3 amplification step by the membrane protein decay-accelerating factor, as well as by the plasma protein factor H. We have reported elsewhere that platelets from patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria regulate the activity of the C3 convertase C3bBb, even though they lack decay-accelerating factor. We now report that normal human platelets contain factor H, which was released from the platelet in response to complement deposition or thrombin stimulation. Factor H was localized to the platelet alpha granules by immunocytochemical techniques. As determined by a solid-phase radioimmunoassay, thrombin-stimulated platelets released approximately equal to 54 ng of factor H per 10(8) platelets. The release of factor H in response to complement or thrombin was inhibited by treating the platelets with metabolic inhibitors. Such inhibition resulted in a 3-fold increase in the activity of C3bBb. Platelets that released factor H bound only half as many molecules of radiolabeled factor B to platelet-bound C3b than platelets that could not release factor H. Treatment of platelets with anti-decay-accelerating factor antibody had no effect on the activity of C3bBb unless the release of factor H was blocked. Therefore, so far as we know, human platelets have a unique mechanism for the regulation of the alternative pathway of complement. Images

Devine, D V; Rosse, W F



Complement and Periodontitis  

PubMed Central

Although the complement system is centrally involved in host defense, its overactivation or deregulation (e.g., due to inherent host genetic defects or due to pathogen subversion) may excessively amplify inflammation and contribute to immunopathology. Periodontitis is an oral infection-driven chronic inflammatory disease which exerts a systemic impact on health. This paper reviews evidence linking complement to periodontal inflammation and pathogenesis. Clinical and histological observations show a correlation between periodontal inflammatory activity and local complement activation. Certain genetic polymorphisms or deficiencies in specific complement components appear to predispose to increased susceptibility to periodontitis. Animal model studies and in vitro experiments indicate that periodontal bacteria can either inhibit or activate distinct components of the complement cascade. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone species in periodontitis, subverts complement receptor 3 and C5a anaphylatoxin receptor signaling in ways that promote its adaptive fitness in the presence of non-productive inflammation. Overall, available evidence suggests that complement activation or subversion contributes to periodontal pathogenesis, although not all complement pathways or functions are necessarily destructive. Effective complement-targeted therapeutic intervention in periodontitis would require determining the precise roles of the various inductive or effector complement pathways. This information is essential as it may reveal which specific pathways need to be blocked to counteract microbial evasion and inflammatory pathology or, conversely, be enhanced to promote host immunity.

Hajishengallis, George



Complement system in zebrafish.  


Zebrafish is recently emerging as a model species for the study of immunology and human diseases. Complement system is the humoral backbone of the innate immune defense, and our knowledge as such in zebrafish has dramatically increased in the recent years. This review summarizes the current research progress of zebrafish complement system. The global searching for complement components in genome database, together with published data, has unveiled the existence of all the orthologues of mammalian complement components identified thus far, including the complement regulatory proteins and complement receptors, in zebrafish. Interestingly, zebrafish complement components also display some distinctive features, such as prominent levels of extrahepatic expression and isotypic diversity of the complement components. Future studies should focus on the following issues that would be of special importance for understanding the physiological role of complement components in zebrafish: conclusive identification of complement genes, especially those with isotypic diversity; analysis and elucidation of function and mechanism of complement components; modulation of innate and adaptive immune response by complement system; and unconventional roles of complement-triggered pathways. PMID:24462834

Zhang, Shicui; Cui, Pengfei



Oxidative Stress and the Regulation of Complement Activation in Human Glaucoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose. As part of ongoing studies on proteomic alterations during glaucomatous neurodegeneration, this study focused on the complement system. Methods. Human retinal protein samples obtained from donor eyes with (n = 10) or without (n = 10) glaucoma were analyzed by a quantitative proteomic approach using mass spectrometry. Cellular localization of protein expression for different complement components and regulators were also determined by immunohistochemical analysis of an additional group of human donor eyes with glaucoma (n = 34) compared with age-matched control eyes without glaucoma (n = 20). In addition, to determine the regulation of complement factor H (CFH) by oxidative stress, in vitro experiments were performed using rat retinal cell cultures incubated in the presence and absence of an oxidant treatment. Results. Proteomic analysis detected the expression and differential regulation of several complement components in glaucomatous samples, which included proteins involved in the classical and the lectin pathways of complement activation. In addition, several complement regulatory proteins were detected in the human retinal proteome, and glaucomatous samples exhibited a trend toward downregulation of CFH expression. In vitro experiments revealed that oxidative stress, which was also prominently detectable in the glaucomatous human retinas, downregulated CFH expression in retinal cells. Conclusions. These findings expand the current knowledge of complement activation by presenting new evidence in human glaucoma and support that despite important roles in tissue cleaning and healing, a potential deficiency in intrinsic regulation of complement activation, as is evident in the presence of oxidative stress, may lead to uncontrolled complement attack with neurodestructive consequences.

Yang, Xiangjun; Luo, Cheng; Kain, Angela D.; Powell, David W.; Kuehn, Markus H.; Kaplan, Henry J.



Involvement of mannose-binding lectin in the pathogenesis of Kawasaki disease-like murine vasculitis.  


Kawasaki disease (KD) is a paediatric idiopathic vasculitis. In this study, on the basis of studies using an established animal model for KD, we report that mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. KD-like experimental murine vasculitis was induced by intraperitoneally administering a Candida albicans water-soluble extract (CAWS). MBL-A gradually increased in the serum of the model mice treated with CAWS. Deposition of MBL-A and MBL-C was observed in the aortic root, including the coronary arteries, which is a predilection site in experimental vasculitis. Corresponding to the distribution patterns of MBLs, marked deposition of C3/C3-derived peptides was also observed. Regarding the self-reactivity of MBLs, we observed that MBLs interacted with core histones to activate the lectin pathway. These results suggest that some types of pathogens provoke the MBL-dependent complement pathway (lectin pathway) to cause and/or exacerbate KD-like vasculitis. PMID:24721319

Nakamura, Akihiro; Okigaki, Mitsuhiko; Miura, Noriko; Suzuki, Chinatsu; Ohno, Naohito; Kametani, Fuyuki; Hamaoka, Kenji



Mannose Binding Lectin Is Required for Alphavirus-Induced Arthritis/Myositis  

PubMed Central

Mosquito-borne alphaviruses such as chikungunya virus and Ross River virus (RRV) are emerging pathogens capable of causing large-scale epidemics of virus-induced arthritis and myositis. The pathology of RRV-induced disease in both humans and mice is associated with induction of the host inflammatory response within the muscle and joints, and prior studies have demonstrated that the host complement system contributes to development of disease. In this study, we have used a mouse model of RRV-induced disease to identify and characterize which complement activation pathways mediate disease progression after infection, and we have identified the mannose binding lectin (MBL) pathway, but not the classical or alternative complement activation pathways, as essential for development of RRV-induced disease. MBL deposition was enhanced in RRV infected muscle tissue from wild type mice and RRV infected MBL deficient mice exhibited reduced disease, tissue damage, and complement deposition compared to wild-type mice. In contrast, mice deficient for key components of the classical or alternative complement activation pathways still developed severe RRV-induced disease. Further characterization of MBL deficient mice demonstrated that similar to C3?/? mice, viral replication and inflammatory cell recruitment were equivalent to wild type animals, suggesting that RRV-mediated induction of complement dependent immune pathology is largely MBL dependent. Consistent with these findings, human patients diagnosed with RRV disease had elevated serum MBL levels compared to healthy controls, and MBL levels in the serum and synovial fluid correlated with severity of disease. These findings demonstrate a role for MBL in promoting RRV-induced disease in both mice and humans and suggest that the MBL pathway of complement activation may be an effective target for therapeutic intervention for humans suffering from RRV-induced arthritis and myositis.

Whitmore, Alan C.; Blevins, Lance K.; Hueston, Linda; Fraser, Robert J.; Herrero, Lara J.; Ramirez, Ruben; Smith, Paul N.; Mahalingam, Suresh; Heise, Mark T.



The CD94/NKG2C killer lectin-like receptor constitutes an alternative activation pathway for a subset of CD8+ T cells.  


The CD94/NKG2C killer lectin-like receptor (KLR) specific for HLA-E is coupled to the KARAP/DAP12 adapter in a subset of NK cells, triggering their effector functions. We have studied the distribution and function of this KLR in T lymphocytes. Like other NK cell receptors (NKR), CD94/NKG2C was predominantly expressed by a CD8(+) T cell subset, though TCRgammadelta(+) NKG2C(+) and rare CD4(+) NKG2C(+) cells were also detected in some individuals. Coculture with the 721.221 HLA class I-deficient lymphoma cell line transfected with HLA-E (.221-AEH) induced IL-2Ralpha expression in CD94/NKG2C+ NK cells and a minor subset of CD94/NKG2C(+) T cells, promoting their proliferation; moreover, a similar response was triggered upon selective engagement of CD94/NKG2C with a specific mAb. CD8(+) TCRalphabeta CD94/NKG2C(+) T cell clones, that displayed different combinations of KIR and CD85j receptors, expressed KARAP/DAP12 which was co-precipitated by an anti-CD94 mAb. Specific engagement of the KLR triggered cytotoxicity and cytokine production in CD94/NKG2C(+) T cell clones, inducing as well IL-2Ralpha expression and a proliferative response. Altogether these results support that CD94/NKG2C may constitute an alternative T cell activation pathway capable of driving the expansion and triggering the effector functions of a CTL subset. PMID:15940674

Gumá, Mónica; Busch, Lisa K; Salazar-Fontana, Laura I; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Morte, Carles; García, Pilar; López-Botet, Miguel



gp 58/68, a parasite component that contributes to the escape of the trypomastigote form of T. cruzi from damage by the human alternative complement pathway.  

PubMed Central

A glycoprotein of apparent molecular weight 58,000 (unreduced)/68,000 (in its reduced form) (gp 58/68), which is one of the fibronectin/collagen receptors of Trypanosoma cruzi, was purified to homogeneity from the trypomastigote forms of the Tehuantepec and Y strains of the parasite. Purified gp 58/68 inhibited formation of cell-bound and fluid-phase alternative pathway C3 convertase in a dose-dependent fashion, as assessed using purified human complement components. Gp 58/68 differed from the human regulatory proteins H, DAF, MCP and CR1 and from previously reported regulatory proteins on the parasite membrane in that it was unable to enhance decay-dissociation of preformed alternative pathway C3 convertase sites, did not serve as a co-factor for I-mediated cleavage of C3b and had no inhibitory activity on the classical pathway convertases. The inhibitory effect of gp 58/68 was most likely dependent on an interaction of the protein with factor B rather than with C3b. Gp 58/68 provides trypomastigotes with an additional potential mechanism for escaping complement lysis by the human alternative pathway. Images Figure 1

Fischer, E; Ouaissi, M A; Velge, P; Cornette, J; Kazatchkine, M D



Complement and Viral Pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

The complement system functions as an immune surveillance system that rapidly responds to infection. Activation of the complement system by specific recognition pathways triggers a protease cascade, generating cleavage products that function to eliminate pathogens, regulate inflammatory responses, and shape adaptive immune responses. However, when dysregulated, these powerful functions can become destructive and the complement system has been implicated as a pathogenic effector in numerous diseases, including infectious diseases. This review highlights recent discoveries that have identified critical roles for the complement system in the pathogenesis of viral infection.

Stoermer, Kristina A.; Morrison, Thomas E.



Heparan Sulfate, Including that in Bruch's Membrane, Inhibits the Complement Alternative Pathway: Implications for Age-related Macular Degeneration  

PubMed Central

An imbalance between activation and inhibition of the complement system has been implicated in the etiologies of numerous common diseases. Allotypic variants of a key complement fluid phase regulatory protein, complement factor H (CFH), are strongly associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of worldwide visual dysfunction, although its specific role in AMD pathogenesis is still not clear. CFH was isolated from individuals carrying combinations of two of the non-synonymous coding variants most strongly associated with AMD risk, V62/H402 (risk haplotype variants), I62/Y402 (non-risk haplotype variants), and V62/Y402. These proteins were used in two functional assays (cell surface- and fluid phase-based) measuring cofactor activity of CFH in the factor I-mediated cleavage of C3b. Though no variant-specific differences in the cofactor activity were detected, when heparan sulfate (HS) was added to these assays it accelerated the rate of C3b cleavage and this effect could be modulated by degree of HS sulfation. Bruch’s membrane/choroid, a site of tissue damage in AMD, contains high concentrations of glycosaminoglycans, including HS. Addition of human Bruch’s membrane/choroid to the fluid phase assay accelerated the C3b cleavage and this effect was lost after treatment of the tissue with heparinase III. Binding of CFH variants to Bruch’s membrane/choroid isolated from elderly, non-AMD donor eyes, was similar, as was the functional activity of bound CFH. These findings refine our understanding of interactions of HS and complement and support the hypothesis that these interactions play a role in the transition between normal aging and AMD in Bruch’s membrane/choroid.

Kelly, Una; Yu, Ling; Kumar, Pallavi; Ding, Jin-Dong; Jiang, Haixiang; Hageman, Gregory S.; Arshavsky, Vadim Y.; Frank, Michael M.; Hauser, Michael A.; Rickman, Catherine Bowes



Heavy Chains of Inter Alpha Inhibitor (I?I) Inhibit the Human Complement System at Early Stages of the Cascade*  

PubMed Central

Inter alpha inhibitor (I?I) is an abundant serum protein consisting of three polypeptides: two heavy chains (HC1 and HC2) and bikunin, a broad-specificity Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor. The complex is covalently held together by chondroitin sulfate but during inflammation I?I may interact with TNF-stimulated gene 6 protein (TSG-6), which supports transesterification of heavy chains to hyaluronan. Recently, I?I was shown to inhibit mouse complement in vivo and to protect from complement-mediated lung injury but the mechanism of such activity was not elucidated. Using human serum depleted from I?I, we found that I?I is not an essential human complement inhibitor as was reported for mice and that such serum has unaltered hemolytic activity. However, purified human I?I inhibited classical, lectin and alternative complement pathways in vitro when added in excess to human serum. The inhibitory activity was dependent on heavy chains but not bikunin and detected at the level of initiating molecules (MBL, properdin) in the lectin/alternative pathways or C4b in the classical pathway. Furthermore, I?I affected formation and assembly of the C1 complex and prevented assembly of the classical pathway C3-convertase. Presence and putative interactions with TSG-6 did not affect the ability of I?I to inhibit complement thus implicating I?I as a potentially important complement inhibitor once enriched onto hyaluronan moieties in the course of local inflammatory processes. In support of this, we found a correlation between I?I/HC-containing proteins and hemolytic activity of synovial fluid from patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis.

Okroj, Marcin; Holmquist, Emelie; Sjolander, Jonatan; Corrales, Leticia; Saxne, Tore; Wisniewski, Hans-Georg; Blom, Anna M.



Assembly and Activation of Alternative Complement Components on Endothelial Cell-Anchored Ultra-Large Von Willebrand Factor Links Complement and Hemostasis-Thrombosis  

PubMed Central

Background Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) express and release protein components of the complement pathways, as well as secreting and anchoring ultra-large von Willebrand factor (ULVWF) multimers in long string-like structures that initiate platelet adhesion during hemostasis and thrombosis. The alternative complement pathway (AP) is an important non-antibody-requiring host defense system. Thrombotic microangiopathies can be associated with defective regulation of the AP (atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome) or with inadequate cleavage by ADAMTS-13 of ULVWF multimeric strings secreted by/anchored to ECs (thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura). Our goal was to determine if EC-anchored ULVWF strings caused the assembly and activation of AP components, thereby linking two essential defense mechanisms. Methodology/Principal Findings We quantified gene expression of these complement components in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by real-time PCR: C3 and C5; complement factor (CF) B, CFD, CFP, CFH and CFI of the AP; and C4 of the classical and lectin (but not alternative) complement pathways. We used fluorescent microscopy, monospecific antibodies against complement components, fluorescent secondary antibodies, and the analysis of >150 images to quantify the attachment of HUVEC-released complement proteins to ULVWF strings secreted by, and anchored to, the HUVECs (under conditions of ADAMTS-13 inhibition). We found that HUVEC-released C4 did not attach to ULVWF strings, ruling out activation of the classical and lectin pathways by the strings. In contrast, C3, FB, FD, FP and C5, FH and FI attached to ULVWF strings in quantitative patterns consistent with assembly of the AP components into active complexes. This was verified when non-functional FB blocked the formation of AP C3 convertase complexes (C3bBb) on ULVWF strings. Conclusions/Significance AP components are assembled and activated on EC-secreted/anchored ULVWF multimeric strings. Our findings provide one possible molecular mechanism for clinical linkage between different types of thrombotic and complement-mediated disorders.

Turner, Nancy A.; Moake, Joel



Complement consumption gonococcal peptidoglycan.  

PubMed Central

Purified peptidoglycan (PG) obtained from Neisseria gonorrhoeae was tested for the ability to consume complement in normal human sera. Sonicated PG (S-PG), a heterogeneous mixture of soluble fragments (molecular weight, greater than 10(6)), as well as intact (insoluble) PG, reduced the level of whole hemolytic complement in a pool of four human sera. The minimal concentration of S-PG required for this activity was approximately 500 micrograms of S-PG per ml of serum. Complete lysozyme digestion of S-PG, yielding PG fragments of less than 10(4) molecular weight, eliminated complement-consuming activity. S-PG-mediated complement consumption resulted in depletion of the individual complement components C4 and C3. Consumption of complement did not occur when C4-deficient human serum or normal human sera treated with Mg2+-(ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N-tetraacetic acid to specifically impair classical complement pathway activity were used. The addition of rabbit anti-PG antibody greatly enhanced gonococcal PG-mediated complement consumption. Together, the data suggested that gonococcal PG-mediated complement consumption occurred via the classical complement pathway, was dependent on the presence of anti-PG antibody, and required glycosidically linked polymers of PG. Individual human sera varied widely in the extent of gonococcal PG-mediated reduction of complement levels, presumably a reflection of either different amounts of natural antibody to gonococcal PG, different levels of human PG hydrolase(s) capable of degrading PG to inactive fragments, or both.

Petersen, B H; Rosenthal, R S



Development and application of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantitation of alternative complement pathway activation in human serum.  

PubMed Central

We have developed a new, specific, and highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) which quantitates activation of the alternative pathway in human serum, plasma, or on the surface of activators. The ELISA detects the third component of complement (C3b), proteolytic fragment of complement Factor B (Bb), and properdin (P) complex or its derivative product, C3b,P. In the method, activator-plasma mixtures, plasma containing an activated alternative pathway, or other samples are added to the wells of microtitration plates precoated with antibody to P. C3b, Bb,P or C3b,P complexes which become bound are quantitated by subsequently added, enzyme-labeled, anti-C3. The resulting hydrolysis of the chromogenic substrate is expressed as nanograms of C3b by reference to a C3 standard curve. In addition to absolute specificity for activation of the pathway because of the nature of the complex detected by the assay, the ELISA is highly sensitive and able to reproducibly detect 10-20 ng/ml of C3b,P complexes in serum. This value corresponds to 0.0015% of the C3 in serum. In a series of studies to validate the parameters of the ELISA, reactivity was found to be dependent on the presence of alternative pathway proteins, the functional integrity of the pathway, and on the presence of magnesium. Sheep erythrocytes were converted to activators by treatment with neuraminidase. By using a variety of activators, the kinetics of activation and the numbers of bound C3b molecules quantitated by the ELISA were very similar to those measured by C3b deposition. The ELISA also detected identical activation kinetics when MgEGTA-serum and a mixture of the purified alternative pathway proteins were used as sources of the pathway. ELISA reaction kinetics also correlated with the restriction index, a measure of alternative pathway-activating ability. These studies cumulatively validate the ELISA as a direct and quantitative assay for alternative pathway activation. The sensitivity of the ELISA has permitted its use to detect direct alternative pathway activation by several viruses. The ELISA has also shown that certain classical pathway activators trigger the amplification loop of the alternative pathway while others do not. In addition, stable ELISA reactive complexes appeared in the supernatant of mixtures of serum with certain, but not other activators. The ability of the ELISA to detect activation which has already occurred and the stability of the reactive complexes permits studies of clinical sera. Normal human sera (20) contained low levels (5-20 ng/ml) of ELISA-reactive complexes. A proportion of sera from individuals with the adult respiratory distress syndrome (9-10), typhoid fever (8-10), malaria (3-5), gram-negative sepsis (9 of 47), acute trauma and shock (6 f 25), and systemic lupus erythematosus (3 of 29) showed elevated levels of complexes reactive in the alternative pathway ELISA. In contrast, nine sera from patients with circulating C3 nephritic factor were not reactive in the ELISA.

Mayes, J T; Schreiber, R D; Cooper, N R



Factor H-related Protein 4 Activates Complement by Serving as a Platform for the Assembly of Alternative Pathway C3 Convertase via Its Interaction with C3b Protein  

PubMed Central

Human complement factor H-related protein (CFHR) 4 belongs to the factor H family of plasma glycoproteins that are composed of short consensus repeat (SCR) domains. Although factor H is a well known inhibitor of the alternative complement pathway, the functions of the CFHR proteins are poorly understood. CFHR4 lacks SCRs homologous to the complement inhibitory domains of factor H and, accordingly, has no significant complement regulatory activities. We have previously shown that CFHR4 binds C-reactive protein via its most N-terminal SCR, which leads to classical complement pathway activation. CFHR4 binds C3b via its C terminus, but the significance of this interaction is unclear. Therefore, we set out to clarify the functional relevance of C3b binding by CFHR4. Here, we report a novel role for CFHR4 in the complement system. CFHR4 serves as a platform for the assembly of an alternative pathway C3 convertase by binding C3b. This is based on the sustained ability of CFHR4-bound C3b to bind factor B and properdin, leading to an active convertase that generates C3a and C3b from C3. The CFHR4-C3bBb convertase is less sensitive to the factor H-mediated decay compared with the C3bBb convertase. CFHR4 mutants containing exchanges of conserved residues within the C-terminal C3b-binding site showed significantly reduced C3b binding and alternative pathway complement activation. In conclusion, our results suggest that, in contrast to the complement inhibitor factor H, CFHR4 acts as an enhancer of opsonization by promoting complement activation.

Hebecker, Mario; Jozsi, Mihaly



Modulation of glycan detection on specific glycoproteins by lectin multimerization  

PubMed Central

Improved methods for studying glycans could spur significant advances in the understanding and application of glycobiology. The use of affinity reagents such as lectins and glycan-binding antibodies is a valuable complement to methods involving mass spectrometry and chromatography. Many lectins, however, are not useful as analytic tools due to low affinity in vitro. As an approach to increasing lectin avidity to targeted glycans, we tested the use of lectin multimerization. Several biotinylated lectins were linked together through streptavidin interactions. The binding of certain lectins for purified glycoproteins and glycoproteins captured directly out of biological solutions was increased using multimerization, resulting in the detection of lower concentrations of glycoprotein than possible using monomeric detection. The analysis of glycoproteins in plasma samples showed that the level of binding enhancement through multimerization was not equivalent across patient samples. Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) reactive glycans on fibronectin and thrombospondin-5 were preferentially bound by multimers in pancreatic cancer patient samples relative to control samples, suggesting a cancer-associated change in glycan density that could be detected only through lectin multimerization. This strategy could lead to the more sensitive and informative detection of glycans in biological samples and a broader spectrum of lectins that are useful as analytical reagents.

Cao, Zheng; Partyka, Katie; McDonald, Mitchell; Brouhard, Elizabeth; Hincapie, Marina; Brand, Randall E.; Hancock, William S.; Haab, Brian B.



Modulation of glycan detection on specific glycoproteins by lectin multimerization.  


Improved methods for studying glycans could spur significant advances in the understanding and application of glycobiology. The use of affinity reagents such as lectins and glycan-binding antibodies is a valuable complement to methods involving mass spectrometry and chromatography. Many lectins, however, are not useful as analytic tools due to low affinity in vitro. As an approach to increasing lectin avidity to targeted glycans, we tested the use of lectin multimerization. Several biotinylated lectins were linked together through streptavidin interactions. The binding of certain lectins for purified glycoproteins and glycoproteins captured directly out of biological solutions was increased using multimerization, resulting in the detection of lower concentrations of glycoprotein than possible using monomeric detection. The analysis of glycoproteins in plasma samples showed that the level of binding enhancement through multimerization was not equivalent across patient samples. Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) reactive glycans on fibronectin and thrombospondin-5 were preferentially bound by multimers in pancreatic cancer patient samples relative to control samples, suggesting a cancer-associated change in glycan density that could be detected only through lectin multimerization. This strategy could lead to the more sensitive and informative detection of glycans in biological samples and a broader spectrum of lectins that are useful as analytical reagents. PMID:23286506

Cao, Zheng; Partyka, Katie; McDonald, Mitchell; Brouhard, Elizabeth; Hincapie, Marina; Brand, Randall E; Hancock, William S; Haab, Brian B



Expression of H-ficolin/Hakata antigen, mannose-binding lectin-associated serine protease (MASP)-1 and MASP-3 by human glioma cell line T98G.  


Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a C-type lectin involved in the first line of host defense and it requires MBL-associated serine proteases (MASP) for activation of the lectin complement pathway (LCP). Recently we reported that human ficolins, L-ficolin/P35 and H-ficolin/Hakata antigen, as well as MBL activate the LCP in association with MASP. We investigated in vitro expression of complements of the lectin complement pathway in several cell lines. Out of 17 cell lines tested using RT-PCR, a human glioma cell line, T98G, expressed high levels of H-ficolin/Hakata antigen, MASP1 and MASP3 mRNAs. Similar results were obtained in four other glioma lines. In addition, mRNAs for C1r, C1s, C2, C3, C4, C5 and C6 were also detected in T98G cells, but very low amount of mRNAs for C1q and MBL. MBL mRNA was seen in two of the other glioma cell lines. An ELISA of culture supernatants showed that T98G cells secreted a considerable amount of MASP-1 and MASP-3 proteins. SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting analyses showed the secreted H-ficolin/Hakata antigen, MASP-1 and MASP-3 to be 34, 81 and 105 kDa in size respectively, similar to their serum counterparts. Since the glioma cells used are derived from astrocytes, this suggests that human astrocytes may be a source of some components of the LCP in the brain. PMID:12502731

Kuraya, Mikio; Matsushita, Misao; Endo, Yuichi; Thiel, Steffen; Fujita, Teizo



Juvenile elastic arteries after 28 years of renal replacement therapy in a patient with complete complement C4 deficiency  

PubMed Central

Background Complement activation products are present in atherosclerotic plaques. Recently, binding of complement to elastin and collagen in the aortic wall has been demonstrated, suggesting a role of complement in the development aortic stiffness and atherosclerosis. The definitive role of complement in atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis, however, remains unclear. Case presentation We here describe a patient with hereditary complete deficiency of complement C4 suffering from Henoch-Schoenlein purpura and on renal replacement therapy for twenty-eight years. The patient had the full range of risk factors for vascular damage such as hypertension, volume overload, hyperphosphatemia and hyperparathyroidism. Despite that, his carotid artery intima media thickness was below the normal range and his pulse wave velocity was normal. In contrast, the patient’s coronary and peripheral muscular arteries were heavily calcified. Conclusion This case supports the hypothesis that complement plays an important role in the development of stiffness of elastic arteries. We speculate that inability to activate complement by the classical or lectin pathways protected the patient from atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis, stiffening and calcification of the aorta and carotid arteries. Inhibition of complement activation may be a potential target for prophylactic and therapeutic interventions.



Enzyme treatment of Trypanosoma danilewskyi (Laveran and Mesnil) increases its susceptibility to lysis by the alternative complement pathway of goldfish, Carassius auratus (L.).  


This study examined whether in vitro-cultured Trypanosoma danilewskyi were susceptible to lysis in the presence or absence of anti-parasite antibodies and complement. Cultured trypanosomes were resistant to lysis by either immune or non-immune goldfish serum. However, trypanosomes treated with the proteolytic enzyme trypsin, which destroys surface proteins of the parasites, became susceptible to lysis when exposed to either immune or non-immune goldfish serum. The lysis by goldfish serum was dependent on the presence of heat-labile factors and occurred at 4 and 20 degrees C. The lysis was also dependent on the presence of Mg(2+) ions but not Ca(2+) ions. Furthermore, treatment of the parasites with different sialidases did not enhance their susceptibility to lysis by goldfish serum. Trypsinized parasites regained resistance to lysis after at least 6-h cultivation in the absence of trypsin and the restoration of full resistance was observed after 24-h cultivation. The resistance to lysis was abrogated when the protein synthesis inhibitor, puromycin, was added to the cultures. These results suggest that trypsinized trypanosomes were susceptible to lysis by goldfish complement (alternative pathway) and that protective surface proteins of the parasite were required for the resistance of normal trypanosomes to lysis. PMID:15139906

Plouffe, D A; Belosevic, M



Haemophilus influenzae interacts with the human complement inhibitor factor H.  


Pathogenic microbes acquire human complement inhibitors to circumvent the innate immune system. In this study, we identify two novel host-pathogen interactions, factor H (FH) and factor H-like protein 1 (FHL-1), the inhibitors of the alternative pathway that binds to Hib. A collection of clinical Haemophilus influenzae isolates was tested and the majority of encapsulated and unencapsulated bound FH. The isolate Hib 541 with a particularly high FH-binding was selected for detailed analysis. An increased survival in normal human serum was observed with Hib 541 as compared with the low FH-binding Hib 568. Interestingly, two binding domains were identified within FH; one binding site common to both FH and FHL-1 was located in the N-terminal short consensus repeat domains 6-7, whereas the other, specific for FH, was located in the C-terminal short consensus repeat domains 18-20. Importantly, both FH and FHL-1, when bound to the surface of Hib 541, retained cofactor activity as determined by analysis of C3b degradation. Two H. influenzae outer membrane proteins of approximately 32 and 40 kDa were detected with radiolabeled FH in Far Western blot. Taken together, in addition to interactions with the classical, lectin, and terminal pathways, H. influenzae interferes with the alternative complement activation pathway by binding FH and FHL-1, and thereby reducing the complement-mediated bactericidal activity resulting in an increased survival. In contrast to incubation with active complement, H. influenzae had a reduced survival in FH-depleted human serum, thus demonstrating that FH mediates a protective role at the bacterial surface. PMID:18566420

Hallström, Teresia; Zipfel, Peter F; Blom, Anna M; Lauer, Nadine; Forsgren, Arne; Riesbeck, Kristian



CSA-dependent degradation of CSB by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway establishes a link between complementation factors of the Cockayne syndrome  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the CSA or CSB complementation genes cause the Cockayne syndrome, a severe genetic disorder that results in patients’ death in early adulthood. CSA and CSB act in a transcription-coupled repair (TCR) pathway, but their functional relationship is not understood. We have previously shown that CSA is a subunit of an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. Here we demonstrate that CSB is a substrate of this ligase: Following UV irradiation, CSB is degraded at a late stage of the repair process in a proteasome- and CSA-dependent manner. Moreover, we demonstrate the importance of CSB degradation for post-TCR recovery of transcription and for the Cockayne syndrome. Our results unravel for the first time the functional relationship between CSA and CSB.

Groisman, Regina; Kuraoka, Isao; Chevallier, Odile; Gaye, Nogaye; Magnaldo, Thierry; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Kisselev, Alexei F.; Harel-Bellan, Annick; Nakatani, Yoshihiro



CD45-mediated signaling pathway is involved in Rhizoctonia bataticola lectin (RBL)-induced proliferation and Th1/Th2 cytokine secretion in human PBMC  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RBL, a potent mitogenic and complex N-glycan specific lectin binds to CD45 on PBMC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RBL triggers CD45-mediated signaling involved in activation of p38MAPK and STAT-5. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of CD45 PTPase signaling blocks RBL-induced ZAP70 phosphorylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RBL-CD45 mediated signaling is crucial for RBL-induced immunodulatory activities. -- Abstract: We earlier reported the mitogenic and immunostimulatory activities of Rhizoctonia bataticola lectin (RBL), purified from phytopathogenic fungus R. bataticola in human PBMC. The lectin demonstrates specificity towards glycoproteins containing complex N-glycans. Since CD45-protein tyrosine phosphatase that abundantly expresses N-glycans is important in T-cell signaling, the study aimed to investigate the involvement of CD45 in the immunomodulatory activities of RBL. Flowcytometry and confocal microscopy studies revealed that RBL exhibited binding to PBMC and colocalized with CD45. The binding was comparable in cells expressing different CD45 isoforms-RA, -RB and -RO. CD45 blocking antibody reduced the binding and proliferation of PBMC induced by RBL. CD45-PTPase inhibitor dephostatin inhibited RBL-induced proliferation, expression of CD25 and pZAP-70. RBL-induced secretion of Th1/Th2 cytokines were significantly inhibited in presence of dephostatin. Also, dephostatin blocked phosphorylation of p38MAPK and STAT-5 that was crucial for the biological functions of RBL. The study demonstrates the involvement of CD45-mediated signaling in RBL-induced PBMC proliferation and Th1/Th2 cytokine secretion through activation of p38MAPK and STAT-5.

Pujari, Radha [National Centre for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India)] [National Centre for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Eligar, Sachin M. [Department of Biochemistry, Karnatak University, Dharwad, 580003 Karnataka (India)] [Department of Biochemistry, Karnatak University, Dharwad, 580003 Karnataka (India); Kumar, Natesh [National Centre for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India)] [National Centre for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Nagre, Nagaraja N.; Inamdar, Shashikala R.; Swamy, Bale M. [Department of Biochemistry, Karnatak University, Dharwad, 580003 Karnataka (India)] [Department of Biochemistry, Karnatak University, Dharwad, 580003 Karnataka (India); Shastry, Padma, E-mail: [National Centre for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India)] [National Centre for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India)



Mechanisms of complement activation, C4d deposition, and their contribution to the pathogenesis of antibody mediated rejection  

PubMed Central

Complement split products have emerged as useful markers of antibody mediated rejection in solid organ transplants. One split product, C4d, is now widely accepted as a marker for antibody mediated rejection in renal and cardiac allografts. This review summarizes the rationale for the use of C4d as a marker of antibody mediated rejection, along with the clinical evidence supporting its use in the clinical diagnosis of antibody mediated rejection. Antibody-independent mechanisms by which C4d can be activated by the classical and lectin pathways of complement activation are also identified. Finally, mechanisms by which complement activation stimulates effector cells (neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, platelets, and B and T lymphocytes) as well as target cells (endothelial cells) are discussed in relation to antibody mediated allograft rejection.

Murata, Kazunori; Baldwin, William M



Complement-mediated injury and protection of endothelium: Lessons from atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome  

PubMed Central

The complement system provides a vital defence against invading pathogens. As an intrinsic system it is always ‘on’, in a state of constant, low level activation. This activation is principally mediated through the deposition of C3b on to pathogenic surfaces and host tissues. C3b is generated by spontaneous ‘tick over’ and formal activation of the alternative pathway, and by activation of the classical and lectin pathways. If the deposited C3b is not appropriately regulated, there is progression to terminal pathway complement activation via the C5 convertases, generating the potent anaphylotoxin C5a and the membrane attack complex C5b-9. Unsurprisingly, these highly active components have the potential to cause injury to bystander host tissue, including the vascular endothelium. As such, complement activation on endothelium is normally tightly controlled by a large number of fluid-phase and membrane bound inhibitors, in an attempt to ensure that propagation of complement activation is appropriately restricted to invading pathogens and altered ‘self’, e.g. apoptotic and necrotic cells. The kidney is increasingly recognised as a site at particular risk from complement-mediated endothelial injury. Both genetic and acquired defects which impact on complement regulation predispose to this susceptibility. The thrombotic microangiopathy, haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS), will be used to illustrate the mechanisms by which the endothelial cell injury occurs. Finally, the underlying rationale for current and future potential therapeutic interventions in HUS and also the opportunities for enhancing endothelial defence to prevent relapsing disease through increased complement cytoprotective strategies will be summarised.

Kerr, Heather; Richards, Anna



cDNA cloning of a mannose-binding lectin-associated serine protease (MASP) gene from hagfish (Eptatretus burgeri).  


Hagfish, agnathan cyclostome, is the most primitive extant vertebrate and its complement (C) system seems to be a primordial system in comparison with a well-developed C system in gnathostome vertebrates. From a phylogenic perspective of defense mechanisms, we have isolated complement C3 from the serum of hagfish (Eptatretus burgeri). In this study, we first attempted to identify a hagfish Bf or C2 as a C3 convertase by RT-PCR using degenerative primers designed on the basis of the conserved amino acid stretches among the several kinds of serine proteases. Contrary to our expectation, homology search of cloned RT-PCR product suggested that there was a partial cDNA encoding the homologue of neither Bf nor C2 but a mannose-binding lectin-associated serine protease (MASP). Analyses of a full-length cDNA clone isolated from a hagfish liver cDNA library by using the partial cDNA as a probe indicated that this cDNA encoded hagfish MASP 1. This evidence strongly suggests that the hagfish defends itself against pathogens at least by the complement system composed of lectin pathway. PMID:16141703

Song, Liqiu; Takamune, Kazufumi; Sugawara, Yoshiaki; Fujii, Tamotsu



Structural basis for activation of the complement system by component C4 cleavage  

PubMed Central

An essential aspect of innate immunity is recognition of molecular patterns on the surface of pathogens or altered self through the lectin and classical pathways, two of the three well-established activation pathways of the complement system. This recognition causes activation of the MASP-2 or the C1s serine proteases followed by cleavage of the protein C4. Here we present the crystal structures of the 203-kDa human C4 and the 245-kDa C4?MASP-2 substrate?enzyme complex. When C4 binds to MASP-2, substantial conformational changes in C4 are induced, and its scissile bond region becomes ordered and inserted into the protease catalytic site in a manner canonical to serine proteases. In MASP-2, an exosite located within the CCP domains recognizes the C4 C345C domain 60 Ĺ from the scissile bond. Mutations in C4 and MASP-2 residues at the C345C–CCP interface inhibit the intermolecular interaction and C4 cleavage. The possible assembly of the huge in vivo enzyme–substrate complex consisting of glycan-bound mannan-binding lectin, MASP-2, and C4 is discussed. Our own and prior functional data suggest that C1s in the classical pathway of complement activated by, e.g., antigen–antibody complexes, also recognizes the C4 C345C domain through a CCP exosite. Our results provide a unified structural framework for understanding the early and essential step of C4 cleavage in the elimination of pathogens and altered self through two major pathways of complement activation.

Kidmose, Rune T.; Laursen, Nick S.; Dobo, Jozsef; Kjaer, Troels R.; Sirotkina, Sofia; Yatime, Laure; Sottrup-Jensen, Lars; Thiel, Steffen; Gal, Peter; Andersen, Gregers R.



C1q-targeted monoclonal antibody prevents complement-dependent cytotoxicity and neuropathology in in vitro and mouse models of neuromyelitis optica  

PubMed Central

Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune disorder with inflammatory demyelinating lesions in the central nervous system, particularly in the spinal cord and optic nerve. NMO pathogenesis is thought to involve binding of anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) autoantibodies to astrocytes, which causes complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) and downstream inflammation leading to oligo-dendrocyte and neuronal injury. Vasculocentric deposition of activated complement is a prominent feature of NMO pathology. Here, we show that a neutralizing monoclonal antibody against the C1q protein in the classical complement pathway prevents AQP4 autoantibody-dependent CDC in cell cultures and NMO lesions in ex vivo spinal cord slice cultures and in mice. A monoclonal antibody against human C1q with 11 nM binding affinity prevented CDC caused by NMO patient serum in AQP4-transfected cells and primary astrocyte cultures, and prevented complement-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (CDCC) produced by natural killer cells. The anti-C1q antibody prevented astrocyte damage and demyelination in mouse spinal cord slice cultures exposed to AQP4 autoantibody and human complement. In a mouse model of NMO produced by intracerebral injection of AQP4 autoantibody and human complement, the inflammatory demyelinating lesions were greatly reduced by intracerebral administration of the anti-C1q antibody. These results provide proof-of-concept for C1q-targeted monoclonal antibody therapy in NMO. Targeting of C1q inhibits the classical complement pathway directly and causes secondary inhibition of CDCC and the alternative complement pathway. As C1q-targeted therapy leaves the lectin complement activation pathway largely intact, its side-effect profile is predicted to differ from that of therapies targeting downstream complement proteins.

Phuan, Puay-Wah; Zhang, Hua; Asavapanumas, Nithi; Leviten, Michael; Rosenthal, Arnon; Tradtrantip, Lukmanee



Unwelcome complement.  


For decades, the complement system has been recognized as an effector arm of the innate immunity system that contributes to the destruction of tumor cells. However, recent studies have challenged this paradigm by demonstrating that a complement component, the anaphylatoxin C5a, promotes the growth of malignant tumors in a mouse model of cervical carcinoma. The effect of C5a on tumor growth was associated with the recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor cells to tumors, followed by the activation of these cells. These unexpected findings identify the complement system as a potential new target for anticancer immunotherapy. PMID:19654288

Markiewski, Maciej M; Lambris, John D



Unwelcome Complement  

PubMed Central

For decades, the complement system has been recognized as an effector arm of the innate immunity system that contributes to the destruction of tumor cells. However, recent studies have challenged this paradigm by demonstrating that a complement component, the anaphylatoxin C5a, promotes the growth of malignant tumors in a mouse model of cervical carcinoma. The effect of C5a on tumor growth was associated with the recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor cells to tumors, followed by the activation of these cells. These unexpected findings identify the complement system as a potential new target for anti-cancer immunotherapy.

Markiewski, Maciej M.; Lambris, John D.



Plant Protoplast Agglutination by Lectins  

PubMed Central

Concanavalin A, soybean (Glycine max L.) lectin, castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) lectin, and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) lectin were able to agglutinate protoplasts prepared from a variety of plant species. The seven other lectins tried were unable to agglutinate those protoplasts tested. Protoplasts prepared from 11 species were used. The lectins examined were not able to differentiate among protoplasts of different species. ImagesFig. 1

Larkin, Philip J.



Complement Test  


... R, et al. Complement. Chapter 33 in Fundamental Immunology . William E Paul. Philadelphia:Lippincott-Williams-Wilkins. 2008, ... Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy, Section 12, Immunology; Allergic Disorders, Chapter 146. Biology Of The Immune ...


Inhibition of the alternative pathway of nonhuman infant complement by porin B2 contributes to virulence of Neisseria meningitidis in the infant rat model.  


Neisseria meningitidis utilizes capsular polysaccharide, lipooligosaccharide (LOS) sialic acid, factor H binding protein (fHbp), and neisserial surface protein A (NspA) to regulate the alternative pathway (AP) of complement. Using meningococcal mutants that lacked all four of the above-mentioned molecules (quadruple mutants), we recently identified a role for PorB2 in attenuating the human AP; inhibition was mediated by human fH, a key downregulatory protein of the AP. Previous studies showed that fH downregulation of the AP via fHbp or NspA is specific for human fH. Here, we report that PorB2-expressing quadruple mutants also regulate the AP of baby rabbit and infant rat complement. Blocking a human fH binding region on PorB2 of the quadruple mutant of strain 4243 with a chimeric protein that comprised human fH domains 6 and 7 fused to murine IgG Fc enhanced AP-mediated baby rabbit C3 deposition, which provided evidence for an fH-dependent mechanism of nonhuman AP regulation by PorB2. Using isogenic mutants of strain H44/76 that differed only in their PorB molecules, we confirmed a role for PorB2 in resistance to killing by infant rat serum. The PorB2-expressing strain also caused higher levels of bacteremia in infant rats than its isogenic PorB3-expressing counterpart, thus providing a molecular basis for increased survival of PorB2 isolates in this model. These studies link PorB2 expression with infection of infant rats, which could inform the choice of meningococcal strains for use in animal models, and reveals, for the first time, that PorB2-expressing strains of N. meningitidis regulate the AP of baby rabbits and rats. PMID:24686052

Lewis, Lisa A; Vu, David M; Granoff, Dan M; Ram, Sanjay



The requirement of localized, CR2-mediated, alternative pathway activation of complement for covalent deposition of C3 fragments on normal B cells.  

PubMed Central

We have shown previously that normal B cells share, with Epstein-Barr virus-transformed and malignant B cells, the ability to activate the alternative pathway (AP) of complement in vitro, resulting in the deposition of C3 fragments on the cell surface. Complement receptor type 2 (CR2, CD21) has been implicated directly as the site for formation of an AP convertase, which provides nascent C3b for deposition at secondary sites on the B-cell surface. In the present study, we have examined C3 fragment deposition in vitro in more detail by (1) assessing the importance of locally generated C3b for the deposition process, (2) investigating whether CR2 is the sole requirement for conferring AP activation capacity on a cell, and (3) determining whether CR2's function, as an AP activator, has different structural requirements from ligand binding. Increasing the availability of native C3, by increasing the serum (NHS) concentration, resulted in enhanced C3 fragment deposition on the B cells, whereas use of factor 1-depleted NHS, which showed massive fluid phase C3 conversion during the incubation, diminished the deposition. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blotting of untreated and hydroxylamine-treated lysates from B cells, after in vitro activation, revealed that the majority of C3 fragments (primarily iC3b and C3dg) had been covalently bound to the cell surface. Transfection of COS cells with wild-type CR2 or a deletion mutant lacking 11 of the molecule's 15 homologous domains, but retaining the ligand-binding site, revealed that expression of intact CR2 conferred a 12-fold increase in AP-activating capacity on these cells, while no increase in AP activity was apparent on cells transfected with the mutant CR2. Images Figure 2 Figure 3

Olesen, E H; Johnson, A A; Damgaard, G; Leslie, R G



Activation of the Classical Complement Pathway by Bacillus anthracis is the Primary Mechanism for Spore Phagocytosis and Involves the Spore Surface Protein BclA§  

PubMed Central

Interactions between spores of Bacillus anthracis and macrophages are critical for the development of anthrax infections, as spores are thought to utilize macrophages as vehicles to disseminate in the host. Here we report a novel mechanism for phagocytosis of B. anthracis spores. Murine macrophage-like cell line RAW264.7, bone marrow derived macrophages and primary peritoneal macrophages from mice were used. The results indicated that activation of the classical complement pathway (CCP) was a primary mechanism for spore phagocytosis. Phagocytosis was significantly reduced in the absence of C1q or C3. C3 fragments were found deposited on the spore surface and the deposition was dependent on C1q and Ca2+. C1q recruitment to the spore surface was mediated by the spore surface protein BclA, as recombinant BclA bound directly and specifically to C1q and inhibited C1q binding to spores in a dose-dependent manner. C1q binding to spores lacking BclA (?bclA) was also significantly reduced compared to wild type spores. In addition, deposition of both C3 and C4 as well as phagocytosis of spores were significantly reduced when BclA was absent but were not reduced in the absence of IgG, suggesting that BclA but not IgG is important in these processes. Taken together, these results support a model in which spores actively engage CCP primarily through BclA interaction with C1q, leading to CCP activation and opsonophagocytosis of spores in an IgG-independent manner. These findings are likely to have significant implications on B. anthracis pathogenesis and microbial manipulation of complement.

Gu, Chunfang; Jenkins, Sarah A.; Xue, Qiong; Xu, Yi



Microglia, Alzheimer's Disease, and Complement  

PubMed Central

Microglia, the immune cell of the brain, are implicated in cascades leading to neuronal loss and cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent genome-wide association studies have indicated a number of risk factors for the development of late-onset AD. Two of these risk factors are an altered immune response and polymorphisms in complement receptor 1. In view of these findings, we discuss how complement signalling in the AD brain and microglial responses in AD intersect. Dysregulation of the complement cascade, either by changes in receptor expression, enhanced activation of different complement pathways or imbalances between complement factor production and complement cascade inhibitors may all contribute to the involvement of complement in AD. Altered complement signalling may reduce the ability of microglia to phagocytose apoptotic cells and clear amyloid beta peptides, modulate the expression by microglia of complement components and receptors, promote complement factor production by plaque-associated cytokines derived from activated microglia and astrocytes, and disrupt complement inhibitor production. The evidence presented here indicates that microglia in AD are influenced by complement factors to adopt protective or harmful phenotypes and the challenge ahead lies in understanding how this can be manipulated to therapeutic advantage to treat late onset AD.

Crehan, Helen; Hardy, John; Pocock, Jennifer



Dissection of Functional Sites in Herpesvirus Saimiri Complement Control Protein Homolog  

PubMed Central

Herpesvirus saimiri is known to encode a homolog of human complement regulators named complement control protein homolog (CCPH). We have previously reported that this virally encoded inhibitor effectively inactivates complement by supporting factor I-mediated inactivation of complement proteins C3b and C4b (termed cofactor activity), as well as by accelerating the irreversible decay of the classical/lectin and alternative pathway C3 convertases (termed decay-accelerating activity). To fine map its functional sites, in the present study, we have generated a homology model of CCPH and performed substitution mutagenesis of its conserved residues. Functional analyses of 24 substitution mutants of CCPH indicated that (i) amino acids R118 and F144 play a critical role in imparting C3b and C4b cofactor activities, (ii) amino acids R35, K142, and K191 are required for efficient decay of the C3 convertases, (iii) positively charged amino acids of the linker regions, which are dubbed to be critical for functioning in other complement regulators, are not crucial for its function, and (iv) S100K and G110D mutations substantially enhance its decay-accelerating activities without affecting the cofactor activities. Overall, our data point out that ionic interactions form a major component of the binding interface between CCPH and its interacting partners.

Reza, Malik Johid; Kamble, Ashish; Ahmad, Muzammil; Krishnasastry, Musti V.



Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar Calreticulin: Inhibition of Classical Complement Pathway and Differences in the Level of Expression in Amoebic Liver Abscess  

PubMed Central

The role of calreticulin (CRT) in host-parasite interactions has recently become an important area of research. Information about the functions of calreticulin and its relevance to the physiology of Entamoeba parasites is limited. The present work demonstrates that CRT of both pathogenic E. histolytica and nonpathogenic E. dispar species specifically interacted with human C1q inhibiting the activation of the classical complement pathway. Using recombinant EhCRT protein, we demonstrate that CRT interaction site and human C1q is located at the N-terminal region of EhCRT. The immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy experiments show that CRT and human C1q colocalize in the cytoplasmic vesicles and near to the surface membrane of previously permeabilized trophozoites or are incubated with normal human serum which is known to destroy trophozoites. In the presence of peripheral mononuclear blood cells, the distribution of EhCRT and C1q is clearly over the surface membrane of trophozoites. Nevertheless, the level of expression of CRT in situ in lesions of amoebic liver abscess (ALA) in the hamster model is different in both Entamoeba species; this molecule is expressed in higher levels in E. histolytica than in E. dispar. This result suggests that EhCRT may modulate some functions during the early moments of the host-parasite relationship.

Ximenez, Cecilia; Gonzalez, Enrique; Nieves, Miriam E.; Silva-Olivares, Angelica; Shibayama, Mineko; Galindo-Gomez, Silvia; Escobar-Herrera, Jaime; Garcia de Leon, Ma del Carmen; Moran, Patricia; Valadez, Alicia; Rojas, Liliana; Hernandez, Eric G.; Partida, Oswaldo; Cerritos, Rene



Structural and functional diversity of the lectin repertoire in teleost fish: Relevance to innate and adaptive immunity  

PubMed Central

Protein–carbohydrate interactions mediated by lectins have been recognized as key components of innate immunity in vertebrates and invertebrates, not only for recognition of potential pathogens, but also for participating in downstream effector functions, such as their agglutination, immobilization, and complement-mediated opsonization and killing. More recently, lectins have been identified as critical regulators of mammalian adaptive immune responses. Fish are endowed with virtually all components of the mammalian adaptive immunity, and are equipped with a complex lectin repertoire. In this review, we discuss evidence suggesting that: (a) lectin repertoires in teleost fish are highly diversified, and include not only representatives of the lectin families described in mammals, but also members of lectin families described for the first time in fish species; (b) the tissue-specific expression and localization of the diverse lectin repertoires and their molecular partners is consistent with their distinct biological roles in innate and adaptive immunity; (c) although some lectins may bind endogenous ligands, others bind sugars on the surface of potential pathogens; (d) in addition to pathogen recognition and opsonization, some lectins display additional effector roles, such as complement activation and regulation of immune functions; (e) some lectins that recognize exogenous ligands mediate processes unrelated to immunity: they may act as anti-freeze proteins or prevent polyspermia during fertilization.

Vasta, Gerardo R.; Nita-Lazar, Mihai; Giomarelli, Barbara; Ahmed, Hafiz; Du, Shaojun; Cammarata, Matteo; Parrinello, Nicolo; Bianchet, Mario A.; Amzel, L. Mario



Determination of Severity of Murine IgA Nephropathy by Glomerular Complement Activation by Aberrantly Glycosylated IgA and Immune Complexes  

PubMed Central

The pathogenic roles of glomerular deposition of components of the complement cascade in IgA nephropathy (IgAN) are not completely clarified. To investigate the pathologic role of complement pathways in IgAN, two IgAN-prone mouse models were examined. Grouped ddY (gddY) mice showed significant high proteinuria, severe glomerular lesions, and extracellular matrix expansion compared with high serum IgA (HIGA) mice but with similar intensity of glomerular IgA deposition. Glomerular activation of the classical, lectin, and alternative pathways was demonstrated by significantly stronger staining for complement (C)3, C5b-9, C1q, C4, mannose-binding lectin (MBL)-A/C, MBL-associated serine protease-2, and factor B and properdin in gddY mice than in HIGA mice. Similarly, the serum levels of IgA-IgG2a/IgM and IgA–MBL-A/C immune complexes and polymeric IgA were significantly higher in gddY mice than in HIGA mice. Moreover, the serum levels of aberrantly glycosylated IgA characterized by the binding of Sambucus nigra bark lectin and Ricinus communis agglutinin I were significantly higher in gddY mice than in HIGA mice. This aberrancy in glycosylation was confirmed by monosaccharide compositional analysis of purified IgA using gas-liquid chromatography. This study is the first to demonstrate that aberrantly glycosylated IgA may influence the formation of macromolecular IgA including IgA-IgG immune complexes and subsequent complement activation, leading to full progression of IgAN.

Hashimoto, Azusa; Suzuki, Yusuke; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Ohsawa, Isao; Brown, Rhubell; Hall, Stacy; Tanaka, Yuichi; Novak, Jan; Ohi, Hiroyuki; Tomino, Yasuhiko



Lectins: production and practical applications  

PubMed Central

Lectins are proteins found in a diversity of organisms. They possess the ability to agglutinate erythrocytes with known carbohydrate specificity since they have at least one non-catalytic domain that binds reversibly to specific monosaccharides or oligosaccharides. This articles aims to review the production and practical applications of lectins. Lectins are isolated from their natural sources by chromatographic procedures or produced by recombinant DNA technology. The yields of animal lectins are usually low compared with the yields of plant lectins such as legume lectins. Lectins manifest a diversity of activities including antitumor, immunomodulatory, antifungal, HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory, and anti-insect activities, which may find practical applications. A small number of lectins demonstrate antibacterial and anti-nematode activities.



Role of complement in a murine model of peanut-induced anaphylaxis.  


Peanut allergy is severe and persisting from childhood to adulthood. However, there is no effective prophylaxis or treatment for peanut allergy. Little is known to about the molecular process in the pathogenesis of peanuts allergy, especially in innate immunity. Thus we investigated the role of complement activation in murine peanut anaphylaxis. Complement component C3 deposition on peanut extract (PE) was evaluated using sera from wild-type (WT), mannose-binding lectin associated serine protease (MASP)-1/3 deficient, MASP-2 deficient, and C4 deficient mice. Sera from interferon regulatory factor-4 (IRF-4) deficient mice, which lack serum immunoglobulin, were also used. In anaphylaxis study, mice were pretreated with propranolol and a long-acting form of IL-4, and injected with PE. Mice were then assessed for plasma C3a levels and hypothermia shock by ELISA and rectal temperature measurement, respectively. C3 deposition on PE was abolished in immunoglobulin- and C4-deficient sera. No difference in C3 deposition levels were observed among WT, MASP-1/3 deficient and MASP-2 deficient sera. IgM, IgG2b, IgG3, C1q, and ficolin-A deposits were detected on PE. In anaphylaxis study, MASP-1/3 deficient mice showed elevation of plasma C3a levels similar to WT mice. However, they were significantly reduced in C4- and MASP-2-deficient mice compared to WT mice. Consistently, PE-induced anaphylactic shock was prevented in C4 deficient mice and partially in MASP-2 deficient mice. In conclusion, PE activates complement via both the lectin and classical pathways in vivo, and the complement activation contributes to hypothermia shock in mice. PMID:23182714

Kodama, Toshihisa; Sekine, Hideharu; Takahashi, Minoru; Iwaki, Daisuke; Machida, Takeshi; Kanno, Kazuko; Ishida, Yumi; Endo, Yuichi; Fujita, Teizo



Microencapsulation of lectin anti-cancer agent and controlled release by alginate beads, biosafety approach.  


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is considered as one of the most aggressive cancer worldwide. In Egypt, the prevalence of HCC is increasing during last years. Recently, drug-loaded microparticles were used to improve the efficiency of various medical treatments. This study is designed to evaluate the anticancer potentialities of lectins against HCC while hinting to its safety usage. The aim is also extended to encapsulate lectins in alginate microbeads for oral drug delivery purposes. The extracted lectins showed anti-proliferative effect against HCC with a percentage of 60.76% by using its nontoxic dose with an up-regulation of P53 gene expression. Concerning the handling of lectin alginate microbeads for oral drug delivery, the prepared lectin alginate beads were ?100?m in diameter. The efficiency of the microcapsules was checked by scanning electron microscopy, the SEM showed the change on the alginate beads surface revealing the successful lectin encapsulation. The release of lectins from the microbeads depended on a variety of factors as the microbeads forming carriers and the amount-encapsulated lectins. The Pisum sativum extracted lectins may be considered as a promising agent in controlling HCC and this solid dosage form could be suitable for oral administration complemented with/or without the standard HCC drugs. PMID:24857870

El-Aassar, M R; Hafez, Elsayed E; El-Deeb, Nehal M; Fouda, Moustafa M G



Targeting Mannose Binding Lectin Confers Long Lasting Protection with a Surprisingly Wide Therapeutic Window in Cerebral Ischemia  

PubMed Central

Background The involvement of complement system in brain injury has been scarcely investigated. Here we document the pivotal role of mannose binding lectin (MBL), one of the recognition molecules of the lectin complement pathway, in brain ischemic injury. Methods and Results Focal cerebral ischemia was induced in mice (by permanent or transient middle cerebral artery occlusion) and rats (by 3-vessels occlusion). We first observed that MBL is deposited on ischemic vessels up to 48h after injury and that functional MBL/MASP2 complexes are increased. Next we demonstrated that: 1) MBL?/? mice are protected from both transient and permanent ischemic injury; 2) Polyman2, the newly synthesized mannosylated molecule selected for its binding to MBL, improves neurological deficits and infarct volume when given up to 24h after ischemia in mice; 3) anti-MBL-A antibody improves neurological deficits and infarct volume when given up to 18h after ischemia, as assessed following 28d in rats. Conclusions Our data show an important role for MBL in the pathogenesis of brain ischemic injury and provide a strong support to the concept that MBL inhibition may be a relevant therapeutic target in humans, one with a wide therapeutic window of application.

Orsini, Franca; Villa, Pia; Parrella, Sara; Zangari, Rosalia; Zanier, Elisa R.; Gesuete, Raffaella; Stravalaci, Matteo; Fumagalli, Stefano; Ottria, Roberta; Reina, Jose J.; Paladini, Alessandra; Micotti, Edoardo; Ribeiro-Viana, Renato; Rojo, Javier; Pavlov, Vasile I.; Stahl, Gregory L.; Bernardi, Anna; Gobbi, Marco; De Simoni, Maria-Grazia



Cyborg lectins: novel leguminous lectins with unique specificities.  


Bauhinia purpurea lectin (BPA) is one of the beta-galactose-binding leguminous lectins. Leguminous lectins contain a long metal-binding loop, part of which determines their carbohydrate-binding specificities. Random mutations were introduced into a portion of the cDNA coding BPA that corresponds to the carbohydrate-binding loop of the lectin. An library of the mutant lectin expressed on the surface of lambda foo phages was screened by the panning method. Several phage clones with an affinity for mannose or N-acetylglucosamine were isolated. These results indicate the possibility of making artificial lectins (so-called "cyborg lectins") with distinct and desired carbohydrate-binding specificities. PMID:10731676

Yamamoto, K; Maruyama, I N; Osawa, T



Defective activities, but not secretions, resulting from gene point mutations of human mannan-binding lectin  

PubMed Central

Human mannan-binding lectin (MBL) plays a pivotal role in innate immunity. Substantial literature supports the belief that three point mutations, CGT52TGT, GGC54GAC and GGA57GAA, in the collagen-like region (CLR) of the human MBL gene, are associated with increased susceptibility to infection, autoimmunity and carcinogenesis. To investigate the mechanisms of MBL deficiency, human wild-type and three variant MBL genes were expressed in COS-7 and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Results showed that no apparent differences were found among the levels of gene transcription and protein secretion of four forms of MBL. However, the degree of oligomerization of variant forms of MBL was found to be much lower than that of recombinant human wild-type MBL. The ability of variant MBL proteins to bind mannan was much weaker than that of the wild-type MBL protein, and the MBL variants failed to effectively activate the complement lectin pathway. These data suggested that a lower order oligomer, but not decreased plasma levels of MBL, may be the main result of MBL gene mutations and may be associated with immunodeficiency.




Mannose-binding lectin and the balance between immune protection and complication  

PubMed Central

The innate immune system is evolutionarily ancient and biologically primitive. Historically, it was first identified as an element of the immune system that provides the first-line response to pathogens, and increasingly it is recognized for its central housekeeping role and its essential functions in tissue homeostasis, including coagulation and inflammation, among others. A pivotal link between the innate immune system and other functions is mannose-binding lectin (MBL), a pattern recognition molecule. Multiple studies have demonstrated that MBL deficiency increases susceptibility to infection, and the mechanisms associated with this susceptibility to infection include reduced opsonophagocytic killing and reduced activation of the lectin complement pathway. Results from our laboratory have demonstrated that MBL and MBL-associated serine protease (MASP)-1/3 together mediate coagulation factor-like activities, including thrombin-like activity. MBL and/or MASP-1/3-deficient hosts demonstrate in vivo evidence that MBL and MASP-1/3 are involved with hemostasis following injury. Staphylococcus aureus-infected MBL null mice developed disseminated intravascular coagulation, which was associated with elevated blood IL-6 levels (but not TNF-?) and systemic inflammatory responses. Infected MBL null mice also develop liver injury. These findings suggest that MBL deficiency may manifest as disseminated intravascular coagulation and organ failure with infection. Beginning from these observations, this review focuses on the interaction of innate immunity and other homeostatic systems, the derangement of which may lead to complications in infection and other inflammatory states.

Takahashi, Kazue



Genetic Variation and Cerebrospinal Fluid Levels of Mannose Binding Lectin in Pneumococcal Meningitis Patients  

PubMed Central

It has been suggested that genetic variants in mannose binding lectin (MBL2) influence susceptibility and outcome of invasive pneumococcal disease. We assessed the influence of genetic variation in MBL2 on susceptibility, outcome and causative serotype of pneumococcal meningitis in a prospective nationwide cohort study including 299 white patients and 216 controls. We assessed functionality of the genetic polymorphisms by measuring levels of MBL, C3a, iC3b, C5a and sC5b-9 in cerebrospinal fluid. We also performed a meta-analysis of studies on MBL2 polymorphisms and susceptibility to invasive pneumococcal disease. The risk of contracting pneumococcal meningitis was substantially increased for white individuals homozygous with the defective MBL2 0/0 genotype (odds ratio [OR] 8.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05–64.1; p?=?0.017). CSF MBL levels were significantly lower in patients with the A/0 and 0/0 genotype compared to homozygotes for the wild-type alleles (A/A; p<0.001). CSF MBL levels were positively correlated with C3a and iC3b levels, indicating complement activation by the lectin pathway. The effect of MBL2 genetic variants on susceptibility remained robust in a meta-analysis including 5 studies with 287 patients (OR 2.33, 99% CI 1.39–3.90). We conclude that MBL2 polymorphisms influence CSF MBL levels and substantially increase the risk of pneumococcal meningitis.

Brouwer, Matthijs C.; Baas, Frank; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik



Isolation, cloning and functional characterization of porcine mannose-binding lectin  

PubMed Central

Binding of mannose-binding lectin (MBL), a C-type lectin, and its associated serine proteases, MASP-1 and MASP-2, to cell surface carbohydrates activates the lectin complement pathway. As MBL plays an important role in innate immunity, it has been cloned and characterized in several species. While the pig may be used as a source of organs/tissues for xenotransplantation, little is known about its MBL, thus, we report the isolation of three monomeric forms of MBL from porcine serum. Sodium dodecyl sulphate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Coomassie staining of reduced porcine MBL revealed the presence of three monomeric forms with approximate molecular masses of 30 000, 32 000 and 34 000. Protein sequencing identified these monomeric forms as one single protein, suggesting post-translational modification. Western blot analysis demonstrated the cross-reactivity of anti-human MBL polyclonal antibody with porcine MBL. A full-length porcine liver MBL cDNA was isolated and the predicted amino acid sequence exhibited 64·9% identity with human MBL and 50·2% and 56·7% identity with rat A and C MBL, respectively. Furthermore, Northern blot analysis demonstrated the presence of a single (?1·4–1·6 kilobase pair) transcript in porcine liver. Addition of purified porcine MBL to MBL-deficient human sera augmented N-acetylglucosamine inhibitable C3 deposition to mannan-coated plates in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, these data demonstrate that porcine and human MBL are highly conserved, sharing structural and functional characteristics.

Agah, A; Montalto, M C; Young, K; Stahl, G L



Effect of lectins on the transport of food ingredients in Caco-2 cell cultures.  


We investigated the effect of several lectins, such as soy bean lectin (SBA), concanavalin A (Con A), and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), on the transport of some food ingredients (isoflavones, quercetin glycosides, carnosine/anserine) across Caco-2 cell monolayers. After incubation of food ingredients (0.03 approximately 2 mmol/L) in the presence or absence of lectins (1 approximately 180 microg/ml) on the apical side, aliquots were taken from the apical and basolateral solution, and were subjected to HPLC analysis. We also examined the effect of lectins on the permeability of the tight junction by measuring the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) value of the Caco-2 cell monolayer. Isoflavones, which was not transported to the basolateral solution without lectins, could be transported in the presence of lectins, whereas their aglycones were detected at the same levels with or without the lectin treatment. The transport of quercetin glycosides also increased in the presence of lectins, however, that of peptides was not affected by the lectins. Con A and WGA, but SBA, decreased the TER value, indicating that Con A and WGA increased the transport via paracellular pathway, whereas SBA did via a different pathway. PMID:15630235

Ohno, Y; Naganuma, T; Ogawa, T; Muramoto, K



Proteolytic Activities of Two Types of Mannose-Binding Lectin-Associated Serine Protease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mannose (or mannan)-binding lectin (MBL) is an oligomeric serum lectin that plays a role in innate immunity by activating the complement system. In human, two types of MBL-associated serine protease (MASP-1 and MASP-2) and a truncated protein of MASP-2 (small MBL-associated protein; sMAP or MAp19) are complexed with MBL. To clarify the proteolytic activities of MASP-1 and MASP-2 against C4,

Misao Matsushita; Steffen Thiel; Jens C. Jensenius; Itaru Terai; Teizo Fujita


Evidence for Nontraditional Activation of Complement Factor C3 during Murine Liver Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Complement signaling has been implicated as important for normal hepatic regeneration. However, the specific mechanism by which complement is activated during liver regeneration remains undefined. To address this question, we investigated the hepatic regenerative response to partial hepatectomy in wildtype mice, C3-, C4-, and factor B-null mice, and C4-null mice treated with a factor B neutralizing antibody (mAb 1379). The results showed that following partial hepatectomy, C3-null mice exhibit reduced hepatic regeneration compared to wildtype mice as assessed by quantification of hepatic cyclin D1 expression and hepatocellular DNA synthesis and mitosis. In contrast, C4-null mice and factor B-null mice demonstrated normal liver regeneration. Moreover, animals in which all of the traditional upstream C3 activation pathways were disrupted, i.e. C4-null mice treated with mAb 1379, exhibited normal C3 activation and hepatocellular proliferation following partial hepatectomy. In order to define candidate non-traditional mechanisms of C3 activation during liver regeneration, plasmin and thrombin were investigated for their abilities to activate C3 in mouse plasma in vitro. The results showed that both proteases are capable of initiating C3 activation, and that plasmin can do so independent of the classical and alternative pathways. Conclusions These results show that C3 is required for a normal hepatic regenerative response, but that disruption of the classical- or lectin-dependent pathways (C4-dependent), the alternative pathway (factor B-dependent), or all of these pathways does not impair the hepatic regenerative response, and indicate that non-traditional mechanisms by which C3 is activated during hepatic regeneration must exist. In vitro analysis raises the possibility that plasmin may contribute to non-traditional complement activation during liver regeneration in vivo.

Clark, Amelia; Weymann, Alexander; Hartman, Eric; Turmelle, Yumirle; Carroll, Michael; Thurman, Joshua M.; Holers, V. Michael; Hourcade, Dennis E.; Rudnick, David A.



Complement-mediated cellular injury.  


Complement activation and recruitment of inflammatory leukocytes is an important defense mechanism against bacterial infection. However, complement also can mediate cellular injury and contribute to the pathogenesis of various diseases. With the appreciation that the C5b-9 membrane attack complex can injure cells in the absence of leukocytes, a role for the terminal complement pathway in inducing cell injury and kidney disease was shown in several experimental models, including the rat passive Heymann nephritis model of human membranous nephropathy. In podocytes, sublytic C5b-9 activates a variety of downstream pathways including protein kinases, lipid metabolism, reactive oxygen species, growth factors/gene transcription, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and it impacts the integrity of the cytoskeleton and slit diaphragm proteins. C5b-9 also injures other kidney cells, including mesangial, glomerular endothelial, and tubular epithelial cells, and it contributes to the pathogenesis of mesangial-proliferative glomerulonephritis, thrombotic microangiopathy, and acute kidney injury. Conversely, certain C5b-9 signals limit complement-induced injury, or promote recovery of cells. In addition to C5b-9, complement cleavage products, such as C5a and C1q, can injure kidney cells. Thus, the complement system contributes to various kidney pathologies by causing cellular damage in both an inflammation-dependent and inflammation-independent manner. PMID:24161043

Takano, Tomoko; Elimam, Hanan; Cybulsky, Andrey V



The novel complement inhibitor human CUB and Sushi multiple domains 1 (CSMD1) protein promotes factor I-mediated degradation of C4b and C3b and inhibits the membrane attack complex assembly.  


CUB and Sushi multiple domains 1 (CSMD1) is a transmembrane protein containing 15 consecutive complement control protein (CCP) domains, which are characteristic for complement inhibitors. We expressed a membrane-bound fragment of human CSMD1 composed of the 15 C-terminal CCP domains and demonstrated that it inhibits deposition of C3b by the classical pathway on the surface of Chinese hamster ovary cells by 70% at 6% serum and of C9 (component of membrane attack complex) by 90% at 1.25% serum. Furthermore, this fragment of CSMD1 served as a cofactor to factor I-mediated degradation of C3b. In all functional assays performed, well-characterized complement inhibitors were used as positive controls, whereas Coxsackie adenovirus receptor, a protein with no effect on complement, was a negative control. Moreover, attenuation of expression in human T47 breast cancer cells that express endogenous CSMD1 significantly increased C3b deposition on these cells by 45% at 8% serum compared with that for the controls. Furthermore, by expressing a soluble 17-21 CCP fragment of CSMD1, we found that CSMD1 inhibits complement by promoting factor I-mediated C4b/C3b degradation and inhibition of MAC assembly at the level of C7. Our results revealed a novel complement inhibitor for the classical and lectin pathways. PMID:23964079

Escudero-Esparza, Astrid; Kalchishkova, Nikolina; Kurbasic, Emila; Jiang, Wen G; Blom, Anna M



Beta-glucan enhances complement-mediated hematopoietic recovery after bone marrow injury.  


Myelotoxic injury in the bone marrow (BM) as a consequence of total body irradiation (TBI) or granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilization results in the deposition of iC3b on BM stroma (stroma-iC3b). In the present study, we have examined how stroma-iC3b interacts with hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) and the role of complement (C) and complement receptor 3 (CR3) in BM injury/repair. We demonstrate here that stroma-iC3b tethers HPCs via the inserted (I) domain of HPC complement receptor 3 (CR3, CD11b/CD18, Mac-1). Following irradiation, stroma-iC3b was observed in the presence of purified IgM and normal mouse serum (NMS), but not serum from Rag-2(-/-) mice, implicating a role for antibody (Ab) and the classic pathway of C activation. Furthermore, a novel role for soluble yeast beta-glucan, a ligand for the CR3 lectin-like domain (LLD), in the priming of CR3(+) HPC is suggested. Soluble yeast beta-glucan could enhance the proliferation of tethered HPCs, promote leukocyte recovery following sublethal irradiation, and increase the survival of lethally irradiated animals following allogeneic HPC transplantation in a CR3-dependent manner. Taken together, these observations suggest a novel role for C, CR3, and beta-glucan in the restoration of hematopoiesis following injury. PMID:16179370

Cramer, Daniel E; Allendorf, Daniel J; Baran, Jarek T; Hansen, Richard; Marroquin, Jose; Li, Bing; Ratajczak, Janina; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z; Yan, Jun



Distal Recognition Site for Classical Pathway Convertase Located in the C345C\\/Netrin Module of Complement Component C51  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies focused on indels in the complement C345 protein family identified a number of potential protein-protein interaction sites in components C3 and C5. Here, one of these sites in C5, near the a-chain C terminus, was examined by alanine-scanning mutagenesis at 16 of the 18 non-alanine residues in the sequence KEALQIKYNFSFRYIYPLD. Alanine substi- tutions affected activities in the highly

Ana Sandoval; Rong Ai; John M. Ostresh; Ronald T. Ogata



Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of human mannose-binding lectin-associated serine protease-1 (MASP-1) catalytic region.  


MASP-1, a multidomain serine protease, is a component of the lectin pathway of complement. Its precise function is unknown, although it seems to enhance the complement-activating capacity of MASP-2, a related enzyme. MASP-1 has also been implicated as playing a role in blood coagulation. It is mostly found associated with mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and ficolins. Early attempts to crystallize MASP-1 failed because of the inhomogeneity of the purified material. MASP-1 was shown by acidic nondenaturing PAGE to be composed of differently charged species, which are most likely to be the products of deamidation occurring during the refolding procedure. Sequential cation-exchange and anion-exchange chromatography resulted in a homogeneous material, which was successfully crystallized. The best crystal diffracted to 2.55 A resolution and belonged to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 68.4, b = 70.4, c = 121.4 A. The crystal structure of MASP-1 may help in understanding the function of this mysterious serine protease. PMID:18765903

Dobó, József; Harmat, Veronika; Sebestyén, Edina; Beinrohr, László; Závodszky, Péter; Gál, Péter



Complement-targeted therapeutics in periodontitis  

PubMed Central

Periodontitis is a prevalent oral chronic inflammatory disease which, in severe forms, may exert a major impact on systemic health. Clinical and histological observations, as well as experimental animal studies, suggest involvement of the complement system in periodontitis. However, the precise roles of the various complement components and pathways in periodontitis have only recently started to be elucidated. In this paper, we review recent progress in the field and discuss the potential of complement-targeted therapeutics in the treatment of periodontitis.

Hajishengallis, George; Lambris, John D.



Complement-activating polysaccharides from medicinal herbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The complement system consists of over 20 serum proteins including nine com-plement components (C1 to C9) and their regulators,\\u000a and is normally present in blood serum in an inactive form. The system is essential for the operation of the innate as well\\u000a as the adaptive immune defence [1]. The complement proteins can be activated through three cascade pathways: by the

Haruki Yamada; Hiroaki Kiyohara


Meningococcal disease and the complement system  

PubMed Central

Despite considerable advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of meningococcal disease, this infection remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally. The role of the complement system in innate immune defenses against invasive meningococcal disease is well established. Individuals deficient in components of the alternative and terminal complement pathways are highly predisposed to invasive, often recurrent meningococcal infections. Genome-wide analysis studies also point to a central role for complement in disease pathogenesis. Here we review the pathophysiologic events pertinent to the complement system that accompany meningococcal sepsis in humans. Meningococci use several often redundant mechanisms to evade killing by human complement. Capsular polysaccharide and lipooligosaccharide glycan composition play critical roles in complement evasion. Some of the newly described protein vaccine antigens interact with complement components and have sparked considerable research interest.

Lewis, Lisa A; Ram, Sanjay



Immune evasion by acquisition of complement inhibitors: the mould Aspergillus binds both factor H and C4b binding protein.  


Pathogenic fungi represent a major threat particularly to immunocompromised hosts, leading to severe, and often lethal, systemic opportunistic infections. Although the impaired immune status of the host is clearly the most important factor leading to disease, virulence factors of the fungus also play a role. Factor H (FH) and its splice product FHL-1 represent the major fluid phase inhibitors of the alternative pathway of complement, whereas C4b-binding protein (C4bp) is the main fluid phase inhibitor of the classical and lectin pathways. Both proteins can bind to the surface of various human pathogens conveying resistance to complement destruction and thus contribute to their pathogenic potential. We have recently shown that Candida albicans evades complement by binding both Factor H and C4bp. Here we show that moulds such as Aspergillus spp. bind Factor H, the splicing variant FHL-1 and also C4bp. Immunofluorescence and flow cytometry studies show that the binding of Factor H and C4bp to Aspergillus spp. appears to be even stronger than to Candida spp. and that different, albeit possibly nearby, binding moieties mediate this surface attachment. PMID:17915330

Vogl, G; Lesiak, I; Jensen, D B; Perkhofer, S; Eck, R; Speth, C; Lass-Flörl, C; Zipfel, P F; Blom, A M; Dierich, M P; Würzner, R



The complement system in systemic autoimmune disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complement is part of the innate immune system. Its major function is recognition and elimination of pathogens via direct killing and\\/or stimulation of phagocytosis. Activation of the complement system is, however, also involved in the pathogenesis of the systemic autoimmune diseases. Activation via the classical pathway has long been recognized in immune complex-mediated diseases such as cryoglobulinemic vasculitis and systemic

Min Chen; Mohamed R. Daha; Cees G. M. Kallenberg



Altered renal tubular expression of the complement inhibitor Crry permits complement activation after ischemia/reperfusion  

PubMed Central

Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) of several organs results in complement activation, but the kidney is unique in that activation after I/R occurs only via the alternative pathway. We hypothesized that selective activation of this pathway after renal I/R could occur either because of a loss of complement inhibition or from increased local synthesis of complement factors. We examined the relationship between renal complement activation after I/R and the levels and localization of intrinsic membrane complement inhibitors. We found that loss of polarity of complement receptor 1–related protein y (Crry) in the tubular epithelium preceded activation of the alternative pathway along the basolateral aspect of the tubular cells. Heterozygous gene-targeted mice that expressed lower amounts of Crry were more sensitive to ischemic injury. Furthermore, inhibition of Crry expressed by proximal tubular epithelial cells in vitro resulted in alternative pathway–mediated injury to the cells. Thus, altered expression of a complement inhibitor within the tubular epithelium appears to be a critical factor permitting activation of the alternative pathway of complement after I/R. Increased C3 mRNA and decreased factor H mRNA were also detected in the outer medulla after I/R, suggesting that altered synthesis of these factors might further contribute to complement activation in this location.

Thurman, Joshua M.; Ljubanovic, Danica; Royer, Pamela A.; Kraus, Damian M.; Molina, Hector; Barry, Nicholas P.; Proctor, Gregory; Levi, Moshe; Holers, V. Michael



Mannose binding lectin gene deficiency increases susceptibility to traumatic brain injury in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mannose binding lectin (MBL) initiates complement activation and exacerbates tissue damage after systemic ischemia\\/reperfusion. We tested the hypothesis that MBL activates complement and worsens outcome using two levels of controlled cortical impact (CCI) in mice. After moderate CCI (0.6 mm depth), MBL immunostaining was detected on injured endothelial cells of wild-type (WT) mice and C3d was detected in MBL KO

Phoebe H Yager; Zerong You; Tao Qin; Hyung-Hwan Kim; Kazue Takahashi; Alan B Ezekowitz; Gregory L Stahl; Michael C Carroll; Michael J Whalen



Isolation of mannose-binding C-type lectin from sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) plasma and binding to Aeromonas salmonicida.  


The sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) is a parasitic cartilaginous fish of the North American Great Lakes and a predator of many bony fish species of commercial importance to the fishing industry. Mannose-binding C-type lectin (MBL) was isolated by mannan-agarose affinity chromatography from sea lamprey plasma. Mannose-binding lectin has not before been identified and quantitated in the plasma of this sea lamprey species. The affinity-purified and 2-ME reduced lamprey MBL showed two bands of 35kDa and 65kDa by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting using guinea pig anti-MBL IgG as the primary antibody. Amino acid composition analysis (mol%) of the purified lamprey MBL found high amounts of histidine, threonine, tyrosine and phenylalanine present when compared with three other vertebrate MBLs. N-terminal amino acid sequencing by Edman degradation for the first 10 residues gave XXXTKGCPDA. Lamprey plasma contained 261mug of MBL/ml of plasma. Plasma protein concentration was 40.1mg/ml. Lamprey MBL was present then in plasma at 6.5mug MBL/mg total protein. The sea lamprey MBL also specifically binds to mannose on the surface of the pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida. The presence of MBL in high concentration in lamprey plasma could be important in their innate immunity and resistance to infection. This study describes the presence of MBL in sea lamprey plasma and evidence for a C-type lectin complement pathway of innate immunity. PMID:18937980

Ourth, Donald D; Rose, Wendy M; Siefkes, Michael J



Borrelia burgdorferi Binding of Host Complement Regulator Factor H Is Not Required for Efficient Mammalian Infection?  

PubMed Central

The causative agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, is naturally resistant to its host's alternative pathway of complement-mediated killing. Several different borrelial outer surface proteins have been identified as being able to bind host factor H, a regulator of the alternative pathway, leading to a hypothesis that such binding is important for borrelial resistance to complement. To test this hypothesis, the development of B. burgdorferi infection was compared between factor H-deficient and wild-type mice. Factor B- and C3-deficient mice were also studied to determine the relative roles of the alternative and classical/lectin pathways in B. burgdorferi survival during mammalian infection. While it was predicted that B. burgdorferi should be impaired in its ability to infect factor H-deficient animals, quantitative analyses of bacterial loads indicated that those mice were infected at levels similar to those of wild-type and factor B- and C3-deficient mice. Ticks fed on infected factor H-deficient or wild-type mice all acquired similar numbers of bacteria. Indirect immunofluorescence analysis of B. burgdorferi acquired by feeding ticks from the blood of infected mice indicated that none of the bacteria had detectable levels of factor H on their outer surfaces, even though such bacteria express high levels of surface proteins capable of binding factor H. These findings demonstrate that the acquisition of host factor H is not essential for mammalian infection by B. burgdorferi and indicate that additional mechanisms are employed by the Lyme disease spirochete to evade complement-mediated killing.

Woodman, Michael E.; Cooley, Anne E.; Miller, Jennifer C.; Lazarus, John J.; Tucker, Kathryn; Bykowski, Tomasz; Botto, Marina; Hellwage, Jens; Wooten, R. Mark; Stevenson, Brian



Human Complement Regulators C4b-Binding Protein and C1 Esterase Inhibitor Interact with a Novel Outer Surface Protein of Borrelia recurrentis  

PubMed Central

The spirochete Borrelia recurrentis is the causal agent of louse-borne relapsing fever and is transmitted to humans by the infected body louse Pediculus humanus. We have recently demonstrated that the B. recurrentis surface receptor, HcpA, specifically binds factor H, the regulator of the alternative pathway of complement activation, thereby inhibiting complement mediated bacteriolysis. Here, we show that B. recurrentis spirochetes express another potential outer membrane lipoprotein, termed CihC, and acquire C4b-binding protein (C4bp) and human C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-Inh), the major inhibitors of the classical and lectin pathway of complement activation. A highly homologous receptor for C4bp was also found in the African tick-borne relapsing fever spirochete B. duttonii. Upon its binding to B. recurrentis or recombinant CihC, C4bp retains its functional potential, i.e. facilitating the factor I-mediated degradation of C4b. The additional finding that ectopic expression of CihC in serum sensitive B. burgdorferi significantly increased spirochetal resistance against human complement suggests this receptor to substantially contribute, together with other known strategies, to immune evasion of B. recurrentis.

Grosskinsky, Sonja; Schott, Melanie; Brenner, Christiane; Cutler, Sally J.; Simon, Markus M.; Wallich, Reinhard



Influence of mannose-binding lectin on HIV infection and tuberculosis in a Western-European population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a serum lectin that mediates phagocytosis and activates complement. Its deficiency has been associated with increased susceptibility to infectious diseases, mainly in childhood. However, non-producer mbl-2 alleles are common in most populations, suggesting a selective advantage of these alleles. We have analysed the association of mbl-2 structural and promoter polymorphisms with HIV infection and tuberculosis (TBC)

M. Isabel Garcia-Laorden; M. Jose Pena; Jose A. Caminero; Ayoze Garcia-Saavedra; M. Isolina Campos-Herrero; Araceli Caballero; Carlos Rodriguez-Gallego



Plasminogen Is a Complement Inhibitor*  

PubMed Central

Plasminogen is a 92-kDa single chain glycoprotein that circulates in plasma as a zymogen and when converted to proteolytically active plasmin dissolves preformed fibrin clots and extracellular matrix components. Here, we characterize the role of plasmin(ogen) in the complement cascade. Plasminogen binds the central complement protein C3, the C3 cleavage products C3b and C3d, and C5. Plasminogen binds to C3, C3b, C3d, and C5 via lysine residues, and the interaction is ionic strength-dependent. Plasminogen and Factor H bind C3b; however, the two proteins bind to different sites and do not compete for binding. Plasminogen affects complement action in multiple ways. Plasminogen enhanced Factor I-mediated C3b degradation in the presence of the cofactor Factor H. Plasminogen when activated to plasmin inhibited complement as demonstrated by hemolytic assays using either rabbit or sheep erythrocytes. Similarly, plasmin either in the fluid phase or attached to surfaces inhibited complement that was activated via the alternative and classical pathways and cleaved C3b to fragments of 68, 40, 30, and 17 kDa. The C3b fragments generated by plasmin differ in size from those generated by the complement protease Factor I, suggesting that plasmin-mediated C3b cleavage fragments lack effector function. Plasmin also cleaved C5 to products of 65, 50, 30, and 25 kDa. Thus, plasmin(ogen) regulates both complement and coagulation, the two central cascade systems of a vertebrate organism. This complement-inhibitory activity of plasmin provides a new explanation why pathogenic microbes utilize plasmin(ogen) for immune evasion and tissue penetration.

Barthel, Diana; Schindler, Susann; Zipfel, Peter F.



Structural basis of the C1q/C1s interaction and its central role in assembly of the C1 complex of complement activation.  


Complement component C1, the complex that initiates the classical pathway of complement activation, is a 790-kDa assembly formed from the target-recognition subcomponent C1q and the modular proteases C1r and C1s. The proteases are elongated tetramers that become more compact when they bind to the collagen-like domains of C1q. Here, we describe a series of structures that reveal how the subcomponents associate to form C1. A complex between C1s and a collagen-like peptide containing the C1r/C1s-binding motif of C1q shows that the collagen binds to a shallow groove via a critical lysine side chain that contacts Ca(2+)-coordinating residues. The data explain the Ca(2+)-dependent binding mechanism, which is conserved in C1r and also in mannan-binding lectin-associated serine proteases, the serine proteases of the lectin pathway activation complexes. In an accompanying structure, C1s forms a compact ring-shaped tetramer featuring a unique head-to-tail interaction at its center that replicates the likely arrangement of C1r/C1s polypeptides in the C1 complex. Additional structures reveal how C1s polypeptides are positioned to enable activation by C1r and interaction with the substrate C4 inside the cage-like assembly formed by the collagenous stems of C1q. Together with previously determined structures of C1r fragments, the results reported here provide a structural basis for understanding the early steps of complement activation via the classical pathway. PMID:23922389

Venkatraman Girija, Umakhanth; Gingras, Alexandre R; Marshall, Jamie E; Panchal, Roshni; Sheikh, Md Arif; Gál, Péter; Schwaeble, Wilhelm J; Mitchell, Daniel A; Moody, Peter C E; Wallis, Russell



Complementation by the protein tyrosine kinase JAK2 of a mutant cell line defective in the interferon-& gamma; signal transduction pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTERFERONS (IFNs) & alpha\\/& beta; (type I) and & gamma; (type II) bind to distinct cell surface receptors1, inducing transcription of overlapping sets of genes by intracellular pathways that have recently attracted much attention2,3. Previous studies using cell lines selected for their inability to respond to IFN-& alpha; (ref. 4) have shown that the protein kinase Tyk2 plays a central

Diane Watling; Dmitry Guschin; Mathias Müller; Olli Silvennoinen; Bruce A. Witthuhn; Frederick W. Quelle; Neil C. Rogers; Chris Schindler; George R. Stark; James N. Ihle; Lan M. Kerr



Lectin activity of Lentinus edodes.  


The hemagglutinating activity of submerged mycelium and culture liquid for four strains of Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Sing [L. edodes (Berk.) Pegler] was studied in the search for lectins. The hemagglutinating activity of culture liquid was substantially higher, compared with mycelium. The carbohydrate-binding capacity of the agglutinins was established, and the lectin activity of extracts from mycelia grown on several agar media was elucidated in relation to fruiting. The lectin activity of L. edodes was examined at different morphogenetic steps: mycelium, brown mycelial film, primordium, and fruiting body. Hemagglutination titers at the brown film step were higher than in the mycelium, whereas activity at the primordial and fruiting bodies steps decreased. Lectins seem to be involved in the formation of hyphal aggregates of brown mycelial film. PMID:11770819

Tsivileva, O M; Nikitina, V E; Garibova, L V; Ignatov, V V



Lectins as Cell Recognition Molecules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lectins on cell surfaces mediate cell-cell interactions by combining with complementary carbohydrates on apposing cells. They play a key role in the control of various normal and pathological processes in living organisms.

Nathan Sharon; Halina Lis



Effects of MASP-1 of the Complement System on Activation of Coagulation Factors and Plasma Clot Formation  

PubMed Central

Background Numerous interactions between the coagulation and complement systems have been shown. Recently, links between coagulation and mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease-1 (MASP-1) of the complement lectin pathway have been proposed. Our aim was to investigate MASP-1 activation of factor XIII (FXIII), fibrinogen, prothrombin, and thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) in plasma-based systems, and to analyse effects of MASP-1 on plasma clot formation, structure and lysis. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a FXIII incorporation assay and specific assays to measure the activation products prothrombin fragment F1+2, fibrinopeptide A (FPA), and activated TAFI (TAFIa). Clot formation and lysis were assessed by turbidimetric assay. Clot structure was studied by scanning electron microscopy. MASP-1 activated FXIII and, contrary to thrombin, induced FXIII activity faster in the Val34 than the Leu34 variant. MASP-1-dependent generation of F1+2, FPA and TAFIa showed a dose-dependent response in normal citrated plasma (NCP), albeit MASP-1 was much less efficient than FXa or thrombin. MASP-1 activation of prothrombin and TAFI cleavage were confirmed in purified systems. No FPA generation was observed in prothrombin-depleted plasma. MASP-1 induced clot formation in NCP, affected clot structure, and prolonged clot lysis. Conclusions/Significance We show that MASP-1 interacts with plasma clot formation on different levels and influences fibrin structure. Although MASP-1-induced fibrin formation is thrombin-dependent, MASP-1 directly activates prothrombin, FXIII and TAFI. We suggest that MASP-1, in concerted action with other complement and coagulation proteins, may play a role in fibrin clot formation.

Hess, Katharina; Ajjan, Ramzi; Phoenix, Fladia; Dobo, Jozsef; Gal, Peter; Schroeder, Verena



Infectious diseases associated with complement deficiencies.  

PubMed Central

The complement system consists of both plasma and membrane proteins. The former influence the inflammatory response, immune modulation, and host defense. The latter are complement receptors, which mediate the cellular effects of complement activation, and regulatory proteins, which protect host cells from complement-mediated injury. Complement activation occurs via either the classical or the alternative pathway, which converge at the level of C3 and share a sequence of terminal components. Four aspects of the complement cascade are critical to its function and regulation: (i) activation of the classical pathway, (ii) activation of the alternative pathway, (iii) C3 convertase formation and C3 deposition, and (iv) membrane attack complex assembly and insertion. In general, mechanisms evolved by pathogenic microbes to resist the effects of complement are targeted to these four steps. Because individual complement proteins subserve unique functional activities and are activated in a sequential manner, complement deficiency states are associated with predictable defects in complement-dependent functions. These deficiency states can be grouped by which of the above four mechanisms they disrupt. They are distinguished by unique epidemiologic, clinical, and microbiologic features and are most prevalent in patients with certain rheumatologic and infectious diseases. Ethnic background and the incidence of infection are important cofactors determining this prevalence. Although complement undoubtedly plays a role in host defense against many microbial pathogens, it appears most important in protection against encapsulated bacteria, especially Neisseria meningitidis but also Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and, to a lesser extent, Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The availability of effective polysaccharide vaccines and antibiotics provides an immunologic and chemotherapeutic rationale for preventing and treating infection in patients with these deficiencies.

Figueroa, J E; Densen, P



Heterospecific cloning of Arabidopsis thaliana cDNAs by direct complementation of pyrimidine auxotrophic mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. I. Cloning and sequence analysis of two cDNAs catalysing the second, fifth and sixth steps of the de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA library was used to complement Saccharomyces cerevisiae pyrimidine auxotrophic mutants. Mutants in all but one (carbamylphosphate synthetase) of the six steps in the de novo pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway could be complemented. We report here the cloning, sequencing and computer analysis of two cDNAs encoding the aspartate transcarbamylase (ATCase; EC and orotate phosphoribosyltransferase-orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase (OPRTase-OMP-decase; EC

Fahd Nasr; Nathalie Bertauche; Marie-Elisabeth Dufour; Michčle Minet; François Lacroute



Nutritional complementation of oxidative glucose metabolism in Escherichia coli via pyrroloquinoline quinone-dependent glucose dehydrogenase and the Entner-Doudoroff pathway  

SciTech Connect

Two glucose-negative Escherichia coli mutants (ZSC113 and DF214) were unable to grow on glucose as the sole carbon source unless supplemented with pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ). PQQ is the cofactor for the periplasmic enzyme glucose dehydrogenase, which converts glucose to gluconate. Aerobically, E. Coli ZSC113 grew on glucose plus PQQ with a generation time of 65 min, a generation time about the same as that for wild-type E. coli in a defined glucose-salts medium. Thus, for E. coli ZSC113 the Entner-Doudoroff pathway was fully able to replace the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway. In the presence of 5% sodium dodecyl sulfate, PQQ no longer acted as a growth factor. Sodium dodecyl sulfate inhibited the formation of gluconate from glucose but not gluconate metabolism. Adaptation to PQQ-dependent growth exhibited long lag periods, except under low-phosphate conditions, in which the PhoE porin would be expressed. The authors suggest that E. coli has maintained the apoenzyme for glucose dehydrogenase and the Entner-Doudoroff pathway as adaptations to an aerobic, low-phosphate, and low-detergent aquatic environment.

Adamowicz, M.; Conway, T.; Nickerson, K.W. (Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln (USA))



Coligation of the B cell receptor with complement receptor type 2 (CR2/CD21) using its natural ligand C3dg: activation without engagement of an inhibitory signaling pathway.  


C3dg is a cleavage product of the C3 component of complement that can facilitate the coligation of the complement receptor 2 (CR2/CD21) with the BCR via C3dg/Ag complexes. This interaction can greatly amplify BCR-mediated signaling events and acts to lower the threshold for B cell activation. Although previous studies have used anti-CR2 Abs or used chimeric Ags in the context of BCR transgenic mice as surrogate C3d-containing ligands, we have used a physiological form of C3d to study signaling in B cells from wild-type C57BL/6 mice. We find that while CR2-enhanced BCR signaling causes intracellular Ca2+ mobilization and total pTyr phosphorylation of an intensity comparable to optimal BCR ligation using anti-IgM Abs, it does so with limited activation of inhibitory effectors (such as CD22, Src homology region 2 domain containing phosphatase 1, and SHIP-1) and without substantial receptor cross-linking. In summary, we demonstrate that CR2-enhanced BCR signaling may proceed not only through the previously described amplification of positive signaling pathways, but is potentially augmented by a lack of normal inhibitory/feedback signaling. PMID:15749857

Lyubchenko, Taras; dal Porto, Joe; Cambier, John C; Holers, V Michael



The Chicken Adenovirus Gam1 Protein, an Inhibitor of the Sumoylation Pathway, Partially Complements ICP0-Null Mutant Herpes Simplex Virus 1.  


Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) regulatory protein ICP0 stimulates efficient infection via its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity that causes degradation of several cellular proteins, some of which are sumoylated. Chicken adenovirus Gam1 protein also interferes with the sumoylation pathway, and both proteins disrupt promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) nuclear bodies (NBs). We report that Gam1 increases the infection efficiency of ICP0-null mutant HSV-1 by approximately 100-fold, thus strengthening the hypothesis that PML NB- and sumoylation-related mechanisms are important factors in the control of HSV-1 infection. PMID:24600001

Everett, Roger D; Chiocca, Susanna; Orr, Anne



Iron mediates Trichomonas vaginalis resistance to complement lysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichomonas vaginalis, a sexually transmitted disease agent in humans, is readily lysed by activation of the alternative complement pathway. The parasite became resistant following growth in medium supplemented by iron compared to parasites grown in medium depleted of iron, which were readily killed by complement. The resistance to complement was dependent on iron concentration while divalent cations other than iron

John F. Alderete; Daniele Provenzano; Michael W. Lehker



P-I Snake Venom Metalloproteinase Is Able to Activate the Complement System by Direct Cleavage of Central Components of the Cascade  

PubMed Central

Background Snake Venom Metalloproteinases (SVMPs) are amongst the key enzymes that contribute to the high toxicity of snake venom. We have recently shown that snake venoms from the Bothrops genus activate the Complement system (C) by promoting direct cleavage of C-components and generating anaphylatoxins, thereby contributing to the pathology and spread of the venom. The aim of the present study was to isolate and characterize the C-activating protease from Bothrops pirajai venom. Results Using two gel-filtration chromatography steps, a metalloproteinase of 23 kDa that activates Complement was isolated from Bothrops pirajai venom. The mass spectrometric identification of this protein, named here as C-SVMP, revealed peptides that matched sequences from the P-I class of SVMPs. C-SVMP activated the alternative, classical and lectin C-pathways by cleaving the ?-chain of C3, C4 and C5, thereby generating anaphylatoxins C3a, C4a and C5a. In vivo, C-SVMP induced consumption of murine complement components, most likely by activation of the pathways and/or by direct cleavage of C3, leading to a reduction of serum lytic activity. Conclusion We show here that a P-I metalloproteinase from Bothrops pirajai snake venom activated the Complement system by direct cleavage of the central C-components, i.e., C3, C4 and C5, thereby generating biologically active fragments, such as anaphylatoxins, and by cleaving the C1-Inhibitor, which may affect Complement activation control. These results suggest that direct complement activation by SVMPs may play a role in the progression of symptoms that follow envenomation.

Pidde-Queiroz, Giselle; Magnoli, Fabio Carlos; Portaro, Fernanda C. V.; Serrano, Solange M. T.; Lopes, Aline Soriano; Paes Leme, Adriana Franco; van den Berg, Carmen W.; Tambourgi, Denise V.



Yeast beta-glucan amplifies phagocyte killing of iC3b-opsonized tumor cells via complement receptor 3-Syk-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway.  


Anti-tumor mAbs hold promise for cancer therapy, but are relatively inefficient. Therefore, there is a need for agents that might amplify the effectiveness of these mAbs. One such agent is beta-glucan, a polysaccharide produced by fungi, yeast, and grains, but not mammalian cells. Beta-glucans are bound by C receptor 3 (CR3) and, in concert with target-associated complement fragment iC3b, elicit phagocytosis and killing of yeast. Beta-glucans may also promote killing of iC3b-opsonized tumor cells engendered by administration of anti-tumor mAbs. In this study, we report that tumor-bearing mice treated with a combination of beta-glucan and an anti-tumor mAb show almost complete cessation of tumor growth. This activity evidently derives from a 25-kDa fragment of beta-glucan released by macrophage processing of the parent polysaccharide. This fragment, but not parent beta-glucan, binds to neutrophil CR3, induces CBRM 1/5 neoepitope expression, and elicits CR3-dependent cytotoxicity. These events require phosphorylation of the tyrosine kinase, Syk, and consequent PI3K activation because beta-glucan-mediated CR3-dependent cytotoxicity is greatly decreased by inhibition of these signaling molecules. Thus, beta-glucan enhances tumor killing through a cascade of events, including in vivo macrophage cleavage of the polysaccharide, dual CR3 ligation, and CR3-Syk-PI3K signaling. These results are important inasmuch as beta-glucan, an agent without evident toxicity, may be used to amplify tumor cell killing and may open new opportunities in the immunotherapy of cancer. PMID:16849475

Li, Bing; Allendorf, Daniel J; Hansen, Richard; Marroquin, Jose; Ding, Chuanlin; Cramer, Daniel E; Yan, Jun



Complement associated pathogenic mechanisms in myasthenia gravis.  


The complement system is profoundly involved in the pathogenesis of acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibody (Ab) related myasthenia gravis (MG) and its animal model experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG). The most characteristic finding of muscle pathology in both MG and EAMG is the abundance of IgG and complement deposits at the nerve-muscle junction (NMJ), suggesting that AChR-Ab induces muscle weakness by complement pathway activation and consequent membrane attack complex (MAC) formation. This assumption has been supported with EAMG resistance of complement factor C3 knockout (KO), C4 KO and C5 deficient mice and amelioration of EAMG symptoms following treatment with complement inhibitors such as cobra venom factor, soluble complement receptor 1, anti-C1q, anti-C5 and anti-C6 Abs. Moreover, the complement inhibitor decay accelerating factor (DAF) KO mice exhibit increased susceptibility to EAMG. These findings have brought forward improvisation of novel therapy methods based on inhibition of classical and common complement pathways in MG treatment. PMID:23537510

Tüzün, Erdem; Christadoss, Premkumar



Lectin-induced haemocyte inactivation in insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most multimeric lectins are adhesion molecules, promoting attachment and spreading on surface glycodeterminants. In addition, some lectins have counter-adhesion properties, detaching already spread cells which then acquire round or spindle-formed cell shapes. Since lectin-mediated adhesion and detachment is observed in haemocyte-like Drosophila cells, which have haemomucin as the major lectin-binding glycoprotein, the two opposite cell behaviours may be the result

Richard Glatz; Harry L. S. Roberts; Dongmei Li; Muhammad Sarjan; Ulrich H. Theopold; Sassan Asgari; Otto Schmidt



Overexpression of response gene to complement 32 (RGC32) promotes cell invasion and induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition in lung cancer cells via the NF-?B signaling pathway.  


Response gene to complement 32 (RGC32) is a novel cellular protein that has been reported to be expressed aberrantly in multiple types of human tumors. However, the role of RGC32 in cancer is still controversial, and the molecular mechanisms by which RGC32 contributes to the development of cancer remain largely unknown. In the present study, we constructed a recombinant expression vector pCDNA3.1-RGC32 and transfected it into human lung cancer A549 cells. Stable transformanted cells were identified by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. Functional analysis showed that forced overexpression of RGC32 increased invasive and migration capacities of lung cancer cells in vitro, and induced the acquisition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype, as demonstrated by the spindle-like morphology, downregulation of E-cadherin, and upregulation of Vimentin, Fibronectin, Snail and Slug. Also, overexpression of RGC32 increased expression and activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in A549 cells. Furthermore, the downregulation of E-cadherin induced by RGC32 was remarkably attenuated by nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) inhibitor BAY 11-7028 and small interfering RNA targeting NF-?B p65, suggesting a role of the NF-?B signaling pathway in RGC32-induced EMT. Taken together, our data suggest that RGC32 promotes cell migration and invasion and induces EMT in lung cancer cells via the NF-?B signaling pathway. PMID:23715780

Sun, Qinying; Yao, Xiaopeng; Ning, Yunye; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Guowu; Dong, Yuchao



Lectins in the investigation of receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problems of the purification and characterisation are considered for approximately 270 receptors (including cell surface and organelle enzymes), which are glycoconjugates (mainly glycoproteins) from animals, plants and microorganisms, using various lectins (mainly lectin sorbents). An analysis has been carried out of the stages of lectin affinity chromatography of receptors (choice of detergent, use of organic solvents, elution with carbohydrates, etc.).

V. M. Lakhtin; Igor A. Yamskov



Complement therapy in atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome (aHUS).  


Central to the pathogenesis of atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome (aHUS) is over-activation of the alternative pathway of complement. Inherited defects in complement genes and autoantibodies against complement regulatory proteins have been described. The use of plasma exchange to replace non-functioning complement regulators and hyper-functional complement components in addition to the removal of CFH-autoantibodies made this the 'gold-standard' for management of aHUS. In the last 4 years the introduction of the complement inhibitor Eculizumab has revolutionised the management of aHUS. In this review we shall discuss the available literature on treatment strategies to date. PMID:23810412

Wong, Edwin K S; Goodship, Tim H J; Kavanagh, David



Complement therapy in atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome (aHUS)  

PubMed Central

Central to the pathogenesis of atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome (aHUS) is over-activation of the alternative pathway of complement. Inherited defects in complement genes and autoantibodies against complement regulatory proteins have been described. The use of plasma exchange to replace non-functioning complement regulators and hyper-functional complement components in addition to the removal of CFH-autoantibodies made this the ‘gold-standard’ for management of aHUS. In the last 4 years the introduction of the complement inhibitor Eculizumab has revolutionised the management of aHUS. In this review we shall discuss the available literature on treatment strategies to date.

Wong, Edwin K.S.; Goodship, Tim H.J.; Kavanagh, David



Purified Complement Components and Complement Antisera.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the period covered by this Contract our laboratory will make available to a select group of clinical investigators and medical scientists approximately 120-140 mg of highly purified human complement proteins and approximately 200 ml of monospecific ant...

H. J. Mueller-Eberhard



Biomarkers of terminal complement activation confirm the diagnosis of aHUS and differentiate aHUS from TTP.  


Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is characterized by dysregulated complement activity, the development of a thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), and widespread end organ injury. aHUS remains a clinical diagnosis without an objective laboratory test to confirm the diagnosis. We performed a retrospective analysis of 103 patients enrolled in the Ohio State University TTP/aHUS Registry presenting with an acute TMA. Nineteen patients were clinically categorized as aHUS based on the following criteria: (1) platelet count <100 × 10(9)/L, (2) serum creatinine >2.25 mg/dL, and (3) a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 13 (ADAMTS13) activity >10%. Sixteen of 19 patients were treated with plasma exchange (PEX) therapy, with 6/16 (38%) responding to PEX. Nine patients were treated with eculizumab with 7/9 (78%) responding to therapy. In contrast to thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) patients, no aHUS patients demonstrated ultralarge von Willebrand factor multimers at presentation. Median markers of generalized complement activation (C3a), alternative pathway (Bb), classical/lectin pathway (C4d), and terminal complement activation (C5a and C5b-9) were increased in the plasma of these 19 patients. Compared with a cohort of ADAMTS13-deficient TTP patients (n = 38), C5a and C5-9 were significantly higher in the 19 patients clinically characterized as aHUS, suggesting that pretreatment measurements of complement biomarkers C5a and C5b-9 may confirm the diagnosis of aHUS and differentiate it from TTP. PMID:24695849

Cataland, Spero R; Holers, V Michael; Geyer, Susan; Yang, Shangbin; Wu, Haifeng M



Relation of putative thioester bond in C3 to activation of the alternative pathway and the binding of C3b to biological targets of complement  

PubMed Central

The reaction of [14C]methylamine with native human C3 led to the stoichiometric incorporation of methylamine, loss of hemolytic activity, and the concomitant exposure of a sulfhydryl group that could be labeled with [14C]iodoacetamide. Both labeled sites were located in the C3d portion of the alpha-chain, which is known to contain the metastable binding of C3b. The methylamine-modified C3 [C3(CH3NH2)] was shown to exhibit many of the functional properties of C3b, although the C3a portion of the molecule remained covalently attached. C3(CH3NH2) bound Factor B and beta 1H, and could be cleaved by C3b inactivator in the presence of beta 1H. C3(CH3NH2) added to human serum caused activation of the alternative pathway and consumption of C3. In presence of Factors B and D and Mg++, C3(CH2NH2) formed a C3 convertase. The convertase-forming material could be removed from solution by anti-C3a Sepharose and the preformed convertase was completely inhibited by purified antibody to C3a. This antibody did not affect the function of the C3 convertase that contained C3b. Similar functional properties were exhibited by C3 exposed for short periods of time to relatively low concentrations of chaotropic reagents, such as KSCN or guanidine. These results suggest that the initial C3 convertase of the alternative pathway may be formed from native C3, without proteolysis, by the attack of a variety of nucleophiles including water. The C3 convertase formed from this altered C3 then generates by proteolytic cleavage the initial metastable C3b that is capable of attaching to receptive surfaces. Conversion of C3 to C3b exposes one sulfhydryl residue as does modification of C3 with methylamine. When the C3d portion of C3b bound to zymosan particles via the metastable binding site was treated with radiolabeled methylamine, the fragment was released from the particles in radiolabeled form. These findings are consistent with the concept that native C3 contains an active carbonyl group, probably in the form of a thioester, which can either react with water to form functionally C3b-l;ike C3 or, upon enzymatic conversion of C3 to C3b, allows C3b to form an ester bond with hydroxyl groups on the target surface.



Complement and Humoral Immunity  

PubMed Central

The complement system was discovered almost a century ago as an important effector in antibody-dependent killing of microorganisms. Since this early period much was learned about the biochemistry and structure of complement proteins and their function in mediating inflammation. More recently, a prominent role for complement was identified in linkage of innate and adaptive immunity. In this review, I will discuss our current understanding of the importance of complement in enhancing the humoral immune response to both model antigens and pathogens. As discussed below, it is evident that the complement system participates in marking of “foreign” pathogens and “presenting” them to B cells in a manner that enhances both antibody production and long term memory. In this special issue of Vaccine, we see examples of how complement is critical in the immune response to bacterial and viral pathogens. Moreover, the finding that most organisms have co-evolved proteins to evade complement detection underscores its importance in host protection.

Carroll, Michael C.



Anti-complement therapy for glomerular diseases.  


A major shift in our understanding of glomerular diseases is the focus on which components of the complement pathway are involved in mediating kidney injury. For example, the membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis lesion is no longer classified solely by ultrastructural findings on biopsy and is now divided into immune-complex-mediated lesions vs complement-mediated lesions. In turn, this emphasis on complement leads to interest in therapies that target complement as potential disease-modifying agents. Eculizumab, the first available anti-complement therapy, blocks at the level of C5 and has revolutionized the treatment of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Whether this agent will work equally well for the far more heterogeneous entities of C3 glomerulonephritis and dense deposit disease remains unclear. Instead, newer agents that target C3 may turn out to be the most effective and specific therapy for these C3 glomerulopathies. PMID:24602464

Bomback, Andrew S



Complement activation in acne vulgaris: consumption of complement by comedones.  

PubMed Central

Comedones, the contents of acne lesions, were shown to consume scomplement hemolytic activity in normal serum. This consumption was stimulated by the addition of serum from patients with inflammatory acne. Absorption of acne serum with Propionibacterium acnes cells removed all stimulating activity. Immunoelectrophoretic analysis of serum incubated with comedones revealed the conversion of C3 and factor B in normal serum. The addition of acne serum resulted in cleavage of C4. In serum treated with ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid, only C3 and factor B were converted. This indicates that comedones may activate complement by either the classical or the alternative pathway. It is suggested that P. acnes cells in comedonal material are responsible for the complement activation. Images

Webster, G F; Leyden, J J; Nilsson, U R



Molecular analysis of complement component C4 gene copy number.  


Classical, alternative, or lectin pathways may activate the complement system cascade. The classical pathway includes the C4 protein and functions in the prevention of immune complex precipitation and in clearance of immune complexes.Two isotypes of C4-C4A and C4B-are coded by genes located at two loci within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on chromosome 6. While these isotypes share over 99% amino acid sequence homology, five nucleotide differences located in exon 26 are responsible for major structural and functional differences between the C4 isotypes.C4A and C4B are highly polymorphic with over 40 alleles, gene duplications, and "null alleles". C4 genes may be short (14.6 kb) or long (21 kb), due to the absence or presence of an endogenous retroviral sequence-HERV-K(C4)-in intron 9, respectively. The C4 gene copy number (GCN) can vary from 1-3 per haplotype or 2-6 per diploid genome. The variation in GCN leads to a range of C4 plasma protein concentrations among healthy subjects. In subjects with equal numbers of C4 genes, subjects with short genes have C4 plasma levels relatively higher than subjects with long genes.Variation of the C4 GCN, the gene size (long or short) and the C4 isotypes (C4A and C4B) may also lead to susceptibility to autoimmune disease. Therefore, in subjects with autoimmune disease, a low serum C4 level may be due to ongoing disease activity associated with complement activation and consumption or it may be due to genetic factors. Distinguishing between these will have clinical implications.Exact determination of GCN can be difficult, at least in part due to the high degree of homology between C4A and C4B and a variety of techniques has been described. This chapter describes a quantitative TaqMan real-time PCR (qPCR) copy number assay, based on our laboratory experience using this assay. PMID:22665233

Castley, Alison S L; Martinez, O Patricia



Surviving Mousepox Infection Requires the Complement System  

PubMed Central

Poxviruses subvert the host immune response by producing immunomodulatory proteins, including a complement regulatory protein. Ectromelia virus provides a mouse model for smallpox where the virus and the host's immune response have co-evolved. Using this model, our study investigated the role of the complement system during a poxvirus infection. By multiple inoculation routes, ectromelia virus caused increased mortality by 7 to 10 days post-infection in C57BL/6 mice that lack C3, the central component of the complement cascade. In C3?/? mice, ectromelia virus disseminated earlier to target organs and generated higher peak titers compared to the congenic controls. Also, increased hepatic inflammation and necrosis correlated with these higher tissue titers and likely contributed to the morbidity in the C3?/? mice. In vitro, the complement system in naďve C57BL/6 mouse sera neutralized ectromelia virus, primarily through the recognition of the virion by natural antibody and activation of the classical and alternative pathways. Sera deficient in classical or alternative pathway components or antibody had reduced ability to neutralize viral particles, which likely contributed to increased viral dissemination and disease severity in vivo. The increased mortality of C4?/? or Factor B?/? mice also indicates that these two pathways of complement activation are required for survival. In summary, the complement system acts in the first few minutes, hours, and days to control this poxviral infection until the adaptive immune response can react, and loss of this system results in lethal infection.

Moulton, Elizabeth A.; Atkinson, John P.; Buller, R. Mark L



In vivo interaction between the tobacco lectin and the core histone proteins.  


Nictaba, a lectin accumulating in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaves treated with jasmonate, is considered to act as a signaling protein in the stress physiology of the plant. Immunolocalization studies revealed that Nictaba has a nucleocytoplasmic localization. In previous research, histones were identified as primary interaction partners for Nictaba. Here, the interaction between Nictaba and tobacco histones was scrutinized in vivo. Localization studies, performed in stably transformed Nicotiana benthamiana plants, confirmed the nucleocytoplasmic localization of the lectin and colocalization with the presumed binding partners in the nucleus. Furthermore, bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays confirmed the interaction in vivo. Since BiFC signals were also observed for a Nictaba mutant incapable of binding sugar moieties, this interaction may be mediated by alternative binding sites. The interaction of Nictaba with core histones possibly reflects a role of this stress inducible lectin in gene regulation or chromatin remodeling. PMID:24973587

Delporte, Annelies; De Vos, Winnok H; Van Damme, Els J M



A sialic-acid-specific lectin from Cepaea hortensis that promotes phagocytosis of a group-b, type-Ia, streptococcal strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY. Group-B streptococci that possess a type-specific surface polysaccharide undergo phagocytosis only in the presence of antibodies to this, and complement. The snail Cepaea hortensis forms a lectin that is specific for sialic acid; treatment with this promoted the phagocytosis of a group-B streptococcus of serotype Ia (strain 090) in the absence of opsonic antibodies. The effect of the lectin




Complement-targeted therapeutics.  


The complement system is a central component of innate immunity and bridges the innate to the adaptive immune response. However, it can also turn its destructive capabilities against host cells and is involved in numerous diseases and pathological conditions. Modulation of the complement system has been recognized as a promising strategy in drug discovery, and a large number of therapeutic modalities have been developed. However, successful marketing of complement-targeted drugs has proved to be more difficult than initially expected, and many strategies have been discontinued. The US Food and Drug Administration's approval of the first complement-specific drug, an antibody against complement component C5 (eculizumab; Soliris), in March 2007, was a long-awaited breakthrough in the field. Approval of eculizumab validates the complement system as therapeutic target and might facilitate clinical development of other promising drug candidates. PMID:17989689

Ricklin, Daniel; Lambris, John D



Complement-targeted therapeutics  

PubMed Central

The complement system is a central component of innate immunity and bridges the innate to the adaptive immune response. However, it can also turn its destructive capabilities against host cells and is involved in numerous diseases and pathological conditions. Modulation of the complement system has been recognized as a promising strategy in drug discovery, and a large number of therapeutic modalities have been developed. However, successful marketing of complement-targeted drugs has proved to be more difficult than initially expected, and many strategies have been discontinued. The US Food and Drug Administration’s approval of the first complement-specific drug, an antibody against complement component C5 (eculizumab; Soliris), in March 2007, was a long-awaited breakthrough in the field. Approval of eculizumab validates the complement system as therapeutic target and might facilitate clinical development of other promising drug candidates.

Ricklin, Daniel; Lambris, John D



Platelet Mediated Complement Activation  

PubMed Central

The complement system comprises a series of proteases and inhibitors that are activated in cascade-like fashion during host defense (Makrides 1998). A growing body of evidence supports the hypothesis that immune mechanisms, including complement activation, are involved in inflammatory conditions associated with vascular injury (Acostan, Qin, and Halperin 2004; Giannakopoulos, Passam, Rahgozar, and Krillis 2007), and disseminated intravascular coagulation associated with massive trauma (Huber-Lang, this volume). We propose that platelets and platelet derived microparticles focus complement to sites of vascular injury where regulated complement activation participates in clearing terminally activated platelets and microparticles from the circulation, and dysregulated complement activation contributes to inflammation and thrombosis. Given the central role of platelets in hemostasis and thrombosis, it is not surprising that activated complement components have been demonstrated in many types of atherosclerotic and thrombotic vascular lesions (Torzewsjki, Bowher, Wlatenberger, and Fitzsimmons 2007; Niculescu, Niculescu, and Rus 2004).

Peerschke, Ellinor I. B.; Yin, Wei; Ghebrehiwet, Berhane



Complement in glomerular injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, research into the role of complement in the immunopathogenesis of renal disease has broadened our understanding\\u000a of the fragile balance between the protective and harmful functions of the complement system. Interventions into the complement\\u000a system in various models of immune-mediated renal disease have resulted in both favourable and unfavourable effects and will\\u000a allow us to precisely define

Stefan P. Berger; Mohamed R. Daha



[The mechanisms of fucoidan action on human complement].  


The action of fucoidan (a sulfated polysaccharide) on human serum complement has been under study. Fucoidan inhibited the classical pathway of complement activation up to the complete arrest of the complement-dependent hemolysis achieved at the polysaccharide concentration higher than 200-250 mg per 1 ml of human serum. The classical pathway inhibition by fucoidan seems to be due to the binding to subcomponent C1q. In the alternative pathway, fucoidan also showed an inhibitory effect seen first in dose-dependent elongation of the lag-period preceding complement-dependent hemolysis. Experimental data suggest that fucoidan target is complement factor D, some part of the which (less than 30%) remains stable to the polysaccharide concentration as high as 600 mg/ml. The fucoidan properties described in this study can be used for cell protection against self-activated complement. PMID:16119082

Galebskaia, L V; Riumina, E V; Bogomaz, T A; Preobrazhenskaia, M E



Classical complement pathway component C1q: purification of human C1q, isolation of C1q collagen-like and globular head fragments and production of recombinant C1q-derivatives. Functional characterization.  


The classical complement pathway (CCP) activation is a multimolecular complex, composed of three subcomponents namely C1q, C1r, and C1s. C1q is the recognition subunit of this complex and its binding to the specific targets leads to the formation of active C1, which in turn activates the CCP in an immunoglobulin-dependent or -independent manner. C1q is a hexameric glycoprotein composed of 18 polypeptide chains of three different types (A, B, and C), organized in two fragments-collagen-like (CLR) and globular head (gC1q) possessing different functional activity. The contemporary knowledge of the C1q structure allows the isolation and purification of a C1q molecule from serum by combination of different chromatography procedures including ion-exchange, size-exclusion, and affinity chromatography, as well as the isolation of CLR and gC1q by limited enzymatic hydrolysis of the native C1q molecule. In this chapter, we described methods for purification of human C1q and its CLR and gC1q fragments, as well as methods for their biochemical and functional characterization. The production and purification of recombinant C1q derivatives ghA, ghB, and ghC (globular fragments of the individual C1q chains) are also presented. PMID:24218248

Kojouharova, Mihaela



Analysis of the recognition mechanism of the alternative pathway of complement by monoclonal anti-factor H antibodies: evidence for multiple interactions between H and surface bound C3b.  


The ability of the alternative pathway of complement to discriminate targets as either activators or non-activators is mediated by different binding properties of factor H to surface-associated C3b molecules. In the present study we have probed the interaction between H and C3b using five anti-H mAb. The binding sites of the mAb were mapped by Western blotting using both recombinant and trypsin-generated H fragments. Two mAb bound to CCP1 (90X, 196X), two to CCP5 (MRC OX24, 86X) and one to CCP8-15a (131X). At a molar ratio 2:1 of 125I-H:mAb all tested mAb enhanced binding of H to both activator- and non-activator-bound C3b. At higher concentrations two mAb had an inhibitory effect on H binding to surface-associated C3b (OX24, 131X). Thus the mAb 131X inhibits H binding to surface-bound C3b but unlike OX24 it does not bind to the previously described C3b binding site within or near CCP4-5. These results indicate that there is an additional interaction site on factor H for surface-bound C3b. PMID:8814308

Jokiranta, T S; Zipfel, P F; Hakulinen, J; Kühn, S; Pangburn, M K; Tamerius, J D; Meri, S



Lectins as markers for blood grouping.  


Lectins are unique proteins of varying biological importance. They are characterized by specific binding to carbohydrate residues, whether monosaccharides, disaccharides or polysaccharides. The sugar heads on the surface of the erythrocyte specify the different blood groups. Lectins, as an antigenic determinant of blood group, have come to be an important tool in the identification of different blood groups. A handful of lectins may be considered excellent reagents for anti-A, anti-B, anti-N etc, but the anti-A and anti-M are not yet regarded as commercially suitable antisera. Lectin from Vicia cracca has been proved to be a good anti-A, lectin from Dolichus biflorus can be used as anti-A1, and lectin from Griffonia simplicifolia as anti-B. Lectin from Vicia graminea is said to be a good typing reagent as Anti-N. On the other hand, the lectins involved in polyagglutination are absolutely essential as the reagent of choice and these cannot as yet be replaced by antibodies of any kind. Erythrocytes with exposed cryptantigens are significantly more sensitive to agglutination by certain lectins than by polyclonal antibodies. Peanut agglutinin (PNA), Polybrene, and Glycine max lectins are frequently used for the identification of different cryptantigens. The application of lectins as an anti-B reagent has proven to be as useful as human polyclonal or mouse monoclonal antibodies. Besides their specificity, lectins are excellent reagents because of their lower cost and indigenous production. The importance of various lectins used as markers for blood grouping is discussed. PMID:12503049

Khan, Fauzia; Khan, Rizwan H; Sherwani, Asma; Mohmood, Sameena; Azfer, Md A



Cytotoxic ribosome-inactivating lectins from plants.  


A class of heterodimeric plant proteins consisting of a carbohydrate-binding B-chain and an enzymatic A-chain which act on ribosomes to inhibit protein synthesis are amongst the most toxic substances known. The best known example of such a toxic lectin is ricin, produced by the seeds of the castor oil plant, Ricinnus communis. For ricin to reach its substrate in the cytosol, it must be endocytosed, transported through the endomembrane system to reach the compartment from which it is translocated into the cytosol, and there avoid degradation making it possible for a few molecules to inactivate a large proportion of the ribosomes and hence kill the cell. Cell entry by ricin involves the following steps: (i) binding to cell-surface glycolipids and glycoproteins bearing beta-1,4-linked galactose residues through the lectin activity of the B-chain (RTB); (ii) uptake by endocytosis and entry into early endosomes; (iii) transfer by vesicular transport to the trans-Golgi network; (iv) retrograde vesicular transport through the Golgi complex and into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER); (v) reduction of the disulfide bond connecting the A- and B-chains; (vi) a partial unfolding of the A-chain (RTA) to enable it to translocate across the ER membrane via the Sec61p translocon using the pathway normally followed by misfolded ER proteins for targeting to the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) machinery; (vi) refolding in the cytosol into a protease-resistant, enzymatically active structure; (vii) interaction with the sarcin-ricin domain (SRD) of the large ribosome subunit RNA followed by cleavage of a single N-glycosidic bond in the RNA to generate a depurinated, inactive ribosome. In addition to the highly specific action on ribosomes, ricin and related ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) have a less specific action in vitro on DNA and RNA substrates releasing multiple adenine, and in some instances, guanine residues. This polynucleotide:adenosine glycosidase activity has been implicated in the general antiviral, and specifically, the anti HIV-1 activity of several single-chain RIPs which are homologous to the A-chains of the heterodimeric lectins. However, in the absence of clear cause and effect evidence in vivo, such claims should be regarded with caution. PMID:15450171

Hartley, M R; Lord, J M



Complement in skin diseases.  


Complement is one of the most important mechanisms of natural resistance preventing infections in humans and animals. It is actively involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including skin diseases, characterized by the presence of autoantibodies, foreign microorganisms, altered tissue cells, and the presence of mannan. Complement is intended to kill invading microorganisms but it can also destroy the organism's own damaged or altered cells. It is characterized by vigorous activity and is also potentially harmful for the host if triggered in its own body. This review discusses the significance of complement activation for emerging skin diseases and highlights the importance of serological laboratory tests for the detection of complement system activity alterations in skin diseases such as pemphigus vulgaris, bullous pemphigoid, herpes gestationis, dermatitis herpetiformis, porphyria, urticaria, angioedema, cutaneous vasculitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, partial lipodystrophy, lichen planus, xeroderma pigmentosum, psoriasis, and recurrent cutaneous infections. Finally, we draw attention to the current potential for treating these diseases with complement inhibitors. PMID:21879199

Kotnik, V



Lectin cDNA and transgenic plants derived therefrom  


Transgenic plants containing cDNA encoding Gramineae lectin are described. The plants preferably contain cDNA coding for barley lectin and store the lectin in the leaves. The transgenic plants, particularly the leaves exhibit insecticidal and fungicidal properties.

Raikhel, Natasha V. (Okemos, MI)



Resistance of Acanthamoeba species to complement lysis.  


Acanthamoeba species were evaluated for susceptibility to complement lysis as determined by release of radiolabeled uridine. The 3 Acanthamoeba species tested, A. culbertsoni (ATCC 30171), A. castellanii (ATCC 30010), and A. polyphaga (ATCC 30461), depleted hemolytic complement activity from normal human serum (NHS), yet were resistant to its lytic effects. Examination of microtiter plates containing amoebae incubated in NHS demonstrated formation of a pellet in the wells. Pellet formation was not observed when amoebae were incubated in human cord serum, heat-inactivated serum, or C1q-deficient serum. Ultrastructural examination of serum-treated amoebae revealed the presence of a finely granular substance that surrounded the amoebae. Treatment of amoebae with enzymes or metabolic inhibitors prior to incubation in NHS was performed to investigate the mechanism of complement resistance. Cycloheximide or cytochalasin D pretreatment increased the susceptibility of A. culbertsoni and A. castellanii to complement lysis. Cytochalasin D treatment also increased the susceptibility of A. polyphaga to complement lysis. Inhibition of serine protease activity by phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride increased complement susceptibility of all 3 species of Acanthamoeba. Enzymatic removal of surface components from A. polyphaga or A. castellanii, with trypsin, neuraminidase, or phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PIPLC), did not affect serum resistance. In contrast, PIPLC treatment of A. culbertsoni significantly increased lysis by complement. The ability of Acanthamoeba species to activate the alternative complement pathway yet resist complement-mediated cellular lysis can be attributed to both the release of a transport-dependent extracellular matrix as well as the presence of complement inhibitory surface proteins. PMID:9576508

Toney, D M; Marciano-Cabral, F



Plasma levels of mannan-binding lectin (MBL)-associated serine proteases (MASPs) and MBL-associated protein in cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases  

PubMed Central

Growing evidence suggests a prominent role of the complement system in the pathogenesis of cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases (CVD). Mannan-binding lectin-associated serine proteases (MASPs) MASP-1 and MASP-2 of the complement lectin pathway contribute to clot formation and may represent an important link between inflammation and thrombosis. MBL-associated protein MAp44 has shown cardioprotective effects in murine models. However, MAp44 has never been measured in patients with CVD and data on MASP levels in CVD are scarce. Our aim was to investigate for the first time plasma levels of MAp44 and MASP-1, -2, -3 concomitantly in patients with CVD. We performed a pilot study in 50 healthy volunteers, in stable coronary artery disease (CAD) patients with one-vessel (n = 51) or three-vessel disease (n = 53) and age-matched controls with normal coronary arteries (n = 53), 49 patients after myocardial infarction (MI) and 66 patients with acute ischaemic stroke. We measured MAp44 and MASP-1 levels by in-house time-resolved immunofluorometric assays. MASP-2 and MASP-3 levels were measured using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. MASP-1 levels were highest in subacute MI patients and lowest in acute stroke patients. MASP-2 levels were lower in MI and stroke patients compared with controls and CAD patients. MASP-3 and MAp44 levels did not differ between groups. MASP or MAp44 levels were not associated with severity of disease. MASP and MAp44 levels were associated with cardiovascular risk factors including dyslipidaemia, obesity and hypertension. Our results suggest that MASP levels may be altered in vascular diseases. Larger studies are needed to confirm our results and elucidate the underlying mechanisms.

Frauenknecht, V; Thiel, S; Storm, L; Meier, N; Arnold, M; Schmid, J-P; Saner, H; Schroeder, V



Recombinant lectin microarrays for glycomic analysis.  


The cell surface is covered with a myriad of carbohydrates that form a complex matrix of oligosaccharides. Carbohydrate recognition plays critical roles in pathogenesis, trafficking, and differentiation. Lectin microarray technology presents a novel platform for the high-throughput analysis of these structurally diverse biopolymers. One drawback of this technology has been limitations imposed by the commercially available plant lectins used in the array. Not only are a majority of these plant-derived proteins glycosylated, which can complicate glycomic analysis, but they also differ in activity and availability. Our lab has recently introduced recombinant lectins to enhance the stability and scope of our lectin panel. Herein, we provide a detailed procedure for the expression of bacterially-derived lectins and their application to a recombinant lectin microarray. PMID:21370060

Propheter, Daniel C; Hsu, Ku-Lung; Mahal, Lara K



Recombinant expression of the autocatalytic complement protease MASP-1 is crucially dependent on co-expression with its inhibitor, C1 inhibitor.  


MASP-1 is a protease of the lectin pathway of complement. It is homologous with MASP-2, previously thought both necessary and sufficient for lectin pathway activation. Recently MASP-1 has taken centre stage with the observation that it is crucial to the activation of MASP-2 and thus central to complement activation. Numerous additional functions have been suggested for MASP-1 and its importance is obvious. Yet, thorough analyses of proteolytic activities and physiological roles in the human scenario have been hampered by difficulties in purifying or producing full-length human MASP-1. We present the successful expression of full-length recombinant human MASP-1 entirely in the zymogen form in a mammalian expression system. We found that the catalytic activity of MASP-1 suppresses its expression through rapid auto-activation and auto-degradation. This auto-degradation was not inhibited by the addition of inhibitors to the culture medium, and it was subsequently found to occur intracellularly. Numerous mutations aimed at attenuating auto-activation or preventing auto-degradation failed to rescue expression, as did also attempts at stabilizing the protease by co-expression with MBL or ficolins or expression in hepatocyte cell lines, representing the natural site of synthesis. The active protease was finally produced through co-expression with the serine protease inhibitor C1 inhibitor. We demonstrate that the expressed protease is capable of binding MBL and auto-activating, and is catalytically active. We have generalized the concept to the expression also of MASP-2 entirely in its zymogen form and with improved yields. We suggest a general advantage of expressing aggressive, autocatalytic proteases with their cognate inhibitors. PMID:23314348

Degn, Sřren E; Thiel, Steffen; Jensenius, Jens C



Mechanism of complement resistance of pathogenic Borrelia burgdorferi isolates.  


Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, differ in their susceptibility to normal human serum and are consequently classified as complement-resistant, complement-sensitive and intermediate complement-sensitive. Most isolates belonging to the genospecies B. afzelii are complement-resistant, while particularly B. garinii isolates were rapidly killed by complement. In general, isolates of the genospecies B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) are intermediate complement-sensitive. Independent of the genospecies, all Borreliae were capable to activate the classical and/or the alternative pathway. Deposition of the activation products C3, C6, and TCC is much stronger by B. burgdorferi s.s. and B. garinii isolates than by B. afzelii isolates. The mechanism(s) on how Borreliae evade complement-mediated bacteriolysis has recently been described by showing that complement-resistant B. afzelii isolates but not the complement-sensitive B. garinii isolates absorb human complement regulators FHL-1/reconectin and factor H. Surface-attached FHL-1/reconectin maintains its complement regulatory activity and supports factor I-mediated C3b cleavage to iC3b. In complement-resistant Borreliae, two outer surface proteins, the 27.5 kDa (CRASP-1, complement regulator-acquiring surface protein 1) and the 20/21 kDa (CRASP-2), are responsible for the surface attachment of the two complement regulators. CRASP-1, which is present in complement-resistant Borreliae, binds preferentially FHL-1/reconectin while CRASP-2, which is restrictively expressed, binds preferentially factor H. Thus, complement-resistant Borreliae bind human complement regulators and control complement activation on their surface and prevent the formation of toxic activation products. PMID:11367524

Kraiczy, P; Skerka, C; Kirschfink, M; Zipfel, P F; Brade, V



Cardioprotective mechanisms of spironolactone associated with the angiotensin-converting enzyme/epidermal growth factor receptor/extracellular signal-regulated kinases, NAD(P)H oxidase/lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1, and Rho-kinase pathways in aldosterone/salt-induced hypertensive rats.  


Studies were performed to test the hypothesis that the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)/epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) pathway, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD(P)H) oxidase/lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) pathway, and Rho-kinase pathway contribute to the pathogenesis of aldosterone/salt-induced hypertensive rats. Wistar rats were given 1% NaCl to drink and treated with one of the following combinations for 6 weeks: vehicle; aldosterone (0.75 microg/h); aldosterone plus a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, spironolactone (20 mg/kg/day); aldosterone plus an ACE inhibitor, imidapril (1 mg/kg/day); aldosterone plus an NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor, apocynin (0.5 mmol/l); and aldosterone plus an Rho-kinase inhibitor, Y-27632 (3 mg/kg/day). Upregulated expression of ACE and EGFR and p44/p42ERK phosphorylation were suppressed by spironolactone or imidapril. Upregulated NAD(P)H oxidase subunits and LOX-1 expression were inhibited by spironolactone or apocynin. Increased expression of RhoA and Rho-kinase and myosin light chain phosphorylation were decreased by spironolactone or Y-27632. Moreover, these drugs effectively inhibited the vascular lesion formation, as measured by the medial thickness and level of perivascular fibrosis, and suppressed the expression of transforming growth factor-beta1, type I and III collagen, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 mRNA. Spironolactone may be useful as a cardioprotective agent to prevent cardiovascular remodeling via the ACE/EGFR/ERK, NAD(P)H oxidase/LOX-1, and Rho-kinase pathways. PMID:16555582

Nakano, Shigefumi; Kobayashi, Naohiko; Yoshida, Kohtaro; Ohno, Tomoyuki; Matsuoka, Hiroaki



Influence of Lectins on Constricting Ring Formation by Arthrobotrys dactyloides  

PubMed Central

Incubation of Arthrobotrys dactyloides conidia in the presence of Radopholus citrophilus in lectin solutions with their corresponding sugars did not alter the stimulation of trap formation in solutions containing lectins alone. The lack of inhibition of lectin-stimulated trap formation by sugars or by lectin denaturation and the lack of lectin specificity indicate that the carbohydrate-binding regions of the particular lectins studied are not the stimulatory moieties of these macromolecules.

Kaplan, D. T.; Davis, E. L.; Walter, D. E.



A new assay for functional lectins: the brush border lectin agglutination assay (BBLAA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method, the brush border lectin agglutination assay (BBLAA), has been developed to measure the capacity of functional lectins to agglutinate the intestinal brush border membrane. Lectins were incubated with purified chick small intestinal brush border vesicles, agglutinated membrane was isolated by low speed centrifugation and then assayed using alkaline phosphatase as a marker. The brush border agglutination activity

Geoffrey G Irish; David D Maenz; Henry L Classen



Plant as a plenteous reserve of lectin  

PubMed Central

Lectins are clusters of glycoproteins of nonimmune foundation that combine specifically and reversibly to carbohydrates, mainly the sugar moiety of glycoconjugates, resulting in cell agglutination and precipitation of glycoconjugates. They are universally distributed in nature, being established in plants, fungi, viruses, bacteria, crustacea, insects, and animals, but leguminacae plants are rich source of lectins. The present review reveals the structure, biological properties, and application of plant lectins.

Hivrale, AU; Ingale, AG



Autocrine Effects of Tumor-Derived Complement  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY We describe a role for the complement system in enhancing cancer growth. Cancer cells secrete complement proteins that stimulate tumor growth upon activation. Complement promotes tumor growth via a direct autocrine effect that is partially independent of tumor-infiltrating cytotoxic T cells. Activated C5aR and C3aR signal through the PI3K/AKT pathway in cancer cells, and silencing the PI3K or AKT gene in cancer cells eliminates the progrowth effects of C5aR and C3aR stimulation. In patients with ovarian or lung cancer, higher tumoral C3 or C5aR mRNA levels were associated with decreased overall survival. These data identify a role for tumor-derived complement proteins in promoting tumor growth, and they therefore have substantial clinical and therapeutic implications.

Cho, Min Soon; Vasquez, Hernan G.; Rupaimoole, Rajesha; Pradeep, Sunila; Wu, Sherry; Zand, Behrouz; Han, Hee-Dong; Rodriguez-Aguayo, Cristian; Bottsford-Miller, Justin; Huang, Jie; Miyake, Takahito; Choi, Hyun-Jin; Dalton, Heather J.; Ivan, Cristina; Baggerly, Keith; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Sood, Anil K.; Afshar-Kharghan, Vahid



Autocrine effects of tumor-derived complement.  


We describe a role for the complement system in enhancing cancer growth. Cancer cells secrete complement proteins that stimulate tumor growth upon activation. Complement promotes tumor growth via a direct autocrine effect that is partially independent of tumor-infiltrating cytotoxic T cells. Activated C5aR and C3aR signal through the PI3K/AKT pathway in cancer cells, and silencing the PI3K or AKT gene in cancer cells eliminates the progrowth effects of C5aR and C3aR stimulation. In patients with ovarian or lung cancer, higher tumoral C3 or C5aR mRNA levels were associated with decreased overall survival. These data identify a role for tumor-derived complement proteins in promoting tumor growth, and they therefore have substantial clinical and therapeutic implications. PMID:24613353

Cho, Min Soon; Vasquez, Hernan G; Rupaimoole, Rajesha; Pradeep, Sunila; Wu, Sherry; Zand, Behrouz; Han, Hee-Dong; Rodriguez-Aguayo, Cristian; Bottsford-Miller, Justin; Huang, Jie; Miyake, Takahito; Choi, Hyun-Jin; Dalton, Heather J; Ivan, Cristina; Baggerly, Keith; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Sood, Anil K; Afshar-Kharghan, Vahid



Effects of two serine proteases from Bothrops pirajai snake venom on the complement system and the inflammatory response.  


The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of two serine proteases from Bothrops pirajai snake venom, named BpirSP27 and BpirSP41, on the complement system and the inflammatory response. The effects of these enzymes on the human complement system were assessed by kinetic hemolytic assays, evaluating the hemolysis promoted by the classical/lectin (CP/LP) and alternative (AP) pathways after incubation of normal human serum with the serine proteases. The results suggested that these enzymes were able to induce modulation of CP/LP and AP at different levels: BpirSP41 showed higher inhibitory effects on the hemolytic activity of CP/LP than BpirSP27, with inhibition values close to 40% and 20%, respectively, for the highest concentration assayed. Regarding AP, both enzymes showed percentages of inhibition of the hemolytic activity around 20% for the highest concentrations tested, indicating similar effects on this complement pathway. The proinflammatory effects of B. pirajai serine proteases were evaluated regarding their ability to induce paw edema, variations in the pain threshold and leukocyte recruitment at the site of injection. Both showed mild effects on these inflammatory processes, leading to low levels of increase of paw volumes and decrease in pain thresholds in rats up to 6 h after injection, and inducing neutrophil recruitment without significant increases in the total number of leukocytes in the inflammatory exudates after 6 and 24 h of administration into mice peritoneal cavity. These results suggest that serine proteases must present a minor role in the inflammation caused by B. pirajai snake venom. PMID:23499645

Menaldo, Danilo L; Bernardes, Carolina P; Pereira, Juliana C; Silveira, Denise S C; Mamede, Carla C N; Stanziola, Leonilda; Oliveira, Fábio de; Pereira-Crott, Luciana S; Faccioli, Lúcia H; Sampaio, Suely V



Ascitic complement system in ovarian cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ovarian cancer spreads intraperitoneally and forms fluid, whereby the diagnosis and therapy often become delayed. As the complement (C) system may provide a cytotoxic effector arm for both immunological surveillance and mAb-therapy, we have characterised the C system in the intraperitoneal ascitic fluid (AF) from ovarian cancer patients. Most of the AF samples showed alternative and classical pathway haemolytic activity.

L Bjřrge; J Hakulinen; O K Vintermyr; H Jarva; T S Jensen; O E Iversen; S Meri



Tissue Targeted Complement Modulators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Systemic suppression of the complement system has been shown to be effective to treat inflammatory disease, yet at the potential cost of compromising host defense and immune homeostasis. Herein disclosed are methods for antigen-specific targeting of compl...

R. J. Quigg S. Tomlinson



Complement in the Brain  

PubMed Central

The brain is considered to be an immune privileged site, because the blood-brain barrier limits entry of blood borne cells and proteins into the central nervous system (CNS). As a result, the detection and clearance of invading microorganisms and senescent cells as well as surplus neurotransmitters, aged and glycated proteins, in order to maintain a healthy environment for neuronal and glial cells, is largely confined to the innate immune system. In recent years it has become clear that many factors of innate immunity are expressed throughout the brain. Neuronal and glial cells express Toll like receptors as well as complement receptors, and virtually all complement components can be locally produced in the brain, often in response to injury or developmental cues. However, as inflammatory reactions could interfere with proper functioning of the brain, tight and fine tuned regulatory mechanisms are warranted. In age related diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), accumulating amyloid proteins elicit complement activation and a local, chronic inflammatory response that leads to attraction and activation of glial cells that, under such activation conditions, can produce neurotoxic substances, including pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxygen radicals. This process may be exacerbated by a disturbed balance between complement activators and complement regulatory proteins such as occurs in AD, as the local synthesis of these proteins is differentially regulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines. Much knowledge about the role of complement in neurodegenerative diseases has been derived from animal studies with transgenic overexpressing or knockout mice for specific complement factors or receptors. These studies have provided insight into the potential therapeutic use of complement regulators and complement receptor antagonists in chronic neurodegenerative diseases as well as in acute conditions, such as stroke. Interestingly, recent animal studies have also indicated that complement activation products are involved in brain development and synapse formation. Not only are these findings important for the understanding of how brain development and neural network formation is organized, it may also give insights into the role of complement in processes of neurodegeneration and neuroprotection in the injured or aged and diseased adult central nervous system, and thus aid in identifying novel and specific targets for therapeutic intervention.

Veerhuis, Robert; Nielsen, Henrietta M.; Tenner, Andrea J.



Complement in respiratory immunopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following a review of the fundamental aspects of the complement system and analytical methods, the authors discuss the pathology\\u000a of complement as it relates to the respiratory system. Hereditary angioneurotic edema is a genetically transmitted deficiency\\u000a in the amount or function of the C 1 esterase inhibitor. This disease is responsable for asphyxia caused by laryngeal edema,\\u000a and it is

C. Molina; J. Brun; D. Wahl



Soluble beta-glucan polysaccharide binding to the lectin site of neutrophil or natural killer cell complement receptor type 3 (CD11b/CD18) generates a primed state of the receptor capable of mediating cytotoxicity of iC3b-opsonized target cells.  

PubMed Central

When phagocyte CR3 binds to iC3b on bacteria or yeast, phagocytosis and degranulation are triggered because of simultaneous recognition of iC3b via a CD11b I-domain binding site and specific microbial polysaccharides via a lectin site located COOH-terminal to the I-domain. By contrast, when phagocyte or natural killer (NK) cell CR3 adheres to iC3b on erythrocytes or tumor cells that lack CR3-binding membrane polysaccharides, neither lysis nor cytotoxicity are stimulated. This investigation showed that soluble CR3-specific polysaccharides such as beta-glucan induced a primed state of CR3 that could trigger killing of iC3b-target cells that were otherwise resistant to cytotoxicity. Anti-CR3 added before sugars prevented priming, whereas anti-CR3 added after sugars blocked primed CR3 attachment to iC3b-targets. Polysaccharide priming required tyrosine kinase(s) and a magnesium-dependent conformational change of the I-domain that exposed the CBRM1/5 activation epitope. Unlike LPS or cytokines, polysaccharides did not up-regulate neutrophil CR3 expression nor expose the mAb 24 reporter epitope representing the high affinity ICAM-1-binding state. The current data apparently explain the mechanism of tumoricidal beta-glucans used for immunotherapy. These polysaccharides function through binding to phagocyte or NK cell CR3, priming the receptor for cytotoxicity of neoplastic tissues that are frequently targeted with iC3b and sparing normal tissues that lack iC3b.

Vetvicka, V; Thornton, B P; Ross, G D



A mushroom lectin from ascomycete Cordyceps militaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mushroom lectin has been purified from ascomycete Cordyceps militaris, which is one of the most popular mushrooms in eastern Asia used as a nutraceutical and in traditional Chinese medicine. This lectin, designated CML, exhibited hemagglutination activity in mouse and rat erythrocytes, but not in human ABO erythrocytes. SDS-PAGE of CML revealed a single band with a molecular mass of

Eui Cha Jung; Ki Don Kim; Chan Hyung Bae; Ju Cheol Kim; Dae Kyong Kim; Ha Hyung Kim



Innate immune lectins kill bacteria expressing blood group antigen  

PubMed Central

The expression of ABO(H) blood group antigens causes deletion of cells that generate self anti-blood group antibodies, but this deletion limits adaptive immunity toward pathogens bearing cognate blood group antigens. To explore potential defense mechanisms against these pathogens, given such limitations in adaptive immunity, we screened for innate proteins that could recognize human blood group antigens. Here we report that two innate immune lectins, galectins-4 and -8, which are expressed in the intestinal tract, recognize and kill human blood group antigen-expressing E. coli, while failing to alter viability of other E. coli strains or other gram-negative or gram-positive organisms both in vitro and in vivo. Killing by both galectins-4 and -8 resides within their C-terminal domains, occurs rapidly and independently of complement, and is accompanied by disruption of membrane integrity. These results demonstrate that innate defense lectins can provide immunity against pathogens that display blood group self-antigens on their surface.

Stowell, Sean R.; Arthur, Connie M.; Dias-Baruffi, Marcelo; Rodrigues, Lilian C.; Gourdine, Jean-Philippe; Heimburg-Molinaro, Jamie; Ju, Tongzhong; Molinaro, Ross J.; Rivera-Marrero, Carlos; Xia, Baoyun; Smith, David F.; Cummings, Richard D.



Novel roles for complement receptors in T cell regulation and beyond.  


Complement receptors are expressed on cells of the innate and the adaptive immune system. They play important roles in pathogen and danger sensing as they translate the information gathered by complement fluid phase sensors into cellular responses. Further, they control complement activation on viable and apoptotic host cells, clearance of immune complexes and mediate opsonophagocytosis. More recently, evidence has accumulated that complement receptors form a complex network with other innate receptors systems such as the Toll-like receptors, the Notch signaling system, IgG Fc receptors and C-type lectin receptors contributing to the benefit and burden of innate and adaptive immune responses in autoimmune and allergic diseases as well as in cancer and transplantation. Here, we will discuss recent developments and emerging concepts of complement receptor activation and regulation with a particular focus on the differentiation, maintenance and contraction of effector and regulatory T cells. PMID:23796748

Kemper, Claudia; Köhl, Jörg



[Complement fragments in patients with bronchial asthma].  


In this study, we investigated the pharmacological reactions induced by ibudilast to the complement system with the aim of clarifying the functional relation of the complement system to allergic reactions and pathology in patients with bronchial asthma. Complement hemolytic activities (CH50 and ACH50), complement profile, anaphylatoxins (C3a and C5a) and complement fragments (Bb, iC3b and C4d) were measured in 20 patients with bronchial asthma. One of antiasthmatic activities induced by ibudilast was concluded to be brought about though inactivation of the alternative complement pathway working on type III allergic reaction. Ibudilast increased the complement fragment Bb in the patients' plasma with the fairly controlled bronchial asthma. This increase in circulating Bb was suspected to be a result of inactivation of intermediate complement complexes, for example C3b.Bb.P, because the amounts in plasma of C3 and C5 showed no changes, while those of factor, B, P, H and I were decreased by ibudilast administration in patients with fairly controlled bronchial asthma. This antiasthmatic ability of ibudilast was restrained in those patients whose peripheral leukocytopenia was advanced before ibudilast administration, and in those whom ibudilast did not provoke an increase in the plasma level of iC3b, or did not prevent the serum level of C5 from increasing. In those unfairly controlled cases, enough anaphylatoxins, especially C5a might be produced to make the margination of peripheral neutrophils to the lung and increase CR3 on neutrophils binding with iC3b. PMID:1772350

Onodera, H; Okamoto, M; Takemura, S; Doi, T; Kasamatsu, Y; Yanagida, K; Fukuda, W; Tanaka, M; Deguchi, M; Ueda, M



Mannose Binding Lectin Deficiency: More than Meets the Eye  

PubMed Central

This case report describes a 5-year-old boy who presented to the emergency department with clinical symptoms and chest X-ray findings suggestive of pneumonia. Further history revealed multiple other infections, and workup for immunodeficiency revealed a deficiency of mannose-binding lectin (MBL), a pattern recognition receptor involved in activation of the complement system. Innate immunodeficiency may be more common than currently appreciated, with mutations of MBL affecting up to 50% of individuals in some populations. While pneumonia is a common presentation in the Pediatric Emergency Department, clinical presentations of children with defects of innate immunity can be unpredictable. Children may initially appear well with sudden deterioration. These cases pose particular challenges to physicians, and the level of suspicion for innate defects must remain high. It is crucial to identify patients with such impairments to better manage and prevent future complications.

Halbrich, Michelle; Ben-Shoshan, Moshe; McCusker, Christine



Animal models for complement deficiencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complement system plays a key role in host defense and in the development of autoimmunity. Three types of animal models of complement-mediated disease have traditionally been used: they involve normal animals, animals with spontaneously arising genetic deficiency, and animals treated with complement-inactivating agents. All of these approaches have had partial success in our attempts to understand complement mechanisms. Most

Michael M. Frank



Complement Activation and Prognosis in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Myocardial Infarction  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The activation of the complement system may be involved in the pathology of myocardial infarction (MI) and type 2 diabetes. To explore their potential as prognostic markers, we characterized two factors in the complement cascade, the end product sC5b-9 and the mannose-binding lectin–associated Ser protease-2 (MASP-2), in type 2 diabetic patients with suspected MI. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Plasma sC5b-9 and MASP-2 were determined in patients with MI and type 2 diabetes (n = 397; median age 70; male 68%). The adjudicated end points were cardiovascular events (CVEs), including cardiovascular mortality and nonfatal MI or stroke. RESULTS The median sC5b-9 was 134 ?g/L (interquartile range [IQR] 101–190 ?g/L) and the median MASP-2 was 333 ?g/L (IQR 235–463 ?g/L), with no significant correlation between them. Women had higher sC5b-9 than men (median 152 vs. 130 ?g/L; P = 0.02). Both sC5b-9 and MASP-2 were correlated to age and creatinine clearance, while MASP-2 was also correlated to BMI. During a median follow-up of 2.4 years, CVEs occurred in 141 patients (36%). Both sC5b-9 (hazard ratio 1.37 [95% CI 1.13–1.65]; P < 0.01) and MASP-2 (0.68 [0.51–0.92]; P = 0.01) predicted CVEs in unadjusted analyses. After multiple adjustments, the predictive capacity remained for sC5b-9 (1.30 [1.02–1.66]; P = 0.04) but not for MASP-2. CONCLUSIONS In type 2 diabetic patients with MI, high levels of sC5b-9 predict future CVE. This indicates that the complement system may play a significant role in the pathology of the subsequent myocardial damage and that the pathways leading to complement activation warrant further exploration as potential therapeutic targets to improve the prognosis for these patients.

Mellbin, Linda G.; Bjerre, Mette; Thiel, Steffen; Hansen, Troels K.



Lectins in Castor Bean Seedlings 1  

PubMed Central

The amounts of the two lectins (ricin and Ricinus communis agglutinin) in tissues of castor bean seedlings were followed during germination and early growth. For measurement, lectins in extracts were separately eluted from Sepharose columns; an antibody to the agglutinin was also used to detect the lectins by immunodiffusion. The endosperm of the dry seed contains 3.5 mg total lectin (5.6% of the total seed protein), which declines by 50% by day 4 and more rapidly thereafter as the tissue is completely consumed. The cotyledons of the dry seed also contain lectins but the amounts are less than 1% of those in the endosperm, and, as in the endosperm, they are constituents of the albumin fraction of the isolated protein bodies. No lectins were detected in the green cotyledons of 10-day seedlings that had been exposed to light from day 5. The embryonic axes of 2-day seedlings contained very small amounts of lectins but they were not detectable in the aerial parts of seedlings grown for 3 weeks or in cells from endosperm grown in tissue culture. The ability of proteinases and glycosidases (isolated from endosperm of 4-day seedlings) to hydrolyze the lectins was examined. No hydrolysis of the two lectins was observed, but the subunits, separated by reduction with 2-mercaptoethanol, were hydrolyzed slowly by a proteinase and some release of mannose was observed in the presence of the glycosidases. Ricin was converted to its subunits by cysteine and an enzyme in an endosperm extract accelerated chain separation by glutathione. Images Fig. 3

Harley, Suzanne M.; Beevers, Harry



Aeromonas salmonicida resistance to complement-mediated killing.  

PubMed Central

The resistance of Aeromonas salmonicida to complement-mediated killing was investigated by using different strains and their isogenic mutants that had been previously characterized for their surface components. We found that the classical complement pathway is involved in serum killing of susceptible A. salmonicida strains, while the alternative complement pathway seems not to be involved. All of the A. salmonicida strains are able to activate complement, but the smooth strains (with or without the A-layer) are resistant to complement-mediated killing. The reasons for this resistance are that C3b may be bound far from the cell membrane and that it is rapidly degraded; therefore, the lytic final complex C5b-9 (membrane attack complex) is not formed. Isogenic rough mutants are serum sensitive because they bind more C3b than the smooth strains, and if C3b is not completely degraded, then the lytic complex (C5b-9) is formed. Images

Merino, S; Alberti, S; Tomas, J M



Interaction of complex polysaccharides with the complement system: effect of calcium depletion on terminal component consumption.  

PubMed Central

Complex polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides can activate the terminal components of complement by either the classical (antibody, C1, C4, and C2) or alternative complement pathways, but the relative importance of either pathway for terminal component consumption in normal serum is poorly understood. Since classical complement pathway function requires both calcium and magnesium ions, whereas the alternative pathway requires only magnesium ions, selective chelation of calcium ions in serum can be used to block the classical complement pathway while leaving the alternative pathway intact. In these studies, ethyleneglycol-bis-(beta-aminoethyl ether)N, N-tetraacetic acid, a potent chelator or calcium, was used to block the classical complement pathway in normal guinea pig serum.Consumption of the terminal complement components by endotoxin, inulin, and zymosan in such serum was strikingly depressed when compared to serum containing an intact classical complement pathway. These studies demonstrate that in normal serum, both the classical and alternative complement pathways participate in the consumption of the terminal complement components by complex polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides.

Snyderman, R; Pike, M C



The Regulation of Liver Cell Survival by Complement1  

PubMed Central

Complement effectors are known to contribute to host cell injury in several inflammatory diseases. Contrary to this paradigm, in this study utilizing surgical liver resection (partial hepatectomy) in various complement-deficient mice as a model, we have demonstrated that complement anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a are required for the survival of liver cells during regeneration. The mechanisms of these cytoprotective functions of complement were related to the regulation of IL-6 and TNF production or release after liver resection. Disturbances in the cytokine milieu, induced by a loss of complement activity, were found to alter prosurvival signaling, including the IL-6/STAT3 and PI3K/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin pathways. In conclusion, this study documents functions of complement proteins as prosurvival factors that, through their interactions with cytokines, inhibit apoptotic signaling in proliferating cells of epithelial origin.

Markiewski, Maciej M.; DeAngelis, Robert A.; Strey, Christoph W.; Foukas, Periklis G.; Gerard, Craig; Gerard, Norma; Wetsel, Rick A.; Lambris, John D.



The regulation of liver cell survival by complement.  


Complement effectors are known to contribute to host cell injury in several inflammatory diseases. Contrary to this paradigm, in this study utilizing surgical liver resection (partial hepatectomy) in various complement-deficient mice as a model, we have demonstrated that complement anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a are required for the survival of liver cells during regeneration. The mechanisms of these cytoprotective functions of complement were related to the regulation of IL-6 and TNF production or release after liver resection. Disturbances in the cytokine milieu, induced by a loss of complement activity, were found to alter prosurvival signaling, including the IL-6/STAT3 and PI3K/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin pathways. In conclusion, this study documents functions of complement proteins as prosurvival factors that, through their interactions with cytokines, inhibit apoptotic signaling in proliferating cells of epithelial origin. PMID:19380788

Markiewski, Maciej M; DeAngelis, Robert A; Strey, Christoph W; Foukas, Periklis G; Gerard, Craig; Gerard, Norma; Wetsel, Rick A; Lambris, John D



Complement activation by ceramide transporter proteins.  


C1q is the initiator of the classical complement pathway and, as such, is essential for efficient opsonization and clearance of pathogens, altered self-structures, and apoptotic cells. The ceramide transporter protein (CERT) and its longer splicing isoform CERTL are known to interact with extracellular matrix components, such as type IV collagen, and with the innate immune protein serum amyloid P. In this article, we report a novel function of CERT in the innate immune response. Both CERT isoforms, when immobilized, were found to bind the globular head region of C1q and to initiate the classical complement pathway, leading to activation of C4 and C3, as well as generation of the membrane attack complex C5b-9. In addition, C1q was shown to bind to endogenous CERTL on the surface of apoptotic cells. These results demonstrate the role of CERTs in innate immunity, especially in the clearance of apoptotic cells. PMID:24395916

Bode, Gerard H; Losen, Mario; Buurman, Wim A; Veerhuis, Robert; Molenaar, Peter C; Steinbusch, Harry W M; De Baets, Marc H; Daha, Mohamed R; Martinez-Martinez, Pilar



Complement inhibition: a promising concept for cancer treatment  

PubMed Central

For decades, complement has been recognized as an effector arm of the immune system that contributes to the destruction of tumor cells. In fact, many therapeutic strategies have been proposed that are based on the intensification of complement-mediated responses against tumors. However, recent studies have challenged this paradigm by demonstrating a tumor-promoting role for complement. Cancer cells seem to be able to establish a convenient balance between complement activation and inhibition, taking advantage of complement initiation without suffering its deleterious effects. Complement activation may support chronic inflammation, promote an immunosuppressive microenvironment, induce angiogenesis, and activate cancer-related signaling pathways. In this context, inhibition of complement activation would be a therapeutic option for treating cancer. This concept is relatively novel and deserves closer attention. In this paper, we will summarize the mechanisms of complement activation on cancer cells, the cancer-promoting effect of complement initiation, and the rationale behind the use of complement inhibition as a therapeutic strategy against cancer.

Pio, Ruben; Ajona, Daniel; Lambris, John D.



Developmental changes and tissue distribution of lectin in Tulipa.  


A sensitive enzyme-immunoassay was developed to quantify the tulip lectin and used to follow its distribution during the life cycle of tulips cv. Attila.The tulip lectin is predominantly located in the bulbs. At planting time the absolute lectin concentration is approximately the same in all bulb scales. However, as the shoot grows and the plant turns on to flowering, the lectin concentration rapidly decreases, first in the inner bulb scales but later also in the outer bulb scale. Soon after flowering the lectin rapidly accumulates in the new daughter bulbs.Lectin levels in leaves, stems and flowers are very low. The lectin in these tissues is already present before the sprout emerges. During the first two weeks after planting, there is a small increase in lectin concentration, followed by a rapid decrease as the plant turns on to flowering. By flowering time all the lectin has disappeared from the aerial parts. PMID:24212544

Van Damme, E J; Peumans, W J



Transgenic Mice Overexpressing the Complement Inhibitor Crry as a Soluble Protein Are Protected from Antibody-induced Glomerular Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Complement receptor 1-related gene\\/protein y (Crry) is a potent murine membrane comple- ment regulator that inhibits classical and alternative pathway C3 convertases. In nephrotoxic serum (NTS) nephritis, injected antibodies (Abs) bind to glomeruli, leading to complement ac- tivation and subsequent glomerular injury and albuminuria. To study the phenotypic effects of continuous complement pathway blockade, transgenic mice were created that

Richard J. Quigg; Chun He; Alice Lim; Dawn Berthiaume; Jessy J. Alexander; Damian Kraus; V. Michael Holers


C-type lectin-like domains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbohydrate-recognition domains of C-type (Ca2+-dependent) animal lectins serve as prototypes for an important family of protein modules. Only some domains in this family bind Ca2+ or sugars. A comparison of recent structures of C-type lectin-like domains reveals diversity in the modular fold, particularly in the region associated with Ca2+ and sugar binding. Some of this diversity reflects the changes that

Kurt Drickamer



Excretion of complement proteins and its activation marker C5b-9 in IgA nephropathy in relation to renal function  

PubMed Central

Background Glomerular damage in IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is mediated by complement activation via the alternative and lectin pathways. Therefore, we focused on molecules stabilizing and regulating the alternative pathway C3 convertase in urine which might be associated with IgAN pathogenesis. Methods Membrane attack complex (MAC), properdin (P), factor H (fH) and Complement receptor type 1 (CR1) were quantified in urine samples from 71 patients with IgAN and 72 healthy controls. Glomerular deposition of C5, fH and P was assessed using an immunofluorescence technique and correlated with histological severity of IgAN and clinical parameters. Fibrotic changes and glomerular sclerosis were evaluated in renal biopsy specimens. Results Immunofluorescence studies revealed glomerular depositions of C5, fH and P in patients with IgAN. Urinary MAC, fH and P levels in IgAN patients were significantly higher than those in healthy controls (p < 0.001), but CR1 was significantly lower than that in healthy controls (p < 0.001). Urinary MAC and fH levels were positively correlated with serum creatinine (sCr), urinary N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase (u-NAG), urinary ?2 microglobulin (u-Bm), urinary protein (p < 0.001), interstitial fibrosis (MAC: p < 0.01, fH: p < 0.05) and the percentage of global glomerular sclerosis (p < 0.01). Urinary P was positively correlated with u-NAG, u-Bm, and urinary protein (p < 0.01). Conclusions Complement activation occurs in the urinary space in IgAN and the measurement of levels of MAC and fH in the urine could be a useful indicator of renal injury in patients with IgAN.



Glomerular Deposition and Urinary Excretion of Complement Factor H in Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: The complement system plays an important role in the pathogenesis of membranous nephropathy (MN). In order to elucidate the regulatory mechanism of complement activation, we demonstrated glomerular deposition and urinary excretion of complement factor H, which controls the alternative pathway and the amplification loop at the C3 step, in patients with idiopathic MN. Methods: Renal biopsy specimens from 20

Morito Endo; Yoshinobu Fuke; Mariko Tamano; Mutsuko Hidaka; Isao Ohsawa; Takayuki Fujita; Hiroyuki Ohi



The Yeast Candida albicans Binds Complement Regulators Factor H and FHL-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human facultative pathogenic yeast Candida albicans causes mucocutaneous infections and is the major cause of opportunistic fungal infections in immunocompromised patients. C. albicans activates both the alternative and classical pathway of the complement system. The aim of this study was to assay whether C. albicans binds human complement regulators in order to control complement activation at its surface. We

T. Meri; A. Hartmann; D. Lenk; R. Eck; R. Wurzner; J. Hellwage; S. Meri; P. F. Zipfel



Complement Activation and Inflammatory Processes in Drusen Formation and Age Related Macular Degeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies implicate inflammation and complement mediated attack as early events in drusen biogenesis. The investigations described here sought to determine whether primary sites of complement activation could be identified within drusen substructure, and whether known inhibitors of the terminal pathway of complement are present in drusen and\\/or retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells that lie in close proximity to drusen.

Lincoln V Johnson; William P Leitner; Michelle K Staples; Don H Anderson



Identification of mycobacterial lectins from genomic data.  


Sixty-four sequences containing lectin domains with homologs of known three-dimensional structure were identified through a search of mycobacterial genomes. They appear to belong to the ?-prism II, the C-type, the Microcystis virdis (MV), and the ?-trefoil lectin folds. The first three always occur in conjunction with the LysM, the PI-PLC, and the ?-grasp domains, respectively while mycobacterial ?-trefoil lectins are unaccompanied by any other domain. Thirty heparin binding hemagglutinins (HBHA), already annotated, have also been included in the study although they have no homologs of known three-dimensional structure. The biological role of HBHA has been well characterized. A comparison between the sequences of the lectin from pathogenic and nonpathogenic mycobacteria provides insights into the carbohydrate binding region of the molecule, but the structure of the molecule is yet to be determined. A reasonable picture of the structural features of other mycobacterial proteins containing one or the other of the four lectin domains can be gleaned through the examination of homologs proteins, although the structure of none of them is available. Their biological role is also yet to be elucidated. The work presented here is among the first steps towards exploring the almost unexplored area of the structural biology of mycobacterial lectins. PMID:23180653

Abhinav, K V; Sharma, Alok; Vijayan, M



Cloning and characterization of two different L-type lectin genes from the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis.  


L-type lectins contain a leguminous lectin domain and bind to high-mannose type oligosaccharides. In the secretory pathway, L-type lectins play crucial functions in the trafficking, sorting, and targeting of maturing glycoproteins. This study identified two novel L-type lectins, designated as EsERGIC-53 and EsVIP36, from the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis. The complete nucleotide sequence of ERGIC-53 cDNA was 1955bp, containing a 1506bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative protein of 501 deduced amino acids. The full-length cDNA of VIP36 was 3474bp with a 984bp ORF encoding a 327-amino acid peptide. The deduced ERGIC-53 and VIP36 proteins contained a putative signal peptide and an L-type lectin-like domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that ERGIC-53 and VIP36 belonged to different clades of L-type lectin family. Reverse transcription PCR showed that ERGIC-53 and VIP36 were expressed in all tested tissues. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that ERGIC-53 and VIP36 transcripts in hepatopancreas were significantly induced at various time points after infection with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), peptidoglycan (PGN), Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Aeromonas hydrophila. A bacterium-binding experiment showed that both ERGIC-53 and VIP36 could bind to different microbes. Sugar binding assay revealed that these lectins could also bind to the glycoconjugates of bacteria surface, such as LPS, PGN, d-Mannose, and N-Acetyl-d-mannosamine. Moreover, these two L-type lectins agglutinated bacteria in a calcium-dependent manner, and both exerted the ability of facilitating the clearance of injected bacteria V. parahaemolyticus in the crab. Our results suggested that ERGIC-53 and VIP36 functioned as pattern recognition receptors in the immune system of E. sinensis. PMID:24796868

Huang, Ying; Tan, Jing-Min; Wang, Zheng; Yin, Shao-Wu; Huang, Xin; Wang, Wen; Ren, Qian



A two-nucleotide deletion renders the mannose-binding lectin 2 (MBL2) gene nonfunctional in Danish Landrace and Duroc pigs.  


The mannose-binding lectins (MBLs) are central components of innate immunity, facilitating phagocytosis and inducing the lectin activation pathway of the complement system. Previously, it has been found that certain single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in porcine MBL1 and MBL2 (pMBL1, pMBL2) affect mRNA expression, serum concentration, and susceptibility to disease, but the combinatory effect of pMBL1 and pMBL2 genotypes needs further elucidation. In the present study, pMBL1 and pMBL2 alleles, combined pMBL haplotypes, and MBL-A concentration in serum were analyzed in purebred Landrace (N?=?30) and Duroc (N?=?10) pigs. Furthermore, the combined pMBL haplotypes of 89 Pičtrain × (Large White × Landrace) crossbred pigs were studied, and the genotypes of 67 crossbreds challenged with Escherichia coli were compared to their individual disease records. In the purebred animals, three non-synonymous SNPs and a two-nucleotide deletion were detected in the coding sequence of pMBL2. The two-nucleotide deletion was present at a frequency of 0.88 in the Landrace pigs and 0.90 in the Duroc pigs, respectively. In the crossbreds, the T allele of the SNP G949T in pMBL1-previously shown to have profound effect on MBL-A concentration even in the heterozygote condition-was detected in 47 % of the animals. Finally, an association was found between low-producing MBL genotypes and low body weight on the day of weaning in the same animals. PMID:24477343

Bergman, I M; Edman, K; van As, P; Huisman, A; Juul-Madsen, Helle Risdahl



Identification and characterization of porcine mannan-binding lectin A (pMBL-A), and determination of serum concentration heritability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) is an innate immune collectin present in the serum of humans and many farm animals. This oligomeric pattern-recognition protein effectively binds to the glycoconjugate arrays present on the surfaces of microorganisms and activates the complement system to enhance pathogen killing and clearance. MBL deficiency is often associated with immunodeficiency in humans. Although two MBLs (MBL-A and MBL-C)

Helle R. Juul-Madsen; Thomas Krogh-Meibom; Mark Henryon; Nades Palaniyar; Peter M. H. Heegaard; Stig Purup; Anthony C. Willis; Ida Tornře; Klaus L. Ingvartsen; Sřren Hansen; Uffe Holmskov



Complement activation promotes muscle inflammation during modified muscle use  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modified muscle use can result in muscle inflammation that is triggered by unidentified events. In the present investigation, we tested whether the activation of the complement system is a component of muscle inflammation that results from changes in muscle loading. Modified rat hindlimb muscle loading was achieved by removing weight-bearing from the hindlimbs for 10 days followed by reloading through normal ambulation. Experimental animals were injected with the recombinant, soluble complement receptor sCR1 to inhibit complement activation. Assays for complement C4 or factor B in sera showed that sCR1 produced large reductions in the capacity for activation of the complement system through both the classical and alternative pathways. Analysis of complement C4 concentration in serum in untreated animals showed that the classical pathway was activated during the first 2 hours of reloading. Analysis of factor B concentration in untreated animals showed activation of the alternative pathway at 6 hours of reloading. Administration of sCR1 significantly attenuated the invasion of neutrophils (-49%) and ED1(+) macrophages (-52%) that occurred in nontreated animals after 6 hours of reloading. The presence of sCR1 also reduced significantly the degree of edema by 22% as compared to untreated animals. Together, these data show that increased muscle loading activated the complement system which then briefly contributes to the early recruitment of inflammatory cells during modified muscle loading.

Frenette, J.; Cai, B.; Tidball, J. G.



Incorporation of Host Complement Regulatory Proteins into Newcastle Disease Virus Enhances Complement Evasion  

PubMed Central

Newcastle disease virus (NDV), an avian paramyxovirus, is inherently tumor selective and is currently being considered as a clinical oncolytic virus and vaccine vector. In this study, we analyzed the effect of complement on the neutralization of NDV purified from embryonated chicken eggs, a common source for virus production. Fresh normal human serum (NHS) neutralized NDV by multiple pathways of complement activation, independent of neutralizing antibodies. Neutralization was associated with C3 deposition and the activation of C2, C3, C4, and C5 components. Interestingly, NDV grown in mammalian cell lines was resistant to complement neutralization by NHS. To confirm whether the incorporation of regulators of complement activity (RCA) into the viral envelope afforded complement resistance, we grew NDV in CHO cells stably transfected with CD46 or HeLa cells, which strongly express CD46 and CD55. NDV grown in RCA-expressing cells was resistant to complement by incorporating CD46 and CD55 on virions. Mammalian CD46 and CD55 molecules on virions exhibited homologous restriction, since chicken sera devoid of neutralizing antibodies to NDV were able to effectively neutralize these virions. The incorporation of chicken RCA into NDV produced in embryonated eggs similarly provided species specificity toward chicken sera.

Biswas, Moanaro; Johnson, John B.; Kumar, Sandeep R. P.; Parks, Griffith D.



Expression of mannose binding lectin in HIV-1-infected brain: implications for HIV-related neuronal damage and neuroAIDS  

PubMed Central

Mannose binding lectin (MBL) activates complement pathway that leads to pathogen opsonization and phagocytosis. MBL deficiency is linked to HIV transmission and disease progression. We sought to determine the role of MBL in HIV encephalitis (HIVE) by evaluating its presence and distribution in the HIV-1-infected brain and by assessing its association with monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression. This retrospective study utilized archived post-mortem brain tissues obtained from 35 individuals enrolled in a longitudinal study as part of the California NeuroAIDS Tissue Network. MBL, MCP-1 and brain cell markers in post-mortem brain tissues with or without HIVE were evaluated using immunocytochemistry, immunofluorescence, confocal microscopy, and western blots. MBL was expressed in neurons, astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes of the frontal cortex of the HIV-1-infected brain. Overall, there were 30% to 40% more MBL-positive brain cells in HIVE vs non-HIVE cases (P = 0.01, paired t-test). Specifically, there was an increased MBL expression in the neuronal axons of HIVE cases. Also, western blots showed 3- to 4-fold higher levels of 78 kD MBL trimers in HIVE vs non-HIVE cases. This MBL-HIVE link was further confirmed by MBL associated higher MCP-1 expression in HIVE vs non-HIVE cases. HIV negative healthy individuals and normal or the gp120 transgenic mice did not show any differential MBL expression. Increased MBL expression in the major brain cell types, specifically in the neuronal axons of HIVE brain, and MBL associated higher MCP-1 expression in HIVE suggest that MBL could cause neuroinflammation and neuronal injury through MBL complement activation pathway.

Singh, Kumud K; Nathamu, Satyanarayana; Adame, Anthony; Alire, Tara U; Dumaop, Wilmar; Gouaux, Ben; Moore, David J; Masliah, Eliezer



"Complementing" Toll Signaling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Studies of signal transduction are often focused on dissecting the cellular response to a single stimulus that activates a single receptor. These types of studies laid the foundation for our current understanding of signaling, as well as the generation of countless arrow-containing models in today’s textbooks. Implicit in most models is the suggestion that the arrows emanating from an activated receptor represent the core signaling pathways that are always activated by a given receptor, thus leading to a core cellular response. In nature, however, it is likely that no signaling pathway is activated in isolation. Rather, cells often respond to multiple stimuli simultaneously, and the cellular response may be the result of several signaling pathways. A new study attempts to model such conditions in vitro and reveals that when macrophages encounter bacteria, two signal transduction pathways interact in a way that profoundly alters the cellular response to infection.

Jonathan C. Kagan (Children's Hospital Boston;Division of Gastroenterology and Harvard Medical School REV)



Complement Activation and Regulation in Preeclamptic Placenta  

PubMed Central

Preeclampsia (PE) is a common disorder of pregnancy originating in the placenta. We examined whether excessive activation or poor regulation of the complement system at the maternal–fetal interface could contribute to the development of PE. Location and occurrence of complement components and regulators in placentae were analyzed. Cryostat sections of placentae were processed from 7 early-onset PE (diagnosis <34?weeks of gestation), 5 late-onset PE, 10 control pregnancies, and immunostained for 6 complement activators and 6 inhibitors. Fluorescence was quantified and compared between PE and control placentae. Gene copy numbers of complement components C4A and C4B were assessed by a quantitative PCR method. Maternal C4 deficiencies (?1 missing or non-functional C4) were most common in the early-onset PE group (71%), and more frequent in late-onset PE compared to healthy controls (60 vs. 38%). Complement C1q deposition differed significantly between control and patient groups: controls and early-onset PE patients had more C1q than late-onset PE patients (mean p?=?0.01 and p?=?0.005, respectively). C3 activation was analyzed by staining for C3b/iC3b and C3d. C3d was mostly specific to the basal syncytium and C3b/iC3b diffuse in other structures, but there were no clear differences between the study groups. Activated C4 and membrane-bound regulators CD55, CD46, and CD59 were observed abundantly in the syncytiotrophoblast. Syncytial knots, structures enriched in PE, stained specifically for the classical pathway inhibitor C4bp, whereas the key regulator alternative pathway, factor H (FH) showed a wider distribution in the placenta. Differences in C1q deposition between late- and early-onset PE groups may be indicative of the different etiology of PE symptoms in these patients. Irregular distribution of the complement regulators C4bp and FH in the PE placenta and a higher frequency of C4A deficiencies suggest a disturbed balance between complement activation and regulation in PE.

Lokki, Anna Inkeri; Heikkinen-Eloranta, Jenni; Jarva, Hanna; Saisto, Terhi; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Laivuori, Hannele; Meri, Seppo



21 CFR 864.9550 - Lectins and protectins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Products § 864.9550 Lectins and protectins. (a) Identification. Lectins and protectins are proteins derived from plants and lower animals that cause cell agglutination in the presence of certain antigens. These substances are used...



Regional Differences in Lectin Binding Patterns of Vestibular Hair Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Surface glycoconjugates of hair cells and supporting cells in the vestibular endorgans of the bullfrog were identified using biotinylated lectins with different carbohydrate specificities. Lectin binding in hair cells was consistent with the presence of g...

R. A. Baird N. R. Schuff J. Bancroft



Interactions of Plant Lectins with Glycolipids in Liposomes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A panel of five plant lectins with different binding specificities was used to determine if plant lectins could bind specifically to membrane-associated glycolipids. Ricinis communis and wheat germ agglutinins both bound specifically to mixed brain gangli...

D. H. Boldt S. F. Speckart R. L. Richards C. R. Alving



The level of mannan-binding protein regulates the binding of complement-derived opsonins to mannan and zymosan at low serum concentrations.  

PubMed Central

When sera diluted to 5% in a buffer containing calcium and magnesium were incubated with mannan-coated ELISA plates, C4 fragments, properdin and factor B were bound to the plates as well as the expected opsonic C3 fragments, C3b and C3bi. The calcium-dependent lectin mannan-binding protein, which is structurally similar to C1q, was also shown to bind in this assay and analysis of sera from 179 healthy blood donors revealed that the binding levels of all these proteins were highly significantly correlated. Results obtained with a previously described C3b opsonic assay using zymosan also correlated with the mannan-binding levels. When the sera were diluted to 5% in the presence of Mg-EGTA there was no detectable binding of complement proteins to the mannan surface, confirming that no alternative pathway activation occurred at this serum concentration. When sera were diluted to 5% in a buffer containing EDTA in order to study immunoglobulin binding in the absence of complement activation, the levels of bound IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgA and IgM antibodies were found to be completely unrelated to the C3bi binding levels previously observed. The results suggest that in this experimental system using low concentrations of serum, mannan-binding protein initiates an antibody-independent mechanism of cleavage of the classical pathway component C4, which subsequently regulates the degree of cleavage of C3 and recruitment of alternative pathway proteins.

Super, M; Levinsky, R J; Turner, M W



A complement-IL-4 regulatory circuit controls liver regeneration.  


The involvement of IL-4 in liver regeneration has not yet been recognized. In this article, we show that IL-4, produced by NKT cells that accumulate in regenerating livers after partial hepatectomy, contributes to this process by regulating the activation of complement after liver resection in mice. The mechanism of this regulation was associated with the maintenance of an appropriate level of IgM in mouse blood, because IgM deposited in liver parenchyma most likely initiated complement activation during liver regeneration. By controlling complement activation, IL-4 regulated the induction of IL-6, thereby influencing a key pathway involved in regenerating liver cell proliferation and survival. Furthermore, the secretion of IL-4 was controlled by complement through the recruitment of NKT cells to regenerating livers. Our study thus reveals the existence of a regulatory feedback mechanism involving complement and IL-4 that controls liver regeneration. PMID:22184721

DeAngelis, Robert A; Markiewski, Maciej M; Kourtzelis, Ioannis; Rafail, Stavros; Syriga, Maria; Sandor, Adam; Maurya, Mano R; Gupta, Shakti; Subramaniam, Shankar; Lambris, John D



The complement cascade in kidney disease: from sideline to center stage.  


Activation of the complement pathway is implicated in the pathogenesis of many kidney diseases. The pathologic and clinical features of these diseases are determined in part by the mechanism and location of complement activation within the kidney parenchyma. This review describes the physiology, action, and control of the complement cascade and explains the role of complement overactivation and dysregulation in kidney disease. There have been recent advances in the understanding of the effects of upregulation of the complement cascade after kidney transplantation. Complement plays an important role in initiating and propagating damage to transplanted kidneys in ischemia-reperfusion injury, antibody-mediated rejection, and cell-mediated rejection. Complement-targeting therapies presently are in development, and the first direct complement medication for kidney disease was licensed in 2011. The potential therapeutic targets for anticomplement drugs in kidney disease are described. Clinical and experimental studies are ongoing to identify further roles for complement-targeting therapy. PMID:23489674

McCaughan, Jennifer A; O'Rourke, Declan M; Courtney, Aisling E



Lectin-modified piezoelectric biosensors for bacteria recognition and quantification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of lectins for microorganism biosensors fabrication is proposed. Lectins are immobilised onto a gold-plated quartz\\u000a crystal for direct piezoelectric label-free transduction of the bacteria–lectin binding event using an electrochemical quartz\\u000a crystal microbalance (EQCM). Concanavalin A (Con A) and Escherichia coli were used for the evaluation of the lectin immobilisation method and the biosensor performance. Adsorption on nonpolarised\\u000a and

B. Serra; M. Gamella; A. J. Reviejo; J. M. Pingarrón



Lectin affinity chromatography of glycolipids  

SciTech Connect

Since glycolipids (GLs) are either insoluble or form mixed micelles in water, lectin affinity chromatography in aqueous systems has not been applied to their separation. They have overcome this problem by using tetrahydrofuran (THF) in the mobile phase during chromatography. Affinity columns prepared with the GalNAc-specific Helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA) and equilibrated in THF specifically bind the (/sup 3/H)oligosaccharide derived from Forssman GL indicating that the immobilized HPA retained its carbohydrate-binding specificity in this solvent. Intact Forssman GL was bound by the HPA-column equilibrated in THF and was specifically eluted with 0.1 mg/ml GalNAc in THF. Purification of the Forssman GL was achieved when a crude lipid extract of sheep erythrocyte membranes was applied to the HPA-column in THF. Non-specifically bound GLs were eluted from the column using a step gradient of aqueous buffer in THF, while the addition of GalNAc was required to elute the specifically bound GLs. Using this procedure the A-active GLs were purified from a crude lipid extract of type A human erythrocytes in a single chromatographic step. The use of solvents that maintain carbohydrate-binding specificity and lipid solubility will permit the application of affinity chromatography on immobilized carbohydrate-binding proteins to intact GLs.

Torres, B.V.; Smith, D.F.



Principles of structures of animal and plant lectins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lectins form a diverse group of protein families that have in common their ability to specifically recognize certain carbohydrates. Crystal structures of members of the different animal and plant lectin families have revealed a wide variety of lectin folds and carbohydrate binding site architectures. Despite this large variability, a number of interesting cases of convergent as well as divergent evolution

Remy Loris



Prevalence, biological activity and genetic manipulation of lectins in foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many food plants contain proteins that are usually referred to as lectins on the basis of their specific carbohydrate-binding properties. Some of these lectins protect the plant against predatory invertebrates and higher animals, and they may also be harmful to humans. Therefore, the presence of lectins in food plants and foodstuffs is an important issue in food science. Although the

W. J. Peumans; E. J. M. Van Damme



A lectin from mycelia of the fungus Ganoderma lucidum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lectin (GLL-M) was isolated from mycelia of Ganoderma lucidum using affinity chromatography on BSM-Toyopearl. GLL-M is a monomer in its native form with a Mr of 18 000. Another lectin was also purified from fruiting bodies of the same fungus. The two lectins were partially compared with each other.

Hirokazu Kawagishi; Shin-Ichiro Mitsunaga; Masamichi Yamawaki; Mitoko Ido; Atsushi Shimada; Tetsuya Kinoshita; Takeomi Murata; Taichi Usui; Atsuo Kimura; Seiya Chiba



Orientation of GST-tagged lectins via in situ surface modification to create an expanded lectin microarray for glycomic analysis.  


Herein we describe the orientation of GST-tagged lectins on NHS-activated slides via a one-step deposition of the protein and a glutathione (GSH) scaffold. This technology overcomes the need for a premade GSH-surface to orient GST-tagged proteins, enabling us to rapidly expand the analytical capacity of lectin microarrays through addition of oriented lectins, while maintaining lectin diversity. PMID:21597618

Propheter, Daniel C; Mahal, Lara K



Intramolecular donor strand complementation in the E. coli type 1 pilus subunit FimA explains the existence of FimA monomers as off-pathway products of pilus assembly that inhibit host cell apoptosis.  


Type 1 pili are filamentous organelles mediating the attachment of uropathogenic Escherichia coli to epithelial cells of host organisms. The helical pilus rod consists of up to 3000 copies of the main structural subunit FimA that interact via donor strand complementation, where the incomplete Ig-like fold of FimA is completed by insertion of the N-terminal extension (donor strand) of the following FimA subunit. Recently, it was shown that FimA also exists in a monomeric, assembly-incompetent form and that FimA monomers act as inhibitors of apoptosis in infected host cells. Here we present the NMR structure of monomeric wild-type FimA with its natural N-terminal donor strand complementing the Ig fold. Compared to FimA subunits in the assembled pilus, intramolecular self-complementation in the monomer stabilizes the FimA fold with significantly less interactions, and the natural FimA donor strand is inserted in the opposite orientation. In addition, we show that a motif of two glycine residues in the FimA donor strand, separated by five residues, is the prerequisite of the alternative, parallel donor strand insertion mechanism in the FimA monomer and that this motif is preserved in FimA homologs of many enteroinvasive pathogens. We conclude that FimA is a unique case of a protein with alternative, functionally relevant folding possibilities, with the FimA polymer forming the highly stable pilus rod and the FimA monomer promoting pathogen propagation by apoptosis suppression of infected epithelial target cells. PMID:24184277

Walczak, Michal J; Puorger, Chasper; Glockshuber, Rudi; Wider, Gerhard



Anesthetic management of living donor liver transplantation for complement factor H deficiency hemolytic uremic syndrome: a case report  

PubMed Central

We experienced a living donor liver transplantation for a 26-month-old girl with complement factor H deficiency. Complement factor H is a plasma protein that regulates the activity of the complement pathway. Complement overactivity induced by complement factor H deficiency is associated with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Liver transplantation can be the proper treatment for this condition. During the liver transplantation of these patients, prevention of the complement overactivation is necessary. Minimizing complement activation, through the use of modalities such as plasma exchange before the surgery and transfusion of fresh frozen plasma throughout the entire perioperative period, may be the key for successful liver transplantation in these patients.

Park, Suk-Hee



The chaperone and potential mannan-binding lectin (MBL) co-receptor calreticulin interacts with MBL through the binding site for MBL-associated serine proteases.  


The chaperone calreticulin has been suggested to function as a C1q and collectin receptor. The interaction of calreticulin with mannan-binding lectin (MBL) was investigated by solid-phase binding assays. Calreticulin showed saturable and time-dependent binding to recombinant MBL, provided that MBL was immobilized on a solid surface or bound to mannan on a surface. The binding was non-covalent and biphasic with an initial salt-sensitive phase followed by a more stable salt-insensitive interaction. For plasma-derived MBL, known to be complexed with MBL-associated serine proteases (MASPs), no binding was observed. Interaction of calreticulin with recombinant MBL was fully inhibited by recombinant MASP-2, MASP-3 and MAp19, but not by the MASP-2 D105G and MAp19 Y59A variants characterized by defective MBL binding ability. Furthermore, MBL point mutants with impaired MASP binding showed no interaction with calreticulin. Comparative analysis of MBL with complement component C1q, its counterpart of the classical pathway, revealed that they display similar binding characteristics for calreticulin, providing further indication that calreticulin is a common co-receptor/chaperone for both proteins. In conclusion, the potential MBL co-receptor calreticulin binds to MBL at the MASP binding site and the interaction may involve a conformational change in MBL. PMID:18177377

Pagh, Rasmus; Duus, Karen; Laursen, Inga; Hansen, Paul R; Mangor, Julie; Thielens, Nicole; Arlaud, Gérard J; Kongerslev, Leif; Hřjrup, Peter; Houen, Gunnar



Efficacy of glycoprotein enrichment by microscale lectin affinity chromatography.  


Reproducible and efficient affinity enrichment is increasingly viewed as an essential step in many investigations leading to the discovery of new biomarkers. In this work, we have evaluated the repeatability of lectin enrichment of glycoproteins from human blood serum through both qualitative and quantitative proteomic approaches. In a comprehensive evaluation of lectin binding, we have performed 30 separate microscale lectin affinity chromatography experiments, followed by a conventional sample purification, and LC-MS/MS analysis of the enriched glycoproteins. Two lectin affinity matrixes, both with Con A lectin, immobilized to the same solid support but differing in the amount of immobilized lectin, were investigated to characterize their binding properties. Both qualitative and quantitative data indicate acceptable repeatability and binding efficiency for the lectin materials received from two different commercial sources. PMID:18623281

Madera, Milan; Mann, Benjamin; Mechref, Yehia; Novotny, Milos V



Membrane glycoproteins and plant and animal proteins with lectin or lectin-like properties.  


The fat cell, chiefly from porcine greater omentum, was treated with hypertonic sodium chloride and membranes left over from exuded fat were extracted with Triton X-100 and the extract subjected to gel electrophoresis. Of the 20 or more bands which showed on the gel, at least five were periodate-Schiff positive. By the treatment of the glycoproteins with Con A, followed by DEAE-cellulose, one with an apparent molecular weight of 74 kDA was obtained pure. The other components are not yet purified. However, two glycoproteins of apparent molecular weights of 89 and 112 kDa were obtained from the fat cell membrane by affinity chromatography. These were apparently lectins, since they possessed hemagglutinating activity and specificity towards maltose and caused adhesion among cells (erythrocytes) and aggregation of fat cells. The properties of lectins from various sources have also been studied: rice germ lectin, Allium sativum lectin, a lectin from a species of silkworm and one from loquat leaves. A crystalline protein called pinellin was isolated from Pinella ternata. Since it has been shown to exhibit cell aggregation and mitogenic activity, it is also a lectin, showing species as well as cell type specificity. Preliminary studies have also been made of the binding of pinellin to its receptor on fat cells. The protein has also been shown to possess an anti-implantation effect in rabbits. Studies have been made of membrane proteins on ram spermatozoa and Con A receptors on squamous epithelial cancer cells. PMID:3177078

Shen, Z W



BAD-lectins: boronic acid-decorated lectins with enhanced binding affinity for the selective enrichment of glycoproteins.  


The weak and variable binding affinities exhibited by lectin-carbohydrate interactions have often compromised the practical utility of lectin in capturing glycoproteins for glycoproteomic applications. We report here the development and applications of a new type of hybrid biomaterial, namely a boronic acid-decorated lectin (BAD-lectin), for efficient bifunctional glycoprotein labeling and enrichment. Our binding studies showed an enhanced affinity by BAD-lectin, likely to be mediated via the formation of boronate ester linkages between the lectin and glycan subsequent to the initial recognition process and thus preserving its glycan-specificity. Moreover, when attached to magnetic nanoparticles (BAD-lectin@MNPs), 2 to 60-fold improvement on detection sensitivity and enrichment efficiency for specific glycoproteins was observed over the independent use of either lectin or BA. Tested at the level of whole cell lysates for glycoproteomic applications, three different types of BAD-lectin@MNPs exhibited excellent specificities with only 6% overlapping among the 295 N-linked glycopeptides identified. As many as 236 N-linked glycopeptides (80%) were uniquely identified by one of the BAD-lectin@MNPs. These results indicated that the enhanced glycan-selective recognition and binding affinity of BAD-lectin@MNPs will facilitate a complementary identification of the under-explored glycoproteome. PMID:23895469

Lu, Ying-Wei; Chien, Chih-Wei; Lin, Po-Chiao; Huang, Li-De; Chen, Chang-Yang; Wu, Sz-Wei; Han, Chia-Li; Khoo, Kay-Hooi; Lin, Chun-Cheng; Chen, Yu-Ju



Complement receptor 2-mediated targeting of complement inhibitors to sites of complement activation  

PubMed Central

In a strategy to specifically target complement inhibitors to sites of complement activation and disease, recombinant fusion proteins consisting of a complement inhibitor linked to a C3 binding region of complement receptor (CR) 2 were prepared and characterized. Natural ligands for CR2 are C3 breakdown products deposited at sites of complement activation. Fusion proteins were prepared consisting of a human CR2 fragment linked to either the N terminus or C terminus of soluble forms of the membrane complement inhibitors decay accelerating factor (DAF) or CD59. The targeted complement inhibitors bound to C3-opsonized cells, and all were significantly more effective (up to 20-fold) than corresponding untargeted inhibitors at protecting target cells from complement. CR2 fusion proteins also inhibited CR3-dependent adhesion of U937 cells to C3 opsonized erythrocytes, indicating a second potential anti-inflammatory mechanism of CR2 fusion proteins, since CR3 is involved in endothelial adhesion and diapedesis of leukocytes at inflammatory sites. Finally, the in vivo validity of the targeting strategy was confirmed by the demonstration that CR2-DAF, but not soluble DAF, targets to the kidney in mouse models of lupus nephritis that are associated with renal complement deposition.

Song, Hongbin; He, Chun; Knaak, Christian; Guthridge, Joel M.; Holers, V. Michael; Tomlinson, Stephen



A mushroom lectin from ascomycete Cordyceps militaris.  


A mushroom lectin has been purified from ascomycete Cordyceps militaris, which is one of the most popular mushrooms in eastern Asia used as a nutraceutical and in traditional Chinese medicine. This lectin, designated CML, exhibited hemagglutination activity in mouse and rat erythrocytes, but not in human ABO erythrocytes. SDS-PAGE of CML revealed a single band with a molecular mass of 31.0 kDa under both nonreducing and reducing conditions that was stained by silver nitrate, and a 31.4 kDa peak in a Superdex-200 HR gel-filtration column. The hemagglutination activity was inhibited by sialoglycoproteins, but not in by mono- or disaccharides, asialoglycoproteins, or de-O-acetylated glycoprotein. The activity was maximal at pH 6.0-9.1 and at temperatures below 50 degrees C. Circular dichroism spectrum analysis revealed that CML comprises 27% alpha-helix, 12% beta-sheets, 29% beta-turns, and 32% random coils. Its binding specificity and secondary structure are similar to those of a fungal lectin from Arthrobotrys oligospora. However, the N-terminal amino acid sequence of CML differs greatly from those of other lectins. CML exhibits mitogenic activity against mouse splenocytes. PMID:17306462

Jung, Eui Cha; Kim, Ki Don; Bae, Chan Hyung; Kim, Ju Cheol; Kim, Dae Kyong; Kim, Ha Hyung



Animal Lectins as Cell Adhesion Molecules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein-carbohydrate interaction is exploited in cell adhesion mechanisms besides the recognition of peptide motifs. The sugar code thus significantly contributes to the intriguing specificity of cellular selection of binding partners. Focusing on two classes of lectins (selectins and galectins), it is evident that their functionality for mediation of adhesive contacts is becoming increasingly appreciated, as is the integration of this

H. Kaltner; B. Stierstorfer



Candidate inhibitors of porcine complement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Therapeutic complement inhibition is a promising strategy for treatment of a number of diseases as judged from rodent studies. The species distance from rodents to humans may limit the clinical relevance of these studies. The pig is an alternative animal for studies of human diseases like sepsis and ischemia\\/reperfusion injury. However, available complement inhibitors for use in pigs are scarce.

Ebbe B. Thorgersen; Yohannes T. Ghebremariam; Joshua M. Thurman; Michael Fung; Erik Waage Nielsen; V. Michael Holers; Girish J. Kotwal; Tom Eirik Mollnes



Treatment of c3 glomerulopathy with complement blockers.  


C3 glomerulopathy (C3G) is a newly defined clinical entity comprising glomerular lesions with predominant C3 staining. Under this definition are now included membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type II (dense deposit disease) and C3 glomerulonephritis. This group of glomerular diseases with a heterogeneous histological aspect shares a common pathogenesis, that is, a dysregulation of the alternative pathway of complement in the fluid phase leading to C3 deposition in the kidney. Recent advances have expanded our understanding of the underlying mechanisms, leading to the hypothesis that blocking the alternative complement pathway may be an effective treatment for C3Gs, as has been shown in other renal diseases driven by alternative pathway dysregulation, such as atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Results of 11 published cases of patients with different forms of C3G treated with eculizumab, an anti-C5 humanized monoclonal antibody, are encouraging. Given the complexity of disease pathogenesis in C3G, a patient-tailored approach including a comprehensive workup of complement abnormalities is necessary to evaluate the best treatment options. Clinical trials assessing effectiveness of different complement blockers on the background of the individual complement profile are needed. PMID:24799307

Vivarelli, Marina; Emma, Francesco



Role of fibrinogen in complement inhibition by streptococcal M protein.  

PubMed Central

M protein, the major virulence factor of group A streptococci, has antiopsonic activity in that it inhibits activation of the alternative complement pathway on the streptococcal surface. Two properties of M protein have been claimed to account for the inhibitory activity, namely, (i) its binding affinity for complement factor H, which is an inhibitor of alternative pathway activation, and (ii) its high binding affinity for fibrinogen. We have recently shown that fibrinogen, like M protein, inhibits alternative pathway activation by possessing binding affinity for factor H. Here we report that fibrinogen effectively competes with factor H for binding to M protein but retains its own binding affinity for factor H. The presence of fibrinogen did not significantly affect alternative pathway inhibition on the streptococcal surface. Images

Horstmann, R D; Sievertsen, H J; Leippe, M; Fischetti, V A



Carbohydrate recognition by the antiviral lectin cyanovirin-N.  


Cyanovirin-N (CVN) is a cyanobacterial lectin with potent antiviral activity and has been the focus of extensive preclinical investigation as a potential prophylactic for the prevention of the sexual transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Here we present a detailed analysis of carbohydrate recognition by this important protein, using a combination of computational methods, including extensive molecular dynamics simulations and molecular mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM/PBSA) energetic analysis. The simulation results strongly suggest that the observed tendency of wild-type CVN to form domain-swapped dimers is the result of a previously unidentified cis-peptide bond present in the monomeric state. The energetic analysis additionally indicates that the highest-affinity ligand for CVN characterized to date (?-Man-(1,2)-?-Man-(1,2)-?-Man) is recognized asymmetrically by the two binding sites. Finally, we are able to provide a detailed map of the role of all binding site functional groups (both backbone and side chain) to various aspects of molecular recognition: general affinity for cognate ligands, specificity for distinct oligosaccharide targets, and the asymmetric recognition of ?-Man-(1,2)-?-Man-(1,2)-?-Man. Taken as a whole, these results complement past experimental characterization (both structural and thermodynamic) to provide the most complete understanding of carbohydrate recognition by CVN to date. The results also provide strong support for the application of similar approaches to the understanding of other protein-carbohydrate complexes. PMID:23057413

Fujimoto, Yukiji K; Green, David F



Carbohydrate recognition by the antiviral lectin cyanovirin-N  

PubMed Central

Cyanovirin-N is a cyanobacterial lectin with potent antiviral activity, and has been the focus of extensive pre-clinical investigation as a potential prophylactic for the prevention of the sexual transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Here we present a detailed analysis of carbohydrate recognition by this important protein, using a combination of computational methods, including extensive molecular dynamics simulations and Molecular-Mechanics/ Poisson–Boltzmann/Surface-Area (MM/PBSA) energetic analysis. The simulation results strongly suggest that the observed tendency of wildtype CVN to form domain-swapped dimers is the result of a previously unidentified cis-peptide bond present in the monomeric state. The energetic analysis additionally indicates that the highest-affinity ligand for CVN characterized to date (?-Man-(1,2)-?-Man-(1,2)-?-Man) is recognized asymmetrically by the two binding sites. Finally, we are able to provide a detailed map of the role of all binding site functional groups (both backbone and side chain) to various aspects of molecular recognition: general affinity for cognate ligands, specificity for distinct oligosaccharide targets and the asymmetric recognition of ?-Man-(1,2)-?-Man-(1,2)-?-Man. Taken as a whole, these results complement past experimental characterization (both structural and thermodynamic) to provide the most complete understanding of carbohydrate recognition by CVN to date. The results also provide strong support for the application of similar approaches to the understanding of other protein–carbohydrate complexes.

Fujimoto, Yukiji K.; Green, David F.



Complement activation during painful crisis in sickle cell anemia.  


Previous studies documented complement activation in sickle cell disease patients and suggested that this contributes to increased risk of infection. We have demonstrated alternative pathway activation initiated by membrane phospholipid changes which occur in sickled erythrocytes. The present studies compared complement activation products in serial samples from sickle cell anemia patients at baseline and during hospitalization for painful crisis to examine the correlation between complement activation and disease activity. Plasma concentrations of Bb, C4d, and C3a were measured as well as C3 bound to erythrocytes. Patients were subdivided into those with continuous pain and those with intermittent painful episodes. In patients with intermittent pain, there was little evidence of complement activation at baseline and increased plasma concentrations of Bb and C3a during painful crisis. Elevated C3a and C4d levels were observed in patients with continuous pain regardless of hospitalization status, suggesting a continuous underlying inflammatory process in these patients. PMID:7554454

Mold, C; Tamerius, J D; Phillips, G



Complement - a key system for immune surveillance and homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Nearly a century after the significance of the human complement system was recognized we have come to realize that its versatile functions extend far beyond the elimination of microbes. Indeed, complement acts as a rapid and efficient immune surveillance system that has distinct effects on healthy and altered host cells and foreign intruders. By eliminating cellular debris and infectious microbes, orchestrating immune responses, and sending `danger' signals, complement contributes substantially to homeostasis, but it may also take action against healthy cells if not properly controlled. This review describes our updated view of the function, structure, and dynamics of the complement network, highlights its interconnection with immunity at large and with other endogenous pathways, and illustrates its dual role in homeostasis and disease.

Ricklin, Daniel; Hajishengallis, George; Yang, Kun; Lambris, John D.



Sensing lectin-glycan interactions using lectin super-microarrays and glycans labeled with dye-doped silica nanoparticles.  


A new microarray platform, based on lectin super-microarrays and glycans labeled with dye-doped nanoparticles, has been developed to study glycan-lectin interactions. Glycan ligands were conjugated onto fluorescein-doped silica nanoparticles (FSNPs) using a general photocoupling chemistry to afford FSNP-labeled glycan probes. Lectins were printed on epoxy slides in duplicate sets to generate lectin super-microarrays where multiple assays could be carried out simultaneously in each lectin microarray. Thus, the lectin super-microarray was treated with FSNP-labeled glycans to screen for specific binding pairs. Furthermore, a series of ligand competition assays were carried out on a single lectin super-microarray to generate the dose-response curve for each glycan-lectin pair, from which the apparent affinity constants were obtained. Results showed 4-7 orders of magnitude increase in affinity over the free glycans with the corresponding lectins. Thus, the glycan epitope structures having weaker affinity than the parent glycans could be readily identified and analyzed from the lectin super-microarrays. PMID:23584388

Wang, Xin; Matei, Elena; Deng, Lingquan; Koharudin, Leonardus; Gronenborn, Angela M; Ramström, Olof; Yan, Mingdi



C-type lectin receptors and RIG-I-like receptors: new points on the oncogenomics map  

PubMed Central

The group of pattern recognition receptors includes families of Toll-like receptors, NOD-like receptors, C-type lectin receptors, and RIG-I-like receptors. They are key sensors for a number of infectious agents, some of which are oncogenic, and they launch an immune response against them, normally promoting their eradication. Inherited variations in genes encoding these receptors and proteins and their signaling pathways may affect their function, possibly modulating cancer risk and features of cancer progression. There are numerous studies investigating the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms within or near genes encoding Toll-like receptors and NOD-like receptors, cancer risk, and features of cancer progression. However, there is an almost total absence of articles analyzing the correlation between polymorphisms of genes encoding C-type lectin receptors and RIG-I-like receptors and cancer risk or progression. Nevertheless, there is some evidence supporting the hypothesis that inherited C-type lectin receptor and RIG-I-like receptor variants can be associated with increased cancer risk. Certain C-type lectin receptors and RIG-I-like receptors recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns of potentially oncogenic infectious agents, and certain polymorphisms of genes encoding C-type lectin receptors and RIG-I-like receptors may have functional consequences at the molecular level that can lead to association of such single nucleotide polymorphisms with risk or progression of some diseases that may modulate cancer risk, so these gene polymorphisms may affect cancer risk indirectly. Polymorphisms of genes encoding C-type lectin receptors and RIG-I-like receptors thereby may be correlated with a risk of lung, oral, esophageal, gastric, colorectal, and liver cancer, as well as nasopharyngeal carcinoma, glioblastoma, multiple myeloma, and lymphoma. The list of the most promising polymorphisms for oncogenomic investigations may include rs1926736, rs2478577, rs2437257, rs691005, rs2287886, rs735239, rs4804803, rs16910526, rs36055726, rs11795404, and rs10813831.

Kutikhin, Anton G; Yuzhalin, Arseniy E



Lectin cDNA and transgenic plants derived therefrom  


Transgenic plants containing cDNA encoding Gramineae lectin are described. The plants preferably contain cDNA coding for barley lectin and store the lectin in the leaves. The transgenic plants, particularly the leaves exhibit insecticidal and fungicidal properties. GOVERNMENT RIGHTS This application was funded under Department of Energy Contract DE-AC02-76ER01338. The U.S. Government has certain rights under this application and any patent issuing thereon. .

Raikhel, N.V.



Lectin cDNA and transgenic plants derived therefrom  


Transgenic plants containing cDNA encoding Gramineae lectin are described. The plants preferably contain cDNA coding for barley lectin and store the lectin in the leaves. The transgenic plants, particularly the leaves exhibit insecticidal and fungicidal properties. GOVERNMENT RIGHTS This application was funded under Department of Energy Contract DE-AC02-76ER01338. The U.S. Government has certain rights under this application and any patent issuing thereon.

Raikhel, Natasha V. (Okemos, MI)



Fine carbohydrate recognition of Euphorbia milii lectin.  


Glycans are key structures involved in biological processes such as cell attachment, migration, and invasion. Information coded on cell-surface glycans is frequently deciphered by proteins, as lectins, that recognize specific carbohydrate topology. Here, we describe the fine carbohydrate specificity of Euphorbia milii lectin (EML). Competitive assays using various sugars showed that GalNAc was the strongest inhibitor, and that the hydroxyl axial position of C4 and acetamido on C2 of GalNAc are critical points of EML recognition. A hydrophobic locus adjacent to GalNAc is also an important region for EML binding. Direct binding assays of EML revealed a stereochemical requirement for a structure adjacent to terminal GalNAc, showing that GalNAc residue is a necessary but not sufficient condition for EML interaction. The capacity of EML to bind epithelial tumor cells makes it a potentially useful tool for study of some over-expressed GalNAc glycoconjugates. PMID:16122701

Irazoqui, Fernando J; Vozari-Hampe, Magdolna M; Lardone, Ricardo D; Villarreal, Marcos A; Sendra, Victor G; Montich, Guillermo G; Trindade, Vera M; Clausen, Henrik; Nores, Gustavo A



Inhibitors of the complement system currently in development for cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controlled activation of the complement system is critical to the host-defense response of the immune system. Activated complement\\u000a is responsible for the stimulation of a localized protective inflammatory response to either invading microorganisms or foreign\\u000a molecules (toxins). However, the autologous activation of the complement system can have devastating conseuences on many organ\\u000a systems. This review discusses the various pathways involved

M. K. Pugsley; M. Abramova; T. Cole; X. Yang; W. S. Ammons



Level of complement activity and components C1, C4, C2, and C3 in complement response to bacterial challenge in malnourished rats.  

PubMed Central

In experimentally induced malnutrition in rats, there was no significant difference between the measured level of complement activity of the classical pathway (50% hemolytic complement [CH50]) and that of the alternative pathway (ACH50), although the levels of complement components C1, C4, C2, and C3 were depressed significantly. The complement activity showed a temporary elevation with a peak at 2 or 3 days after bacterial challenge with Staphylococcus aureus in rats, and we call this the complement response. After 3 days, CH50 and C3 in the malnourished rats and ACH50, CH50, and C3 in the well-nourished rats showed a significant increase, and C1, C4, and C2 in both groups tended to elevate. On the basis of these observations, the significance of the elevation of C3 in the complement response to bacterial infection showed a strong influence by enhancing the activation of both the classical and the alternative pathways, since C3 is known to be the junction of both complement pathways. In this way, C3 responded to an earlier stage than did the other components and may contribute to maintaining the body defense system against infection.

Sakamoto, M; Ishii, S; Nishioka, K; Shimada, K



Lectins discriminate between pathogenic and nonpathogenic South American trypanosomes  

SciTech Connect

Cell surface carbohydrates of Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma rangeli, and Trypanosoma conorhini were analyzed by a micro-agglutination assay employing 27 highly purified lectins and by binding assays using various /sup 125/I-labeled lectins. The following seven lectins discriminated between the trypanosomes: 1) tomato lectin (an N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-binding protein), both in purified form and as crude tomato juice; 2) Bauhinea purpurea and Sophora japonica lectins (both N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-binding proteins), which selectively agglutinated T. cruzi; 3) Vicia villosa (an N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-binding protein) which was specific for T. rangeli; 4) peanut lectin (a D-galactose-binding protein) both in purified form and as crude saline extract; and 5) Ulex europaeus and Lotus tetragonolobus (both L-fucose-binding proteins) lectins which reacted only with T. conorhini. Binding studies with 125I-labeled lectins were performed to find whether unagglutinated cells of the three different species of trypanosomes might have receptors for these lectins, in which case absence of agglutination could be due to a peculiar arrangement of the receptors. These assays essentially confirmed the agglutination experiments.

de Miranda Santos, I.K.; Pereira, M.E.



Entropy-driven lectin-recognition of multivalent glycovesicles.  


Multivalent glycovesicle recognition over lectin layers emphasizes effects on the dynamic lateral fluidity of glycoside clusters upon multivalent binding at the bilayer surface and vice versa. PMID:24288112

Mouline, Zineb; Mahon, Eugene; Gomez, Emeline; Barragan-Montero, Veronique; Montero, Jean-Louis; Barboiu, Mihail



Sambucus Ribosome-Inactivating Proteins and Lectins  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Plant ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are inhibitors with RNA-N-glycosidase activity that irreversibly inactivate eukaryotic ribosomes, thereby impairing protein synthesis. In recent years,\\u000a more than 40 RIPs and lectins belonging to the Sambucus genus have been isolated and characterized to varying degrees. The type 2 RIPs isolated from Sambucus have the peculiarity that although they are enzymatically more active than ricin, they

José Ferreras; Lucía Citores; Rosario Iglesias; Pilar Jiménez; Tomás Girbés


Mannose-binding lectin deficiency—revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an emerging interest for mannose-binding lectin (MBL) due to its role in innate immunity. In this survey we present a mixture of old and new data describing the effect MBL polymorphisms may have on the level and function of the molecule.Three single nucleotide substitutions in exon 1 of the mbl2 gene cause a dominant decrease of functional MBL

Peter Garred; Flemming Larsen; Hans O Madsen; Claus Koch



A comparison of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) lectin with its deglycosylated derivative.  

PubMed Central

A deglycosylated derivative of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) lectin was prepared with the use of trifluoromethanesulphonic acid. Its properties were generally similar to those of the native lectin, but differences were evident in terms of relative agglutinating activity towards sheep, (untreated) human and trypsin-treated human erythrocytes. The two forms of tomato lectin were used in conjunction with a battery of specific antisera to investigate structural relatedness among solanaceous lectins. Immunological cross-reactivity between tomato, potato and Datura lectins depends on the integrity of the glycosylated region of those lectins; that between Datura lectin and other seed lectins, however, has a separate structural basis. Images Fig. 1.

Kilpatrick, D C; Graham, C; Urbaniak, S J; Jeffree, C E; Allen, A K



Algal Lectins as Potential HIV Microbicide Candidates  

PubMed Central

The development and use of topical microbicides potentially offers an additional strategy to reduce the spread of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Carbohydrate-binding agents (CBAs) that show specificity for high mannose carbohydrates on the surface of the heavily glycosylated envelope of HIV are endowed with potent anti-HIV activity. In fact, a number of algal lectins such as cyanovirin-N, microvirin, microcystis viridis lectin, scytovirin, Oscillatoria agardhii agglutinin and griffithsin are considered as potential microbicide candidates to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV through topical applications. They not only inhibit infection of cells by cell-free virus but they can also efficiently prevent virus transmission from virus-infected cells to uninfected CD4+ target T-lymphocytes and DC-SIGN-directed capture of HIV-1 and transmission to CD4+ T lymphocytes. This review focuses on the structural properties and carbohydrate specificity of these algal lectins, their antiviral activity against HIV and several other enveloped viruses, their safety profile and viral resistance patterns.

Huskens, Dana; Schols, Dominique



Microbial Hijacking of Complement-Toll-like Receptor Crosstalk*  

PubMed Central

Recent evidence suggests that complement and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) crosstalk to coordinate innate immunity. We report a novel immune subversion mechanism involving microbial exploitation of the ability of complement and TLRs for communication. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major oral and systemic pathogen expressing complement C5 convertase-like activity, was shown to synergize with C5a for cAMP elevation resulting in macrophage immunosuppression and enhanced pathogen survival in vitro and in vivo. The cAMP synergy strictly required TLR2 signaling and a pertussis toxin- and thapsigargin-sensitive C5a receptor pathway, whereas protein kinase A and glycogen synthase kinase-3? acted as downstream effectors. Antagonistic blockade of the C5a receptor abrogated this evasive strategy and may thus have important therapeutic implications in periodontitis and atherosclerosis, where P. gingivalis is implicated. This first demonstration of complement-TLR crosstalk for immunosuppressive cAMP signaling indicates that pathogens may not simply undermine complement and/or TLRs as separate entities, but may also exploit their crosstalk pathways.

Wang, Min; Krauss, Jennifer L.; Domon, Hisanori; Hosur, Kavita B.; Liang, Shuang; Magotti, Paola; Triantafilou, Martha; Triantafilou, Kathy; Lambris, John D.; Hajishengallis, George



Exploring the Innate Immune System: Using Complement-Medicated Cell Lysis in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The protein complement pathway comprises an important part of the innate immunity. The use of serum to demonstrate complement-mediated destruction across a series of bacterial dilutions allows an instructor to introduce a number of important biological concepts such as bacterial growth, activation cascades, and adaptive versus innate immunity.

Fuller, Kevin G.



Electrophysiological correlates of Complement Coercion  

PubMed Central

This study examined the electrophysiological correlates of complement coercion. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were measured as participants read and made acceptability judgments about plausible coerced sentences, plausible non-coerced sentences, and highly implausible animacy violated sentences (“The journalist began/wrote/astonished the article before his coffee break”). Relative to non-coerced complement nouns, the coerced nouns evoked an N400 effect. This effect was not modulated by the number of possible activities implied by the coerced nouns (e.g. began reading the article; began writing the article), and did not differ in either magnitude or scalp distribution from the N400 effect evoked by the animacy violated complement nouns. We suggest that the N400 modulation to both coerced and the animacy violated complement nouns reflected different types of mismatches between the semantic restrictions of the verb and the semantic properties of the incoming complement noun. This is consistent with models holding that a verb’s semantic argument structure is represented and stored at a distinct level from its syntactic argument structure. Unlike the coerced complement noun, the animacy violated nouns also evoked a robust P600 effect, which may have been triggered by the judgments of the highly implausible (syntactically-determined) meanings of the animacy violated propositions. No additional ERP effects were seen in the coerced sentences until the sentence-final word which, relative to sentence-final words in the non-coerced sentences, evoked a sustained anteriorly-distributed positivity. We suggest that this effect reflected delayed attempts to retrieve the specific event(s) implied by coerced complement nouns.

Kuperberg, Gina R.; Choi, Arim; Cohn, Neil; Paczynski, Martin; Jackendoff, Ray



Interactions of a nonneutralizing IgM antibody and complement in parainfluenza virus neutralization.  


While many viruses activate the complement cascade directly, this is generally not a neutralizing event in the absence of antibody. We used a nonneutralizing IgM monoclonal antibody to parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) to explore the role of antibody in complement-dependent neutralization of PIV3. Neither the antibody nor nonimmune guinea pig serum (GPS) neutralized PIV3 significantly, but a more than 100-fold reduction in titer was found when antibody and GPS were combined. Heat-inactivated GPS or GPS lacking either of two different complement proteins were all inactive with or without antibody. Specific repletion of the deficient sera with highly purified complement proteins restored neutralizing activity, indicating an absolute requirement for the classical pathway of complement activation and lytic terminal complement components, and viral lysis was confirmed by electron microscopy. The presence of antibody before complement activation was essential; later addition had no effect. Spontaneous complement activation by PIV3 occurred via the classical pathway in the absence of antibody. Addition of antibody did not alter the overall rate or extent of complement component C3 binding to PIV3 in these experiments. We conclude that certain nonneutralizing antibodies may support complement-dependent PIV3 neutralization by facilitating viral lysis. This process does not, however, involve enhanced activation through the C3 step. Lysis may require antibody-dependent localization of the membrane attack complex or reorganization of the viral envelope structures to facilitate attack complex insertion and lysis. PMID:2849234

Vasantha, S; Coelingh, K L; Murphy, B R; Dourmashkin, R R; Hammer, C H; Frank, M M; Fries, L F



Staphylococcal proteases aid in evasion of the human complement system.  


Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that presents severe health care concerns due to the prevalence of multiple antibiotic-resistant strains. New treatment strategies are urgently needed, which requires an understanding of disease causation mechanisms. Complement is one of the first lines of defense against bacterial pathogens, and S. aureus expresses several specific complement inhibitors. The effect of extracellular proteases from this bacterium on complement, however, has been the subject of limited investigation, except for a recent report regarding cleavage of the C3 component by aureolysin (Aur). We demonstrate here that four major extracellular proteases of S. aureus are potent complement inhibitors. Incubation of human serum with the cysteine proteases staphopain A and staphopain B, the serine protease V8 and the metalloproteinase Aur resulted in a drastic decrease in the hemolytic activity of serum, whereas two staphylococcal serine proteases D and E, had no effect. These four proteases were found to inhibit all pathways of complement due to the efficient degradation of several crucial components. Furthermore, S. aureus mutants lacking proteolytic enzymes were found to be more efficiently killed in human blood. Taken together, the major proteases of S. aureus appear to be important for pathogen-mediated evasion of the human complement system. PMID:23838186

Jusko, Monika; Potempa, Jan; Kantyka, Tomasz; Bielecka, Ewa; Miller, Halie K; Kalinska, Magdalena; Dubin, Grzegorz; Garred, Peter; Shaw, Lindsey N; Blom, Anna M



Staphylococcal complement evasion by various convertase-blocking molecules  

PubMed Central

To combat the human immune response, bacteria should be able to divert the effectiveness of the complement system. We identify four potent complement inhibitors in Staphylococcus aureus that are part of a new immune evasion cluster. Two are homologues of the C3 convertase modulator staphylococcal complement inhibitor (SCIN) and function in a similar way as SCIN. Extracellular fibrinogen-binding protein (Efb) and its homologue extracellular complement-binding protein (Ecb) are identified as potent complement evasion molecules, and their inhibitory mechanism was pinpointed to blocking C3b-containing convertases: the alternative pathway C3 convertase C3bBb and the C5 convertases C4b2aC3b and C3b2Bb. The potency of Efb and Ecb to block C5 convertase activity was demonstrated by their ability to block C5a generation and C5a-mediated neutrophil activation in vitro. Further, Ecb blocks C5a-dependent neutrophil recruitment into the peritoneal cavity in a mouse model of immune complex peritonitis. The strong antiinflammatory properties of these novel S. aureus–derived convertase inhibitors make these compounds interesting drug candidates for complement-mediated diseases.

Jongerius, Ilse; Kohl, Jorg; Pandey, Manoj K.; Ruyken, Maartje; van Kessel, Kok P.M.; van Strijp, Jos A.G.; Rooijakkers, Suzan H.M.



Reversible injury of cultured rat oligodendrocytes by complement.  

PubMed Central

Rat oligodendrocytes are lysed on exposure to normal homologous serum as a result of classical pathway complement activation and attack in the absence of anti-myelin antibodies. The effect of non-lethal complement attack on oligodendrocytes in vitro was studied by exposing dissociated neonatal rat optic nerve cell cultures to low concentrations of complement alone and also in the presence of oligodendrocyte-specific monoclonal antibodies. Regardless of the mode of complement activation, non-lethal complement attack led to reversible cell injury, recovery following a transient rise in intracellular calcium and fall in ATP in the absence of membrane permeabilization to propidium iodide. A single episode of non-lethal injury had no effect on the ability of oligodendrocytes subsequently to express cell-specific antigens, but repeated episodes had a cumulative effect and ultimately resulted in cell death. Reversible and/or lytic complement-mediated oligodendrocyte injury has implications for the pathogenesis of human and experimental demyelinating diseases. Images Figure 3

Scolding, N J; Houston, W A; Morgan, B P; Campbell, A K; Compston, D A



Expression of complement components and inhibitors on platelet microparticles  

PubMed Central

Platelet microparticles (PMP) are released from activated platelets and play an important role in hemostasis, thrombosis and inflammation. Since platelets were recently found to demonstrate an intrinsic capacity for activating both classical and alternative pathways of the complement system, the present study extended these observations to PMP. PMP were generated by treating platelets with 10 µM A23187 (37°C, 5 min). PMP were identified by flow cytometry, based on size, Annexin V binding, and expression of P-selectin and GPIIb (CD41). PMP expressed gC1qR/p33, a multifunctional cellular protein that was recently described to activate the classical complement cascade. PMP also expressed the classical pathway and contact system regulator, CI inhibitor (C1-INH), as well as CD55 and CD59. Despite C1-INH expression, PMP supported classical pathway C4 activation in the presence of purified C1 and C4. Moreover, statistically significant deposition of C3b and C5b-9 was detected on PMP exposed to plasma, concurrently with expression of CD55 and CD59. These data provide the first evidence for the ability of PMP to support in situ complement activation. Complement activation contributes to a variety of vascular and inflammatory disease states including atherosclerosis and ischemia/reperfusion injury.

Yin, Wei; Ghebrehiwet, Berhane; Peerschke, Ellinor I. B.



Role of C5b-9 complement complex and response gene to complement-32 (RGC-32) in cancer.  


Complement system activation plays an important role in both innate and acquired immunity, with the activation of complement and the subsequent formation of C5b-9 terminal complement complex on cell membranes inducing target cell death. Recognition of this role for C5b-9 leads to the assumption that C5b-9 might play an antitumor role. However, sublytic C5b-9 induces cell cycle progression by activating signal transduction pathways and transcription factors in cancer cells, indicating a role in tumor promotion for this complement complex. The induction of the cell cycle by C5b-9 is dependent upon the activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/FOXO1 and ERK1 pathways in a Gi protein-dependent manner. C5b-9 also induces response gene to complement (RGC)-32, a gene that plays a role in cell cycle promotion through activation of Akt and the CDC2 kinase. RGC-32 is expressed by tumor cells and plays a dual role in cancers, in that it has both a tumor suppressor role and tumor-promoting activity. Thus, through the activation of tumor cells, the C5b-9-mediated induction of the cell cycle plays an important role in tumor proliferation and oncogenesis. PMID:23247987

Vlaicu, Sonia I; Tegla, Cosmin A; Cudrici, Cornelia D; Danoff, Jacob; Madani, Hassan; Sugarman, Adam; Niculescu, Florin; Mircea, Petru A; Rus, Violeta; Rus, Horea



Lysis of complement-sensitive Entamoeba histolytica by activated terminal complement components. Initiation of complement activation by an extracellular neutral cysteine proteinase.  

PubMed Central

Activation of complement by Entamoeba histolytica may be initiated by the extracellular 56-kD neutral cysteine proteinase which cleaves the alpha chain of C3. To determine the relationship between the fluid-phase activation of complement and our observation that only strains isolated from patients with invasive disease are resistant to complement-mediated lysis, we investigated the fate of C3 with recent amebic isolates. When 125I-C3 was incubated with trophozoites in serum, C3 in the fluid phase was cleaved to C3b or C3bi, but the alpha chain of the C3 molecules on the cell surface appeared intact. Since the lysis of nonpathogenic strains takes place in the absence of bound C3b, we demonstrated that this reaction occurs by reactive lysis initiated in the fluid phase: (a) the killing of nonpathogenic strains was enhanced when alternative pathway activation was accelerated by the addition of cobra venom factor; (b) non-pathogenic strains were lysed by purified terminal components; and (c) sera incubated with pathogenic E. histolytica produced passive lysis of chicken erythrocytes. These results demonstrate for the first time that complement-sensitive E. histolytica are lysed by activation of the terminal complement components in the fluid phase where the 56-kD neutral cysteine proteinase cleaves C3, and not by the surface deposition of activated C3. Images

Reed, S L; Gigli, I



Mycoplasma polysaccharide protects against complement  

PubMed Central

Although they lack a cell wall, mycoplasmas do possess a glycocalyx. The interactions between the glycocalyx, mycoplasmal surface proteins and host complement were explored using the murine pathogen Mycoplasma pulmonis as a model. It was previously shown that the length of the tandem repeat region of the surface lipoprotein Vsa is associated with susceptibility to complement-mediated killing. Cells producing a long Vsa containing about 40 repeats are resistant to complement, whereas strains that produce a short Vsa of five or fewer repeats are susceptible. We show here that the length of the Vsa protein modulates the affinity of the M. pulmonis EPS-I polysaccharide for the mycoplasma cell surface, with more EPS-I being associated with mycoplasmas producing a short Vsa protein. An examination of mutants that lack EPS-I revealed that planktonic mycoplasmas were highly susceptible to complement killing even when the Vsa protein was long, demonstrating that both EPS-I and Vsa length contribute to resistance. In contrast, the mycoplasmas were resistant to complement even in the absence of EPS-I when the cells were encased in a biofilm.

Bolland, Jeffrey R.; Simmons, Warren L.; Daubenspeck, James M.



Complement in lupus nephritis: the good, the bad, and the unknown.  


The complement system consists of 3 pathways and more than 30 proteins, including those with biological activity that directly or indirectly mediate the effects of this system, plus a set of regulatory proteins necessary to prevent injudicious complement activation on host tissue. The role for complement in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is paradoxic. On one hand, the complement system appears to have protective features in that hereditary homozygous deficiencies of classic pathway components are associated with an increased risk for SLE. On the other hand, immune complex-mediated activation of complement in affected tissues is clearly evident in both experimental and human SLE along with pathologic features that are logical consequences of complement activation. By using accurate mouse models of SLE, we have gained remarkable insights into pathogenic features likely relevant to the human disease, and the ability to test potential therapies, some of which have made it to standard clinical use. Studies in genetically altered mice and using recombinant protein inhibitors of complement have confirmed what was believed but unproven-early complement proteins C1q and C4 are protective whereas complement activation later in the pathways is proinflammatory and deleterious. Two complement inhibitors, soluble complement receptor 1 (TP10, Avant Immunotherapeutics, Needham, MA) and a monoclonal anti-C5 antibody (Eculizumab, Alexion Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Cheshire, CT) have been shown to inhibit complement safely and now are being investigated in a variety of clinical conditions. Although these and others earlier in their clinical development hold promise to be used therapeutically in lupus nephritis, this optimism must be tempered by the fact that the clinical trials to prove this remain fraught with obstacles. PMID:17336690

Bao, Lihua; Quigg, Richard J



Membrane-bound complement regulatory activity is decreased on vaccinia virus-infected cells.  

PubMed Central

Decay accelerating factor (DAF), membrane cofactor protein (MCP), complement receptor 1 and mouse Crry are cell surface-bound complement regulatory proteins capable of inhibiting C3 convertase activity on cell membranes, and therefore provide a substantial protection from attack by homologous complement activated either by the classical or by the alternative pathway. Decrease in complement regulatory activity might lead to spontaneous complement deposition and subsequent cell injury. MoAb 5I2 can inhibit the complement regulatory activity of molecules on rat cells, resulting in deposition of homologous complement. The antigen recognized by 5I2 MoAb in rats is homologous to mouse Crry. Fifteen to 20 h after infection with vaccinia virus, in vitro cultured KDH-8 rat hepatoma cells show a strong decrease in expression of Crry-like antigen, and proved to be sensitive to complement deposition when 1:5 diluted normal rat serum was added to the culture medium as a source of complement. Addition of complement to the cultured KDH-8 cells infected with a very low dose of vaccinia virus (1 plaque-forming unit (PFU)/1000 cells) substantially reduced spreading of virus infection in the cell culture, while inactivation of complement by heat or zymosan treatment abrogated the protective effect.

Baranyi, L; Okada, N; Baranji, K; Takizawa, H; Okada, H



Local opsonization by secreted macrophage complement components. Role of receptors for complement in uptake of zymosan  

PubMed Central

We have examined the role of macrophage (M phi plasma membrane receptors for the cleaved third complement component (iC3b; CR3) and mannosyl, fucosyl terminated glycoproteins (MFR) in uptake of unopsonized zymosan. Monoclonal antibodies against CR3, M1/70 (Mac-1) and MO1, each inhibited approximately 50% of uptake of 125I-zymosan by murine and human M phi, respectively. Yeast mannan inhibited 0-50% of zymosan uptake in various M phi, in parallel with their expression of MFR. We demonstrated that M phi were the source of C3 in our assay and that the activity of other components of the complement system, namely a C3 convertase, factor I, and a factor I cofactor were also present in serum-free cultures of human monocytes. Macrophage C3 was deposited rapidly, within 10 min, on the zymosan particles and mediated binding, ingestion, and stimulation of superoxide release in BCG-activated and thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal M phi via CR3. Local secretion of complement proteins by M phi themselves can therefore opsonize pathogens and cells able to activate the alternative pathway and effect their destruction.



Pancreatitis-associated protein: From a lectin to an anti-inflammatory cytokine  

PubMed Central

Pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP) was discovered in the pancreatic juice of rats with acute pancreatitis. PAP is a 16 kDa secretory protein structurally related to the C-type lectins although classical lectin-related function has not been reported yet. Then, it was demonstrated that PAP expression may be activated in some tissues in a constitutive or injury- and inflammation-induced manner. More recently, it has been found that PAP acts as an anti-inflammatory factor in vitro and in vivo. PAP expression can be induced by several pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and by itself through a JAK/STAT3-dependent pathway. PAP is able to activate the expression of the anti-inflammatory factor SOCS3 through the JAK/STAT3-dependent pathway. The JAK/STAT3/SOCS3 pathway seems to be a common point between PAP and several cytokines. Therefore, it is reasonable to propose that PAP is a new anti-inflammatory cytokine.

Closa, Daniel; Motoo, Yoshiharu; Iovanna, Juan L



Bisretinoid-mediated Complement Activation on Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells Is Dependent on Complement Factor H Haplotype.  


Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common central blinding disease of the elderly. Homozygosity for a sequence variant causing Y402H and I62V substitutions in the gene for complement factor H (CFH) is strongly associated with risk of AMD. CFH, secreted by many cell types, including those of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), is a regulatory protein that inhibits complement activation. Recessive Stargardt maculopathy is another central blinding disease caused by mutations in the gene for ABCA4, a transporter in photoreceptor outer segments (OS) that clears retinaldehyde and prevents formation of toxic bisretinoids. Photoreceptors daily shed their distal OS, which are phagocytosed by the RPE cells. Here, we investigated the relationship between the CFH haplotype of human RPE (hRPE) cells, exposure to OS containing bisretinoids, and complement activation. We show that hRPE cells of the AMD-predisposing CFH haplotype (HH402/VV62) are attacked by complement following exposure to bisretinoid-containing Abca4(-/-) OS. This activation was dependent on factor B, indicating involvement of the alternative pathway. In contrast, hRPE cells of the AMD-protective CFH haplotype (YY402/II62) showed no complement activation following exposure to either Abca4(-/-) or wild-type OS. The AMD-protective YY402/II62 hRPE cells were more resistant to the membrane attack complex, whereas HH402/VV62 hRPE cells showed significant membrane attack complex deposition following ingestion of Abca4(-/-) OS. These results suggest that bisretinoid accumulation in hRPE cells stimulates activation and dysregulation of complement. Cells with an intact complement negative regulatory system are protected from complement attack, whereas cells with reduced CFH synthesis because of the Y402H and I62V substitutions are vulnerable to disease. PMID:24550392

Radu, Roxana A; Hu, Jane; Jiang, Zhichun; Bok, Dean



Diversified Carbohydrate-Binding Lectins from Marine Resources  

PubMed Central

Marine bioresources produce a great variety of specific and potent bioactive molecules including natural organic compounds such as fatty acids, polysaccharides, polyether, peptides, proteins, and enzymes. Lectins are also one of the promising candidates for useful therapeutic agents because they can recognize the specific carbohydrate structures such as proteoglycans, glycoproteins, and glycolipids, resulting in the regulation of various cells via glycoconjugates and their physiological and pathological phenomenon through the host-pathogen interactions and cell-cell communications. Here, we review the multiple lectins from marine resources including fishes and sea invertebrate in terms of their structure-activity relationships and molecular evolution. Especially, we focus on the unique structural properties and molecular evolution of C-type lectins, galectin, F-type lectin, and rhamnose-binding lectin families.

Ogawa, Tomohisa; Watanabe, Mizuki; Naganuma, Takako; Muramoto, Koji



Structure-function relationship of monocot mannose-binding lectins.  

PubMed Central

The monocot mannose-binding lectins are an extended superfamily of structurally and evolutionarily related proteins, which until now have been isolated from species of the Amaryllidaceae, Alliaceae, Araceae, Orchidaceae, and Liliaceae. To explain the obvious differences in biological activities, the structure-function relationships of the monocot mannose-binding lectins were studied by a combination of glycan-binding studies and molecular modeling using the deduced amino acid sequences of the currently known lectins. Molecular modeling indicated that the number of active mannose-binding sites per monomer varies between three and zero. Since the number of binding sites is fairly well correlated with the binding activity measured by surface plasmon resonance, and is also in good agreement with the results of previous studies of the biological activities of the mannose-binding lectins, molecular modeling is of great value for predicting which lectins are best suited for a particular application.

Barre, A; Van Damme, E J; Peumans, W J; Rouge, P



[Progress in study on the skin mucus lectin in fish].  


Since water is a perfect medium for both bacteria and parasitic microbes, fish skin is constantly exposed to pathogen attacks. It is generally believed that skin mucus serves a mechanical as well as biochemical barrier. Lectins, an important part of the mucus, are carbohydrate-binding proteins that are neither antibodies nor enzymes, yet play important roles in innate and adaptive immunity. Based on the structure of the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) and their function, fish mucus lectins are classified as four types. Recent research has shed light on the structural diversity and functions in innate immunity of mucus lectins. Here, we reviewed recent research progress on the classification, biological properties and functions of fish mucus lectins. Analyses on other fish species are therefore important in clarifying lectin diversity and their functions in skin mucus. PMID:24415702

Huang, Zhi-Hui; Ma, Ai-Jun; Lei, Ji-Lin



Isolation and characterization of Lentinus edodes (Berk.) singer extracellular lectins.  


Lectin preparations have been isolated and purified from the culture liquid of the xylotrophic basidiomycete Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Singer [Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler]. The culture of L. edodes F-249 synthesizes two extracellular lectins different in composition and physicochemical properties. Extracellular lectin L1 from L. edodes is a glycoprotein of mono-subunit structure with molecular weight of 43 kD. L1 is comprised of 10.5 +/- 1.0% (w/w) carbohydrates represented by glucose (Glc). Extracellular lectin L2 is a proteoglycan of mono-subunit structure with molecular weight of 37 kD. L2 is comprised of 90.3 +/- 1.0% (w/w) carbohydrates represented by Glc (73% of the total mass of the carbohydrate moiety of the lectin molecule) and galactose (Gal) (27% of the total mass of the carbohydrate part of the lectin molecule). The content of Asn in L2 is high, i.e. 42% (w/w) of total amino acids. This fact along with the composition of the carbohydrate part of the molecule (Glc + Gal) allows one to assign L2 to N-asparagine-bound proteins. Both lectins are specific to D-Gal and lactose (Lac) at an equal for L1 and L2 minimal inhibiting concentration of these carbohydrates (2.08 mM Gal and 8.33 mM Lac). Other carbohydrates to which the lectins show affinity are different for the two lectins: Rha (4.16 mM) for L1 and Ara (4.16 mM) and mannitol (8.33 mM) for L2. The purified extracellular lectins of L. edodes are highly selective at recognition of definite structures on the surface of trypsinized rabbit erythrocytes and do not react with the erythrocytes of other animals and humans. PMID:18991563

Tsivileva, O M; Nikitina, V E; Loshchinina, E A



MMBL proteins: from lectin to bacteriocin.  


Arguably, bacteriocins deployed in warfare among related bacteria are among the most diverse proteinacous compounds with respect to structure and mode of action. Identification of the first prokaryotic member of the so-called MMBLs (monocot mannose-binding lectins) or GNA (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin) lectin family and discovery of its genus-specific killer activity in the Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas has added yet another kind of toxin to this group of allelopathic molecules. This novel feature is reminiscent of the protective function, on the basis of antifungal, insecticidal, nematicidal or antiviral activity, assigned to or proposed for several of the eukaryotic MMBL proteins that are ubiquitously distributed among monocot plants, but also occur in some other plants, fish, sponges, amoebae and fungi. Direct bactericidal activity can also be effected by a C-type lectin, but this is a mammalian protein that limits mucosal colonization by Gram-positive bacteria. The presence of two divergent MMBL domains in the novel bacteriocins raises questions about task distribution between modules and the possible role of carbohydrate binding in the specificity of target strain recognition and killing. Notably, bacteriocin activity was also demonstrated for a hybrid MMBL protein with an accessory protease-like domain. This association with one or more additional modules, often with predicted peptide-hydrolysing or -binding activity, suggests that additional bacteriotoxic proteins may be found among the diverse chimaeric MMBL proteins encoded in prokaryotic genomes. A phylogenetic survey of the bacterial MMBL modules reveals a mosaic pattern of strongly diverged sequences, mainly occurring in soil-dwelling and rhizosphere bacteria, which may reflect a trans-kingdom acquisition of the ancestral genes. PMID:23176516

Ghequire, Maarten G K; Loris, Remy; De Mot, René



Gamma irradiation as an alternative treatment to abolish allergenicity of lectins in food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food irradiation is the process of exposing food to ionising radiation to eliminate microorganisms or insects. Lectins are the most common agents in food intolerance, and efficient methods to reduce unwanted or intolerant immunological effects of lectins have not yet been described. Sebastiania jacobinensis bark lectin was structurally altered after gamma irradiation. Hemagglutination assays showed that the lectin was stimulated

Antônio F. M. Vaz; Romero M. P. B. Costa; Luana C. B. B. Coelho; Maria L. V. Oliva; Lucimeire A. Santana; Ana M. M. A. Melo; Maria T. S. Correia



Fluorescent carbohydrate probes for cell lectins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescein labeled carbohydrate (Glyc) probes were synthesized as analytical tools for the study of cellular lectins, i.e. SiaLe x-PAA-flu, Sia 2-PAA-flu, GlcNAc 2-PAA-flu, LacNAc-PAA-flu and a number of similar ones, with PAA a soluble polyacrylamide carrier. The binding of SiaLe x-PAA-flu was assessed using CHO cells transfected with E-selectin, and the binding of Sia 2-PAA-flu was assessed by COS cells transfected with siglec-9. In flow cytometry assays, the fluorescein probes demonstrated a specific binding to the lectin-transfected cells that was inhibited by unlabeled carbohydrate ligands. The intense binding of SiaLe x-PAA- 3H to the E-selectin transfected cells and the lack of binding to both native and permeabilized control cells lead to the conclusion that the polyacrylamide carrier itself and the spacer arm connecting the carbohydrate moiety with PAA did not contribute anymore to the binding. Tumors were obtained from nude mice by injection of CHO E-selectin or mock transfected cells. The fluorescent SiaLe x-PAA-flu probe could bind to the tumor sections from E-selectin positive CHO cells, but not from the control ones. Thus, these probes can be used to reveal specifically the carbohydrate binding sites on cells in culture as well as cells in tissue sections. The use of the confocal spectral imaging technique with Glyc-PAA-flu probes offered the unique possibility to detect lectins in different cells, even when the level of lectin expression was rather low. The confocal mode of spectrum recording provided an analysis of the probe localization with 3D submicron resolution. The spectral analysis (as a constituent part of the confocal spectral imaging technique) enabled interfering signals of the probe and intrinsic cellular fluorescence to be accurately separated, the distribution of the probe to be revealed and its local concentration to be measured.

Galanina, Oxana; Feofanov, Alexei; Tuzikov, Alexander B.; Rapoport, Evgenia; Crocker, Paul R.; Grichine, Alexei; Egret-Charlier, Marguerite; Vigny, Paul; Le Pendu, Jacques; Bovin, Nicolai V.



Complements Please! No Compliments Necessary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Are mutant strains of bacteria that have the same nutritional phenotype identical? In the virtual MicroGCK lab, you can select colonies for further analysis to determine the underlying genetic structure of this similarity. This includes running a cross feeding complementation simulation for strains of nutritional auxotrophs. * investigate the genetic basis for phenotypic similarities in bacterial strains by simulating cross-feeding

John R. Jungck (Beloit College;Biology); John N. Calley (Beloit College;Biology)



Therapeutic potential of complement modulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complement system is an essential component of innate immunity that has been more recently recognized as an unexpected player in various pathological states. These include age-related macular degeneration, atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome, allergy, foetal loss, and axonal and myelin degradation after trauma. Its importance has also been recognized in physiological processes including haematopoietic stem cell homing to the bone

Eric Wagner; Michael M. Frank




PubMed Central

It has been shown: 1. That complement exposed to ultra-violet light is not thereby sensitized to the action of heat (which indicates that it is not protein). 2. That inactivation of complement by ultra-violet light is accompanied by a decrease in its surface tension. 3. That photoinactivation of complement is not a result of any changes in hydrogen ion concentration since these are less than 0.05 pH. 4. That hydrogen ion concentrations high enough to transform serum proteins from the cation to the anion condition (i.e. past the isoelectric point) permanently inactivate complement. These facts together with those given in previous papers lead to the following hypotheses. 1. That there is present in serum a hemolytic substance which is formed from a precursor (which may resemble lecithin) and is constantly being formed and simultaneously being broken down into inactive products. 2. That both precursor and lysin contain the same photosensitive molecular group. 3. That the lytic substance is dependent for its activity upon the state of the serum proteins.

Brooks, S. C.



Complement activation in acne vulgaris: in vitro studies with Propionibacterium acnes and Propionibacterium granulosum.  

PubMed Central

To better define the role of bacteria in inflammatory acne vulgaris, we have investigated the ability of four strains of Propionibacterium acnes and three strains of Propionibacterium granulosum to activate complement. Complement activation was assayed by incubating normal human serum with varying concentrations of each strain and measuring residual total hemolytic complement activity. When serum was tested unaltered, P. acnes strains were approximately threefold more potent than an equal weight of P. granulosum in consuming complement, which could reflect classical and/or alternative pathway activation. All strains also consumed complement in serum chelated with ethyleneglycol-bis (beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid, which selectively assays alternative pathway activation. Incubation of unaltered serum with both P. acnes and P. granulosum resulted in immunoelectrophoretic conversion of C4, C3, and factor B of the alternative pathway. Incubation of chelated serum resulted in conversion of C3 and factor B. These data taken together suggest that both species can activate complement through either pathway. Serum incubated with P. acnes was chemotactic for polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and this chemotactic activity was largely C5 dependent as shown by antibody inhibition. It is suggested that complement activation may occur in vivo in acne, and the inflammatory response may be contributed to by the generation of C5-dependent chemotactic factors. Images

Webster, G F; Leyden, J J; Norman, M E; Nilsson, U R



PRELP Protein Inhibits the Formation of the Complement Membrane Attack Complex*  

PubMed Central

PRELP is a 58-kDa proteoglycan found in a variety of extracellular matrices, including cartilage and at several basement membranes. In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the cartilage tissue is destroyed and fragmented molecules, including PRELP, are released into the synovial fluid where they may interact with components of the complement system. In a previous study, PRELP was found to interact with the complement inhibitor C4b-binding protein, which was suggested to locally down-regulate complement activation in joints during RA. Here we show that PRELP directly inhibits all pathways of complement by binding C9 and thereby prevents the formation of the membrane attack complex (MAC). PRELP does not interfere with the interaction between C9 and already formed C5b-8, but inhibits C9 polymerization thereby preventing formation of the lytic pore. The alternative pathway is moreover inhibited already at the level of C3-convertase formation due to an interaction between PRELP and C3. This suggests that PRELP may down-regulate complement attack at basement membranes and on damaged cartilage and therefore limit pathological complement activation in inflammatory disease such as RA. The net outcome of PRELP-mediated complement inhibition will highly depend on the local concentration of other complement modulating molecules as well as on the local concentration of available complement proteins.

Happonen, Kaisa E.; Furst, Camilla Melin; Saxne, Tore; Heinegard, Dick; Blom, Anna M.




PubMed Central

Complement system activation plays an important role in both innate and acquired immunity. Activation of complement and the subsequent formation of C5b-9 channels (the membrane attack complex) on cell membranes lead to cell death. However, when the number of channels assembled on the surface of nucleated cells is limited, sublytic C5b-9 can induce cell cycle progression by activating signal transduction pathways and transcription factors and inhibiting apoptosis. This induction by C5b-9 is dependent upon the activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/FOXO1 and ERK1 pathways in a Gi protein-dependent manner. C5b-9 induces sequential activation of CDK4 and CDK2, enabling the G1/S-phase transition and cellular proliferation. In addition, it induces RGC-32, a novel gene that plays a role in cell cycle activation by interacting with Akt and the cyclin B1-CDC2 complex. C5b-9 also inhibits apoptosis by inducing the phosphorylation of Bad and blocking the activation of FLIP, caspase-8, and Bid cleavage. Thus, sublytic C5b-9 plays an important role in cell activation, proliferation, and differentiation, thereby contributing to the maintenance of cell and tissue homeostasis.

Tegla, Cosmin A.; Cudrici, Cornelia; Patel, Snehal; Trippe, Richard; Rus, Violeta; Niculescu, Florin; Rus, Horea



The relationship between the variants of the bovine MBL2 gene and milk production traits, mastitis, serum MBL-C levels and complement activity.  


Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), a calcium-dependent collagenous lectin, plays an important role in the host immune defence against a wide range of pathogens. There are MBL1 and MBL2 genes which encode the MBL-A and MBL-C proteins, respectively. This study was carried out to investigate the relationship between the variants of the bovine MBL2 gene and milk production traits, mastitis, serum MBL-C levels and hemolytic complement activity in both classical pathway (CH50) and alternative pathway (ACH50) in Chinese Holstein cattle. Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the exon 1 of the MBL2 gene in Chinese Holstein cattle and Luxi yellow cattle were identified by the direct sequencing method. The SNP g.201 G>A was identified as a non-synonymous mutation (codon 31, Arg>Gln) at the N-terminus cysteine-rich domain and the SNPs g.234 C>A and g.235 G>A (codon 42) made Pro to Gln at the 1st Gly-X-Y repeat of the collagen-like domain, while the SNP g.244 T>C (codon 45) was identified as a synonymous mutation (Asn>Asn) at the 2 th Gly-X-Y repeat of the collagen-like domain. The SNP markers (g.201 G>A, and g.234 C>A) were significantly correlated with somatic cell score (SCS) (P<0.05). The concentration of MBL-C protein in serum ranges from 0.8 to 7.4 ?g/mL by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Six combinations of different haplotypes from the four SNPs were identified in Chinese Holstein cattle. Statistical analysis revealed that cows with the haplotype combination H4H5 exhibited the lowest SCS. The CH50 value of H4H5 and H5H5 cow are significantly higher than H2H5 haplotype combination (P<0.05). The association analysis results showed that the haplotype combination H4H5 may be used as a tolerance haplotype combination for the bovine mastitis. PMID:22771198

Wang, Xinju; Ju, Zhihua; Huang, Jinming; Hou, Minghai; Zhou, Lei; Qi, Chao; Zhang, Yan; Gao, Qing; Pan, Qing; Li, Guorong; Zhong, Jifeng; Wang, Changfa



Complement Activation on Platelets: Implications for Vascular Inflammation and Thrombosis  

PubMed Central

Platelets participate in a variety of responses of the blood to injury. An emerging body of evidence suggests that these cells express an intrinsic capacity to interact with and trigger both classical and alternative pathways of complement. This activity requires cell activation with biochemical agonists and/or shear stress, and is associated with the expression of P-selectin, gC1qR, and chondroitin sulfate. Platelet mediated complement activation measurably increases soluble inflammatory mediators (C3a and C5a). Platelets may also serve as targets of classical complement activation in autoimmune conditions such as antiphospholipid syndromes (APS) and immune thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP). Retrospective correlation with clinical data suggests that enhanced platelet associated complement activation correlates with increased arterial thrombotic events in patients with lupus erythematosus and APS, and evidence of enhanced platelet clearance from the circulation in patients with ITP. Taken together, these data support a role for platelet mediated complement activation in vascular inflammation and thrombosis.

Peerschke, Ellinor I.; Yin, Wei; Ghebrehiwet, Berhane



Glycoprotein enrichment through lectin affinity techniques.  


Posttranslational modifications (PTM) of proteins are among the key biological regulators of function, activity, localization, and interaction. The fact that no more than 30,000-50,000 proteins are encoded by the human genome underlines the importance of posttranslational modifications in modulating the activities and functions of proteins in health and disease. With approximately 50% of all proteins now considered to be glycosylated, its physiological importance in mammalian systems is imperative. Aberrant glycosylation has now been recognized as an attribute of many mammalian diseases, including hereditary disorders, immune deficiencies, neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular conditions, and cancer. As many potential disease biomarkers may be glycoproteins present in only minute quantities in tissue extracts and physiological fluids, glycoprotein isolation and enrichment may be critical in a search for such biomarkers. For decades, efforts have been focused on the development of glycoprotein enrichment from complex biological samples. Logically, the great majority of these enrichment methodologies rely on the use of immobilized lectins, which permit selective enrichment of the pools of glycoproteins for proteomic/glycomic studies. In this chapter, lectin affinity chromatography in different formats are described, including tubes; packed columns, and microfluidic channels. PMID:18369876

Mechref, Yehia; Madera, Milan; Novotny, Milos V



A Lactose-Binding Lectin from the Marine Sponge Cinachyrella Apion (Cal) Induces Cell Death in Human Cervical Adenocarcinoma Cells  

PubMed Central

Cancer represents a set of more than 100 diseases, including malignant tumors from different locations. Strategies inducing differentiation have had limited success in the treatment of established cancers. Marine sponges are a biological reservoir of bioactive molecules, especially lectins. Several animal and plant lectins were purified with antitumor activity, mitogenic, anti-inflammatory and antiviral, but there are few reports in the literature describing the mechanism of action of lectins purified from marine sponges to induce apoptosis in human tumor cells. In this work, a lectin purified from the marine sponge Cinachyrella apion (CaL) was evaluated with respect to its hemolytic, cytotoxic and antiproliferative properties, besides the ability to induce cell death in tumor cells. The antiproliferative activity of CaL was tested against HeLa, PC3 and 3T3 cell lines, with highest growth inhibition for HeLa, reducing cell growth at a dose dependent manner (0.5–10 µg/mL). Hemolytic activity and toxicity against peripheral blood cells were tested using the concentration of IC50 (10 µg/mL) for both trials and twice the IC50 for analysis in flow cytometry, indicating that CaL is not toxic to these cells. To assess the mechanism of cell death caused by CaL in HeLa cells, we performed flow cytometry and western blotting. Results showed that lectin probably induces cell death by apoptosis activation by pro-apoptotic protein Bax, promoting mitochondrial membrane permeabilization, cell cycle arrest in S phase and acting as both dependent and/or independent of caspases pathway. These results indicate the potential of CaL in studies of medicine for treating cancer.

Rabelo, Luciana; Monteiro, Norberto; Serquiz, Raphael; Santos, Paula; Oliveira, Ruth; Oliveira, Adeliana; Rocha, Hugo; Morais, Ana Heloneida; Uchoa, Adriana; Santos, Elizeu



Blocking properdin, the alternative pathway and anaphylatoxin receptors ameliorates renal ischemia reperfusion injury in decay-accelerating factor and CD59 double knockout mice1  

PubMed Central

Complement is implicated in the pathogenesis of ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). The activation pathway(s) and effectors(s) of complement in IRI may be organ-specific and remain to be fully characterized. We previously developed a renal IRI model in decay-accelerating factor (DAF) and CD59 double knockout (DAF?/?CD59?/?) mice. Here we used this model to dissect the pathway(s) by which complement is activated in renal IRI and to evaluate whether C3a or C5a receptor (C3aR, C5aR)-mediated inflammation or the membrane attack complex (MAC) was pathogenic. We crossed DAF?/?CD59?/? mice with mice deficient in various complement components or receptors including C3, C4, factor B (fB), factor properdin (fP), mannose-binding lectin (MBL), C3aR and C5aR or immunoglobulin (Ig) and assessed renal IRI in the resulting mutant strains. We found that deletion of C3, fB, fP, C3aR or C5aR significantly ameliorated renal IRI in DAF?/?CD59?/? mice, whereas deficiency of C4, Ig, or MBL had no effect. Treatment of DAF?/?CD59?/? mice with an anti-C5 mAb reduced renal IRI to a greater degree than C5aR deficiency. We also generated and tested a function-blocking anti-mouse fP mAb and showed it to ameliorate renal IRI when given to DAF?/?CD59?/? mice 24 hr before, but not 4 or 8 hrs after, ischemia/reperfusion. These results suggest that complement is activated via the alternative pathway during the early phase of reperfusion and both anaphylatoxin-mediated inflammation and the MAC contribute to tissue injury. Further, they demonstrate a critical role of properdin and support its therapeutic targeting in renal IRI.

Miwa, Takashi; Sato, Sayaka; Gullipalli, Damodare; Nangaku, Masaomi; Song, Wen-Chao



Cloning and characterization of root-specific barley lectin  

SciTech Connect

Cereal lectins are a class of biochemically and antigenically related proteins localized in a tissue-specific manner in embryos and adult plants. To study the specificity of lectin expression, a barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) embryo cDNa library was constructed and a clone (BLc3) for barley lectin was isolated. BLc3 is 972 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 212 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal peptide of 26 amino acid residues followed by a 186 amino acid polypeptide. This polypeptide has 95% sequence identity to the antigenically indistinguishable wheat germ agglutinin isolectin-B (WGA-B) suggesting that BLc3 encodes barley lectin. Further evidence that BLc3 encodes barley lectin was obtained by immunoprecipitation of the in vitro translation products of BLc3 RNA transcripts and barley embryo poly(A{sup +}) RNA. In situ hybridizations with BLc3 showed that barley lectin gene expression is confined to the outermost cell layers of both embryonic and adult root tips. On Northern blots, BLc3 hybridizes to a 1.0 kilobyte mRNA in poly(A{sup +}) RNA from both embryos and root tips. We suggest, on the basis of immunoblot experiments, that barley lectin is synthesized as a glycosylated precursor and processed by removal of a portion of the carboxyl terminus including the single N-linked glycosylation site.

Lerner, D.R.; Raikhel, N.V. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))



Crystal structure of a ?-prism II lectin from Remusatia vivipara.  


The crystal structure of a ?-prism II (BP2) fold lectin from Remusatia vivipara, a plant of traditional medicinal value, has been determined at a resolution of 2.4 Ĺ. This lectin (RVL, Remusatia vivipara lectin) is a dimer with each protomer having two distinct BP2 domains without a linker between them. It belongs to the "monocot mannose-binding" lectin family, which consists of proteins of high sequence and structural similarity. Though the overall tertiary structure is similar to that of lectins from snowdrop bulbs and garlic, crucial differences in the mannose-binding regions and oligomerization were observed. Unlike most of the other structurally known proteins in this family, only one of the three carbohydrate recognition sites (CRSs) per BP2 domain is found to be conserved. RVL does not recognize simple mannose moieties. RVL binds to only N-linked complex glycans like those present on the gp120 envelope glycoprotein of HIV and mannosylated blood proteins like fetuin, but not to simple mannose moieties. The molecular basis for these features and their possible functional implications to understand the different levels of carbohydrate affinities in this structural family have been investigated through structure analysis, modeling and binding studies. Apart from being the first structure of a lectin to be reported from the Araceae/Arum family, this protein also displays a novel mode of oligomerization among BP2 lectins. PMID:21788359

Shetty, Kartika N; Bhat, Ganapati G; Inamdar, Shashikala R; Swamy, Bale M; Suguna, K



Isolation and characterization of a lectin from Japanese mottled beans.  


A 64-kDa dimeric lectin was purified from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Japanese mottled beans. The purification protocol involved ion exchange chromatography with Q-Sepharose and SP-Sepharose and size exclusion chromatography on Superdex 75. The lectin was adsorbed on both Q-Sepharose and SP-Sepharose columns. Finally, the lectin gave a sharp absorbance peak which corresponded to 64 kDa based on results of size exclusion chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulphate- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis displayed a single band at around 32 kDa, indicating that the protein was dimeric. The hemagglutination inhibition assay indicated that the lectin showed specificity toward galactose. The lectin preserved hemagglutinating activity below 70 °C and at a pH range 3 - 12. The lectin was able to inhibit proliferation of MCF-7 cells and Hep G2 cells and possessed antifungal activity toward Mycosphaeralla arachidicola with an IC50 value of 3.9 µM. The activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase was reduced by 61.9 % in the presence of the lectin at 6.25 µM concentration. PMID:24654854

Zhao, Yuan; Ahmad, Ameer Maqsood; Cheung, Randy Chi Fai; Ng, Tzi Bun



Effect of garlic supplementation on complement activity in broiler chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have demonstrated the potential immuno-modulatory activity of herbal products in human and animals. The present\\u000a study was performed to elucidate the impact of including fresh garlic powder (FGP) in the diet of broiler chicks on serum\\u000a alternative pathway of complement activation (APCA) activity, as a functional part of humoral innate immunity. For this, two\\u000a hundred new-born chicks were

Ramezan Ali Jafari; Masood Ghorbanpoor; Meysam Makkei


Complement inhibiting properties of dragon's blood from Croton draco.  


The latex of Croton draco, its extracts and several latex components have been investigated for their influence on both classical (CP) and alternative (AP) activation pathways of the complement system using a hemolytic assay. The best inhibition was found for the classical pathway. The latex, ethyl acetate and ethyl ether extracts exhibited extremely high inhibition on the CP (94, 90 and 77%, respectively) at a concentration of 1 mg/ml. The flavonoid myricitrin, the alkaloid taspine and the cyclopeptides P1 and P2 showed high inhibition on CP (83, 91, 78 and 63%, respectively) at a concentration of 0.9 mM. PMID:15813374

Tsacheva, Ivanka; Rostan, Joerg; Iossifova, Tania; Vogler, Bernhard; Odjakova, Mariela; Navas, Hernan; Kostova, Ivanka; Kojouharova, Michaela; Kraus, Wolfgang



Allelic Variants of Complement Genes Associated with Dense Deposit Disease  

PubMed Central

The alternative pathway of the complement cascade plays a role in the pathogenesis of dense deposit disease (DDD). Deficiency of complement factor H and mutations in CFH associate with the development of DDD, but it is unknown whether allelic variants in other complement genes also associate with this disease. We studied patients with DDD and identified previously unreported sequence alterations in several genes in addition to allelic variants and haplotypes common to patients with DDD. We found that the likelihood of developing DDD increases with the presence of two or more risk alleles in CFH and C3. To determine the functional consequence of this finding, we measured the activity of the alternative pathway in serum samples from phenotypically normal controls genotyped for variants in CFH and C3. Alternative pathway activity was higher in the presence of variants associated with DDD. Taken together, these data confirm that DDD is a complex genetic disease and may provide targets for the development of disease-specific therapies.

Abrera-Abeleda, Maria Asuncion; Nishimura, Carla; Frees, Kathy; Jones, Michael; Maga, Tara; Katz, Louis M.; Zhang, Yuzhou



In vivo biosynthetic studies of the Dolichos biflorus seed lectin  

SciTech Connect

The in vivo biosynthesis of the Dolichos biflorus seed lectin was studied by pulse-chase labeling experiments using ({sup 35}S)methionine and ({sup 14}C)glucosamine. These studies demonstrate that each of the two mature lectin subunit types are derived by the processing of separate glycosylated precursors. The appearance of the precursor to subunit I before the precursor to subunit II supports the possibility raised by previous studies that both subunit types of this lectin may originate from a single gene product.

Quinn, J.M.; Etzler, M.E. (Univ. of California, Davis (USA))



[Interaction of certain RNAases and mannose-specific lectins].  


While defining and elaborating the approaches to examination of the interaction between C-mannosylated tryptophan, recently discovered in the laboratory of Dr. Jan Hofsteenge, and Man/Glc specific lectins the unexpected results were obtained. Some animal origin mannosyl-containing RNases (as was expected) as well as analogous but nonglycosylated recombinant proteins expressed in E. coli (a negative control) were recognized by the mentioned lectins. Protein-protein interactions between lectins and expressed in E. coli nonglycosylated RNases are supposed and require further investigations. PMID:10979559

Miroshnichenko, O S



Complement polymorphisms and cognitive dysfunction after carotid endarterectomy  

PubMed Central

Object The role of genetic polymorphisms in the neurological outcome of patients after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) remains unclear. There are single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that predispose patients to postoperative cognitive dysfunction (CD). We aim to assess the predictability of three complement cascade-related SNPs for CD in patients having CEAs. Methods In 252 patients undergoing CEA, genotyping was performed for the following polymorphisms: complement component 5 (C5) rs17611, mannose-binding lectin 2 (MBL2) rs7096206, and complement factor H (CFH) rs1061170. Differences among genotypes were analyzed via the chi-square test. Patients were evaluated with a neuropsychometric battery for CD 1 day and 1 month after CEA. A multiple logistic regression model was created. All variables with univariate p < 0.20 were included in the final model. Results The C5 genotypes A/G (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.11–0.60, p = 0.002) and G/G (OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.09–0.52, p < 0.001) were significantly associated with lower odds of exhibiting CD at 1 day after CEA compared with A/A. The CFH genotypes C/T (OR 3.37, 95% CI 1.69–6.92, p < 0.001) and C/C (OR 3.67, 95% CI 1.30–10.06, p = 0.012) were significantly associated with higher odds of exhibiting CD at 1 day after CEA compared with T/T. Statin use was also significantly associated with lower odds of exhibiting CD at 1 day after CEA (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.22–0.84, p = 0.01). No SNPs were significantly associated with CD at 1 month after CEA. Conclusions The presence of a deleterious allele in the C5 and CFH SNPs may predispose patients to exhibit CD after CEA. This finding supports previous data demonstrating that the complement cascade system may play an important role in the development of CD. These findings warrant further investigation.

Heyer, Eric J.; Kellner, Christopher P.; Malone, Hani R.; Bruce, Samuel S.; Mergeche, Joanna L.; Ward, Justin T.; Connolly, E. Sander



A jacalin-related lectin-like gene in wheat is a component of the plant defence system.  


Jacalin-related lectins (JRLs) are a subgroup of proteins with one or more jacalin-like lectin domains. Although JRLs are often associated with biotic or abiotic stimuli, their biological functions in plants, as well as their relationships to plant disease resistance, are poorly understood. A mannose-specific JRL (mJRL)-like gene (TaJRLL1) that is mainly expressed in stem and spike and encodes a protein with two jacalin-like lectin domains was identified in wheat. Pathogen infection and phytohormone treatments induced its expression; while application of the salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol and the jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis inhibitor diethyldithiocarbamic acid, respectively, substantially inhibited its expression. Attenuating TaJRLL1 through virus-induced gene silencing increased susceptibility to the facultative fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum and the biotrophic fungal pathogen Blumeria graminis. Arabidopsis thaliana transformed with TaJRLL1 displayed increased resistance to F. graminearum and Botrytis cinerea. JA and SA levels in transgenic Arabidopsis increased significantly. A loss or increase of disease resistance due to an alteration in TaJRLL1 function was correlated with attenuation or enhancement of the SA- and JA-dependent defence signalling pathways. These results suggest that TaJRLL1 could be a component of the SA- and JA-dependent defence signalling pathways. PMID:21862481

Xiang, Yang; Song, Min; Wei, Zhaoyan; Tong, Jianhua; Zhang, Lixia; Xiao, Langtao; Ma, Zhengqiang; Wang, Yun



A jacalin-related lectin-like gene in wheat is a component of the plant defence system  

PubMed Central

Jacalin-related lectins (JRLs) are a subgroup of proteins with one or more jacalin-like lectin domains. Although JRLs are often associated with biotic or abiotic stimuli, their biological functions in plants, as well as their relationships to plant disease resistance, are poorly understood. A mannose-specific JRL (mJRL)-like gene (TaJRLL1) that is mainly expressed in stem and spike and encodes a protein with two jacalin-like lectin domains was identified in wheat. Pathogen infection and phytohormone treatments induced its expression; while application of the salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol and the jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis inhibitor diethyldithiocarbamic acid, respectively, substantially inhibited its expression. Attenuating TaJRLL1 through virus-induced gene silencing increased susceptibility to the facultative fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum and the biotrophic fungal pathogen Blumeria graminis. Arabidopsis thaliana transformed with TaJRLL1 displayed increased resistance to F. graminearum and Botrytis cinerea. JA and SA levels in transgenic Arabidopsis increased significantly. A loss or increase of disease resistance due to an alteration in TaJRLL1 function was correlated with attenuation or enhancement of the SA- and JA-dependent defence signalling pathways. These results suggest that TaJRLL1 could be a component of the SA- and JA-dependent defence signalling pathways.

Xiang, Yang; Song, Min; Wei, Zhaoyan; Tong, Jianhua; Zhang, Lixia; Xiao, Langtao; Ma, Zhengqiang; Wang, Yun



Genetic complementation in apicomplexan parasites  

PubMed Central

A robust forward genetic model for Apicomplexa could greatly enhance functional analysis of genes in these important protozoan pathogens. We have developed and successfully tested a genetic complementation strategy based on genomic insertion in Toxoplasma gondii. Adapting recombination cloning to genomic DNA, we show that complementing sequences can be shuttled between parasite genome and bacterial plasmid, providing an efficient tool for the recovery and functional assessment of candidate genes. We show complementation, gene cloning, and biological verification with a mutant parasite lacking hypoxanthine-xanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase and a T. gondii cDNA library. We also explored the utility of this approach to clone genes based on function from other apicomplexan parasites using Toxoplasma as a surrogate. A heterologous library containing Cryptosporidium parvum genomic DNA was generated, and we identified a C. parvum gene coding for inosine 5-monophosphate-dehydrogenase (IMPDH). Interestingly, phylogenetic analysis demonstrates a clear eubacterial origin of this gene and strongly suggests its lateral transfer from ?-proteobacteria. The prokaryotic origin of this enzyme might make it a promising target for therapeutics directed against Cryptosporidium.

Striepen, Boris; White, Michael W.; Li, Catherine; Guerini, Michael N.; Malik, S.-Banoo; Logsdon, John M.; Liu, Chang; Abrahamsen, Mitchell S.



The gene for stinging nettle lectin (Urtica dioica agglutinin) encodes both a lectin and a chitinase.  


Chitin-binding proteins are present in a wide range of plant species, including both monocots and dicots, even though these plants contain no chitin. To investigate the relationship between in vitro antifungal and insecticidal activities of chitin-binding proteins and their unknown endogenous functions, the stinging nettle lectin (Urtica dioica agglutinin, UDA) cDNA was cloned using a synthetic gene as the probe. The nettle lectin cDNA clone contained an open reading frame encoding 374 amino acids. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence revealed a 21-amino acid putative signal sequence and the 86 amino acids encoding the two chitin-binding domains of nettle lectin. These domains were fused to a 19-amino acid "spacer" domain and a 244-amino acid carboxyl extension with partial identity to a chitinase catalytic domain. The authenticity of the cDNA clone was confirmed by deduced amino acid sequence identity with sequence data obtained from tryptic digests, RNA gel blot, and polymerase chain reaction analyses. RNA gel blot analysis also showed the nettle lectin message was present primarily in rhizomes and inflorescence (with immature seeds) but not in leaves or stems. Chitinase enzymatic activity was found when the chitinase-like domain alone or the chitinase-like domain with the chitin-binding domains were expressed in Escherichia coli. This is the first example of a chitin-binding protein with both a duplication of the 43-amino acid chitin-binding domain and a fusion of the chitin-binding domains to a structurally unrelated domain, the chitinase domain. PMID:1375935

Lerner, D R; Raikhel, N V



The role of complement in CD4? T cell homeostasis and effector functions.  


The complement system is among the evolutionary oldest 'players' of the immune system. It was discovered in 1896 by Jules Bordet as a heat-labile fraction of the serum responsible for the opsonisation and subsequent killing of bacteria. The decades between the 1920s and 1990s then marked the discovery and biochemical characterization of the proteins comprising the complement system. Today, complement is defined as a complex system consisting of more than 30 membrane-bound and soluble plasma proteins, which are activated in a cascade-like manner, very similarly to the caspase proteases and blood coagulation systems. Complement is engrained in the immunologist's mind as a serum-effective, quintessential part of innate immunity, vitally required for the detection and removal of pathogens or other dangerous entities. Three decades ago, this rather confined definition was challenged and then refined when it was shown that complement participates vitally in the induction and regulation of B cell responses, thus adaptive immunity. Similarly, research work published in more recent years supports an equally important role for the complement system in shaping T cell responses. Today, we are again facing paradigm shifts in the field: complement is actively involved in the negative control of T cell effector immune responses, and thus, by definition in immune homeostasis. Further, while serum complement activity is without doubt fundamental in the defence against invading pathogens, local immune cell-derived production of complement emerges as key mediator of complement's impact on adaptive immune responses. And finally, the impact of complement on metabolic pathways and the crosstalk between complement and other immune effector systems is likely more extensive than previously anticipated and is fertile ground for future discoveries. In this review, we will discuss these emerging new roles of complement, with a focus on Th1 cell biology. PMID:23725635

Kolev, Martin; Le Friec, Gaëlle; Kemper, Claudia



The major tuber storage protein of araceae species is a lectin. Characterization and molecular cloning of the lectin from Arum maculatum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new lectin was purified from tubers of Arum maculatum 1. by affinity chromatography on immobilized asialofetuin. Although this lectin is also retained on mannose-Sepharose 48, under the appro- priate conditions free mannose is a poor inhibitor of its agglutina- tion activity. Pure preparations of the Arum lectin apparently yielded a single polypeptide band of approximately 12 kD upon sodium

EIS J. M. Van Damme; Karine Coossens; Koen Smeets; Fred Van Leuven; Peter Verhaert; Willy J. Peumans



Islet Amyloid Polypeptide Triggers Limited Complement Activation and Binds Complement Inhibitor C4b-binding Protein, Which Enhances Fibril Formation*  

PubMed Central

Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) is synthesized in pancreatic ?-cells and co-secreted with insulin. Aggregation and formation of IAPP-amyloid play a critical role in ?-cell death in type 2 diabetic patients. Because A?-fibrils in Alzheimer disease activate the complement system, we have here investigated specific interactions between IAPP and complement factors. IAPP fibrils triggered limited activation of complement in vitro, involving both the classical and the alternative pathways. Direct binding assays confirmed that IAPP fibrils interact with globular head domains of complement initiator C1q. Furthermore, IAPP also bound complement inhibitors factor H and C4b-binding protein (C4BP). Recombinant C4BP mutants were used to show that complement control protein (CCP) domains 8 and 2 of the ?-chain were responsible for the strong, hydrophobic binding of C4BP to IAPP. Immunostaining of pancreatic sections from type 2 diabetic patients revealed the presence of complement factors in the islets and varying degree of co-localization between IAPP fibrils and C1q, C3d, as well as C4BP and factor H but not membrane attack complex. Furthermore, C4BP enhanced formation of IAPP fibrils in vitro. We conclude that C4BP binds to IAPP thereby limiting complement activation and may be enhancing formation of IAPP fibrils from cytotoxic oligomers.

Sjolander, Jonatan; Westermark, Gunilla T.; Renstrom, Erik; Blom, Anna M.



Lectins stain cells differentially in the coral, Montipora capitata  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A limitation in our understanding of coral disease pathology and cellular pathogenesis is a lack of reagents to characterize coral cells. We evaluated the utility of plant lectins to stain tissues of a dominant coral, Montipora capitata, from Hawaii. Of 22 lectins evaluated, nine of these stained structures in the upper or basal body wall of corals. Specific structures revealed by lectins that were not considered distinct or evident on routine hematoxylin and eosin sections of coral tissues included apical and basal granules in gastrodermis and epidermis, cnidoglandular tract and actinopharynx cell surface membranes, capsules of mature holotrichous isorhizas, and perivitelline and periseminal cells. Plant lectins could prove useful to further our understanding of coral physiology, anatomy, cell biology, and disease pathogenesis.

Work, Thierry M.; Farah, Yael



The Use of Lectins (Agglutinins) to Study Cell Surfaces  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using lectins, proteins which combine specifically with carbohydrate molecules or groups, this activity will introduce the students to the many important roles that the cell membrane serves in biological processes.

Ingrith Deyrup-Olsen (University of Washington;)



An alternate high yielding purification method for Clitoria ternatea lectin.  


In our previous publication we had reported the purification and characterization of Clitoria ternatea agglutinin from its seeds on fetuin CL agarose affinity column, designated CTA [A. Naeem, S. Haque, R.H. Khan. Protein J., 2007]. Since CTA binds beta-d-galactosides, this lectin can be used as valuable tool for glycobiology studies in biomedical and cancer research. So an attempt was made for a high yielding alternative purification method employing the use of asialofetuin CL agarose column for the above-mentioned lectin, designated CTL. The fetuin affinity purified agglutinin was found similar to asialofetuin affinity purified lectin in SDS pattern, HPLC and N-terminal sequence. The content of lectin was found to be 30mg/30g dry weight of pulse. The yield was 2.8% as compared to 0.3% obtained on fetuin column. The number of tryptophan and tyrosine estimated was four and six per subunit. PMID:17590430

Naeem, Aabgeena; Ahmad, Ejaz; Khan, Rizwan Hasan



Autologous Human Cellular Cytotoxicity Induced by Mitogenic and Nonmitogenic Lectins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this investigation the ability of the mitogenic components of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and the nonmitogenic lectin, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), to cause autologous cellular cytotoxicity of human red blood cells (RBC) was compared.

R. P. MacDermott G. S. Nash J. G. Saint E. A. Clark A. G. Zaras