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1

Lessons learned from mice deficient in lectin complement pathway molecules.  

PubMed

The lectin pathway of the complement system is initiated when the pattern-recognition molecules, mannose-binding lectin (MBL), ficolins or collectin-11, bind to invading pathogens or damaged host cells. This leads to activation of MBL/ficolin/collectin-11 associated serine proteases (MASPs), which in turn activate downstream complement components, ultimately leading to elimination of the pathogen. Mice deficient in the key molecules of lectin pathway of complement have been generated in order to build knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of the lectin pathway in health and disease. Despite differences in the genetic arrangements of murine and human orthologues of lectin pathway molecules, the knockout mice have proven to be valuable models to explore the effect of deficiency states in humans. In addition, new insight and unexpected findings on the diverse roles of lectin pathway molecules in complement activation, pathogen infection, coagulation, host tissue injury and developmental biology have been revealed by in vivo investigations. This review provides an overview of the mice deficient in lectin pathway molecules and highlights some of the most important findings that have resulted from studies of these. PMID:25060538

Genster, Ninette; Takahashi, Minoru; Sekine, Hideharu; Endo, Yuichi; Garred, Peter; Fujita, Teizo

2014-10-01

2

Investigations on the Involvement of the Lectin Pathway of Complement Activation in Anaphylaxis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Systemic anaphylaxis is the most severe form of immediate hypersensitivity reaction. The activation of the complement system occurs during anaphylactic shock. The purpose of this study was to determine in a mouse model whether the lectin pathway of complement activation is involved in anaphylaxis. Methods: To see whether the lectin pathway is involved in anaphylactic shock, serum mannan-binding lectin

Michaela Windbichler; Bernd Echtenacher; Kazue Takahashi; R. Alan B. Ezekowitz; Wilhelm J. Schwaeble; Jens C. Jenseniuis; Daniela N. Männel

2006-01-01

3

Activation of the lectin pathway of complement in experimental human keratitis with Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

Purpose Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) microbial keratitis (MK) is a sight-threatening disease. Previous animal studies have identified an important contribution of the complement system to the clearance of P. aeruginosa infection of the cornea. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), a pattern recognition receptor of the lectin pathway of complement, has been implicated in the host defense against P. aeruginosa. However, studies addressing the role of the lectin pathway in P. aeruginosa MK are lacking. Hence, we sought to determine the activity of the lectin pathway in human MK caused by P. aeruginosa. Methods Primary human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) from cadaveric donors were exposed to two different P. aeruginosa strains. Gene expression of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, MBL, and other complement proteins was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR) and MBL synthesis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and intracellular flow cytometry. Results MBL gene expression was not detected in unchallenged HCECs. Exposure of HCECs to P. aeruginosa resulted in rapid induction of the transcriptional expression of MBL, IL-6, and IL-8. In addition, expression of several complement proteins of the classical and lectin pathways, but not the alternative pathway, were upregulated after 5 h of challenge, including MBL-associated serine protease 1. However, MBL protein secretion was not detectable 18 h after challenge with P. aeruginosa. Conclusions MK due to P. aeruginosa triggers activation of MBL and the lectin pathway of complement. However, the physiologic relevance of this finding is unclear, as corresponding MBL oligomer production was not observed. PMID:24426774

Osthoff, Michael; Brown, Karl D.; Kong, David C.M.; Daniell, Mark

2014-01-01

4

Scabies Mite Inactive Serine Proteases Are Potent Inhibitors of the Human Complement Lectin Pathway  

PubMed Central

Scabies is an infectious skin disease caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei and has been classified as one of the six most prevalent epidermal parasitic skin diseases infecting populations living in poverty by the World Health Organisation. The role of the complement system, a pivotal component of human innate immunity, as an important defence against invading pathogens has been well documented and many parasites have an arsenal of anti-complement defences. We previously reported on a family of scabies mite proteolytically inactive serine protease paralogues (SMIPP-Ss) thought to be implicated in host defence evasion. We have since shown that two family members, SMIPP-S D1 and I1 have the ability to bind the human complement components C1q, mannose binding lectin (MBL) and properdin and are capable of inhibiting all three human complement pathways. This investigation focused on inhibition of the lectin pathway of complement activation as it is likely to be the primary pathway affecting scabies mites. Activation of the lectin pathway relies on the activation of MBL, and as SMIPP-S D1 and I1 have previously been shown to bind MBL, the nature of this interaction was examined using binding and mutagenesis studies. SMIPP-S D1 bound MBL in complex with MBL-associated serine proteases (MASPs) and released the MASP-2 enzyme from the complex. SMIPP-S I1 was also able to bind MBL in complex with MASPs, but MASP-1 and MASP-2 remained in the complex. Despite these differences in mechanism, both molecules inhibited activation of complement components downstream of MBL. Mutagenesis studies revealed that both SMIPP-Ss used an alternative site of the molecule from the residual active site region to inhibit the lectin pathway. We propose that SMIPP-Ss are potent lectin pathway inhibitors and that this mechanism represents an important tool in the immune evasion repertoire of the parasitic mite and a potential target for therapeutics. PMID:24854034

Reynolds, Simone L.; Pike, Robert N.; Mika, Angela; Blom, Anna M.; Hofmann, Andreas; Wijeyewickrema, Lakshmi C.; Fischer, Katja

2014-01-01

5

Scabies mite inactive serine proteases are potent inhibitors of the human complement lectin pathway.  

PubMed

Scabies is an infectious skin disease caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei and has been classified as one of the six most prevalent epidermal parasitic skin diseases infecting populations living in poverty by the World Health Organisation. The role of the complement system, a pivotal component of human innate immunity, as an important defence against invading pathogens has been well documented and many parasites have an arsenal of anti-complement defences. We previously reported on a family of scabies mite proteolytically inactive serine protease paralogues (SMIPP-Ss) thought to be implicated in host defence evasion. We have since shown that two family members, SMIPP-S D1 and I1 have the ability to bind the human complement components C1q, mannose binding lectin (MBL) and properdin and are capable of inhibiting all three human complement pathways. This investigation focused on inhibition of the lectin pathway of complement activation as it is likely to be the primary pathway affecting scabies mites. Activation of the lectin pathway relies on the activation of MBL, and as SMIPP-S D1 and I1 have previously been shown to bind MBL, the nature of this interaction was examined using binding and mutagenesis studies. SMIPP-S D1 bound MBL in complex with MBL-associated serine proteases (MASPs) and released the MASP-2 enzyme from the complex. SMIPP-S I1 was also able to bind MBL in complex with MASPs, but MASP-1 and MASP-2 remained in the complex. Despite these differences in mechanism, both molecules inhibited activation of complement components downstream of MBL. Mutagenesis studies revealed that both SMIPP-Ss used an alternative site of the molecule from the residual active site region to inhibit the lectin pathway. We propose that SMIPP-Ss are potent lectin pathway inhibitors and that this mechanism represents an important tool in the immune evasion repertoire of the parasitic mite and a potential target for therapeutics. PMID:24854034

Reynolds, Simone L; Pike, Robert N; Mika, Angela; Blom, Anna M; Hofmann, Andreas; Wijeyewickrema, Lakshmi C; Kemp, Dave; Fischer, Katja

2014-05-01

6

The Lectin Pathway of Complement Activation Is a Critical Component of the Innate Immune Response to Pneumococcal Infection  

PubMed Central

The complement system plays a key role in host defense against pneumococcal infection. Three different pathways, the classical, alternative and lectin pathways, mediate complement activation. While there is limited information available on the roles of the classical and the alternative activation pathways of complement in fighting streptococcal infection, little is known about the role of the lectin pathway, mainly due to the lack of appropriate experimental models of lectin pathway deficiency. We have recently established a mouse strain deficient of the lectin pathway effector enzyme mannan-binding lectin associated serine protease-2 (MASP-2) and shown that this mouse strain is unable to form the lectin pathway specific C3 and C5 convertases. Here we report that MASP-2 deficient mice (which can still activate complement via the classical pathway and the alternative pathway) are highly susceptible to pneumococcal infection and fail to opsonize Streptococcus pneumoniae in the none-immune host. This defect in complement opsonisation severely compromises pathogen clearance in the lectin pathway deficient host. Using sera from mice and humans with defined complement deficiencies, we demonstrate that mouse ficolin A, human L-ficolin, and collectin 11 in both species, but not mannan-binding lectin (MBL), are the pattern recognition molecules that drive lectin pathway activation on the surface of S. pneumoniae. We further show that pneumococcal opsonisation via the lectin pathway can proceed in the absence of C4. This study corroborates the essential function of MASP-2 in the lectin pathway and highlights the importance of MBL-independent lectin pathway activation in the host defense against pneumococci. PMID:22792067

Ali, Youssif M.; Lynch, Nicholas J.; Haleem, Kashif S.; Fujita, Teizo; Endo, Yuichi; Hansen, Soren; Holmskov, Uffe; Takahashi, Kazue; Stahl, Gregory L.; Dudler, Thomas; Girija, Umakhanth V.; Wallis, Russell; Kadioglu, Aras; Stover, Cordula M.; Andrew, Peter W.; Schwaeble, Wilhelm J.

2012-01-01

7

C-type lectins and galectins mediate innate and adaptive immune functions: their roles in the complement activation pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, a `new' pathway for complement activation mediated by the mannose-binding lectin (MBL) has been described as a key mechanism for the mammalian acute phase response to infection. This complement activation pathway is initiated by a non-self recognition step: the binding of a humoral C-type lectin [mannose-binding lectin (MBL)] to microbial surfaces bearing `foreign' carbohydrate determinants. The recognition

Gerardo R. Vasta; Michael Quesenberry; Hafiz Ahmed; Nuala O'Leary

1999-01-01

8

Near-planar Solution Structures of Mannose-binding Lectin Oligomers Provide Insight on Activation of Lectin Pathway of Complement  

PubMed Central

The complement system is a fundamental component of innate immunity that orchestrates complex immunological and inflammatory processes. Complement comprises over 30 proteins that eliminate invading microorganisms while maintaining host cell integrity. Protein-carbohydrate interactions play critical roles in both the activation and regulation of complement. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) activates the lectin pathway of complement via the recognition of sugar arrays on pathogenic surfaces. To determine the solution structure of MBL, synchrotron x-ray scattering and analytical ultracentrifugation experiments showed that the carbohydrate-recognition domains in the MBL dimer, trimer, and tetramer are positioned close to each other in near-planar fan-like structures. These data were subjected to constrained modeling fits. A bent structure for the MBL monomer was identified starting from two crystal structures for its carbohydrate-recognition domain and its triple helical region. The MBL monomer structure was used to identify 10–12 near-planar solution structures for each of the MBL dimers, trimers, and tetramers starting from 900 to 6,859 randomized structures for each. These near-planar fan-like solution structures joined at an N-terminal hub clarified how the carbohydrate-recognition domain of MBL binds to pathogenic surfaces. They also provided insight on how MBL presents a structural template for the binding and auto-activation of the MBL-associated serine proteases to initiate the lectin pathway of complement activation. PMID:22167201

Miller, Ami; Phillips, Anna; Gor, Jayesh; Wallis, Russell; Perkins, Stephen J.

2012-01-01

9

Functional analysis of the mannose-binding lectin complement pathway in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia.  

PubMed

Preeclampsia is a severe complication of pregnancy characterized by hypertension and proteinuria developing after midgestation. Previous studies have shown increased complement activation in normal and preeclamptic pregnancies. We aimed to investigate the role of the mannose-binding lectin pathway in the initiation of pathological complement activation observed in patients with preeclampsia. The study included 60 preeclamptic patients, 60 healthy pregnant women and 56 healthy non-pregnant women. Functional activity of the complex of mannose-binding lectin and mannose-binding lectin-associated serine protease 2 (MBL-MASP2 complex) was determined by ELISA. Circulating levels of complement components and C-reactive protein (CRP) were also measured. MBL-MASP2 activity was significantly higher in healthy pregnant than non-pregnant women. However, increased activity of the MBL-MASP2 complex in preeclamptic patients was not observed, compared to healthy pregnant women. MBL-MASP2 activity showed no relationship with either the levels of complement parameters, or with the clinical data and level of CRP in patients with preeclampsia. In conclusion, the complement system is activated with increased terminal complex formation in the third trimester of normal human pregnancy, and is further activated in preeclampsia as shown by the elevated amounts of activation markers. The activity of MBL-MASP2 is also increased in normal pregnancy, to the same level seen in preeclampsia. In our study, no relationship between MBL-MASP2 activity and extent of complement activation was observed in preeclampsia. We tentatively conclude, albeit without an evaluation of local placental concentrations, that the mannose-binding lectin pathway may play only a minor role in pathological complement activation during preeclampsia. PMID:20952075

Csuka, Dorottya; Molvarec, Attila; Derzsy, Zoltán; Varga, Lilian; Füst, George; Rigó, János; Prohászka, Zoltán

2010-12-01

10

Fibrinogen-specific antibody induces abdominal aortic aneurysm in mice through complement lectin pathway activation  

PubMed Central

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a common vascular disease associated with high mortality rate due to progressive enlargement and eventual rupture. There is currently no established therapy known to alter the rate of aneurysmal expansion. Thus, understanding the processes that initiate and sustain aneurysmal growth is pivotal for the development of medical therapies aimed at halting disease progression. Using an elastase-induced AAA mouse model that recapitulates key features of human AAA, we previously reported that a natural IgG antibody directs alternative pathway complement activation and initiates the inflammatory process that culminates in aneurysmal development. The target of this natural antibody, however, was unknown. Herein we identify a natural IgG that binds to fibrinogen deposited in elastase-perfused aortic tissues, activates the complement lectin pathway (LP), and induces AAA. Moreover, we establish that alterations in the glycosylation patterns of this antibody critically affect its ability to activate the LP in vivo. We find that LP activation precedes the alternative pathway and absence of the LP complement protein mannan-binding lectin abrogates elastase-induced AAA. In human AAA tissues the mouse anti-fibrinogen antibody recognizes epitopes that localize to the same areas that stain positively for mannan-binding lectin, which suggests that the complement LP is engaged in humans as well. Lastly, we demonstrate that circulating antibodies in a subset of AAA patients react against fibrinogen or fibrinogen-associated epitopes in human aneurysmal tissues. Our findings support the concept that an autoimmune process directed at aortic wall self-antigens may play a central role in the immunopathogenesis of AAA. PMID:24167262

Zhou, Hui-fang; Yan, Huimin; Bertram, Paula; Hu, Ying; Springer, Luke E.; Thompson, Robert W.; Curci, John A.; Hourcade, Dennis E.; Pham, Christine T. N.

2013-01-01

11

The lectin pathway of complement: advantage or disadvantage in HIV pathogenesis?  

PubMed

The pattern recognition molecules of the lectin complement pathway are important components of the innate immune system with known functions in host-virus interactions. This paper summarizes current knowledge of how these intriguing molecules, including mannose-binding lectin (MBL), Ficolin-1, -2 and -3, and collectin-11 (CL-11) may influence HIV-pathogenesis. It has been demonstrated that MBL is capable of binding and neutralizing HIV and may affect host susceptibility to HIV infection and disease progression. In addition, MBL may cause variations in the host immune response against HIV. Ficolin-1, -2 and -3 and CL-11 could have similar functions in HIV infection as the ficolins have been shown to play a role in other viral infections, and CL-11 resembles MBL and the ficolins in structure and binding capacity. PMID:24928325

Ballegaard, V; Haugaard, A K; Garred, P; Nielsen, S D; Munthe-Fog, L

2014-09-01

12

Interaction of lectin pathway of complement-activating pattern recognition molecules with Mycobacteria.  

PubMed

We have demonstrated that mannose-binding lectin (MBL) recognizes various slow-growing, pathogenic mycobacteria [Mycobacterium?tuberculosis (MTB), M.?bovis, M.?kansasii, M.?gordonae] as well as non-pathogenic M.?smegmatis. Recognition resulted in activation of the lectin pathway (LP) of complement and an enhancement of phagocytosis (shown for M.?tuberculosis). Although MBL may be considered the main factor activating the LP upon recognition of mycobacteria, involvement of ficolins has also to be considered. Interaction of ficolin-3 with M.?tuberculosis, M.?bovis and M.?kansasii, and ficolin-1 with M.?tuberculosis and M.?bovis was shown for the first time. Binding of recombinant MBL or ficolin-3 to MTB H37 Rv led to the agglutination of bacteria and promoted their phagocytosis, but little effect was apparent with ficolin-1 or ficolin-2. Data from Western blots suggest mannosylated lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM) to be one of the main cell components of slow-growing mycobacteria, involved in LP activation. However, the LP was also activated by other cell fractions. Results presented here supplement considerably the data concerning the ability of complement-activating lectins to interact with mycobacteria. Ficolins (especially ficolin-3) might influence host response to infection and thus have clinical significance, at least as disease modifiers. PMID:25041480

Bartlomiejczyk, M A; Swierzko, A S; Brzostek, A; Dziadek, J; Cedzynski, M

2014-11-01

13

Mutations in the lectin complement pathway genes COLEC11 and MASP1 cause 3MC syndrome  

PubMed Central

3MC syndrome has been proposed as a unifying term to integrate the overlapping Carnevale, Mingarelli, Malpuech and Michels syndromes. These rare autosomal recessive disorders of unknown cause comprise a spectrum of developmental features including characteristic facial dysmorphism, cleft lip and/or palate, craniosynostosis, learning disability, and genital, limb and vesicorenal anomalies. In a cohort of eleven 3MC families, we identified two mutated genes COLEC11 and MASP1 both of which encode proteins within the lectin complement pathway (CL-K1 and MASP-1 & ?3 respectively). CL-K1 is highly expressed in embryonic murine craniofacial cartilage, heart, bronchi, kidney, and vertebral bodies. Zebrafish morphants develop pigment defects and severe craniofacial abnormalities. Here, we show that CL-K1 serves as a key guidance cue for neural crest cell migration thus demonstrating for the first time, a role for complement pathway factors in fundamental developmental processes and the origin of 3MC syndrome. PMID:21258343

Rooryck, Caroline; Diaz-Font, Anna; Osborn, Daniel P.S.; Chabchoub, Elyes; Hernandez-Hernandez, Victor; Shamseldin, Hanan; Kenny, Joanna; Waters, Aoife; Jenkins, Dagan; Kaissi, Ali Al; Leal, Gabriela F.; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Carnevale, Franco; Bitner-Glindzicz, Maria; Lees, Melissa; Hennekam, Raoul; Stanier, Philip; Burns, Alan J.; Peeters, Hilde; Alkuraya, Fowzan S; Beales, Philip L.

2011-01-01

14

Trypanosoma cruzi calreticulin inhibits the complement lectin pathway activation by direct interaction with L-Ficolin.  

PubMed

Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas' disease, the sixth neglected tropical disease worldwide, infects 10-12 million people in Latin America. Differently from T. cruzi epimastigotes, trypomastigotes are complement-resistant and infective. CRPs, T-DAF, sialic acid and lipases explain at least part of this resistance. In vitro, T. cruzi calreticulin (TcCRT), a chaperone molecule that translocates from the ER to the parasite surface: (a) Inhibits the human classical complement activation, by interacting with C1, (b) As a consequence, an increase in infectivity is evident and, (c) It inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth. We report here that TcCRT also binds to the L-Ficolin collagenous portion, thus inhibiting approximately between 35 and 64% of the human complement lectin pathway activation, initiated by L-Ficolin, a property not shared by H-Ficolin. While L-Ficolin binds to 60% of trypomastigotes and to 24% of epimastigotes, 50% of the former and 4% of the latter display TcCRT on their surfaces. Altogether, these data indicate that TcCRT is a parasite inhibitory receptor for Ficolins. The resulting evasive activities, together with the TcCRT capacity to inhibit C1, with a concomitant increase in infectivity, may represent T. cruzi strategies to inhibit important arms of the innate immune response. PMID:24769495

Sosoniuk, Eduardo; Vallejos, Gerardo; Kenawy, Hany; Gaboriaud, Christine; Thielens, Nicole; Fujita, Teizo; Schwaeble, Wilhelm; Ferreira, Arturo; Valck, Carolina

2014-07-01

15

Mutations in lectin complement pathway genes COLEC11 and MASP1 cause 3MC syndrome.  

PubMed

3MC syndrome has been proposed as a unifying term encompassing the overlapping Carnevale, Mingarelli, Malpuech and Michels syndromes. These rare autosomal recessive disorders exhibit a spectrum of developmental features, including characteristic facial dysmorphism, cleft lip and/or palate, craniosynostosis, learning disability and genital, limb and vesicorenal anomalies. Here we studied 11 families with 3MC syndrome and identified two mutated genes, COLEC11 and MASP1, both of which encode proteins in the lectin complement pathway (collectin kidney 1 (CL-K1) and MASP-1 and MASP-3, respectively). CL-K1 is highly expressed in embryonic murine craniofacial cartilage, heart, bronchi, kidney and vertebral bodies. Zebrafish morphants for either gene develop pigmentary defects and severe craniofacial abnormalities. Finally, we show that CL-K1 serves as a guidance cue for neural crest cell migration. Together, these findings demonstrate a role for complement pathway factors in fundamental developmental processes and in the etiology of 3MC syndrome. PMID:21258343

Rooryck, Caroline; Diaz-Font, Anna; Osborn, Daniel P S; Chabchoub, Elyes; Hernandez-Hernandez, Victor; Shamseldin, Hanan; Kenny, Joanna; Waters, Aoife; Jenkins, Dagan; Kaissi, Ali Al; Leal, Gabriela F; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Carnevale, Franco; Bitner-Glindzicz, Maria; Lees, Melissa; Hennekam, Raoul; Stanier, Philip; Burns, Alan J; Peeters, Hilde; Alkuraya, Fowzan S; Beales, Philip L

2011-03-01

16

Increased complement classical and mannan-binding lectin pathway activities in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder, with worldwide prevalence of 1–1.5%. Immunological research in schizophrenia indicates that infectious or autoimmune processes might play a role in the etiopathogenesis. The complement system is a major mediator of innate immune defence against infection and contributes to many functions of the immune system including inflammation, opsonization and cell lysis. Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) activates

Karine R. Mayilyan; James N. Arnold; Julia S. Presanis; Armen F. Soghoyan; Robert B. Sim

2006-01-01

17

Mannan-binding lectin activates C3 and the alternative complement pathway without involvement of C2  

PubMed Central

Lectin pathway activation of C3 is known to involve target recognition by mannan-binding lectin (MBL) or ficolins and generation of classical pathway C3 convertase via cleavage of C4 and C2 by MBL-associated serine protease 2 (MASP-2). We investigated C3 activation in C2-deficient human sera and in sera with other defined defects of complement to assess other mechanisms through which MBL might recruit complement. The capacity of serum to support C3 deposition was examined by ELISA using microtiter plates coated with O antigen–specific oligosaccharides derived from Salmonella typhimurium, S. thompson, and S. enteritidis corresponding to serogroups B, C, and D (BO, CO, and DO). MBL bound to CO, but not to BO and DO, and efficiently supported C3 deposition in the absence of C2, C4, or MASP-2. The existence of an MBL-dependent C2 bypass mechanism for alternative pathway–mediated C3 activation was clearly demonstrated using CO, solid-phase mannan, and E. coli LPS. MASP-1 might contribute, but was not required for C3 deposition in the model used. Independent of MBL, specific antibodies to CO supported C3 deposition through classical and alternative pathways. MBL-dependent C2 bypass activation could be particularly important in various inherited and acquired complement deficiency states. PMID:16670774

Selander, Barbro; Martensson, Ulla; Weintraub, Andrej; Holmstrom, Eva; Matsushita, Misao; Thiel, Steffen; Jensenius, Jens C.; Truedsson, Lennart; Sjoholm, Anders G.

2006-01-01

18

Therapeutic Targeting of Classical and Lectin Pathways of Complement Protects from Ischemia-Reperfusion-Induced Renal Damage  

PubMed Central

Ischemia-reperfusion injury is the major cause of delayed graft function in transplanted kidneys, an early event significantly affecting long-term graft function and survival. Several studies in rodents suggest that the alternative pathway of the complement system plays a pivotal role in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, limited information is currently available from humans and larger animals. Here we demonstrated that 30 minutes of ischemia resulted in the induction of C4d/C1q, C4d/MLB, and MBL/MASP-2 deposits in a swine model of ischemia-reperfusion injury. The infusion of C1-inhibitor led to a significant reduction in peritubular capillary and glomerular C4d and C5b-9 deposition. Moreover, complement-inhibiting treatment significantly reduced the numbers of infiltrating CD163+, SWC3a+, CD4a+, and CD8a+ cells. C1-inhibitor administration led to significant inhibition of tubular damage and tubular epithelial cells apoptosis. Interestingly, we report that focal C4d-deposition colocalizes with C1q and MBL at the peritubular and glomerular capillary levels also in patients with delayed graft function. In conclusion, we demonstrated the activation and a pathogenic role of classical and lectin pathways of complement in a swine model of ischemia-reperfusion?induced renal damage. Therefore, inhibition of these two pathways might represent a novel therapeutic approach in the prevention of delayed graft function in kidney transplant recipients. PMID:20150432

Castellano, Giuseppe; Melchiorre, Rita; Loverre, Antonia; Ditonno, Pasquale; Montinaro, Vincenzo; Rossini, Michele; Divella, Chiara; Battaglia, Michele; Lucarelli, Giuseppe; Annunziata, Gennaro; Palazzo, Silvano; Selvaggi, Francesco Paolo; Staffieri, Francesco; Crovace, Antonio; Daha, Mohamed R.; Mannesse, Maurice; van Wetering, Sandra; Paolo Schena, Francesco; Grandaliano, Giuseppe

2010-01-01

19

Oxidative Stress Sensitizes Retinal Pigmented Epithelial (RPE) Cells to Complement-mediated Injury in a Natural Antibody-, Lectin Pathway-, and Phospholipid Epitope-dependent Manner*  

PubMed Central

Uncontrolled activation of the alternative complement pathway (AP) is thought to be associated with age-related macular degeneration. Previously, we have shown that in retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) monolayers, oxidative stress reduced complement inhibition on the cell surface, resulting in sublytic complement activation and loss of transepithelial resistance (TER), but the potential ligand and pathway involved are unknown. ARPE-19 cells were grown as monolayers on transwell plates, and sublytic complement activation was induced with H2O2 and normal human serum. TER deteriorated rapidly in H2O2-exposed monolayers upon adding normal human serum. Although the effect required AP activation, AP was not sufficient, because elimination of MASP, but not C1q, prevented TER reduction. Reconstitution experiments to unravel essential components of the lectin pathway (LP) showed that both ficolin and mannan-binding lectin can activate the LP through natural IgM antibodies (IgM-C2) that recognize phospholipid cell surface modifications on oxidatively stressed RPE cells. The same epitopes were found on human primary embryonic RPE monolayers. Likewise, mouse laser-induced choroidal neovascularization, an injury that involves LP activation, could be increased in antibody-deficient rag1?/? mice using the phospholipid-specific IgM-C2. In summary, using a combination of depletion and reconstitution strategies, we have shown that the LP is required to initiate the complement cascade following natural antibody recognition of neoepitopes, which is then further amplified by the AP. LP activation is triggered by IgM bound to phospholipids. Taken together, we have defined novel mechanisms of complement activation in oxidatively stressed RPE, linking molecular events involved in age-related macular degeneration, including the presence of natural antibodies and neoepitopes. PMID:23493397

Joseph, Kusumam; Kulik, Liudmila; Coughlin, Beth; Kunchithapautham, Kannan; Bandyopadhyay, Mausumi; Thiel, Steffen; Thielens, Nicole M.; Holers, V. Michael; Rohrer, Barbel

2013-01-01

20

Essential role for the lectin pathway in collagen antibody-induced arthritis revealed through use of adenovirus programming complement inhibitor MAp44 expression.  

PubMed

Previous studies using mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and complement C4-deficient mice have suggested that the lectin pathway (LP) is not required for the development of inflammatory arthritis in the collagen Ab-induced arthritis (CAIA) model. MBL, ficolins and collectin-11 are key LP pattern recognition molecules that associate with three serine proteases-MASP-1, MASP-2, and MASP-3-and with two MBL-associated proteins designated sMAP and MBL-associated protein of 44kDA (MAp44). Recent studies have shown that MAp44, an alternatively spliced product of the MASP-1/3 gene, is a competitive inhibitor of the binding of the recognition molecules to all three MASPs. In these studies, we examined the effect of treatment of mice with adenovirus (Ad) programmed to express human MAp44 (AdhMAp44) on the development of CAIA. AdhMAp44 and Ad programming GFP (AdGFP) expression were injected i.p. in C57BL/6 wild type mice prior to the induction of CAIA. AdhMAp44 significantly reduced the clinical disease activity (CDA) score by 81% compared with mice injected with AdGFP. Similarly, histopathologic injury scores for inflammation, pannus, cartilage and bone damage, as well as C3 deposition in the cartilage and synovium, were significantly reduced by AdhMAp44 pretreatment. Mice treated with AdmMAp44, programming expression of mouse MAp44, also showed significantly decreased CDA score and histopathologic injury scores. In addition, administration of AdhMAp44 significantly diminished the severity of Ross River virus-induced arthritis, an LP-dependent model. Our study provides conclusive evidence that an intact complement LP is essential to initiate CAIA, and that MAp44 may be an appropriate treatment for inflammatory arthritis. PMID:25070856

Banda, Nirmal K; Mehta, Gaurav; Kjaer, Troels R; Takahashi, Minoru; Schaack, Jerome; Morrison, Thomas E; Thiel, Steffen; Arend, William P; Holers, V Michael

2014-09-01

21

Quantitative Characterization of the Activation Steps of Mannan-binding Lectin (MBL)-associated Serine Proteases (MASPs) Points to the Central Role of MASP-1 in the Initiation of the Complement Lectin Pathway*  

PubMed Central

Mannan-binding lectin (MBL)-associated serine proteases, MASP-1 and MASP-2, have been thought to autoactivate when MBL/ficolin·MASP complexes bind to pathogens triggering the complement lectin pathway. Autoactivation of MASPs occurs in two steps: 1) zymogen autoactivation, when one proenzyme cleaves another proenzyme molecule of the same protease, and 2) autocatalytic activation, when the activated protease cleaves its own zymogen. Using recombinant catalytic fragments, we demonstrated that a stable proenzyme MASP-1 variant (R448Q) cleaved the inactive, catalytic site Ser-to-Ala variant (S646A). The autoactivation steps of MASP-1 were separately quantified using these mutants and the wild type enzyme. Analogous mutants were made for MASP-2, and rate constants of the autoactivation steps as well as the possible cross-activation steps between MASP-1 and MASP-2 were determined. Based on the rate constants, a kinetic model of lectin pathway activation was outlined. The zymogen autoactivation rate of MASP-1 is ?3000-fold higher, and the autocatalytic activation of MASP-1 is about 140-fold faster than those of MASP-2. Moreover, both activated and proenzyme MASP-1 can effectively cleave proenzyme MASP-2. MASP-3, which does not autoactivate, is also cleaved by MASP-1 quite efficiently. The structure of the catalytic region of proenzyme MASP-1 R448Q was solved at 2.5 ?. Proenzyme MASP-1 R448Q readily cleaves synthetic substrates, and it is inhibited by a specific canonical inhibitor developed against active MASP-1, indicating that zymogen MASP-1 fluctuates between an inactive and an active-like conformation. The determined structure provides a feasible explanation for this phenomenon. In summary, autoactivation of MASP-1 is crucial for the activation of MBL/ficolin·MASP complexes, and in the proenzymic phase zymogen MASP-1 controls the process. PMID:23386610

Megyeri, Marton; Harmat, Veronika; Major, Balazs; Vegh, Adam; Balczer, Julia; Heja, David; Szilagyi, Katalin; Datz, Daniel; Pal, Gabor; Zavodszky, Peter; Gal, Peter; Dobo, Jozsef

2013-01-01

22

Mannose binding lectin (mbl2) haplotype frequencies in solid organ transplant patients and correlation with MBL protein levels--evaluation of complement-mediated effector pathway deficiency.  

PubMed

Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a protein critical in activating complement. Patients with wild-type and variant mbl2 genotypes have high or low concentrations of MBL protein, which is known to increase susceptibility to transplant rejection or infection, respectively. Our objective was to determine mbl2 genotype frequencies in future solid organ transplant recipients in order to optimize their induction and maintenance immunosuppressive therapies, and to provide MBL reference data for this unique population. We genotyped 1687 patients, and concurrently measured protein in 807 of them, during 2010-2011. Frequencies of the structural allele SNPs in our population were similar to those of other studied populations; however, Black patients with the same intermediate and deficient mbl2 genotypes as Caucasians produced significantly lower levels of MBL protein; therefore, within this population more genotypes should be considered MBL-deficient. Overall, the most critical parameter in determining serum MBL protein concentration was genotype, which was independent of other factors including ethnicity, gender, or diseased native organ type. PMID:23439277

Stevenson, Heather L; Amador, Alexandra; McCue, Jennifer; Weppler, Deborah; Tryphonopoulos, Panagiotis; Roth, David; Ciancio, Gaetano; Burke, George; Chaparro, Sandra; Pham, Si; Tzakis, Andreas; Ruiz, Phillip

2013-03-01

23

Complement-Mediated Neutralization of Dengue Virus Requires Mannose-Binding Lectin  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a key soluble pathogen recognition protein of the innate immune system that binds specific mannose-containing glycans on the surfaces of microbial agents and initiates complement activation via the lectin pathway. Prior studies showed that MBL-dependent activation of the complement cascade neutralized insect cell-derived West Nile virus (WNV) in cell culture and restricted pathogenesis in mice. Here, we investigated the antiviral activity of MBL in infection by dengue virus (DENV), a related flavivirus. Using a panel of naïve sera from mouse strains deficient in different complement components, we showed that inhibition of infection by insect cell- and mammalian cell-derived DENV was primarily dependent on the lectin pathway. Human MBL also bound to DENV and neutralized infection of all four DENV serotypes through complement activation-dependent and -independent pathways. Experiments with human serum from naïve individuals with inherent variation in the levels of MBL in blood showed a direct correlation between the concentration of MBL and neutralization of DENV; samples with high levels of MBL in blood neutralized DENV more efficiently than those with lower levels. Our studies suggest that allelic variation of MBL in humans may impact complement-dependent control of DENV pathogenesis. PMID:22167226

Avirutnan, Panisadee; Hauhart, Richard E.; Marovich, Mary A.; Garred, Peter; Atkinson, John P.; Diamond, Michael S.

2011-01-01

24

Mannose-binding lectin 1 haplotypes influence serum MBLA concentration, complement activity, and milk production traits in Chinese Holstein cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a member of the collectin protein family that binds a broad range of microorganisms and activates\\u000a the lectin-complement pathway of innate immunity. MBL deficiency is associated with an increased risk for various infections\\u000a and arises from five polymorphisms in the promoter and first exon of the MBL gene in humans. In this study, three novel single-nucleotide

Jianbo Liu; Zhihua Ju; Qiuling Li; Jinming Huang; Rongling Li; Jiangbin Li; Lijuan Ma; Jifeng Zhong; Changfa Wang

25

Mannose-binding lectin binds to Ebola and Marburg envelope glycoproteins, resulting in blocking of virus interaction with DC-SIGN and complement-mediated virus neutralization.  

PubMed

Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), a serum lectin that mediates innate immune functions including activation of the lectin complement pathway, binds to carbohydrates expressed on some viral glycoproteins. In this study, the ability of MBL to bind to virus particles pseudotyped with Ebola and Marburg envelope glycoproteins was evaluated. Virus particles bearing either Ebola (Zaire strain) or Marburg (Musoke strain) envelope glycoproteins bound at significantly higher levels to immobilized MBL compared with virus particles pseudotyped with vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein or with no virus glycoprotein. As observed in previous studies, Ebola-pseudotyped virus bound to cells expressing the lectin DC-SIGN (dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing non-integrin). However, pre-incubation of virus with MBL blocked DC-SIGN-mediated binding to cells, suggesting that the two lectins bind at the same or overlapping sites on the Ebola glycoprotein. Neutralization experiments showed that virus pseudotyped with Ebola or Marburg (Musoke) glycoprotein was neutralized by complement, while the Marburg (Ravn strain) glycoprotein-pseudotyped virus was less sensitive to neutralization. Neutralization was partially mediated through the lectin complement pathway, since a complement source deficient in MBL was significantly less effective at neutralizing viruses pseudotyped with filovirus glycoproteins and addition of purified MBL to the MBL-deficient complement increased neutralization. These experiments demonstrated that MBL binds to filovirus envelope glycoproteins resulting in important biological effects and suggest that MBL can interact with filoviruses during infection in humans. PMID:16099912

Ji, Xin; Olinger, Gene G; Aris, Sheena; Chen, Ying; Gewurz, Henry; Spear, Gregory T

2005-09-01

26

Alternative Complement Pathway Deregulation Is Correlated with Dengue Severity  

PubMed Central

Background The complement system, a key component that links the innate and adaptive immune responses, has three pathways: the classical, lectin, and alternative pathways. In the present study, we have analyzed the levels of various complement components in blood samples from dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) patients and found that the level of complement activation is associated with disease severity. Methods and Results Patients with DHF had lower levels of complement factor 3 (C3; p?=?0.002) and increased levels of C3a, C4a and C5a (p<0.0001) when compared to those with the less severe form, DF. There were no significant differences between DF and DHF patients in the levels of C1q, immunocomplexes (CIC-CIq) and CRP. However, small but statistically significant differences were detected in the levels of MBL. In contrast, the levels of two regulatory proteins of the alternative pathway varied widely between DF and DHF patients: DHF patients had higher levels of factor D (p?=?0.01), which cleaves factor B to yield the active (C3bBb) C3 convertase, and lower levels of factor H (p?=?0.03), which inactivates the (C3bBb) C3 convertase, than did DF patients. When we considered the levels of factors D and H together as an indicator of (C3bBb) C3 convertase regulation, we found that the plasma levels of these regulatory proteins in DHF patients favored the formation of the (C3bBb) C3 convertase, whereas its formation was inhibited in DF patients (p<0.0001). Conclusion The data suggest that an imbalance in the levels of regulatory factors D and H is associated with an abnormal regulation of complement activity in DHF patients. PMID:19707565

Nascimento, Eduardo J. M.; Silva, Ana M.; Cordeiro, Marli T.; Brito, Carlos A.; Gil, Laura H. V. G.; Braga-Neto, Ulisses; Marques, Ernesto T. A.

2009-01-01

27

Functional characterization of mannose-binding lectin in zebrafish: implication for a lectin-dependent complement system in early embryos.  

PubMed

The lectin pathway involves recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns by mannose-binding lectin (MBL), and the subsequent activation of associated enzymes, termed MBL-associated serine proteases (MASPs). In this study, we demonstrate that the transcript of MBL gene is present in the early embryo of zebrafish, and MBL protein is also present in the embryo. In addition, we show that recombinant zebrafish MBL was able to bind the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli and the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, and rMBL was able to promote the phagocytosis of E. coli and S. aureus by macrophages, indicating that like mammalian MBL, zebrafish MBL performs a dual function in both pattern recognition and opsonization. Importantly, we show that microinjection of anti-MBL antibody into the early developing embryos resulted in a significantly increased mortality in the embryos challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila (pathogenic to zebrafish); and injection of rMBL into the embryos (resulting in increase in MBL in the embryo) markedly promoted their resistance to A. hydrophila; and this promoted bacterial resistance was significantly reduced by the co-injection of anti-MBL antibody with rMBL but not by the injection of anti-actin antibody with rMBL. These suggest that the lectin pathway may be already functional in the early embryos in zebrafish before their immune system is fully matured, protecting the developing embryos from microbial infection. This work provides a new angle to understand the immune role of the lectin pathway in early development of animals. PMID:24858663

Yang, Lili; Bu, Lingzhen; Sun, Weiwei; Hu, Lili; Zhang, Shicui

2014-10-01

28

Activation of complement by mannose-binding lectin on isogenic mutants of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B.  

PubMed

Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a serum protein that has been demonstrated to activate the classical complement pathway and to function directly as an opsonin. Although MBL deficiency is associated with a common opsonic defect and a predisposition to infection, the role of the protein in bacterial infection remains unclear. We have investigated MBL binding to Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B1940 and three isogenic mutants, and the subsequent activation of the two major isoforms of C4 (C4A and C4B) by an associated serine protease, MASP. The mutants lacked expression of the capsular polysaccharide (siaD-), the lipo-oligosaccharide (LOS) outer core that prevented LOS sialylation (cpsD-), or both capsule and LOS outer core (cps-). Using flow cytometry, it was possible to detect strong MBL binding to the cps- and cpsD- mutants over a wide range of concentrations. In contrast, minimal or no MBL binding was detected on the parent organism, with binding to siaD- only at higher MBL concentrations. C4 was activated and bound by mutants that had previously bound MBL/MASP, but there was no significant difference in the amounts of C4A and C4B bound. When sialic acid residues were removed from the parent organism by neuraminidase treatment, the binding of both MBL and C4 increased significantly. Our results suggest that MBL may bind to and activate complement on these encapsulated organisms, and the major determinants of these effects are the LOS structure and sialylation. PMID:9570553

Jack, D L; Dodds, A W; Anwar, N; Ison, C A; Law, A; Frosch, M; Turner, M W; Klein, N J

1998-02-01

29

Mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease (MASP)-1 is crucial for lectin pathway activation in human serum, whereas neither MASP-1 nor MASP-3 is required for alternative pathway function.  

PubMed

The lectin pathway of complement is an important component of innate immunity. Its activation has been thought to occur via recognition of pathogens by mannan-binding lectin (MBL) or ficolins in complex with MBL-associated serine protease (MASP)-2, followed by MASP-2 autoactivation and cleavage of C4 and C2 generating the C3 convertase. MASP-1 and MASP-3 are related proteases found in similar complexes. MASP-1 has been shown to aid MASP-2 convertase generation by auxiliary C2 cleavage. In mice, MASP-1 and MASP-3 have been reported to be central also to alternative pathway function through activation of profactor D and factor B. In this study, we present functional studies based on a patient harboring a nonsense mutation in the common part of the MASP1 gene and hence deficient in both MASP-1 and MASP-3. Surprisingly, we find that the alternative pathway in this patient functions normally, and is unaffected by reconstitution with MASP-1 and MASP-3. Conversely, we find that the patient has a nonfunctional lectin pathway, which can be restored by MASP-1, implying that this component is crucial for complement activation. We show that, although MASP-2 is able to autoactivate under artificial conditions, MASP-1 dramatically increases lectin pathway activity at physiological conditions through direct activation of MASP-2. We further demonstrate that MASP-1 and MASP-2 can associate in the same MBL complex, and that such cocomplexes are found in serum, providing a scenario for transactivation of MASP-2. Hence, in functional terms, it appears that MASP-1 and MASP-2 act in a manner analogous to that of C1r and C1s of the classical pathway. PMID:22966085

Degn, Søren E; Jensen, Lisbeth; Hansen, Annette G; Duman, Duygu; Tekin, Mustafa; Jensenius, Jens C; Thiel, Steffen

2012-10-15

30

Methylprednisolone inhibits the alternative and amplification pathways of complement.  

PubMed Central

Methylprednisolone sodium succinate limited the ability of zymosan or lipopolysaccharide to activate complement in normal serum by the alternative amplification pathways. Methylprednisolone limited B consumption in a reaction mixture which contained purified C3b, D, and B, indicating that soluble steroid directly inhibited the amplification pathway. The ability of soluble steroid to inhibit events in the alternative and amplification pathways of complement may provide a partial explanation for the effectiveness of steroids in treating gram negative septic shock. PMID:6754609

Weiler, J M; Packard, B D

1982-01-01

31

Crystal structure and functional characterization of the complement regulator mannose-binding lectin (MBL)/ficolin-associated protein-1 (MAP-1).  

PubMed

The human lectin complement pathway activation molecules comprise mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and ficolin-1, -2, and -3 in complex with associated serine proteases MASP-1, -2, and -3 and the non-enzymatic small MBL associated protein or sMAP. Recently, a novel plasma protein named MBL/ficolin-associated protein-1 (MAP-1) was identified in humans. This protein is the result of a differential splicing of the MASP1 gene and includes the major part of the heavy chain but lacks the serine protease domain. We investigated the direct interactions of MAP-1 and MASP-3 with ficolin-3 and MBL using surface plasmon resonance and found affinities around 5 nm and 2.5 nm, respectively. We studied structural aspects of MAP-1 and could show by multi-angle laser light scattering that MAP-1 forms a calcium-dependent homodimer in solution. We were able to determine the crystal structure of MAP-1, which also contains a head-to-tail dimer ?146 ? long. This structure of MAP-1 also enables modeling and assembly of the MASP-1 molecule in its entirety. Finally we found that MAP-1 competes with all three MASPs for ligand binding and is able to mediate a strong dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the lectin pathway activation, as measured by levels of C3 and C9. PMID:22854970

Skjoedt, Mikkel-Ole; Roversi, Pietro; Hummelshøj, Tina; Palarasah, Yaseelan; Rosbjerg, Anne; Johnson, Steven; Lea, Susan M; Garred, Peter

2012-09-21

32

Legionella pneumophila lipopolysaccharide activates the classical complement pathway.  

PubMed Central

Legionella pneumophila is a gram-negative bacterium capable of entering and growing in alveolar macrophages and monocytes. Complement and complement receptors are important in the uptake of L. pneumophila by human mononuclear phagocytes. The surface molecules of L. pneumophila that activate the complement system are unknown. To identify these factors, we investigated the effects of L. pneumophila lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the classical and alternative complement pathways of normal human serum by functional hemolytic assays. Although incubation of LPS in normal human serum at 37 degrees C resulted in the activation of both pathways, complement activation proceeded primarily through the classical pathway. Activation of the classical pathway by LPS was dependent on natural antibodies of the immunoglobulin M class that were present in various quantities in sera from different normal individuals but were absent in an immunoglobulin-deficient serum obtained from an agammaglobulinemic patient. Additional studies using sheep erythrocytes coated with LPS suggested that the antibodies recognized antigenic sites in the carbohydrate portion of LPS. The ability of LPS to interact with the complement system suggests a role for LPS in the uptake of L. pneumophila by mononuclear phagocytes. PMID:1612744

Mintz, C S; Schultz, D R; Arnold, P I; Johnson, W

1992-01-01

33

Mannose-Binding Lectin Binds to a Range of Clinically Relevant Microorganisms and Promotes Complement Deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a collagenous serum lectin believed to be of importance in innate immunity. Genetically determined low levels of the protein are known to predispose to infections. In this study the binding of purified MBL to pathogens isolated from immunocompromised children was investigated by flow cytometry. Diverse Candida species, Aspergillus fumigatus, Staphylococcus aureus, and beta-hemolytic group A streptococci

OLAF NETH; DOMINIC L. JACK; ALISTER W. DODDS; HELEN HOLZEL; NIGEL J. KLEIN; MALCOLM W. TURNER

2000-01-01

34

Peptide inhibitor of complement c1, a novel suppressor of classical pathway activation: mechanistic studies and clinical potential.  

PubMed

The classical pathway of complement plays multiple physiological roles including modulating immunological effectors initiated by adaptive immune responses and an essential homeostatic role in the clearance of damaged self-antigens. However, dysregulated classical pathway activation is associated with antibody-initiated, inflammatory diseases processes like cold agglutinin disease, acute intravascular hemolytic transfusion reaction (AIHTR), and acute/hyperacute transplantation rejection. To date, only one putative classical pathway inhibitor, C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH), is currently commercially available and its only approved indication is for replacement treatment in hereditary angioedema, which is predominantly a kinin pathway disease. Given the variety of disease conditions in which the classical pathway is implicated, development of therapeutics that specifically inhibits complement initiation represents a major unmet medical need. Our laboratory has identified a peptide that specifically inhibits the classical and lectin pathways of complement. In vitro studies have demonstrated that these peptide inhibitors of complement C1 (PIC1) bind to the collagen-like region of the initiator molecule of the classical pathway, C1q. PIC1 binding to C1q blocks activation of the associated serine proteases (C1s-C1r-C1r-C1s) and subsequent downstream complement activation. Rational design optimization of PIC1 has resulted in the generation of a highly potent derivative of 15 amino acids. PIC1 inhibits classical pathway mediated complement activation in ABO incompatibility in vitro and inhibiting classical pathway activation in vivo in rats. This review will focus on the pre-clinical development of PIC1 and discuss its potential as a therapeutic in antibody-mediated classical pathway disease, specifically AIHTR. PMID:25202312

Sharp, Julia A; Whitley, Pamela H; Cunnion, Kenji M; Krishna, Neel K

2014-01-01

35

Peptide Inhibitor of Complement C1, a Novel Suppressor of Classical Pathway Activation: Mechanistic Studies and Clinical Potential  

PubMed Central

The classical pathway of complement plays multiple physiological roles including modulating immunological effectors initiated by adaptive immune responses and an essential homeostatic role in the clearance of damaged self-antigens. However, dysregulated classical pathway activation is associated with antibody-initiated, inflammatory diseases processes like cold agglutinin disease, acute intravascular hemolytic transfusion reaction (AIHTR), and acute/hyperacute transplantation rejection. To date, only one putative classical pathway inhibitor, C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH), is currently commercially available and its only approved indication is for replacement treatment in hereditary angioedema, which is predominantly a kinin pathway disease. Given the variety of disease conditions in which the classical pathway is implicated, development of therapeutics that specifically inhibits complement initiation represents a major unmet medical need. Our laboratory has identified a peptide that specifically inhibits the classical and lectin pathways of complement. In vitro studies have demonstrated that these peptide inhibitors of complement C1 (PIC1) bind to the collagen-like region of the initiator molecule of the classical pathway, C1q. PIC1 binding to C1q blocks activation of the associated serine proteases (C1s–C1r–C1r–C1s) and subsequent downstream complement activation. Rational design optimization of PIC1 has resulted in the generation of a highly potent derivative of 15 amino acids. PIC1 inhibits classical pathway mediated complement activation in ABO incompatibility in vitro and inhibiting classical pathway activation in vivo in rats. This review will focus on the pre-clinical development of PIC1 and discuss its potential as a therapeutic in antibody-mediated classical pathway disease, specifically AIHTR. PMID:25202312

Sharp, Julia A.; Whitley, Pamela H.; Cunnion, Kenji M.; Krishna, Neel K.

2014-01-01

36

Novel Scabies Mite Serpins Inhibit the Three Pathways of the Human Complement System  

PubMed Central

Scabies is a parasitic infestation of the skin by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei that causes significant morbidity worldwide, in particular within socially disadvantaged populations. In order to identify mechanisms that enable the scabies mite to evade human immune defenses, we have studied molecules associated with proteolytic systems in the mite, including two novel scabies mite serine protease inhibitors (SMSs) of the serpin superfamily. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that within mite-infected human skin SMSB4 (54 kDa) and SMSB3 (47 kDa) were both localized in the mite gut and feces. Recombinant purified SMSB3 and SMSB4 did not inhibit mite serine and cysteine proteases, but did inhibit mammalian serine proteases, such as chymotrypsin, albeit inefficiently. Detailed functional analysis revealed that both serpins interfered with all three pathways of the human complement system at different stages of their activation. SMSB4 inhibited mostly the initial and progressing steps of the cascades, while SMSB3 showed the strongest effects at the C9 level in the terminal pathway. Additive effects of both serpins were shown at the C9 level in the lectin pathway. Both SMSs were able to interfere with complement factors without protease function. A range of binding assays showed direct binding between SMSB4 and seven complement proteins (C1, properdin, MBL, C4, C3, C6 and C8), while significant binding of SMSB3 occurred exclusively to complement factors without protease function (C4, C3, C8). Direct binding was observed between SMSB4 and the complement proteases C1s and C1r. However no complex formation was observed between either mite serpin and the complement serine proteases C1r, C1s, MASP-1, MASP-2 and MASP-3. No catalytic inhibition by either serpin was observed for any of these enzymes. In summary, the SMSs were acting at several levels mediating overall inhibition of the complement system and thus we propose that they may protect scabies mites from complement-mediated gut damage. PMID:22792350

Mika, Angela; Reynolds, Simone L.; Mohlin, Frida C.; Willis, Charlene; Swe, Pearl M.; Pickering, Darren A.; Halilovic, Vanja; Wijeyewickrema, Lakshmi C.; Pike, Robert N.; Blom, Anna M.; Kemp, David J.; Fischer, Katja

2012-01-01

37

Nephritic Factor of the Classical Pathway of Complement  

PubMed Central

A factor, functionally characterized by its capacity to stabilize the normally labile classical pathway C3-converting complex of the classical pathway of complement, has been isolated from the serum of one patient with a case of acute glomerulonephritis, subsequent to a cutaneous infection. The factor confers long-lived stabilization of classical pathway C3 convertase complexes formed both in the solid (sensitized sheep erythrocytes bearing activated C?1? and the classical pathway C3 convertase) and fluid phase. The half-life of such stabilized C3-cleaving enzymes extended beyond several hours at 37°C. The stabilizing activity was associated with a protein fraction immunochemically identified as immunoglobulin (Ig)G, a sizeable population of which exhibited a gamma chain of 60,000 daltons. The IgG-associated stabilizing activity was found to bind to the classical pathway C3 convertase enzyme via a fragment bearing the antigen-binding site of the molecule [F(ab)2 and F(ab)]. Such binding was demonstrable for classical pathway and not for alternative pathway C3 convertase. Thus, the stabilizing factor behaves like an autoantibody to the C3-converting complex of the classical pathway of complement. The binding of the antibody to the enzyme affords protection of the latter against decay-degradation. By analogy with the nephritic factor of the alternative pathway situation where IgG autoantibodies specifically bind to alternative pathway C3 convertase enzymes and protect them from degradation, the functionally unusual IgG in our patient was designated as the nephritic factor of the classical pathway. Indirect evidence suggests that nephritic factor of the classical pathway-IgG might be of the IgG3 subclass. Images PMID:6902727

Halbwachs, L.; Leveillé, M.; Lesavre, Ph.; Wattel, S.; Leibowitch, J.

1980-01-01

38

Activation of the alternative pathway of complement by Entamoeba histolytica.  

PubMed Central

A cytopathogenic effect was observed when Entamoeba histolytica was exposed to human sera from individuals with no clinical history or laboratory evidence of amoebiasis. Absorption studies showed that the effect was not due to natural antibodies. Studies performed using ethylenediamine tetracetic acid (EDTA), cobra venom factor (CoF) and heat-inactivation at 56 degrees C, indicated that the cytopathogenic effect was complement dependent. Furthermore, by using ethylene glycol tetracetic acid (EGTA) and Mg++, zymosan, heat-inactivation at 50 degrees C to destroy the activity of factor B of the alternative pathway, as well as electrophoretic studies with anti-human factor B, it was possible to determine that E. histolytica activated the properdin pathway. Finally, complement determinations indicated that incubation of E. histolytica with normal human serum consumed complement. The diminution in CH50 correlated with a consumption of C3 but not of C1, C4 and C2. It was concluded from these results that trophozoites of E. histolytica activate the alternative pathway of the human complement system. Images FIG. 3 PMID:219975

Ortiz-Ortiz, L; Capin, R; Capin, N R; Sepulveda, B; Zamacona, G

1978-01-01

39

Mannose-binding lectin 1 haplotypes influence serum MBL-A concentration, complement activity, and milk production traits in Chinese Holstein cattle.  

PubMed

Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a member of the collectin protein family that binds a broad range of microorganisms and activates the lectin-complement pathway of innate immunity. MBL deficiency is associated with an increased risk for various infections and arises from five polymorphisms in the promoter and first exon of the MBL gene in humans. In this study, three novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter region and two previously reported SNPs in exon 2 of the MBL1 gene were detected using PCR single-strand conformation polymorphism, restriction fragment length polymorphism, and DNA sequencing in 537 cattle from three Chinese breeds. Analysis of the genotypes and haplotypes was used to investigate the polymorphisms and their possible implications, especially their association with serum MBL-A levels, complement activity (CH50 and ACH50), and milk production traits was investigated. The g.2651G > A SNP in exon 2 affected the serum MBL-A concentrations and the serum CH50 values, whereas the g.-1330G > A SNP significantly affected CH50 and the somatic cell scores (SCSs). Statistical analysis revealed that cows with the ATGGC/ACAAC combined genotype and those with the AAGGT/ACGGT combined genotype exhibited the lowest and highest SCSs, respectively. Serum antibacterial activities were also conducted to verify the effect of the SNPs on resistance to mastitis pathogens. Results of real-time PCR showed that the liver of cows with clinical mastitis exhibited a higher MBL1 expression compared with healthy ones (P ?

Liu, Jianbo; Ju, Zhihua; Li, Qiuling; Huang, Jinming; Li, Rongling; Li, Jiangbin; Ma, Lijuan; Zhong, Jifeng; Wang, Changfa

2011-11-01

40

Activation of the classical complement pathway in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.  

PubMed Central

To investigate the possibility that low complement concentrations in the plasma and ascites of patients with severe liver disease could be secondary to complement consumption, complement activation was studied in 32 patients with severe liver disease, 11 of whom had spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). In patients with SBP, plasma C3 and C4 were significantly lower than in uninfected patients (mean values 0.74 v 1.13 g/l, p less than 0.01 and 0.20 v 0.28 g/l, p less than 0.05 respectively). Plasma complement activation via the classical pathway, as shown by C4d/C4, was significantly increased in patients with SBP compared with uninfected patients (37.3 v 22.2, p less than 0.01) as was C3d/C3 (14.0 v 8.11, p less than 0.01), but there was no significant difference in Ba/B between SBP and uninfected patients. Ascitic C3 concentrations were higher in patients without SBP than in infected patients (0.37 v 0.08 g/l, p less than 0.05), as were factor B values (0.11 v 0.03 g/l, p less than 0.05). There was no significant difference in ascitic C4 concentrations in patients with SBP compared with uninfected patients (0.03 v 0.07 g/l). Although consumption of C3, as shown by C3d/C3 in ascites, was increased in infected patients compared with uninfected patients (79.1 v 36.1, p less than 0.05), there was no difference in ascitic complement activation between the groups for either the classical or alternative pathways. In SBP, decreased plasma C3 and C4 are primarily caused by increased activation of the classical pathway and not impaired hepatic synthesis. Activation and consumption of C3 is one factor causing the low ascitic C3 concentrations observed in SBP. PMID:1568647

Bird, G; Senaldi, G; Panos, M; Rolando, N; Alexander, G; Vergani, D; Williams, R

1992-01-01

41

Aluminum Hydroxide Adjuvant Differentially Activates the Three Complement Pathways with Major Involvement of the Alternative Pathway  

PubMed Central

Al(OH)3 is the most common adjuvant in human vaccines, but its mode of action remains poorly understood. Complement involvement in the adjuvant properties of Al(OH)3 has been suggested in several reports together with a depot effect. It is here confirmed that Al(OH)3 treatment of serum depletes complement components and activates the complement system. We show that complement activation by Al(OH)3 involves the three major pathways by monitoring complement components in Al(OH)3-treated serum and in Al(OH)3-containing precipitates. Al(OH)3 activation of complement results in deposition of C3 cleavage products and membrane attack complex (MAC) and in generation of the anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a. Complement activation was time dependent and inhibited by chelation with EDTA but not EGTA+Mg2+. We thus confirm that Al(OH)3 activates the complement system and show that the alternative pathway is of major importance. PMID:24040248

Guven, Esin; Duus, Karen; Laursen, Inga; H?jrup, Peter; Houen, Gunnar

2013-01-01

42

Complement Alternative Pathway Activation in Human Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis  

PubMed Central

The innate immune system plays a major role in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Recently we reported complement activation in human NASH. However, it remained unclear whether the alternative pathway of complement, which amplifies C3 activation and which is frequently associated with pathological complement activation leading to disease, was involved. Here, alternative pathway components were investigated in liver biopsies of obese subjects with healthy livers (n?=?10) or with NASH (n?=?12) using quantitative PCR, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence staining. Properdin accumulated in areas where neutrophils surrounded steatotic hepatocytes, and colocalized with the C3 activation product C3c. C3 activation status as expressed by the C3c/native C3 ratio was 2.6-fold higher (p<0.01) in subjects with NASH despite reduced native C3 concentrations (0.94±0.12 vs. 0.57±0.09; p<0.01). Hepatic properdin levels positively correlated with levels of C3c (rs?=?0.69; p<0.05) and C3c/C3 activation ratio (rs?=?0.59; p<0.05). C3c, C3 activation status (C3c/C3 ratio) and properdin levels increased with higher lobular inflammation scores as determined according to the Kleiner classification (C3c: p<0.01, C3c/C3 ratio: p<0.05, properdin: p<0.05). Hepatic mRNA expression of factor B and factor D did not differ between subjects with healthy livers and subjects with NASH (factor B: 1.00±0.19 vs. 0.71±0.07, p?=?0.26; factor D: 1.00±0.21 vs. 0.66±0.14, p?=?0.29;). Hepatic mRNA and protein levels of Decay Accelerating Factor tended to be increased in subjects with NASH (mRNA: 1.00±0.14 vs. 2.37±0.72; p?=?0.22; protein: 0.51±0.11 vs. 1.97±0.67; p?=?0.28). In contrast, factor H mRNA was downregulated in patients with NASH (1.00±0.09 vs. 0.71±0.06; p<0.05) and a similar trend was observed with hepatic protein levels (1.12±0.16 vs. 0.78±0.07; p?=?0.08). Collectively, these data suggest a role for alternative pathway activation in driving hepatic inflammation in NASH. Therefore, alternative pathway factors may be considered attractive targets for treating NASH by inhibiting complement activation. PMID:25299043

Segers, Filip M.; Verdam, Froukje J.; de Jonge, Charlotte; Boonen, Bas; Driessen, Ann; Shiri-Sverdlov, Ronit; Bouvy, Nicole D.; Greve, Jan Willem M.; Buurman, Wim A.; Rensen, Sander S.

2014-01-01

43

Complement-triggered pathways orchestrate regenerative responses throughout phylogenesis  

PubMed Central

Adult tissue plasticity, cell reprogramming, and organ regeneration are major challenges in the field of modern regenerative medicine. Devising strategies to increase the regenerative capacity of tissues holds great promise for dealing with donor organ shortages and low transplantation outcomes and also provides essential impetus to tissue bioengineering approaches for organ repair and replacement. The inherent ability of cells to reprogram their fate by switching into an embryonic-like, pluripotent progenitor state is an evolutionary vestige that in mammals has been retained mostly in fetal tissues and persists only in a few organs of the adult body. Tissue regeneration reflects the capacity of terminally differentiated cells to re-enter the cell cycle and proliferate in response to acute injury or environmental stress signals. In lower vertebrates, this regenerative capacity extends to several organs and remarkably culminates in precise tissue patterning, through cellular transdifferentiation and complex morphogenetic processes that can faithfully reconstruct entire body parts. Many lessons have been learned from robust regeneration models in amphibians such as the newt and axolotl. However, the dynamic interactions between the regenerating tissue, the surrounding stroma, and the host immune response, as it adapts to the actively proliferating tissue, remain ill-defined. The regenerating zone, through a sequence of distinct molecular events, adopts phenotypic plasticity and undergoes rigorous tissue remodeling that, in turn, evokes a significant inflammatory response. Complement is a primordial sentinel of the innate immune response that engages in multiple inflammatory cascades as it becomes activated during tissue injury and remodeling. In this respect, complement proteins have been implicated in tissue and organ regeneration in both urodeles and mammals. Distinct complement-triggered pathways have been shown to modulate critical responses that promote tissue reprogramming, pattern formation, and regeneration across phylogenesis. This article will discuss the mechanistic insights underlying the crosstalk of complement with cytokine and growth factor signaling pathways that drive tissue regeneration and will provide a unified conceptual framework for considering complement modulation as a novel target for regenerative therapeutics. PMID:23684626

Mastellos, Dimitrios C.; DeAngelis, Robert A.; Lambris, John D.

2014-01-01

44

Complement-triggered pathways orchestrate regenerative responses throughout phylogenesis.  

PubMed

Adult tissue plasticity, cell reprogramming, and organ regeneration are major challenges in the field of modern regenerative medicine. Devising strategies to increase the regenerative capacity of tissues holds great promise for dealing with donor organ shortages and low transplantation outcomes and also provides essential impetus to tissue bioengineering approaches for organ repair and replacement. The inherent ability of cells to reprogram their fate by switching into an embryonic-like, pluripotent progenitor state is an evolutionary vestige that in mammals has been retained mostly in fetal tissues and persists only in a few organs of the adult body. Tissue regeneration reflects the capacity of terminally differentiated cells to re-enter the cell cycle and proliferate in response to acute injury or environmental stress signals. In lower vertebrates, this regenerative capacity extends to several organs and remarkably culminates in precise tissue patterning, through cellular transdifferentiation and complex morphogenetic processes that can faithfully reconstruct entire body parts. Many lessons have been learned from robust regeneration models in amphibians such as the newt and axolotl. However, the dynamic interactions between the regenerating tissue, the surrounding stroma, and the host immune response, as it adapts to the actively proliferating tissue, remain ill-defined. The regenerating zone, through a sequence of distinct molecular events, adopts phenotypic plasticity and undergoes rigorous tissue remodeling that, in turn, evokes a significant inflammatory response. Complement is a primordial sentinel of the innate immune response that engages in multiple inflammatory cascades as it becomes activated during tissue injury and remodeling. In this respect, complement proteins have been implicated in tissue and organ regeneration in both urodeles and mammals. Distinct complement-triggered pathways have been shown to modulate critical responses that promote tissue reprogramming, pattern formation, and regeneration across phylogenesis. This article will discuss the mechanistic insights underlying the crosstalk of complement with cytokine and growth factor signaling pathways that drive tissue regeneration and will provide a unified conceptual framework for considering complement modulation as a novel target for regenerative therapeutics. PMID:23684626

Mastellos, Dimitrios C; Deangelis, Robert A; Lambris, John D

2013-02-01

45

A systematic analysis of the complement pathways in patients with neuromyelitis optica indicates alteration but no activation during remission.  

PubMed

Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune demyelinating inflammatory disorder, mediated by pathogenic autoantibodies against aquaporin 4 (AQP4), the main water channel of the central nervous system (CNS). NMO is characterized by local IgG deposition and complement activation within the CNS, but the three complement pathways have not been systematically investigated. We evaluated the overall activation of the classical, alternative, and MBL-lectin pathways in the peripheral blood of 25 patients with AQP4-seropositive NMO spectrum during remission and 113 healthy controls by three ways: (1) we measured the concentrations of native complement proteins of the three pathways [C1-inhibitor (C1-inh), C1q, C4, C3, C5, factor I, factor B, properdin]; (2) the concentrations of complement products suggesting in vivo activation (C1rC1sC1-inh, C3a, C3bBbP, and SC5b-9); and (3) the total activity of the three complement pathways. Additionally we measured levels of C1rC1sC1-inh, C3a, C3bBbP in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 6 patients with relapsing NMO and of 18 patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS). The serological studies indicated that total complement activity of the classical [median (interquartile range) 72 (61-82) vs. 65 (56-73) CH50/mL; p=0.0122] and of the lectin pathways [73 (59-111) vs. 49 (3-92)%; p=0.0078)] were elevated compared with the controls, whereas that of the alternative pathway was not significantly different. The levels of C3 [1.1 (0.9-1.3) vs. 1.4 (1.2-1.5)g/L; p<0.0001], factor B [89 (77-115) vs. 103 (93-113)%; p=0.0397] and factor I [85 (69-95) vs. 101 (93-107)%; p=0.0007], as well as of properdin [92 (74-104) vs. 108 (97-122)%; p=0.0028] were significantly lower in the patients than in the controls. The only increase in the patients was ascertained in the relative concentration of C1rC1sC1-inh vs. the C1-inhibitor (42.3 [31.9-65.0] vs. 30.8 [13.5-43.5] AU/mg; p=0.0007). The absolute and relative levels of the other complement activation products were not elevated in the patients. On the contrary, the serum concentrations of C3a, C3bBbP, and SC5b-9 of the patients were lower than those of the controls. The absolute concentration of the complement activation products (C1rC1sC1-inh, C3bBbP, C3a) and the ratio of C3bBbP/C1rC1sC1-inh did not differ in NMO and MS CSF samples. The ratio of C3bBbP/C1rC1sC1-inh was similar in NMO plasma and CSF samples. We found a higher ratio of C3bBbP/C1rC1sC1-inh in the plasma of control subjects compared to those in any pathological samples. Our results do not indicate substantial systemic complement activation if NMO activity is adequately controlled; nevertheless, the complement system is abnormally affected even during remission. The relative ancillarity of the alternative compared to the classical pathway may also suggest that suppression of the alternative pathway by treatment may be important to achieve remission. PMID:24172223

Veszeli, Nóra; Füst, György; Csuka, Dorottya; Trauninger, Anita; Bors, Laszlo; Rozsa, Csilla; Nagy, Zsuzsanna; Jobbágy, Zita; Eizler, Kornélia; Prohászka, Zoltán; Varga, Lilian; Illes, Zsolt

2014-02-01

46

Complement  

MedlinePLUS

... are nine major complement proteins. They are labeled C1 through C9. ... Total blood complement level: 41 to 90 hemolytic units C1 level: 16 to 33 mg/dL C3 levels: Males: 88 to 252 mg/dL Females: 88 to 206 ...

47

Role of the Classical Pathway of Complement Activation in Experimentally Induced Polymicrobial Peritonitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complement system and the natural antibody repertoire provide a critical first-line defense against infection. The binding of natural antibodies to microbial surfaces opsonizes invading microorganisms and activates complement via the classical pathway. Both defense systems cooperate within the innate immune response. We studied the role of the complement system in the host defense against experimental polymicrobial peritonitis using mice

ILHAN CELIK; CORDULA STOVER; MARINA BOTTO; STEFFEN THIEL; SOTIRIA TZIMA; DIETER KUNKEL; MARK WALPORT; WILFRIED LORENZ; WILHELM SCHWAEBLE

2001-01-01

48

The alternative pathway of complement activation may be involved in the renal damage of human anti-glomerular basement membrane disease.  

PubMed

Linear deposition of IgG and complement 3 (C3) along glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is generally revealed in the kidneys of human anti-GBM disease. Our recent studies demonstrated the pathogenic role of complement activation in renal damage of this disease. However, the pathways of complement activation were still paradoxical. In this study, renal biopsy tissues from 10 patients with anti-GBM disease were used to investigate the pathways of complement activation by detecting the deposition of various complement components, including C1q, factor B, factor P (properdin), mannose-binding lectin (MBL), C3d, C4d and C5b-9, using immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. We found that C1q, factor B, properdin, C3d, C4d and C5b-9 were detected in all the glomeruli of our patients, along GBM with a linear and/or granular staining pattern. Furthermore, C1q, factor B and properdin co-localized well with C5b-9. The properdin also co-localized well with C3d. However, the deposition of MBL was diffusive in mesangium, GBM, Bowman's capsule and within crescents and was not co-localized with C5b-9 but partially co-localized with C4d. The intensity of factor B deposition (3.3 vs. 1.2, P<0.001) and C5b-9 deposition (3.2 vs. 1.6, P<0.001) was significantly stronger in the glomeruli with crescent formation, compared with the glomeruli without crescents. The complement system is overall activated via both the alternative pathway and classical pathway in the kidneys of human anti-GBM disease. The alternative pathway might play an important role in complement activation induced renal damage. PMID:24658070

Ma, Rui; Cui, Zhao; Hu, Shui-Yi; Jia, Xiao-Yu; Yang, Rui; Zheng, Xin; Ao, Jie; Liu, Gang; Liao, Yun-Hua; Zhao, Ming-Hui

2014-01-01

49

Alternative complement pathway of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus): molecular characterization, mapping and expression analysis of factors Bf/C2 and Df.  

PubMed

The complement system is important in both innate and adaptive host defense against microbial infection in vertebrates. It contains three pathways: the classical, alternative, and lectin pathways. Complement component factors B and D are two crucial proteases in the alternative pathway. In this study, the genes of complement factors Bf/C2 and Df from channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus were identified and characterized. Two complement factor B-related genes, Bf/C2A and Bf/C2B, and factor D gene Df were identified. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that Bf/C2A and Bf/C2B is likely orthologous to factor B and factor C2, respectively. Southern blot results suggested that these three genes are all single-copy genes in the catfish genome. The catfish Bf/C2A, Bf/C2B and Df genes were genetically mapped on linkage group 3, 20 and 29, respectively. Bf/C2A and Bf/C2B are highly expressed in liver and kidney, while Df is highly expressed in gill and spleen. After infection with Edwardsiella ictaluri, the expression of Bf/C2A, Bf/C2B and Df genes were found to be remarkably induced in the gill, liver, spleen and kidney at some sampling times, indicating that these three complement factors play a pivotal role in immune responses after the bacterial infection in catfish. PMID:22138130

Zhou, Zunchun; Liu, Hong; Liu, Shikai; Sun, Fanyue; Peatman, Eric; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Kaltenboeck, Ludmilla; Feng, Tingting; Zhang, Hao; Niu, Donghong; Lu, Jianguo; Waldbieser, Geoff; Liu, Zhanjiang

2012-01-01

50

Functional assessment of rat complement pathway activities and quantification of soluble C5b-9 in an experimental model of renal ischemia/reperfusion injury.  

PubMed

There is a growing interest in the monitoring of complement activation, not only in clinical settings but also in experimental models. However, for rodents only a limited number of tools are available to assess complement activity and activation. Here we describe three ELISAs for the measurement of rat classical (CP), MB-lectin (LP) and alternative (AP) pathway activities in serum and plasma. Moreover, we optimised a soluble C5b-9 (sC5b-9) ELISA for the detection of low level complement activation in rat. We determined the conditions for correct sample handling and showed that the assays had low inter- and intra-assay variation. We applied these assays to monitor complement activation in an experimental rat model of renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. We did not observe major complement consumption following reperfusion in CP or LP, and only minor AP consumption at 24h post reperfusion. However, MBL depletion prior to ischemia/reperfusion using a monoclonal antibody, transiently and specifically inhibited 75% of LP activity and ameliorated the AP consumption at 24h. To further assess complement activation during renal IRI, we monitored serum sC5b-9 and found that it was only significantly increased 72h post-reperfusion, but not when rats were pre-treated with anti-MBL or after sham surgery. In conclusion the described assays enable sensitive, reproducible and comprehensive assessment of complement activation in experimental rat models. PMID:24953215

Kotimaa, J; van der Pol, P; Leijtens, S; Klar-Mohammad, N; Schilders, G; Daha, M R; Rutjes, H; van Kooten, C

2014-10-01

51

Blockade of Alternative Complement Pathway in Dense Deposit Disease  

PubMed Central

A patient aged 17 with dense deposit disease associated with complement activation, circulating C3 Nef, and Factor H mutation presented with nephrotic syndrome and hypertension. Steroid therapy, plasma exchange, and rituximab failed to improve proteinuria and hypertension despite a normalization of the circulating sC5b9 complex. Eculizumab, a monoclonal antibody directed against C5, was used to block the terminal product of the complement cascade. The dose was adapted to achieve a CH50 below 10%, but proteinuria and blood pressure were not improved after 3 months of treatment. PMID:24672732

Sacquepee, Mathieu; Fila, Marc; Peuchmaur, Michel; Perrier-Cornet, Emilia; Fremeaux-Bacchi, Veronique; Deschenes, Georges

2014-01-01

52

Blockade of alternative complement pathway in dense deposit disease.  

PubMed

A patient aged 17 with dense deposit disease associated with complement activation, circulating C3 Nef, and Factor H mutation presented with nephrotic syndrome and hypertension. Steroid therapy, plasma exchange, and rituximab failed to improve proteinuria and hypertension despite a normalization of the circulating sC5b9 complex. Eculizumab, a monoclonal antibody directed against C5, was used to block the terminal product of the complement cascade. The dose was adapted to achieve a CH50 below 10%, but proteinuria and blood pressure were not improved after 3 months of treatment. PMID:24672732

Berthe-Aucejo, Aurore; Sacquépée, Mathieu; Fila, Marc; Peuchmaur, Michel; Perrier-Cornet, Emilia; Frémeaux-Bacchi, Véronique; Deschênes, Georges

2014-01-01

53

Characterization of a mannose-binding lectin from channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).  

PubMed

Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is an important component of innate immunity capable of activating the lectin pathway of the complement system. A MBL gene was isolated from channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). The deduced protein contains a canonical collagen-like domain, a carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD), and a neck region similar to mammalian mannose-binding lectin. The catfish mannose-binding lectin CRD contains the EPN motif shown previously to mediate mannose specificity. The catfish mannose-binding lectin showed 30-43% identity with MBL protein sequences of rainbow trout, zebrafish, common carp, and goldfish, and 33-35% identity with sequences of mammalian species. In this study, while liver was the predominant source of mannose-binding lectin gene expression in healthy tissues, mannose-binding lectin expression in spleen rose sharply following challenge with a Gram-negative bacterium. PMID:21524427

Zhang, Hao; Peatman, Eric; Liu, Hong; Niu, Donghong; Feng, Tingting; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Waldbieser, Geoff; Chen, Liqiao; Liu, Zhanjiang

2012-06-01

54

Mechanism of alternative complement pathway dysregulation by a phosphorothioate oligonucleotide in monkey and human serum.  

PubMed

The species sensitivity and mechanism of complement pathway activation by a phosphorothioate oligonucleotide were investigated in monkey and human serum. Increasing concentrations of a phosphorothioate oligonucleotide, ISIS 2302, were incubated in either monkey or human serum. Complement activation in monkey serum was selective for the alternative pathway and occurred at concentrations ? 50 ?g/mL ISIS 2302. By comparison, complement activation in human serum was absent. A similar difference in sensitivity for activation was also observed for a representative 2'-methoxyethyl (MOE)-modified oligonucleotide. The absence of oligonucleotide-induced complement activation was also observed in dogs. Protein binding with ISIS 2302 and enzyme competition studies suggested that factor H was important in oligonucleotide-mediated complement activation process, and addition of factor H to serum effectively prevented the activation in monkey serum. Furthermore, based on the immunoassay for factor H, there was an apparent decrease in factor H concentration as the ISIS 2302 concentration increased. This result suggests that ISIS 2302 binds to factor H and interferes with the factor H antibody from the immunoassay. Factor H is a regulatory protein that limits alternative pathway activation. Disruption of factor H interaction with C3 convertase by oligonucleotide could promote activation in this pathway. PMID:25093529

Henry, Scott P; Jagels, Mark A; Hugli, Tony E; Manalili, Sheri; Geary, Richard S; Giclas, Patricia C; Levin, Arthur A

2014-10-01

55

The complement system in human cardiometabolic disease.  

PubMed

The complement system has been implicated in obesity, fatty liver, diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Complement factors are produced in adipose tissue and appear to be involved in adipose tissue metabolism and local inflammation. Thereby complement links adipose tissue inflammation to systemic metabolic derangements, such as low-grade inflammation, insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia. Furthermore, complement has been implicated in pathophysiological mechanisms of diet- and alcohol induced liver damage, hyperglycaemia, endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis and fibrinolysis. In this review, we summarize current evidence on the role of the complement system in several processes of human cardiometabolic disease. C3 is the central component in complement activation, and has most widely been studied in humans. C3 concentrations are associated with insulin resistance, liver dysfunction, risk of the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and CVD. C3 can be activated by the classical, the lectin and the alternative pathway of complement activation; and downstream activation of C3 activates the terminal pathway. Complement may also be activated via extrinsic proteases of the coagulation, fibrinolysis and the kinin systems. Studies on the different complement activation pathways in human cardiometabolic disease are limited, but available evidence suggests that they may have distinct roles in processes underlying cardiometabolic disease. The lectin pathway appeared beneficial in some studies on type 2 diabetes and CVD, while factors of the classical and the alternative pathway were related to unfavourable cardiometabolic traits. The terminal complement pathway was also implicated in insulin resistance and liver disease, and appears to have a prominent role in acute and advanced CVD. The available human data suggest a complex and potentially causal role for the complement system in human cardiometabolic disease. Further, preferably longitudinal studies are needed to disentangle which aspects of the complement system and complement activation affect the different processes in human cardiometabolic disease. PMID:25017306

Hertle, E; Stehouwer, C D A; van Greevenbroek, M M J

2014-10-01

56

Alternative Complement Pathway Deficiency Ameliorates Chronic Smoke-Induced Functional and Morphological Ocular Injury  

PubMed Central

Background Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a complex disease involving genetic variants and environmental insults, is among the leading causes of blindness in Western populations. Genetic and histologic evidence implicate the complement system in AMD pathogenesis; and smoking is the major environmental risk factor associated with increased disease risk. Although previous studies have demonstrated that cigarette smoke exposure (CE) causes retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) defects in mice, and smoking leads to complement activation in patients, it is unknown whether complement activation is causative in the development of CE pathology; and if so, which complement pathway is required. Methods Mice were exposed to cigarette smoke or clean, filtered air for 6 months. The effects of CE were analyzed in wildtype (WT) mice or mice without a functional complement alternative pathway (AP; CFB?/?) using molecular, histological, electrophysiological, and behavioral outcomes. Results CE in WT mice exhibited a significant reduction in function of both rods and cones as determined by electroretinography and contrast sensitivity measurements, concomitant with a thinning of the nuclear layers as measured by SD-OCT imaging and histology. Gene expression analyses suggested that alterations in both photoreceptors and RPE/choroid might contribute to the observed loss of function, and visualization of complement C3d deposition implies the RPE/Bruch's membrane (BrM) complex as the target of AP activity. RPE/BrM alterations include an increase in mitochondrial size concomitant with an apical shift in mitochondrial distribution within the RPE and a thickening of BrM. CFB?/? mice were protected from developing these CE-mediated alterations. Conclusions Taken together, these findings provide clear evidence that ocular pathology generated in CE mice is dependent on complement activation and requires the AP. Identifying animal models with RPE/BrM damage and verifying which aspects of pathology are dependent upon complement activation is essential for developing novel complement-based treatment approaches for the treatment of AMD. PMID:23825688

Woodell, Alex; Coughlin, Beth; Kunchithapautham, Kannan; Casey, Sarah; Williamson, Tucker; Ferrell, W. Drew; Atkinson, Carl; Jones, Bryan W.; Rohrer, Barbel

2013-01-01

57

Immunoglobulin M-dependent classical complement pathway activation in killing of Pentatrichomonas hominis.  

PubMed Central

Complement pathway activity in the killing of Pentatrichomonas hominis was investigated in this study. At 10(5) organisms per ml, P. hominis was completely killed by the presence of 1% normal human serum. In contrast, no killing effect on P. hominis was observed when specific antibodies were absorbed or when the complement was destroyed. Moreover, Mg2+-ethylene glycol-bis-(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-treated serum had no killing effect on P. hominis, while serum heated at 50 degrees C or treated with zymosan killed P. hominis as well as did normal human serum. Further study using gel filtration (Sephacryl S-300) and affinity chromatography (protein A) revealed that immunoglobulin M (IgM; 20 micrograms/ml) alone was responsible for the complement activation in the killing of P. hominis, but both IgA (24 micrograms/ml) and IgG (180 micrograms/ml) had no effect on complement-mediated lysis. On the other hand, IgG at 1,260 micrograms/ml completely inhibited complement-mediated killing by IgM, suggesting that a blocking factor is present in IgG. The results of this study indicate that a mechanism of IgM-dependent classical complement pathway activation contributes to the killing effect of normal human serum on P. hominis. PMID:2917791

Shaio, M F; Chen, J G

1989-01-01

58

Evidence for intrathecal synthesis of alternative pathway complement activation proteins in experimental meningitis.  

PubMed Central

Complement has been shown to contribute to intrathecal inflammation in bacterial meningitis. However, the cellular source of complement in the infected central nervous system has not been determined. In this study, we analyzed protein and mRNA expression of two alternative pathway complement activation proteins, C3 and factor B, in the brains of mice with Listeria monocytogenes meningitis. Complement protein levels were found elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid of infected mice, compared with mock-infected animals. In the course of the disease, enhanced C3 and factor B mRNA expression was detected on pyramidal neurons and Purkinje cells within 6 hours, peaking at 12 hours and then gradually decreasing by 72 hours after infection. In addition, leukocytes infiltrating the subarachnoid space, within 12 to 24 hours, expressed mRNA for C3 and factor B. The cellular infiltration increased dramatically up to 72 hours. Intraperitoneal injection of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha up-regulated C3 and factor B mRNA expression on neurons in normal mice, suggesting that TNF-alpha may represent one cytokine regulating complement expression in this model of bacterial meningitis. However, additional mediators may be involved in regulation of intrathecal complement expression, as infected mice deficient of TNF/lymphotoxin-alpha genes did not demonstrate attenuated complement expression in the brain. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9327721

Stahel, P. F.; Frei, K.; Fontana, A.; Eugster, H. P.; Ault, B. H.; Barnum, S. R.

1997-01-01

59

CspA from Borrelia burgdorferi Inhibits the Terminal Complement Pathway  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT In order to survive and persist in an immunocompetent human host, Borrelia burgdorferi controls the human immune attack and blocks the damaging effects of the activated complement system. These Gram-negative spirochetes use CspA (CRASP-1) and four additional immune evasion proteins to bind combinations of human plasma regulators, including factor H, factor H-like protein 1 (FHL-1), complement factor H-related protein 1 (CFHR1), CFHR2, CFHR5, and plasminogen. As many microbial immune evasion proteins have multiple functions, we hypothesized that CspA has additional roles in complement or immune control. Here, we identify CspA as a terminal complement inhibitor. Borrelial CspA binds the human terminal complement components C7 and C9 and blocks assembly and membrane insertion of the terminal complement complex (TCC). CspA inhibits TCC assembly at the level of C7, as revealed by hemolytic assays, and inhibits polymerization of C9. CspA, when ectopically expressed on the surface of serum-sensitive Borrelia garinii, blocks TCC assembly on the level of C7 and induces serum resistance in the transformed bacteria. This CspA-mediated serum resistance and terminal complement pathway inhibition allow B. burgdorferi to survive in the hostile environment of human plasma. PMID:23943762

Hallstrom, Teresia; Siegel, Corinna; Morgelin, Matthias; Kraiczy, Peter; Skerka, Christine; Zipfel, Peter F.

2013-01-01

60

Activation of the alternative complement pathway in canine normal serum by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis  

PubMed Central

The dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, a human granulomatous disease. Recently the first case of natural disease in dogs was reported. The complement system is an important effector component of humoral immunity against infectious agents. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the activation of the dog alternative complement pathway by P. brasiliensis. Initially, the ability of erythrocytes of guinea pig, rabbit, sheep, chicken and swine to activate the dog alternative pathway was evaluated. The guinea pig erythrocytes showed the greatest capacity to activate dog alternative pathway. The alternative (AH50) hemolytic activity was evaluated in 27 serum samples from healthy dogs and the mean values were 87.2 AH50/ml. No significant differences were observed in relation to sex and age. The alternative pathway activation by P. brasiliensis was higher in serum samples from adult dogs when compared to puppies and aged dogs (p ? 0.05). This is the first report of dog alternative complement pathway activation by P. brasiliensis and suggests that it may play a protective role in canine paracoccidioidomycosis. PMID:24031350

Bianchini, A.A.C.; Petroni, T.F.; Fedatto, P.F.; Bianchini, R.R.; Venancio, E.J.; Itano, E.N.; Ono, M.A.

2009-01-01

61

Disease-Causing Mutations in Genes of the Complement System  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have revealed profound developmental consequences of mutations in genes encoding proteins of the lectin pathway of complement activation, a central component of the innate immune system. Apart from impairment of immunity against microorganisms, it is known that hereditary deficiencies of this system predispose one to autoimmune conditions. Polymorphisms in complement genes are linked to, for example, atypical hemolytic uremia and age-dependent macular degeneration. The complement system comprises three convergent pathways of activation: the classical, the alternative, and the lectin pathway. The recently discovered lectin pathway is less studied, but polymorphisms in the plasma pattern-recognition molecule mannan-binding lectin (MBL) are known to impact its level, and polymorphisms in the MBL-associated serine protease-2 (MASP-2) result in defects of complement activation. Recent studies have described roles outside complement and immunity of another MBL-associated serine protease, MASP-3, in the etiology of 3MC syndrome, an autosomal-recessive disorder involving a spectrum of developmental features, including characteristic facial dysmorphism. Syndrome-causing mutations were identified in MASP1, encoding MASP-3 and two additional proteins, MASP-1 and MAp44. Furthermore, an association was discovered between 3MC syndrome and mutations in COLEC11, encoding CL-K1, another molecule of the lectin pathway. The findings were confirmed in zebrafish, indicating that MASP-3 and CL-K1 underlie an evolutionarily conserved pathway of embryonic development. Along with the discovery of a role of C1q in pruning synapses in mice, these recent advances point toward a broader role of complement in development. Here, we compare the functional immunologic consequences of “conventional” complement deficiencies with these newly described developmental roles. PMID:21664996

Degn, S?ren E.; Jensenius, Jens C.; Thiel, Steffen

2011-01-01

62

Complement activation by the alternative pathway and macrophage enzyme secretion in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation.  

PubMed Central

A number of stimuli known to induce acid hydrolase secretion from cultured macrophages were examined for their ability to activate C3 via the alternative pathway of the complement system. Loss of haemolytically active C3 was checked in normal and C4-deficient guinea-pig serum. For comparison the interactions of cultured macrophages with other agents well known as potent activators of the alternative pathway of the complement system have been investigated. As judged by their activity in these assays, group A streptococcal cell walls, different carrageenan preparations, dental plaque and Actinomyces viscosus were all capable of initiating the alternative pathway but differed with respect to their potency and their ability to inhibit C3 turnover at high concentrations. Zymosan, some carrageenans, polyanethol sulphonate, and Corynebacterium parvum all induce the release of hydrolytic enzymes from macrophages in culture, even in the absence of serum in the medium. The release is time- and dose-dependent and is not associated with loss of the cytoplasmic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase or any other sign of cell death. The parallelism between the capacity of several agents to activate the complement system via the alternative pathway and to induce inflammatory responses in vivo and selective lysosoma enzyme secretion from cultures of macrophages is discussed. PMID:328387

Schorlemmer, H U; Bitter-Suermann, D; Allison, A C

1977-01-01

63

Structural and Functional Analysis of a C3b-specific Antibody That Selectively Inhibits the Alternative Pathway of Complement*S?  

PubMed Central

Amplification of the complement cascade through the alternative pathway can lead to excessive inflammation. Targeting C3b, a component central to the alternative pathway of complement, provides a powerful approach to inhibit complement-mediated immune responses and tissue injury. In the present study, phage display technology was employed to generate an antibody that selectively recognizes C3b but not the non-activated molecule C3. The crystal structure of C3b in complex with a Fab fragment of this antibody (S77) illustrates the structural basis for this selectivity. Cleavage of C3 to C3b results in a plethora of structural changes within C3, including the rearrangement of macroglobulin domain 6 enabling binding of S77 to the adjacent macroglobulin domain 7 domain. S77 blocks binding of factor B to C3b inhibiting the first step in the formation of the alternative pathway C3 convertase. In addition, S77 inhibits C5 binding to C3b. This results in significantly reduced formations of anaphylatoxins and membrane-attack complexes. This study for the first time demonstrates the structural basis for complement inhibition by a C3b-selective antibody and provides insights into the molecular mechanisms of alternative pathway complement activation. PMID:19196712

Katschke, Kenneth J.; Stawicki, Scott; Yin, Jianping; Steffek, Micah; Xi, Hongkang; Sturgeon, Lizette; Hass, Philip E.; Loyet, Kelly M.; DeForge, Laura; Wu, Yan; van Lookeren Campagne, Menno; Wiesmann, Christian

2009-01-01

64

Complement alternative pathway activation in the autologous phase of nephrotoxic serum nephritis  

PubMed Central

The complement cascade is an important part of the innate immune system, but pathological activation of this system causes tissue injury in several autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, including immune complex glomerulonephritis. We examined whether mice with targeted deletion of the gene for factor B (fB?/? mice) and selective deficiency in the alternative pathway of complement are protected from injury in the nephrotoxic serum (NTS) nephritis model of antibody-mediated glomerulonephritis. When the acute affects of the anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody were assessed, fB?/? mice developed a degree of injury similar to wild-type controls. If the mice were presensitized with sheep IgG or if the mice were followed for 5 mo postinjection, however, the fB?/? mice developed milder injury than wild-type mice. The immune response of fB?/? mice exposed to sheep IgG was similar to that of wild-type mice, but the fB?/? mice had less glomerular C3 deposition and lower levels of albuminuria. These results demonstrate that fB?/? mice are not significantly protected from acute heterologous injury in NTS nephritis but are protected from autologous injury in response to a planted glomerular antigen. Thus, although the glomerulus is resistant to antibody-initiated, alternative pathway-mediated injury, inhibition of this complement pathway may be beneficial in chronic immune complex-mediated diseases. PMID:22492944

Tchepeleva, Svetlana N.; Haas, Mark; Panzer, Sarah; Boackle, Susan A.; Glogowska, Magdalena J.; Quigg, Richard J.; Holers, V. Michael

2012-01-01

65

Complement alternative pathway activation in the autologous phase of nephrotoxic serum nephritis.  

PubMed

The complement cascade is an important part of the innate immune system, but pathological activation of this system causes tissue injury in several autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, including immune complex glomerulonephritis. We examined whether mice with targeted deletion of the gene for factor B (fB(-/-) mice) and selective deficiency in the alternative pathway of complement are protected from injury in the nephrotoxic serum (NTS) nephritis model of antibody-mediated glomerulonephritis. When the acute affects of the anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody were assessed, fB(-/-) mice developed a degree of injury similar to wild-type controls. If the mice were presensitized with sheep IgG or if the mice were followed for 5 mo postinjection, however, the fB(-/-) mice developed milder injury than wild-type mice. The immune response of fB(-/-) mice exposed to sheep IgG was similar to that of wild-type mice, but the fB(-/-) mice had less glomerular C3 deposition and lower levels of albuminuria. These results demonstrate that fB(-/-) mice are not significantly protected from acute heterologous injury in NTS nephritis but are protected from autologous injury in response to a planted glomerular antigen. Thus, although the glomerulus is resistant to antibody-initiated, alternative pathway-mediated injury, inhibition of this complement pathway may be beneficial in chronic immune complex-mediated diseases. PMID:22492944

Thurman, Joshua M; Tchepeleva, Svetlana N; Haas, Mark; Panzer, Sarah; Boackle, Susan A; Glogowska, Magdalena J; Quigg, Richard J; Holers, V Michael

2012-06-15

66

Evolution of the complement system.  

PubMed

The mammalian complement system constitutes a highly sophisticated body defense machinery comprising more than 30 components. Research into the evolutionary origin of the complement system has identified a primitive version composed of the central component C3 and two activation proteases Bf and MASP in cnidaria. This suggests that the complement system was established in the common ancestor of eumetazoa more than 500 million years ago. The original activation mechanism of the original complement system is believed to be close to the mammalian lectin and alternative activation pathways, and its main role seems to be opsonization and induction of inflammation. This primitive complement system has been retained by most deuterostomes without major change until the appearance of jawed vertebrates. At this stage, duplication of the C3, Bf and MASP genes as well as recruitment of membrane attack components added the classical and lytic pathways to the primitive complement system, converting it to the modern complement system. In contrast, the complement system was lost multiple times independently in the protostome lineage. PMID:24798006

Nonaka, Masaru

2014-01-01

67

Role of the alternative and classical complement activation pathway in complement mediated killing against Streptococcus pneumoniae colony opacity variants during acute pneumococcal otitis media in mice  

PubMed Central

There is considerable evidence that phase variation among transparent and opaque colony phenotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) plays an important role in the pneumococcal adherence and invasion. The current study was designed to investigate the interactions of the opacity phenotype variants of Spn with specific complement pathway activation in a mouse model of acute otitis media (AOM). Although the opaque colony phenotype was expected to be more resistant to complement mediated killing compared to the transparent Spn variant, we discovered that C3b deposition on the transparent Spn is, in large part, dependent on the alternative pathway activation. There were no significant differences in resistance to complement mediated opsonophagocytosis between the two variants in factor B deficient mice. In addition, an in vitro study demonstrated that significantly more C4b-binding protein (C4BP) (the classical pathway inhibitor) and factor H (FH) (the alternative pathway inhibitor) bound to the transparent strain compared with the opaque one. Our data suggest that the difference in the relative virulence of Spn opacity phenotypes is associated with its ability to evade complement-mediated opsonophagocytosis in a mouse model of pneumococcal AOM. PMID:22975410

Li, Qian; Li, Yong Xing; Douthitt, Kelsey; Stahl, Gregory L.; Thurman, Joshua M.; Tong, Hua Hua

2012-01-01

68

Dysregulation of Complement System and CD4+ T Cell Activation Pathways Implicated in Allergic Response  

PubMed Central

Allergy is a complex disease that is likely to involve dysregulated CD4+ T cell activation. Here we propose a novel methodology to gain insight into how coordinated behaviour emerges between disease-dysregulated pathways in response to pathophysiological stimuli. Using peripheral blood mononuclear cells of allergic rhinitis patients and controls cultured with and without pollen allergens, we integrate CD4+ T cell gene expression from microarray data and genetic markers of allergic sensitisation from GWAS data at the pathway level using enrichment analysis; implicating the complement system in both cellular and systemic response to pollen allergens. We delineate a novel disease network linking T cell activation to the complement system that is significantly enriched for genes exhibiting correlated gene expression and protein-protein interactions, suggesting a tight biological coordination that is dysregulated in the disease state in response to pollen allergen but not to diluent. This novel disease network has high predictive power for the gene and protein expression of the Th2 cytokine profile (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13) and of the Th2 master regulator (GATA3), suggesting its involvement in the early stages of CD4+ T cell differentiation. Dissection of the complement system gene expression identifies 7 genes specifically associated with atopic response to pollen, including C1QR1, CFD, CFP, ITGB2, ITGAX and confirms the role of C3AR1 and C5AR1. Two of these genes (ITGB2 and C3AR1) are also implicated in the network linking complement system to T cell activation, which comprises 6 differentially expressed genes. C3AR1 is also significantly associated with allergic sensitisation in GWAS data. PMID:24116013

Couto Alves, Alexessander; Bruhn, Soren; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Wang, Hui; Holloway, John W.; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Benson, Mikael; Balding, David J.; Coin, Lachlan J. M.

2013-01-01

69

IVIg inhibits classical pathway activity and anti-GM1 IgM-mediated complement deposition in MMN.  

PubMed

The effects of intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg) on anti-GM1 IgM titer and function, classical complement pathway activity, and antibody-complement interaction were investigated in 62 patients with multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN). In vitro, IVIg decreased complement deposition by anti-GM1 IgM antibodies. First IVIg treatment (2 g/kg) decreased C1q and C4 concentrations and classical pathway activity in serum. In sera from patients receiving IVIg maintenance therapy (0.4 g/kg) C4 concentrations and classical pathway activity were generally lower at higher IgG concentrations. The beneficial effects of IVIg in MMN may be explained by reduced antibody-mediated complement deposition in nerves amplified by a systemically attenuated classical pathway. PMID:20920831

Piepers, Sanne; Jansen, Marc D; Cats, Elisabeth A; van Sorge, Nina M; van den Berg, Leonard H; van der Pol, W-Ludo

2010-12-15

70

Conserved basic residues in the C-type lectin and short complement repeat domains of the G3 region of proteoglycans.  

PubMed Central

Aggrecan is the major proteoglycan of the extracellular matrix in cartilage. It contains two N-terminal globular regions, G1 and G2, and one C-terminal globular region, G3. G3 is implicated in the intracellular processing of aggrecan and contains a C-type lectin carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD), frequent occurrences of a C-terminal short complement repeat (SCR) domain, and occasionally an N-terminal epidermal growth factor domain. The CRD and SCR domains in 13 G3 sequences were each subjected to structural analysis. Alignment of 131 sequences from all seven groups in the CRD superfamily defined a consensus length of 136 residues, in which 32% of residues were conserved. Although the G3 CRD sequences agreed with this consensus, they also contained five fully conserved basic residues that are atypical of the CRD superfamily. Homology modelling showed that four of these residues are located on a surface region on the CRD that is separate from the Ca2+-binding residues involved in carbohydrate interactions. One conserved basic residue is identical in position with that of a conserved basic residue that mediates hyaluronate binding in the structurally related proteoglycan tandem repeat (PTR) domain in G1 and in link protein. The alignment of 13 G3 SCR sequences with 101 sequences in the SCR superfamily showed good agreement with conserved residues in the SCR superfamily. There are also five conserved basic residues in the G3 SCR that are atypical of the SCR superfamily, and homology modelling showed that all five were located on one surface of the SCR. It is concluded that both the CRD and SCR domains in G3 possess basic residues that are atypical of their superfamilies and might be related to function, and that the G3 CRD domain shows an evolutionary relationship to the PTR domain in G1. PMID:9425127

Brissett, N C; Perkins, S J

1998-01-01

71

Inhibition of the classical pathway of complement by meningococcal capsular polysaccharides.  

PubMed

Almost all invasive Neisseria meningitidis isolates express capsular polysaccharide. Ab is required for complement-dependent killing of meningococci. Although alternative pathway evasion has received considerable attention, little is known about classical pathway (CP) inhibition by meningococci, which forms the basis of this study. We engineered capsulated and unencapsulated isogenic mutant strains of groups A, B, C, W, and Y meningococci to express similar amounts of the same factor H-binding protein (fHbp; a key component of group B meningococcal vaccines) molecule. Despite similar anti-fHbp mAb binding, significantly less C4b was deposited on all five encapsulated mutants compared with their unencapsulated counterparts (p < 0.01) when purified C1 and C4 were used to deposit C4b. Reduced C4b deposition was the result of capsule-mediated inhibition of C1q engagement by Ab. C4b deposition correlated linearly with C1q engagement by anti-fHbp. Whereas B, C, W, and Y capsules limited CP-mediated killing by anti-fHbp, the unencapsulated group A mutant paradoxically was more resistant than its encapsulated counterpart. Strains varied considerably in their susceptibility to anti-fHbp and complement despite similar Ab binding, which may have implications for the activity of fHbp-based vaccines. Capsule also limited C4b deposition by anti-porin A mAbs. Capsule expression decreased binding of an anti-lipooligosaccharide IgM mAb (? 1.2- to 2-fold reduction in fluorescence). Akin to observations with IgG, capsule also decreased IgM-mediated C4b deposition when IgM binding to the mutant strain pairs was normalized. In conclusion, we show that capsular polysaccharide, a critical meningococcal virulence factor, inhibits the CP of complement. PMID:25015832

Agarwal, Sarika; Vasudhev, Shreekant; DeOliveira, Rosane B; Ram, Sanjay

2014-08-15

72

All-trans-Retinal Sensitizes Human RPE Cells to Alternative Complement Pathway-Induced Cell Death  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell death occurs early in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and Stargardt's disease. Emerging evidence suggests that all-trans-retinal (atRal) and alternative complement pathway (AP) activation contribute to RPE cell death in both of these retinal disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effect of atRal and AP activation on RPE cell viability. Methods. RPE cells were treated with atRal and then incubated with a complement-fixing antibody followed by stimulation with C1q-depleted serum to activate AP. Cell viability was assessed by tetrazolium salt and lactate dehydrogenase release assays. Changes in cell surface CD46 and CD59 expression were assessed by flow cytometry. Cells were pretreated with the antioxidant resveratrol, and C1q-depleted serum was incubated with an anti-C5 antibody prior to initiating AP attack to determine the protective effects of antioxidant therapy and complement inhibition, respectively. Results. Both atRal and AP activation independently caused RPE cell death. When AP attack was initiated following atRal treatment, a synergistic increase in cell death was observed. Following 24-hour atRal treatment, CD46 and CD59 expression decreased, corresponding temporally to increased susceptibility to AP attack. Resveratrol and the anti-C5 antibody both protected against AP-induced cell death following atRal exposure and were most effective when used in combination. Conclusions. atRal sensitizes RPE cells to AP attack, which may be mediated in part by atRal-induced downregulation of CD46 and CD59. Despite increased susceptibility to AP attack following exposure to atRal, resveratrol and anti-C5 antibody effectively prevent AP-mediated cell death. PMID:23518773

Berchuck, Jacob E.; Yang, Ping; Toimil, Brett A.; Ma, Zhe; Baciu, Peter; Jaffe, Glenn J.

2013-01-01

73

Thrombotic microangiopathies and the linkage between von Willebrand factor and the alternative complement pathway.  

PubMed

Molecular linkages between von Willebrand factor (VWF) and the alternative complement pathway (AP) have recently been discovered. Endothelial cell (EC)-anchored ultra-large (UL) VWF multimeric strings function as an activating surface for the AP. C3 (in active C3b form) binds to the EC-anchored ULVWF strings, and promotes the assembly of C3bBb (C3 convertase) and C3bBbC3b (C5 convertase). These linkages may help to explain enigmatic clinical problems related to thrombotic microangiopathies, including some cases of refractory thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), TTP associated with only mild-modest deficiencies of ADAMTS-13, the provocation (or exacerbation) of acute episodes in patients with the atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, and thrombosis in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Recent experiments have also demonstrated that complement factor H performs a dual role: participating in regulation of the AP by binding to EC-anchored ULVWF strings; and functioning as a reductase to decrease the size of soluble VWF multimers. PMID:24967890

Turner, Nancy; Nolasco, Leticia; Nolasco, Jennifer; Sartain, Sarah; Moake, Joel

2014-07-01

74

New insights on the structural\\/functional properties of recombinant human mannan-binding lectin and its variants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inefficient activation of complement lectin pathway in individuals with variant mannan-binding lectin (MBL) genotypes has been attributed to poor formation of higher order oligomers by MBL. But recent studies have shown the presence of large oligomers of MBL (?450kDa) in serum of individuals with variant MBL alleles. The recombinant forms of MBL (rMBL) variants except MBL\\/B that assemble into higher

Rema Rajagopalan; Veena P. Salvi; Jens Chr. Jensenius; Nenoo Rawal

2009-01-01

75

Structural and functional analysis of a C3b-specific antibody that selectively inhibits the alternative pathway of complement.  

PubMed

Amplification of the complement cascade through the alternative pathway can lead to excessive inflammation. Targeting C3b, a component central to the alternative pathway of complement, provides a powerful approach to inhibit complement-mediated immune responses and tissue injury. In the present study, phage display technology was employed to generate an antibody that selectively recognizes C3b but not the non-activated molecule C3. The crystal structure of C3b in complex with a Fab fragment of this antibody (S77) illustrates the structural basis for this selectivity. Cleavage of C3 to C3b results in a plethora of structural changes within C3, including the rearrangement of macroglobulin domain 6 enabling binding of S77 to the adjacent macroglobulin domain 7 domain. S77 blocks binding of factor B to C3b inhibiting the first step in the formation of the alternative pathway C3 convertase. In addition, S77 inhibits C5 binding to C3b. This results in significantly reduced formations of anaphylatoxins and membrane-attack complexes. This study for the first time demonstrates the structural basis for complement inhibition by a C3b-selective antibody and provides insights into the molecular mechanisms of alternative pathway complement activation. PMID:19196712

Katschke, Kenneth J; Stawicki, Scott; Yin, Jianping; Steffek, Micah; Xi, Hongkang; Sturgeon, Lizette; Hass, Philip E; Loyet, Kelly M; Deforge, Laura; Wu, Yan; van Lookeren Campagne, Menno; Wiesmann, Christian

2009-04-17

76

Interactions of the Classical and Alternate Complement Pathway with Endotoxin Lipopolysaccharide EFFECT ON PLATELETS AND BLOOD COAGULATION  

PubMed Central

The contributions of the classical and alternate pathways of complement activation to the biological effects of endotoxin have been examined in the guinea pig, with particular reference to thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, and the development of the hypercoagulable state. Injection of endotoxin into normal guinea pigs led to a 95% fall in the level of circulating platelets within 15 min as well as a fall in circulating granulocytes. C4-deficient guinea pigs, known to have a complete block in the activity of the classical complement pathway, but with the alternate pathway intact, sustained no fall in platelets. The development of granulocytopenia proceeded normally. Endotoxin did activate the alternate complement pathway in C4D guinea pigs, as evidenced by the fall in C3-9 titers. With restoration of serum C4 levels, endotoxin-induced thrombocytopenia was observed in C4D animals. Thus, function of the classical complement pathway was an absolute requirement for the development of thrombocytopenia. Experiments performed in cobra venom factor (CVF)-treated normal guinea pigs, with normal levels of C1, C4, and C2, but with less than 1% of serum C3-9 demonstrated the importance of the late components in the development of thrombocytopenia but not leukopenia. C4-deficient guinea pigs had normal clotting times demonstrating that C4 was not required for normal clotting. In addition, development of the hypercoagulable state, evidenced by a marked shortening of the clotting time, was not observed on injection of endotoxin into C4D animals. Therefore, development of the hypercoagulable state paralleled the development of thrombocytopenia and required function of the classical complement pathway. Again, the importance of the late components of complement was emphasized by the failure of CVF-treated normal animals to develop hypercoagulability. These results demonstrate that endotoxin is capable of activating both the classical and alternate complement pathways in guinea pigs but that function of the classical pathway is an absolute requirement for the development of thrombocytopenia and the hypercoagulable state. PMID:4683877

Kane, Michael A.; May, Joseph E.; Frank, Michael M.

1973-01-01

77

Characterization of a Factor H Mutation That Perturbs the Alternative Pathway of Complement in a Family with Membranoproliferative GN.  

PubMed

Complement C3 activation is a characteristic finding in membranoproliferative GN (MPGN). This activation can be caused by immune complex deposition or an acquired or inherited defect in complement regulation. Deficiency of complement factor H has long been associated with MPGN. More recently, heterozygous genetic variants have been reported in sporadic cases of MPGN, although their functional significance has not been assessed. We describe a family with MPGN and acquired partial lipodystrophy. Although C3 nephritic factor was shown in family members with acquired partial lipodystrophy, it did not segregate with the renal phenotype. Genetic analysis revealed a novel heterozygous mutation in complement factor H (R83S) in addition to known risk polymorphisms carried by individuals with MPGN. Patients with MPGN had normal levels of factor H, and structural analysis of the mutant revealed only subtle alterations. However, functional analysis revealed profoundly reduced C3b binding, cofactor activity, and decay accelerating activity leading to loss of regulation of the alternative pathway. In summary, this family showed a confluence of common and rare functionally significant genetic risk factors causing disease. Data from our analysis of these factors highlight the role of the alternative pathway of complement in MPGN. PMID:24722444

Wong, Edwin K S; Anderson, Holly E; Herbert, Andrew P; Challis, Rachel C; Brown, Paul; Reis, Geisilaine S; Tellez, James O; Strain, Lisa; Fluck, Nicholas; Humphrey, Ann; Macleod, Alison; Richards, Anna; Ahlert, Daniel; Santibanez-Koref, Mauro; Barlow, Paul N; Marchbank, Kevin J; Harris, Claire L; Goodship, Timothy H J; Kavanagh, David

2014-11-01

78

Complement activation by PEGylated single-walled carbon nanotubes is independent of C1q and alternative pathway turnover  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the interaction between long circulating poly(ethylene glycol)-stabilized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and the complement system. Aminopoly(ethylene glycol)5000–distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine (aminoPEG5000–DSPE) and methoxyPEG5000–DSPE coated as-grown HIPco SWNTs activated complement in undiluted normal human serum as reflected in significant rises in C4d and SC5b-9 levels, but not the alternative pathway split-product Bb, thus indicating activation exclusively through C4 cleavage. Studies in

Islam Hamad; A. Christy Hunter; Kenneth J. Rutt; Zhuang Liu; Hongjie Dai; S. Moein Moghimi

2008-01-01

79

Endogenous and Natural Complement Inhibitor Attenuates Myocardial Injury and Arterial Thrombogenesis  

PubMed Central

Background Coagulation disorders and reperfusion of ischemic myocardium are major causes of morbidity and mortality. Lectin pathway initiation complexes are composed of multimolecular carbohydrate recognition subcomponents and three lectin pathway specific serine proteases. We have recently shown that the lectin pathway specific carbohydrate recognition subcomponent mannose-binding lectin (MBL) plays an essential role in the pathophysiology of thrombosis and ischemia/reperfusion injury. Thus, we hypothesized that the endogenous MBL associated protein, MAP-1, that inhibits complement activation in vitro also could be an in vivo regulator by attenuating myocardial schema/reperfusion injury and thrombogenesis when used at pharmacologic doses in wild type mice. Methods and Results MAP-1, in two mouse models, preserves cardiac function, decreases infarct size, decreases C3 deposition, inhibits MBL deposition and prevents thrombogenesis. Further, we also demonstrate that MAP-1 displaces MASP-1, MASP-2 and MASP-3 from the MBL complex. Conclusions Our results suggest that the natural, endogenous inhibitor, MAP-1effectively inhibits lectin pathway activation in vivo. MAP-1 at pharmacologic doses represents a novel therapeutic approach for human diseases involving the lectin pathway and its associated MASPs. PMID:23032324

Pavlov, Vasile I.; Skjoedt, Mikkel-Ole; Tan, Ying Siow; Rosbjerg, Anne; Sci, B; Garred, Peter; Stahl, Gregory L.

2012-01-01

80

Inefficient Complement System Clearance of Trypanosoma cruzi Metacyclic Trypomastigotes Enables Resistant Strains to Invade Eukaryotic Cells  

PubMed Central

The complement system is the main arm of the vertebrate innate immune system against pathogen infection. For the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, subverting the complement system and invading the host cells is crucial to succeed in infection. However, little attention has focused on whether the complement system can effectively control T. cruzi infection. To address this question, we decided to analyse: 1) which complement pathways are activated by T. cruzi using strains isolated from different hosts, 2) the capacity of these strains to resist the complement-mediated killing at nearly physiological conditions, and 3) whether the complement system could limit or control T. cruzi invasion of eukaryotic cells. The complement activating molecules C1q, C3, mannan-binding lectin and ficolins bound to all strains analysed; however, C3b and C4b deposition assays revealed that T. cruzi activates mainly the lectin and alternative complement pathways in non-immune human serum. Strikingly, we detected that metacyclic trypomastigotes of some T. cruzi strains were highly susceptible to complement-mediated killing in non-immune serum, while other strains were resistant. Furthermore, the rate of parasite invasion in eukaryotic cells was decreased by non-immune serum. Altogether, these results establish that the complement system recognizes T. cruzi metacyclic trypomastigotes, resulting in killing of susceptible strains. The complement system, therefore, acts as a physiological barrier which resistant strains have to evade for successful host infection. PMID:20300530

Cestari, Igor; Ramirez, Marcel I.

2010-01-01

81

The alternative complement pathway control protein H binds to immune complexes and serves their detection  

SciTech Connect

During solubilization of immune complexes C3b becomes fixed to the immunoglobulin part and serves as a receptor for the alternative complement pathway control protein H. The H-C3b immune complex interaction can be made detectable using 4% polyethyleneglycol to separate free from bound /sup 125/I-H. Tetanus toxoid (Te)/anti-Te complexes kept soluble with fresh serum and containing 125 IU of specific antibody bound 18% of /sup 125/I-H; when fresh serum was chelated with 10 mM EDTA, /sup 125/I-H binding was only 5%. On sucrose density gradients, the H-binding material sedimented in the range of 12 to 30 S. In 36 serum samples from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and in 12 serum samples from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), /sup 125/I-H binding was significantly elevated to 9.5 +/- 4.7% (mean +/- 1 SD) and 13.3 +/- 5.6%, respectively, while /sup 125/I-H binding by 36 normal human sera was 4 +/- 2%. RA samples (17/36, 47%) and SLE samples (9/12, 75%) had H-binding values increased by more than 2 SD above the normal mean. The serum samples were also assessed for conglutinin- and C1q-binding activities; a significant correlation between H and C1q binding was observed (P less than 0.001); there was no correlation between H and conglutinin binding. Although binding to immune complexes through its interaction with C3b, H clearly detects a population of complexes other than conglutinin, thus expanding the possibilities of further characterizing pathological complexes.

Nydegger, U.E.; Corvetta, A.; Spaeth, P.J.; Spycher, M.

1983-01-01

82

Alternative and classical complement pathway activity in sera from colostrum-fed and colostrum-deprived neonatal pigs.  

PubMed Central

Haemolytic assays were used to compare alternative and classical complement (C) pathway activities in sera obtained from neonatal pigs reared on porcine colostrum, bovine colostrum or an immunoglobulin-free synthetic diet. Dramatic increases in immunoglobulin concentrations were noted in the colostrum-fed animals during the first day of life, but there was not a concurrent, marked increase in either classical or alternative C pathway activity. Whether fed on homologous or heterologous colostrum, neonatal pigs had a similar gradual increase in alternative and classical C pathway activity in the post-natal period. If direct passive absorption of C components occurs in newborn pigs, it has only a minor influence on functional levels of alternative and classical C pathway activity in their sera. In pigs fed homologous and heterologous colostrum there was, respectively, an 83% and 80% increase in classical pathway activity, but only a 13% and 12% increase in alternative pathway activity during the first 3 days of life. Pigs fed the immunoglobulin-free synthetic diet had a 37% increase in classical C and a 24% increase in alternative C pathway activity. Part of the increase in classical C pathway activity in the post-natal period may be caused by a stimulating factor in colostrum. Most if not all of the increase in alternative C pathway activity and some of the increase in classical C pathway activity is most likely caused by normal humoral homeostatic mechanisms in the neonatal pig. PMID:7429550

Renshaw, H W; Gilmore, R J

1980-01-01

83

The pathway of lectin-mediated lymphocytotoxicity by Con A-coupled Sepharose beads.  

PubMed

Soluble concanavalin A (Con A) can effectively mediate nonspecific target cell lysis by cytolytic T lymphocytes (LDCC). Because Con A bound to Sepharose beads (Con A-Seph) is also effective, it has been concluded by Z. K. Ballas, W. R. Green, and C. S. Henney. (Cell. Immunol. 59, 411, 1981) that Con A-mediated "activation" of the cytolytic cell to kill in LDCC can occur without intracellular penetration of the lectin. No preincubation of either effector or target cells with Con A-Seph has been performed. Exploiting the previous finding of G. Berke (Immunol. Rev. 72, 5, 1983) that in LDCC Con A exerts its effect(s) strictly by affecting the target rather than by bridging effector and target cells and activating the effector, identical results with Con A-Seph are shown. Preincubation of Con A-Seph with the target but not with the effector cells results in substantial killing. Moreover it is shown that the ability of Con A-Seph to mediate LDCC can be attributed to free Con A dissociating from the beads (about 1%) during the assay. Evidence is presented to indicate that the dissociated Con A, not unlike free Con A, reacts with the target cells, thereby rendering them recognizable by the effector cells. It is concluded that the activity of Con A-Seph may not be taken as evidence for Con A-mediated activation of the cytolytic cell, as suggested by Ballas et al., and that the putative Con A-mediated lymphocyte activation relevant to killing still remains to be demonstrated. Evidence contradicting Con A-mediated activation of the effector and supporting the target cell modification theory has been discussed by G. Berke, V. Hu, E. McVey, and W. R. Clark (J. Immunol. 127, 776, 1981). PMID:6609003

Keren, Z; Berke, G

1984-05-01

84

Association between Polymorphisms of Complement Pathway Genes and Age-Related Macular Degeneration in a Chinese Population  

PubMed Central

Purpose. We assessed the association between complement pathway genes and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a Chinese population. Methods. In a case-control study, 165 AMD patients and 216 unrelated controls were recruited from two hospitals in central China. We selected and genotyped six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of four complement pathway genes, including rs800292 and rs1410996 of complement H (CFH), rs9332739 of complement 2 (C2), rs4151667 of complement factor B (CFB), and rs2241394 and rs2230199 of complement 3 (C3). The associations between SNPs and AMD, adjusted by age and sex, were assessed by using logistic regression models and haplotype association analysis. Results. In our study, two SNPs of CFH and their haplotypes were associated significantly with AMD, and the adjusted odd ratios (ORs) were 2.45 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.25–4.79) for rs800292 (genotype GG versus AA), 2.49 (95% CI 1.24–5.00) for rs1410996 (genotype TT versus CC), and 4.45 (95% CI 2.32–8.55) for haplotype block of rs800292–rs1410996 (haplotype G–C versus A–C), respectively. The haplotype of C2/CFB also was associated significantly with AMD, and the adjusted OR was 8.86 (95% CI 1.88–41.69) for the haplotype block of rs9332739–rs4151667 (haplotype G–A versus G–T), though no relationship was found in genotype association analysis of the two SNPs of C2/CFB. With the sample size of our study, no relationship was found for AMD and the two SNPs of C3. Conclusions. Gene variants in CFH and C2/CFB contribute to AMD in the Chinese population. PMID:23233260

Wu, Lin; Tao, Qiushan; Chen, Wen; Wang, Zhi; Song, Yanping; Sheng, Shuangyan; Li, Pengcheng; Zhou, Jingjing

2013-01-01

85

In vivo pharmacokinetics of calreticulin S-domain, an inhibitor of the classical complement pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inhibition of the complement system is potentially therapeutic in diseases where uncontrolled or overshooting complement activation plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of the disorder. Calreticulin (CRT) is a multifunctional protein whose cell-surface form (ectocalreticulin) is reported to be a C1q receptor. A 124-residue domain within CRT, the S-domain, binds to C1q, prevents the formation of C1 and so

Nicholas J. Lynch; Heiko Schneider; Robert B. Sim; Ulrich Bickel; Wilhelm J. Schwaeble

2002-01-01

86

Manipulating the mediator: modulation of the alternative complement pathway C3 convertase in health, disease and therapy1  

PubMed Central

The complement network is increasingly recognized as an important triage system that is able to differentiate between healthy host cells, microbial intruders, cellular debris and immune complexes, and tailor its actions accordingly. At the center of this triage mechanism is the alternative pathway C3 convertase (C3bBb), a potent enzymatic protein complex capable of rapidly converting the inert yet abundant component C3 into powerful effector fragments (C3a and C3b), thereby amplifying the initial response on unprotected surfaces and inducing a variety of effector functions. A fascinating molecular mechanism of convertase assembly and intrinsic regulation, as well as the interplay with a panel of cell surface-bound and soluble inhibitors are essential for directing complement attack to intruders and protecting healthy host cells. While efficiently keeping immune surveillance and homeostasis on track, the reliance on an intricate cascade of interaction and conversion steps also renders the C3 convertase vulnerable to derail. On the one hand, tissue damage, accumulation of debris, or polymorphisms in complement genes may unfavorably shift the balance between activation and regulation, thereby contributing to a variety of clinical conditions. On the other hand, pathogens developed powerful evasion strategies to avoid complement attack by targeting the convertase. Finally, we increasingly challenge our bodies with foreign materials such as biomaterial implants or drug delivery vehicles that may induce adverse effects that are at least partially caused by complement activation and amplification via the alternative pathway. The involvement of the C3 convertase in a range of pathological conditions put this complex into the spotlight of complement-targeted drug discovery efforts. Fortunately, the physiological regulation and microbial evasion approaches provide a rich source of inspiration for the development of powerful treatment options. This review provides insight into the current knowledge about the molecular mechanisms that drive C3 convertase activity, reveals common and divergent strategies of convertase inhibition employed by host and pathogens, and how this inhibitory arsenal can be tapped for developing therapeutic options to treat complement-related diseases. PMID:22964231

Ricklin, Daniel

2012-01-01

87

Synergistic therapeutic vascular cytoprotection against complement-mediated injury induced via a PKC?-, AMPK-, and CREB-dependent pathway.  

PubMed

Endothelial injury and dysfunction precede accelerated arterial disease in allograft vasculopathy and systemic autoimmune diseases and involve pathogenic Abs and complement. Recent reports suggest that switching to rapamycin from calcineurin antagonists reduces posttransplant vasculopathy and prolongs survival following cardiac transplantion. The majority of these patients also receive statin therapy. We examined potential mechanisms underlying this protective response in human endothelial cells and identified synergy between rapamycin and atorvastatin. Mechanistically, atorvastatin and rapamycin activated a protein kinase C?, AMP-activated kinase, and CREB-dependent vasculoprotective pathway, which induced decay-accelerating factor (DAF) promoter activity via binding to the cAMP response element, mutation of which attenuated promoter activity. This response significantly increased endothelial cell surface DAF and enhanced protection against complement-mediated injury. Synergy with rapamycin was reproduced by simvastatin, whereas combining atorvastatin with cyclosporine or mycophenolate in place of rapamycin was ineffective. Importantly, synergy was reproduced in vivo, in which only atorvastatin and rapamycin therapy in combination was sufficient to induce DAF on murine aortic endothelium. We believe this pathway represents an important therapeutically inducible vasculoprotective mechanism for diseases mediated by pathogenic Abs and complement, including posttransplant vasculopathy and systemic lupus erythematosus. Although our study focuses on the vascular endothelium, the findings are likely to be broadly applicable, given the diverse cellular expression of DAF. PMID:24670799

Hamdulay, Shahir S; Wang, Bufei; Calay, Damien; Kiprianos, Allan P; Cole, Jennifer; Dumont, Odile; Dryden, Nicola; Randi, Anna M; Thornton, Clare C; Al-Rashed, Fahad; Hoong, Caroline; Shamsi, Aamir; Liu, Zilei; Holla, Vijay R; Boyle, Joseph J; Haskard, Dorian O; Mason, Justin C

2014-05-01

88

Abnormalities in the alternative pathway of complement in children with hematopoietic stem cell transplant-associated thrombotic microangiopathy  

PubMed Central

Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT)-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is a complication that occurs in 25% to 35% of HSCT recipients and shares histomorphologic similarities with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). The hallmark of all thrombotic microangiopathies is vascular endothelial cell injury of various origins, resulting in microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, platelet consumption, fibrin deposition in the microcirculation, and tissue damage. Although significant advances have been made in understanding the pathogenesis of other thrombotic microangiopathies, post-HSCT TMA remains poorly understood. We report an analysis of the complement alternative pathway, which has recently been linked to the pathogenesis of both the Shiga toxin mediated and the atypical forms of HUS, with a focus on genetic variations in the complement Factor H (CFH) gene cluster and CFH autoantibodies in six children with post-HSCT TMA. We identified a high prevalence of deletions in CFH-related genes 3 and 1 (delCFHR3-CFHR1) and CFH autoantibodies in these patients with HSCT-TMA. Conversely, CFH autoantibodies were not detected in 18 children undergoing HSCT who did not develop TMA. Our observations suggest that complement alternative pathway dysregulation may be involved in the pathogenesis of post-HSCT TMA. These findings shed light on a novel mechanism of endothelial injury in transplant-TMA and may therefore guide the development of targeted treatment interventions. PMID:23814021

Licht, Christoph; Goebel, Jens; Dixon, Bradley P.; Zhang, Kejian; Sivakumaran, Theru A.; Davies, Stella M.; Pluthero, Fred G.; Lu, Lily; Laskin, Benjamin L.

2013-01-01

89

NONSPECIFIC COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION BY STREPTOCOCCAL STRUCTURES II. Properdin-Indepe ndent Initiation of the Alternate Pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

The observation (1) that inhibition of HLA cytotoxicity by streptococcal antigens was, in reality, due to consumption of complement (C) by these antigens prompted us to further investigate the mechanism of this consumption. Several possibilities for this anticomplementary activity were considered. Since human sera often contain antibodies to a number of streptococcal antigens, a specific interaction between bacterial structures and

J. W. TAUBER; M. J. POLLEY; J. B. ZABRISKIE

90

Dissecting the complement pathway in hepatic injury and regeneration with a novel protective strategy.  

PubMed

Liver resection is commonly performed under ischemic conditions, resulting in two types of insult to the remnant liver: ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) and loss of liver mass. Complement inhibition is recognized as a potential therapeutic modality for IRI, but early complement activation products are also essential for liver regeneration. We describe a novel site-targeted murine complement inhibitor, CR2-CD59, which specifically inhibits the terminal membrane attack complex (MAC), and we use this protein to investigate the complement-dependent balance between liver injury and regeneration in a clinical setting of pharmacological inhibition. CR2-CD59 did not impact in vivo generation of C3 and C5 activation products but was as effective as the C3 activation inhibitor CR2-Crry at ameliorating hepatic IRI, indicating that the MAC is the principle mediator of hepatic IRI. Furthermore, unlike C3 or C5 inhibition, CR2-CD59 was not only protective but significantly enhanced hepatocyte proliferation after partial hepatectomy, including when combined with ischemia and reperfusion. Remarkably, CR2-CD59 also enhanced regeneration after 90% hepatectomy and improved long-term survival from 0 to 70%. CR2-CD59 functioned by increasing hepatic TNF and IL-6 levels with associated STAT3 and Akt activation, and by preventing mitochondrial depolarization and allowing recovery of ATP stores. PMID:25113972

Marshall, Keely M; He, Songqing; Zhong, Zhi; Atkinson, Carl; Tomlinson, Stephen

2014-08-25

91

Inherited mitochondrial DNA variants can affect complement, inflammation and apoptosis pathways: insights into mitochondrial-nuclear interactions.  

PubMed

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss in developed countries. While linked to genetic polymorphisms in the complement pathway, there are many individuals with high risk alleles that do not develop AMD, suggesting that other 'modifiers' may be involved. Mitochondrial (mt) haplogroups, defined by accumulations of specific mtDNA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) which represent population origins, may be one such modifier. J haplogroup has been associated with high risk for AMD while the H haplogroup is protective. It has been difficult to assign biological consequences for haplogroups so we created human ARPE-19 cybrids (cytoplasmic hybrids), which have identical nuclei but mitochondria of either J or H haplogroups, to investigate their effects upon bioenergetics and molecular pathways. J cybrids have altered bioenergetic profiles compared with H cybrids. Q-PCR analyses show significantly lower expression levels for seven respiratory complex genes encoded by mtDNA. J and H cybrids have significantly altered expression of eight nuclear genes of the alternative complement, inflammation and apoptosis pathways. Sequencing of the entire mtDNA was carried out for all the cybrids to identify haplogroup and non-haplogroup defining SNPs. mtDNA can mediate cellular bioenergetics and expression levels of nuclear genes related to complement, inflammation and apoptosis. Sequencing data suggest that observed effects are not due to rare mtDNA variants but rather the combination of SNPs representing the J versus H haplogroups. These findings represent a paradigm shift in our concepts of mt-nuclear interactions. PMID:24584571

Cristina Kenney, M; Chwa, Marilyn; Atilano, Shari R; Falatoonzadeh, Payam; Ramirez, Claudio; Malik, Deepika; Tarek, Mohamed; Cáceres-del-Carpio, Javier; Nesburn, Anthony B; Boyer, David S; Kuppermann, Baruch D; Vawter, Marquis; Jazwinski, S Michal; Miceli, Michael; Wallace, Douglas C; Udar, Nitin

2014-07-01

92

Cooperation between MASP-1 and MASP-2 in the generation of C3 convertase through the MBL pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complement system is an important part of the innate immune system. Three pathways, the classical, the alternative and the lectin pathway, lead to the cleavage of complement factor C3, a central event in the activation of the complement system. We investigated the deposition of C3b (solid-phase C3 activation product) on a mannan-coated surface at high concentration of human serum

M. Moller-Kristensen; Steffen Thiel; Anders Sjoholm; Misao Matsushita; J. C. Jensenius

2006-01-01

93

Structural basis for the stabilization of the complement alternative pathway C3 convertase by properdin.  

PubMed

Complement is an essential component of innate immunity. Its activation results in the assembly of unstable protease complexes, denominated C3/C5 convertases, leading to inflammation and lysis. Regulatory proteins inactivate C3/C5 convertases on host surfaces to avoid collateral tissue damage. On pathogen surfaces, properdin stabilizes C3/C5 convertases to efficiently fight infection. How properdin performs this function is, however, unclear. Using electron microscopy we show that the N- and C-terminal ends of adjacent monomers in properdin oligomers conform a curly vertex that holds together the AP convertase, interacting with both the C345C and vWA domains of C3b and Bb, respectively. Properdin also promotes a large displacement of the TED (thioester-containing domain) and CUB (complement protein subcomponents C1r/C1s, urchin embryonic growth factor and bone morphogenetic protein 1) domains of C3b, which likely impairs C3-convertase inactivation by regulatory proteins. The combined effect of molecular cross-linking and structural reorganization increases stability of the C3 convertase and facilitates recruitment of fluid-phase C3 convertase to the cell surfaces. Our model explains how properdin mediates the assembly of stabilized C3/C5-convertase clusters, which helps to localize complement amplification to pathogen surfaces. PMID:23901101

Alcorlo, Martín; Tortajada, Agustín; Rodríguez de Córdoba, Santiago; Llorca, Oscar

2013-08-13

94

Adenovirus-mediated delivery of CD46 attenuates the alternative complement pathway on RPE: implications for age-related macular degeneration  

PubMed Central

Activation of the alternative pathway of the complement system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration. Membrane attack complex (MAC) has been identified mainly on the Bruch’s membrane and drusen underlying the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Membrane cofactor protein (CD46) preferentially regulates the alternative pathway of complement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of increasing CD46 expression on RPE cells using an adenovirus as a gene therapy approach to reduce alternative pathway-mediated damage to RPE cells. We generated a recombinant adenovirus vector expressing human CD46 (hCD46) and delivered the vector to murine hepatocytes and RPE cells in vitro. After incubation in human serum in conditions in which the classical pathway of complement was blocked, we measured alternative pathway-mediated damage of these cells by quantifying lysis and MAC formation. Adenovirus expressing hCD46 was delivered to the subretinal space of adult mice, and 1 week later, ocular flat mounts were challenged with human serum and the levels of complement-mediated damage was quantified. Adenovirus-mediated delivery of hCD46 localizes to the basal and lateral surfaces of RPE cells where it offers protection from alternative pathway-mediated damage, but not classical, allowing the classical pathway to function unhindered. PMID:21307887

Sweigard, JH; Cashman, SM; Kumar-Singh, R

2014-01-01

95

Complement nomenclature 2014.  

PubMed

The first update since 1981 of the nomenclature used in the field of complement has been completed by the Complement Nomenclature Committee established under the auspices of the International Complement Society (ICS) and by the boards of the ICS and the European Complement Network (ECN). Recommended names of complement pathways, proteins, protein complexes, protein fragments and receptors are listed. Authors are urged to use these names in their published and presented works. PMID:25081089

Kemper, Claudia; Pangburn, Michael K; Fishelson, Zvi

2014-10-01

96

Classical complement activation and acquired immune response pathways are not essential for retinal degeneration in the rd1 mouse  

PubMed Central

Misregulation of the innate immune response and other immune-related processes have been suggested to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of a number of different neurodegenerative diseases, including age related macular degeneration. In an animal model for photoreceptor degeneration, several genes of the innate and acquired immune system were found to be differentially regulated in the retina during the degenerative process. In addition to this differential regulation of individual genes, we found that in the rd1 retina a significantly higher number of genes involved in immune-related responses were expressed at any given time during the degenerative period. The peak of immune-related gene expression was at postnatal day 14, coinciding with the peak of photoreceptor apoptosis in the rd1 mouse. We directly tested the potential involvement of acquired and innate immune responses in initiation and progression of photoreceptor degeneration by analyzing double mutant animals. Retinal morphology and photoreceptor apoptosis of rd1 mice on a SCID genetic background (no mature T- and B-cells) or in combination with a RAG-1 (no functional B- and T-cells) or a C1q? (no functional classical complement activation pathway) knockout was followed during the degenerative process using light microscopy or TUNEL staining, respectively. Although complement factor C1q? was highly up-regulated in the rd1 retina concomitantly with the degenerative process, lack of this protein did not protect the rd1 retina. Similarly, retinal degeneration and photoreceptor apoptosis appeared to proceed normally in the rd1 mouse lacking functional B- and T-cells. Our results suggest that both, the classical complement system of innate immunity and a functional acquired immune response are not essential for the degenerative process in the rd1 mouse retina. PMID:17069800

Rohrer, Barbel; Demos, Christina; Frigg, Rico; Grimm, Christian

2007-01-01

97

C1q, the recognition subcomponent of the classical pathway of complement, drives microglial activation.  

PubMed

Microglia, central nervous system (CNS) resident phagocytic cells, persistently police the integrity of CNS tissue and respond to any kind of damage or pathophysiological changes. These cells sense and rapidly respond to danger and inflammatory signals by changing their cell morphology; by release of cytokines, chemokines, or nitric oxide; and by changing their MHC expression profile. We have shown previously that microglial biosynthesis of the complement subcomponent C1q may serve as a reliable marker of microglial activation ranging from undetectable levels of C1q biosynthesis in resting microglia to abundant C1q expression in activated, nonramified microglia. In this study, we demonstrate that cultured microglial cells respond to extrinsic C1q with a marked intracellular Ca(2+) increase. A shift toward proinflammatory microglial activation is indicated by the release of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and nitric oxide and the oxidative burst in rat primary microglial cells, an activation and differentiation process similar to the proinflammatory response of microglia to exposure to lipopolysaccharide. Our findings indicate 1) that extrinsic plasma C1q is involved in the initiation of microglial activation in the course of CNS diseases with blood-brain barrier impairment and 2) that C1q synthesized and released by activated microglia is likely to contribute in an autocrine/paracrine way to maintain and balance microglial activation in the diseased CNS tissue. PMID:18831010

Färber, Katrin; Cheung, Giselle; Mitchell, Daniel; Wallis, Russell; Weihe, Eberhard; Schwaeble, Wilhelm; Kettenmann, Helmut

2009-02-15

98

Engineering Novel Complement Activity into a Pulmonary Surfactant Protein*  

PubMed Central

Complement neutralizes invading pathogens, stimulates inflammatory and adaptive immune responses, and targets non- or altered-self structures for clearance. In the classical and lectin activation pathways, it is initiated when complexes composed of separate recognition and activation subcomponents bind to a pathogen surface. Despite its apparent complexity, recognition-mediated activation has evolved independently in three separate protein families, C1q, mannose-binding lectins (MBLs), and serum ficolins. Although unrelated, all have bouquet-like architectures and associate with complement-specific serine proteases: MBLs and ficolins with MBL-associated serine protease-2 (MASP-2) and C1q with C1r and C1s. To examine the structural requirements for complement activation, we have created a number of novel recombinant rat MBLs in which the position and orientation of the MASP-binding sites have been changed. We have also engineered MASP binding into a pulmonary surfactant protein (SP-A), which has the same domain structure and architecture as MBL but lacks any intrinsic complement activity. The data reveal that complement activity is remarkably tolerant to changes in the size and orientation of the collagenous stalks of MBL, implying considerable rotational and conformational flexibility in unbound MBL. Furthermore, novel complement activity is introduced concurrently with MASP binding in SP-A but is uncontrolled and occurs even in the absence of a carbohydrate target. Thus, the active rather than the zymogen state is default in lectin·MASP complexes and must be inhibited through additional regions in circulating MBLs until triggered by pathogen recognition. PMID:20118239

Venkatraman Girija, Umakhanth; Furze, Christopher; Toth, Julia; Schwaeble, Wilhelm J.; Mitchell, Daniel A.; Keeble, Anthony H.; Wallis, Russell

2010-01-01

99

Visual Pathway Study Using in vivo DTI Tractography to Complement Classical Anatomy  

PubMed Central

Background Knowledge of the individual course of the optic radiations (OR) is important to avoid post-operative visual deficits. Cadaveric studies of the visual pathways are limited because it has not been possible to accurately separate the OR from neighboring tracts and results may not apply to individual patients. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies may be able to demonstrate the relationships between the OR and neighboring fibers in vivo in individual subjects. Objective To use DTI tractography to study the OR and Meyer’s loop (ML) anatomy in vivo. Methods Ten healthy subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion imaging at 3T. Using a fiducial-based DTI tractography tool (Slicer 3.3), seeds were placed near the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) to reconstruct individual visual pathways and neighboring tracts. Projections of the optic radiations onto 3D brain models were shown individually in order to quantify relationships to key landmarks. Results Two patterns of visual pathways were found. The OR ran more commonly deep in the whole superior and middle temporal gyri and superior temporal sulcus. The OR was closely surrounded in all cases by an inferior longitudinal fascicle and a parieto/occipito/temporo-pontine fascicle. The mean left and right distances between the tip of the OR and temporal pole were 39.8± 3.8mm and 40.6±5.7 mm, respectively. Conclusion DTI tractography provides a practical complementary method to study the OR and ML anatomy in vivo, and with reference to individual 3D brain anatomy. PMID:21808220

Wu, Wentao; Rigolo, Laura; O'Donnell, Lauren J.; Norton, Isaiah; Shriver, Sargent; Golby, Alexandra J.

2011-01-01

100

Role of Complement Cascade in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms  

PubMed Central

Objective The goal of this study was to investigate the role of complement cascade genes in the pathobiology of human abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). Methods and Results Results of a genome-wide microarray expression profiling revealed 3,274 differentially expressed genes between aneurysmal and control aortic tissue. Interestingly, 13 genes in the complement cascade were significantly differentially expressed between AAA and the controls. In silico analysis of the promoters of the 13 complement cascade genes showed enrichment for transcription factor binding sites for STAT5A. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated binding of transcription factor STAT5A to the promoters of the majority of the complement cascade genes. Immunohistochemical analysis showed strong staining for C2 in AAA tissues. Conclusions These results provide strong evidence that the complement cascade plays a role in human AAA. Based on our microarray studies, the pathway is activated in AAA, particularly via the lectin and classical pathways. The overrepresented binding sites of transcription factor STAT5A in the complement cascade gene promoters suggest a role for STAT5A in the coordinated regulation of complement cascade gene expression. PMID:21493888

Hinterseher, Irene; Erdman, Robert; Donoso, Larry A.; Vrabec, Tamara R.; Schworer, Charles M.; Lillvis, John H.; Boddy, Amy M.; Derr, Kimberly; Golden, Alicia; Bowen, William D.; Gatalica, Zoran; Tapinos, Nikos; Elmore, James R.; Franklin, David P.; Gray, John L.; Garvin, Robert P.; Gerhard, Glenn S.; Carey, David J.; Tromp, Gerard; Kuivaniemi, Helena

2012-01-01

101

Cartilage specific collagen activates macrophages and the alternative pathway of complement: evidence for an immunopathogenic concept of rheumatoid arthritis.  

PubMed Central

We studied the effect of human interstitial collagen types I, II, and III on serum-free cultured mouse macrophages and on the complement classical and alternative pathways in human and guinea-pig serum. Type II collagen produced a dose-dependent consumption and conversion of C3 and factor B both in the homologous and in the heterologous system. This effect on the alternative pathway was reproduced in genetically C4-deficient guinea-pig serum and could be triggered by native, triple helical type II molecules, by their component alpha chains, and the CNBr peptide mixture. Addition of type II collagen to the mouse macrophage cultures induced not only a dose- and time-dependent secretion of lysosomal enzymes, but also the generation of a supernatant factor cytotoxic for mouse mastocytoma P 815 cells. Collagen of types I and III were conspicuously less active or inactive in all assays. The studies demonstrate properties of the collagen specific for cartilage which, on a molecular level, suggest its direct, local participation in the production and perpetuation of rheumatoid arthritis. Images PMID:7073345

Hanauske-Abel, H M; Pontz, B F; Schorlemmer, H U

1982-01-01

102

Lectin from Canavalia brasiliensis (ConBr) protects hippocampal slices against glutamate neurotoxicity in a manner dependent of PI3K/Akt pathway.  

PubMed

The excitotoxicity induced by excessive activation of the glutamatergic neurotransmission pathway is involved in several neuropathologies. In this sense, molecules that prevent the release of glutamate or the excessive activation of its receptors can be useful in preventing the neuronal cell death observed in these diseases. Lectins are proteins capable of reversible binding to the carbohydrates in glycoconjugates, and some have been used in the study and purification of glutamate receptors. ConBr is a mannose/glucose-binding lectin purified from Canavalia brasiliensis seeds. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective activity of ConBr against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. Hippocampal slices were isolated from adult male mice and incubated for 6h in Krebs saline/DMEM buffer alone (control), in the presence of glutamate or glutamate plus ConBr. The phosphorylation of Akt and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) such as ERK1/2, p38(MAPK) and JNK1/2/3 was evaluated with western blotting. The results indicate that glutamate provoked a reduction in the hippocampal slice viability (-25%), diminished the phosphorylation of Akt and augmented p38(MAPK) and ERK1 phosphorylation. No changes were observed in the phosphorylation of JNK1/2/3 or ERK2. Notably, ConBr, through a mechanism dependent on carbohydrate interaction, prevented the reduction of cell viability and Akt phosphorylation induced by glutamate. Furthermore, in the presence of the PI3K inhibitor LY294002, ConBr was unable to reverse glutamate neurotoxicity. Taken together, our data suggest that the neuroprotective effect of ConBr against glutamate neurotoxicity requires oligosaccharide interaction and is dependent on the PI3K/Akt pathway. PMID:23454192

Jacques, Amanda V; Rieger, Débora K; Maestri, Mariana; Lopes, Mark W; Peres, Tanara V; Gonçalves, Filipe M; Pedro, Daniela Z; Tasca, Carla I; López, Manuela G; Egea, Javier; Nascimento, Kyria S; Cavada, Benildo S; Leal, Rodrigo B

2013-05-01

103

Modulation of the alternative complement pathways by beta 1 H globulin  

PubMed Central

C3b inactivator accelerator (A-C3bINA) was isolated from human plasma. An antiserum produced against the purified protein gave a reaction of identity with beta 1 H, a well-documented contaminant of C3 preparations. Beta 1 H appears to be composed of a single polypeptide chain containing a significant quantity of carbohydrate, and having a sedimentation coefficient of 5.6 on analytical, and 6.4 on sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation. Its mol wt based on SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and equilibrium sedimentation is approximately 150,000, whereas it elutes from Sephadex G200 with an apparent mol wt of 300,000, suggesting that beta 1 H is an asymmetric molecule. Beta 1 H potentiates the inactivation of C3b by C3b inactivator, binds to EAC43 to limit the formation of EAC43bB and EAC43bBP, and in contrast to C3b inactivator, it increases the rate of loss of hemolytic sites from EAC43bB and EAC43bBP. For the C3b inactivator-potentiating effect, beta 1 H and C3b inactivator must necessarily be simultaneously present. The kinetics of inactivation of C3b by C3b inactivator and beta 1 H are first order, suggesting that potentiation is not a multistep process. The mechanisms of binding to C3b and inhibition of the alternative pathway convertases C3bB and C3bBP are currently unknown. PMID:62817

1976-01-01

104

Mannose-binding lectin inhibits monocyte proliferation through transforming growth factor-?1 and p38 signaling pathways.  

PubMed

Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), a plasma C-type lectin, plays an important role in innate immunity. However, the interaction, and the consequences of it, between MBL and the immune system remain ill defined. We have investigated the contributing mechanisms and effects of MBL on the proliferation of human monocytes. At lower concentrations (?4 ?g/ml) MBL was shown to partially enhance monocyte proliferation. By contrast, at higher concentrations (8-20 ?g/ml) of MBL, cell proliferation was markedly attenuated. MBL-induced growth inhibition was associated with G0/G1 arrest, down-regulation of cyclin D1/D3, cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) 2/Cdk4 and up-regulation of the Cdk inhibitory protein Cip1/p21. Additionally, MBL induced apoptosis, and did so through caspase-3 activation and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage. Moreover, transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 levels increased in the supernatants of MBL-stimulated monocyte cultures. We also found that MBL-dependent inhibition of monocyte proliferation could be reversed by the TGF-? receptor antagonist SB-431542, or by anti-TGF-?1 antibody, or by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors specific for p38 (SB203580), but not ERK (U0126) or JNK (SP600125). Thus, at high concentrations, MBL can affect the immune system by inhibiting monocyte proliferation, which suggests that MBL may exhibit anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:24039775

Wang, Yan; Chen, A-De; Lei, Yan-Mei; Shan, Gui-Qiu; Zhang, Li-Yun; Lu, Xiao; Chen, Zheng-Liang

2013-01-01

105

Complement profile in neonates of different gestational ages.  

PubMed

Blood levels of regulators of the complement system in preterm babies were reported in few studies only. The aim of this study was to set up a complement profile in premature and term babies focusing on the development of blood levels of MBL, key regulatory proteins and on classical pathway activity, which may allow an estimation of potential susceptibility to infection. Complement activity (CH50), levels of mannan-binding lectin (MBL), complement regulators (factors H and I, C1 inhibitor, properdin) and C3a as marker of complement activation were assessed in three groups of healthy newborns: (1) prematures (?34 weeks); (2) late prematures (>34-<37 weeks) and (3) term neonates (?37 weeks). CH50 increased with gestational age with lower titres in cord blood than in day 5 post-delivery venous blood. MBL concentrations were not significantly different among groups. Quantitative and functional C1 inhibitor were below adult normal range in prematures <34 weeks and lower in cord blood as compared to day 5. Factor I, factor H and properdin remained below adult values in all groups. Low C3a levels excluded that low complement titres were due to activation-induced consumption. These results demonstrate the relative immaturity of the complement system and its regulation, especially in premature infants. PMID:24460650

Grumach, A S; Ceccon, M E; Rutz, R; Fertig, A; Kirschfink, M

2014-04-01

106

Outer Membrane Protein P5 Is Required for Resistance of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae to Both the Classical and Alternative Complement Pathways  

PubMed Central

The complement system is an important first line of defense against the human pathogen Haemophilus influenzae. To survive and propagate in vivo, H. influenzae has evolved mechanisms for subverting this host defense, most of which have been shown to involve outer surface structures, including lipooligosaccharide glycans and outer surface proteins. Bacterial defense against complement acts at multiple steps in the pathway by mechanisms that are not fully understood. Here we identify outer membrane protein P5 as an essential factor in serum resistance of both H. influenzae strain Rd and nontypeable H. influenzae (NTHi) clinical isolate NT127. P5 was essential for resistance of Rd and NT127 to complement in pooled human serum. Further investigation determined that P5 expression decreased cell surface binding of IgM, a potent activator of the classical pathway of complement, to both Rd and NT127. Additionally, P5 expression was required for NT127 to bind factor H (fH), an important inhibitor of alternative pathway (AP) activation. Collectively, the results obtained in this work highlight the ability of H. influenzae to utilize a single protein to perform multiple protective functions for evading host immunity. PMID:24478079

Rosadini, Charles V.; Ram, Sanjay

2014-01-01

107

Meningococcal Group W-135 and Y Capsular Polysaccharides Paradoxically Enhance Activation of the Alternative Pathway of Complement*  

PubMed Central

Although capsular polysaccharide (CPS) is critical for meningococcal virulence, the molecular basis of alternative complement pathway (AP) regulation by meningococcal CPSs remains unclear. Using serum with only the AP active, the ability of strains to generate C3a (a measure of C3 activation) and subsequently deposit C3 fragments on bacteria was studied in encapsulated group A, B, C, W-135, and Y strains and their isogenic unencapsulated mutants. To eliminate confounding AP regulation by membrane-bound factor H (fH; AP inhibitor) and lipooligosaccharide sialic acid, the meningococcal fH ligands (fHbp and NspA) and lipooligosaccharide sialylation were deleted in all strains. Group A CPS expression did not affect C3a generation or C3 deposition. C3a generated by encapsulated and unencapsulated group B and C strains was similar, but CPS expression was associated with reduced C3 deposition, suggesting that these CPSs blocked C3 deposition on membrane targets. Paradoxically, encapsulated W-135 and Y strains (including the wild-type parent strains) enhanced C3 activation and showed marked C3 deposition as early as 10 min; at this time point C3 was barely activated by the unencapsulated mutants. W-135 and Y CPSs themselves served as a site for C3 deposition; this observation was confirmed using immobilized purified CPSs. Purified CPSs bound to unencapsulated meningococci, simulated findings with naturally encapsulated strains. These data highlight the heterogeneity of AP activation on the various meningococcal serogroups that may contribute to differences in their pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:21245150

Ram, Sanjay; Lewis, Lisa A.; Agarwal, Sarika

2011-01-01

108

Interaction of human monocytes, macrophages, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes with zymosan in vitro. Role of type 3 complement receptors and macrophage-derived complement.  

PubMed Central

Macrophages take up zymosan in the absence of exogenous complement via receptors for iC3b (type 3 complement receptors) acting with or without lectin-like receptors for mannosyl-fucosyl-terminated glycoconjugates. We previously provided evidence that macrophages themselves secrete complement-alternative pathway components able to opsonize zymosan locally (Ezekowitz et al., J. Exp. Med. 1984. 159:244-260). We show here that covalently bound C3 cleavage products C3b and iC3b can be eluted from zymosan particles cultivated with 36-h adherent human monocytes in the absence of serum. The ligand binding site of type 3 complement receptors is involved in macrophage-zymosan interactions as shown by inhibition studies of zymosan binding and uptake with Fab fragments of anti-C3 antibodies and monoclonal antireceptor antibodies M01 and OKM10. In contrast, antibody IB4, which binds to a receptor epitope distinct from the binding site, does not inhibit zymosan uptake. Selective modulation of macrophage receptors onto anticomplement receptor antibody and mannose-rich yeast mannan, respectively, confirms that the complement and lectin-like receptors are distinct. Human polymorphonuclear leukocytes, which express receptors for complement, but are not known to secrete complement proteins, bind and ingest only exogenously opsonized zymosan. Unopsonized zymosan is a poor trigger of respiratory burst activity in neutrophils or 7-d adherent human macrophages, but induces cell aggregation and secretion of large amounts of superoxide anion when these cells are co-cultivated in serum-free medium and challenged with zymosan. Our studies indicate that complement and/or other products synthesized by macrophages at extravascular sites could play an important role in opsonization and lysis of pathogens able to activate the alternative pathway and mediate macrophage-neutrophil collaboration in first-line host defence. Images PMID:2934410

Ezekowitz, R A; Sim, R B; MacPherson, G G; Gordon, S

1985-01-01

109

COMPLEMENT REGULATION IN RENAL DISEASE MODELS  

PubMed Central

Activation of the complement system is tightly regulated by plasma and cell-associated complement regulatory proteins (CRPs), such as factor H (fH), decay-accelerating factor (DAF), and membrane cofactor protein (MCP). Animal models of disease have provided considerable insights into the important roles for CRPs in the kidney. Mice deficient in fH have excessive fluid phase C3 activation and inactivation leading to deposition of iC3b in glomerular capillary walls (GCW), comparable to dense deposit disease. In contrast, when fH lacks C-terminal surface targeting regions, local activation on the GCW leads to a disease reminiscent of thrombotic microangiopathy. The uniquely rodent protein, CR1-related y (Crry), has features analogous to human MCP. Defective Crry leads to unrestricted alternative pathway activation in the tubulointerstitium (TI) resulting in pathological features ranging from TMA, acute kidney injury and TI nephritis. In the presence of initiators of the classical or lectin pathways, commonly in the form of immune complexes in human glomerular diseases, complement regulation on self is stressed, with the potential for recruitment of the spontaneously active alternative pathway. The threshold for this activation is set by CRPs; pathology is more likely when complement regulation is defective. Within the endocapillary region of the GCW, fH is key, while DAF and Crry are protective on mesangial cells and podocytes. Arguably, acquired alterations in these CRPs is a more common event, extending from pathological states of cellular injury or production of inhibitory antibodies, to physiological fine tuning of the adaptive immune response. PMID:24161042

Naik, Abhijit; Sharma, Shweta; Quigg, Richard J.

2014-01-01

110

Micrurus snake venoms activate human complement system and generate anaphylatoxins  

PubMed Central

Background The genus Micrurus, coral snakes (Serpentes, Elapidae), comprises more than 120 species and subspecies distributed from the south United States to the south of South America. Micrurus snake bites can cause death by muscle paralysis and further respiratory arrest within a few hours after envenomation. Clinical observations show mainly neurotoxic symptoms, although other biological activities have also been experimentally observed, including cardiotoxicity, hemolysis, edema and myotoxicity. Results In the present study we have investigated the action of venoms from seven species of snakes from the genus Micrurus on the complement system in in vitro studies. Several of the Micrurus species could consume the classical and/or the lectin pathways, but not the alternative pathway, and C3a, C4a and C5a were generated in sera treated with the venoms as result of this complement activation. Micrurus venoms were also able to directly cleave the ? chain of the component C3, but not of the C4, which was inhibited by 1,10 Phenanthroline, suggesting the presence of a C3? chain specific metalloprotease in Micrurus spp venoms. Furthermore, complement activation was in part associated with the cleavage of C1-Inhibitor by protease(s) present in the venoms, which disrupts complement activation control. Conclusion Micrurus venoms can activate the complement system, generating a significant amount of anaphylatoxins, which may assist due to their vasodilatory effects, to enhance the spreading of other venom components during the envenomation process. PMID:22248157

2012-01-01

111

Regulation of the activity of platelet-bound C3 convertase of the alternative pathway of complement by platelet factor H  

SciTech Connect

The alternative pathway of complement is regulated on the surface of homologous blood cells at the C3 amplification step by the membrane protein decay-accelerating factor, as well as by the plasma protein factor H. The authors have reported elsewhere that platelets from patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria regulate the activity of the C3 convertase C3bBb, even though they lack decay-accelerating factor. They now report that normal human platelets contain factor H, which was released from the platelet in response to complement deposition or thrombin stimulation. Factor H was localized to the platelet ..cap alpha.. granules by immunocytochemical techniques. As determined by a solid-phase radioimmunoassay, thrombin-stimulated platelets released approx. 54 ng of factor H per 10/sup 8/ platelets. The release of factor H in response to complement or thrombin was inhibited by treating the platelets with metabolic inhibitors. Such inhibition resulted in a 3-fold increase in the activity of C3bBb. Platelets that released factor H bound only half as many molecules of radiolabeled factor B to platelet-bound C3b than platelets that could not release factor H. Treatment of platelets with anti-decay-accelerating factor antibody had no effect on the activity of C3bBb unless the release of factor H was blocked. Therefore, human platelets have a unique mechanism for the regulation of the alternative pathway of complement.

Devine, D.V.; Rosse, W.F.

1987-08-01

112

MASP-1 Induces a Unique Cytokine Pattern in Endothelial Cells: A Novel Link between Complement System and Neutrophil Granulocytes  

PubMed Central

Microbial infection urges prompt intervention by the immune system. The complement cascade and neutrophil granulocytes are the predominant contributors to this immediate anti-microbial action. We have previously shown that mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease-1 (MASP-1), the most abundant enzyme of the complement lectin pathway, can induce p38-MAPK activation, NFkappaB signaling, and Ca2+-mobilization in endothelial cells. Since neutrophil chemotaxis and transmigration depends on endothelial cell activation, we aimed to explore whether recombinant MASP-1 (rMASP-1) is able to induce cytokine production and subsequent neutrophil chemotaxis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). We found that HUVECs activated by rMASP-1 secreted IL-6 and IL-8, but not IL-1alpha, IL-1ra, TNFalpha and MCP-1. rMASP-1 induced dose-dependent IL-6 and IL-8 production with different kinetics. rMASP-1 triggered IL-6 and IL-8 production was regulated predominantly by the p38-MAPK pathway. Moreover, the supernatant of rMASP-1-stimulated HUVECs activated the chemotaxis of neutrophil granulocytes as an integrated effect of cytokine production. Our results implicate that besides initializing the complement lectin pathway, MASP-1 may activate neutrophils indirectly, via the endothelial cells, which link these effective antimicrobial host defense mechanisms. PMID:24489848

Jani, Peter K.; Kajdacsi, Erika; Megyeri, Marton; Dobo, Jozsef; Doleschall, Zoltan; Futosi, Krisztina; Timar, Csaba I.; Mocsai, Attila; Mako, Veronika; Gal, Peter; Cervenak, Laszlo

2014-01-01

113

Complement in Renal Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research and therapy in renal transplantation largely focused on the cellular arm of the adaptive immune response. Evidence is emerging that innate immune mechanisms, particularly complement, play a greater role in inflammatory and immune responses against the graft than has been previously recognized. Alternative complement pathway activation appears to mediate renal ischaemia\\/reperfusion injury, and proximal tubular cells may be

P. Chowdhury; W. Zhou; S. H. Sacks

2003-01-01

114

Infections of People with Complement Deficiencies and Patients Who Have Undergone Splenectomy  

PubMed Central

Summary: The complement system comprises several fluid-phase and membrane-associated proteins. Under physiological conditions, activation of the fluid-phase components of complement is maintained under tight control and complement activation occurs primarily on surfaces recognized as “nonself” in an attempt to minimize damage to bystander host cells. Membrane complement components act to limit complement activation on host cells or to facilitate uptake of antigens or microbes “tagged” with complement fragments. While this review focuses on the role of complement in infectious diseases, work over the past couple of decades has defined several important functions of complement distinct from that of combating infections. Activation of complement in the fluid phase can occur through the classical, lectin, or alternative pathway. Deficiencies of components of the classical pathway lead to the development of autoimmune disorders and predispose individuals to recurrent respiratory infections and infections caused by encapsulated organisms, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae. While no individual with complete mannan-binding lectin (MBL) deficiency has been identified, low MBL levels have been linked to predisposition to, or severity of, several diseases. It appears that MBL may play an important role in children, who have a relatively immature adaptive immune response. C3 is the point at which all complement pathways converge, and complete deficiency of C3 invariably leads to severe infections, including those caused by meningococci and pneumococci. Deficiencies of the alternative and terminal complement pathways result in an almost exclusive predisposition to invasive meningococcal disease. The spleen plays an important role in antigen processing and the production of antibodies. Splenic macrophages are critical in clearing opsonized encapsulated bacteria (such as pneumococci, meningococci, and Escherichia coli) and intraerythrocytic parasites such as those causing malaria and babesiosis, which explains the fulminant nature of these infections in persons with anatomic or functional asplenia. Paramount to the management of patients with complement deficiencies and asplenia is educating patients about their predisposition to infection and the importance of preventive immunizations and seeking prompt medical attention. PMID:20930072

Ram, Sanjay; Lewis, Lisa A.; Rice, Peter A.

2010-01-01

115

The CD94/NKG2C killer lectin-like receptor constitutes an alternative activation pathway for a subset of CD8+ T cells.  

PubMed

The CD94/NKG2C killer lectin-like receptor (KLR) specific for HLA-E is coupled to the KARAP/DAP12 adapter in a subset of NK cells, triggering their effector functions. We have studied the distribution and function of this KLR in T lymphocytes. Like other NK cell receptors (NKR), CD94/NKG2C was predominantly expressed by a CD8(+) T cell subset, though TCRgammadelta(+) NKG2C(+) and rare CD4(+) NKG2C(+) cells were also detected in some individuals. Coculture with the 721.221 HLA class I-deficient lymphoma cell line transfected with HLA-E (.221-AEH) induced IL-2Ralpha expression in CD94/NKG2C+ NK cells and a minor subset of CD94/NKG2C(+) T cells, promoting their proliferation; moreover, a similar response was triggered upon selective engagement of CD94/NKG2C with a specific mAb. CD8(+) TCRalphabeta CD94/NKG2C(+) T cell clones, that displayed different combinations of KIR and CD85j receptors, expressed KARAP/DAP12 which was co-precipitated by an anti-CD94 mAb. Specific engagement of the KLR triggered cytotoxicity and cytokine production in CD94/NKG2C(+) T cell clones, inducing as well IL-2Ralpha expression and a proliferative response. Altogether these results support that CD94/NKG2C may constitute an alternative T cell activation pathway capable of driving the expansion and triggering the effector functions of a CTL subset. PMID:15940674

Gumá, Mónica; Busch, Lisa K; Salazar-Fontana, Laura I; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Morte, Carles; García, Pilar; López-Botet, Miguel

2005-07-01

116

Mannose Binding Lectin Is Required for Alphavirus-Induced Arthritis/Myositis  

PubMed Central

Mosquito-borne alphaviruses such as chikungunya virus and Ross River virus (RRV) are emerging pathogens capable of causing large-scale epidemics of virus-induced arthritis and myositis. The pathology of RRV-induced disease in both humans and mice is associated with induction of the host inflammatory response within the muscle and joints, and prior studies have demonstrated that the host complement system contributes to development of disease. In this study, we have used a mouse model of RRV-induced disease to identify and characterize which complement activation pathways mediate disease progression after infection, and we have identified the mannose binding lectin (MBL) pathway, but not the classical or alternative complement activation pathways, as essential for development of RRV-induced disease. MBL deposition was enhanced in RRV infected muscle tissue from wild type mice and RRV infected MBL deficient mice exhibited reduced disease, tissue damage, and complement deposition compared to wild-type mice. In contrast, mice deficient for key components of the classical or alternative complement activation pathways still developed severe RRV-induced disease. Further characterization of MBL deficient mice demonstrated that similar to C3?/? mice, viral replication and inflammatory cell recruitment were equivalent to wild type animals, suggesting that RRV-mediated induction of complement dependent immune pathology is largely MBL dependent. Consistent with these findings, human patients diagnosed with RRV disease had elevated serum MBL levels compared to healthy controls, and MBL levels in the serum and synovial fluid correlated with severity of disease. These findings demonstrate a role for MBL in promoting RRV-induced disease in both mice and humans and suggest that the MBL pathway of complement activation may be an effective target for therapeutic intervention for humans suffering from RRV-induced arthritis and myositis. PMID:22457620

Whitmore, Alan C.; Blevins, Lance K.; Hueston, Linda; Fraser, Robert J.; Herrero, Lara J.; Ramirez, Ruben; Smith, Paul N.; Mahalingam, Suresh; Heise, Mark T.

2012-01-01

117

Simultaneous Activation of Complement and Coagulation by MBL-Associated Serine Protease 2  

PubMed Central

The complement system is an important immune mechanism mediating both recognition and elimination of foreign bodies. The lectin pathway is one pathway of three by which the complement system is activated. The characteristic protease of this pathway is Mannan-binding lectin (MBL)-associated serine protease 2 (MASP2), which cleaves complement proteins C2 and C4. We present a novel and alternative role of MASP2 in the innate immune system. We have shown that MASP2 is capable of promoting fibrinogen turnover by cleavage of prothrombin, generating thrombin. By using a truncated active form of MASP2 as well as full-length MASP2 in complex with MBL, we have shown that the thrombin generated is active and can cleave both factor XIII and fibrinogen, forming cross-linked fibrin. To explore the biological significance of these findings we showed that fibrin was covalently bound on a bacterial surface to which MBL/MASP2 complexes were bound. These findings suggest that, as has been proposed for invertebrates, limited clotting may contribute to the innate immune response. PMID:17637839

Krarup, Anders; Wallis, Russell; Presanis, Julia S.; Gal, Peter; Sim, Robert B.

2007-01-01

118

The role of complement in the pathogenesis of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury and fibrosis  

PubMed Central

The complement system is a major component of innate immunity and has been commonly identified as a central element in host defense, clearance of immune complexes, and tissue homeostasis. After ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), the complement system is activated by endogenous ligands that trigger proteolytic cleavage of complement components via the classical, lectin and/or alternative pathway. The result is the formation of terminal complement components C3a, C5a, and the membrane attack complex (C5b-9 or MAC), all of which play pivotal roles in the amplification of the inflammatory response, chemotaxis, neutrophil/monocyte recruitment and activation, and direct tubular cell injury. However, recent evidence suggests that complement activity transcends innate host defense and there is increasing data suggesting complement as a regulator in processes such as allo-immunity, stem cell differentiation, tissue repair, and progression to fibrosis. In this review, we discuss recent advances addressing the role of complement as a regulator of IRI and renal fibrosis after organ donation for transplantation. We will also briefly discuss currently approved therapies that target complement activity in kidney ischemia-reperfusion and transplantation. PMID:25383094

2014-01-01

119

Commercially available complement component-depleted sera are unexpectedly codepleted of ficolin-2.  

PubMed

The ficolins are a family of innate pattern recognition molecules that are known to bind acetylated compounds and activate complement through the association of mannose binding lectin (MBL)/ficolin-associated serine proteases (MASPs). Their importance has more recently become appreciated, as they have been shown to play a role in a variety of disease processes from infection to autoimmunity. While studying ficolin-2-mediated complement deposition on Streptococcus pneumoniae, we found that sera depleted of C1q or other complement components were also codepleted of ficolin-2 but not ficolin-1, ficolin-3, or MBL. MBL present in C1q-depleted sera was able to mediate complement deposition on Saccharomyces cerevisiae, suggesting the presence of MASPs. We found that complement was activated on pneumococci in C1q-depleted serum only after opsonization with exogenous recombinant ficolin-2 (rFicolin-2). Also, no complement deposition was observed in C1q-depleted serum when pneumococci were opsonized with rFicolin-2 mutated at its lysine-57 residue, where MASPs are known to associate. Thus, these depleted sera are a unique tool to study ficolin-2-mediated complement pathways; however, one should be aware that ficolin-2 is absent from complement component-depleted sera. PMID:25030054

Brady, Allison M; Geno, K Aaron; Dalecki, Alex G; Cheng, Xiaogang; Nahm, Moon H

2014-09-01

120

Fanconi anemia complementation group FANCD2 protein serine 331 phosphorylation is important for fanconi anemia pathway function and BRCA2 interaction.  

PubMed

Fanconi anemia is a cancer-prone inherited bone marrow failure and cancer susceptibility syndrome with at least 13 complementation groups (FANCA, FANCB, FANCC, FANCD1, FANCD2, FANCE, FANCF, FANCG, FANCI, FANCJ, FANCL, FANCM, and FANCN). Our laboratory has previously described several regulatory phosphorylation events for core complex member proteins FANCG and FANCA by phosphorylation. In this study, we report a novel phosphorylation site serine 331 (S331) of FANCD2, the pivotal downstream player of the Fanconi anemia pathway. Phosphorylation of S331 is important for its DNA damage-inducible monoubiquitylation, resistance to DNA cross-linkers, and in vivo interaction with FANCD1/BRCA2. A phosphomimetic mutation at S331 restores all of these phenotypes to wild-type. In vitro and in vivo experiments show that phosphorylation of S331 is mediated by CHK1, the S-phase checkpoint kinase implicated in the Fanconi anemia DNA repair pathway. PMID:19861535

Zhi, Gang; Wilson, James B; Chen, Xiaoyong; Krause, Diane S; Xiao, Yuxuan; Jones, Nigel J; Kupfer, Gary M

2009-11-15

121

Activation of the complement system in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to explore the role of the complement system in normal human pregnancy and preeclampsia in a comprehensive manner, measuring circulating levels of complement proteins, their activation fragments and regulatory factors, as well as those of C-reactive protein (CRP). Sixty preeclamptic patients, 60 healthy pregnant women and 59 healthy non-pregnant women were involved in this case-control study. Circulating levels of complement components and CRP were determined with ELISA, radial immunodiffusion and particle enhanced immunoturbidimetric assay. Levels of CRP, C4d, C3a, SC5b9, C3, C9 and factor H antigen were significantly higher, while those of C1-inhibitor were significantly lower in healthy pregnant than non-pregnant women. In addition, preeclamptic patients had significantly higher CRP, C4d, C3a, SC5b9 levels and significantly lower C3 concentrations as compared to healthy pregnant women. Their CRP, C4d, C3a, SC5b9, C4, C3, C9 and factor H antigen levels were significantly higher, while C1-inhibitor concentrations were significantly lower compared with healthy non-pregnant women. However, no significant difference was found in Bb and C4b-binding protein levels among the three study groups. Preeclamptic patients with fetal growth restriction had significantly higher plasma SC5b9 levels than those without IUGR. There was a relative deficiency of C1-inhibitor and C4b-binding protein, and a relative abundance of factor H both in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia. Activation of the classical or lectin pathway (C4d) showed significant positive correlation to C3 activation (C3a) both in healthy pregnant women and preeclamptic patients. However, the correlation between C3 and terminal pathway activation was dominating only in patients with preeclampsia, but not in healthy pregnant women. In conclusion, the complement system is activated through the classical and/or lectin pathways with increased terminal complex formation in the third trimester of normal human pregnancy, and further in preeclampsia, as shown by the elevated amounts of activation markers in the systemic circulation. Excessive activation of the terminal pathway is associated with fetal growth restriction in preeclamptic women. However, additional studies are required to determine the cause and consequence of systemic complement activation in this pregnancy-specific disorder. PMID:20181396

Derzsy, Zoltán; Prohászka, Zoltán; Rigó, János; Füst, George; Molvarec, Attila

2010-04-01

122

Activation of the human complement alternative pathway by Listeria monocytogenes: evidence for direct binding and proteolysis of the C3 component on bacteria.  

PubMed Central

The capacity of the intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes to activate the alternative pathway of human complement was examined. Incubation of L. monocytogenes with human serum in optimal conditions (20% Mg2+EGTA [ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid]-chelated serum) consumed (31.3 +/- 3.9)% of C3 hemolytic activity and led to similar amounts of C3 deposition among the 27 strains tested, except for a rough mutant and the penicillin-induced L forms of strain EGD, which bound reduced amounts of C3. The same results were obtained with strains belonging to related species (L. innocua, L. seeligeri, L. welshimeri, and L. ivanovii). Direct evidence is provided that L. monocytogenes induces the deposition of C3b and its cleavage products iC3b and C3d through ester and amide linkages, as demonstrated by the analysis of the released products of radiolabelled purified C3 after treatment with hydroxylamine. Our results clearly demonstrate that L. monocytogenes activates the alternative pathway of human complement, suggesting that bacteria in the blood or in tissues of infected patients are opsonized and targeted to C3 receptor-bearing cells such as macrophages. Images PMID:8225590

Croize, J; Arvieux, J; Berche, P; Colomb, M G

1993-01-01

123

Assembly and Activation of Alternative Complement Components on Endothelial Cell-Anchored Ultra-Large Von Willebrand Factor Links Complement and Hemostasis-Thrombosis  

PubMed Central

Background Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) express and release protein components of the complement pathways, as well as secreting and anchoring ultra-large von Willebrand factor (ULVWF) multimers in long string-like structures that initiate platelet adhesion during hemostasis and thrombosis. The alternative complement pathway (AP) is an important non-antibody-requiring host defense system. Thrombotic microangiopathies can be associated with defective regulation of the AP (atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome) or with inadequate cleavage by ADAMTS-13 of ULVWF multimeric strings secreted by/anchored to ECs (thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura). Our goal was to determine if EC-anchored ULVWF strings caused the assembly and activation of AP components, thereby linking two essential defense mechanisms. Methodology/Principal Findings We quantified gene expression of these complement components in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by real-time PCR: C3 and C5; complement factor (CF) B, CFD, CFP, CFH and CFI of the AP; and C4 of the classical and lectin (but not alternative) complement pathways. We used fluorescent microscopy, monospecific antibodies against complement components, fluorescent secondary antibodies, and the analysis of >150 images to quantify the attachment of HUVEC-released complement proteins to ULVWF strings secreted by, and anchored to, the HUVECs (under conditions of ADAMTS-13 inhibition). We found that HUVEC-released C4 did not attach to ULVWF strings, ruling out activation of the classical and lectin pathways by the strings. In contrast, C3, FB, FD, FP and C5, FH and FI attached to ULVWF strings in quantitative patterns consistent with assembly of the AP components into active complexes. This was verified when non-functional FB blocked the formation of AP C3 convertase complexes (C3bBb) on ULVWF strings. Conclusions/Significance AP components are assembled and activated on EC-secreted/anchored ULVWF multimeric strings. Our findings provide one possible molecular mechanism for clinical linkage between different types of thrombotic and complement-mediated disorders. PMID:23555663

Turner, Nancy A.; Moake, Joel

2013-01-01

124

Complement Protein C1q and Adiponectin Stimulate Mer Tyrosine Kinase-Dependent Engulfment of Apoptotic Cells through a Shared Pathway.  

PubMed

The failure to clear apoptotic cells is linked to defects in development and autoimmunity. Complement component C1q is required for efficient engulfment of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis), and C1q deficiency leads to the development of lupus. We recently identified a novel molecular mechanism for C1q-dependent efferocytosis in murine macrophages. C1q elicited the expression of Mer tyrosine kinase (Mer), a receptor that regulates efficient efferocytosis and prevention of autoimmunity. To characterize the C1q-dependent signal transduction mechanism, pathway analysis of the transcriptome from C1q-activated macrophages was performed, and it identified the adiponectin signaling pathway as significantly upregulated with C1q. Adiponectin is structurally homologous to C1q and regulates cellular metabolism via downstream activation of 5'adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Macrophage stimulation with C1q resulted in the activation of AMPK, and silencing of AMPK expression using siRNA-inhibited C1q-dependent efferocytosis. Adiponectin signaling also stimulates activation of nuclear receptors, and inhibition of the nuclear receptor retinoid X receptor abrogated C1q-dependent Mer expression and efferocytosis. Furthermore, adiponectin elicited Mer expression and Mer-dependent efferocytosis in macrophages similar to cells stimulated with C1q. Collectively, our results suggest that C1q and adiponectin share a common signal transduction cascade to promote clearance of apoptotic cells, and identify a novel molecular pathway required for efficient efferocytosis. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:24942043

Galvan, Manuel D; Hulsebus, Holly; Heitker, Thomas; Zeng, Erliang; Bohlson, Suzanne S

2014-01-01

125

Rapid activation of the complement system by cuprophane depends on complement component C4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid activation of the complement system by cuprophane depends on complement component C4. Hemodialysis with cuprophane dialyzer membranes promotes rapid activation of the complement system, which is thought to be mediated by the alternative pathway. Complete hereditary deficiency of complement C4, a classical pathway component, in two hemodialysis patients provided the opportunity to investigate a possible role of the classical

Karl Lhotta; Reinhard Würzner; Florian Kronenberg; Martin Oppermann; Paul König

1998-01-01

126

CD21/35 promotes protective immunity to Streptococcus pneumoniae through a complement-independent but CD19-dependent pathway that regulates PD-1 expression.  

PubMed

Humoral immunity to T cell-independent type 2 Ags (TI-2 Ag) is critical for protection against encapsulated bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae. The CD21/35 receptor is thought to promote protective humoral immunity to encapsulated bacteria by enabling complement-decorated capsular polysaccharides to coligate the CD21/35-CD19 signaling complex with the B cell Ag receptor (BCR), thereby enhancing Ag-specific B cell activation. However, Ab responses to S. pneumoniae type 3 capsular polysaccharide (PPS-3) and other strong TI-2 Ags were significantly impaired in CD21/35(-/-) but not C3(-/-) or C4(-/-) mice. B cells from CD21/35(-/-) mice expressed significantly higher levels of cell surface CD19. CD21/35(-/-) B cells exhibited enhanced BCR-induced calcium responses and significantly higher expression of the inhibitory programmed death-1 (PD-1) receptor following immunization with a TI-2 Ag or BCR crosslinking. Reducing CD19 expression in CD21/35(-/-) mice normalized BCR-induced calcium responses, PD-1 induction, and PPS-3-specific IgG3 responses and restored protection during S. pneumoniae infection. PD-1 blockade also selectively rescued PPS-3-specific IgG3 responses in CD21/35(-/-) mice. Thereby, CD21/35 promotes protective humoral immunity to S. pneumoniae and other strong TI-2 Ags through a complement-independent pathway by negatively regulating CD19 expression and PD-1 induction. PMID:19710450

Haas, Karen M; Poe, Jonathan C; Tedder, Thomas F

2009-09-15

127

CD21/35 Promotes Protective Immunity to S. pneumoniae through a Complement-Independent but CD19-Dependent Pathway that Regulates PD-1 Expression1  

PubMed Central

Humoral immunity to T cell-independent type 2 antigens (TI-2 Ag) is critical for protection against encapsulated bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae. The CD21/35 receptor is thought to promote protective humoral immunity to encapsulated bacteria by enabling complement-decorated capsular polysaccharides to coligate the CD21/35-CD19 signaling complex with the B cell Ag receptor (BCR), thereby enhancing Ag-specific B cell activation. However, antibody responses to S. pneumoniae type 3 capsular polysaccharide (PPS-3) and other strong TI-2 Ags were significantly impaired in CD21/35?/?, but not C3?/? or C4?/? mice. B cells from CD21/35?/? mice expressed significantly higher levels of cell-surface CD19. CD21/35?/? B cells exhibited enhanced BCR-induced calcium responses and significantly higher expression of the inhibitory programmed death-1 (PD-1) receptor following immunization with a TI-2 Ag or BCR crosslinking. Reducing CD19 expression in CD21/35?/? mice normalized BCR-induced calcium responses, PD-1 induction, PPS-3-specific IgG3 responses, and restored protection during S. pneumoniae infection. PD-1 blockade also selectively rescued PPS-3-specific IgG3 responses in CD21/35?/? mice. Thereby, CD21/35 promotes protective humoral immunity to S. pneumoniae and other strong TI-2 Ags through a complement-independent pathway by negatively regulating CD19 expression and PD-1 induction. PMID:19710450

Haas, Karen M.; Poe, Jonathan C.; Tedder, Thomas F.

2013-01-01

128

Modulation of glycan detection on specific glycoproteins by lectin multimerization  

PubMed Central

Improved methods for studying glycans could spur significant advances in the understanding and application of glycobiology. The use of affinity reagents such as lectins and glycan-binding antibodies is a valuable complement to methods involving mass spectrometry and chromatography. Many lectins, however, are not useful as analytic tools due to low affinity in vitro. As an approach to increasing lectin avidity to targeted glycans, we tested the use of lectin multimerization. Several biotinylated lectins were linked together through streptavidin interactions. The binding of certain lectins for purified glycoproteins and glycoproteins captured directly out of biological solutions was increased using multimerization, resulting in the detection of lower concentrations of glycoprotein than possible using monomeric detection. The analysis of glycoproteins in plasma samples showed that the level of binding enhancement through multimerization was not equivalent across patient samples. Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) reactive glycans on fibronectin and thrombospondin-5 were preferentially bound by multimers in pancreatic cancer patient samples relative to control samples, suggesting a cancer-associated change in glycan density that could be detected only through lectin multimerization. This strategy could lead to the more sensitive and informative detection of glycans in biological samples and a broader spectrum of lectins that are useful as analytical reagents. PMID:23286506

Cao, Zheng; Partyka, Katie; McDonald, Mitchell; Brouhard, Elizabeth; Hincapie, Marina; Brand, Randall E.; Hancock, William S.; Haab, Brian B.

2013-01-01

129

Mechanisms of complement activation, C4d deposition, and their contribution to the pathogenesis of antibody mediated rejection  

PubMed Central

Complement split products have emerged as useful markers of antibody mediated rejection in solid organ transplants. One split product, C4d, is now widely accepted as a marker for antibody mediated rejection in renal and cardiac allografts. This review summarizes the rationale for the use of C4d as a marker of antibody mediated rejection, along with the clinical evidence supporting its use in the clinical diagnosis of antibody mediated rejection. Antibody-independent mechanisms by which C4d can be activated by the classical and lectin pathways of complement activation are also identified. Finally, mechanisms by which complement activation stimulates effector cells (neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, platelets, and B and T lymphocytes) as well as target cells (endothelial cells) are discussed in relation to antibody mediated allograft rejection. PMID:19362461

Murata, Kazunori; Baldwin, William M

2009-01-01

130

Complement-mediated injury and protection of endothelium: Lessons from atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome  

PubMed Central

The complement system provides a vital defence against invading pathogens. As an intrinsic system it is always ‘on’, in a state of constant, low level activation. This activation is principally mediated through the deposition of C3b on to pathogenic surfaces and host tissues. C3b is generated by spontaneous ‘tick over’ and formal activation of the alternative pathway, and by activation of the classical and lectin pathways. If the deposited C3b is not appropriately regulated, there is progression to terminal pathway complement activation via the C5 convertases, generating the potent anaphylotoxin C5a and the membrane attack complex C5b-9. Unsurprisingly, these highly active components have the potential to cause injury to bystander host tissue, including the vascular endothelium. As such, complement activation on endothelium is normally tightly controlled by a large number of fluid-phase and membrane bound inhibitors, in an attempt to ensure that propagation of complement activation is appropriately restricted to invading pathogens and altered ‘self’, e.g. apoptotic and necrotic cells. The kidney is increasingly recognised as a site at particular risk from complement-mediated endothelial injury. Both genetic and acquired defects which impact on complement regulation predispose to this susceptibility. The thrombotic microangiopathy, haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS), will be used to illustrate the mechanisms by which the endothelial cell injury occurs. Finally, the underlying rationale for current and future potential therapeutic interventions in HUS and also the opportunities for enhancing endothelial defence to prevent relapsing disease through increased complement cytoprotective strategies will be summarised. PMID:21855165

Kerr, Heather; Richards, Anna

2014-01-01

131

CD45-mediated signaling pathway is involved in Rhizoctonia bataticola lectin (RBL)-induced proliferation and Th1/Th2 cytokine secretion in human PBMC  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RBL, a potent mitogenic and complex N-glycan specific lectin binds to CD45 on PBMC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RBL triggers CD45-mediated signaling involved in activation of p38MAPK and STAT-5. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of CD45 PTPase signaling blocks RBL-induced ZAP70 phosphorylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RBL-CD45 mediated signaling is crucial for RBL-induced immunodulatory activities. -- Abstract: We earlier reported the mitogenic and immunostimulatory activities of Rhizoctonia bataticola lectin (RBL), purified from phytopathogenic fungus R. bataticola in human PBMC. The lectin demonstrates specificity towards glycoproteins containing complex N-glycans. Since CD45-protein tyrosine phosphatase that abundantly expresses N-glycans is important in T-cell signaling, the study aimed to investigate the involvement of CD45 in the immunomodulatory activities of RBL. Flowcytometry and confocal microscopy studies revealed that RBL exhibited binding to PBMC and colocalized with CD45. The binding was comparable in cells expressing different CD45 isoforms-RA, -RB and -RO. CD45 blocking antibody reduced the binding and proliferation of PBMC induced by RBL. CD45-PTPase inhibitor dephostatin inhibited RBL-induced proliferation, expression of CD25 and pZAP-70. RBL-induced secretion of Th1/Th2 cytokines were significantly inhibited in presence of dephostatin. Also, dephostatin blocked phosphorylation of p38MAPK and STAT-5 that was crucial for the biological functions of RBL. The study demonstrates the involvement of CD45-mediated signaling in RBL-induced PBMC proliferation and Th1/Th2 cytokine secretion through activation of p38MAPK and STAT-5.

Pujari, Radha [National Centre for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India)] [National Centre for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Eligar, Sachin M. [Department of Biochemistry, Karnatak University, Dharwad, 580003 Karnataka (India)] [Department of Biochemistry, Karnatak University, Dharwad, 580003 Karnataka (India); Kumar, Natesh [National Centre for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India)] [National Centre for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Nagre, Nagaraja N.; Inamdar, Shashikala R.; Swamy, Bale M. [Department of Biochemistry, Karnatak University, Dharwad, 580003 Karnataka (India)] [Department of Biochemistry, Karnatak University, Dharwad, 580003 Karnataka (India); Shastry, Padma, E-mail: padma@nccs.res.in [National Centre for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India)] [National Centre for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India)

2012-03-23

132

A computational and experimental study of the regulatory mechanisms of the complement system.  

PubMed

The complement system is key to innate immunity and its activation is necessary for the clearance of bacteria and apoptotic cells. However, insufficient or excessive complement activation will lead to immune-related diseases. It is so far unknown how the complement activity is up- or down- regulated and what the associated pathophysiological mechanisms are. To quantitatively understand the modulatory mechanisms of the complement system, we built a computational model involving the enhancement and suppression mechanisms that regulate complement activity. Our model consists of a large system of Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) accompanied by a dynamic Bayesian network as a probabilistic approximation of the ODE dynamics. Applying Bayesian inference techniques, this approximation was used to perform parameter estimation and sensitivity analysis. Our combined computational and experimental study showed that the antimicrobial response is sensitive to changes in pH and calcium levels, which determines the strength of the crosstalk between CRP and L-ficolin. Our study also revealed differential regulatory effects of C4BP. While C4BP delays but does not decrease the classical complement activation, it attenuates but does not significantly delay the lectin pathway activation. We also found that the major inhibitory role of C4BP is to facilitate the decay of C3 convertase. In summary, the present work elucidates the regulatory mechanisms of the complement system and demonstrates how the bio-pathway machinery maintains the balance between activation and inhibition. The insights we have gained could contribute to the development of therapies targeting the complement system. PMID:21283780

Liu, Bing; Zhang, Jing; Tan, Pei Yi; Hsu, David; Blom, Anna M; Leong, Benjamin; Sethi, Sunil; Ho, Bow; Ding, Jeak Ling; Thiagarajan, P S

2011-01-01

133

Complement activation by ligand-driven juxtaposition of discrete pattern recognition complexes.  

PubMed

Defining mechanisms governing translation of molecular binding events into immune activation is central to understanding immune function. In the lectin pathway of complement, the pattern recognition molecules (PRMs) mannan-binding lectin (MBL) and ficolins complexed with the MBL-associated serine proteases (MASP)-1 and MASP-2 cleave C4 and C2 to generate C3 convertase. MASP-1 was recently found to be the exclusive activator of MASP-2 under physiological conditions, yet the predominant oligomeric forms of MBL carry only a single MASP homodimer. This prompted us to investigate whether activation of MASP-2 by MASP-1 occurs through PRM-driven juxtaposition on ligand surfaces. We demonstrate that intercomplex activation occurs between discrete PRM/MASP complexes. PRM ligand binding does not directly escort the transition of MASP from zymogen to active enzyme in the PRM/MASP complex; rather, clustering of PRM/MASP complexes directly causes activation. Our results support a clustering-based mechanism of activation, fundamentally different from the conformational model suggested for the classical pathway of complement. PMID:25197071

Degn, Søren E; Kjaer, Troels R; Kidmose, Rune T; Jensen, Lisbeth; Hansen, Annette G; Tekin, Mustafa; Jensenius, Jens C; Andersen, Gregers R; Thiel, Steffen

2014-09-16

134

Multiple roles of complement MASP-1 at the interface of innate immune response and coagulation.  

PubMed

MASP-1 is a versatile serine protease that cleaves a number of substrates in human blood. In recent years it became evident that besides playing a crucial role in complement activation MASP-1 also triggers other cascade systems and even cells to mount a more powerful innate immune response. In this review we summarize the latest discoveries about the diverse functions of this multi-faceted protease. Recent studies revealed that among MBL-associated serine proteases, MASP-1 is the one responsible for triggering the lectin pathway via its ability to rapidly autoactivate then cleave MASP-2, and possibly MASP-3. The crystal structure of MASP-1 explains its more relaxed substrate specificity compared to the related complement enzymes. Due to the relaxed specificity, MASP-1 interacts with the coagulation cascade and the kinin generating system, and it can also activate endothelial cells eliciting pro-inflammatory signaling. PMID:24935208

Dobó, József; Schroeder, Verena; Jenny, Lorenz; Cervenak, László; Závodszky, Péter; Gál, Péter

2014-10-01

135

Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar Calreticulin: Inhibition of Classical Complement Pathway and Differences in the Level of Expression in Amoebic Liver Abscess  

PubMed Central

The role of calreticulin (CRT) in host-parasite interactions has recently become an important area of research. Information about the functions of calreticulin and its relevance to the physiology of Entamoeba parasites is limited. The present work demonstrates that CRT of both pathogenic E. histolytica and nonpathogenic E. dispar species specifically interacted with human C1q inhibiting the activation of the classical complement pathway. Using recombinant EhCRT protein, we demonstrate that CRT interaction site and human C1q is located at the N-terminal region of EhCRT. The immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy experiments show that CRT and human C1q colocalize in the cytoplasmic vesicles and near to the surface membrane of previously permeabilized trophozoites or are incubated with normal human serum which is known to destroy trophozoites. In the presence of peripheral mononuclear blood cells, the distribution of EhCRT and C1q is clearly over the surface membrane of trophozoites. Nevertheless, the level of expression of CRT in situ in lesions of amoebic liver abscess (ALA) in the hamster model is different in both Entamoeba species; this molecule is expressed in higher levels in E. histolytica than in E. dispar. This result suggests that EhCRT may modulate some functions during the early moments of the host-parasite relationship. PMID:24860808

Ximenez, Cecilia; Gonzalez, Enrique; Nieves, Miriam E.; Silva-Olivares, Angelica; Shibayama, Mineko; Galindo-Gomez, Silvia; Escobar-Herrera, Jaime; Garcia de Leon, Ma del Carmen; Moran, Patricia; Valadez, Alicia; Rojas, Liliana; Hernandez, Eric G.; Partida, Oswaldo; Cerritos, Rene

2014-01-01

136

Classical complement pathway components C1r and C1s: purification from human serum and in recombinant form and functional characterization.  

PubMed

C1r and C1s are the proteases responsible for the activation and proteolytic activity of the C1 complex of the classical complement pathway, respectively. They are assembled into a Ca(2+)-dependent C1s-C1r-C1r-C1s tetramer which in turn associates with the recognition protein C1q. The C1 complex circulates in serum as a zymogen and is activated upon binding of C1q to appropriate targets, such as antigen-antibody complexes. This property is used for the purification of C1r and C1s from human serum after binding of C1 to insoluble immune complexes. Disruption of the bound C1 complex by EDTA releases C1r and C1s which are further separated by ion-exchange chromatography; both proteins can be reassembled in the presence of calcium ions and the reconstituted tetramer isolated by gel filtration. In this chapter, we describe the purification of the activated and proenzyme forms of C1r and C1s and of the proenzyme C1s-C1r-C1r-C1s tetramer as well as methods for their biochemical and functional characterization. The production of recombinant C1s and of the proenzyme tetramer in a baculovirus-insect cell system, and their purification by affinity chromatography is also presented. PMID:24218249

Rossi, Véronique; Bally, Isabelle; Lacroix, Monique; Arlaud, Gérard J; Thielens, Nicole M

2014-01-01

137

Complement Activation by Merozoite Antigens of Plasmodium falciparum  

PubMed Central

Background Complement (C) is a crucial part of the innate immune system and becomes over activated during malaria, resulting in depletion of C components, especially those for lectin pathway (LP), thereby compromising the host's innate defense. In this study, involvement of P. falciparum antigens in C activation was investigated. Methods A highly synchronous culture of the Dd2 clone of P. falciparum was established in a serum free medium. Supernatants harvested from rings, trophozoites and schizonts at various parasite densities were tested for ability to activate C by quantifying amount of C3b deposited on erythrocytes (E). Uninfected sham culture was used as control. Remnants of each C pathway were determined using Wieslab complement System Screenkit (Euro-diagnostica, Sweden). To identify MBL binding antigens of LP, culture supernatants were added to MBL sepharose columns and trapped antigens eluted with increasing concentrations of EDTA (10 mM, 50 mM and 100 mM) and then desalted before being tested for ability to activate C. The EDTA eluate with highest activity was run on a polyacrylamide gel and silver stained proteins analyzed by mass spectroscopy. Results Antigens released by P. falciparum growing in culture activated C leading to C3b deposition on E. Maximal activation at 7% parasitemia was associated with schizont stage (36.7%) compared to 22% for rings, 21% for trophozoites and 3% for sham culture. All the three pathways of C were activated, with highest activation being for the alternative pathway (only 6% of C activation potential remained), 65% for classiical and 43% for the LP. Seven MBL binding merozoite proteins were identified by mass spectrometry in the 50 mM EDTA eluate. Conclusions MBL binding merozoite adhesins with ability to activate C pathway were identified. The survival advantage for such pronounced C activation is unclear, but opsonisation could facilitate recognition and invasion of E. PMID:25144772

Korir, Jackson C.; Nyakoe, Nancy K.; Awinda, George; Waitumbi, John N.

2014-01-01

138

Natural substrates and inhibitors of mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease-1 and -2: a study on recombinant catalytic fragments.  

PubMed

Mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease (SP) (MASP)-1 and MASP-2 are modular SP and form complexes with mannan-binding lectin, the recognition molecule of the lectin pathway of the complement system. To characterize the enzymatic properties of these proteases we expressed their catalytic region, the C-terminal three domains, in Escherichia coli. Both enzymes autoactivated and cleaved synthetic oligopeptide substrates. In a competing oligopeptide substrate library assay, MASP-1 showed extreme Arg selectivity, whereas MASP-2 exhibited a less restricted, trypsin-like specificity. The enzymatic assays with complement components showed that cleavage of intact C3 by MASP-1 and MASP-2 was detectable, but was only approximately 0.1% of the previously reported efficiency of C3bBb, the alternative pathway C3-convertase. Both enzymes cleaved C3i 10- to 20-fold faster, but still at only approximately 1% of the efficiency of MASP-2 cleavage of C2. We believe that C3 is not the natural substrate of either enzyme. MASP-2 cleaved C2 and C4 at high rates. To determine the role of the individual domains in the catalytic region of MASP-2, the second complement control protein module together with the SP module and the SP module were also expressed and characterized. We demonstrated that the SP domain alone can autoactivate and cleave C2 as efficiently as the entire catalytic region, while the second complement control protein module is necessary for efficient C4 cleavage. This behavior strongly resembles C1s. Each MASP-1 and MASP-2 fragment reacted with C1-inhibitor, which completely blocked the enzymatic action of the enzymes. Nevertheless, relative rates of reaction with alpha-2-macroglobulin and C1-inhibitor suggest that alpha-2-macroglobulin may be a significant physiological inhibitor of MASP-1. PMID:12538697

Ambrus, Géza; Gál, Péter; Kojima, Mayumi; Szilágyi, Katalin; Balczer, Júlia; Antal, József; Gráf, László; Laich, Andreas; Moffatt, Beryl E; Schwaeble, Wilhelm; Sim, Robert B; Závodszky, Péter

2003-02-01

139

The Lectins of Sophora japonica  

PubMed Central

Two lectins, Leaf Lectin I and Leaf Lectin II (LLI and LLII) were purified from the leaves of Sophora japonica. Like the Sophora seed lectin, LLI and LLII are tetrameric glycoproteins containing a single subunit with respect to size. The subunits of LLI (32 kilodaltons) and LLII (34 kilodaltons) are slightly larger than those of the seed lectin (29.5 kilodaltons). The three Sophora lectins display indistinguishable specificities, amino acid compositions, specific hemagglutinin activities, and extinction coefficients. Although very closely related to the seed lectin, the leaf and seed lectins are not immunologically identical and they differ in subunit molecular weights, carbohydrate content, and in the pH sensitivity of their hemagglutinin activities. N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis shows that although they are homologous proteins, the three Sophora lectins are products of distinct genes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:16665347

Hankins, Charles N.; Kindinger, Juanita; Shannon, Leland M.

1987-01-01

140

Model-driven redox pathway manipulation for improved isobutanol production in Bacillus subtilis complemented with experimental validation and metabolic profiling analysis.  

PubMed

To rationally guide the improvement of isobutanol production, metabolic network and metabolic profiling analysis were performed to provide global and profound insights into cell metabolism of isobutanol-producing Bacillus subtilis. The metabolic flux distribution of strains with different isobutanol production capacity (BSUL03, BSUL04 and BSUL05) drops a hint of the importance of NADPH on isobutanol biosynthesis. Therefore, the redox pathways were redesigned in this study. To increase NADPH concentration, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase was inactivated (BSUL06) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was overexpressed (BSUL07) successively. As expected, NADPH pool size in BSUL07 was 4.4-fold higher than that in parental strain BSUL05. However, cell growth, isobutanol yield and production were decreased by 46%, 22%, and 80%, respectively. Metabolic profiling analysis suggested that the severely imbalanced redox status might be the primary reason. To solve this problem, gene udhA of Escherichia coli encoding transhydrogenase was further overexpressed (BSUL08), which not only well balanced the cellular ratio of NAD(P)H/NAD(P)+, but also increased NADH and ATP concentration. In addition, a straightforward engineering approach for improving NADPH concentrations was employed in BSUL05 by overexpressing exogenous gene pntAB and obtained BSUL09. The performance for isobutanol production by BSUL09 was poorer than BSUL08 but better than other engineered strains. Furthermore, in fed-batch fermentation the isobutanol production and yield of BSUL08 increased by 11% and 19%, up to the value of 6.12 g/L and 0.37 C-mol isobutanol/C-mol glucose (63% of the theoretical value), respectively, compared with parental strain BSUL05. These results demonstrated that model-driven complemented with metabolic profiling analysis could serve as a useful approach in the strain improvement for higher bio-productivity in further application. PMID:24705866

Qi, Haishan; Li, Shanshan; Zhao, Sumin; Huang, Di; Xia, Menglei; Wen, Jianping

2014-01-01

141

Lectins of living organisms. The overview.  

PubMed

Occurrence, organization, and functioning of lectins as well as their current classifications are under investigation. Results indicate importance of symbiotic lectins for clinical microecology. Lectins and lectin-based approaches have wide perspectives for medical biotechnology. Lectin terms, relationships between lectins and enzymes are discussed. PMID:21723405

Lakhtin, Vladimir; Lakhtin, Mikhail; Alyoshkin, Vladimir

2011-12-01

142

C3 dysregulation due to factor H deficiency is mannan-binding lectin-associated serine proteases (MASP)-1 and MASP-3 independent in vivo  

PubMed Central

Uncontrolled activation of the complement alternative pathway is associated with complement-mediated renal disease. Factor B and factor D are essential components of this pathway, while factor H (FH) is its major regulator. In complete FH deficiency, uncontrolled C3 activation through the alternative pathway results in plasma C3 depletion and complement-mediated renal disease. These are dependent on factor B. Mannan-binding lectin-associated serine proteases 1 and 3 (MASP-1, MASP-3) have been shown recently to contribute to alternative pathway activation by cleaving pro-factor D to its active form, factor D. We studied the contribution of MASP-1 and MASP-3 to uncontrolled alternative pathway activation in experimental complete FH deficiency. Co-deficiency of FH and MASP-1/MASP-3 did not ameliorate either the plasma C3 activation or glomerular C3 accumulation in FH-deficient mice. Our data indicate that MASP-1 and MASP-3 are not essential for alternative pathway activation in complete FH deficiency. PMID:24279761

Ruseva, M M; Takahashi, M; Fujita, T; Pickering, M C

2014-01-01

143

Site-Directed Conjugation of “Clicked” Glycopolymers To Form Glycoprotein Mimics: Binding to Mammalian Lectin and Induction of Immunological Function  

PubMed Central

Synthesis of well-defined neoglycopolymer–protein biohybrid materials and a preliminary study focused on their ability of binding mammalian lectins and inducing immunological function is reported. Crucial intermediates for their preparation are well-defined maleimide-terminated neoglycopolymers (Mn = 8–30 kDa; Mw/Mn = 1.20–1.28) presenting multiple copies of mannose epitope units, obtained by combination of transition-metal-mediated living radical polymerization (TMM LRP) and Huisgen [2+3] cycloaddition. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was employed as single thiol-containing model protein, and the resulting bioconjugates were purified following two independent protocols and characterized by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, SDS PAGE, and SEC HPLC. The versatility of the synthetic strategy presented in this work was demonstrated by preparing a small library of conjugating glycopolymers that only differ from each other for their relative epitope density were prepared by coclicking of appropriate mixtures of mannopyranoside and galactopyranoside azides to the same polyalkyne scaffold intermediate. Surface plasmon resonance binding studies carried out using recombinant rat mannose-binding lectin (MBL) showed clear and dose-dependent MBL binding to glycopolymer-conjugated BSA. In addition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) revealed that the neoglycopolymer–protein materials described in this work possess significantly enhanced capacity to activate complement via the lectin pathway when compared with native unmodified BSA. PMID:18020332

Geng, Jin; Mantovani, Giuseppe; Tao, Lei; Nicolas, Julien; Chen, Gaojian; Wallis, Russell; Mitchell, Daniel A.; Johnson, Benjamin R. G.; Evans, Stephen D.; Haddleton, David M.

2009-01-01

144

Structural and functional diversity of the lectin repertoire in teleost fish: relevance to innate and adaptive immunity.  

PubMed

Protein-carbohydrate interactions mediated by lectins have been recognized as key components of innate immunity in vertebrates and invertebrates, not only for recognition of potential pathogens, but also for participating in downstream effector functions, such as their agglutination, immobilization, and complement-mediated opsonization and killing. More recently, lectins have been identified as critical regulators of mammalian adaptive immune responses. Fish are endowed with virtually all components of the mammalian adaptive immunity, and are equipped with a complex lectin repertoire. In this review, we discuss evidence suggesting that: (a) lectin repertoires in teleost fish are highly diversified, and include not only representatives of the lectin families described in mammals, but also members of lectin families described for the first time in fish species; (b) the tissue-specific expression and localization of the diverse lectin repertoires and their molecular partners is consistent with their distinct biological roles in innate and adaptive immunity; (c) although some lectins may bind endogenous ligands, others bind sugars on the surface of potential pathogens; (d) in addition to pathogen recognition and opsonization, some lectins display additional effector roles, such as complement activation and regulation of immune functions; (e) some lectins that recognize exogenous ligands mediate processes unrelated to immunity: they may act as anti-freeze proteins or prevent polyspermia during fertilization. PMID:21896283

Vasta, Gerardo R; Nita-Lazar, Mihai; Giomarelli, Barbara; Ahmed, Hafiz; Du, Shaojun; Cammarata, Matteo; Parrinello, Nicolò; Bianchet, Mario A; Amzel, L Mario

2011-12-01

145

Human complement activation and anaphylatoxins generation induced by snake venom toxins from Bothrops genus.  

PubMed

Snake venoms are a complex mixture of components, which have a wide range of actions both on prey and human victims. The genus Bothrops causes the vast majority of snakebites in Central and South America, being responsible for 80% of snake envenomations in Brazil. Envenomations are characterized by prominent local effects, including oedema, haemorrhage and necrosis, which can lead to permanent disability. Systemic manifestations such as haemorrhage, coagulopathy, shock and acute renal failure may also occur. In the present study we have investigated the action of venoms from 19 species of snakes from the genus Bothrops, occurring in Brazil, on the complement system in in vitro studies. All venoms were able to activate the classical complement pathway, in the absence of sensitizing antibody. This activation was in part associated with the cleavage of C1-Inhibitor by proteases present in these venoms, which disrupts complement activation control. No modification of the membrane bound complement regulators, such as DAF, CR1 and CD59 was detected, after treatment of human erythrocytes with the snake venoms. Some of the Bothrops venoms were also able to activate alternative and lectin pathways, as measured in haemolytic and ELISA assays. C3a, C4a and C5a were generated in sera treated with the venoms, not only through C-activation, but also by the direct cleavage of complement components, as determined using purified C3 and C4. Metallo- and/or serine-protease inhibitors prevented cleavage of C3 and C4. These results suggest that Bothrops venoms can activate the complement system, generating a large amount of anaphylatoxins, which may play an important role in the inflammatory process presented in humans after snake envenomations, and they may also assist, due to their vasodilatory effects, to enhance the spreading of other venom components. PMID:20674029

Pidde-Queiroz, Giselle; Furtado, Maria de Fátima; Filgueiras, Carlos F; Pessoa, Lucas A; Spadafora-Ferreira, Mônica; van den Berg, Carmen W; Tambourgi, Denise V

2010-10-01

146

Lectin-Dependent Enhancement of Ebola Virus Infection via Soluble and Transmembrane C-type Lectin Receptors  

PubMed Central

Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a key soluble effector of the innate immune system that recognizes pathogen-specific surface glycans. Surprisingly, low-producing MBL genetic variants that may predispose children and immunocompromised individuals to infectious diseases are more common than would be expected in human populations. Since certain immune defense molecules, such as immunoglobulins, can be exploited by invasive pathogens, we hypothesized that MBL might also enhance infections in some circumstances. Consequently, the low and intermediate MBL levels commonly found in human populations might be the result of balancing selection. Using model infection systems with pseudotyped and authentic glycosylated viruses, we demonstrated that MBL indeed enhances infection of Ebola, Hendra, Nipah and West Nile viruses in low complement conditions. Mechanistic studies with Ebola virus (EBOV) glycoprotein pseudotyped lentiviruses confirmed that MBL binds to N-linked glycan epitopes on viral surfaces in a specific manner via the MBL carbohydrate recognition domain, which is necessary for enhanced infection. MBL mediates lipid-raft-dependent macropinocytosis of EBOV via a pathway that appears to require less actin or early endosomal processing compared with the filovirus canonical endocytic pathway. Using a validated RNA interference screen, we identified C1QBP (gC1qR) as a candidate surface receptor that mediates MBL-dependent enhancement of EBOV infection. We also identified dectin-2 (CLEC6A) as a potentially novel candidate attachment factor for EBOV. Our findings support the concept of an innate immune haplotype that represents critical interactions between MBL and complement component C4 genes and that may modify susceptibility or resistance to certain glycosylated pathogens. Therefore, higher levels of native or exogenous MBL could be deleterious in the setting of relative hypocomplementemia which can occur genetically or because of immunodepletion during active infections. Our findings confirm our hypothesis that the pressure of infectious diseases may have contributed in part to evolutionary selection of MBL mutant haplotypes. PMID:23573288

Lear, Calli; Chen, Li; Yantosca, L. Michael; Scully, Corinne; Sarraju, Ashish; Sokolovska, Anna; Zariffard, M. Reza; Eisen, Damon P.; Mungall, Bruce A.; Kotton, Darrell N.; Omari, Amel; Huang, I-Chueh; Farzan, Michael; Takahashi, Kazue; Stuart, Lynda; Stahl, Gregory L.; Ezekowitz, Alan B.; Spear, Gregory T.; Olinger, Gene G.; Schmidt, Emmett V.; Michelow, Ian C.

2013-01-01

147

Lectins: production and practical applications  

PubMed Central

Lectins are proteins found in a diversity of organisms. They possess the ability to agglutinate erythrocytes with known carbohydrate specificity since they have at least one non-catalytic domain that binds reversibly to specific monosaccharides or oligosaccharides. This articles aims to review the production and practical applications of lectins. Lectins are isolated from their natural sources by chromatographic procedures or produced by recombinant DNA technology. The yields of animal lectins are usually low compared with the yields of plant lectins such as legume lectins. Lectins manifest a diversity of activities including antitumor, immunomodulatory, antifungal, HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory, and anti-insect activities, which may find practical applications. A small number of lectins demonstrate antibacterial and anti-nematode activities. PMID:20890754

2010-01-01

148

Multivalent Lectin—Carbohydrate Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biological signaling properties of lectins, which are carbohydrate-binding proteins, are due to their ability to bind and cross-link multivalent glycoprotein receptors on the surface of normal and transformed cells. While the crosslinking properties of lectins with multivalent carbohydrates and glycoproteins are relatively well understood, the mechanisms of binding of lectins to multivalent glycoconjugates are less well understood. Recently, the

Tarun K. Dam; C. Fred Brewer

2010-01-01

149

Microencapsulation of lectin anti-cancer agent and controlled release by alginate beads, biosafety approach.  

PubMed

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is considered as one of the most aggressive cancer worldwide. In Egypt, the prevalence of HCC is increasing during last years. Recently, drug-loaded microparticles were used to improve the efficiency of various medical treatments. This study is designed to evaluate the anticancer potentialities of lectins against HCC while hinting to its safety usage. The aim is also extended to encapsulate lectins in alginate microbeads for oral drug delivery purposes. The extracted lectins showed anti-proliferative effect against HCC with a percentage of 60.76% by using its nontoxic dose with an up-regulation of P53 gene expression. Concerning the handling of lectin alginate microbeads for oral drug delivery, the prepared lectin alginate beads were ?100?m in diameter. The efficiency of the microcapsules was checked by scanning electron microscopy, the SEM showed the change on the alginate beads surface revealing the successful lectin encapsulation. The release of lectins from the microbeads depended on a variety of factors as the microbeads forming carriers and the amount-encapsulated lectins. The Pisum sativum extracted lectins may be considered as a promising agent in controlling HCC and this solid dosage form could be suitable for oral administration complemented with/or without the standard HCC drugs. PMID:24857870

El-Aassar, M R; Hafez, Elsayed E; El-Deeb, Nehal M; Fouda, Moustafa M G

2014-08-01

150

Lysyl Hydroxylase 3 Modifies Lysine Residues to Facilitate Oligomerization of Mannan-Binding Lectin  

PubMed Central

Lysyl hydroxylase 3 (LH3) is a multifunctional protein with lysyl hydroxylase, galactosyltransferase and glucosyltransferase activities. The LH3 has been shown to modify the lysine residues both in collagens and also in some collagenous proteins. In this study we show for the first time that LH3 is essential for catalyzing formation of the glucosylgalactosylhydroxylysines of mannan-binding lectin (MBL), the first component of the lectin pathway of complement activation. Furthermore, loss of the terminal glucose units on the derivatized lysine residues in mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking the LH3 protein leads to defective disulphide bonding and oligomerization of rat MBL-A, with a decrease in the proportion of the larger functional MBL oligomers. The oligomerization could be completely restored with the full length LH3 or the amino-terminal fragment of LH3 that possesses the glycosyltransferase activities. Our results confirm that LH3 is the only enzyme capable of glucosylating the galactosylhydroxylysine residues in proteins with a collagenous domain. In mice lacking the lysyl hydroxylase activity of LH3, but with untouched galactosyltransferase and glucosyltransferase activities, reduced circulating MBL-A levels were observed. Oligomerization was normal, however and residual lysyl hydroxylation was compensated in part by other lysyl hydroxylase isoenzymes. Our data suggest that LH3 is commonly involved in biosynthesis of collagenous proteins and the glucosylation of galactosylhydroxylysines residues by LH3 is crucial for the formation of the functional high-molecular weight MBL oligomers. PMID:25419660

Risteli, Maija; Ruotsalainen, Heli; Bergmann, Ulrich; Venkatraman Girija, Umakhanth; Wallis, Russell; Myllylä, Raili

2014-01-01

151

Could plant lectins become promising anti-tumour drugs for causing autophagic cell death?  

PubMed

Plant lectins, a group of highly diverse carbohydrate-binding proteins of non-immune origin, are ubiquitously distributed through a variety of plant species, and have recently drawn rising attention due to their remarkable ability to kill tumour cells using mechanisms implicated in autophagy. In this review, we provide a brief outline of structures of some representative plant lectins such as concanavalin A, Polygonatum cyrtonema lectin and mistletoe lectins. These can target autophagy by modulating BNIP-3, ROS-p38-p53, Ras-Raf and PI3KCI-Akt pathways, as well as Beclin-1, in many types of cancer cells. In addition, we further discuss how plant lectins are able to kill cancer cells by modulating autophagic death, for therapeutic purposes. Together, these findings provide a comprehensive perspective concerning plant lectins as promising new anti-tumour drugs, with respect to autophagic cell death in future cancer therapeutics. PMID:24033443

Liu, Z; Luo, Y; Zhou, T-T; Zhang, W-Z

2013-10-01

152

Symbiotic bacteria direct expression of an intestinal bactericidal lectin.  

PubMed

The mammalian intestine harbors complex societies of beneficial bacteria that are maintained in the lumen with minimal penetration of mucosal surfaces. Microbial colonization of germ-free mice triggers epithelial expression of RegIIIgamma, a secreted C-type lectin. RegIIIgamma binds intestinal bacteria but lacks the complement recruitment domains present in other microbe-binding mammalian C-type lectins. We show that RegIIIgamma and its human counterpart, HIP/PAP, are directly antimicrobial proteins that bind their bacterial targets via interactions with peptidoglycan carbohydrate. We propose that these proteins represent an evolutionarily primitive form of lectin-mediated innate immunity, and that they reveal intestinal strategies for maintaining symbiotic host-microbial relationships. PMID:16931762

Cash, Heather L; Whitham, Cecilia V; Behrendt, Cassie L; Hooper, Lora V

2006-08-25

153

Signalling through C-type lectin receptors: shaping immune responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) expressed by dendritic cells are crucial for tailoring immune responses to pathogens. Following pathogen binding, CLRs trigger distinct signalling pathways that induce the expression of specific cytokines which determine T cell polarization fates. Some CLRs can induce signalling pathways that directly activate nuclear factor-?B, whereas other CLRs affect signalling by Toll-like receptors. Dissecting these signalling pathways

Sonja I. Gringhuis; Teunis B. H. Geijtenbeek

2009-01-01

154

The C-Type Lectin OCILRP2 Costimulates EL4 T Cell Activation via the DAP12-Raf-MAP Kinase Pathway  

PubMed Central

OCILRP2 is a typical Type-II transmembrane protein that is selectively expressed in activated T lymphocytes, dendritic cells, and B cells and functions as a novel co-stimulator of T cell activation. However, the signaling pathways underlying OCILRP2 in T cell activation are still not completely understood. In this study, we found that the knockdown of OCILRP2 expression with shRNA or the blockage of its activity by an anti-OCILRP2 antagonist antibody reduced CD3/CD28-costimulated EL4 T cell viability and IL-2 production, inhibit Raf1, MAPK3, and MAPK8 activation, and impair NFAT and NF-?B transcriptional activities. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation results indicated that OCILRP2 could interact with the DAP12 protein, an adaptor containing an intracellular ITAM motif that can transduce signals to induce MAP kinase activation for T cell activation. Our data reveal that after binding with DAP12, OCILRP2 activates the Raf-MAP kinase pathways, resulting in T cell activation. PMID:25411776

Lou, Qiang; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Guangchao; Ma, Yuanfang

2014-01-01

155

Characterization of the human submandibular/sublingual saliva glycoproteome using lectin affinity chromatography coupled to Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology  

PubMed Central

In-depth analysis of the salivary proteome is fundamental to understanding the functions of salivary proteins in the oral cavity and to reveal disease biomarkers involved in different pathophysiological conditions, with the ultimate goal of improving patient diagnosis and prognosis. Submandibular and sublingual glands contribute saliva rich in glycoproteins to the total saliva output, making them valuable sources for glycoproteomic analysis. Lectin-affinity chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry-based shotgun proteomics was used to explore the submandibular/sublingual (SM/SL) saliva glycoproteome. A total of 262 N- and O-linked glycoproteins were identified by multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT). Only 38 were previously described in SM and SL salivas from the human salivary N-linked glycoproteome, while 224 were unique. Further comparison analysis with SM/SL saliva of the human saliva proteome, revealed 125 glycoproteins not formerly reported in this secretion. KEGG pathway analyses demonstrated that many of these glycoproteins are involved in processes such as complement and coagulation cascades, cell communication, glycosphingolipid biosynthesis neo-lactoseries, O-glycan biosynthesis, glycan structures-biosynthesis 2, starch and sucrose metabolism, peptidoglycan biosynthesis or others pathways. In summary, lectin-affinity chromatography coupled to MudPIT mass spectrometry identified many novel glycoproteins in SM/SL saliva. These new additions to the salivary proteome may prove to be a critical step for providing reliable biomarkers in the diagnosis of a myriad of oral and systemic diseases. PMID:21936497

Gonzalez-Begne, Mireya; Lu, Bingwen; Liao, Lujian; Xu, Tao; Bedi, Gurrinder; Melvin, James E.; Yates, John R.

2011-01-01

156

Complement-activating polysaccharides from medicinal herbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The complement system consists of over 20 serum proteins including nine com-plement components (C1 to C9) and their regulators,\\u000a and is normally present in blood serum in an inactive form. The system is essential for the operation of the innate as well\\u000a as the adaptive immune defence [1]. The complement proteins can be activated through three cascade pathways: by the

Haruki Yamada; Hiroaki Kiyohara

157

Protein engineering to target complement evasion in cancer.  

PubMed

The complement system is composed of soluble factors in plasma that enhance or "complement" immune-mediated killing through innate and adaptive mechanisms. Activation of complement causes recruitment of immune cells; opsonization of coated cells; and direct killing of affected cells through a membrane attack complex (MAC). Tumor cells up-regulate complement inhibitory factors - one of several strategies to evade the immune system. In many cases as the tumor progresses, dramatic increases in complement inhibitory factors are found on these cells. This review focuses on the classic complement pathway and the role of major complement inhibitory factors in cancer immune evasion as well as on how current protein engineering efforts are being employed to increase complement fixing or to reverse complement resistance leading to better therapeutic outcomes in oncology. Strategies discussed include engineering of antibodies to enhance complement fixation, antibodies that neutralize complement inhibitory proteins as well as engineered constructs that specifically target inhibition of the complement system. PMID:24239543

Carter, Darrick; Lieber, André

2014-01-21

158

The novel complement inhibitor human CUB and Sushi multiple domains 1 (CSMD1) protein promotes factor I-mediated degradation of C4b and C3b and inhibits the membrane attack complex assembly.  

PubMed

CUB and Sushi multiple domains 1 (CSMD1) is a transmembrane protein containing 15 consecutive complement control protein (CCP) domains, which are characteristic for complement inhibitors. We expressed a membrane-bound fragment of human CSMD1 composed of the 15 C-terminal CCP domains and demonstrated that it inhibits deposition of C3b by the classical pathway on the surface of Chinese hamster ovary cells by 70% at 6% serum and of C9 (component of membrane attack complex) by 90% at 1.25% serum. Furthermore, this fragment of CSMD1 served as a cofactor to factor I-mediated degradation of C3b. In all functional assays performed, well-characterized complement inhibitors were used as positive controls, whereas Coxsackie adenovirus receptor, a protein with no effect on complement, was a negative control. Moreover, attenuation of expression in human T47 breast cancer cells that express endogenous CSMD1 significantly increased C3b deposition on these cells by 45% at 8% serum compared with that for the controls. Furthermore, by expressing a soluble 17-21 CCP fragment of CSMD1, we found that CSMD1 inhibits complement by promoting factor I-mediated C4b/C3b degradation and inhibition of MAC assembly at the level of C7. Our results revealed a novel complement inhibitor for the classical and lectin pathways. PMID:23964079

Escudero-Esparza, Astrid; Kalchishkova, Nikolina; Kurbasic, Emila; Jiang, Wen G; Blom, Anna M

2013-12-01

159

Meningococcal disease and the complement system  

PubMed Central

Despite considerable advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of meningococcal disease, this infection remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally. The role of the complement system in innate immune defenses against invasive meningococcal disease is well established. Individuals deficient in components of the alternative and terminal complement pathways are highly predisposed to invasive, often recurrent meningococcal infections. Genome-wide analysis studies also point to a central role for complement in disease pathogenesis. Here we review the pathophysiologic events pertinent to the complement system that accompany meningococcal sepsis in humans. Meningococci use several often redundant mechanisms to evade killing by human complement. Capsular polysaccharide and lipooligosaccharide glycan composition play critical roles in complement evasion. Some of the newly described protein vaccine antigens interact with complement components and have sparked considerable research interest. PMID:24104403

Lewis, Lisa A; Ram, Sanjay

2014-01-01

160

Altered renal tubular expression of the complement inhibitor Crry permits complement activation after ischemia/reperfusion  

PubMed Central

Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) of several organs results in complement activation, but the kidney is unique in that activation after I/R occurs only via the alternative pathway. We hypothesized that selective activation of this pathway after renal I/R could occur either because of a loss of complement inhibition or from increased local synthesis of complement factors. We examined the relationship between renal complement activation after I/R and the levels and localization of intrinsic membrane complement inhibitors. We found that loss of polarity of complement receptor 1–related protein y (Crry) in the tubular epithelium preceded activation of the alternative pathway along the basolateral aspect of the tubular cells. Heterozygous gene-targeted mice that expressed lower amounts of Crry were more sensitive to ischemic injury. Furthermore, inhibition of Crry expressed by proximal tubular epithelial cells in vitro resulted in alternative pathway–mediated injury to the cells. Thus, altered expression of a complement inhibitor within the tubular epithelium appears to be a critical factor permitting activation of the alternative pathway of complement after I/R. Increased C3 mRNA and decreased factor H mRNA were also detected in the outer medulla after I/R, suggesting that altered synthesis of these factors might further contribute to complement activation in this location. PMID:16444293

Thurman, Joshua M.; Ljubanovic, Danica; Royer, Pamela A.; Kraus, Damian M.; Molina, Hector; Barry, Nicholas P.; Proctor, Gregory; Levi, Moshe; Holers, V. Michael

2006-01-01

161

Fungal lectins: a growing family.  

PubMed

Fungi are members of a large group of eukaryotic organisms that include yeasts and molds, as well as the most familiar member, mushrooms. Fungal lectins with unique specificity and structures have been discovered. In general, fungal lectins are classified into specific families based on their amino acid sequences and three-dimensional structures. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the approximately 80 types of mushroom and fungal lectins that have been isolated and studied to date. In particular, we have focused on ten fungal lectins (Agaricus bisporus, Agrocybe cylindracea, Aleuria aurantia, Aspergillus oryzae, Clitocybe nebularis, Marasmius oreades, Psathyrella velutina, Rhizopus stolonifer, Pholiota squarrosa, Polyporus squamosus), many of which are commercially available and their properties, sugar-binding specificities, structural grouping into families, and applications for biological research being described. The sialic acid-specific lectins (Agrocybe cylindracea and Polyporus squamosus) and fucose-specific lectins (Aleuria aurantia, Aspergillus oryzae, Rhizopus stolonifer, and Pholiota squarrosa) each showed potential for use in identifying sialic acid glycoconjugates and fucose glycoconjugates. Although not much is currently known about fungal lectins compared to animal and plant lectins, the knowledge accumulated thus far shows great promise for several applications in the fields of taxonomy, biomedicine, and molecular and cellular biology. PMID:25117221

Kobayashi, Yuka; Kawagishi, Hirokazu

2014-01-01

162

Differentiated microdomains on the luminal surface of capillary endothelium: distribution of lectin receptors  

PubMed Central

Lectins conjugated with either peroxidase or ferritin were used to detect specific monosaccharide residues on the luminal front of he fenestrated endothelium in the capillaries of murine pancreas and intestinal mucosa. The lectins tested recognize, if accessible, the following residues: alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminyl (soybean lectin), beta- D-galactosyl (peanut agglutinin [PA] and Ricinus communis agglutinin- 120 [RCA]), beta-N-acetylglucosaminyl and sialyl residues (wheat germ agglutinin [WGA]), alpha-L-fucosyl (lotus tetragonolobus lectin), and alpha-D-glucosyl and beta-D-mannosyl (concanavalin A [ConA]). Thi labeled lectins were introduced by perfusion in situ after thoroughly flushing with phosphate-buffered saline the microvascular beds under investigation. Specimens were fixed by perfusion, and subsequently processed for peroxidase detection and electron microscopy. Control experiments included perfusion with: (a) unlabeled lectin before lectin conjugate; (b) labeled lectin together with the cognate hapten sugar, and (c) horseradish peroxidase or ferritin alone. Binding sites were found to be relatively homogeneously distributed on the plasmalemma proper, except for Lotus tetragonolobus lectin and Con A, which frequently bound in patches. Plasmalemmal vesicles, transendothelial channels, and their associated diaphragms were particularly rich in residues recognized by RCA and PA (beta-D-galactosyl residues) and by WGA (beta-N-acetylglucosaminyl residues). Receptors for all lectins tested appeared to be absent or considerably less concentrated on fenestral diaphragms. The results reported here extend and complement previous findings on the existence of microdomains generated by the preferential distribution of chemically different anionic sites (Simionescu et al., 1981, J. Cell Biol., 9:605-613 and 614-621). PMID:7107706

1982-01-01

163

Analysis of common bean expressed sequence tags identifies sulfur metabolic pathways active in seed and sulfur-rich proteins highly expressed in the absence of phaseolin and major lectins  

PubMed Central

Background A deficiency in phaseolin and phytohemagglutinin is associated with a near doubling of sulfur amino acid content in genetically related lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), particularly cysteine, elevated by 70%, and methionine, elevated by 10%. This mostly takes place at the expense of an abundant non-protein amino acid, S-methyl-cysteine. The deficiency in phaseolin and phytohemagglutinin is mainly compensated by increased levels of the 11S globulin legumin and residual lectins. Legumin, albumin-2, defensin and albumin-1 were previously identified as contributing to the increased sulfur amino acid content in the mutant line, on the basis of similarity to proteins from other legumes. Results Profiling of free amino acid in developing seeds of the BAT93 reference genotype revealed a biphasic accumulation of gamma-glutamyl-S-methyl-cysteine, the main soluble form of S-methyl-cysteine, with a lag phase occurring during storage protein accumulation. A collection of 30,147 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) was generated from four developmental stages, corresponding to distinct phases of gamma-glutamyl-S-methyl-cysteine accumulation, and covering the transitions to reserve accumulation and dessication. Analysis of gene ontology categories indicated the occurrence of multiple sulfur metabolic pathways, including all enzymatic activities responsible for sulfate assimilation, de novo cysteine and methionine biosynthesis. Integration of genomic and proteomic data enabled the identification and isolation of cDNAs coding for legumin, albumin-2, defensin D1 and albumin-1A and -B induced in the absence of phaseolin and phytohemagglutinin. Their deduced amino acid sequences have a higher content of cysteine than methionine, providing an explanation for the preferential increase of cysteine in the mutant line. Conclusion The EST collection provides a foundation to further investigate sulfur metabolism and the differential accumulation of sulfur amino acids in seed of common bean. Identification of sulfur-rich proteins whose levels are elevated in seed lacking phaseolin and phytohemagglutinin and sulfur metabolic genes may assist the improvement of protein quality. PMID:21615926

2011-01-01

164

Molecular cloning of the complement (C1r/C1s/MASP2-like serine proteases from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio).  

PubMed

The classical pathway of complement composed of C1, C4, and C2 is an antibody-dependent activation cascade that is present in jawed vertebrates. C1 is a Ca2+-dependent complex of C1q, C1r, and C1s, and analogous to an initiation complex of the lectin pathway of complement, which consists of the mannose-binding lectin (MBL) homologous to C1q and the MBL-associated serine proteases (MASPs) homologous to C1r and C1s. Thus divergence of Clq and MBL and that of C1r, C1s and the MASPs are considered to be crucial events in the establishment and evolution of the classical complement pathway. However, molecular information on the C1 subcomponents is very limited in lower vertebrates. Here we describe two distinct C1r/C1s/MASP2-like cDNA clones (C1r/s-A, C1r/s-B) isolated from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). They share 83% identity at the amino acid level and have a domain structure similar to that of C1r/C1s/MASPs from other species. The serine protease domain of the carp homologues lacks the histidine loop and is encoded by a single exon containing an AGY codon for the active serine residue, as in mammalian C1r, C1s, and MASP2. Southern blot and PCR analyses indicated that the carp has at least three copies of the C1r/s-A gene and a single C1r/s-B gene. Although phylogenetic tree analysis does not definitively assign carp C1r/s-A and C1r/s-B, they might represent ancestral molecules which later diverged into C1r, C1s, and MASP2 of higher vertebrates. PMID:11220628

Nakao, M; Osaka, K; Kato, Y; Fujiki, K; Yano, T

2001-01-01

165

Effects of MASP-1 of the Complement System on Activation of Coagulation Factors and Plasma Clot Formation  

PubMed Central

Background Numerous interactions between the coagulation and complement systems have been shown. Recently, links between coagulation and mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease-1 (MASP-1) of the complement lectin pathway have been proposed. Our aim was to investigate MASP-1 activation of factor XIII (FXIII), fibrinogen, prothrombin, and thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) in plasma-based systems, and to analyse effects of MASP-1 on plasma clot formation, structure and lysis. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a FXIII incorporation assay and specific assays to measure the activation products prothrombin fragment F1+2, fibrinopeptide A (FPA), and activated TAFI (TAFIa). Clot formation and lysis were assessed by turbidimetric assay. Clot structure was studied by scanning electron microscopy. MASP-1 activated FXIII and, contrary to thrombin, induced FXIII activity faster in the Val34 than the Leu34 variant. MASP-1-dependent generation of F1+2, FPA and TAFIa showed a dose-dependent response in normal citrated plasma (NCP), albeit MASP-1 was much less efficient than FXa or thrombin. MASP-1 activation of prothrombin and TAFI cleavage were confirmed in purified systems. No FPA generation was observed in prothrombin-depleted plasma. MASP-1 induced clot formation in NCP, affected clot structure, and prolonged clot lysis. Conclusions/Significance We show that MASP-1 interacts with plasma clot formation on different levels and influences fibrin structure. Although MASP-1-induced fibrin formation is thrombin-dependent, MASP-1 directly activates prothrombin, FXIII and TAFI. We suggest that MASP-1, in concerted action with other complement and coagulation proteins, may play a role in fibrin clot formation. PMID:22536427

Hess, Katharina; Ajjan, Ramzi; Phoenix, Fladia; Dobo, Jozsef; Gal, Peter; Schroeder, Verena

2012-01-01

166

Differences in complement activation between complement-resistant and complement-sensitive Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis strains occur at the level of membrane attack complex formation.  

PubMed Central

The mechanism of resistance to human complement-mediated killing in Moraxella catarrhalis was studied by comparing different complement-sensitive and complement-resistant M. catarrhalis strains in a functional bystander hemolysis assay and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for soluble terminal complement complexes. Complement-resistant stains appeared to activate complement to the same extent as, or even slightly better than, complement-sensitive strains. This indicates that complement-resistant strains do not inhibit classical or alternative pathway activation but interfere with complement at the level of membrane attack complex formation. A clear difference in dose-response curves for resistant and sensitive strains was observed both in the bystander hemolysis assay and in the ELISA. Complement-resistant strains showed optimum curves, whereas complement-sensitive strains gave almost linear curves. We conclude that resistant strains bind and/or inactivate one of the terminal complement components or intermediates involved in membrane attack complex formation. Trypsin, known to abolish complement resistance, changed the optimum dose-response curve of a resistant strain to a linear one, which strongly suggests that complement resistance is mediated by an M. catarrhalis-associated protein. This protein acts directly or through the binding of a terminal complement inhibitor present in serum. PMID:8300216

Verduin, C M; Jansze, M; Hol, C; Mollnes, T E; Verhoef, J; van Dijk, H

1994-01-01

167

Effects of inhibition of complement activation using recombinant soluble complement receptor 1 on neutrophil CD11b\\/CD18 and l-selectin expression and release of interleukin-8 and elastase in simulated cardiopulmonary bypass  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inflammatory response to cardiopulmonary bypass includes activation of complement and induction of several neutrophil activation pathways. A recombinant soluble form of complement receptor 1 was used as a specific inhibitor of complement activation in simulated cardiopulmonary bypass circuits. Substantial complement activation was observed in these circuits with progressive accumulation of both plasma C3a and terminal complement complex. Soluble complement

Adam Finn; B. Paul Morgan; Naomi Rebuck; Nigel Klein; Catherine A. Rogers; Martin Hibbs; Martin Elliott; Darryll F. Shore; Timothy W. Evans; Stephan Strobel; Neil Moat

1996-01-01

168

Complement and Humoral Immunity  

PubMed Central

The complement system was discovered almost a century ago as an important effector in antibody-dependent killing of microorganisms. Since this early period much was learned about the biochemistry and structure of complement proteins and their function in mediating inflammation. More recently, a prominent role for complement was identified in linkage of innate and adaptive immunity. In this review, I will discuss our current understanding of the importance of complement in enhancing the humoral immune response to both model antigens and pathogens. As discussed below, it is evident that the complement system participates in marking of “foreign” pathogens and “presenting” them to B cells in a manner that enhances both antibody production and long term memory. In this special issue of Vaccine, we see examples of how complement is critical in the immune response to bacterial and viral pathogens. Moreover, the finding that most organisms have co-evolved proteins to evade complement detection underscores its importance in host protection. PMID:19388161

Carroll, Michael C.

2013-01-01

169

P-I Snake Venom Metalloproteinase Is Able to Activate the Complement System by Direct Cleavage of Central Components of the Cascade  

PubMed Central

Background Snake Venom Metalloproteinases (SVMPs) are amongst the key enzymes that contribute to the high toxicity of snake venom. We have recently shown that snake venoms from the Bothrops genus activate the Complement system (C) by promoting direct cleavage of C-components and generating anaphylatoxins, thereby contributing to the pathology and spread of the venom. The aim of the present study was to isolate and characterize the C-activating protease from Bothrops pirajai venom. Results Using two gel-filtration chromatography steps, a metalloproteinase of 23 kDa that activates Complement was isolated from Bothrops pirajai venom. The mass spectrometric identification of this protein, named here as C-SVMP, revealed peptides that matched sequences from the P-I class of SVMPs. C-SVMP activated the alternative, classical and lectin C-pathways by cleaving the ?-chain of C3, C4 and C5, thereby generating anaphylatoxins C3a, C4a and C5a. In vivo, C-SVMP induced consumption of murine complement components, most likely by activation of the pathways and/or by direct cleavage of C3, leading to a reduction of serum lytic activity. Conclusion We show here that a P-I metalloproteinase from Bothrops pirajai snake venom activated the Complement system by direct cleavage of the central C-components, i.e., C3, C4 and C5, thereby generating biologically active fragments, such as anaphylatoxins, and by cleaving the C1-Inhibitor, which may affect Complement activation control. These results suggest that direct complement activation by SVMPs may play a role in the progression of symptoms that follow envenomation. PMID:24205428

Pidde-Queiroz, Giselle; Magnoli, Fabio Carlos; Portaro, Fernanda C. V.; Serrano, Solange M. T.; Lopes, Aline Soriano; Paes Leme, Adriana Franco; van den Berg, Carmen W.; Tambourgi, Denise V.

2013-01-01

170

Complement therapy in atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome (aHUS)  

PubMed Central

Central to the pathogenesis of atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome (aHUS) is over-activation of the alternative pathway of complement. Inherited defects in complement genes and autoantibodies against complement regulatory proteins have been described. The use of plasma exchange to replace non-functioning complement regulators and hyper-functional complement components in addition to the removal of CFH-autoantibodies made this the ‘gold-standard’ for management of aHUS. In the last 4 years the introduction of the complement inhibitor Eculizumab has revolutionised the management of aHUS. In this review we shall discuss the available literature on treatment strategies to date. PMID:23810412

Wong, Edwin K.S.; Goodship, Tim H.J.; Kavanagh, David

2013-01-01

171

Complement-targeted therapeutics  

PubMed Central

The complement system is a central component of innate immunity and bridges the innate to the adaptive immune response. However, it can also turn its destructive capabilities against host cells and is involved in numerous diseases and pathological conditions. Modulation of the complement system has been recognized as a promising strategy in drug discovery, and a large number of therapeutic modalities have been developed. However, successful marketing of complement-targeted drugs has proved to be more difficult than initially expected, and many strategies have been discontinued. The US Food and Drug Administration’s approval of the first complement-specific drug, an antibody against complement component C5 (eculizumab; Soliris), in March 2007, was a long-awaited breakthrough in the field. Approval of eculizumab validates the complement system as therapeutic target and might facilitate clinical development of other promising drug candidates. PMID:17989689

Ricklin, Daniel; Lambris, John D

2010-01-01

172

A novel CRIg-targeted complement inhibitor protects cells from complement damage.  

PubMed

The inappropriate activation of complement may contribute to various immune diseases. The alternative pathway (AP) predominates during complement activation regardless of the initiating pathways. Hence, the main AP regulator factor H (FH) holds great potential as an attractive therapeutic intervention. In addition, complement receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily (CRIg) has been demonstrated to inhibit AP and, more notably, still specifically binds to C3b/iC3b. We thus developed novel CRIg-targeted complement inhibitors by connecting the functional domains of CRIg and FH, which we termed CRIg-FH and CRIg-L-FH. CRIg-L-FH, slightly more potent than CRIg-FH, considerably inhibited both AP- and also classical pathway (CP)-mediated hemolysis and successfully eliminated the deposition of C3b/iC3b. Kinetic analysis further revealed that the binding affinity constant (KD) of CRIg/FH was in the micromolar range, consistent with its long-lasting binding to complement-attacked cells. CRIg-L-FH efficiently protected aberrant erythrocytes of patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) from AP- and CP-mediated complement damage (IC50 was 22.43 and 64.69 nM, respectively). Moreover, CRIg-L-FH was found to inhibit complement activation induced by the anti-Thy1 antibody in a mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) rat model. Hence, CRIg-L-FH protects glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs) from complement-mediated injury and proliferative lesions. These findings strongly suggest that CRIg/FH is a potential therapeutic drug candidate for a range of complement-mediated diseases.-Qiao, Q., Teng, X., Wang, N., Lu, R., Guo, L., Zhang, X., Du, Y., Wang, W., Chen, S., Wu, Q., He, G., Wang, Y., and Hu, W. A novel CRIg-targeted complement inhibitor protects cells from complement damage. PMID:25114177

Qiao, Qian; Teng, Xiaoyan; Wang, Na; Lu, Renquan; Guo, Lin; Zhang, Xin; Du, Yiqun; Wang, Wenjuan; Chen, Suning; Wu, Qian; He, Guangsheng; Wang, Yingwei; Hu, Weiguo

2014-11-01

173

Classical complement pathway component C1q: purification of human C1q, isolation of C1q collagen-like and globular head fragments and production of recombinant C1q-derivatives. Functional characterization.  

PubMed

The classical complement pathway (CCP) activation is a multimolecular complex, composed of three subcomponents namely C1q, C1r, and C1s. C1q is the recognition subunit of this complex and its binding to the specific targets leads to the formation of active C1, which in turn activates the CCP in an immunoglobulin-dependent or -independent manner. C1q is a hexameric glycoprotein composed of 18 polypeptide chains of three different types (A, B, and C), organized in two fragments-collagen-like (CLR) and globular head (gC1q) possessing different functional activity. The contemporary knowledge of the C1q structure allows the isolation and purification of a C1q molecule from serum by combination of different chromatography procedures including ion-exchange, size-exclusion, and affinity chromatography, as well as the isolation of CLR and gC1q by limited enzymatic hydrolysis of the native C1q molecule. In this chapter, we described methods for purification of human C1q and its CLR and gC1q fragments, as well as methods for their biochemical and functional characterization. The production and purification of recombinant C1q derivatives ghA, ghB, and ghC (globular fragments of the individual C1q chains) are also presented. PMID:24218248

Kojouharova, Mihaela

2014-01-01

174

Complement-targeted therapeutics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complement system is a central component of innate immunity and bridges the innate to the adaptive immune response. However, it can also turn its destructive capabilities against host cells and is involved in numerous diseases and pathological conditions. Modulation of the complement system has been recognized as a promising strategy in drug discovery, and a large number of therapeutic

Daniel Ricklin; John D Lambris

2007-01-01

175

The role of complement in experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis  

PubMed Central

Complement plays an important role in the pathophysiology of experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG). The deposition of IgG at the neuromuscular junction, followed by the activation and observance of C3 at the site, and finally the insertion of the membrane attack complex, which results in the destruction of the plasma membrane at the neuromuscular junction. Animal models’ of complement-deficient components show the importance of the mediated lysisin EAMG. These events have regulators that allow for the limitation in the cascade and the ability of the cell to inhibit complement at many places along the pathway. The complement regulatory proteins have many roles in reducing the activation of the complement cascade and the inflammatory pathways. Mice deficient in complement regulatory proteins, decay accelerating factor and CD59, demonstrate a significant increase in the destruction at the neuromuscular junction. Inhibition of complement-mediated lysis is an attractive therapeutic in MG. PMID:23252907

Kusner, Linda L.; Kaminski, Henry J.

2012-01-01

176

Current trends of lectins from microfungi.  

PubMed

Lectins are widespread in nature and have been isolated from plants, animals, microorganisms, and viruses. Although several lectins have been reported from microfungi, many more genera still remain unexplored and their physiological role is also uncertain. Microfungal lectins show wide disparity regarding their specificity to erythrocytes. Only a few lectins display specificity to particular human blood types. In addition, they also show agglutination to various animal erythrocytes. Many lectins from microfungi exhibit stringent specificity to animal glycoproteins, while a few have much more simplified sugar binding properties. The role of few microfungal lectins in host-parasite interactions, as storage proteins, and in growth and morphogenesis has been proposed. The current review focuses on an overview of lectins from microfungi, their specificity towards erythrocytes and carbohydrates, physicochemical characteristics, and their possible role and applications. PMID:20919955

Singh, Ram Sarup; Bhari, Ranjeeta; Kaur, Hemant Preet

2011-09-01

177

In vivo interaction between the tobacco lectin and the core histone proteins.  

PubMed

Nictaba, a lectin accumulating in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaves treated with jasmonate, is considered to act as a signaling protein in the stress physiology of the plant. Immunolocalization studies revealed that Nictaba has a nucleocytoplasmic localization. In previous research, histones were identified as primary interaction partners for Nictaba. Here, the interaction between Nictaba and tobacco histones was scrutinized in vivo. Localization studies, performed in stably transformed Nicotiana benthamiana plants, confirmed the nucleocytoplasmic localization of the lectin and colocalization with the presumed binding partners in the nucleus. Furthermore, bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays confirmed the interaction in vivo. Since BiFC signals were also observed for a Nictaba mutant incapable of binding sugar moieties, this interaction may be mediated by alternative binding sites. The interaction of Nictaba with core histones possibly reflects a role of this stress inducible lectin in gene regulation or chromatin remodeling. PMID:24973587

Delporte, Annelies; De Vos, Winnok H; Van Damme, Els J M

2014-08-15

178

The alternative pathway is required, but not alone sufficient, for retinal pathology in mouse laser-induced choroidal neovascularization.  

PubMed

Human genetic studies have demonstrated that polymorphisms in different complement proteins can increase the risk for developing AMD. There are three pathways of complement activation, classical (CP), alternative (AP), and lectin (LP), which all activate a final common pathway. Proteins encoded by the AMD risk genes participate in the AP (CFB), CP/LP (C2), or in the AP and final common pathway (C3). Here we tested which pathway is essential in mouse laser-induced CNV. CNV was analyzed using single complement pathway knockouts (i.e., eliminating one complement pathway at a time), followed by a double knockout in which only the AP is present, and the CP and LP are disabled, using molecular, histological and electrophysiological outcomes. First, single-gene knockouts were analyzed and compared to wild type mice; C1q(-/-) (no CP), MBL(-/-) (no LP), and CFB(-/-) (no AP). Six days after the laser-induced lesion, mice without a functional AP had reduced CNV progression (P<0.001) and preserved ERG amplitudes, whereas those without a functional CP or LP were indistinguishable from the wild type controls (P>0.3). Second, AP-only mice (C1q(-/-)MBL(-/-)) were as protected from developing CNV as the CFB(-/-) mice. The degree of pathology in each strain correlated with protein levels of the angiogenic and anti-angiogenic protein VEGF and PEDF, respectively, as well as levels of terminal pathway activation product C5a, and C9. The analysis of complement activation pathways in mouse laser-induced CNV allows for the following conclusions. Comparing the single pathway knockouts with those having only a functional AP showed: (1) that AP activation is necessary, but not alone sufficient for injury; and (2) that initial complement activation proceeds via both the LP and CP. Thus, these data indicate an important role for the AP in the generation of complement-dependent injury in the RPE and choroid via amplification of CP- and LP-initiated complement activation. Improving our understanding of the local regulation of this pathway in the eye is essential for developing improved treatment approaches for AMD. PMID:21257205

Rohrer, Bärbel; Coughlin, Beth; Kunchithapautham, Kannan; Long, Qin; Tomlinson, Stephen; Takahashi, Kazue; Holers, V Michael

2011-03-01

179

The C-Type Lectin Domains of Lecticans, a Family of Aggregating Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans, Bind Tenascin-R by Protein-Protein Interactions Independent of Carbohydrate Moiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lecticans are a family of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans including aggrecan, versican, neurocan, and brevican. The C-terminal globular domains of lecticans are structurally related to selectins, consisting of a C-type lectin domain flanked by epidermal growth factor and complement regulatory protein domains. The C-type lectin domain of versican has been shown to bind tenascin-R, an extracellular matrix protein specifically expressed

Anders Aspberg; Ryu Miura; Sandrine Bourdoulous; Motoyuki Shimonaka; Dick Heinegard; Melitta Schachner; Erkki Ruoslahti; Yu Yamaguchi

1997-01-01

180

Lectins as markers for blood grouping.  

PubMed

Lectins are unique proteins of varying biological importance. They are characterized by specific binding to carbohydrate residues, whether monosaccharides, disaccharides or polysaccharides. The sugar heads on the surface of the erythrocyte specify the different blood groups. Lectins, as an antigenic determinant of blood group, have come to be an important tool in the identification of different blood groups. A handful of lectins may be considered excellent reagents for anti-A, anti-B, anti-N etc, but the anti-A and anti-M are not yet regarded as commercially suitable antisera. Lectin from Vicia cracca has been proved to be a good anti-A, lectin from Dolichus biflorus can be used as anti-A1, and lectin from Griffonia simplicifolia as anti-B. Lectin from Vicia graminea is said to be a good typing reagent as Anti-N. On the other hand, the lectins involved in polyagglutination are absolutely essential as the reagent of choice and these cannot as yet be replaced by antibodies of any kind. Erythrocytes with exposed cryptantigens are significantly more sensitive to agglutination by certain lectins than by polyclonal antibodies. Peanut agglutinin (PNA), Polybrene, and Glycine max lectins are frequently used for the identification of different cryptantigens. The application of lectins as an anti-B reagent has proven to be as useful as human polyclonal or mouse monoclonal antibodies. Besides their specificity, lectins are excellent reagents because of their lower cost and indigenous production. The importance of various lectins used as markers for blood grouping is discussed. PMID:12503049

Khan, Fauzia; Khan, Rizwan H; Sherwani, Asma; Mohmood, Sameena; Azfer, Md A

2002-12-01

181

Effects of two serine proteases from Bothrops pirajai snake venom on the complement system and the inflammatory response.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of two serine proteases from Bothrops pirajai snake venom, named BpirSP27 and BpirSP41, on the complement system and the inflammatory response. The effects of these enzymes on the human complement system were assessed by kinetic hemolytic assays, evaluating the hemolysis promoted by the classical/lectin (CP/LP) and alternative (AP) pathways after incubation of normal human serum with the serine proteases. The results suggested that these enzymes were able to induce modulation of CP/LP and AP at different levels: BpirSP41 showed higher inhibitory effects on the hemolytic activity of CP/LP than BpirSP27, with inhibition values close to 40% and 20%, respectively, for the highest concentration assayed. Regarding AP, both enzymes showed percentages of inhibition of the hemolytic activity around 20% for the highest concentrations tested, indicating similar effects on this complement pathway. The proinflammatory effects of B. pirajai serine proteases were evaluated regarding their ability to induce paw edema, variations in the pain threshold and leukocyte recruitment at the site of injection. Both showed mild effects on these inflammatory processes, leading to low levels of increase of paw volumes and decrease in pain thresholds in rats up to 6 h after injection, and inducing neutrophil recruitment without significant increases in the total number of leukocytes in the inflammatory exudates after 6 and 24 h of administration into mice peritoneal cavity. These results suggest that serine proteases must present a minor role in the inflammation caused by B. pirajai snake venom. PMID:23499645

Menaldo, Danilo L; Bernardes, Carolina P; Pereira, Juliana C; Silveira, Denise S C; Mamede, Carla C N; Stanziola, Leonilda; Oliveira, Fábio de; Pereira-Crott, Luciana S; Faccioli, Lúcia H; Sampaio, Suely V

2013-04-01

182

Mannan-binding lectin directly interacts with Toll-like receptor 4 and suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cytokine secretion from THP-1 cells  

PubMed Central

Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) plays a key role in the lectin pathway of complement activation and can influence cytokine expression. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is expressed extensively and has been demonstrated to be involved in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced signaling. We first sought to determine whether MBL exposure could modulate LPS-induced inflammatory cytokine secretion and nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activity by using the monocytoid cell line THP-1. We then investigated the possible mechanisms underlying any observed regulatory effect. Using ELISA and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis, we found that at both the protein and mRNA levels, treatment with MBL suppresses LPS-induced tumor-necrosis factor (TNF)-? and IL-12 production in THP-1 cells. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay and western blot analysis revealed that MBL treatment can inhibit LPS-induced NF-?B DNA binding and translocation in THP-1 cells. While the binding of MBL to THP-1 cells was evident at physiological calcium concentrations, this binding occurred optimally in response to supraphysiological calcium concentrations. This binding can be partly inhibited by treatment with either a soluble form of recombinant TLR4 extracellular domain or anti-TLR4 monoclonal antibody (HTA125). Activation of THP-1 cells by LPS treatment resulted in increased MBL binding. We also observed that MBL could directly bind to the extracellular domain of TLR4 in a dose-dependent manner, and this interaction could attenuate the binding of LPS to cell surfaces. Taken together, these data suggest that MBL may affect cytokine expression through modulation of LPS-/TLR-signaling pathways. These findings suggest that MBL may play an important role in both immune regulation and the signaling pathways involved in cytokine networks. PMID:21383675

Wang, Mingyong; Chen, Yue; Zhang, Yani; Zhang, Liyun; Lu, Xiao; Chen, Zhengliang

2011-01-01

183

Effects of food lectins on the transport system of human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers.  

PubMed

The effects of 16 lectins isolated from foodstuff on the transport system across human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers were investigated by using four fluorescent markers: lucifer yellow (LY) for the paracellular pathway, fluorescein (FL) for the monocarboxylic acid transporter-mediated pathway, rhodamine 123 for the P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux pathway, and calcein for the multidrug resistance associated protein-related efflux pathway. The transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) values for the monolayers were also measured. WGA from wheat germ, ABA from white mushroom, AOL from Aspergillus oryzae, and CSL3 from chum salmon eggs (each at 100 µg/mL) decreased the TER value by 20-40% which resulted in increased LY transport. These lectins, as well as such other lectins as SBA from soybean, RBA from rice bran, and Con A from jack bean, affected other transport pathways too. These results indicate that the lectins modulated the transepithelial transport system in different ways, probably because of their specific binding characteristics toward Caco-2 cell monolayers. PMID:24018688

Yamamoto, Shintaro; Tomiyama, Mai; Nemoto, Ryo; Naganuma, Takako; Ogawa, Tomohisa; Muramoto, Koji

2013-01-01

184

Complementizer Agreement in Najdi Arabic  

E-print Network

about the nature of complementizer agreement. Given the facts that I find for complementizer agreement and A' movements, as well as the interaction between tense and aspect and complementizer agreement, I propose a probe-for-closest-goal analysis...

Lewis, Robert

2013-08-13

185

Lectin cDNA and transgenic plants derived therefrom  

DOEpatents

Transgenic plants containing cDNA encoding Gramineae lectin are described. The plants preferably contain cDNA coding for barley lectin and store the lectin in the leaves. The transgenic plants, particularly the leaves exhibit insecticidal and fungicidal properties.

Raikhel, Natasha V. (Okemos, MI)

2000-10-03

186

Mannose-Binding Lectin (MBL) and MBL-associated serine protease-2 (MASP-2) in women with malignant and benign ovarian tumours.  

PubMed

Mannose-Binding Lectin (MBL) is a serum pattern recognition molecule, able to activate complement in association with MASP proteases. Serum levels of MBL and MASP-2, activities of MBL-MASP complexes, single nucleotide polymorphisms of the MBL2 and MASP2 genes and/or their specific mRNA expression in ovarian sections were investigated in 128 patients suffering from primary ovarian cancer (OC) and compared with 197 controls (C), encompassing both patients with benign ovarian tumours (n = 123) and others with no ovarian pathology (n = 74). MBL deficiency-associated genotypes were more common among OC patients than among controls. The O/O group of genotypes was associated with ovarian cancer (OR 3.5, p = 0.02). In A/A homozygotes, MBL concentrations and activities were elevated in the OC group and correlated with C-reactive protein. Moreover, high MBL serum levels were associated with more advanced disease stage. No differences in distribution of the MASP2 +359 A>G (D120G) SNP or MASP-2 serum levels were found between cancer patients and their controls. However, the highest frequency of the A/G (MASP2) and LXA/O or O/O (MBL2) genotypes was found among OC patients with tumours of G1-2 grade (well/moderately differentiated). Furthermore, MBL deficiency-associated genotypes predicted prolonged survival. None of the parameters investigated correlated with CA125 antigen or patients' age. The local expression of MBL2 and MASP2 genes was higher in women with ovarian cancer compared with controls. It is concluded that the expression of MBL and MASP-2 is altered in ovarian cancer, possibly indicating involvement of the lectin pathway of complement activation in the disease. PMID:25038892

Swierzko, Anna St; Szala, Agnieszka; Sawicki, Sambor; Szemraj, Janusz; Sniadecki, Marcin; Sokolowska, Anna; Kaluzynski, Andrzej; Wydra, Dariusz; Cedzynski, Maciej

2014-11-01

187

Serum Mannose-Binding Lectin Concentration, but Not Genotype, Is Associated With Clostridium difficile Infection Recurrence: A Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background.?Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) plays a key role in the activation of the lectin-complement pathway of innate immunity, and its deficiency has been linked with several acute infections. However, its role in predisposing to, or modulating disease severity in, Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has not been investigated. Methods.?We prospectively recruited 308 CDI case patients and 145 control patients with antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). CDI outcome measures were disease severity, duration of symptoms, 30-day mortality, and 90-day recurrence. Serum concentrations of MBL were determined using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay transferred to an electrochemiluminescence–based platform. MBL2 polymorphisms were typed using a combination of pyrosequencing and TaqMan genotyping assays. Results.?The frequency of the MBL2 genetic variants was similar to that reported in other white populations. MBL serum concentrations in CDI and AAD subjects were determined by MBL2 exonic variants B, C, and D and the haplotypes (LYPB, LYQC, and HYPD). There was no difference in either MBL concentrations or genotypes between cases and controls. MBL concentration, but not genotype, was a determinant of CDI recurrence (odds ratios, 3.18 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.40–7.24] and 2.61 [95% CI, 1.35–5.04] at the <50 ng/mL and <100 ng/mL cutoff points, respectively; P < .001). However, neither MBL concentration nor MBL2 genotype was linked with the other CDI outcomes. Conclusions.?Serum MBL concentration did not differentiate between CDI cases and AAD controls, but among CDI cases, MBL concentration, but not genotype, was associated with CDI recurrence, indicating that MBL acts as a modulator of disease, rather than a predisposing factor. PMID:25170052

Swale, Andrew; Miyajima, Fabio; Kolamunnage-Dona, Ruwanthi; Roberts, Paul; Little, Margaret; Beeching, Nicholas J.; Beadsworth, Mike B. J.; Liloglou, Triantafillos; Pirmohamed, Munir

2014-01-01

188

Extreme High Prevalence of a Defective Mannose-Binding Lectin (MBL2) Genotype in Native South American West Andean Populations.  

PubMed

Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is one of the five recognition molecules in the lectin complement pathway. Common variant alleles in the promoter and structural regions of the human MBL gene (MBL2) influence the stability and serum concentration of the protein. Epidemiological studies have shown that MBL2 variant alleles are associated with susceptibility to and the course of different types of infectious and inflammatory conditions. However, it has been suggested that these alleles are maintained in different populations due to selected advantages for carriers. We investigated the MBL2 allelic variation in indigenous individuals from 12 different West Central South America localities spanning from the desert coast, high altitude Andean plates and the Amazon tropical forest within the territories of Peru (n?=?249) (Departments of Loreto, Ucayali, Lambayeque, Junin, Ayacucho, Huancayo and Puno), and Ecuador (n?=?182) (Region of Esmeraldas and Santo Domingo de los Colorados). The distribution of MBL2 genotypes among the populations showed that the defective variant LYPB haplotype was very common. It showed the highest frequencies in Puno (Taquile (0.80), Amantani (0.80) and Anapia (0.58) islander communities of the Lake Titicaca), but lower frequencies of 0.22 in Junin (Central Andean highland) and Ucayali (Central Amazonian forest), as well as 0.27 and 0.24 in the Congoma and Cayapa/Chachis populations in the Amazonian forest in Ecuador were also observed. Our results suggest that the high prevalence of the MBL2 LYPB variant causing low levels of functional MBL in serum may mainly reflect a random distribution due to a population bottleneck in the founder populations. PMID:25313559

Sandoval, José Raul; Madsen, Hans O; De Stefano, Gianfranco; Descailleaux-Dulanto, Jaime; Velazquez-Reinoso, Margarita; Nique, Cesar; Fujita, Ricardo; Garred, Peter

2014-01-01

189

Extreme High Prevalence of a Defective Mannose-Binding Lectin (MBL2) Genotype in Native South American West Andean Populations  

PubMed Central

Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is one of the five recognition molecules in the lectin complement pathway. Common variant alleles in the promoter and structural regions of the human MBL gene (MBL2) influence the stability and serum concentration of the protein. Epidemiological studies have shown that MBL2 variant alleles are associated with susceptibility to and the course of different types of infectious and inflammatory conditions. However, it has been suggested that these alleles are maintained in different populations due to selected advantages for carriers. We investigated the MBL2 allelic variation in indigenous individuals from 12 different West Central South America localities spanning from the desert coast, high altitude Andean plates and the Amazon tropical forest within the territories of Peru (n?=?249) (Departments of Loreto, Ucayali, Lambayeque, Junin, Ayacucho, Huancayo and Puno), and Ecuador (n?=?182) (Region of Esmeraldas and Santo Domingo de los Colorados). The distribution of MBL2 genotypes among the populations showed that the defective variant LYPB haplotype was very common. It showed the highest frequencies in Puno (Taquile (0.80), Amantani (0.80) and Anapia (0.58) islander communities of the Lake Titicaca), but lower frequencies of 0.22 in Junin (Central Andean highland) and Ucayali (Central Amazonian forest), as well as 0.27 and 0.24 in the Congoma and Cayapa/Chachis populations in the Amazonian forest in Ecuador were also observed. Our results suggest that the high prevalence of the MBL2 LYPB variant causing low levels of functional MBL in serum may mainly reflect a random distribution due to a population bottleneck in the founder populations. PMID:25313559

Sandoval, Jose Raul; Madsen, Hans O.; De Stefano, Gianfranco; Descailleaux-Dulanto, Jaime; Velazquez-Reinoso, Margarita; Nique, Cesar; Fujita, Ricardo; Garred, Peter

2014-01-01

190

SUEL-related lectins, a lectin family widely distributed throughout organisms.  

PubMed

Glycan-binding proteins are categorized into two groups, lectins and sulfated glycosaminoglycan-binding proteins. SUEL-related lectins are members of a superfamily of proteins containing a carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD), which is structurally similar to sea urchin egg lectin (SUEL). Here I review the structure and function of this family of proteins. PMID:20530910

Tateno, Hiroaki

2010-01-01

191

Complement in ANCA-Associated Vasculitis  

PubMed Central

Antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCA) are the likely cause for necrotizing small vessel vasculitis and crescentic glomerulonephritis. Unlike other forms of crescentic glomerulonephritis induced by immune complexes or anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) antibodies that have conspicuous vessel wall immunoglobulin and complement, there is a paucity, although usually not an absence, of vessel wall immunoglobulin and complement in ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis. In spite of this comparatively lower level and more localized distribution of vessel wall complement, experimental and clinical observations strongly incriminate alternative complement pathway activation as critically important in the pathogenesis of ANCA disease. Experimental data in animal models and in vitro experiments demonstrate that primed neutrophils are activated by ANCA, which generates C5a that engages C5a receptors on neutrophils. This attracts and in turn primes more neutrophils for activation by ANCA. In patients with ANCA disease, plasma levels of C3a, C5a, soluble C5b-9 and Bb have been reported to be higher in active disease than in remission, whereas no difference was reported in plasma C4d in active versus remission ANCA disease. Thus, experimental and clinical data support the hypothesis that ANCA-induced neutrophil activation activates the alternative complement pathway and generates C5a. C5a not only recruits additional neutrophils through chemotaxis but also primes neutrophils for activation by ANCA. This creates a self-fueling inflammatory amplification loop that results in the extremely destructive necrotizing vascular injury. PMID:24161040

Jennette, J Charles; Xiao, Hong; Hu, Peiqi

2014-01-01

192

Plant as a plenteous reserve of lectin  

PubMed Central

Lectins are clusters of glycoproteins of nonimmune foundation that combine specifically and reversibly to carbohydrates, mainly the sugar moiety of glycoconjugates, resulting in cell agglutination and precipitation of glycoconjugates. They are universally distributed in nature, being established in plants, fungi, viruses, bacteria, crustacea, insects, and animals, but leguminacae plants are rich source of lectins. The present review reveals the structure, biological properties, and application of plant lectins. PMID:24084524

Hivrale, AU; Ingale, AG

2013-01-01

193

Specific interaction of hepatitis C virus glycoproteins with mannan binding lectin inhibits virus entry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) is a soluble innate immune protein that binds to glycosylated targets. MBL acts as an opsonin\\u000a and activates complement, contributing to the destruction and clearance of infecting microorganisms. Hepatitis C virus (HCV)\\u000a encodes two envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2, expressed as non-covalent E1\\/E2 heterodimers in the viral envelope. E1 and E2\\u000a are potential ligands for MBL. Here

Kristelle S. Brown; Michael J. Keogh; Ania M. Owsianka; Richard Adair; Arvind H. Patel; James N. Arnold; Jonathan K. Ball; Robert B. Sim; Alexander W. Tarr; Timothy P. Hickling

2010-01-01

194

Fungal lectins: structure, function and potential applications.  

PubMed

Lectins are a widespread class of proteins implicated in many essential cellular and molecular recognition processes. They recognize carbohydrates in a non-catalytic, specific and reversible manner. Fungi, which include mushrooms, microfungi and yeasts, have attracted wide interest in recent years. They are indeed a promising source for novel lectins with unique specificity and potential for biomedical and biotechnological applications. Information on fungal lectins, particularly structural insight, is scarce compared to that on their plant and animal counterparts. This review therefore focuses on the structure, function, and exploitable properties of fungal lectins. PMID:23920351

Varrot, Annabelle; Basheer, Soorej M; Imberty, Anne

2013-10-01

195

Lectins and their application to clinical microbiology.  

PubMed Central

Lectins are generally associated with plant or animal components, selectively bind carbohydrates, and interact with procaryotic and eucaryotic cells. Lectins have various specificities that are associated with their ability to interact with acetylaminocarbohydrates, aminocarbohydrates, sialic acids, hexoses, pentoses, and as other carbohydrates. Microbial surfaces generally contain many of the sugar residues that react with lectins. Lectins are presently used in the clinical laboratory to type blood cells and are used in a wide spectrum of applications, including, in part, as carriers of chemotherapeutic agents, as mitogens, for fractionation of animal cells, and for investigations of cellular surfaces. Numerous studies have shown that lectins can be used to identify rapidly certain microorganisms isolated from a clinical specimen or directly in a clinical specimen. Lectins have been demonstrated to be important diagnostic reagents in the major realms of clinical microbiology. Thus, they have been applied in bacteriology, mycology, mycobacteriology, and virology for the identification and/or differentiation of various microorganisms. Lectins have been used successfully as epidemiologic as well as taxonomic markers of specific microorganisms. Lectins provide the clinical microbiologist with cost-effective and potential diagnostic reagents. This review describes the applications of lectins in clinical microbiology. Images PMID:2200603

Slifkin, M; Doyle, R J

1990-01-01

196

Soluble beta-glucan polysaccharide binding to the lectin site of neutrophil or natural killer cell complement receptor type 3 (CD11b/CD18) generates a primed state of the receptor capable of mediating cytotoxicity of iC3b-opsonized target cells.  

PubMed Central

When phagocyte CR3 binds to iC3b on bacteria or yeast, phagocytosis and degranulation are triggered because of simultaneous recognition of iC3b via a CD11b I-domain binding site and specific microbial polysaccharides via a lectin site located COOH-terminal to the I-domain. By contrast, when phagocyte or natural killer (NK) cell CR3 adheres to iC3b on erythrocytes or tumor cells that lack CR3-binding membrane polysaccharides, neither lysis nor cytotoxicity are stimulated. This investigation showed that soluble CR3-specific polysaccharides such as beta-glucan induced a primed state of CR3 that could trigger killing of iC3b-target cells that were otherwise resistant to cytotoxicity. Anti-CR3 added before sugars prevented priming, whereas anti-CR3 added after sugars blocked primed CR3 attachment to iC3b-targets. Polysaccharide priming required tyrosine kinase(s) and a magnesium-dependent conformational change of the I-domain that exposed the CBRM1/5 activation epitope. Unlike LPS or cytokines, polysaccharides did not up-regulate neutrophil CR3 expression nor expose the mAb 24 reporter epitope representing the high affinity ICAM-1-binding state. The current data apparently explain the mechanism of tumoricidal beta-glucans used for immunotherapy. These polysaccharides function through binding to phagocyte or NK cell CR3, priming the receptor for cytotoxicity of neoplastic tissues that are frequently targeted with iC3b and sparing normal tissues that lack iC3b. PMID:8690804

Vetvicka, V; Thornton, B P; Ross, G D

1996-01-01

197

Complement Regulation of T-Cell Alloimmunity  

PubMed Central

Summary Complement proteins are generated both by the liver (systemic compartment) and by peripheral tissue-resident cells and migratory immune cells (local compartment). The immune cell–derived, alternative pathway complement components activate spontaneously, yielding local, but not systemic, production of C3a and C5a. These anaphylatoxins bind to their respective G-protein–coupled receptors, the C3a receptor and the C5a receptor, expressed on T cells and antigen-presenting cells, leading to their reciprocal activation and driving T-cell differentiation, expansion, and survival. Complement deficiency or blockade attenuates T-cell–mediated autoimmunity and delays allograft rejection in mice. Increasing complement activation, achieved by genetic removal of the complement regulatory protein decay accelerating factor, enhances murine T-cell immunity and accelerates allograft rejection. Signaling through the C3a receptor and the C5a receptor reduces suppressive activity of natural regulatory T cells and the generation and stability of induced regulatory T cells. The concepts, initially generated in mice, recently were confirmed in human immune cells, supporting the need for testing of complement targeting therapies in organ transplants patients. PMID:24161041

Cravedi, Paolo; van der Touw, William; Heeger, Peter S.

2013-01-01

198

Animal models for complement deficiencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complement system plays a key role in host defense and in the development of autoimmunity. Three types of animal models of complement-mediated disease have traditionally been used: they involve normal animals, animals with spontaneously arising genetic deficiency, and animals treated with complement-inactivating agents. All of these approaches have had partial success in our attempts to understand complement mechanisms. Most

Michael M. Frank

1995-01-01

199

Lectin Binding Saccharides on a Parasitic Protozoan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leishmania donovani promastigotes were specifically agglutinated by concanavalin A and phytohemagglutinin P. Somatic-somatic, flagellar-somatic, and flagellar-flagellar type agglutination was observed with the lectins. Enzyme-treated promastigotes gave reduced lectin agglutination reactions. The results suggest that complex saccharide moieties are randomly distributed on the surface of this organism.

Dennis M. Dwyer

1974-01-01

200

[Fractionation of lymphocytes using affinity chromatography with 9 lectins].  

PubMed

Lymphocyte subclasses from normal peripheral blood have been fractionated by affinity chromatography with lectins. Concanavalin A (Con A), Lens culinaris lectin (LC), Pisum sativum lectin (PS), Phaseolus vulgaris lectin (PHA), Dolichos biflours lectin (DB), Glicine max lectin (SBA), Ricinus communis lectin (RCA II), Tetragonolobus purpureus lectin (TP) and Triticum vulgaris lectin (WGA), were coupled to Sepharose 6MB, and lymphocytes labelled with 125I were eluted through the chromatographic columns. The binding of lymphocytes to WGA and SBA lectins was 32% and 13% respectively. The binding to the other lectins tested were found to be between 32% and 13%. When solutions of increasing concentrations of specific sugar were added to the columns a progressive elution of bound lymphocytes was observed. These results indicate the existence of a large range of lymphocyte subclasses, with different binding capacity to lectins, which was a function of the receptor number or/and receptor affinity to each lectin. Furthermore, these two parameters were found to vary in each functional population. Even though all the lymphocytes had lectin receptors, T lymphocytes showed higher affinity for Con A, PHA and TP lectins, while B lymphocytes appeared to be more specific for LC, PS, SBA, DB, RCAII and WGA lectins. PMID:6675094

de Dios, I; Manso, M; López-Borrasca, A

1983-12-01

201

Innate immune lectins kill bacteria expressing blood group antigen.  

PubMed

The expression of ABO(H) blood group antigens causes deletion of cells that generate self-specific antibodies to these antigens but this deletion limits adaptive immunity toward pathogens bearing cognate blood group antigens. To explore potential defense mechanisms against such pathogens, given these limitations in adaptive immunity, we screened for innate proteins that could recognize human blood group antigens. Here we report that two innate immune lectins, galectin-4 (Gal-4) and Gal-8, which are expressed in the intestinal tract, recognize and kill human blood group antigen-expressing Escherichia coli while failing to alter the viability of other E. coli strains or other Gram-negative or Gram-positive organisms both in vitro and in vivo. The killing activity of both Gal-4 and Gal-8 is mediated by their C-terminal domains, occurs rapidly and independently of complement and is accompanied by disruption of membrane integrity. These results demonstrate that innate defense lectins can provide immunity against pathogens that express blood group-like antigens on their surface. PMID:20154696

Stowell, Sean R; Arthur, Connie M; Dias-Baruffi, Marcelo; Rodrigues, Lilian C; Gourdine, Jean-Philippe; Heimburg-Molinaro, Jamie; Ju, Tongzhong; Molinaro, Ross J; Rivera-Marrero, Carlos; Xia, Baoyun; Smith, David F; Cummings, Richard D

2010-03-01

202

Lectins in human cancer: both a devil and an angel?  

PubMed

Lectins are a group of proteins which could recognize different sugar structures and specifically initiate reversible binding with them. Lectins are universally expressed in different organisms and undertake important biological roles. Understanding of their inherent roles and mechanisms that they employ has inspired researches with new ideas and applications. For example, along with the revelation of their anti-insect function, plant lectins exhibit great potential in agriculture. In human beings, lectins shoulder great missions in cell communication, differentiation and vesicle trafficking etc., aberrant expression of lectins is always associated with diseases. Mannan-binding lectin deficiency leads to immune disorder and liver sinusoidal endothelial cell lectin is involved in colorectal carcinoma liver metastasis. In this review, we present two contradictory roles of lectins in human cancer: the promotive roles of homologous lectins and suppressive roles of heterologous lectins in cancer development. Hopefully, this review will facilitate a better understanding of tumorigenesis and provide references for cancer treatment. PMID:23968352

Dan, Xiu Li; Ng, Tzi Bun

2013-09-01

203

The X-ray Crystal Structure of Mannose-binding Lectin-associated Serine Proteinase-3 Reveals the Structural Basis for Enzyme Inactivity Associated with the Carnevale, Mingarelli, Malpuech, and Michels (3MC) Syndrome*  

PubMed Central

The mannose-binding lectin associated-protease-3 (MASP-3) is a member of the lectin pathway of the complement system, a key component of human innate and active immunity. Mutations in MASP-3 have recently been found to be associated with Carnevale, Mingarelli, Malpuech, and Michels (3MC) syndrome, a severe developmental disorder manifested by cleft palate, intellectual disability, and skeletal abnormalities. However, the molecular basis for MASP-3 function remains to be understood. Here we characterize the substrate specificity of MASP-3 by screening against a combinatorial peptide substrate library. Through this approach, we successfully identified a peptide substrate that was 20-fold more efficiently cleaved than any other identified to date. Furthermore, we demonstrated that mutant forms of the enzyme associated with 3MC syndrome were completely inactive against this substrate. To address the structural basis for this defect, we determined the 2.6-? structure of the zymogen form of the G666E mutant of MASP-3. These data reveal that the mutation disrupts the active site and perturbs the position of the catalytic serine residue. Together, these insights into the function of MASP-3 reveal how a mutation in this enzyme causes it to be inactive and thus contribute to the 3MC syndrome. PMID:23792966

Yongqing, Tang; Wilmann, Pascal G.; Reeve, Shane B.; Coetzer, Theresa H.; Smith, A. Ian; Whisstock, James C.; Pike, Robert N.; Wijeyewickrema, Lakshmi C.

2013-01-01

204

Binding of Streptococcus pneumoniae endopeptidase O (PepO) to complement component C1q modulates the complement attack and promotes host cell adherence.  

PubMed

The Gram-positive species Streptococcus pneumoniae is a human pathogen causing severe local and life-threatening invasive diseases associated with high mortality rates and death. We demonstrated recently that pneumococcal endopeptidase O (PepO) is a ubiquitously expressed, multifunctional plasminogen and fibronectin-binding protein facilitating host cell invasion and evasion of innate immunity. In this study, we found that PepO interacts directly with the complement C1q protein, thereby attenuating the classical complement pathway and facilitating pneumococcal complement escape. PepO binds both free C1q and C1 complex in a dose-dependent manner based on ionic interactions. Our results indicate that recombinant PepO specifically inhibits the classical pathway of complement activation in both hemolytic and complement deposition assays. This inhibition is due to direct interaction of PepO with C1q, leading to a strong activation of the classical complement pathway, and results in consumption of complement components. In addition, PepO binds the classical complement pathway inhibitor C4BP, thereby regulating downstream complement activation. Importantly, pneumococcal surface-exposed PepO-C1q interaction mediates bacterial adherence to host epithelial cells. Taken together, PepO facilitates C1q-mediated bacterial adherence, whereas its localized release consumes complement as a result of its activation following binding of C1q, thus representing an additional mechanism of human complement escape by this versatile pathogen. PMID:24739385

Agarwal, Vaibhav; Sroka, Magdalena; Fulde, Marcus; Bergmann, Simone; Riesbeck, Kristian; Blom, Anna M

2014-05-30

205

"Complementing" Toll Signaling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Studies of signal transduction are often focused on dissecting the cellular response to a single stimulus that activates a single receptor. These types of studies laid the foundation for our current understanding of signaling, as well as the generation of countless arrow-containing models in today’s textbooks. Implicit in most models is the suggestion that the arrows emanating from an activated receptor represent the core signaling pathways that are always activated by a given receptor, thus leading to a core cellular response. In nature, however, it is likely that no signaling pathway is activated in isolation. Rather, cells often respond to multiple stimuli simultaneously, and the cellular response may be the result of several signaling pathways. A new study attempts to model such conditions in vitro and reveals that when macrophages encounter bacteria, two signal transduction pathways interact in a way that profoundly alters the cellular response to infection.

Jonathan C. Kagan (Children's Hospital Boston;Division of Gastroenterology and Harvard Medical School REV)

2010-05-04

206

Complement inhibition: a promising concept for cancer treatment  

PubMed Central

For decades, complement has been recognized as an effector arm of the immune system that contributes to the destruction of tumor cells. In fact, many therapeutic strategies have been proposed that are based on the intensification of complement-mediated responses against tumors. However, recent studies have challenged this paradigm by demonstrating a tumor-promoting role for complement. Cancer cells seem to be able to establish a convenient balance between complement activation and inhibition, taking advantage of complement initiation without suffering its deleterious effects. Complement activation may support chronic inflammation, promote an immunosuppressive microenvironment, induce angiogenesis, and activate cancer-related signaling pathways. In this context, inhibition of complement activation would be a therapeutic option for treating cancer. This concept is relatively novel and deserves closer attention. In this paper, we will summarize the mechanisms of complement activation on cancer cells, the cancer-promoting effect of complement initiation, and the rationale behind the use of complement inhibition as a therapeutic strategy against cancer. PMID:23706991

Pio, Ruben; Ajona, Daniel; Lambris, John D.

2013-01-01

207

Lectins in Castor Bean Seedlings 1  

PubMed Central

The amounts of the two lectins (ricin and Ricinus communis agglutinin) in tissues of castor bean seedlings were followed during germination and early growth. For measurement, lectins in extracts were separately eluted from Sepharose columns; an antibody to the agglutinin was also used to detect the lectins by immunodiffusion. The endosperm of the dry seed contains 3.5 mg total lectin (5.6% of the total seed protein), which declines by 50% by day 4 and more rapidly thereafter as the tissue is completely consumed. The cotyledons of the dry seed also contain lectins but the amounts are less than 1% of those in the endosperm, and, as in the endosperm, they are constituents of the albumin fraction of the isolated protein bodies. No lectins were detected in the green cotyledons of 10-day seedlings that had been exposed to light from day 5. The embryonic axes of 2-day seedlings contained very small amounts of lectins but they were not detectable in the aerial parts of seedlings grown for 3 weeks or in cells from endosperm grown in tissue culture. The ability of proteinases and glycosidases (isolated from endosperm of 4-day seedlings) to hydrolyze the lectins was examined. No hydrolysis of the two lectins was observed, but the subunits, separated by reduction with 2-mercaptoethanol, were hydrolyzed slowly by a proteinase and some release of mannose was observed in the presence of the glycosidases. Ricin was converted to its subunits by cysteine and an enzyme in an endosperm extract accelerated chain separation by glutathione. Images Fig. 3 PMID:16664561

Harley, Suzanne M.; Beevers, Harry

1986-01-01

208

Endogenous lectins as cell surface transducers.  

PubMed

Interactions between cells or between cell and substratum involve specific receptors and their ligands. Among the various cell surface receptors identified during the last decades, the carbohydrate-binding proteins, e.g., lectins are of peculiar interest because glycolipids, glycoproteins and proteoglycans have been shown to interact with lectins on the surface of animal cells. Animal lectins are recognized as molecules playing important roles in a variety of biological processes through binding to glycoconjugates and lectin-like receptors such as selectins, sialoadhesins (CD22, CD33), natural killer receptors (NKR-P1, CD69 and CD94/NKG2), hyaluronate receptors (CD44, RHAMM, ICAM-1), B-cell associated antigen (CD23, CD72), beta2 leukocyte integrin (CD11b/CD18) or the well-known receptors for mannose, mannose-6-phosphate or asialoglycoprotein have been suggested to be able to mediate the transfer of information from the outside to the inside of the cell. This review focuses on the most recent advances in our understanding of the molecular basis of "outside-in" signaling mediated by lectins. Lectin-like receptors are involved in signal transduction in a great variety of ways; at the molecular level, they mimic in most of the cases the function of growth factor receptor either coupled to tyrosine kinase activity or to heterotrimeric G protein. They lead to a multiplicity of cellular events following their activation depending on factors such as cellular type, species and/or tissue. Nevertheless the potential of surface lectins as transducers is emphasized by the observation that in a few cases lectin-like receptors induce either novel signal transduction mechanism or new intracellular events with regards to what it has been observed as a consequence of growth factor receptor activation. This observation brings the idea that lectins may offer, as cell surface transducers, an alternative or additional signaling potential to cell. PMID:11092246

Hébert, E

2000-08-01

209

Complement evasion by Staphylococcus aureus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complement system is the first line of defense against invading microorganisms. Activation of the complement system results in the coverage of bacteria with C3b, resulting in phagocytosis, and formation of C5a which is important for chemotaxis of neutrophils towards the site of infection. Staphylococcus aureus secretes a large number of immune modulating proteins that inhibit the complement system. In

I. Jongerius

2010-01-01

210

Complement activation promotes muscle inflammation during modified muscle use  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modified muscle use can result in muscle inflammation that is triggered by unidentified events. In the present investigation, we tested whether the activation of the complement system is a component of muscle inflammation that results from changes in muscle loading. Modified rat hindlimb muscle loading was achieved by removing weight-bearing from the hindlimbs for 10 days followed by reloading through normal ambulation. Experimental animals were injected with the recombinant, soluble complement receptor sCR1 to inhibit complement activation. Assays for complement C4 or factor B in sera showed that sCR1 produced large reductions in the capacity for activation of the complement system through both the classical and alternative pathways. Analysis of complement C4 concentration in serum in untreated animals showed that the classical pathway was activated during the first 2 hours of reloading. Analysis of factor B concentration in untreated animals showed activation of the alternative pathway at 6 hours of reloading. Administration of sCR1 significantly attenuated the invasion of neutrophils (-49%) and ED1(+) macrophages (-52%) that occurred in nontreated animals after 6 hours of reloading. The presence of sCR1 also reduced significantly the degree of edema by 22% as compared to untreated animals. Together, these data show that increased muscle loading activated the complement system which then briefly contributes to the early recruitment of inflammatory cells during modified muscle loading.

Frenette, J.; Cai, B.; Tidball, J. G.

2000-01-01

211

Mannose-binding dietary lectins induce adipogenic differentiation of the marrow-derived mesenchymal cells via an active insulin-like signaling mechanism.  

PubMed

We have recently demonstrated that the mannose-binding lectins, namely banana lectin (BL) and garlic lectin (GL), interacted with the insulin receptors on M210B4 cells--an established mesenchymal cell line of murine marrow origin--and initiate mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)-dependent extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling in them. In this study, we show that this lectin-mediated active ERK signaling culminates into an adipogenic differentiation of these cells. Gene expression studies indicate that the effect takes place at the transcriptional level. Experiments carried out with pharmacological inhibitors show that MEK-dependent ERK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent AKT pathways are positive regulators of the lectin- and insulin-mediated adipogenic differentiation, while stress-activated kinase/c-jun N-terminal kinase pathway acts as a negative one. Since both lectins could efficiently substitute for insulin in the standard adipogenic induction medium, they may perhaps serve as molecular tools to study the mechanistic aspects of the adipogenic process that are independent of cell proliferation. Our study clearly demonstrates the ability of BL and GL to activate insulin-like signaling in the mesenchymal cells in vitro leading to their adipocytic differentiation. The dietary origin of these lectins underscores an urgent need to examine their in vivo effects on tissue homeostasis. PMID:21106560

Bajaj, Manmohan; Hinge, Ashwini; Limaye, Lalita S; Gupta, Rajesh Kumar; Surolia, Avadhesha; Kale, Vaijayanti P

2011-04-01

212

How antibodies use complement to regulate antibody responses.  

PubMed

Antibodies, forming immune complexes with their specific antigen, can cause complete suppression or several 100-fold enhancement of the antibody response. Immune complexes containing IgG and IgM may activate complement and in such situations also complement components will be part of the immune complex. Here, we review experimental data on how antibodies via the complement system upregulate specific antibody responses. Current data suggest that murine IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b upregulate antibody responses primarily via Fc-receptors and not via complement. In contrast, IgM and IgG3 act via complement and require the presence of complement receptors 1 and 2 (CR1/2) expressed on both B cells and follicular dendritic cells. Complement plays a crucial role for antibody responses not only to antigen complexed to antibodies, but also to antigen administered alone. Lack of C1q, but not of Factor B or MBL, severely impairs antibody responses suggesting involvement of the classical pathway. In spite of this, normal antibody responses are found in mice lacking several activators of the classical pathway (complement activating natural IgM, serum amyloid P component (SAP), specific intracellular adhesion molecule-grabbing non-integrin R1 (SIGN-R1) or C-reactive protein. Possible explanations to these observations will be discussed. PMID:25001046

Sörman, Anna; Zhang, Lu; Ding, Zhoujie; Heyman, Birgitta

2014-10-01

213

The homologue of mannose-binding lectin in the carp family Cyprinidae is expressed at high level in spleen, and the deduced primary structure predicts affinity for galactose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) participates in the innate immune system as an activator of the complement system and as an opsonin after binding to certain carbohydrate structures on microorganisms. We isolated and characterized cDNA transcripts encoding an MBL homologue from three members of the carp family Cyprinidae, the zebrafish Danio rerio, the goldfish Carassius auratus, and the carp Cyprinus carpio. The

Lars Vitved; Uffe Holmskov; Claus Koch; Børge Teisner; Søren Hansen; Karsten Skjødt

2000-01-01

214

Biofilm Formation Avoids Complement Immunity and Phagocytosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus pneumoniae is a frequent member of the microbiota of the human nasopharynx. Colonization of the nasopharyngeal tract is a first and necessary step in the infectious process and often involves the formation of sessile microbial communities by this human pathogen. The ability to grow and persist as biofilms is an advantage for many microorganisms, because biofilm-grown bacteria show reduced susceptibility to antimicrobial agents and hinder recognition by the immune system. The extent of host protection against biofilm-related pneumococcal disease has not been determined yet. Using pneumococcal strains growing as planktonic cultures or as biofilms, we have investigated the recognition of S. pneumoniae by the complement system and its interactions with human neutrophils. Deposition of C3b, the key complement component, was impaired on S. pneumoniae biofilms. In addition, binding of C-reactive protein and the complement component C1q to the pneumococcal surface was reduced in biofilm bacteria, demonstrating that pneumococcal biofilms avoid the activation of the classical complement pathway. In addition, recruitment of factor H, the downregulator of the alternative pathway, was enhanced by S. pneumoniae growing as biofilms. Our results also show that biofilm formation diverts the alternative complement pathway activation by a PspC-mediated mechanism. Furthermore, phagocytosis of pneumococcal biofilms was also impaired. The present study confirms that biofilm formation in S. pneumoniae is an efficient means of evading both the classical and the PspC-dependent alternative complement pathways the host immune system. PMID:23649097

Domenech, Mirian; Ramos-Sevillano, Elisa; Garcia, Ernesto

2013-01-01

215

BRIEF REPORT High-Dose Mannose-Binding Lectin Therapy for Ebola Virus Infection  

E-print Network

Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) targets diverse microorganisms for phagocytosis and complement-mediated lysis by binding specific surface glycans. Although recombinant human MBL (rhMBL) trials have focused on reconstitution therapy, safety studies have identified no barriers to its use at higher levels. Ebola viruses cause fatal hemorrhagic fevers for which no treatment exists and that are feared as potential biothreat agents. We found that mice whose rhMBL serum concentrations were increased>7fold above average human levels survived otherwise fatal Ebola virus infections and became immune to virus rechallenge. Because Ebola glycoproteins potentially model other glycosylated viruses, rhMBL may offer a novel broadspectrum antiviral approach. Circulating mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a first-line host

Ian C. Michelow; Calli Lear; Corinne Scully; Laura I. Prugar; B. Longley; L. Michael Yantosca; Xin Ji; Marshall Karpel; Matthew Brudner; Kazue Takahashi; Gregory T. Spear; R. Alan; B. Ezekowitz; Emmett V. Schmidt; Department Of Pediatrics

2010-01-01

216

Lectin histochemistry in the aged dog brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded canine brains were examined histochemically using 15 selected lectins. Concanavalin\\u000a A (Con A), Lens culinaris agglutinin, Lycopersicon esculentum agglutinin (LEL) and Limulus polyphemus agglutinin (LPA) labeled neurons in an age-dependent manner. These and some other lectins [Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), Vicia villosa agglutinin (VVA), Ricinus communis agglutinin 120 (RCA-I), Bandeiraea simplicifolia agglutinin (BSL-I), and Phaseolus vulagaris agglutinin-L

Wijit Kiatipattanasakul; Hiroyuki Nakayama; Shin-ichiro Nakamura; Kunio Doi

1998-01-01

217

Polymorphism of lectin genes in Lathyrus plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The carbohydrate-binding sequences of the lectin genes from spring vetchling Lathyrus vernus (L.) Bernh., marsh vetchling L. palustris (L.), and Gmelin’s vetchling L. gmelinii (Fitsch) (Fabaceae) were determined. Computer-aided analysis revealed substantial differences between nucleotide and predicted\\u000a amino acid sequences of the lectin gene regions examined in each of the three vetchling species tested. In the phylogenetic\\u000a trees based on

O. V. Chubukova; Al. Kh. Baymiev; An. Kh. Baymiev

2011-01-01

218

Lectin histochemistry in the aged dog brain.  

PubMed

Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded canine brains were examined histochemically using 15 selected lectins. Concanavalin A (Con A), Lens culinaris agglutinin, Lycopersicon esculentum agglutinin (LEL) and Limulus polyphemus agglutinin (LPA) labeled neurons in an age-dependent manner. These and some other lectins [Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), Vicia villosa agglutinin (VVA), Ricinus communis agglutinin 120 (RCA-I), Bandeiraea simplicifolia agglutinin (BSL-I), and Phaseolus vulagaris agglutinin-L (PHA-L)] also age-dependently labeled glial cells. These results indicate that monosaccharide composition and biochemical metabolism in brain cells change with age and that these lectins may be useful as histochemical markers for investigating senile changes in the canine brain. However, no significant correlation was found between ApopTag-positive and lectin-positive cells. Amyloid plaques were positive for Con A, DBA, Glycine maximus agglutinin (SBA), LEL, PHA-L, Limax flavus agglutinin (LFA) and VVA. Among these lectins, VVA, SBA and LFA intensely stained amyloid both in blood vessel walls and senile plaque cores. Therefore, the sugar residues recognized by these lectins likely play specific roles in beta-amyloid deposition in the aged dog brain. PMID:9542591

Kiatipattanasakul, W; Nakayama, H; Nakamura, S; Doi, K

1998-03-01

219

Mannose-binding lectin deficiency alters the development of fungal asthma: effects on airway response, inflammation, and cytokine profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus fumigatus is a major fungal pathogen that may be fatal to immunocompromised individuals and causes airway hyperreactivity and re- modeling in sensitized individuals. Herein, we exam- ined the role of mannose-binding lectin (MBL), a complement-activating plasma protein, during pul- monary innate and allergic immune responses di- rected against A. fumigatus spores or conidia. Nei- ther group of nonsensitized MBL-A-sufficient

Cory M. Hogaboam; Kazue Takahashi; R. Alan; B. Ezekowitz; Steven L. Kunkel; Jane M. Schuh

2003-01-01

220

Bullous Pemphigoid Autoantibodies Directly Induce Blister Formation without Complement Activation.  

PubMed

Complement activation and subsequent recruitment of inflammatory cells at the dermal/epidermal junction are thought to be essential for blister formation in bullous pemphigoid (BP), an autoimmune blistering disease induced by autoantibodies against type XVII collagen (COL17); however, this theory does not fully explain the pathological features of BP. Recently, the involvement of complement-independent pathways has been proposed. To directly address the question of the necessity of the complement activation in blister formation, we generated C3-deficient COL17-humanized mice. First, we show that passive transfer of autoantibodies from BP patients induced blister formation in neonatal C3-deficient COL17-humanized mice without complement activation. By using newly generated human and murine mAbs against the pathogenic noncollagenous 16A domain of COL17 with high (human IgG1, murine IgG2), low (murine IgG1), or no (human IgG4) complement activation abilities, we demonstrate that the deposition of Abs, and not complements, is relevant to the induction of blister formation in neonatal and adult mice. Notably, passive transfer of BP autoantibodies reduced the amount of COL17 in lesional mice skin, as observed in cultured normal human keratinocytes treated with the same Abs. Moreover, the COL17 depletion was associated with a ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. In conclusion, the COL17 depletion induced by BP autoantibodies, and not complement activation, is essential for the blister formation under our experimental system. PMID:25261486

Ujiie, Hideyuki; Sasaoka, Tetsumasa; Izumi, Kentaro; Nishie, Wataru; Shinkuma, Satoru; Natsuga, Ken; Nakamura, Hideki; Shibaki, Akihiko; Shimizu, Hiroshi

2014-11-01

221

The structure of C2b, a fragment of complement component C2 produced during C3 convertase formation  

PubMed Central

The second component of complement (C2) is a multi-domain serine protease that provides catalytic activity for the C3 and C5 convertases of the classical and lectin pathways of human complement. The formation of these convertases requires the Mg2+-dependent binding of C2 to C4b and the subsequent cleavage of C2 by C1s or MASP2, respectively. The crystal structure of full-length C2 is not yet available, although the structure of its C-terminal catalytic segment C2a has been determined. The crystal structure of the N-terminal segment C2b of C2 determined to 1.8?Å resolution presented here reveals the arrangement of its three CCP domains. The domains are arranged differently compared with most other CCP-domain assemblies, but their arrangement is similar to that found in the Ba part of the full-length factor B structure. The crystal structures of C2a, C2b and full-length factor B are used to generate a model for C2 and a discussion of the domain association and possible interactions with C4b during formation of the C4b–C2 complex is presented. The results of this study also suggest that upon cleavage by C1s, C2a domains undergo conformational rotation while bound to C4b and the released C2b domains may remain folded together similar to as observed in the intact protein. PMID:19237749

Krishnan, Vengadesan; Xu, Yuanyuan; Macon, Kevin; Volanakis, John E.; Narayana, Sthanam V. L.

2009-01-01

222

Electrostatic modeling predicts the activities of orthopoxvirus complement control proteins.  

PubMed

Regulation of complement activation by pathogens and the host are critical for survival. Using two highly related orthopoxvirus proteins, the vaccinia and variola (smallpox) virus complement control proteins, which differ by only 11 aa, but differ 1000-fold in their ability to regulate complement activation, we investigated the role of electrostatic potential in predicting functional activity. Electrostatic modeling of the two proteins predicted that altering the vaccinia virus protein to contain the amino acids present in the second short consensus repeat domain of the smallpox protein would result in a vaccinia virus protein with increased complement regulatory activity. Mutagenesis of the vaccinia virus protein confirmed that changing the electrostatic potential of specific regions of the molecule influences its activity and identifies critical residues that result in enhanced function as measured by binding to C3b, inhibition of the alternative pathway of complement activation, and cofactor activity. In addition, we also demonstrate that despite the enhanced activity of the variola virus protein, its cofactor activity in the factor I-mediated degradation of C3b does not result in the cleavage of the alpha' chain of C3b between residues 954-955. Our data have important implications in our understanding of how regulators of complement activation interact with complement, the regulation of the innate immune system, and the rational design of potent complement inhibitors that might be used as therapeutic agents. PMID:15699145

Sfyroera, Georgia; Katragadda, Madan; Morikis, Dimitrios; Isaacs, Stuart N; Lambris, John D

2005-02-15

223

Phenotypic Genetics of Complement Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both charge and size-dependent electrophoretic techniques have been used to investigate genetic polymorphisms of complement proteins. Of the seventeen complement proteins, ten have been shown to have genetic variants and only one (C9) has been extensively investigated without revealing variants. These investigations give information on the numbers of cistrons and their linkage relations. They demonstrate or confirm the linkage of

M. J. Hobart

1984-01-01

224

A lectin from mycelia of the fungus Ganoderma lucidum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lectin (GLL-M) was isolated from mycelia of Ganoderma lucidum using affinity chromatography on BSM-Toyopearl. GLL-M is a monomer in its native form with a Mr of 18 000. Another lectin was also purified from fruiting bodies of the same fungus. The two lectins were partially compared with each other.

Hirokazu Kawagishi; Shin-Ichiro Mitsunaga; Masamichi Yamawaki; Mitoko Ido; Atsushi Shimada; Tetsuya Kinoshita; Takeomi Murata; Taichi Usui; Atsuo Kimura; Seiya Chiba

1997-01-01

225

Anesthetic management of living donor liver transplantation for complement factor H deficiency hemolytic uremic syndrome: a case report  

PubMed Central

We experienced a living donor liver transplantation for a 26-month-old girl with complement factor H deficiency. Complement factor H is a plasma protein that regulates the activity of the complement pathway. Complement overactivity induced by complement factor H deficiency is associated with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Liver transplantation can be the proper treatment for this condition. During the liver transplantation of these patients, prevention of the complement overactivation is necessary. Minimizing complement activation, through the use of modalities such as plasma exchange before the surgery and transfusion of fresh frozen plasma throughout the entire perioperative period, may be the key for successful liver transplantation in these patients. PMID:25006375

Park, Suk-Hee

2014-01-01

226

Lectins in drug delivery: a study of the acute local irritancy of the lectins from Solanum tuberosum and Helix pomatia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lectins are proteins or glycoproteins of non-immune origin capable of binding to one or more specific sugar residues. The potential for using lectins as a means of ‘anchoring’ a drug delivery system to the mucosal surfaces of the eye has been investigated in previous work, with the lectins from Solanum tuberosum and Helix pomatia showing particular promise. In this study

John D. Smart; Tanya J. Nicholls; Keith L. Green; David J. Rogers; John D. Cook

1999-01-01

227

Comprehensive lectin histochemistry of normal and neoplastic human choroid plexus cells: alternation of lectin-binding patterns through neoplastic transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lectin histochemistry of the normal and neoplastic human choroid plexus cells [six choroid plexus papillomas (CPPs) and three choroid plexus carcinomas (CPCs)] was performed using eight representative lectins to study the development of sugar chain structures and also to determine whether lectins were useful for a histopathological diagnosis of choroid plexus neoplasms (CPNs). The normal choroid plexus cells reacted with

Y. Kaneko; T. Iwaki; T. Matsushima; M. Fukui

1991-01-01

228

Complement and blood-brain barrier integrity.  

PubMed

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is structurally unique and regulates what is transported into and out of the brain, thereby maintaining brain homeostasis. In inflammatory settings the BBB becomes leaky, regulation of transport is lost and neuronal function goes awry. It is caused by a number of mediators such as complement activation products, processes and networks going haywire, the exact cellular and molecular mechanisms of which remain an enigma. Complement activation byproduct, C5a signaling through its G-protein coupled receptor C5aR1/CD88 increased BBB permeability in neuroinflammatory disease settings in vivo. Studies in brain endothelial cells in vitro demonstrated that the C5a/C5aR1 signaling occurred through the NF-?B pathway and altered miRNA in these cells. Inhibition or deletion of C5aR1 was protective in brain, both in vivo and in vitro revealing their potential as possible effective therapeutic targets. Although, this is a field where progress has been made, yet a lot remains to be done due to a number of limitations. This review will deal with the advances in the experimental models, technology and the underlying mechanisms causing the BBB pathology, with an emphasis on the complement proteins and their downstream mechanisms. PMID:25041699

Jacob, Alexander; Alexander, Jessy John

2014-10-01

229

Diversity of lectins in Macrobrachium rosenbergii and their expression patterns under spiroplasma MR-1008 stimulation.  

PubMed

Lectins play important roles in crustacean innate immunity through recognition of foreign pathogens. In this study, 20 lectins including C-type lectins [dual-carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) type and single-CRD type], L-type lectin, and lectin with low-density lipoprotein class A (LDLa) domain were identified from the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The tissue distribution and expression patterns of these lectins under spiroplasma strain MR-1008 challenge were investigated. Most of the lectins were found to be mainly distributed in the hepatopancreas. Lectin5, Lectin14, Lectin17, and Lectin18 exhibited the highest expression level in the hemocytes, nerve, intestine, and heart, respectively. MrLec1 to MrLec6 (dual-CRD lectins) in the hepatopancreas were up-regulated by spiroplasma challenge. Single-CRD lectins reached the highest level at 72 h after spiroplasma challenge. Lectin9 and Lectin15 both belong to L-type lectins. At post-spiroplasma challenge, Lectin9 expression was up-regulated, whereas Lectin15 expression was down-regulated. Lectin11 with LDLa domain showed the highest level after 12 h Lectin18 and Lectin20, namely, CD209, were also up-regulated by spiroplasma challenge. Lectin14, a C-type lectin, quickly reached the highest level after 2 h Lectin16 showed the highest level after 72 h Lectin5 reached the highest level in cultured hemocytes after 6 h Lectin17 in the intestine and Lectin14 in the nerve were slightly up-regulated after 6 and 2 h, respectively. Our research results indicate that lectins may play important roles in early or late immune responses against spiroplasma challenge. PMID:23664913

Zhu, Huanxi; Du, Jie; Hui, Kai-Min; Liu, Peng; Chen, Jing; Xiu, Yunji; Yao, Wei; Wu, Ting; Meng, Qingguo; Gu, Wei; Ren, Qian; Wang, Wen

2013-08-01

230

COMMUNICATION Reconstruction of Functional -Propeller Lectins via  

E-print Network

COMMUNICATION Reconstruction of Functional -Propeller Lectins via Homo-oligomeric Assembly 236 amino acid, five-bladed -propeller with five sugar- binding sites. This protein was isolated from of the -propeller fold, while substantiating the hypothesis that proteins with high internal symmetry

Tawfik, Dan S.

231

Lectin genes in the Frankia alni genome.  

PubMed

Frankia alni strain ACN14a's genome was scanned for the presence of determinants involved in interactions with its host plant, Alnus spp. One such determinant type is lectin, proteins that bind specifically to sugar motifs. The genome of F. alni was found to contain 7 such lectin-coding genes, five of which were of the ricinB-type. The proteins coded by these genes contain either only the lectin domain, or also a heat shock protein or a serine-threonine kinase domain upstream. These lectins were found to have several homologs in Streptomyces spp., and a few in other bacterial genomes among which none in Frankia EAN1pec and CcI3 and two in strain EUN1f. One of these F. alni genes, FRAAL0616, was cloned in E. coli, fused with a reporter gene yielding a fusion protein that was found to bind to both root hairs and to bacterial hyphae. This protein was also found to modify the dynamics of nodule formation in A. glutinosa, resulting in a higher number of nodules per root. Its role could thus be to permit binding of microbial cells to root hairs and help symbiosis to occur under conditions of low Frankia cell counts such as in pioneer situations. PMID:22159868

Pujic, Petar; Fournier, Pascale; Alloisio, Nicole; Hay, Anne-Emmanuelle; Maréchal, Joelle; Anchisi, Stéphanie; Normand, Philippe

2012-01-01

232

Lectin-binding profile of plasmacytoid monocytes.  

PubMed

The lectin-binding profile of plasmacytoid monocytes, also known as plasmacytoid T cells, was studied in 18 axillary lymph nodes draining invasive breast carcinomas. The plasmacytoid monocytes bound fluorescein-conjugated lectins from Canavalia ensiformis (Con A), Phaseolus vulgaris (PHA-L), Arachis hypogaea (PNA), Ricinus communis (RCA I and II), and Triticum vulgaris (WGA), but no reaction was found with those from Dolichos biflorus (DBA) and Ulex europaeus (UEA I). Fluorescence was bright and the reactivity was distributed in a granular pattern in the cytoplasm of plasmacytoid monocytes, a staining pattern similar to that of monocytes and macrophages. B and T lymphocytes usually exhibited weak staining with the same lectins, and this was limited to the cell membrane. Plasmacytoid monocytes were originally thought to be closely related to the T-cell system. The results of recent immunocytologic studies and the lectin-binding profile of plasmacytoid monocytes observed in this study, however, suggest that these cells are related to the mononuclear phagocytic system. PMID:1398646

Horst, H A; Schumacher, U; Horny, H P; Lennert, K

1992-10-01

233

Electrophysiological correlates of Complement Coercion  

PubMed Central

This study examined the electrophysiological correlates of complement coercion. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were measured as participants read and made acceptability judgments about plausible coerced sentences, plausible non-coerced sentences, and highly implausible animacy violated sentences (“The journalist began/wrote/astonished the article before his coffee break”). Relative to non-coerced complement nouns, the coerced nouns evoked an N400 effect. This effect was not modulated by the number of possible activities implied by the coerced nouns (e.g. began reading the article; began writing the article), and did not differ in either magnitude or scalp distribution from the N400 effect evoked by the animacy violated complement nouns. We suggest that the N400 modulation to both coerced and the animacy violated complement nouns reflected different types of mismatches between the semantic restrictions of the verb and the semantic properties of the incoming complement noun. This is consistent with models holding that a verb’s semantic argument structure is represented and stored at a distinct level from its syntactic argument structure. Unlike the coerced complement noun, the animacy violated nouns also evoked a robust P600 effect, which may have been triggered by the judgments of the highly implausible (syntactically-determined) meanings of the animacy violated propositions. No additional ERP effects were seen in the coerced sentences until the sentence-final word which, relative to sentence-final words in the non-coerced sentences, evoked a sustained anteriorly-distributed positivity. We suggest that this effect reflected delayed attempts to retrieve the specific event(s) implied by coerced complement nouns. PMID:19702471

Kuperberg, Gina R.; Choi, Arim; Cohn, Neil; Paczynski, Martin; Jackendoff, Ray

2011-01-01

234

Purification and Characterization of Griffonia simplicifolia Leaf Lectins 1  

PubMed Central

Leaves from mature Griffonia simplicifolia plants were examined for the presence of leaf lectins possessing sugar binding specificities similar to the four known seed lectins (GS-I, GS-II, GS-III, GS-IV). Three (GS-I, -II, -IV) of the four known G. simplicifolia seed lectins were present in the leaves. Leaf G. simplicifolia lectins I and IV were similar to the respective seed lectins. Leaf GS-II, however, was composed of two types of subunits (Mr = 33,000 and 19,000), whereas the seed lectin consists of only one type of subunit (Mr 32,500). Seed and leaf GS-II lectins also had different isoelectric points. All leaf and seed lectins were similar with respect to their hemagglutination and glycoconjugate precipitation properties and all subunits contained covalently bound carbohydrate. Leaf GS-IV appeared slightly under-glycosylated compared to seed GS-IV. The fate of GS-I and GS-II seed lectins in aging cotyledons was investigated. GS-I isolectins usually contain isolectin subtypes associated with each main isolectin. Upon inbibition and germination, these GS-I isolectin subtypes disappeared. Over time, GS-II lectin did not change its disc gel electrophoretic properties. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:16662923

Lamb, Jamie E.; Shibata, Satoaki; Goldstein, Irwin J.

1983-01-01

235

Carbohydrate recognition by the antiviral lectin cyanovirin-N  

PubMed Central

Cyanovirin-N is a cyanobacterial lectin with potent antiviral activity, and has been the focus of extensive pre-clinical investigation as a potential prophylactic for the prevention of the sexual transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Here we present a detailed analysis of carbohydrate recognition by this important protein, using a combination of computational methods, including extensive molecular dynamics simulations and Molecular-Mechanics/ Poisson–Boltzmann/Surface-Area (MM/PBSA) energetic analysis. The simulation results strongly suggest that the observed tendency of wildtype CVN to form domain-swapped dimers is the result of a previously unidentified cis-peptide bond present in the monomeric state. The energetic analysis additionally indicates that the highest-affinity ligand for CVN characterized to date (?-Man-(1,2)-?-Man-(1,2)-?-Man) is recognized asymmetrically by the two binding sites. Finally, we are able to provide a detailed map of the role of all binding site functional groups (both backbone and side chain) to various aspects of molecular recognition: general affinity for cognate ligands, specificity for distinct oligosaccharide targets and the asymmetric recognition of ?-Man-(1,2)-?-Man-(1,2)-?-Man. Taken as a whole, these results complement past experimental characterization (both structural and thermodynamic) to provide the most complete understanding of carbohydrate recognition by CVN to date. The results also provide strong support for the application of similar approaches to the understanding of other protein–carbohydrate complexes. PMID:23057413

Fujimoto, Yukiji K.; Green, David F.

2012-01-01

236

Complement in age-related macular degeneration: a focus on function  

PubMed Central

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is an inflammatory disease, which causes visual impairment and blindness in older people. The proteins of the complement system are central to the development of this disease. Local and systemic inflammation in AMD are mediated by the deregulated action of the alternative pathway of the complement system. Variants in complement system genes alter an individual's risk of developing AMD. Recent studies have shown how some risk-associated genetic variants alter the function of the complement system. In this review, we describe the evolution of the complement system and bring together recent research to form a picture of how changes in complement system genes and proteins affect the function of the complement cascade, and how this affects the development of AMD. We discuss the application of this knowledge to prevention and possible future treatments of AMD. PMID:21394116

Bradley, D T; Zipfel, P F; Hughes, A E

2011-01-01

237

Exploring the Innate Immune System: Using Complement-Medicated Cell Lysis in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The protein complement pathway comprises an important part of the innate immunity. The use of serum to demonstrate complement-mediated destruction across a series of bacterial dilutions allows an instructor to introduce a number of important biological concepts such as bacterial growth, activation cascades, and adaptive versus innate immunity.

Fuller, Kevin G.

2008-01-01

238

Macrophage-mediated tumor lysis induced by loach egg lectin.  

PubMed

Vertebrate lectin purified from loach egg was tested for induction of tumor lysis mediated by macrophages. Loach egg lectin lysed tumor cells but not normal spleen cells in cooperation with BCG- or glucan (TAK)-elicited peritoneal macrophages of mice. Corynebacterium parvum-, OK432-, glycogen-, lipopolysaccharide-elicited or resident macrophages were not effective. Neither loach egg lectin nor BCG nor glucan macrophages alone had a cytolytic action on tumor cells. Thus, the vertebrate lectin from loach egg is a mediator in macrophage-mediated tumor lysis, inducing binding of macrophages to target cells. This lectin-dependent macrophage-mediated cytolysis (LDMC) was inhibited by galactose, N-acetylgalactosamine, fucose, or rhamnose. These results suggest that tumor cells can be recognized via glycoconjugates on cell membrane in addition to tumor-associated antigen and that some animal lectins participate in macrophage-mediated tumor lysis. PMID:6584520

Yamazaki, M; Okutomi, T; Sakakibara, F; Kawauchi, H; Mizuno, D

1984-03-01

239

Mannose-binding lectin gene polymorphic variants predispose to the development of bronchopulmonary complications but have no influence on other clinical and laboratory symptoms or signs of common variable immunodeficiency  

PubMed Central

Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), activating protein of the lectin pathway of the complement system, is an important component of the non-specific immune response. MBL2 gene polymorphisms, both in the coding and promoter regions, lead to low or deficient serum MBL levels. Low serum MBL levels were shown to be associated with serious infectious complications, mainly in patients in whom other non-specific immune system barriers were disturbed (granulocytopenia, cystic fibrosis). We have analysed two promoter (?550 and ?221) and three exon (codons 52, 54 and 57) MBL2 polymorphisms in a total of 94 patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) from two immunodeficiency centres. Low-producing genotypes were associated with the presence of bronchiectasis (P = 0·009), lung fibrosis (P = 0·037) and also with respiratory insufficiency (P = 0·029). We could not demonstrate any association of MBL deficiency with age at onset of clinical symptoms, age at diagnosis, the number of pneumonias before diagnosis or serum immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgA and IgM levels before initiation of Ig treatment. No association with emphysema development was observed, such as with lung function test abnormalities. No effect of MBL2 genotypes on the presence of diarrhoea, granuloma formation, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, frequency of respiratory tract infection or the number of antibiotic courses of the patients was observed. Our study suggests that low MBL-producing genotypes predispose to bronchiectasis formation, and also fibrosis and respiratory insufficiency development, but have no effect on other complications in CVID patients. PMID:18637104

Litzman, J; Freiberger, T; Grimbacher, B; Gathmann, B; Salzer, U; Pavlík, T; Vl?ek, J; Postránecká, V; Trávní?ková, Z; Thon, V

2008-01-01

240

Lectin cDNA and transgenic plants derived therefrom  

DOEpatents

Transgenic plants containing cDNA encoding Gramineae lectin are described. The plants preferably contain cDNA coding for barley lectin and store the lectin in the leaves. The transgenic plants, particularly the leaves exhibit insecticidal and fungicidal properties. GOVERNMENT RIGHTS This application was funded under Department of Energy Contract DE-AC02-76ER01338. The U.S. Government has certain rights under this application and any patent issuing thereon. .

Raikhel, N.V.

1994-01-04

241

Lectin cDNA and transgenic plants derived therefrom  

DOEpatents

Transgenic plants containing cDNA encoding Gramineae lectin are described. The plants preferably contain cDNA coding for barley lectin and store the lectin in the leaves. The transgenic plants, particularly the leaves exhibit insecticidal and fungicidal properties. GOVERNMENT RIGHTS This application was funded under Department of Energy Contract DE-AC02-76ER01338. The U.S. Government has certain rights under this application and any patent issuing thereon.

Raikhel, Natasha V. (Okemos, MI)

1994-01-04

242

[Carbohydrate specificity of lectins from plants of the genus horsetail].  

PubMed

Carbohydrate specificity of partially purified lectins from 4 species of plants: horse-tail genus Equisetum (Equisetum arvense L., E. sylvaticum L., E. hyemale L. and E. tempatelia Ehrh.) has been studies. The obtained lectins have similar carbohydrate specificity. Among the tested carbohydrates the best inhibitor of activity is phenyl-2-acetamido-alpha-D-glucosaminopyranoside. Lectins poorly interact with yeasty mannan and galactomannan Trigonella foenum graecum seeds. Among glycoproteins the best inhibitor of activity is ovomucoid. PMID:12916246

Antoniuk, V O; Dubits'ky?, O L

2002-01-01

243

A lectin from elder (Sambucus nigra L.) bark.  

PubMed Central

A lectin was isolated from elder (Sambucus nigra) bark by affinity chromatography on fetuin-agarose. It is a tetrameric molecule (Mr 140000) composed of two different subunits of Mr 34500 and 37500 respectively, held together by intramolecular disulphide bridges. The lectin is a glycoprotein and is especially rich in asparagine/aspartic acid, glutamine/glutamic acid, valine and leucine. It is also the first lectin isolated from a species belonging to the plant family Caprifoliaceae. Images Fig. 4. PMID:6466312

Broekaert, W F; Nsimba-Lubaki, M; Peeters, B; Peumans, W J

1984-01-01

244

Long Circulating Lectin Conjugated Paclitaxel Loaded Magnetic Nanoparticles: A New Theranostic Avenue for Leukemia Therapy  

PubMed Central

Amongst all leukemias, Bcr-Abl positive chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) confers resistance to native drug due to multi drug resistance and also resistance to p53 and fas ligand pathways. In the present study, we have investigated the efficacy of microtubule stabilizing paclitaxel loaded magnetic nanoparticles (pac-MNPs) to ascertain its cytotoxic effect on Bcr-Abl positive K562 cells. For active targeted therapy, pac-MNPs were functionalized with lectin glycoprotein which resulted in higher cellular uptake and lower IC50 value suggesting the efficacy of targeted delivery of paclitaxel. Both pac-MNPs and lectin conjugated pac-MNPs have a prolonged circulation time in serum suggesting increased bioavailability and therapeutics index of paclitaxel in vivo. Further, the molecular mechanism pertaining to pac-induced cytotoxicity was analyzed by studying the involvement of different apoptotic pathway proteins by immunoblotting and quantitative PCR. Our study revealed simultaneous activation of JNK pathway leading to Bcr-Abl instability and the extrinsic apoptotic pathway after pac-MNPs treatment in two Bcr-Abl positive cell lines. In addition, the MRI data suggested the potential application of MNPs as imaging agent. Thus our in vitro and in vivo results strongly suggested the pac-MNPs as a future prospective theranostic tool for leukemia therapy. PMID:22110595

Singh, Abhalaxmi; Dilnawaz, Fahima; Sahoo, Sanjeeb Kumar

2011-01-01

245

Determinants of quaternary association in legume lectins  

PubMed Central

It is well known that the sequence of amino acids in proteins code for its tertiary structure. It is also known that there exists a relationship between sequence and the quaternary structure of proteins. The question addressed here is whether the nature of quaternary association can be predicted from the sequence, similar to the three-dimensional structure prediction from the sequence. The class of proteins called legume lectins is an interesting model system to investigate this problem, because they have very high sequence and tertiary structure homology, with diverse forms of quaternary association. Hence, we have used legume lectins as a probe in this paper to (1) gain novel insights about the relationship between sequence and quaternary structure; (2) identify the sequence motifs that are characteristic of a given type of quaternary association; and (3) predict the quaternary association from the sequence motif. PMID:15215518

Brinda, K.V.; Mitra, Nivedita; Surolia, Avadhesha; Vishveshwara, Saraswathi

2004-01-01

246

Complement Activation by Bisretinoid Constituents of RPE Lipofuscin  

PubMed Central

Purpose Studies implicate activation of complement among the processes involved in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Questions pertain to the trigger(s) responsible for the complement-associated events. The authors previously reported that photooxidation products of A2E can activate complement. Here they have further explored these events. Methods In vitro assays using human serum as a source of complement were used, and the C3 split product iC3b was measured by enzyme immunoassay. Serum was placed in contact with ARPE-19 cells and polarized human fetal retinal pigment epithelium that had accumulated A2E and were irradiated (430 nm). Serum was also incubated in wells precoated with bisretinoid pigments of lipofuscin and their oxidized forms. iC3b generation in normal human serum (NHS) was compared with that in factor B-depleted and C1q-depleted human serum. Results iC3b levels were elevated in NHS placed in contact with A2E-laden retinal pigment epithelium that were irradiated to generate A2E photooxidation products. iC3b was also increased in serum incubated in wells precoated with peroxy-A2E, the lipofuscin pigment all-trans-retinal dimer, and oxidized forms of all-trans-retinal dimer. Substitution of NHS with factor B-depleted sera abrogated these increases in iC3b. Complement activation was also suppressed by the addition of C-reactive protein and by a C3 cleavage inhibitor. Conclusions The authors suggest that bisretinoid pigments of retinal pigment epithelial lipofuscin, subsequent to photoactivation and cleavage, serve to activate complement. Complement activation by this mechanism is dependent on the alternative pathway and can be modulated by an inhibitor of C3 cleavage. These events in the setting of complement dysregulation could contribute to the chronic inflammation that underlies AMD pathogenesis. PMID:19029031

Zhou, Jilin; Kim, So Ra; Westlund, Barbro S.; Sparrow, Janet R.

2009-01-01

247

Lectins discriminate between pathogenic and nonpathogenic South American trypanosomes  

SciTech Connect

Cell surface carbohydrates of Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma rangeli, and Trypanosoma conorhini were analyzed by a micro-agglutination assay employing 27 highly purified lectins and by binding assays using various /sup 125/I-labeled lectins. The following seven lectins discriminated between the trypanosomes: 1) tomato lectin (an N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-binding protein), both in purified form and as crude tomato juice; 2) Bauhinea purpurea and Sophora japonica lectins (both N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-binding proteins), which selectively agglutinated T. cruzi; 3) Vicia villosa (an N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-binding protein) which was specific for T. rangeli; 4) peanut lectin (a D-galactose-binding protein) both in purified form and as crude saline extract; and 5) Ulex europaeus and Lotus tetragonolobus (both L-fucose-binding proteins) lectins which reacted only with T. conorhini. Binding studies with 125I-labeled lectins were performed to find whether unagglutinated cells of the three different species of trypanosomes might have receptors for these lectins, in which case absence of agglutination could be due to a peculiar arrangement of the receptors. These assays essentially confirmed the agglutination experiments.

de Miranda Santos, I.K.; Pereira, M.E.

1984-09-01

248

Improvisation: A Complement to Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the growth of standardized assessment benchmarks in both the public and private paradigms, testing performance matters to institutions more than ever. In an attempt to take as many hindering variables out of this process, such as test anxiety, socioeconomic influences, and latency in cognition, Improvisation: A Complement to Curriculum seeks…

Ronald, Green A.

2006-01-01

249

Complements Please! No Compliments Necessary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Are mutant strains of bacteria that have the same nutritional phenotype identical? In the virtual MicroGCK lab, you can select colonies for further analysis to determine the underlying genetic structure of this similarity. This includes running a cross feeding complementation simulation for strains of nutritional auxotrophs. * investigate the genetic basis for phenotypic similarities in bacterial strains by simulating cross-feeding

John R. Jungck (Beloit College;Biology); John N. Calley (Beloit College;Biology)

2006-05-20

250

Molecular cloning of the lectin and a lectin-related protein from common Solomon's seal (Polygonatum multiflorum)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most prominent protein ofPolygonatum multiflorum (common Solomon's seal) rhizomes has been identified as a mannose-binding lectin. Analysis of the purified lectin demonstrated that it is a tetramer of four identical subunits of 14 kDa. Molecular cloning further revealed that the lectin from this typical Liliaceae species belongs to the superfamily of monocot mannose-binding proteins. Screening of cDNA libraries constructed

Els J. M. Damme; Annick Barre; Pierre Rougé; Fred Leuven; Jan Balzarini; Willy J. Peumans

1996-01-01

251

Vertebrate lectins, Comparison of properties of beta-galactoside- binding lectins from tissues of calf and chicken  

PubMed Central

Beta-galactoside-binding lectins were isolated from various calf tissues and from chicken hearts by affinity chromatography on asialofetuin-Sepharose, and were compared with respect to biochemical characteristics, binding properties, antigenic cross-reactivity, and cellular localization. The lectins are all thiol group-requiring, divalent cation-independent dimers, of apparent monomer mol wt 12,000 (calf lectins) or 13,000 (chicken lectin), and acidic pI. The calf lectins appear essentially identical by dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, amino acid composition, and radioimmunoassay, while the chicken lectin is distinctly different by these criteria. However, all of the lectins competed for the same binding sites on rabbit erythrocytes, and could be inhibited by the same saccharide haptens (notably lactose and thiodigalactoside). Immuno- fluorescence studies on several cultured cell lines revealed that the bovine and chicken lectins had primarily an intracellular cytoplasmic localization. The beta-galactoside-binding lectins of vertebrates appear to be species-specific rather than tissue-specific. PMID:379020

1979-01-01

252

Subcellular site of lectin synthesis in developing rice embryos  

PubMed Central

Embryos of developing rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Koshihikari) caryopses which actively synthesize lectin were labelled with [35S]cysteine for different times and newly synthesized rice lectin was isolated by affinity chromatography. Gel filtration of embryo extracts on Sepharose-4B indicated that a large portion of the labelled lectin was associated with the particulate fraction. Experiments with detergent indicated that this lectin was sequestered within organelles. When extracts of pulse-labelled embryos were fractionated on isopycnic sucrose gradients, this detergent-released lectin banded in the same density-region as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) marker enzyme NADH-cytochrome c reductase. Both radioactivity in rice lectin and the enzyme activity shifted towards a higher density in the presence of 2 mM Mg acetate, indicating that the labelled lectin was associated with the rough ER. The ER-bound lectin could be chased from this organelle when tissue was incubated in unlabelled cysteine following a 1 h pulse of labelled cysteine. Radioactivity chased out of the ER with a half-life of ˜4 h and accumulated in the soluble fraction. In the ER the lectin was present as a polypeptide with mol. wt. 23 000, while in the soluble fraction it occurred as polypeptides with mol. wt. 18 000, 10 000 and 8000. The rice lectin in the ER is capable of binding carbohydrates since it binds readily to the affinity gels. It is associated into dimers with an approximate mol. wt. of 46 000. The results show that newly synthesized rice lectin is transiently sequestered within the ER before further transport and processing take place. ImagesFig. 5. PMID:16453545

Stinissen, Hetty M.; Peumans, Willy J.; Chrispeels, Maarten J.

1984-01-01

253

Reactivity of gliadin and lectins with celiac intestinal mucosa.  

PubMed

The binding patterns of gliadin and selected lectins to jejunal biopsy specimens obtained from children with total villous atrophy during active celiac disease (CD; 19 patients) and in remission (16 patients) were examined by light microscopy. Three categories of carbohydrate-specific lectins were chosen for the study: those recognizing mannose/glucose residues, those recognizing N-acetyl-glucosamine/glucose (glcNAc/glc) residues, and those recognizing N-acetylgalactosamine/galactose (galNAc/gal) residues. The galNAc/gal lectins, with the exception of phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin variants, presented a typical staining of the luminal surface of the jejunal mucosa obtained from CD patients. However, these lectins displayed no reactivity to jejunal sections of CD patients in remission or control biopsies that included healthy children (25 children) and patients suffering from cow milk protein allergy (10 children). The glcNAc/glc lectin showed a strong preferential recognition of CD jejunal tissue but also bound with less intensity to specimens from patients with cow milk allergies and healthy children. Unlike other galNAc/gal lectins, phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin variants were indistinguishable in their binding patterns to the mucosa of control groups and CD patients in remission and failed to react to CD biopsies. The mannose/glc lectins were not distinctive in their binding patterns. In all cases, lectin binding was specifically inhibited by the lectins' competitive saccharides. Atypical of lectin binding patterns, gliadin reactivity was restricted to intracellular areas of enterocytes and was unique to active CD mucosa. The distinctive binding patterns of lectins and gliadin provide a diagnostic tool to distinguish patients with active CD from those in remission or patients with other intestinal disorders.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7877884

Pittschieler, K; Ladinser, B; Petell, J K

1994-11-01

254

Subcellular Localizations of Two Dolichos biflorus Lectins 1  

PubMed Central

The subcellular localizations of the Dolichos biflorus seed lectin and the structurally related lectin (cross-reactive material [CRM]) from the stems and leaves of this plant were determined by immunofluorescence, immunocytochemistry, and cell fractionation procedures. Subcellular fractionation of the cotyledons using a nonaqueous procedure to minimize disruption of the protein bodies showed that the majority of the seed lectin was associated with the protein body fraction and some lectin was also present in the starch granules. Immunofluorescence and immunocytochemistry at the light microscopic level showed that the seed lectin was mainly localized at the peripheries of these organelles. Lectin was also found in the cytoplasm of the cells, although the amount appeared to be dependent upon the degree of protein body disruption. Immunofluorescence and immunocytochemistry studies of the stem and leaf lectin (CRM) indicated that a significant portion of this lectin may be associated with the cell walls, although lectin was also seen in the cytoplasm of plasmolyzed cells. Extraction and cell fractionation studies showed that a large portion of the CRM is readily solubilized and most of the remainder is pelleted at 1000g. The CRM can be extracted from these pellets by treatment with cellulase and pectinase; other reagents such as NaCl, detergents, and EDTA could also release significant amounts of CRM. These studies suggest that the CRM is noncovalently bound to the cell walls. A comparison of the distribution of exogenously supplied [125I]CRM with the endogenous CRM during extraction and cell fractionation indicates that soluble CRM is not adsorbed to the 1000g pellet during fractionation. The different subcellular distributions of these two structurally related lectins suggest that different tissues of the same plant may utilize lectins for different functions. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:16663962

Etzler, Marilynn E.; MacMillan, Susan; Scates, Steven; Gibson, Donna M.; James, Douglas W.; Cole, Douglas; Thayer, Susan

1984-01-01

255

Complement Activity in the Egg Cytosol of Zebrafish Danio rerio: Evidence for the Defense Role of Maternal Complement Components  

PubMed Central

Most fish embryos that develop externally are exposed to an environment full of microbes. How they survive microbial attacks are not understood to date. Here we demonstrated that the egg cytosol prepared from the newly fertilized eggs of zebrafish Danio rerio is capable of killing the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli, via in vitro assay system of the complement activity established. All findings indicate that it is the complement system operating via the alternative pathway that is attributable to the bacteriolytic activity. This is the first report providing the evidence for the functional role of the maternal complement components in fish eggs, paving the way for study of maternal immunity in other organisms whose eggs are fertilized in vitro. PMID:18213372

Wang, Zhiping; Zhang, Shicui; Wang, Guangfeng; An, Yan

2008-01-01

256

Downregulation of Hsp70 inhibits apoptosis induced by sialic acid-binding lectin (leczyme)  

PubMed Central

Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are molecular chaperones that maintain homeostasis of organisms. In regards to the Hsps, many studies have investigated the structure, expression, localization and functions of Hsp70 and Hsc70 including expression in the glycosphingolipid-enriched microdomain (GEM) on the cell surface and involvement in cell death. Sialic acid-binding lectin (SBL) isolated from oocytes of Rana catesbeiana is a multifunctional protein which has lectin activity, ribonuclease activity and antitumor activity. SBL has potential as a new type of anticancer drug, since it causes cancer-selective induction of apoptosis by multiple signaling pathways in which RNA is its target; and the participation of the mitochondrial pathway and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated pathway has been suggested. It has also been suggested that receptor(s) for SBL (SBLR) may exist in the GEM on the cell surface. In the present study, we studied the possible involvement of Hsp70 and Hsc70 in SBL-induced apoptosis. We showed that Hsp70 and Hsc70 were expressed on the P388 cell surface similar to SBLR, and their distribution in cells dramatically changed immediately prior to the execution of apoptosis following stimulation of SBL. Functional study of Hsp70 revealed that decreased expression of Hsp70 diminished the apoptosis induced by SBL. It is suggested that Hsp70 participates in the antitumor effect of SBL. PMID:24173532

TATSUTA, TAKEO; HOSONO, MASAHIRO; OGAWA, YUKIKO; INAGE, KYOKO; SUGAWARA, SHIGEKI; NITTA, KAZUO

2014-01-01

257

Lectins as Bioactive Plant Proteins: A Potential in Cancer Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant lectins, a unique group of proteins and glycoproteins with potent biological activity, occur in foods like wheat, corn, tomato, peanut, kidney bean, banana, pea, lentil, soybean, mushroom, rice, and potato. Thus, dietary intakes by humans can be significant. Many lectins resist digestion, survive gut passage, and bind to gastrointestinal cells and\\/or enter the circulation intact, maintaining full biological activity.

Elvira González De Mejía; Valentin I. Prisecaru

2005-01-01

258

Differential lectin binding to mammalian keratinocytes and melanocytes in vitro.  

PubMed

Guinea pig melanocytes and keratinocytes in primary mixed epidermal cell cultures were investigated as to their differential lectin binding capacities. Cultures were exposed to a battery of fluorescent (FITC and TRITC) lectins and lectin derivatives for ultrastructural visualization (HRP-labeled lectins for a one-step technique and biotinylated lectins followed by avidin-HRP in a two-step technique). Most of the lectins bound to both melanocytes and keratinocytes. Lectins with specificity for N-acetyl-galactosamine and terminal D-galactose bound only to keratinocytes; melanocytes were reactive, though, at contact sites of dendrites with keratinocyte cell bodies. Ulex europaeus (specific for L-fucose) bound to neither melanocytes no keratinocytes. Neuraminidase pretreatment restored the capacity of melanocytes to bind all lectins except Ulex europeaus. It is concluded that the melanocytes receptor sites for N-acetyl-galactosamine and terminal D-galactose are masked by sialic acid residues; they appear to emerge, though, under conditions of cell-to-cell contact as in the course of pigment transfer. Masking and demasking processes may therefore bear a functional significance. PMID:7084255

Schuler, G; Romani, N; Fritsch, P O

1982-04-01

259

Factor VIII/von Willebrand factor has potent lectin activity.  

PubMed

Highly-purified plasma and platelet Factor VIII/von Willebrand Factor had potent lectin activity when measured in a haemagglutination assay. This lectin activity was inhibited by monoclonal and heterologous antibodies to Factor VIII/von Willebrand Factor as well as by hexosamines, mannose and net-positively charged amino acids. PMID:6422929

Booth, W J; Furby, F H; Berndt, M C; Castaldi, P A

1984-01-30

260

Complement C3c as a Biomarker in Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Experimental data indicates an important role of the innate immune system in cardiac remodeling and heart failure (HF). Complement is a central effector pathway of the innate immune system. Animals lacking parts of the complement system are protected from adverse remodeling. Based on these data, we hypothesized that peripheral complement levels could be a good marker for adverse remodeling and prognosis in patients with HF. Methods and Results. Since complement activation converges on the complement factor C3, we measured serum C3c, a stable C3-conversion product, in 197 patients with stable systolic HF. Subgroups with normal and elevated C3c levels were compared. C3c levels were elevated in 17% of the cohort. Patients with elevated C3c levels exhibited a trend to better survival, slightly higher LVEF, and lower NTpro-BNP values in comparison to patients with normal C3c values. No differences were found regarding NYHA functional class. Significantly more patients with elevated C3c had preexisting diabetes. The prevalence of CAD, arterial hypertension, and atrial fibrillation was not increased in patients with elevated C3c. Conclusion. Elevated C3c levels are associated with less adverse remodeling and improved survival in patients with stable systolic heart failure. PMID:24489446

Frey, A.; Ertl, G.; Angermann, C. E.; Hofmann, U.; Stork, S.; Frantz, S.

2013-01-01

261

Identification of human complement factor H as a chemotactic protein for monocytes.  

PubMed Central

We used chromatographic separation to purify to homogeneity a monomeric monocyte chemotactic protein of 150 kDa contained in mesothelioma pleural effusions. It was identified by N-terminal amino acid sequencing and immunoblotting as complement factor H, an inhibitor of the alternative complement pathway. Specific antibodies against factor H inhibited the monocyte chemotactic activity of the purified protein, which was most active at 10 nM. Factor H is a restrictive factor of alternative complement pathway activation. The new chemotactic function assigned to factor H in recruiting monocytes to the mesothelioma site might contribute to malignant cell phagocytosis via the iC3b/complement receptor type 3 pathway. These functions link the humoral and cellular immune systems. PMID:9291108

Nabil, K; Rihn, B; Jaurand, M C; Vignaud, J M; Ripoche, J; Martinet, Y; Martinet, N

1997-01-01

262

Diversified Carbohydrate-Binding Lectins from Marine Resources  

PubMed Central

Marine bioresources produce a great variety of specific and potent bioactive molecules including natural organic compounds such as fatty acids, polysaccharides, polyether, peptides, proteins, and enzymes. Lectins are also one of the promising candidates for useful therapeutic agents because they can recognize the specific carbohydrate structures such as proteoglycans, glycoproteins, and glycolipids, resulting in the regulation of various cells via glycoconjugates and their physiological and pathological phenomenon through the host-pathogen interactions and cell-cell communications. Here, we review the multiple lectins from marine resources including fishes and sea invertebrate in terms of their structure-activity relationships and molecular evolution. Especially, we focus on the unique structural properties and molecular evolution of C-type lectins, galectin, F-type lectin, and rhamnose-binding lectin families. PMID:22312473

Ogawa, Tomohisa; Watanabe, Mizuki; Naganuma, Takako; Muramoto, Koji

2011-01-01

263

The Liverwort Contains a Lectin That Is Structurally and Evolutionary Related to the Monocot Mannose-Binding Lectins1  

PubMed Central

A mannose (Man)-binding lectin has been isolated and characterized from the thallus of the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha. N-terminal sequencing indicated that the M. polymorpha agglutinin (Marpola) shares sequence similarity with the superfamily of monocot Man-binding lectins. Searches in the databases yielded expressed sequence tags encoding Marpola. Sequence analysis, molecular modeling, and docking experiments revealed striking structural similarities between Marpola and the monocot Man-binding lectins. Activity and specificity studies further indicated that Marpola is a much stronger agglutinin than the Galanthus nivalis agglutinin and exhibits a preference for methylated Man and glucose, which is unprecedented within the family of monocot Man-binding lectins. The discovery of Marpola allows us, for the first time, to corroborate the evolutionary relationship between a lectin from a lower plant and a well-established lectin family from flowering plants. In addition, the identification of Marpola sheds a new light on the molecular evolution of the superfamily of monocot Man-binding lectins. Beside evolutionary considerations, the occurrence of a G. nivalis agglutinin homolog in a lower plant necessitates the rethinking of the physiological role of the whole family of monocot Man-binding lectins. PMID:12114560

Peumans, Willy J.; Barre, Annick; Bras, Julien; Rougé, Pierre; Proost, Paul; Van Damme, Els J.M.

2002-01-01

264

Biological Properties and Characterization of Lectin from Red Kidney Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) contain significant amounts of lectins which have both beneficial and detrimental biological properties. Lectins are carbohydrate-binding glycoproteins that can react specifically with human blood cells, preferentially agglutinate malignant cells, and undergo mitogenic stimulation of lymphocytes. Some lectins are resistant to heat and proteolytic enzymes and can enter the circulatory system intact. Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)—a lectin isolated

Jianshe Zhang; John Shi; Sanja Ilic; Sophia Jun Xue; Yukio Kakuda

2008-01-01

265

Fluorescent carbohydrate probes for cell lectins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescein labeled carbohydrate (Glyc) probes were synthesized as analytical tools for the study of cellular lectins, i.e. SiaLe x-PAA-flu, Sia 2-PAA-flu, GlcNAc 2-PAA-flu, LacNAc-PAA-flu and a number of similar ones, with PAA a soluble polyacrylamide carrier. The binding of SiaLe x-PAA-flu was assessed using CHO cells transfected with E-selectin, and the binding of Sia 2-PAA-flu was assessed by COS cells transfected with siglec-9. In flow cytometry assays, the fluorescein probes demonstrated a specific binding to the lectin-transfected cells that was inhibited by unlabeled carbohydrate ligands. The intense binding of SiaLe x-PAA- 3H to the E-selectin transfected cells and the lack of binding to both native and permeabilized control cells lead to the conclusion that the polyacrylamide carrier itself and the spacer arm connecting the carbohydrate moiety with PAA did not contribute anymore to the binding. Tumors were obtained from nude mice by injection of CHO E-selectin or mock transfected cells. The fluorescent SiaLe x-PAA-flu probe could bind to the tumor sections from E-selectin positive CHO cells, but not from the control ones. Thus, these probes can be used to reveal specifically the carbohydrate binding sites on cells in culture as well as cells in tissue sections. The use of the confocal spectral imaging technique with Glyc-PAA-flu probes offered the unique possibility to detect lectins in different cells, even when the level of lectin expression was rather low. The confocal mode of spectrum recording provided an analysis of the probe localization with 3D submicron resolution. The spectral analysis (as a constituent part of the confocal spectral imaging technique) enabled interfering signals of the probe and intrinsic cellular fluorescence to be accurately separated, the distribution of the probe to be revealed and its local concentration to be measured.

Galanina, Oxana; Feofanov, Alexei; Tuzikov, Alexander B.; Rapoport, Evgenia; Crocker, Paul R.; Grichine, Alexei; Egret-Charlier, Marguerite; Vigny, Paul; Le Pendu, Jacques; Bovin, Nicolai V.

2001-09-01

266

Studies on lectins. XLIV. The pH dependence of lectin interactions with sugars as determined by affinity electrophoresis.  

PubMed

The pH dependence of association constants of the lectin-sugar complexes was determined by means of affinity electrophoresis. All the lectins studied (from the seeds of Dolichos biflorus, Glycine soja, Lens esculenta and Vicia cracca and of the fruiting body of Marasmius oreades) were characterized by a similar course of pH dependence of the association constants, with the maximum values at pH 7--9. For concanavalin A and the L-fucose binding Ulex europaeus lectin only the association constants at three selected pH values were determined. Concanavalin A does not interact with immobilized alpha-D-mannosyl residues at pH 2.3. The association constants vs. pH curves measured for lectins isolated from two different lentil varieties slightly differ in accordance with the differences observed in the interaction of these lectins with the Sephadex gel. PMID:33723

Hauzer, K; Tichá, M; Horejsí, V; Kocourek, J

1979-02-19

267

Formation of Complement Membrane Attack Complex in Mammalian Cerebral Cortex Evokes Seizures and Neurodegeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complement system consists of30 proteins that interact in a carefully regulated manner to destroy invading bacteria and prevent the deposition of immune complexes in normal tissue. This complex system can be activated by diverse mechanisms proceeding through distinct pathways, yet all converge on a final common pathway in which five proteins assemble into a multimolecular complex, the membrane attack

Zhi-Qi Xiong; Weihua Qian; Katsuaki Suzuki; James O. McNamara

2003-01-01

268

Molecular cloning of the ? subunit of complement component eight of rainbow trout  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complement-mediated killing of pathogens through the lytic pathway is an important effector mechanism of the innate immune response. C8 is one of the components of the lytic pathway and is composed of an ?, ?, and ? subunit. In the present study we report the cloning and characterization of the primary structure of the C8? subunit in the rainbow trout

Alexandra Kazantzi; Georgia Sfyroera; M. Claire H Holland; John D Lambris; Ioannis K Zarkadis

2003-01-01

269

The complement system in B cell regulation.  

PubMed

Early studies of animals bearing natural deficiencies in complement C3 and C4 and mice transiently deficient in C3 suggested that the complement system played a role in humoral immunity. Identification and characterization of the complement receptors CD21 and CD35 and their expression on B lymphocytes provided evidence for a direct role for complement in "linkage of innate and adaptive immunity". More recent studies of mice bearing targeted deficiencies in complement proteins C3, C4 or the receptors CD21/CD35 has confirmed the importance of complement in B cell responses in vivo and extended our understanding to distinct stages in B cell differentiation in which complement participates in humoral immunity. In this review, a role for complement is described in five distinct stages of B cell differentiation. PMID:15159059

Carroll, Michael C

2004-06-01

270

High-dose mannose-binding lectin therapy for Ebola virus infection.  

PubMed

Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) targets diverse microorganisms for phagocytosis and complement-mediated lysis by binding specific surface glycans. Although recombinant human MBL (rhMBL) trials have focused on reconstitution therapy, safety studies have identified no barriers to its use at higher levels. Ebola viruses cause fatal hemorrhagic fevers for which no treatment exists and that are feared as potential biothreat agents. We found that mice whose rhMBL serum concentrations were increased ?7-fold above average human levels survived otherwise fatal Ebola virus infections and became immune to virus rechallenge. Because Ebola glycoproteins potentially model other glycosylated viruses, rhMBL may offer a novel broad-spectrum antiviral approach. PMID:21288816

Michelow, Ian C; Lear, Calli; Scully, Corinne; Prugar, Laura I; Longley, Clifford B; Yantosca, L Michael; Ji, Xin; Karpel, Marshall; Brudner, Matthew; Takahashi, Kazue; Spear, Gregory T; Ezekowitz, R Alan B; Schmidt, Emmett V; Olinger, Gene G

2011-01-15

271

High-Dose Mannose-Binding Lectin Therapy for Ebola Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) targets diverse microorganisms for phagocytosis and complement-mediated lysis by binding specific surface glycans. Although recombinant human MBL (rhMBL) trials have focused on reconstitution therapy, safety studies have identified no barriers to its use at higher levels. Ebola viruses cause fatal hemorrhagic fevers for which no treatment exists and that are feared as potential biothreat agents. We found that mice whose rhMBL serum concentrations were increased ?7-fold above average human levels survived otherwise fatal Ebola virus infections and became immune to virus rechallenge. Because Ebola glycoproteins potentially model other glycosylated viruses, rhMBL may offer a novel broad-spectrum antiviral approach. PMID:21288816

Michelow, Ian C.; Lear, Calli; Scully, Corinne; Prugar, Laura I.; Longley, Clifford B.; Yantosca, L. Michael; Ji, Xin; Karpel, Marshall; Brudner, Matthew; Takahashi, Kazue; Spear, Gregory T.; Ezekowitz, R. Alan B.; Olinger, Gene G.

2011-01-01

272

Fixation of Complement to Fragments of Antibody  

Microsoft Academic Search

A specific precipitate of ovalbumin and its rabbit-serum antibody, after fixing human serum complement, was digested with papain. The digest was analyzed immunochemically for complexes of antigen, antibody fragments, and components of complement. The results indicated that complement is not bound to Porter fragment III, but very likely is bound to fragments I and II.

A. M. Reiss; O. J. Plescia

1963-01-01

273

Complement, c1q, and c1q-related molecules regulate macrophage polarization.  

PubMed

Complement is a critical system of enzymes, regulatory proteins, and receptors that regulates both innate and adaptive immune responses. Natural mutations in complement molecules highlight their requirement in regulation of a variety of human conditions including infectious disease and autoimmunity. As sentinels of the immune system, macrophages are specialized to respond to infectious microbes, as well as normal and altered self, and dictate appropriate immune responses. Complement components such as anaphylatoxins (C3a and C5a) and opsonins [C3b, C1q, mannan binding lectin (MBL)] influence macrophage responses. While anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a trigger inflammasome activation, opsonins such as C1q and related molecules (MBL and adiponectin) downregulate inflammasome activation and inflammation, and upregulate engulfment of apoptotic cells consistent with a pro-resolving or M2 macrophage phenotype. This review summarizes our current understanding of the influence of the complement system on macrophage polarization with an emphasis on C1q and related molecules. PMID:25191325

Bohlson, Suzanne S; O'Conner, Sean D; Hulsebus, Holly Jo; Ho, Minh-Minh; Fraser, Deborah A

2014-01-01

274

Isolation and characterization of a lectin from Japanese mottled beans.  

PubMed

A 64-kDa dimeric lectin was purified from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Japanese mottled beans. The purification protocol involved ion exchange chromatography with Q-Sepharose and SP-Sepharose and size exclusion chromatography on Superdex 75. The lectin was adsorbed on both Q-Sepharose and SP-Sepharose columns. Finally, the lectin gave a sharp absorbance peak which corresponded to 64 kDa based on results of size exclusion chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulphate- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis displayed a single band at around 32 kDa, indicating that the protein was dimeric. The hemagglutination inhibition assay indicated that the lectin showed specificity toward galactose. The lectin preserved hemagglutinating activity below 70 °C and at a pH range 3 - 12. The lectin was able to inhibit proliferation of MCF-7 cells and Hep G2 cells and possessed antifungal activity toward Mycosphaeralla arachidicola with an IC50 value of 3.9 µM. The activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase was reduced by 61.9 % in the presence of the lectin at 6.25 µM concentration. PMID:24654854

Zhao, Yuan; Ahmad, Ameer Maqsood; Cheung, Randy Chi Fai; Ng, Tzi Bun

2014-07-01

275

Multivalent lectin-carbohydrate interactions energetics and mechanisms of binding.  

PubMed

The biological signaling properties of lectins, which are carbohydrate-binding proteins, are due to their ability to bind and cross-link multivalent glycoprotein receptors on the surface of normal and transformed cells. While the crosslinking properties of lectins with multivalent carbohydrates and glycoproteins are relatively well understood, the mechanisms of binding of lectins to multivalent glycoconjugates are less well understood. Recently, the thermodynamics of binding of lectins to synthetic clustered glycosides, a multivalent globular glycoprotein, and to linear glycoproteins (mucins) have been described. The results are consistent with a dynamic binding mechanism in which lectins bind and jump from carbohydrate to carbohydrate epitope in these molecules. Importantly, the mechanism of binding of lectins to mucins is similar to that for a variety of protein ligands binding to DNA. Recent analysis also shows that high-affinity lectin-mucin crosslinking interactions are driven by favorable entropy of binding that is associated with the bind and jump mechanism. The results suggest that the binding of ligands to biopolymers, in general, may involve a common mechanism that involves enhanced entropic effects which facilitate binding and subsequent complex formation including enzymology. PMID:20381706

Dam, Tarun K; Brewer, C Fred

2010-01-01

276

Lectin domains at the frontiers of plant defense.  

PubMed

Plants are under constant attack from pathogens and herbivorous insects. To protect and defend themselves, plants evolved a multi-layered surveillance system, known as the innate immune system. Plants sense their encounters upon perception of conserved microbial structures and damage-associated patterns using cell-surface and intracellular immune receptors. Plant lectins and proteins with one or more lectin domains represent a major part of these receptors. The whole group of plant lectins comprises an elaborate collection of proteins capable of recognizing and interacting with specific carbohydrate structures, either originating from the invading organisms or from damaged plant cell wall structures. Due to the vast diversity in protein structures, carbohydrate recognition domains and glycan binding specificities, plant lectins constitute a very diverse protein superfamily. In the last decade, new types of nucleocytoplasmic plant lectins have been identified and characterized, in particular lectins expressed inside the nucleus and the cytoplasm of plant cells often as part of a specific plant response upon exposure to different stress factors or changing environmental conditions. In this review, we provide an overview on plant lectin motifs used in the constant battle against pathogens and predators during plant defenses. PMID:25165467

Lannoo, Nausicaä; Van Damme, Els J M

2014-01-01

277

Hepatitis C Virus NS3/4A Protease Inhibits Complement Activation by Cleaving Complement Component 4  

PubMed Central

Background It has been hypothesized that persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is mediated in part by viral proteins that abrogate the host immune response, including the complement system, but the precise mechanisms are not well understood. We investigated whether HCV proteins are involved in the fragmentation of complement component 4 (C4), composed of subunits C4?, C4?, and C4?, and the role of HCV proteins in complement activation. Methods Human C4 was incubated with HCV nonstructural (NS) 3/4A protease, core, or NS5. Samples were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and then subjected to peptide sequencing. The activity of the classical complement pathway was examined using an erythrocyte hemolysis assay. The cleavage pattern of C4 in NS3/4A-expressing and HCV-infected cells, respectively, was also examined. Results HCV NS3/4A protease cleaved C4? in a concentration-dependent manner, but viral core and NS5 did not. A specific inhibitor of NS3/4A protease reduced C4? cleavage. NS3/4A protease–mediated cleavage of C4 inhibited classical pathway activation, which was abrogated by a NS3/4A protease inhibitor. In addition, co-transfection of cells with C4 and wild-type NS3/4A, but not a catalytic-site mutant of NS3/4A, produced cleaved C4? fragments. Such C4 processing, with a concomitant reduction in levels of full-length C4?, was also observed in HCV-infected cells expressing C4. Conclusions C4 is a novel cellular substrate of the HCV NS3/4A protease. Understanding disturbances in the complement system mediated by NS3/4A protease may provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying persistent HCV infection. PMID:24349192

Mawatari, Seiichi; Uto, Hirofumi; Ido, Akio; Nakashima, Kenji; Suzuki, Tetsuro; Kanmura, Shuji; Kumagai, Kotaro; Oda, Kohei; Tabu, Kazuaki; Tamai, Tsutomu; Moriuchi, Akihiro; Oketani, Makoto; Shimada, Yuko; Sudoh, Masayuki; Shoji, Ikuo; Tsubouchi, Hirohito

2013-01-01

278

Monocot chimeric jacalins: a novel subfamily of plant lectins.  

PubMed

Abstract Monocot chimeric jacalins are a small group of lectins (currently with nine members), each typically consisting of a dirigent domain and a jacalin-related lectin domain. This unique module structure, along with their limited taxonomic distribution and short time window in molecular evolution, makes them a novel family of lectins. Recent studies have shown that these proteins play important roles in plant stress responses and development. Our knowledge of these proteins in functional domain and evolution has also made significant progress. PMID:23886351

Ma, Qing-Hu

2014-12-01

279

Leaves of the Lamiaceae species Glechoma hederacea (ground ivy) contain a lectin that is structurally and evolutionary related to the legume lectins.  

PubMed

A novel lectin has been isolated and cloned from leaves of Glechoma hederacea (ground ivy), a typical representative of the plant family Lamiaceae. Biochemical analyses indicated that the G. hederacea agglutinin (Gleheda) is a tetrameric protein consisting of four subunits pairwise linked through an interchain disulphide bridge and exhibits a preferential specificity towards N-acetylgalactosamine. Cloning of the corresponding gene and molecular modeling of the deduced sequence demonstrated that Gleheda shares high sequence similarity with the legume lectins and exhibits the same overall fold and three-dimensional structure as the classical legume lectins. The identification of a soluble and active legume lectin ortholog in G. hederacea not only indicates that the yet unclassified Lamiaceae lectins belong to the same lectin family as the legume lectins, but also sheds a new light on the specificity, physiological role and evolution of the classical legume lectins. PMID:12535343

Wang, Weifang; Peumans, Willy J; Rougé, Pierre; Rossi, Claire; Proost, Paul; Chen, Jianping; Van Damme, Els J M

2003-01-01

280

Detection of surface bound complement at increasing serum anticoagulant concentrations.  

PubMed

Surface mediated immune complement activation can be detected by a variety of antibody utilizing methods such as ELISA, fluorescence- or radiolabelling techniques, QCM, and ellipsometry. In the present work we investigated how the common anticoagulants heparin, dalteparin, fondaparinux and sodium citrate affected the binding of anti-complement factor 3c (anti-C3c) on a model complement activator surface, immobilised IgG, after incubation in human blood serum. The results show, as expected, that different anticoagulants affect the antibody binding differently. Increasing amounts of heparin, dalteparin and sodium citrate in normal serum resulted in a decreasing anti-C3c binding. The antibody deposition was not sensitive for the fondaparinux concentration. Surprisingly high concentrations of anti-coagulantia were needed to completely eradicate the antibody binding. Experiments in EGTA-serum showed that anticoagulants interfered directly with both the classical and alternative pathways. Control C3a-des arg ELISA measurements show that the lowered antibody surface binding was not a result of complement depletion in serum. Kallikrein generation by hydrophilic glass surfaces was not affected by high anticoagulant concentrations. PMID:18006286

Arvidsson, S; Askendal, A; Lindahl, T L; Tengvall, P

2008-04-01

281

Inhibitors of C5 Complement Enhance Vaccinia Virus Oncolysis  

PubMed Central

Genetically engineered tumor-selective vaccinia virus (VV) has been demonstrated to be a highly effective oncolytic agent, but immune clearance may limit its therapeutic potential. As previously demonstrated, immunosuppression can lead to significant enhancement of viral recovery and therapeutic effect, but the magnitude of complement-mediated viral inactivation has not been fully elucidated and warrants further investigation. Using fluorescent microscopy and quantitative plaque assays, we have determined complement's key role in viral clearance and its multi-faceted means to pathogen destruction. Complement can lead to direct viral destruction and inhibition of viral uptake into cells, even in the absence of anti-vaccinia antibodies. Our data demonstrate C5 to be integral to the clearance pathway, and its inhibition by Staphylococcal superantigen-like protein (SSL7) leads to a 90-fold and 150-fold enhancement of VV infectivity in both the presence and absence of anti-VV antibodies, respectively. This study suggests that complement inhibition may reduce vaccinia viral neutralization and may be critical to future in vivo work. PMID:23661042

Magge, Deepa; Guo, Z. Sheng; O'Malley, Mark E.; Francis, Lily; Ravindranathan, Roshni; Bartlett, David L.

2014-01-01

282

Borrelia burgdorferi Regulates Expression of Complement Regulator-Acquiring Surface Protein 1 during the Mammal-Tick Infection Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the natural mammal-tick infection cycle, the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi comes into contact with components of the alternative complement pathway. B. burgdorferi, like many other human pathogens, has evolved the immune evasion strategy of binding two host-derived fluid-phase regulators of complement, factor H and factor H-like protein 1 (FHL-1). The borrelial complement regulator-acquiring surface protein 1 (CRASP-1) is

Kate von Lackum; Jennifer C. Miller; Tomasz Bykowski; Sean P. Riley; Michael E. Woodman; Volker Brade; Peter Kraiczy; Brian Stevenson; Reinhard Wallich

2005-01-01

283

Effects of various treatments of bovine complement on its lytic efficacy measured by two different tests.  

PubMed

Bovine complement was treated with various agents known to activate or inactivate one or more of the cascade components. The treated complement was then assessed for remaining hemolytic activity by a tube titration test and a radial hemolysis method. Divalent cation chelators (EDTA and EGTA); immune complexes prepared with serum and IgM, IgG1, IgG2, and IgA isotypes; smooth and rough lipopolysaccharides and lipid A; hydrazine; zymosan; cobra venom factor and brown recluse spider venom caused depletion of complement as determined in the tube titration test. Immune complexes (prepared with serum); hydrazine; cobra venom factor; EDTA and smooth lipopolysaccharide caused loss of hemolytic activity in the radial hemolysis test. This evidence suggests that the radial hemolysis test assessed complement consumed by the alternate pathway, while the tube titration method measured classical pathway consumption. PMID:6385462

Nielsen, K; Rosenbaum, B; Ballinger, R; Stiller, J

1984-07-01

284

Complement Activation by CpG in a Human Whole Blood Loop System: Mechanisms and Immunomodulatory Effects1  

PubMed Central

Phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides can activate complement, and experimental murine studies have revealed differential effects upon simultaneous TLR stimulation and complement activation compared with either event alone. We set out to investigate the immune stimulatory effects of CpG 2006 in fresh non-anticoagulated human blood with or without presence of active complement. We also sought to elucidate the mechanism behind complement activation upon stimulation with phosphorothioate CpG 2006. In a human blood loop system, both backbone and sequence-specific effects by CpG were counteracted by selective inhibition of C3. Furthermore, DNA backbone-mediated CD40 and CD83 expression on monocytes and sequence-specific IL-6 and TNF production were reduced by complement inhibition. CpG-induced complement activation occurred via either the classical or the alternative pathway and deposits of both IgM and properdin, two activators of complement, were detected on CpG after incubation with EDTA plasma. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring demonstrated alternative pathway convertase build-up onto CpG as a likely pathway to initiate and sustain complement activation. Specific inhibition of C3 suppressed CpG 2006 uptake into monocytes indicating that C3 fragments are involved in CpG internalization. The interplay between complement and TLR9 signaling demonstrated herein warrants further investigation. PMID:19864604

Mangsbo, Sara M.; Sanchez, Javier; Anger, Kerstin; Lambris, John D.; Ekdahl, Kristina Nilsson; Loskog, Angelica S.; Nilsson, Bo; Totterman, Thomas H.

2010-01-01

285

Isolation and new biological properties of Arion empiricorum lectin.  

PubMed

The lectin present in the mucus of the snail Arion empiricorum was isolated by ion exchange chromatography. Purity was demonstrated by immunelectrophoretic analysis, immunization studies, and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. With the latter we found a molecular weight of 43,000. Hemagglutination inhibition studies revealed that carbohydrates play a minor role in the agglutination reaction of A. empiricorum lectin. Stronger inhibition could be achieved with human serum and the serum of several animal species. These findings were clarified by the demonstration that some serum proteins were precipitated by A. empiricorum lectin. Besides its agglutinating and precipitating properties the purified A. empiricorum lectin possesses proteinase-inhibiting properties, as demonstrated by the inhibition of casein-digestion by trypsin and plasmin. PMID:760814

Habets, L; Vieth, U C; Hermann, G

1979-01-01

286

21 CFR 864.9550 - Lectins and protectins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and protectins. (a) Identification. Lectins and protectins are proteins derived from plants and lower animals that cause cell agglutination in the presence of certain antigens. These substances are used to detect blood group antigens...

2010-04-01

287

Lectins stain cells differentially in the coral, Montipora capitata  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A limitation in our understanding of coral disease pathology and cellular pathogenesis is a lack of reagents to characterize coral cells. We evaluated the utility of plant lectins to stain tissues of a dominant coral, Montipora capitata, from Hawaii. Of 22 lectins evaluated, nine of these stained structures in the upper or basal body wall of corals. Specific structures revealed by lectins that were not considered distinct or evident on routine hematoxylin and eosin sections of coral tissues included apical and basal granules in gastrodermis and epidermis, cnidoglandular tract and actinopharynx cell surface membranes, capsules of mature holotrichous isorhizas, and perivitelline and periseminal cells. Plant lectins could prove useful to further our understanding of coral physiology, anatomy, cell biology, and disease pathogenesis.

Work, Thierry M.; Farah, Yael

2014-01-01

288

Mutated plant lectin library useful to identify different cells  

PubMed Central

The 24 nucleotides comprising the carbohydrate-recognition domain of Maackia amurensis hemagglutinin (MAH) cDNA were randomly mutated. The mutant lectins were expressed as glutathione-S-transferase fusion proteins in Escherichia coli and 16 clones were randomly chosen. Although all of 16 recombinant lectins reacted strongly with anti-MAH polyclonal antibody, the carbohydrate-recognition domain of each was unique. As shown by agglutination studies, each mutant MAH lectin was able to bind to erythrocytes from one or more of five animal species in very distinct patterns. Thus, novel plant lectin libraries can be used to discriminate in a highly specific manner among a variety of cell types. This technology may prove to be very useful in a number of different applications requiring a high level of specificity in cell identification. PMID:11226220

Yim, Mijung; Ono, Takashi; Irimura, Tatsuro

2001-01-01

289

21 CFR 864.9550 - Lectins and protectins.  

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9550 Lectins and...

2014-04-01

290

21 CFR 864.9550 - Lectins and protectins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9550 Lectins and...

2011-04-01

291

Bacterial Isolation by Lectin-Modified Microengines  

PubMed Central

New template-based self-propelled gold/nickel/polyaniline/platinum (Au/Ni/PANI/Pt) microtubular engines, functionalized with the Concanavalin A (ConA) lectin bioreceptor, are shown to be extremely useful for the rapid, real-time isolation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria from fuel-enhanced environmental, food and clinical samples. These multifunctional microtube engines combine the selective capture of E. coli with the uptake of polymeric drug-carrier particles to provide an attractive motion-based theranostics strategy. Triggered release of the captured bacteria is demonstrated by movement through a low-pH glycine-based dissociation solution. The smaller size of the new polymer-metal microengines offers convenient, direct and label-free optical visualization of the captured bacteria and discrimination against non-target cells. PMID:22136558

Campuzano, Susana; Orozco, Jahir; Kagan, Daniel; Guix, Maria; Gao, Wei; Sattayasamitsathit, Sirilak; Claussen, Jonathan C.; Merkoci, Arben; Wang, Joseph

2011-01-01

292

Pasteurella pneumotropica Evades the Human Complement System by Acquisition of the Complement Regulators Factor H and C4BP  

PubMed Central

Pasteurella pneumotropica is an opportunist Gram negative bacterium responsible for rodent pasteurellosis that affects upper respiratory, reproductive and digestive tracts of mammals. In animal care facilities the presence of P. pneumotropica causes severe to lethal infection in immunodeficient mice, being also a potential source for human contamination. Indeed, occupational exposure is one of the main causes of human infection by P. pneumotropica. The clinical presentation of the disease includes subcutaneous abscesses, respiratory tract colonization and systemic infections. Given the ability of P. pneumotropica to fully disseminate in the organism, it is quite relevant to study the role of the complement system to control the infection as well as the possible evasion mechanisms involved in bacterial survival. Here, we show for the first time that P. pneumotropica is able to survive the bactericidal activity of the human complement system. We observed that host regulatory complement C4BP and Factor H bind to the surface of P. pneumotropica, controlling the activation pathways regulating the formation and maintenance of C3-convertases. These results show that P. pneumotropica has evolved mechanisms to evade the human complement system that may increase the efficiency by which this pathogen is able to gain access to and colonize inner tissues where it may cause severe infections. PMID:25347183

Sahagun-Ruiz, Alfredo; Granados Martinez, Adriana Patricia; Breda, Leandro Carvalho Dantas; Fraga, Tatiana Rodrigues; Castiblanco Valencia, Monica Marcela; Barbosa, Angela Silva; Isaac, Lourdes

2014-01-01

293

Complement Factors and their G Protein Coupled Receptors in Neuroprotection and Neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

Acute neurodegeneration is associated with high morbidity and mortality, and there are few effective treatments. Inflammation is central to the process of neuronal death, and within this field, the roles of the complement cascade have proven to be complex. The complement cascade is involved in triggering cell death and recruiting inflammatory cells to sites of inflammation, including the brain. However, complement might also have important neuroprotective roles that are only now coming to light. Recent evidence suggests that targeted activation of complement may be a potential avenue for treatment of stroke and other acute neurodegenerative diseases. Herein, we describe these novel neuroprotective roles of the complement cascade, focusing on signaling pathways that may be therapeutically targetable in acute neuronal injury. PMID:20116331

Yanamadala, Vijay; Friedlander, Robert M.

2010-01-01

294

Trichome Development in Arabidopsis thaliana. II. Isolation and Complementation of the GLABROUS1 Gene.  

PubMed Central

We are using the formation of trichomes in Arabidopsis thaliana as a model system to study gene expression during cellular differentiation. To initiate the molecular characterization of this system, we tagged and isolated a gene that is specifically required for the development of the specialized trichome cell. We confirmed the identity of this gene, GLABROUS1 (GL1), by complementation. These results demonstrate that a crucial gene in a plant developmental pathway can be successfully identified by complementation. PMID:12359886

Herman, P. L.; Marks, M. D.

1989-01-01

295

Mapping the complement C1q binding site in Haemonchus contortus calreticulin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haemonchus contortus is an economically important gastrointestinal parasite of domestic animals. The parasite secretes calreticulin (CalR), a Ca++ binding protein which modulates the host immune response. One way by which this protein acts is by inhibiting the classical complement pathway by binding to complement C1q protein. Understanding CalR–C1q interaction is important to develop methods to enhance host immune response. In

S. Naresha; A. Suryawanshi; M. Agarwal; B. P. Singh; P. Joshi

2009-01-01

296

cDNA cloning and phylogenetic analysis of the sixth complement component in rainbow trout  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sixth complement protein (C6) is an essential component of the membrane attack complex (MAC); the end product of the lytic pathway of complement activation. The MAC complex constitutes a supramolecular assembly containing the five precursor proteins C5b, C6, C7, C8, and C9. Once assembled on the target surface it forms transmembrane channels that cause membrane damage and cytolysis of

Maria P. Chondrou; Dimitrios Mastellos; Ioannis K. Zarkadis

2006-01-01

297

A Lectin from Dioclea violacea Interacts with Midgut Surface of Lutzomyia migonei, Unlike Its Homologues, Cratylia floribunda Lectin and Canavalia gladiata Lectin  

PubMed Central

Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease transmitted by phlebotomine sand fly. Susceptibility and refractoriness to Leishmania depend on the outcome of multiple interactions that take place within the sand fly gut. Promastigote attachment to sand fly midgut epithelium is essential to avoid being excreted together with the digested blood meal. Promastigote and gut sand fly surface glycans are important ligands in this attachment. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the interaction of three lectins isolated from leguminous seeds (Diocleinae subtribe), D-glucose and D-mannose-binding, with glycans on Lutzomyia migonei midgut. To study this interaction the lectins were labeled with FITC and a fluorescence assay was performed. The results showed that only Dioclea violacea lectin (DVL) was able to interact with midgut glycans, unlike Cratylia floribunda lectin (CFL) and Canavalia gladiata lectin (CGL). Furthermore, when DVL was blocked with D-mannose the interaction was inhibited. Differences of spatial arrangement of residues and volume of carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) may be the cause of the fine specificity of DVL for glycans in the surface on Lu. migonei midgut. The findings in this study showed the presence of glycans in the midgut with glucose/mannose residues in its composition and these residues may be important in interaction between Lu. migonei midgut and Leishmania.

Monteiro Tínel, Juliana Montezuma Barbosa; Benevides, Melina Fechine Costa; Frutuoso, Mércia Sindeaux; Rocha, Camila Farias; Arruda, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa; Vasconcelos, Mayron Alves; Pereira-Junior, Francisco Nascimento; Cajazeiras, João Batista; do Nascimento, Kyria Santiago; Martins, Jorge Luiz; Teixeira, Edson Holanda; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; dos Santos, Ricardo Pires; Lima Pompeu, Margarida Maria

2014-01-01

298

Fruit-specific lectins from banana and plantain  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  ?One of the predominant proteins in the pulp of ripe bananas (Musa acuminata L.) and plantains (Musa spp.) has been identified as a lectin. The banana and plantain agglutinins (called BanLec and PlanLec, respectively) were\\u000a purified in reasonable quantities using a novel isolation procedure, which prevented adsorption of the lectins onto insoluble\\u000a endogenous polysaccharides. Both BanLec and PlanLec are dimeric

Willy J. Peumans; Wenling Zhang; Annick Barre; Corinne Houlès Astoul; Peter J. Balint-Kurti; Paula Rovira; Pierre Rougé; Gregory D. May; Fred Van Leuven; Paolo Truffa-Bachi; Els J. M. Van Damme

2000-01-01

299

Microbe-specific C3b deposition in the horseshoe crab complement system in a C2/factor B-dependent or -independent manner.  

PubMed

Complement C3 plays an essential role in the opsonization of pathogens in the mammalian complement system, whereas the molecular mechanism underlying C3 activation in invertebrates remains unknown. To understand the molecular mechanism of C3b deposition on microbes, we characterized two types of C2/factor B homologs (designated TtC2/Bf-1 and TtC2/Bf-2) identified from the horseshoe crab Tachypleus tridentatus. Although the domain architectures of TtC2/Bf-1 and TtC2/Bf-2 were identical to those of mammalian homologs, they contained five-repeated and seven-repeated complement control protein domains at their N-terminal regions, respectively. TtC2/Bf-1 and TtC2/Bf-2 were synthesized and glycosylated in hemocytes and secreted to hemolymph plasma, which existed in a complex with C3 (TtC3), and their activation by microbes was absolutely Mg(2+)-dependent. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that TtC3b deposition was Mg(2+)-dependent on Gram-positive bacteria or fungi, but not on Gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, this analysis demonstrated that Ca(2+)-dependent lectins (C-reactive protein-1 and tachylectin-5A) were required for TtC3b deposition on Gram-positive bacteria, and that a Ca(2+)-independent lectin (Tachypleus plasma lectin-1) was definitely indispensable for TtC3b deposition on fungi. In contrast, a horseshoe crab lipopolysaccharide-sensitive protease factor C was necessary and sufficient to deposit TtC3b on Gram-negative bacteria. We conclude that plasma lectins and factor C play key roles in microbe-specific TtC3b deposition in a C2/factor B-dependent or -independent manner. PMID:22611464

Tagawa, Keisuke; Yoshihara, Toyoki; Shibata, Toshio; Kitazaki, Kazuki; Endo, Yuichi; Fujita, Teizo; Koshiba, Takumi; Kawabata, Shun-ichiro

2012-01-01

300

Lectin histochemistry to detect altered glycosylation in cells and tissues.  

PubMed

Lectins are naturally occurring carbohydrate-binding molecules. A very wide range of purified lectins are commercially available which exhibit a diversity of carbohydrate-binding preferences. They can be used in the laboratory to detect carbohydrate structures on, or in, cells and tissues in much the same way that purified antibodies can be employed to detect cell- or tissue-bound antigens using immunocytochemistry. As lectins can distinguish subtle alterations in cellular glycosylation, they are helpful in exploring the glycosylation changes that attend both transformation to malignancy and tumour progression. In this chapter, methodologies are given for appropriate preparation of many types of cell and tissue preparations, including cells cultured on coverslips (which can be used for live-cell imaging), cell smears, and frozen (cryostat) and fixed, paraffin wax-embedded tissue sections. Heat- and enzyme-based carbohydrate retrieval methods are covered. Basic detection methods, which can be readily adapted to the researcher's needs, are given for direct (labelled lectin), simple indirect (labelled secondary antibody directed against the lectin), and avidin-biotin (biotinylated lectin) and avidin-biotin complex. The use of both the enzyme label, horseradish peroxidase, and fluorescent labels is considered. PMID:22674124

Brooks, Susan A; Hall, Debbie M S

2012-01-01

301

Genetic variants in the complement system predisposing to age-related macular degeneration: a review.  

PubMed

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of visual impairment in the western world. It is characterized by the presence of lipoproteinaceous deposits (drusen) in the inner layers of the retina. Immunohistochemistry studies identified deposition of complement proteins in the drusen as well as in the choroid. In the last decade, genetic studies have linked both common and rare variants in genes of the complement system to increased risk of development of AMD. Here, we review the variants described to date and discuss the functional implications of dysregulation of the alternative pathway of complement in AMD. PMID:25034031

Schramm, Elizabeth C; Clark, Simon J; Triebwasser, Michael P; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Seddon, Johanna M; Atkinson, John P

2014-10-01

302

Complement Diagnostics: Concepts, Indications, and Practical Guidelines  

PubMed Central

Aberrations in the complement system have been shown to be direct or indirect pathophysiological mechanisms in a number of diseases and pathological conditions such as autoimmune disease, infections, cancer, allogeneic and xenogeneic transplantation, and inflammation. Complement analyses have been performed on these conditions in both prospective and retrospective studies and significant differences have been found between groups of patients, but in many diseases, it has not been possible to make predictions for individual patients because of the lack of sensitivity and specificity of many of the assays used. The basic indications for serological diagnostic complement analysis today may be divided into three major categories: (a) acquired and inherited complement deficiencies; (b) disorders with complement activation; (c) inherited and acquired C1INH deficiencies. Here, we summarize indications, techniques, and interpretations for basic complement analyses and present an algorithm, which we follow in our routine laboratory. PMID:23227092

Nilsson, Bo; Ekdahl, Kristina Nilsson

2012-01-01

303

Complement and spinal cord injury: traditional and non-traditional aspects of complement cascade function in the injured spinal cord microenvironment.  

PubMed

The pathology associated with spinal cord injury (SCI) is caused not only by primary mechanical trauma, but also by secondary responses of the injured CNS. The inflammatory response to SCI is robust and plays an important but complex role in the progression of many secondary injury-associated pathways. Although recent studies have begun to dissect the beneficial and detrimental roles for inflammatory cells and proteins after SCI, many of these neuroimmune interactions are debated, not well understood, or completely unexplored. In this regard, the complement cascade is a key component of the inflammatory response to SCI, but is largely underappreciated, and our understanding of its diverse interactions and effects in this pathological environment is limited. In this review, we discuss complement in the context of SCI, first in relation to traditional functions for complement cascade activation, and then in relation to novel roles for complement proteins in a variety of models. PMID:25017886

Peterson, Sheri L; Anderson, Aileen J

2014-08-01

304

Spherical Torus Pathway to Fusion Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spherical Torus (ST) as an example of confinement concept innovation to enable a potentially attractive pathway to fusion power is discussed. Given the anticipated high performance in small size, the ST plasma could be used to stimulate innovation also in engineering, technology, and material combinations to provide a smarter, cheaper, faster pathway. This pathway could complement the mainline program based

Martin Peng

1998-01-01

305

Molecular characterization of three L-type lectin genes from channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus and their responses to Edwardsiella ictaluri challenge.  

PubMed

L-type lectins have a leguminous lectin domain and can bind to high-mannose type oligosaccharides. In the secretory pathway, L-type lectins play crucial roles in selective protein trafficking, sorting and targeting. Three L-type lectins were cloned in the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, the 53 kDa endoplasmic reticulum ER-Golgi intermediate compartment protein (ERGIC-53), the vesicular integral protein of 36 kDa (VIP36) and VIP36-like. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the catfish genes are orthologous to their counterparts in other species. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that all three L-type lectin genes are likely single-copy genes in the catfish genome. Analysis of expression in healthy tissues using quantitative real time RT-PCR indicated that all three genes are expressed widely in all tested tissues, but with strong tissue preference of expression: ERGIC-53 was found to be abundantly expressed in the liver, VIP36 was found to be abundantly expressed in the head-kidney, whereas VIP36-like was found to be abundantly expressed in the brain. Upon infection with Edwardsiella ictaluri, expressions of the three genes all had significant up-regulation in the head-kidney, but had distinct expression patterns: ERGIC-53 was gradually induced with the highest expression 7 days after challenge in the head-kidney, but was down-regulated in the liver, spleen, and brain. VIP36 was highly induced in the head-kidney, and 3 days after challenge in the brain, but was not up-regulated in any other tissues or timepoints after challenge. Expression levels of the catfish VIP36-like gene appeared to also respond to infection, albeit with differing patterns among the tested tissues. Taken together, our results indicate that all three L-type lectin genes may be involved in the immune responses of catfish after infection with E. ictaluri. PMID:22245838

Zhang, Hao; Peatman, Eric; Liu, Hong; Feng, Tingting; Chen, Liqiao; Liu, Zhanjiang

2012-04-01

306

21 CFR 866.4100 - Complement reagent.  

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4100 Complement reagent. (a)...

2014-04-01

307

21 CFR 866.4100 - Complement reagent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4100 Complement reagent. (a)...

2012-04-01

308

21 CFR 866.4100 - Complement reagent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4100 Complement reagent. (a)...

2010-04-01

309

Comprehensive lectin histochemistry of normal and neoplastic human choroid plexus cells: alternation of lectin-binding patterns through neoplastic transformation.  

PubMed

Lectin histochemistry of the normal and neoplastic human choroid plexus cells [six choroid plexus papillomas (CPPs) and three choroid plexus carcinomas (CPCs)] was performed using eight representative lectins to study the development of sugar chain structures and also to determine whether lectins were useful for a histopathological diagnosis of choroid plexus neoplasms (CPNs). The normal choroid plexus cells reacted with Ricinus communis (RCA-I). Canavalia ensiformis (Con A), Limax flavus (LFA) and Triticum vulgaris (WGA), while Arachis hypoaea (PNA) stained them only after the removal of sialic acid. Human fetal choroid plexus cells at 8 weeks gestation already showed the same lectin-binding patterns as adult ones. All CPNs were stained by RCA-I and Con A in a similar manner as the normal choroid plexus cells. Although seven CPNs were positive for LFA, two CPCs were not stained by LFA, which bound to sialic acid. Two LFA-positive CPPs were stained by PNA before the removal of sialic acid. Moreover, unlike the normal choroid plexus cells, Ulex europaeus-, Glycine maximus- and Dolichos biflorus-binding sites often appeared, and WGA-binding sites of three CPNs remained even after sialic acid removal. In conclusion, the glycosialylation in normal choroid plexus cells was completed during the early embryonic stage. The lectin-binding patterns of CPNs were heterogenous in each case. The alternation of the glycosialylation and/or acquisition of binding sites for some lectins was sometimes observed through a neoplastic transformation. PMID:1927268

Kaneko, Y; Iwaki, T; Matsushima, T; Fukui, M

1991-01-01

310

The major tuber storage protein of araceae species is a lectin. Characterization and molecular cloning of the lectin from Arum maculatum L.  

PubMed Central

A new lectin was purified from tubers of Arum maculatum L. by affinity chromatography on immobilized asialofetuin. Although this lectin is also retained on mannose-Sepharose 4B, under the appropriate conditions free mannose is a poor inhibitor of its agglutination activity. Pure preparations of the Arum lectin apparently yielded a single polypeptide band of approximately 12 kD upon sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. However, N-terminal sequencing of the purified protein combined with molecular cloning of the lectin have shown that the lectin is composed of two different 12-kD lectin subunits that are synthesized on a single large precursor translated from an mRNA of approximately 1400 nucleotides. Lectins with similar properties were also isolated from the Araceae species Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott, Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott, and Dieffenbachia sequina Schott. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gel filtration of the different Araceae lectins have shown that they are tetrameric proteins composed of lectin subunits of 12 to 14 kD. Interestingly, these lectins are the most prominent proteins in the tuber tissue. Evidence is presented that a previously described major storage protein of Colocasia tubers corresponds to the lectin. PMID:7770523

Van Damme, E J; Goossens, K; Smeets, K; Van Leuven, F; Verhaert, P; Peumans, W J

1995-01-01

311

Complement regulators C1 inhibitor and CD59 do not significantly inhibit complement activation in Alzheimer disease.  

PubMed

Proteins characteristic of activated complement are associated with Alzheimer disease (AD) lesions. The classical complement pathway can be activated only when the influence of such endogenous regulators as C1-inhibitor (C1-inh) and CD59 are overcome. We used the techniques of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting to assess the mRNA and protein levels of C1-inh and CD59 in AD and control brains in comparison with levels of the complement components with which they interact. The inhibitors were only slightly upregulated and then only in heavily affected areas of AD brain such as the entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, midtemporal gyrus and midfrontal gyrus. The ratio of AD to control mRNAs in these four areas was 1.17 for C1-inh and 1.12 for CD59, compared to 3.06 for C1r, 2.67 for C1s, 2.35 for C5, 2.56 for C6, 2.42 for C7, 5. 08 for C8 and 16.3 for C9. Peripheral organ expression of C1-inh and CD59 mRNAs was no different in AD than controls but was slightly upregulated in infarcted heart tissue. Again, the increase was small compared with that of the competitive complement components. These data indicate that the forces which upregulate and activate complement in AD and myocardial infarction are not effectively suppressed by the endogenous regulators, C1-inh and CD59. PMID:10375708

Yasojima, K; McGeer, E G; McGeer, P L

1999-07-01

312

Electrostatic Modeling Predicts the Activities of Orthopoxvirus Complement Control Proteins1  

PubMed Central

Regulation of complement activation by pathogens and the host are critical for survival. Using two highly related orthopoxvirus proteins, the vaccinia and variola (smallpox) virus complement control proteins, which differ by only 11 aa, but differ 1000-fold in their ability to regulate complement activation, we investigated the role of electrostatic potential in predicting functional activity. Electrostatic modeling of the two proteins predicted that altering the vaccinia virus protein to contain the amino acids present in the second short consensus repeat domain of the smallpox protein would result in a vaccinia virus protein with increased complement regulatory activity. Mutagenesis of the vaccinia virus protein confirmed that changing the electrostatic potential of specific regions of the molecule influences its activity and identifies critical residues that result in enhanced function as measured by binding to C3b, inhibition of the alternative pathway of complement activation, and cofactor activity. In addition, we also demonstrate that despite the enhanced activity of the variola virus protein, its cofactor activity in the factor I-mediated degradation of C3b does not result in the cleavage of the ?? chain of C3b between residues 954–955. Our data have important implications in our understanding of how regulators of complement activation interact with complement, the regulation of the innate immune system, and the rational design of potent complement inhibitors that might be used as therapeutic agents. PMID:15699145

Sfyroera, Georgia; Katragadda, Madan; Morikis, Dimitrios; Isaacs, Stuart N.; Lambris, John D.

2014-01-01

313

Complement in Action: An Analysis of Patent Trends from 1976 Through 2011  

PubMed Central

Complement is an essential part of the innate immune response. It interacts with diverse endogenous pathways and contributes to the maintenance of homeostasis, the modulation of adaptive immune responses, and the development of various pathologies. The potential usefulness, in both research and clinical settings, of compounds that detect or modulate complement activity has resulted in thousands of publications on complement-related innovations in fields such as drug discovery, disease diagnosis and treatment, and immunoassays, among others. This study highlights the distribution and publication trends of patents related to the complement system that were granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office from 1976 to the present day. A comparison to complement-related documents published by the World Intellectual Property Organization is also included. Statistical analyses revealed increasing diversity in complement-related research interests over time. More than half of the patents were found to focus on the discovery of inhibitors; interest in various inhibitor classes exhibited a remarkable transformation from chemical compounds early on to proteins and antibodies in more recent years. Among clinical applications, complement proteins and their modulators have been extensively patented for the diagnosis and treatment of eye diseases (especially age-related macular degeneration), graft rejection, cancer, sepsis, and a variety of other inflammatory and immune diseases. All of the patents discussed in this chapter, as well as those from other databases, are available from our newly constructed complement patent database: www.innateimmunity.us/patent. PMID:22990712

Yang, Kun; DeAngelis, Robert A.; Reed, Janet E.; Ricklin, Daniel; Lambris, John D.

2012-01-01

314

Progress and Trends in Complement Therapeutics  

PubMed Central

The past few years have proven to be a highly successful and exciting period for the field of complement-directed drug discovery and development. Driven by promising experiences with the first marketed complement drugs, increased knowledge about the involvement of complement in health and disease, and improvements in structural and analytical techniques as well as animal models of disease, the field has seen a surge in creative approaches to therapeutically intervene at various stages of the cascade. An impressive panel of compounds that show promise in clinical trials is meanwhile being lined up in the pipelines of both small biotechnology and big pharmaceutical companies. Yet with this new focus on complement-targeted therapeutics, important questions concerning target selection, point and length of intervention, safety, and drug delivery emerge. In view of the diversity of the clinical disorders involving abnormal complement activity or regulation, which include both acute and chronic diseases and affect a wide range of organs, diverse yet specifically tailored therapeutic approaches may be needed to shift complement back into balance. This chapter highlights the key changes in the field that shape our current perception of complement-targeted drugs and provides a brief overview of recent strategies and emerging trends. Selected examples of complement-related diseases and inhibitor classes are highlighted to illustrate the diversity and creativity in field. PMID:22990692

Ricklin, Daniel; Lambris, John D.

2012-01-01

315

Characterization of the Grp94/OS-9 Chaperone-Lectin Complex.  

PubMed

Grp94 is a macromolecular chaperone belonging to the hsp90 family and is the most abundant glycoprotein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of mammals. In addition to its essential role in protein folding, Grp94 was proposed to participate in the ER-associated degradation quality control pathway by interacting with the lectin OS-9, a sensor for terminally misfolded proteins. To understand how OS-9 interacts with ER chaperone proteins, we mapped its interaction with Grp94. Glycosylation of the full-length Grp94 protein was essential for OS-9 binding, although deletion of the Grp94 N-terminal domain relieved this requirement suggesting that the effect was allosteric rather than direct. Although yeast OS-9 is composed of a well-established N-terminal mannose recognition homology lectin domain and a C-terminal dimerization domain, we find that the C-terminal domain of OS-9 in higher eukaryotes contains "mammalian-specific insets" that are specifically recognized by the middle and C-terminal domains of Grp94. Additionally, the Grp94 binding domain in OS-9 was found to be intrinsically disordered. The biochemical analysis of the interacting regions provides insight into the manner by which the two associate and it additionally hints at a plausible biological role for the Grp94/OS-9 complex. PMID:25193139

Seidler, Paul M; Shinsky, Stephen A; Hong, Feng; Li, Zihai; Cosgrove, Michael S; Gewirth, Daniel T

2014-10-23

316

Isolation, characterization, and extra-embryonic secretion of the Xenopus laevis embryonic epidermal lectin, XEEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Xenopus laevis embryonic epidermal lectin (XEEL) is a novel member of a group of lectins including mammalian intelectins, frog oocyte cortical granule lectins, and plasma lectins in lower vertebrates and ascidians. We isolated the XEEL protein from the extract of tailbud embryos by affin- ity chromatography on a galactose-Sepharose column. The XEEL protein is a homohexamer of 43-kDa N-glycosylated

Saburo Nagata

2004-01-01

317

A Novel L-ficolin/Mannose-binding Lectin Chimeric Molecule with Enhanced Activity against Ebola Virus*  

PubMed Central

Ebola viruses constitute a newly emerging public threat because they cause rapidly fatal hemorrhagic fevers for which no treatment exists, and they can be manipulated as bioweapons. We targeted conserved N-glycosylated carbohydrate ligands on viral envelope surfaces using novel immune therapies. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and L-ficolin (L-FCN) were selected because they function as opsonins and activate complement. Given that MBL has a complex quaternary structure unsuitable for large scale cost-effective production, we sought to develop a less complex chimeric fusion protein with similar ligand recognition and enhanced effector functions. We tested recombinant human MBL and three L-FCN/MBL variants that contained the MBL carbohydrate recognition domain and varying lengths of the L-FCN collagenous domain. Non-reduced chimeric proteins formed predominantly nona- and dodecameric oligomers, whereas recombinant human MBL formed octadecameric and larger oligomers. Surface plasmon resonance revealed that L-FCN/MBL76 had the highest binding affinities for N-acetylglucosamine-bovine serum albumin and mannan. The same chimeric protein displayed superior complement C4 cleavage and binding to calreticulin (cC1qR), a putative receptor for MBL. L-FCN/MBL76 reduced infection by wild type Ebola virus Zaire significantly greater than the other molecules. Tapping mode atomic force microscopy revealed that L-FCN/MBL76 was significantly less tall than the other molecules despite similar polypeptide lengths. We propose that alterations in the quaternary structure of L-FCN/MBL76 resulted in greater flexibility in the collagenous or neck region. Similarly, a more pliable molecule might enhance cooperativity between the carbohydrate recognition domains and their cognate ligands, complement activation, and calreticulin binding dynamics. L-FCN/MBL chimeric proteins should be considered as potential novel therapeutics. PMID:20516066

Michelow, Ian C.; Dong, Mingdong; Mungall, Bruce A.; Yantosca, L. Michael; Lear, Calli; Ji, Xin; Karpel, Marshall; Rootes, Christina L.; Brudner, Matthew; Houen, Gunnar; Eisen, Damon P.; Kinane, T. Bernard; Takahashi, Kazue; Stahl, Gregory L.; Olinger, Gene G.; Spear, Gregory T.; Ezekowitz, R. Alan B.; Schmidt, Emmett V.

2010-01-01

318

Functional Analyses of Complement Convertases Using C3 and C5-Depleted Sera  

PubMed Central

C3 and C5 convertases are central stages of the complement cascade since they converge the different initiation pathways, augment complement activation by an amplification loop and lead to a common terminal pathway resulting in the formation of the membrane attack complex. Several complement inhibitors attenuate convertase formation and/or accelerate dissociation of convertase complexes. Functional assays used to study these processes are often performed using purified complement components, from which enzymatic complexes are reconstituted on the surface of erythrocytes or artificial matrices. This strategy enables identification of individual interactions between convertase components and putative regulators but carries an inherent risk of detecting non-physiological interactions that would not occur in a milieu of whole serum. Here we describe a novel, alternative method based on C3 or C5-depleted sera, which support activation of the complement cascade up to the desired stages of convertases. This approach allows fast and simple assessment of the influence of putative regulators on convertase formation and stability. As an example of practical utility of the assay, we performed studies on thioredoxin-1 in order to clarify the mechanism of its influence on complement convertases. PMID:23071769

Okroj, Marcin; Holmquist, Emelie; King, Ben C.; Blom, Anna M.

2012-01-01

319

Community-Based Network Study of Protein-Carbohydrate Interactions in Plant Lectins Using Glycan  

E-print Network

Community-Based Network Study of Protein- Carbohydrate Interactions in Plant Lectins Using Glycan lectins and their interacting carbohydrates by using community-based analysis of a lectin-carbohydrate functional groups. Citation: Malik A, Lee J, Lee J (2014) Community-Based Network Study of Protein-Carbohydrate

Lee, Jooyoung

320

Histological and lectin histochemical studies on the olfactory and respiratory mucosae of the sheep.  

PubMed

The olfactory and respiratory mucosae of the Corriedale sheep were examined using lectin histochemistry in order to clarify the histochemical and glycohistochemical differences between these two tissues. The olfactory epithelium was stained with 13 lectins out of 21 lectins examined, while the respiratory epithelium was positive to 16 lectins. The free border of both of the olfactory and respiratory epithelia was stained with 12 lectins: Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), succinylated-wheat germ agglutinin (s-WGA), Lycopersicon esculentum lectin (LEL), Solanum tuberosum lectin (STL), Datura stramonium lectin (DSL), Soybean agglutinin (SBA), Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin-I (BSL-I), Ricinus communis agglutinin-I (RCA-120), Erythrina cristagalli lectin (ECL), Concanavalin A (Con A), Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin-E (PHA-E) and Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin-L (PHA-L). The associated glands of the olfactory mucosa, Bowman's glands, were stained with 13 lectins. While both the goblet cells and mucous nasal glands were stained with 8 lectins; five of them (WGA, s-WGA, STL, Vicia villosa agglutinin (VVA) and ECL) were mutually positive among the Bowman's glands, mucous nasal glands and the goblet cells. These findings indicate that the glycohistochemical characteristics of the free borders of both olfactory and respiratory epithelia are similar to each other, suggesting that secretions from the Bowman's glands and those of the goblet cells and mucous nasal glands are partially exchanged between the surface of two epithelia to contribute the functions of the respiratory epithelium and the olfactory receptor cells, respectively. PMID:24200894

Ibrahim, Dalia; Nakamuta, Nobuaki; Taniguchi, Kazumi; Yamamoto, Yoshio; Taniguchi, Kazuyuki

2014-03-01

321

Bacterial agglutination by the sialic acid specific serum lectin from Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have isolated a serum lectin from the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii that agglutinates Bacillus cereus and Aeromona sp. This lectin also agglutinates other bacteria such as Pasteurella haemolytica biotype A (capsular serotype 12), several serotypes from P. multocida and Staphylococcus aureus and to a lesser extent Escherichia coli and Salmonella arizona.Lectin recognition of well known polysaccharide components seems to

Lorena Vazquez; Laura Jaramillo; Ricardo Lascurain; Edwin L. Cooper; Patricia Rosas; Edgar Zenteno

1996-01-01

322

Pea Lectin Expressed Transgenically in Oilseed Rape Reduces Growth Rate of Pollen Beetle Larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

In several studies plant lectins have shown promise as transgenic resistance factors against various insect pests. We have here shown that pea seed lectin is a potential candidate for use against pollen beetle, a serious pest of Brassica oilseeds. In feeding assays where pollen beetle larvae were fed oilseed rape anthers soaked in a 1% solution of pea lectin there

Margareta Melander; Inger Åhman; Iréne Kamnert; Ann-Charlotte Strömdahl

2003-01-01

323

Lectins: A Possible Basis for Specificity in the Rhizobium-Legume Root Nodule Symbiosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soybean lectin labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate combined specifically with all but 3 of 25 strains of the soybean-nodulating bacterium Rhizobium japonicum. The lectin did not bind to any of 23 other strains representative of rhizobia that do not nodulate soybeans. The evidence suggests that an interaction between legume lectins and Rhizobium cells may account for the specificity expressed between rhizobia

B. B. Bohlool; E. L. Schmidt

1974-01-01

324

Crystal Structure of Arcelin-5, a Lectin-like Defense Protein from Phaseolus vulgaris*  

E-print Network

, generally called the legume lectins. The seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) con- tain, besides voor Biotechnologie, Universiteit Gent, K. L. Ledeganckstraat 35, B-9000 Gent, Belgium In the seeds. The most extensively studied class of lectins is undoubtedly the legume lectin class, found in the seeds

Hamelryck, Thomas

325

Involvement of ER stress in apoptosis induced by sialic acid-binding lectin (leczyme) from bullfrog eggs  

PubMed Central

Sialic-acid binding lectin (SBL) isolated from bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) oocytes is a multifunctional protein which has lectin activity, ribonuclease activity and cancer-selective antitumor activity. It has been reported that SBL induces apoptosis accompanied by rigid mitochondrial perturbation, which indicates mediation of the intrinsic pathway. However, the mechanism of the antitumor effect of SBL has not been fully elucidated. We report, here, that ER stress is evoked in SBL-treated cells. We show that caspase-4, an initiator caspase of ER stress-mediated apoptosis was activated, and inhibition of caspase-4 resulted in significant attenuation of apoptosis induced by SBL. We analyzed the precise mechanism of activation of the caspase cascade induced by SBL, and found that caspase-9 and -4 are activated upstream of activation of caspase-8. Further study revealed that SBL induces the mitochondrial and ER stress-mediated pathways independently. It is noteworthy that SBL can induce cancer-selective apoptosis by multiple apoptotic signaling pathways, and it can serve as a candidate molecule for anticancer drugs in a novel field. PMID:24100413

TATSUTA, TAKEO; HOSONO, MASAHIRO; MIURA, YUKI; SUGAWARA, SHIGEKI; KARIYA, YUKIKO; HAKOMORI, SENITIROH; NITTA, KAZUO

2013-01-01

326

Sex chromosome complement regulates expression of mood-related genes  

PubMed Central

Background Studies on major depressive and anxiety disorders suggest dysfunctions in brain corticolimbic circuits, including altered gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and modulatory (serotonin and dopamine) neurotransmission. Interestingly, sexual dimorphisms in GABA, serotonin, and dopamine systems are also reported. Understanding the mechanisms behind these sexual dimorphisms may help unravel the biological bases of the heightened female vulnerability to mood disorders. Here, we investigate the contribution of sex-related factors (sex chromosome complement, developmental gonadal sex, or adult circulating hormones) to frontal cortex expression of selected GABA-, serotonin-, and dopamine-related genes. Methods As gonadal sex is determined by sex chromosome complement, the role of sex chromosomes cannot be investigated individually in humans. Therefore, we used the Four Core Genotypes (FCG) mouse model, in which sex chromosome complement and gonadal sex are artificially decoupled, to examine the expression of 13 GABA-related genes, 6 serotonin- and dopamine-related genes, and 8 associated signal transduction genes under chronic stress conditions. Results were analyzed by three-way ANOVA (sex chromosome complement?×?gonadal sex?×?circulating testosterone). A global perspective of gene expression changes was provided by heatmap representation and gene co-expression networks to identify patterns of transcriptional activities related to each main factor. Results We show that under chronic stress conditions, sex chromosome complement influenced GABA/serotonin/dopamine-related gene expression in the frontal cortex, with XY mice consistently having lower gene expression compared to XX mice. Gonadal sex and circulating testosterone exhibited less pronounced, more complex, and variable control over gene expression. Across factors, male conditions were associated with a tightly co-expressed set of signal transduction genes. Conclusions Under chronic stress conditions, sex-related factors differentially influence expression of genes linked to mood regulation in the frontal cortex. The main factor influencing expression of GABA-, serotonin-, and dopamine-related genes was sex chromosome complement, with an unexpected pro-disease effect in XY mice relative to XX mice. This effect was partially opposed by gonadal sex and circulating testosterone, although all three factors influenced signal transduction pathways in males. Since GABA, serotonin, and dopamine changes are also observed in other psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, these findings have broader implications for the understanding of sexual dimorphism in adult psychopathology. PMID:24199867

2013-01-01

327

CD46: the 'multitasker' of complement proteins.  

PubMed

Complement is undeniably quintessential for innate immunity by detecting and eliminating infectious microorganisms. Recent work, however, highlights an equally profound impact of complement on the induction and regulation of a wide range of immune cells. In particular, the complement regulator CD46 emerges as a key sensor of immune activation and a vital modulator of adaptive immunity. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of CD46-mediated signalling events and their functional consequences on immune-competent cells with a specific focus on those in CD4(+) T cells. We will also discuss the promises and challenges that potential therapeutic modulation of CD46 may hold and pose. PMID:24120647

Yamamoto, Hidekazu; Fara, Antonella Francesca; Dasgupta, Prokar; Kemper, Claudia

2013-12-01

328

Short Communication Molecular cloning of the b subunit of complement component eight of rainbow trout  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complement-mediated killing of pathogens through the lytic pathway is an important effector mechanism of the innate immune response. C8 is one of the components of the lytic pathway and is composed of an a, b, and g subunit. In the present study we report the cloning and characterization of the primary structure of the C8b subunit in the rainbow trout

M. Claire; H. Holland; John D. Lambris; Ioannis K. Zarkadis

329

Polyanion-induced self-association of complement factor H.  

PubMed

Factor H is the primary soluble regulator of activation of the alternative pathway of complement. It prevents activation of complement on host cells and tissues upon association with C3b and surface polyanions such as sialic acids, heparin, and other glycosaminoglycans. Here we show that interaction with polyanions causes self-association forming tetramers of the 155,000 Da glycosylated protein. Monomeric human factor H is an extended flexible protein that exhibits an apparent size of 330,000 Da, relative to globular standards, during gel filtration chromatography in the absence of polyanions. In the presence of dextran sulfate (5000 Da) or heparin an intermediate species of apparent m.w. 700,000 and a limit species of m.w. 1,400,000 were observed by gel filtration. Sedimentation equilibrium analysis by analytical ultracentrifugation indicated a monomer Mr of 163,000 in the absence of polyanions and a Mr of 607,000, corresponding to a tetramer, in the presence of less than a 2-fold molar excess of dextran sulfate. Increasing concentrations of dextran sulfate increased binding of factor H to zymosan-C3b 4.5-fold. This result was accompanied by an increase in both the decay accelerating and cofactor activity of factor H on these cells. An expressed fragment encompassing the C-terminal polyanion binding site (complement control protein domains 18-20) also exhibited polyanion-induced self-association, suggesting that the C-terminal ends of factor H mediate self-association. The results suggest that recognition of polyanionic markers on host cells and tissues by factor H, and the resulting regulation of complement activation, may involve formation of dimers and tetramers of factor H. PMID:19124749

Pangburn, Michael K; Rawal, Nenoo; Cortes, Claudio; Alam, M Nurul; Ferreira, Viviana P; Atkinson, Mark A L

2009-01-15

330

Distinguishing benign from malignant pleural effusions by lectin immunocytochemistry.  

PubMed

Since distinguishing malignant from benign cells in pleural effusions can be difficult, with reactive mesothelial cells simulating adenocarcinoma cells, the binding patterns of a battery of lectins on cells in eight benign and eight malignant effusions were studied using the avidin-biotin peroxidase complex method. The following lectins were used: concanavalin A, Dolichos biflorus agglutinin, peanut agglutinin, Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin, Ricinus communis germ agglutinin, soybean agglutinin, Ulex europeaus agglutinin (UEA) and wheat germ agglutinin. Several patterns of staining were seen with the lectins, but only UEA was helpful in distinguishing between benign and malignant effusions. Sixty percent of the adenocarcinomas stained with UEA, whereas none of the cells in the benign effusions did. These results imply that UEA positivity is indicative of carcinoma and can be useful in separating reactive or atypical mesothelial cells from adenocarcinoma cells. PMID:2473586

Rosen-Levin, E; Patil, J R; Watson, C W; Jagirdar, J

1989-01-01

331

Role of complement in host-microbe homeostasis of the periodontium  

PubMed Central

Complement plays a key role in immunity and inflammation through direct effects on immune cells or via crosstalk and regulation of other host signaling pathways. Deregulation of these finely balanced complement activities can link infection to inflammatory tissue damage. Periodontitis is a polymicrobial community-induced chronic inflammatory disease that can destroy the tooth-supporting tissues. In this review, we summarize and discuss evidence that complement is involved in the dysbiotic transformation of the periodontal microbiota and in the inflammatory process that leads to the destruction of periodontal bone. Recent insights into the mechanisms of complement involvement in periodontitis have additionally provided likely targets for therapeutic intervention against this oral disease. PMID:23684627

Hajishengallis, George; Abe, Toshiharu; Maekawa, Tomoki; Hajishengallis, Evlambia; Lambris, John D.

2013-01-01

332

In vitro and in vivo changes in human complement caused by silage.  

PubMed Central

Aqueous extracts of silage samples from four farms in up-state New York were reacted in vitro with normal human serum. Hemolytic levels of complement component C3 were consumed in a dose-dependent fashion, and the four extracts differed in their relative activity rankings. Studies with chelated serum indicate that the alternative complement pathway is involved in the activation, and the active fragment C3b was demonstrated. Serum levels of hemolytic C3 and C4 in vivo were quantified before and after farmers performed their normal silo unloading operations. Although the study groups were small, suggestive evidence of in vivo complement consumption was found. IgE-related allergy did not appear to be of significance to the study groups. Complement activation may be an initiator of or contributor to adverse reactions in farmers who are exposed to airborne silage dusts. Images FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. PMID:3709488

Olenchock, S A; May, J J; Pratt, D S; Lewis, D M; Mull, J C; Stallones, L

1986-01-01

333

Lectin histochemical studies on the vomeronasal organ of the sheep.  

PubMed

The vomeronasal organ of sheep was examined using lectin histochemistry in order to compare the types and amounts of the glycoconjugates among various components of the vomeronasal sensory and non-sensory epithelia. In the vomeronasal sensory epithelium, Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA) stained particular cells, located at the same level as the vomeronasal receptor cells, while the distribution, shape and number of the stained cells did not correspond to those of the vomeronasal receptor cells. Datura stramonium lectin (DSL), Concanavalin A (Con A), Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin-E (PHA-E) and Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin-L (PHA-L) labeled the basal cells of both vomeronasal sensory and non-sensory epithelia. While, Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), Succinylated-wheat germ agglutinin (s-WGA), Lycopersicon esculentum lectin (LEL), Solanum tuberosum lectin (STL) and Ricinus communis agglutinin-I (RCA-120) labeled the basal cells of the sensory epithelium, and Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin-I (BSL-I) stained the basal cells of the non-sensory epithelium, respectively. Seventeen lectins labeled the free border of both vomeronasal sensory and non-sensory epithelia, while Sophora japonica agglutinin (SJA), Jacalin and Pisum sativum agglutinin (PSA) labeled neither free border of the sensory nor that of non-sensory epithelia. The expression pattern of glycoconjugate was similar, but not identical, in the free border between the sensory and non-sensory epithelia. These results indicate that there are dissimilar features in the type and amount of glycoconjugates between the vomeronasal sensory and non-sensory epithelia, and at the same time, among the various cell types either in the vomeronasal sensory or non-sensory epithelium. PMID:23595118

Ibrahim, Dalia; Nakamuta, Nobuaki; Taniguchi, Kazumi; Taniguchi, Kazuyuki

2013-01-01

334

Burkholderia pseudomallei activates complement and is ingested but not killed by polymorphonuclear leukocytes.  

PubMed Central

The mechanism by which Burkholderia pseudomallei is resistant to lysis by human serum is unknown but may include interference with complement activation, effective opsonization, or complement-mediated lysis. We investigated the interaction of B. pseudomallei with complement in the presence and absence of specific antibody to determine potential mechanisms of serum resistance. We demonstrated rapid activation and consumption of complement by B. pseudomallei which, in the absence of specific antibody, occurred predominantly via the alternative pathway. Complement activation was associated with deposition of the opsonically active C3b and iC3b fragments on the bacterial surface. C5b-9, detected on the bacterial surface after opsonic periods of 1 to 60 min, was susceptible to elution by 1 M NaCl, indicating that resistance to complement-mediated lysis may result from deposition of the membrane attack complex in a nonmicrobicidal location. To define the role of opsonins, we investigated the ability of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) to phagocytose B. pseudomallei. Phagocytosis of bacteria by PMNL, and the observed oxidative response, was significantly increased by opsonization of organisms with complement and/or specific antibody. Despite opsonophagocytosis by PMNL and the production of an oxidative response, no significant bacterial killing was observed. PMID:8945532

Egan, A M; Gordon, D L

1996-01-01

335

Complement emerges as a masterful regulator of CNS homeostasis, neural synaptic plasticity and cognitive function.  

PubMed

Growing evidence points to a previously elusive role of complement-modulated pathways in CNS development, neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity. Distinct complement effectors appear to play a multifaceted role in brain homeostasis by regulating synaptic pruning in the retinogeniculate system and sculpting functional neural circuits both in the developing and adult mammalian brain. A recent study by Perez-Alcazar et al. (2014) provides novel insights into this intricate interplay between complement and the dynamically regulated brain synaptic circuitry, by reporting that mice deficient in C3 exhibit enhanced hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and cognitive performance. This behavioral pattern is associated with an impact of C3 on the functional capacity of glutamatergic synapses, supporting a crucial role for complement in excitatory synapse elimination in the hippocampus. These findings add a fresh twist to this rapidly evolving research field, suggesting that discrete complement components may differentially modulate synaptic connectivity by wiring up with diverse neural effectors in different regions of the brain. The emerging role of complement in synaptogenesis and neural network plasticity opens new conceptual avenues for considering complement interception as a potential therapeutic modality for ameliorating progressive cognitive impairment in age-related, debilitating brain diseases with a prominent inflammatory signature. PMID:24975369

Mastellos, Dimitrios C

2014-11-01

336

Binding of the complement inhibitor C4b-binding protein to Lyme disease borreliae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lyme disease spirochetes, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii, are tick-borne pathogens that can cause chronic disseminated infections. To survive in the human host borreliae need to evade the immune system. It is already well known that B. burgdorferi ss. and B. afzelii bind the complement (C) alternative pathway inhibitor factor H from serum using OspE

Johanna Pietikäinen; Taru Meri; Anna M. Blom; Seppo Meri

2010-01-01

337

Experiments investigating cooperative types in humans: A complement to evolutionary theory  

E-print Network

Experiments investigating cooperative types in humans: A complement to evolutionary theory) Unlike other species, humans cooperate in large, distantly related groups, a fact that has long presented a puzzle to biologists. The pathway by which adaptations for large-scale cooperation among nonkin evolved

Dukas, Reuven

338

Ferromagnetic Levan Composite: An Affinity Matrix to Purify Lectin  

PubMed Central

A simple and inexpensive procedure used magnetite and levan to synthesize a composite recovered by a magnetic field. Lectins from Canavalia ensiformis (Con A) and Cratylia mollis (Cramoll 1 and Cramoll 1, 4) did bind specifically to composite. The magnetic property of derivative favored washing out contaminating proteins and recovery of pure lectins with glucose elution. Cramoll 1 was purified by this affinity binding procedure in two steps instead of a previous three-step protocol with ammonium sulfate fractionation, affinity chromatography on Sephadex G-75, and ion exchange chromatography through a CM-cellulose column. PMID:19547713

Angeli, Renata; da Paz, Nathalia V. N.; Maciel, Jackeline C.; Araujo, Flavia F. B.; Paiva, Patricia M. G.; Calazans, Glicia M. T.; Valente, Ana Paula; Almeida, Fabio C. L.; Coelho, Luana C. B. B.; Carvalho, Luiz B.; Silva, Maria da Paz C.; dos Santos Correia, Maria Tereza

2009-01-01

339

Modulation of Mouse Endotoxic Fever by Complement  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was recently reported that the complement system may be critically involved in the febrile response of guinea pigs to systemic, particularly intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected, lipopolysaccharides (LPS). The present study was designed to identify which component(s) of the complement cascade may be specifically critical. To this end, we used mice with C3, C5, and CR2 gene deletions. To assess preliminarily

S. Li; V. M. Holers; S. A. Boackle; C. M. Blatteis

2002-01-01

340

Complement in Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn  

Microsoft Academic Search

frequently. Inn 1909, ?-1eycr and Emmerich,' amid inn 1912 Kumugai amid his coworkers' . demomnstrated loiv conncenntrat.ionns of complement shortly after the occurrennce of hemobytic crises inn paroxysmal cold hemogbobinnuria. Young, et al.4 foumnd that the complement bevels of dogs dropped sharply aind rose fain-ly promptly to normal values after the production of intravascular hemobysis by the ad- minnistrationn of

TIBOR J. GREENWALT

1953-01-01

341

Two applications of complementation via inductive counting  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent proof that nondeterministic space-bounded complexity classes are closed under complementation is used to develop two further applications of the inductive counting technique. An errorless probabilistic algorithm is given for the undirected graph s-t connectivity problem that runs in O(log n) space and polynomial expected time, and it is shown that the class LOGCFL is closed under complementation. The

Allan Borodin; Stephen A. Cook; P. W. Dymond; Walter L. Ruzzo; Martin Tompa

1988-01-01

342

Structure, interactions and evolutionary implications of a domain-swapped lectin dimer from Mycobacterium smegmatis.  

PubMed

Crystal structure determination of the lectin domain of MSMEG_3662 from Mycobacterium smegmatis and its complexes with mannose and methyl-?-mannose, the first effort of its kind on a mycobacterial lectin, reveals a structure very similar to ?-prism II fold lectins from plant sources, but with extensive unprecedented domain swapping in dimer formation. The two subunits in a dimer often show small differences in structure, but the two domains, not always related by 2-fold symmetry, have the same structure. Each domain carries three sugar-binding sites, similar to those in plant lectins, one on each Greek key motif. The occurrence of ?-prism II fold lectins in bacteria, with characteristics similar to those from plants, indicates that this family of lectins is of ancient origin and had evolved into a mature system before bacteria and plants diverged. In plants, the number of binding sites per domain varies between one and three, whereas the number is two in the recently reported lectin domains from Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. An analysis of the sequences of the lectins and the lectin domains shows that the level of sequence similarity among the three Greek keys in each domain has a correlation with the number of binding sites in it. Furthermore, sequence conservation among the lectins from different species is the highest for that Greek key which carries a binding site in all of them. Thus, it would appear that carbohydrate binding influences the course of the evolution of the lectin. PMID:24957055

Patra, Dhabaleswar; Mishra, Padmanabh; Surolia, Avadhesha; Vijayan, Mamannamana

2014-10-01

343

Lectin coated MgO nanoparticle: its toxicity, antileishmanial activity, and macrophage activation.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research was to evaluate toxicity of uncoated magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO NPs), MgO NPs coated with Peanut agglutinin (PNA) lectin, and PNA alone on the promastigotes of Leishmania major (L. major) and macrophages of BALB/c mice. On the other hand, antileishmanial property of uncoated MgO NPs, lectin coated MgO NPs, and PNA lectin alone was evaluated, and also macrophage activation was investigated after treatment with these materials by measurement of nitrite, H2O2, and some interleukins. This study showed that PNA lectin and lectin coated MgO NPs had approximately no toxicity on L. major and macrophages, but some toxic effects were observed for uncoated MgO NPs, especially at concentration of 500?µg/mL. Interestingly, lectin coated MgO NPs had the highest antileishmanial activity and macrophage activation, compared with uncoated MgO NPs and PNA lectin. PMID:24393043

Jebali, Ali; Hekmatimoghaddam, Seyedhossein; Kazemi, Bahram; Allaveisie, Azra; Masoudi, Alireza; Daliri, Karim; Sedighi, Najme; Ranjbari, Javad

2014-10-01

344

Comparative studies of the haemagglutination of adult and umbilical cord erythrocytes by animal lectins.  

PubMed

1. The sugar specificities of four lactose-binding lectins were studied through the agglutination of adult and/or umbilical cord human erythrocytes (AHRBC and/or CHRBC). 2. Rana catesbeiana egg lectin specifically agglutinated both intact blood group A-AHRBC and intact blood group A-CHRBC. 3. Rana catesbeiana liver lectin agglutinated intact A-AHRBC much more strongly than intact A-CHRBC. 4. Xenopus laevis skin lectin nonspecifically agglutinated AHRBC and CHRBC. 5. Plecoglossus altivelis egg lectin specifically agglutinated intact B-AHRBC, but weakly agglutinated intact B-CHRBC. 6. Comparative studies of lectin-induced AHRBC or CHRBC agglutination clarified the sugar-binding specificities of these lectins. PMID:3265660

Nitta, K; Terasaki, Y; Kawauchi, H; Takayanagi, G

1988-01-01

345

EFFECT OF SULFONES ON COMPLEMENT DEPOSITION IN DERMATITIS HERPETIFORMIS AND ON COMPLEMENT-MEDIATED GUINEAPIG REACTIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of complement and the mechanism of sulfone action in dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) have not yet been established; prior studies have presented conflicting data regarding the effect of sulfones on complement activation and deposition. Thirty-eight DH patients were studied. Twenty-four of 25 perilesional skin biopsies and 50 of 67 normal-appearing skin biopsies showed the third component of complement (C3)

Stephen I. Katz; Kennerth C. Hertz; Peggy S. Crawford; Laura A. Gazze; Michael M. Frank; Thomas J. Lawley

1976-01-01

346

Global Comparisons of Lectin–Glycan Interactions Using a Database of Analyzed Glycan Array Data*  

PubMed Central

Lectin–glycan interactions have critical functions in multiple normal and pathological processes, but the binding partners and functions for many glycans and lectins are not known. An important step in better understanding glycan–lectin biology is enabling systematic quantification and analysis of the interactions. Glycan arrays can provide the experimental information for such analyses, and the thousands of glycan array datasets available through the Consortium for Functional Glycomics provide the opportunity to extend the analyses to a broad scale. We developed software, based on our previously described Motif Segregation algorithm, for the automated analysis of glycan array data, and we analyzed the entire storehouse of 2883 datasets from the Consortium for Functional Glycomics. We mined the resulting database to make comparisons of specificities across multiple lectins and comparisons between glycans in their lectin receptors. Of the lectins in the database, viral lectins were the most different from other organism types, with specificities nearly always restricted to sialic acids, and mammalian lectins had the most diverse range of specificities. Certain mammalian lectins were unique in their specificities for sulfated glycans. Simple modifications to a lactosamine core structure radically altered the types of lectins that were highly specific for the glycan. Unmodified lactosamine was specifically recognized by plant, fungal, viral, and mammalian lectins; sialylation shifted the binding mainly to viral lectins; and sulfation resulted in mainly mammalian lectins with the highest specificities. We anticipate that this analysis program and database will be valuable in fundamental glycobiology studies, detailed analyses of lectin specificities, and practical applications in translational research. PMID:23399549

Kletter, Doron; Singh, Sudhir; Bern, Marshall; Haab, Brian B.

2013-01-01

347

Use of lectin microarray to differentiate gastric cancer from gastric ulcer  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the feasibility of lectin microarray for differentiating gastric cancer from gastric ulcer. METHODS: Twenty cases of human gastric cancer tissue and 20 cases of human gastric ulcer tissue were collected and processed. Protein was extracted from the frozen tissues and stored. The lectins were dissolved in buffer, and the sugar-binding specificities of lectins and the layout of the lectin microarray were summarized. The median of the effective data points for each lectin was globally normalized to the sum of medians of all effective data points for each lectin in one block. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gastric cancer tissues and their corresponding gastric ulcer tissues were subjected to Ag retrieval. Biotinylated lectin was used as the primary antibody and HRP-streptavidin as the secondary antibody. The glycopatterns of glycoprotein in gastric cancer and gastric ulcer specimens were determined by lectin microarray, and then validated by lectin histochemistry. Data are presented as mean ± SD for the indicated number of independent experiments. RESULTS: The glycosylation level of gastric cancer was significantly higher than that in ulcer. In gastric cancer, most of the lectin binders showed positive signals and the intensity of the signals was stronger, whereas the opposite was the case for ulcers. Significant differences in the pathological score of the two lectins were apparent between ulcer and gastric cancer tissues using the same lectin. For MPL and VVA, all types of gastric cancer detected showed stronger staining and a higher positive rate in comparison with ulcer, especially in the case of signet ring cell carcinoma and intra-mucosal carcinoma. GalNAc bound to MPL showed a significant increase. A statistically significant association between MPL and gastric cancer was observed. As with MPL, there were significant differences in VVA staining between gastric cancer and ulcer. CONCLUSION: Lectin microarray can differentiate the different glycopatterns in gastric cancer and gastric ulcer, and the lectins MPL and VVA can be used as biomarkers. PMID:24833877

Huang, Wei-Li; Li, Yang-Guang; Lv, Yong-Chen; Guan, Xiao-Hui; Ji, Hui-Fan; Chi, Bao-Rong

2014-01-01

348

Effect of gamma irradiation on mistletoe (Viscum album) lectin-mediated toxicity and immunomodulatory activity.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the effect of gamma irradiation on the reduction of the toxicity of mistletoe lectin using both in vitro and in vivo models. To extract the lectin from mistletoe, an (NH4)2SO4 precipitation method was employed and the precipitant purified using a Sepharose 4B column to obtain the pure lectin fraction. Purified lectin was then gamma-irradiated at doses of 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 kGy, or heated at 100 °C for 30 min. Toxic effects of non-irradiated, irradiated, and heat-treated lectins were tested using hemagglutination assays, cytotoxicity assays, hepatotoxicity, and a mouse survival test and immunological response was tested using cytokine production activity. Hemagglutination of lectin was remarkably decreased (P < 0.05) by irradiation at doses exceeding 10 kGy and with heat treatment. However, lectin irradiated with 5 kGy maintained its hemagglutination activity. The cytotoxicity of lectin was decreased by irradiation at doses over 5 kGy and with heat treatment. In experiments using mouse model, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) levels were decreased in the group treated with the 5 kGy irradiated and heat-treated lectins as compared to the intact lectin, and it was also shown that 5 kGy irradiated and heat-treated lectins did not cause damage in liver tissue or mortality. In the result of immunological response, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?) and interleukin (IL-6) levels were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in the 5 kGy gamma-irradiated lectin treated group. These results indicate that 5 kGy irradiated lectin still maintained the immunological response with reduction of toxicity. Therefore, gamma-irradiation may be an effective method for reducing the toxicity of lectin maintaining the immune response. PMID:23847758

Sung, Nak-Yun; Byun, Eui-Baek; Song, Du-Sup; Jin, Yeung-Bae; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Park, Jong-Heum; Song, Beom-Seok; Jung, Pil-Mun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Lee, Ju-Woon; Park, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Jae-Hun

2013-01-01

349

Effect of gamma irradiation on mistletoe (Viscum album) lectin-mediated toxicity and immunomodulatory activity?  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the effect of gamma irradiation on the reduction of the toxicity of mistletoe lectin using both in vitro and in vivo models. To extract the lectin from mistletoe, an (NH4)2SO4 precipitation method was employed and the precipitant purified using a Sepharose 4B column to obtain the pure lectin fraction. Purified lectin was then gamma-irradiated at doses of 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 kGy, or heated at 100 °C for 30 min. Toxic effects of non-irradiated, irradiated, and heat-treated lectins were tested using hemagglutination assays, cytotoxicity assays, hepatotoxicity, and a mouse survival test and immunological response was tested using cytokine production activity. Hemagglutination of lectin was remarkably decreased (P < 0.05) by irradiation at doses exceeding 10 kGy and with heat treatment. However, lectin irradiated with 5 kGy maintained its hemagglutination activity. The cytotoxicity of lectin was decreased by irradiation at doses over 5 kGy and with heat treatment. In experiments using mouse model, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) levels were decreased in the group treated with the 5 kGy irradiated and heat-treated lectins as compared to the intact lectin, and it was also shown that 5 kGy irradiated and heat-treated lectins did not cause damage in liver tissue or mortality. In the result of immunological response, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?) and interleukin (IL-6) levels were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in the 5 kGy gamma-irradiated lectin treated group. These results indicate that 5 kGy irradiated lectin still maintained the immunological response with reduction of toxicity. Therefore, gamma-irradiation may be an effective method for reducing the toxicity of lectin maintaining the immune response. PMID:23847758

Sung, Nak-Yun; Byun, Eui-Baek; Song, Du-Sup; Jin, Yeung-Bae; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Park, Jong-Heum; Song, Beom-Seok; Jung, Pil-Mun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Lee, Ju-Woon; Park, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Jae-Hun

2013-01-01

350

Estimating farm machinery complements based on cropmix and farm size  

E-print Network

complement for representative crop farms. Machinery complement data was collected from 31 representative farms. These data were used to estimate Ordinary Least Squares regression models for 16 machinery complement categories for the current market value...

Barrera, Anna Marie

2012-06-07

351

LEAPT: Lectin-directed enzyme-activated prodrug therapy  

E-print Network

LEAPT: Lectin-directed enzyme-activated prodrug therapy Mark A. Robinson*, Stuart T. Charlton) administration of a prodrug activated by that predelivered enzyme at the desired site. The carbohydrate structure enzyme activity (0.2 units in hepatocytes) for prodrug therapy, the target of which was switched simply

Davis, Ben G.

352

Antibiotic activity of lectins from marine algae against marine vibrios.  

PubMed

Saline and aqueous ethanol extracts of marine algae and the lectins from two red algal species were assayed for their antibiotic activity against marine vibrios. Experimental studies were also carried out on the influence of environmental factors on such activity, using batch cultures. The results indicated that many of the saline extracts of the algal species were active and that the activity was selective against those vibrios assayed. The algal extracts were active against Vibrio pelagius and the fish pathogen V. vulnificus, but inactive against V. neresis. Algal lectins from Eucheuma serra (ESA) and Galaxaura marginata (GMA) strongly inhibited V. vulnificus but were inactive against the other two vibrios. The antibacterial activity of algal extracts was inhibited by pretreatment with various sugars and glycoprotein. Extracts of the two red algae, E. serra and Pterocladia capillacea, in saline and aqueous ethanol, inhibited markedly the growth rate of V. vulnificus at very low concentrations. Culture results indicated that metabolites active against V. vulnificus were invariably produced in P. capillacea over a wide range of temperature, light intensity, and nutritional conditions. Enhanced antibacterial activity occurred when P. capillacea was grown under higher irradiance, severe nutrient stress and moderate temperature (20 degrees C), reflecting the specific antibiotic characteristics of this alga. The strong antibiotic activity of lectins towards fish pathogenic bacteria reveals one of the important roles played by algal lectins, as well as the potential high economic value of those marine algae assayed for aquaculture and for biomedical purposes. PMID:12884128

Liao, W-R; Lin, J-Y; Shieh, W-Y; Jeng, W-L; Huang, R

2003-07-01

353

Serum haemolytic complement activities in 11 different MHC (B) typed chicken lines.  

PubMed

To study the relation between serum complement levels and the chicken MHC (B) complex, complement haemolytic activity was measured in sera from hens from seven pure-bred B-typed White and one Brown Leghorn lines, and three ISA-Warren lines that had been divergently selected for antibody responses to sheep red blood cells (SRBC). Significant differences occurred in the serum haemolytic complement activities, both belonging to the classic (CPW) and the alternative (APW) pathways, among the 11 different haplotyped chicken lines. Hens with high CPW and high APW titres predominantly displayed the B2 or B21 haplotypes. Chickens with low CPW and APW were found in B14 and B15 haplotypes. Haplotype B14 appears to be different in complement levels when present into the pure-bred lines or into the ISA-Warren line selected for low antibody responses to SRBC. Otherwise, the presence of B21 in ISA-Warren line selected for high antibody responses to SRBC does not differ with the B21 in the inbred lines (except in the NL-line for CPW values). In general the haplotypes B2 and B21 are found in chicken lines with enhanced disease resistance, and the B15 haplotype has been connected with enhanced disease susceptibility. Our results suggest that levels of haemolytic complement activity, either from the classical or from the alternative pathways, may underlie part of the immunocompetence ascribed to the MHC (B) complex in chickens. PMID:15182993

Parmentier, Henk K; Baelmans, Rudy; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Dorny, Pierre; Demey, Fred; Berkvens, Dirk

2004-07-01

354

Natural Antibody and Complement Mediate Neutralization of Influenza Virus in the Absence of Prior Immunity?  

PubMed Central

Early control of virus replication by the innate immune response is essential to allow time for the generation of a more effective adaptive immune response. As an important component of innate immunity, complement has been shown to be necessary for protection against numerous microbial infections. This study was undertaken to investigate the role of complement in neutralizing influenza virus. Results demonstrated that the classical pathway of complement mediated serum neutralization of influenza virus. Although nonimmune serum neutralized influenza virus, the mechanism of virus neutralization (VN) required antibody, as sera from RAG1-deficient mice lacked VN activity; moreover, purified natural immunoglobulin M (IgM) restored VN activity to antibody-deficient sera. The mechanism of VN by natural IgM and complement was associated with virion aggregation and coating of the viral hemagglutinin receptor; however, viral lysis did not significantly contribute to VN. Additionally, reconstitution of RAG1-deficient mice with natural IgM resulted in delayed morbidity during influenza virus infection. Collectively, these results provide evidence that natural IgM and the early components of the classical pathway of complement work in concert to neutralize influenza virus and that this interaction may have a significant impact on the course of influenza viral pneumonia. PMID:17202212

Jayasekera, Jerome P.; Moseman, E. Ashley; Carroll, Michael C.

2007-01-01

355

Lectin histochemical evaluation of glycoconjugates in dog efferent ductules.  

PubMed Central

Glycoconjugates in the epithelial cells of the efferent ductules in the dog were investigated using lectin histochemistry. These ductules connect the extratesticular rete with the epididymis. The epithelium of the ductules consisted both of ciliated and nonciliated cells. Whereas the apical zone of ciliated cells showed selective binding with WGA, SWGA, SNA, MAA and neuraminidase-PNA, that of nonciliated cells bound to all lectins used in the present study: WGA, SWGA, SNA, MAA, PNA, neuraminidase-PNA, RCA1, DBA and SBA. The nonciliated cells were divided into 3 types: type A cells which lacked both specific granules and vacuoles, type B cells which were characterised by a few specific apical vacuoles and many large specific granules, and type C cells which were characterised by some specific apical vacuoles and small basal granules. The specific granules and vacuoles of type B cells showed binding with WGA, SWGA and MAA. The specific granules of type C cells showed binding with WGA, SWGA, SNA, MAA, PNA and neuraminidase-PNA, while their specific vacuoles showed binding with WGA, SWGA, SNA and MAA. The Golgi zone both of ciliated and type A cells did not bind with any lectins used in this study, while type B and C cells showed similar lectin binding patterns between the Golgi zone and their specific granules. Specific lectin binding patterns revealed a different carbohydrate composition of each type of cell, indicating a biological difference between the ciliated cells and the 3 types of nonciliated cells in dog efferent ductules. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8763471

Wakui, S; Furusato, M; Takahashi, H; Motoya, M; Ushigome, S

1996-01-01

356

Studies on lectins. XXXVI. Properties of some lectins prepared by affinity chromatography on O-glycosyl polyacrylamide gels.  

PubMed

A number of lectins has been purified by affinity chromatography on O-glycosyl polyacrylamide gels. The lectins isolated (and the particular sugar ligands used in the affinity carriers) are as follows: Anguilla anguilla, serum (alpha-L-fucosyl-), Vicia cracca, seeds; Phaseolus lunatus, seeds; Glycine soja, seeds; Dolichos biflorus, seeds; Maclura pomifera, seeds; Sarothamnus scoparius, seeds; Helix pomatia, ablumin glands; Clitocybe nebularis, fruiting bodies (all N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosaminyl-); Ricinus communis, seeds (beta-lactosyl-); Ononis spinosa, root; Fomes fomentarius, fruiting bodies; Marasmius oreades, fruiting bodies (all alpha-D-galactosyl-), Canavalia ensiformis, seeds, (i.e., concanavalin A) (alpha-D-glucosyl-). Physicochemical properties of Glycine soja, Dolichos biflorus, Phaseolus lunatus, Helix Pomatia and Ricinus communis lectins corresponded well to properties of the preparations studied earlier by other workers. For the other purified lectins the essential physiochemical data (sedimentation coefficient, molecular weight, subunit composition, electrophoretic patterns, amino acid composition, carbohydrate content, isoelectric point) were established and their precipitating, hemagglutinating and mitogenic activities determined. PMID:563738

Horejsí, V; Kocourek, J

1978-01-18

357

From The Cover: A common haplotype in the complement regulatory gene factor H (HF1\\/CFH) predisposes individuals to age-related macular degeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most frequent cause of irreversible blindness in the elderly in developed countries. Our previous studies implicated activation of complement in the formation of drusen, the hallmark lesion of AMD. Here, we show that factor H (HF1), the major inhibitor of the alternative complement pathway, accumulates within drusen and is synthesized by the retinal pigmented

Gregory S. Hageman; Don H. Anderson; Lincoln V. Johnson; Lisa S. Hancox; Andrew J. Taiber; Lisa I. Hardisty; Jill L. Hageman; Heather A. Stockman; James D. Borchardt; Karen M. Gehrs; Richard J. H. Smith; Giuliana Silvestri; Stephen R. Russell; Caroline C. W. Klaver; Irene Barbazetto; Stanley Chang; Lawrence A. Yannuzzi; Gaetano R. Barile; John C. Merriam; R. Theodore Smith; Adam K. Olsh; Julie Bergeron; Jana Zernant; Joanna E. Merriam; Bert Gold; Michael Dean; Rando Allikmets

2005-01-01

358

Systemic complement profiling in multiple sclerosis as a biomarker of disease state  

PubMed Central

Background: There is increasing evidence of significant and dynamic systemic activation and upregulation of complement in multiple sclerosis (MS), which may contribute to disease pathogenesis. Objective: We aimed to investigate the pathological role of complement in MS and the potential role for complement profiling as a biomarker of MS disease state. Methods: Key components of the classical, alternative and terminal pathways of complement were measured in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with MS in different clinical phases of disease and in matched controls. Results: Increased plasma levels of C3 (p<0.003), C4 (p<0.001), C4a (p<0.001), C1 inhibitor (p<0.001), and factor H (p<0.001), and reduced levels of C9 (p<0.001) were observed in MS patients compared with controls. Combined profiling of these analytes produced a statistical model with a predictive value of 97% for MS and 73% for clinical relapse when combined with selected demographic data. CSF-plasma correlations suggested that source of synthesis of these components was both systemic and central. Conclusion: These data provide further evidence of alterations in both local and systemic expression and activation of complement in MS and suggest that complement profiling may be informative as a biomarker of MS disease, although further work is needed to determine its use in distinguishing MS from its differential. PMID:22354735

Ingram, G; Hakobyan, S; Hirst, CL; Harris, CL; Loveless, S; Mitchell, JP; Pickersgill, TP; Robertson, NP

2012-01-01

359

Malarial anemia: digestive vacuole of Plasmodium falciparum mediates complement deposition on bystander cells to provoke hemophagocytosis.  

PubMed

The digestive vacuole (DV) of Plasmodium falciparum, which is released into the bloodstream upon rupture of each parasitized red blood cell (RBC), was recently discovered to activate the alternative complement pathway. In the present work, we show that C3- and C5-convertases assembling on the parasitic organelle are able to provoke deposition of activated C3 and C5b-9 on non-infected bystander erythrocytes. Direct contact of DVs with cells is mandatory for the effect, and bystander complement deposition occurs focally, possibly at the sites of contact. Complement opsonization promotes protracted erythrophagocytosis by human macrophages, an effect that is magnified when ring-stage infected RBCs with reduced CD55 and CD59, or paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH)-RBCs lacking these complement inhibitors are employed as targets. Bystander attack can also directly induce lysis of PNH-RBCs. Direct evidence for complement activation and bystander attack mediated by DVs was obtained through immunohistochemical analyses of brain paraffin sections from autopsies of patients who had died of cerebral malaria. C3d and the assembled C5b-9 complex could be detected in all sections, colocalizing with and often extending locally beyond massive accumulations of DVs that were identified under polarized light. This is the first demonstration that a complement-activating particle can mediate opsonization of bystander cells to promote their antibody-independent phagocytosis. The phenomenon may act in concert with other pathomechanisms to promote the development of anemia in patients with severe malaria. PMID:24985035

Dasari, Prasad; Fries, Anja; Heber, Sophia D; Salama, Abdulgabar; Blau, Igor-Wolfgang; Lingelbach, Klaus; Bhakdi, Sebastian Chakrit; Udomsangpetch, Rachanee; Torzewski, Michael; Reiss, Karina; Bhakdi, Sucharit

2014-12-01

360

Assay of complement activity in human serum using large unilamellar liposomes.  

PubMed

Liposomes incorporating 2,4,6-trinitrophenyl-aminocaproyl-dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine (TNP-cap-DPPE) as a membrane hapten can be lysed by human complement in the presence of anti-TNP antibody. Liposomes were composed of L-alpha-dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine, cholesterol, TNP-cap-DPPE and dicetylphosphate at a molar ratio of 1:1:0.005:0.02. Large unilamellar liposomes were prepared by reverse-phase evaporation with an entrapped marker, carboxyfluorescein, which is self-quenching in liposomes at high concentrations such as 0.2 M. When the marker is released by complement action, a strong fluorescence is produced. The amount of marker released from liposomes is able to quantify complement activity of both the classical and alternative pathways. CL50 is the complement activity obtained by lysis of 50% of the liposomes. The number of CL50 units in sera obtained with liposomes correlates well with those obtained using the hemolytic complement test CH50 (r = 0.98). The advantages of this method include stability of reagents, accuracy, simplicity and speed. In addition, it is well suited for developing an automated system. This method is a useful substitute for the hemolytic assay for determination of human complement activity. PMID:2794527

Masaki, T; Okada, N; Yasuda, R; Okada, H

1989-09-29

361

Complement cascade and kidney transplantation: The rediscovery of an ancient enemy  

PubMed Central

The identification of complement activity in serum and immunohistochemical samples represents a core element of nephropathology. On the basis of this observation, different experimental models and molecular studies have shown the role of this cascade in glomerular disease etiology, but the absence of inhibiting drugs have limited its importance. Since 2006, the availability of target-therapies re-defined this ancient pathway, and its blockage, as the new challenging frontier in renal disease treatment. In the graft, the complement cascade is able to initiate and propagate the damage in ischemia-reperfusion injury, C3 glomerulopathy, acute and chronic rejection, atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome and, probably, in many other conditions. The importance of complement-focused research is revealed by the evidence that eculizumab, the first complement-targeting drug, is now considered a valid option in atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome treatment but it is also under investigation in all the aforementioned conditions. In this review we evaluate the importance of complement cascade in renal transplantation diseases, focusing on available treatments, and we propose a speculative identification of areas where complement inhibition may be a promising strategy. PMID:25346889

Mella, Alberto; Messina, Maria; Lavacca, Antonio; Biancone, Luigi

2014-01-01

362

Properties of Lectins in the Root and Seed of Lotononis bainesii1  

PubMed Central

A lectin was purified from the root of Lotononis bainesii Baker by affinity chromatography on Sepharose-blood group substance A + H. The molecular weight of the lectin was estimated by gel filtration to be 118,000. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that the lectin was a tetramer composed of two slightly different subunits with respective molecular weights of 32,000 and 35,000. The lectin had a hexose content of 12% (w/w) and contained the sugars fucose, glucosamine, mannose, and xylose. Root lectin hemagglutination was preferentially inhibited by disaccharides with terminal nonreducing galactose residues. Antigens capable of cross-reaction with root lectin antibody were not detected in the seed of L. bainesii. A lectin from the seed of L. bainesii was partially purified by adsorption to pronase-treated rabbit erythrocytes. The lectin preparation had a molecular weight of approximately 200,000. Galactose and galactono-1,4-lactone inhibited seed lectin hemagglutination but lactose was ineffective. There was no evidence that the root of L. bainesii contained material antigenically related to the seed lectin. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:16663508

Law, Ian J.; Strijdom, Barend W.

1984-01-01

363

Role of Decay-Accelerating Factor in Regulating Complement Activation on the Erythrocyte Surface as Revealed by Gene Targeting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decay-accelerating factor (DAF) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane protein that inhibits both the classical and the alternative pathways of complement activation. DAF has been studied extensively in humans under two clinical settings: when absent from the erythrocytes of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) patients, who suffer from complement-mediated hemolytic anemia, and in transgenic pigs expressing human DAF, which have been developed

Xiujun Sun; Colin D. Funk; Chengjun Deng; Arvind Sahu; John D. Lambris; Wen-Chao Song

1999-01-01

364

Trypanosoma cruzi calreticulin: A novel virulence factor that binds complement C1 on the parasite surface and promotes infectivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Trypanosoma cruzi, calreticulin (TcCRT) translocates from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the area of flagellum emergence. We propose herein that the parasite uses this molecule to capture complement C1, in an infective apoptotic mimicry strategy. Thus, TcCRT\\/C1 interactions, besides inhibiting the classical pathway of complement activation as previously shown in our laboratories, will also promote infectivity. This fact correlates

Galia Ramírez; Carolina Valck; María C. Molina; Carolina H. Ribeiro; Nandy López; Gittith Sánchez; Viviana P. Ferreira; Rosario Billetta; Lorena Aguilar; Ismael Maldonado; Pedro Cattán; Wilhelm Schwaeble; Arturo Ferreira

2010-01-01

365

Role of complement and NK cells in antibody mediated rejection.  

PubMed

Despite extensive research on T cells and potent immunosuppressive regimens that target cellular mediated rejection, few regimens have been proved to be effective on antibody-mediated rejection (AMR), particularly in the chronic setting. C4d deposition in the graft has been proved to be a useful marker for AMR; however, there is an imperfect association between C4d and AMR. While complement has been considered as the main player in acute AMR, the effector mechanisms in chronic AMR are still debated. Recent studies support the role of NK cells and direct effects of antibody on endothelium cells in a mechanism suggesting the presence of a complement-independent pathway. Here, we review the history, currently available systems and progress in experimental animal research. Although there are consistent findings from human and animal research, transposing the experimental results from rodent to human has been hampered by the differences in endothelial functions between species. We briefly describe the findings from patients and compare them with results from animals, to propose a combined perspective. PMID:22850181

Akiyoshi, Takurin; Hirohashi, Tsutomu; Alessandrini, Alessandro; Chase, Catherine M; Farkash, Evan A; Neal Smith, R; Madsen, Joren C; Russell, Paul S; Colvin, Robert B

2012-12-01

366

Role of complement and NK cells in antibody mediated rejection  

PubMed Central

Despite extensive research on T cells and potent immunosuppressive regimens that target cellular mediated rejection, few regimens have been proved to be effective on antibody-mediated rejection (AMR), particularly in the chronic setting. C4d deposition in the graft has been proved to be a useful marker for AMR; however, there is an imperfect association between C4d and AMR. While complement has been considered as the main player in acute AMR, the effector mechanisms in chronic AMR are still debated. Recent studies support the role of NK cells and direct effects of antibody on endothelium cells in a mechanism suggesting the presence of a complement-independent pathway. Here, we review the history, currently available systems and progress in experimental animal research. Although there are consistent findings from human and animal research, transposing the experimental results from rodent to human has been hampered by the differences in endothelial functions between species. We briefly describe the findings from patients and compare them with results from animals, to propose a combined perspective. PMID:22850181

Akiyoshi, Takurin; Hirohashi, Tsutomu; Alessandrini, Alessandro; Chase, Catherine M.; Farkash, Evan A.; Smith, R. Neal; Madsen, Joren C.; Russell, Paul S.; Colvin, Robert B.

2013-01-01

367

The immunosuppression mechanism of hypodermin A on complement.  

PubMed

Hypodermin A (HA), a serine protease secreted by first-instar larvae of Hypoderma lineatum (Diptera: Oestridae) is associated with inflammatory and the specific immune responses in cattle hosts. In the present study, the cDNA sequence of HA was synthesized, and found to have fifteen amino acids which differed from the sequence available in GenBank. We then examined the association between recombinant HA and guinea-pig complement component 3 (C3) through a co-immunoprecipitation assay. Cos7 cells stably expressing HA were generated, and were found to be more resistant to lysis by guinea-pig C3 than the controls. HA was also able to degrade the C6 and C5b-9 of guinea-pig C3. The presumed DNA binding site of HA with guinea-pig C3 was detected by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). In contrast, after stable transfection, mHA was unable to reduce the amount of C3 or to inhibit its cytotoxicity, while HA could degrade guinea-pig C3 and inhibit the complement pathway. The findings suggest that recombinant HA could serve as an immunosuppressive agent against organ rejection after xenotransplantation. PMID:24412715

Chen, Ren-Jin; Hu, An-Kang; Yuan, Hong-Hua; Wang, Zhen-Zhen; Ji, De-Jun; Wu, Lian-Lian; Zhang, Teng-Ye; Zhu, Yu-Hua; Sun, Wei; Zhu, Xiao-Rong

2014-04-01

368

Smoke exposure causes endoplasmic reticulum stress and lipid accumulation in retinal pigment epithelium through oxidative stress and complement activation.  

PubMed

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex disease caused by genetic and environmental factors, including genetic variants in complement components and smoking. Smoke exposure leads to oxidative stress, complement activation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and lipid dysregulation, which have all been proposed to be associated with AMD pathogenesis. Here we examine the effects of smoke exposure on the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Mice were exposed to cigarette smoke or filtered air for 6 months. RPE cells grown as stable monolayers were exposed to 5% cigarette smoke extract (CSE). Effects of smoke were determined by biochemical, molecular, and histological measures. Effects of the alternative pathway (AP) of complement and complement C3a anaphylatoxin receptor signaling were analyzed using knock-out mice or specific inhibitors. ER stress markers were elevated after smoke exposure in RPE of intact mice, which was eliminated in AP-deficient mice. To examine this relationship further, RPE monolayers were exposed to CSE. Short term smoke exposure resulted in production and release of complement C3, the generation of C3a, oxidative stress, complement activation on the cell membrane, and ER stress. Long term exposure to CSE resulted in lipid accumulation, and secretion. All measures were reversed by blocking C3a complement receptor (C3aR), alternative complement pathway signaling, and antioxidant therapy. Taken together, our results provide clear evidence that smoke exposure results in oxidative stress and complement activation via the AP, resulting in ER stress-mediated lipid accumulation, and further suggesting that oxidative stress and complement act synergistically in the pathogenesis of AMD. PMID:24711457

Kunchithapautham, Kannan; Atkinson, Carl; Rohrer, Bärbel

2014-05-23

369

C3 glomerulopathy: A new complement-based entity.  

PubMed

C3 glomerulopathy is a new, recently described entity that has changed the perspective, treatment and classification of a number of glomerular diseases. It encompasses 2 similar but clearly differentiated pathologies -the dense-deposit disease and C3 glomerulonephritis itself. The alternative complement pathway plays a fundamental role in its pathogenesis and, specifically, the mutations and defects in its regulatory factors (mainly factor H and factor I), as well as the presence of acquired autoantibodies (C3 nephritic factor), which generates an unbridled activation of the system, and ultimately, a deposit of its products at the glomerular level. Its poor prognosis and onset in young populations makes the detailed study of new therapeutic alternatives for this disease essential. Recently eculizumab, an anti-C5 antibody, has demonstrated effectiveness in the treatment of these patients. PMID:24576419

de Lorenzo, A; Tallón, S; Hernández-Sevillano, B; de Arriba, G

2014-01-01

370

Effect of Complement on HIV-2 Plasma Antiviral Activity Is Intratype Specific and Potent  

PubMed Central

Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2)-infected individuals develop immunodeficiency with a considerable delay and transmit the virus at rates lower than HIV-1-infected persons. Conceivably, comparative studies on the immune responsiveness of HIV-1- and HIV-2-infected hosts may help to explain the differences in pathogenesis and transmission between the two types of infection. Previous studies have shown that the neutralizing antibody response is more potent and broader in HIV-2 than in HIV-1 infection. In the present study, we have examined further the function of the humoral immune response and studied the effect of complement on the antiviral activity of plasma from singly HIV-1- or HIV-2-infected individuals, as well as HIV-1/HIV-2 dually infected individuals. The neutralization and antibody-dependent complement-mediated inactivation of HIV-1 and HIV-2 isolates were tested in a plaque reduction assay using U87.CD4.CCR5 cells. The results showed that the addition of complement increased intratype antiviral activities of both HIV-1 and HIV-2 plasma samples, although the complement effect was more pronounced with HIV-2 than HIV-1 plasma. Using an area-under-the-curve (AUC)-based readout, multivariate statistical analysis confirmed that the type of HIV infection was independently associated with the magnitude of the complement effect. The analyses carried out with purified IgG indicated that the complement effect was largely exerted through the classical complement pathway involving IgG in both HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections. In summary, these findings suggest that antibody binding to HIV-2 structures facilitates the efficient use of complement and thereby may be one factor contributing to a strong antiviral activity present in HIV-2 infection. PMID:23077299

Ozkaya Sahin, Gulsen; Holmgren, Birgitta; Sheik-Khalil, Enas; da Silva, Zacarias; Nielsen, Jens; Nowroozalizadeh, Salma; Mansson, Fredrik; Norrgren, Hans; Aaby, Peter; Fenyo, Eva Maria

2013-01-01

371

Studies on lectins. XXXII. Application of affinity electrophoresis to the study of the interaction of lectins and their derivatives with sugars.  

PubMed

Affinity electrophoresis was used to study the sugar binding heterogeneity of lectins or their derivatives. Commercial and demetallized preparations of concanavalin A could be resolved by affinity electrophoresis into three components with different affinity to immobilized sugar. Similarly the Vicia cracca lectin obtained by affinity chromatography behaved on affinity gels as a mixture of active and inactive molecular species. Affinity electrophoresis has shown that the nonhemagglutinating acetylated lentil lectin and photo-oxidized or sulfenylated pea lectin retain their sugar binding properties; dissociation constants of saccharide complexes of these derivatives are similar to those of native lectins. The presence of specific immobilized sugar in the affinity gel improved the resolution of isolectins from Dolichos biflorus and Ricinus communis seeds. PMID:907789

Horejsí, V; Tichá, M; Kocourek, J

1977-09-29

372

DISJOINTLY HOMOGENEOUS BANACH LATTICES: DUALITY AND COMPLEMENTATION  

E-print Network

DISJOINTLY HOMOGENEOUS BANACH LATTICES: DUALITY AND COMPLEMENTATION J. FLORES, F. L. HERN´ANDEZ, E. SPINU, P. TRADACETE, AND V. G. TROITSKY Abstract. We study several properties of disjointly homogeneous. In particular, we provide examples of reflexive disjointly homogeneous spaces whose dual spaces

373

TRANSPLANTATION Handling complement for transplant success  

E-print Network

IN BRIEF TRANSPLANTATION Handling complement for transplant success Haematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is used to treat cancer and blood disorders, but a potentially lethal complication. Treatment of recipients with a C5a receptor antagonist during the post-transplantation period reduced GVHD

Cai, Long

374

Herbicides to Complement Glyphosate Common Giant  

E-print Network

Herbicides to Complement Glyphosate Common Giant SOA # PRE as part of sequential with glyphosate Control N = No Control SOA = Site of action is defined as the biochemical site at which the herbicide of POST herbicides Note: problems with timing, crop injury potential, and off-target injury of tank

Minnesota, University of

375

Are Product Innovation and Flexible Technology Complements?  

Microsoft Academic Search

REVISED ABSTRACT: This paper analyzes the interdependence between the firms’ technology choice and innovation. Previous literature argues that product flexibility and product innovation are complements, because flexible machines handle a large variety of product designs with low changeover times. In a model where technology is chosen before uncertain demand is realized, we show that long-run technology, by imposing constraints on

Astrid Jung

2001-01-01

376

Electronic Detection of Lectins Using Carbohydrate Functionalized Nanostructures: Graphene versus Carbon Nanotubes  

PubMed Central

Here we investigated the interactions between lectins and carbohydrates using field-effect transistor (FET)