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1

The Lectin Pathway of Complement and Rheumatic Heart Disease  

PubMed Central

The innate immune system is the first line of host defense against infection and is comprised of humoral and cellular mechanisms that recognize potential pathogens within minutes or hours of entry. The effector components of innate immunity include epithelial barriers, phagocytes, and natural killer cells, as well as cytokines and the complement system. Complement plays an important role in the immediate response against microorganisms, including Streptococcus sp. The lectin pathway is one of three pathways by which the complement system can be activated. This pathway is initiated by the binding of mannose-binding lectin (MBL), collectin 11 (CL-K1), and ficolins (Ficolin-1, Ficolin-2, and Ficolin-3) to microbial surface oligosaccharides and acetylated residues, respectively. Upon binding to target molecules, MBL, CL-K1, and ficolins form complexes with MBL-associated serine proteases 1 and 2 (MASP-1 and MASP-2), which cleave C4 and C2 forming the C3 convertase (C4b2a). Subsequent activation of complement cascade leads to opsonization, phagocytosis, and lysis of target microorganisms through the formation of the membrane-attack complex. In addition, activation of complement may induce several inflammatory effects, such as expression of adhesion molecules, chemotaxis and activation of leukocytes, release of reactive oxygen species, and secretion of cytokines and chemokines. In this chapter, we review the general aspects of the structure, function, and genetic polymorphism of lectin-pathway components and discuss most recent understanding on the role of the lectin pathway in the predisposition and clinical progression of Rheumatic Fever. PMID:25654073

Beltrame, Marcia Holsbach; Catarino, Sandra Jeremias; Goeldner, Isabela; Boldt, Angelica Beate Winter; de Messias-Reason, Iara José

2014-01-01

2

Complement systems in invertebrates. The ancient alternative and lectin pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complement system in higher vertebrates is composed of about thirty proteins that function in three activation cascades and converge in a single terminal pathway. It is believed that these cascades, as they function in the higher vertebrates, evolved from a few ancestral genes through a combination of gene duplications and divergences plus pathway . duplication perhaps as a result

L. Courtney Smith; Kaoru Azumi; Masaru Nonaka

1999-01-01

3

The lectin pathway of complement: advantage or disadvantage in HIV pathogenesis?  

PubMed

The pattern recognition molecules of the lectin complement pathway are important components of the innate immune system with known functions in host-virus interactions. This paper summarizes current knowledge of how these intriguing molecules, including mannose-binding lectin (MBL), Ficolin-1, -2 and -3, and collectin-11 (CL-11) may influence HIV-pathogenesis. It has been demonstrated that MBL is capable of binding and neutralizing HIV and may affect host susceptibility to HIV infection and disease progression. In addition, MBL may cause variations in the host immune response against HIV. Ficolin-1, -2 and -3 and CL-11 could have similar functions in HIV infection as the ficolins have been shown to play a role in other viral infections, and CL-11 resembles MBL and the ficolins in structure and binding capacity. PMID:24928325

Ballegaard, V; Haugaard, A K; Garred, P; Nielsen, S D; Munthe-Fog, L

2014-09-01

4

Mutations in the lectin complement pathway genes COLEC11 and MASP1 cause 3MC syndrome  

PubMed Central

3MC syndrome has been proposed as a unifying term to integrate the overlapping Carnevale, Mingarelli, Malpuech and Michels syndromes. These rare autosomal recessive disorders of unknown cause comprise a spectrum of developmental features including characteristic facial dysmorphism, cleft lip and/or palate, craniosynostosis, learning disability, and genital, limb and vesicorenal anomalies. In a cohort of eleven 3MC families, we identified two mutated genes COLEC11 and MASP1 both of which encode proteins within the lectin complement pathway (CL-K1 and MASP-1 & ?3 respectively). CL-K1 is highly expressed in embryonic murine craniofacial cartilage, heart, bronchi, kidney, and vertebral bodies. Zebrafish morphants develop pigment defects and severe craniofacial abnormalities. Here, we show that CL-K1 serves as a key guidance cue for neural crest cell migration thus demonstrating for the first time, a role for complement pathway factors in fundamental developmental processes and the origin of 3MC syndrome. PMID:21258343

Rooryck, Caroline; Diaz-Font, Anna; Osborn, Daniel P.S.; Chabchoub, Elyes; Hernandez-Hernandez, Victor; Shamseldin, Hanan; Kenny, Joanna; Waters, Aoife; Jenkins, Dagan; Kaissi, Ali Al; Leal, Gabriela F.; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Carnevale, Franco; Bitner-Glindzicz, Maria; Lees, Melissa; Hennekam, Raoul; Stanier, Philip; Burns, Alan J.; Peeters, Hilde; Alkuraya, Fowzan S; Beales, Philip L.

2011-01-01

5

Interaction of lectin pathway of complement-activating pattern recognition molecules with mycobacteria.  

PubMed

We have demonstrated that mannose-binding lectin (MBL) recognizes various slow-growing, pathogenic mycobacteria [Mycobacterium?tuberculosis (MTB), M.?bovis, M.?kansasii, M.?gordonae] as well as non-pathogenic M.?smegmatis. Recognition resulted in activation of the lectin pathway (LP) of complement and an enhancement of phagocytosis (shown for M.?tuberculosis). Although MBL may be considered the main factor activating the LP upon recognition of mycobacteria, involvement of ficolins has also to be considered. Interaction of ficolin-3 with M.?tuberculosis, M.?bovis and M.?kansasii, and ficolin-1 with M.?tuberculosis and M.?bovis was shown for the first time. Binding of recombinant MBL or ficolin-3 to MTB H37 Rv led to the agglutination of bacteria and promoted their phagocytosis, but little effect was apparent with ficolin-1 or ficolin-2. Data from Western blots suggest mannosylated lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM) to be one of the main cell components of slow-growing mycobacteria, involved in LP activation. However, the LP was also activated by other cell fractions. Results presented here supplement considerably the data concerning the ability of complement-activating lectins to interact with mycobacteria. Ficolins (especially ficolin-3) might influence host response to infection and thus have clinical significance, at least as disease modifiers. PMID:25041480

Bartlomiejczyk, M A; Swierzko, A S; Brzostek, A; Dziadek, J; Cedzynski, M

2014-11-01

6

TFPI inhibits lectin pathway of complement activation by direct interaction with MASP-2.  

PubMed

The lectin pathway (LP) of complement has a protective function against invading pathogens. Recent studies have also shown that the LP plays an important role in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-injury. MBL-associated serine protease (MASP)-2 appears to be crucial in this process. The serpin C1-inhibitor is the major inhibitor of MASP-2. In addition, aprotinin, a Kunitz-type inhibitor, was shown to inhibit MASP-2 activity in vitro. In this study we investigated whether the Kunitz-type inhibitor tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) is also able to inhibit MASP-2. Ex vivo LP was induced and detected by C4-deposition on mannan-coated plates. The MASP-2 activity was measured in a fluid-phase chromogenic assay. rTFPI in the absence or presence of specific monoclonal antibodies was used to investigate which TFPI-domains contribute to MASP-2 inhibition. Here, we identify TFPI as a novel selective inhibitor of MASP-2, without affecting MASP-1 or the classical pathway proteases C1s and C1r. Kunitz-2 domain of TFPI is required for the inhibition of MASP-2. Considering the role of MASP-2 in complement-mediated I/R-injury, the inhibition of this protease by TFPI could be an interesting therapeutic approach to limit the tissue damage in conditions such as cerebral stroke, myocardial infarction or solid organ transplantation. PMID:25359215

Keizer, Mischa P; Pouw, Richard B; Kamp, Angela M; Patiwael, Sanne; Marsman, Gerben; Hart, Margreet H; Zeerleder, Sacha; Kuijpers, Taco W; Wouters, Diana

2014-10-31

7

Lyme Borreliosis and Deficient Mannose-Binding Lectin Pathway of Complement.  

PubMed

Risk factors for the widely endemic and much-debated tick-borne infection, Lyme borreliosis (LB), are unknown. The mannose-binding lectin (MBL) pathway of the complement cascade has an essential role in the eradication of Borrelia burgdorferi. A sufficient concentration of biologically active MBL in body fluids is an indicator of proper function of the MBL pathway. In this study, we investigated whether impaired MBL pathway function, represented by reduced serum MBL concentration, predisposes individuals to LB. First, we determined a serum MBL concentration cut-off level associated with diminished MBL pathway function in a group of 201 individuals. Then, we identified 350 borrelia Ab(+) LB patient serum samples and 350 Ab(-) control samples from the archives of our laboratory and measured serum MBL concentrations in both sample groups. The concentration data were analyzed statistically using logistic regression, controlling for MBL cut-off, age, gender, and age and gender interaction. Serum MBL concentrations < 787 and < 445 ng/ml were associated with diminished and deficient MBL pathway function, respectively. Using these cut-offs, diminished (41.4 versus 27.4%, p = 0.0027) and deficient (26.3 versus 17.1%, p = 0.0361) MBL pathway functions were observed statistically more frequently in the LB patient samples than in the control samples. Also, the age-adjusted median serum MBL concentrations were significantly lower in the LB patient samples than in the non-LB controls. Our findings indicate that a deficiency in the MBL pathway of the complement cascade is a risk factor for developing disseminated Ab(+) LB. PMID:25416809

Sajanti, Eeva M; Gröndahl-Yli-Hannuksela, Kirsi; Kauko, Tommi; He, Qiushui; Hytönen, Jukka

2014-11-21

8

The Emerging Role of Complement Lectin Pathway in Trypanosomatids: Molecular Bases in Activation, Genetic Deficiencies, Susceptibility to Infection, and Complement System-Based Therapeutics  

PubMed Central

The innate immune system is evolutionary and ancient and is the pivotal line of the host defense system to protect against invading pathogens and abnormal self-derived components. Cellular and molecular components are involved in recognition and effector mechanisms for a successful innate immune response. The complement lectin pathway (CLP) was discovered in 1990. These new components at the complement world are very efficient. Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) and ficolin not only recognize many molecular patterns of pathogens rapidly to activate complement but also display several strategies to evade innate immunity. Many studies have shown a relation between the deficit of complement factors and susceptibility to infection. The recently discovered CLP was shown to be important in host defense against protozoan microbes. Although the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns by MBL and Ficolins reveal efficient complement activations, an increase in deficiency of complement factors and diversity of parasite strategies of immune evasion demonstrate the unsuccessful effort to control the infection. In the present paper, we will discuss basic aspects of complement activation, the structure of the lectin pathway components, genetic deficiency of complement factors, and new therapeutic opportunities to target the complement system to control infection. PMID:23533355

Evans-Osses, Ingrid; de Messias-Reason, Iara; Ramirez, Marcel I.

2013-01-01

9

Factors of the Lectin Pathway of Complement Activation and Their Clinical Associations in Neonates  

PubMed Central

This paper summarizes the data concerning soluble defense lectins (mannan-binding lectin, M-ficolin, L-ficolin, and H-ficolin) with the unique ability to activate complement and their associated serine proteases (MASPs) in neonates. The clinical importance of deficiencies of these immune factors is presented in aspects of perinatal mortality, premature births, and low birthweight. Prenatal serum concentrations of L-ficolin, H-ficolin, and MASP-2 (and probably M-ficolin) correlate with gestational age and birthweight. The relationship of serum MBL to gestational age is controversial. The MBL2 genotypes XA/O and O/O (associated with low-serum MBL) are associated with perinatal infections, whereas the high serum MBL-conferring A/A genotypes may be associated with prematurity. Low-serum L-ficolin concentrations, but not low-serum H-ficolin concentrations, are also associated with perinatal infections. Much of the literature is inconsistent, and the relationships reported so far require independent confirmation at both gene and protein levels. Our preliminary conclusion is that these soluble defense lectins play a protective role in the neonate, and that insufficiency of such factors contributes to the adverse consequences of prematurity and low birthweight. PMID:22619494

Cedzynski, Maciej; Swierzko, Anna St.; Kilpatrick, David C.

2012-01-01

10

Heparin coated cardiopulmonary bypass circuits selectively deplete the pattern recognition molecule Ficolin-2 of the lectin complement pathway in vivo.  

PubMed

The complement system can be activated via the lectin pathway by the recognition molecules mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and the ficolins. Ficolin-2 exhibits binding against a broad range of ligands including biomaterials in vitro and low Ficolin-2 levels are associated with increased risk of infections. Thus, we investigated the biocompatibility of the recognition molecules of the lectin pathway in two different types of cardiopulmonary bypass circuits. Blood were drawn at five time points before, during and post-operatively from 30 patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. Patients were randomized in two groups using different coatings of cardiopulmonary bypass circuits, Phisio® (phosporylcholine polymer coating) and Bioline® (albumin-heparin coating). Concentrations of MBL, Ficolin-1, -2 and -3 and soluble C3a and terminal complement complex (TCC) in plasma samples were measured. Ficolin-3 mediated complement activation potential was evaluated with C4, C3 and TCC as output. There was no significant difference between the two circuit materials regarding MBL, Ficolin-1 and -3. In the Bioline® group the Ficolin-2 levels significantly decreased after initiation of surgery (P<0.0001) and remained reduced throughout the sampling period. This was not seen for Phisio® coated circuits. Ficolin-3 mediated complement activation potential was significantly reduced in both groups after start of operation (P<0.0001), whereas soluble C3a and TCC in the samples were increased (P<0.0001). Ficolin-2 was depleted from plasma during cardiac surgery when using heparin coated bypass circuits and did not reach base line level 24 hours post-operation. These findings may have implications for the postoperative susceptibility to infections in patients undergoing extracorporeal circulation procedures. PMID:25174443

Hein, Estrid; Munthe-Fog, Lea; Thiara, Amrit Singh; Fiane, Arnt E; Mollnes, Tom Eirik; Garred, Peter

2014-09-01

11

The control of the complement lectin pathway activation revisited: both C1-inhibitor and antithrombin are likely physiological inhibitors, while ?2-macroglobulin is not.  

PubMed

The lectin pathway of complement is an important effector arm of innate immunity. It forms a first line of defense against invading pathogens and dangerously altered self structures. Pattern recognition molecules (mannose-binding lectin (MBL), ficolins) bind to the dangerous particles, which is followed by activation of MBL-associated serine proteases, MASP-1 and MASP-2, resulting in the initiation of the complement cascade. The activation of the lectin pathway is strictly controlled by natural inhibitors, since uncontrolled activation can lead to serious self-tissue damage. Recently we have shown that inhibition of either MASP-1 or MASP-2 by in vitro evolved specific inhibitors completely blocks the lectin pathway in human serum. In this study, we examined the inhibitory action of C1-inhibitor (C1-inh), antithrombin (AT) and ?(2)-macroglobulin (?(2)M) on MASP-1 and MASP-2, and studied the inhibition of the lectin pathway in normal human serum in the presence and absence of heparin using C3 and C4 deposition assays. We measured the association rate constants for the serpin/protease reactions. We found that in the presence of heparin both C1-inh and AT are equally efficient inhibitors of the lectin pathway. Although ?(2)M formed complex with MASP-1 in fluid phase, it could not abolish lectin pathway activation on activator surfaces. PMID:23399388

Paréj, Katalin; Dobó, József; Závodszky, Péter; Gál, Péter

2013-07-01

12

Inhibition of the classical and lectin pathway of the complement system by recombinant LAIR-2.  

PubMed

Activation of complement may cause severe tissue damage in antibody-mediated allograft rejection and other antibody-mediated clinical conditions; therefore, novel potent complement inhibitors are needed. Previously, we described binding of the inhibitory receptor LAIR-1 and its soluble family member LAIR-2 to collagen. Here, we investigated binding of LAIR-1 and LAIR-2 to the complement proteins C1q and MBL, which both have collagen-like domains, and evaluated the effect of this binding on complement function. We demonstrate specific binding of recombinant LAIR proteins to both C1q and MBL. Surface plasmon resonance experiments showed that LAIR-2-Fc protein bound C1q and MBL with the highest affinity compared to LAIR-2-HIS. We, therefore, hypothesized that LAIR-2-Fc is a potent complement inhibitor. Indeed, LAIR-2-Fc inhibited C4 fixation to IgG or mannan, reduced activation of C4 by aggregated IgG in plasma and inhibited iC3b deposition on cells. Finally, LAIR-2-Fc inhibited complement-mediated lysis of cells sensitized with anti-HLA antibodies in an ex vivo model for antibody-mediated transplant rejection. Thus, LAIR-2-Fc is an effective novel complement inhibitor for the treatment and prevention of antibody-mediated allograft rejection and antibody-mediated clinical conditions. PMID:24192271

Olde Nordkamp, Marloes J M; Boross, Peter; Yildiz, Cafer; Jansen, J H Marco; Leusen, Jeanette H W; Wouters, Diana; Urbanus, Rolf T; Hack, C Erik; Meyaard, Linde

2014-01-01

13

Potential role of the lectin pathway of complement in the pathogenesis and disease manifestations of systemic sclerosis: a caseżcontrol and cohort study.  

PubMed

IntroductionRepetitive episodes of ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) are a cardinal feature of the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (SSc), which precedes tissue fibrosis. The complement system is a key mediator of tissue damage after I/R, primarily by activation of the lectin pathway. This study investigated whether serum levels and polymorphisms of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and ficolin-2 (FCN2), two pattern recognition receptors of the lectin pathway, are associated with the predisposition to, and clinical features of SSc.MethodsA caseżcontrol study was undertaken involving 90 patients with SSc from a single SSc outpatient clinic and 90 age- and sex-matched blood donors. MBL and FCN2 levels and polymorphisms were measured in both groups, and in cases correlated with clinical data.ResultsMBL levels and genotypes were equally distributed in cases and controls while there were some significant differences in FCN2 polymorphisms. Median MBL levels were higher in SSc cases with diffuse disease compared with controls (2.6 versus 1.0 żg/ml, P <0.001).In some cases, higher MBL levels were associated with the presence of clinical findings associated with vascular dysfunction and local tissue damage (digital ulcers, calcinosis and pitting). Moreover, MBL levels were associated with fibrotic disease manifestations as evidenced by the presence of diffuse disease (median 2.6 versus 0.8 żg/ml, P =0.002), the modified Rodnan skin score (r =0.39, P <0.001), and interstitial lung disease as measured by forced vital capacity (rż=żż0.33, P =0.001). Importantly, MBL levels also correlated with the SSc Health Assessment Questionnaire scores (r =0.33, P =0.002). The results for FCN2 levels were less striking. Phenotypic MBL results were largely confirmed by analysis of MBL polymorphisms. MBL levels were not associated with the presence of autoantibodies or hypocomplementaemia.ConclusionsOverall, predisposition to SSc was not influenced by the lectin pathway of complement in our matched caseżcontrol study. However, our preliminary data suggest that MBL, and to a lesser extent FCN2 may modulate disease manifestations of SSc, particularly in diffuse cutaneous disease. PMID:25403109

Osthoff, Michael; Ngian, Gene-Siew; Dean, Melinda M; Nikpour, Mandana; Stevens, Wendy; Proudman, Susanna; Eisen, Damon P; Sahhar, Joanne

2014-11-18

14

Essential role for the lectin pathway in collagen antibody-induced arthritis revealed through use of adenovirus programming complement inhibitor MAp44 expression.  

PubMed

Previous studies using mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and complement C4-deficient mice have suggested that the lectin pathway (LP) is not required for the development of inflammatory arthritis in the collagen Ab-induced arthritis (CAIA) model. MBL, ficolins and collectin-11 are key LP pattern recognition molecules that associate with three serine proteases-MASP-1, MASP-2, and MASP-3-and with two MBL-associated proteins designated sMAP and MBL-associated protein of 44kDA (MAp44). Recent studies have shown that MAp44, an alternatively spliced product of the MASP-1/3 gene, is a competitive inhibitor of the binding of the recognition molecules to all three MASPs. In these studies, we examined the effect of treatment of mice with adenovirus (Ad) programmed to express human MAp44 (AdhMAp44) on the development of CAIA. AdhMAp44 and Ad programming GFP (AdGFP) expression were injected i.p. in C57BL/6 wild type mice prior to the induction of CAIA. AdhMAp44 significantly reduced the clinical disease activity (CDA) score by 81% compared with mice injected with AdGFP. Similarly, histopathologic injury scores for inflammation, pannus, cartilage and bone damage, as well as C3 deposition in the cartilage and synovium, were significantly reduced by AdhMAp44 pretreatment. Mice treated with AdmMAp44, programming expression of mouse MAp44, also showed significantly decreased CDA score and histopathologic injury scores. In addition, administration of AdhMAp44 significantly diminished the severity of Ross River virus-induced arthritis, an LP-dependent model. Our study provides conclusive evidence that an intact complement LP is essential to initiate CAIA, and that MAp44 may be an appropriate treatment for inflammatory arthritis. PMID:25070856

Banda, Nirmal K; Mehta, Gaurav; Kjaer, Troels R; Takahashi, Minoru; Schaack, Jerome; Morrison, Thomas E; Thiel, Steffen; Arend, William P; Holers, V Michael

2014-09-01

15

Quantitative Characterization of the Activation Steps of Mannan-binding Lectin (MBL)-associated Serine Proteases (MASPs) Points to the Central Role of MASP-1 in the Initiation of the Complement Lectin Pathway*  

PubMed Central

Mannan-binding lectin (MBL)-associated serine proteases, MASP-1 and MASP-2, have been thought to autoactivate when MBL/ficolin·MASP complexes bind to pathogens triggering the complement lectin pathway. Autoactivation of MASPs occurs in two steps: 1) zymogen autoactivation, when one proenzyme cleaves another proenzyme molecule of the same protease, and 2) autocatalytic activation, when the activated protease cleaves its own zymogen. Using recombinant catalytic fragments, we demonstrated that a stable proenzyme MASP-1 variant (R448Q) cleaved the inactive, catalytic site Ser-to-Ala variant (S646A). The autoactivation steps of MASP-1 were separately quantified using these mutants and the wild type enzyme. Analogous mutants were made for MASP-2, and rate constants of the autoactivation steps as well as the possible cross-activation steps between MASP-1 and MASP-2 were determined. Based on the rate constants, a kinetic model of lectin pathway activation was outlined. The zymogen autoactivation rate of MASP-1 is ?3000-fold higher, and the autocatalytic activation of MASP-1 is about 140-fold faster than those of MASP-2. Moreover, both activated and proenzyme MASP-1 can effectively cleave proenzyme MASP-2. MASP-3, which does not autoactivate, is also cleaved by MASP-1 quite efficiently. The structure of the catalytic region of proenzyme MASP-1 R448Q was solved at 2.5 ?. Proenzyme MASP-1 R448Q readily cleaves synthetic substrates, and it is inhibited by a specific canonical inhibitor developed against active MASP-1, indicating that zymogen MASP-1 fluctuates between an inactive and an active-like conformation. The determined structure provides a feasible explanation for this phenomenon. In summary, autoactivation of MASP-1 is crucial for the activation of MBL/ficolin·MASP complexes, and in the proenzymic phase zymogen MASP-1 controls the process. PMID:23386610

Megyeri, Márton; Harmat, Veronika; Major, Balázs; Végh, Ádám; Balczer, Júlia; Héja, Dávid; Szilágyi, Katalin; Datz, Dániel; Pál, Gábor; Závodszky, Péter; Gál, Péter; Dobó, József

2013-01-01

16

Polyphosphate suppresses complement via the terminal pathway  

PubMed Central

Polyphosphate, synthesized by all cells, is a linear polymer of inorganic phosphate. When released into the circulation, it exerts prothrombotic and proinflammatory activities by modulating steps in the coagulation cascade. We examined the role of polyphosphate in regulating the evolutionarily related proteolytic cascade complement. In erythrocyte lysis assays, polyphosphate comprising more than 1000 phosphate units suppressed total hemolytic activity with a concentration to reduce maximal lysis to 50% that was 10-fold lower than with monophosphate. In the ion- and enzyme-independent terminal pathway complement assay, polyphosphate suppressed complement in a concentration- and size-dependent manner. Phosphatase-treated polyphosphate lost its ability to suppress complement, confirming that polymer integrity is required. Sequential addition of polyphosphate to the terminal pathway assay showed that polyphosphate interferes with complement only when added before formation of the C5b-7 complex. Physicochemical analyses using native gels, gel filtration, and differential scanning fluorimetry revealed that polyphosphate binds to and destabilizes C5b,6, thereby reducing the capacity of the membrane attack complex to bind to and lyse the target cell. In summary, we have added another function to polyphosphate in blood, demonstrating that it dampens the innate immune response by suppressing complement. These findings further establish the complex relationship between coagulation and innate immunity. PMID:24335501

Wat, Jovian M.; Foley, Jonathan H.; Krisinger, Michael J.; Ocariza, Linnette Mae; Lei, Victor; Wasney, Gregory A.; Lameignere, Emilie; Strynadka, Natalie C.; Smith, Stephanie A.; Morrissey, James H.

2014-01-01

17

A novel IgM-H-Ficolin complement pathway to attack allogenic cancer cells in vitro.  

PubMed

The pentameric serum IgMs are critical to immune defense and surveillance through cytotoxicity against microbes and nascent cancer cells. Ficolins, a group of oligomeric lectins with an overall structure similar to C1q and mannose-binding lectin (MBL) participate in microbe infection and apoptotic cell clearance by activating the complement lectin pathway or a primitive opsonophagocytosis. It remains unknown whether serum IgMs interplay with ficolins in cancer immunosurveillance. Here we report a natural cancer killing of different types of cancer cells by sera from a healthy human population mediated by a novel IgM-H-ficolin complement activation pathway. We demonstrate for the first time that H-ficolin bound to a subset of IgMs in positive human sera and IgM-H-ficolin deposited on cancer cells to activate complement attack in cancer cells. Our data suggest that the IgM-H-ficolin -mediated complement activation pathway may be another defensive strategy for human cancer immunosurveillance. PMID:25592840

Lei, Xiaoying; Liu, Chaoxu; Azadzoi, Kazem; Li, Cuiling; Lu, Fan; Xiang, An; Sun, Jianbin; Guo, Yanhai; Zhao, Qingchuan; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Jinghua

2015-01-01

18

A novel IgM–H-Ficolin complement pathway to attack allogenic cancer cells in vitro  

PubMed Central

The pentameric serum IgMs are critical to immune defense and surveillance through cytotoxicity against microbes and nascent cancer cells. Ficolins, a group of oligomeric lectins with an overall structure similar to C1q and mannose-binding lectin (MBL) participate in microbe infection and apoptotic cell clearance by activating the complement lectin pathway or a primitive opsonophagocytosis. It remains unknown whether serum IgMs interplay with ficolins in cancer immunosurveillance. Here we report a natural cancer killing of different types of cancer cells by sera from a healthy human population mediated by a novel IgM–H-ficolin complement activation pathway. We demonstrate for the first time that H-ficolin bound to a subset of IgMs in positive human sera and IgM–H-ficolin deposited on cancer cells to activate complement attack in cancer cells. Our data suggest that the IgM–H-ficolin -mediated complement activation pathway may be another defensive strategy for human cancer immunosurveillance.

Lei, Xiaoying; Liu, Chaoxu; Azadzoi, Kazem; Li, Cuiling; Lu, Fan; Xiang, An; Sun, Jianbin; Guo, Yanhai; Zhao, Qingchuan; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Jinghua

2015-01-01

19

Functional characterization of mannose-binding lectin in zebrafish: implication for a lectin-dependent complement system in early embryos.  

PubMed

The lectin pathway involves recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns by mannose-binding lectin (MBL), and the subsequent activation of associated enzymes, termed MBL-associated serine proteases (MASPs). In this study, we demonstrate that the transcript of MBL gene is present in the early embryo of zebrafish, and MBL protein is also present in the embryo. In addition, we show that recombinant zebrafish MBL was able to bind the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli and the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, and rMBL was able to promote the phagocytosis of E. coli and S. aureus by macrophages, indicating that like mammalian MBL, zebrafish MBL performs a dual function in both pattern recognition and opsonization. Importantly, we show that microinjection of anti-MBL antibody into the early developing embryos resulted in a significantly increased mortality in the embryos challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila (pathogenic to zebrafish); and injection of rMBL into the embryos (resulting in increase in MBL in the embryo) markedly promoted their resistance to A. hydrophila; and this promoted bacterial resistance was significantly reduced by the co-injection of anti-MBL antibody with rMBL but not by the injection of anti-actin antibody with rMBL. These suggest that the lectin pathway may be already functional in the early embryos in zebrafish before their immune system is fully matured, protecting the developing embryos from microbial infection. This work provides a new angle to understand the immune role of the lectin pathway in early development of animals. PMID:24858663

Yang, Lili; Bu, Lingzhen; Sun, Weiwei; Hu, Lili; Zhang, Shicui

2014-10-01

20

Mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease (MASP)-1 is crucial for lectin pathway activation in human serum, whereas neither MASP-1 nor MASP-3 is required for alternative pathway function.  

PubMed

The lectin pathway of complement is an important component of innate immunity. Its activation has been thought to occur via recognition of pathogens by mannan-binding lectin (MBL) or ficolins in complex with MBL-associated serine protease (MASP)-2, followed by MASP-2 autoactivation and cleavage of C4 and C2 generating the C3 convertase. MASP-1 and MASP-3 are related proteases found in similar complexes. MASP-1 has been shown to aid MASP-2 convertase generation by auxiliary C2 cleavage. In mice, MASP-1 and MASP-3 have been reported to be central also to alternative pathway function through activation of profactor D and factor B. In this study, we present functional studies based on a patient harboring a nonsense mutation in the common part of the MASP1 gene and hence deficient in both MASP-1 and MASP-3. Surprisingly, we find that the alternative pathway in this patient functions normally, and is unaffected by reconstitution with MASP-1 and MASP-3. Conversely, we find that the patient has a nonfunctional lectin pathway, which can be restored by MASP-1, implying that this component is crucial for complement activation. We show that, although MASP-2 is able to autoactivate under artificial conditions, MASP-1 dramatically increases lectin pathway activity at physiological conditions through direct activation of MASP-2. We further demonstrate that MASP-1 and MASP-2 can associate in the same MBL complex, and that such cocomplexes are found in serum, providing a scenario for transactivation of MASP-2. Hence, in functional terms, it appears that MASP-1 and MASP-2 act in a manner analogous to that of C1r and C1s of the classical pathway. PMID:22966085

Degn, Sřren E; Jensen, Lisbeth; Hansen, Annette G; Duman, Duygu; Tekin, Mustafa; Jensenius, Jens C; Thiel, Steffen

2012-10-15

21

A sensitive microassay for the murine alternative complement pathway.  

PubMed

A microhemolytic assay for measurement of murine alternative complement pathway activity is described. The assay uses 51Cr release from neuraminidase-treated rabbit erythrocytes incubated with Mg2+ EGTA-chelated murine serum. Neuraminidase pretreatment of rabbit erythrocytes increases the sensitivity of the assay 8--10-fold, enable the use of small volumes of individual mouse sera. The assay affords a simple, sensitive and reproducible method for measuring murine alternative complement pathway activity. Significant differences were found between strains alternative complement pathway activity of serum from various inbred murine lines was measured. PMID:521632

Joiner, K A; Shahon, R; Gelfand, J A

1979-01-01

22

Glycoepitopes of Staphylococcal Wall Teichoic Acid Govern Complement-mediated Opsonophagocytosis via Human Serum Antibody and Mannose-binding Lectin*  

PubMed Central

Serum antibodies and mannose-binding lectin (MBL) are important host defense factors for host adaptive and innate immunity, respectively. Antibodies and MBL also initiate the classical and lectin complement pathways, respectively, leading to opsonophagocytosis. We have shown previously that Staphylococcus aureus wall teichoic acid (WTA), a cell wall glycopolymer consisting of ribitol phosphate substituted with ?- or ?-O-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc) and d-alanine, is recognized by MBL and serum anti-WTA IgG. However, the exact antigenic determinants to which anti-WTA antibodies or MBL bind have not been determined. To answer this question, several S. aureus mutants, such as ?-GlcNAc glycosyltransferase-deficient S. aureus ?tarM, ?-GlcNAc glycosyltransferase-deficient ?tarS, and ?tarMS double mutant cells, were prepared from a laboratory and a community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain. Here, we describe the unexpected finding that ?-GlcNAc WTA-deficient ?tarS mutant cells (which have intact ?-GlcNAc) escape from anti-WTA antibody-mediated opsonophagocytosis, whereas ?-GlcNAc WTA-deficient ?tarM mutant cells (which have intact ?-GlcNAc) are efficiently engulfed by human leukocytes via anti-WTA IgG. Likewise, MBL binding in S. aureus cells was lost in the ?tarMS double mutant but not in either single mutant. When we determined the serum concentrations of the anti-?- or anti-?-GlcNAc-specific WTA IgGs, anti-?-GlcNAc WTA-IgG was dominant in pooled human IgG fractions and in the intact sera of healthy adults and infants. These data demonstrate the importance of the WTA sugar conformation for human innate and adaptive immunity against S. aureus infection. PMID:24045948

Kurokawa, Kenji; Jung, Dong-Jun; An, Jang-Hyun; Fuchs, Katharina; Jeon, Yu-Jin; Kim, Na-Hyang; Li, Xuehua; Tateishi, Koichiro; Park, Ji Ae; Xia, Guoqing; Matsushita, Misao; Takahashi, Kazue; Park, Hee-Ju; Peschel, Andreas; Lee, Bok Luel

2013-01-01

23

Polygonatum cyrtonema lectin induces murine fibrosarcoma L929 cell apoptosis via a caspase-dependent pathway as compared to Ophiopogon japonicus lectin.  

PubMed

Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA)-related lectin family, a superfamily of strictly mannose-binding specific lectins, has been well-known to possess several biological functions including apoptosis-inducing activities. However, the precise mechanisms of GNA-related lectins to induce apoptosis remains to be clarified. In this study, we showed that Polygonatum cyrtonema lectin (PCL) and Ophiopogon japonicus lectin (OJL), the two mannose-binding GNA-related lectins, could induce murine fibrosarcoma L929 cell apoptosis. In addition, we found that there was a close link between their sugar-binding and apoptosis-inducing activities. Interestingly, we further confirmed that the mechanism of lectin-induced apoptosis was a caspase-dependent pathway. Moreover, we found that the two lectins could amplify tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?)-induced apoptosis. Taken together, these findings would open a new perspective for GNA-related lectins as potential anti-tumor agents. PMID:20655713

Zhang, Zi-ting; Peng, Hao; Li, Chun-yang; Liu, Jun-jie; Zhou, Ting-Ting; Yan, Yi-fang; Li, Yan; Bao, Jin-ku

2010-12-15

24

Crystal Structure and Functional Characterization of the Complement Regulator Mannose-binding Lectin (MBL)/Ficolin-associated Protein-1 (MAP-1)*  

PubMed Central

The human lectin complement pathway activation molecules comprise mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and ficolin-1, -2, and -3 in complex with associated serine proteases MASP-1, -2, and -3 and the non-enzymatic small MBL associated protein or sMAP. Recently, a novel plasma protein named MBL/ficolin-associated protein-1 (MAP-1) was identified in humans. This protein is the result of a differential splicing of the MASP1 gene and includes the major part of the heavy chain but lacks the serine protease domain. We investigated the direct interactions of MAP-1 and MASP-3 with ficolin-3 and MBL using surface plasmon resonance and found affinities around 5 nm and 2.5 nm, respectively. We studied structural aspects of MAP-1 and could show by multi-angle laser light scattering that MAP-1 forms a calcium-dependent homodimer in solution. We were able to determine the crystal structure of MAP-1, which also contains a head-to-tail dimer ?146 ? long. This structure of MAP-1 also enables modeling and assembly of the MASP-1 molecule in its entirety. Finally we found that MAP-1 competes with all three MASPs for ligand binding and is able to mediate a strong dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the lectin pathway activation, as measured by levels of C3 and C9. PMID:22854970

Skjoedt, Mikkel-Ole; Roversi, Pietro; Hummelshřj, Tina; Palarasah, Yaseelan; Rosbjerg, Anne; Johnson, Steven; Lea, Susan M.; Garred, Peter

2012-01-01

25

Peptide Inhibitor of Complement C1, a Novel Suppressor of Classical Pathway Activation: Mechanistic Studies and Clinical Potential  

PubMed Central

The classical pathway of complement plays multiple physiological roles including modulating immunological effectors initiated by adaptive immune responses and an essential homeostatic role in the clearance of damaged self-antigens. However, dysregulated classical pathway activation is associated with antibody-initiated, inflammatory diseases processes like cold agglutinin disease, acute intravascular hemolytic transfusion reaction (AIHTR), and acute/hyperacute transplantation rejection. To date, only one putative classical pathway inhibitor, C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH), is currently commercially available and its only approved indication is for replacement treatment in hereditary angioedema, which is predominantly a kinin pathway disease. Given the variety of disease conditions in which the classical pathway is implicated, development of therapeutics that specifically inhibits complement initiation represents a major unmet medical need. Our laboratory has identified a peptide that specifically inhibits the classical and lectin pathways of complement. In vitro studies have demonstrated that these peptide inhibitors of complement C1 (PIC1) bind to the collagen-like region of the initiator molecule of the classical pathway, C1q. PIC1 binding to C1q blocks activation of the associated serine proteases (C1s–C1r–C1r–C1s) and subsequent downstream complement activation. Rational design optimization of PIC1 has resulted in the generation of a highly potent derivative of 15 amino acids. PIC1 inhibits classical pathway mediated complement activation in ABO incompatibility in vitro and inhibiting classical pathway activation in vivo in rats. This review will focus on the pre-clinical development of PIC1 and discuss its potential as a therapeutic in antibody-mediated classical pathway disease, specifically AIHTR. PMID:25202312

Sharp, Julia A.; Whitley, Pamela H.; Cunnion, Kenji M.; Krishna, Neel K.

2014-01-01

26

Peptide inhibitor of complement c1, a novel suppressor of classical pathway activation: mechanistic studies and clinical potential.  

PubMed

The classical pathway of complement plays multiple physiological roles including modulating immunological effectors initiated by adaptive immune responses and an essential homeostatic role in the clearance of damaged self-antigens. However, dysregulated classical pathway activation is associated with antibody-initiated, inflammatory diseases processes like cold agglutinin disease, acute intravascular hemolytic transfusion reaction (AIHTR), and acute/hyperacute transplantation rejection. To date, only one putative classical pathway inhibitor, C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH), is currently commercially available and its only approved indication is for replacement treatment in hereditary angioedema, which is predominantly a kinin pathway disease. Given the variety of disease conditions in which the classical pathway is implicated, development of therapeutics that specifically inhibits complement initiation represents a major unmet medical need. Our laboratory has identified a peptide that specifically inhibits the classical and lectin pathways of complement. In vitro studies have demonstrated that these peptide inhibitors of complement C1 (PIC1) bind to the collagen-like region of the initiator molecule of the classical pathway, C1q. PIC1 binding to C1q blocks activation of the associated serine proteases (C1s-C1r-C1r-C1s) and subsequent downstream complement activation. Rational design optimization of PIC1 has resulted in the generation of a highly potent derivative of 15 amino acids. PIC1 inhibits classical pathway mediated complement activation in ABO incompatibility in vitro and inhibiting classical pathway activation in vivo in rats. This review will focus on the pre-clinical development of PIC1 and discuss its potential as a therapeutic in antibody-mediated classical pathway disease, specifically AIHTR. PMID:25202312

Sharp, Julia A; Whitley, Pamela H; Cunnion, Kenji M; Krishna, Neel K

2014-01-01

27

Co-complexes of MASP-1 and MASP-2 associated with the soluble pattern-recognition molecules drive lectin pathway activation in a manner inhibitable by MAp44.  

PubMed

The lectin pathway of complement is an integral component of innate immunity. It is activated upon binding of mannan-binding lectin (MBL) or ficolins (H-, L-, and M-ficolin) to suitable ligand patterns on microorganisms. MBL and ficolins are polydisperse homo-oligomeric molecules, found in complexes with MBL-associated serine proteases (MASP-1, -2, and -3) and MBL-associated proteins (MAp19 and MAp44). This scenario is far more complex than the well-defined activation complex of the classical pathway, C1qC1r(2)C1s(2), and the composition of the activating complexes of the lectin pathway is ill defined. We and other investigators recently demonstrated that both MASP-1 and MASP-2 are crucial to lectin pathway activation. MASP-1 transactivates MASP-2 and, although MASP-1 also cleaves C2, MASP-2 cleaves both C4 and C2, allowing formation of the C3 convertase, C4bC2a. Juxtaposition of MASP-1 and MASP-2 during activation must be required for transactivation. We previously presented a possible scenario, which parallels that of the classical pathway, in which MASP-1 and MASP-2 are found together in the same MBL or ficolin complex. In this study, we demonstrate that, although MASPs do not directly form heterodimers, the addition of MBL or ficolins allows the formation of MASP-1-MASP-2 co-complexes. We find that such co-complexes have a functional role in activating complement and are present in serum at varying levels, impacting on the degree of complement activation. This raises the novel possibility that MAp44 may inhibit complement, not simply by brute force displacement of MASP-2 from MBL or ficolins, but by disruption of co-complexes, hence impairing transactivation. We present support for this contention. PMID:23785123

Degn, Sřren E; Jensen, Lisbeth; Olszowski, Tomasz; Jensenius, Jens C; Thiel, Steffen

2013-08-01

28

Novel Scabies Mite Serpins Inhibit the Three Pathways of the Human Complement System  

PubMed Central

Scabies is a parasitic infestation of the skin by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei that causes significant morbidity worldwide, in particular within socially disadvantaged populations. In order to identify mechanisms that enable the scabies mite to evade human immune defenses, we have studied molecules associated with proteolytic systems in the mite, including two novel scabies mite serine protease inhibitors (SMSs) of the serpin superfamily. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that within mite-infected human skin SMSB4 (54 kDa) and SMSB3 (47 kDa) were both localized in the mite gut and feces. Recombinant purified SMSB3 and SMSB4 did not inhibit mite serine and cysteine proteases, but did inhibit mammalian serine proteases, such as chymotrypsin, albeit inefficiently. Detailed functional analysis revealed that both serpins interfered with all three pathways of the human complement system at different stages of their activation. SMSB4 inhibited mostly the initial and progressing steps of the cascades, while SMSB3 showed the strongest effects at the C9 level in the terminal pathway. Additive effects of both serpins were shown at the C9 level in the lectin pathway. Both SMSs were able to interfere with complement factors without protease function. A range of binding assays showed direct binding between SMSB4 and seven complement proteins (C1, properdin, MBL, C4, C3, C6 and C8), while significant binding of SMSB3 occurred exclusively to complement factors without protease function (C4, C3, C8). Direct binding was observed between SMSB4 and the complement proteases C1s and C1r. However no complex formation was observed between either mite serpin and the complement serine proteases C1r, C1s, MASP-1, MASP-2 and MASP-3. No catalytic inhibition by either serpin was observed for any of these enzymes. In summary, the SMSs were acting at several levels mediating overall inhibition of the complement system and thus we propose that they may protect scabies mites from complement-mediated gut damage. PMID:22792350

Mika, Angela; Reynolds, Simone L.; Mohlin, Frida C.; Willis, Charlene; Swe, Pearl M.; Pickering, Darren A.; Halilovic, Vanja; Wijeyewickrema, Lakshmi C.; Pike, Robert N.; Blom, Anna M.; Kemp, David J.; Fischer, Katja

2012-01-01

29

Monospecific Inhibitors Show That Both Mannan-binding Lectin-associated Serine Protease-1 (MASP-1) and -2 Are Essential for Lectin Pathway Activation and Reveal Structural Plasticity of MASP-2*  

PubMed Central

The lectin pathway is an antibody-independent activation route of the complement system. It provides immediate defense against pathogens and altered self-cells, but it also causes severe tissue damage after stroke, heart attack, and other ischemia reperfusion injuries. The pathway is triggered by target binding of pattern recognition molecules leading to the activation of zymogen mannan-binding lectin-associated serine proteases (MASPs). MASP-2 is considered as the autonomous pathway-activator, while MASP-1 is considered as an auxiliary component. We evolved a pair of monospecific MASP inhibitors. In accordance with the key role of MASP-2, the MASP-2 inhibitor completely blocks the lectin pathway activation. Importantly, the MASP-1 inhibitor does the same, demonstrating that MASP-1 is not an auxiliary but an essential pathway component. We report the first Michaelis-like complex structures of MASP-1 and MASP-2 formed with substrate-like inhibitors. The 1.28 ? resolution MASP-2 structure reveals significant plasticity of the protease, suggesting that either an induced fit or a conformational selection mechanism should contribute to the extreme specificity of the enzyme. PMID:22511776

Héja, Dávid; Harmat, Veronika; Fodor, Krisztián; Wilmanns, Matthias; Dobó, József; Kékesi, Katalin A.; Závodszky, Péter; Gál, Péter; Pál, Gábor

2012-01-01

30

Differential Complement Activation Pathways Promote C3b Deposition on Native and Acetylated LDL thereby Inducing Lipoprotein Binding to the Complement Receptor 1.  

PubMed

Lipoproteins can induce complement activation resulting in opsonization and binding of these complexes to complement receptors. We investigated the binding of opsonized native LDL and acetylated LDL (acLDL) to the complement receptor 1 (CR1). Binding of complement factors C3b, IgM, C1q, mannose-binding lectin (MBL), and properdin to LDL and acLDL were investigated by ELISA. Subsequent binding of opsonized LDL and acLDL to CR1 on CR1-transfected Chinese Hamster Ovarian cells (CHO-CR1) was tested by flow cytometry. Both native LDL and acLDL induced complement activation with subsequent C3b opsonization upon incubation with normal human serum. Opsonized LDL and acLDL bound to CR1. Binding to CHO-CR1 was reduced by EDTA, whereas MgEGTA only reduced the binding of opsonized LDL, but not of acLDL suggesting involvement of the alternative pathway in the binding of acLDL to CR1. In vitro incubations showed that LDL bound C1q, whereas acLDL bound to C1q, IgM, and properdin. MBL did neither bind to LDL nor to acLDL. The relevance of these findings was demonstrated by the fact that ex vivo up-regulation of CR1 on leukocytes was accompanied by a concomitant increased binding of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins to leukocytes without changes in LDL-receptor expression. In conclusion, CR1 is able to bind opsonized native LDL and acLDL. Binding of LDL to CR1 is mediated via the classical pathway, whereas binding of acLDL is mediated via both the classical and alternative pathways. Binding of lipoproteins to CR1 may be of clinical relevance due to the ubiquitous cellular distribution of CR1. PMID:25349208

Klop, Boudewijn; van der Pol, Pieter; van Bruggen, Robin; Wang, Yanan; de Vries, Marijke A; van Santen, Selvetta; O'Flynn, Joseph; van de Geijn, Gert-Jan M; Njo, Tjin L; Janssen, Hans W; de Man, Peter; Jukema, J Wouter; Rabelink, Ton J; Rensen, Patrick C N; van Kooten, Cees; Cabezas, Manuel Castro

2014-12-19

31

Carbamylation of immunoglobulin abrogates activation of the classical complement pathway  

PubMed Central

Post-translational modifications of proteins significantly affect their structure and function. The carbamylation of positively charged lysine residues to form neutral homoitrulline occurs primarily under inflammatory conditions through myeloperoxidase-dependent cyanate (CNO?) formation. We analyzed the pattern of human IgG1 carbamylation under inflammatory conditions and the effects that this modification has on the ability of antibodies to trigger complement activation via the classical pathway. We found that the lysine residues of IgG1 are rapidly modified after brief exposure to CNO?. Interestingly, modifications were not random, but instead limited to only few lysines within the hinge area and the N-terminal fragment of the CH2 domain. A complement activation assay combined with mass spectrometry analysis revealed a highly significant inverse correlation between carbamylation of several key lysine residues within the hinge region and N-terminus of the CH2 domain and the proper binding of C1q to human IgG1 followed by subsequent complement activation. This severely hindered complement-dependent cytotoxicity of therapeutic IgG1. The reaction can apparently occur in vivo, as we found carbamylated antibodies in synovial fluid from rheumatoid arthritis patients. Taken together, our data suggest that carbamylation has a profound impact on the complement-activating ability of IgG1 and reveals a pivotal role for previously uncharacterized lysine residues in this process. PMID:25130613

Koro, Catalin; Bielecka, Ewa; Dahl-Knudsen, Anders; Enghild, Jan J; Scavenius, Carsten; Brun, Johan G; Binder, Veronika; Hellvard, Annelie; Bergum, Brith; Jonsson, Roland; Potempa, Jan; Blom, Anna M; Mydel, Piotr

2014-01-01

32

An amphioxus gC1q protein binds human IgG and initiates the classical pathway: Implications for a C1q-mediated complement system in the basal chordate.  

PubMed

The origin of the classical complement pathway remains open during chordate evolution. A C1q-like member, BjC1q, was identified in the basal chordate amphioxus. It is predominantly expressed in the hepatic caecum, hindgut, and notochord, and is significantly upregulated following challenge with bacteria or lipoteichoic acid and LPS. Recombinant BjC1q and its globular head domain specifically interact with lipoteichoic acid and LPS, but BjC1q displays little lectin activity. Moreover, rBjC1q can assemble to form the high molecular weight oligomers necessary for binding to proteases C1r/C1s and for complement activation, and binds human C1r/C1s/mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease-2 as well as amphioxus serine proteases involved in the cleavage of C4/C2, and C3 activation. Importantly, rBjC1q binds with human IgG as well as an amphioxus Ig domain containing protein, resulting in the activation of the classical complement pathway. This is the first report showing that a C1q-like protein in invertebrates is able to initiate classical pathway, raising the possibility that amphioxus possesses a C1q-mediated complement system. It also suggests a new scenario for the emergence of the classical complement pathway, in contrast to the proposal that the lectin pathway evolved into the classical pathway. PMID:25174509

Gao, Zhan; Li, Mengyang; Ma, Jie; Zhang, Shicui

2014-12-01

33

Complement Alternative Pathway Activation in Human Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis  

PubMed Central

The innate immune system plays a major role in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Recently we reported complement activation in human NASH. However, it remained unclear whether the alternative pathway of complement, which amplifies C3 activation and which is frequently associated with pathological complement activation leading to disease, was involved. Here, alternative pathway components were investigated in liver biopsies of obese subjects with healthy livers (n?=?10) or with NASH (n?=?12) using quantitative PCR, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence staining. Properdin accumulated in areas where neutrophils surrounded steatotic hepatocytes, and colocalized with the C3 activation product C3c. C3 activation status as expressed by the C3c/native C3 ratio was 2.6-fold higher (p<0.01) in subjects with NASH despite reduced native C3 concentrations (0.94±0.12 vs. 0.57±0.09; p<0.01). Hepatic properdin levels positively correlated with levels of C3c (rs?=?0.69; p<0.05) and C3c/C3 activation ratio (rs?=?0.59; p<0.05). C3c, C3 activation status (C3c/C3 ratio) and properdin levels increased with higher lobular inflammation scores as determined according to the Kleiner classification (C3c: p<0.01, C3c/C3 ratio: p<0.05, properdin: p<0.05). Hepatic mRNA expression of factor B and factor D did not differ between subjects with healthy livers and subjects with NASH (factor B: 1.00±0.19 vs. 0.71±0.07, p?=?0.26; factor D: 1.00±0.21 vs. 0.66±0.14, p?=?0.29;). Hepatic mRNA and protein levels of Decay Accelerating Factor tended to be increased in subjects with NASH (mRNA: 1.00±0.14 vs. 2.37±0.72; p?=?0.22; protein: 0.51±0.11 vs. 1.97±0.67; p?=?0.28). In contrast, factor H mRNA was downregulated in patients with NASH (1.00±0.09 vs. 0.71±0.06; p<0.05) and a similar trend was observed with hepatic protein levels (1.12±0.16 vs. 0.78±0.07; p?=?0.08). Collectively, these data suggest a role for alternative pathway activation in driving hepatic inflammation in NASH. Therefore, alternative pathway factors may be considered attractive targets for treating NASH by inhibiting complement activation. PMID:25299043

Segers, Filip M.; Verdam, Froukje J.; de Jonge, Charlotte; Boonen, Bas; Driessen, Ann; Shiri-Sverdlov, Ronit; Bouvy, Nicole D.; Greve, Jan Willem M.; Buurman, Wim A.; Rensen, Sander S.

2014-01-01

34

Mannose binding lectin (MBL) levels predict lung function decline in severe asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

WINNING ABSTRACT: There is increasing evidence that activation of the complement system in asthma contributes to ongoing inflammation, tissue damage and airway remodeling. Mannose binding lectin (MBL) is a pattern recognition molecule that serves as the key mediator of the lectin pathway of complement activation. MBL levels are genetically determined and vary widely amongst individuals. In the present study we

Ilonka H. van Veen; Pieter S. Hiemstra; Anja Roos; Renate M. Verhoosel; Jaap K. Sont; Peter J. Sterk; Klaus F. Rabe; Elisabeth H. Bel; Eur Respir Rev

2006-01-01

35

Mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease 2 is critical for the development of renal ischemia reperfusion injury and mediates tissue injury in the absence of complement C4.  

PubMed

Mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease 2 (MASP-2) has been described as the essential enzyme for the lectin pathway (LP) of complement activation. Since there is strong published evidence indicating that complement activation via the LP critically contributes to ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury, we assessed the effect of MASP-2 deficiency in an isogenic mouse model of renal transplantation. The experimental transplantation model used included nephrectomy of the remaining native kidney at d 5 post-transplantation. While wild-type (WT) kidneys grafted into WT recipients (n=7) developed acute renal failure (control group), WT grafts transplanted into MASP-2-deficient recipients (n=7) showed significantly better kidney function, less C3 deposition, and less IR injury. In the absence of donor or recipient complement C4 (n=7), the WT to WT phenotype was preserved, indicating that the MASP-2-mediated damage was independent of C4 activation. This C4-bypass MASP-2 activity was confirmed in mice deficient for both MASP-2 and C4 (n=7), where the protection from postoperative acute renal failure was no greater than in mice with MASP-2 deficiency alone. Our study highlights the role of LP activation in renal IR injury and indicates that injury occurs through MASP-2-dependent activation events independent of C4.-Asgari, E., Farrar, C. A., Lynch, N., Ali, Y. M., Roscher, S., Stover, C., Zhou, W., Schwaeble, W. J., Sacks, S. H. Mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease 2 is critical for the development of renal ischemia reperfusion injury and mediates tissue injury in the absence of complement C4. PMID:24868011

Asgari, Elham; Farrar, Conrad A; Lynch, Nicholas; Ali, Youssif M; Roscher, Silke; Stover, Cordula; Zhou, Wuding; Schwaeble, Wilhelm J; Sacks, Steven H

2014-05-27

36

Activation of the alternative complement pathway: clinical application of a new technique to measure fragment Ba  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new laser nephelometric technique for the measurement of the alternative complement pathway fragment Ba has been developed. Activation of the alternative complement pathway was assessed in 16 patients with Gram negative bacteraemia, six with Gram positive bacteraemia, 20 with rheumatoid arthritis, and 18 healthy subjects. Patients with Gram negative bacteraemia had significantly higher values of Ba (median 14.8%) than

G Senaldi; M Peakman; A Alhaq; V A Makinde; D E Tee; D Vergani

1987-01-01

37

Changes in classical pathway complement activity in dromedary camels experimentally infected with Trypanosoma evansi.  

PubMed

The complement system is known to have important effector functions in immune responses. However, its role in camel trypanosomosis has not been determined. The present study was undertaken to evaluate haemolytic complement activity in Trypanosoma evansi-infected and uninfected camels. Five dromedary camels were experimentally infected with T. evansi and classical pathway haemolytic complement activity was assayed. Parasitaemia and packed cell volume were also monitored. Following infection, classical pathway haemolytic complement showed a slight initial increase (7%) in all the camels. The amounts later dropped as the infection progressed and correlated negatively with parasitaemia. Haemolytic complement recovered following elimination of trypanosomes by treatment with melarsomine. Treatment of uninfected camels had no effect on complement. This study has demonstrated that complement concentration increases in the initial phase of infection followed by a drop as the infection progresses towards chronicity. In addition, the study has shown that activation of the classical complement pathway occurs in camels infected with T. evansi. Complement could therefore be involved in the in vivo control of parasitaemia in dromedary camels infected with T. evansi. Decreased complement levels in this species could lead to immunosuppression, widely reported in animal trypanosomosis. PMID:9239845

Ouma, J O; Olaho-Mukani, W; Wishitemi, B E; Guya, S O

1997-06-01

38

The Alternative Pathway is critical for Pathogenic Complement Activation in Endotoxin- and Diet-induced Atherosclerosis in Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Deficient Mice  

PubMed Central

Background The early components of the classical and lectin complement pathways have been shown to protect low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient mice (Ldlr?/?) from early atherogenesis. However, the role of the alternative pathway remained unknown and that was investigated in this study. Methods and Results Mice lacking factor B (Bf?/?), the initiator of the alternative pathway, were crossed with Ldlr?/? mice and studied under different pro-atherogenic conditions. There was no statistically significant difference in lipid profiles or atherosclerotic lesion development between Bf?/?.Ldlr?/? and Ldlr?/? mice fed a low-fat diet. However, in these groups administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) led to a significant increase in atherosclerosis only in Ldlr?/? and not in Bf?/?.Ldlr?/? mice, indicating that the alternative pathway is necessary for endotoxin-mediated atherogenesis. Bf?/?.Ldlr?/? mice also had significantly decreased cross-sectional aortic root lesion fraction area and reduced lesion complexity compared to Ldlr?/? animals after a 12-week period of high-fat diet, although this was also accompanied by reduced levels of serum cholesterol. Under both experimental conditions, the atherosclerotic changes in the Bf?/?.Ldlr?/? mice were accompanied by a marked reduction in complement activation in the circulation and in atherosclerotic plaques, with no statistical significant differences in IgG deposition or in the serum antibody response to oxidised LDL. Conclusions These data demonstrate that amplification of complement activation by the alternative pathway in response to LPS or high fat diet plays a pro-atherogenic role. PMID:20974996

Malik, Talat H.; Cortini, Andrea; Carassiti, Daniele; Boyle, Joseph J; Haskard, Dorian O.; Botto, Marina

2010-01-01

39

The specificity of alternative complement pathway-mediated lysis of erythrocytes: a survey of complement and target cells from 25 species.  

PubMed

Sera from 20 species of mammals were tested for their ability to lyse erythrocytes from 18 species of mammals and birds by the alternative complement pathway. Erythrocytes were not lysed by homologous complement, with one minor exception, but all erythrocytes tested were lysed by at least one complement source, and all sera tested except that of the horse lysed at least one type of erythrocyte. Control experiments indicated that lysis was via the alternative complement pathway and that antibodies were not involved. Complement from the various species could be ranked from most active to least active, and erythrocytes could be ranked from most susceptible to least susceptible. There was an inverse correlation between complement activity and erythrocyte susceptibility. The ranking of the orders of placental mammals, from strongest to weakest complement, was carnivore > artiodactyl (ruminants and swine) > primate = armadillo > rodent > rabbit > horse. Opossum serum had activity that placed it in the centre of this range. Ferret complement, the most potent tested, lysed all erythrocytes tested except for homologous erythrocytes, with APCH50 titres as high as 4000. Although the overall reactivity pattern was clear, there were several striking exceptions. For example, the only complement source which lysed ferret erythrocytes was sera of the mouse. The amount of sialic acid present on erythrocytes of 14 mammals was determined, and was, in general, directly correlated with resistance to alternative complement pathway lysis, although there were prominent exceptions to this correlation, involving erythrocytes of the horse, burro and human. All 20 types of complement were also tested for their ability to lyse antibody-coated human tumour cells, under conditions in which both the classical and alternative complement pathways were functional. The data obtained suggest that alternative pathway activation is, in some cases, a major factor determining the effectiveness of a particular complement source in the lysis of xenogeneic tumour cells. PMID:8346410

Ish, C; Ong, G L; Desai, N; Mattes, M J

1993-08-01

40

Clinical hypothermia temperatures increase complement activation and cell destruction via the classical pathway  

PubMed Central

Background Therapeutic hypothermia is a treatment modality that is increasingly used to improve clinical neurological outcomes for ischemia-reperfusion injury-mediated diseases. Antibody-initiated classical complement pathway activation has been shown to contribute to ischemia-reperfusion injury in multiple disease processes. However, how therapeutic hypothermia affects complement activation is unknown. Our goal was to measure the independent effect of temperature on complement activation, and more specifically, examine the relationship between clinical hypothermia temperatures (31–33°C), and complement activation. Methods Antibody-sensitized erythrocytes were used to assay complement activation at temperatures ranging from 0-41°C. Individual complement pathway components were assayed by ELISA, Western blot, and quantitative dot blot. Peptide Inhibitor of complement C1 (PIC1) was used to specifically inhibit activation of C1. Results Antibody-initiated complement activation resulting in eukaryotic cell lysis was increased by 2-fold at 31°C compared with 37°C. Antibody-initiated complement activation in human serum increased as temperature decreased from 37°C until dramatically decreasing at 13°C. Quantitation of individual complement components showed significantly increased activation of C4, C3, and C5 at clinical hypothermia temperatures. In contrast, C1s activation by heat-aggregated IgG decreased at therapeutic hypothermia temperatures consistent with decreased enzymatic activity at lower temperatures. However, C1q binding to antibody-coated erythrocytes increased at lower temperatures, suggesting that increased classical complement pathway activation is mediated by increased C1 binding at therapeutic hypothermia temperatures. PIC1 inhibited hypothermia-enhanced complement-mediated cell lysis at 31°C by up to 60% (P?=?0.001) in a dose dependent manner. Conclusions In summary, therapeutic hypothermia temperatures increased antibody-initiated complement activation and eukaryotic cell destruction suggesting that the benefits of therapeutic hypothermia may be mediated via other mechanisms. Antibody-initiated complement activation has been shown to contribute to ischemia-reperfusion injury in several animal models, suggesting that for diseases with this mechanism hypothermia-enhanced complement activation may partially attenuate the benefits of therapeutic hypothermia. PMID:24962100

2014-01-01

41

C-type lectin-like receptors of the dectin-1 cluster: ligands and signaling pathways.  

PubMed

Innate immunity is constructed around genetically encoded receptors that survey the intracellular and extracellular environments for signs of invading microorganisms. These receptors recognise the invader and through complex intracellular networks of molecular signaling, they destroy the threat whilst instructing effective adaptive immune responses. Many of these receptors, like the Toll-like receptors in particular, are well-known for their ability to mediate downstream responses upon recognition of exogenous or endogenous ligands; however, the emerging family known as the C-type lectin-like receptors contains many members that have a huge impact on immune and homeostatic regulation. Of particular interest here are the C-type lectin-like receptors that make up the Dectin-1 cluster and their intracellular signaling motifs that mediate their functions. In this review, we aim to draw together current knowledge of ligands, motifs and signaling pathways, present downstream of Dectin-1 cluster receptors, and discuss how these dictate their role within biological systems. PMID:23570314

Plato, Anthony; Willment, Janet A; Brown, Gordon D

2013-04-01

42

Characterization of a mannose-binding lectin from channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).  

PubMed

Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is an important component of innate immunity capable of activating the lectin pathway of the complement system. A MBL gene was isolated from channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). The deduced protein contains a canonical collagen-like domain, a carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD), and a neck region similar to mammalian mannose-binding lectin. The catfish mannose-binding lectin CRD contains the EPN motif shown previously to mediate mannose specificity. The catfish mannose-binding lectin showed 30-43% identity with MBL protein sequences of rainbow trout, zebrafish, common carp, and goldfish, and 33-35% identity with sequences of mammalian species. In this study, while liver was the predominant source of mannose-binding lectin gene expression in healthy tissues, mannose-binding lectin expression in spleen rose sharply following challenge with a Gram-negative bacterium. PMID:21524427

Zhang, Hao; Peatman, Eric; Liu, Hong; Niu, Donghong; Feng, Tingting; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Waldbieser, Geoff; Chen, Liqiao; Liu, Zhanjiang

2012-06-01

43

Mechanism of alternative complement pathway dysregulation by a phosphorothioate oligonucleotide in monkey and human serum.  

PubMed

The species sensitivity and mechanism of complement pathway activation by a phosphorothioate oligonucleotide were investigated in monkey and human serum. Increasing concentrations of a phosphorothioate oligonucleotide, ISIS 2302, were incubated in either monkey or human serum. Complement activation in monkey serum was selective for the alternative pathway and occurred at concentrations ? 50 ?g/mL ISIS 2302. By comparison, complement activation in human serum was absent. A similar difference in sensitivity for activation was also observed for a representative 2'-methoxyethyl (MOE)-modified oligonucleotide. The absence of oligonucleotide-induced complement activation was also observed in dogs. Protein binding with ISIS 2302 and enzyme competition studies suggested that factor H was important in oligonucleotide-mediated complement activation process, and addition of factor H to serum effectively prevented the activation in monkey serum. Furthermore, based on the immunoassay for factor H, there was an apparent decrease in factor H concentration as the ISIS 2302 concentration increased. This result suggests that ISIS 2302 binds to factor H and interferes with the factor H antibody from the immunoassay. Factor H is a regulatory protein that limits alternative pathway activation. Disruption of factor H interaction with C3 convertase by oligonucleotide could promote activation in this pathway. PMID:25093529

Henry, Scott P; Jagels, Mark A; Hugli, Tony E; Manalili, Sheri; Geary, Richard S; Giclas, Patricia C; Levin, Arthur A

2014-10-01

44

Contribution of complement activation pathways to neuropathology differs among mouse models of Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

Background Complement proteins and activation products have been found associated with neuropathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently, a C5a receptor antagonist was shown to suppress neuropathology in two murine models of AD, Tg2576 and 3xTg. Previously, a genetic deficiency of C1q in the Tg2576 mouse model showed an accumulation of fibrillar plaques similar to the complement sufficient Tg2576, but reactive glia were significantly decreased and neuronal integrity was improved suggesting detrimental consequences for complement activation in AD. The goal of this study was to define the role of the classical complement activation pathway in the progression of pathology in the 3xTg mouse that develops tangles in addition to fibrillar plaques (more closely reflecting human AD pathology) and to assess the influence of complement in a model of AD with a higher level of complement hemolytic activity. Methods 3xTg mice deficient in C1q (3xTgQ-/-) were generated, and both 3xTg and 3xTgQ-/- were backcrossed to the BUB mouse strain which has higher in vitro hemolytic complement activity. Mice were aged and perfused, and brain sections stained for pathological markers or analyzed for proinflammatory marker expression. Results 3xTgQ-/- mice showed similar amounts of fibrillar amyloid, reactive glia and hyperphosphorylated tau as the C1q-sufficient 3xTg at the ages analyzed. However, 3xTg and 3xTgQ-/- on the BUB background developed pathology earlier than on the original 3xTg background, although the presence of C1q had no effect on neuropathological and pro-inflammatory markers. In contrast to that seen in other transgenic models of AD, C1q, C4 and C3 immunoreactivity was undetectable on the plaques of 3xTg in any background, although C3 was associated with reactive astrocytes surrounding the plaques. Importantly, properdin a component of the alternative complement pathway was associated with plaques in all models. Conclusions In contrast to previously investigated transgenic models of AD, development of neuropathology in 3xTg mice, which progresses much slower than other murine models, may not be influenced by fibrillar amyloid mediated activation of the classical complement pathway, suggesting that the alternative complement pathway activation or a C3-independent cleavage of C5 could account for the detrimental effects in these mice that are prevented by the C5a receptor antagonist. Furthermore, the paucity of complement activation may be a factor in the slower kinetics of progression of pathology in the 3xTg model of this disease. PMID:21235806

2011-01-01

45

Factor B of the alternative complement pathway on human lymphocytes.  

PubMed

A factor on human lymphocytes has been identified as factor B of the alternative pathway. Lymphocytes can replace factor B in the fluid phase formation of C3 convertase with cobra venom factor (CVF). This lymphocyte activity is inhibited by specific anti-human factor B, and it is shown by Burkitt lymphoma cell lines cultured in the absence of any factor B source. After the reaction with CVF all the C3-converting activity is found in the cell supernatant, and the same cells can undergo several successive cycles of 'activation' by CVF. Factor B is distinct from the C3b receptor, and its presence could not be detected antigenically on the lymphocyte membrane. It may be secreted by the cells, but the reaction was not affected by sodium azide or cytochalasin B. No detectable factor B activity was found in the culture medium of cells grown in the absence of CVF. PMID:824718

Halbwachs, L; Lachmann, P J

1976-01-01

46

Activation of the alternative pathway of complement by malassezia ovalis (Pityrosporum ovale)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activation of C3 and factor B in normal human serum by P. ovale was demonstrated using a standard unidirectional immunoelectrophoresis technique. Activation of complement by the alternative (properdin) pathway is a possible mechanism by which P. ovale may mediate an inflammatory response.

Patricia W. Belew; E. W. Rosenberg; B. R. Jennings

1980-01-01

47

Reflection of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis by indices of activation of the classical complement pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of C4d, a fragment of C4 generated during activation of the classical complement pathway, were measured in the plasma of 77 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and 30 healthy subjects. Disease activity was judged according to Ritchie's articular index to be mildly active in 31 (group 1), moderately active in 29 (group 2), and severely active in 17 patients (group

V A Makinde; G Senaldi; A S Jawad; H Berry; D Vergani

1989-01-01

48

Nephritic factor of the classical pathway of complement: immunoglobulin G autoantibody directed against the classical pathway C3 convetase enzyme.  

PubMed

A factor, functionally characterized by its capacity to stabilize the normally labile classical pathway C3-converting complex of the classical pathway of complement, has been isolated from the serum of one patient with a case of acute glomerulonephritis, subsequent to a cutaneous infection. The factor confers long-lived stabilization of classical pathway C3 convertase complexes formed both in the solid (sensitized sheep erythrocytes bearing activated C1 and the classical pathway C3 convertase) and fluid phase. The half-life of such stabilized C3-cleaving enzymes extended beyond several hours at 37 degrees C. The stabilizing activity was associated with a protein fraction immunochemically identified as immunoglobulin (Ig)G, a sizeable population of which exhibited a gamma chain of 60,000 daltons. The IgG-associated stabilizing activity was found to bind to the classical pathway C3 convertase enzyme via a fragment bearing the antigen-binding site of the molecule [F(ab)(2) and F(ab)]. Such binding was demonstrable for classical pathway and not for alternative pathway C3 convertase. Thus, the stabilizing factor behaves like an autoantibody to the C3-converting complex of the classical pathway of complement. The binding of the antibody to the enzyme affords protection of the latter against decay-degradation. By analogy with the nephritic factor of the alternative pathway situation where IgG autoantibodies specifically bind to alternative pathway C3 convertase enzymes and protect them from degradation, the functionally unusual IgG in our patient was designated as the nephritic factor of the classical pathway. Indirect evidence suggests that nephritic factor of the classical pathway-IgG might be of the IgG3 subclass. PMID:6902727

Halbwachs, L; Leveillé, M; Lesavre, P; Wattel, S; Leibowitch, J

1980-06-01

49

Complement activation by salivary agglutinin is secretor status dependent.  

PubMed

After mucosal damage or gingival inflammation, complement proteins leak into the oral cavity and mix with salivary proteins such as salivary agglutinin (SAG/gp-340/DMBT1). This protein is encoded by the gene Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1), and it aggregates bacteria, viruses and fungi, and activates the lectin pathway of the complement system. In the lectin pathway, carbohydrate structures on pathogens or altered self cells are recognized. SAG is highly glycosylated, partly on the basis of the donor's blood group status. Whereas secretors express Lewis b, Lewis y, and antigens from the ABO-blood group system on SAG, non-secretors do not. Through mannose-binding lectin (MBL) binding and C4 deposition assays, we aimed to identify the chemical structures on SAG that are responsible for complement activation. The complement-activating properties of SAG were completely abolished by oxidation of its carbohydrate moiety. SAG-mediated activation of complement was also inhibited in the presence of saccharides such as fucose and Lewis b carbohydrates, and also after pretreatment with the fucose-binding lectin, Anguilla anguilla agglutinin. Complement activation was significantly (p<0.01) higher in secretors than in non-secretors. Our results suggest that fucose-rich oligosaccharide sidechains, such as Lewis b antigens, are involved in the activation of complement by SAG. PMID:25153235

Gunput, Sabrina T G; Ligtenberg, Antoon J M; Terlouw, Bas; Brouwer, Mieke; Veerman, Enno C I; Wouters, Diana

2015-01-01

50

Inhibitory effects of organic solvent extracts from Korean local plants on the complement classical pathway.  

PubMed

The study evaluated the anticomplement effects from organic solvent extracts of five Compositae plants (Ligularia fischeri (Ledeb.) Turez, Ligularia taquetii (H.Lev. & Vaniot) Nakai, Ainsliaea acerifolia Sch.Bip, Aster scaber Thunb, Aster koraiensis Nakai, Synurus deltoides Aiton) from South Korea on the classical pathway complement system. We have evaluated organic solvent extracts from five Compositae with regard to its anticomplement activity. Chloroform extracts from L. taquetii showed inhibitory activity against complement system with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC??) values of 73.2??g/mL. This is the first report of anticomplement activity from L. taquetii. PMID:21506692

Moon, Hyung-In; Lee, Jai-Heon; Lee, Young-Choon

2012-02-01

51

Complement activation by the alternative pathway and macrophage enzyme secretion in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation.  

PubMed Central

A number of stimuli known to induce acid hydrolase secretion from cultured macrophages were examined for their ability to activate C3 via the alternative pathway of the complement system. Loss of haemolytically active C3 was checked in normal and C4-deficient guinea-pig serum. For comparison the interactions of cultured macrophages with other agents well known as potent activators of the alternative pathway of the complement system have been investigated. As judged by their activity in these assays, group A streptococcal cell walls, different carrageenan preparations, dental plaque and Actinomyces viscosus were all capable of initiating the alternative pathway but differed with respect to their potency and their ability to inhibit C3 turnover at high concentrations. Zymosan, some carrageenans, polyanethol sulphonate, and Corynebacterium parvum all induce the release of hydrolytic enzymes from macrophages in culture, even in the absence of serum in the medium. The release is time- and dose-dependent and is not associated with loss of the cytoplasmic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase or any other sign of cell death. The parallelism between the capacity of several agents to activate the complement system via the alternative pathway and to induce inflammatory responses in vivo and selective lysosoma enzyme secretion from cultures of macrophages is discussed. PMID:328387

Schorlemmer, H U; Bitter-Suermann, D; Allison, A C

1977-01-01

52

Human peritoneal macrophages. Production in vitro of the active terminal complement components C5 to C9 and a functional alternative pathway of complement. Brief report.  

PubMed

Endotoxin-stimulated human peritoneal macrophages were cultured in serum-free medium with agarose beads. Monospecific antibodies to human C3c, C3g, C5, C6, C7, C8, C9 and to C9-neoantigen bound to the beads. This shows that activated C3 and the terminal complement complex (TCC), made from complement components C5 to C9, were generated on the beads. De novo synthesis was confirmed by agarose binding of tritium-labelled protein. Moreover, C3-derivatives and C9-neoantigen were detected on normal serum-treated agarose beads but not on beads kept in factor B-depleted or heat-inactivated sera, implying that an intact alternative complement pathway was required for our findings. The macrophages thus synthesize the active complement components of the alternative and terminal pathways in vitro. PMID:3345254

Hetland, G; Bungum, L

1988-01-01

53

The role of complement in membranous nephropathy  

PubMed Central

Membranous nephropathy (MN) describes a histopathological pattern of injury marked by glomerular subepithelial immune deposits and collectively represents one of the most common causes of adult nephrotic syndrome. Studies in Heymann nephritis, an experimental model of MN, have established a paradigm in which these deposits locally activate complement to cause podocyte injury, culminating in cytoskeletal reorganization, loss of slit diaphragms, and proteinuria. There is much circumstantial evidence for a prominent role of complement in human MN, as C3 and C5b-9 are consistently found within immune deposits. Secondary MN often exhibits the additional presence of C1q, implicating the classical pathway of complement activation. Primary MN, however, is IgG4-predominant and IgG4 is considered incapable of binding C1q and activating the complement pathway. Recent studies have identified the M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) as the major target antigen in primary MN. Early evidence hints that IgG4 anti-PLA2R autoantibodies can bind mannan-binding lectin and activate the lectin complement pathway. The identification of anti-PLA2R antibodies as likely participants in the pathogenesis of disease will allow focused investigation into the role of complement in MN. Definitive therapy for MN is immunosuppression, although future therapeutic agents that specifically target complement activation may represent an effective temporizing measure to forestall further glomerular injury. PMID:24161038

Ma, Hong; Sandor, Dana G.; Beck, Laurence H.

2013-01-01

54

Properdin and Factor H: Opposing Players on the Alternative Complement Pathway “See-Saw”  

PubMed Central

Properdin and factor H are two key regulatory proteins having opposite functions in the alternative complement pathway. Properdin up-regulates the alternative pathway by stabilizing the C3bBb complex, whereas factor H downregulates the pathway by promoting proteolytic degradation of C3b. While factor H is mainly produced in the liver, there are several extrahepatic sources. In addition to the liver, factor H is also synthesized in fetal tubuli, keratinocytes, skin fibroblasts, ocular tissue, adipose tissue, brain, lungs, heart, spleen, pancreas, kidney, muscle, and placenta. Neutrophils are the major source of properdin, and it is also produced by monocytes, T cells and bone marrow progenitor cell line. Properdin is released by neutrophils from intracellular stores following stimulation by N-formyl-methionine-leucine-phenylalanine (fMLP) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?). The HEP G2 cells derived from human liver has been found to produce functional properdin. Endothelial cells also produce properdin when induced by shear stress, thus is a physiological source for plasma properdin. The diverse range of extrahepatic sites for synthesis of these two complement regulators suggests the importance and need for local availability of the proteins. Here, we discuss the significance of the local synthesis of properdin and factor H. This assumes greater importance in view of recently identified unexpected and novel roles of properdin and factor H that are potentially independent of their involvement in complement regulation. PMID:23630525

Kouser, Lubna; Abdul-Aziz, Munirah; Nayak, Annapurna; Stover, Cordula M.; Sim, Robert B.; Kishore, Uday

2013-01-01

55

Evolution of the complement system.  

PubMed

The mammalian complement system constitutes a highly sophisticated body defense machinery comprising more than 30 components. Research into the evolutionary origin of the complement system has identified a primitive version composed of the central component C3 and two activation proteases Bf and MASP in cnidaria. This suggests that the complement system was established in the common ancestor of eumetazoa more than 500 million years ago. The original activation mechanism of the original complement system is believed to be close to the mammalian lectin and alternative activation pathways, and its main role seems to be opsonization and induction of inflammation. This primitive complement system has been retained by most deuterostomes without major change until the appearance of jawed vertebrates. At this stage, duplication of the C3, Bf and MASP genes as well as recruitment of membrane attack components added the classical and lytic pathways to the primitive complement system, converting it to the modern complement system. In contrast, the complement system was lost multiple times independently in the protostome lineage. PMID:24798006

Nonaka, Masaru

2014-01-01

56

Inhibition of Complement Alternative Pathway Suppresses Experimental Autoimmune Anterior Uveitis by Modulating T Cell Responses*  

PubMed Central

The objective of the current study was to delineate the pathway of complement activation that is crucial for the induction of experimental autoimmune anterior uveitis (EAAU). We studied the development of EAAU in melanin-associated antigen (MAA)-sensitized Lewis rats treated with antibody against C4 or factor B. Control animals received isotype IgG control. Antibody against C4 had no effect on EAAU, and all of the animals developed EAAU similar to those injected with control IgG. In contrast, EAAU was completely inhibited in all MAA-sensitized Lewis rats injected with factor B antibody. Treatment with anti-factor B antibody resulted in suppression of ocular complement activation. Adoptive transfer of T lymphocytes harvested from draining lymph nodes of donor animals treated with anti-factor B did not transfer EAAU to naďve syngenic rats. Anti-factor B antibody inhibited the ability of MAA-specific CD4+ T cells to proliferate (in vitro) in response to MAA in a dose-dependent manner. Level of TNF-? and IFN-? decreased in the presence of anti-factor B. Collectively, our results provide the novel finding that complement activation via the alternative pathway contributes to intraocular inflammation in EAAU, and anti-factor B-mediated inhibition of EAAU is due to diminished antigen-specific CD4+ T cell responses to MAA. Our findings explain the interactions between the complement system and T cells that are critical for the induction of EAAU and may lead to the development of therapy for idiopathic anterior uveitis based on selective blockade of the alternative pathway. PMID:21216963

Manickam, Balasubramanian; Jha, Purushottam; Matta, Bharati; Liu, Juan; Bora, Puran S.; Bora, Nalini S.

2011-01-01

57

Antibody-mediates inhibition of human C1s and the classical complement pathway.  

PubMed

Disregulation of complement activation plays a critical role in numerous inflammatory diseases and therefore, inhibition of the complement pathway is of great therapeutic interest. In the classical complement pathway, immune complexes formed by IgM, IgG1, IgG2 and IgG3 antibodies result in the activation of the C1s protease that in turn cleaves C4 and then C4-bound-C2 yielding the proteolytic fragments C4b and C2a which associate to form a C3 convertase enzyme. We report here the engineering of a potent human antibody inhibitor of C1s protease activity. Phage panning of a very large synthetic (F(AB)) antibody fragment library using a truncated version of C1s, comprising the second CCP domain and serine protease domain (CCP?-SP) and expressed in insect cells, resulted in the isolation of a F(AB) that inhibited the catalytic activity of C1s. An affinity matured variant of the F(AB) format antibody displaying subnanomolar K(D) for C1s was shown to exhibit >80% inhibition of C2 processing at a 5:1 antibody:C1s molar ratio. We show that this engineered antibody, D.35, displays potent inhibition of complement deposition and lysis of Ramos cells by the anti-CD20 therapeutic antibody rituximab relative to the approved, but less-specific, human plasma-derived C1-inhibitor (CINRYZE). C1s inhibitory antibodies should be useful for delineating the role of the classical pathway in disease models and may hold promise as therapeutic agents. PMID:23434433

Carroll, Sean; Georgiou, George

2013-08-01

58

Alternative complement pathway component Factor D contributes to efficient clearance of tissue debris following acute CCl4-induced injury.  

PubMed

Complement, part of the innate immune system, is involved with immune protection against invading pathogens as well as cell survival and tissue regeneration. It is known that complement activation is required for timely hepatocyte recovery following an acute toxic injury, but which pathway of complement activation is involved in response to hepatocyte injury has not been identified. In these studies we utilize mice deficient in C1qa, C4 and Factor D, lacking the classical, classical/MBL, and alternative pathways of complement activation, respectively, to identify an essential role for Factor D in the ability of the liver to recover from acute toxic injury. Here we demonstrate that following an acute CCl4-induced injury, the involvement of the alternative complement pathway is essential for efficient liver recovery. PMID:25467802

Cresci, Gail A; Allende, Daniela; McMullen, Megan R; Nagy, Laura E

2015-03-01

59

Activation of the alternative pathway of complement by monoclonal lambda light chains in membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis  

PubMed Central

Immunopathological evidence suggests that activation of the alternative pathway of complement (AP) is involved in membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) and in immunoglobulin A nephropathy. In this report we describe an AP dysfunction-associated factor that was isolated from the serum and urine of a patient with hypocomplementemic MPGN. Extensive glomerular deposits of C3, properdin, and of the terminal complement components were observed in the kidney of the patient. In her serum the AP hemolytic activity was virtually absent. When mixed with fresh normal serum, the patient's serum induced a 96% C3 conversion during a 30-min incubation at +37 degrees C. This activity was found to be due to a circulating factor that by immunochemical characterization proved to be a 46-kD monoclonal immunoglobulin lambda light (L) chain dimer (lambda L). Purified lambda L, but not control lambda or kappa L chains from patients with L chain disease, activated the AP in a dose- and ionic strength-dependent manner. Functionally, lambda L was differentiated from C3 nephritic factor (an autoantibody against the AP C3 convertase, C3bBb) by its inability to bind to and stabilize the C3bBb enzyme. Instead, lambda L was observed to interact directly with the AP control factor H. Thus, lambda L represents a novel type of immunoglobulin-related AP- activating factor with the capacity to initiate alternative complement pathway activation in the fluid phase. PMID:1532415

1992-01-01

60

Exogenous expression of marine lectins DlFBL and SpRBL induces cancer cell apoptosis possibly through PRMT5-E2F-1 pathway  

PubMed Central

Lectins are widely existed in marine bioresources, and some purified marine lectins were found toxic to cancer cells. In this report, genes encoding Dicentrarchus labrax fucose-binding lectin (DlFBL) and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus rhamnose-binding lectin (SpRBL) were inserted into an adenovirus vector to form Ad.FLAG-DlFBL and Ad.FLAG-SpRBL, which elicited significant in vitro suppressive effect on a variety of cancer cells. Anti-apoptosis factors Bcl-2 and XIAP were determined to be downregulated by Ad.FLAG-DlFBL and Ad.FLAG-SpRBL. Subcellular localization studies showed that DlFBL but not SpRBL widely distributed in membrane systems. Both DlFBL and SpRBL were shown associated with protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5), and PRMT5-E2F-1 pathway was suggested to be responsible for the DlFBL and SpRBL induced apoptosis. Further investigations revealed that PRMT5 acted as a common binding target for various exogenous lectin and non-lectin proteins, suggesting a role of PRMT5 as a barrier for foreign gene invasion. The cellular response to exogenous lectins may provide insights into a novel way for cancer gene therapy. PMID:24675921

Wu, Liqin; Yang, Xinyan; Duan, Xuemei; Cui, Lianzhen; Li, Gongchu

2014-01-01

61

Activation of the alternative pathway of complement by monosodium urate monohydrate crystals and other inflammatory particles.  

PubMed Central

Activation of serum C3 by monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystals and other particles was determined by immunofixation following electrophoretic separation of C3 and its activation products. Densitometry allowed quantitation of results. MSU, hydroxyapatite, brushite, and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals split C3 under conditions which demonstrate activation via the alternative pathway (AP). Quantitatively similar results were obtained in immunoglobulin deficient serum. Activation was crystal specific and was reduced by heating, grinding, sonication, and aging of crystals. Other inflammatory particles (e.g., blackthorn) activated C3 via the AP: noninflammatory particles (e.g., diamond) caused insignificant activation. It is suggested that particle-induced activation of the alternative pathway of complement may be important in the initiation of crystal-induced synovitis. Images PMID:6407405

Doherty, M; Whicher, J T; Dieppe, P A

1983-01-01

62

Complement in animal development: Unexpected roles of a highly conserved pathway  

PubMed Central

The complement pathway is most famous for its role in immunity, orchestrating an exquisitely refined system for immune surveillance. At its core lies a cascade of proteolytic events that ultimately serve to recognise microbes, infected cells or debris and target them for elimination. Mounting evidence has shown that a number of the proteolytic intermediaries in this cascade have, in themselves, other functions in the body, signalling through receptors to drive events that appear to be unrelated to immune surveillance. It seems, then, that the complement system not only functions as an immunological effector, but also has cell–cell signalling properties that are utilised by a number of non-immunological processes. In this review we examine a number of these processes in the context of animal development, all of which share a requirement for precise control of cell behaviour in time and space. As we will see, the scope of the complement system's function is indeed much greater than we might have imagined only a few years ago. PMID:23665279

Leslie, Jonathan D.; Mayor, Roberto

2013-01-01

63

Activation of chicken alternative complement pathway by fowlpox virus-infected cells.  

PubMed Central

Fresh normal chicken serum (NCS) which lacked virus-neutralizing antibody to fowlpox virus (FPV) was found to inhibit the appearance of the cytopathic effect of the virus, virus growth, and plaque formation in chicken embryo cells. Immunofluorescent examination revealed the deposition of the third component of complement (C3) on FPV-infected chicken embryo cells incubated with fresh NCS. The inhibitory activity of fresh NCS on viral cytopathic effect was independent of the Ca2+ ion and was abrogated by treatment of fresh NCS with inulin or zymosan. Similarly, deposition of C3 on FPV-infected cells occurred independently of the Ca2+ ion and was inhibited by treatment of fresh NCS with inulin or zymosan but was not inhibited by absorption with FPV-infected cells. These results suggest that antibody-independent activation of complement by FPV-infected cells via the alternative pathway caused the inhibition of the virus growth as well as the C3 deposition. Involvement of complement activation as nonspecific host response to virus infection was also suggested by the demonstration of the C3 deposition in the skin lesions of FPV-infected chickens. Images PMID:6315584

Ohta, H; Kai, C; Yoshikawa, Y; Yamanouchi, K

1983-01-01

64

Activation of the alternative complement pathway of guinea-gip by liposomes incorporated with trinitrophenylated phosphatidylethanolamine.  

PubMed Central

By incorporation of trinitrophenylamino-caproyldipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine (TNP-Cap-DPPE) into liposomes composed of an equimolecular mixture of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and cholesterol (TNP-Cap-liposomes), liposomes became readily lysed by guinea-pig serum (GPS) in Mg++-EGTA-GVB (gelatin veronal buffered saline containing 2 mM MgCl2 and 10 mM ethyleneglycol-bis (beta-amino-ethyl ether)N-N'-tetraacetate) as well as in GVB++ (gelatin veronal buffered saline containing 0.15 mM CaCl2 and 0.5 mM MgCl2). Since the classical complement pathway (CCP) does not work in Mg++-EGTA-GVB, TNP-Cap-liposome lysis by GPS in Mg++-EGTA-GVB was thought to be mediated by the activation of the alternative complement pathway (ACP). This conclusion was supported by observations that heating of GPS at 50 degrees impaired its lytic activity while C4-deficient GPS was capable of lytic activity, no lysis occurred in EDTA, and there was noted consumption of complement in GPS treated with TNP-Cap-liposomes at 30 degrees. For TNP-Cap-liposome lysis by GPS in Mg++-EGTA-GVB, the epitope density of the TNP hapten was required to be 5% or more of the DMPC. Changing the acyl group of the phosphatidylcholine (PC) significantly influenced the ACP activating capacity of TNP-Cap-liposome. Dipalmitoyl-PC, DMPC and distearoyl-PC facilitated the ACP activating capacity of the TNP-Cap-liposome, while dilauroyl-PC, egg-PC and dioleoyl-PC did not. Furthermore, the length of spacer between TNP and dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DPPE) also influenced the ACP activating capacity and maximum activation was noted when the spacer was aminocaproyl. These physicochemical characteristics which increase the ACP activating capacity coincided with those reported to increase the immunogenicity of hapten-sensitized liposomes. PMID:6173312

Okada, N; Yasuda, T; Tsumita, T; Okada, H

1982-01-01

65

Complement regulators in human disease: lessons from modern genetics.  

PubMed

First identified in human serum in the late 19th century as a 'complement' to antibodies in mediating bacterial lysis, the complement system emerged more than a billion years ago probably as the first humoral immune system. The contemporary complement system consists of nearly 60 proteins in three activation pathways (classical, alternative and lectin) and a terminal cytolytic pathway common to all. Modern molecular biology and genetics have not only led to further elucidation of the structure of complement system components, but have also revealed function-altering rare variants and common polymorphisms, particularly in regulators of the alternative pathway, that predispose to human disease by creating 'hyperinflammatory complement phenotypes'. To treat these 'complementopathies', a monoclonal antibody against the initiator of the membrane attack complex, C5, has received approval for use. Additional therapeutic reagents are on the horizon. PMID:25495259

K Liszewski, M; Atkinson, J P

2015-03-01

66

Reduced activity of DAF on complement enzymes bound to alternative pathway activators. Similarity with Factor H.  

PubMed Central

Attachment of C3b to activators of the alternative pathway of complement results in a decrease in regulatory activity expressed by Factor H. Decay-accelerating factor (DAF) and Factor H were found to exhibit quantitatively similar decreases in regulatory activity toward the C3 convertase (C3b,Bb) bound to activators, such as zymosan (Zym) and rabbit erythrocytes (ER), compared to non-activators, such as sheep (ES) and bovine (EB) erythrocytes. Purified DAF and Factor H, in 0.1% NP-40, were assayed by measuring the amount required to release 50% of the radiolabelled Bb in 10 min from C3b,Bb on Zym or cross-linked erythrocytes. The relative effectiveness (i.e. the restriction index, RI) of DAF for accelerating the decay of C3b,Bb on the various particles was: ES (1.0), ER (0.04) and Zym (0.03). The RI for Factor H was: ES (1.0), ER (0.04) and Zym (0.07). The rate of decay of C3b,Bb induced by DAF and Factor H showed similar restriction. The results suggest that the regulatory properties of DAF are reduced if the cells on which it resides become activators of the alternative pathway as a result of transformation, virus infection or surface alteration. These findings may explain reports of dysfunctional DAF on alternative pathway-activating cells. PMID:1703989

Pangburn, M K

1990-01-01

67

Determination of alternative pathway of complement activity in mouse serum using rabbit erythrocytes.  

PubMed

Rabbit, mouse and sheep erythrocytes expressing different concentrations of membrane sialic acid were used to study possible modes of activation of the alternative complement (C) pathway in mouse, human and guinea pig serum. Mouse erythrocytes activated only human serum, whereas rabbit erythrocytes activated the sera of all three species. Based on the observation that rabbit erythrocytes activate the murine alternative C pathway a method for estimation of alternative C pathway activity (AP50 value) in mouse serum was devised analogous to that used for human AP50 determination. The method is not very sensitive to ageing or to batch variation of the indicator cells. The AP50 value of mouse serum measured by this method is of the same order as for human and guinea pig serum. Mouse serum AP50 activity is partly determined by natural anti-rabbit erythrocyte antibodies and is sensitive to heating (15' at 48 degrees C and 4' at 56 degrees C), and to the actions of cobra venom factor, zymosan and cysteine. Strain and sex differences with respect to AP50 activities of mouse sera were observed. PMID:7204994

Van Dijk, H; Rademaker, P M; Willers, J M

1980-01-01

68

Alternative complement pathway and factor B activities in rats with altered blood levels of thyroid hormone  

PubMed Central

Evaluating the activity of the complement system under conditions of altered thyroid hormone levels might help elucidate the role of complement in triggering autoimmune processes. Here, we investigated alternative pathway (AP) activity in male Wistar rats (180 ± 10?g) after altering their thyroid hormone levels by treatment with triiodothyronine (T3), propylthiouracil (PTU) or thyroidectomy. T3 and thyroxine (T4) levels were determined by chemiluminescence assays. Hemolytic assays were performed to evaluate the lytic activity of the AP. Factor B activity was evaluated using factor B-deficient serum. An anti-human factor B antibody was used to measure factor B levels in serum by radial immunodiffusion. T3 measurements in thyroidectomized animals or animals treated with PTU demonstrated a significant reduction in hormone levels compared to control. The results showed a reduction in AP lytic activity in rats treated with increasing amounts of T3 (1, 10, or 50?µg). Factor B activity was also decreased in the sera of hyperthyroid rats treated with 1 to 50?µg T3. Additionally, treating rats with 25?µg T3 significantly increased factor B levels in their sera (P < 0.01). In contrast, increased factor B concentration and activity (32%) were observed in hypothyroid rats. We conclude that alterations in thyroid hormone levels affect the activity of the AP and factor B, which may in turn affect the roles of AP and factor B in antibody production. PMID:22370704

Bitencourt, C.S.; Duarte, C.G.; Azzolini, A.E.C.S.; Assis-Pandochi, A.I.

2012-01-01

69

Design and development of TT30, a novel C3d-targeted C3/C5 convertase inhibitor for treatment of human complement alternative pathway–mediated diseases  

PubMed Central

To selectively modulate human complement alternative pathway (CAP) activity implicated in a wide range of acute and chronic inflammatory conditions and to provide local cell surface and tissue-based inhibition of complement-induced damage, we developed TT30, a novel therapeutic fusion protein linking the human complement receptor type 2 (CR2/CD21) C3 fragment (C3frag = iC3b, C3dg, C3d)-binding domain with the CAP inhibitory domain of human factor H (fH). TT30 efficiently blocks ex vivo CAP-dependent C3frag accumulation on activated surfaces, membrane attack complex (MAC) formation and hemolysis of RBCs in a CR2-dependent manner, and with a ? 150-fold potency gain over fH, without interference of C3 activation or MAC formation through the classic and lectin pathways. TT30 protects RBCs from hemolysis and remains bound and detectable for at least 24 hours. TT30 selectively inhibits CAP in cynomolgus monkeys and is bioavailable after subcutaneous injection. Using a unique combination of targeting and effector domains, TT30 controls cell surface CAP activation and has substantial potential utility for the treatment of human CAP-mediated diseases. PMID:21860027

Storek, Michael; Mazsaroff, Istvan; Risitano, Antonio M.; Lundberg, Ante S.; Horvath, Christopher J.; Holers, V. Michael

2011-01-01

70

Mechanisms involved in antibody- and complement-mediated allograft rejection  

PubMed Central

Antibody-mediated rejection has become critical clinically because this form of rejection is usually unresponsive to conventional anti-rejection therapy, and therefore, it has been recognized as a major cause of allograft loss. Our group developed experimental animal models of vascularized organ transplantation to study pathogenesis of antibody- and complement-mediated endothelial cell injury leading to graft rejection. In this review, we discuss mechanisms of antibody-mediated graft rejection resulting from activation of complement by C1q- and MBL (mannose-binding lectin)-dependent pathways and interactions with a variety of effector cells, including macrophages and monocytes through Fc? receptors and complement receptors. PMID:20135240

2010-01-01

71

Complement blockade with a C1 esterase inhibitor in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.  

PubMed

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare, clonal, hematopoietic stem cell disorder that manifests with a complement-mediated hemolytic anemia, bone marrow failure, and a propensity for thrombosis. These patients experience both intra- and extravascular hemolysis in the context of underlying complement activation. Currently eculizumab effectively blocks the intravascular hemolysis PNH. There remains an unmet clinical need for a complement inhibitor with activity early in the complement cascade to block complement at the classical and alternative pathways. C1 esterase inhibitor (C1INH) is an endogenous human plasma protein that has broad inhibitory activity in the complement pathway through inhibition of the classical pathway by binding C1r and C1s and inhibits the mannose-binding lectin-associated serine proteases in the lectin pathway. In this study, we show that commercially available plasma derived C1INH prevents lysis induced by the alternative complement pathway of PNH erythrocytes in human serum. Importantly, C1INH was able to block the accumulation of C3 degradation products on CD55 deficient erythrocytes from PNH patient on eculizumab therapy. This could suggest a role for inhibition of earlier phases of the complement cascade than that currently inhibited by eculizumab for incomplete or nonresponders to that therapy. PMID:25034232

DeZern, Amy E; Uknis, Marc; Yuan, Xuan; Mukhina, Galina L; Varela, Juan; Saye, JoAnne; Pu, Jeffrey; Brodsky, Robert A

2014-10-01

72

Deficiency in Mannose-Binding Lectin-Associated Serine Protease-2 Does Not Increase Susceptibility to Trypanosoma cruzi Infection.  

PubMed

Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas' disease, a chronic illness affecting 10 million people around the world. The complement system plays an important role in fighting microbial infections. The recognition molecules of the lectin pathway of complement activation, mannose-binding lectin (MBL), ficolins, and CL-11, bind to specific carbohydrates on pathogens, triggering complement activation through MBL-associated serine protease-2 (MASP-2). Previous in vitro work showed that human MBL and ficolins contribute to T. cruzi lysis. However, MBL-deficient mice are only moderately compromised in their defense against the parasite, as they may still activate the lectin pathway through ficolins and CL-11. Here, we assessed MASP-2-deficient mice, the only presently available mouse line with total lectin pathway deficiency, for a phenotype in T. cruzi infection. Total absence of lectin pathway functional activity did not confer higher susceptibility to T. cruzi infection, suggesting that it plays a minor role in the immune response against this parasite. PMID:25548381

Ribeiro, Carolina H; Lynch, Nicholas J; Stover, Cordula M; Ali, Youssif M; Valck, Carolina; Noya-Leal, Francisca; Schwaeble, Wilhelm J; Ferreira, Arturo

2015-02-01

73

Kidney Injury Accelerates Cystogenesis via Pathways Modulated by Heme Oxygenase and Complement  

PubMed Central

AKI accelerates cystogenesis. Because cystogenic mutations induce strong transcriptional responses similar to those seen after AKI, these responses may accelerate the progression of cystic renal disease. Here, we modulated the severity of the AKI-like response in Cys1cpk/cpk mice, a model that mimics autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease. Specifically, we induced or inhibited activity of the renoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase (HO) and determined the effects on renal cystogenesis. We found that induction of HO attenuated both renal injury and the rate of cystogenesis, whereas inhibition of HO promoted cystogenesis. HO activity mediated the response of NF?B, which is a hallmark transcriptional feature common to both cystogenesis and AKI. Among the HO-modulated effects we measured, expression of complement component 3 (C3) strongly correlated with cystogenesis, a functionally relevant association as suggested by Cys1cpk/cpk mice with genetically induced C3 deficiency. Because both C3 deficiency and HO induction reduce cyst number and cyst areas, these two factors define an injury-stimulated cystogenic pathway that may provide therapeutic targets to slow the formation of new renal cysts and the growth of existing cysts. PMID:22518005

Zhou, Juling; Ouyang, Xiaosen; Schoeb, Trenton R.; Bolisetty, Subhashini; Cui, Xiangqin; Mrug, Sylvie; Yoder, Bradley K.; Johnson, Martin R.; Szalai, Alexander J.

2012-01-01

74

Activation of the alternative complement pathway by exposure of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine on erythrocytes from sickle cell disease patients.  

PubMed Central

Deoxygenation of erythrocytes from sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients alters membrane phospholipid distribution with increased exposure of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS) on the outer leaflet. This study investigated whether altered membrane phospholipid exposure on sickle erythrocytes results in complement activation. In vitro deoxygenation of sickle but not normal erythrocytes resulted in complement activation measured by C3 binding. Additional evidence indicated that this activation was the result of the alterations in membrane phospholipids. First, complement was activated by normal erythrocytes after incubation with sodium tetrathionate, which produces similar phospholipid changes. Second, antibody was not required for complement activation by sickle or tetrathionate-treated erythrocytes. Third, the membrane regulatory proteins, decay-accelerating factor (CD55) and the C3b/C4b receptor (CD35), were normal on sickle and tetrathionate-treated erythrocytes. Finally, insertion of PE or PS into normal erythrocytes induced alternative pathway activation. SCA patients in crisis exhibited increased plasma factor Bb levels compared with baseline, and erythrocytes isolated from hospitalized SCA patients had increased levels of bound C3, indicating that alternative pathway activation occurs in vivo. Activation of complement may be a contributing factor in sickle crisis episodes, shortening the life span of erythrocytes and decreasing host defense against infections. Images PMID:7690777

Wang, R H; Phillips, G; Medof, M E; Mold, C

1993-01-01

75

Lysis of horse red blood cells mediated by antibody-independent activation of the alternative pathway of chicken complement.  

PubMed Central

Horse red blood cells (HRBC) were found to be lysed when incubated with fresh normal chicken serum (NCS). By comparison of the properties of the lysis of HRBC with those of the complement-dependent lysis of sheep red blood cells (SRBC) sensitized with haemolytic antibody via the classical pathway, the following differences were observed between the two haemolytic phenomena. (i) The lysis of HRBC was independent on antibody in contrast to the antibody dependence of the lysis of sensitized SRBC. (ii) The lysis of HRBC was dependent on Mg but not on Ca ion, whereas the lysis of sensitized SRBC required both Mg and Ca ions. (iii) Treatment of NCS with carrageenan that acts as an inactivator of the first component of complement (C1) inhibited the lysis of sensitized SRBC but not the lysis of HRBC. (iv) C1 was consumed in the lysis of sensitized SRBC but not in the lysis of HRBC. (v) Cobra venom factor (CVF), C3 inactivator via the alternative complement pathway, inhibited the lysis of HRBC but not the lysis of sensitized SRBC. (vi) Minimal reaction times for the lysis of HRBC and for the lysis of sensitized SRBC were 90 and 60 min, respectively. These findings indicate that the lysis of HRBC was caused by the antibody-independent activation of complement via the alternative pathway. PMID:6430791

Ohta, H; Yoshikawa, Y; Kai, C; Yamanouchi, K; Okada, H

1984-01-01

76

Meningococcal disease in a kidney transplant recipient with mannose-binding lectin deficiency.  

PubMed

We describe the case of a kidney transplant recipient who developed meningococcemia, without meningeal signs, 2 months after transplantation. Plasma levels of complement components C3, C4, and CH 50 were within the normal range. However, using a method to screen for the functional activity of all 3 pathways of complement, no activation via the mannose-binding lectin (MBL) pathway could be detected (0%). A subsequent quantification of MBL pathway components revealed normal levels of MASP 2 but undetectable amounts of MBL. To our knowledge, this is the first report of meningococcal disease after organ transplantation in a patient with MBL deficiency. PMID:17692067

Manuel, O; Tarr, P E; Venetz, J-P; Trendelenburg, M; Meylan, P R; Pascual, M

2007-09-01

77

Down-Regulation of Complement Receptors on the Surface of Host Monocyte Even as In Vitro Complement Pathway Blocking Interferes in Dengue Infection  

PubMed Central

In dengue virus (DENV) infection, complement system (CS) activation appears to have protective and pathogenic effects. In severe dengue fever (DF), the levels of DENV non-structural-1 protein and of the products of complement activation, including C3a, C5a and SC5b-9, are higher before vascular leakage occurs, supporting the hypothesis that complement activation contributes to unfavourable outcomes. The clinical manifestations of DF range from asymptomatic to severe and even fatal. Here, we aimed to characterise CS by their receptors or activation product, in vivo in DF patients and in vitro by DENV-2 stimulation on monocytes. In comparison with healthy controls, DF patients showed lower expression of CR3 (CD11b), CR4 (CD11c) and, CD59 on monocytes. The DF patients who were high producers of SC5b-9 were also those that showed more pronounced bleeding or vascular leakage. Those findings encouraged us to investigate the role of CS in vitro, using monocytes isolated from healthy subjects. Prior blocking with CR3 alone (CD11b) or CR3 (CD11b/CD18) reduced viral infection, as quantified by the levels of intracellular viral antigen expression and soluble DENV non-structural viral protein. However, we found that CR3 alone (CD11b) or CR3 (CD11b/CD18) blocking did not influence major histocompatibility complex presentation neither active caspase-1 on monocytes, thus probably ruling out inflammasome-related mechanisms. Although it did impair the secretion of tumour necrosis factor alpha and interferon alpha. Our data provide strategies of blocking CR3 (CD11b) pathways could have implications for the treatment of viral infection by antiviral-related mechanisms. PMID:25061945

Marinho, Cintia Ferreira; Azeredo, Elzinandes Leal; Torrentes-Carvalho, Amanda; Marins-Dos-Santos, Alessandro; Kubelka, Claire Fernandes; de Souza, Luiz José; Cunha, Rivaldo Venâncio; de-Oliveira-Pinto, Luzia Maria

2014-01-01

78

The alternative complement pathway control protein H binds to immune complexes and serves their detection  

SciTech Connect

During solubilization of immune complexes C3b becomes fixed to the immunoglobulin part and serves as a receptor for the alternative complement pathway control protein H. The H-C3b immune complex interaction can be made detectable using 4% polyethyleneglycol to separate free from bound /sup 125/I-H. Tetanus toxoid (Te)/anti-Te complexes kept soluble with fresh serum and containing 125 IU of specific antibody bound 18% of /sup 125/I-H; when fresh serum was chelated with 10 mM EDTA, /sup 125/I-H binding was only 5%. On sucrose density gradients, the H-binding material sedimented in the range of 12 to 30 S. In 36 serum samples from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and in 12 serum samples from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), /sup 125/I-H binding was significantly elevated to 9.5 +/- 4.7% (mean +/- 1 SD) and 13.3 +/- 5.6%, respectively, while /sup 125/I-H binding by 36 normal human sera was 4 +/- 2%. RA samples (17/36, 47%) and SLE samples (9/12, 75%) had H-binding values increased by more than 2 SD above the normal mean. The serum samples were also assessed for conglutinin- and C1q-binding activities; a significant correlation between H and C1q binding was observed (P less than 0.001); there was no correlation between H and conglutinin binding. Although binding to immune complexes through its interaction with C3b, H clearly detects a population of complexes other than conglutinin, thus expanding the possibilities of further characterizing pathological complexes.

Nydegger, U.E.; Corvetta, A.; Spaeth, P.J.; Spycher, M.

1983-01-01

79

Human natural anti-Gal IgG regulates alternative complement pathway activation on bacterial surfaces.  

PubMed Central

One percent of circulating IgG in humans recognizes galactose alpha 1,3 galactose residues (anti-Gal) and is synthesized in response to stimulation by enteric bacteria. In this study, we found that the prevalence of binding of anti-Gal to blood isolates is significantly higher than its binding to normal stool isolates. When anti-Gal bound onto the lipopolysaccharide of a representative blood isolate, Serratia marcescens #21, it blocked its alternative complement pathway (ACP) lysis and made the organism serum resistant. In contrast, when anti-Gal bound to the capsular polysaccharide of a serum sensitive Serratia, #7, it increased ACP killing of this strain. The mechanism of blockade of ACP lysis by anti-Gal did not involve a decrease in the number of C3 molecules deposited onto Serratia #21 or an inhibition of the binding of C3b to its LPS, nor did it change the iC3b and C3d degradation products of bound C3b or prevent membrane attack complex formation on this organism. Our findings suggest that the effect of anti-Gal on immune lysis is dependent on the bacterial outer membrane structure to which it binds. We postulate that anti-Gal may play a role in the survival of selected Enterobacteriacae in Gram-negative sepsis by blocking ACP-mediated lysis of such bacteria by the nonimmune host, and that this effect depends on where anti-Gal finds its epitope on the bacterial outer membrane. Images PMID:1556184

Hamadeh, R M; Jarvis, G A; Galili, U; Mandrell, R E; Zhou, P; Griffiss, J M

1992-01-01

80

The role of MASP-1/3 in complement activation.  

PubMed

The complement system, which consists of more than 30 plasma and cell surface proteins, is activated by three pathways: the classical, lectin, and alternative pathways, leading to the generation of opsonins and pathogen destruction. In the lectin pathway, mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and ficolins act as pattern recognition molecules for pathogens, resulting in the activation of MBL-associated serine proteases (MASPs: MASP-1, MASP-2, and MASP-3). Among these proteases, MASP-2 is a key enzyme that cleaves C4 and C2 to assemble a C3 convertase (C4b2a). However, the physiological function of MASP-1 and MASP-3 remains unclear. To investigate the roles of MASP-1 and MASP-3, we generated a MASP-1- and MASP-3-deficient (M1/3 KO) mouse model and found that the deficient mice lacked alternative pathway activation because factor D (Df) remained as a proenzyme in the serum. MASP-1 and MASP-3 were able to convert the proenzyme of Df to an active form in vitro. In addition, MASP-1 was able to activate MASP-2 and MASP-3 as C1r activates C1s. Thus, MASP-1 and MASP-3 seem to be involved in activation of both the lectin and alternative pathways. PMID:23402018

Sekine, Hideharu; Takahashi, Minoru; Iwaki, Daisuke; Fujita, Teizo

2013-01-01

81

Complement and the Alternative Pathway Play an Important Role in LPS/D-GalN-Induced Fulminant Hepatic Failure  

PubMed Central

Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) is a clinically severe type of liver injury with an extremely high mortality rate. Although the pathological mechanisms of FHF are not well understood, evidence suggests that the complement system is involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of liver disorders. In the present study, to investigate the role of complement in FHF, we examined groups of mice following intraperitoneal injection of LPS/D-GalN: wild-type C57BL/6 mice, wild-type mice treated with a C3aR antagonist, C5aR monoclonal antibody (C5aRmAb) or CR2-Factor H (CR2-fH, an inhibitor of the alternative pathway), and C3 deficient mice (C3?/? mice). The animals were euthanized and samples analyzed at specific times after LPS/D-GalN injection. The results show that intraperitoneal administration of LPS/D-GalN activated the complement pathway, as evidenced by the hepatic deposition of C3 and C5b-9 and elevated serum levels of the complement activation product C3a, the level of which was associated with the severity of the liver damage. C3a receptor (C3aR) and C5a receptor (C5aR) expression was also upregulated. Compared with wild-type mice, C3?/? mice survived significantly longer and displayed reduced liver inflammation and attenuated pathological damage following LPS/D-GalN injection. Similar levels of protection were seen in mice treated with C3aR antagonist,C5aRmAb or CR2-fH. These data indicate an important role for the C3a and C5a generated by the alternative pathway in LPS/D-GalN-induced FHF. The data further suggest that complement inhibition may be an effective strategy for the adjunctive treatment of fulminant hepatic failure. PMID:22069473

Zhao, Guangyu; Zhou, Xiaojun; Li, Junfeng; Hu, Jingya; Yu, Hong; Chen, Yu; Song, Hongbin; Qiao, Fei; Xu, Guilian; Yang, Fei; Wu, Yuzhang; Tomlinson, Stephen; Duan, Zhongping; Zhou, Yusen

2011-01-01

82

Complement activation by PEGylated single-walled carbon nanotubes is independent of C1q and alternative pathway turnover  

PubMed Central

We have investigated the interaction between long circulating poly(ethylene glycol)-stabilized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and the complement system. Aminopoly(ethylene glycol)5000–distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine (aminoPEG5000–DSPE) and methoxyPEG5000–DSPE coated as-grown HIPco SWNTs activated complement in undiluted normal human serum as reflected in significant rises in C4d and SC5b-9 levels, but not the alternative pathway split-product Bb, thus indicating activation exclusively through C4 cleavage. Studies in C2-depleted serum confirmed that PEGylated nanotube-mediated elevation of SC5b-9 was C4b2a convertase-dependent. With the aid of monoclonal antibodies against C1s and human serum depleted from C1q, nanotube-mediated complement activation in C1q-depleted serum was also shown to be independent of classical pathway. Nanotube-mediated C4d elevation in C1q-depleted serum, however, was inhibited by N-acetylglucosamine, Futhan (a broad-spectrum serine protease inhibitor capable of preventing complement activation through all three pathways) and anti-MASP-2 antibodies; this strongly suggests a role for activation of MASP-2 in subsequent C4 cleavage and assembly of C4b2a covertases. Intravenous injection of PEGylated nanotubes in some rats was associated with a significant rise in plasma thromboxane B2 levels, indicative of in vivo nanotube-mediated complement activation. The clinical implications of these observations are discussed. PMID:18602161

Hamad, Islam; Hunter, A. Christy; Rutt, Kenneth J.; Liu, Zhuang; Dai, Hongjie; Moghimi, S. Moein

2010-01-01

83

Distinct different contributions of the alternative and classical complement activation pathway for the innate host response during sepsis.  

PubMed

Complement activation represents a crucial innate defense mechanism to invading microorganisms, but there is an eminent lack of understanding of the separate contribution of the different complement activation pathways to the host response during sepsis. We therefore investigated different innate host immune responses during cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis in mice lacking either the alternative (fD(-/-)) or classical (C1q(-/-)) complement activation pathway. Both knockout mice strains showed a significantly reduced survival and increased organ dysfunction when compared with control mice. Surprisingly, fD(-/-) mice demonstrated a compensated bacterial clearance capacity as control mice at 6 h post CLP, whereas C1q(-/-) mice were already overwhelmed by bacterial growth at this time point. Interestingly, at 24 h after CLP, fD(-/-) mice failed to clear bacteria in a way comparable to control mice. However, both knockout mice strains showed compromised C3 cleavage during sepsis. Investigating potential causes for this discrepancy, we were able to demonstrate that despite normal bacterial clearance capacity early during the onset of sepsis, fD(-/-) mice displayed increased inflammatory cytokine generation and neutrophil recruitment into lungs and blood when compared with both control- and C1q(-/-) mice, indicating a potential loss of control over these immune responses. Further in vitro experiments revealed a strongly increased Nf-?B activation capacity in isolated neutrophils from fD(-/-) mice, supporting this hypothesis. Our results provide evidence for the new concept that the alternative complement activation pathway exerts a distinctly different contribution to the innate host response during sepsis when compared with the classical pathway. PMID:21263075

Dahlke, Katja; Wrann, Christiane D; Sommerfeld, Oliver; Sossdorf, Maik; Recknagel, Peter; Sachse, Svea; Winter, Sebastian W; Klos, Andreas; Stahl, Gregory L; Ma, Yuanyuan Xu; Claus, Ralf A; Reinhart, Konrad; Bauer, Michael; Riedemann, Niels C

2011-03-01

84

Distinct Different Contributions of the Alternative and Classical Complement Activation Pathway for the Innate Host Response during Sepsis  

PubMed Central

Complement activation represents a crucial innate defense mechanism to invading microorganisms, but there is an eminent lack of understanding of the separate contribution of the different complement activation pathways to the host response during sepsis. We therefore investigated different innate host immune responses during cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis in mice lacking either the alternative (fD?/?) or classical (C1q?/?) complement activation pathway. Both knockout mice strains showed a significantly reduced survival and increased organ dysfunction when compared with control mice. Surprisingly, fD?/? mice demonstrated a compensated bacterial clearance capacity as control mice at 6 h post CLP, whereas C1q?/? mice were already overwhelmed by bacterial growth at this time point. Interestingly, at 24 h after CLP, fD?/? mice failed to clear bacteria in a way comparable to control mice. However, both knockout mice strains showed compromised C3 cleavage during sepsis. Investigating potential causes for this discrepancy, we were able to demonstrate that despite normal bacterial clearance capacity early during the onset of sepsis, fD?/? mice displayed increased inflammatory cytokine generation and neutrophil recruitment into lungs and blood when compared with both control- and C1q?/? mice, indicating a potential loss of control over these immune responses. Further in vitro experiments revealed a strongly increased Nf-?B activation capacity in isolated neutrophils from fD?/? mice, supporting this hypothesis. Our results provide evidence for the new concept that the alternative complement activation pathway exerts a distinctly different contribution to the innate host response during sepsis when compared with the classical pathway. PMID:21263075

Dahlke, Katja; Wrann, Christiane D.; Sommerfeld, Oliver; Soßdorf, Maik; Recknagel, Peter; Sachse, Svea; Winter, Sebastian W.; Klos, Andreas; Stahl, Gregory L.; Ma, Yuanyuan Xu; Claus, Ralf A.; Reinhart, Konrad; Bauer, Michael; Riedemann, Niels C.

2012-01-01

85

The complement cascade and renal disease.  

PubMed

Serum complement cascade, a part of innate immunity required for host protection against invading pathogens, is also a mediator of various forms of disease and injury. It is activated by classical, lectin, and alternative pathways that lead to activation of C3 component by C3 convertases, release of C3b opsonin, C5 conversion and eventually membrane attack complex formation. The tightly regulated activation process yields also C3a and C5a anaphylatoxins, which target a broad spectrum of immune and non-immune cells. The review discusses the involvement of the complement cascade in kidney disease pathogenesis and injury. The role of the complement pathways in autoantibody-mediated forms of glomerulonephritis (lupus nephritis, anti-glomerular basement membrane disease, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-induced or membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, membranous nephropathy), C3 glomerulopathy, atypical forms of hemolytic uremic syndrome, ischemic-reperfusion injury of transplanted kidney, and antibody-mediated renal allograft rejection are discussed. The disturbances in complement activation and regulation with underlying genetics are presented and related to observed pathology. Also promising strategies targeting the complement system in complement-related disorders are mentioned. PMID:24030732

Ko?cielska-Kasprzak, Katarzyna; Bartoszek, Dorota; Myszka, Marta; Zabi?ska, Marcelina; Klinger, Marian

2014-02-01

86

Structural and Functional Characterization of Complement C4 and C1s-Like Molecules in Teleost Fish: Insights into the Evolution of Classical and Alternative Pathways1  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing evidence that certain components of complement systems in lower vertebrates are promiscuous in their modes of activation through the classical or alternative pathways. To better understand the evolution of the classical pathway, we have evaluated the degree of functional diversification of key components of the classical and alternative pathways in rainbow trout, an evolutionarily relevant teleost species.

Hani Boshra; Andrew E. Gelman; J. Oriol

87

Manipulating the mediator: modulation of the alternative complement pathway C3 convertase in health, disease and therapy1  

PubMed Central

The complement network is increasingly recognized as an important triage system that is able to differentiate between healthy host cells, microbial intruders, cellular debris and immune complexes, and tailor its actions accordingly. At the center of this triage mechanism is the alternative pathway C3 convertase (C3bBb), a potent enzymatic protein complex capable of rapidly converting the inert yet abundant component C3 into powerful effector fragments (C3a and C3b), thereby amplifying the initial response on unprotected surfaces and inducing a variety of effector functions. A fascinating molecular mechanism of convertase assembly and intrinsic regulation, as well as the interplay with a panel of cell surface-bound and soluble inhibitors are essential for directing complement attack to intruders and protecting healthy host cells. While efficiently keeping immune surveillance and homeostasis on track, the reliance on an intricate cascade of interaction and conversion steps also renders the C3 convertase vulnerable to derail. On the one hand, tissue damage, accumulation of debris, or polymorphisms in complement genes may unfavorably shift the balance between activation and regulation, thereby contributing to a variety of clinical conditions. On the other hand, pathogens developed powerful evasion strategies to avoid complement attack by targeting the convertase. Finally, we increasingly challenge our bodies with foreign materials such as biomaterial implants or drug delivery vehicles that may induce adverse effects that are at least partially caused by complement activation and amplification via the alternative pathway. The involvement of the C3 convertase in a range of pathological conditions put this complex into the spotlight of complement-targeted drug discovery efforts. Fortunately, the physiological regulation and microbial evasion approaches provide a rich source of inspiration for the development of powerful treatment options. This review provides insight into the current knowledge about the molecular mechanisms that drive C3 convertase activity, reveals common and divergent strategies of convertase inhibition employed by host and pathogens, and how this inhibitory arsenal can be tapped for developing therapeutic options to treat complement-related diseases. PMID:22964231

Ricklin, Daniel

2012-01-01

88

Synergistic therapeutic vascular cytoprotection against complement-mediated injury induced via a PKC?-, AMPK-, and CREB-dependent pathway.  

PubMed

Endothelial injury and dysfunction precede accelerated arterial disease in allograft vasculopathy and systemic autoimmune diseases and involve pathogenic Abs and complement. Recent reports suggest that switching to rapamycin from calcineurin antagonists reduces posttransplant vasculopathy and prolongs survival following cardiac transplantion. The majority of these patients also receive statin therapy. We examined potential mechanisms underlying this protective response in human endothelial cells and identified synergy between rapamycin and atorvastatin. Mechanistically, atorvastatin and rapamycin activated a protein kinase C?, AMP-activated kinase, and CREB-dependent vasculoprotective pathway, which induced decay-accelerating factor (DAF) promoter activity via binding to the cAMP response element, mutation of which attenuated promoter activity. This response significantly increased endothelial cell surface DAF and enhanced protection against complement-mediated injury. Synergy with rapamycin was reproduced by simvastatin, whereas combining atorvastatin with cyclosporine or mycophenolate in place of rapamycin was ineffective. Importantly, synergy was reproduced in vivo, in which only atorvastatin and rapamycin therapy in combination was sufficient to induce DAF on murine aortic endothelium. We believe this pathway represents an important therapeutically inducible vasculoprotective mechanism for diseases mediated by pathogenic Abs and complement, including posttransplant vasculopathy and systemic lupus erythematosus. Although our study focuses on the vascular endothelium, the findings are likely to be broadly applicable, given the diverse cellular expression of DAF. PMID:24670799

Hamdulay, Shahir S; Wang, Bufei; Calay, Damien; Kiprianos, Allan P; Cole, Jennifer; Dumont, Odile; Dryden, Nicola; Randi, Anna M; Thornton, Clare C; Al-Rashed, Fahad; Hoong, Caroline; Shamsi, Aamir; Liu, Zilei; Holla, Vijay R; Boyle, Joseph J; Haskard, Dorian O; Mason, Justin C

2014-05-01

89

Dissecting the complement pathway in hepatic injury and regeneration with a novel protective strategy.  

PubMed

Liver resection is commonly performed under ischemic conditions, resulting in two types of insult to the remnant liver: ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) and loss of liver mass. Complement inhibition is recognized as a potential therapeutic modality for IRI, but early complement activation products are also essential for liver regeneration. We describe a novel site-targeted murine complement inhibitor, CR2-CD59, which specifically inhibits the terminal membrane attack complex (MAC), and we use this protein to investigate the complement-dependent balance between liver injury and regeneration in a clinical setting of pharmacological inhibition. CR2-CD59 did not impact in vivo generation of C3 and C5 activation products but was as effective as the C3 activation inhibitor CR2-Crry at ameliorating hepatic IRI, indicating that the MAC is the principle mediator of hepatic IRI. Furthermore, unlike C3 or C5 inhibition, CR2-CD59 was not only protective but significantly enhanced hepatocyte proliferation after partial hepatectomy, including when combined with ischemia and reperfusion. Remarkably, CR2-CD59 also enhanced regeneration after 90% hepatectomy and improved long-term survival from 0 to 70%. CR2-CD59 functioned by increasing hepatic TNF and IL-6 levels with associated STAT3 and Akt activation, and by preventing mitochondrial depolarization and allowing recovery of ATP stores. PMID:25113972

Marshall, Keely M; He, Songqing; Zhong, Zhi; Atkinson, Carl; Tomlinson, Stephen

2014-08-25

90

Inherited mitochondrial DNA variants can affect complement, inflammation and apoptosis pathways: insights into mitochondrial-nuclear interactions.  

PubMed

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss in developed countries. While linked to genetic polymorphisms in the complement pathway, there are many individuals with high risk alleles that do not develop AMD, suggesting that other 'modifiers' may be involved. Mitochondrial (mt) haplogroups, defined by accumulations of specific mtDNA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) which represent population origins, may be one such modifier. J haplogroup has been associated with high risk for AMD while the H haplogroup is protective. It has been difficult to assign biological consequences for haplogroups so we created human ARPE-19 cybrids (cytoplasmic hybrids), which have identical nuclei but mitochondria of either J or H haplogroups, to investigate their effects upon bioenergetics and molecular pathways. J cybrids have altered bioenergetic profiles compared with H cybrids. Q-PCR analyses show significantly lower expression levels for seven respiratory complex genes encoded by mtDNA. J and H cybrids have significantly altered expression of eight nuclear genes of the alternative complement, inflammation and apoptosis pathways. Sequencing of the entire mtDNA was carried out for all the cybrids to identify haplogroup and non-haplogroup defining SNPs. mtDNA can mediate cellular bioenergetics and expression levels of nuclear genes related to complement, inflammation and apoptosis. Sequencing data suggest that observed effects are not due to rare mtDNA variants but rather the combination of SNPs representing the J versus H haplogroups. These findings represent a paradigm shift in our concepts of mt-nuclear interactions. PMID:24584571

Cristina Kenney, M; Chwa, Marilyn; Atilano, Shari R; Falatoonzadeh, Payam; Ramirez, Claudio; Malik, Deepika; Tarek, Mohamed; Cáceres-del-Carpio, Javier; Nesburn, Anthony B; Boyer, David S; Kuppermann, Baruch D; Vawter, Marquis; Jazwinski, S Michal; Miceli, Michael; Wallace, Douglas C; Udar, Nitin

2014-07-01

91

Structural basis for the stabilization of the complement alternative pathway C3 convertase by properdin.  

PubMed

Complement is an essential component of innate immunity. Its activation results in the assembly of unstable protease complexes, denominated C3/C5 convertases, leading to inflammation and lysis. Regulatory proteins inactivate C3/C5 convertases on host surfaces to avoid collateral tissue damage. On pathogen surfaces, properdin stabilizes C3/C5 convertases to efficiently fight infection. How properdin performs this function is, however, unclear. Using electron microscopy we show that the N- and C-terminal ends of adjacent monomers in properdin oligomers conform a curly vertex that holds together the AP convertase, interacting with both the C345C and vWA domains of C3b and Bb, respectively. Properdin also promotes a large displacement of the TED (thioester-containing domain) and CUB (complement protein subcomponents C1r/C1s, urchin embryonic growth factor and bone morphogenetic protein 1) domains of C3b, which likely impairs C3-convertase inactivation by regulatory proteins. The combined effect of molecular cross-linking and structural reorganization increases stability of the C3 convertase and facilitates recruitment of fluid-phase C3 convertase to the cell surfaces. Our model explains how properdin mediates the assembly of stabilized C3/C5-convertase clusters, which helps to localize complement amplification to pathogen surfaces. PMID:23901101

Alcorlo, Martín; Tortajada, Agustín; Rodríguez de Córdoba, Santiago; Llorca, Oscar

2013-08-13

92

CNL, a ricin B-like lectin from mushroom Clitocybe nebularis, induces maturation and activation of dendritic cells via the toll-like receptor 4 pathway  

PubMed Central

A novel lectin, isolated from the basidiomycete mushroom Clitocybe nebularis and termed C. nebularis lectin (CNL), exhibits an immunostimulatory effect on the most potent antigen-presenting cells, the dendritic cells (DCs). Treatment of human monocyte-derived DCs with CNL in doses from 1 to 10 ?g/ml resulted in a dose-dependent induction of overall DC maturation characteristics. Exposure of DCs to CNL for 48 hr resulted in extensive up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86, as well as of the maturation marker CD83 and HLA-DR molecules. Such CNL-matured DCs (CNL-DCs) were capable of inducing a T helper type 1-polarized response in naive CD4+ CD45RA+ T cells in 5-day allogeneic co-cultures. The allostimulatory potential of CNL-DCs was significantly increased relative to untreated controls, as was their capacity to produce several pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6, interleukin-8 and tumour necrosis factor-?. By using a specific Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signalling inhibitor, CLI-095, as well as Myd88 inhibitory peptide, we have shown that DC activation by CNL is completely dependent on the TLR4 activation pathway. Furthermore, activation of TLR4 by CNL was confirmed via TLR4 reporter assay. Measurement of p65 nuclear factor-?B and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation levels following CNL stimulation of DCs revealed primarily an increase in nuclear factor-?B activity, with less effect on the induction of p38 MAPK signalling than of lipopolysaccharide-matured DCs. The CNL had the ability to activate human DCs in such a way as to subsequently direct T helper type 1 T-cell responses. Our results encourage the use of mushroom-derived lectins for use in therapeutic strategies with aims such as to strengthen anti-tumour immune responses. PMID:22044067

Švajger, Urban; Pohleven, Jure; Kos, Janko; Štrukelj, Borut; Jeras, Matjaž

2011-01-01

93

Inhibitor(s) of the classical complement pathway in mouse serum limit the utility of mice as experimental models of neuromyelitis optica.  

PubMed

Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system in which anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) autoantibodies (AQP4-IgG) cause damage to astrocytes by complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). Various approaches have been attempted to produce NMO lesions in rodents, some involving genetically modified mice with altered immune cell function. Here, we found that mouse serum strongly inhibits complement from multiple species, preventing AQP4-IgG-dependent CDC. Effects of mouse serum on complement activation were tested in CDC assays in which AQP4-expressing cells were incubated with AQP4-IgG and complement from different species. Biochemical assays and mass spectrometry were used to characterize complement inhibitor(s) in mouse serum. Sera from different strains of mice produced almost no AQP4-IgG-dependent CDC compared with human, rat and guinea pig sera. Remarkably, addition of mouse serum prevented AQP4-IgG-dependent CDC caused by human, rat or guinea pig serum, with 50% inhibition at <5% mouse serum. Hemolysis assays indicated that the inhibitor(s) in mouse serum target the classical and not the alternative complement pathway. We found that the complement inhibitor(s) in mouse serum were contained in a serum fraction purified with protein-A resin; however, the inhibitor was not IgG as determined using serum from IgG-deficient mice. Mass spectrometry on the protein A-purified fraction produced several inhibitor candidates. The low intrinsic complement activity of mouse serum and the presence of complement inhibitor(s) limit the utility of mouse models to study disorders, such as NMO, involving the classical complement pathway. PMID:24980869

Ratelade, Julien; Verkman, A S

2014-11-01

94

Response gene to complement 32 protein promotes macrophage phagocytosis via activation of protein kinase C pathway.  

PubMed

Macrophage phagocytosis plays an important role in host defense. The molecular mechanism, especially factors regulating the phagocytosis, however, is not completely understood. In the present study, we found that response gene to complement 32 (RGC-32) is an important regulator of phagocytosis. Although RGC-32 is induced and abundantly expressed in macrophage during monocyte-macrophage differentiation, RGC-32 appears not to be important for this process because RGC-32-deficient bone marrow progenitor can normally differentiate to macrophage. However, both peritoneal macrophages and bone marrow-derived macrophages with RGC-32 deficiency exhibit significant defects in phagocytosis, whereas RGC-32-overexpressed macrophages show increased phagocytosis. Mechanistically, RGC-32 is recruited to macrophage membrane where it promotes F-actin assembly and the formation of phagocytic cups. RGC-32 knock-out impairs F-actin assembly. RGC-32 appears to interact with PKC to regulate PKC-induced phosphorylation of F-actin cross-linking protein myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase C substrate. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time that RGC-32 is a novel membrane regulator for macrophage phagocytosis. PMID:24973210

Tang, Rui; Zhang, Gui; Chen, Shi-You

2014-08-15

95

Visual Pathway Study Using in vivo DTI Tractography to Complement Classical Anatomy  

PubMed Central

Background Knowledge of the individual course of the optic radiations (OR) is important to avoid post-operative visual deficits. Cadaveric studies of the visual pathways are limited because it has not been possible to accurately separate the OR from neighboring tracts and results may not apply to individual patients. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies may be able to demonstrate the relationships between the OR and neighboring fibers in vivo in individual subjects. Objective To use DTI tractography to study the OR and Meyer’s loop (ML) anatomy in vivo. Methods Ten healthy subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion imaging at 3T. Using a fiducial-based DTI tractography tool (Slicer 3.3), seeds were placed near the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) to reconstruct individual visual pathways and neighboring tracts. Projections of the optic radiations onto 3D brain models were shown individually in order to quantify relationships to key landmarks. Results Two patterns of visual pathways were found. The OR ran more commonly deep in the whole superior and middle temporal gyri and superior temporal sulcus. The OR was closely surrounded in all cases by an inferior longitudinal fascicle and a parieto/occipito/temporo-pontine fascicle. The mean left and right distances between the tip of the OR and temporal pole were 39.8± 3.8mm and 40.6±5.7 mm, respectively. Conclusion DTI tractography provides a practical complementary method to study the OR and ML anatomy in vivo, and with reference to individual 3D brain anatomy. PMID:21808220

Wu, Wentao; Rigolo, Laura; O’Donnell, Lauren J.; Norton, Isaiah; Shriver, Sargent; Golby, Alexandra J.

2011-01-01

96

Recombinant Adenovirus Vectors Activate the Alternative Complement Pathway, Leading to the Binding of Human Complement Protein C3 Independent of Anti-Ad Antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombinant adenoviruses are one of the most common gene transfer vectors utilized in human clinical trials, but it is also clear that systemic administration of this virus will be met by host innate and adaptive antiviral immune responses. One element of innate immunity is the complement system, a group of proteins that has evolved to rapidly recognize foreign microbes and

H. Jiang; Z. Wang; D. Serra; M. M. Frank; A. Amalfitano

2004-01-01

97

Complete sequencing and expression of three complement components, C1r, C4 and C1 inhibitor, of the classical activation pathway of the complement system in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three complement components, C1r, C4 and C1 inhibitor, of the classical activation pathway have been fully sequenced and their expression investigated in rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss). Trout C1r cDNA encodes a 707-amino-acid (aa) protein with a theoretical M r of 77,200. The trout translation shows highest homology with carp C1r\\/s, and lower, equal homologies to mammalian C1r and C1s,

Tiehui Wang; Christopher J. Secombes

2003-01-01

98

Mannose-Binding Lectin Inhibits Monocyte Proliferation through Transforming Growth Factor-?1 and p38 Signaling Pathways  

PubMed Central

Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), a plasma C-type lectin, plays an important role in innate immunity. However, the interaction, and the consequences of it, between MBL and the immune system remain ill defined. We have investigated the contributing mechanisms and effects of MBL on the proliferation of human monocytes. At lower concentrations (?4 ?g/ml) MBL was shown to partially enhance monocyte proliferation. By contrast, at higher concentrations (8–20 ?g/ml) of MBL, cell proliferation was markedly attenuated. MBL-induced growth inhibition was associated with G0/G1 arrest, down-regulation of cyclin D1/D3, cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) 2/Cdk4 and up-regulation of the Cdk inhibitory protein Cip1/p21. Additionally, MBL induced apoptosis, and did so through caspase-3 activation and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage. Moreover, transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 levels increased in the supernatants of MBL-stimulated monocyte cultures. We also found that MBL-dependent inhibition of monocyte proliferation could be reversed by the TGF-? receptor antagonist SB-431542, or by anti-TGF-?1 antibody, or by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors specific for p38 (SB203580), but not ERK (U0126) or JNK (SP600125). Thus, at high concentrations, MBL can affect the immune system by inhibiting monocyte proliferation, which suggests that MBL may exhibit anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:24039775

Wang, Yan; Chen, A-De; Lei, Yan-Mei; Shan, Gui-Qiu; Zhang, Li-Yun; Lu, Xiao; Chen, Zheng-Liang

2013-01-01

99

Interaction of desialated guinea pig erythrocytes with the classical and alternative pathways of guinea pig complement in vivo and in vitro.  

PubMed

We examined the fate of desialated autologous erythrocytes injected intravenously into guinea pigs (GP). Desialated GP erythrocytes (E) were lysed directly or cleared by the reticuloendothelial system in normal GP (NIH-GP) and cleared by the reticuloendothelial system in GP genetically deficient in the classical complement pathway component C4 (C4D-GP), which activate complement only via the alternative pathway. Desialated E were also cleared in cobra venom factor-treated GP (CVF-GP), which had less than 1% of normal C3 levels, but were not cleared at all in C4D-CVF-GP. Preinjection of asialoorosomucoid (ASOR) and ovalbumin (OVA) had no effect on the rate of E clearance. These in vivo studies indicated that complement activation is essential for clearance of desialated E and that clearance is unaffected by blockade of galactose or mannose receptors. Inhibition of complement-mediated clearance required blockade of both classical and alternative complement pathways. In vitro studies showed that lysis of desialated E could occur in NIH-GP serum (GPS) but not in C4D-GPS. Surprisingly, CVF-GPS also caused lysis of desialated E. Lysis was dependent on both natural antibody to desialated E and classical pathway activation; natural antibody was of both the IgG and IgM classes. C3 uptake studies demonstrated that almost 10 times as many C3 molecules/E were deposited by NIH-GPS as by C4D-GPS or CVF-GPS onto desialated E. Approximately equal numbers of C3 molecules were deposited by CVF-GPS, which did lyse desialated E, and by C4D-GPS, which did not. We suggest that the molecular mechanism of in vivo clearance and in vitro lysis of desialated E by CVF-GP is via classical pathway deposition of C3b into sites on the erythrocyte surface protected from inactivation by H (beta 1H) and I (C4b/3b inactivator). Deposition of C3b into these sites by alternative pathway activation is sufficient to cause clearance but not lysis of desialated E. CVF-GPS may not represent an adequate reagent for testing the complement dependence of various biologic phenomena, particularly if the question involves surfaces that can provide protected sites for C3b molecules. PMID:6863540

Brown, E J; Joiner, K A; Frank, M M

1983-06-01

100

COMPLEMENT REGULATION IN RENAL DISEASE MODELS  

PubMed Central

Activation of the complement system is tightly regulated by plasma and cell-associated complement regulatory proteins (CRPs), such as factor H (fH), decay-accelerating factor (DAF), and membrane cofactor protein (MCP). Animal models of disease have provided considerable insights into the important roles for CRPs in the kidney. Mice deficient in fH have excessive fluid phase C3 activation and inactivation leading to deposition of iC3b in glomerular capillary walls (GCW), comparable to dense deposit disease. In contrast, when fH lacks C-terminal surface targeting regions, local activation on the GCW leads to a disease reminiscent of thrombotic microangiopathy. The uniquely rodent protein, CR1-related y (Crry), has features analogous to human MCP. Defective Crry leads to unrestricted alternative pathway activation in the tubulointerstitium (TI) resulting in pathological features ranging from TMA, acute kidney injury and TI nephritis. In the presence of initiators of the classical or lectin pathways, commonly in the form of immune complexes in human glomerular diseases, complement regulation on self is stressed, with the potential for recruitment of the spontaneously active alternative pathway. The threshold for this activation is set by CRPs; pathology is more likely when complement regulation is defective. Within the endocapillary region of the GCW, fH is key, while DAF and Crry are protective on mesangial cells and podocytes. Arguably, acquired alterations in these CRPs is a more common event, extending from pathological states of cellular injury or production of inhibitory antibodies, to physiological fine tuning of the adaptive immune response. PMID:24161042

Naik, Abhijit; Sharma, Shweta; Quigg, Richard J.

2014-01-01

101

MASP-1 Induces a Unique Cytokine Pattern in Endothelial Cells: A Novel Link between Complement System and Neutrophil Granulocytes  

PubMed Central

Microbial infection urges prompt intervention by the immune system. The complement cascade and neutrophil granulocytes are the predominant contributors to this immediate anti-microbial action. We have previously shown that mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease-1 (MASP-1), the most abundant enzyme of the complement lectin pathway, can induce p38-MAPK activation, NFkappaB signaling, and Ca2+-mobilization in endothelial cells. Since neutrophil chemotaxis and transmigration depends on endothelial cell activation, we aimed to explore whether recombinant MASP-1 (rMASP-1) is able to induce cytokine production and subsequent neutrophil chemotaxis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). We found that HUVECs activated by rMASP-1 secreted IL-6 and IL-8, but not IL-1alpha, IL-1ra, TNFalpha and MCP-1. rMASP-1 induced dose-dependent IL-6 and IL-8 production with different kinetics. rMASP-1 triggered IL-6 and IL-8 production was regulated predominantly by the p38-MAPK pathway. Moreover, the supernatant of rMASP-1-stimulated HUVECs activated the chemotaxis of neutrophil granulocytes as an integrated effect of cytokine production. Our results implicate that besides initializing the complement lectin pathway, MASP-1 may activate neutrophils indirectly, via the endothelial cells, which link these effective antimicrobial host defense mechanisms. PMID:24489848

Jani, Péter K.; Kajdácsi, Erika; Megyeri, Márton; Dobó, József; Doleschall, Zoltán; Futosi, Krisztina; Tímár, Csaba I.; Mócsai, Attila; Makó, Veronika; Gál, Péter; Cervenak, László

2014-01-01

102

Complement and Periodontitis  

PubMed Central

Although the complement system is centrally involved in host defense, its overactivation or deregulation (e.g., due to inherent host genetic defects or due to pathogen subversion) may excessively amplify inflammation and contribute to immunopathology. Periodontitis is an oral infection-driven chronic inflammatory disease which exerts a systemic impact on health. This paper reviews evidence linking complement to periodontal inflammation and pathogenesis. Clinical and histological observations show a correlation between periodontal inflammatory activity and local complement activation. Certain genetic polymorphisms or deficiencies in specific complement components appear to predispose to increased susceptibility to periodontitis. Animal model studies and in vitro experiments indicate that periodontal bacteria can either inhibit or activate distinct components of the complement cascade. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone species in periodontitis, subverts complement receptor 3 and C5a anaphylatoxin receptor signaling in ways that promote its adaptive fitness in the presence of non-productive inflammation. Overall, available evidence suggests that complement activation or subversion contributes to periodontal pathogenesis, although not all complement pathways or functions are necessarily destructive. Effective complement-targeted therapeutic intervention in periodontitis would require determining the precise roles of the various inductive or effector complement pathways. This information is essential as it may reveal which specific pathways need to be blocked to counteract microbial evasion and inflammatory pathology or, conversely, be enhanced to promote host immunity. PMID:20599785

Hajishengallis, George

2010-01-01

103

Infections of People with Complement Deficiencies and Patients Who Have Undergone Splenectomy  

PubMed Central

Summary: The complement system comprises several fluid-phase and membrane-associated proteins. Under physiological conditions, activation of the fluid-phase components of complement is maintained under tight control and complement activation occurs primarily on surfaces recognized as “nonself” in an attempt to minimize damage to bystander host cells. Membrane complement components act to limit complement activation on host cells or to facilitate uptake of antigens or microbes “tagged” with complement fragments. While this review focuses on the role of complement in infectious diseases, work over the past couple of decades has defined several important functions of complement distinct from that of combating infections. Activation of complement in the fluid phase can occur through the classical, lectin, or alternative pathway. Deficiencies of components of the classical pathway lead to the development of autoimmune disorders and predispose individuals to recurrent respiratory infections and infections caused by encapsulated organisms, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae. While no individual with complete mannan-binding lectin (MBL) deficiency has been identified, low MBL levels have been linked to predisposition to, or severity of, several diseases. It appears that MBL may play an important role in children, who have a relatively immature adaptive immune response. C3 is the point at which all complement pathways converge, and complete deficiency of C3 invariably leads to severe infections, including those caused by meningococci and pneumococci. Deficiencies of the alternative and terminal complement pathways result in an almost exclusive predisposition to invasive meningococcal disease. The spleen plays an important role in antigen processing and the production of antibodies. Splenic macrophages are critical in clearing opsonized encapsulated bacteria (such as pneumococci, meningococci, and Escherichia coli) and intraerythrocytic parasites such as those causing malaria and babesiosis, which explains the fulminant nature of these infections in persons with anatomic or functional asplenia. Paramount to the management of patients with complement deficiencies and asplenia is educating patients about their predisposition to infection and the importance of preventive immunizations and seeking prompt medical attention. PMID:20930072

Ram, Sanjay; Lewis, Lisa A.; Rice, Peter A.

2010-01-01

104

Human mannose-binding lectin inhibitor prevents myocardial injury and arterial thrombogenesis in a novel animal model.  

PubMed

Myocardial infarction and coagulation disorders are leading causes of disability and death in the world. An important role of the lectin complement pathway in myocardial infarction and coagulation has been demonstrated in mice genetically deficient in lectin complement pathway proteins. However, these studies are limited to comparisons between wild-type and deficient mice and lack the ability to examine reversal/inhibition of injury after disease establishment. We developed a novel mouse that expresses functional human mannose-binding lectin (MBL) 2 under the control of Mbl1 promoter. Serum MBL2 concentrations averaged approximately 3 ?g/mL in MBL2(+/+)Mbl1(-/-)Mbl2(-/-) [MBL2 knock in (KI)] mice. Serum MBL2 level in MBL2 KI mice significantly increased after 7 (8 ?g/mL) or 14 (9 ?g/mL) days of hyperglycemia compared to normoglycemic mice (P < 0.001). Monoclonal antibody 3F8 inhibited C3 deposition on mannan-coated plates in MBL2 KI, but not wild-type, mice. Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion in MBL2 KI mice revealed that 3F8 preserved cardiac function and decreased infarct size and fibrin deposition in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, 3F8 prevented ferric chloride-induced occlusive arterial thrombogenesis in vivo. MBL2 KI mice represent a novel animal model that can be used to study the lectin complement pathway in acute and chronic models of human disease. Furthermore, these novel mice demonstrate the therapeutic window for MBL2 inhibition for effective treatment of disease and its complications. PMID:25482922

Pavlov, Vasile I; Tan, Ying S; McClure, Erin E; La Bonte, Laura R; Zou, Chenhui; Gorsuch, William B; Stahl, Gregory L

2015-02-01

105

Transcription efficiency of different chicken mannose-binding lectin promoter alleles.  

PubMed

The serum collectin mannose-binding lectin (MBL) plays a major role in innate immunity by activation of the lectin complement pathway or by acting as an opsonin. The serum levels of human and animal MBL are associated with susceptibility to a wide range of infections, and the variation of MBL in serum is genetically determined. In the chicken, 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have so far been found in the MBL promoter region. In this study, the transcription activity of a 670-bp promoter region covering all 14 SNPs from the four MBL promoter alleles A1 to A4 was assessed using a dual-luciferase assay. Of the analysed alleles, A1 showed the highest transcription activity although this allele is frequently found in chickens with low MBL mRNA expression. PMID:25186068

Kjćrup, R M; Dalgaard, T S; Norup, L R; Goto, R M; Miller, M M; Sřrensen, P; Juul-Madsen, H R

2014-12-01

106

Mannose Binding Lectin Is Required for Alphavirus-Induced Arthritis/Myositis  

PubMed Central

Mosquito-borne alphaviruses such as chikungunya virus and Ross River virus (RRV) are emerging pathogens capable of causing large-scale epidemics of virus-induced arthritis and myositis. The pathology of RRV-induced disease in both humans and mice is associated with induction of the host inflammatory response within the muscle and joints, and prior studies have demonstrated that the host complement system contributes to development of disease. In this study, we have used a mouse model of RRV-induced disease to identify and characterize which complement activation pathways mediate disease progression after infection, and we have identified the mannose binding lectin (MBL) pathway, but not the classical or alternative complement activation pathways, as essential for development of RRV-induced disease. MBL deposition was enhanced in RRV infected muscle tissue from wild type mice and RRV infected MBL deficient mice exhibited reduced disease, tissue damage, and complement deposition compared to wild-type mice. In contrast, mice deficient for key components of the classical or alternative complement activation pathways still developed severe RRV-induced disease. Further characterization of MBL deficient mice demonstrated that similar to C3?/? mice, viral replication and inflammatory cell recruitment were equivalent to wild type animals, suggesting that RRV-mediated induction of complement dependent immune pathology is largely MBL dependent. Consistent with these findings, human patients diagnosed with RRV disease had elevated serum MBL levels compared to healthy controls, and MBL levels in the serum and synovial fluid correlated with severity of disease. These findings demonstrate a role for MBL in promoting RRV-induced disease in both mice and humans and suggest that the MBL pathway of complement activation may be an effective target for therapeutic intervention for humans suffering from RRV-induced arthritis and myositis. PMID:22457620

Whitmore, Alan C.; Blevins, Lance K.; Hueston, Linda; Fraser, Robert J.; Herrero, Lara J.; Ramirez, Ruben; Smith, Paul N.; Mahalingam, Suresh; Heise, Mark T.

2012-01-01

107

Mapping of functional domains in herpesvirus saimiri complement control protein homolog: complement control protein domain 2 is the smallest structural unit displaying cofactor and decay-accelerating activities.  

PubMed

Herpesvirus saimiri encodes a functional homolog of human regulator-of-complement-activation proteins named CCPH that inactivates complement by accelerating the decay of C3 convertases and by serving as a cofactor in factor I-mediated inactivation of their subunits C3b and C4b. Here, we map the functional domains of CCPH. We demonstrate that short consensus repeat 2 (SCR2) is the minimum domain essential for classical/lectin pathway C3 convertase decay-accelerating activity as well as for factor I cofactor activity for C3b and C4b. Thus, CCPH is the first example wherein a single SCR domain has been shown to display complement regulatory functions. PMID:19640995

Singh, Akhilesh K; Yadav, Viveka Nand; Pyaram, Kalyani; Mullick, Jayati; Sahu, Arvind

2009-10-01

108

Mapping of Functional Domains in Herpesvirus Saimiri Complement Control Protein Homolog: Complement Control Protein Domain 2 Is the Smallest Structural Unit Displaying Cofactor and Decay-Accelerating Activities?  

PubMed Central

Herpesvirus saimiri encodes a functional homolog of human regulator-of-complement-activation proteins named CCPH that inactivates complement by accelerating the decay of C3 convertases and by serving as a cofactor in factor I-mediated inactivation of their subunits C3b and C4b. Here, we map the functional domains of CCPH. We demonstrate that short consensus repeat 2 (SCR2) is the minimum domain essential for classical/lectin pathway C3 convertase decay-accelerating activity as well as for factor I cofactor activity for C3b and C4b. Thus, CCPH is the first example wherein a single SCR domain has been shown to display complement regulatory functions. PMID:19640995

Singh, Akhilesh K.; Yadav, Viveka Nand; Pyaram, Kalyani; Mullick, Jayati; Sahu, Arvind

2009-01-01

109

Functional characterization of the complement control protein homolog of herpesvirus saimiri: ARG-118 is critical for factor I cofactor activities.  

PubMed

Herpesvirus saimiri (HVS) is a lymphotropic virus that causes T-cell lymphomas in New World primates. It encodes a structural homolog of complement control proteins named complement control protein homolog (CCPH). Previously, CCPH has been shown to inhibit C3d deposition on target cells exposed to complement. Here we have studied the mechanism by which it inactivates complement. We have expressed the soluble form of CCPH in Escherichia coli, purified to homogeneity and compared its activity to vaccinia virus complement control protein (VCP) and human complement regulators factor H and soluble complement receptor 1. The expressed soluble form of CCPH bound to C3b (KD = 19.2 microm) as well as to C4b (KD = 0.8 microm) and accelerated the decay of the classical/lectin as well as alternative pathway C3-convertases. In addition, it also served as factor I cofactor and supported factor I-mediated inactivation of both C3b and C4b. Time course analysis indicated that although its rate of inactivation of C4b is comparable with VCP, it is 14-fold more potent than VCP in inactivating C3b. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that Arg-118, which corresponds to Lys-120 of variola virus complement regulator SPICE (a residue critical for its enhanced C3b cofactor activity), contributes significantly in enhancing this activity. Thus, our data indicate that HVS encodes a potent complement inhibitor that allows HVS to evade the host complement attack. PMID:16760474

Singh, Akhilesh K; Mullick, Jayati; Bernet, John; Sahu, Arvind

2006-08-11

110

Discrimination between activators and nonactivators of the alternative pathway of complement: regulation via a sialic acid/polyanion binding site on factor H.  

PubMed Central

The alternative complement pathway is capable of discriminating human cells and tissues from a wide variety of potential pathogens. It has been recently demonstrated that attachment of complement component C3b to activator-derived molecules (e.g., small polysaccharides) restricts inactivation of C3b by factors H and I in a manner similar to activator surfaces. It is now shown that restriction is reversed by certain soluble polyanions (e.g., sialoglycopeptides, heparin, or dextran sulfate) that mimic the effects of sialic acid and glycosaminoglycans on human cells and tissues. Fluid-phase polyanions enhanced binding of factor H to C3b attached to activating particles, indicating that the effect resulted from increased affinity between C3b and factor H. The enhancement was specific for activator-bound C3b since no enhancement was observed on nonactivating particles. While several polyanions could cause this effect, some polyanions could not, indicating specificity. The active polyanions also inhibited lysis of cells via the alternative pathway. The binding site for sialic acid appears to reside on factor H, since factor H bound to heparin-agarose and to sialic acid-bearing fetuinagarose, whereas C3b bound to neither under the same conditions. These observations suggest that occupation of a specific site on factor H by polyanions induces an increase in the C3b-H affinity, resulting in discrimination of host cells and tissues from alternative pathway-activating foreign cells. PMID:1692629

Meri, S; Pangburn, M K

1990-01-01

111

Commercially available complement component-depleted sera are unexpectedly codepleted of ficolin-2.  

PubMed

The ficolins are a family of innate pattern recognition molecules that are known to bind acetylated compounds and activate complement through the association of mannose binding lectin (MBL)/ficolin-associated serine proteases (MASPs). Their importance has more recently become appreciated, as they have been shown to play a role in a variety of disease processes from infection to autoimmunity. While studying ficolin-2-mediated complement deposition on Streptococcus pneumoniae, we found that sera depleted of C1q or other complement components were also codepleted of ficolin-2 but not ficolin-1, ficolin-3, or MBL. MBL present in C1q-depleted sera was able to mediate complement deposition on Saccharomyces cerevisiae, suggesting the presence of MASPs. We found that complement was activated on pneumococci in C1q-depleted serum only after opsonization with exogenous recombinant ficolin-2 (rFicolin-2). Also, no complement deposition was observed in C1q-depleted serum when pneumococci were opsonized with rFicolin-2 mutated at its lysine-57 residue, where MASPs are known to associate. Thus, these depleted sera are a unique tool to study ficolin-2-mediated complement pathways; however, one should be aware that ficolin-2 is absent from complement component-depleted sera. PMID:25030054

Brady, Allison M; Geno, K Aaron; Dalecki, Alex G; Cheng, Xiaogang; Nahm, Moon H

2014-09-01

112

The role of complement in the pathogenesis of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury and fibrosis  

PubMed Central

The complement system is a major component of innate immunity and has been commonly identified as a central element in host defense, clearance of immune complexes, and tissue homeostasis. After ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), the complement system is activated by endogenous ligands that trigger proteolytic cleavage of complement components via the classical, lectin and/or alternative pathway. The result is the formation of terminal complement components C3a, C5a, and the membrane attack complex (C5b-9 or MAC), all of which play pivotal roles in the amplification of the inflammatory response, chemotaxis, neutrophil/monocyte recruitment and activation, and direct tubular cell injury. However, recent evidence suggests that complement activity transcends innate host defense and there is increasing data suggesting complement as a regulator in processes such as allo-immunity, stem cell differentiation, tissue repair, and progression to fibrosis. In this review, we discuss recent advances addressing the role of complement as a regulator of IRI and renal fibrosis after organ donation for transplantation. We will also briefly discuss currently approved therapies that target complement activity in kidney ischemia-reperfusion and transplantation. PMID:25383094

2014-01-01

113

The CD94/NKG2C killer lectin-like receptor constitutes an alternative activation pathway for a subset of CD8+ T cells.  

PubMed

The CD94/NKG2C killer lectin-like receptor (KLR) specific for HLA-E is coupled to the KARAP/DAP12 adapter in a subset of NK cells, triggering their effector functions. We have studied the distribution and function of this KLR in T lymphocytes. Like other NK cell receptors (NKR), CD94/NKG2C was predominantly expressed by a CD8(+) T cell subset, though TCRgammadelta(+) NKG2C(+) and rare CD4(+) NKG2C(+) cells were also detected in some individuals. Coculture with the 721.221 HLA class I-deficient lymphoma cell line transfected with HLA-E (.221-AEH) induced IL-2Ralpha expression in CD94/NKG2C+ NK cells and a minor subset of CD94/NKG2C(+) T cells, promoting their proliferation; moreover, a similar response was triggered upon selective engagement of CD94/NKG2C with a specific mAb. CD8(+) TCRalphabeta CD94/NKG2C(+) T cell clones, that displayed different combinations of KIR and CD85j receptors, expressed KARAP/DAP12 which was co-precipitated by an anti-CD94 mAb. Specific engagement of the KLR triggered cytotoxicity and cytokine production in CD94/NKG2C(+) T cell clones, inducing as well IL-2Ralpha expression and a proliferative response. Altogether these results support that CD94/NKG2C may constitute an alternative T cell activation pathway capable of driving the expansion and triggering the effector functions of a CTL subset. PMID:15940674

Gumá, Mónica; Busch, Lisa K; Salazar-Fontana, Laura I; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Morte, Carles; García, Pilar; López-Botet, Miguel

2005-07-01

114

Complement in organ transplantation  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review The aim of this review is to bring to attention the most recent advances made in understanding the role of complement components in both innate and adaptive immune responses in solid organ transplantation with emphasis on the kidney. Recent findings Alongside recent findings related to the role of anaphylatoxins in modulating adaptive immune responses, there has been a genomic study to assess the expression of inflammatory markers in kidney transplantation, showing significant involvement of some complement molecules in predicting graft function. Modulators of complement pathway activity such as Decay Accelerating factor (CD55) and CD59 have also been shown to have a role in graft rejection. Potential new therapeutic targets related to complement proteins are being investigated. Summary The mechanism of rejection in solid organ transplantation is influenced by the initial inflammatory response and subsequent adaptive alloimmune response, both of which have been shown to be affected by various complement components. Due to limitations of existing treatments, new approaches are needed to better control these responses to improve graft survival. Built on an expanding knowledge of complement involvement, targeted blocking of the effector complement molecules and modulating the expression of complement inhibitors has suggested potentially useful approaches for reducing the effect of inflammatory damage from cold ischaemia as well as reducing the activation of the adaptive immune system related to complement. PMID:20631616

Elham, Asgari; Wuding, Zhou; Steven, Sacks

2011-01-01

115

Complement, complement activation and anaphylatoxins in human ovarian follicular fluid.  

PubMed Central

Functionally active complement was sought and detected in human follicular fluids obtained during the pre-ovulatory period. All the functional complement activities tested, including total haemolytic complement, classical pathway activity and alternative pathway activity were present in nine fluids from four different donors with values within the normal serum range. The immunochemical analysis demonstrated the presence of complement factors from C1 to C9, of B and of C1 INH, H, I. Complement anaphylatoxins were found employing RIA techniques in amounts significantly higher than in human plasma, thus demonstrating that follicular fluid complement, at least during the pre-ovulatory period, is partially activated. A possible role for urokinase-like substances in such an activation was indicated by further in vitro experiments. The presence of active complement in follicular fluid can be relevant for the function of the enzymatic multi-factorial mechanism of ovulation. PMID:2242616

Perricone, R; de Carolis, C; Moretti, C; Santuari, E; de Sanctis, G; Fontana, L

1990-01-01

116

How Bipartite Network Visualizations Complement Ingenuity Pathway Analysis: A Case Study in Methylation Related to Preterm Births  

E-print Network

alterations in ESC maintenance. Clonogenic potential of E4F1 KO ESC is rescued by Bmi1 over-dependent skin homeostasis implicating E4F1 and the Bmi1-Arf-p53 pathway. Abbreviations: ESC, Epidermal Stem

Bhavnani, Suresh K.

117

Loss of Complement Activation and Leukocyte Adherence as Nippostrongylus brasiliensis Develops within the Murine Host  

PubMed Central

Complement activation and C3 deposition on the surface of parasitic helminths may be important for recruitment of leukocytes and for damage to the target organism via cell-mediated mechanisms. Inhibition of complement activation would therefore be advantageous to parasites, minimizing damage and enhancing migration through tissues. The aim of this study was to determine ex vivo if complement activation by, and leukocyte adherence to, the nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis change as the parasite matures and migrates through the murine host. Pathways of activation of complement and the mechanism of adherence of leukocytes were also defined using sera from mice genetically deficient in either C1q, factor B, C1q and factor B, C3, or C4. Substantive deposition of C3 and adherence of eosinophil-rich leukocytes were seen with infective-stage (L3) but not with lung-stage (L4) larvae. Adult intestinal worms had low to intermediate levels of both C3 and leukocyte binding. For L3 and adult worms, complement deposition was principally dependent on the alternative pathway. For lung-stage larvae, the small amount of C3 detected was dependent to similar degrees on both the lectin and alternative pathways. The classical pathway was not involved for any of the life stages of the parasite. These results suggest that in primary infections, the infective stage of N. brasiliensis is vulnerable to complement-dependent attack by leukocytes. However, within the first 24 h of infection, N. brasiliensis acquires the ability to largely avoid complement-dependent immune responses. PMID:16239545

Giacomin, Paul R.; Wang, Hui; Gordon, David L.; Botto, Marina; Dent, Lindsay A.

2005-01-01

118

Capturing protein interactions in the secretory pathway of living cells  

PubMed Central

The secretory pathway is composed of membrane compartments specialized in protein folding, modification, transport, and sorting. Numerous transient protein-protein interactions guide the transport-competent proteins through the secretory pathway. Here we have adapted the yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-based protein fragment complementation assay (PCA) to detect protein-protein interactions in the secretory pathway of living cells. Fragments of YFP were fused to the homooligomeric cargo-receptor lectin endoplasmic reticulum Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC)-53, to the ERGIC-53-interacting multicoagulation factor deficiency protein MCFD2, and to ERGIC-53's cargo glycoprotein cathepsin Z. YFP PCA analysis revealed the oligomerization of ERGIC-53 and its interaction with MCFD2, as well as its lectin-mediated interaction with cathepsin Z. Mutation of the lectin domain of ERGIC-53 selectively decreased YFP complementation with cathepsin Z. Using YFP PCA, we discovered a carbohydrate-mediated interaction between ERGIC-53 and cathepsin C. We conclude that YFP PCA can detect weak and transient protein interactions in the secretory pathway and hence is a powerful approach to study luminal processes involved in protein secretion. The study extends the application of PCA to carbohydrate-mediated protein-protein interactions of low affinity. PMID:15849265

Nyfeler, Beat; Michnick, Stephen W.; Hauri, Hans-Peter

2005-01-01

119

Mannan binding lectin attenuates double-stranded RNA-mediated TLR3 activation and innate immunity.  

PubMed

Mannan binding lectin (MBL) functions as a pattern recognition molecule (PRM) which is able to initiate complement activation. Here, we characterize a previously unrecognized attribute of MBL as a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding protein capable of modifying Toll like receptor 3 (TLR3) activation. MBL interacts with poly(I:C) and suppresses poly(I:C)-induced activation of TLR3 pathways and subsequent cytokine production. In addition, MBL binds to TLR3 directly. Surprisingly, disrupting the interaction between MBL and complement receptor 1 (CR1) or restraining the traffic of MBL to phagosome reversed the MBL limited TLR3 activation. We demonstrate the importance of MBL guided ligands intracellular localization, emphasizing the significance of understanding the dynamics of TLR agonists complexed with MBL or other PRMs inside the cell in immune defense. PMID:24530528

Liu, Hongzhi; Zhou, Jia; Ma, Di; Lu, Xiao; Ming, Siqi; Shan, Guiqiu; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Hou, Jinlin; Chen, Zhengliang; Zuo, Daming

2014-03-18

120

Regulation by membrane sialic acid of beta1H-dependent decay-dissociation of amplification C3 convertase of the alternative complement pathway.  

PubMed

Sheep erythrocytes in their native state did not activate the alternative complement pathway, as measured by lysis in dilutions of normal human serum containing [ethylenebis(oxyethylenenitrilo)] tetraacetic acid but acquired this capacity after membrane sialic acid residues had been removed (by sialidase) or modified (by NaIO(4)). Activation of the alternative pathway by sheep erythrocytes required removal or modification of at least 40% of the membrane sialic acid to reach threshold, and it increased proportionately when larger amounts of sialic acid had been affected. Studies with isolated proteins of the alternative pathway demonstrated that the altered erythrocyte membranes resembled natural activators in protecting bound C3b from inactivation by C3b inactivator and beta1H and protecting bound amplification C3 convertase (C3b,Bb) from decay-dissociation by beta1H. A 1% decrease in intact sialic acid was associated with a 1% decrease in beta1H activity in decay-dissociation of membrane bound C3b,Bb. Because removal of the C8 and C9 carbon atoms from the polyhydroxylated side chain of sialic acid by oxidation with NaIO(4) was functionally equivalent to removal of the entire sialic acid moiety, secondary effects of the latter reaction, such as diminution of the negative charge of the membrane or exposure of penultimate galactose residues, were not considered to be responsible for the altered activity of beta1H. These studies suggest that facilitation, by membrane sialic acid residues, of the interaction between bound C3b and beta1H is essential to prevent the particle from effectively activating the alternative pathway. PMID:273923

Fearon, D T

1978-04-01

121

Complement Activation: An Emerging Player in the Pathogenesis of Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

A wealth of evidence indicates a fundamental role for inflammation in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD), contributing to the development and progression of atherosclerotic lesion formation, plaque rupture, and thrombosis. An increasing body of evidence supports a functional role for complement activation in the pathogenesis of CVD through pleiotropic effects on endothelial and haematopoietic cell function and haemostasis. Prospective and case control studies have reported strong relationships between several complement components and cardiovascular outcomes, and in vitro studies and animal models support a functional effect. Complement activation, in particular, generation of C5a and C5b-9, influences many processes involved in the development and progression of atherosclerosis, including promotion of endothelial cell activation, leukocyte infiltration into the extracellular matrix, stimulation of cytokine release from vascular smooth muscle cells, and promotion of plaque rupture. Complement activation also influences thrombosis, involving components of the mannose-binding lectin pathway, and C5b-9 in particular, through activation of platelets, promotion of fibrin formation, and impairment of fibrinolysis. The participation of the complement system in inflammation and thrombosis is consistent with the physiological role of the complement system as a rapid effector system conferring protection following vessel injury. However, in the context of CVD, these same processes contribute to development of atherosclerosis, plaque rupture, and thrombosis. PMID:24278688

Carter, Angela M.

2012-01-01

122

Complement-mediated injury and protection of endothelium: lessons from atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome.  

PubMed

The complement system provides a vital defence against invading pathogens. As an intrinsic system it is always 'on', in a state of constant, low level activation. This activation is principally mediated through the deposition of C3b on to pathogenic surfaces and host tissues. C3b is generated by spontaneous 'tick over' and formal activation of the alternative pathway, and by activation of the classical and lectin pathways. If the deposited C3b is not appropriately regulated, there is progression to terminal pathway complement activation via the C5 convertases, generating the potent anaphylotoxin C5a and the membrane attack complex C5b-9. Unsurprisingly, these highly active components have the potential to cause injury to bystander host tissue, including the vascular endothelium. As such, complement activation on endothelium is normally tightly controlled by a large number of fluid-phase and membrane bound inhibitors, in an attempt to ensure that propagation of complement activation is appropriately restricted to invading pathogens and altered 'self', e.g. apoptotic and necrotic cells. The kidney is increasingly recognised as a site at particular risk from complement-mediated endothelial injury. Both genetic and acquired defects which impact on complement regulation predispose to this susceptibility. The thrombotic microangiopathy, haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS), will be used to illustrate the mechanisms by which the endothelial cell injury occurs. Finally, the underlying rationale for current and future potential therapeutic interventions in HUS and also the opportunities for enhancing endothelial defence to prevent relapsing disease through increased complement cytoprotective strategies will be summarised. PMID:21855165

Kerr, Heather; Richards, Anna

2012-02-01

123

Mechanisms of complement activation, C4d deposition, and their contribution to the pathogenesis of antibody mediated rejection  

PubMed Central

Complement split products have emerged as useful markers of antibody mediated rejection in solid organ transplants. One split product, C4d, is now widely accepted as a marker for antibody mediated rejection in renal and cardiac allografts. This review summarizes the rationale for the use of C4d as a marker of antibody mediated rejection, along with the clinical evidence supporting its use in the clinical diagnosis of antibody mediated rejection. Antibody-independent mechanisms by which C4d can be activated by the classical and lectin pathways of complement activation are also identified. Finally, mechanisms by which complement activation stimulates effector cells (neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, platelets, and B and T lymphocytes) as well as target cells (endothelial cells) are discussed in relation to antibody mediated allograft rejection. PMID:19362461

Murata, Kazunori; Baldwin, William M

2009-01-01

124

Structural basis for activation of the complement system by component C4 cleavage  

PubMed Central

An essential aspect of innate immunity is recognition of molecular patterns on the surface of pathogens or altered self through the lectin and classical pathways, two of the three well-established activation pathways of the complement system. This recognition causes activation of the MASP-2 or the C1s serine proteases followed by cleavage of the protein C4. Here we present the crystal structures of the 203-kDa human C4 and the 245-kDa C4?MASP-2 substrate?enzyme complex. When C4 binds to MASP-2, substantial conformational changes in C4 are induced, and its scissile bond region becomes ordered and inserted into the protease catalytic site in a manner canonical to serine proteases. In MASP-2, an exosite located within the CCP domains recognizes the C4 C345C domain 60 Ĺ from the scissile bond. Mutations in C4 and MASP-2 residues at the C345C–CCP interface inhibit the intermolecular interaction and C4 cleavage. The possible assembly of the huge in vivo enzyme–substrate complex consisting of glycan-bound mannan-binding lectin, MASP-2, and C4 is discussed. Our own and prior functional data suggest that C1s in the classical pathway of complement activated by, e.g., antigen–antibody complexes, also recognizes the C4 C345C domain through a CCP exosite. Our results provide a unified structural framework for understanding the early and essential step of C4 cleavage in the elimination of pathogens and altered self through two major pathways of complement activation. PMID:22949645

Kidmose, Rune T.; Laursen, Nick S.; Dobó, József; Kjaer, Troels R.; Sirotkina, Sofia; Yatime, Laure; Sottrup-Jensen, Lars; Thiel, Steffen; Gál, Péter; Andersen, Gregers R.

2012-01-01

125

Structural basis for activation of the complement system by component C4 cleavage.  

PubMed

An essential aspect of innate immunity is recognition of molecular patterns on the surface of pathogens or altered self through the lectin and classical pathways, two of the three well-established activation pathways of the complement system. This recognition causes activation of the MASP-2 or the C1s serine proteases followed by cleavage of the protein C4. Here we present the crystal structures of the 203-kDa human C4 and the 245-kDa C4·MASP-2 substrate·enzyme complex. When C4 binds to MASP-2, substantial conformational changes in C4 are induced, and its scissile bond region becomes ordered and inserted into the protease catalytic site in a manner canonical to serine proteases. In MASP-2, an exosite located within the CCP domains recognizes the C4 C345C domain 60 Ĺ from the scissile bond. Mutations in C4 and MASP-2 residues at the C345C-CCP interface inhibit the intermolecular interaction and C4 cleavage. The possible assembly of the huge in vivo enzyme-substrate complex consisting of glycan-bound mannan-binding lectin, MASP-2, and C4 is discussed. Our own and prior functional data suggest that C1s in the classical pathway of complement activated by, e.g., antigen-antibody complexes, also recognizes the C4 C345C domain through a CCP exosite. Our results provide a unified structural framework for understanding the early and essential step of C4 cleavage in the elimination of pathogens and altered self through two major pathways of complement activation. PMID:22949645

Kidmose, Rune T; Laursen, Nick S; Dobó, József; Kjaer, Troels R; Sirotkina, Sofia; Yatime, Laure; Sottrup-Jensen, Lars; Thiel, Steffen; Gál, Péter; Andersen, Gregers R

2012-09-18

126

Surface-bound capsular polysaccharide of type Ia group B Streptococcus mediates C1 binding and activation of the classic complement pathway  

SciTech Connect

The role of surface-bound type Ia group B Streptococcus (GBS) capsular polysaccharide in anti-body-independent binding of C1 and activation of the classic component pathway was investigated. In a radiolabeled bacterial-polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) association assay, a measure of bacterial opsonization, preincubation of /sup 3/H-type Ia GBS with purified F(ab')/sub 2/ to the organism blocked the association of the bacteria with PMN', and the inhibitory effect was dose dependent. The specificity of F(ab')/sub 2/ blocking was shown after adsorption of F(ab')/sub 2/ with type Ia polysaccharide-sensitized erythrocytes. Polysaccharide-adsorbed F(ab')/sub 2/ had a 70% decrease in ability to block the association of bacteria with PMN. Neuraminidase digestion removed 80% of the terminal sialic acid residues from the native polysaccharide. These neuraminidase-digested organisms had a 72% decrease in binding and transfer of purified C1 compared with non-enzyme-treated organisms. Type Ia capsular polysaccharide bound to sheep erythrocytes promoted classic complement pathway-mediated hemolysis of the cells. The role of C1 inhibitor (INH) in modulation of C1 activation by the organisms was investigated. The possibility existed that the C1 INH could be bound by the bacteria, allowing C1 activation to occur in the fluid phase. The inhibitor was purified from human serum, and its activity was measured before and after incubation with type Ia GBS. The organisms had no effect on C1 INH activity. Thus surface-bound capsular polysacchardie of type Ia GBS mediates C1 binding and classic pathway activation, and this does not involve the C1 INH.

Levy, N.J.; Kasper, D.L.

1986-06-01

127

Guinea pig erythrocytes, after their contact with influenza virus, acquire the ability to activate the human alternative complement pathway through virus-induced desialation of the cells.  

PubMed

Guinea pig erythrocytes that had been exposed to influenza A virus activated the alternative complement pathway in whole human serum in the absence of natural antibodies. Because all virus particles were eluted from the treated cells, activation was not dependent on antiviral antibodies or on virus particles themselves. The relative capacity of treated erythrocytes to activate the alternative pathway was dependent on the amount of virus to which the cells had been exposed and was directly related to the amount of sialic acid removed from the erythrocyte membrane during incubation with either whole virus particles or purified viral sialidase. C3b bound to cells that had been treated with virus, and P-stabilized amplification convertase sites P,C3b,Bb formed on these cells, exhibited increased resistance to the action of the regulatory proteins beta-1H and C3b Ina compared with C3b and P,C3b,Bb on untreated, nonactivating cells. The acquired resistance of the cell-bound, P-stabilized amplification convertase to decay-dissociation by beta-1H was directly related to the activating capacity of the treated cells in whole serum (r = 0.95) and to the amount of sialic acid removed from the cells by the virus (r = 0.98). Desialation represents a specific alteration of the cell surface by which a nonimmune host, through activation of the alternative pathway, may deposit C3b on a target cell that had been exposed to influenza virus and may lyse virus virus-modified cells during orthomyxovirus infections. PMID:6459381

Lambré, C R; Kazatchkine, M D; Maillet, F; Thibon, M

1982-02-01

128

Complement activation by ligand-driven juxtaposition of discrete pattern recognition complexes.  

PubMed

Defining mechanisms governing translation of molecular binding events into immune activation is central to understanding immune function. In the lectin pathway of complement, the pattern recognition molecules (PRMs) mannan-binding lectin (MBL) and ficolins complexed with the MBL-associated serine proteases (MASP)-1 and MASP-2 cleave C4 and C2 to generate C3 convertase. MASP-1 was recently found to be the exclusive activator of MASP-2 under physiological conditions, yet the predominant oligomeric forms of MBL carry only a single MASP homodimer. This prompted us to investigate whether activation of MASP-2 by MASP-1 occurs through PRM-driven juxtaposition on ligand surfaces. We demonstrate that intercomplex activation occurs between discrete PRM/MASP complexes. PRM ligand binding does not directly escort the transition of MASP from zymogen to active enzyme in the PRM/MASP complex; rather, clustering of PRM/MASP complexes directly causes activation. Our results support a clustering-based mechanism of activation, fundamentally different from the conformational model suggested for the classical pathway of complement. PMID:25197071

Degn, Sřren E; Kjaer, Troels R; Kidmose, Rune T; Jensen, Lisbeth; Hansen, Annette G; Tekin, Mustafa; Jensenius, Jens C; Andersen, Gregers R; Thiel, Steffen

2014-09-16

129

Inhibition of the Alternative Pathway of Nonhuman Infant Complement by Porin B2 Contributes to Virulence of Neisseria meningitidis in the Infant Rat Model  

PubMed Central

Neisseria meningitidis utilizes capsular polysaccharide, lipooligosaccharide (LOS) sialic acid, factor H binding protein (fHbp), and neisserial surface protein A (NspA) to regulate the alternative pathway (AP) of complement. Using meningococcal mutants that lacked all four of the above-mentioned molecules (quadruple mutants), we recently identified a role for PorB2 in attenuating the human AP; inhibition was mediated by human fH, a key downregulatory protein of the AP. Previous studies showed that fH downregulation of the AP via fHbp or NspA is specific for human fH. Here, we report that PorB2-expressing quadruple mutants also regulate the AP of baby rabbit and infant rat complement. Blocking a human fH binding region on PorB2 of the quadruple mutant of strain 4243 with a chimeric protein that comprised human fH domains 6 and 7 fused to murine IgG Fc enhanced AP-mediated baby rabbit C3 deposition, which provided evidence for an fH-dependent mechanism of nonhuman AP regulation by PorB2. Using isogenic mutants of strain H44/76 that differed only in their PorB molecules, we confirmed a role for PorB2 in resistance to killing by infant rat serum. The PorB2-expressing strain also caused higher levels of bacteremia in infant rats than its isogenic PorB3-expressing counterpart, thus providing a molecular basis for increased survival of PorB2 isolates in this model. These studies link PorB2 expression with infection of infant rats, which could inform the choice of meningococcal strains for use in animal models, and reveals, for the first time, that PorB2-expressing strains of N. meningitidis regulate the AP of baby rabbits and rats. PMID:24686052

Vu, David M.; Granoff, Dan M.; Ram, Sanjay

2014-01-01

130

Complement Activation by Merozoite Antigens of Plasmodium falciparum  

PubMed Central

Background Complement (C) is a crucial part of the innate immune system and becomes over activated during malaria, resulting in depletion of C components, especially those for lectin pathway (LP), thereby compromising the host's innate defense. In this study, involvement of P. falciparum antigens in C activation was investigated. Methods A highly synchronous culture of the Dd2 clone of P. falciparum was established in a serum free medium. Supernatants harvested from rings, trophozoites and schizonts at various parasite densities were tested for ability to activate C by quantifying amount of C3b deposited on erythrocytes (E). Uninfected sham culture was used as control. Remnants of each C pathway were determined using Wieslab complement System Screenkit (Euro-diagnostica, Sweden). To identify MBL binding antigens of LP, culture supernatants were added to MBL sepharose columns and trapped antigens eluted with increasing concentrations of EDTA (10 mM, 50 mM and 100 mM) and then desalted before being tested for ability to activate C. The EDTA eluate with highest activity was run on a polyacrylamide gel and silver stained proteins analyzed by mass spectroscopy. Results Antigens released by P. falciparum growing in culture activated C leading to C3b deposition on E. Maximal activation at 7% parasitemia was associated with schizont stage (36.7%) compared to 22% for rings, 21% for trophozoites and 3% for sham culture. All the three pathways of C were activated, with highest activation being for the alternative pathway (only 6% of C activation potential remained), 65% for classiical and 43% for the LP. Seven MBL binding merozoite proteins were identified by mass spectrometry in the 50 mM EDTA eluate. Conclusions MBL binding merozoite adhesins with ability to activate C pathway were identified. The survival advantage for such pronounced C activation is unclear, but opsonisation could facilitate recognition and invasion of E. PMID:25144772

Korir, Jackson C.; Nyakoe, Nancy K.; Awinda, George; Waitumbi, John N.

2014-01-01

131

Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar Calreticulin: Inhibition of Classical Complement Pathway and Differences in the Level of Expression in Amoebic Liver Abscess  

PubMed Central

The role of calreticulin (CRT) in host-parasite interactions has recently become an important area of research. Information about the functions of calreticulin and its relevance to the physiology of Entamoeba parasites is limited. The present work demonstrates that CRT of both pathogenic E. histolytica and nonpathogenic E. dispar species specifically interacted with human C1q inhibiting the activation of the classical complement pathway. Using recombinant EhCRT protein, we demonstrate that CRT interaction site and human C1q is located at the N-terminal region of EhCRT. The immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy experiments show that CRT and human C1q colocalize in the cytoplasmic vesicles and near to the surface membrane of previously permeabilized trophozoites or are incubated with normal human serum which is known to destroy trophozoites. In the presence of peripheral mononuclear blood cells, the distribution of EhCRT and C1q is clearly over the surface membrane of trophozoites. Nevertheless, the level of expression of CRT in situ in lesions of amoebic liver abscess (ALA) in the hamster model is different in both Entamoeba species; this molecule is expressed in higher levels in E. histolytica than in E. dispar. This result suggests that EhCRT may modulate some functions during the early moments of the host-parasite relationship. PMID:24860808

Ximénez, Cecilia; González, Enrique; Nieves, Miriam E.; Silva-Olivares, Angélica; Shibayama, Mineko; Galindo-Gómez, Silvia; Escobar-Herrera, Jaime; García de León, Ma del Carmen; Morán, Patricia; Valadez, Alicia; Rojas, Liliana; Hernández, Eric G.; Partida, Oswaldo; Cerritos, René

2014-01-01

132

Classical complement pathway components C1r and C1s: purification from human serum and in recombinant form and functional characterization.  

PubMed

C1r and C1s are the proteases responsible for the activation and proteolytic activity of the C1 complex of the classical complement pathway, respectively. They are assembled into a Ca(2+)-dependent C1s-C1r-C1r-C1s tetramer which in turn associates with the recognition protein C1q. The C1 complex circulates in serum as a zymogen and is activated upon binding of C1q to appropriate targets, such as antigen-antibody complexes. This property is used for the purification of C1r and C1s from human serum after binding of C1 to insoluble immune complexes. Disruption of the bound C1 complex by EDTA releases C1r and C1s which are further separated by ion-exchange chromatography; both proteins can be reassembled in the presence of calcium ions and the reconstituted tetramer isolated by gel filtration. In this chapter, we describe the purification of the activated and proenzyme forms of C1r and C1s and of the proenzyme C1s-C1r-C1r-C1s tetramer as well as methods for their biochemical and functional characterization. The production of recombinant C1s and of the proenzyme tetramer in a baculovirus-insect cell system, and their purification by affinity chromatography is also presented. PMID:24218249

Rossi, Véronique; Bally, Isabelle; Lacroix, Monique; Arlaud, Gérard J; Thielens, Nicole M

2014-01-01

133

Activation of the complement system and leukocyte recruitment by Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom.  

PubMed

The scorpion Tityus serrulatus is considered one of the most dangerous species in Brazil. Its venom evokes an inflammatory response, although the exact mechanism of this effect is still unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Tityus serrulatus venom (TsV) on the complement system (CS) and on leukocyte recruitment. Complement consumption by TsV was evaluated using in vitro hemolytic assays, immunoelectrophoresis and two-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis of complement components (factor B and C3). In order to evaluate neutrophil migration induced in normal human serum (NHS) in the presence of TsV, in vitro chemotaxis assays were performed using the Boyden chamber model. In vitro TsV induced a concentration- and time-dependent reduction in hemolytic activity of the classical/lectin and alternative complement pathways, with samples of 43.0 microg and 43.4 microg, respectively, inhibiting 50% of the lytic activity. Alterations in C3 and factor B electrophoretic mobility after incubation of NHS with TsV, were identical to those obtained with zymosan (positive control). Incubation of NHS with TsV induced neutrophil chemotaxis similar to that observed with zymosan-activated serum. Our results show that TsV activates the CS, leading to factor B and C3 cleavage, to reduction of serum lytic activity and generation of complement chemotactic factors. Therefore, CS may play an important role in the inflammatory response observed upon scorpion envenomation. PMID:15829423

Bertazzi, Daniela Trinca; de Assis-Pandochi, Ana Isabel; Talhaferro, Vinicius Luis; Caleiro Seixas Azzolini, Ana Elisa; Pereira Crott, Luciana Simon; Arantes, Eliane Candiani

2005-06-01

134

Dissection of Functional Sites in Herpesvirus Saimiri Complement Control Protein Homolog  

PubMed Central

Herpesvirus saimiri is known to encode a homolog of human complement regulators named complement control protein homolog (CCPH). We have previously reported that this virally encoded inhibitor effectively inactivates complement by supporting factor I-mediated inactivation of complement proteins C3b and C4b (termed cofactor activity), as well as by accelerating the irreversible decay of the classical/lectin and alternative pathway C3 convertases (termed decay-accelerating activity). To fine map its functional sites, in the present study, we have generated a homology model of CCPH and performed substitution mutagenesis of its conserved residues. Functional analyses of 24 substitution mutants of CCPH indicated that (i) amino acids R118 and F144 play a critical role in imparting C3b and C4b cofactor activities, (ii) amino acids R35, K142, and K191 are required for efficient decay of the C3 convertases, (iii) positively charged amino acids of the linker regions, which are dubbed to be critical for functioning in other complement regulators, are not crucial for its function, and (iv) S100K and G110D mutations substantially enhance its decay-accelerating activities without affecting the cofactor activities. Overall, our data point out that ionic interactions form a major component of the binding interface between CCPH and its interacting partners. PMID:23077301

Reza, Malik Johid; Kamble, Ashish; Ahmad, Muzammil; Krishnasastry, Musti V.

2013-01-01

135

Dissection of functional sites in herpesvirus saimiri complement control protein homolog.  

PubMed

Herpesvirus saimiri is known to encode a homolog of human complement regulators named complement control protein homolog (CCPH). We have previously reported that this virally encoded inhibitor effectively inactivates complement by supporting factor I-mediated inactivation of complement proteins C3b and C4b (termed cofactor activity), as well as by accelerating the irreversible decay of the classical/lectin and alternative pathway C3 convertases (termed decay-accelerating activity). To fine map its functional sites, in the present study, we have generated a homology model of CCPH and performed substitution mutagenesis of its conserved residues. Functional analyses of 24 substitution mutants of CCPH indicated that (i) amino acids R118 and F144 play a critical role in imparting C3b and C4b cofactor activities, (ii) amino acids R35, K142, and K191 are required for efficient decay of the C3 convertases, (iii) positively charged amino acids of the linker regions, which are dubbed to be critical for functioning in other complement regulators, are not crucial for its function, and (iv) S100K and G110D mutations substantially enhance its decay-accelerating activities without affecting the cofactor activities. Overall, our data point out that ionic interactions form a major component of the binding interface between CCPH and its interacting partners. PMID:23077301

Reza, Malik Johid; Kamble, Ashish; Ahmad, Muzammil; Krishnasastry, Musti V; Sahu, Arvind

2013-01-01

136

C3 dysregulation due to factor H deficiency is mannan-binding lectin-associated serine proteases (MASP)-1 and MASP-3 independent in vivo  

PubMed Central

Uncontrolled activation of the complement alternative pathway is associated with complement-mediated renal disease. Factor B and factor D are essential components of this pathway, while factor H (FH) is its major regulator. In complete FH deficiency, uncontrolled C3 activation through the alternative pathway results in plasma C3 depletion and complement-mediated renal disease. These are dependent on factor B. Mannan-binding lectin-associated serine proteases 1 and 3 (MASP-1, MASP-3) have been shown recently to contribute to alternative pathway activation by cleaving pro-factor D to its active form, factor D. We studied the contribution of MASP-1 and MASP-3 to uncontrolled alternative pathway activation in experimental complete FH deficiency. Co-deficiency of FH and MASP-1/MASP-3 did not ameliorate either the plasma C3 activation or glomerular C3 accumulation in FH-deficient mice. Our data indicate that MASP-1 and MASP-3 are not essential for alternative pathway activation in complete FH deficiency. PMID:24279761

Ruseva, M M; Takahashi, M; Fujita, T; Pickering, M C

2014-01-01

137

Complement Activation in Emergency Department Patients With Severe Sepsis  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study assessed the extent and mechanism of complement activation in community-acquired sepsis at presentation to the emergency department (ED) and following 24 hours of quantitative resuscitation. Methods A prospective pilot study of patients with severe sepsis and healthy controls was conducted among individuals presenting to a tertiary care ED. Resuscitation, including antibiotics and therapies to normalize central venous and mean arterial pressure (MAP) and central venous oxygenation, was performed on all patients. Serum levels of Factor Bb (alternative pathway), C4d (classical and mannose-binding lectin [MBL] pathway), C3, C3a, and C5a were determined at presentation and 24 hours later among patients. Results Twenty patients and 10 healthy volunteer controls were enrolled. Compared to volunteers, all proteins measured were abnormally higher among septic patients (C4d 3.5-fold; Factor Bb 6.1-fold; C3 0.8-fold; C3a 11.6-fold; C5a 1.8-fold). Elevations in C5a were most strongly correlated with alternative pathway activation. Surprisingly, a slight but significant inverse relationship between illness severity (by sequential organ failure assessment [SOFA] score) and C5a levels at presentation was noted. Twenty-four hours of structured resuscitation did not, on average, affect any of the mediators studied. Conclusions Patients with community-acquired sepsis have extensive complement activation, particularly of the alternative pathway, at the time of presentation that was not significantly reversed by 24 hours of aggressive resuscitation. PMID:20370773

Younger, John G.; Bracho, David O.; Chung-Esaki, Hangyul M.; Lee, Moonseok; Rana, Gurpreet K.; Sen, Ananda; Jones, Alan E.

2010-01-01

138

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected cells and free virus directly activate the classical complement pathway in rabbit, mouse and guinea-pig sera; activation results in virus neutralization by virolysis.  

PubMed Central

Since animal models of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are being used increasingly in determining various aspects of virus/host interaction and as models for virus expression, it will be important to assess any significant differences in anti-viral immune responses between animals and humans. Previous studies have shown that incubation of HIV with non-immune sera from several animal species results in virus neutralization, and that rabbit serum can lyse HIV-infected cells. The objectives of the current study were to evaluate the animal complement pathway(s) activated by HIV and HIV-infected cells and determine the mechanism by which complement could mediate viral neutralization. Incubation of HIV-infected cells with mouse, guinea-pig or rabbit sera resulted in cell-surface deposition of C3 fragments. Deposition of C3 fragments did not occur either in the presence of C4-deficient guinea-pig serum or in the absence of Ca2+, indicating that activation by infected cells occurred via the classical pathway. Neutralization of free virus was also mediated by the classical pathway since C4-deficient guinea-pig serum and Ca(2+)-chelated sera lacked activity. Serum treatment of virus resulted in release of HIV reverse transcriptase (RT), suggesting that neutralization occurred by C5b-9-mediated virolysis. RT was also released from simian immunodeficiency virus by animal complement. Antibodies in animal sera were not responsible for the classical pathway activation by free virus or HIV-infected cells. These results define several substantial differences between animal and human complement reactivity with HIV which could significantly affect the ability of HIV to replicate in animals, and which need to be considered in the assessment of animal models of HIV infection. PMID:1916889

Spear, G T; Sullivan, B L; Takefman, D M; Landay, A L; Lint, T F

1991-01-01

139

Model-Driven Redox Pathway Manipulation for Improved Isobutanol Production in Bacillus subtilis Complemented with Experimental Validation and Metabolic Profiling Analysis  

PubMed Central

To rationally guide the improvement of isobutanol production, metabolic network and metabolic profiling analysis were performed to provide global and profound insights into cell metabolism of isobutanol-producing Bacillus subtilis. The metabolic flux distribution of strains with different isobutanol production capacity (BSUL03, BSUL04 and BSUL05) drops a hint of the importance of NADPH on isobutanol biosynthesis. Therefore, the redox pathways were redesigned in this study. To increase NADPH concentration, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase was inactivated (BSUL06) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was overexpressed (BSUL07) successively. As expected, NADPH pool size in BSUL07 was 4.4-fold higher than that in parental strain BSUL05. However, cell growth, isobutanol yield and production were decreased by 46%, 22%, and 80%, respectively. Metabolic profiling analysis suggested that the severely imbalanced redox status might be the primary reason. To solve this problem, gene udhA of Escherichia coli encoding transhydrogenase was further overexpressed (BSUL08), which not only well balanced the cellular ratio of NAD(P)H/NAD(P)+, but also increased NADH and ATP concentration. In addition, a straightforward engineering approach for improving NADPH concentrations was employed in BSUL05 by overexpressing exogenous gene pntAB and obtained BSUL09. The performance for isobutanol production by BSUL09 was poorer than BSUL08 but better than other engineered strains. Furthermore, in fed-batch fermentation the isobutanol production and yield of BSUL08 increased by 11% and 19%, up to the value of 6.12 g/L and 0.37 C-mol isobutanol/C-mol glucose (63% of the theoretical value), respectively, compared with parental strain BSUL05. These results demonstrated that model-driven complemented with metabolic profiling analysis could serve as a useful approach in the strain improvement for higher bio-productivity in further application. PMID:24705866

Qi, Haishan; Li, Shanshan; Zhao, Sumin; Huang, Di; Xia, Menglei; Wen, Jianping

2014-01-01

140

The Lectins of Sophora japonica  

PubMed Central

Two lectins, Leaf Lectin I and Leaf Lectin II (LLI and LLII) were purified from the leaves of Sophora japonica. Like the Sophora seed lectin, LLI and LLII are tetrameric glycoproteins containing a single subunit with respect to size. The subunits of LLI (32 kilodaltons) and LLII (34 kilodaltons) are slightly larger than those of the seed lectin (29.5 kilodaltons). The three Sophora lectins display indistinguishable specificities, amino acid compositions, specific hemagglutinin activities, and extinction coefficients. Although very closely related to the seed lectin, the leaf and seed lectins are not immunologically identical and they differ in subunit molecular weights, carbohydrate content, and in the pH sensitivity of their hemagglutinin activities. N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis shows that although they are homologous proteins, the three Sophora lectins are products of distinct genes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:16665347

Hankins, Charles N.; Kindinger, Juanita; Shannon, Leland M.

1987-01-01

141

Structural and functional diversity of the lectin repertoire in teleost fish: Relevance to innate and adaptive immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein–carbohydrate interactions mediated by lectins have been recognized as key components of innate immunity in vertebrates and invertebrates, not only for recognition of potential pathogens, but also for participating in downstream effector functions, such as their agglutination, immobilization, and complement-mediated opsonization and killing. More recently, lectins have been identified as critical regulators of mammalian adaptive immune responses. Fish are endowed

Gerardo R. Vasta; Mihai Nita-Lazar; Barbara Giomarelli; Hafiz Ahmed; Shaojun Du; Matteo Cammarata; Nicolň Parrinello; Mario A. Bianchet; L. Mario Amzel

142

Engineering complement activation on polypropylene sulfide vaccine nanoparticles  

E-print Network

moieties via the lectin pathway or IgG opsonization with C1q via the classical pathway. A third pathway. The anaphylatoxin and chemoattractant C3a [2] promotes rapid clearance of C3b-opsonized pathogens by invading

143

Structural and functional diversity of the lectin repertoire in teleost fish: Relevance to innate and adaptive immunity  

PubMed Central

Protein–carbohydrate interactions mediated by lectins have been recognized as key components of innate immunity in vertebrates and invertebrates, not only for recognition of potential pathogens, but also for participating in downstream effector functions, such as their agglutination, immobilization, and complement-mediated opsonization and killing. More recently, lectins have been identified as critical regulators of mammalian adaptive immune responses. Fish are endowed with virtually all components of the mammalian adaptive immunity, and are equipped with a complex lectin repertoire. In this review, we discuss evidence suggesting that: (a) lectin repertoires in teleost fish are highly diversified, and include not only representatives of the lectin families described in mammals, but also members of lectin families described for the first time in fish species; (b) the tissue-specific expression and localization of the diverse lectin repertoires and their molecular partners is consistent with their distinct biological roles in innate and adaptive immunity; (c) although some lectins may bind endogenous ligands, others bind sugars on the surface of potential pathogens; (d) in addition to pathogen recognition and opsonization, some lectins display additional effector roles, such as complement activation and regulation of immune functions; (e) some lectins that recognize exogenous ligands mediate processes unrelated to immunity: they may act as anti-freeze proteins or prevent polyspermia during fertilization. PMID:21896283

Vasta, Gerardo R.; Nita-Lazar, Mihai; Giomarelli, Barbara; Ahmed, Hafiz; Du, Shaojun; Cammarata, Matteo; Parrinello, Nicolň; Bianchet, Mario A.; Amzel, L. Mario

2012-01-01

144

Lysyl Hydroxylase 3 Modifies Lysine Residues to Facilitate Oligomerization of Mannan-Binding Lectin  

PubMed Central

Lysyl hydroxylase 3 (LH3) is a multifunctional protein with lysyl hydroxylase, galactosyltransferase and glucosyltransferase activities. The LH3 has been shown to modify the lysine residues both in collagens and also in some collagenous proteins. In this study we show for the first time that LH3 is essential for catalyzing formation of the glucosylgalactosylhydroxylysines of mannan-binding lectin (MBL), the first component of the lectin pathway of complement activation. Furthermore, loss of the terminal glucose units on the derivatized lysine residues in mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking the LH3 protein leads to defective disulphide bonding and oligomerization of rat MBL-A, with a decrease in the proportion of the larger functional MBL oligomers. The oligomerization could be completely restored with the full length LH3 or the amino-terminal fragment of LH3 that possesses the glycosyltransferase activities. Our results confirm that LH3 is the only enzyme capable of glucosylating the galactosylhydroxylysine residues in proteins with a collagenous domain. In mice lacking the lysyl hydroxylase activity of LH3, but with untouched galactosyltransferase and glucosyltransferase activities, reduced circulating MBL-A levels were observed. Oligomerization was normal, however and residual lysyl hydroxylation was compensated in part by other lysyl hydroxylase isoenzymes. Our data suggest that LH3 is commonly involved in biosynthesis of collagenous proteins and the glucosylation of galactosylhydroxylysines residues by LH3 is crucial for the formation of the functional high-molecular weight MBL oligomers. PMID:25419660

Risteli, Maija; Ruotsalainen, Heli; Bergmann, Ulrich; Venkatraman Girija, Umakhanth; Wallis, Russell; Myllylä, Raili

2014-01-01

145

Could plant lectins become promising anti-tumour drugs for causing autophagic cell death?  

PubMed

Plant lectins, a group of highly diverse carbohydrate-binding proteins of non-immune origin, are ubiquitously distributed through a variety of plant species, and have recently drawn rising attention due to their remarkable ability to kill tumour cells using mechanisms implicated in autophagy. In this review, we provide a brief outline of structures of some representative plant lectins such as concanavalin A, Polygonatum cyrtonema lectin and mistletoe lectins. These can target autophagy by modulating BNIP-3, ROS-p38-p53, Ras-Raf and PI3KCI-Akt pathways, as well as Beclin-1, in many types of cancer cells. In addition, we further discuss how plant lectins are able to kill cancer cells by modulating autophagic death, for therapeutic purposes. Together, these findings provide a comprehensive perspective concerning plant lectins as promising new anti-tumour drugs, with respect to autophagic cell death in future cancer therapeutics. PMID:24033443

Liu, Z; Luo, Y; Zhou, T-T; Zhang, W-Z

2013-10-01

146

Banana lectin: a brief review.  

PubMed

Lectins are a group of proteins of non-immune origin that recognize and bind to carbohydrates without modifying them. Banana is the common name for both herbaceous plants of the genus Musa and for the fruit they produce. They are indeed a promising source for many medicinal applications. Banana lectins have the potential for inhibiting HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity, suppressing cancer cell proliferation and stimulating macrophage activities. Nevertheless, compared to other plant lectins, there is relatively little information in the literature on banana lectins, particularly with respect to their structure and biological functions. Herein we focus our review on the structure, functions and exploitable properties of banana lectins. PMID:25407720

Singh, Senjam Sunil; Devi, Sanjenbam Kunjeshwori; Ng, Tzi Bun

2014-01-01

147

Mechanisms of complement activation by dextran-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoworms in mouse versus human serum.  

PubMed

BackgroundThe complement system is a key component of innate immunity implicated in the neutralization and clearance of invading pathogens. Dextran coated superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticle is a promising magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent. However, dextran SPIO has been associated with significant number of complement-related side effects in patients and some agents have been discontinued from clinical use (e.g., Feridexż). In order to improve the safety of these materials, the mechanisms of complement activation by dextran-coated SPIO and the differences between mice and humans need to be fully understood.Methods20 kDa dextran coated SPIO nanoworms (SPIO NW) were synthesized using Molday precipitation procedure. In vitro measurements of C3 deposition on SPIO NW using sera genetically deficient for various components of the classical pathway (CP), lectin pathway (LP) or alternative pathway (AP) components were used to study mechanisms of mouse complement activation. In vitro measurements of fluid phase markers of complement activation C4d and Bb and the terminal pathway marker SC5b-C9 in normal and genetically deficient sera were used to study the mechanisms of human complement activation. Mouse data were analyzed by non-paired t-test, human data were analyzed by ANOVA followed by multiple comparisons with Student-Newman-Keuls test.ResultsIn mouse sera, SPIO NW triggered the complement activation via the LP, whereas the AP contributes via the amplification loop. No involvement of the CP was observed. In human sera the LP together with the direct enhancement of the AP turnover was responsible for the complement activation. In two samples out of six healthy donors there was also a binding of anti-dextran antibodies and C1q, suggesting activation via the CP, but that did not affect the total level of C3 deposition on the particles.ConclusionsThere were important differences and similarities in the complement activation by SPIO NW in mouse versus human sera. Understanding the mechanisms of immune recognition of nanoparticles in mouse and human systems has important preclinical and clinical implications and could help design more efficient and safe nano-formulations. PMID:25425420

Banda, Nirmal K; Mehta, Gaurav; Chao, Ying; Wang, Guankui; Inturi, Swetha; Fossati-Jimack, Liliane; Botto, Marina; Wu, LinPing; Moghimi, Seyed; Simberg, Dmitri

2014-11-26

148

Characterization of the human submandibular/sublingual saliva glycoproteome using lectin affinity chromatography coupled to Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology  

PubMed Central

In-depth analysis of the salivary proteome is fundamental to understanding the functions of salivary proteins in the oral cavity and to reveal disease biomarkers involved in different pathophysiological conditions, with the ultimate goal of improving patient diagnosis and prognosis. Submandibular and sublingual glands contribute saliva rich in glycoproteins to the total saliva output, making them valuable sources for glycoproteomic analysis. Lectin-affinity chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry-based shotgun proteomics was used to explore the submandibular/sublingual (SM/SL) saliva glycoproteome. A total of 262 N- and O-linked glycoproteins were identified by multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT). Only 38 were previously described in SM and SL salivas from the human salivary N-linked glycoproteome, while 224 were unique. Further comparison analysis with SM/SL saliva of the human saliva proteome, revealed 125 glycoproteins not formerly reported in this secretion. KEGG pathway analyses demonstrated that many of these glycoproteins are involved in processes such as complement and coagulation cascades, cell communication, glycosphingolipid biosynthesis neo-lactoseries, O-glycan biosynthesis, glycan structures-biosynthesis 2, starch and sucrose metabolism, peptidoglycan biosynthesis or others pathways. In summary, lectin-affinity chromatography coupled to MudPIT mass spectrometry identified many novel glycoproteins in SM/SL saliva. These new additions to the salivary proteome may prove to be a critical step for providing reliable biomarkers in the diagnosis of a myriad of oral and systemic diseases. PMID:21936497

Gonzalez-Begne, Mireya; Lu, Bingwen; Liao, Lujian; Xu, Tao; Bedi, Gurrinder; Melvin, James E.; Yates, John R.

2011-01-01

149

The outer membrane protease PgtE of Salmonella enterica interferes with the alternative complement pathway by cleaving factors B and H  

PubMed Central

The virulence factor PgtE is an outer membrane protease (omptin) of the zoonotic pathogen Salmonella enterica that causes diseases ranging from gastroenteritis to severe enteric fever. It is surface exposed in bacteria that have a short-chain, i.e., rough LPS, as observed e.g., in bacteria residing inside macrophages or just emerging from them. We investigated whether PgtE cleaves the complement factors B (B) and H (H), key proteins controlling formation and inactivation of the complement protein C3b and thereby the activity of the complement system. S. enterica serovar Typhimurium or omptin-expressing recombinant E. coli bacteria were incubated with purified human complement proteins or recombinant H fragments. PgtE cleaved both B and H, whereas its close homolog Pla of Yersinia pestis cleaved only H. H was cleaved at both N- and C-termini, while the central region resisted proteolysis. Because of multiple effects of PgtE on complement components (cleavage of C3, C3b, B, and H) we assessed its effect on the opsonophagocytosis of Salmonella. In human serum, C3 cleavage was dependent on proteolytically active PgtE. Human neutrophils interacted less with serum-opsonized FITC-stained S. enterica 14028R than with the isogenic ?pgtE strain, as analyzed by flow cytometry. In conclusion, cleavage of B and H by PgtE, together with C3 cleavage, affects the C3-mediated recognition of S. enterica by human neutrophils, thus thwarting the immune protection against Salmonella.

Riva, Rauna; Korhonen, Timo K.; Meri, Seppo

2015-01-01

150

The Lectins of Sophora japonica  

PubMed Central

Five N-acetyl-galactosamine-specific lectins were isolated from the bark of the legume tree Sophora japonica. These lectins are immunologically and structurally very similar, but not identical, to the Sophora seed and leaf lectins. The carbohydrate specificities and hemagglutinin activities of these lectins are indistinguishable at pH 8.5 but their activities differ markedly at pH values below 8. All five lectins are tetrameric glycoproteins made up of different combinations of subunits of about 30,000, 30,100, 33,000 Mr containing 3% to 5% covalently attached sugar. These lectins are the overwhelmingly dominant proteins in bark, but they do not appear to be present in other tissues. Amino terminal sequence analysis indicates that at least two distinct lectin genes are expressed in bark. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:16665895

Hankins, Charles N.; Kindinger, J. I.; Shannon, L. M.

1988-01-01

151

Specificity analysis of lectins and antibodies using remodeled glycoproteins.  

PubMed

Due to their ability to bind specifically to certain carbohydrate sequences, lectins are a frequently used tool in cytology, histology, and glycan analysis but also offer new options for drug targeting and drug delivery systems. For these and other potential applications, it is necessary to be certain as to the carbohydrate structures interacting with the lectin. Therefore, we used glycoproteins remodeled with glycosyltransferases and glycosidases for testing specificities of lectins from Aleuria aurantia (AAL), Erythrina cristagalli (ECL), Griffonia simplicifolia (GSL I-B(4)), Helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA), Lens culinaris (LCA), Lotus tetragonolobus (LTA), peanut (Arachis hypogaeae) (PNA), Ricinus communis (RCA I), Sambucus nigra (SNA), Vicia villosa (VVA), and wheat germ (Triticum vulgaris) (WGA) as well as reactivities of anti-carbohydrate antibodies (anti-bee venom, anti-horseradish peroxidase [anti-HRP], and anti-Lewis(x)). After enzymatic remodeling, the resulting neoglycoforms display defined carbohydrate sequences and can be used, when spotted on nitrocellulose or in enzyme-linked lectinosorbent assays, to identify the sugar moieties bound by the lectins. Transferrin with its two biantennary complex N-glycans was used as scaffold for gaining diverse N-glycosidic structures, whereas fetuin was modified using glycosidases to test the specificities of lectins toward both N- and O-glycans. In addition, alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein and Schistosoma mansoni egg extract were chosen as controls for lectin interactions with fucosylated glycans (Lewis(x) and core alpha1,3-fucose). Our data complement and expand the existing knowledge about the binding specificity of a range of commercially available lectins. PMID:19123999

Iskratsch, Thomas; Braun, Andreas; Paschinger, Katharina; Wilson, Iain B H

2009-03-15

152

Protein engineering to target complement evasion in cancer.  

PubMed

The complement system is composed of soluble factors in plasma that enhance or "complement" immune-mediated killing through innate and adaptive mechanisms. Activation of complement causes recruitment of immune cells; opsonization of coated cells; and direct killing of affected cells through a membrane attack complex (MAC). Tumor cells up-regulate complement inhibitory factors - one of several strategies to evade the immune system. In many cases as the tumor progresses, dramatic increases in complement inhibitory factors are found on these cells. This review focuses on the classic complement pathway and the role of major complement inhibitory factors in cancer immune evasion as well as on how current protein engineering efforts are being employed to increase complement fixing or to reverse complement resistance leading to better therapeutic outcomes in oncology. Strategies discussed include engineering of antibodies to enhance complement fixation, antibodies that neutralize complement inhibitory proteins as well as engineered constructs that specifically target inhibition of the complement system. PMID:24239543

Carter, Darrick; Lieber, André

2014-01-21

153

BacterialLectinDb: An integrated bacterial lectin database  

PubMed Central

Studies of various diversified bacterial lectins/ lectin data may serve as a tool with enormous promise to help biotechnologists/ geneticists in their innovative technology to explore a deeper understanding in proteomics/ genomics research for finding the molecular basis of infectious diseases and also to new approaches for their prevention and in development of new bacterial vaccines. Hence we developed a bacterial lectin database named ‘BacterialLectinDb’. An organized database schema for BacterialLectinDb was designed to collate all the available information about all bacterial lectins as a central repository. The database was designed using HTML, XML. Availability The database is available for free at http://www.research-bioinformatics.in PMID:22493537

Kumar, Dharmendra; Mittal, Yashoda

2012-01-01

154

The ancient origin of the complement system  

PubMed Central

The complement system has been thought to originate exclusively in the deuterostomes. Here, we show that the central complement components already existed in the primitive protostome lineage. A functional homolog of vertebrate complement 3, CrC3, has been isolated from a ‘living fossil', the horseshoe crab (Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda). CrC3 resembles human C3 and shows closest homology to C3 sequences of lower deuterostomes. CrC3 and plasma lectins bind a wide range of microbes, forming the frontline innate immune defense system. Additionally, we identified CrC2/Bf, a homolog of vertebrate C2 and Bf that participates in C3 activation, and a C3 receptor-like sequence. Furthermore, complement-mediated phagocytosis of bacteria by the hemocytes of horseshoe crab was also observed. Thus, a primitive yet complex opsonic complement defense system is revealed in the horseshoe crab, a protostome species. Our findings demonstrate an ancient origin of the critical complement components and the opsonic defense mechanism in the Precambrian ancestor of bilateral animals. PMID:15616573

Zhu, Yong; Thangamani, Saravanan; Ho, Bow; Ding, Jeak Ling

2005-01-01

155

Meningococcal disease and the complement system  

PubMed Central

Despite considerable advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of meningococcal disease, this infection remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally. The role of the complement system in innate immune defenses against invasive meningococcal disease is well established. Individuals deficient in components of the alternative and terminal complement pathways are highly predisposed to invasive, often recurrent meningococcal infections. Genome-wide analysis studies also point to a central role for complement in disease pathogenesis. Here we review the pathophysiologic events pertinent to the complement system that accompany meningococcal sepsis in humans. Meningococci use several often redundant mechanisms to evade killing by human complement. Capsular polysaccharide and lipooligosaccharide glycan composition play critical roles in complement evasion. Some of the newly described protein vaccine antigens interact with complement components and have sparked considerable research interest. PMID:24104403

Lewis, Lisa A; Ram, Sanjay

2014-01-01

156

Complement component 4  

MedlinePLUS

Complement component 4 is a blood test that measures the activity of a certain protein that is part of ... and C4 are the most commonly measured complement components. Complement activity may be measured to determine how ...

157

Bioinformatics analyses of the mannose-binding lectins from Polygonatum cyrtonema, Ophiopogon japonicus and Liparis noversa with antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing activities.  

PubMed

In the present study, three typical monocot mannose-binding lectins (e.g., Polygonatum cyrtonema lectin [PCL], Ophiopogon japonicus lectin [OJL] and Liparis noversa lectin [LNL]), were reported to possess a similar tertiary structure with three mannose-binding sites and a close phylogenetic relationship. Subsequently, these lectins were found to bear remarkable inhibitory effects on the growth of MCF-7 cells. Further experiments confirmed that there is a link among the hemagglutinating activity, antiproliferative activity and mannose-binding activity. In addition, these lectins were shown to induce MCF-7 cell apoptosis and caspase was found to be involved in this apoptotic pathway. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that the different antiproliferative effects may be due to the conserved motifs of mannose-binding sites. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that these lectins induce apoptosis in MCF-7 cells via a caspase-dependent pathway. PMID:19200699

Liu, Bo; Peng, Hao; Yao, Qing; Li, Jing; Van Damme, Els; Balzarini, Jan; Bao, Jin-ku

2009-06-01

158

Plasminogen is a complement inhibitor.  

PubMed

Plasminogen is a 92-kDa single chain glycoprotein that circulates in plasma as a zymogen and when converted to proteolytically active plasmin dissolves preformed fibrin clots and extracellular matrix components. Here, we characterize the role of plasmin(ogen) in the complement cascade. Plasminogen binds the central complement protein C3, the C3 cleavage products C3b and C3d, and C5. Plasminogen binds to C3, C3b, C3d, and C5 via lysine residues, and the interaction is ionic strength-dependent. Plasminogen and Factor H bind C3b; however, the two proteins bind to different sites and do not compete for binding. Plasminogen affects complement action in multiple ways. Plasminogen enhanced Factor I-mediated C3b degradation in the presence of the cofactor Factor H. Plasminogen when activated to plasmin inhibited complement as demonstrated by hemolytic assays using either rabbit or sheep erythrocytes. Similarly, plasmin either in the fluid phase or attached to surfaces inhibited complement that was activated via the alternative and classical pathways and cleaved C3b to fragments of 68, 40, 30, and 17 kDa. The C3b fragments generated by plasmin differ in size from those generated by the complement protease Factor I, suggesting that plasmin-mediated C3b cleavage fragments lack effector function. Plasmin also cleaved C5 to products of 65, 50, 30, and 25 kDa. Thus, plasmin(ogen) regulates both complement and coagulation, the two central cascade systems of a vertebrate organism. This complement-inhibitory activity of plasmin provides a new explanation why pathogenic microbes utilize plasmin(ogen) for immune evasion and tissue penetration. PMID:22451663

Barthel, Diana; Schindler, Susann; Zipfel, Peter F

2012-05-25

159

Structural basis of the C1q/C1s interaction and its central role in assembly of the C1 complex of complement activation  

PubMed Central

Complement component C1, the complex that initiates the classical pathway of complement activation, is a 790-kDa assembly formed from the target-recognition subcomponent C1q and the modular proteases C1r and C1s. The proteases are elongated tetramers that become more compact when they bind to the collagen-like domains of C1q. Here, we describe a series of structures that reveal how the subcomponents associate to form C1. A complex between C1s and a collagen-like peptide containing the C1r/C1s-binding motif of C1q shows that the collagen binds to a shallow groove via a critical lysine side chain that contacts Ca2+-coordinating residues. The data explain the Ca2+-dependent binding mechanism, which is conserved in C1r and also in mannan-binding lectin-associated serine proteases, the serine proteases of the lectin pathway activation complexes. In an accompanying structure, C1s forms a compact ring-shaped tetramer featuring a unique head-to-tail interaction at its center that replicates the likely arrangement of C1r/C1s polypeptides in the C1 complex. Additional structures reveal how C1s polypeptides are positioned to enable activation by C1r and interaction with the substrate C4 inside the cage-like assembly formed by the collagenous stems of C1q. Together with previously determined structures of C1r fragments, the results reported here provide a structural basis for understanding the early steps of complement activation via the classical pathway. PMID:23922389

Venkatraman Girija, Umakhanth; Gingras, Alexandre R.; Marshall, Jamie E.; Panchal, Roshni; Sheikh, Md. Arif; Gál, Péter; Schwaeble, Wilhelm J.; Mitchell, Daniel A.; Moody, Peter C. E.; Wallis, Russell

2013-01-01

160

Structural basis of the C1q/C1s interaction and its central role in assembly of the C1 complex of complement activation.  

PubMed

Complement component C1, the complex that initiates the classical pathway of complement activation, is a 790-kDa assembly formed from the target-recognition subcomponent C1q and the modular proteases C1r and C1s. The proteases are elongated tetramers that become more compact when they bind to the collagen-like domains of C1q. Here, we describe a series of structures that reveal how the subcomponents associate to form C1. A complex between C1s and a collagen-like peptide containing the C1r/C1s-binding motif of C1q shows that the collagen binds to a shallow groove via a critical lysine side chain that contacts Ca(2+)-coordinating residues. The data explain the Ca(2+)-dependent binding mechanism, which is conserved in C1r and also in mannan-binding lectin-associated serine proteases, the serine proteases of the lectin pathway activation complexes. In an accompanying structure, C1s forms a compact ring-shaped tetramer featuring a unique head-to-tail interaction at its center that replicates the likely arrangement of C1r/C1s polypeptides in the C1 complex. Additional structures reveal how C1s polypeptides are positioned to enable activation by C1r and interaction with the substrate C4 inside the cage-like assembly formed by the collagenous stems of C1q. Together with previously determined structures of C1r fragments, the results reported here provide a structural basis for understanding the early steps of complement activation via the classical pathway. PMID:23922389

Venkatraman Girija, Umakhanth; Gingras, Alexandre R; Marshall, Jamie E; Panchal, Roshni; Sheikh, Md Arif; Gál, Péter; Schwaeble, Wilhelm J; Mitchell, Daniel A; Moody, Peter C E; Wallis, Russell

2013-08-20

161

Immunogold localization of ingested kidney bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris ) lectins in epithelial cells of the rat small intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The interactions between dietary kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) lectins and the epithelial cells of the rat small intestine were investigated by immunogold electron microscopy. The results demonstrated that the lectins bind to the glycocalyx of duodenal and jejunal microvilli and that some of these dietary constituents are endocytosed into lysosomal pathways within both absorptive and secretory gut cells. It is

T. P. King; A. Pusztai; G. Grant; D. Slater

1986-01-01

162

Analysis of common bean expressed sequence tags identifies sulfur metabolic pathways active in seed and sulfur-rich proteins highly expressed in the absence of phaseolin and major lectins  

PubMed Central

Background A deficiency in phaseolin and phytohemagglutinin is associated with a near doubling of sulfur amino acid content in genetically related lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), particularly cysteine, elevated by 70%, and methionine, elevated by 10%. This mostly takes place at the expense of an abundant non-protein amino acid, S-methyl-cysteine. The deficiency in phaseolin and phytohemagglutinin is mainly compensated by increased levels of the 11S globulin legumin and residual lectins. Legumin, albumin-2, defensin and albumin-1 were previously identified as contributing to the increased sulfur amino acid content in the mutant line, on the basis of similarity to proteins from other legumes. Results Profiling of free amino acid in developing seeds of the BAT93 reference genotype revealed a biphasic accumulation of gamma-glutamyl-S-methyl-cysteine, the main soluble form of S-methyl-cysteine, with a lag phase occurring during storage protein accumulation. A collection of 30,147 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) was generated from four developmental stages, corresponding to distinct phases of gamma-glutamyl-S-methyl-cysteine accumulation, and covering the transitions to reserve accumulation and dessication. Analysis of gene ontology categories indicated the occurrence of multiple sulfur metabolic pathways, including all enzymatic activities responsible for sulfate assimilation, de novo cysteine and methionine biosynthesis. Integration of genomic and proteomic data enabled the identification and isolation of cDNAs coding for legumin, albumin-2, defensin D1 and albumin-1A and -B induced in the absence of phaseolin and phytohemagglutinin. Their deduced amino acid sequences have a higher content of cysteine than methionine, providing an explanation for the preferential increase of cysteine in the mutant line. Conclusion The EST collection provides a foundation to further investigate sulfur metabolism and the differential accumulation of sulfur amino acids in seed of common bean. Identification of sulfur-rich proteins whose levels are elevated in seed lacking phaseolin and phytohemagglutinin and sulfur metabolic genes may assist the improvement of protein quality. PMID:21615926

2011-01-01

163

Molecular characterization of two novel cases of complete complement inhibitor Factor I deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factor I (FI) is the major complement inhibitor that degrades activated complement components C3b and C4b in the presence of specific cofactors. Complete FI deficiency results in secondary complement deficiency due to uncontrolled spontaneous alternative pathway activation. In this study we describe two unrelated patients with complete FI deficiency and undetectable alternative complement pathway activity. Both patients had experienced recurrent

Izabela M. Nita; Ferah Genel; Sara C. Nilsson; Joanne Smart; Lennart Truedsson; Sharon Choo; Anna M. Blom

2011-01-01

164

Infectious diseases associated with complement deficiencies.  

PubMed Central

The complement system consists of both plasma and membrane proteins. The former influence the inflammatory response, immune modulation, and host defense. The latter are complement receptors, which mediate the cellular effects of complement activation, and regulatory proteins, which protect host cells from complement-mediated injury. Complement activation occurs via either the classical or the alternative pathway, which converge at the level of C3 and share a sequence of terminal components. Four aspects of the complement cascade are critical to its function and regulation: (i) activation of the classical pathway, (ii) activation of the alternative pathway, (iii) C3 convertase formation and C3 deposition, and (iv) membrane attack complex assembly and insertion. In general, mechanisms evolved by pathogenic microbes to resist the effects of complement are targeted to these four steps. Because individual complement proteins subserve unique functional activities and are activated in a sequential manner, complement deficiency states are associated with predictable defects in complement-dependent functions. These deficiency states can be grouped by which of the above four mechanisms they disrupt. They are distinguished by unique epidemiologic, clinical, and microbiologic features and are most prevalent in patients with certain rheumatologic and infectious diseases. Ethnic background and the incidence of infection are important cofactors determining this prevalence. Although complement undoubtedly plays a role in host defense against many microbial pathogens, it appears most important in protection against encapsulated bacteria, especially Neisseria meningitidis but also Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and, to a lesser extent, Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The availability of effective polysaccharide vaccines and antibiotics provides an immunologic and chemotherapeutic rationale for preventing and treating infection in patients with these deficiencies. PMID:1889047

Figueroa, J E; Densen, P

1991-01-01

165

Effects of MASP-1 of the Complement System on Activation of Coagulation Factors and Plasma Clot Formation  

PubMed Central

Background Numerous interactions between the coagulation and complement systems have been shown. Recently, links between coagulation and mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease-1 (MASP-1) of the complement lectin pathway have been proposed. Our aim was to investigate MASP-1 activation of factor XIII (FXIII), fibrinogen, prothrombin, and thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) in plasma-based systems, and to analyse effects of MASP-1 on plasma clot formation, structure and lysis. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a FXIII incorporation assay and specific assays to measure the activation products prothrombin fragment F1+2, fibrinopeptide A (FPA), and activated TAFI (TAFIa). Clot formation and lysis were assessed by turbidimetric assay. Clot structure was studied by scanning electron microscopy. MASP-1 activated FXIII and, contrary to thrombin, induced FXIII activity faster in the Val34 than the Leu34 variant. MASP-1-dependent generation of F1+2, FPA and TAFIa showed a dose-dependent response in normal citrated plasma (NCP), albeit MASP-1 was much less efficient than FXa or thrombin. MASP-1 activation of prothrombin and TAFI cleavage were confirmed in purified systems. No FPA generation was observed in prothrombin-depleted plasma. MASP-1 induced clot formation in NCP, affected clot structure, and prolonged clot lysis. Conclusions/Significance We show that MASP-1 interacts with plasma clot formation on different levels and influences fibrin structure. Although MASP-1-induced fibrin formation is thrombin-dependent, MASP-1 directly activates prothrombin, FXIII and TAFI. We suggest that MASP-1, in concerted action with other complement and coagulation proteins, may play a role in fibrin clot formation. PMID:22536427

Hess, Katharina; Ajjan, Ramzi; Phoenix, Fladia; Dobó, József; Gál, Péter; Schroeder, Verena

2012-01-01

166

Opsonic complement system of the solitary ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi  

Microsoft Academic Search

To elucidate the molecular architecture and function of the possibly primitive complement system of the solitary ascidian, Halochynthia roretzi, cDNA clones for the third component (C3) and mannose-binding lectin (MBL)-associated serine protease (MASP) were isolated from the hepatopancreas cDNA library. The deduced primary structure of ascidian C3 (AsC3) shows overall similarity to mammalian C3 including a typical thioester site. Two

Masaru Nonaka; Kaoru Azumi

1999-01-01

167

P-I Snake Venom Metalloproteinase Is Able to Activate the Complement System by Direct Cleavage of Central Components of the Cascade  

PubMed Central

Background Snake Venom Metalloproteinases (SVMPs) are amongst the key enzymes that contribute to the high toxicity of snake venom. We have recently shown that snake venoms from the Bothrops genus activate the Complement system (C) by promoting direct cleavage of C-components and generating anaphylatoxins, thereby contributing to the pathology and spread of the venom. The aim of the present study was to isolate and characterize the C-activating protease from Bothrops pirajai venom. Results Using two gel-filtration chromatography steps, a metalloproteinase of 23 kDa that activates Complement was isolated from Bothrops pirajai venom. The mass spectrometric identification of this protein, named here as C-SVMP, revealed peptides that matched sequences from the P-I class of SVMPs. C-SVMP activated the alternative, classical and lectin C-pathways by cleaving the ?-chain of C3, C4 and C5, thereby generating anaphylatoxins C3a, C4a and C5a. In vivo, C-SVMP induced consumption of murine complement components, most likely by activation of the pathways and/or by direct cleavage of C3, leading to a reduction of serum lytic activity. Conclusion We show here that a P-I metalloproteinase from Bothrops pirajai snake venom activated the Complement system by direct cleavage of the central C-components, i.e., C3, C4 and C5, thereby generating biologically active fragments, such as anaphylatoxins, and by cleaving the C1-Inhibitor, which may affect Complement activation control. These results suggest that direct complement activation by SVMPs may play a role in the progression of symptoms that follow envenomation. PMID:24205428

Pidde-Queiroz, Giselle; Magnoli, Fábio Carlos; Portaro, Fernanda C. V.; Serrano, Solange M. T.; Lopes, Aline Soriano; Paes Leme, Adriana Franco; van den Berg, Carmen W.; Tambourgi, Denise V.

2013-01-01

168

Mannan-binding lectin serum levels in 593 healthy Iranian children and adults.  

PubMed

Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) is a vital protein of innate immune system and has two critical functions: complement activation through the lectin pathway and opsonization. MBL deficiency has been classified as the most common inherited immunodeficiency known in humans (about 30% of the population), and is associated with predisposition to infections and high risk of some autoimmune diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the profile of MBL serum level in Iranian healthy population in association with sex and age groups for the first time. We studied the serum concentration of MBL in 593 Iranian healthy cases: 340 males and 235 females in 4 different age groups by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean serum levels of MBL were 3.854 ± 2.77 µg/ml at the age of less than 6 months, 4.147 ± 3.54 µg/ml at 6 months to 2 years of age, 4.410 ± 3.09 µg/ml at 2-6 years and 2.207 ± 1.73 µg/ml in adults. There was significant differences in the mean concentration of MBL among different age groups of children and also between children and adults (p<0.05). No association was observed between sex and MBL concentrations. MBL serum levels of Iranian population seem to be different from some of other populations which may be explained by genetic variations. The MBL values in this study can be used as a normal reference range for future studies in Iranian population. PMID:24338257

Zahedifard, Sara; Rashidi, Elahe; Shams, Sedigheh; Saghafi, Shiva; Fazlollahi, Mohammadreza; Talebzadeh, Azadeh; Kazemnejad, Anoushirvan; Soltani, Ahmad; Pourpak, Zahra

2014-04-01

169

Chicken mannose-binding lectin (MBL) gene variants with influence on MBL serum concentrations.  

PubMed

Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) plays a major role in the innate immune defence by activating the lectin complement pathway or by acting as an opsonin. Two forms of MBL have been characterised from several species, but for humans and chickens, only one form of functional MBL has been described. The human MBL2 gene is highly polymorphic, and it causes varying MBL serum levels. Several of the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been associated with the severity of diseases of bacterial, viral or parasitic origin. Association between various diseases and different MBL serum levels has also been identified in chickens. In this study, two inbred chicken lines (L10L and L10H) which have been selected for low and high MBL levels in serum and four other experimental chicken lines were analysed for polymorphism in the MBL gene. The presence of polymorphisms in the MBL gene was revealed by southern blot analyses, and the differences in the serum concentrations of MBL were found to be of transcriptional origin according to real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR analysis. Several SNPs were discovered in the promoter and the 5' untranslated region of the chicken MBL gene which resulted in the identification of six different alleles. Mapping of regulatory elements in the promoter region was performed, and SNPs that could affect the MBL serum concentration were identified. One SNP that was found to be located in a TATA box was altered in one of the six alleles only. This allele was associated with low MBL serum concentration. PMID:23455474

Kjćrup, Rikke M; Norup, Liselotte R; Skjřdt, Karsten; Dalgaard, Tina S; Juul-Madsen, Helle R

2013-06-01

170

Complement therapy in atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome (aHUS)  

PubMed Central

Central to the pathogenesis of atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome (aHUS) is over-activation of the alternative pathway of complement. Inherited defects in complement genes and autoantibodies against complement regulatory proteins have been described. The use of plasma exchange to replace non-functioning complement regulators and hyper-functional complement components in addition to the removal of CFH-autoantibodies made this the ‘gold-standard’ for management of aHUS. In the last 4 years the introduction of the complement inhibitor Eculizumab has revolutionised the management of aHUS. In this review we shall discuss the available literature on treatment strategies to date. PMID:23810412

Wong, Edwin K.S.; Goodship, Tim H.J.; Kavanagh, David

2013-01-01

171

Activation of human complement by glutaraldehyde-treated red cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

THERE is now much evidence that the classical complement pathway can be activated by substances other than immune complexes. Leonard and Thorne1 found that precipitate formed between the polyanion, polyglutamic acid, and lysozyme was anticomplementary, although the site of action was not determined. Since then, many polyionic substances and complexes have been found to activate the classical complement pathway, namely

N. C. Hughes-Jones; Brigitte Gardner; Jane Rowlands

1977-01-01

172

A C-type lectin (LvCTL4) from Litopenaeus vannamei is a downstream molecule of the NF-?B signaling pathway and participates in antibacterial immune response.  

PubMed

C-type lectins (CTLs) play multiple roles in innate immune defense against invading pathogens in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In this study, a new C-type lectin gene from pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (designated as LvCTL4) was cloned by rapid amplification of the cDNA ends (RACE) method. The full-length cDNA of LvCTL4 was 563 bp with open reading frame (ORF) of 471 bp encoding a polypeptide of 156 amino acids, including a putative signal sequence and a single C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD). The CTLD of 137 amino acid residues contained a mutated 'EPA' (Glu(121)-Pro(122)-Ala(123)) motif in the calcium-binding site 2 and three conserved disulfide bonds involved in structure maintenance. Tissue expression analysis showed LvCTL4 was ubiquitously distributed with high levels in gill, intestine, epithelium and hepatopancreas. The expression of LvCTL4 in gill was up-regulated in response to Vibrio parahaemolyticus challenge. RNAi knock-down of the LvCTL4 gene significantly increased mortality after V. parahaemolyticus infection. A 103 bp 5' flanking promoter sequence was obtained using the genome walking method and it contained a conserved NF-?B binding motif. Dual-Luciferase assay showed both LvDorsal and LvRelish could up regulate the promoter activity of LvCTL4. This is the first report that a shrimp C-type lectin can be regulated by both LvDorsal and LvRelish. These findings provided novel insights into the regulation of shrimp CTLs expression. PMID:25559446

Li, Haoyang; Chen, Yonggui; Li, Ming; Wang, Sheng; Zuo, Hongliang; Xu, Xiaopeng; Weng, Shaoping; He, Jianguo; Li, Chaozheng

2015-03-01

173

Complementizer Drop And IP Complementation in Japanese  

E-print Network

The main purpose of the present paper is to provide a principled account for a phenomenon called "Complementizer Drop" in the dialects of Japanese and its related phenomena in teens of the head-raising approach without ...

Fukuda, Minoru

2000-01-01

174

Biomarkers of terminal complement activation confirm the diagnosis of aHUS and differentiate aHUS from TTP.  

PubMed

Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is characterized by dysregulated complement activity, the development of a thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), and widespread end organ injury. aHUS remains a clinical diagnosis without an objective laboratory test to confirm the diagnosis. We performed a retrospective analysis of 103 patients enrolled in the Ohio State University TTP/aHUS Registry presenting with an acute TMA. Nineteen patients were clinically categorized as aHUS based on the following criteria: (1) platelet count <100 × 10(9)/L, (2) serum creatinine >2.25 mg/dL, and (3) a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 13 (ADAMTS13) activity >10%. Sixteen of 19 patients were treated with plasma exchange (PEX) therapy, with 6/16 (38%) responding to PEX. Nine patients were treated with eculizumab with 7/9 (78%) responding to therapy. In contrast to thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) patients, no aHUS patients demonstrated ultralarge von Willebrand factor multimers at presentation. Median markers of generalized complement activation (C3a), alternative pathway (Bb), classical/lectin pathway (C4d), and terminal complement activation (C5a and C5b-9) were increased in the plasma of these 19 patients. Compared with a cohort of ADAMTS13-deficient TTP patients (n = 38), C5a and C5-9 were significantly higher in the 19 patients clinically characterized as aHUS, suggesting that pretreatment measurements of complement biomarkers C5a and C5b-9 may confirm the diagnosis of aHUS and differentiate it from TTP. PMID:24695849

Cataland, Spero R; Holers, V Michael; Geyer, Susan; Yang, Shangbin; Wu, Haifeng M

2014-06-12

175

Lectins in the investigation of receptors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Problems of the purification and characterisation are considered for approximately 270 receptors (including cell surface and organelle enzymes), which are glycoconjugates (mainly glycoproteins) from animals, plants and microorganisms, using various lectins (mainly lectin sorbents). An analysis has been carried out of the stages of lectin affinity chromatography of receptors (choice of detergent, use of organic solvents, elution with carbohydrates, etc.). Examples are given of procedures for the purification of receptors, including the use of paired columns and combination chromatography on lectins. The possibility of separating sub-populations of receptors using lectins has been demonstrated. Examples are given of the use of lectins in the analysis of the oligosaccharide structure of receptors. Cases are recorded of the interaction of receptors with endogenous lectins and of receptor lectins with endogenous glycoconjugates. It has been shown that lectins, in combination with glycosidases and antibodies, may be useful in the investigation of receptors. The bibliography contains 406 references.

Lakhtin, V. M.; Yamskov, Igor A.

1991-08-01

176

Complement activation in progressive renal disease  

PubMed Central

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common and the cause of significant morbidity and mortality. The replacement of functioning nephrons by fibrosis is characteristic of progressive disease. The pathways that lead to fibrosis are not fully understood, although chronic non-resolving inflammation in the kidney is likely to drive the fibrotic response that occurs. In patients with progressive CKD there is histological evidence of inflammation in the interstitium and strategies that reduce inflammation reduce renal injury in pre-clinical models of CKD. The complement system is an integral part of the innate immune system but also augments adaptive immune responses. Complement activation is known to occur in many diverse renal diseases, including glomerulonephritis, thrombotic microangiopathies and transplant rejection. In this review we discuss current evidence that complement activation contributes to progression of CKD, how complement could cause renal inflammation and whether complement inhibition would slow progression of renal disease. PMID:25664245

Fearn, Amy; Sheerin, Neil Stephen

2015-01-01

177

Complement activating agents in allergenic extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Extracts of environmental allergens, moulds and plant pollens are known to consume haemolytic complement (huC) in human serum in vitro through the antibody-independent engagement of the first component C1 of the classical pathway. The present work was undertaken to establish the nature and characteristics of the complement activating agents in allergenic extracts and to probe their relationship with the

L. Berrens; B. de la Cuadra López

1997-01-01

178

Fibronectin-enhanced phagocytosis of an alternative pathway activator by human culture-derived macrophages is mediated by the C4b/C3b complement receptor (CR1).  

PubMed

We examined the ability of human monocytes and culture-derived macrophages under serum-free conditions to phagocytose desialated sheep erythrocytes (E), an activator of the alternative pathway of human complement. Freshly derived monocytes ingested desialated erythrocytes, but the degree of phagocytosis varied among individual donors. However, exposing the phagocyte to intact plasma fibronectin (Fn) had no effect on monocyte phagocytosis. Macrophages derived from monocytes in culture were far more efficient at ingesting desialated E, and the extent of phagocytosis was proportional to the degree of desialation. Although exposure of macrophages to substrate-bound Fn or fluid-phase Fn enhanced the phagocytosis of desialated E, pretreatment of desialated E with Fn did not enhance phagocytosis, demonstrating that Fn acted through an interaction with the macrophages. Fn-enhanced phagocytosis of desialated E was inhibited by treating macrophages with a monoclonal antibody to the C4b/C3b receptor (CR1), but not with a monoclonal antibody to the receptor for C3bi (CR3). Addition of cobra venom factor (CVF) to the macrophages also inhibited Fn-enhanced phagocytosis of desialated E. Phagocytosis of IgG-sensitized E, either in the absence or in the presence of Fn, was not significantly affected by anti-CR1 or CVF, demonstrating that these reagents did not lead to a general inhibition of phagocytosis. These experiments suggest that macrophages may deposit enough C3b onto desialated E to cause CR1-mediated phagocytosis in the presence of Fn. The ability of macrophages to opsonize and ingest foreign particles that activate complement may be critically important in areas of inflammation where concentrations of serum-derived specific opsonins may be inadequate. PMID:3161946

Bohnsack, J F; O'Shea, J J; Takahashi, T; Brown, E J

1985-10-01

179

von Willebrand factor is a cofactor in complement regulation.  

PubMed

Several complement proteins interact with hemostatic factors. We discovered that von Willebrand factor (VWF) acts as a cofactor for factor I-mediated cleavage of complement C3b, thereby shutting down complement activation. The complement regulatory function of VWF multimers depends on their size. Smaller VWF multimers enhance cleavage of C3b but large and ultra-large VWF (ULVWF) multimers have no effect on C3b cleavage and permit default complement activation. We conclude that normal plasma VWF multimers prevent complement activation and steer the complement pathway toward generation of inactivated C3b (iC3b). ULVWF multimers, as are present in patients with thrombotic microangiopathy, lack an inhibitory effect on complement and permit complement activation. PMID:25395424

Feng, Shuju; Liang, Xiaowen; Kroll, Michael H; Chung, Dominic W; Afshar-Kharghan, Vahid

2015-02-01

180

Properdin in Complement Activation and Tissue Injury  

PubMed Central

The plasma protein properdin is the only known positive regulator of complement activation. Although regarded as an initiator of the alternative pathway of complement activation at the time of its discovery more than a half century ago, the role and mechanism of action of properdin in the complement cascade has undergone significant conceptual evolution since then. Despite the long history of research on properdin, however, new insight and unexpected findings on the role of properdin in complement activation, pathogen infection and host tissue injury are still being revealed by ongoing investigations. In this article, we provide a brief review on recent studies that shed new light on properdin biology, focusing on the following three topics: 1) its role as a pattern recognition molecule to direct and trigger complement activation, 2) its context-dependent requirement in complement activation on foreign and host cell surfaces, and 3) its involvement in alternative pathway complement-mediated immune disorders and considerations of properdin as a potential therapeutic target in human diseases. PMID:23816404

Lesher, AM; B, Nilsson; Song, W-C

2013-01-01

181

Opsonic Complement Component C3 in the Solitary Ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent identification of two mannose-binding lectin-associated serine protease clones from Halocynthia roretzi, an ascidian, suggested the presence of a complement system in urochordates. To elucidate the structure and function of this possibly primitive complement system, we have isolated cDNA clones for ascidian C3 (AsC3) and purified AsC3 protein from body fluid. The deduced primary structure of AsC3 shows overall

Masaru Nonaka; Kaoru Azumi; Xin Ji; Chisato Namikawa-Yamada; Makoto Sasaki; Hidetosi Saiga; Alister W. Dodds; Hideharu Sekine; Miwako K. Homma; Misao Matsushita; Yuichi Endo; Teizo Fujita

182

Classical complement pathway component C1q: purification of human C1q, isolation of C1q collagen-like and globular head fragments and production of recombinant C1q-derivatives. Functional characterization.  

PubMed

The classical complement pathway (CCP) activation is a multimolecular complex, composed of three subcomponents namely C1q, C1r, and C1s. C1q is the recognition subunit of this complex and its binding to the specific targets leads to the formation of active C1, which in turn activates the CCP in an immunoglobulin-dependent or -independent manner. C1q is a hexameric glycoprotein composed of 18 polypeptide chains of three different types (A, B, and C), organized in two fragments-collagen-like (CLR) and globular head (gC1q) possessing different functional activity. The contemporary knowledge of the C1q structure allows the isolation and purification of a C1q molecule from serum by combination of different chromatography procedures including ion-exchange, size-exclusion, and affinity chromatography, as well as the isolation of CLR and gC1q by limited enzymatic hydrolysis of the native C1q molecule. In this chapter, we described methods for purification of human C1q and its CLR and gC1q fragments, as well as methods for their biochemical and functional characterization. The production and purification of recombinant C1q derivatives ghA, ghB, and ghC (globular fragments of the individual C1q chains) are also presented. PMID:24218248

Kojouharova, Mihaela

2014-01-01

183

Ectromelia Virus Inhibitor of Complement Enzymes Protects Intracellular Mature Virus and Infected Cells from Mouse Complement?  

PubMed Central

Poxviruses produce complement regulatory proteins to subvert the host's immune response. Similar to the human pathogen variola virus, ectromelia virus has a limited host range and provides a mouse model where the virus and the host's immune response have coevolved. We previously demonstrated that multiple components (C3, C4, and factor B) of the classical and alternative pathways are required to survive ectromelia virus infection. Complement's role in the innate and adaptive immune responses likely drove the evolution of a virus-encoded virulence factor that regulates complement activation. In this study, we characterized the ectromelia virus inhibitor of complement enzymes (EMICE). Recombinant EMICE regulated complement activation on the surface of CHO cells, and it protected complement-sensitive intracellular mature virions (IMV) from neutralization in vitro. It accomplished this by serving as a cofactor for the inactivation of C3b and C4b and by dissociating the catalytic domain of the classical pathway C3 convertase. Infected murine cells initiated synthesis of EMICE within 4 to 6 h postinoculation. The levels were sufficient in the supernatant to protect the IMV, upon release, from complement-mediated neutralization. EMICE on the surface of infected murine cells also reduced complement activation by the alternative pathway. In contrast, classical pathway activation by high-titer antibody overwhelmed EMICE's regulatory capacity. These results suggest that EMICE's role is early during infection when it counteracts the innate immune response. In summary, ectromelia virus produced EMICE within a few hours of an infection, and EMICE in turn decreased complement activation on IMV and infected cells. PMID:20610727

Moulton, Elizabeth A.; Bertram, Paula; Chen, Nanhai; Buller, R. Mark L.; Atkinson, John P.

2010-01-01

184

Mannose-binding lectin and its associated proteases (MASPs) mediate coagulation and its deficiency is a risk factor in developing complications from infection, including disseminated intravascular coagulation  

PubMed Central

The first line of host defense is the innate immune system that includes coagulation factors and pattern recognition molecules, one of which is mannose-binding lectin (MBL). Previous studies have demonstrated that MBL deficiency increases susceptibility to infection. Several mechanisms are associated with increased susceptibility to infection, including reduced opsonophagocytic killing and reduced lectin complement pathway activation. In this study, we demonstrate that MBL and MBL-associated serine protease (MASP)-1/3 together mediate coagulation factor-like activities, including thrombin-like activity. MBL and/or MASP-1/3 deficient hosts demonstrate in vivo evidence that MBL and MASP-1/3 are involved with hemostasis following injury. Staphylococcus aureus infected MBL null mice developed disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), which was associated with elevated blood IL-6 levels (but not TNF-? and multi-organ inflammatory responses). Infected MBL null mice also develop liver injury. These findings suggest that MBL deficiency may manifest into DIC and organ failure during infectious diseases. PMID:20399528

Takahashi, Kazue; Chang, Wei-Chuan; Takahashi, Minoru; Pavlov, Vasile; Ishida, Yumi; La Bonte, Laura; Shi, Lei; Fujita, Teizo; Stahl, Gregory L.; Van Cott, Elizabeth M.

2010-01-01

185

Mechanism and function of complement factor H   

E-print Network

Factor H (FH) is a 155-kDa plasma protein that regulates the alternative pathway of the complement system. Its 20 CCP modules, of 51-62 amino acid residues each, are linked by short stretches (“linkers’) of three to eight ...

McIntosh, Nicola

2014-06-28

186

A novel CRIg-targeted complement inhibitor protects cells from complement damage.  

PubMed

The inappropriate activation of complement may contribute to various immune diseases. The alternative pathway (AP) predominates during complement activation regardless of the initiating pathways. Hence, the main AP regulator factor H (FH) holds great potential as an attractive therapeutic intervention. In addition, complement receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily (CRIg) has been demonstrated to inhibit AP and, more notably, still specifically binds to C3b/iC3b. We thus developed novel CRIg-targeted complement inhibitors by connecting the functional domains of CRIg and FH, which we termed CRIg-FH and CRIg-L-FH. CRIg-L-FH, slightly more potent than CRIg-FH, considerably inhibited both AP- and also classical pathway (CP)-mediated hemolysis and successfully eliminated the deposition of C3b/iC3b. Kinetic analysis further revealed that the binding affinity constant (KD) of CRIg/FH was in the micromolar range, consistent with its long-lasting binding to complement-attacked cells. CRIg-L-FH efficiently protected aberrant erythrocytes of patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) from AP- and CP-mediated complement damage (IC50 was 22.43 and 64.69 nM, respectively). Moreover, CRIg-L-FH was found to inhibit complement activation induced by the anti-Thy1 antibody in a mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) rat model. Hence, CRIg-L-FH protects glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs) from complement-mediated injury and proliferative lesions. These findings strongly suggest that CRIg/FH is a potential therapeutic drug candidate for a range of complement-mediated diseases. PMID:25114177

Qiao, Qian; Teng, Xiaoyan; Wang, Na; Lu, Renquan; Guo, Lin; Zhang, Xin; Du, Yiqun; Wang, Wenjuan; Chen, Suning; Wu, Qian; He, Guangsheng; Wang, Yingwei; Hu, Weiguo

2014-11-01

187

Plant lectins, from ancient sugar-binding proteins to emerging anti-cancer drugs in apoptosis and autophagy.  

PubMed

Ubiquitously distributed in different plant species, plant lectins are highly diverse carbohydrate-binding proteins of non-immune origin. They have interesting pharmacological activities and currently are of great interest to thousands of people working on biomedical research in cancer-related problems. It has been widely accepted that plant lectins affect both apoptosis and autophagy by modulating representative signalling pathways involved in Bcl-2 family, caspase family, p53, PI3K/Akt, ERK, BNIP3, Ras-Raf and ATG families, in cancer. Plant lectins may have a role as potential new anti-tumour agents in cancer drug discovery. Thus, here we summarize these findings on pathway- involved plant lectins, to provide a comprehensive perspective for further elucidating their potential role as novel anti-cancer drugs, with respect to both apoptosis and autophagy in cancer pathogenesis, and future therapy. PMID:25488051

Jiang, Q-L; Zhang, S; Tian, M; Zhang, S-Y; Xie, T; Chen, D-Y; Chen, Y-J; He, J; Liu, J; Ouyang, L; Jiang, X

2015-02-01

188

Structure of an active N-terminal fragment of human complement factor H   

E-print Network

Factor H (FH) is a key regulator of the complement system, the principal molecular component of innate immunity in humans. The tight regulation of the alternative pathway (AP) of complement by FH occurs on host cells as ...

Hocking, Henry G.

189

Extreme High Prevalence of a Defective Mannose-Binding Lectin (MBL2) Genotype in Native South American West Andean Populations  

PubMed Central

Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is one of the five recognition molecules in the lectin complement pathway. Common variant alleles in the promoter and structural regions of the human MBL gene (MBL2) influence the stability and serum concentration of the protein. Epidemiological studies have shown that MBL2 variant alleles are associated with susceptibility to and the course of different types of infectious and inflammatory conditions. However, it has been suggested that these alleles are maintained in different populations due to selected advantages for carriers. We investigated the MBL2 allelic variation in indigenous individuals from 12 different West Central South America localities spanning from the desert coast, high altitude Andean plates and the Amazon tropical forest within the territories of Peru (n?=?249) (Departments of Loreto, Ucayali, Lambayeque, Junin, Ayacucho, Huancayo and Puno), and Ecuador (n?=?182) (Region of Esmeraldas and Santo Domingo de los Colorados). The distribution of MBL2 genotypes among the populations showed that the defective variant LYPB haplotype was very common. It showed the highest frequencies in Puno (Taquile (0.80), Amantani (0.80) and Anapia (0.58) islander communities of the Lake Titicaca), but lower frequencies of 0.22 in Junin (Central Andean highland) and Ucayali (Central Amazonian forest), as well as 0.27 and 0.24 in the Congoma and Cayapa/Chachis populations in the Amazonian forest in Ecuador were also observed. Our results suggest that the high prevalence of the MBL2 LYPB variant causing low levels of functional MBL in serum may mainly reflect a random distribution due to a population bottleneck in the founder populations. PMID:25313559

Sandoval, José Raul; Madsen, Hans O.; De Stefano, Gianfranco; Descailleaux-Dulanto, Jaime; Velazquez-Reinoso, Margarita; Ńique, Cesar; Fujita, Ricardo; Garred, Peter

2014-01-01

190

Extreme high prevalence of a defective mannose-binding lectin (MBL2) genotype in native South American West Andean populations.  

PubMed

Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is one of the five recognition molecules in the lectin complement pathway. Common variant alleles in the promoter and structural regions of the human MBL gene (MBL2) influence the stability and serum concentration of the protein. Epidemiological studies have shown that MBL2 variant alleles are associated with susceptibility to and the course of different types of infectious and inflammatory conditions. However, it has been suggested that these alleles are maintained in different populations due to selected advantages for carriers. We investigated the MBL2 allelic variation in indigenous individuals from 12 different West Central South America localities spanning from the desert coast, high altitude Andean plates and the Amazon tropical forest within the territories of Peru (n?=?249) (Departments of Loreto, Ucayali, Lambayeque, Junin, Ayacucho, Huancayo and Puno), and Ecuador (n?=?182) (Region of Esmeraldas and Santo Domingo de los Colorados). The distribution of MBL2 genotypes among the populations showed that the defective variant LYPB haplotype was very common. It showed the highest frequencies in Puno (Taquile (0.80), Amantani (0.80) and Anapia (0.58) islander communities of the Lake Titicaca), but lower frequencies of 0.22 in Junin (Central Andean highland) and Ucayali (Central Amazonian forest), as well as 0.27 and 0.24 in the Congoma and Cayapa/Chachis populations in the Amazonian forest in Ecuador were also observed. Our results suggest that the high prevalence of the MBL2 LYPB variant causing low levels of functional MBL in serum may mainly reflect a random distribution due to a population bottleneck in the founder populations. PMID:25313559

Sandoval, José Raul; Madsen, Hans O; De Stefano, Gianfranco; Descailleaux-Dulanto, Jaime; Velazquez-Reinoso, Margarita; Ńique, Cesar; Fujita, Ricardo; Garred, Peter

2014-01-01

191

Serum Mannose-Binding Lectin Concentration, but Not Genotype, Is Associated With Clostridium difficile Infection Recurrence: A Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background.?Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) plays a key role in the activation of the lectin-complement pathway of innate immunity, and its deficiency has been linked with several acute infections. However, its role in predisposing to, or modulating disease severity in, Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has not been investigated. Methods.?We prospectively recruited 308 CDI case patients and 145 control patients with antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). CDI outcome measures were disease severity, duration of symptoms, 30-day mortality, and 90-day recurrence. Serum concentrations of MBL were determined using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay transferred to an electrochemiluminescence–based platform. MBL2 polymorphisms were typed using a combination of pyrosequencing and TaqMan genotyping assays. Results.?The frequency of the MBL2 genetic variants was similar to that reported in other white populations. MBL serum concentrations in CDI and AAD subjects were determined by MBL2 exonic variants B, C, and D and the haplotypes (LYPB, LYQC, and HYPD). There was no difference in either MBL concentrations or genotypes between cases and controls. MBL concentration, but not genotype, was a determinant of CDI recurrence (odds ratios, 3.18 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.40–7.24] and 2.61 [95% CI, 1.35–5.04] at the <50 ng/mL and <100 ng/mL cutoff points, respectively; P < .001). However, neither MBL concentration nor MBL2 genotype was linked with the other CDI outcomes. Conclusions.?Serum MBL concentration did not differentiate between CDI cases and AAD controls, but among CDI cases, MBL concentration, but not genotype, was associated with CDI recurrence, indicating that MBL acts as a modulator of disease, rather than a predisposing factor. PMID:25170052

Swale, Andrew; Miyajima, Fabio; Kolamunnage-Dona, Ruwanthi; Roberts, Paul; Little, Margaret; Beeching, Nicholas J.; Beadsworth, Mike B. J.; Liloglou, Triantafillos; Pirmohamed, Munir

2014-01-01

192

The consequence of low mannose-binding lectin plasma concentration in relation to susceptibility to Salmonella Infantis in chickens.  

PubMed

Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a key protein in innate immunity. MBL binds to carbohydrates on the surface of pathogens, where it initiates complement activation via the lectin-dependent pathway or facilitates opsonophagocytosis. In vitro studies have shown that human MBL is able to bind to Salmonella, but knowledge in relation to chicken MBL and Salmonella is lacking. In order to study this relation day-old chickens from two selected lines L10H and L10L, differing in MBL serum concentration, were either orally infected with S. Infantis (S.123443) or kept as non-infected controls. The differences between healthy L10H and L10L chicken sublines were more profound than differences caused by the S. Infantis infection. The average daily body weight was higher for L10H than for L10L, regardless of infection, indicating beneficial effects of MBL selection on growth. Salmonella was detected in cloacal swabs and the number of Salmonella positive chickens during the experiment was significantly higher in L10L than L10H, indicating that MBL may affect the magnitude of Salmonella colonisation in day-old chickens. MBL expression was determined in ceca tissue by real-time RT-PCR. L10H chickens showed a significantly higher relative expression than L10L at days 1 and 41 pi, regardless of infection. Finally, flow cytometric analysis of whole blood from infected chickens showed that L10H had a significantly higher count of all assessed leucocyte subsets on day 5 pi, and also a higher count of monocytes on day 12 pi than L10L. No difference was observed between infected and non-infected L10L chicken. PMID:25487759

Ulrich-Lynge, Sofie L; Dalgaard, Tina S; Norup, Liselotte R; Kjćrup, Rikke M; Olsen, John E; Sřrensen, Poul; Juul-Madsen, Helle R

2015-01-15

193

Cytotoxic ribosome-inactivating lectins from plants.  

PubMed

A class of heterodimeric plant proteins consisting of a carbohydrate-binding B-chain and an enzymatic A-chain which act on ribosomes to inhibit protein synthesis are amongst the most toxic substances known. The best known example of such a toxic lectin is ricin, produced by the seeds of the castor oil plant, Ricinnus communis. For ricin to reach its substrate in the cytosol, it must be endocytosed, transported through the endomembrane system to reach the compartment from which it is translocated into the cytosol, and there avoid degradation making it possible for a few molecules to inactivate a large proportion of the ribosomes and hence kill the cell. Cell entry by ricin involves the following steps: (i) binding to cell-surface glycolipids and glycoproteins bearing beta-1,4-linked galactose residues through the lectin activity of the B-chain (RTB); (ii) uptake by endocytosis and entry into early endosomes; (iii) transfer by vesicular transport to the trans-Golgi network; (iv) retrograde vesicular transport through the Golgi complex and into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER); (v) reduction of the disulfide bond connecting the A- and B-chains; (vi) a partial unfolding of the A-chain (RTA) to enable it to translocate across the ER membrane via the Sec61p translocon using the pathway normally followed by misfolded ER proteins for targeting to the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) machinery; (vi) refolding in the cytosol into a protease-resistant, enzymatically active structure; (vii) interaction with the sarcin-ricin domain (SRD) of the large ribosome subunit RNA followed by cleavage of a single N-glycosidic bond in the RNA to generate a depurinated, inactive ribosome. In addition to the highly specific action on ribosomes, ricin and related ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) have a less specific action in vitro on DNA and RNA substrates releasing multiple adenine, and in some instances, guanine residues. This polynucleotide:adenosine glycosidase activity has been implicated in the general antiviral, and specifically, the anti HIV-1 activity of several single-chain RIPs which are homologous to the A-chains of the heterodimeric lectins. However, in the absence of clear cause and effect evidence in vivo, such claims should be regarded with caution. PMID:15450171

Hartley, M R; Lord, J M

2004-09-01

194

Specific interaction of hepatitis C virus glycoproteins with mannan binding lectin inhibits virus entry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) is a soluble innate immune protein that binds to glycosylated targets. MBL acts as an opsonin\\u000a and activates complement, contributing to the destruction and clearance of infecting microorganisms. Hepatitis C virus (HCV)\\u000a encodes two envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2, expressed as non-covalent E1\\/E2 heterodimers in the viral envelope. E1 and E2\\u000a are potential ligands for MBL. Here

Kristelle S. Brown; Michael J. Keogh; Ania M. Owsianka; Richard Adair; Arvind H. Patel; James N. Arnold; Jonathan K. Ball; Robert B. Sim; Alexander W. Tarr; Timothy P. Hickling

2010-01-01

195

Complement regulation of T-cell alloimmunity.  

PubMed

Complement proteins are generated both by the liver (systemic compartment) and by peripheral tissue-resident cells and migratory immune cells (local compartment). The immune cell-derived, alternative pathway complement components activate spontaneously, yielding local, but not systemic, production of C3a and C5a. These anaphylatoxins bind to their respective G-protein-coupled receptors, the C3a receptor and the C5a receptor, expressed on T cells and antigen-presenting cells, leading to their reciprocal activation and driving T-cell differentiation, expansion, and survival. Complement deficiency or blockade attenuates T-cell-mediated autoimmunity and delays allograft rejection in mice. Increasing complement activation, achieved by genetic removal of the complement regulatory protein decay accelerating factor, enhances murine T-cell immunity and accelerates allograft rejection. Signaling through the C3a receptor and the C5a receptor reduces suppressive activity of natural regulatory T cells and the generation and stability of induced regulatory T cells. The concepts, initially generated in mice, recently were confirmed in human immune cells, supporting the need for testing of complement targeting therapies in organ transplants patients. PMID:24161041

Cravedi, Paolo; van der Touw, William; Heeger, Peter S

2013-11-01

196

Lectin cDNA and transgenic plants derived therefrom  

DOEpatents

Transgenic plants containing cDNA encoding Gramineae lectin are described. The plants preferably contain cDNA coding for barley lectin and store the lectin in the leaves. The transgenic plants, particularly the leaves exhibit insecticidal and fungicidal properties.

Raikhel, Natasha V. (Okemos, MI)

2000-10-03

197

Mannose-binding lectin impairs Leptospira activity through the inhibitory effect on the motility of cell.  

PubMed

Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) plays key role in lectin pathway of innate immunity, and shows the ability of triggering opsonization intermediately. Substantial increase in the serum level of MBL has been confirmed during leptospirosis, which caused by a pathogenic spirochete, Leptospira. Leptospira has a fascinating locomotion pattern, which simultaneously gyrating and swimming forward, such motility enables that Leptospira is difficult to be captured by immune cells if without any assistance. In this study, the effect of mannose-binding lectin to Leptospira was quantitatively investigated by measuring some kinematic parameters, to discover the mechanism behind MBL-mediated immune responses during leptospiral infection. The results showed that mannose-binding lectin is capable of inhibiting the motility of Leptospira by transforming free swimming cells to tumbled rotating cells, resulted in the increase number of rotating cells. Otherwise, decrease in rotation rate of rotating cell has been observed. However, the swimming speed of swimming Leptospira cells showed no observable change under the effect of MBL. The inhibitory effect were only valid in a relatively short period, Leptospira cells regained their original motility after 2h. This raises an interesting topic that Leptospira is somehow able to escape from the inhibitory effect of MBL by dragging such unfavorable molecules toward to the cell end and eventually throwing it out. The inhibitory effect of MBL on the motility of Leptospira is expected to provide a new insight into lectin pathway. PMID:25644948

Xu, Jun; Guo, Yijie; Nakamura, Shuichi; Islam, Md Shafiqul; Tomioka, Rintaro; Yoneyama, Hiroshi; Isogai, Emiko

2015-02-01

198

Functional complementation of a yeast knockout strain by Schistosoma mansoni Rho1 GTPase in the presence of caffeine, an agent that affects mutants defective in the protein kinase C signal transduction pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

SmRho1 protein and its mutants smrho1E97P, smrho1L101T, and smrho1E97P, L101T were used to try to clarify the basis for the differential complementation of Rho1 knockout yeast strain by the human and S. mansoni genes. Experiments of functional complementation in the presence of caffeine and in the presence of the osmotic regulator sorbitol were conducted. SmRho1 and its mutants showed a

Pedro HN de Aguiar; Débora N Santos; Francisco P Lobo; Túlio M Santos; Andréa M Macedo; Sérgio DJ Pena; Carlos R Machado; Glória R Franco

2006-01-01

199

Weak Protein-Protein Interactions in Lectins: The Crystal Structure of a Vegetative Lectin from the  

E-print Network

Weak Protein-Protein Interactions in Lectins: The Crystal Structure of a Vegetative Lectin from a role in the regulation of receptor crosslinking and subsequent signal transduction. The crystal that formed by DBL, the seed lectin from the same plant. A single amino acid substitution in DB58 affects

Hamelryck, Thomas

200

Complementizer Agreement in Najdi Arabic  

E-print Network

of complementizers is considered with respect to topics and foci. I conclude that there are two distinct positions for the complementizers in, illi, and itha, with the complementizers in and illi, surfacing in Force0. Only the complementizer in allows agreement...

Lewis, Robert

2013-08-13

201

Soluble beta-glucan polysaccharide binding to the lectin site of neutrophil or natural killer cell complement receptor type 3 (CD11b/CD18) generates a primed state of the receptor capable of mediating cytotoxicity of iC3b-opsonized target cells.  

PubMed Central

When phagocyte CR3 binds to iC3b on bacteria or yeast, phagocytosis and degranulation are triggered because of simultaneous recognition of iC3b via a CD11b I-domain binding site and specific microbial polysaccharides via a lectin site located COOH-terminal to the I-domain. By contrast, when phagocyte or natural killer (NK) cell CR3 adheres to iC3b on erythrocytes or tumor cells that lack CR3-binding membrane polysaccharides, neither lysis nor cytotoxicity are stimulated. This investigation showed that soluble CR3-specific polysaccharides such as beta-glucan induced a primed state of CR3 that could trigger killing of iC3b-target cells that were otherwise resistant to cytotoxicity. Anti-CR3 added before sugars prevented priming, whereas anti-CR3 added after sugars blocked primed CR3 attachment to iC3b-targets. Polysaccharide priming required tyrosine kinase(s) and a magnesium-dependent conformational change of the I-domain that exposed the CBRM1/5 activation epitope. Unlike LPS or cytokines, polysaccharides did not up-regulate neutrophil CR3 expression nor expose the mAb 24 reporter epitope representing the high affinity ICAM-1-binding state. The current data apparently explain the mechanism of tumoricidal beta-glucans used for immunotherapy. These polysaccharides function through binding to phagocyte or NK cell CR3, priming the receptor for cytotoxicity of neoplastic tissues that are frequently targeted with iC3b and sparing normal tissues that lack iC3b. PMID:8690804

Vetvicka, V; Thornton, B P; Ross, G D

1996-01-01

202

Characterization of the complement inhibitory function of rhesus rhadinovirus complement control protein (RCP).  

PubMed

Rhesus rhadinovirus (RRV) is currently the closest known, fully sequenced homolog of human Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. Both these viruses encode complement inhibitors as follows: Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-complement control protein (KCP) and RRV-complement control protein (RCP). Previously we characterized in detail the functional properties of KCP as a complement inhibitor. Here, we performed comparative analyses for two variants of RCP protein, encoded by RRV strains H26-95 and 17577. Both RCP variants and KCP inhibited human and rhesus complement when tested in hemolytic assays measuring all steps of activation via the classical and the alternative pathway. RCP variants from both RRV strains supported C3b and C4b degradation by factor I and decay acceleration of the classical C3 convertase, similar to KCP. Additionally, the 17577 RCP variant accelerated decay of the alternative C3 convertase, which was not seen for KCP. In contrast to KCP, RCP showed no affinity to heparin and is the first described complement inhibitor in which the binding site for C3b/C4b does not interact with heparin. Molecular modeling shows a structural disruption in the region of RCP that corresponds to the KCP-heparin-binding site. This makes RRV a superior model for future in vivo investigations of complement evasion, as RCP does not play a supportive role in viral attachment as KCP does. PMID:18990693

Okroj, Marcin; Mark, Linda; Stokowska, Anna; Wong, Scott W; Rose, Nicola; Blackbourn, David J; Villoutreix, Bruno O; Spiller, O Brad; Blom, Anna M

2009-01-01

203

Possible mechanism for the inhibition of lectin-erythrocyte interaction in presence of endogenous lectin receptor.  

PubMed

The presence of hydrophobic sites in the lectin-I molecule was indicated by hydrophobic probes like 1-anilinonapthalene-8-sulfonic acid (ANS), 2-p-toluidinyl napthalene-6-sulfonic acid (TNS). N-phenyl-1-napthylamine (NA) and rose bengal (RB). This was further confirmed by amino acid modifications in the hydrophobic region of the lectin-I molecule. The binding of ANS, TNS, NA and RB to lectin-I was affected in the presence of NaCl. The involvement of hydrophobic interactions in rice-bean lectin-I-endogenous lectin receptor (ELR) complex were indicated by alterations in the circular dichroism and fluorescence emission spectra. The percentage of beta-conformation (55-63%) of lectin-I was decreased by addition of ELR. ELR on reacting with lectin-I reduced the fluorescence emissions of the hydrophobic probes while fluorescence emission of ANS, TNS, NA and RB were greatly enhanced in presence of lectin-I alone. N-aceyl-galactosamine did not change the fluorescence emissions of any of the hydrophobic probes in presence or in absence of lectin-I. This demonstrates that carbohydrate and hydrophobic sites may be different and non-interacting. It is proposed that the ELR in reacting with lectin-I, induced conformational changes in the lectin-I molecule and thereby affected its erythroagglutinating activity with human blood group "A" erythrocytes. PMID:9062696

Basu, P S; Datta, P K; Datta, T K

1996-12-01

204

Complement activation by ceramide transporter proteins.  

PubMed

C1q is the initiator of the classical complement pathway and, as such, is essential for efficient opsonization and clearance of pathogens, altered self-structures, and apoptotic cells. The ceramide transporter protein (CERT) and its longer splicing isoform CERTL are known to interact with extracellular matrix components, such as type IV collagen, and with the innate immune protein serum amyloid P. In this article, we report a novel function of CERT in the innate immune response. Both CERT isoforms, when immobilized, were found to bind the globular head region of C1q and to initiate the classical complement pathway, leading to activation of C4 and C3, as well as generation of the membrane attack complex C5b-9. In addition, C1q was shown to bind to endogenous CERTL on the surface of apoptotic cells. These results demonstrate the role of CERTs in innate immunity, especially in the clearance of apoptotic cells. PMID:24395916

Bode, Gerard H; Losen, Mario; Buurman, Wim A; Veerhuis, Robert; Molenaar, Peter C; Steinbusch, Harry W M; De Baets, Marc H; Daha, Mohamed R; Martinez-Martinez, Pilar

2014-02-01

205

The X-ray Crystal Structure of Mannose-binding Lectin-associated Serine Proteinase-3 Reveals the Structural Basis for Enzyme Inactivity Associated with the Carnevale, Mingarelli, Malpuech, and Michels (3MC) Syndrome*  

PubMed Central

The mannose-binding lectin associated-protease-3 (MASP-3) is a member of the lectin pathway of the complement system, a key component of human innate and active immunity. Mutations in MASP-3 have recently been found to be associated with Carnevale, Mingarelli, Malpuech, and Michels (3MC) syndrome, a severe developmental disorder manifested by cleft palate, intellectual disability, and skeletal abnormalities. However, the molecular basis for MASP-3 function remains to be understood. Here we characterize the substrate specificity of MASP-3 by screening against a combinatorial peptide substrate library. Through this approach, we successfully identified a peptide substrate that was 20-fold more efficiently cleaved than any other identified to date. Furthermore, we demonstrated that mutant forms of the enzyme associated with 3MC syndrome were completely inactive against this substrate. To address the structural basis for this defect, we determined the 2.6-? structure of the zymogen form of the G666E mutant of MASP-3. These data reveal that the mutation disrupts the active site and perturbs the position of the catalytic serine residue. Together, these insights into the function of MASP-3 reveal how a mutation in this enzyme causes it to be inactive and thus contribute to the 3MC syndrome. PMID:23792966

Yongqing, Tang; Wilmann, Pascal G.; Reeve, Shane B.; Coetzer, Theresa H.; Smith, A. Ian; Whisstock, James C.; Pike, Robert N.; Wijeyewickrema, Lakshmi C.

2013-01-01

206

Role of the lectin VIP36 in post-ER quality control of human alpha1-antitrypsin.  

PubMed

The leguminous-type (L-type) lectin VIP36 localizes to the Golgi apparatus and cycles early in the secretory pathway. In vitro, VIP36 binds high-mannose glycans with a pH optimum of 6.5, a value similar to the luminal pH of the Golgi apparatus. Although the sugar-binding properties of VIP36 in vitro have been characterized in detail, the function of VIP36 in the intact cell remains unclear as no convincing glycoprotein cargo has been identified. Here, we used yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) fragment complementation to identify luminal interaction partners of VIP36. By screening a human liver cDNA library, we identified the glycoprotein alpha1-antitrypsin (alpha1-AT) as a cargo of VIP36. The VIP36/alpha1-AT complex localized to Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In the living cell, VIP36 bound exclusively to the high-mannose form of alpha1-AT. The binding was increased when complex glycosylation was prevented by kifunensine and abolished when the glycosylation sites of alpha1-AT were inactivated by mutagenesis. Silencing VIP36 accelerated alpha1-AT transport, arguing against a role of VIP36 in anterograde traffic. The complex formed by VIP36 and alpha1-AT in the Golgi recycled back to the ER. The combined data are most consistent with a function of VIP36 in post-ER quality control of alpha1-AT. PMID:20477988

Reiterer, Veronika; Nyfeler, Beat; Hauri, Hans-Peter

2010-08-01

207

Impact of the Lectin Chaperone Calnexin on the Stress Response, Virulence and Proteolytic Secretome of the Fungal Pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

Calnexin is a membrane-bound lectin chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that is part of a quality control system that promotes the accurate folding of glycoproteins entering the secretory pathway. We have previously shown that ER homeostasis is important for virulence of the human fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus, but the contribution of calnexin has not been explored. Here, we determined the extent to which A. fumigatus relies on calnexin for growth under conditions of environmental stress and for virulence. The calnexin gene, clxA, was deleted from A. fumigatus and complemented by reconstitution with the wild type gene. Loss of clxA altered the proteolytic secretome of the fungus, but had no impact on growth rates in either minimal or complex media at 37°C. However, the ?clxA mutant was growth impaired at temperatures above 42°C and was hypersensitive to acute ER stress caused by the reducing agent dithiothreitol. In contrast to wild type A. fumigatus, ?clxA hyphae were unable to grow when transferred to starvation medium. In addition, depleting the medium of cations by chelation prevented ?clxA from sustaining polarized hyphal growth, resulting in blunted hyphae with irregular morphology. Despite these abnormal stress responses, the ?clxA mutant remained virulent in two immunologically distinct models of invasive aspergillosis. These findings demonstrate that calnexin functions are needed for growth under conditions of thermal, ER and nutrient stress, but are dispensable for surviving the stresses encountered in the host environment. PMID:22163332

Powers-Fletcher, Margaret V.; Jambunathan, Kalyani; Brewer, Jordan L.; Krishnan, Karthik; Feng, Xizhi; Galande, Amit K.; Askew, David S.

2011-01-01

208

Impact of the lectin chaperone calnexin on the stress response, virulence and proteolytic secretome of the fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Calnexin is a membrane-bound lectin chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that is part of a quality control system that promotes the accurate folding of glycoproteins entering the secretory pathway. We have previously shown that ER homeostasis is important for virulence of the human fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus, but the contribution of calnexin has not been explored. Here, we determined the extent to which A. fumigatus relies on calnexin for growth under conditions of environmental stress and for virulence. The calnexin gene, clxA, was deleted from A. fumigatus and complemented by reconstitution with the wild type gene. Loss of clxA altered the proteolytic secretome of the fungus, but had no impact on growth rates in either minimal or complex media at 37°C. However, the ?clxA mutant was growth impaired at temperatures above 42°C and was hypersensitive to acute ER stress caused by the reducing agent dithiothreitol. In contrast to wild type A. fumigatus, ?clxA hyphae were unable to grow when transferred to starvation medium. In addition, depleting the medium of cations by chelation prevented ?clxA from sustaining polarized hyphal growth, resulting in blunted hyphae with irregular morphology. Despite these abnormal stress responses, the ?clxA mutant remained virulent in two immunologically distinct models of invasive aspergillosis. These findings demonstrate that calnexin functions are needed for growth under conditions of thermal, ER and nutrient stress, but are dispensable for surviving the stresses encountered in the host environment. PMID:22163332

Powers-Fletcher, Margaret V; Jambunathan, Kalyani; Brewer, Jordan L; Krishnan, Karthik; Feng, Xizhi; Galande, Amit K; Askew, David S

2011-01-01

209

ERGIC-53 is a functional mannose-selective and calcium-dependent human homologue of leguminous lectins.  

PubMed Central

Based on sequence homologies with leguminous lectins, the intermediate compartment marker ERGIC-53 was proposed to be a member of a putative new class of animal lectins associated with the secretory pathway. Independent, a promyelocytic protein, MR60, was purified by mannose-column chromatography, and a cDNA was isolated that matched MR60 peptide sequences. This cDNA was identical to that of ERGIC-53 and homologies with the animal lectin family of the galectins were noticed. Not all peptide sequences of MR60, however, were found in ERGIC-53, raising the possibility that another protein associated with ERGIC-53 may possess the lectin activity. Here, we provide the first direct evidence for a lectin function of ERGIC-53. Overexpressed ERGIC-53 binds to a mannose column in a calcium-dependent manner and also co-stains with mannosylated neoglycoprotein in a morphological binding assay. By using a sequential elution protocol we show that ERGIC-53 has selectivity for mannose and low affinity for glucose and GlcNAc, but no affinity for galactose. To experimentally address the putative homology of ERGIC-53 to leguminous lectins, a highly conserved protein family with an invariant asparagine essential for carbohydrate binding, we substituted the corresponding asparagine in ERGIC-53. This mutation, as well as a mutation affecting a second site in the putative carbohydrate recognition domain, abolished mannose-column binding and co-staining with mannosylated neoglycoprotein. These findings establish ERGIC-53 as a lectin and provide functional evidence for its relationship to leguminous lectins. Based on its monosaccharide specificity, domain organization, and recycling properties, we propose ERGIC-53 to function as a sorting receptor for glyco-proteins in the early secretory pathway. Images PMID:8868475

Itin, C; Roche, A C; Monsigny, M; Hauri, H P

1996-01-01

210

Studies on Complement  

E-print Network

. These results are of interest in view of the inhibiting effect of ether on phagocytosis in vitro and the lowered -44- resistance following anesthesia as shorn by Graham.25 He found that the opsonic power of an etherized serum was restored by evaporating... the ether. My work would suggest as an explanation of his results that the ether prevented the complement from combining with the opsonic immune body. The negative results which he obtained for bacteriolysins are not comparable, owing to the necessity...

Sherwood, Noble P.

1921-01-01

211

Complement activation promotes muscle inflammation during modified muscle use  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modified muscle use can result in muscle inflammation that is triggered by unidentified events. In the present investigation, we tested whether the activation of the complement system is a component of muscle inflammation that results from changes in muscle loading. Modified rat hindlimb muscle loading was achieved by removing weight-bearing from the hindlimbs for 10 days followed by reloading through normal ambulation. Experimental animals were injected with the recombinant, soluble complement receptor sCR1 to inhibit complement activation. Assays for complement C4 or factor B in sera showed that sCR1 produced large reductions in the capacity for activation of the complement system through both the classical and alternative pathways. Analysis of complement C4 concentration in serum in untreated animals showed that the classical pathway was activated during the first 2 hours of reloading. Analysis of factor B concentration in untreated animals showed activation of the alternative pathway at 6 hours of reloading. Administration of sCR1 significantly attenuated the invasion of neutrophils (-49%) and ED1(+) macrophages (-52%) that occurred in nontreated animals after 6 hours of reloading. The presence of sCR1 also reduced significantly the degree of edema by 22% as compared to untreated animals. Together, these data show that increased muscle loading activated the complement system which then briefly contributes to the early recruitment of inflammatory cells during modified muscle loading.

Frenette, J.; Cai, B.; Tidball, J. G.

2000-01-01

212

Lectin-binding proteins as potent mitogens for B lymphocytes from nu/nu mice.  

PubMed

It was found that lectin-binding protein (LB) from leguminosae seeds can serve as mitogens B lymphocytes from athymic nu/nu mice. Most of the experiments were performed using a LB from Vicia faba as this was the most potent mitogen among all LB tested. When mixed B and T lymphocyte populations were stimulated by LB a bell-shaped dose-response curve resulted which is also characteristic of the corresponding lectins; LB, however, act at much higher concentrations than the lectins. In control experiments, using lymphocytes from C3H/HeJ mice which have a genetic defect with respect to lipopolysaccharide responsiveness, the enhancement of DNA synthesis by LB was comparable to that observed with other strains. This indicates that stimulation by LB does not result from contamination by lipopolysaccharides. B lymphocytes from nu/nu mice were stimulated by LB as efficiently as mixed T and B lymphocyte populations whereas lectins per se had no effect on nu/nu lymphocytes. Cyclosporin A, a fungal metabolite, is known to specifically suppress T cell responses. Cyclosporin A did not influence the mitogenic activity of the LB from Vicia faba on unseparated spleen cells. Cell populations enriched for T cells (lymph node cells: nylon wool-passed or nylon wool-passed and anti-Ia plus complement-treated) responded poorly to LB, if at all, even in the presence of interleukin 2-containing supernatants. PMID:6214407

Gebauer, G; Schimpl, A; Rüdiger, H

1982-06-01

213

Disabling complement regulatory activities of vaccinia virus complement control protein reduces vaccinia virus pathogenicity  

PubMed Central

Poxviruses encode a repertoire of immunomodulatory proteins to thwart the host immune system. One among this array is a homolog of the host complement regulatory proteins that is conserved in various poxviruses including vaccinia (VACV) and variola. The vaccinia virus complement control protein (VCP), which inhibits complement by decaying the classical pathway C3-convertase (decay-accelerating activity), and by supporting inactivation of C3b and C4b by serine protease factor I (cofactor activity), was shown to play a role in viral pathogenesis. However, the role its individual complement regulatory activities impart in pathogenesis, have not yet been elucidated. Here, we have generated monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that block the VCP functions and utilized them to evaluate the relative contribution of complement regulatory activities of VCP in viral pathogenesis by employing a rabbit intradermal model for VACV infection. Targeting VCP by mAbs that inhibited the decay-accelerating activity as well as cofactor activity of VCP or primarily the cofactor activity of VCP, by injecting them at the site of infection, significantly reduced VACV lesion size. This reduction however was not pronounced when VCP was targeted by a mAb that inhibited only the decay-accelerating activity. Further, the reduction in lesion size by mAbs was reversed when host complement was depleted by injecting cobra venom factor. Thus, our results suggest that targeting VCP by antibodies reduces VACV pathogenicity and that principally the cofactor activity of VCP appears to contribute to the virulence. PMID:21803094

Bernet, John; Ahmad, Muzammil; Mullick, Jayati; Panse, Yogesh; Singh, Akhilesh K.; Parab, Pradeep B.; Sahu, Arvind

2011-01-01

214

Study of complement regulatory factor H based on Forster resonance energy transfer and investigation of disease-linked genetic variants   

E-print Network

The plasma protein complement factor H (fH, 155 kDa) regulates the activity of the alternative pathway of complement activation. Factor H is monomeric, and its 20 CCP modules are arranged in a predominantly elongated ...

Pechtl, Isabell C.

2010-01-01

215

Complement Activation and Regulation in Preeclamptic Placenta  

PubMed Central

Preeclampsia (PE) is a common disorder of pregnancy originating in the placenta. We examined whether excessive activation or poor regulation of the complement system at the maternal–fetal interface could contribute to the development of PE. Location and occurrence of complement components and regulators in placentae were analyzed. Cryostat sections of placentae were processed from 7 early-onset PE (diagnosis <34?weeks of gestation), 5 late-onset PE, 10 control pregnancies, and immunostained for 6 complement activators and 6 inhibitors. Fluorescence was quantified and compared between PE and control placentae. Gene copy numbers of complement components C4A and C4B were assessed by a quantitative PCR method. Maternal C4 deficiencies (?1 missing or non-functional C4) were most common in the early-onset PE group (71%), and more frequent in late-onset PE compared to healthy controls (60 vs. 38%). Complement C1q deposition differed significantly between control and patient groups: controls and early-onset PE patients had more C1q than late-onset PE patients (mean p?=?0.01 and p?=?0.005, respectively). C3 activation was analyzed by staining for C3b/iC3b and C3d. C3d was mostly specific to the basal syncytium and C3b/iC3b diffuse in other structures, but there were no clear differences between the study groups. Activated C4 and membrane-bound regulators CD55, CD46, and CD59 were observed abundantly in the syncytiotrophoblast. Syncytial knots, structures enriched in PE, stained specifically for the classical pathway inhibitor C4bp, whereas the key regulator alternative pathway, factor H (FH) showed a wider distribution in the placenta. Differences in C1q deposition between late- and early-onset PE groups may be indicative of the different etiology of PE symptoms in these patients. Irregular distribution of the complement regulators C4bp and FH in the PE placenta and a higher frequency of C4A deficiencies suggest a disturbed balance between complement activation and regulation in PE. PMID:25071773

Lokki, Anna Inkeri; Heikkinen-Eloranta, Jenni; Jarva, Hanna; Saisto, Terhi; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Laivuori, Hannele; Meri, Seppo

2014-01-01

216

Spectral characters of lectin saccharide interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we report attempts to directly detect the interaction behavior between erythrocyte and lectin concanavalin a (Con A) as well as phaseolus vulgaris (PHA) on the polystyrene film surface. In the procedure, an optical transducer based reflectance interferometry was set up and used to detect the film thickness change during the lectin adsorption and lectin- erythrocyte interaction. The specific interactions among Con A, PHA and erythrocyte were obtained. The solubility monosaccharide inhibition test confirmed that there is affinity between (alpha) - D-mannose and Con A.

Wang, Deyu; Jiang, Duxiao; Yuan, Chunwei

1999-09-01

217

Cloning and characterization of two different L-type lectin genes from the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis.  

PubMed

L-type lectins contain a leguminous lectin domain and bind to high-mannose type oligosaccharides. In the secretory pathway, L-type lectins play crucial functions in the trafficking, sorting, and targeting of maturing glycoproteins. This study identified two novel L-type lectins, designated as EsERGIC-53 and EsVIP36, from the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis. The complete nucleotide sequence of ERGIC-53 cDNA was 1955 bp, containing a 1506 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative protein of 501 deduced amino acids. The full-length cDNA of VIP36 was 3474 bp with a 984 bp ORF encoding a 327-amino acid peptide. The deduced ERGIC-53 and VIP36 proteins contained a putative signal peptide and an L-type lectin-like domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that ERGIC-53 and VIP36 belonged to different clades of L-type lectin family. Reverse transcription PCR showed that ERGIC-53 and VIP36 were expressed in all tested tissues. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that ERGIC-53 and VIP36 transcripts in hepatopancreas were significantly induced at various time points after infection with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), peptidoglycan (PGN), Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Aeromonas hydrophila. A bacterium-binding experiment showed that both ERGIC-53 and VIP36 could bind to different microbes. Sugar binding assay revealed that these lectins could also bind to the glycoconjugates of bacteria surface, such as LPS, PGN, d-Mannose, and N-Acetyl-d-mannosamine. Moreover, these two L-type lectins agglutinated bacteria in a calcium-dependent manner, and both exerted the ability of facilitating the clearance of injected bacteria V. parahaemolyticus in the crab. Our results suggested that ERGIC-53 and VIP36 functioned as pattern recognition receptors in the immune system of E. sinensis. PMID:24796868

Huang, Ying; Tan, Jing-Min; Wang, Zheng; Yin, Shao-Wu; Huang, Xin; Wang, Wen; Ren, Qian

2014-10-01

218

Complement and HIV-I infection/HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.  

PubMed

The various neurological complications associated with HIV-1 infection, specifically HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) persist as a major public health burden worldwide. Despite the widespread use of anti-retroviral therapy, the prevalence of HAND is significantly high. HAND results from the direct effects of an HIV-1 infection as well as secondary effects of HIV-1-induced immune reaction and inflammatory response. Complement, a critical mediator of innate and acquired immunity, plays important roles in defeating many viral infections by the formation of a lytic pore or indirectly by opsonization and recruitment of phagocytes. While the role of complement in the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection and HAND has been previously recognized for over 15 years, it has been largely underestimated thus far. Complement can be activated through HIV-1 envelope proteins, mannose-binding lectins (MBL), and anti-HIV-1 antibodies. Complement not only fights against HIV-1 infection but also enhances HIV-1 infection. In addition, HIV-1 can hijack complement regulators such as CD59 and CD55 and can utilize these regulators and factor H to escape from complement attack. Normally, complement levels in brain are much lower than plasma levels and there is no or little complement deposition in brain cells. Interestingly, local production and deposition of complement are dramatically increased in HIV-1-infected brain, indicating that complement may contribute to the pathogenesis of HAND. Here, we review the current understanding of the role of complement in HIV-1 infection and HAND, as well as potential therapeutic approaches targeting the complement system for the treatment and eradications of HIV-1 infection. PMID:24639397

Liu, Fengming; Dai, Shen; Gordon, Jennifer; Qin, Xuebin

2014-04-01

219

Bullous pemphigoid autoantibodies directly induce blister formation without complement activation.  

PubMed

Complement activation and subsequent recruitment of inflammatory cells at the dermal/epidermal junction are thought to be essential for blister formation in bullous pemphigoid (BP), an autoimmune blistering disease induced by autoantibodies against type XVII collagen (COL17); however, this theory does not fully explain the pathological features of BP. Recently, the involvement of complement-independent pathways has been proposed. To directly address the question of the necessity of the complement activation in blister formation, we generated C3-deficient COL17-humanized mice. First, we show that passive transfer of autoantibodies from BP patients induced blister formation in neonatal C3-deficient COL17-humanized mice without complement activation. By using newly generated human and murine mAbs against the pathogenic noncollagenous 16A domain of COL17 with high (human IgG1, murine IgG2), low (murine IgG1), or no (human IgG4) complement activation abilities, we demonstrate that the deposition of Abs, and not complements, is relevant to the induction of blister formation in neonatal and adult mice. Notably, passive transfer of BP autoantibodies reduced the amount of COL17 in lesional mice skin, as observed in cultured normal human keratinocytes treated with the same Abs. Moreover, the COL17 depletion was associated with a ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. In conclusion, the COL17 depletion induced by BP autoantibodies, and not complement activation, is essential for the blister formation under our experimental system. PMID:25261486

Ujiie, Hideyuki; Sasaoka, Tetsumasa; Izumi, Kentaro; Nishie, Wataru; Shinkuma, Satoru; Natsuga, Ken; Nakamura, Hideki; Shibaki, Akihiko; Shimizu, Hiroshi

2014-11-01

220

DNA Sequence Variants in PPARGC1A, a Gene Encoding a Coactivator of the ?-3 LCPUFA Sensing PPAR-RXR Transcription Complex, Are Associated with NV AMD and AMD-Associated Loci in Genes of Complement and VEGF Signaling Pathways  

PubMed Central

Background Increased intake of ?-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) and use of peroxisome proliferator activator receptor (PPAR)-activating drugs are associated with attenuation of pathologic retinal angiogenesis. ?-3 LCPUFAs are endogenous agonists of PPARs. We postulated that DNA sequence variation in PPAR gamma (PPARG) co-activator 1 alpha (PPARGC1A), a gene encoding a co-activator of the LCPUFA-sensing PPARG-retinoid X receptor (RXR) transcription complex, may influence neovascularization (NV) in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods We applied exact testing methods to examine distributions of DNA sequence variants in PPARGC1A for association with NV AMD and interaction of AMD-associated loci in genes of complement, lipid metabolism, and VEGF signaling systems. Our sample contained 1858 people from 3 elderly cohorts of western European ancestry. We concurrently investigated retinal gene expression profiles in 17-day-old neonatal mice on a 2% LCPUFA feeding paradigm to identify LCPUFA-regulated genes both associated with pathologic retinal angiogenesis and known to interact with PPARs or PPARGC1A. Results A DNA coding variant (rs3736265) and a 3'UTR-resident regulatory variant (rs3774923) in PPARGC1A were independently associated with NV AMD (exact P?=?0.003, both SNPs). SNP-SNP interactions existed for NV AMD (P<0.005) with rs3736265 and a AMD-associated variant in complement factor B (CFB, rs512559). PPARGC1A influences activation of the AMD-associated complement component 3 (C3) promoter fragment and CFB influences activation and proteolysis of C3. We observed interaction (P?0.003) of rs3736265 with a variant in vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA, rs3025033), a key molecule in retinal angiogenesis. Another PPARGC1A coding variant (rs8192678) showed statistical interaction with a SNP in the VEGFA receptor fms-related tyrosine kinase 1 (FLT1, rs10507386; P?0.003). C3 expression was down-regulated 2-fold in retinas of ?-3 LCPUFA-fed mice – these animals also showed 70% reduction in retinal NV (P?0.001). Conclusion Ligands and co-activators of the ?-3 LCPUFA sensing PPAR-RXR axis may influence retinal angiogenesis in NV AMD via the complement and VEGF signaling systems. We have linked the co-activator of a lipid-sensing transcription factor (PPARG co-activator 1 alpha, PPARGC1A) to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and AMD-associated genes. PMID:23335958

SanGiovanni, John Paul; Chen, Jing; Sapieha, Przemyslaw; Aderman, Christopher M.; Stahl, Andreas; Clemons, Traci E.; Chew, Emily Y.; Smith, Lois E. H.

2013-01-01

221

Lectin from the trunk of Sophora japonica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lectin was purified from the bark of Sophora japonica trunk by a simple method, affinity chromatography on acid-treated agarose; the yield was about 27% of the total sap proteins. Its molecular weight was 135,000±5,000 shown by using gel filtration, similar to that of the seed lectin of this species. When analyzed by using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) under acidic and

K. Baba; H. Kuroda

1989-01-01

222

Lectin histochemistry in the aged dog brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded canine brains were examined histochemically using 15 selected lectins. Concanavalin\\u000a A (Con A), Lens culinaris agglutinin, Lycopersicon esculentum agglutinin (LEL) and Limulus polyphemus agglutinin (LPA) labeled neurons in an age-dependent manner. These and some other lectins [Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), Vicia villosa agglutinin (VVA), Ricinus communis agglutinin 120 (RCA-I), Bandeiraea simplicifolia agglutinin (BSL-I), and Phaseolus vulagaris agglutinin-L

Wijit Kiatipattanasakul; Hiroyuki Nakayama; Shin-ichiro Nakamura; Kunio Doi

1998-01-01

223

Mannose-binding lectin and vulvovaginal candidiasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the effect of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) gene polymorphism on the immune system and the significance of vaginal MBL concentration in the pathogenesis of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and recurrent VVC (rVVC). Patients and methods: Mannose-binding lectin concentrations in CVL samples from 111 women were collected between August 2004 and November 2004, 51 with VVC, 6 with rVVC patients,

Fei Liu; Qinping Liao; Zhaohui Liu

2006-01-01

224

Lectin histochemistry in the aged dog brain.  

PubMed

Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded canine brains were examined histochemically using 15 selected lectins. Concanavalin A (Con A), Lens culinaris agglutinin, Lycopersicon esculentum agglutinin (LEL) and Limulus polyphemus agglutinin (LPA) labeled neurons in an age-dependent manner. These and some other lectins [Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), Vicia villosa agglutinin (VVA), Ricinus communis agglutinin 120 (RCA-I), Bandeiraea simplicifolia agglutinin (BSL-I), and Phaseolus vulagaris agglutinin-L (PHA-L)] also age-dependently labeled glial cells. These results indicate that monosaccharide composition and biochemical metabolism in brain cells change with age and that these lectins may be useful as histochemical markers for investigating senile changes in the canine brain. However, no significant correlation was found between ApopTag-positive and lectin-positive cells. Amyloid plaques were positive for Con A, DBA, Glycine maximus agglutinin (SBA), LEL, PHA-L, Limax flavus agglutinin (LFA) and VVA. Among these lectins, VVA, SBA and LFA intensely stained amyloid both in blood vessel walls and senile plaque cores. Therefore, the sugar residues recognized by these lectins likely play specific roles in beta-amyloid deposition in the aged dog brain. PMID:9542591

Kiatipattanasakul, W; Nakayama, H; Nakamura, S; Doi, K

1998-03-01

225

Galactosylated IgG1 links Fc?RIIB and Dectin-1 to block complement-mediated inflammation  

PubMed Central

Complement is an ancient danger sensing system playing critical roles in host defense, immune surveillance and homeostasis1. C5a and its G-Protein-coupled receptor mediate many of the pro-inflammatory properties of complement2. Despite its critical role in allergic asthma3, autoimmune arthritis4, sepsis5 and cancer6, our knowledge about C5a regulation is limited. Here we demonstrate an unexpected link through which IgG1 immune complexes (IC), the inhibitory IgG receptor Fc?RIIB and the C-type lectin-like receptor Dectin-1 suppress C5a receptor (C5aR) functions. Specifically, we found that IgG1 IC associate Fc?RIIB with Dectin-1, resulting in phosphorylation of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) downstream of Dectin-1 and Src homology 2 domain containing inositol phosphatase (SHIP) downstream of Fc?RIIB. This pathway blocks C5a receptor-mediated ERK1/2 phosphorylation and C5a effector functions in vitro and C5a-dependent inflammatory responses in vivo including the development of skin blisters in experimental epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA), an autoimmune skin disorder. Notably, high galactosylation of IgG N-glycan is critical for this inhibitory property of IgG1 IC as it promotes the association between Fc?RIIB and Dectin-1. Thus, galactosylated IgG1 and Fc?RIIB exert immunoregulatory properties beyond their impact on activating Fc?Rs that may control allergy, autoimmunity and cancer. PMID:22922409

Karsten, Christian M.; Pandey, Manoj K.; Figge, Julia; Kilchenstein, Regina; Taylor, Philip R.; Rosas, Marcela; McDonald, Jacqueline U.; Orr, Selinda J.; Berger, Markus; Petzold, Dominique; Blanchard, Veroniqué; Winkler, André; Hess, Constanze; Reid, Delyth M.; Majoul, Irina V.; Strait, Richard T.; Harris, Nathaniel L.; Köhl, Gabriele; Wex, Eva; Ludwig, Ralf; Zillikens, Detlef; Nimmerjahn, Falk; Finkelman, Fred D.; Brown, Gordon D.; Ehlers, Marc; Köhl, Jörg

2012-01-01

226

Complement system in lung disease.  

PubMed

In addition to its established contribution to innate immunity, recent studies have suggested novel roles for the complement system in the development of various lung diseases. Several studies have demonstrated that complement may serve as a key link between innate and adaptive immunity in a variety of pulmonary conditions. However, the specific contributions of complement to lung diseases based on innate and adaptive immunity are just beginning to emerge. Elucidating the role of complement-mediated immune regulation in these diseases will help to identify new targets for therapeutic interventions. PMID:24901241

Pandya, Pankita H; Wilkes, David S

2014-10-01

227

SEPSIS, APOPTOSIS AND COMPLEMENT  

PubMed Central

Programmed cell death (apoptosis) is a prominent feature in human and experimental sepsis, especially as it involves the lymphoid system with resulting immunoparalysis. In addition, sepsis is associated with strong activation of the complement system, resulting in generation of the powerful anaphylatoxin, C5a, as well as the upregulation of the C5a receptor (C5aR) in a variety of different organs. The consequences of C5a interactions with C5aR can be directly linked to apoptosis of thymocytes and adrenal medullary cells after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) -induced sepsis in rodents, as well as with other accompanying complications of CLP: cardiac dysfunction, consumptive coagulopathy, organ dysfunction, and lethality. This communication reviews the evidence for the adverse roles of C5a and C5aR in the setting of experimental sepsis and linkages to the various complications of sepsis, especially apoptosis as well as the roles of the two C5a receptors (C5aR AND C5L2) in experimental sepsis. PMID:18848819

Ward, P. A.

2008-01-01

228

Lectin interactions with alpha-galactosylated xenoantigens.  

PubMed

alpha-Galactosylated xenoantigens (Galalpha1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1 and Galalpha1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4Glc) are often detected with the alpha-Gal specific lectin Griffonia simplicifolia 1 isolectin B4 (GS1 B4). However, this lectin exhibits a broad and variable specificity for carbohydrates terminating in alpha-Gal. Thus, both false positive and false negative results may occur when GS1 B4 is used to determine natural antigens in xeno (pig-to-primate) transplantation research. To refine the tools for detecting alpha-galactosylated antigens we have studied the binding of various alpha-galactophilic lectins to alpha-galactosylated neoglycoproteins. The lectins were: Euonymus europaeus agglutinin (EEA), Griffonia simplicifolia 1 isolectin B4 (GS1 B4), Maclura pomifera agglutinin (MPA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa agglutinin (PA-IL). Although both GS1 B4 and MPA strongly bound glycoconjugates terminating in Gal there seems to be some differentiation in their sugar binding preferences. MPA was the only lectin that showed high affinity for the pentasaccharide Galalpha1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4Glc and for the Galalpha-glycans on non-primate thyroglobulin. The length of the xenoantigenic carbohydrate chain may influence the nature of the inhibition when a simple sugar is used to inhibit GS1 B4 binding to the xenoantigen. Inhibition studies of MPA GS1 B4 interaction further suggest that both lectins attach to the same site of the carbohydrate antigen and that GS1 B4 in addition binds to at least one other site that has no affinity for MPA. When lectins are used for recognition and investigation of natural Galalpha-antigens, we propose that GS1 B4 and MPA should accompany each other. PMID:12060462

Kirkeby, Svend; Moe, Dennis

2002-07-01

229

Patterns of lectin binding during mammalian neurogenesis.  

PubMed

Temporospatial changes in surface carbohydrates of neuroepithelial cells were analysed by means of lectin histochemistry in normal mouse embryos subsequent to closure of the neural tube. The lectins used were concanavalin A (con A), soybean (SBA), Maclura pomifera (MPA), peanut (PNA), wheatgerm (WGA), succinylated wheatgerm (sWGA) and Limax flavus (LFA). Although labelling was obtained with all of the lectins, the most striking temporospatial differences occurred with con A which in the early embryos (9-10 somites) labelled the basal and intercellular surfaces, but not the luminal surfaces of the neuroepithelial cells, whereas in the older embryos (26-30 somites), con A showed light luminal surface labelling. A midventral wedge of cells in the floor of the neural tube in the older embryos also exhibited more intense labelling with con A, WGA, and sWGA than with the other lectins. In addition, comparisons of lectin localisation were made between the closed neural tube in normal embryos and the open neural folds in the loop-tail (Lp) mutant mouse in which the neural tube fails to close. Although similar temporospatial patterns in lectin localisation occurred as in normal embryos, the retention of lectin labelling associated with rounded putative neural crest cells that remained sequestered in the apices of the open neural folds, along with an attenuation of the luminal reaction in the older abnormal embryos, suggest that during normal mammalian development closure of the spinal neural folds may be important for the timely exit of neural crest cells as well as for eliciting changes in the luminal surfaces of the neuroepithelial cells. PMID:7649814

Wilson, D B; Wyatt, D P

1995-02-01

230

Complement and experimental respiratory failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activation of the complement system within the lung can lead to acute pulmonary damage and dysfunction. Based on a variety of experimental models it is now apparent that lung injury is related to complement-induced generation of oxygen derived free radicals from neutrophils and from macrophages. In addition to the oxygen radicals, it is also possible that the conversion of hydrogen

P. A. Ward; K. J. Johnson; G. O. Till

1986-01-01

231

Perspectives on complement in xenotransplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crucial role of complement and naturally occurring anti-Gal antibodies in hyperacute rejection of pig transplants to Old World monkeys, apes and humans is well established. This rejection can be prevented by manipulating either system. Although cells, tissues or organs from pigs made transgenic for human complement regulatory proteins escape hyperacute rejection, there is an increasing evidence of a role

Tom E Mollnes; Arnt E Fiane

2003-01-01

232

Characterization of a new lectin of soybean vegetative tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins that occur widely among plants. Lectins of plant vegetative tissues are less well char- acterized than those of seeds. Previously, a protein of soybean (Clycine max (L.) Merr.) leaves was shown to possess properties similar to the seed lectin. Here we show that the N-terminal amino acid sequence of this protein shares 63% identity with the

Steven R. Spilatro; Graham R. Cochran; Ruth E. Walker; Christine C. Bittner

1996-01-01

233

A lectin from mycelia of the fungus Ganoderma lucidum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lectin (GLL-M) was isolated from mycelia of Ganoderma lucidum using affinity chromatography on BSM-Toyopearl. GLL-M is a monomer in its native form with a Mr of 18 000. Another lectin was also purified from fruiting bodies of the same fungus. The two lectins were partially compared with each other.

Hirokazu Kawagishi; Shin-Ichiro Mitsunaga; Masamichi Yamawaki; Mitoko Ido; Atsushi Shimada; Tetsuya Kinoshita; Takeomi Murata; Taichi Usui; Atsuo Kimura; Seiya Chiba

1997-01-01

234

Lectin histochemistry of normal human lung.  

PubMed

This study aimed to identify and specify the glycotypes of cell populations in normal human lung including types I and II pneumocytes, alveolar macrophages and mast cells, and also in the larger tissue structures of lung, including blood vessels and bronchi/bronchioles, using lectin- and immuno-histochemistry on paraffin-embedded tissue from 11 normal cases. The alveolar macrophages were anti-CD68 positive whereas the cells lining the alveolar walls were positive for cytokeratins. The alveolar macrophages in normal lung tissues showed a broad spectrum of staining for different subsets of N-linked saccharides, N-acetylgalactosamine, N-acetylglucosamine, terminal beta-D-galactose and sialyl groups. This study showed that some lectins could be used as specific markers for some cell types i.e. Galanthus nivalis and Narcissus pseudonarcissus lectins for macrophages, Psophocarpus tetragonolobus lectin-II for capillary endothelium, Dolichos biflorus agglutinin for bronchial epithelial cells, Lycopersicon esculentum, Phytolacca americana or Triticum vulgaris (succinylated) for type I pneumocytes and Hippeastrum hybrid or Maclura pomifera lectins for type II pneumocytes. Patchy staining of type I pneumocytes by peanut agglutinin indicated the possibility of two distinct populations of these cells or a pattern of differentiation that is unapparent morphologically. PMID:15328919

Barkhordari, Abolfazl; Stoddart, Robert W; McClure, Sheena F; McClure, John

2004-02-01

235

Luciferase fragment complementation imaging in preclinical cancer studies  

PubMed Central

The luciferase fragment complementation assay (LFCA) enables molecular events to be non-invasively imaged in live cells in vitro and in vivo in a comparatively cheap and safe manner. It is a development of previous enzyme complementation assays in which reporter genes are split into two, individually enzymatically inactive, fragments that are able to complement one another upon interaction. This complementation can be used to externally visualize cellular activities. In recent years, the number of studies which have used LFCAs to probe questions relevant to cancer have increased, and this review summarizes the most significant and interesting of these. In particular, it focuses on work conducted on the epidermal growth factor, nuclear and chemokine receptor families, and intracellular signaling pathways, including IP3, cAMP, Akt, cMyc, NRF2 and Rho GTPases. LFCAs which have been developed to image DNA methylation and detect RNA transcripts are also discussed. PMID:25594026

Lake, Madryn C.; Aboagye, Eric O.

2014-01-01

236

Alternative pathway evaluation.  

PubMed

The alternative pathway of complement shares its terminal components (C3 and C5 through 9) with the classical pathway, but has several unique components, including factors D, B, and P (properdin). This unit presents methods for assaying total alternative pathway activity and the activity of factors B and D. Radial immunodiffusion (RID) can also be used to measure factor D, B, and P concentrations. PMID:18432715

Giclas, P C

2001-05-01

237

Comprehensive lectin histochemistry of normal and neoplastic human choroid plexus cells: alternation of lectin-binding patterns through neoplastic transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lectin histochemistry of the normal and neoplastic human choroid plexus cells [six choroid plexus papillomas (CPPs) and three choroid plexus carcinomas (CPCs)] was performed using eight representative lectins to study the development of sugar chain structures and also to determine whether lectins were useful for a histopathological diagnosis of choroid plexus neoplasms (CPNs). The normal choroid plexus cells reacted with

Y. Kaneko; T. Iwaki; T. Matsushima; M. Fukui

1991-01-01

238

Complement activation and pregnancy failure.  

PubMed

Pregnancy represents a physiologic condition where maternal immune system tolerates the semi-allogenic fetus. The fetal tissues are directly exposed to the maternal blood with potential attacks from maternal immune system, including the activation of complement cascade. Small amounts, of both early and late components, of complement are physiologically found in the placenta, maybe in relation to the vascular remodeling process. A significant increase of complement activation was associated with different pathologic pregnancy outcomes, namely pre-eclampsia, recurrent spontaneous abortions, intra-uterine growth retardation, and anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS). In some, but not in all, mice models of APS, complement activation plays a major role in pregnancy loss, with a massive accumulation of C3 in the placenta, while C3 deficient mice didn't show fetal resorption. Basing on these findings, anti-phospholipid antibodies and complement activation (via C3a, C5a, and MAC) may cooperate in triggering a local inflammatory process, eventually leading to placental thrombosis, hypoxia, and neutrophil infiltration. However, histological analysis of human placenta tissues from APS women shows small rather than widespread inflammation. In a similar manner, complement activation can be detected in human APS placentas but without any relationship with pregnancy outcome and therapy. Further studies are necessary to investigate whether complement activation and inflammatory processes found in animal models are really taking place in APS. PMID:19936969

Tincani, Angela; Cavazzana, Ilaria; Ziglioli, Tamara; Lojacono, Andrea; De Angelis, Valentina; Meroni, Pierluigi

2010-12-01

239

Molecular basis of sugar recognition by the human L-type lectins ERGIC-53, VIPL, and VIP36.  

PubMed

ERGIC-53, VIPL, and VIP36 are related type 1 membrane proteins of the mammalian early secretory pathway. They are classified as L-type lectins because of their luminal carbohydrate recognition domain, which exhibits homology to leguminous lectins. These L-type lectins have different intracellular distributions and dynamics in the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi system of the secretory pathway and interact with N-glycans of glycoproteins in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner, suggesting a role in glycoprotein sorting and trafficking. To understand the function of these lectins, knowledge of their carbohydrate specificity is crucial but only available for VIP36 (Kamiya, Y., Yamaguchi, Y., Takahashi, N., Arata, Y., Kasai, K. I., Ihara, Y., Matsuo, I., Ito, Y., Yamamoto, K., and Kato, K. (2005) J. Biol. Chem. 280, 37178-37182). Here we provide a comprehensive and quantitative analysis of sugar recognition of the carbohydrate recognition domains of ERGIC-53 and VIPL in comparison with VIP36 using a pyridylaminated sugar library in conjunction with frontal affinity chromatography. Frontal affinity chromatography revealed selective interaction of VIPL and VIP36 with the deglucosylated trimannose in the D1 branch of high-mannose-type oligosaccharides but with different pH dependence. ERGIC-53 bound high-mannose-type oligosaccharides with low affinity and broad specificity, not discriminating between monoglucosylated and deglucosylated high-mannosetype oligosaccharides. Based on the sugar-binding properties in conjunction with known features of these proteins, we propose a model for the action of the three lectins in glycoprotein guidance and trafficking. Moreover, structure-based mutagenesis revealed that the sugar-binding properties of these L-type lectins can be switched by single amino acid substitutions. PMID:18025080

Kamiya, Yukiko; Kamiya, Daiki; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Nyfeler, Beat; Hauri, Hans-Peter; Kato, Koichi

2008-01-25

240

Lectin histochemistry of pregnant rat uterine tissues.  

PubMed

Glycoconjugate residues were examined in the rat uterus at days 10, 12 and 15 of pregnancy using 17 biotinylated lectins with specificities for a variety of carbohydrate moieties. A wide variety of glycoconjugate residues were detected in the cytoplasm of some antimesometrial and mesometrial decidual cells with lectins from Canavalia ensiformis (Con A), Lens culinaris (LcH) culinaris (LcH), Pisum sativum (PSA), Griffonia simplicifolia II (GS-II), Triticum vulgaris (WGA), Griffonia simplicifolia I (GS-I), Maclura pomifera (MPA) and Phaseolus vulgaris (PHA-E and PHA-L). Reactivity with some of these lectins was also pericellular and the glycoconjugate residues detected may be related to extracelluar matrix produced by decidual cells. Reactivity with PHA-E, demonstrating complex carbohydrates, was most intense in the mesometrial decidua closest to the trophoblastic giant cells and may demonstrate glycoconjugates involved in maintaining integrity at this maternotrophoblast interface. Lectins derived from Helix pomatia (HPA), Vicia villosa (VVA), Glycine max (SBA) and Arachis hypogaea (PNA) reacted only with occasional small cells in antimesometrial or mesometrial decidua, probably demonstrating alpha and/ or beta-linked N-acetylgalactosamine residues on lymphocytes or monocytes. The glycoprotein granules of granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells in the decidua basalis and the metrial gland reacted strongly with WGA, MPA and PHA-L demonstrating complex carbohydrates including sialic acid residues and tri/tetra-antennary, nonbisected N-linked glycans. GMG cell cytoplasm reacted diffusely with Con A, LcH, PSA, WGA, PHA-E and PHA-L. In some GMG cells reactivity with WGA was apparently localised to the Golgi region indicating involvement in granule formation. Pericellular reactivity of some GMG cells with WGA may relate to migratory activity. The lectin reactivity of fibroblast-like stromal cells in the material gland was similar to that of the extracellular matrix and it is likely that many matrix molecules are produced by the stromal cells. A range of lectins (Con A, LcH, PSA, GS-II GS-I and PHA-L) reacted with some blood vessels in the metrial gland at day 12 of pregnancy: this may indicate activation changes associated with the transendothelial passage of GMG cells at this stage. Lectins derived from Dolichos biflorus (DBA), Bauhinia purpurea (BPA), Lotus tetragonolobus (LTA) and Ulex europaeus-I (UEA-I) did not react with decidual and metrial gland regions. Lectin binding profile studies can provide further information on the events occurring in the uterus in pregnancy: investigations at the ultrastructural level are required to resolve further intra and extracellular changes. PMID:8655407

Peel, S; Bulmer, J N

1996-02-01

241

Fruit-specific lectins from banana and plantain.  

PubMed

One of the predominant proteins in the pulp of ripe bananas (Musa acuminata L.) and plantains (Musa spp.) has been identified as a lectin. The banana and plantain agglutinins (called BanLec and PlanLec, respectively) were purified in reasonable quantities using a novel isolation procedure, which prevented adsorption of the lectins onto insoluble endogenous polysaccharides. Both BanLec and PlanLec are dimeric proteins composed of two identical subunits of 15 kDa. They readily agglutinate rabbit erythrocytes and exhibit specificity towards mannose. Molecular cloning revealed that BanLec has sequence similarity to previously described lectins of the family of jacalin-related lectins, and according to molecular modelling studies has the same overall fold and three-dimensional structure. The identification of BanLec and PlanLec demonstrates the occurrence of jacalin-related lectins in monocot species, suggesting that these lectins are more widespread among higher plants than is actually believed. The banana and plantain lectins are also the first documented examples of jacalin-related lectins, which are abundantly present in the pulp of mature fruits but are apparently absent from other tissues. However, after treatment of intact plants with methyl jasmonate, BanLec is also clearly induced in leaves. The banana lectin is a powerful murine T-cell mitogen. The relevance of the mitogenicity of the banana lectin is discussed in terms of both the physiological role of the lectin and the impact on food safety. PMID:11030554

Peumans, W J; Zhang, W; Barre, A; Houlčs Astoul, C; Balint-Kurti, P J; Rovira, P; Rougé, P; May, G D; Van Leuven, F; Truffa-Bachi, P; Van Damme, E J

2000-09-01

242

Comprehensive list of lectins: origins, natures, and carbohydrate specificities.  

PubMed

More than 100 years have passed since the first lectin ricin was discovered. Since then, a wide variety of lectins (lect means "select" in Latin) have been isolated from plants, animals, fungi, bacteria, as well as viruses, and their structures and properties have been characterized. At present, as many as 48 protein scaffolds have been identified as functional lectins from the viewpoint of three-dimensional structures as described in this chapter. In this chapter, representative 53 lectins are selected, and their major properties that include hemagglutinating activity, mitogen activity, blood group specificity, molecular weight, metal requirement, and sugar specificities are summarized as a comprehensive table. The list will provide a practically useful, comprehensive list for not only experienced lectin users but also many other non-expert researchers, who are not familiar to lectins and, therefore, have no access to advanced lectin biotechnologies described in other chapters. PMID:25117264

Kobayashi, Yuka; Tateno, Hiroaki; Ogawa, Haruko; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Hirabayashi, Jun

2014-01-01

243

The Human Complement Regulator Factor H Binds Pneumococcal Surface Protein PspC via Short Consensus Repeats 13 to 15  

Microsoft Academic Search

The innate ability of Streptococcus pneumoniae to resist complement activation and complement-mediated phagocytosis may be a direct consequence of the ability of the bacteria to bind components of the complement regulatory system. One such component, factor H (fH), is a crucial fluid-phase negative regulator of the alternative pathway of complement and is utilized by a number of pathogenic organisms to

Thomas G. Duthy; Rebecca J. Ormsby; Eleni Giannakis; A. David Ogunniyi; Uwe H. Stroeher; James C. Paton; David L. Gordon

2002-01-01

244

Complement-activating ability of leucocytes from patients with complement factor I deficiency.  

PubMed Central

Previous studies from this laboratory have shown that normal peripheral blood B cells are capable of activating complement via the alternative pathway (AP), that the activation is associated with complement receptor type 2 (CR2) expression, and that erythrocytes at normal blood levels partially inhibit the activation. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether factor I (FI) deficiency, which leads to continued formation of the AP convertase (C3bBb) resulting in the consumption of factor B and C3 and large scale generation of C3b fragments, affects the phenotype and/or function of the patients' B cells. Using flow cytometry, peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL) from two FI-deficient patients were investigated for expression of complement receptors and complement regulatory proteins, in vivo-deposited C3 fragments and in vitro complement-activating ability. CR1 levels on B cells were significantly lower in FI-deficient patients than in normal individuals, whereas CR2 levels were found to be reduced, although not to a significant extent. CR1 levels on monocytes and polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) were found to be normal or slightly raised. All leucocyte subpopulations were found to be covered in vivo with C3b fragments. AP activation on B cells from FI-deficient patients in homologous serum was significantly reduced compared with that for normal individuals, whereas no in vitro activation was seen in autologous serum. In addition, the in vivo-bound C3b fragments were degraded to C3d,g when the patients' PBL were incubated in homologous serum containing EDTA. Finally, the patients, erythrocytes failed to exert any inhibition on AP activation in homologous serum. PMID:9301541

Marquart, H V; Rasmussen, J M; Leslie, R G

1997-01-01

245

Exploring the Innate Immune System: Using Complement-Medicated Cell Lysis in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The protein complement pathway comprises an important part of the innate immunity. The use of serum to demonstrate complement-mediated destruction across a series of bacterial dilutions allows an instructor to introduce a number of important biological concepts such as bacterial growth, activation cascades, and adaptive versus innate immunity.

Fuller, Kevin G.

2008-01-01

246

COMMUNICATION Reconstruction of Functional -Propeller Lectins via  

E-print Network

COMMUNICATION Reconstruction of Functional -Propeller Lectins via Homo-oligomeric Assembly 236 amino acid, five-bladed -propeller with five sugar- binding sites. This protein was isolated from of the -propeller fold, while substantiating the hypothesis that proteins with high internal symmetry

Tawfik, Dan S.

247

Activation of complement mediates antiphospholipid antibody-induced pregnancy loss.  

PubMed

Although it is clear that the specific antigenic reactivity of antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies is critical to their effect, the pathogenic mechanisms that result in injury in vivo are incompletely understood. We hyphothesized that aPL antibodies targeted to the placenta activate complement locally, generating split products that mediate placental injury and lead to foetal loss and growth retardation. To test this hypothesis, we used a murine model of APS in which pregnant mice are injected with human IgG containing aPL antibodies. Mice treated with inhibitors of complement activation and mice deficient in complement components were protected from aPL antibody-induced foetal damage. Although the cause of tissue injury in this disease is probably multifactoral, we have shown that complement activation is an absolute requirement for foetal loss and growth restriction and, therefore, thatthis pathway acts upstream of other important effector mechanisms. Identification of complement activation as a mechanism that is necessary for aPL-induced tissue damage and definition ofthe complement components necessary to trigger such injury is likely to lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of vascular and tissue injury in SLE and to new and improved treatments. PMID:12892394

Salmon, J E; Girardi, G; Holers, V M

2003-01-01

248

Role of Complement in Mycobacterium avium Pathogenesis: In Vivo and In Vitro Analyses of the Host Response to Infection in the Absence of Complement Component C3  

PubMed Central

We investigated the importance of the host complement system in the pathogenesis of disease mediated by the intramacrophage pathogen Mycobacterium avium. Mycobacteria opsonized with complement are efficiently ingested by macrophages through various complement receptors. Furthermore, unlike other bacteria, mycobacteria can activate both the alternative and classical complement pathways in the absence of specific antibodies. Therefore, to examine the role of complement in the mycobacterial infection process in vivo, mice deficient in complement component C3 were infected with M. avium. Surprisingly, C3-deficient mice infected intravenously with M. avium displayed no difference in bacterial burden or granulomatous response compared to wild-type control mice. C3-sufficient mice and C3-deficient mice were equally susceptible to infection by M. avium regardless of the genotype at the bcg locus, a locus known to confer susceptibility to infection with intracellular pathogens. In vitro studies using mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages resulted in significant M. avium invasion of macrophages in the absence of C3; however, the kinetics of infection were delayed compared to complement-mediated invasion. The data indicate that complement does not play an essential role in mediating M. avium infections in the mouse and suggest either that other invasion mechanisms can compensate for the absence of complement-mediated entry or that complement is not a major mycobacterial opsonin in vivo. PMID:11705954

Bohlson, Suzanne S.; Strasser, Jennifer A.; Bower, Jacquelyn J.; Schorey, Jeffrey S.

2001-01-01

249

Mycoplasma polysaccharide protects against complement.  

PubMed

Although they lack a cell wall, mycoplasmas do possess a glycocalyx. The interactions between the glycocalyx, mycoplasmal surface proteins and host complement were explored using the murine pathogen Mycoplasma pulmonis as a model. It was previously shown that the length of the tandem repeat region of the surface lipoprotein Vsa is associated with susceptibility to complement-mediated killing. Cells producing a long Vsa containing about 40 repeats are resistant to complement, whereas strains that produce a short Vsa of five or fewer repeats are susceptible. We show here that the length of the Vsa protein modulates the affinity of the M. pulmonis EPS-I polysaccharide for the mycoplasma cell surface, with more EPS-I being associated with mycoplasmas producing a short Vsa protein. An examination of mutants that lack EPS-I revealed that planktonic mycoplasmas were highly susceptible to complement killing even when the Vsa protein was long, demonstrating that both EPS-I and Vsa length contribute to resistance. In contrast, the mycoplasmas were resistant to complement even in the absence of EPS-I when the cells were encased in a biofilm. PMID:22504437

Bolland, Jeffrey R; Simmons, Warren L; Daubenspeck, James M; Dybvig, Kevin

2012-07-01

250

Sensing lectin-glycan interactions using lectin super-microarrays and glycans labeled with dye-doped silica nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

A new microarray platform, based on lectin super-microarrays and glycans labeled with dye-doped nanoparticles, has been developed to study glycan-lectin interactions. Glycan ligands were conjugated onto fluorescein-doped silica nanoparticles (FSNPs) using a general photocoupling chemistry to afford FSNP-labeled glycan probes. Lectins were printed on epoxy slides in duplicate sets to generate lectin super-microarrays where multiple assays could be carried out simultaneously in each lectin microarray. Thus, the lectin super-microarray was treated with FSNP-labeled glycans to screen for specific binding pairs. Furthermore, a series of ligand competition assays were carried out on a single lectin super-microarray to generate the dose-response curve for each glycan-lectin pair, from which the apparent affinity constants were obtained. Results showed 4~7 orders of magnitude increase in affinity over the free glycans with the corresponding lectins. Thus, the glycan epitope structures having weaker affinity than the parent glycans could be readily identified and analyzed from the lectin super-microarrays. PMID:23584388

Wang, Xin; Matei, Elena; Deng, Lingquan; Koharudin, Leonardus; Gronenborn, Angela M.; Ramström, Olof; Yan, Mingdi

2013-01-01

251

Putting the structure into complement  

PubMed Central

In a field where structure has finally begun to have a real impact a series of new structures over the last two years have further extended our understanding of some of the critical regulatory events. Notably information has begun to flow from larger assemblies of components which allow insight into the often transient assemblies critical to complement regulation at the cell surface. This review will summarise the key structures determined since the last International Complement Workshop and the insights these have given us, before highlighting some questions that still require molecular frameworks to drive understanding. PMID:22964238

Lea, Susan M.; Johnson, Steven

2013-01-01

252

Algal lectins as promising biomolecules for biomedical research.  

PubMed

Abstract Lectins are natural bioactive ubiquitous proteins or glycoproteins of non-immune response that bind reversibly to glycans of glycoproteins, glycolipids and polysaccharides possessing at least one non-catalytic domain causing agglutination. Some of them consist of several carbohydrate-binding domains which endow them with the properties of cell agglutination or precipitation of glycoconjugates. Lectins are rampant in nature from plants, animals and microorganisms. Among microorganisms, algae are the potent source of lectins with unique properties specifically from red algae. The demand of peculiar and neoteric biologically active substances has intensified the developments on isolation and biomedical applications of new algal lectins. Comprehensively, algal lectins are used in biomedical research for antiviral, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor activities, etc. and in pharmaceutics for the fabrication of cost-effective protein expression systems and nutraceutics. In this review, an attempt has been made to collate the information on various biomedical applications of algal lectins. PMID:23855360

Singh, Ram Sarup; Thakur, Shivani Rani; Bansal, Parveen

2015-02-01

253

Lectin cDNA and transgenic plants derived therefrom  

DOEpatents

Transgenic plants containing cDNA encoding Gramineae lectin are described. The plants preferably contain cDNA coding for barley lectin and store the lectin in the leaves. The transgenic plants, particularly the leaves exhibit insecticidal and fungicidal properties. GOVERNMENT RIGHTS This application was funded under Department of Energy Contract DE-AC02-76ER01338. The U.S. Government has certain rights under this application and any patent issuing thereon.

Raikhel, Natasha V. (Okemos, MI)

1994-01-04

254

Lectin cDNA and transgenic plants derived therefrom  

DOEpatents

Transgenic plants containing cDNA encoding Gramineae lectin are described. The plants preferably contain cDNA coding for barley lectin and store the lectin in the leaves. The transgenic plants, particularly the leaves exhibit insecticidal and fungicidal properties. GOVERNMENT RIGHTS This application was funded under Department of Energy Contract DE-AC02-76ER01338. The U.S. Government has certain rights under this application and any patent issuing thereon. .

Raikhel, N.V.

1994-01-04

255

Inhibition of the complement system by glutathione: molecular mechanisms and potential therapeutic implications.  

PubMed

Glutathione (GSH), a component of the antioxidant defence system, plays a role in autoimmunity and the complement system is often responsible for tissue damage in autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of GSH on the complement system. The complement system was examined in the normal human sera (NHS) of 30 healthy subjects. Increasing quantities of GSH (1, 2, 10, 20 mg) were incubated in 1 ml of each NHS. The mixtures were evaluated for complement activities (THC, CPA and APA) and for the presence of cleavage fragments of activation of C3 and B. GSH was also incubated with human complement in the presence of classical and alternative pathway activators. The results showed an inhibitory effect of GSH on the complement system starting from a dosage of GSH?1 mg/ml. Indeed, when NHS was incubated with GSH at such dosage, a significant reduction of the complement activities THC, CPA, and APA was observed (P<0.0001, P<0.005, P=NS, respectively), and no cleavage fragments of C3 or B were found. Further analysis demonstrated that the inhibition was exerted on C3-9 and to a lower extent on classical and alternative pathway C3-convertases. Our results indicate that GSH is capable of inhibiting the complement system. These findings are relevant for the design of interventions aimed at modulation of GSH metabolism to inhibit complement-mediated damage in autoimmune diseases. PMID:21496388

Perricone, C; De Carolis, C; Giacomelli, R; Greco, E; Cipriani, P; Ballanti, E; Novelli, L; Perricone, R

2011-01-01

256

Complementation studies with mouse translocations  

Microsoft Academic Search

When heterozygotes for reciprocal translocations are intercrossed, the fusion of complementary unbalanced gametes normally gives fully viable, balanced zygotes. If one parent is homozygous for a genetic marker not carried by the other, the frequency of homozygous progeny resulting from such complementation can indicate whether the marker is distal or proximal to the translocation break point and thus fix the

A. G. Searle; C. V. Beechey

1978-01-01

257

Complement, cold agglutinins, and therapy.  

PubMed

In this issue of Blood, Shi and coworkers show that TNT003, a mouse monoclonal antibody targeting complement protein C1s, prevents induction of in vitro hemolysis by cold agglutinins (CA). If successfully transferred into the clinical setting by further studies, these findings may result in a novel therapeutic principle for a frequently difficult problem. PMID:24970929

Berentsen, Sigbjřrn

2014-06-26

258

Lectins discriminate between pathogenic and nonpathogenic South American trypanosomes  

SciTech Connect

Cell surface carbohydrates of Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma rangeli, and Trypanosoma conorhini were analyzed by a micro-agglutination assay employing 27 highly purified lectins and by binding assays using various /sup 125/I-labeled lectins. The following seven lectins discriminated between the trypanosomes: 1) tomato lectin (an N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-binding protein), both in purified form and as crude tomato juice; 2) Bauhinea purpurea and Sophora japonica lectins (both N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-binding proteins), which selectively agglutinated T. cruzi; 3) Vicia villosa (an N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-binding protein) which was specific for T. rangeli; 4) peanut lectin (a D-galactose-binding protein) both in purified form and as crude saline extract; and 5) Ulex europaeus and Lotus tetragonolobus (both L-fucose-binding proteins) lectins which reacted only with T. conorhini. Binding studies with 125I-labeled lectins were performed to find whether unagglutinated cells of the three different species of trypanosomes might have receptors for these lectins, in which case absence of agglutination could be due to a peculiar arrangement of the receptors. These assays essentially confirmed the agglutination experiments.

de Miranda Santos, I.K.; Pereira, M.E.

1984-09-01

259

Characterisation of lectin binding patterns of mouse bronchiolar and rat alveolar epithelial cells in culture.  

PubMed

Lung epithelial cell differentiation pathways remain unclear. This is due in part to the plasticity of these cells and the lack of markers which accurately reflect their differentiation status. The aim of this study was to determine if lectin binding properties are useful determinants of functional differentiation status in vitro. Mouse Clara cells were cultured for 5 days. During this time, no alteration in differentiation was evident by electron microscopy. No significant alteration in binding reactivity of Bauhinia purpurea (BPA), Maclura pomifera (MPA), Concanavalin A, Wheat germ or Helix pomatia lectins occurred in cultures compared with Clara cells in mouse lung tissue. In contrast, nitrotetrazolium blue reductase activity and CC10 expression declined in culture. Rat type II cells were cultured for 8 days. Between days 0 and 4, the number of type II cells identified by electron microscopy was constant at 70-80%, decreasing to 8% by day 6. In contrast, by day 4, only 42% cells retained alkaline phosphatase activity. BPA and MPA reactivity was altered at day 0 and day 4 respectively, compared with cells in situ. Therefore, the reactivity of lectins analysed here does not reflect functional differentiation status of cultured mouse Clara cells. However, BPA and MPA reactivity may be a sensitive indicator of alterations in rat type II cell differentiation in vitro. PMID:10805383

McBride, S; Tatrai, E; Blundell, R; Kovacikova, Z; Cardozo, L; Adamis, Z; Smith, T; Harrison, D

2000-01-01

260

Complements and the Wound Healing Cascade: An Updated Review  

PubMed Central

Wound healing is a complex pathway of regulated reactions and cellular infiltrates. The mechanisms at play have been thoroughly studied but there is much still to learn. The health care system in the USA alone spends on average 9 billion dollars annually on treating of wounds. To help reduce patient morbidity and mortality related to abnormal or prolonged skin healing, an updated review and understanding of wound healing is essential. Recent works have helped shape the multistep process in wound healing and introduced various growth factors that can augment this process. The complement cascade has been shown to have a role in inflammation and has only recently been shown to augment wound healing. In this review, we have outlined the biology of wound healing and discussed the use of growth factors and the role of complements in this intricate pathway. PMID:23984063

Prakash, Satya

2013-01-01

261

Sambucus Ribosome-Inactivating Proteins and Lectins  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Plant ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are inhibitors with RNA-N-glycosidase activity that irreversibly inactivate eukaryotic ribosomes, thereby impairing protein synthesis. In recent years,\\u000a more than 40 RIPs and lectins belonging to the Sambucus genus have been isolated and characterized to varying degrees. The type 2 RIPs isolated from Sambucus have the peculiarity that although they are enzymatically more active than ricin, they

José Ferreras; Lucía Citores; Rosario Iglesias; Pilar Jiménez; Tomás Girbés

262

Enzymatic degradation and quantitative lectin labeling for characterizing glycoconjugates which act as lectin acceptors in cat submandibular gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sites of binding of eight different lectins (LTA, UEA I, WGA, SBA, DBA, CON A, PNA, RCA I) to cat submandibular gland were studied after exposure of tissue sections to sialidase, a-fucosidase, ß-galactosidase, a-mannosidase, ß-N-acetylglucosaminidase. All lectins were affected by enzymatic predigestion and the labeling of individual lectins was highly dependent upon the glycosidase used to pretreat the sections. Glycoconjugates

G. Menghi; D. Accili; A. M. Bondi; M. G. Gabrielli

1989-01-01

263

The seed lectins of black locust (robinia pseudoacacia) are encoded by two genes which differ from the bark lectin genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two lectins were isolated from Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust) seeds using affinity chromatography on fetuin-agarose, and ion exchange chromatography on a Neobar CS column. The first lectin, R. pseudoacacia seed agglutinin I, referred to as RPsAI, is a homotetramer of four 34 kDa subunits whereas the second lectin, referred to as RPsAII, is composed of four 29 kDa polypeptides. cDNA

Els J. M. Damme; Annick Barre; Pierre Rougé; Fred Leuven; Willy J. Peumans

1995-01-01

264

The role of complement in pregnancy and fetal loss.  

PubMed

In the United States, between 1 and 3% of women suffer recurrent miscarriages; 50-70% of all conceptions fail. Although in the majority of affected women the cause of recurrent miscarriages is unknown, an immune mechanism involving the inappropriate and subsequently injurious recognition of the conceptus by the mother's immune system has been proposed. Murine models have recently been developed that are relevant to this issue. We and others have identified a novel role for complement as an early effector in the pathway leading to pregnancy loss associated with placental inflammation. Indeed, it appears that inhibition of complement activation is an absolute requirement for normal pregnancy, and that in the antiphosphospholid syndrome overwhelming activation of complement triggered by antibodies (Ab) deposited in placenta leads to fetal injury. Identification of complement activation as a mediator of pregnancy loss and definition of the complement components necessary to trigger such injury is likely to lead to a better understanding of its pathogenesis and to new and improved treatments. PMID:12765467

Girardi, Guillermina; Salmon, Jane B

2003-02-01

265

Granzyme B: a new crossroad of complement and apoptosis.  

PubMed

In response to severe tissue trauma, several "molecular danger" sensing and signaling pathways are activated, especially the complement and the apoptosis cascade. Although possible crossroads between both systems have been proposed, little is known about the underlying molecular interactions. In this study a new interaction interface is presented for C3a and C5a generation by the pro-apoptotic factor granzyme B. In vitro incubation of the central human complement components C3 and C5 with the serine protease granzyme B resulted in a concentration-dependent production of the anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a. The so generated anaphylatoxin C5a was chemotactic active for isolated human neutrophils. In a translational approach, intracellular granzyme B concentration in leukocytes was determined early after severe tissue trauma. In comparison to healthy volunteers, multiple injured patients (less than one hour after trauma, Injury Severity Score?>?18, n?=?5) presented a significant increase in granzmye B levels in neutrophils and lymphocytes. Thus, tissue trauma is associated with early activation of both, the complement and apoptosis system. The present data suggest a new form of interaction between the complement and the apoptosis system on the level of granzyme B that is capable to generate C3a and C5a independently of the established complement proteases. PMID:21948366

Perl, Mario; Denk, Stephanie; Kalbitz, Miriam; Huber-Lang, Markus

2012-01-01

266

Unprecedented glycosidase activity at a lectin carbohydrate-binding site exemplified by the cyanobacterial lectin MVL  

PubMed Central

Carbohydrate binding-proteins, or lectins, are engendered with the ability to bind specific carbohydrate structures, thereby mediating cell-cell and cell-pathogen interactions. Lectins are distinct from carbohydrate modifying enzymes and antibodies, respectively, as they do not carry out glycosidase or glycosyl transferase reactions, and they are of non-immune origin. Cyanobacterial and algal lectins have become prominent in recent years due to their unique biophysical traits, such as exhibiting novel protein folds and unusually high carbohydrate affinity, and ability to potently inhibit HIV-1 Entry through high affinity carbohydrate-mediated interactions with the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120. The antiviral cyanobacterial lectin Microcystis viridis lectin (MVL), that contains two high affinity oligomannose binding sites, is one such example. Here we used glycan microarray profiling, NMR spectroscopy, and mutagenesis to show that one of the two oligomannose binding sites of MVL can catalyze the cleavage of chitin fragments (such as chitotriose) to GlcNAc, to determine the mode of MVL binding to and cleavage of chitotriose, to identify Asp75 as the primary catalytic residue involved in this cleavage, and to solve the solution structure of an inactive mutant of MVL in complex with this unexpected substrate. These studies represent the first demonstration of dual catalytic activity and carbohydrate recognition for discrete oligosaccharides at the same carbohydrate-binding site in a lectin. Sequence comparisons between the N- and C-domains of MVL, together with the sequences of new MVL homologs identified through bioinformatics, provide insight into the evolving roles of carbohydrate recognition. PMID:19856962

Shahzad-ul-Hussan, Syed; Cai, Mengli; Bewley, Carole A.

2009-01-01

267

Immunoadherence and complement in cancer-bearing mice.  

PubMed Central

Shortly after grafting of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells, the serum of tumour-bearing mice loses the capacity to mediate immunoadherence phenomena, because of a sharp decrease in the concentration of C3b and C3d, while the cellular receptors for such factors are unaffected by tumour growth. It is suggested that complement is consumed through the alternative pathway which is activated during the inflammatory responses accompanying tumour growth. PMID:619956

Porta, C.; Villa, M. L.; Clerici, E.

1978-01-01

268

L-Type lectin from the kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus promotes hemocyte phagocytosis.  

PubMed

L-Type lectins (LTLs) contain a luminal carbohydrate recognition domain, which exhibits homology to leguminous lectins. These type I membrane proteins are involved in the early secretory pathway of animals, and have functions in glycoprotein sorting, trafficking and targeting. Recent studies suggest that LTLs may be involved in immune responses in vertebrates, but no functional studies have been reported. This study reports an LTL, designated as MjLTL1, from the kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus. MjLTL consists of a signal peptide, leguminous lectin domain, and transmembrane region. It was upregulated following challenge of shrimp with Vibrio anguillarum. MjLTL1 could agglutinate several bacteria with the presence of calcium, and bind to several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria through lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan binding. MjLTL1 could enhance the clearance of V. anguillarum in vivo. MjLTL1 silencing by RNA interference could impair bacterial clearance ability. Further study suggested that MjLTL1 promoted hemocyte phagocytosis. To analyze the possible mechanism, a disintegrin and metalloprotease-like protein (MjADAM) mediating the proteolytic release of extracellular domains from the membrane-bound precursors was also studied in the shrimp. MjADAM exhibited similar tissue location and expression profiles to MjLTL1. After knockdown of MjADAM, the hemocyte phagocytosis rate also declined significantly. ADAM was reported to have an ectodomain shedding function to LTL and release the ectodomain of the lectin from cell membrane. Therefore, our results suggest that the extracellular domain of MjLTL1 might be released from the cell surface as a soluble protein by MjADAM, and function as an opsonin involved in the antibacterial immune responses in shrimp. PMID:24508102

Xu, Sen; Wang, Lei; Wang, Xian-Wei; Zhao, Yan-Ran; Bi, Wen-Jie; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Jin-Xing

2014-06-01

269

Complement inhibiting properties of dragon's blood from Croton draco.  

PubMed

The latex of Croton draco, its extracts and several latex components have been investigated for their influence on both classical (CP) and alternative (AP) activation pathways of the complement system using a hemolytic assay. The best inhibition was found for the classical pathway. The latex, ethyl acetate and ethyl ether extracts exhibited extremely high inhibition on the CP (94, 90 and 77%, respectively) at a concentration of 1 mg/ml. The flavonoid myricitrin, the alkaloid taspine and the cyclopeptides P1 and P2 showed high inhibition on CP (83, 91, 78 and 63%, respectively) at a concentration of 0.9 mM. PMID:15813374

Tsacheva, Ivanka; Rostan, Joerg; Iossifova, Tania; Vogler, Bernhard; Odjakova, Mariela; Navas, Hernan; Kostova, Ivanka; Kojouharova, Michaela; Kraus, Wolfgang

2004-01-01

270

On the Functional Overlap between Complement and Anti-Microbial Peptides  

PubMed Central

Intriguingly, activated complement and anti-microbial peptides share certain functionalities; lytic, phagocytic, and chemo-attractant activities and each may, in addition, exert cell instructive roles. Each has been shown to have distinct LPS detoxifying activity and may play a role in the development of endotoxin tolerance. In search of the origin of complement, a functional homolog of complement C3 involved in opsonization has been identified in horseshoe crabs. Horseshoe crabs possess anti-microbial peptides able to bind to acyl chains or phosphate groups/saccharides of endotoxin, LPS. Complement activity as a whole is detectable in marine invertebrates. These are also a source of anti-microbial peptides with potential pharmaceutical applicability. Investigating the locality for the production of complement pathway proteins and their role in modulating cellular immune responses are emerging fields. The significance of local synthesis of complement components is becoming clearer from in vivo studies of parenchymatous disease involving specifically generated, complement-deficient mouse lines. Complement C3 is a central component of complement activation. Its provision by cells of the myeloid lineage varies. Their effector functions in turn are increased in the presence of anti-microbial peptides. This may point to a potentiating range of activities, which should serve the maintenance of health but may also cause disease. Because of the therapeutic implications, this review will consider closely studies dealing with complement activation and anti-microbial peptide activity in acute inflammation (e.g., dialysis-related peritonitis, appendicitis, and ischemia). PMID:25646095

Zimmer, Jana; Hobkirk, James; Mohamed, Fatima; Browning, Michael J.; Stover, Cordula M.

2015-01-01

271

Downregulation of Hsp70 inhibits apoptosis induced by sialic acid-binding lectin (leczyme).  

PubMed

Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are molecular chaperones that maintain homeostasis of organisms. In regards to the Hsps, many studies have investigated the structure, expression, localization and functions of Hsp70 and Hsc70 including expression in the glycosphingolipid-enriched microdomain (GEM) on the cell surface and involvement in cell death. Sialic acid-binding lectin (SBL) isolated from oocytes of Rana catesbeiana is a multifunctional protein which has lectin activity, ribonuclease activity and antitumor activity. SBL has potential as a new type of anticancer drug, since it causes cancer-selective induction of apoptosis by multiple signaling pathways in which RNA is its target; and the participation of the mitochondrial pathway and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated pathway has been suggested. It has also been suggested that receptor(s) for SBL (SBLR) may exist in the GEM on the cell surface. In the present study, we studied the possible involvement of Hsp70 and Hsc70 in SBL-induced apoptosis. We showed that Hsp70 and Hsc70 were expressed on the P388 cell surface similar to SBLR, and their distribution in cells dramatically changed immediately prior to the execution of apoptosis following stimulation of SBL. Functional study of Hsp70 revealed that decreased expression of Hsp70 diminished the apoptosis induced by SBL. It is suggested that Hsp70 participates in the antitumor effect of SBL. PMID:24173532

Tatsuta, Takeo; Hosono, Masahiro; Ogawa, Yukiko; Inage, Kyoko; Sugawara, Shigeki; Nitta, Kazuo

2014-01-01

272

Glycan profiling of endometrial cancers using lectin microarray.  

PubMed

Cell surface glycans change during the process of malignant transformation. To characterize and distinguish endometrial cancer and endometrium, we performed glycan profiling using an emerging modern technology, lectin microarray analysis. The three cell lines, two from endometrial cancers [well-differentiated type (G1) and poorly differentiated type (G3)] and one from normal endometrium, were successfully categorized into three independent groups by 45 lectins. Furthermore, in cancer cells, a clear difference between G1 and G3 type was observed for the glycans recognized with six lectins, Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I), Sambucus sieboldiana agglutinin (SSA), Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA), Trichosanthes japonica agglutinin I (TJA-I), Amaranthus caudatus agglutinin (ACA), and Bauhinia purpurea lectin (BPL). The lectin microarray analysis using G3 type tissues demonstrated that stage I and stage III or IV were distinguished depending on signal pattern of three lectins, Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), BPL, and ACA. In addition, the analysis of the glycans on the ovarian cancer cells showed that only anticancer drug-sensitive cell lines had almost no activities to specific three lectins. Glycan profiling by the lectin microarray may be used to assess the characteristics of tumors and potentially to predict the success of chemotherapy treatment. PMID:22957961

Nishijima, Yoshihiro; Toyoda, Masashi; Yamazaki-Inoue, Mayu; Sugiyama, Taro; Miyazawa, Masaki; Muramatsu, Toshinari; Nakamura, Kyoko; Narimatsu, Hisashi; Umezawa, Akihiro; Mikami, Mikio

2012-10-01

273

Interaction of native and asialo rat sublingual glycoproteins with lectins.  

PubMed

The binding properties of the rat sublingual glycoprotein (RSL) and its asialo product with lectins were characterized by quantitative precipitin(QPA) and precipitin inhibition(QPIA) assays. Among twenty lectins tested for QPA, native RSL reacted well only with Artocarpus integrifolia (jacalin), but weakly or not at all with the other lectins. However, its asialo product (asialo-RSL) reacted strongly with many Gal and GalNAc specific lectins-it bound best to three of the GalNAc alpha 1-->Ser/Thr (Tn) and/or Gal beta 1-->4GlcNAc (II) active lectins [jacalin, Wistaria floribunda and Ricinus communis agglutinins] and completely precipitated each of these three lectins. Asialo-RSL also reacted well with Abrus precatorius, Glycine max, Bauhinia purpurea alba, and Maclura pomifera agglutinins, and abrin-a, but not with Arachis hypogeae and Dolichos biflorus agglutinins. The interaction between asialo-RSL and lectins were inhibited by either Gal beta 1-->4GlcNAc, p-NO2-phenyl alpha-GalNAc or both. The mapping of the precipitation and inhibition profiles leads to the conclusion that the asialo rat sublingual glycoprotein provides important ligands for II (Gal beta 1-->4GlcNAc beta 1-->) and Tn (GalNAc alpha 1-->Ser/Thr) active lectins. PMID:7475931

Wu, A M; Herp, A; Song, S C; Wu, J H; Chang, K S

1995-01-01

274

Mannose-Binding Lectin Serum Levels in Aphthous Ulcers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a C-type serum lectin that plays a key role in the innate immune response. Changes in MBL serum levels are related with recurrent infections. Before the development of a specific antibody response, MBL is already present in serum, and has a broad spectrum of binding to bacterial and infectious agents. The aim of the present

Özgün ÖZÇAKA; Nurgün BIÇAKÇI; Timur KÖSE; Ege Üniversitesi

275

CR1-based inhibitors for prevention of complement-mediated immune hemolysis.  

PubMed

Complement receptor 1 (CR1) is a single pass transmembrane glycoprotein that, through its ability to bind key components of the complement cascade, can inhibit both the classical and alternative pathways. Using several animal models, a recombinant form of CR1 has been documented to be effective in reducing tissue damage that occurs as a result of complement activation in various inflammatory conditions. This strategy is currently being explored in human clinical trials. Activation of complement cascade via the antibody-mediated classical pathway can initiate red blood cell destruction, causing transfusion reactions and hemolytic anemia. We discuss here our approach of using CR1 derivatives as therapeutic targets for prevention of complement-dependent immune hemolysis. Using a mouse model of hemolytic transfusion reaction, we have found that sCR1 treatment reduces complement activation and prolongs the survival of transfused red blood cells. Through structure-function analysis, we have identified a complement inhibitory domain located at the amino-terminal region of CR1 that mediates its antihemolytic activity in vivo. Collectively, our data highlight a potential use for CR1 to control complement-dependent immune hemolysis and identify its functional domains for the future design of CR1-based inhibitors. PMID:15334181

Yazdanbakhsh, Karina; Scaradavou, Andromachi

2004-06-01

276

Influence of Mannan and Glucan on Complement Activation and C3 Binding by Candida albicans?  

PubMed Central

The complement system is important for host resistance to hematogenously disseminated candidiasis. However, modulation of complement activation by cell wall components of Candida albicans has not been characterized. Although intact yeast display mannan on the surface, glucan, typically located in the interior, becomes exposed during C. albicans infection. We show here the distinct effects of mannan and glucan on complement activation and opsonophagocytosis. Previous studies showed that intact cells are resistant to initiation of complement activation through the alternative pathway, and antimannan antibody reverses this resistance via an Fc-independent mechanism. The present study shows that this mannan-dependent resistance can be overcome by periodate-borohydride conversion of mannose polysaccharides to polyalcohols; cells treated with periodate-borohydride initiate the alternative pathway without the need for antibody. These observations identify an inhibitory role for intact mannan in complement activation. Next, removal of the surface-displayed mannan by acid treatment of periodate-borohydride cells exposes glucan. Glucan-displaying cells or purified ?-glucan initiate the alternative pathway when incubated with the purified proteins of the alternative pathway alone, suggesting that C. albicans glucan is a natural activator of the alternative pathway. Finally, ingestion of mannan-displaying cells by human neutrophils requires anti-mannan antibody, whereas ingestion of glucan-displaying cells requires complement. These results demonstrate a contrasting requirement of natural antibody and complement for opsonophagocytosis of C. albicans cells displaying mannan or glucan. Thus, differential surface expression of mannan and glucan may influence recognition of C. albicans by the complement system. PMID:20028806

Boxx, Gayle M.; Kozel, Thomas R.; Nishiya, Casey T.; Zhang, Mason X.

2010-01-01

277

Mitogenic effect of Parkia speciosa seed lectin on human lymphocytes.  

PubMed

Mitogenic activity of a lectin, purified from Parkia speciosa seeds, on the isolated peripheral blood lymphocytes taken from normal blood donors and patients with esophageal carcinoma was examined using [3H]thymidine incorporation. The lectin increases the incorporation of [3H]thymidine into DNA of human lymphocytes. The activity of the lectin increased as its concentration was increased and then declined once the concentration passed an optimum point. The stimulant effect was also expressed using a proliferation index (PI): the ratio of [3H]thymidine incorporated into lymphocytes in the presence and absence of the lectin. The mitogenic activity of the lectin is comparable to those of the known T-cell mitogens, such as concanavalin A, phytohaemagglutinin, and pokeweed mitogen. Only slightly less responsiveness was observed in the case of lymphocytes from esophageal cancer compared to lymphocytes from normal donors. PMID:11199124

Suvachittanont, W; Jaranchavanapet, P

2000-12-01

278

Mitogenic properties of lectin and its chemical dervatives.  

PubMed

A mitogenic lectin that has a carbohydrate-binding specificity similar to that of concanavalin A (Con A) can be isolated from pea seeds. Chemical modification (succinylation, acetylation, or treatment with the diazonium salt of sulfanilic acid), changes its biological properties. In mitogenic stimulation of mouse spleen cells and in hemagglutination, the differences between the chemically modified pea lectin and the native molecule are similar to those observed between succinyl-Con A and native Con A. However, whereas chemical modification converts tetrameric Con A to a dimeric molecule, similar treatments of the pea lectin do not change its quaternary structure. The results of binding studies of the pea lectin and its derivatives to mouse spleen cells suggest that the differences in biological activities may be explained by a reduction in binding affinity of the pea lectin for glycoproteins on the spleen cell surface after chemical modification. PMID:4519653

Trowbridge, I S

1973-12-01

279

Diversified Carbohydrate-Binding Lectins from Marine Resources  

PubMed Central

Marine bioresources produce a great variety of specific and potent bioactive molecules including natural organic compounds such as fatty acids, polysaccharides, polyether, peptides, proteins, and enzymes. Lectins are also one of the promising candidates for useful therapeutic agents because they can recognize the specific carbohydrate structures such as proteoglycans, glycoproteins, and glycolipids, resulting in the regulation of various cells via glycoconjugates and their physiological and pathological phenomenon through the host-pathogen interactions and cell-cell communications. Here, we review the multiple lectins from marine resources including fishes and sea invertebrate in terms of their structure-activity relationships and molecular evolution. Especially, we focus on the unique structural properties and molecular evolution of C-type lectins, galectin, F-type lectin, and rhamnose-binding lectin families. PMID:22312473

Ogawa, Tomohisa; Watanabe, Mizuki; Naganuma, Takako; Muramoto, Koji

2011-01-01

280

New lymphocyte stimulating monocot lectins from family Araceae.  

PubMed

Three monocot lectins from underground tubers of plants belonging to the family Araceae were investigated for their mitogenic potential towards human peripheral blood lymphocytes. All the three lectins turned out to be potent mitogens in the [3H]-thymidine uptake assay. Gonatanthus pumilus lectin was mitogenic at an optimum concentration of 25 micrograms/ml while Alocasia indica and Sauromatum guttatum lectins were most effective at a concentration of 50 micrograms/ml. [3H]-thymidine incorporation studies further revealed that the lectins were T-cell mitogens and did not induce any appreciable DNA synthesis in B-enriched lymphocytes. The proliferation kinetic studies detected maximum incorporation on day 3 and the mitogenic response was shown to be inhibited by asialofetuin in a concentration-dependent manner. PMID:8543347

Kamboj, S S; Shangary, S; Singh, J; Kamboj, K K; Sandhu, R S

1995-08-01

281

Islet Amyloid Polypeptide Triggers Limited Complement Activation and Binds Complement Inhibitor C4b-binding Protein, Which Enhances Fibril Formation*  

PubMed Central

Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) is synthesized in pancreatic ?-cells and co-secreted with insulin. Aggregation and formation of IAPP-amyloid play a critical role in ?-cell death in type 2 diabetic patients. Because A?-fibrils in Alzheimer disease activate the complement system, we have here investigated specific interactions between IAPP and complement factors. IAPP fibrils triggered limited activation of complement in vitro, involving both the classical and the alternative pathways. Direct binding assays confirmed that IAPP fibrils interact with globular head domains of complement initiator C1q. Furthermore, IAPP also bound complement inhibitors factor H and C4b-binding protein (C4BP). Recombinant C4BP mutants were used to show that complement control protein (CCP) domains 8 and 2 of the ?-chain were responsible for the strong, hydrophobic binding of C4BP to IAPP. Immunostaining of pancreatic sections from type 2 diabetic patients revealed the presence of complement factors in the islets and varying degree of co-localization between IAPP fibrils and C1q, C3d, as well as C4BP and factor H but not membrane attack complex. Furthermore, C4BP enhanced formation of IAPP fibrils in vitro. We conclude that C4BP binds to IAPP thereby limiting complement activation and may be enhancing formation of IAPP fibrils from cytotoxic oligomers. PMID:22334700

Sjölander, Jonatan; Westermark, Gunilla T.; Renström, Erik; Blom, Anna M.

2012-01-01

282

Complement, c1q, and c1q-related molecules regulate macrophage polarization.  

PubMed

Complement is a critical system of enzymes, regulatory proteins, and receptors that regulates both innate and adaptive immune responses. Natural mutations in complement molecules highlight their requirement in regulation of a variety of human conditions including infectious disease and autoimmunity. As sentinels of the immune system, macrophages are specialized to respond to infectious microbes, as well as normal and altered self, and dictate appropriate immune responses. Complement components such as anaphylatoxins (C3a and C5a) and opsonins [C3b, C1q, mannan binding lectin (MBL)] influence macrophage responses. While anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a trigger inflammasome activation, opsonins such as C1q and related molecules (MBL and adiponectin) downregulate inflammasome activation and inflammation, and upregulate engulfment of apoptotic cells consistent with a pro-resolving or M2 macrophage phenotype. This review summarizes our current understanding of the influence of the complement system on macrophage polarization with an emphasis on C1q and related molecules. PMID:25191325

Bohlson, Suzanne S; O'Conner, Sean D; Hulsebus, Holly Jo; Ho, Minh-Minh; Fraser, Deborah A

2014-01-01

283

The role of complement in ocular pathology  

PubMed Central

Functionally active complement system and complement regulatory proteins are present in the normal human and rodent eye. Complement activation and its regulation by ocular complement regulatory proteins contribute to the pathology of various ocular diseases including keratitis, uveitis and age-related macular degeneration. Furthermore, a strong relationship between age-related macular degeneration and polymorphism in the genes of certain complement components/complement regulatory proteins is now well established. Recombinant forms of the naturally occurring complement regulatory proteins have been exploited in the animal models for treatment of these ocular diseases. It is hoped that in the future recombinant complement regulatory proteins will be used as novel therapeutic agents in the clinic for the treatment of keratitis, uveitis, and age-related macular degeneration. PMID:18299835

Jha, Purushottam; Bora, Puran S.

2008-01-01

284

Plant Lectins as Part of the Plant Defense System Against Insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many plants contain carbohydrate-binding proteins which are commonly designated as lectins. It is believed that some of these lectins play a role in plant defense against insects. This chapter gives an overview of the state of the art in the field of plant lectin research and highlights the most important results with regard to the insecticidal activity of plant lectins

Els J. M. Van Damme

285

Lectins and also bacteria modify the glycosylation of gut surface receptors in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral exposure to lectins or the presence or absence of bacteria in the rat small intestine were shown by histological methods using anti-lectin antibodies or digoxigenin-labelled lectins to have major effects on the state of glycosylation of lumenal membranes and cytoplasmic glycoconjugates of epithelial cells. Taken together with the dramatic effects of exposure to lectins on gut function, metabolism and

Arpad Pusztai; Stanley W. B. Ewen; George Grant; Willy J. Peumans; ELS J. M. VAN DAMME; Marie E. Coates; Susan Bardocz

1995-01-01

286

Molecular Modeling of Lectin-Like Protein from Acacia farnesiana Reveals a Possible Anti-Inflammatory Mechanism in Carrageenan-Induced Inflammation  

PubMed Central

Acacia farnesiana lectin-like protein (AFAL) is a chitin-binding protein and has been classified as phytohaemagglutinin from Phaseolus vulgaris (PHA). Legume lectins are examples for structural studies, and this family of proteins shows a remarkable conservation in primary, secondary, and tertiary structures. Lectins have ability to reduce the effects of inflammation caused by phlogistic agents, such as carrageenan (CGN). This paper explains the anti-inflammatory activity of AFAL through structural comparison with anti-inflammatory legume lectins. The AFAL model was obtained by molecular modeling and molecular docking with glycan and carrageenan were performed to explain the AFAL structural behavior and biological activity. Pisum sativum lectin was the best template for molecular modeling. The AFAL structure model is folded as a ? sandwich. The model differs from template in loop regions, number of ? strands and carbohydrate-binding site. Carrageenan and glycan bind to different sites on AFAL. The ability of AFAL binding to carrageenan can be explained by absence of the sixth ?-strand (posterior ? sheets) and two ? strands in frontal region. AFAL can inhibit pathway inflammatory process by carrageenan injection by connecting to it and preventing its entry into the cell and triggers the reaction. PMID:24490151

Abrantes, Vanessa Erika Ferreira; Matias da Rocha, Bruno Anderson; Batista da Nóbrega, Raphael; Silva-Filho, José Caetano; Teixeira, Claudener Souza; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Gadelha, Carlos Alberto de Almeida; Ferreira, Sergio Henrique; Figueiredo, Jozi Godoy; Santi-Gadelha, Tatiane; Delatorre, Plinio

2013-01-01

287

Lower mannose-binding lectin contributes to deleterious H1N1 2009 infection in children.  

PubMed

Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) has broad range of activity against viruses through the mechanisms of neutralization, opsonization, and complement activation. Prior studies have demonstrated that MBL inactivated the season's influenza virus. Due to the fact that children have no neutralizing antibody against H1N1 2009 virus, innate immunity may be crucial in the defense against influenza. Therefore, we studied whether MBL levels played a role in H1N1 2009 infection in children. In a prospective survey, we revealed that MBL levels in ICU influenza cases were significantly lower than in children with influenza from infection disease ward. MBL may be involved in innate immune responses to H1N1 2009 infection in children. PMID:23755909

Gao, Lailong; Shang, Shiqiang; Zhang, Chenmei; Tong, Meiqin; Chen, Yinghu

2014-02-01

288

Momordica Charantia lectin exhibits antitumor activity towards hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

Background The incidence and mortality of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain high worldwide. Drug screening from natural plants is one of the potential therapeutic approaches on HCC. Methods The antitumor effect of momordica charantia lectin (MCL) was examined, using MTT, colony formation, AnnexinV/PI staining, western blot and animal model. Results MCL treatment induced G2/M phase arrest, autophagy, DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial injury, and subsequently cell apoptosis in HCC cells. Activation of caspase and MAPK pathway was involved in MCL-induced apoptosis. In vitro and in vivo studies showed that up-regulation of truncated Bid (tBid) upon MCL treatment. Correlation analysis revealed that Bid expression was reversely associated with the IC50 of MCL. Bid suppression using Bid siRNA, BI-6C9 (Bid inhibitor) and Z-IETD-FMK (caspase 8 inhibitor) dramatically attenuated MCL-induced cell proliferation inhibition, caspase 3 activation, ??m depolarization and apoptosis. In addition, combination of MCL and sorafenib exerted stronger lethal activity towards HCC in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion Our data show that the natural compound MCL manifests antitumor activities towards HCC and therefore suggest MCL as a promising chemotherapeutic agent. PMID:25200916

Zhang, Chris Zhiyi; Fang, Evandro Fei; Zhang, Hai-Tao; Liu, Li-Li; Yun, Jing-Ping

2015-02-01

289

Microbes bind complement inhibitor factor H via a common site.  

PubMed

To cause infections microbes need to evade host defense systems, one of these being the evolutionarily old and important arm of innate immunity, the alternative pathway of complement. It can attack all kinds of targets and is tightly controlled in plasma and on host cells by plasma complement regulator factor H (FH). FH binds simultaneously to host cell surface structures such as heparin or glycosaminoglycans via domain 20 and to the main complement opsonin C3b via domain 19. Many pathogenic microbes protect themselves from complement by recruiting host FH. We analyzed how and why different microbes bind FH via domains 19-20 (FH19-20). We used a selection of FH19-20 point mutants to reveal the binding sites of several microbial proteins and whole microbes (Haemophilus influenzae, Bordetella pertussis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumonia, Candida albicans, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Borrelia hermsii). We show that all studied microbes use the same binding region located on one side of domain 20. Binding of FH to the microbial proteins was inhibited with heparin showing that the common microbial binding site overlaps with the heparin site needed for efficient binding of FH to host cells. Surprisingly, the microbial proteins enhanced binding of FH19-20 to C3b and down-regulation of complement activation. We show that this is caused by formation of a tripartite complex between the microbial protein, FH, and C3b. In this study we reveal that seven microbes representing different phyla utilize a common binding site on the domain 20 of FH for complement evasion. Binding via this site not only mimics the glycosaminoglycans of the host cells, but also enhances function of FH on the microbial surfaces via the novel mechanism of tripartite complex formation. This is a unique example of convergent evolution resulting in enhanced immune evasion of important pathogens via utilization of a "superevasion site." PMID:23637600

Meri, T; Amdahl, H; Lehtinen, M J; Hyvärinen, S; McDowell, J V; Bhattacharjee, A; Meri, S; Marconi, R; Goldman, A; Jokiranta, T S

2013-01-01

290

The crystal structure of a complement-1q family protein suggests an evolutionary link to tumor necrosis factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

ACRP30 – adipocyte complement-related protein of 30 kDa or AdipoQ – is an abundant serum protein, secreted exclusively from fat cells, which is implicated in energy homeostasis and obesity [1,2]. ACRP30 is a close homologue of the complement protein C1q, which is involved in the recognition of microbial surfaces [3–5] and antibody–antigen complexes [6,7] in the classical pathway of complement.

Lawrence Shapiro; Philipp E. Scherer

1998-01-01

291

Finding off-targets, biological pathways & target diseases for chymase inhibitors via structure-based systems biology approach.  

PubMed

Off-target binding connotes the binding of a small molecule of therapeutic significance to a protein target in addition to the primary target for which it was proposed. Progressively such off-targeting is emerging to be regular practice to reveal side effects. Chymase is an enzyme of hydrolase class that catalyzes hydrolysis of peptide bonds. A link between heart failure and chymase is ascribed, and a chymase inhibitor is in clinical phase II for treatment of heart failure. However, the underlying mechanisms of the off-target effects of human chymase inhibitors are still unclear. Here, we develop a robust computational strategy that is applicable to any enzyme system and that allows the prediction of drug effects on biological processes. Putative off-targets for chymase inhibitors were identified through various structural and functional similarity analyses along with molecular docking studies. Finally, literature survey was performed to incorporate these off-targets into biological pathways and to establish links between pathways and particular adverse effects. Off-targets of chymase inhibitors are linked to various biological pathways such as classical and lectin pathways of complement system, intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of coagulation cascade, and fibrinolytic system. Tissue kallikreins, granzyme M, neutrophil elastase, and mesotrypsin are also identified as off-targets. These off-targets and their associated pathways are elucidated for the effects of inflammation, cancer, hemorrhage, thrombosis and central nervous system diseases (Alzheimer's disease). Prospectively, our approach is helpful not only to better understand the mechanisms of chymase inhibitors but also for drug repurposing exercises to find novel uses for these inhibitors. © Proteins 2014;. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25143259

Arooj, Mahreen; Sakkiah, Sugunadevi; Cao, Guang Ping; Kim, Songmi; Arulalapperumal, Venkatesh; Lee, Keun Woo

2014-08-21

292

Complement as effector system in cancer immunotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contribution of the complement system to the control of tumour growth has been neglected for a long time as the major emphasis has been put mainly on cell-mediated immune response against cancer. With the introduction of monoclonal antibodies in cancer immunotherapy complement has come into play with a great potential as effector system. Complement has a number of advantages

Paolo Macor; Francesco Tedesco

2007-01-01

293

A Lactose-Binding Lectin from the Marine Sponge Cinachyrella Apion (Cal) Induces Cell Death in Human Cervical Adenocarcinoma Cells  

PubMed Central

Cancer represents a set of more than 100 diseases, including malignant tumors from different locations. Strategies inducing differentiation have had limited success in the treatment of established cancers. Marine sponges are a biological reservoir of bioactive molecules, especially lectins. Several animal and plant lectins were purified with antitumor activity, mitogenic, anti-inflammatory and antiviral, but there are few reports in the literature describing the mechanism of action of lectins purified from marine sponges to induce apoptosis in human tumor cells. In this work, a lectin purified from the marine sponge Cinachyrella apion (CaL) was evaluated with respect to its hemolytic, cytotoxic and antiproliferative properties, besides the ability to induce cell death in tumor cells. The antiproliferative activity of CaL was tested against HeLa, PC3 and 3T3 cell lines, with highest growth inhibition for HeLa, reducing cell growth at a dose dependent manner (0.5–10 µg/mL). Hemolytic activity and toxicity against peripheral blood cells were tested using the concentration of IC50 (10 µg/mL) for both trials and twice the IC50 for analysis in flow cytometry, indicating that CaL is not toxic to these cells. To assess the mechanism of cell death caused by CaL in HeLa cells, we performed flow cytometry and western blotting. Results showed that lectin probably induces cell death by apoptosis activation by pro-apoptotic protein Bax, promoting mitochondrial membrane permeabilization, cell cycle arrest in S phase and acting as both dependent and/or independent of caspases pathway. These results indicate the potential of CaL in studies of medicine for treating cancer. PMID:22690140

Rabelo, Luciana; Monteiro, Norberto; Serquiz, Raphael; Santos, Paula; Oliveira, Ruth; Oliveira, Adeliana; Rocha, Hugo; Morais, Ana Heloneida; Uchoa, Adriana; Santos, Elizeu

2012-01-01

294

Fluorescent carbohydrate probes for cell lectins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescein labeled carbohydrate (Glyc) probes were synthesized as analytical tools for the study of cellular lectins, i.e. SiaLe x-PAA-flu, Sia 2-PAA-flu, GlcNAc 2-PAA-flu, LacNAc-PAA-flu and a number of similar ones, with PAA a soluble polyacrylamide carrier. The binding of SiaLe x-PAA-flu was assessed using CHO cells transfected with E-selectin, and the binding of Sia 2-PAA-flu was assessed by COS cells transfected with siglec-9. In flow cytometry assays, the fluorescein probes demonstrated a specific binding to the lectin-transfected cells that was inhibited by unlabeled carbohydrate ligands. The intense binding of SiaLe x-PAA- 3H to the E-selectin transfected cells and the lack of binding to both native and permeabilized control cells lead to the conclusion that the polyacrylamide carrier itself and the spacer arm connecting the carbohydrate moiety with PAA did not contribute anymore to the binding. Tumors were obtained from nude mice by injection of CHO E-selectin or mock transfected cells. The fluorescent SiaLe x-PAA-flu probe could bind to the tumor sections from E-selectin positive CHO cells, but not from the control ones. Thus, these probes can be used to reveal specifically the carbohydrate binding sites on cells in culture as well as cells in tissue sections. The use of the confocal spectral imaging technique with Glyc-PAA-flu probes offered the unique possibility to detect lectins in different cells, even when the level of lectin expression was rather low. The confocal mode of spectrum recording provided an analysis of the probe localization with 3D submicron resolution. The spectral analysis (as a constituent part of the confocal spectral imaging technique) enabled interfering signals of the probe and intrinsic cellular fluorescence to be accurately separated, the distribution of the probe to be revealed and its local concentration to be measured.

Galanina, Oxana; Feofanov, Alexei; Tuzikov, Alexander B.; Rapoport, Evgenia; Crocker, Paul R.; Grichine, Alexei; Egret-Charlier, Marguerite; Vigny, Paul; Le Pendu, Jacques; Bovin, Nicolai V.

2001-09-01

295

A jacalin-related lectin-like gene in wheat is a component of the plant defence system.  

PubMed

Jacalin-related lectins (JRLs) are a subgroup of proteins with one or more jacalin-like lectin domains. Although JRLs are often associated with biotic or abiotic stimuli, their biological functions in plants, as well as their relationships to plant disease resistance, are poorly understood. A mannose-specific JRL (mJRL)-like gene (TaJRLL1) that is mainly expressed in stem and spike and encodes a protein with two jacalin-like lectin domains was identified in wheat. Pathogen infection and phytohormone treatments induced its expression; while application of the salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol and the jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis inhibitor diethyldithiocarbamic acid, respectively, substantially inhibited its expression. Attenuating TaJRLL1 through virus-induced gene silencing increased susceptibility to the facultative fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum and the biotrophic fungal pathogen Blumeria graminis. Arabidopsis thaliana transformed with TaJRLL1 displayed increased resistance to F. graminearum and Botrytis cinerea. JA and SA levels in transgenic Arabidopsis increased significantly. A loss or increase of disease resistance due to an alteration in TaJRLL1 function was correlated with attenuation or enhancement of the SA- and JA-dependent defence signalling pathways. These results suggest that TaJRLL1 could be a component of the SA- and JA-dependent defence signalling pathways. PMID:21862481

Xiang, Yang; Song, Min; Wei, Zhaoyan; Tong, Jianhua; Zhang, Lixia; Xiao, Langtao; Ma, Zhengqiang; Wang, Yun

2011-11-01

296

Complement the hemostatic system: an intimate relationship.  

PubMed

The complement system is important part of our innate immune system and interacts directly with the hemostatic system. Disorders of complement activation or dysregulation resulting in excess complement generation, such as Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria (PNH), atypical Hemolytic uremic Syndrome (aHUS) and antiphospholipid syndrome (APLS) have been associated with significant thrombophilia. Terminal Complement (C5b-9) deposition on endothelial and tumor cell membranes has also been reported in a variety of cancer. Recent developments in complement inhibition have given us new insights into the mechanism of thrombosis in these disorders. PMID:24862131

Weitz, Ilene Ceil

2014-05-01

297

Complementation and Epistasis in Viral Coinfection Dynamics  

PubMed Central

Coinfection in RNA virus populations results in two important phenomena, complementation and recombination. Of the two, complementation has a strong effect on selection against deleterious mutations, as has been confirmed in earlier studies. As complementation delays the purging of less-fit mutations, coinfection may be detrimental to the evolution of a virus population. Here we employ both deterministic modeling and stochastic simulation to explore the mechanisms underlying the interactions between complementation and other evolutionary factors, namely, mutation, selection, and epistasis. We find that strong complementation reduces slightly the overall fitness of a virus population but substantially enhances its diversity and robustness, especially when interacting with selection and epistasis. PMID:19270273

Gao, Hong; Feldman, Marcus W.

2009-01-01

298

Hydroxyl radical scavengers inhibit human lectin-dependent cellular cytotoxicity.  

PubMed Central

The role of oxygen-derived free radicals (ODFR) in lectin-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (LDCC) in humans was investigated. The hydroxyl radical traps thiourea, methanol, ethanol and phenol were effective in inhibiting LDCC, as was DABCO, a singlet oxygen quencher. The proposed pathway of hydroxyl radical production in living cells is either an iron catalysed Haber-Weiss reaction or a Fenton reaction. The effect of inhibitors of these pathways was investigated. The superoxide anion scavengers superoxide dismutase, ferricytochrome c and Tiron were without effect. It was shown that Tiron inhibits the lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence produced by the action of xanthine oxidase, and also the lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence produced by activated PMN, suggesting that this agent (Tiron) scavenges intracellular superoxide anion. Catalase gave slight inhibition of LDCC only. The ferric iron chelator desferrioxamine gave no protection of the target cells, while the ferrous chelator, 1,10-phenanthroline, inhibited LDCC and partially prevented the detection of hydroxyl radicals generated by the Fe2+-H2O2 system. Cibacron blue, an agent that inhibits NAD(P)H linked enzymes, also inhibited LDCC. The cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors indomethacin and salicylate were without effect, while the lipoxygenase inhibitor nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) inhibited cytolysis. None of the LDCC inhibitors was cytotoxic to the effector cells or to the target cells, neither did they inhibit lymphocyte-target binding. The findings would suggest that hydroxyl radicals have a role to play in human T-cell mediated cytolysis, either as the active lytic agent or as an epiphenomenon. PMID:3011654

Melinn, M; McLaughlin, H

1986-01-01

299

Immature recent thymic emigrants are eliminated by complement.  

PubMed

Recent thymic emigrants (RTEs) must undergo phenotypic and functional maturation to become long-lived mature naive T cells. In CD4-cre NKAP conditional knockout mice, NKAP-deficient RTEs fail to complete T cell maturation. In this study, we demonstrate that NKAP-deficient immature RTEs do not undergo apoptosis, but are eliminated by complement. C3, C4, and C1q are bound to NKAP-deficient peripheral T cells, demonstrating activation of the classical arm of the complement pathway. As thymocytes mature and exit to the periphery, they increase sialic acid incorporation into cell surface glycans. This is essential to peripheral lymphocyte survival, as stripping sialic acid with neuraminidase leads to the binding of natural IgM and complement fixation. NKAP-deficient T cells have a defect in sialylation on cell surface glycans, leading to IgM recruitment. We demonstrate that the defect in sialylation is due to aberrant ?2,8-linked sialylation, and the expression of three genes (ST8sia1, ST8sia4, and ST8sia6) that mediate ?2,8 sialylation are downregulated in NKAP-defcient RTEs. The maturation of peripheral NKAP-deficient T cells is partially rescued in a C3-deficient environment. Thus, sialylation during T cell maturation is critical to protect immature RTEs from complement in the periphery. PMID:25367120

Hsu, Fan-Chi; Shapiro, Michael J; Chen, Meibo W; McWilliams, Douglas C; Seaburg, Lauren M; Tangen, Sarah N; Shapiro, Virginia Smith

2014-12-15

300

The Semantics of Complementation in English: A Cognitive Semantic Account of Two English Complement Constructions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies on complementation in English and other languages have traditionally focused on syntactic issues, most notably on the constituent structures of different complement types. As a result, they have neglected the role of meaning in the choice of different complements. This paper investigates the semantics of complementation within the…

Smith, Michael B.

2009-01-01

301

Complement Factors and their G Protein Coupled Receptors in Neuroprotection and Neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

Acute neurodegeneration is associated with high morbidity and mortality, and there are few effective treatments. Inflammation is central to the process of neuronal death, and within this field, the roles of the complement cascade have proven to be complex. The complement cascade is involved in triggering cell death and recruiting inflammatory cells to sites of inflammation, including the brain. However, complement might also have important neuroprotective roles that are only now coming to light. Recent evidence suggests that targeted activation of complement may be a potential avenue for treatment of stroke and other acute neurodegenerative diseases. Herein, we describe these novel neuroprotective roles of the complement cascade, focusing on signaling pathways that may be therapeutically targetable in acute neuronal injury. PMID:20116331

Yanamadala, Vijay; Friedlander, Robert M.

2010-01-01

302

Mapping the complement C1q binding site in Haemonchus contortus calreticulin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haemonchus contortus is an economically important gastrointestinal parasite of domestic animals. The parasite secretes calreticulin (CalR), a Ca++ binding protein which modulates the host immune response. One way by which this protein acts is by inhibiting the classical complement pathway by binding to complement C1q protein. Understanding CalR–C1q interaction is important to develop methods to enhance host immune response. In

S. Naresha; A. Suryawanshi; M. Agarwal; B. P. Singh; P. Joshi

2009-01-01

303

The complement system in inflammatory bowel disease.  

PubMed

Complement is well appreciated to be a potent innate immune defense against microbes and is important in the housekeeping act of removal of apoptotic and effete cells. It is also understood that hyperactivation of complement, or the lack of regulators, may underlie chronic inflammatory diseases. A pipeline of products to intervene in complement activation, some already in clinical use, is being studied in various chronic inflammatory diseases. To date, the role of complement in inflammatory bowel disease has not received a lot of research interest. Novel genetically modified laboratory animals and experiments using antagonists to complement effector molecules have kindled important research observations implicating the complement system in inflammatory bowel disease pathogenesis. We review the evidence base for the role and potential therapeutic manipulation of the complement cascade in inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:24831561

Jain, Umang; Otley, Anthony R; Van Limbergen, Johan; Stadnyk, Andrew W

2014-09-01

304

Analysis of high complement levels in Mus hortulanus and BUB mice.  

PubMed

BUB/BnJ mice were previously identified as having exceptionally potent complement activity, relative to common mouse strains, in the lysis of antibody-coated human tumor cells. We describe herein our investigation into the molecular and genetic basis for this difference between mouse strains, and also our results with wild mice and mouse strains recently derived from the wild, to determine whether low complement levels are characteristic of wild mice. BUB complement was compared with complement from BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. BUB mice had higher levels of most individual classical pathway components, except for C1, than the other two strains, but the difference was generally only 2-3-fold, so insufficient to fully explain the difference observed with tumor target cells. CH50 titers on antibody-coated sheep erythrocytes also demonstrated only a 2-4-fold difference. However, CH50 titers on antibody-coated human erythrocyte target cells demonstrated a difference similar in magnitude to that seen with human tumor targets. These results suggest that the difference between mouse strains depends partly on the use of human, rather than sheep, target cells. In an assay for alternative complement pathway activity using neuraminidase-treated human erythrocytes as targets, complements of BALB/c and BUB mice were similar in activity, suggesting that the difference between mouse strains is manifested in the early steps of complement activation. Analysis of F1 and backcross mice suggested that the difference in complement level between BUB and BALB/c or C57BL/6 mice is controlled by semi-dominant genes, and cannot be attributed to a single gene. Wild mice and mice recently derived from the wild generally had low complement levels, similar to most laboratory mice. However, three strains of aboriginal mice, including Mus hortulanus (spicilegus) and Mus spretus, had complement levels higher than that of BUB mice, and as high as sera from the rabbit or rat, which are the most potent known complement sources for the lysis of human tumor cells. In comparison with BUB mouse sera, M. hortulanus sera had at least four-fold higher levels of C3, C6, C8 and C9, and some or all of these differences may explain its higher total complement activity. In the lysis of antibody-coated human erythrocytes, M. hortulanus serum was more potent than any other complement source tested, including sera of the guinea pig, rat, rabbit or human. These strains may be useful in investigating the role of complement in various pathological processes, and in investigating the genetic regulation of the complement system. PMID:1401942

Ong, G L; Baker, A E; Mattes, M J

1992-09-18

305

Extensive amino acid sequence homologies between animal lectins  

SciTech Connect

The authors have established the amino acid sequence of the ..beta..-D-galactoside binding lectin from the electric eel and the sequences of several peptides from a similar lectin isolated from human placenta. These sequences were compared with the published sequences of peptides derived from the ..beta..-D-galactoside binding lectin from human lung and with sequences deduced from cDNAs assigned to the ..beta..-D-galactoside binding lectins from chicken embryo skin and human hepatomas. Significant homologies were observed. One of the highly conserved regions that contains a tryptophan residue and two glutamic acid resides is probably part of the ..beta..-D-galactoside binding site, which, on the basis of spectroscopic studies of the electric eel lectin, is expected to contain such residues. The similarity of the hydropathy profiles and the predicted secondary structure of the lectins from chicken skin and electric eel, in spite of differences in their amino acid sequences, strongly suggests that these proteins have maintained structural homologies during evolution and together with the other ..beta..-D-galactoside binding lectins were derived form a common ancestor gene.

Paroutaud, P.; Levi, G.; Teichberg, V.I.; Strosberg, A.D.

1987-09-01

306

Lectins, agglutinins, and their roles in autoimmune reactivities.  

PubMed

Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins present throughout nature that act as agglutinins. Approximately 30% of our food contains lectins, some of which may be resistant enough to digestion to enter the circulation. Because of their binding properties, lectins can cause nutrient deficiencies, disrupt digestion, and cause severe intestinal damage when consumed in excess by an individual with dysfunctional enzymes. These effects are followed by disruption of intestinal barrier integrity, which is the gateway to various autoimmunities. Shared amino acid motifs between dietary lectins, exogenous peptides, and various body tissues may lead to cross-reactivity, resulting in the production of antibodies against lectin and bacterial antigens, followed by autoimmunity. The detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG) or immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies against specific lectins may serve as a guide for the elimination of these lectins from the diet. It is proposed that this process can reduce the peripheral antigenic stimulus and, thereby, result in a diminution of disease symptoms in some-but not all-patients with autoimmune disorders. PMID:25599185

Vojdani, Aristo

2015-01-01

307

Dietary lectins can stimulate pancreatic growth in the rat  

PubMed Central

Lectins are proteins or glycoproteins of nonimmune origin, which bind specifically to carbohydrate structures. They are widespread in the human diet, and many are resistant to digestion. High doses of lectins have been shown to stimulate intestinal and pancreatic growth. The aim of the present study was to investigate the long-term actions of low doses of lectins on the rat intestine and pancreas. A long-term carcinogenesis study was performed using low levels (40 µg/rat/day) of peanut (PNA) or mushroom lectin (ABA) which bind to O-linked (mucin-type) oligosaccharides in the gut. While this was primarily designed as a colon carcinogenesis study, the pancreas was also investigated. No significant changes in colon carcinogenesis were seen, however, the colons were slightly heavier in the lectin treated groups. The weight of the pancreas was significantly greater (by 18 and 23%) in both lectin treated groups (P < 0.03/0.001). The weights of the acini and septal tissue were also increased by 39–46% in PNA and ABA fed animals, respectively (P < 0.002); there was no significant change in the endocrine pancreas. In conclusion, long-term feeding of low doses of lectin can influence pancreatic growth, and this trophic action may have potential adverse implications for the development of pancreatic cancer in humans. PMID:12485464

Kelsall, Angela; FitzGerald, AJ; Howard, CV; Evans, RC; Singh, R; Rhodes, JM; Goodlad, RA

2002-01-01

308

Potential immunomodulatory effects of plant lectins in Schistosoma mansoni infection.  

PubMed

Lectins are sugar-binding glycoproteins that can stimulate, in a non-antigen-specific fashion, lymphocytes, leading to proliferation and cytokine production. Some lectins are utilized as in vitro mitogenic lymphocyte stimulators and their use as immunomodulators against infectious diseases has been evaluated experimentally. In the experimental murine model, the immune response to schistosomiasis is Th1-like during the initial stage of infection, with a shift towards a Th2-like response after oviposition. We report the response of schistosomiasis patients' (n=37) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to stimulation by lectins, including newly isolated lectins from Brazilian flora, and by Schistosomamansoni soluble egg antigens (SEA). Cytokine production upon lectin stimulation ex vivo was assessed in PBMC supernatants, collected at 24 and 72 h, by sandwich ELISA to IL-5, IL-10, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma. In PBMC from infected patients all but one of the lectins induced a Th2-like cytokine response, characterized by elevated IL-5 production that was higher than that induced by SEA stimulation alone. Our results show that the Th2 environment present during schistosomiasis is not affected and that it may be further stimulated by the presence of lectins. PMID:18579103

Reis, Eliana A G; Athanazio, Daniel A; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Teixeira, Edson Holanda; de Paulo Teixeira Pinto, Vicente; Carmo, Theomira M A; Reis, Alice; Trocolli, Graziela; Croda, Julio; Harn, Donald; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Reis, Mitermayer G

2008-01-01

309

Lectin domains at the frontiers of plant defense  

PubMed Central

Plants are under constant attack from pathogens and herbivorous insects. To protect and defend themselves, plants evolved a multi-layered surveillance system, known as the innate immune system. Plants sense their encounters upon perception of conserved microbial structures and damage-associated patterns using cell-surface and intracellular immune receptors. Plant lectins and proteins with one or more lectin domains represent a major part of these receptors. The whole group of plant lectins comprises an elaborate collection of proteins capable of recognizing and interacting with specific carbohydrate structures, either originating from the invading organisms or from damaged plant cell wall structures. Due to the vast diversity in protein structures, carbohydrate recognition domains and glycan binding specificities, plant lectins constitute a very diverse protein superfamily. In the last decade, new types of nucleocytoplasmic plant lectins have been identified and characterized, in particular lectins expressed inside the nucleus and the cytoplasm of plant cells often as part of a specific plant response upon exposure to different stress factors or changing environmental conditions. In this review, we provide an overview on plant lectin motifs used in the constant battle against pathogens and predators during plant defenses. PMID:25165467

Lannoo, Nausicaä; Van Damme, Els J. M.

2014-01-01

310

The Pivotal Role of the Complement System in Aging and Age-related Macular Degeneration: Hypothesis Re-visited  

PubMed Central

During the past ten years, dramatic advances have been made in unraveling the biological bases of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the most common cause of irreversible blindness in western populations. In that timeframe, two distinct lines of evidence emerged which implicated chronic local inflammation and activation of the complement cascade in AMD pathogenesis. First, a number of complement system proteins, complement activators, and complement regulatory proteins were identified as molecular constituents of drusen, the hallmark extracellular deposits associated with early AMD. Subsequently, genetic studies revealed highly significant statistical associations between AMD and variants of several complement pathway-associated genes including: Complement factor H (CFH), complement factor H-related 1 and 3 (CFHR1 and CFHR3), complement factor B (CFB), complement component 2 (C2), and complement component 3 (C3). In this article, we revisit our original hypothesis that chronic local inflammatory and immune-mediated events at the level of Bruch’s membrane play critical roles in drusen biogenesis and, by extension, in the pathobiology of AMD. Secondly, we report the results of a new screening for additional AMD-associated polymorphisms in a battery of 63 complement-related genes. Third, we identify and characterize the local complement system in the RPE-choroid complex -- thus adding a new dimension of biological complexity to the role of the complement system in ocular aging and AMD. Finally, we evaluate the most salient, recent evidence that bears directly on the role of complement in AMD pathogenesis and progression. Collectively, these recent findings strongly re-affirm the importance of the complement system in AMD. They lay the groundwork for further studies that may lead to the identification of a transcriptional disease signature of AMD, and hasten the development of new therapeutic approaches that will restore the complement-modulating activity that appears to be compromised in genetically susceptible individuals. PMID:19961953

Anderson, Don H.; Radeke, Monte J.; Gallo, Natasha B.; Chapin, Ethan A.; Johnson, Patrick T.; Curletti, Christy R.; Hancox, Lisa S.; Hu, Jane; Ebright, Jessica N.; Malek, Goldis; Hauser, Michael A.; Rickman, Catherine Bowes; Bok, Dean; Hageman, Gregory S.; Johnson, Lincoln V.

2009-01-01

311

Learnings from over 25 years of PNH experience: the era of targeted complement inhibition.  

PubMed

Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH) is a progressive and life-threatening disease that causes thrombosis, end organ damage and impaired quality of life. Chronic uncontrolled complement activation leads to chronic haemolysis, causing progressive morbidities and early mortality. Hence, early diagnosis is essential for improved patient management and prognosis. Eculizumab (SOLIRIS®) specifically inhibits chronic, uncontrolled complement activation and is the first-in-class, humanised, monoclonal antibody targeting C5 within the terminal complement pathway. Eculizumab is the first and only approved treatment for PNH in adults and children. PMID:24331206

Heitlinger, Ellen

2013-12-01

312

Pasteurella pneumotropica Evades the Human Complement System by Acquisition of the Complement Regulators Factor H and C4BP  

PubMed Central

Pasteurella pneumotropica is an opportunist Gram negative bacterium responsible for rodent pasteurellosis that affects upper respiratory, reproductive and digestive tracts of mammals. In animal care facilities the presence of P. pneumotropica causes severe to lethal infection in immunodeficient mice, being also a potential source for human contamination. Indeed, occupational exposure is one of the main causes of human infection by P. pneumotropica. The clinical presentation of the disease includes subcutaneous abscesses, respiratory tract colonization and systemic infections. Given the ability of P. pneumotropica to fully disseminate in the organism, it is quite relevant to study the role of the complement system to control the infection as well as the possible evasion mechanisms involved in bacterial survival. Here, we show for the first time that P. pneumotropica is able to survive the bactericidal activity of the human complement system. We observed that host regulatory complement C4BP and Factor H bind to the surface of P. pneumotropica, controlling the activation pathways regulating the formation and maintenance of C3-convertases. These results show that P. pneumotropica has evolved mechanisms to evade the human complement system that may increase the efficiency by which this pathogen is able to gain access to and colonize inner tissues where it may cause severe infections. PMID:25347183

Sahagún-Ruiz, Alfredo; Granados Martinez, Adriana Patricia; Breda, Leandro Carvalho Dantas; Fraga, Tatiana Rodrigues; Castiblanco Valencia, Mónica Marcela; Barbosa, Angela Silva; Isaac, Lourdes

2014-01-01

313

In vivo biosynthetic studies of the Dolichos biflorus seed lectin  

SciTech Connect

The in vivo biosynthesis of the Dolichos biflorus seed lectin was studied by pulse-chase labeling experiments using ({sup 35}S)methionine and ({sup 14}C)glucosamine. These studies demonstrate that each of the two mature lectin subunit types are derived by the processing of separate glycosylated precursors. The appearance of the precursor to subunit I before the precursor to subunit II supports the possibility raised by previous studies that both subunit types of this lectin may originate from a single gene product.

Quinn, J.M.; Etzler, M.E. (Univ. of California, Davis (USA))

1989-12-01

314

Microbe-Specific C3b Deposition in the Horseshoe Crab Complement System in a C2/Factor B-Dependent or -Independent Manner  

PubMed Central

Complement C3 plays an essential role in the opsonization of pathogens in the mammalian complement system, whereas the molecular mechanism underlying C3 activation in invertebrates remains unknown. To understand the molecular mechanism of C3b deposition on microbes, we characterized two types of C2/factor B homologs (designated TtC2/Bf-1 and TtC2/Bf-2) identified from the horseshoe crab Tachypleus tridentatus. Although the domain architectures of TtC2/Bf-1 and TtC2/Bf-2 were identical to those of mammalian homologs, they contained five-repeated and seven-repeated complement control protein domains at their N-terminal regions, respectively. TtC2/Bf-1 and TtC2/Bf-2 were synthesized and glycosylated in hemocytes and secreted to hemolymph plasma, which existed in a complex with C3 (TtC3), and their activation by microbes was absolutely Mg2+-dependent. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that TtC3b deposition was Mg2+-dependent on Gram-positive bacteria or fungi, but not on Gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, this analysis demonstrated that Ca2+-dependent lectins (C-reactive protein-1 and tachylectin-5A) were required for TtC3b deposition on Gram-positive bacteria, and that a Ca2+-independent lectin (Tachypleus plasma lectin-1) was definitely indispensable for TtC3b deposition on fungi. In contrast, a horseshoe crab lipopolysaccharide-sensitive protease factor C was necessary and sufficient to deposit TtC3b on Gram-negative bacteria. We conclude that plasma lectins and factor C play key roles in microbe-specific TtC3b deposition in a C2/factor B-dependent or -independent manner. PMID:22611464

Tagawa, Keisuke; Yoshihara, Toyoki; Shibata, Toshio; Kitazaki, Kazuki; Endo, Yuichi; Fujita, Teizo; Koshiba, Takumi; Kawabata, Shun-ichiro

2012-01-01

315

Distribution and Evolution of the Lectin Family in Soybean (Glycine max).  

PubMed

Lectins are a diverse group of proteins that bind specific carbohydrates and are found throughout all kingdoms. In plants, lectins are involved in a range of important processes such as plant defense and stress signaling. Although the genome sequence of Glycine max (soybean) has been published, little is known about the abundance and expansion patterns of lectin genes in soybean. Using BLAST and hidden Markov models, a total of 359 putative lectin genes have been identified. Furthermore, these sequences could be classified in nine of the twelve plant lectin families identified today. Analysis of the domain organization demonstrated that most of the identified lectin genes encode chimerolectins, consisting of one or multiple lectin domains combined with other known protein domains. Both tandem and segmental duplication events have contributed to the expansion of the lectin gene family. These data provide a detailed understanding of the domain architecture and molecular evolution of the lectin gene family in soybean. PMID:25679048

Van Holle, Sofie; Van Damme, Els J M

2015-01-01

316

Complement C3 and C5 Deficiency Affects Fracture Healing  

PubMed Central

There is increasing evidence that complement may play a role in bone development. Our previous studies demonstrated that the key complement receptor C5aR was strongly expressed in the fracture callus not only by immune cells but also by bone cells and chondroblasts, indicating a function in bone repair. To further elucidate the role of complement in bone healing, this study investigated fracture healing in mice in the absence of the key complement molecules C3 and C5. C3-/- and C5-/- as well as the corresponding wildtype mice received a standardized femur osteotomy, which was stabilized using an external fixator. Fracture healing was investigated after 7 and 21 days using histological, micro-computed tomography and biomechanical measurements. In the early phase of fracture healing, reduced callus area (C3-/-: -25%, p=0.02; C5-/-: -20% p=0.052) and newly formed bone (C3-/-: -38%, p=0.01; C5-/-: -52%, p=0.009) was found in both C3- and C5-deficient mice. After 21 days, healing was successful in the absence of C3, whereas in C5-deficient mice fracture repair was significantly reduced, which was confirmed by a reduced bending stiffness (-45%; p=0.029) and a smaller callus volume (-17%; p=0.039). We further demonstrated that C5a was activated in C3-/- mice, suggesting cleavage via extrinsic pathways. Our results suggest that the activation of the terminal complement cascade in particular may be crucial for successful fracture healing. PMID:24260573

Ehrnthaller, Christian; Huber-Lang, Markus; Nilsson, Per; Bindl, Ronny; Redeker, Simon; Recknagel, Stefan; Rapp, Anna; Mollnes, Tom; Amling, Michael; Gebhard, Florian; Ignatius, Anita

2013-01-01

317

The effect of lectins on Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst in vitro attachment to host cells.  

PubMed

The influence of lectins on Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst agglutination and on attachment to both fixed Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells and fixed HCT-8 (human colorectal epithelial) cells was examined. Oocyst cell wall characteristics were examined by transmission electron microscopy. Lectin-free oocysts were shown to adhere equally to both MDCK cells and HCT-8 cells. In MDCK cells, the addition of 1-25 microg/ml Codium fragile lectin, 10 microg/ml Maclura pomifera lectin, 10 microg/ml Helix pomatia lectin, and 10-200 microg/ml Artocarpus integrifolia lectin significantly increased attachment to at least 1 of the cell cultures as compared to oocysts incubated without any lectin. The lectin-enhanced attachment was reversed by co-incubation of lectin treated-oocysts with 250 mM of each specific sugar (for a given lectin). In agglutination assays, concentrations as low as 0.5 microg/ml of C. fragile, M. pomifera, and A. integrifolia lectin agglutinated oocysts within 60 min. Finally, in TEM samples, colloidal gold conjugated-lectins from A. integrifolia, C. fragile, H. pomatia, and M. pomifera attached to oocysts, and this could be competitively inhibited by a lectin-specific sugar. This suggests that C. parvum oocysts are highly reactive to N-acetyl galactosamine-binding lectins and that the presence of N-acetyl-galactosamine containing molecules on oocysts can potentially help in oocyst attachment to host cells. PMID:16629306

Stein, Barry; Stover, Larry; Gillem, Ashley; Winters, Katherine; Leet, John H; Chauret, Christian

2006-02-01

318

Cholesterol crystals induce complement-dependent inflammasome activation and cytokine release.  

PubMed

Inflammation is associated with development of atherosclerosis, and cholesterol crystals (CC) have long been recognized as a hallmark of atherosclerotic lesions. CC appear early in the atheroma development and trigger inflammation by NLRP3 inflammasome activation. In this study we hypothesized whether CC employ the complement system to activate inflammasome/caspase-1, leading to release of mature IL-1?, and whether complement activation regulates CC-induced cytokine production. In this study we describe that CC activated both the classical and alternative complement pathways, and C1q was found to be crucial for the activation. CC employed C5a in the release of a number of cytokines in whole blood, including IL-1? and TNF. CC induced minimal amounts of cytokines in C5-deficient whole blood, until reconstituted with C5. Furthermore, C5a and TNF in combination acted as a potent primer for CC-induced IL-1? release by increasing IL-1? transcripts. CC-induced complement activation resulted in upregulation of complement receptor 3 (CD11b/CD18), leading to phagocytosis of CC. Also, CC mounted a complement-dependent production of reactive oxygen species and active caspase-1. We conclude that CC employ the complement system to induce cytokines and activate the inflammasome/caspase-1 by regulating several cellular responses in human monocytes. In light of this, complement inhibition might be an interesting therapeutic approach for treatment of atherosclerosis. PMID:24554772

Samstad, Eivind O; Niyonzima, Nathalie; Nymo, Stig; Aune, Marie H; Ryan, Liv; Bakke, Siril S; Lappegĺrd, Knut T; Brekke, Ole-Lars; Lambris, John D; Damĺs, Jan K; Latz, Eicke; Mollnes, Tom E; Espevik, Terje

2014-03-15

319

Structure and Function of Mammalian Carbohydrate-Lectin Interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past three decades the field of glycobiology has expanded beyond a basic understanding of the structure and biosynthesis of glycoprotein, proteoglycans, and glycolipids toward a more detailed picture of how these molecules afford communication through binding to mammalian lectins. Although the number of different mammalian lectin domains appears to be finite and even much smaller than early estimates predicated based on the diversity of glycan structures, nature appears capable of using these in numerous combinations to fine tune specificity. The following provides an overview of the major classes of mammalian lectins and discusses their glycan binding specificity. The review provides a snapshot of the field of glycobiology that continues to grow providing an increasing number of examples of biological processes that rely upon glycan-lectin binding.

Anderson, Kevin; Evers, David; Rice, Kevin G.

320

21 CFR 864.9550 - Lectins and protectins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9550 Lectins and...

2011-04-01

321

21 CFR 864.9550 - Lectins and protectins.  

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9550 Lectins and...

2014-04-01

322

The anticarcinogenic potential of soybean lectin and lunasin.  

PubMed

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, generally exceeded only by cardiovascular disease in the developed world. The number of people diagnosed with cancer within the next few decades is expected to double. There will therefore be increased demand for novel diagnostic and medical therapies that use new non-traditional sources. Soybeans contain a variety of anticarcinogenic phytochemicals. Recently, there has been increased interest in the potential health benefits of bioactive polypeptides and proteins from soybeans, including lunasin and lectins. Lunasin is a polypeptide that arrests cell division and induces apoptosis in malignant cells. Lectins are glycoproteins that selectively bind carbohydrates; lectins are used in medicine in a variety of new applications. Additional research, including clinical trials, should continue to examine and elucidate the therapeutic effects, nutritional benefits, and toxic consequences of commonly ingested soybean lectins and lunasin. PMID:12918876

de Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez; Bradford, Traliece; Hasler, Clare

2003-07-01

323

Lectins stain cells differentially in the coral, Montipora capitata  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A limitation in our understanding of coral disease pathology and cellular pathogenesis is a lack of reagents to characterize coral cells. We evaluated the utility of plant lectins to stain tissues of a dominant coral, Montipora capitata, from Hawaii. Of 22 lectins evaluated, nine of these stained structures in the upper or basal body wall of corals. Specific structures revealed by lectins that were not considered distinct or evident on routine hematoxylin and eosin sections of coral tissues included apical and basal granules in gastrodermis and epidermis, cnidoglandular tract and actinopharynx cell surface membranes, capsules of mature holotrichous isorhizas, and perivitelline and periseminal cells. Plant lectins could prove useful to further our understanding of coral physiology, anatomy, cell biology, and disease pathogenesis.

Work, Thierry M.; Farah, Yael

2014-01-01

324

Molecular characterization of three L-type lectin genes from channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus and their responses to Edwardsiella ictaluri challenge.  

PubMed

L-type lectins have a leguminous lectin domain and can bind to high-mannose type oligosaccharides. In the secretory pathway, L-type lectins play crucial roles in selective protein trafficking, sorting and targeting. Three L-type lectins were cloned in the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, the 53 kDa endoplasmic reticulum ER-Golgi intermediate compartment protein (ERGIC-53), the vesicular integral protein of 36 kDa (VIP36) and VIP36-like. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the catfish genes are orthologous to their counterparts in other species. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that all three L-type lectin genes are likely single-copy genes in the catfish genome. Analysis of expression in healthy tissues using quantitative real time RT-PCR indicated that all three genes are expressed widely in all tested tissues, but with strong tissue preference of expression: ERGIC-53 was found to be abundantly expressed in the liver, VIP36 was found to be abundantly expressed in the head-kidney, whereas VIP36-like was found to be abundantly expressed in the brain. Upon infection with Edwardsiella ictaluri, expressions of the three genes all had significant up-regulation in the head-kidney, but had distinct expression patterns: ERGIC-53 was gradually induced with the highest expression 7 days after challenge in the head-kidney, but was down-regulated in the liver, spleen, and brain. VIP36 was highly induced in the head-kidney, and 3 days after challenge in the brain, but was not up-regulated in any other tissues or timepoints after challenge. Expression levels of the catfish VIP36-like gene appeared to also respond to infection, albeit with differing patterns among the tested tissues. Taken together, our results indicate that all three L-type lectin genes may be involved in the immune responses of catfish after infection with E. ictaluri. PMID:22245838

Zhang, Hao; Peatman, Eric; Liu, Hong; Feng, Tingting; Chen, Liqiao; Liu, Zhanjiang

2012-04-01

325

Vicia villosa Lectin Is a Mitogen for Mouse T Lymphocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mouse T lymphocytes cultured in the presence of Vicia villosa lectin, usually considered to be non-mitogenic, proliferate and produce interleukin-2. V. villosa-induced proliferation does not correlate with the cell ability to adhere to V. villosa-coated dishes, this is evident from the fact that either V. villosa-adherent or -nonadherent cells are equally sensitive to the mitogenic effect of the lectin. Furthermore,

Sergio Abrignani; Salvatore Cammisuli

1988-01-01

326

Lectin histochemistry of plaques and tangles in Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biotinyl derivatives of several lectins and avidin-horseradish peroxidase were used to study the localization of glycoconjugates in amyloid plaques and in neuritic tangles in brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), Downs syndrome (DS) and Gerstmann-Sträussler syndrome (GSS). The lectins tested recognize the following residues: ß-d-galactosyl [Ricinus communis agglutinin 120, (RCA-1) and peanut agglutinin, (PNA)]; a-d-galactosyl [Griffonia simplicifolia agglutinin (GSA)];

G. Szumanska; A. W. Vorbrodt; T. I. Mandybur; H. M. Wisniewski

1987-01-01

327

Fruit-specific lectins from banana and plantain  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  ?One of the predominant proteins in the pulp of ripe bananas (Musa acuminata L.) and plantains (Musa spp.) has been identified as a lectin. The banana and plantain agglutinins (called BanLec and PlanLec, respectively) were\\u000a purified in reasonable quantities using a novel isolation procedure, which prevented adsorption of the lectins onto insoluble\\u000a endogenous polysaccharides. Both BanLec and PlanLec are dimeric

Willy J. Peumans; Wenling Zhang; Annick Barre; Corinne Houlčs Astoul; Peter J. Balint-Kurti; Paula Rovira; Pierre Rougé; Gregory D. May; Fred Van Leuven; Paolo Truffa-Bachi; Els J. M. Van Damme

2000-01-01

328

Lectin cytochemical analysis of lacrimal pleomorphic adenomas.  

PubMed

The activity of seven different types of biotinylated lectin were examined in normal and tumorous lacrimal gland tissue. In the normal lacrimal gland tissue, the glandular cells and the tubular epithelium were labeled by maclura pomifera agglutinin (MPA), soybean agglutinin (SBA), and bauhinia purpurea agglutinin (BPA). The myoepithelial cells were stained by griffonia simplicifolia agglutinin 1 (GS1). In the primary pleomorphic adenoma tissue, the epithelial components were labeled by MPA, ulex europaeus agglutinin, SBA, peanut agglutinin, and BPA. The mesenchymal components showed negative labeling. In contrast, the recurrent pleomorphic adenoma tissue showed a positive reaction in the mesenchymal components when GS1 and BPA were used. These results revealed differences in the glycoconjugate composition among normal and tumorous lacrimal gland tissues from patients with primary and recurrent pleomorphic adenomas. PMID:9749863

Motegi, K; Ishikawa, M; Abe, T; Nakayama, R; Sakuragi, S

1998-01-01

329

A Molecular Switch Governs the Interaction between the Human Complement Protease C1s and Its Substrate, Complement C4*  

PubMed Central

The complement system is an ancient innate immune defense pathway that plays a front line role in eliminating microbial pathogens. Recognition of foreign targets by antibodies drives sequential activation of two serine proteases, C1r and C1s, which reside within the complement Component 1 (C1) complex. Active C1s propagates the immune response through its ability to bind and cleave the effector molecule complement Component 4 (C4). Currently, the precise structural and biochemical basis for the control of the interaction between C1s and C4 is unclear. Here, using surface plasmon resonance, we show that the transition of the C1s zymogen to the active form is essential for C1s binding to C4. To understand this, we determined the crystal structure of a zymogen C1s construct (comprising two complement control protein (CCP) domains and the serine protease (SP) domain). These data reveal that two loops (492–499 and 573–580) in the zymogen serine protease domain adopt a conformation that would be predicted to sterically abrogate C4 binding. The transition from zymogen to active C1s repositions both loops such that they would be able to interact with sulfotyrosine residues on C4. The structure also shows the junction of the CCP1 and CCP2 domains of C1s for the first time, yielding valuable information about the exosite for C4 binding located at this position. Together, these data provide a structural explanation for the control of the interaction with C1s and C4 and, furthermore, point to alternative strategies for developing therapeutic approaches for controlling activation of the complement cascade. PMID:23592783

Perry, Andrew J.; Wijeyewickrema, Lakshmi C.; Wilmann, Pascal G.; Gunzburg, Menachem J.; D'Andrea, Laura; Irving, James A.; Pang, Siew Siew; Duncan, Renee C.; Wilce, Jacqueline A.; Whisstock, James C.; Pike, Robert N.

2013-01-01

330

A molecular switch governs the interaction between the human complement protease C1s and its substrate, complement C4.  

PubMed

The complement system is an ancient innate immune defense pathway that plays a front line role in eliminating microbial pathogens. Recognition of foreign targets by antibodies drives sequential activation of two serine proteases, C1r and C1s, which reside within the complement Component 1 (C1) complex. Active C1s propagates the immune response through its ability to bind and cleave the effector molecule complement Component 4 (C4). Currently, the precise structural and biochemical basis for the control of the interaction between C1s and C4 is unclear. Here, using surface plasmon resonance, we show that the transition of the C1s zymogen to the active form is essential for C1s binding to C4. To understand this, we determined the crystal structure of a zymogen C1s construct (comprising two complement control protein (CCP) domains and the serine protease (SP) domain). These data reveal that two loops (492-499 and 573-580) in the zymogen serine protease domain adopt a conformation that would be predicted to sterically abrogate C4 binding. The transition from zymogen to active C1s repositions both loops such that they would be able to interact with sulfotyrosine residues on C4. The structure also shows the junction of the CCP1 and CCP2 domains of C1s for the first time, yielding valuable information about the exosite for C4 binding located at this position. Together, these data provide a structural explanation for the control of the interaction with C1s and C4 and, furthermore, point to alternative strategies for developing therapeutic approaches for controlling activation of the complement cascade. PMID:23592783

Perry, Andrew J; Wijeyewickrema, Lakshmi C; Wilmann, Pascal G; Gunzburg, Menachem J; D'Andrea, Laura; Irving, James A; Pang, Siew Siew; Duncan, Renee C; Wilce, Jacqueline A; Whisstock, James C; Pike, Robert N

2013-05-31

331

21 CFR 866.4100 - Complement reagent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4100 Complement reagent. (a)...

2011-04-01

332

21 CFR 866.4100 - Complement reagent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4100 Complement reagent. (a)...

2012-04-01

333

21 CFR 866.4100 - Complement reagent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4100 Complement reagent. (a)...

2010-04-01

334

21 CFR 866.4100 - Complement reagent.  

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4100 Complement reagent. (a)...

2014-04-01

335

21 CFR 866.4100 - Complement reagent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4100 Complement reagent. (a)...

2013-04-01

336

Complement anaphylatoxins as immune regulators in cancer  

PubMed Central

The role of the complement system in innate immunity is well characterized. However, a recent body of research implicates the complement anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a as insidious propagators of tumor growth and progression. It is now recognized that certain tumors elaborate C3a and C5a and that complement, as a mediator of chronic inflammation and regulator of immune function, may in fact foster rather than defend against tumor growth. A putative mechanism for this function is complement-mediated suppression of immune effector cells responsible for immunosurveillance within the tumor microenvironment. This paradigm accords with models of immune dysregulation, such as autoimmunity and infectious disease, which have defined a pathophysiological role for abnormal complement signaling. Several types of immune cells express the cognate receptors for the complement anaphylatoxins, C3aR and C5aR, and demonstrate functional modulation in response to complement stimulation. In turn, impairment of antitumor immunity has been intimately tied to tumor progression in animal models of cancer. In this article, the literature was systematically reviewed to identify studies that have characterized the effects of the complement anaphylatoxins on the composition and function of immune cells within the tumor microenvironment. The search identified six studies based upon models of lymphoma and ovarian, cervical, lung, breast, and mammary cancer, which collectively support the paradigm of complement as an immune regulator in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:24711204

Sayegh, Eli T; Bloch, Orin; Parsa, Andrew T

2014-01-01

337

Probing lectin-mucin interactions by isothermal titration microcalorimetry.  

PubMed

Isothermal titration microcalorimetry (ITC) can directly determine the thermodynamic binding parameters of biological molecules including affinity constant, binding stoichiometry, and heat of binding (enthalpy) and indirectly the entropy and free energy of binding. ITC has been extensively used to study the binding of lectins to mono- and oligosaccharides, but limited applications to lectin-glycoprotein interactions. Inherent experimental challenges to ITC include sample precipitation during the experiment and relative high amount of sample required, but careful design of experiments can minimize these problems and allow valuable information to be obtained. For example, the thermodynamics of binding of lectins to multivalent globular and linear glycoproteins (mucins) have been described. The results are consistent with a dynamic binding mechanism in which lectins bind and jump from carbohydrate to carbohydrate epitope in these molecules leading to increased affinity. Importantly, the mechanism of binding of lectins to mucins appears similar to that for a variety of protein ligands binding to DNA. Recent results also show that high affinity lectin-mucin cross-linking interactions are driven by favorable entropy of binding that is associated with the bind and jump mechanism. The results suggest that the binding of ligands to biopolymers, in general, may involve a common mechanism that involves enhanced entropic effects that facilitate binding interactions. PMID:25253134

Dam, Tarun K; Brewer, C Fred

2015-01-01

338

Antifungal activity of lectins against yeast of vaginal secretion  

PubMed Central

Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins of non-imune origin. This group of proteins is distributed widely in nature and they have been found in viruses, microorganisms, plants and animals. Lectins of plants have been isolated and characterized according to their chemical, physical-chemical, structural and biological properties. Among their biological activities, we can stress its fungicidal action. It has been previously described the effect of the lectins Dviol, DRL, ConBr and LSL obtained from the seeds of leguminous plants on the growth of yeasts isolated from vaginal secretions. In the present work the experiments were carried out in microtiter plates and the results interpreted by both methods: visual observations and a microplate reader at 530nm. The lectin concentrations varied from 0.5 to 256?g/mL, and the inoculum was established between 65-70% of trammitance. All yeast samples isolated from vaginal secretion were evaluated taxonomically, where were observed macroscopic and microscopic characteristics to each species. The LSL lectin did not demonstrate any antifungal activity to any isolate studied. The other lectins DRL, ConBr and DvioL, showed antifungal potential against yeast isolated from vaginal secretion. These findings offering offer a promising field of investigation to develop new therapeutic strategies against vaginal yeast infections, collaborating to improve women's health. PMID:24031889

Gomes, Bruno Severo; Siqueira, Ana Beatriz Sotero; de Cássia Carvalho Maia, Rita; Giampaoli, Viviana; Teixeira, Edson Holanda; Arruda, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa; do Nascimento, Kyria Santiago; de Lima, Adriana Nunes; Souza-Motta, Cristina Maria; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Porto, Ana Lúcia Figueiredo

2012-01-01

339

Lectin histochemistry to detect altered glycosylation in cells and tissues.  

PubMed

Lectins are naturally occurring carbohydrate-binding molecules. A very wide range of purified lectins are commercially available which exhibit a diversity of carbohydrate-binding preferences. They can be used in the laboratory to detect carbohydrate structures on, or in, cells and tissues in much the same way that purified antibodies can be employed to detect cell- or tissue-bound antigens using immunocytochemistry. As lectins can distinguish subtle alterations in cellular glycosylation, they are helpful in exploring the glycosylation changes that attend both transformation to malignancy and tumour progression. In this chapter, methodologies are given for appropriate preparation of many types of cell and tissue preparations, including cells cultured on coverslips (which can be used for live-cell imaging), cell smears, and frozen (cryostat) and fixed, paraffin wax-embedded tissue sections. Heat- and enzyme-based carbohydrate retrieval methods are covered. Basic detection methods, which can be readily adapted to the researcher's needs, are given for direct (labelled lectin), simple indirect (labelled secondary antibody directed against the lectin), and avidin-biotin (biotinylated lectin) and avidin-biotin complex. The use of both the enzyme label, horseradish peroxidase, and fluorescent labels is considered. PMID:22674124

Brooks, Susan A; Hall, Debbie M S

2012-01-01

340

CD14 Targets Complement Receptor 3 to Lipid Rafts during Phagocytosis of Borrelia burgdorferi  

PubMed Central

Phagocytosis of Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, is mediated partly by the interaction of the spirochete with Complement Receptor (CR) 3. CR3 requires the GPI-anchored protein, CD14, in order to efficiently internalize CR3-B. burgdorferi complexes. GPI-anchored proteins reside in cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains, and through its interaction with partner proteins, help initiate signaling cascades. Here, we investigated the role of CD14 on the internalization of B. burgdorferi mediated by CR3. We show that CR3 partly colocalizes with CD14 in lipid rafts. The use of the cholesterol-sequestering compound methyl-?-cyclodextran completely prevents the internalization of the spirochete in CHO cells that co-express CD14 and CR3, while no effect was observed in CD11b-deficient macrophages. These results show that lipid rafts are required for CR3-dependent, but not independent, phagocytosis of B. burgdorferi. Our results also suggest that CD14 interacts with the C-lectin domain of CR3, favoring the formation of multi-complexes that allow their internalization, and the use of ?-glucan, a known ligand for the C-lectin domain of CR3, can compensate for the lack of CD14 in CHO cells that express CR3. These results provide evidence to understand the mechanisms that govern the interaction between CR3 and CD14 during the phagocytosis of B. burgdorferi. PMID:23983613

Hawley, Kelly L.; Martín-Ruiz, Itziar; Iglesias-Pedraz, Juan M.; Berwin, Brent; Anguita, Juan

2013-01-01

341

Lectin-enzyme immunoassay of transferrin sialovariants using immobilized antitransferrin and enzyme-labeled galactose-binding lectin from Ricinus communis.  

PubMed

A heterologous lectin-enzyme immunoassay is described. Microtiter plate wells were coated with affinity-purified antibodies to human transferrin. After incubation with transferrin sialovariants, prepared by limited neuraminidase treatment and separated with chromatofocusing, a lectin-enzyme-streptavidin complex was added. A good correlation was obtained between the number of terminal galactose groups on transferrin and the response in the lectin-enzyme immunoassay using Ricinus communis agglutinin as the galactose-binding lectin. The results indicate that characterization of glycosylation is possible with less than a microgram of the glycoprotein available, using lectin-enzyme immunoassays. PMID:3322101

Pekelharing, J M; Vissers, P; Peters, H A; Leijnse, B

1987-09-01

342

Functionally active complement is present in human ovarian follicular fluid and can be activated by seminal plasma.  

PubMed Central

Human ovarian preovulatory follicular fluids (FF) from 10 women were analysed for their complement contents. Functionally active complement was detected in all the fluids studied in amounts similar to those present in normal human serum. Pooled FF was challenged by seminal plasma in order to determine whether seminal plasma could activate FF complement, the pattern of such an activation and the possible consequences on the reproductive function. FF complement activation occurred during the incubation with seminal plasma with features including alternative pathway activation, factor B and C3 conversion and reduction in total haemolytic complement, as well as an inhibition by seminal plasma of the FF complement response to a new activating challenge. Possible consequences for fertilization, implantation of a fertilized ovum and local defence mechanisms against viruses and bacteria are discussed. PMID:1628423

Perricone, R; Pasetto, N; De Carolis, C; Vaquero, E; Piccione, E; Baschieri, L; Fontana, L

1992-01-01

343

Evolution of the complement system in protostomes revealed by de novo transcriptome analysis of six species of Arthropoda.  

PubMed

To elucidate the evolutionary history of the complement system in Arthropoda, de novo transcriptome analysis was performed with six species among the Chelicerata, Myriapoda, and Crustacea, and complement genes were identified based on their characteristic domain structures. Complement C3 and factor B (FB) were identified from a sea spider, a jumping spider, and a centipede, but not from a sea firefly or two millipede species. No additional complement components identifiable by their characteristic domain structures were found from any of these six species. These results together with genome sequence information for several species of the Hexapoda suggest that the common ancestor of the Arthropoda possessed a simple complement system comprising C3 and FB, and thus resembled the alternative pathway of the mammalian complement system. It was lost at least twice independently during the evolution of Arthropoda in the millipede lineage and in the common ancestor of Crustacea and Hexapoda. PMID:25530095

Sekiguchi, Reo; Nonaka, Masaru

2015-05-01

344

Comprehensive lectin histochemistry of normal and neoplastic human choroid plexus cells: alternation of lectin-binding patterns through neoplastic transformation.  

PubMed

Lectin histochemistry of the normal and neoplastic human choroid plexus cells [six choroid plexus papillomas (CPPs) and three choroid plexus carcinomas (CPCs)] was performed using eight representative lectins to study the development of sugar chain structures and also to determine whether lectins were useful for a histopathological diagnosis of choroid plexus neoplasms (CPNs). The normal choroid plexus cells reacted with Ricinus communis (RCA-I). Canavalia ensiformis (Con A), Limax flavus (LFA) and Triticum vulgaris (WGA), while Arachis hypoaea (PNA) stained them only after the removal of sialic acid. Human fetal choroid plexus cells at 8 weeks gestation already showed the same lectin-binding patterns as adult ones. All CPNs were stained by RCA-I and Con A in a similar manner as the normal choroid plexus cells. Although seven CPNs were positive for LFA, two CPCs were not stained by LFA, which bound to sialic acid. Two LFA-positive CPPs were stained by PNA before the removal of sialic acid. Moreover, unlike the normal choroid plexus cells, Ulex europaeus-, Glycine maximus- and Dolichos biflorus-binding sites often appeared, and WGA-binding sites of three CPNs remained even after sialic acid removal. In conclusion, the glycosialylation in normal choroid plexus cells was completed during the early embryonic stage. The lectin-binding patterns of CPNs were heterogenous in each case. The alternation of the glycosialylation and/or acquisition of binding sites for some lectins was sometimes observed through a neoplastic transformation. PMID:1927268

Kaneko, Y; Iwaki, T; Matsushima, T; Fukui, M

1991-01-01

345

Cytolysis of Sendai virus-infected guinea-pig cells by homologous complement.  

PubMed Central

Guinea-pig line 10 tumor (GPL10) cells, which were transplantable in strain 2 guinea-pigs, gained the capacity to activate the homologous alternative complement pathway (ACP) following infection with ultraviolet-irradiated Sendai virus (UV-SV). The ACP activation of homologous serum on the UV-SV-infected GPL10 cells (UV-SV-GPL10 cells) resulted in cytolysis of the tumor cells. This indicates that UV-SV infection induced not only the capacity to activate complement on the GPL10 cells, but also made them sensitive to complement attack, because GPL10 cells have been demonstrated to be resistant to the reaction of homologous complement via the classical pathway in the presence of rabbit antibody. Furthermore, UV-SV-GPL10 cells prepared with as little as 0.1 plaque-forming unit equivalent of UV-SV per cell showed suppressed growth in syngeneic strain 2 guinea-pigs. The essential role of complement in the elimination of UV-SV-GPL10 cells in vivo was confirmed by demonstrating that UV-SV-GPL10 could grow in guinea-pigs whose complement had been depleted by administration of cobra venom factor. PMID:6301976

Okada, H; Tanaka, H; Okada, N

1983-01-01

346

THE VOLUME OF HYPERBOLIC ALTERNATING LINK COMPLEMENTS  

E-print Network

THE VOLUME OF HYPERBOLIC ALTERNATING LINK COMPLEMENTS MARC LACKENBY with an appendix by Ian Agol volume ­ can be estimated directly from its alternating diagram. A bigon region in a link diagram is the following rather surprising result, which asserts that the link complement's hyperbolic volume is, up

Lackenby, Marc

347

THE VOLUME OF HYPERBOLIC ALTERNATING LINK COMPLEMENTS  

E-print Network

THE VOLUME OF HYPERBOLIC ALTERNATING LINK COMPLEMENTS MARC LACKENBY with an appendix by Ian Agol volume - can be estimated directly from its alternating diagram. A bigon region in a link diagram is the following rather surprising result, which asserts that the link complement's hyperbolic volume is, up

Lackenby, Marc

348

The role of complement in innate, adaptive and eosinophil-dependent immunity to the nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis.  

PubMed

Complement may be important for immunity to infection with parasitic helminths, by promoting the recruitment of leukocytes to infected tissues and by modulating the function of cytotoxic effector leukocytes. However, the importance of complement in vivo during helminth infection is poorly understood. In this study, mice lacking classical (C1q-deficient), alternative (factor B-deficient) or all pathways of complement activation (C3-deficient) were used to assess the role of complement in immunity to the nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Double-mutant complement-deficient/IL-5 transgenic (Tg) mice were used to determine if complement is required for the strong eosinophil-dependent resistance to this parasite. Complement activation on larvae (C3 deposition), extracellular eosinophil peroxidase activity, larval aggregation and eosinophil recruitment to the skin 30 min post-injection (p.i.) of larvae were reduced in factor B-deficient mice. Inhibition of the C5a receptor with the antagonist PMX53 impaired eosinophil and neutrophil recruitment to the skin. C3 deposition on larvae was minimal by 150 min p.i. and at this time cell adherence, larval aggregation, eosinophil recruitment and degranulation were complement-independent. Factor B and C3 deficiency were associated with higher lung larval burdens in primary infections. Complement-deficient/IL-5 Tg mice were highly resistant to N. brasiliensis, suggesting that eosinophils can limit infection in a complement-independent manner. Potent secondary immunity was similarly complement-independent. In conclusion, although the alternative pathway is important for parasite recognition and leukocyte recruitment early in N. brasiliensis infections, the parasite soon becomes resistant to complement and other factors can compensate to promote eosinophil-dependent immunity. PMID:17675237

Giacomin, Paul R; Gordon, David L; Botto, Marina; Daha, Mohamed R; Sanderson, Sam D; Taylor, Stephen M; Dent, Lindsay A

2008-01-01

349

Activated complement components and complement activator molecules on the surface of cell?derived microparticles in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and healthy individuals  

PubMed Central

Objectives In vitro, microparticles can activate complement via the classical pathway. If demonstrable ex vivo, this mechanism may contribute to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We therefore investigated the presence of activated complement components and complement activator molecules on the surface of cell?derived microparticles of RA patients and healthy individuals. Methods Microparticles from synovial fluid (n?=?8) and plasma (n?=?9) of 10 RA patients and plasma of sex? and age?matched healthy individuals (n?=?10) were analysed by flow cytometry for bound complement components (C1q, C4, C3) and complement activator molecules (C?reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid P component (SAP), immunoglobulin (Ig) M, IgG). Results Microparticles with bound C1q, C4, and/or C3 were abundant in RA synovial fluid, while in RA and control plasma much lower levels were present. Microparticles with bound C1q correlated with those with bound C3 in synovial fluid (r?=?0.961, p?=?0.0001), and with those with bound C4 in plasma (RA: r?=?0.908, p?=?0.0007; control: r?=?0.632, p?=?0.0498), indicating classical pathway activation. In synovial fluid, microparticles with IgM and IgG correlated with those with C1q (r?=?0.728, p?=?0.0408; r?=?0.952, p?=?0.0003, respectively), and in plasma, microparticles with CRP correlated with those with C1q (RA: r?=?0.903, p?=?0.0021; control: r?=?0.683, p?=?0.0296), implicating IgG and IgM in the classical pathway activation in RA synovial fluid, and CRP in the low level classical pathway activation in plasma. Conclusions This study demonstrates the presence of bound complement components and activator molecules on microparticles ex vivo, and supports their role in low grade complement activation in plasma and increased complement activation in RA synovial fluid. PMID:17261534

Biró, Éva; Nieuwland, Rienk; Tak, Paul P; Pronk, Loes M; Schaap, Marianne C L; Sturk, Augueste; Hack, C Erik

2007-01-01

350

Modulation of acute inflammation by a chitin-binding lectin from Araucaria angustifolia seeds via mast cells.  

PubMed

The effects of a lectin (AaL) from seeds of Araucaria angustifolia were investigated in the model of rat paw edema. In vivo anti-and pro-inflammatory activities, role of sugar residues, inflammatory mediators and systemic toxicity were assessed. Intravenous injection of AaL (0.1-1 mg/kg) dose-dependently inhibited the dextran-induced increase in edema and vascular permeability, which were prevented by association of the lectin with its binding sugar N-acetyl-glucosamine (Glyc-Nac). AaL also significantly inhibited edema induced by serotonin (18%) and compound 48/80 (33%), but not edema induced by histamine. In contrast, when applied by the s.c. route, AaL evoked a paw edema that peaked 1 h later and was partially prevented by association with Glyc-Nac (59%) or by prior i.v. administration of the lectin itself (38.8%). This AaL edematogenic activity was significantly inhibited by pentoxifylline (44.4%) or dexamethasone (51%) and also by depletion of rat paw mast cells (45.6%), but not by L-N-nitro-arginine methyl ester or indomethacin, excluding involvement of nitric oxide and prostaglandins. Treatment of animals with a single anti-inflammatory dose of AaL (1 mg/kg, i.v.) for 7 days did not affect rat corporal mass, liver, kidney, spleen or stomach wet weight, blood leukocyte count, and urea, creatinine or serum transaminase activity. Systemic toxicity was apparent only at much higher doses (LD50=88.3 mg/kg) than those required for the anti-inflammatory effect. Summarizing, AaL exerts anti-and pro-edematogenic actions via interaction with its specific lectin domain. These actions may share a common pathway involving either activation or inhibition of inflammatory mediators from resident mast cells. PMID:16957941

Mota, Mário R L; Criddle, David N; Alencar, Nylane M N; Gomes, Raphaela C; Meireles, Ana V P; Santi-Gadelha, Tatiane; Gadelha, Carlos A A; Oliveira, Cecília C; Benevides, Raquel G; Cavada, Benildo S; Assreuy, Ana M S

2006-10-01

351

Use of labeled tomato lectin for imaging vasculature structures.  

PubMed

Intravascular injections of fluorescent or biotinylated tomato lectin were tested to study labeling of vascular elements in laboratory mice. Injections of Lycopersicon esculentum agglutinin (tomato lectin) (50-100 µg/100 µl) were made intravascularly, through the tail vein, through a cannula implanted in the jugular vein, or directly into the left ventricle of the heart. Tissues cut for thin 10- to 12-µm cryostat sections, or thick 50- to 100-µm vibratome sections, were examined using fluorescence microscopy. Tissue labeled by biotinylated lectin was examined by bright field microscopy or electron microscopy after tissue processing for biotin. Intravascular injections of tomato lectin led to labeling of vascular structures in a variety of tissues, including brain, kidney, liver, intestine, spleen, skin, skeletal and cardiac muscle, and experimental tumors. Analyses of fluorescence in serum indicated the lectin was cleared from circulating blood within 2 min. Capillary labeling was apparent in tissues collected from animals within 1 min of intravascular injections, remained robust for about 1 h, and then declined markedly until difficult to detect 12 h after injection. Light microscopic images suggest the lectin bound to the endothelial cells that form capillaries and endothelial cells that line some larger vessels. Electron microscopic studies confirmed the labeling of luminal surfaces of endothelial cells. Vascular labeling by tomato lectin is compatible with a variety of other morphological labeling techniques, including histochemistry and immunocytochemistry, and thus appears to be a sensitive and useful method to reveal vascular patterns in relationship to other aspects of parenchymal development, structure, and function. PMID:25534591

Robertson, Richard T; Levine, Samantha T; Haynes, Sherry M; Gutierrez, Paula; Baratta, Janie L; Tan, Zhiqun; Longmuir, Kenneth J

2015-02-01

352

Lectin-like molecules in transcriptome of Littorina littorea hemocytes.  

PubMed

The common periwinkle Littorina littorea was introduced in the list of models for comparative immunobiology as a representative of phylogenetically important taxon Caenogastropoda. Using Illumina sequencing technology, we de novo assembled the transcriptome of Littorina littorea hemocytes from 182 million mRNA-Seq pair-end 100?bp reads into a total of 15,526 contigs clustered in 4472 unigenes. The transcriptome profile was analyzed for presence of carbohydrate-binding molecules in a variety of architectural contexts. Hemocytes' repertoire of lectin-like proteins bearing conserved carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs) is highly diversified, including 11 of 15 lectin families earlier described in animals, as well as the novel members of lectin family found for the first time in mollusc species. The new molluscan lineage-specific domain combinations were confirmed by cloning and sequencing, including the fuco-lectin related molecules (FLReMs) composed of N-terminal region with no sequence homology to any known protein, a middle Fucolectin Tachylectin-4 Pentaxrin (FTP) domain, and a C-terminal epidermal growth factor (EGF) repeat region. The repertoire of lectin-like molecules is discussed in terms of their potential participation in the receptor phase of immune response. In total, immune-associated functions may be attributed to 70 transcripts belonging to 6 lectin families. These lectin-like genes show low overlap between species of invertebrates, suggesting relatively rapid evolution of immune-associated genes in the group. The repertoire provides valuable candidates for further characterization of the gene functions in mollusc immunity. PMID:25451301

Gorbushin, Alexander M; Borisova, Elena A

2015-01-01

353

Role of complement in host-microbe homeostasis of the periodontium  

PubMed Central

Complement plays a key role in immunity and inflammation through direct effects on immune cells or via crosstalk and regulation of other host signaling pathways. Deregulation of these finely balanced complement activities can link infection to inflammatory tissue damage. Periodontitis is a polymicrobial community-induced chronic inflammatory disease that can destroy the tooth-supporting tissues. In this review, we summarize and discuss evidence that complement is involved in the dysbiotic transformation of the periodontal microbiota and in the inflammatory process that leads to the destruction of periodontal bone. Recent insights into the mechanisms of complement involvement in periodontitis have additionally provided likely targets for therapeutic intervention against this oral disease. PMID:23684627

Hajishengallis, George; Abe, Toshiharu; Maekawa, Tomoki; Hajishengallis, Evlambia; Lambris, John D.

2013-01-01

354

Recurrence of dense deposits in transplanted kidney: II. Serum complement and nephritic factor profiles.  

PubMed

Dense deposit disease of the kidney is a rare form of chronic glomerulonephritis frequently associated with serum complement abnormalities (low C3 levels) and a circulating C3 convertase activator of the alternative pathway, the C3 nephritic factor (NF). Eleven patients with end-stage dense deposit disease underwent kidney transplantation. Of the 11, 7 had pretransplant low C3 and NF. In the posttransplant period, persisting low C3 levels were associated with persisting NF, although not quantitatively so. The original glomerular lesion recurred in the graft within 6 months in 9 of 11. Of these 9, 2 had no complement abnormalities either prior to or after transplantation. Pretransplant complement abnormalities were rapidly corrected in 4 of 7 patients whether or not recurrence of the original lesion occurred. Thus, serum complement profiles before and after transplantation are neither predictive nor indicative of recurrence. PMID:390216

Leibowitch, J; Halbwachs, L; Wattel, S; Gaillard, M H; Droz, D

1979-04-01

355

Structural basis for sialic acid-mediated self-recognition by complement factor H.  

PubMed

The serum protein complement factor H (FH) ensures downregulation of the complement alternative pathway, a branch of innate immunity, upon interaction with specific glycans on host cell surfaces. Using ligand-based NMR, we screened a comprehensive set of sialylated glycans for binding to FH and solved the crystal structure of a ternary complex formed by the two C-terminal domains of FH, a sialylated trisaccharide and the complement C3b thioester-containing domain. Key residues in the sialic acid binding site are conserved from mice to men, and residues linked to atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome cluster within this binding site, suggesting a possible role for sialic acid as a host marker also in other mammals and a critical role in human renal complement homeostasis. Unexpectedly, the FH sialic acid binding site is structurally homologous to the binding sites of two evolutionarily unrelated proteins. The crystal structure also advances our understanding of bacterial immune evasion strategies. PMID:25402769

Blaum, Bärbel S; Hannan, Jonathan P; Herbert, Andrew P; Kavanagh, David; Uhrín, Dušan; Stehle, Thilo

2015-01-01

356

In vitro and in vivo changes in human complement caused by silage.  

PubMed Central

Aqueous extracts of silage samples from four farms in up-state New York were reacted in vitro with normal human serum. Hemolytic levels of complement component C3 were consumed in a dose-dependent fashion, and the four extracts differed in their relative activity rankings. Studies with chelated serum indicate that the alternative complement pathway is involved in the activation, and the active fragment C3b was demonstrated. Serum levels of hemolytic C3 and C4 in vivo were quantified before and after farmers performed their normal silo unloading operations. Although the study groups were small, suggestive evidence of in vivo complement consumption was found. IgE-related allergy did not appear to be of significance to the study groups. Complement activation may be an initiator of or contributor to adverse reactions in farmers who are exposed to airborne silage dusts. Images FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. PMID:3709488

Olenchock, S A; May, J J; Pratt, D S; Lewis, D M; Mull, J C; Stallones, L

1986-01-01

357

Multiplex profiling of glycoproteins using a novel bead-based lectin array.  

PubMed

Lectin array is becoming important in profiling targeted glycan/glycoprotein, but weak interaction between lectin and glycan causes low sensitivity of the approach. This study aims to develop a bead-based lectin array for improving the sensitivity of glycosylation profiling. Lectins are chemically coupled to fluorescent dye coated microbeads, and glycan-lectin recognition is carried out three dimensionally. The performance of this platform was evaluated, and the LOD of lectin Ricinus communis agglutinin 120 (RCA120) was 50 pg/mL (1 pM) of asialofetuin, providing the bead-based lectin microarray with the highest sensitivity among the reported lectin microarrays. Furthermore, multiplexed assay was performed, which allowed the simultaneous detection of multiple carbohydrate epitopes in a single reaction vessel. The glycosylation patterns of hepatocellular carcinoma associated immunoglobulin G were analyzed, and increased (?-1,6) core fucosylation and (?-2,6) sialylation patterns were observed, which may provide significant clinical evidence for disease diagnosis. PMID:24243643

Wang, Hong; Li, Hong; Zhang, Wei; Wei, Liming; Yu, Hongxiu; Yang, Pengyuan

2014-01-01

358

Transorganellar complementation redefines the biochemical continuity of endoplasmic reticulum and chloroplasts  

PubMed Central

Tocopherols are nonpolar compounds synthesized and localized in plastids but whose genetic elimination specifically impacts fatty acid desaturation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), suggesting a direct interaction with ER-resident enzymes. To functionally probe for such interactions, we developed transorganellar complementation, where mutated pathway activities in one organelle are experimentally tested for substrate accessibility and complementation by active enzymes retargeted to a companion organelle. Mutations disrupting three plastid-resident activities in tocopherol and carotenoid synthesis were complemented from the ER in this fashion, demonstrating transorganellar access to at least seven nonpolar, plastid envelope-localized substrates from the lumen of the ER, likely through plastid:ER membrane interaction domains. The ability of enzymes in either organelle to access shared, nonpolar plastid metabolite pools redefines our understanding of the biochemical continuity of the ER and chloroplast with profound implications for the integration and regulation of organelle-spanning pathways that synthesize nonpolar metabolites in plants. PMID:23818635

Mehrshahi, Payam; Stefano, Giovanni; Andaloro, Joshua Michael; Brandizzi, Federica; Froehlich, John E.; DellaPenna, Dean

2013-01-01

359

Burkholderia pseudomallei activates complement and is ingested but not killed by polymorphonuclear leukocytes.  

PubMed

The mechanism by which Burkholderia pseudomallei is resistant to lysis by human serum is unknown but may include interference with complement activation, effective opsonization, or complement-mediated lysis. We investigated the interaction of B. pseudomallei with complement in the presence and absence of specific antibody to determine potential mechanisms of serum resistance. We demonstrated rapid activation and consumption of complement by B. pseudomallei which, in the absence of specific antibody, occurred predominantly via the alternative pathway. Complement activation was associated with deposition of the opsonically active C3b and iC3b fragments on the bacterial surface. C5b-9, detected on the bacterial surface after opsonic periods of 1 to 60 min, was susceptible to elution by 1 M NaCl, indicating that resistance to complement-mediated lysis may result from deposition of the membrane attack complex in a nonmicrobicidal location. To define the role of opsonins, we investigated the ability of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) to phagocytose B. pseudomallei. Phagocytosis of bacteria by PMNL, and the observed oxidative response, was significantly increased by opsonization of organisms with complement and/or specific antibody. Despite opsonophagocytosis by PMNL and the production of an oxidative response, no significant bacterial killing was observed. PMID:8945532

Egan, A M; Gordon, D L

1996-12-01

360

Burkholderia pseudomallei activates complement and is ingested but not killed by polymorphonuclear leukocytes.  

PubMed Central

The mechanism by which Burkholderia pseudomallei is resistant to lysis by human serum is unknown but may include interference with complement activation, effective opsonization, or complement-mediated lysis. We investigated the interaction of B. pseudomallei with complement in the presence and absence of specific antibody to determine potential mechanisms of serum resistance. We demonstrated rapid activation and consumption of complement by B. pseudomallei which, in the absence of specific antibody, occurred predominantly via the alternative pathway. Complement activation was associated with deposition of the opsonically active C3b and iC3b fragments on the bacterial surface. C5b-9, detected on the bacterial surface after opsonic periods of 1 to 60 min, was susceptible to elution by 1 M NaCl, indicating that resistance to complement-mediated lysis may result from deposition of the membrane attack complex in a nonmicrobicidal location. To define the role of opsonins, we investigated the ability of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) to phagocytose B. pseudomallei. Phagocytosis of bacteria by PMNL, and the observed oxidative response, was significantly increased by opsonization of organisms with complement and/or specific antibody. Despite opsonophagocytosis by PMNL and the production of an oxidative response, no significant bacterial killing was observed. PMID:8945532

Egan, A M; Gordon, D L

1996-01-01

361

Polyanion-Induced Self Association of Complement Factor H1  

PubMed Central

Factor H is the primary soluble regulator of activation of the alternative pathway of complement. It prevents activation of complement on host cells and tissues upon association with C3b and surface polyanions such as sialic acids, heparin and other glycosaminoglycans. Here we show that interaction with polyanions causes self-association forming tetramers of the 155,000 Da glycosylated protein. Monomeric human factor H is an extended flexible protein that exhibits an apparent size of 330,000 Da, relative to globular standards, during gel filtration chromatography in the absence of polyanions. In the presence of dextran sulfate (5,000 Da) or heparin an intermediate species of apparent m.w. 700,000 and a limit species of m.w. 1,400,000 were observed by gel filtration. Sedimentation equilibrium analysis by analytical ultracentrifugation indicated a monomer Mr of 163,000 in the absence of polyanions and a Mr of 607,000, corresponding to a tetramer, in the presence of less than a 2-fold molar excess of dextran sulfate. Increasing concentrations of dextran sulfate increased binding of factor H to zymosan-C3b 4.5-fold. This was accompanied by an increase in both the decay accelerating and cofactor activity of factor H on these cells. An expressed fragment encompassing the C-terminal polyanion binding site (complement control protein domains 18–20) also exhibited polyanion-induced self association, suggesting that the C-terminal ends of factor H mediate self-association. The results suggest that recognition of polyanionic markers on host cells and tissues by factor H, and the resulting regulation of complement activation, may involve formation of dimers and tetramers of factor H. PMID:19124749

Pangburn, Michael K.; Rawal, Nenoo; Cortes, Claudio; Alam, M. Nurul; Ferreira, Viviana P.; Atkinson, Mark A. L.

2008-01-01

362

Murine Gammaherpesvirus 68 Encodes a Functional Regulator of Complement Activation  

PubMed Central

Sequence analysis of the murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (?HV68) genome revealed an open reading frame (gene 4) which is homologous to a family of proteins known as the regulators of complement activation (RCA proteins) (H. W. Virgin, P. Latreille, P. Wamsley, K. Hallsworth, K. E. Weck, A. J. Dal Canto, and S. H. Speck, J. Virol. 71:5894–5904, 1997). The predicted gene 4 product has homology to other virally encoded RCA homologs, as well as to the complement-regulatory proteins decay-accelerating factor and membrane cofactor protein. Analyses by Northern blotting and rapid amplification of cDNA ends revealed that gene 4 is transcribed as a 5.2-kb bicistronic transcript of the late kinetic class. Three ?HV68 RCA protein isoforms (60 to 65 kDa, 50 to 55 kDa, and 40 to 45 kDa) were detected by Western blotting of infected murine NIH 3T12 fibroblast cells. A soluble 40- to 45-kDa isoform was detected in the supernatants of virally infected cells. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the ?HV68 RCA protein was expressed on the surfaces of infected cells. Supernatants from virally infected cells contained an activity that inhibited murine complement activation as measured by inhibition of C3 deposition on activated zymosan particles. Recombinant ?HV68 RCA protein, containing the four conserved short consensus repeats, inhibited murine C3 deposition on zymosan via both classical and alternative pathways and inhibited deposition of human C3 on activated zymosan particles. Expression of this inhibitor of complement activation, both at the cell surface and in the fluid phase, may be important for ?HV68 pathogenesis via the inhibition of innate and adaptive immunity. PMID:10438856

Kapadia, Sharookh B.; Molina, Hector; van Berkel, Victor; Speck, Samuel H.; Virgin, Herbert W.

1999-01-01

363

The effects of natural and hybrid lectins on the legume-rhizobium interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of hybrid lectins—full-sized pea Pisum sativum lectin (PSL) with the carbohydrate-binding region of white melilot Melilotus albus lectin or wild licorice Astragalus glycyphyllos lectin substituted for the corresponding PSL region (PSL\\/MAL and PSL\\/AGL, correspondingly)—on the legume-rhizobium symbiosis\\u000a were studied. The treatment of the Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae in the alfalfa (Medicago sativa) rhizosphere with PSL induced formation of

Al. Kh. Baimiev; I. I. Gubaidullin; An. Kh. Baimiev; A. V. Chemeris

2009-01-01

364

Complement as effector system in cancer immunotherapy.  

PubMed

The contribution of the complement system to the control of tumour growth has been neglected for a long time as the major emphasis has been put mainly on cell-mediated immune response against cancer. With the introduction of monoclonal antibodies in cancer immunotherapy complement has come into play with a great potential as effector system. Complement has a number of advantages over other effector systems in that it is made of molecules that can easily penetrate the tumour tissue and a large majority, if not all, of the components of this system can be supplied locally by many cells at tissue site. Further advances are being made to increase the anti-tumour efficiency of the complements system using C-fixing antibodies that are modified in the Fc portion to be more active in complement activation. Another strategy currently investigated is essentially based on the use of a combination of two antibodies directed against different molecules or different epitopes of the same molecule expressed on the cell surface in order to increase the number of the binding sites for the antibodies on the tumor cells and the chance for them to activate complement more efficiently. One of the problems to solve in exploiting complement as an effector system in cancer immunotherapy is to neutralize the inhibitory effect of complement regulatory proteins which are often over-expressed on tumour cells and represent a mechanism of evasion of these cells from complement attack. This situation can be overcome using neutralizing antibodies to target onto tumour cells together with the specific antibodies directed against tumor specific antigens. This is an area of active investigation and the initial data that start to be available from animal models seem to be promising. PMID:17572509

Macor, Paolo; Tedesco, Francesco

2007-07-31

365

Community-Based Network Study of Protein-Carbohydrate Interactions in Plant Lectins Using Glycan  

E-print Network

Community-Based Network Study of Protein- Carbohydrate Interactions in Plant Lectins Using Glycan lectins and their interacting carbohydrates by using community-based analysis of a lectin-carbohydrate functional groups. Citation: Malik A, Lee J, Lee J (2014) Community-Based Network Study of Protein-Carbohydrate

Lee, Jooyoung

366

Lectin binding to the porcine and human ileal receptor of intrinsic factor-cobalamin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purified porcine recpptor for the intrinsic factor-cobalamin complex bound to concanavalin A, lentil lectin and wheat germ lectin covalently coupled to Sepharose and was eluted with the corresponding soluble sugars. In contrast, human intrinsic factor bound efficiently to concanavalin A, to some extent to lentil lectin, but only slightly to wheat germ agglutinin. The binding of IF-Cbl to the

O Jokinen; J L Guéant; H Schohn; R Gräsbeck

1989-01-01

367

Cloning and characterization of the lectin cDNA clones from onion, shallot and leek  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characterization of the lectins from onion (Allium cepa), shallot (A. ascalonicum) and leek (A. porrum) has shown that these lectins differ from previously isolated Alliaceae lectins not only in their molecular structure but also in their ability to inhibit retrovirus infection of target cells.

Els J. M. Damme; Koen Smeets; Iris Engelborghs; Helen Aelbers; Jan Balzarini; Arpad Pusztai; Fred Leuven; Irwin J. Goldstein; Willy J. Peumans

1993-01-01

368

Histological and lectin histochemical studies on the olfactory and respiratory mucosae of the sheep.  

PubMed

The olfactory and respiratory mucosae of the Corriedale sheep were examined using lectin histochemistry in order to clarify the histochemical and glycohistochemical differences between these two tissues. The olfactory epithelium was stained with 13 lectins out of 21 lectins examined, while the respiratory epithelium was positive to 16 lectins. The free border of both of the olfactory and respiratory epithelia was stained with 12 lectins: Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), succinylated-wheat germ agglutinin (s-WGA), Lycopersicon esculentum lectin (LEL), Solanum tuberosum lectin (STL), Datura stramonium lectin (DSL), Soybean agglutinin (SBA), Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin-I (BSL-I), Ricinus communis agglutinin-I (RCA-120), Erythrina cristagalli lectin (ECL), Concanavalin A (Con A), Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin-E (PHA-E) and Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin-L (PHA-L). The associated glands of the olfactory mucosa, Bowman's glands, were stained with 13 lectins. While both the goblet cells and mucous nasal glands were stained with 8 lectins; five of them (WGA, s-WGA, STL, Vicia villosa agglutinin (VVA) and ECL) were mutually positive among the Bowman's glands, mucous nasal glands and the goblet cells. These findings indicate that the glycohistochemical characteristics of the free borders of both olfactory and respiratory epithelia are similar to each other, suggesting that secretions from the Bowman's glands and those of the goblet cells and mucous nasal glands are partially exchanged between the surface of two epithelia to contribute the functions of the respiratory epithelium and the olfactory receptor cells, respectively. PMID:24200894

Ibrahim, Dalia; Nakamuta, Nobuaki; Taniguchi, Kazumi; Yamamoto, Yoshio; Taniguchi, Kazuyuki

2014-03-01

369

Comparative lectin histochemistry on taste buds in foliate, circumvallate and fungiform papillae of the rabbit tongue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taste buds (TB) in the foliate, circumvallate and fungiform papillae of the rabbit tongue were examined with lectin histochemistry by means of light (LM) and electron (EM) microscopy. Biotin- and gold-labeled lectins were used for the detection of carbohydrate residues in TB cells and subcutaneous salivary glands. At the LM level, the lectins of soybean (SBA) and peanut (PNA) react

M. Witt; I. J. Miller

1992-01-01

370

NMR, Molecular Modeling, and Crystallographic Studies of Lentil Lectin-Sucrose Interaction*  

E-print Network

NMR, Molecular Modeling, and Crystallographic Studies of Lentil Lectin-Sucrose Interaction- ing site of lentil lectin have been characterized through elucidation of a crystalline complex at 1, and molecular modeling. In the crys- tal, the lentil lectin dimer binds one sucrose molecule per monomer

Hamelryck, Thomas

371

Identification of lectin isoforms in juvenile freshwater prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii (DeMan, 1879).  

PubMed

From the serum of juvenile freshwater prawns, we isolated by affinity chromatography on glutaraldehyde-fixed rat erythrocytes stroma, immobilized in Sephadex G-25, a sialic acid specific lectin of 9.6 kDa per subunit. Comparative analysis against adult organisms purified lectin, by chromatofocusing, showed that the lectin from juvenile specimens is composed by four main isoforms with a pI of 4.2, 4.6, 5.1, and 5.6, whereas the lectin from adults is eluted at pH 4.2. The amino acid composition of the lectin obtained from adult and juvenile stages suggest identity, but the compositions are not identical since a higher content of carbohydrates was found in the lectin from younger organisms. The freshwater prawn lectin showed specificity toward N-acetylated amino sugar residues such as GlcNAc, GalNAc, Neu5Ac and Neu5,9Ac; but in juvenile organisms the lectin showed three times less hemagglutinating activity than the lectin from adults. Both lectins agglutinated rat, rabbit and chicken erythrocytes, indicating that Neu5,9Ac in specific O-glycosydically linked glycans seems to be relevant for the interaction of M. rosenbergii lectins with their specific cellular receptor. Our results suggest that the physicochemical characteristics of the lectin from the freshwater prawn are regulated through maturation. PMID:11261843

Zenteno, R; Vázquez, L; Martínez-Cairo, S; Bouquelet, S; Agundis, C; Zenteno, E

2000-05-01

372

Lectin histochemistry of palatine glands in the developing rat.  

PubMed

This study examined the binding pattern of lectins, soybean agglutinin (SBA), Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), Vicia villosa agglutinin (VVA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I), peanut agglutinin (PNA), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), and succinylated WGA (sucWGA) in the developing rat palatine glands. In adult rats, heterogeneous lectin binding patterns were revealed between the anterior and posterior portions of palatine glands, as DBA, VVA, and WGA were bound more intensely and broadly in the posterior portion. SBA, PNA, and sucWGA showed far less reactivity in the anterior than in the posterior portion. At embryonic day 18 (E18), weak labeling was observed with UEA-I and WGA at the basal membrane of terminal buds, UEA-I and PNA labeled the epithelial cord, and there was no apparent binding for SBA, DBA, VVA, and sucWGA. At E20, after acinar lumenization, all lectins were detected at the acinar cell basal membranes. After birth, all lectins detectably labeled at the mucous cell apical membranes and progressively, with maturation, extended from the apical to basal portions of the cytoplasm. Apparent serous cells were observed around postnatal day 10 (PN10) and bound UEA-I. Lectins reached peak reactivity at PN21 and the binding patterns became identical to those of adults around PN28. PMID:24345684

Hakami, Zaki; Kitaura, Hideki; Honma, Shiho; Wakisaka, Satoshi; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko

2014-05-01

373

Lectin-like activity from Persea americana.  

PubMed

An extract from the seeds of Persea americana possessed an erythro-agglutinating activity. The agglutinin was devoid of specificity for carbohydrates, but interacted readily with basic proteins or basic polyamino acids. The interaction between the agglutinin and egg-white lysozyme was not inhibited by chaotropic salts, but was sensitive to relatively low concentrations of urea. An affinity chromatographic procedure was developed in an effort to purify the agglutinin. Products from the chromatographic procedure were found not to contain higher specific agglutinating activities than the crude extract. Amino acid acid analyses of the extract showed the presence of relatively high proportions of glutamic and aspartic acids. In addition, the extract contained phosphorus and a visible chromophore. The agglutinin was resistant to detergents and denaturants, and proteases, nucleases, and other enzymes. The results suggest that, as opposed to other plant agglutinins, the active component from Persea is not a protein. Similarly, in contrast to many lectins, the agglutinin from Persea was not mitogenic for mouse lymphocytes. The agglutinin partially inhibited the mitogenesis of lymphocytes when the cells were treated with concanavalin A, or with bacterial lipopolysaccharide. PMID:7353211

Meade, N A; Staat, R H; Langley, S D; Doyle, R J

1980-01-15

374

Mannan-Binding Lectin in Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide so research continues into underlying mechanisms. Since innate immunity and its potent component mannan-binding lectin have been proven to play an important role in the inflammatory response during infection and ischaemia-reperfusion injury, attention has been paid to its role in the development of cardiovascular complications as well. This review provides a general outline of the structure and genetic polymorphism of MBL and its role in inflammation/tissue injury with emphasis on associations with cardiovascular disease. MBL appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and, in consequence, coronary artery disease and also inflammation and tissue injury after myocardial infarction and heart transplantation. The relationship between MBL and disease is rather complex and depends on different genetic and environmental factors. That could be why the data obtained from animal and clinical studies are sometimes contradictory proving not for the first time that innate immunity is a “double-edge sword,” sometimes beneficial and, at other times disastrous for the host. PMID:24877121

Cedzy?ski, Maciej

2014-01-01

375

Purification of normal lymphocytes from leukemic T-cells by lectin-affinity adsorbents - correlation with lectin-cell binding.  

PubMed

Utilization of leukemic T-cells from normal ones, using lectin-affinity adsorbents, is described. CNBr-activated Sepharose 6MB was covalently coupled to Soybean (SBA) or Dolichos Biflorus Agglutinins (DBA), then serves as an affinity probe for separation of leukemic T-cells from normal lymphocytes. The normal lymphocytes were removed almost completely by phosphate buffered saline (Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) free) (PBS(-)) from lectin-affinity column. More than 80% of the leukemic T-cells were retained on the lectin-affinity adsorbent, whereas another 10-15% were easily removed by PBS(-). There was a very good linear correlation between percent of cells, retained on the lectin-affinity adsorbent and percent of cells, interacting with the respective free lectin (r=0.97 for SBA, and r=0.93 for DBA). The viability of normal lymphocytes was not influenced after passing through the columns. In the case of leukemic T-cells - about 90% of the easily removed cells were dead, and another 10% were viable cells, non-interacting with DBA or SBA. PMID:12637153

Bakalova, R; Ohba, H

2003-03-20

376

Isolation and biochemical characterization of apios tuber lectin.  

PubMed

Apios tuber lectin, named ATL, was isolated from Apios americana Medikus by two chromatography steps, hydrophobic chromatography and anion-exchange chromatography. The minimum concentration required for the hemagglutination activity toward rabbit erythrocytes of ATL was 4 ?g/mL. ATL was composed of a homodimer of 28.4 kDa subunits. The amino acid sequence of ATL was similar to those of other legume lectins. The lectin showed moderate stability toward heating and acidic pH, and the binding affinity against several monosaccharides, such as D-glucosamine and D-galactosamine. ATL also bound to desialylated or agalactosylated glycoproteins such as asialo and agalacto transferrin. ATL decreased the transepithelial electrical resistance across human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers, suggesting the effect on the tight junction-mediated paracellular transport. PMID:25584830

Kenmochi, Eri; Kabir, Syed Rashel; Ogawa, Tomohisa; Naude, Ryno; Tateno, Hiroaki; Hirabayashi, Jun; Muramoto, Koji

2015-01-01

377

Lectin activity of the nucleocytoplasmic EUL protein from Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

The Euonymus lectin (EUL) domain was recognized as the structural motif for a novel class of putative carbohydrate binding proteins. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that the lectin from Euonymus europaeus (EEA) as well as the EUL protein from Arabidopsis thaliana (ArathEULS3) are located in the nucleocytoplasmic compartment of the plant cell. ArathEULS3 as well as its EUL domain were successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris and purified. The EUL domain from Arabidopsis interacts with glycan structures containing Lewis Y, Lewis X and lactosamine, indicating that it can be considered a true lectin domain. Despite the high sequence identity between the EUL domains in EEA and ArathEULS3, both domains recognize different carbohydrate structures. PMID:21945438

Van Hove, Jonas; Fouquaert, Elke; Smith, David F.; Proost, Paul; Van Damme, Els J.M.

2011-01-01

378

A lectin with antifungal activity from the mussel Crenomytilus grayanus.  

PubMed

Lectins (carbohydrate-binding proteins) are well known to actively participate in the defense functions of vertebrates and invertebrates where they play an important role in the recognition of foreign particles. In this study, we investigated of in vitro antifungal activity of lectin from the mussel Crenomytilus grayanus (CGL). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay indicated that CGL was predominantly detectable in tissues of mantle and to a lesser degree in the tissues of muscle, hepatopancreas, gill and hemocytes. After challenged by Pichia pastoris the level of CGL was upregulated and reached the maximum level at 12 h post challenge and recovered to the original level at 24 h. The lectin was capable of inhibiting the germination of spores and hyphal growth in the fungi. All these results indicated that CGL is involved in the innate immune response in mollusc animals. PMID:25482060

Chikalovets, Irina V; Chernikov, Oleg V; Pivkin, Mikhail V; Molchanova, Valentina I; Litovchenko, Alina P; Li, Wei; Lukyanov, Pavel A

2015-02-01

379

Lectin histochemistry of normal lung and pulmonary carcinoma.  

PubMed

Normal bronchopulmonary tissues and pulmonary carcinomas including three major types (squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and small-cell carcinoma) were studied using three biotinylated lectins (Bauhinia purpurea [BPA], Phaseolus vulgaris [PHA], and Maclura pomifera [MPA]) by avidin biotin peroxidase complex (ABC) method. The study demonstrated that BPA binds with macrophages and pneumocytes of normal tissue, and with adenocarcinoma and small-cell carcinoma, but nonreactive with squamous cell carcinoma. PHA and MPA bound to all the normal components of bronchopulmonary tree and carcinomas of all types. Adenocarcinoma showed the highest density of reacting sites for BPA and MPA, and squamous cell carcinoma showed the highest binding sites for PHA, while small-cell carcinoma were the lowest reacting variant for all lectins. Lectins used in this study have limited usefulness for the diagnosis of pulmonary neoplasms. PMID:8088898

Sarker, A B; Koirala, T R; Aftabuddin; Jeon, H J; Murakami, I

1994-01-01

380

Virus-induced gene complementation in tomato  

PubMed Central

Virus-induced gene complementation (VIGC), a plant virus technology based on Potato virus X for transient overexpression of endogenous genes complemented tomato mutants, resulting in non-ripening fruits to ripen. This efficient “gain-of-function” approach involves no stable transformation, and reveals a fruit-specific transcriptional network that may exist among key transcription factors in modulating tomato ripening. Thus, VIGC represents a novel and feasible strategy for gene functional analysis in plants. PMID:24305652

Kong, Jinhua; Chen, Weiwei; Shen, Jiajia; Qin, Cheng; Lai, Tongfei; Zhang, Pengcheng; Wang, Ying; Wu, Chaoqun; Yang, Xin; Hong, Yiguo

2013-01-01

381

Virus-induced gene complementation in tomato.  

PubMed

Virus-induced gene complementation (VIGC), a plant virus technology based on Potato virus X for transient overexpression of endogenous genes complemented tomato mutants, resulting in non-ripening fruits to ripen. This efficient "gain-of-function" approach involves no stable transformation, and reveals a fruit-specific transcriptional network that may exist among key transcription factors in modulating tomato ripening. Thus, VIGC represents a novel and feasible strategy for gene functional analysis in plants. PMID:24305652

Kong, Jinhua; Chen, Weiwei; Shen, Jiajia; Qin, Cheng; Lai, Tongfei; Zhang, Pengcheng; Wang, Ying; Wu, Chaoqun; Yang, Xin; Hong, Yiguo

2013-11-01

382

Diagnostic Value of Lectins in Differentiation of Molar Placentas  

PubMed Central

Objective(s) Distinction of hydatidiform moles from non-molar specimens and subclassification of hydatidiform moles as complete and partial are important for clinical practice, but diagnosis based solely on histomorphology suffers from poor interobserver reproducibility. Nowadays, pathologists rely on molecular techniques, however these methods are technically difficult, relatively expensive, and time consuming, and cannot be applied in all laboratories. Therefore, a relatively easy, time- and cost-effective ancillary tool, would be helpful. This study aimed to assess the role of lectins in differential diagnosis of molar placentas. Materials and Methods Lectin histochemistry with a panel of HRP-conjugated lectins comprising SBA, DBA, MPA, PNA, VVA, UEA-1, LTA, GS-? (B4), and WGA were performed in 20 non-molar (hydropic and non-hydropic spontaneous abortions) and 20 molar (partial and complete moles), formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples. On the basis of staining intensity, sections were graded and Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric statistical test was used to compare differences between samples. Results There was a significant difference between the reactivities of LTA and UEA-? with syncytiotrophoblasts of molar and non-molar specimens (P<0.001). These lectins generally showed a moderate reactivity with syncytiotrophoblasts of molar group but did not react with this cell population in non-molar group. Furthermore, WGA showed relatively increased reaction with syncytiotrophoblasts of molar tissues compared with abortions, however, this did not reach to statistical significance (P=0.07). No major differences were seen in other lectins reactivities between the studied groups. Conclusion The present study showed that UEA-1 and LTA lectins may be used as cytochemical probes in differentiating molar from non-molar placentas, but did not differentiate partial moles from complete moles. PMID:23653842

Atabaki Pasdar, Fatemeh; Khooei, Alireza; Fazel, Alireza; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Nikravesh, Mohammad Reza; Khaje Delui, Mohammad

2012-01-01

383

Lectin histochemical studies on the vomeronasal organ of the sheep.  

PubMed

The vomeronasal organ of sheep was examined using lectin histochemistry in order to compare the types and amounts of the glycoconjugates among various components of the vomeronasal sensory and non-sensory epithelia. In the vomeronasal sensory epithelium, Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA) stained particular cells, located at the same level as the vomeronasal receptor cells, while the distribution, shape and number of the stained cells did not correspond to those of the vomeronasal receptor cells. Datura stramonium lectin (DSL), Concanavalin A (Con A), Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin-E (PHA-E) and Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin-L (PHA-L) labeled the basal cells of both vomeronasal sensory and non-sensory epithelia. While, Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), Succinylated-wheat germ agglutinin (s-WGA), Lycopersicon esculentum lectin (LEL), Solanum tuberosum lectin (STL) and Ricinus communis agglutinin-I (RCA-120) labeled the basal cells of the sensory epithelium, and Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin-I (BSL-I) stained the basal cells of the non-sensory epithelium, respectively. Seventeen lectins labeled the free border of both vomeronasal sensory and non-sensory epithelia, while Sophora japonica agglutinin (SJA), Jacalin and Pisum sativum agglutinin (PSA) labeled neither free border of the sensory nor that of non-sensory epithelia. The expression pattern of glycoconjugate was similar, but not identical, in the free border between the sensory and non-sensory epithelia. These results indicate that there are dissimilar features in the type and amount of glycoconjugates between the vomeronasal sensory and non-sensory epithelia, and at the same time, among the various cell types either in the vomeronasal sensory or non-sensory epithelium. PMID:23595118

Ibrahim, Dalia; Nakamuta, Nobuaki; Taniguchi, Kazumi; Taniguchi, Kazuyuki

2013-01-01

384

From The Cover: A common haplotype in the complement regulatory gene factor H (HF1\\/CFH) predisposes individuals to age-related macular degeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most frequent cause of irreversible blindness in the elderly in developed countries. Our previous studies implicated activation of complement in the formation of drusen, the hallmark lesion of AMD. Here, we show that factor H (HF1), the major inhibitor of the alternative complement pathway, accumulates within drusen and is synthesized by the retinal pigmented

Gregory S. Hageman; Don H. Anderson; Lincoln V. Johnson; Lisa S. Hancox; Andrew J. Taiber; Lisa I. Hardisty; Jill L. Hageman; Heather A. Stockman; James D. Borchardt; Karen M. Gehrs; Richard J. H. Smith; Giuliana Silvestri; Stephen R. Russell; Caroline C. W. Klaver; Irene Barbazetto; Stanley Chang; Lawrence A. Yannuzzi; Gaetano R. Barile; John C. Merriam; R. Theodore Smith; Adam K. Olsh; Julie Bergeron; Jana Zernant; Joanna E. Merriam; Bert Gold; Michael Dean; Rando Allikmets

2005-01-01

385

Radioimmunoassay for anaphylatoxins: a sensitive method for determining complement activation products in biological fluids  

SciTech Connect

Activation of the blood complement system generates bioactive fragments called anaphylatoxins. The three anaphylatoxins C3a, C4a, and C5a are released during classical pathway activation while only C3a and C5a are released when the alternative pathway of complement is activated. Radioimmunoassays were designed to individually detect and quantitate the activation fragments C3a, C4a, and C5a in biological fluids without interference from the precursor molecules C3, C4, and C5. Kinetics of complement activation in fresh human serum exposed to the activators zymosan, heat-aggregated immunoglobulin, or cobra venom factor were monitored using the radioimmunoassay technique. For the first time, activation of components C3, C4, and C5 was followed simultaneously in a single serum sample. Analysis of the patterns and extent of anaphylatoxin formation during activation in serum may be used to screen for deficiencies or defects in the complement cascade. Levels of the anaphylatoxins in freshly drawn serum were much higher than levels detected in EDTA-plasma. Detection of low-level complement activation in patient's blood, urine, or synovial fluid, using anaphylatoxin formation as an indicator, may prove useful in signaling numerous forms of inflammatory reactions. The demonstration of anaphylatoxins in clinical samples is being recognized as a valuable diagnostic tool in monitoring the onset of immune disease.

Wagner, J.L.; Hugli, T.E.

1984-01-01

386

Mitogenic activity of Cratylia mollis lectin on human lymphocytes.  

PubMed

The mitogenic effect of Cratylia mollis seed lectin preparations containing two (Cramoll 1,4) or one molecular form (Cramoll 1) showed activity similar to the well known T-cell mitogen, concanavalin A (Con A). The effect on human lymphocytes was analyzed through a colorimetric assay using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT). Inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation with methyl-alpha-d-mannoside (both preparations) indicated that the mitogenic effect involved carbohydrate lectin binding sites. PMID:15026026

Maciel, Elba V M; Araújo-Filho, Vanduir S; Nakazawa, Mineo; Gomes, Yara M; Coelho, Luana C B B; Correia, Maria T S

2004-03-01

387

Ferromagnetic Levan Composite: An Affinity Matrix to Purify Lectin  

PubMed Central

A simple and inexpensive procedure used magnetite and levan to synthesize a composite recovered by a magnetic field. Lectins from Canavalia ensiformis (Con A) and Cratylia mollis (Cramoll 1 and Cramoll 1, 4) did bind specifically to composite. The magnetic property of derivative favored washing out contaminating proteins and recovery of pure lectins with glucose elution. Cramoll 1 was purified by this affinity binding procedure in two steps instead of a previous three-step protocol with ammonium sulfate fractionation, affinity chromatography on Sephadex G-75, and ion exchange chromatography through a CM-cellulose column. PMID:19547713

Angeli, Renata; da Paz, Nathalia V. N.; Maciel, Jackeline C.; Araújo, Flávia F. B.; Paiva, Patrícia M. G.; Calazans, Glícia M. T.; Valente, Ana Paula; Almeida, Fábio C. L.; Coelho, Luana C. B. B.; Carvalho, Luiz B.; Silva, Maria da Paz C.; dos Santos Correia, Maria Tereza

2009-01-01

388

Structural and functional similarities of breadfruit seed lectin and jacalin.  

PubMed

Aquous extracts from seeds of Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit) and Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit) were compared by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Two bands of the same size (12 and 15 kD) as the jacalin subunits were the major components in breadfruit seed extract. They strongly reacted with anti-jacalin antibodies by western blotting. The breadfruit lectin displayed the same IgAl and IgD precipitation specificity as jacalin in gel double diffusion experiments. It also stimulated in vitro proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These results suggest that lectins from both species of Artocarpus are very similar. PMID:2111454

Pineau, N; Pousset, J L; Preud'Homme, J L; Aucouturier, P

1990-03-01

389

Human SAP is a novel peptidoglycan recognition protein that induces complement- independent phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus  

PubMed Central

The human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for many community-acquired and hospital-associated infections and is associated with high mortality. Concern over the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains has renewed interest in the elucidation of host mechanisms that defend against S. aureus infection. We recently demonstrated that human serum mannose-binding lectin (MBL) binds to S. aureus wall teichoic acid (WTA), a cell wall glycopolymer, a discovery that prompted further screening to identify additional serum proteins that recognize S. aureus cell wall components. In this report, we incubated human serum with 10 different S. aureus mutants and determined that serum amyloid P component (SAP) bound specifically to a WTA-deficient S. aureus ?tagO mutant, but not to tagO-complemented, WTA-expressing cells. Biochemical characterization revealed that SAP recognizes bacterial peptidoglycan as a ligand and that WTA inhibits this interaction. Although SAP binding to peptidoglycan was not observed to induce complement activation, SAP-bound ?tagO cells were phagocytosed by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes in an Fc? receptor-dependent manner. These results indicate that SAP functions as a host defense factor, similar to other peptidoglycan recognition proteins and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors. PMID:23966633

An, Jang-Hyun; Kurokawa, Kenji; Jung, Dong-Jun; Kim, Min-Jung; Kim, Chan-Hee; Fujimoto, Yukari; Fukase, Koichi; Coggeshall, K. Mark; Lee, Bok Luel

2014-01-01

390

M-ficolin, an innate immune defence molecule, binds patterns of acetyl groups and activates complement.  

PubMed

Ficolins play a role in the innate immune defence as pathogen-associated molecular pattern recognition molecules. Three ficolins are found in humans: H-ficolin, L-ficolin and M-ficolin. L-ficolin and H-ficolin circulate in blood in complexes with mannan-binding lectin-associated serine proteases (MASPs) and are capable of activating the complement system. L-ficolin shows affinity for acetylated compounds and binds to various capsulated strains of bacteria. H-ficolin has been shown to bind Aerococcus viridans. Less is known about M-ficolin, but it is thought to be present only on monocytes. We have synthesized rec