Science.gov

Sample records for complementary hfet technology

  1. Complementary HFET technology for wireless digital and microwave applications

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, A.G.; Zolper, J.C.; Dubbert, D.F.

    1996-09-01

    Development of a complementary heterostructure field effect transistor (CHFET) technology for low-power, mixed-mode digital-microwave applications is presented. Digital CHFET technology with independently optimizable transistors has been shown to operate with 319 ps loaded gate delays at 8.9 fJ. Power consumption is dominated by leakage currents of the p-channel FET, while performance is determined by the characteristics of 0.7 {mu}m gate length devices. As a microwave technology, the nJFET forms the basis of low-power cirucitry without any modification to the digital process. Narrow band amplification with a 0.7x100 {mu}m nJFET has been demonstrated at 2.1-2.4 GHz with gains of 8-10 dB at 1 mW power. These amplifiers showed a minimum noise figure of 2.5 dB. Next generation CHFET transistors with sub 0.5 {mu}m gate lengths have also been developed. Cutoff frequencies of 49 and 11.5 GHz were achieved for n- and p-channel FETs with 0.3 and 0.4 {mu}m gates, respectively. These FETs will enable enhancements in both digital and microwave circuits.

  2. Complementary HFET technology for low-power mixed-mode applications

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, A.G.; Sherwin, M.E.; Zolper, J.C.; Dubbert, D.F.; Hietala, V.M.; Shul, R.J.; Sloan, L.R.; Hafich, M.J.

    1996-06-01

    Development of a complementary heterostructure field effect transistor (CHFET) technology for low-power, mixed-mode digital-microwave applications is presented. An earlier digital CHFET technology with independently optimizable transistors which operated with 319 ps loaded gate delays at 8.9 fJ is reviewed. Then work demonstrating the applicability of the digital nJFET device as a low-power microwave transistor in a hybrid microwave amplifier without any modification to the digital process is presented. A narrow band amplifier with a 0.7 {times} 100 {micro}m nJFET as the active element was designed, constructed, and tested. At 1 mW operating power, the amplifier showed 9.7 dB of gain at 2.15 GHz and a minimum noise figure of 2.5 dB. In addition, next generation CHFET transistors with sub 0.5 {micro}m gate lengths were developed. Cutoff frequencies, f{sub t} of 49 GHz and 11.5 GHz were achieved for n- and p-channel FETs with 0.3 and 0.4 {micro}m gates, respectively. These FETs will enable both digital and microwave circuits with enhanced performance.

  3. SEU measurements on HFETS and HFET SRAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Remke, R.L.; Witmer, S.B.; Jones, S.D.F. ); Barber, F.E. ); Flesner, L.D.; O'Brien, M.E. )

    1989-12-01

    The single event upset (SEU) response of n{sup +}-AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructure field effect transistors(HFETs--also known as SDHTs, HEMTs, MODFETs, and TEGFETs) and HFET static random access memories (SRAMs) was evaluated by measuring their response to focused electron pulses. Initially, focused electron beam pulses were used to measure and model HFET drain and gate SEU responses. Circuit simulations using these SEU models predicted that an HFET memory is most vulnerable to a single particle event in the area between the drain and the source (drain hit) of the OFF pull down HFET. Subsequent testing of an HFET SRAM cell confirmed this prediction. The authors discuss how these first SEU evaluations of HFETs and HFET memories show that measurements on individual HFETs and circuit simulations of SEU hits may be used to predict the SEU response of HFET memories.

  4. Development of chip shrink technology for lateral-type GaN based HFETs using SiO2/polyimide dual IMD layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Seung kyu; Ko, Hwa-Young; Jang, Taehoon; Kwak, Joon Seop

    2015-03-01

    This study examined chip shrink technology for lateral-type AlGaN/GaN HFETs on 150 mm Si substrates fabricated with a bonding pad above the active area (BPAA) structure. The SiO2/polyimide layers were used as inter metal dielectric (IMD) layers, which yielded a very low leakage current of 0.58 nA/mm2 even at 1 kV and a good adhesion property after O2 plasma treatment. The fabricated AlGaN/GaN HFETs with the BPAA structure exhibited good device characteristics, such as a low leakage current of 7.1 nA at 1 kV and a drain current of 3.6 A at 2 V, which has the same value compared to that of the AlGaN/GaN HFETs without the BPAA structure, even though the BPAA structure reduced the size of chip by 40%. This suggests that the BPAA structure is a promising method for reducing the size and cost of the lateral-type AlGaN/GaN HFETs. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. Efficiency Enhancement of Pico-cell Base Station Power Amplifier MMIC in Gallium Nitride HFET Technology Using the Doherty technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seneviratne, Sashieka

    With the growth of smart phones, the demand for more broadband, data centric technologies are being driven higher. As mobile operators worldwide plan and deploy 4th generation (4G) networks such as LTE to support the relentless growth in mobile data demand, the need for strategically positioned pico-sized cellular base stations known as 'pico-cells' are gaining traction. In addition to having to design a transceiver in a much compact footprint, pico-cells must still face the technical challenges presented by the new 4G systems, such as reduced power consumptions and linear amplification of the signals. The RF power amplifier (PA) that amplifies the output signals of 4G pico-cell systems face challenges to minimize size, achieve high average efficiencies and broader bandwidths while maintaining linearity and operating at higher frequencies. 4G standards as LTE use non-constant envelope modulation techniques with high peak to average ratios. Power amplifiers implemented in such applications are forced to operate at a backed off region from saturation. Therefore, in order to reduce power consumption, a design of a high efficiency PA that can maintain the efficiency for a wider range of radio frequency signals is required. The primary focus of this thesis is to enhance the efficiency of a compact RF amplifier suitable for a 4G pico-cell base station. For this aim, an integrated two way Doherty amplifier design in a compact 10mm x 11.5mm2 monolithic microwave integrated circuit using GaN device technology is presented. Using non-linear GaN HFETs models, the design achieves high effi-ciencies of over 50% at both back-off and peak power regions without compromising on the stringent linearity requirements of 4G LTE standards. This demonstrates a 17% increase in power added efficiency at 6 dB back off from peak power compared to conventional Class AB amplifier performance. Performance optimization techniques to select between high efficiency and high linearity operation are

  6. Complementary LED technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reineke, Sebastian

    2015-05-01

    Organic semiconducting molecules and colloidal quantum dots both make for excellent luminescent materials. Compared with the more established solid-state light-emitting technologies, organic LEDs and quantum-dot LEDs are in their infancy, yet they offer unique properties.

  7. Ion implantation for high performance III-V JFETS and HFETS

    SciTech Connect

    Zolper, J.C.; Baca, A.G.; Sherwin, M.E.; Klem, J.F.

    1996-06-01

    Ion implantation has been an enabling technology for realizing many high performance electronic devices in III-V semiconductor materials. We report on advances in ion implantation processing for GaAs JFETs (joint field effect transistors), AlGaAs/GaAs HFETs (heterostructure field effect transistors), and InGaP or InAlP-barrier HFETs. The GaAs JFET has required the development of shallow p-type implants using Zn or Cd with junction depths down to 35 nm after the activation anneal. Implant activation and ionization issues for AlGaAs are reported along with those for InGaP and InAlP. A comprehensive treatment of Si-implant doping of AlGaAs is given based on donor ionization energies and conduction band density-of-states dependence on Al-composition. Si and Si+P implants in InGaP are shown to achieve higher electron concentrations than for similar implants in AlGaAs due to absence of the deep donor level. An optimized P co- implantation scheme in InGaP is shown to increase the implanted donor saturation level by 65%.

  8. Lidar as a complementary sensor technology for harbor security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, Kenneth; Ulich, Bobby; Dietz, Anthony

    2005-05-01

    A comprehensive threat detection system is needed to protect critical assets and infrastructure in the nation's harbors. Such a system must necessarily rely on a variety of sensor technologies to provide protection against airborne, submerged, and surface threats. Although many threats can be detected with current technology, which include sonar, radar, visible light, and infrared sensors, there is a substantive gap in harbor defense against quiet surface intruders such as swimmers. This threat cannot be reliably detected with current sensors. Waves and chop occlude visual detection and render sonar blind to relatively small surface objects. The dark of night is also sufficient to defeat visible light detection methods. Wetsuit materials are available that minimize the infrared signature, matching the surrounding water temperature while cloaking the body's heat. However, a range-gated lidar sensor can be used to detect the signature of the swimmer's shadow, which appears impossible to conceal because it depends only on the opaqueness of the swimmer"s body to visible light. A spatially diffuse laser pulse of short duration is used to illuminate an area of interest. The photons are forward scattered in the water, and effectively illuminate the water to an appreciable depth. By range-gated imaging of the water column beneath the swimmer, the absence of backscattered photons is manifested as a shadow in the sensor image and easily detected with existing image processing algorithms. Lidar technology can therefore close the sensor gap, complementing existing systems and providing greater security coverage. The technology has been successfully demonstrated in the detection of moored and floating sea mines, and is readily scaled to a harbor defense system consisting of a network of imaging lidars.

  9. CLEANSPACE 'Small Debris Removal By Laser Illumination And Complementary Technologies'

    SciTech Connect

    Esmiller, Bruno; Jacquelard, Christophe

    2011-11-10

    Studies show that the number of debris in Low Earth Orbit is exponentially growing despite future debris release mitigation measures considered. Especially, the already existing population of small and medium debris (between 1 cm and several dozens of cm) is today a concrete threat to operational satellites. A ground based laser solution which can remove at low expense and in a non-destructive way hazardous debris of decimetric size around selected space assets appears as one highly promising answer. This solution will be studied in the frame of CLEANSPACE project which is a part of the FP7 space theme. The overall CLEANSPACE objective is threefold: to propose an efficient and affordable global system architecture, to tackle safety regulation aspects, political implications and future collaborations, to develop affordable technological bricks and to establish roadmap for the development and the future implantation of a fully functional laser protection system. This paper will present the CLEANSPACE project.

  10. Complementary GaAs junction-gated heterostructure field effect transistor technology

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, A.G.; Zolper, J.C.; Sherwin, M.E.; Robertson, P.J.; Shul, R.J.; Howard, A.J.; Rieger, D.J.; Klem, J.F.

    1994-09-01

    The first circuit results for a new GaAs complementary logic technology are presented. The technology allows for Independently optimizable p- and n- channel transistors with junction gates. Excellent loaded gate delays of 179 ps at 1.2 V and 319 ps at 0.8 V have been demonstrated at low power supply voltages. A power-delay product of 8.9 fJ was obtained at 0.8 V.

  11. Complementary medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Spiegel, D; Stroud, P; Fyfe, A

    1998-01-01

    The widespread use of complementary and alternative medicine techniques, often explored by patients without discussion with their primary care physician, is seen as a request from patients for care as well as cure. In this article, we discuss the reasons for the growth of and interest in complementary and alternative medicine in an era of rapidly advancing medical technology. There is, for instance, evidence of the efficacy of supportive techniques such as group psychotherapy in improving adjustment and increasing survival time of cancer patients. We describe current and developing complementary medicine programs as well as opportunities for integration of some complementary techniques into standard medical care. PMID:9584661

  12. Nonpolar AlGaN/GaN HFETs with a normally off operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, M.; Kuroda, M.; Ueda, T.; Tanaka, T.

    2012-02-01

    Nonpolar AlGaN/GaN heterojunction field-effect transistors (HFETs) with a normally off operation have been demonstrated. The nonpolar (1-120) a-plane's epitaxial layers are grown on (1-102) r-plane sapphire substrates by metal organic chemical vapour deposition. We have found that a thicker AlN buffer layer achieves a GaN layer with a narrower full-width at half-maximum of the x-ray rocking curve and higher electron mobility. We have fabricated AlGaN/GaN HFETs with different gate directions. It is found that the drain current strongly depends on the gate directions, and higher drain current flows to the (0001) direction that is parallel to the hair-lined morphology. To realize a complete normally off operation, we have fabricated a-plane metal-insulator-semiconductor HFETs (MIS-HFETs) with a 2 nm-thick SiN as an insulator. The fabricated MIS-HFET exhibits a threshold voltage of +1.3 V with a high drain current of 112 mA mm-1. The presented MIS-HFETs will be desirable in next-generation power switching applications.

  13. 40 CFR 600.113-08 - Fuel economy calculations for FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests. 600.113-08 Section 600.113-08 Protection of... Fuel economy calculations for FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests. The Administrator... (NMHC) and methane (CH4) for the FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests. Additionally,...

  14. 40 CFR 600.113-12 - Fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations for FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... exhaust emission calculations for FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests. 600.113-12 Section... and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations for FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP... the FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests. Additionally, the specific gravity,...

  15. 40 CFR 600.113-08 - Fuel economy calculations for FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests. 600.113-08 Section 600.113-08 Protection of... Fuel economy calculations for FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests. The Administrator... (NMHC) and methane (CH4) for the FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests. Additionally,...

  16. High-Performance WSe2 Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Technology and Integrated Circuits.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lili; Zubair, Ahmad; Santos, Elton J G; Zhang, Xu; Lin, Yuxuan; Zhang, Yuhao; Palacios, Tomás

    2015-08-12

    Because of their extraordinary structural and electrical properties, two-dimensional materials are currently being pursued for applications such as thin-film transistors and integrated circuit. One of the main challenges that still needs to be overcome for these applications is the fabrication of air-stable transistors with industry-compatible complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. In this work, we experimentally demonstrate a novel high performance air-stable WSe2 CMOS technology with almost ideal voltage transfer characteristic, full logic swing and high noise margin with different supply voltages. More importantly, the inverter shows large voltage gain (∼38) and small static power (picowatts), paving the way for low power electronic system in 2D materials. PMID:26192468

  17. Modeling of Total Ionizing Dose Effects in Advanced Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez Esqueda, Ivan

    2011-12-01

    The increased use of commercial complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technologies in harsh radiation environments has resulted in a new approach to radiation effects mitigation. This approach utilizes simulation to support the design of integrated circuits (ICs) to meet targeted tolerance specifications. Modeling the deleterious impact of ionizing radiation on ICs fabricated in advanced CMOS technologies requires understanding and analyzing the basic mechanisms that result in buildup of radiation-induced defects in specific sensitive regions. Extensive experimental studies have demonstrated that the sensitive regions are shallow trench isolation (STI) oxides. Nevertheless, very little work has been done to model the physical mechanisms that result in the buildup of radiation-induced defects and the radiation response of devices fabricated in these technologies. A comprehensive study of the physical mechanisms contributing to the buildup of radiation-induced oxide trapped charges and the generation of interface traps in advanced CMOS devices is presented in this dissertation. The basic mechanisms contributing to the buildup of radiation-induced defects are explored using a physical model that utilizes kinetic equations that captures total ionizing dose (TID) and dose rate effects in silicon dioxide (SiO2). These mechanisms are formulated into analytical models that calculate oxide trapped charge density (Not) and interface trap density (Nit) in sensitive regions of deep-submicron devices. Experiments performed on field-oxide-field-effect-transistors (FOXFETs) and metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors permit investigating TID effects and provide a comparison for the radiation response of advanced CMOS devices. When used in conjunction with closed-form expressions for surface potential, the analytical models enable an accurate description of radiation-induced degradation of transistor electrical characteristics. In this dissertation, the incorporation

  18. The Complementary Nature of Seismic and Infrasound Technologies in Regional Monitoring (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stump, B. W.; Hayward, C.; Park, J.

    2013-12-01

    Under current CTBTO event detection and location operating conditions, signal detection is a station-centric decision (was an event phase detected at this station?), rather than a global hypothesis test. Currently, infrasound and seismic detection use signal detectors run independently on each technology. It is only after event formation that the observations and inferences are merged. Development of this independent processing is a result of the vastly different signal and noise characteristics of these two waveform technologies. However, for specific signals there may be a utility to a joint seismic-infrasound detector. For example, noise estimates from one technology may help characterize or identify the noise on another technology (wind couples to both infrasound and seismic). Back-projection methods for both seismic and infrasound could easily be combined to produce a common seismo-acoustic detection and associated event location. The opportunity exists to integrate detection and location into a single multi-disciplinary approach. One such example is the ongoing infrasound detection and location procedure that utilizes an adaptive F-detector as input into the Bayesian Infrasonic Source Location (BISL, Modrak et al. 2010) procedure that provides an estimate of source location using assigned prior probabilities based on what is known of the propagation path and on the signal detector estimates (arrival time, phase velocity and azimuth). As the atmospheric model is better defined these priors may be changed, thus linking improved location estimates directly to improvements in atmospheric models. The final step following event location is identification. Seismic and infrasound observations and their interpretation for the recent set of North Korean nuclear explosions in 2006, 2009, and 2013 provide a motivation for multiple disciplinary approach to this step as well. Seismic analysis of these tests have documented that for existing parameterized source models

  19. 40 CFR 600.113-12 - Fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations for FTP, HFET, US06...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... carbon-related exhaust emission calculations for FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests... exhaust emission calculations for FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests. The Administrator... cold temperature FTP tests. Additionally, the specific gravity, carbon weight fraction and net...

  20. 40 CFR 600.113-12 - Fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations for FTP, HFET, US06...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... carbon-related exhaust emission calculations for FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests... exhaust emission calculations for FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests. The Administrator... cold temperature FTP tests. Additionally, the specific gravity, carbon weight fraction and net...

  1. 40 CFR 600.113-12 - Fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations for FTP, HFET, US06...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... carbon-related exhaust emission calculations for FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests... exhaust emission calculations for FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests. The Administrator... cold temperature FTP tests. Additionally, the specific gravity, carbon weight fraction and net...

  2. 40 CFR 600.206-08 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... exists for an electric vehicle configuration, all values for that vehicle configuration are harmonically... HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. 600.206-08 Section 600.206-08 Protection of... Values § 600.206-08 Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for...

  3. 40 CFR 600.206-08 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... exists for an electric vehicle configuration, all values for that vehicle configuration are harmonically... HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. 600.206-08 Section 600.206-08 Protection of... Values § 600.206-08 Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for...

  4. A Mathematics Teacher's Practice in a Technological Environment: A Case Study Analysis Using Two Complementary Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabach, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Integrating technology in school mathematics has become more and more common. The teacher is a key person in integrating technology into everyday practice. To understand teacher practice in a technological environment, this study proposes using two theoretical perspectives: the theory of technological pedagogical content knowledge to analyze…

  5. Complementary medicine.

    PubMed

    Ernst, E

    2003-03-01

    Complementary medicine has become an important subject for rheumatologists, not least because many patients try complementary treatments. Recent clinical trials yield promising results. In particular, evidence suggests that several herbal medicines and dietary supplements can alleviate the pain of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Clearly, rigorous testing of complementary treatments is possible, and considering their popularity, should be encouraged. PMID:12598804

  6. Exploiting sub-20-nm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology challenges to design affordable systems-on-chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaidyanathan, Kaushik; Zhu, Qiuling; Liebmann, Lars; Lai, Kafai; Wu, Stephen; Liu, Renzhi; Liu, Yandong; Strojwas, Andzrej; Pileggi, Larry

    2015-01-01

    For the past four decades, cost and features have driven complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) scaling. Severe lithography and material limitations seen below the 20-nm node, however, are challenging the fundamental premise of affordable CMOS scaling. Just continuing to co-optimize leaf cell circuit and layout designs with process technology does not enable us to exploit the challenges of sub-20-nm CMOS. For affordable scaling, it is imperative to work past sub-20-nm technology impediments while exploiting its features. To this end, we propose to broaden the scope of design technology co-optimization (DTCO) to be more holistic by including microarchitecture design and computer-aided design, along with circuits, layout, and process technology. Furthermore, we undertook such a holistic DTCO for all critical design elements such as embedded memory, standard cell logic, analog components, and physical synthesis in a 14-nm process. Measurements results from experimental designs in a representative 14-nm process from IBM demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach.

  7. Large scale meta-analysis of fragment-based screening campaigns: privileged fragments and complementary technologies.

    PubMed

    Kutchukian, Peter S; Wassermann, Anne Mai; Lindvall, Mika K; Wright, S Kirk; Ottl, Johannes; Jacob, Jaison; Scheufler, Clemens; Marzinzik, Andreas; Brooijmans, Natasja; Glick, Meir

    2015-06-01

    A first step in fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) often entails a fragment-based screen (FBS) to identify fragment "hits." However, the integration of conflicting results from orthogonal screens remains a challenge. Here we present a meta-analysis of 35 fragment-based campaigns at Novartis, which employed a generic 1400-fragment library against diverse target families using various biophysical and biochemical techniques. By statistically interrogating the multidimensional FBS data, we sought to investigate three questions: (1) What makes a fragment amenable for FBS? (2) How do hits from different fragment screening technologies and target classes compare with each other? (3) What is the best way to pair FBS assay technologies? In doing so, we identified substructures that were privileged for specific target classes, as well as fragments that were privileged for authentic activity against many targets. We also revealed some of the discrepancies between technologies. Finally, we uncovered a simple rule of thumb in screening strategy: when choosing two technologies for a campaign, pairing a biochemical and biophysical screen tends to yield the greatest coverage of authentic hits. PMID:25550355

  8. 40 CFR 600.206-12 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for... kilogram of hydrogen. (1) If only one set of FTP-based city and HFET-based highway fuel economy values...

  9. 40 CFR 600.206-12 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for... kilogram of hydrogen. (1) If only one set of FTP-based city and HFET-based highway fuel economy values...

  10. 40 CFR 600.206-12 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for... kilogram of hydrogen. (1) If only one set of FTP-based city and HFET-based highway fuel economy values...

  11. Tissue-specific transcript annotation and expression profiling with complementary next-generation sequencing technologies

    PubMed Central

    Hestand, Matthew S.; Klingenhoff, Andreas; Scherf, Matthias; Ariyurek, Yavuz; Ramos, Yolande; van Workum, Wilbert; Suzuki, Makoto; Werner, Thomas; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B.; den Dunnen, Johan T.; Harbers, Matthias; 't Hoen, Peter A.C.

    2010-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing is excellently suited to evaluate the abundance of mRNAs to study gene expression. Here we compare two alternative technologies, cap analysis of gene expression (CAGE) and serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE), for the same RNA samples. Along with quantifying gene expression levels, CAGE can be used to identify tissue-specific transcription start sites, while SAGE monitors 3′-end usage. We used both methods to get more insight into the transcriptional control of myogenesis, studying differential gene expression in differentiated and proliferating C2C12 myoblast cells with statistical evaluation of reproducibility and differential gene expression. Both CAGE and SAGE provided highly reproducible data (Pearson's correlations >0.92 among biological triplicates). With both methods we found around 10 000 genes expressed at levels 2 transcripts per million (0.3 copies per cell), with an overlap of 86%. We identified 4304 and 3846 genes differentially expressed between proliferating and differentiated C2C12 cells by CAGE and SAGE, respectively, with an overlap of 2144. We identified 196 novel regulatory regions with preferential use in proliferating or differentiated cells. Next-generation sequencing of CAGE and SAGE libraries provides consistent expression levels and can enrich current genome annotations with tissue-specific promoters and alternative 3′-UTR usage. PMID:20615900

  12. Complementary Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... someone living with PD, this section focuses on herbs, vitamins and supplements. If you are considering complementary ... product recommendations regarding such products. Key Points Most herbs and supplements have not been rigorously studied as ...

  13. Complementary Study

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, H.

    2009-02-19

    In this lecture, it is emphasized that sufficient resolution of scientific issues for a fusion energy reactor can be given by complementary studies. Key scientific issues for a fusion energy reactor and ITER addressed by a complementary study in the Large Helical Device (LHD) are discussed. It should be noted that ITER is definitely a necessary condition but not a sufficient condition. Helical systems including stellarators and heliotrons are defined as alternative concepts. These approaches also aim at a fusion energy reactor based on their own concept and simultaneously benefit progress in tokamaks, more specifically ITER itself. The exact science to manage a 3-D geometry has been being developed in helical systems. A physical model with much accuracy and breadth will demonstrate its applicability to ITER. Topics to validate ''complementary'' approaches such as 3-D equilibrium, interchange MHD mode, control of radial electric field and structure formation, dynamics of a magnetic island, density limit and edge plasmas are discussed. Complementary is not Supplementary. ITER is complementary to development of a helical fusion energy reactor as well. Complementary approaches transcend existing disciplinary horizons and enable big challenges.

  14. Effect of electron density on cutoff frequency of III-N HFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matulionis, Arvydas; Morkoç, Hadis

    2014-03-01

    Advances in frequency performance of heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs) are discussed in terms of dissipative processes. The conditions for fastest dissipation coincide reasonably well with those for fastest operation and slowest device degradation. The correlation has its genesis in dissipation of the hot-phonon heat accumulated by non-equilibrium optical phonons launched by hot electrons. The hot-phonon heat causes defect formation and additional electron scattering in a different manner as compared with the effects due to conventional heat accumulated by acoustic phonons. The desirable ultrafast conversion of hot phonons into acoustic phonons is assisted by plasmons as demonstrated through measurement of hot-phonon lifetime. Signatures of plasmons have been also resolved in hot-electron transport, transistor frequency performance, phase noise, and device reliability. The plasmon-assisted ultrafast dissipation of hot-phonon heat explains the known necessity for application a stronger negative gate bias to a channel with higher as-grown electron density.

  15. Computer-Assisted Instruction and Intelligent Tutoring Systems: Shared Goals and Complementary Approaches. Technology in Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Jill H., Ed.; Chabay, Ruth W., Ed.

    The complementary, but distinct, approaches of computer assisted instruction (CAI) and intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) are first summarized, then followed by a collection of papers discussing shared issues toward which these complementary approaches are directed. The purpose of this book is to foster a mutual understanding of shared issues and…

  16. Recent advances of high voltage AlGaN/GaN power HFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uemoto, Yasuhiro; Ueda, Tetsuzo; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Ueda, Daisuke

    2009-02-01

    We review our recent advances of GaN-based high voltage power transistors. These are promising owing to low on-state resistance and high breakdown voltage taking advantages of superior material properties. However, there still remain a couple of technical issues to be solved for the GaN devices to replace the existing Si-based power devices. The most critical issue is to achieve normally-off operation which is strongly desired for the safety operation, however, it has been very difficult because of the built-in polarization electric field. Our new device called GIT (Gate Injection Transistor) utilizing conductivity modulation successfully achieves the normally-off operation keeping low on-state resistance. The fabricated GIT on a Si substrate exhibits threshold voltage of +1.0V. The obtained on-state resistance and off-state breakdown voltage were 2.6mΩ•cm2 and 800V, respectively. Remaining technical issue is to further increase the breakdown voltage. So far, the reported highest off-state breakdown voltage of AlGaN/GaN HFETs has been 1900V. Overcoming these issues by a novel device structure, we have demonstrated the world highest breakdown voltages of 10400V using thick poly-crystalline AlN as a passivation film and Via-holes through sapphire which enable very efficient layout of the lateral HFET array avoiding any undesired breakdown of passivation films. Since conventional wet or dry etching cannot be used for chemically stable sapphire, high power pulsed laser is used to form the via-holes. The presented GaN power devices demonstrate that GaN is advantageous for high voltage power switching applications replacing currently used Si-based power MOSFETs and IGBTs.

  17. Improving off-state leakage characteristics for high voltage AlGaN/GaN-HFETs on Si substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Sung-Woon; Twynam, John; Lee, Jongsub; Seo, Deokwon; Jung, Sungdal; Choi, Hong Goo; Shim, Heejae; Yim, Jeong Soon; Roh, Sungwon D.

    2014-06-01

    We present a reliable process and design technique for realizing high voltage AlGaN/GaN hetero-junction field effect transistors (HFETs) on Si substrates with very low and stable off-state leakage current characteristics. In this work, we have investigated the effects of the surface passivation layer, prepared by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) of silicon nitride (SiNx), and gate bus isolation design on the off-state leakage characteristics of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) gate structure-based GaN HFETs. The surface passivated devices with gate bus isolation fully surrounding the source and drain regions showed extremely low off-state leakage currents of less than 20 nA/mm at 600 V, with very small variation. These techniques were successfully applied to high-current devices with 80-mm gate width, yielding excellent off-state leakage characteristics within a drain voltage range 0-700 V.

  18. Analytical calculation of the quantum 1/f coherence parameter for HFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handel, Peter H.; Sherif, Taher S.

    2010-03-01

    The ratio s of the coherent magnetic energy term and the incoherent mechanical kinetic energy terms of the drift motion in the hamiltonian of a current carrying system is calculated for the special cases of a HFET or FET. This ratio defines the resulting quantum 1/f noise from the coherent and conventional quantum 1/f effects. In this case of FETs and HFETs of much larger width w>>LDS>t, the kinetic energy Ek of average motion with drift velocity vd per unit length in the direction of the drain-source distance LDS in the channel of thickness t, is still given by Nmvd 2/2, but the magnetic energy Em per unit length in the direction of LDS is roughly proportional with the first power of w only, instead of w2, and can be approximated by Em = π[ln(w/2LDS)]LDS[nevS/c]2/w. Here S=wt is the cross section though which current flows this indicates field-decoherence along the large device width w. This yields a coherence ratio of s ≡ Em/Ek ~ πnrotLDSln(w/2LDS), which shows that only an effective width w=weff about equal to LDS should be used in the calculation of s in this special case; larger widths are subject to de-coherence. This favors lower, mainly conventional, quantum 1/f noise in these devices, in spite of the large values of w. It also explains for the first time why the huge widths are possible with impunity, i.e., without causing the much larger coherent quantum 1/f noise to appear. For non-uniform current distribution across t, and for piezoelectric coupling, improved forms are derived for s. Specifically, the coherence parameter, called s' for the piezo case, is given by s' = (gN'h/m*vs)( vs/u)3F(u/vs)t/12w, where F(u/vs) = (2/3)(u/vs) for small drift velocity u, much smaller than the sound velocity vs in the semiconductor. Here N'=nwt.

  19. 40 CFR 600.208-08 - Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for a model type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... accordance with § 600.010-08(c)(1)(ii). (3) The manufacturer shall supply total model year sales projections...-based fuel economy values for a model type. 600.208-08 Section 600.208-08 Protection of Environment....208-08 Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for a model type. (a) Fuel...

  20. 40 CFR 600.208-08 - Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for a model type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... supply total model year sales projections for each car line/vehicle subconfiguration combination. (i...-based fuel economy values for a model type. 600.208-08 Section 600.208-08 Protection of Environment... 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles § 600.208-08 Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel...

  1. 40 CFR 600.208-08 - Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for a model type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... accordance with § 600.010-08(c)(1)(ii). (3) The manufacturer shall supply total model year sales projections...-based fuel economy values for a model type. 600.208-08 Section 600.208-08 Protection of Environment....208-08 Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for a model type. (a) Fuel...

  2. 40 CFR 600.113-08 - Fuel economy calculations for FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy calculations for FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests. 600.113-08 Section 600.113-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel...

  3. 40 CFR 600.113-12 - Fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations for FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations for FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests. 600.113-12 Section 600.113-12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...

  4. 40 CFR 600.208-08 - Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for a model type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for a model type. 600.208-08 Section 600.208-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations...

  5. 40 CFR 600.208-12 - Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission values...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission values for a model type. 600.208-12 Section 600.208-12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...

  6. 40 CFR 600.206-12 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... value exists for an electric vehicle configuration, that value, rounded to the nearest tenth of a mile... one equivalent petroleum-based fuel economy value exists for an electric vehicle configuration, all... HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission values for vehicle configurations....

  7. 40 CFR 600.206-12 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... value exists for an electric vehicle configuration, that value, rounded to the nearest tenth of a mile... one equivalent petroleum-based fuel economy value exists for an electric vehicle configuration, all... HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission values for vehicle configurations....

  8. 40 CFR 600.206-08 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... economy value exists for an electric vehicle configuration, all values for that vehicle configuration are... HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. 600.206-08 Section 600.206-08 Protection of...-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. (a) Fuel economy values determined for...

  9. 40 CFR 600.206-08 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... economy value exists for an electric vehicle configuration, all values for that vehicle configuration are... HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. 600.206-08 Section 600.206-08 Protection of... economy values for vehicle configurations. (a) Fuel economy values determined for each vehicle under §...

  10. Alternative and Complementary Cancer Treatments.

    PubMed

    Cassileth

    1996-01-01

    Alternative and complementary therapies differ importantly, and the distinction between the two is crucial for clinical oncologists. "Alternative" or unproven therapies are treatments used independent of surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. They can be dangerous directly and also by delaying patients' receipt of mainstream care. In contrast, complementary therapies typically are adjuncts to mainstream medicine. They can provide symptom control and noninvasive palliation with minimal side effects, improve patients' well-being and enhance cancer medicine. Complementary therapies represent a desired addition and balance to technologically sophisticated cancer care. PMID:10387984

  11. Complementary and Other Interventions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment of ADHD Complementary and Other Interventions Coaching Neurofeedback (EEG Biofeedback) Fish Oil Supplements and ADHD Carrying Your ... and Other Interventions Complementary and Other Interventions Coaching Neurofeedback (EEG Biofeedback) Fish Oil Supplements and ADHD Complementary and ...

  12. Institutional constraints on the transfer of agricultural and complementary resource-conservation technologies appropriate for semi-arid Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, J.T.; Waldstein, A.S.; Wiese, K.

    1987-04-01

    The induced-innovation theory, which holds that appropriate new agricultural technologies will be adopted by farmers and that the necessary supportive institutional changes will follow, is challenged in the study. Addressing institutional issues primarily from the viewpoint of individual farmers as potential adopters, this study uses three low-resource, low-cost, drought-resistant technologies to illustrate its arguments; response farming (i.e., basing crop selection on rainfall predictions); the use of drought-resistant seed strains; and alley cropping. The study (1) examines the economics of existing semi-arid production systems, (2) describes the kinds of institutions needed to test and adapt potentially appropriate technologies; (3) discusses possible political, land tenure, and legal constraints on technology adoption; and (4) analyzes marketing, credit, and infrastructural constraints, with particular reference to food grains, perishables, and industrial crops.

  13. Soft breakdown characteristics of ultralow-k time-dependent dielectric breakdown for advanced complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fen; Shinosky, Michael

    2010-09-01

    During technology development, the study of ultralow-k (ULK) time-dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) is important for assuring robust reliability. As the technology advances, the increase in ULK leakage current noise level and reversible current change induced by soft breakdown (SBD) during stress has been observed. In this paper, the physical origin of SBD and reversible breakdown, and its correlation to conventional hard breakdowns (HBDs) were extensively studied. Based on constant voltage stress (CVS) and constant current stress (CCS) results, it was concluded that SBD in ULK is an intrinsic characteristic for ULK material, and all first breakdown events most likely are soft instead of hard. Therefore, a unified understanding of SBD and HBD for low-k TDDB was established. Furthermore, the post-SBD and HBD breakdown conduction characteristics were explored and their impacts on circuit operation were discussed. Based on current limited constant voltage stress studies, it was found that the power dissipation, not the stored energy, determined the severity of ULK dielectric breakdown, and the postbreakdown conduction properties. A percolation-threshold controlled, variable-range-hopping (VRH) model was proposed to explain all postbreakdown aspects of SBD and HBD of ULK material.

  14. Complementary and Integrative Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... care, it may be called complementary, integrative, or alternative medicine. Complementary medicine is used together with mainstream medical ... types of care, it is called integrative medicine. Alternative medicine is used instead of mainstream medical care. The ...

  15. Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Complementary and Alternative Medicine KidsHealth > For Teens > Complementary and Alternative Medicine Print ... replacement. continue How Is CAM Different From Conventional Medicine? Conventional medicine is based on scientific knowledge of ...

  16. Complementary and Integrative Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... medical treatments that are not part of mainstream medicine. When you are using these types of care, it may be called complementary, integrative, or alternative medicine. Complementary medicine is used together with mainstream medical ...

  17. Complementary Barrier Infrared Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z.; Bandara, Sumith V.; Hill, Cory J.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2009-01-01

    The complementary barrier infrared detector (CBIRD) is designed to eliminate the major dark current sources in the superlattice infrared detector. The concept can also be applied to bulk semiconductor- based infrared detectors. CBIRD uses two different types of specially designed barriers: an electron barrier that blocks electrons but not holes, and a hole barrier that blocks holes but not electrons. The CBIRD structure consists of an n-contact, a hole barrier, an absorber, an electron barrier, and a p-contact. The barriers are placed at the contact-absorber junctions where, in a conventional p-i-n detector structure, there normally are depletion regions that produce generation-recombination (GR) dark currents due to Shockley-Read- Hall (SRH) processes. The wider-bandgap complementary barriers suppress G-R dark current. The barriers also block diffusion dark currents generated in the diffusion wings in the neutral regions. In addition, the wider gap barriers serve to reduce tunneling dark currents. In the case of a superlattice-based absorber, the superlattice itself can be designed to suppress dark currents due to Auger processes. At the same time, the barriers actually help to enhance the collection of photo-generated carriers by deflecting the photo-carriers that are diffusing in the wrong direction (i.e., away from collectors) and redirecting them toward the collecting contacts. The contact layers are made from materials with narrower bandgaps than the barriers. This allows good ohmic contacts to be made, resulting in lower contact resistances. Previously, THALES Research and Technology (France) demonstrated detectors with bulk InAsSb (specifically InAs0.91Sb0.09) absorber lattice-matched to GaSb substrates. The absorber is surrounded by two wider bandgap layers designed to minimize impedance to photocurrent flow. The wide bandgap materials also serve as contacts. The cutoff wavelength of the InAsSb absorber is fixed. CBIRD may be considered as a modified

  18. Impact of complementary therapies via mobile technologies on Icelandic same day surgical patients' reports of anxiety, pain and self-efficacy in healing: a randomized controlled trial in process.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Margaret M

    2013-01-01

    Complementary and Alternative Therapies (CAT) are increasingly being utilized in conjunction with conventional medicine. Health Information Technology (HIT) and CAT are being scrutinized for evidence based health outcomes. The aim of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) is to determine if the use of mobile technologies delivering CAT, specifically relaxation technique (RT), medical music intervention (MMI), nature landscape applications with (NLAM) and without music (NLAWM) compared with no intervention (control group) will assist in decreasing pre- and post-surgical patients' anxiety and pain levels while increasing post-operative healing self-efficacy levels. PMID:23920939

  19. Complementary and Alternative Medicine.

    PubMed

    Quezada, Sandra M; Briscoe, Jessica; Cross, Raymond K

    2016-06-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is a complex, chronic, multifactorial inflammatory disorder of the digestive tract. Standard therapies include immunosuppressive and biological treatments, but there is increasing interest in the potential benefit of complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Given the high prevalence of use of complementary and alternative medicine among inflammatory bowel disease patients, gastroenterologists must remain knowledgeable regarding the risks and benefits of these treatment options. This article reviews the updated scientific data on the use of biologically based complementary and alternative therapies for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:27057686

  20. Fabrication of Very High Efficiency 5.8 GHz Power Amplifiers using AlGaN HFETs on SiC Substrates for Wireless Power Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Gerry

    2001-01-01

    For wireless power transmission using microwave energy, very efficient conversion of the DC power into microwave power is extremely important. Class E amplifiers have the attractive feature that they can, in theory, be 100% efficient at converting, DC power to RF power. Aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) semiconductor material has many advantageous properties, relative to silicon (Si), gallium arsenide (GaAs), and silicon carbide (SiC), such as a much larger bandgap, and the ability to form AlGaN/GaN heterojunctions. The large bandgap of AlGaN also allows for device operation at higher temperatures than could be tolerated by a smaller bandgap transistor. This could reduce the cooling requirements. While it is unlikely that the AlGaN transistors in a 5.8 GHz class E amplifier can operate efficiently at temperatures in excess of 300 or 400 C, AlGaN based amplifiers could operate at temperatures that are higher than a GaAs or Si based amplifier could tolerate. Under this program, AlGaN microwave power HFETs have been fabricated and characterized. Hybrid class E amplifiers were designed and modeled. Unfortunately, within the time frame of this program, good quality HFETs were not available from either the RSC laboratories or commercially, and so the class E amplifiers were not constructed.

  1. Selling Complementary Patents: Experimental Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Bjornstad, David J; Santore, Rudy; McKee, Michael

    2010-02-01

    Production requiring licensing groups of complementary patents implements a coordination game among patent holders, who can price patents by choosing among combinations of fixed and royalty fees. Summed across patents, these fees become the total producer cost of the package of patents. Royalties, because they function as excise taxes, add to marginal costs, resulting in higher prices and reduced quantities of the downstream product and lower payoffs to the patent holders. Using fixed fees eliminates this inefficiency but yields a more complex coordination game in which there are multiple equilibria, which are very fragile in that small mistakes can lead the downstream firm to not license the technology, resulting in inefficient outcomes. We report on a laboratory market investigation of the efficiency effects of coordinated pricing of patents in a patent pool. We find that pool-like pricing agreements can yield fewer coordination failures in the pricing of complementary patents.

  2. Complementary and Integrative Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... correctly • Supplement is free of harmful contents like pesticides and heavy metals (such as lead, arsenic or ... 1-888-644-6226 http://nccam.nih.gov Natural Medicines Information on complementary therapies http://naturaldatabase.therapeuticresearch. ...

  3. Complementary Coffee Cups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banchoff, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    What may have been the birth of a new calculus problem took place when the author noticed that two coffee cups, one convex and one concave, fit nicely together, and he wondered which held more coffee. The fact that their volumes were about equal led to the topic of this article: complementary surfaces of revolution with equal volumes.

  4. Mutually Exclusive, Complementary, or . . .

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schloemer, Cathy G.

    2016-01-01

    Whether students are beginning their study of probability or are well into it, distinctions between complementary sets and mutually exclusive sets can be confusing. Cathy Schloemer writes in this article that for years she used typical classroom examples but was not happy with the student engagement or the level of understanding they produced.…

  5. Investigation of microwave and noise properties of InAlN/GaN HFETs after electrical stress: role of surface effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Congyong; Zhang, Fan; Ferreyra, Romualdo A.; Li, Xing; Kayis, Cemil; Avrutin, Vitaliy; Özgür, Ümit; Morkoç, Hadis

    2013-03-01

    In an effort to investigate the particulars of their stability, In18.5%Al81.5%N/GaN HFETs were subjected to on-state electrical stress for intervals totaling up to 20 hours. The current gain cutoff frequency fT showed a constant increase after each incremental stress, which was consistent with the decreased gate lag and the decreased phase noise. Extraction of small-signal circuit parameters demonstrated that the increase of fT is due to a decrease in the gate-source capacitance (Cgs) and gate-drain capacitance (Cgd) as well as the increased microwave transconductance (gm). All these behaviors are consistent with the diminishing of the gate extension ("virtual gate") around the gate area.

  6. Complementary and alternative medicine.

    PubMed

    Filshie, Jacqueline; Rubens, Carolyn N J

    2006-03-01

    Thirty years ago, the integration of complementary medicine into cancer care almost was dismissed as quackery. Today, a whole range of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) techniques have been integrated into the management of cancer, which are often of benefit to patients, when conventional treatment is deemed to have failed or caused intolerable side effects. Health care workers need to inquire about the use of CAM in their patients routinely in a sensitive and nonjudgmental way, and may need to advise patients to stop certain therapies. Yet in advanced cancer, a sensible balance needs to be struck between fear about adverse effects and interactions and the importance of making the remaining weeks/days/months as comfortable and enjoyable as possible. PMID:16487897

  7. Complementary medicine for depression.

    PubMed

    Pilkington, Karen; Rampes, Hagen; Richardson, Janet

    2006-11-01

    Surveys have demonstrated that complementary medicine use for depression is widespread, although patterns of use vary. A series of systematic reviews provide a summary of the current evidence for acupuncture, aromatherapy and massage, homeopathy, meditation, reflexology, herbal medicine, yoga, and several dietary supplements and relaxation techniques. The quantity and quality of individual studies vary widely, but research interest in complementary therapies is increasing, particularly in herbal and nutritional products. Major questions are still to be answered with respect to the effectiveness and appropriate role of these therapies in the management of depression. Areas for further research and some of the potential challenges to research design are discussed. Finally, several ongoing developments in information provision on this topic are highlighted. PMID:17144787

  8. Alternative/complementary therapies.

    PubMed

    Freeman, J W; Landis, J

    1997-02-01

    The national trends and our regional experience of the utilization of complementary therapies suggest that a significant number of our patients will continue to employ remedies that are outside the mainstream of what has been defined as conventional Western medicine. The data obtained from our survey is very consistent with the national survey published in 1993. Indeed the national interest in alternative/complementary therapies seems to be growing. A recent newspaper article from Minneapolis noted that Allina, one of Minnesota's largest hospital and HMO systems, found, in a 1995 survey, that two-thirds of surveyed households had a least one member who had used some type of alternative or holistic care over the prior two year period. Certainly continued study of the safety and efficacy of alternative/complementary therapies is warranted. This work is being done on many fronts, including the Office of Alternative Medicine at the National Institutes of Health. A most important aspect of such investigations is to improve the understanding of why patients choose these unconventional remedies. For many patients, the answer is simple. They believe these alternative treatments work. For such patients, alternative therapies may constitute a practical way to move from the sterile "high tech" realm of traditional medicine to a more intimate, "high touch" intervention offered by non-physicians. In the end, physicians' most pressing mandate is "to be of use" to patients in their struggles with illness, disability, and impending death. None of us have all the answers, and the studies alluded to in this essay suggest that a significant segment of the population yearns for interventions that have been traditionally outside the practice of most physicians and nurses. The data from our survey corroborates the high utilization rate of alternative/complementary therapies, regionally and is consistent with national data. Our challenge, as caregivers, is to appropriately respond to the

  9. Transmission line based short pulse generation circuits in a 0.13 μm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Huan; Geng, Yongtao; Wang, Pingshan

    2011-02-01

    A few traditional pulse forming circuits are implemented and compared in a commercial 0.13 μm digital CMOS technology. Standard on-chip transmission lines are used as pulse forming lines (PFLs), while CMOS transistors are used as switches. The shortest output pulses of these circuits are analyzed and compared through Cadence Spectre simulations. All the CMOS circuits are fabricated in the commercial technology. Pulses of ˜170 ps durations and 120-400 mV amplitudes are obtained when the power supply is tuned from 1.2 to 2 V. The results show that these traditional PFL based circuits can be implemented in standard CMOS technology for high power short pulse generations. Furthermore, the PFL circuits significantly extend the short pulse generation capabilities of CMOS technologies.

  10. Children and Complementary Health Approaches

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ewsichek What’s the Bottom Line? How much do we know about complementary health approaches for children? We ... about their effects and safety. 1 What do we know about the effectiveness of complementary health approaches ...

  11. A Note on Complementary Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... manipulation, and acupuncture are types of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) currently being used by millions of Americans. ... conventional care. The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM), part of NIH since 1999, funds and ...

  12. Cancer and Complementary Health Approaches

    MedlinePlus

    ... Legislation Advisory Council Job Opportunities All About NCCIH Health Topics A-Z # A B C D E ... from NCI at www.cancer.gov . About Complementary Health Approaches Complementary health approaches are a group of ...

  13. April 25, 2003, FY2003 Progress Summary and FY2002 Program Plan, Statement of Work and Deliverables for Development of High Average Power Diode-Pumped Solid State Lasers,and Complementary Technologies, for Applications in Energy and Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W; Bibeau, C

    2005-10-25

    The High Average Power Laser Program (HAPL) is a multi-institutional, synergistic effort to develop inertial fusion energy (IFE). This program is building a physics and technology base to complement the laser-fusion science being pursued by DOE Defense programs in support of Stockpile Stewardship. The primary institutions responsible for overseeing and coordinating the research activities are the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The current LLNL proposal is a companion document to the one submitted by NRL, for which the driver development element is focused on the krypton fluoride excimer laser option. The NRL and LLNL proposals also jointly pursue complementary activities with the associated rep-rated laser technologies relating to target fabrication, target injection, final optics, fusion chamber, target physics, materials and power plant economics. This proposal requests continued funding in FY03 to support LLNL in its program to build a 1 kW, 100 J, diode-pumped, crystalline laser, as well as research into high gain fusion target design, fusion chamber issues, and survivability of the final optic element. These technologies are crucial to the feasibility of inertial fusion energy power plants and also have relevance in rep-rated stewardship experiments. The HAPL Program pursues technologies needed for laser-driven IFE. System level considerations indicate that a rep-rated laser technology will be needed, operating at 5-10 Hz. Since a total energy of {approx}2 MJ will ultimately be required to achieve suitable target gain with direct drive targets, the architecture must be scaleable. The Mercury Laser is intended to offer such an architecture. Mercury is a solid state laser that incorporates diodes, crystals and gas cooling technologies.

  14. FY2002 Progress Summary Program Plan, Statement of Work and Deliverables for Development of High Average Power Diode-Pumped Solid State Lasers, and Complementary Technologies, for Applications in Energy and Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Bayramian, A; Bibeau, C; Beach, R; Behrendt, B; Ebbers, C; Latkowski, J; Meier, W; Payne, S; Perkins, J; Schaffers, K; Skulina, K; Ditmire, T; Kelly, J; Waxer, L; Rudi, P; Randles, M; Witter, D; Meissner, H; Merissner, O

    2001-12-13

    The High Average Power Laser Program (HAPL) is a multi-institutional, coordinated effort to develop a high-energy, repetitively pulsed laser system for Inertial Fusion Energy and other DOE and DOD applications. This program is building a laser-fusion energy base to complement the laser-fusion science developed by DOE Defense programs over the past 25 years. The primary institutions responsible for overseeing and coordinating the research activities are the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and LLNL. The current LLNL proposal is a companion proposal to that submitted by NRL, for which the driver development element is focused on the krypton fluoride excimer laser option. Aside from the driver development aspect, the NRL and LLNL companion proposals pursue complementary activities with the associated rep-rated laser technologies relating to target fabrication, target injection, final optics, fusion chamber, materials and power plant economics. This report requests continued funding in FY02 to support LLNL in its program to build a 1kW, 100J, diode-pumped, crystalline laser. In addition, research in high gain laser target design, fusion chamber issues and survivability of the final optic element will be pursued. These technologies are crucial to the feasibility of inertial fusion energy power plants and also have relevance in rep-rated stewardship experiments.

  15. [Complementary care approaches, towards more humanity].

    PubMed

    Svandra, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Modern medicine, with its cutting-edge technology, questions the notions of dehumanisation, over-medicalisation, the relationship to care. It seems to be aimed more at the disease than the patient. Complementary care approaches, which also encompass conventional medicine, guide and support the patient. Today, they have a role in giving back to the patient a feeling of being present in the world and testify to different approaches. PMID:27063876

  16. Diagnosis and complementary examinations.

    PubMed

    Menghini, Moreno; Duncan, Jacque L

    2014-01-01

    Development of neuroprotective therapies requires an understanding of the mechanisms of retinal degeneration and a way to monitor response to treatment. With the increasing availability of genetic testing, precise characterization of the retinal degeneration phenotype is essential. This chapter covers standard and innovative diagnostic techniques and complementary examinations needed for the evaluation and treatment of retinal degenerative diseases. It aims to provide an overview of functional and structural diagnostic tools for the evaluation of retinal degenerative diseases, but is not intended as a comprehensive reference. Subjective assessment of visual function includes psychophysical tests, such as perimetry and microperimetry. Electrophysiology tests, such as the electroretinogram and electro-oculogram, are crucial in the assessment of retinal degenerative diseases and provide an objective assessment of global photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelial cell function. Retinal structural measures are correlated with measures of retinal function to characterize the disease phenotype, including fundus photography using color, near-infrared, and autofluorescence imaging. Ocular perfusion can be assessed using fluorescein, indocyanine green, and noninvasive angiography. Optical coherence tomography provides information about retinal structure. Resolution of all images of retinal structure can be improved using adaptive optics, which permits visualization of individual photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelial cells in the macula. PMID:24732761

  17. [Integrating complementary medicines into care].

    PubMed

    Graz, Bertrand

    2016-04-01

    More and more research is being carried out into complementary medicines. It is no longer possible to say that these treatments have no scientific basis, as for some, their efficacy has been proven by clinical studies. Health services must move beyond ideological arguments and integrate safe and cost-effective complementary medicines. PMID:27063880

  18. Binary complementary white LED illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, John K.

    2001-12-01

    For widespread adoption in general-purpose illumination applications, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) must reliably produce a substantial amount of white light at a reasonable cost. While several white LED technologies appear capable of meeting the implicit technical requirements for illumination, their high purchase price (relative to traditional light sources) has heretofore impeded their market advancement. Binary complementary white (BCW) LED illuminators, first introduced commercially in late 1997, appear to offer great potential for addressing the commercial and technical demands of general-purpose illumination applications. Many properties of BCW LED systems derive from AlInGaP LED chips, the source of up to 80% of the luminous flux projected from BCW devices. This configuration yields a number of benefits, relative to other white LED approaches, including high luminous efficacy, low cost per lumen, and high luminous flux per discrete component. This document describes BCW illumination systems in detail, beginning with a review of generic LED attributes, basic illumination requirements and applied photometric and colorimetric techniques.

  19. Cancer and Complementary Health Approaches

    MedlinePlus

    ... practices of different groups of patients. What the Science Says About the Safety and Side Effects of ... whether or not it’s cancer-related. What the Science Says About the Effectiveness of Complementary Health Approaches ...

  20. A Note on Complementary Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Photo: iStock Herbal supplements, meditation, chiropractic manipulation, and acupuncture are types of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) ... effective. For example, NCCAM studies have shown that: Acupuncture can provide pain relief and improve function for ...

  1. Paying for Complementary Health Approaches

    MedlinePlus

    ... use complementary health approaches, but the type of health insurance they have affects their decisions to use these ... more pronounced among those who did not have health insurance. For those who had health insurance, coverage for ...

  2. Complementary and Alternative Methods and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... My Saved Articles » My ACS » Complementary and Alternative Methods and Cancer Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( En español ) ... with cancer here. What are complementary and alternative methods? How are complementary methods used to manage cancer? ...

  3. Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Patients Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is ... based on scientific evidence from research studies. Complementary medicine refers to treatments that are used with standard ...

  4. Improvement of process uniformity in recessed gate AlGaN/GaN HFET by selective etching of in-situ SixNy on AlGaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Hwa-Young; Park, Jinhong; Lee, Hojung; Jo, Youngje; Song, Misun; Jang, T.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of in-situ SixNy etching were investigated by comparing the uniformity of threshold voltage on recessed gate AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field effect transistor (HFET) devices with in-situ grown SixNy passivation. By varying O2 ratio in total gas flow, etch rate and selectivity of SixNy and AlGaN were changed significantly. The etch rate of AlGaN was reduced by adding O2 in gas mixture, which caused the formation of AlOx and GaOx on the surface during etching process. The etch rate of in-situ SixNy was decreased with increasing O2 ratio. By this relationship, the highest selectivity was obtained with 30% O2 ratio in total gas flow and selectivity was increased from 5 : 1 to 100 : 1. Using this optimized etching condition, the standard deviation of threshold voltage on AlGaN/GaN recess gate HFET was improved from 0.60 to 0.18 on 6-in. processed wafer.

  5. Integrative Medicine and Complementary and Alternative Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... 000 this month to find cures. Loading... Integrative Medicine and Complementary and Alternative Therapies Integrative Medicine and Complementary and Alternative Therapies SHARE: Print Glossary ...

  6. FY2005 Progress Summary and FY2006 Program Plan Statement of Work and Deliverables for Development of High Average Power Diode-Pumped Solid State Lasers, and Complementary Technologies, for Applications in Energy and Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbers, C

    2006-03-24

    The primary focus this year was to operate the system with two amplifiers populated with and pumped by eight high power diode arrays. The system was operated for extended run periods which enabled average power testing of components, diagnostics, and controls. These tests were highly successful, with a demonstrated energy level of over 55 joules for 4 cumulative hours at a repetition rate of 10 Hz (average power 0.55 kW). In addition, high average power second harmonic generation was demonstrated, achieving 227 W of 523.5 nm light (22.7 J, 10 Hz, 15 ns, 30 minutes) Plans to achieve higher energy levels and average powers are in progress. The dual amplifier system utilizes a 4-pass optical arrangement. The Yb:S-FAP slabs were mounted in aerodynamic aluminum vane structures to allow turbulent helium gas flow across the faces. Diagnostic packages that monitored beam performance were deployed during operation. The laser experiments involved injecting a seed beam from the front end into the system and making four passes through both amplifiers. Beam performance diagnostics monitored the beam on each pass to assess system parameters such as gain and nearfield intensity profiles. This year, an active mirror and wavefront sensor were procured and demonstrated in an off-line facility. The active mirror technology can correct for low order phase distortions at user specified operating conditions (such as repetition rates different than 10 Hz) and is a complementary technology to the static phase plates used in the system for higher order distortions. A picture of the laser system with amplifier No.2 (foreground) and amplifier No.1 (background) is shown in Fig. 1.0.1.1. The control system and diagnostics were recently enhanced for faster processing and allow remote operation of the system. The growth and fabrication of the Yb:S-FAP slabs constituted another major element of our program objectives. Our goal was to produce at least fourteen 4x6 cm2 crystalline slabs. These

  7. [Complementary therapy in palliative medicine].

    PubMed

    Hübner, J; Stoll, C

    2011-01-01

    Even in the palliative context complementary therapy has a high value for patients and their relatives. In contrast to the methods of conventional medicine naturopathy as a holistic system has positive meanings for patients and their family. Complementary medicine in the palliative setting can be used as a supportive therapy in carefully selected cases. Doctors and patients should be careful regarding effect and side effects and should make sure that supportive therapy is given adequately and in effective doses. Complementary therapy should not be used in order to avoid the question of life and death. An adequate approach to the topic is mandatory, which acknowledges the needs of patients but also looks for their safety. Patients following alternative therapies sometimes neglect helpful therapeutic options. Carefully providing information on these therapies is mandatory. Physicians should avoid losing patients' confidence in their competence and attention in their final course of disease. Also in palliative medicine a sensitive approach to the topic of complementary medicine is mandatory, which accounts for the eligible wishes of patients and their relatives but puts the patients safety first. PMID:21181106

  8. Complementary Colours for a Physicist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babic, Vitomir; Cepic, Mojca

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a simple experiment which enables splitting incident light into two different modes, each having a colour exactly complementary to the other. A brief historical development of colour theories and differences in a physicist's point of view with respect to an artist's one is discussed. An experimental system for producing…

  9. A Drosophila complementary DNA resource

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, Gerald M.; Hong, Ling; Brokstein, Peter; Evans-Holm, Martha; Frise, Erwin; Stapleton, Mark; Harvey, Damon A.

    2000-03-24

    Collections of nonredundant, full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) clones for each of the model organisms and humans will be important resources for studies of gene structure and function. We describe a general strategy for producing such collections and its implementation, which so far has generated a set of cDNAs corresponding to over 40% of the genes in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

  10. High-temperature Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductors (CMOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbrayer, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    The results of an investigation into the possibility of using complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology for high temperature electronics are presented. A CMOS test chip was specifically developed as the test bed. This test chip incorporates CMOS transistors that have no gate protection diodes; these diodes are the major cause of leakage in commercial devices.

  11. 6 Tips: IBS and Complementary Health Practices

    MedlinePlus

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z 6 Tips: IBS and Complementary Health Practices Share: As ... a complementary health practice for IBS, here are 6 tips: Hypnotherapy (hypnosis). This practice involves the power ...

  12. Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Complementary Health Practices

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vision/Thinkstock What's the Bottom Line? What do we know about the effectiveness of complementary health approaches ... t draw conclusions about their effectiveness. What do we know about the safety of complementary health approaches ...

  13. Complementary feeding patterns in India.

    PubMed

    Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A V

    2012-10-01

    There are far too many children in the world who suffer from under-nutrition and growth faltering, with life time consequences such as reduced work capacity, increased infections, impaired intellectual performance and an increased risk of non communicable diseases later in life. These changes occur early in life, and consequently, complementary feeding has been receiving increased attention in the international nutrition community. In India, common problems relate not only to insufficient breastfeeding, but also to detrimental feeding practices. Only about 20% of children aged 6-23 months were fed according to the three recommended Infant and Child Feeding practices. The most common types of solid or semi-solid foods fed to both breastfeeding and non-breastfeeding children under 3 years of age were foods made from grains and roots. These complementary feeding practices were found to be significantly associated with poor socioeconomic status, undesirable socio-cultural beliefs, maternal illiteracy, and ignorance. Although many initiatives have been carried out in India to promote Infant and Young Child Feeding, the progress in reducing the number of undernourished children in India over the last decade has been slow and modest. Equally, with the growing evidence and interest in the role of infant nutrition in the development of over nutrition and non-communicable disease, it is important to plan appropriate complementary feeding interventions that result in optimal growth. Contact opportunities with parents, specifically mothers, must be used for counseling through multiple communication channels such as local media, in order to constantly educate the population with consistent and simple messages on child feeding. PMID:22748607

  14. Complementary colours for a physicist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babič, Vitomir; Čepič, Mojca

    2009-07-01

    This paper reports on a simple experiment which enables splitting incident light into two different modes, each having a colour exactly complementary to the other. A brief historical development of colour theories and differences in a physicist's point of view with respect to an artist's one is discussed. An experimental system for producing colours and their physically exact complements using cellophane is presented. The origin of the colours lies in the transmission of polarized light through the birefringent cellophane, and therefore the optics of birefringent materials is briefly presented. A set-up which will be described in the following can be used in a laboratory experiment at an undergraduate level.

  15. [Reactions of patients to complementary medicine].

    PubMed

    Bar-Cohen, B; DeKeyser, F; Wagner, N

    2000-10-01

    350 patients attending 11 large out-patient clinics completed questionnaires evaluating attitudes to, and experience with complementary medicine. 129 (36%) respondents reported using complementary medicine. 14% of them used complementary medicine for the current medical problem for which they were attending the clinic. Pain was the most common medical problem for which complementary medicine was used, followed by respiratory problems and cancer. Common therapeutic modalities used were acupuncture, homeopathy, nutrition and herbal medicine. Women, the secular as opposed to the religious, and those with higher education were more apt to use complementary medicine. No differences were found in age, national origin, length of living in Israel, and diet (vegetarian, natural foods or regular diet) between those who used complementary medicine and those who did not. No relationship was found between the use of complementary medicine and perceived poor health status, locus of control, or satisfaction with the doctor-patient relationship. PMID:11062966

  16. Multiple complementary gas distribution assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Ng, Tuoh-Bin; Melnik, Yuriy; Pang, Lily L; Tuncel, Eda; Nguyen, Son T; Chen, Lu

    2016-04-05

    In one embodiment, an apparatus includes a first gas distribution assembly that includes a first gas passage for introducing a first process gas into a second gas passage that introduces the first process gas into a processing chamber and a second gas distribution assembly that includes a third gas passage for introducing a second process gas into a fourth gas passage that introduces the second process gas into the processing chamber. The first and second gas distribution assemblies are each adapted to be coupled to at least one chamber wall of the processing chamber. The first gas passage is shaped as a first ring positioned within the processing chamber above the second gas passage that is shaped as a second ring positioned within the processing chamber. The gas distribution assemblies may be designed to have complementary characteristic radial film growth rate profiles.

  17. Superlens from complementary anisotropic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, G. X.; Tam, H. L.; Wang, F. Y.; Cheah, K. W.

    2007-12-01

    Metamaterials with isotropic property have been shown to possess novel optical properties such as a negative refractive index that can be used to design a superlens. Recently, it was shown that metamaterials with anisotropic property can translate the high-frequency wave vector k values from evanescence to propagating. However, electromagnetic waves traveling in single-layer anisotropic metamaterial produce diverging waves of different spatial frequency. In this work, it is shown that, using bilayer metamaterials that have complementary anisotropic property, the diverging waves are recombined to produce a subwavelength image, i.e., a superlens device can be designed. The simulation further shows that the design can be achieved using a metal/oxide multilayer, and a resolution of 30 nm can be easily obtained in the optical frequency range.

  18. Novel Implantation Method to Improve Machine-Model Electrostatic Discharge Robustness of Stacked N-Channel Metal-Oxide Semiconductors (NMOS) in Sub-Quarter-Micron Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductors (CMOS) Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ker, Ming-Dou; Hsu, Hsin-Chyh; Peng, Jeng-Jie

    2002-11-01

    A novel ion implantation method for electrostatic discharge protection, often called as ESD implantation, is proposed to significantly improve machine-model (MM) ESD robustness of N-channel metal-oxide semiconductors (NMOS) device in stacked configuration (stacked NMOS). By using this ESD implantation method, the ESD current is discharged far away from the surface channel of NMOS, therefore the stacked NMOS in the mixed-voltage I/O interface can sustain a much higher ESD level, especially under the MM ESD stress. The MM ESD robustness of the stacked NMOS with a device dimension of W/L=300 μm/0.5 μm for each NMOS has been successfully improved from the original 358 V to become 491 V in a 0.25-μm complementary metal-oxide semiconductors (CMOS) process.

  19. Special Section: Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM):Quiz on Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Special Section CAM Quiz on Complementary and Alternative Medicine Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... for low back pain. True False Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) includes: Meditation Chiropractic Use of natural products, ...

  20. Special Section: Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM):Quiz on Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Special Section CAM Quiz on Complementary and Alternative Medicine Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... low back pain. True False Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) includes: Meditation Chiropractic Use of natural products, ...

  1. A Modified Capacitance-Voltage Method Used for Leff Extraction and Process Monitoring in Advanced 0.15 μm Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Technology and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Heng-Sheng; Shiu, Jen-Shiuan; Lin, Shyh-Jye; Chou, Jih-Wen; Lee, Ryan; Chen, Coming; Hong, Gary

    2001-03-01

    In this paper, an alternative approach for the extraction of effective channel length, Leff, using a modified capacitance-voltage (C-V) method [the capacitance-ratio (C-R) method], which considers depletion effect compensation is proposed. In general, we define Leff=Lmask-Δ L, where Δ L is the sum of the polysilicon gate lithography bias and two times the overlap length of the polysilicon gate and source/drain (S/D) extension (Δ L=Lpb+2Lovlap). Using the modified C-V method, more consistent and reasonable Leff data can be extracted as compared to those obtained using the newest current-voltage (I-V) method (shift and ratio method). In using the proposed C-R method, we can electrically measure the exact Lpb and Lovlap numbers that can both be used as process monitor parameters. The within-wafer uniformities of Leff (or Δ L), Lpb and Lovlap have also been checked among devices of various sizes. After the Leff is extracted, a stable S/D resistance Rsd, with Vg independence, is determined and verified using the I-V method. The parasitic capacitance Cgd is another extracted parameter that is as important as Rsd in SPICE modeling for RF complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) applications.

  2. Menopausal Symptoms and Complementary Health Practices

    MedlinePlus

    ... Audio) NCCIH Clinical Digest A monthly newsletter with evidence-based information on complementary and integrative practices and a ... review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2012;2012:863905. Dodin S, ...

  3. Adequacy of family foods for complementary feeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The WHO recommends that complementary foods be introduced to all infants at age 6 mo and that breastfeeding be continued until age 18–24 mo. Beginning at age 6 mo, complementary foods should be pureed, mashed, or semisolid, but by age 12 mo the child should be able to eat solid foods that are consum...

  4. Ethics of complementary medicine: practical issues

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Edzard

    2009-01-01

    Complementary medicine is popular, yet ethical issues are rarely discussed. Misleading information, informed consent, publishing, and confidentiality are discussed in the light of medical ethics. The message that emerges is that, in complementary medicine, ethical issues are neglected and violated on a daily basis. PMID:19567001

  5. Complementary and alternative therapies for weight loss.

    PubMed

    Steyer, Terrence E; Ables, Adrienne

    2009-06-01

    Although many complementary therapies are promoted for the treatment of obesity, few are truly therapeutic. Evidence suggests that food containing diacylglycerol oil, acupuncture, and hypnosis are the only evidence-based complementary therapies for the treatment of obesity, and, at best, these should be used as adjuvants to the more conventional therapies of calorie restriction and exercise. PMID:19501250

  6. Risk, pregnancy and complementary and alternative medicine.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Mary

    2010-05-01

    Since the 1990's sociologists such as Giddens and Beck have highlighted the complexities of contemporary western societies in relation to risk. The "risk society" is one in which the advantages of scientific and technological developments are overshadowed with risks and dangers: leading to a world dominated by anxiety and uncertainty. Although a complex set of interrelated phenomena the risk society can be summarised under three main changes: including globalisation, scepticism about expert knowledge, Thompson: 27 and the degree of autonomy individuals have in our detraditionalised society to determine their own life choices (Beck: 13). The discourses of the "risk society" inevitably impact on women during pregnancy and the potential influence this discourse may have in relation to healthcare choices, particularly in the field of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) are explored. In this paper it is argued that the apparently growing use of CAM during pregnancy and childbirth could be interpreted as a response by women to these discourses, that decisions made with regard to CAM may signify a desire for personal fulfilment and a need for autonomy and active participation in healthcare during pregnancy and childbirth. PMID:20347843

  7. Shielded silicon gate complementary MOS integrated circuit.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, H. C.; Halsor, J. L.; Hayes, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    An electrostatic shield for complementary MOS integrated circuits was developed to minimize the adverse effects of stray electric fields created by the potentials in the metal interconnections. The process is compatible with silicon gate technology. N-doped polycrystalline silicon was used for all the gates and the shield. The effectiveness of the shield was demonstrated by constructing a special field plate over certain transistors. The threshold voltages obtained on an oriented silicon substrate ranged from 1.5 to 3 V for either channel. Integrated inverters performed satisfactorily from 3 to 15 V, limited at the low end by the threshold voltages and at the high end by the drain breakdown voltage of the n-channel transistors. The stability of the new structure with an n-doped silicon gate as measured by the shift in C-V curve under 200 C plus or minus 20 V temperature-bias conditions was better than conventional aluminum gate or p-doped silicon gate devices, presumably due to the doping of gate oxide with phosphorous.

  8. Complementary resistive switches for passive nanocrossbar memories.

    PubMed

    Linn, Eike; Rosezin, Roland; Kügeler, Carsten; Waser, Rainer

    2010-05-01

    On the road towards higher memory density and computer performance, a significant improvement in energy efficiency constitutes the dominant goal in future information technology. Passive crossbar arrays of memristive elements were suggested a decade ago as non-volatile random access memories (RAM) and can also be used for reconfigurable logic circuits. As such they represent an interesting alternative to the conventional von Neumann based computer chip architectures. Crossbar architectures hold the promise of a significant reduction in energy consumption because of their ultimate scaling potential and because they allow for a local fusion of logic and memory, thus avoiding energy consumption by data transfer on the chip. However, the expected paradigm change has not yet taken place because the general problem of selecting a designated cell within a passive crossbar array without interference from sneak-path currents through neighbouring cells has not yet been solved satisfactorily. Here we introduce a complementary resistive switch. It consists of two antiserial memristive elements and allows for the construction of large passive crossbar arrays by solving the sneak path problem in combination with a drastic reduction of the power consumption. PMID:20400954

  9. Fusing complementary images for pavement cracking measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Ming; Zhao, Zuyun; Yao, Xun; Xu, Bugao

    2015-02-01

    Cracking is a major pavement distress that jeopardizes road serviceability and traffic safety. Automated pavement distress survey (APDS) systems have been developed using digital imaging technology to replace human surveys for more timely and accurate inspections. Most APDS systems require special lighting devices to illuminate pavements and prevent shadows of roadside objects that distort cracks in the image. Most artificial lighting devices are laser based, and are either hazardous to unprotected people or require dedicated power supplies on the vehicle. This study was aimed to develop a new imaging system that can scan pavement surface at highway speed and determine the level of severity of pavement cracking without using any artificial lighting. The new system consists of dual line-scan cameras that are installed side by side to scan the same pavement area as the vehicle moves. Cameras are controlled with different exposure settings so that both sunlit and shadowed areas can be visible in two separate images. The paired images contain complementary details useful for reconstructing an image in which the shadows are eliminated. This paper intends to present (1) the design of the dual line-scan camera system, (2) a new calibration method for line-scan cameras to rectify and register paired images, (3) a customized image-fusion algorithm that merges the multi-exposure images into one shadow-free image for crack detection, and (4) the results of the field tests on a selected road over a long period.

  10. Complementary and alternative medicine for multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, S; Knorr, C; Geiger, H; Flachenecker, P

    2008-09-01

    We analyzed characteristics, motivation, and effectiveness of complementary and alternative medicine in a large sample of people with multiple sclerosis. A 53-item survey was mailed to the members of the German Multiple Sclerosis Society, chapter of Baden-Wuerttemberg. Surveys of 1573 patients (48.5 +/- 11.7 years, 74% women, duration of illness 18.1 +/- 10.5 years) were analyzed. In comparison with conventional medicine, more patients displayed a positive attitude toward complementary and alternative medicine (44% vs 38%, P < 0.05), with 70% reporting lifetime use of at least one method. Among a wide variety of complementary and alternative medicine, diet modification (41%), Omega-3 fatty acids (37%), removal of amalgam fillings (28%), vitamins E (28%), B (36%), and C (28%), homeopathy (26%), and selenium (24%) were cited most frequently. Most respondents (69%) were satisfied with the effects of complementary and alternative medicine. Use of complementary and alternative medicine was associated with religiosity, functional independence, female sex, white-collar job, and higher education (P < 0.05). Compared with conventional therapies, complementary and alternative medicine rarely showed unwanted side effects (9% vs 59%, P < 0.00001). A total of 52% stated that the initial consultation with their physician lasted less than 15 min. To conclude, main reasons for the use of complementary and alternative medicine include the high rate of side effects and low levels of satisfaction with conventional treatments and brief patients/physicians contacts. PMID:18632773

  11. Complementary Therapy Use Among Older Rural Adults

    PubMed Central

    Shreffler-Grant, Jean; Weinert, Clarann; Nichols, Elizabeth; Ide, Bette

    2006-01-01

    Objective Explore use, cost, and satisfaction with the quality and effectiveness of complementary therapy among older rural adults. Design Descriptive survey. Sample A random sample of 325 older adults from rural communities throughout Montana and North Dakota. Measurements Participants were interviewed by telephone. Results Only 57 participants (17.5%) had used complementary providers and most sought this care for chronic problems, heard about providers through word-of-mouth information, and were satisfied with the care. A total of 35.7% (116) used self-directed complementary practices and most used these practices for health promotion, heard about them through informal sources, and found them to be at least somewhat helpful. Of the 325 participants, 45.2% (147) used some form of complementary care, e.g., providers, self-directed practices, or both. Participants used as much complementary care as is found in national studies. Most spent relatively little out-of-pocket for complementary care. Conclusions Understanding the health care choices that older rural residents make, including complementary health care, is paramount for a comprehensive approach to meeting their health care needs. PMID:16150013

  12. Feasibility study of optical/e-beam complementary lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohle, Christoph; Choi, Kang-Hoon; Freitag, Martin; Gutsch, Manuela; Jaschinsky, Philipp; Kahlenberg, Frank; Klein, Christof; Klikovits, Jan; Paul, Jan; Rudolph, Matthias; Thrun, Xaver

    2012-03-01

    Using electron beam direct write (EBDW) as a complementary approach together with standard optical lithography at 193nm or EUV wavelength has been proposed only lately and might be a reasonable solution for low volume CMOS manufacturing and special applications as well as design rule restrictions. Here, the high throughput of the optical litho can be combined with the high resolution and the high flexibility of the e-beam by using a mix & match approach (Litho- Etch-Litho-Etch, LELE). Complementary Lithography is mainly driven by special design requirements for unidirectional (1-D gridded) Manhattan type design layouts that enable scaling of advanced logic chips. This requires significant data prep efforts such as layout splitting. In this paper we will show recent results of Complementary Lithography using 193nm immersion generated 50nm lines/space pattern addressing the 32nm logic technology node that were cut with electron beam direct write. Regular lines and space arrays were patterned at GLOBALFOUNDRIES Dresden and have been cut in predefined areas using a VISTEC SB3050DW e-beam direct writer (50KV Variable Shaped Beam) at Fraunhofer Center Nanoelectronic Technologies (CNT), Dresden, as well as on the PML2 tool at IMS Nanofabrication, Vienna. Two types of e-beam resists were used for the cut exposure. Integration issues as well as overlay requirements and performance improvements necessary for this mix & match approach will be discussed.

  13. Complementary therapies for acne vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Huijuan; Yang, Guoyan; Wang, Yuyi; Liu, Jian Ping; Smith, Caroline A; Luo, Hui; Liu, Yueming

    2015-01-01

    Background Acne is a chronic skin disease characterised by inflamed spots and blackheads on the face, neck, back, and chest. Cysts and scarring can also occur, especially in more severe disease. People with acne often turn to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), such as herbal medicine, acupuncture, and dietary modifications, because of their concerns about the adverse effects of conventional medicines. However, evidence for CAM therapies has not been systematically assessed. Objectives To assess the effects and safety of any complementary therapies in people with acne vulgaris. Search methods We searched the following databases from inception up to 22 January 2014: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2014, Issue 1), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), PsycINFO (from 1806), AMED (from 1985), CINAHL (from 1981), Scopus (from 1966), and a number of other databases listed in the Methods section of the review. The Cochrane CAM Field Specialised Register was searched up to May 2014. We also searched five trials registers and checked the reference lists of articles for further references to relevant trials. Selection criteria We included parallel-group randomised controlled trials (or the first phase data of randomised cross-over trials) of any kind of CAM, compared with no treatment, placebo, or other active therapies, in people with a diagnosis of acne vulgaris. Data collection and analysis Three authors collected data from each included trial and evaluated the methodological quality independently. They resolved disagreements by discussion and, as needed, arbitration by another author. Main results We included 35 studies, with a total of 3227 participants. We evaluated the majority as having unclear risk of selection, attrition, reporting, detection, and other biases. Because of the clinical heterogeneity between trials and the incomplete data reporting, we could only include four

  14. Single-pixel complementary compressive sampling spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Ruo-Ming; Liu, Xue-Feng; Yao, Xu-Ri; Yu, Wen-Kai; Zhai, Guang-Jie

    2016-05-01

    A new type of compressive spectroscopy technique employing a complementary sampling strategy is reported. In a single sequence of spectral compressive sampling, positive and negative measurements are performed, in which sensing matrices with a complementary relationship are used. The restricted isometry property condition necessary for accurate recovery of compressive sampling theory is satisfied mathematically. Compared with the conventional single-pixel spectroscopy technique, the complementary compressive sampling strategy can achieve spectral recovery of considerably higher quality within a shorter sampling time. We also investigate the influence of the sampling ratio and integration time on the recovery quality.

  15. Complementary medicine: where is the evidence?

    PubMed

    Ernst, Edzard

    2003-08-01

    Herbal medicines have been submitted to systematic reviews more frequently than any other complementary therapy, and it is here where the most positive evidence can be found. There is not much research into potential serious risks of complementary medicine. Possible risks range from the toxicity of herbs to vertebral artery dissection or nerve damage after chiropractic manipulation. Currently the Cochrane Library contains 34 systematic reviews of complementary medicine: 20 of herbal medicines, 7 of acupuncture, 3 of homeopathy, 2 of manual therapies, and 2 of other forms. PMID:12899818

  16. Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Chronic Constipation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Chronic constipation, an ancient disease, is prevalent, and costly in the general population. Complementary and alternative therapies are frequently used for constipation. This review introduces various methods of complementary and alternative therapies, including acupuncture, moxibustion, massage, and herbal medicine. Efficacy, safety, influence factors, sham control design, and mechanisms of these therapies are discussed and evaluated. Acupuncture or electroacupuncture was found to be most commonly used for constipation among these complementary and alternative therapies, followed by herbal medicine. Although only a small number of clinical studies are flawless, our review of the literature seems to suggest that acupuncture or electroacupuncture and herbal medicine are effective in treating constipation, whereas findings on massage and moxibustion are inconclusive. More well-designed clinical trials are needed to improve and prove the efficacy of the complementary and alternative therapies for constipation; mechanistic studies that would lead to wide spread use and improvement of the methods are also discussed in this review. PMID:26064163

  17. Complementary and Alternative Treatment for Allergic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Juan; Grine, Kristen

    2016-09-01

    This article explains the proposed pathophysiology, evidence of efficacy, and adverse effects of several complementary and alternative medicine modalities, for the treatment of allergic conditions, such as traditional Chinese medicine formula, herbal treatments, acupuncture, and homeopathy. PMID:27545740

  18. 4 Tips: Asthma and Complementary Health Practices

    MedlinePlus

    ... U V W X Y Z 4 Tips: Asthma and Complementary Health Practices Share: Asthma is a chronic lung disease that affects people ... cure, most people are able to control their asthma with conventional therapies and by avoiding the substances ...

  19. IBD and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alternative Medicine (CAM) Go Back Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Email Print + Share Crohn’s disease and ulcerative ... Energy Medicine, and Biologically-Based Practices. Mind-Body Medicine Mind-body medicine is a set of interventions ...

  20. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... About NCCIH NCCIH At a Glance Mission and Vision Organizational Structure Director's ... Integrative Health Health All Health Topics from A-Z Research-based info from acupuncture to zinc. Complementary, Alternative, ...

  1. Complementary therapies for depression: an overview.

    PubMed

    Ernst, E; Rand, J I; Stevinson, C

    1998-11-01

    Depression is one of the most common reasons for using complementary and alternative therapies. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the evidence available on the treatment of depression with complementary therapies. Systematic literature searches were performed using several databases, reference list searching, and inquiry to colleagues. Data extraction followed a predefined protocol. The amount of rigorous scientific data to support the efficacy of complementary therapies in the treatment of depression is extremely limited. The areas with the most evidence for beneficial effects are exercise, herbal therapy (Hypericum perforatum), and, to a lesser extent, acupuncture and relaxation therapies. There is a need for further research involving randomized controlled trials into the efficacy of complementary and alternative therapies in the treatment of depression. PMID:9819072

  2. Alternative (Complementary) Therapies for HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... For example, some people combine yoga with meditation. Physical (body) therapies Physical, or body, therapies include such activities as ... with specific health problems. Complementary therapies can include physical therapies (such as yoga and acupuncture), relaxation techniques (such ...

  3. Detraditionalisation, gender and alternative and complementary medicines.

    PubMed

    Sointu, Eeva

    2011-03-01

    This article is premised on the importance of locating the appeal and meaning of alternative and complementary medicines in the context of gendered identities. I argue that the discourse of wellbeing--captured in many alternative and complementary health practices--is congruent with culturally prevalent ideals of self-fulfilling, authentic, unique and self-responsible subjectivity. The discourse of wellbeing places the self at the centre, thus providing a contrast with traditional ideas of other-directed and caring femininity. As such, involvement in alternative and complementary medicines is entwined with a negotiation of shifting femininities in detraditionalising societies. Simultaneously, many alternative and complementary health practices readily tap into and reproduce traditional representations of caring femininity. It is through an emphasis on emotional honesty and intimacy that the discourse of wellbeing also captures a challenge to traditional ideas of masculinity. Expectations and experiences relating to gender add a further level of complexity to the meaningfulness and therapeutic value of alternative and complementary medicines and underlie the gender difference in the utilisation of holistic health practices. I draw on data from a qualitative study with 44, primarily white, middle-class users and practitioners of varied alternative and complementary medicines in the UK. PMID:21251021

  4. Thyroid Disease and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Donate Thyroid Disease and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) WHAT IS A THYROID NODULE? The term ... type of evaluation. WHAT IS COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE (CAM)? Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is defined ...

  5. Liquid and Solid Propulsion Systems Attributes - Unique, Common and Complementary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, James L.; Lampton, Pat; Williams, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, attributes are described for solid and liquid propulsion systems based on historical data. This study is not intended to compare liquid and solid propulsion system attributes, rather to present options for their use in various mission scenarios. US launch vehicle data from 1970 to 2008 was analyzed to assess solid and liquid propulsion development cost and schedule characteristics, performance features, and safety and mission success attributes. The study assessed historical trends for liquid and solid systems, and investigated implications of those trends. It was found that the two propulsion technologies have unique, common and complementary attributes that can be leveraged to meet mission requirements.

  6. [Legal implications of complementary and alternative therapies].

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Karl Otto

    2008-01-01

    Complementary therapies require a differentiated treatment by all the legal fields involved. First, this refers to medical malpractice law dealing with the question of medical indication, its interaction with "classical" medicine and the need for extensive patient information on the potential ineffectiveness of the--partly very expensive--complementary therapies. Second, it also refers to the legal specifications of the medical profession as well as health insurance law. The question is whether the expenses of an alternative therapy are borne by the statutory or private health insurance and whether it is justified to try a complementary therapy when faced with an incurable disease. In the following the range of legal aspects shall be illuminated on the basis of the relevant jurisdiction. PMID:19213454

  7. Complementary Variational Theorems for inhomogeneous superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choy, T. C.

    1997-03-01

    Complementary variational theorems are derived for an inhomogeneous London (local) superconductor in which both the magnetic permeability μ(r) and the London penetration length λ_L(r) vary randomly in space (T.C. Choy, Physical Review B (1997) (to appear)). An essential feature is the close coupling between magnetic and supercurrent polarisation effects, developed self-consistently in this work. Using these theorems and a suitable ansatz for the single particle polarisabilities, we obtained complementary bounds for a composite superconductor near Tc and T=0^circ K. Our results may be important for the empirical study of systems containing magnetic (normal) and superconducting mixtures, including the high Tc oxide superconductors.

  8. Arithmetic, mutually unbiased bases and complementary observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppeard, M. D.

    2010-02-01

    Complementary observables in quantum mechanics may be viewed as Frobenius structures in a dagger monoidal category, such as the category of finite dimensional Hilbert spaces over the complex numbers. On the other hand, their properties crucially depend on the discrete Fourier transform and its associated quantum torus, requiring only the finite fields that underlie mutually unbiased bases. In axiomatic topos theory, the complex numbers are difficult to describe and should not be invoked unnecessarily. This paper surveys some fundamentals of quantum arithmetic using finite field complementary observables, with a view considering more general axiom systems.

  9. Complementary therapies for cancer-related symptoms.

    PubMed

    Deng, Gary; Cassileth, Barrie R; Yeung, K Simon

    2004-01-01

    Relief of cancer-related symptoms is essential in the supportive and palliative care of cancer patients. Complementary therapies such as acupuncture, mind-body techniques, and massage therapy can help when conventional treatment does not bring satisfactory relief or causes undesirable side effects. Controlled clinical trials show that acupuncture and hypnotherapy can reduce pain and nausea. Meditation, relaxation therapy, music therapy, and massage mitigate anxiety and distress. Pilot studies suggest that complementary therapies may treat xerostomia, hot flashes, and fatigue. Botanicals or dietary supplements are popular but often problematic. Concurrent use of herbal products with mainstream medical treatment should be discouraged. PMID:15524070

  10. 15 CFR 784.6 - Post complementary access activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Post complementary access activities... COMPLEMENTARY ACCESS § 784.6 Post complementary access activities. Upon receiving the IAEA's final report on.... BIS also will send locations a post complementary access letter detailing the issues that...

  11. 15 CFR 784.6 - Post complementary access activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Post complementary access activities... COMPLEMENTARY ACCESS § 784.6 Post complementary access activities. Upon receiving the IAEA's final report on.... BIS also will send locations a post complementary access letter detailing the issues that...

  12. 15 CFR 784.6 - Post complementary access activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Post complementary access activities... COMPLEMENTARY ACCESS § 784.6 Post complementary access activities. Upon receiving the IAEA's final report on.... BIS also will send locations a post complementary access letter detailing the issues that...

  13. 7 CFR 3406.9 - Complementary project proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Complementary project proposals. Institutions may submit proposals that are complementary in nature as defined in § 3406.2. Such complementary project proposals may be submitted by the same or by different... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Complementary project proposals. 3406.9 Section...

  14. 7 CFR 3406.9 - Complementary project proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Complementary project proposals. Institutions may submit proposals that are complementary in nature as defined in § 3406.2. Such complementary project proposals may be submitted by the same or by different... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Complementary project proposals. 3406.9 Section...

  15. 7 CFR 3406.9 - Complementary project proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Complementary project proposals. Institutions may submit proposals that are complementary in nature as defined in § 3406.2. Such complementary project proposals may be submitted by the same or by different... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Complementary project proposals. 3406.9 Section...

  16. 7 CFR 3406.9 - Complementary project proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROGRAM Program Description § 3406.9 Complementary project proposals. Institutions may submit proposals that are complementary in nature as defined in § 3406.2. Such complementary project proposals may be... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Complementary project proposals. 3406.9 Section...

  17. 7 CFR 3405.8 - Complementary project proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Program Description § 3405.8 Complementary project proposals. Institutions may submit proposals that are complementary in nature as defined in § 3405.2(g). Such complementary project proposals may be submitted by the... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Complementary project proposals. 3405.8 Section...

  18. 7 CFR 3406.9 - Complementary project proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Complementary project proposals. Institutions may submit proposals that are complementary in nature as defined in § 3406.2. Such complementary project proposals may be submitted by the same or by different... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Complementary project proposals. 3406.9 Section...

  19. Thinking about Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Free Copy This booklet covers: What complementary and alternative medicine is (CAM) is and why people use it The different types of CAM (mind-body methods, biologically based practices, body-based practices, energy medicine, and whole medical systems. How to talk ...

  20. Complementary Schools, Past, Present and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Wei

    2006-01-01

    Complementary schools for immigrant and ethnic minority children in the UK have been an important socio-political, educational movement in the country for nearly half a century. They have made a major impact on the lives of thousands of children of different ethnic backgrounds, attracted public debates vis-a-vis the government's involvement in…

  1. Polish Complementary Schools in Iceland and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zielinska, Malgorzata; Kowzan, Piotr; Ragnarsdóttir, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Since 2004, the opening of labour markets has spurred a considerable number of Poles to emigrate e.g. to Iceland and England. Families with school age children have had the challenge of adapting to foreign environments and school systems. Polish complementary schools have played an important, albeit ambivalent, role in this process. Through focus…

  2. Niche engineering reveals complementary resource use

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greater resource use by diverse communities might result from species occupying different, complementary niches. Niche partitioning is difficult to directly demonstrate, however, because differences among species in the resources they use are often difficult to separate from other species-specific t...

  3. Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roizen, Nancy J.

    2005-01-01

    In their role as committed advocates, parents of children with Down syndrome have always sought alternative therapies, mainly to enhance cognitive function but also to improve their appearance. Nutritional supplements have been the most frequent type of complementary and alternative therapy used. Cell therapy, plastic surgery, hormonal therapy,…

  4. Complementary or alternative therapies for osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Edzard

    2006-02-01

    Complementary or alternative therapies for osteoarthritis are commonly used and therefore it is important that health-care providers and patients are aware of the evidence for or against these approaches. In this article, the best available evidence is reviewed. The results suggest that, for several treatments, the risk-benefit profile is encouraging: acupuncture, several herbal medicines and capsaicin cream. For other therapies the evidence is weak or contradictory: homeopathy, magnet therapy, tai chi, leech therapy, music therapy, yoga, imagery and therapeutic touch. Many other treatments have not been scientifically tested. It is concluded that some complementary or alternative therapies have generated sufficiently promising results to warrant further investigation in large-scale, definitive, randomized clinical trials. PMID:16932660

  5. Complementary and alternative medicine. Considering the alternatives.

    PubMed

    Weber, D O

    1998-01-01

    Therapies variously described as alternative, complementary, or unconventional because they lie outside the realm of scientific medicine practiced by graduates of orthodox U.S. medical schools are gaining mainstream respectability despite many questions about their efficacy and safety. Depending on definitions, surveys indicate that fewer than 10 percent to nearly 40 percent of Americans supplement or substitute for conventional health care with alternative systems of medical practice. Spending for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) nationwide has been estimated at up to $14 billion a year. Establishment of an Office of Alternative Medicine in the National Institutes of Health in 1992 has heartened advocates of CAM, increased interest and government funding for research into unorthodox therapies, and lent credibility to CAM modalities. Embracing marginal therapies may represent an opportunity for physicians and health systems to reduce inappropriate consumption, offer a wider range of choices to patients, and profit from a lucrative market. PMID:10351720

  6. Complementary lattice arrays for coded aperture imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Jie; Noshad, Mohammad; Tarokh, Vahid

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we consider complementary lattice arrays in order to enable a broader range of designs for coded aperture imaging systems. We provide a general framework and methods that generate richer and more flexible designs than existing ones. Besides this, we review and interpret the state-of-the-art uniformly redundant arrays (URA) designs, broaden the related concepts, and further propose some new design methods.

  7. Complementary arsenic speciation methods: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nearing, Michelle M.; Koch, Iris; Reimer, Kenneth J.

    2014-09-01

    The toxicity of arsenic greatly depends on its chemical form and oxidation state (speciation) and therefore accurate determination of arsenic speciation is a crucial step in understanding its chemistry and potential risk. High performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) is the most common analysis used for arsenic speciation but it has two major limitations: it relies on an extraction step (usually from a solid sample) that can be incomplete or alter the arsenic compounds; and it provides no structural information, relying on matching sample peaks to standard peaks. The use of additional analytical methods in a complementary manner introduces the ability to address these disadvantages. The use of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) with HPLC-ICP-MS can be used to identify compounds not extracted for HPLC-ICP-MS and provide minimal processing steps for solid state analysis that may help preserve labile compounds such as those containing arsenicsbnd sulfur bonds, which can degrade under chromatographic conditions. On the other hand, HPLC-ICP-MS is essential in confirming organoarsenic compounds with similar white line energies seen by using XAS, and identifying trace arsenic compounds that are too low to be detected by XAS. The complementary use of electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) with HPLC-ICP-MS provides confirmation of arsenic compounds identified during the HPLC-ICP-MS analysis, identification of unknown compounds observed during the HPLC-ICP-MS analysis and further resolves HPLC-ICP-MS by identifying co-eluting compounds. In the complementary use of HPLC-ICP-MS and ESI-MS, HPLC-ICP-MS helps to focus the ESI-MS selection of ions. Numerous studies have shown that the information obtained from HPLC-ICP-MS analysis can be greatly enhanced by complementary approaches.

  8. High Cholesterol and Complementary Health Practices: What the Science Says

    MedlinePlus

    ... High Cholesterol and Complementary Health Practices: What the Science Says Share: February 2013 Dietary Supplements Red Yeast ... products and practices in the context of rigorous science, training complementary health researchers, and disseminating authoritative information ...

  9. Complementary Health Approaches for Chronic Pain: What the Science Says

    MedlinePlus

    ... Complementary Health Approaches for Chronic Pain: What the Science Says Share: September 2014 Clinical Guidelines, Scientific Literature, ... products and practices in the context of rigorous science, training complementary health researchers, and disseminating authoritative information ...

  10. Menopausal Symptoms and Complementary Health Practices: What the Science Says

    MedlinePlus

    ... Menopausal Symptoms and Complementary Health Practices: What the Science Says Share: February 2016 © Thinkstock Clinical Guidelines, Scientific ... products and practices in the context of rigorous science, training complementary health researchers, and disseminating authoritative information ...

  11. Complementary Health Approaches for Smoking Cessation: What the Science Says

    MedlinePlus

    ... Complementary Health Approaches for Smoking Cessation: What the Science Says Share: January 2014 Mindfulness Meditation Mindfulness meditation ... products and practices in the context of rigorous science, training complementary health researchers, and disseminating authoritative information ...

  12. Sleep Disorders and Complementary Health Approaches : What the Science Says

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sleep Disorders and Complementary Health Approaches: What the Science Says Share: April 2014 Clinical Guidelines, Scientific Literature, ... products and practices in the context of rigorous science, training complementary health researchers, and disseminating authoritative information ...

  13. Weight Loss and Complementary Health Practices: What the Science Says

    MedlinePlus

    ... Control and Complementary and Integrative Approaches: What the Science Says Share: January 2015 Clinical Guidelines, Scientific Literature, ... products and practices in the context of rigorous science, training complementary health researchers, and disseminating authoritative information ...

  14. Special Section: Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM): Time to Talk

    MedlinePlus

    ... with your health care providers any complementary and alternative medicines you take or are thinking about starting. Photo: ... and older use some form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). But less than one-third who use ...

  15. 7 CFR 3405.8 - Complementary project proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... project proposals. Institutions may submit proposals that are complementary in nature as defined in § 3405.2(g). Such complementary project proposals may be submitted by the same or by different eligible... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Complementary project proposals. 3405.8 Section...

  16. 7 CFR 3405.8 - Complementary project proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... project proposals. Institutions may submit proposals that are complementary in nature as defined in § 3405.2(g). Such complementary project proposals may be submitted by the same or by different eligible... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Complementary project proposals. 3405.8 Section...

  17. 7 CFR 3405.8 - Complementary project proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... project proposals. Institutions may submit proposals that are complementary in nature as defined in § 3405.2(g). Such complementary project proposals may be submitted by the same or by different eligible... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Complementary project proposals. 3405.8 Section...

  18. 7 CFR 3405.8 - Complementary project proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... project proposals. Institutions may submit proposals that are complementary in nature as defined in § 3405.2(g). Such complementary project proposals may be submitted by the same or by different eligible... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Complementary project proposals. 3405.8 Section...

  19. Predictors of College Students' Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chng, Chwee Lye; Neill, Kweethai; Fogle, Peggy

    2003-01-01

    This study assessed the use of complementary and alternative medicine among college students (N=913), the relationships between health locus of control with use of complementary and alternative medicine, and health local of control with attitudes toward complementary and alternative medicine and what predicts their use. A majority (66%, n-913) of…

  20. Complementary split ring resonator arrays for electromagnetic energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alavikia, Babak; Almoneef, Thamer S.; Ramahi, Omar M.

    2015-07-01

    This work demonstrates the viability of Ground-backed Complementary Split-Ring Resonator (G-CSRR) arrays with significant power conversion efficiency and bandwidth enhancement in comparison to the technology used in current electromagnetic energy harvesting systems. Through numerical full-wave analysis, we demonstrated correlation between either the resonance frequency or the input impedance of G-CSRR cells with the periodicity of the array. A comparative study of power harvesting efficiency through numerical analysis and laboratory measurement was presented where an array of G-CSRRs is compared to an array of microstrip patch antennas. We demonstrated that a G-CSRR array yields power conversion efficiency of 92%, which represents a significant improvement in comparison to the single G-CSRR reported in our earlier work.

  1. Extraction of complementary from non-complementary DNA sequences through phase separation and centrifugation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robins, Taiquitha; McPherson, Dacia; Zhu, Chenhui; Moran, Mark; Walba, Dave; Zanchetta, Giuliano; Bellini, Tommaso; Clark, Noel

    2008-03-01

    Double stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is known to form lyotropic liquid crystal (LC) phases, nematic and then columnar with increasing DNA concentration in water. Single stranded (DNA) does not form liquid crystal phases. We study the phase separation of both long (900bp) and short (6-20bp) DNA. In the mixture solution of a self complementary sequences (scDNA) and non complementary sequences (nscDNA), the scDNA forms DNA double helices and hence forms LC phases while the nscDNA stays in the isotropic phase, the LC appearing in the form of phase separated droplets. We report results of the use of centrifugation to produce complete spatial segregation of complementary and noncomplementary DNA, based on their different LC-formation tendencies.

  2. Complementary and alternative medicine for neurologic disorders.

    PubMed

    Kline, Karen L

    2002-02-01

    The use of complementary and alternative veterinary medicine in treating neurologic disorders has increased in popularity in response to advances in human alternative and integrative therapies. Neurolocalization of lesions to the brain, spinal cord, and neuromuscular systems is discussed, as well as the diagnostics and therapeutics used to treat such disorders. Emphasis is placed on integrative and alternative treatments for such neurologic diseases as seizures, cerebrovascular accidents, canine cognitive disorder, meningitis, intervertebral disc disease, fibrocartilagenous embolism, degenerative myelopathy, and myopathies. Thorough physical and neurologic examinations, establishment of a correct diagnosis, and integrative therapeutics are aimed at improving the overall quality of life of the veterinary patient. PMID:11890124

  3. Reciprocal invisibility cloak based on complementary media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J. J.; Huang, M.; Yang, C. F.; Yu, J.

    2011-02-01

    The first invisibility cloak was proposed by Pendry et al. [Science 312, 1780 (2006)]. But the object enclosed in this original cloak is "blind", that is, it cannot see the outside world, since no electromagnetic waves can reach within the cloaked space. Based on the concept of complementary media, we propose a reciprocal invisibility cloak, in which the hidden object can see the outside world, but its presence cannot be detected by electromagnetic wave. The performance of the cloak has been verified by full-wave simulations.

  4. Reveal quantum correlation in complementary bases

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shengjun; Ma, Zhihao; Chen, Zhihua; Yu, Sixia

    2014-01-01

    An essential feature of genuine quantum correlation is the simultaneous existence of correlation in complementary bases. We reveal this feature of quantum correlation by defining measures based on invariance under a basis change. For a bipartite quantum state, the classical correlation is the maximal correlation present in a certain optimum basis, while the quantum correlation is characterized as a series of residual correlations in the mutually unbiased bases. Compared with other approaches to quantify quantum correlation, our approach gives information-theoretical measures that directly reflect the essential feature of quantum correlation. PMID:24503595

  5. The Perils of Complementary Alternative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Bayme, Michael J.; Geftler, Alex; Netz, Uri; Kirshtein, Boris; Glazer, Yair; Atias, Shahar; Perry, Zvi

    2014-01-01

    More than 11,000 articles lauding alternative medicine appear in the PubMed database, but there are only a few articles describing the complications of such care. Two patients suffering from complications of alternative medicine were treated in our hospital: one patient developed necrotizing fasciitis after acupuncture, and the second developed an epidural hematoma after chiropractic manipulation. These complications serve as a clarion call to the Israeli Health Ministry, as well as to health ministries around the world, to include complementary medicine under its inspection and legislative authority. PMID:25120919

  6. Complementary therapy for induction of labour.

    PubMed

    Weston, Michelle; Grabowska, Christine

    2013-09-01

    Midwives at West Middlesex hospital (WMUH) offer complementary therapies as part of antenatal care. Aromatherapy and reflex zone therapy (also known as 'reflexology', a system of using touch on areas of the feet that stimulate parts of the body) are offered to induce spontaneous labour for women with low risk pregnancies once post dates, reducing the need for medical induction of labour (IOL) and intervention and reducing the cost to the NHS. This paper discusses how this service was implemented and developed, and the audit results and feedback from women and midwives. PMID:24163924

  7. Complementary and Alternative Therapies in ALS

    PubMed Central

    Bedlack, Richard S.; Joyce, Nanette; Carter, Gregory T.; Pagononi, Sabrina; Karam, Chafic

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Given the severity of their illness and lack of effective disease modifying agents, it is not surprising that most patients with ALS consider trying complementary and alternative therapies. Some of the most commonly considered alternative therapies include special diets, nutritional supplements, cannabis, acupuncture, chelation and energy healing. This chapter reviews these in detail. We also describe 3 models by which physicians may frame discussions about alternative therapies: paternalism, autonomy and shared decision making. Finally, we review a program called ALSUntangled which using shared shared decision making to review alternative therapies for ALS. PMID:26515629

  8. Niche engineering reveals complementary resource use.

    PubMed

    Gable, Jacob T; Crowder, David W; Northfield, Tobin D; Steffan, Shawn A; Snyder, William E

    2012-09-01

    Greater resource use by diverse communities might result from species occupying complementary niches. Demonstrating niche complementarity among species is challenging, however, due to the difficulty in relating differences between species in particular traits to their use of complementary resources. Here, we overcame this obstacle by exploiting plastic foraging behavior in a community of predatory insects common on Brassica oleracea plants in Washington, USA. These predators complemented one another by partitioning foraging space, with some species foraging primarily along leaf edges and others at leaf centers. We hypothesized that emergent biodiversity effects would occur when predators partitioned foraging space on leaves, but not when spatial complementarity was dampened. Indeed, on intact leaves, edge- and center-foraging predators combined to kill more prey than any single predator species could by itself. These emergent diversity effects, however, disappeared on plants damaged by the caterpillar Plutella xylostella. Caterpillar chew-holes brought edge habitats to the center of leaves, so that all predator species could attack aphids anywhere on plants. With spatial niche differences diminished, there were no benefits of predator diversity; the most voracious single predator species killed the most aphids. Thus, caterpillar herbivory determined whether multi-predator-species effects reflected complementarity or species' individual impacts. Our study provides direct evidence for a causative relationship between niche differentiation and increased resource consumption by diverse communities, as revealed by ecological engineers that homogenize the foraging environment. PMID:23094370

  9. 15 CFR 784.1 - Complementary access: General information on the purpose of complementary access, affected...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... following purposes. (1) Declared uranium hard-rock mines and ore beneficiation plants. Complementary access... nuclear related activities at reportable uranium hard-rock mines and ore beneficiation plants (see § 783.1... required forms to BIS (see the Supplemental Information Report requirements in § 783.1(d) of the APR)....

  10. 15 CFR 784.1 - Complementary access: General information on the purpose of complementary access, affected...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... following purposes. (1) Declared uranium hard-rock mines and ore beneficiation plants. Complementary access... nuclear related activities at reportable uranium hard-rock mines and ore beneficiation plants (see § 783.1... required forms to BIS (see the Supplemental Information Report requirements in § 783.1(d) of the APR)....

  11. 15 CFR 784.1 - Complementary access: General information on the purpose of complementary access, affected...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... following purposes. (1) Declared uranium hard-rock mines and ore beneficiation plants. Complementary access... nuclear related activities at reportable uranium hard-rock mines and ore beneficiation plants (see § 783.1... required forms to BIS (see the Supplemental Information Report requirements in § 783.1(d) of the APR)....

  12. 15 CFR 784.1 - Complementary access: General information on the purpose of complementary access, affected...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... following purposes. (1) Declared uranium hard-rock mines and ore beneficiation plants. Complementary access... nuclear related activities at reportable uranium hard-rock mines and ore beneficiation plants (see § 783.1... required forms to BIS (see the Supplemental Information Report requirements in § 783.1(d) of the APR)....

  13. 15 CFR 784.1 - Complementary access: General information on the purpose of complementary access, affected...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... following purposes. (1) Declared uranium hard-rock mines and ore beneficiation plants. Complementary access... nuclear related activities at reportable uranium hard-rock mines and ore beneficiation plants (see § 783.1... required to submit reports to BIS pursuant to § 783.1(a)(1), (a)(2), or (b) of the APR), and...

  14. Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  15. Cost-Effectiveness of Complementary Therapies in the United Kingdom—A Systematic Review†

    PubMed Central

    Canter, Peter H.; Coon, Joanna Thompson; Ernst, Edzard

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this review is to systematically summarize and assess all prospective, controlled, cost-effectiveness studies of complementary therapies carried out in the UK. Data sources: Medline (via PubMed), Embase, CINAHL, Amed (Alternative and Allied Medicine Database, British Library Medical Information Centre), The Cochrane Library, National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database (via Cochrane) and Health Technology Assessments up to October 2005. Review methods: Articles describing prospective, controlled, cost-effectiveness studies of any type of complementary therapy for any medical condition carried out in the UK were included. Data extracted included the main outcomes for health benefit and cost. These data were extracted independently by two authors, described narratively and also presented as a table. Results: Six cost-effectiveness studies of complementary medicine in the UK were identified: four different types of spinal manipulation for back pain, one type of acupuncture for chronic headache and one type of acupuncture for chronic back pain. Four of the six studies compared the complementary therapy with usual conventional treatment in pragmatic, randomized clinical trials without sham or placebo arms. Main outcome measures of effectiveness favored the complementary therapies but in the case of spinal manipulation (four studies) and acupuncture (one study) for back pain, effect sizes were small and of uncertain clinical relevance. The same four studies included a cost-utility analyses in which the incremental cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY) was less than £10 000. The complementary therapy represented an additional health care cost in five of the six studies. Conclusions: Prospective, controlled, cost-effectiveness studies of complementary therapies have been carried out in the UK only for spinal manipulation (four studies) and acupuncture (two studies). The limited data available indicate that the use of these therapies

  16. Complementary and alternative medicine in developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kelly A; Patel, Dilip R

    2005-11-01

    Developmental disabilities (DD) are defined as a diverse group of severe chronic conditions due to mental and/or physical impairments. Individuals with developmental disabilities have difficulty with major life activities including language, mobility, and learning. Developmental disabilities can begin anytime during development--from prenatal up to 22 years of age, and the disability usually lasts throughout a person's lifetime. Autism spectrum disorders, cerebral palsy, mental retardation, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are common conditions falling within the definition of developmental disabilities. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is becoming increasingly utilized in the general population for treatment of everything from the common cold to complex and chronic medical conditions. This article reviews the prevalence of different types of CAM used for various developmental disabilities. PMID:16391450

  17. Complementary and alternative medicine in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Bowling, Allen C

    2010-10-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is used by one-half to three-fourths of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Despite this widespread use, CAM may not be discussed in the course of a conventional medical visit. When considered in the context of MS, CAM therapies have a wide range of risk-benefit profiles. Some CAM therapies, such as acupuncture, cranberry, vitamin D, tai chi, and yoga, are low risk and possibly beneficial. Other CAM therapies, such as immune-stimulating supplements, bee venom, and hyperbaric oxygen, are ineffective, dangerous, or unstudied. Providing access to information about the risks and benefits of CAM therapies may increase the quality of care that is provided to patients with MS. PMID:22810599

  18. Ultra-stable oscillator with complementary transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, L. L. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A high frequency oscillator, having both good short and long term stability, is formed by including a piezoelectric crystal in the base circuit of a first bi-polar transistor circuit, the bi-polar transistor itself operated below its transitional frequency and having its emitter load chosen so that the input impedance, looking into the base thereof, exhibits a negative resistance in parallel with a capacitive reactance. Combined with this basic circuit is an auxiliary, complementary, second bi-polar transistor circuit of the same form with the piezoelectric crystal being common to both circuits. By this configuration small changes in quiescent current are substantially cancelled by opposite variations in the second bi-polar transistor circuit, thereby achieving from the oscillator a signal having its frequency of oscillation stable over long time periods as well as short time periods.

  19. Musculoskeletal conditions and complementary/alternative medicine.

    PubMed

    Ernst, E

    2004-08-01

    Complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) is immensely popular for musculoskeletal conditions. It is, therefore, essential to define CAM's value for such indications. This chapter summarises the trial data for or against CAM as a symptomatic treatment for back pain, fibromyalgia, neck pain, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Collectively the evidence demonstrates that some CAM modalities show significant promise, e.g. acupuncture, diets, herbal medicine, homoeopathy, massage, supplements. None of the treatments in question is totally devoid of risks. By and large the data are not compelling, not least due to their paucity and methodological limitations. It is, therefore, concluded that our research efforts must be directed towards defining which form of CAM generates more good than harm for which condition. PMID:15301985

  20. Threefold Complementary Approach to Holographic QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.; Dosch, Hans Gunter

    2013-12-27

    A complementary approach, derived from (a) higher-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space, (b) light-front quantization and (c) the invariance properties of the full conformal group in one dimension leads to a nonperturbative relativistic light-front wave equation which incorporates essential spectroscopic and dynamical features of hadron physics. The fundamental conformal symmetry of the classical QCD Lagrangian in the limit of massless quarks is encoded in the resulting effective theory. The mass scale for confinement emerges from the isomorphism between the conformal group andSO(2,1). This scale appears in the light-front Hamiltonian by mapping to the evolution operator in the formalism of de Alfaro, Fubini and Furlan, which retains the conformal invariance of the action. Remarkably, the specific form of the confinement interaction and the corresponding modification of AdS space are uniquely determined in this procedure.

  1. Complementary and alternative therapies for Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Roizen, Nancy J

    2005-01-01

    In their role as committed advocates, parents of children with Down syndrome have always sought alternative therapies, mainly to enhance cognitive function but also to improve their appearance. Nutritional supplements have been the most frequent type of complementary and alternative therapy used. Cell therapy, plastic surgery, hormonal therapy, and a host of other therapies such as massage therapy have been used. There is a lack of well-designed scientific studies on the use of alternative therapies in individuals with Down syndrome. Antioxidants hold theoretical promise for treatment of the cognitive, immune, malignancy, and premature aging problems associated with Down syndrome. Medications for treatment of Alzheimer's disease may also result in benefit for the population of individuals with Down syndrome. PMID:15977315

  2. [Complementary medicine--Jewish medical ethics].

    PubMed

    Katz, Yisrae; Schiff, Elad

    2011-08-01

    In Israel, as in the Western world, the use of different methods of complementary and alternative medicine ICAM) is spreading. CAM raises ethical questions of concern to healthcare providers and to the public: Can physicians recommend a treatment that has no scientific evidence? Should the government include such therapies in the health budget? Can complementary therapists receive protection against lawsuits if their treatment is recognized? The purpose of this article is to present a Jewish perspective on these issues. The fundamental sources that deal with the subject are based on the approach of rabbinic authorities toward unproven medicine, as expressed in the "Mishnah" and "Talmud" (200-500 C.E). The great Jewish scholar who discusses the subject in detail is Maimonides (1135-1204), who defines what "medicine" is and claims that medicine has to rely on reason or experience. Contemporary Jewish commentators present their position based on the interpretation of Maimonides' texts. In this article we claim that treatments can be divided into four groups, each group having a different halachic status: (1) Treatment that might be dangerous--should not be used. (2) Treatment that is safe--can be used, but has no other special status. (3) Treatment recognized by alternative therapists--has consequences for the observant Jew, such as laws of Kashrut and Shabbat. (4) Treatment that was tested and proven using modern medical methods has public significance--the therapist is entitled to legal defense if he made a reasonable mistake; the government can consider funding such treatment using public money. This article presents the Jewish halachic sources upon which we propose an ethical-practical approach to CAM. PMID:21939123

  3. Some extensions of the concept of complementary electromagnetic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovic, B. D.; Nesic, A.

    1985-04-01

    Extensions of Booker's concept of complementary electromagnetic structures to some cases of inhomogeneous media are presented. Consideration is given to planar antennas and their complement/duals, in the presence of pairs of arbitrarily shaped dielectric and/or magnetic bodies of arbitrary complex permittivity and permeability, positioned symmetrically with respect to the antenna plane. It is shown that a simple correspondence exists between electromagnetic fields in complementary/dual systems. The extension of the concept of complementary structures to transmission lines with transversally inhomogeneous media is discussed and a number of new exact relations between quasi-static parameters of complementary coplanar transmission lines are derived.

  4. Complementary Barrier Infrared Detector (CBIRD) Contact Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z.; Hill, Cory J.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2013-01-01

    The performance of the CBIRD detector is enhanced by using new device contacting methods that have been developed. The detector structure features a narrow gap adsorber sandwiched between a pair of complementary, unipolar barriers that are, in turn, surrounded by contact layers. In this innovation, the contact adjacent to the hole barrier is doped n-type, while the contact adjacent to the electron barrier is doped p-type. The contact layers can have wider bandgaps than the adsorber layer, so long as good electrical contacts are made to them. If good electrical contacts are made to either (or both) of the barriers, then one could contact the barrier(s) directly, obviating the need for additional contact layers. Both the left and right contacts can be doped either n-type or ptype. Having an n-type contact layer next to the electron barrier creates a second p-n junction (the first being the one between the hole barrier and the adsorber) over which applied bias could drop. This reduces the voltage drop over the adsorber, thereby reducing dark current generation in the adsorber region.

  5. Complementary and alternative medical therapies in fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Sarac, Aysegul Jale; Gur, Ali

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the studies that have been performed evaluating complementary or alternative medical (CAM) therapies for efficacy and some adverse events fibromyalgia (FM). There is no permanent cure for FM; therefore, adequate symptom control should be goal of treatment. Clinicians can choose from a variety of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic modalities. Unfortunately, controlled studies of most current treatments have failed to demonstrate sustained, clinically significant responses. CAM has gained increasing popularity, particularly among individuals with FM for which traditional medicine has generally been ineffective. Some herbal and nutritional supplements (magnesium, S- adenosylmethionine) and massage therapy have the best evidence for effectiveness with FM. Other CAM therapies such as chlorella, biofeedback, relaxation have either been evaluated in only one randomised controlled trials (RCT) with positive results, in multiple RCTs with mixed results (magnet therapies) or have positive results from studies with methodological flaws (homeopathy, botanical oils, balneotherapy, anthocyanidins and dietary modifications). Another CAM therapy such as chiropractic care has neither well-designed studies nor positive results and is not currently recommended for FM treatment. Once CAM therapies have been better evaluated for safety and long-term efficacy in randomised, placebo-controlled trials, they may prove to be beneficial in treatments for FM. It would then be important to assess studies assessing cost-benefit analyses comparing conventional therapies and CAM. PMID:16454724

  6. Complementary therapies: the appeal to general practitioners.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, H L

    2000-07-17

    Pragmatism--among consumers seeking a cure and among general practitioners seeking clinical results and more patients--is not a complete explanation for the burgeoning of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in Western societies. Instead, this growth is substantially a result of pervasive and rapid social change, alternatively termed 'globalisation' and 'postmodernisation'. Globalisation and postmodernisation are creating a new social reality, of which a prominent characteristic is the proliferation of consumer choice. GPs are enmeshed in this social change and subject to the trend to greater choice--both their patients' and their own. On the one hand, GPs are reacting to social change as "economic pragmatists", responding to consumers' increasing demand for CAM. On the other hand, GPs themselves are acting as agents of social change by acknowledging the limitations of orthodox biomedical treatments and promoting CAM as part of their service delivery. Lack of scientific validation of CAM has not prevented GPs' use of such therapies. The phrase "clinical legitimacy" can be seen as a trump card that overrides "scientific legitimacy". It is the shibboleth of a postmodern movement among GPs towards healing and the "art" of medicine, as opposed to the "science" of medicine per se. PMID:10937039

  7. [The situation of complementary medicine in Germany].

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Henning

    2013-01-01

    With the amendment of the German Medicinal Products Act in 1976 and the inclusion of naturopathy and homeopathy into the German Medical Licensure Act from 1988, the German government set up a comparatively favorable framework for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). But no comprehensive integration into the academic operating systems followed, because the universities as well as the legislative body seemed to have no further interest in CAM. Therefore, research projects in the field and suitable professorships had and still have to be financed by third-party funds. Notwithstanding the success of several CAM-projects, no sustainable development could be established: When the third-party funding runs off and the protagonists retire the institutional structures are supposed to vanish as well. Although the public demand for CAM is high in Germany, the administration detached homeopathy as a compulsory subject from the German Medical Licensure Act in 2002 and restricted severely the refunding of naturopathic medicines by the statutory health insurance in 2004. Moreover, the trend for CAM bashing takes root in the media. Unfortunately the CAM scene does not close ranks and is incapable to implement fundamental data collection processes into daily clinical routine: A wide range of data could justify further efforts to the government as well as to the scientific community. To say something positive, it must be mentioned that the scientific standard of CAM research is high for the most part and that third-party funded projects deliver remarkable results ever and on. PMID:23727765

  8. Complementary Electromagnetic Non-Destructive Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Gui Yun; Wilson, John; Morozov, Maxim

    2011-06-01

    The use of non-destructive evaluation (NDE) for defect detection and failure prediction in structures and specimens is widespread in energy industries, aimed at ageing power plants and pipelines, material degradation, fatigue and radiation damage, etc. At present there are no suitable electromagnetic NDE methods for the measurement and characterization of material degradation, in irradiated samples in particular, which is very important and timely for the nuclear power industry in the UK. This paper reports recent developments in the field of electromagnetic (EM) NDE at Newcastle University, including pulsed eddy current (PEC), pulsed magnetic flux leakage (PMFL), magnetic Barkhausen emission (MBE) and magneto-acoustic emission (MAE). As different EM methods have different strengths, an integrative EM framework is introduced. Case studies through the second round robin tests organized by the Universal Network for Magnetic Non-Destructive Evaluation (UNMNDE), representing eighteen leading research groups worldwide in the area of electromagnetic NDE, are reported. Twelve samples with different ageing times and rolling reduction ratios were tested using different magnetic methods among the UNMNDE members. Based on the studies, the complementary characteristics of electromagnetic techniques for NDE are discussed.

  9. Complementary and alternative health care in Israel

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The paper explores the patterns of coexistence of alternative/complementary health care (CAM) and conventional medicine in Israel in the cultural, political, and social contexts of the society. The data are drawn from over ten years of sociological research on CAM in Israel, which included observation, survey research, and over one hundred in-depth interviews with a variety of CAM practitioners - many with bio-medical credentials - and with policy makers in the major medical institutions. The analysis considers the reasons for CAM use, number of practitioners, the frequency of CAM use and some of its correlates, and how CAM is regulated. The structure of the relationship between the conventional health care system and CAM is discussed in the public sector, which provides two-thirds of CAM services, and in the private sector, which provides about one-third. The history of the development of these structures and some of the dilemmas of their operation are discussed. A number of policy issues are considered against this background: regulation and licensing, CAM in primary care, reimbursement for CAM treatment, and the inclusion of CAM in education and training for the health professions. PMID:22913721

  10. Complementary and conventional medicine: a concept map

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Carol M; Kroesen, Kendall; Trochim, William M; Bell, Iris R

    2004-01-01

    Background Despite the substantive literature from survey research that has accumulated on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in the United States and elsewhere, very little research has been done to assess conceptual domains that CAM and conventional providers would emphasize in CAM survey studies. The objective of this study is to describe and interpret the results of concept mapping with conventional and CAM practitioners from a variety of backgrounds on the topic of CAM. Methods Concept mapping, including free sorts, ratings, and multidimensional scaling was used to organize conceptual domains relevant to CAM into a visual "cluster map." The panel consisted of CAM providers, conventional providers, and university faculty, and was convened to help formulate conceptual domains to guide the development of a CAM survey for use with United States military veterans. Results Eight conceptual clusters were identified: 1) Self-assessment, Self-care, and Quality of Life; 2) Health Status, Health Behaviors; 3) Self-assessment of Health; 4) Practical/Economic/ Environmental Concerns; 5) Needs Assessment; 6) CAM vs. Conventional Medicine; 7) Knowledge of CAM; and 8) Experience with CAM. The clusters suggest panelists saw interactions between CAM and conventional medicine as a critical component of the current medical landscape. Conclusions Concept mapping provided insight into how CAM and conventional providers view the domain of health care, and was shown to be a useful tool in the formulation of CAM-related conceptual domains. PMID:15018623

  11. [Alternative and complementary therapies in multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Schwarz, S; Leweling, H; Meinck, H-M

    2005-08-01

    Most MS patients use unconventional therapies, usually as complementary measures in addition to the conventional treatment. Only a few adequate clinical trials exist in this field. By definition, the efficacy of these therapies is unproven. Moreover, the possible risks are also largely unknown. Some therapies rely on rational pathophysiological considerations, other must be regarded as potentially harmful. The influence of diet on MS is unproven. Possibly, unsaturated fatty acids are beneficial. However, a few randomized trials yielded inconclusive results. Long-term supplementation of Vitamin D is associated with a decreased MS incidence. There is, however, insufficient evidence for an influence of Vitamin D on the course of the disease. Because of the high prevalence of osteoporosis in MS patients, prophylaxis with Vitamin D and Calcium is widely accepted. The effects of various minerals, selenium, antioxidant compounds, fish oil or vitamins remain speculative. Many patients use cannabis to alleviate spasticity and pain. Small series indicated positive effects, but randomized trials were negative for spasticity. However, many patients report subjective improvement under cannabis even if their objective parameters remain unchanged. Hyperbaric oxygenation was the subject of several small studies with heterogeneous results which, overall, do not support its use. Generally, physical therapies are perceived as an established therapy for MS. Short-term effects are probable, whereas the possible favourable long-term effects are unclear. PMID:16052439

  12. Complementary compressive imaging for the telescopic system.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wen-Kai; Liu, Xue-Feng; Yao, Xu-Ri; Wang, Chao; Zhai, Yun; Zhai, Guang-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Conventional single-pixel cameras recover images only from the data recorded in one arm of the digital micromirror device, with the light reflected to the other direction not to be collected. Actually, the sampling in these two reflection orientations is correlated with each other, in view of which we propose a sampling concept of complementary compressive imaging, for the first time to our knowledge. We use this method in a telescopic system and acquire images of a target at about 2.0 km range with 20 cm resolution, with the variance of the noise decreasing by half. The influence of the sampling rate and the integration time of photomultiplier tubes on the image quality is also investigated experimentally. It is evident that this technique has advantages of large field of view over a long distance, high-resolution, high imaging speed, high-quality imaging capabilities, and needs fewer measurements in total than any single-arm sampling, thus can be used to improve the performance of all compressive imaging schemes and opens up possibilities for new applications in the remote-sensing area. PMID:25060569

  13. Office of Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine (OCCAM)

    Cancer.gov

    The Office of Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine (OCCAM) is an office of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) in the Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis. OCCAM is responsible for NCI’s research agenda in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) as it relates to cancer prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and symptom management.

  14. Complementary and Integrative Medicine - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Complementary and Integrative Medicine URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih. ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Complementary and Integrative Medicine - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  15. ICT, complementary investment, and firm performance in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Linlin; Ding, Juan; Fan, Maoqing

    2011-12-01

    Using China firm data about ICT, we provide some insight into the link between ICT, productivity and complementary investment. The results show that the contribution of ICT capital deepening is raised when firms combine ICT use and some complementary investment (human capital, innovation and organization change).

  16. Psychosocial Determinants of the Early Introduction of Complementary Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatone-Tokuda, Fabiola; Dubois, Lise; Girard, Manon

    2009-01-01

    Infant feeding guidelines recommend exclusive breast-feeding to the age of 6 months; complementary foods should not be introduced before this age. This study examined parent and infant psychosocial determinants of the early introduction of complementary foods. Analyses were conducted on a representative sample of children born in Quebec (Canada)…

  17. Complementary and Integrative Medicine - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Complementary and Integrative Medicine URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Complementary and Integrative Medicine - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  18. Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Hejazi, Zahra Alsadat; Namjooyan, Forough; Khanifar, Marjan

    2016-01-01

    Background: A systemic skeletal disease is characterized by low bone mass and micro-architectural deterioration with a consequent increase in bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture. Asia has the highest increment in the elderly population; therefore, osteoporotic fracture should be a noticeable health issue. The incidence rate of hip fractures in Asia could rise to 45% by the year 2050. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a group of various medical and health care systems, practices, and products that are not presently considered as part of formal medicine. CAMs have been described as “diagnosis, treatment, and/or prevention which complements mainstream medicine as a holistic, subjective and various natural approaches to medical problems by contributing to a common whole, satisfying claims not met by orthodoxy, or diversifying the conceptual frameworks of medicine”. Methods: Peer-reviewed publications were identified through a search in Scopus, Science Direct, Cochrane, PubMed, and Google scholar using keywords “osteopenia”, “osteoporosis”, “menopause”, “CAM”, “phytoestrogens”, “phytotherapy” and “herbal medicine”. The search was completed in July 2015 and was limited to articles published in English. Relevant articles were identified based on the expertise and clinical experience of the authors. Results: We categorized our results in different classifications including: lifestyle modifications (cigarette, alcohol, exercise and food regimen), supportive cares (intake supplements including vitamin D, C and K), treatments synthetic (routine and newer options for hormone replacement and none hormonal therapies) and natural options (different types of CAM including herbal medicines, yoga and chiropractic). Conclusion: Established osteoporosis is difficult to treat because bone density has fallen below the fracture threshold and trabecular elements may have been lost. Antiresorptive agents can be used to prevent further

  19. Complementary Therapies and Medicines and Reproductive Medicine.

    PubMed

    Smith, Caroline A; Armour, Mike; Ee, Carolyn

    2016-03-01

    Complementary therapies and medicines are a broad and diverse range of treatments, and are frequently used by women and their partners during the preconception period to assist with infertility, and to address pregnancy-related conditions. Despite frequent use, the evidence examining the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety for many modalities is lacking, with variable study quality. In this article, we provide an overview of research evidence with the aim of examining the evidence to inform clinical practice. During the preconception period, there is mixed evidence for acupuncture to improve ovulation, or increase pregnancy rates. Acupuncture may improve sperm quality, but there is insufficient evidence to determine whether this results in improved pregnancy and live birth rates. Acupuncture can be described as a low-risk intervention. Chinese and Western herbal medicines may increase pregnancy rates; however, study quality is low. The evaluation of efficacy, effectiveness, and safety during the first trimester of pregnancy has most commonly reported on herbs, supplements, and practices such as acupuncture. There is high-quality evidence reporting the benefits of herbal medicines and acupuncture to treat nausea in pregnancy. The benefit from ginger to manage symptoms of nausea in early pregnancy is incorporated in national clinical guidelines, and vitamin B6 is recommended as a first-line treatment for nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. The safety of ginger and vitamin B6 is considered to be well established, and is based on epidemiological studies. Acupuncture has been shown to reduce back pain and improve function for women in early pregnancy. There is little evidence to support the use of cranberries in pregnancy for prevention of urinary tract infections, and chiropractic treatment for back pain. Overall the numbers of studies are small and of low quality, although the modalities appear to be low risk of harm. PMID:26866600

  20. Responsive complementary feeding in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Moore, Anna C; Akhter, Sadika; Aboud, Frances E

    2006-04-01

    reinforcing her forceful behaviour. Thus, the responsive feeding framework, once operationalized, has the potential to identify specific behaviours that support or impede mother-child interaction during complementary feeding. PMID:16223552

  1. An Evidence-Based Course in Complementary Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the impact of an evidence-based course in complementary medicines on the attitudes, knowledge, and professional practice behavior of undergraduate pharmacy students. Design. A required 12-week evidence-based complementary medicine course was designed and introduced into the third-year undergraduate pharmacy curriculum. The course included a combination of traditional lectures, interactive tutorial sessions, and a range of formal assessments. Assessment. Pre- and post-course survey instruments were administered to assess changes in students’ attitudes, perceptions, knowledge, and the likelihood they would recommend the use of complementary medicines in a pharmacy practice environment. Conclusion. Completion of a required evidence-based complementary medicines course resulted in a positive change in pharmacy students’ perceptions of the value of various complementary medicines as well as in their willingness to recommend them, and provided students with the required knowledge to make patient-centered recommendations for use of complementary medicines in a professional pharmacy practice setting. These findings support the need for greater evidence-based complementary medicine education within pharmacy curricula to meet consumer demand and to align with pharmacists’ professional responsibilities. PMID:23275665

  2. On interference suppression using complementary filters in DS-SSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bong Woon; Essman, Joseph E.

    An alternate interference suppression method used in conjunction with direct-sequence spread-spectrum systems (DS-SSS) is proposed. It consists of a complementary filter and reference loop using a scalar filter in the Walsh-Hadamard domain. Analytical expressions for chip-error probability (Pe) in the reference loop are given, and the performance of the complementary filter is compared with that of the other suppression filters via a simulation. The results show that the complementary filter is superior to the other filters when Pe is less than 0.25.

  3. Unipolar Complementary Circuits Using Double Electron Layer Tunneling Tansistors

    SciTech Connect

    Blount, M.A.; Hafich, M.J.; Moon, J.S.; Reno, J.L.; Simmons, J.A.

    1998-10-19

    We demonstrate unipolar complementary circuits consisting of a pair of resonant tunneling transistors based on the gate control of 2D-2D interlayer tunneling, where a single transistor - in addition to exhibiting a welldefined negative-differential-resistance can be operated with either positive or negative transconductance. Details of the device operation are analyzed in terms of the quantum capacitance effect and band-bending in a double quantum well structure, and show good agreement with experiment. Application of resonant tunneling complementary logic is discussed by demonstrating complementary static random access memory using two devices connected in series.

  4. Moral injury: A new challenge for complementary and alternative medicine.

    PubMed

    Kopacz, Marek S; Connery, April L; Bishop, Todd M; Bryan, Craig J; Drescher, Kent D; Currier, Joseph M; Pigeon, Wilfred R

    2016-02-01

    Moral injury represents an emerging clinical construct recognized as a source of morbidity in current and former military personnel. Finding effective ways to support those affected by moral injury remains a challenge for both biomedical and complementary and alternative medicine. This paper introduces the concept of moral injury and suggests two complementary and alternative medicine, pastoral care and mindfulness, which may prove useful in supporting military personnel thought to be dealing with moral injury. Research strategies for developing an evidence-base for applying these, and other, complementary and alternative medicine modalities to moral injury are discussed. PMID:26860798

  5. 15 CFR 784.4 - Notification, duration and frequency of complementary access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of complementary access. 784.4 Section 784.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... PROTOCOL REGULATIONS COMPLEMENTARY ACCESS § 784.4 Notification, duration and frequency of complementary access. (a) Complementary access notification. Complementary access will be provided only upon...

  6. 15 CFR 784.4 - Notification, duration and frequency of complementary access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... carried out during complementary access; (D) The time and date that complementary access is expected to... PROTOCOL REGULATIONS COMPLEMENTARY ACCESS § 784.4 Notification, duration and frequency of complementary... the Additional Protocol, the IAEA shall notify the United States Government of a complementary...

  7. 15 CFR 784.4 - Notification, duration and frequency of complementary access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... carried out during complementary access; (D) The time and date that complementary access is expected to... PROTOCOL REGULATIONS COMPLEMENTARY ACCESS § 784.4 Notification, duration and frequency of complementary... the Additional Protocol, the IAEA shall notify the United States Government of a complementary...

  8. 15 CFR 784.4 - Notification, duration and frequency of complementary access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... carried out during complementary access; (D) The time and date that complementary access is expected to... PROTOCOL REGULATIONS COMPLEMENTARY ACCESS § 784.4 Notification, duration and frequency of complementary... the Additional Protocol, the IAEA shall notify the United States Government of a complementary...

  9. 15 CFR 784.4 - Notification, duration and frequency of complementary access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... carried out during complementary access; (D) The time and date that complementary access is expected to... PROTOCOL REGULATIONS COMPLEMENTARY ACCESS § 784.4 Notification, duration and frequency of complementary... the Additional Protocol, the IAEA shall notify the United States Government of a complementary...

  10. The initiation of complementary feeding among Qom indigenous people

    PubMed Central

    Irene Olmedo, Sofía; Valeggia, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    As of six months of life, breastfeeding no longer covers an infant’s energy or micronutrient needs, so appropriate complementary feeding should be provided. The objective of this study was to assess the time and adequacy for introducing complementary feeding in a Qom/Toba population and analyze the sociocultural concepts of families regarding complementary feeding. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected by participant observation and semistructured surveys administered to mothers of 0–2 year old infants. Qom breastfeed their infants long term and on demand. Most infants have an adequate nutritional status and start complementary feeding at around 6 months old as per the local health center and international standards. However, mostly due to socioeconomic factors, foods chosen to complement breastfeeding have a relatively scarce nutritional value. PMID:24862808

  11. Have complementary therapies demonstrated effectiveness in rheumatoid arthritis?

    PubMed

    Fernández-Llanio Comella, Nagore; Fernández Matilla, Meritxell; Castellano Cuesta, Juan Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has improved thanks to the use of highly effective drugs. However, patients usually require long term therapy, which is not free of side effects. Therefore RA patients often demand complementary medicine, they seek additional sources of relief and/or less side effects. In fact 30-60% of rheumatic patients use some form of complementary medicine. Therefore, from conventional medicine, if we want to optimally treat our patients facilitating communication with them we must know the most commonly used complementary medicines. The aim of this review is to assess, based on published scientific research, what complementary therapies commonly used by patients with RA are effective and safe. PMID:26711840

  12. 49 CFR 37.131 - Service criteria for complementary paratransit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) A personal care attendant shall not be charged for complementary paratransit service. (4) The entity... entity's request for an undue financial burden waiver under §§ 37.151-37.155 of this part....

  13. The Challenge of Educating Physicians about Complementary and Alternative Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konefal, Janet

    2002-01-01

    Asserts that most physicians are not prepared to respond knowledgeably about complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) modalities and suggests incorporating systematic presentation of CAM information into the curricula of medical schools. (EV)

  14. Introducing Complementary/Alternative Strategies in a Baccalaureate Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepa, Carole Anne; Russell, Cynthia Ann

    2000-01-01

    An undergraduate nursing course explores healing strategies based on mind-body-spirit connections. It examines research on the efficacy of these alternative/complementary methods and their health care policy implications. (SK)

  15. Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Treatments and Pediatric Psychopharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rey, Joseph M.; Walter, Garry; Soh, Nerissa

    2008-01-01

    Children and adolescents often use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments outside their indications, particularly to lose weight. Some of the herbal remedies and dietary supplements that may of relevance for psychopharmacological practice are discussed with respect to CAM treatments.

  16. Use of complementary and alternative therapies in children.

    PubMed

    Woolf, A D; Gardiner, P

    2010-02-01

    The use of complementary and alternative therapies in children has recently shown explosive growth, despite little scientific evidence of benefit, a need for better regulatory oversight, and continuing gaps in the knowledge and attitudes of pediatric health professionals. PMID:20107449

  17. Use of Complementary Therapies for Health Promotion Among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Arcury, Thomas A; Nguyen, Ha T; Sandberg, Joanne C; Neiberg, Rebecca H; Altizer, Kathryn P; Bell, Ronny A; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Lang, Wei; Quandt, Sara A

    2015-08-01

    This article describes the types of complementary therapies used by older adults for health promotion, and delineates the predisposing, enabling, and need factors associated with their use. One-hundred ninety-five African American and White participants (age 65+) completed a baseline interview and up to six sets of three daily follow-up interviews at monthly intervals. Complementary therapies for health promotion included home remedies, specific foods or beverages, herbs, supplements, vitamins, over-the-counter (OTC) medicine, prayer, exercise, and being active. Although gender, ethnicity, education, and trust in doctors were associated with the use of complementary therapies for health promotion, health information seeking was the predisposing factor most often associated. The enabling factors were also associated with their use. Health information seeking, which reflects a wellness lifestyle, had the most consistent associations with complementary therapy use for health promotion. This health self-management for health promotion may have positive effects on future medical expenditures. PMID:24652893

  18. Extended life testing evaluation of complementary MOS integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brosnan, T. E.

    1972-01-01

    The purpose of the extended life testing evaluation of complementary MOS integrated circuits was twofold: (1) To ascertain the long life capability of complementary MOS devices. (2) To assess the objectivity and reliability of various accelerated life test methods as an indication or prediction tool. In addition, the determination of a suitable life test sequence for these devices was of importance. Conclusions reached based on the parts tested and the test results obtained was that the devices were not acceptable.

  19. Complementary Hand Responses Occur in Both Peri- and Extrapersonal Space.

    PubMed

    Faber, Tim W; van Elk, Michiel; Jonas, Kai J

    2016-01-01

    Human beings have a strong tendency to imitate. Evidence from motor priming paradigms suggests that people automatically tend to imitate observed actions such as hand gestures by performing mirror-congruent movements (e.g., lifting one's right finger upon observing a left finger movement; from a mirror perspective). Many observed actions however, do not require mirror-congruent responses but afford complementary (fitting) responses instead (e.g., handing over a cup; shaking hands). Crucially, whereas mirror-congruent responses don't require physical interaction with another person, complementary actions often do. Given that most experiments studying motor priming have used stimuli devoid of contextual information, this space or interaction-dependency of complementary responses has not yet been assessed. To address this issue, we let participants perform a task in which they had to mirror or complement a hand gesture (fist or open hand) performed by an actor depicted either within or outside of reach. In three studies, we observed faster reaction times and less response errors for complementary relative to mirrored hand movements in response to open hand gestures (i.e., 'hand-shaking') irrespective of the perceived interpersonal distance of the actor. This complementary effect could not be accounted for by a low-level spatial cueing effect. These results demonstrate that humans have a strong and automatic tendency to respond by performing complementary actions. In addition, our findings underline the limitations of manipulations of space in modulating effects of motor priming and the perception of affordances. PMID:27120470

  20. 78 FR 34664 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, National Institutes of Health, 6707...

  1. 78 FR 56238 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.213, Research and Training in Complementary and...

  2. 77 FR 10540 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... Shau, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Center for Complementary and Alternative...

  3. 77 FR 1940 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Center for Complementary and Alternative...

  4. 75 FR 54161 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... Assistance Program No. 93.213, Research and Training in Complementary and Alternative Medicine,...

  5. 75 FR 57970 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... Officer, Office of Scientific Review, National Center for Complementary, & Alternative Medicine, NIH,...

  6. 76 FR 35227 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... Review, National Center for Complementary, and Alternative Medicine, NIH, 6707 Democracy Blvd., Suite...

  7. 76 FR 59707 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special Emphasis...

  8. 77 FR 52751 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... Complementary and Alternative Medicine, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: August 23, 2012. Jennifer...

  9. 75 FR 26260 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... Complementary and Alternative Medicine, National Institutes of Health, HHS) ] Dated: May 4, 2010....

  10. 78 FR 21381 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.213, Research and Training in Complementary and Alternative...

  11. 77 FR 24971 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... . Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special Emphasis...

  12. 75 FR 35075 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... Review, National Center for Complementary, & Alternative Medicine, NIH, 6707 Democracy Blvd., Suite...

  13. 78 FR 66755 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special..., National Center for Complementary, & Alternative Medicine, NIH, 6707 Democracy Blvd., Suite 401,...

  14. 75 FR 65498 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2010-10-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... Complementary and Alternative Medicine, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: October 15, 2010. Jennifer...

  15. 76 FR 30735 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2011-05-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine ] Special... Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, National Institutes of Health, 6707...

  16. 77 FR 31862 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special..., National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, NIH, 6707 Democracy Blvd., Suite 401,...

  17. 76 FR 16433 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2011-03-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... Complementary and Alternative Medicine, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: March 17, 2011. Jennifer...

  18. 78 FR 47328 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2013-08-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special..., National Center For Complementary and Alternative Medicine, National Institutes of Health, 6707...

  19. 76 FR 38404 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2011-06-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... Shau, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Center for Complementary and Alternative...

  20. 75 FR 11186 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Announcement of Workshop on Natural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine..., the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) invites the public to attend.... Background: The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) was established in...

  1. Evaluating the Economics of Complementary and Integrative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare in the United States is expensive and becoming more so every year. Policy and decision makers increasingly need information on costs, as well as effectiveness and safety, in order to formulate health-care strategies that are both clinically effective and financially responsible. Many people believe the benefits of complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) exceed its costs. Surveys have shown that a substantial portion of the US population uses CIM and pays directly for that use.1–4 The most recent estimates show that total US out-of-pocket expenditures for CIM were $34 billion—11% of all US out-of-pocket healthcare expenditures.1 However, if CIM is to be considered in broader healthcare strategies, its economic impact must be determined. Theoretically, CIM seems a good candidate for cost-effectiveness, and even cost savings, because it avoids high technology, offers inexpensive and noninvasive remedies, encourages healthy lifestyle change, and focuses on the whole person, all of which may improve health beyond the targeted disease or condition. However, to many in the conventional health-care system, CIM is seen only as an “add on” expense. What must be demonstrated via economic evaluation are the healthcare costs that can be avoided through the use of CIM. CIM offers the potential for several avenues of cost reduction. The first is as a direct replacement for the usual conventional therapy for a condition. The second is in terms of lower future healthcare utilization both in general (through treating the whole person) and for the targeted disease or condition. A third avenue to cost reduction is through reducing productivity loss for employers. A reduction in costs to employers does not directly reduce healthcare costs (unless the employer is itself a health-care facility); however, both are costs to society. Productivity losses can be reduced through improved employee health, and potentially through the improved employee well-being and

  2. Temperature induced complementary switching in titanium oxide resistive random access memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, D.; Simanjuntak, F. M.; Tseng, T.-Y.

    2016-07-01

    On the way towards high memory density and computer performance, a considerable development in energy efficiency represents the foremost aspiration in future information technology. Complementary resistive switch consists of two antiserial resistive switching memory (RRAM) elements and allows for the construction of large passive crossbar arrays by solving the sneak path problem in combination with a drastic reduction of the power consumption. Here we present a titanium oxide based complementary RRAM (CRRAM) device with Pt top and TiN bottom electrode. A subsequent post metal annealing at 400°C induces CRRAM. Forming voltage of 4.3 V is required for this device to initiate switching process. The same device also exhibiting bipolar switching at lower compliance current, Ic <50 μA. The CRRAM device have high reliabilities. Formation of intermediate titanium oxi-nitride layer is confirmed from the cross-sectional HRTEM analysis. The origin of complementary switching mechanism have been discussed with AES, HRTEM analysis and schematic diagram. This paper provides valuable data along with analysis on the origin of CRRAM for the application in nanoscale devices.

  3. Complementary and alternative medicine approaches in the treatment of PTSD.

    PubMed

    Wynn, Gary H

    2015-08-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine is a diverse set of practices and treatments that has seen a significant increase among Americans over the past decade. These approaches have been applied to a myriad of medical and mental health disorders with varying levels of efficacy. Recent years have seen an increased interest in the use of complementary and alternative medicine to address the growing numbers of individuals suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder and other trauma-related disorders. These approaches include pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic modalities. This article will review some of the most widely used non-pharmacologic complementary and alternative medicine practices used to treat post-traumatic stress disorder such as recreational therapy, animal-assisted therapy, yoga, and acupuncture as well as alternative delivery methods for psychotherapy. PMID:26073362

  4. Publishing scientifically sound papers in Traditional and Complementary Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Isidoro, Ciro; Huang, Chia-Chi; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Non-conventional medical practices that make use of dietary supplements, herbal extracts, physical manipulations, and other practices typically associated with folk and Traditional Medicine are increasingly becoming popular in Western Countries. These practices are commonly referred to by the generic, all-inclusive term “Complementary and Alternative Medicine.” Scientists, practitioners, and medical institutions bear the responsibility of testing and proving the effectiveness of these non-conventional medical practices in the interest of patients. In this context, the number of peer-reviewed journals and published articles on this topic has greatly increased in the recent decades. In this editorial article, we illustrate the policy of the Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine for publishing solid and scientifically sound papers in the field of Traditional and Complementary Medicine. PMID:26933641

  5. Publishing scientifically sound papers in Traditional and Complementary Medicine.

    PubMed

    Isidoro, Ciro; Huang, Chia-Chi; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Non-conventional medical practices that make use of dietary supplements, herbal extracts, physical manipulations, and other practices typically associated with folk and Traditional Medicine are increasingly becoming popular in Western Countries. These practices are commonly referred to by the generic, all-inclusive term "Complementary and Alternative Medicine." Scientists, practitioners, and medical institutions bear the responsibility of testing and proving the effectiveness of these non-conventional medical practices in the interest of patients. In this context, the number of peer-reviewed journals and published articles on this topic has greatly increased in the recent decades. In this editorial article, we illustrate the policy of the Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine for publishing solid and scientifically sound papers in the field of Traditional and Complementary Medicine. PMID:26933641

  6. A Survey of Hospices Use of Complementary Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Running, Alice; Shreffler-Grant, Jean; Andrews, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    As people live longer with chronic illnesses, the need for hospice services will increase. Complementary therapies have been shown to increase ease, relieve pain, and improve quality of life; all relevant for people with chronic illness at the end of their lives. The first aim of this study was to identify complementary therapy services available to, and provided for, clients receiving hospice care in Nevada and Montana. The second aim was to identify differences in those therapies for urban and rural hospice clients. Using a descriptive survey design, data were collected from surveys sent to all hospice administrators in Nevada and Montana (N=54). A 50% (n=27) response rate was obtained. Most (70.4%, n=19) of the participating hospices offered complementary therapy; slightly more than half (52.9%, n=9) provided the services for less than 25% of their clients. No significant differences were found between rural and urban hospices. PMID:19756253

  7. The spiritual encounter within a complementary therapy treatment.

    PubMed

    Foster, Elizabeth

    2006-05-01

    Interest in both spirituality and complementary therapies is growing, with their inclusion in both daily life and in health care. The concept of spirituality and the delivery of a therapy have a certain synergy as they both espouse a view of the world that recognises the importance of the whole person. Increasingly, clients want their values and beliefs attended to, perhaps choosing a therapy as a pathway to nourish their sense of the spiritual. Consequently working in a holistic way the complementary therapist needs to acknowledge the spiritual dimension of the client. Integral to this is how the therapeutic encounter facilitates this engagement and how important it is that the therapist develops and explores their own spirituality and life values. This article is an exploration of how spirituality and complementary therapies can legitimately work together, creating a sacred space for both therapist and client. PMID:16648095

  8. Complementary and alternative medicine therapies for perinatal depression.

    PubMed

    Deligiannidis, Kristina M; Freeman, Marlene P

    2014-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine therapies are increasingly sought out by people with psychiatric disorders. In this chapter, we review the evidence for several commonly used CAM therapies (i.e. omega-3 fatty acids, folate, S-adenosyl-methionine, St John's Wort, bright light therapy, exercise, massage, and acupuncture) in the treatment of perinatal depression. A number of these treatments may be reasonable to consider for women during pregnancy or postpartum, but the safety and efficacy of these relative to standard treatments must still be systematically determined. Evidence-based use of complementary and alternative medicine therapies treatments for perinatal depression is discussed. Adequately powered systematic studies are necessary to determine the role of complementary and alternative medicine therapies in the treatment of perinatal depression. PMID:24041861

  9. Complementary Hand Responses Occur in Both Peri- and Extrapersonal Space

    PubMed Central

    van Elk, Michiel; Jonas, Kai J.

    2016-01-01

    Human beings have a strong tendency to imitate. Evidence from motor priming paradigms suggests that people automatically tend to imitate observed actions such as hand gestures by performing mirror-congruent movements (e.g., lifting one’s right finger upon observing a left finger movement; from a mirror perspective). Many observed actions however, do not require mirror-congruent responses but afford complementary (fitting) responses instead (e.g., handing over a cup; shaking hands). Crucially, whereas mirror-congruent responses don't require physical interaction with another person, complementary actions often do. Given that most experiments studying motor priming have used stimuli devoid of contextual information, this space or interaction-dependency of complementary responses has not yet been assessed. To address this issue, we let participants perform a task in which they had to mirror or complement a hand gesture (fist or open hand) performed by an actor depicted either within or outside of reach. In three studies, we observed faster reaction times and less response errors for complementary relative to mirrored hand movements in response to open hand gestures (i.e., ‘hand-shaking’) irrespective of the perceived interpersonal distance of the actor. This complementary effect could not be accounted for by a low-level spatial cueing effect. These results demonstrate that humans have a strong and automatic tendency to respond by performing complementary actions. In addition, our findings underline the limitations of manipulations of space in modulating effects of motor priming and the perception of affordances. PMID:27120470

  10. Complementary feeding: a commentary by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Agostoni, Carlo; Decsi, Tamas; Fewtrell, Mary; Goulet, Olivier; Kolacek, Sanja; Koletzko, Berthold; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer; Moreno, Luis; Puntis, John; Rigo, Jacques; Shamir, Raanan; Szajewska, Hania; Turck, Dominique; van Goudoever, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    This position paper on complementary feeding summarizes evidence for health effects of complementary foods. It focuses on healthy infants in Europe. After reviewing current knowledge and practices, we have formulated these conclusions: Exclusive or full breast-feeding for about 6 months is a desirable goal. Complementary feeding (ie, solid foods and liquids other than breast milk or infant formula and follow-on formula) should not be introduced before 17 weeks and not later than 26 weeks. There is no convincing scientific evidence that avoidance or delayed introduction of potentially allergenic foods, such as fish and eggs, reduces allergies, either in infants considered at increased risk for the development of allergy or in those not considered to be at increased risk. During the complementary feeding period, >90% of the iron requirements of a breast-fed infant must be met by complementary foods, which should provide sufficient bioavailable iron. Cow's milk is a poor source of iron and should not be used as the main drink before 12 months, although small volumes may be added to complementary foods. It is prudent to avoid both early (<4 months) and late (>or=7 months) introduction of gluten, and to introduce gluten gradually while the infant is still breast-fed, inasmuch as this may reduce the risk of celiac disease, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and wheat allergy. Infants and young children receiving a vegetarian diet should receive a sufficient amount ( approximately 500 mL) of breast milk or formula and dairy products. Infants and young children should not be fed a vegan diet. PMID:18162844