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Sample records for complete simple tele-operated

  1. Optimized Algorithms for Prediction Within Robotic Tele-Operative Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Rodney A.; Wheeler, Kevin R.; Allan, Mark B.; SunSpiral, Vytas

    2010-01-01

    Robonaut, the humanoid robot developed at the Dexterous Robotics Labo ratory at NASA Johnson Space Center serves as a testbed for human-rob ot collaboration research and development efforts. One of the recent efforts investigates how adjustable autonomy can provide for a safe a nd more effective completion of manipulation-based tasks. A predictiv e algorithm developed in previous work was deployed as part of a soft ware interface that can be used for long-distance tele-operation. In this work, Hidden Markov Models (HMM?s) were trained on data recorded during tele-operation of basic tasks. In this paper we provide the d etails of this algorithm, how to improve upon the methods via optimization, and also present viable alternatives to the original algorithmi c approach. We show that all of the algorithms presented can be optim ized to meet the specifications of the metrics shown as being useful for measuring the performance of the predictive methods. 1

  2. Optimized Algorithms for Prediction within Robotic Tele-Operative Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Rodney A.; Wheeler, Kevin R.; SunSpiral, Vytas; Allan, Mark B.

    2006-01-01

    Robonaut, the humanoid robot developed at the Dexterous Robotics Laboratory at NASA Johnson Space Center serves as a testbed for human-robot collaboration research and development efforts. One of the primary efforts investigates how adjustable autonomy can provide for a safe and more effective completion of manipulation-based tasks. A predictive algorithm developed in previous work was deployed as part of a software interface that can be used for long-distance tele-operation. In this paper we provide the details of this algorithm, how to improve upon the methods via optimization, and also present viable alternatives to the original algorithmic approach. We show that all of the algorithms presented can be optimized to meet the specifications of the metrics shown as being useful for measuring the performance of the predictive methods. Judicious feature selection also plays a significant role in the conclusions drawn.

  3. Completing a Simple Circuit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Timothy F.; Adams, Jeffrey P.; Brown, Thomas R.

    2000-01-01

    Students have problems successfully arranging an electric circuit to make the bulb produce light. Investigates the percentage of students able to complete a circuit with a given apparatus, and the effects of prior experience on student success. Recommends hands-on activities at the elementary and secondary school levels. (Contains 14 references.)…

  4. Considerations for human-machine interfaces in tele-operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newport, Curt

    1991-01-01

    Numerous factors impact on the efficiency of tele-operative manipulative work. Generally, these are related to the physical environment of the tele-operator and how he interfaces with robotic control consoles. The capabilities of the operator can be influenced by considerations such as temperature, eye strain, body fatigue, and boredom created by repetitive work tasks. In addition, the successful combination of man and machine will, in part, be determined by the configuration of the visual and physical interfaces available to the teleoperator. The design and operation of system components such as full-scale and mini-master manipulator controllers, servo joysticks, and video monitors will have a direct impact on operational efficiency. As a result, the local environment and the interaction of the operator with the robotic control console have a substantial effect on mission productivity.

  5. Head-aimed vision system improves tele-operated mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, Kent

    2004-12-01

    A head-aimed vision system greatly improves the situational awareness and decision speed for tele-operations of mobile robots. With head-aimed vision, the tele-operator wears a head-mounted display and a small three axis head-position measuring device. Wherever the operator looks, the remote sensing system "looks". When the system is properly designed, the operator's occipital lobes are "fooled" into believing that the operator is actually on the remote robot. The result is at least a doubling of: situational awareness, threat identification speed, and target tracking ability. Proper system design must take into account: precisely matching fields of view; optical gain; and latency below 100 milliseconds. When properly designed, a head-aimed system does not cause nausea, even with prolonged use.

  6. Tele-Operated Lunar Rover Navigation Using Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedersen, Liam; Allan, Mark B.; Utz, Hans, Heinrich; Deans, Matthew C.; Bouyssounouse, Xavier; Choi, Yoonhyuk; Fluckiger, Lorenzo; Lee, Susan Y.; To, Vinh; Loh, Jonathan; Bluethmann, William; Burridge, Robert R.; Graf, Jodi; Hambuchen, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Near real-time tele-operated driving on the lunar surface remains constrained by bandwidth and signal latency despite the Moon s relative proximity. As part of our work within NASA s Human-Robotic Systems Project (HRS), we have developed a stand-alone modular LIDAR based safeguarded tele-operation system of hardware, middleware, navigation software and user interface. The system has been installed and tested on two distinct NASA rovers-JSC s Centaur2 lunar rover prototype and ARC s KRex research rover- and tested over several kilometers of tele-operated driving at average sustained speeds of 0.15 - 0.25 m/s around rocks, slopes and simulated lunar craters using a deliberately constrained telemetry link. The navigation system builds onboard terrain and hazard maps, returning highest priority sections to the off-board operator as permitted by bandwidth availability. It also analyzes hazard maps onboard and can stop the vehicle prior to contacting hazards. It is robust to severe pose errors and uses a novel scan alignment algorithm to compensate for attitude and elevation errors.

  7. Tele-operator assistance system for small rovers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eck, Daniel; Schilling, Klaus

    2008-04-01

    Small, agile rovers for harsh outdoor environments offer good potential to support rescue teams in emergency operations. For such exploration purposes the outdoor MERLIN rovers have been developed in tracked and wheeled versions for the weight class between 10 and 20 kg. Those vehicles can achieve velocities up to 50 km/h. Therefore the drive assistance system has to provide the functionalities to perform safe and efficient tele-operations in combination with autonomous reaction capabilities. The tele-operator can select appropriate levels of autonomy, ranging from warning signals to autonomous reactions of the vehicle's on-board data processing system, if an endangering situation is not anticipated. Implemented features include detection of obstacles in the path, as well as an adaptation of speed appropriate to terrain roughness and slope, but also to path curvature. An autonomous return to the initial position is to be realized, when the telecommunication contact to the tele-operator has been lost. This paper addresses the implemented sensor and data processing techniques to handle those tasks in a robust way. Results from extensive tests in various environments will be reported. In particular the results from the C-ELROB 2007 competition, the European Land Robotics trial, will be reported, where the Outdoor MERLIN was the winner of the urban terrain challenge.

  8. Predictive Interfaces for Long-Distance Tele-Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Kevin R.; Martin, Rodney; Allan, Mark B.; Sunspiral, Vytas

    2005-01-01

    We address the development of predictive tele-operator interfaces for humanoid robots with respect to two basic challenges. Firstly, we address automating the transition from fully tele-operated systems towards degrees of autonomy. Secondly, we develop compensation for the time-delay that exists when sending telemetry data from a remote operation point to robots located at low earth orbit and beyond. Humanoid robots have a great advantage over other robotic platforms for use in space-based construction and maintenance because they can use the same tools as astronauts do. The major disadvantage is that they are difficult to control due to the large number of degrees of freedom, which makes it difficult to synthesize autonomous behaviors using conventional means. We are working with the NASA Johnson Space Center's Robonaut which is an anthropomorphic robot with fully articulated hands, arms, and neck. We have trained hidden Markov models that make use of the command data, sensory streams, and other relevant data sources to predict a tele-operator's intent. This allows us to achieve subgoal level commanding without the use of predefined command dictionaries, and to create sub-goal autonomy via sequence generation from generative models. Our method works as a means to incrementally transition from manual tele-operation to semi-autonomous, supervised operation. The multi-agent laboratory experiments conducted by Ambrose et. al. have shown that it is feasible to directly tele-operate multiple Robonauts with humans to perform complex tasks such as truss assembly. However, once a time-delay is introduced into the system, the rate of tele\\ioperation slows down to mimic a bump and wait type of activity. We would like to maintain the same interface to the operator despite time-delays. To this end, we are developing an interface which will allow for us to predict the intentions of the operator while interacting with a 3D virtual representation of the expected state of the

  9. Sensor and Display Human Factors Based Design Constraints for Head Mounted and Tele-Operation Systems

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Andre; Mullins, Linda; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    For mobile imaging systems in head mounted displays and tele-operation systems it is important to maximize the amount of visual information transmitted to the human visual system without exceeding its input capacity. This paper aims to describe the design constraints on the imager and display systems of head mounted devices and tele-operated systems based upon the capabilities of the human visual system. We also present the experimental results of methods to improve the amount of visual information conveyed to a user when trying to display a high dynamic range image on a low dynamic range display. PMID:22319370

  10. Robust motion filtering as an enabler to video stabilization for a tele-operated mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chereau, Romain; Breckon, Toby P.

    2013-10-01

    An increasing number of inspection and hazardous environment tasks use mobile robotic vehicles manually tele-operated via a live video feed from an on-board camera. The resulting video imagery frequently suffers from vibration artefacts compromising the accuracy and security of operation in addition to the viable duration for human tele-operation. Here we aim to automatically remove these unwanted visual effects using a novel real-time video stabilization approach. Prior work for hand-held and vehicle mounted cameras is ill-suited to the high-frequency, large magnitude (10-15% of image size) vibration encountered on the short wheelbase, non-suspended robotic platforms typically deployed for such tasks. Without prior knowledge of the robot ego-motion (or vibration characteristics) we develop a novel four stage filtering approach to identify robust Local Motion Vectors (LMV) for Global Motion Vector (GMV) estimation in successive video frames whilst preserving the required real-time responsiveness for tele-operation. Experimental results over a range of tele-operation scenarios show that the method provides both significant qualitative visual improvement and a quantitative reduction in measurable video image displacement (caused by vibration).

  11. Heuristics-enhanced dead-reckoning (HEDR) for accurate position tracking of tele-operated UGVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borenstein, Johann; Borrell, Adam; Miller, Russell; Thomas, David

    2010-04-01

    This paper introduces a new approach for precision indoor tracking of tele-operated robots, called "Heuristics-Enhanced Dead-reckoning" (HEDR). HEDR does not rely on GPS, or external references; it uses odometry and a low-cost MEMS-based gyro. Our method corrects heading errors incurred by the high drift rate of the gyro by exploiting the structured nature of most indoor environments, but without having to directly measure features of the environment. The only operator feedback offered by most tele-operated robots is the view from a low to the ground onboard camera. Live video lets the operator observe the robot's immediate surroundings, but does not establish the orientation or whereabouts of the robot in its environment. Mentally keeping track of the robot's trajectory is difficult, and operators easily become disoriented. Our goal is to provide the tele-operator with a map view of the robot's current location and heading, as well as its previous trajectory, similar to the information provided by an automotive GPS navigation system. This frees tele-operators to focus on controlling the robot and achieving other mission goals, and provides the precise location of the robot if it becomes disabled and needs to be recovered.

  12. TeleOperator/telePresence System (TOPS) Concept Verification Model (CVM) development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimamoto, Mike S.

    1993-01-01

    The development of an anthropomorphic, undersea manipulator system, the TeleOperator/telePresence System (TOPS) Concept Verification Model (CVM) is described. The TOPS system's design philosophy, which results from NRaD's experience in undersea vehicles and manipulator systems development and operations, is presented. The TOPS design approach, task teams, manipulator, and vision system development and results, conclusions, and recommendations are presented.

  13. Towards an SEMG-based tele-operated robot for masticatory rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Kalani, Hadi; Moghimi, Sahar; Akbarzadeh, Alireza

    2016-08-01

    This paper proposes a real-time trajectory generation for a masticatory rehabilitation robot based on surface electromyography (SEMG) signals. We used two Gough-Stewart robots. The first robot was used as a rehabilitation robot while the second robot was developed to model the human jaw system. The legs of the rehabilitation robot were controlled by the SEMG signals of a tele-operator to reproduce the masticatory motion in the human jaw, supposedly mounted on the moving platform, through predicting the location of a reference point. Actual jaw motions and the SEMG signals from the masticatory muscles were recorded and used as output and input, respectively. Three different methods, namely time-delayed neural networks, time delayed fast orthogonal search, and time-delayed Laguerre expansion technique, were employed and compared to predict the kinematic parameters. The optimal model structures as well as the input delays were obtained for each model and each subject through a genetic algorithm. Equations of motion were obtained by the virtual work method. Fuzzy method was employed to develop a fuzzy impedance controller. Moreover, a jaw model was developed to demonstrate the time-varying behavior of the muscle lengths during the rehabilitation process. The three modeling methods were capable of providing reasonably accurate estimations of the kinematic parameters, although the accuracy and training/validation speed of time-delayed fast orthogonal search were higher than those of the other two aforementioned methods. Also, during a simulation study, the fuzzy impedance scheme proved successful in controlling the moving platform for the accurate navigation of the reference point in the desired trajectory. SEMG has been widely used as a control command for prostheses and exoskeleton robots. However, in the current study by employing the proposed rehabilitation robot the complete continuous profile of the clenching motion was reproduced in the sagittal plane. PMID

  14. Assistant Personal Robot (APR): Conception and Application of a Tele-Operated Assisted Living Robot

    PubMed Central

    Clotet, Eduard; Martínez, Dani; Moreno, Javier; Tresanchez, Marcel; Palacín, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the technical description, mechanical design, electronic components, software implementation and possible applications of a tele-operated mobile robot designed as an assisted living tool. This robotic concept has been named Assistant Personal Robot (or APR for short) and has been designed as a remotely telecontrolled robotic platform built to provide social and assistive services to elderly people and those with impaired mobility. The APR features a fast high-mobility motion system adapted for tele-operation in plain indoor areas, which incorporates a high-priority collision avoidance procedure. This paper presents the mechanical architecture, electrical fundaments and software implementation required in order to develop the main functionalities of an assistive robot. The APR uses a tablet in order to implement the basic peer-to-peer videoconference and tele-operation control combined with a tactile graphic user interface. The paper also presents the development of some applications proposed in the framework of an assisted living robot. PMID:27136552

  15. Assistant Personal Robot (APR): Conception and Application of a Tele-Operated Assisted Living Robot.

    PubMed

    Clotet, Eduard; Martínez, Dani; Moreno, Javier; Tresanchez, Marcel; Palacín, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the technical description, mechanical design, electronic components, software implementation and possible applications of a tele-operated mobile robot designed as an assisted living tool. This robotic concept has been named Assistant Personal Robot (or APR for short) and has been designed as a remotely telecontrolled robotic platform built to provide social and assistive services to elderly people and those with impaired mobility. The APR features a fast high-mobility motion system adapted for tele-operation in plain indoor areas, which incorporates a high-priority collision avoidance procedure. This paper presents the mechanical architecture, electrical fundaments and software implementation required in order to develop the main functionalities of an assistive robot. The APR uses a tablet in order to implement the basic peer-to-peer videoconference and tele-operation control combined with a tactile graphic user interface. The paper also presents the development of some applications proposed in the framework of an assisted living robot. PMID:27136552

  16. Membrane-mirror-based autostereoscopic display for tele-operation and teleprescence applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Stuart; Mair, Gordon M.; Mason, Steven; Revie, Kenneth

    2000-05-01

    An autostereoscopic display for telepresence and tele- operation applications has been developed at the University of Strathclyde in Glasgow, Scotland. The research is a collaborative effort between the Imaging Group and the Transparent Telepresence Research Group, both based at Strathclyde. A key component of the display is the directional screen; a 1.2-m diameter Stretchable Membrane Mirror is currently used. This patented technology enables large diameter, small f No., mirrors to be produced at a fraction of the cost of conventional optics. Another key element of the present system is an anthropomorphic and anthropometric stereo camera sensor platform. Thus, in addition to mirror development, research areas include sensor platform design focused on sight, hearing, research areas include sensor platform design focused on sight, hearing, and smell, telecommunications, display systems for all visual, aural and other senses, tele-operation, and augmented reality. The sensor platform is located at the remote site and transmits live video to the home location. Applications for this technology are as diverse as they are numerous, ranging from bomb disposal and other hazardous environment applications to tele-conferencing, sales, education and entertainment.

  17. Design issues for stereo vision systems used on tele-operated robotic platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmondson, Richard; Vaden, Justin; Hyatt, Brian; Morris, Jim; Pezzaniti, J. Larry; Chenault, David B.; Tchon, Joe; Barnidge, Tracy; Kaufman, Seth; Pettijohn, Brad

    2010-02-01

    The use of tele-operated Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) for military uses has grown significantly in recent years with operations in both Iraq and Afghanistan. In both cases the safety of the Soldier or technician performing the mission is improved by the large standoff distances afforded by the use of the UGV, but the full performance capability of the robotic system is not utilized due to insufficient depth perception provided by the standard two dimensional video system, causing the operator to slow the mission to ensure the safety of the UGV given the uncertainty of the perceived scene using 2D. To address this Polaris Sensor Technologies has developed, in a series of developments funded by the Leonard Wood Institute at Ft. Leonard Wood, MO, a prototype Stereo Vision Upgrade (SVU) Kit for the Foster-Miller TALON IV robot which provides the operator with improved depth perception and situational awareness, allowing for shorter mission times and higher success rates. Because there are multiple 2D cameras being replaced by stereo camera systems in the SVU Kit, and because the needs of the camera systems for each phase of a mission vary, there are a number of tradeoffs and design choices that must be made in developing such a system for robotic tele-operation. Additionally, human factors design criteria drive optical parameters of the camera systems which must be matched to the display system being used. The problem space for such an upgrade kit will be defined, and the choices made in the development of this particular SVU Kit will be discussed.

  18. A tele-operated mobile ultrasound scanner using a light-weight robot.

    PubMed

    Delgorge, Cécile; Courrèges, Fabien; Al Bassit, Lama; Novales, Cyril; Rosenberger, Christophe; Smith-Guerin, Natalie; Brù, Concepció; Gilabert, Rosa; Vannoni, Maurizio; Poisson, Gérard; Vieyres, Pierre

    2005-03-01

    This paper presents a new tele-operated robotic chain for real-time ultrasound image acquisition and medical diagnosis. This system has been developed in the frame of the Mobile Tele-Echography Using an Ultralight Robot European Project. A light-weight six degrees-of-freedom serial robot, with a remote center of motion, has been specially designed for this application. It holds and moves a real probe on a distant patient according to the expert gesture and permits an image acquisition using a standard ultrasound device. The combination of mechanical structure choice for the robot and dedicated control law, particularly nearby the singular configuration allows a good path following and a robotized gesture accuracy. The choice of compression techniques for image transmission enables a compromise between flow and quality. These combined approaches, for robotics and image processing, enable the medical specialist to better control the remote ultrasound probe holder system and to receive stable and good quality ultrasound images to make a diagnosis via any type of communication link from terrestrial to satellite. Clinical tests have been performed since April 2003. They used both satellite or Integrated Services Digital Network lines with a theoretical bandwidth of 384 Kb/s. They showed the tele-echography system helped to identify 66% of lesions and 83% of symptomatic pathologies. PMID:15787007

  19. Towards a Location-based Service for Early Mental Health Interventions in Disaster Response Using Minimalistic Tele-operated Android Robots Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahidi, H.; Mobasheri, A.; Alimardani, M.; Guan, Q.; Bakillah, M.

    2014-04-01

    Providing early mental health services during disaster is a great challenge in the disaster response phase. Lack of access to adequate mental-health professionals in the early stages of large-scale disasters dramatically influences the trend of a successful mental health aid. In this paper, a conceptual framework has been suggested for adopting cellphone-type tele-operated android robots in the early stages of disasters for providing the early mental health services for disaster survivors by developing a locationbased and participatory approach. The techniques of enabling GI-services in a Peer-to-Peer (P2P) environment were studied to overcome the limitations of current centralized services. Therefore, the aim of this research study is to add more flexibility and autonomy to GI web services (WMS, WFS, WPS, etc.) and alleviate to some degree the inherent limitations of these centralized systems. A P2P system Architecture is presented for the location-based service using minimalistic tele-operated android robots, and some key techniques of implementing this service using BestPeer were studied for developing this framework.

  20. Complete classification of simple current modular invariants for RCFT's with a center (Z p ) k

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gato-Rivera, B.; Schellekens, A. N.

    1992-03-01

    Simple currents have been used previously to construct various examples of modular invariant partition functions for given rational conformal field theories. In this paper we present for a large class of such theories (namely those with a center that decomposes into factors Z p , p prime) the complete set of modular invariants that can be obtained with simple currents. In addition to the fusion rule automorphisms classified previously for any center, this includes all possible left-right combinations of all possible extensions of the chiral algebra that can be obtained with simple currents, for all possible current-current monodromies. Formulas for the number of invariants of each kind are derived. Although the number of invariants in each of these subsets depends on the current-current monodromies, the total number of invariants depends rather surprisingly only on p and the number of Z p factors.

  1. Development and human factors analysis of an augmented reality interface for multi-robot tele-operation and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sam; Lucas, Nathan P.; Ellis, R. Darin; Pandya, Abhilash

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a seamlessly controlled human multi-robot system comprised of ground and aerial robots of semiautonomous nature for source localization tasks. The system combines augmented reality interfaces capabilities with human supervisor's ability to control multiple robots. The role of this human multi-robot interface is to allow an operator to control groups of heterogeneous robots in real time in a collaborative manner. It used advanced path planning algorithms to ensure obstacles are avoided and that the operators are free for higher-level tasks. Each robot knows the environment and obstacles and can automatically generate a collision-free path to any user-selected target. It displayed sensor information from each individual robot directly on the robot in the video view. In addition, a sensor data fused AR view is displayed which helped the users pin point source information or help the operator with the goals of the mission. The paper studies a preliminary Human Factors evaluation of this system in which several interface conditions are tested for source detection tasks. Results show that the novel Augmented Reality multi-robot control (Point-and-Go and Path Planning) reduced mission completion times compared to the traditional joystick control for target detection missions. Usability tests and operator workload analysis are also investigated.

  2. Prediction of Preeclampsia by First Trimester Combined Test and Simple Complete Blood Count Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Ersoy, Ali Ozgur; Daglar, Korkut; Dikici, Turkan; Biberoglu, Ebru Hacer; Kirbas, Ozgur; Danisman, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Preeclampsia is a serious disease which may result in maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. Improving the outcome for preeclampsia necessitates early prediction of the disease to identify women at high risk. Measuring blood cell subtype ratios, such as the neutrophil to lymphocyte (NLR) and platelet to lymphocyte (PLR) ratios, might provide prognostic and diagnostic clues to diseases. Aim To investigate hematological changes in early pregnancy, using simple complete blood count (CBC) and blood concentrations of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) to determine whether these measures are of any value in the prediction and early diagnosis of preeclampsia. Materials and Methods Six hundred fourteen consecutive pregnant women with preeclampsia (288 with mild disease and 326 with severe disease) and 320 uncomplicated pregnant women were included in the study. Blood samples for routine CBC and first trimester screen, which combines PAPP-A and free β-hCG blood concentrations, were analyzed. Results The NLR values were significantly higher in the severe preeclampsia group compared with the control group (p<0.001). We also confirmed that levels of PAPP-A were lower in patients who developed preeclampsia. Conclusion Because measuring CBC parameters, particularly NLR, is fast and easily applicable, they may be used to predict preeclampsia. PMID:26674673

  3. An Optimal Level of Adding Edges for a Simple Path to a Complete K-ary Tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, Kiyoshi

    2010-10-01

    This study proposes a model of adding edges of forming a simple path to a level of depth N in a complete K-ary (K≥3) tree of height H under giving priority to edges between two nodes of which the deepest common ancestor is deeper. An optimal depth N* is obtained by maximizing the total shortening path length which is the sum of shortening lengths of shortest paths between every pair of all nodes in the complete K-ary tree.

  4. Solution of the complete Curtiss-Bird model for polymeric liquids subjected to simple shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephanou, Pavlos S.; Kröger, Martin

    2016-03-01

    The complete kinetic theory model for concentrated polymer solutions and melts proposed by Curtiss and Bird is solved for shear flow: (a) analytically by providing a solution for the single-link (or configurational) distribution function as a real basis spherical harmonics expansion and then calculating the materials functions in shear flow up to second order in the dimensionless shear rate and, (b) numerically via the execution of Brownian dynamics simulations. These two methods are actually complementary to each other as the former is accurate only for small dimensionless shear rates where the latter produces results with increasingly large uncertainties. The analytical expansions of the material functions with respect to the dimensionless shear rate reduce to those of the extensively studied, simplified Curtiss-Bird model when ɛ' = 0, and to the rigid rod when ɛ' = 1. It is known that the power-law behavior at high shear rates is very different for these two extremal cases. We employ Brownian dynamics simulation to not only recover the limiting cases but to find a gradual variation of the power-law behaviors at large dimensionless shear rates upon varying ɛ'. The fact that experimental data are usually located between these two extremes strongly advocates the significance of studying the solution of the Curtiss-Bird model. This is exemplified in this work by comparing the solution of this model with available rheological data for semiflexible biological systems that are clearly not captured by the original Doi-Edwards or simplified Curtiss-Bird models.

  5. Solution of the complete Curtiss-Bird model for polymeric liquids subjected to simple shear flow.

    PubMed

    Stephanou, Pavlos S; Kröger, Martin

    2016-03-28

    The complete kinetic theory model for concentrated polymer solutions and melts proposed by Curtiss and Bird is solved for shear flow: (a) analytically by providing a solution for the single-link (or configurational) distribution function as a real basis spherical harmonics expansion and then calculating the materials functions in shear flow up to second order in the dimensionless shear rate and, (b) numerically via the execution of Brownian dynamics simulations. These two methods are actually complementary to each other as the former is accurate only for small dimensionless shear rates where the latter produces results with increasingly large uncertainties. The analytical expansions of the material functions with respect to the dimensionless shear rate reduce to those of the extensively studied, simplified Curtiss-Bird model when ε' = 0, and to the rigid rod when ε' = 1. It is known that the power-law behavior at high shear rates is very different for these two extremal cases. We employ Brownian dynamics simulation to not only recover the limiting cases but to find a gradual variation of the power-law behaviors at large dimensionless shear rates upon varying ε'. The fact that experimental data are usually located between these two extremes strongly advocates the significance of studying the solution of the Curtiss-Bird model. This is exemplified in this work by comparing the solution of this model with available rheological data for semiflexible biological systems that are clearly not captured by the original Doi-Edwards or simplified Curtiss-Bird models. PMID:27036477

  6. [Completion pneumonectomy combined with graft replacement of thoracic aortic aneurysm by simple clamping].

    PubMed

    Shimamoto, A; Takao, M; Kanemitsu, S; Fujinaga, K; Yan, G; Cruz, B P; Onoda, K; Shimono, T; Shimpo, H; Namikawa, S; Yuasa, H; Yada, I

    1999-01-01

    A 59-years-old male patient who had left upper lobe partial resection 30 years ago. He was seen at the family physician because of cough. A chest X-ray was showing an abnormal mass shadow measuring 3 x 4 cm in left lower lobe like honey comb. And squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was detected in his sputum. He was diagnosed as primary lung cancer and introduced to our department to have operation. Chest CT-scan was showing lung tumor suspected SCC measuring 4.3 x 2.6 cm in segment 8 faced chest wall. At the same time, we detected thoracic aortic aneurysm and subcarinal lymph node, but could not see where the boundary is, so it was hard to distinguish between parietal thrombus with thoracic aortic aneurysm and swelling subcarinal lymph node. We decided it swelling subcarinal lymph node by three-dimensional treated CT-scan. Aortic angiography was showing proximal descending aortic aneurysm measuring diameter was 4.5 cm. Abdominal CT-scan was showing infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm measuring diameter was 5.5 cm. He was diagnosed as primary lung cancer (It. S8, SCC) (cT2N2M0, Stage IIIB), thoracic aortic aneurysm, abdominal aortic aneurysm, and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and had completion pneumonectomy (R 2 b) for primary lung cancer and graft replacement with aneurysm dissection for thoracic aortic aneurysm without extracorporeal circulation. In this operation, we could find swelling subcarinal lymph node measuring 5 x 3 cm instead of parietal thrombus with thoracic aortic aneurysm. Pathological examination diagnosed middle differential SCC and no metastasis from dissected lymph node (PT2N0M0, Stage I A). PMID:10024802

  7. Simple Algorithms for Distributed Leader Election in Anonymous Synchronous Rings and Complete Networks Inspired by Neural Development in Fruit Flies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lei; Jeavons, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Leader election in anonymous rings and complete networks is a very practical problem in distributed computing. Previous algorithms for this problem are generally designed for a classical message passing model where complex messages are exchanged. However, the need to send and receive complex messages makes such algorithms less practical for some real applications. We present some simple synchronous algorithms for distributed leader election in anonymous rings and complete networks that are inspired by the development of the neural system of the fruit fly. Our leader election algorithms all assume that only one-bit messages are broadcast by nodes in the network and processors are only able to distinguish between silence and the arrival of one or more messages. These restrictions allow implementations to use a simpler message-passing architecture. Even with these harsh restrictions our algorithms are shown to achieve good time and message complexity both analytically and experimentally. PMID:26173905

  8. A simple and complete two-interface model for spatially developing flow in rigid and flexible canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadri, Samaneh; Luzzatto-Fegiz, Paolo

    2015-11-01

    At the front of a canopy, flow deceleration is associated with strong vertical fluxes of mass and momentum. Accurately describing this region is important in many applications, including terrestrial and aquatic vegetation, as well as large wind farms. Simple models can provide a framework to analyze these flows, thereby guiding and complementing more refined and computationally intensive tools. Jerram et al. (2003) introduced a linearised model that describes the flow field through sparse canopies, albeit at the cost of solving a PDE. A simpler approach involves vertically integrating the governing equations across the canopy, yielding scalings that relate key variables (e.g. Chen & Nepf 2013), which in turn can be used to construct empirical fits. We build a simple and complete model, by separating the flow in three horizontal layers. These comprise the canopy, the overlying boundary layer, and the outer flow, such that exchanges of mass and momentum occur at two interfaces. We parameterize turbulent exchanges by means of the entrainment hypothesis; this is a closure that has been used extensively in other problems in geophysical fluid dynamics. We neglect pressure gradients inside the canopy, but account for upstream pressure variations and retain nonlinear terms. Our two-interface model quantitatively describes the flow velocities and boundary layer heights in developing canopy flows, and successfully accounts for the effect of ambient stratification. Finally, we discuss developments accounting for the effects of flexibility in vegetation canopies.

  9. Simple and complete formulation to compute propagation constants of photonic crystal fibers and predict their total chromatic dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Dipankar; Sarkar, Somenath

    2012-06-01

    Within the scalar framework, a simple and complete formulation for the normalized propagation constants of the infinite cladding region of a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with triangular lattice of air-holes is presented, which is dependent only on the ratio of air-hole diameters and their separation. The accuracy of the proposed formulation is depicted by comparing our results with those obtained by Russell. Then the refractive indices of the fundamental space-filling mode (nFSM) in the cladding region of the PCF from Russell's equation and the proposed relations are evaluated and the two indices are observed to match quite excellently for different values of relative air-hole size and wavelength. An equivalence between the two approaches of Russell and Saitoh is also sought. Finally, in order to check the validity of the formulation in problems of practical interest, the proposed relations are applied to evaluate the total chromatic dispersion in a PCF, treating it as a conventional step index fiber having its core and cladding indices as those of silica and nFSM, respectively. On comparison with the available results of Saitoh, the results match nicely.

  10. Exact two-point resistance, and the simple random walk on the complete graph minus N edges

    SciTech Connect

    Chair, Noureddine

    2012-12-15

    An analytical approach is developed to obtain the exact expressions for the two-point resistance and the total effective resistance of the complete graph minus N edges of the opposite vertices. These expressions are written in terms of certain numbers that we introduce, which we call the Bejaia and the Pisa numbers; these numbers are the natural generalizations of the bisected Fibonacci and Lucas numbers. The correspondence between random walks and the resistor networks is then used to obtain the exact expressions for the first passage and mean first passage times on this graph. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We obtain exact formulas for the two-point resistance of the complete graph minus N edges. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We obtain also the total effective resistance of this graph. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We modified Schwatt's formula on trigonometrical power sum to suit our computations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We introduced the generalized bisected Fibonacci and Lucas numbers: the Bejaia and the Pisa numbers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The first passage and mean first passage times of the random walks have exact expressions.

  11. Coordinating Procedural and Conceptual Knowledge to Make Sense of Word Equations: Understanding the Complexity of a "Simple" Completion Task at the Learner's Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Keith S.; Bricheno, Pat

    2009-01-01

    The present paper discusses the conceptual demands of an apparently straightforward task set to secondary-level students--completing chemical word equations with a single omitted term. Chemical equations are of considerable importance in chemistry, and school students are expected to learn to be able to write and interpret them. However, it is…

  12. User interface for a tele-operated robotic hand system

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Anthony L

    2015-03-24

    Disclosed here is a user interface for a robotic hand. The user interface anchors a user's palm in a relatively stationary position and determines various angles of interest necessary for a user's finger to achieve a specific fingertip location. The user interface additionally conducts a calibration procedure to determine the user's applicable physiological dimensions. The user interface uses the applicable physiological dimensions and the specific fingertip location, and treats the user's finger as a two link three degree-of-freedom serial linkage in order to determine the angles of interest. The user interface communicates the angles of interest to a gripping-type end effector which closely mimics the range of motion and proportions of a human hand. The user interface requires minimal contact with the operator and provides distinct advantages in terms of available dexterity, work space flexibility, and adaptability to different users.

  13. Simple Machines Made Simple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Andre, Ralph E.

    Simple machines have become a lost point of study in elementary schools as teachers continue to have more material to cover. This manual provides hands-on, cooperative learning activities for grades three through eight concerning the six simple machines: wheel and axle, inclined plane, screw, pulley, wedge, and lever. Most activities can be…

  14. Complete prewetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsyshin, P.; Parry, A. O.; Kalliadasis, S.

    2016-07-01

    We study continuous interfacial transitions, analagous to two-dimensional complete wetting, associated with the first-order prewetting line, which can occur on steps, patterned walls, grooves and wedges, and which are sensitive to both the range of the intermolecular forces and interfacial fluctuation effects. These transitions compete with wetting, filling and condensation producing very rich phase diagrams even for relatively simple prototypical geometries. Using microscopic classical density functional theory to model systems with realistic Lennard-Jones fluid–fluid and fluid–substrate intermolecular potentials, we compute mean-field fluid density profiles, adsorption isotherms and phase diagrams for a variety of confining geometries.

  15. Design and experimental validation of a simple controller for a multi-segment magnetic crawler robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Leah; Ostovari, Saam; Burmeister, Aaron B.; Talke, Kurt A.; Pezeshkian, Narek; Rahimi, Amin; Hart, Abraham B.; Nguyen, Hoa G.

    2015-05-01

    A novel, multi-segmented magnetic crawler robot has been designed for ship hull inspection. In its simplest version, passive linkages that provide two degrees of relative motion connect front and rear driving modules, so the robot can twist and turn. This permits its navigation over surface discontinuities while maintaining its adhesion to the hull. During operation, the magnetic crawler receives forward and turning velocity commands from either a tele-operator or high-level, autonomous control computer. A low-level, embedded microcomputer handles the commands to the driving motors. This paper presents the development of a simple, low-level, leader-follower controller that permits the rear module to follow the front module. The kinematics and dynamics of the two-module magnetic crawler robot are described. The robot's geometry, kinematic constraints and the user-commanded velocities are used to calculate the desired instantaneous center of rotation and the corresponding central-linkage angle necessary for the back module to follow the front module when turning. The commands to the rear driving motors are determined by applying PID control on the error between the desired and measured linkage angle position. The controller is designed and tested using Matlab Simulink. It is then implemented and tested on an early two-module magnetic crawler prototype robot. Results of the simulations and experimental validation of the controller design are presented.

  16. Complete diphallia.

    PubMed

    Acimi, Smail

    2008-01-01

    A case of complete diphallia in a 4-month-old boy is reported. This is the second case to be published from this institution. The embryogenesis and associated anomalies of diphallia are discussed, together with a proposal for a classification based on anatomical, functional and therapeutic aspects of the malformation. PMID:19230173

  17. Complete Makeover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released July 23, 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth.

    Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms.

    We finish our look at Mars's dynamic atmosphere with an image of the surface that has been completely modified by the wind. Even the small ridges that remain have been ground down to a cliff-face with a 'tail' of eroded material. The crosshatching shows that the wind regime has remained mainly E/W to ENE/WSW.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 8.9, Longitude 221 East (139 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip

  18. A Hybrid Synthetic Vision System for the Tele-operation of Unmanned Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Frank; Abernathy, Mike

    2004-01-01

    A system called SmartCam3D (SC3D) has been developed to provide enhanced situational awareness for operators of a remotely piloted vehicle. SC3D is a Hybrid Synthetic Vision System (HSVS) that combines live sensor data with information from a Synthetic Vision System (SVS). By combining the dual information sources, the operators are afforded the advantages of each approach. The live sensor system provides real-time information for the region of interest. The SVS provides information rich visuals that will function under all weather and visibility conditions. Additionally, the combination of technologies allows the system to circumvent some of the limitations from each approach. Video sensor systems are not very useful when visibility conditions are hampered by rain, snow, sand, fog, and smoke, while a SVS can suffer from data freshness problems. Typically, an aircraft or satellite flying overhead collects the data used to create the SVS visuals. The SVS data could have been collected weeks, months, or even years ago. To that extent, the information from an SVS visual could be outdated and possibly inaccurate. SC3D was used in the remote cockpit during flight tests of the X-38 132 and 131R vehicles at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. SC3D was also used during the operation of military Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. This presentation will provide an overview of the system, the evolution of the system, the results of flight tests, and future plans. Furthermore, the safety benefits of the SC3D over traditional and pure synthetic vision systems will be discussed.

  19. UAV-guided navigation for ground robot tele-operation in a military reconnaissance environment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jessie Y C

    2010-08-01

    A military reconnaissance environment was simulated to examine the performance of ground robotics operators who were instructed to utilise streaming video from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to navigate his/her ground robot to the locations of the targets. The effects of participants' spatial ability on their performance and workload were also investigated. Results showed that participants' overall performance (speed and accuracy) was better when she/he had access to images from larger UAVs with fixed orientations, compared with other UAV conditions (baseline- no UAV, micro air vehicle and UAV with orbiting views). Participants experienced the highest workload when the UAV was orbiting. Those individuals with higher spatial ability performed significantly better and reported less workload than those with lower spatial ability. The results of the current study will further understanding of ground robot operators' target search performance based on streaming video from UAVs. The results will also facilitate the implementation of ground/air robots in military environments and will be useful to the future military system design and training community. PMID:20658388

  20. Tele-Operated Echography and Remote Guidance for Performing Tele-Echography on Geographically Isolated Patients

    PubMed Central

    Arbeille, Philippe; Zuj, Kathryn; Saccomandi, Arnaud; Andre, Elise; De La Porte, Cedric; Georgescu, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the performance of three tele-echography systems for routine use in isolated medical centers. Methods: Three systems were used for deep (abdomen, pelvis, fetal) and superficial (muscle, thyroid, carotid artery) examinations: (a) a robotic arm (RA) holding an echographic probe; (b) an echograph with a motorized probe (MP); and (c) remote guidance (RG) where the patient site operator performed the examination assisted by an expert via videoconference. All systems were tested in the same medical center located 60 km away from the university hospital. Results: A total of 340 remote echography examinations were performed (41% RA and MP, 59% RG). MP and RA allowed full control of the probe orientation by the expert, and provided diagnoses in 97% of cases. The use of RG was sufficient for superficial vessel examinations and provided diagnoses in 98% of cases but was not suited for deep or superficial organs. Assessment of superficial organs was best accomplished using the MP. Discussion: Both teleoperated systems provided control of the probe orientation by the expert necessary for obtaining appropriate views of deep organs but the MP was much more ergonomic and easier to use than the RA. RG was appropriate for superficial vessels while the MP was better for superficial volumic organs. PMID:27304972

  1. Tele-Operation of a Mobile Haptic System Using Dynamical Modal Transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanouchi, Wataru; Katsura, Seiichiro

    Recent advances in control technology have contributed to the development of robot systems for communication. Robot systems recognize their environment on the basis of audio-visual information. Recognition methods based on audio-visual feedback have been developed by many researchers. Apart from auditory and visual information, haptic information has recently attracted attention as the third type of multimedia information. The sense of touch is useful for remote manipulation. Feedback of haptic information is realized by bilateral control. In conventional research, most systems are constructed using a master-slave system in which the master-slave systems have the same mechanical structure. However, very few studies have been carried out on force feedback systems with different mechanical structures. This paper proposes a novel control method for mobile-hapto, which involves force feedback using mobility systems. In this study, the mobile-hapto consists of a mobile robot that can move in an infinite area for motion and a joystick that is fixed at a given position and can be operated manually. To realize of force feedback in the mobile-hapto, a modal transformation matrix for bilateral control is proposed. The proposed modal transformation matrix is able to change the dimension of the controlled value. The joystick is treated as a pedal by changing two dimensions of the mobile robot position. The mobile-hapto is possible to be subjected to intuitive manipulation. The validity of the proposed method is experimentally verified.

  2. Mine detection performance comparison between manual sweeping and tele-operated robotic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Herman; Higgins, Todd; Falmier, Olga; Valois, Jean-Sebastien; McMahill, Jeff

    2010-04-01

    Mine detection is a dangerous and physically demanding task that is very well-suited for robotic applications. In the experiment described in this paper, we try to determine whether a remotely-operated robotic mine detection system equipped with a hand-held mine detector can match the performance of a human equipped with a hand-held mine detector. To achieve this objective, we developed the Robotic Mine Sweeper (RMS). The RMS platform is capable of accurately sweeping and mapping mine lanes using common detectors, such as the Minelab F3 Mine Detector or the AN/PSS-14. The RMS is fully remote controlled from a safe distance by a laptop via a redundant wireless connection link. Data collected from the mine detector and various sensors mounted on the robot are transmitted and logged in real-time to the remote user interface and simultaneously graphically displayed. In addition, a stereo color camera mounted on top of the robot sends a live picture of the terrain. The system plays audio feedback from the detector to further enhance the user's situational awareness. The user is trained to drag and drop various icons onto the user interface map to locate mines and non-mine clutter objects. We ran experiments with the RMS to compare its detection and false alarm rates with those obtained when the user physically sweeps the detectors in the field. The results of two trials: one with the Minelab F3, the other with the Cyterra AN/PSS-14 are presented here.

  3. Determining Salinity by Simple Means.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This paper describes the construction and use of a simple salinometer. The salinometer is composed, mainly, of a milliammeter and a battery and uses the measurement of current flow to determine the salinity of water. A complete list of materials is given, as are details of construction and operation of the equipment. The use of the salinometer in…

  4. Beyond complete positivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominy, Jason M.; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2016-04-01

    We provide a general and consistent formulation for linear subsystem quantum dynamical maps, developed from a minimal set of postulates, primary among which is a relaxation of the usual, restrictive assumption of uncorrelated initial system-bath states. We describe the space of possibilities admitted by this formulation, namely that, far from being limited to only completely positive (CP) maps, essentially any C-linear, Hermiticity-preserving, trace-preserving map can arise as a legitimate subsystem dynamical map from a joint unitary evolution of a system coupled to a bath. The price paid for this added generality is a trade-off between the set of admissible initial states and the allowed set of joint system-bath unitary evolutions. As an application, we present a simple example of a non-CP map constructed as a subsystem dynamical map that violates some fundamental inequalities in quantum information theory, such as the quantum data processing inequality.

  5. Simple Kidney Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Organizations​​ . (PDF, 345 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Simple Kidney Cysts Page Content On this page: What are simple ... Points to Remember Clinical Trials What are simple kidney cysts? Simple kidney cysts are abnormal, fluid-filled sacs ...

  6. Complete colonic duplication in children

    PubMed Central

    Khaleghnejad Tabari, Ahmad; Mirshemirani, Alireza; Khaleghnejad Tabari, Nasibeh

    2012-01-01

    Background: Complete colonic duplication is a very rare congenital anomaly that may have different presentations according to its location and size. Complete colonic duplication can occur in 15% of gastrointestinal duplication. We report two cases of complete colonic duplications, and their characteristics. Case Presentation: We present two patients with complete colonic duplication with different types and presentations. Case 1: A 2- year old boy presented to the clinic with abdominal protrusion, difficulty to defecate, chronic constipation and mucosal prolaps covered bulging (rectocele) since he was 6 months old. The patient had palpable pelvic mass with doughy consistency. Rectal exam confirmed perirectal mass with soft consistency. The patient underwent a surgical operation that had total tubular colorectal duplication with one blind end and was treated with simple fenestration of distal end, and was discharged without complication. After two years follow up, he had normal defecation and good weight gain. Case 2: A 2 –day old infant was referred with imperforate anus and complete duplication of recto-sigmoid colon, diphallus, double bladder, and hypospadiasis. After clinical and paraclinical investigations, he underwent operations in several stages in different periods, and was discharged without complications. After four years follow up, he led a normal life. Conclusion: The patients with complete duplication have to be examined carefully because of the high incidence of other systemic anomalies. Treatment includes simple resection of distal common wall, fenestration, and repair other associated anomalies. PMID:24358440

  7. Quasispecies Made Simple

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Quasispecies are clouds of genotypes that appear in a population at mutation–selection balance. This concept has recently attracted the attention of virologists, because many RNA viruses appear to generate high levels of genetic variation that may enhance the evolution of drug resistance and immune escape. The literature on these important evolutionary processes is, however, quite challenging. Here we use simple models to link mutation–selection balance theory to the most novel property of quasispecies: the error threshold—a mutation rate below which populations equilibrate in a traditional mutation–selection balance and above which the population experiences an error catastrophe, that is, the loss of the favored genotype through frequent deleterious mutations. These models show that a single fitness landscape may contain multiple, hierarchically organized error thresholds and that an error threshold is affected by the extent of back mutation and redundancy in the genotype-to-phenotype map. Importantly, an error threshold is distinct from an extinction threshold, which is the complete loss of the population through lethal mutations. Based on this framework, we argue that the lethal mutagenesis of a viral infection by mutation-inducing drugs is not a true error catastophe, but is an extinction catastrophe. PMID:16322763

  8. SIMPLE: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endres, Frank L.

    Symbolic Interactive Matrix Processing Language (SIMPLE) is a conversational matrix-oriented source language suited to a batch or a time-sharing environment. The two modes of operation of SIMPLE are conversational mode and programing mode. This program uses a TAURUS time-sharing system and cathode ray terminals or teletypes. SIMPLE performs all…

  9. Image Formation in Lenses and Mirrors, a Complete Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Albert A.

    1976-01-01

    Provides tables and graphs that give a complete and simple picture of the relationships of image distance, object distance, and magnification in all formations of images by simple lenses and mirrors. (CP)

  10. Shannon Information in Complete Genomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Li-Ching; Chang, Chang-Heng; Lee, Hoong-Chien

    2004-03-01

    Genomes are books of life and necessarily carry a huge amount of information. This study was first motivated by the question: "How much information do complete genomes have?" As an answer we measured a particular type of Shannon information in all prokaryotes and eukaryotes whose complete genomes have been sequenced and are available in publically assessible database. The Shannon information in complete genome sequences follow an extremely simple pattern. With the exception of one eukaryote the Shannon information in all (more than 200) complete sequences belong to a single universality class given by a simple geometric recursion formula. The data are interpreted in terms of models for genome growth and inferred to suggest that the ancestors of present day genomes began to grow, mainly by stochastic, selectively neutral, duplications and short mutations, most likely when they were not more than 300 nt long. This notion of selective neutralism independently corroborates Kimura's neutral theory of evolution which was based on the investigation of polymorphisms of genes.

  11. Simple inflationary quintessential model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Haro, Jaume; Amorós, Jaume; Pan, Supriya

    2016-04-01

    In the framework of a flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker geometry, we present a non-geodesically past complete model of our Universe without the big bang singularity at finite cosmic time, describing its evolution starting from its early inflationary era up to the present accelerating phase. We found that a hydrodynamical fluid with nonlinear equation of state could result in such scenario, which after the end of this inflationary stage, suffers a sudden phase transition and enters into the stiff matter dominated era, and the Universe becomes reheated due to a huge amount of particle production. Finally, it asymptotically enters into the de Sitter phase concluding the present accelerated expansion. Using the reconstruction technique, we also show that this background provides an extremely simple inflationary quintessential potential whose inflationary part is given by the well-known 1-dimensional Higgs potential, i.e., a double well inflationary potential, and the quintessential one by an exponential potential that leads to a deflationary regime after this inflation, and it can depict the current cosmic acceleration at late times. Moreover the Higgs potential leads to a power spectrum of the cosmological perturbations which fit well with the latest Planck estimations. Further, we compared our viable potential with some known inflationary quintessential potential, which shows that our quintessential model, that is, the Higgs potential combined with the exponential one, is an improved version of them because it contains an analytic solution that allows us to perform all analytic calculations. Finally, we have shown that the introduction of a nonzero cosmological constant simplifies the potential considerably with an analytic behavior of the background which again permits us to evaluate all the quantities analytically.

  12. Simple pulmonary eosinophilia

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary infiltrates with eosinophilia; Loffler syndrome; Eosinophilic pneumonia; Pneumonia - eosinophilic ... simple pulmonary eosinophilia is a severe type of pneumonia called acute idiopathic eosinophilic pneumonia.

  13. Laparoscopic simple prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Blew, Brian D M; Fazio, Luke M; Pace, Kenneth; D'A Honey, R John

    2005-12-01

    Classically, surgical options for very large prostate glands, not amenable to transurethral resection, include suprapubic or retropubic simple prostatectomy and Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP). We present a case managed with a laparoscopic simple prostatectomy. Technical considerations are discussed as well as possible advantages of this approach including decreased blood loss, faster patient recovery and improved visualization. PMID:16401375

  14. Simple Machine Junk Cars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herald, Christine

    2010-01-01

    During the month of May, the author's eighth-grade physical science students study the six simple machines through hands-on activities, reading assignments, videos, and notes. At the end of the month, they can easily identify the six types of simple machine: inclined plane, wheel and axle, pulley, screw, wedge, and lever. To conclude this unit,…

  15. A Simple "Tubeless" Telescope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straulino, S.; Bonechi, L.

    2010-01-01

    Two lenses make it possible to create a simple telescope with quite large magnification. The set-up is very simple and can be reproduced in schools, provided the laboratory has a range of lenses with different focal lengths. In this article, the authors adopt the Keplerian configuration, which is composed of two converging lenses. This instrument,…

  16. Simple Bond Cleavage

    SciTech Connect

    Gary S. Groenewold

    2005-08-01

    Simple bond cleavage is a class of fragmentation reactions in which a single bond is broken, without formation of new bonds between previously unconnected atoms. Because no bond making is involved, simple bond cleavages are endothermic, and activation energies are generally higher than for rearrangement eliminations. The rate of simple bond cleavage reactions is a strong function of the internal energy of the molecular ion, which reflects a loose transition state that resembles reaction products, and has a high density of accessible states. For this reason, simple bond cleavages tend to dominate fragmentation reactions for highly energized molecular ions. Simple bond cleavages have negligible reverse activation energy, and hence they are used as valuable probes of ion thermochemistry, since the energy dependence of the reactions can be related to the bond energy. In organic mass spectrometry, simple bond cleavages of odd electron ions can be either homolytic or heterolytic, depending on whether the fragmentation is driven by the radical site or the charge site. Simple bond cleavages of even electron ions tend to be heterolytic, producing even electron product ions and neutrals.

  17. How simple are 'simple renal cysts'?

    PubMed

    Simms, Roslyn J; Ong, Albert C M

    2014-09-01

    The increasing use of medical imaging as an investigative tool is leading to the incidental and frequent finding of renal cysts in the general population. The presence of a solitary or multiple renal cysts has been generally considered benign in the absence of a family history of renal cystic disease or evidence of chronic kidney disease. Nonetheless, a number of recent studies have questioned this consensus by reported associations with the development of hypertension or malignant change. For these reasons, some clinicians consider the presence of renal cysts to be a contraindication to kidney donation. The situation is complicated by the different usage of the term 'simple' by some radiologists (to indicate non-complex lesions) or nephrologists (to indicate age-related non-hereditary lesions). We propose that the term 'simple' be replaced with the morphological description, Stage I renal cyst (Bosniak Classification). The presence of a Stage I renal cyst should not preclude kidney donation. However, occult renal disease should be excluded and appropriate donor assessment performed. PMID:25165175

  18. Early Childhood: Simple Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Clare B.; Shafer, Kathryn E.

    1987-01-01

    Encourages teachers to take advantage of the natural curiosity of young children in enhancing their interest in science. Describes four simple activities involving water, living and non-living things, air pollution, and food. (TW)

  19. A Simple Water Channel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, A. S.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a simple water channel, for use with an overhead projector. It is run from a water tap and may be used for flow visualization experiments, including the effect of streamlining and elementary building aerodynamics. (MLH)

  20. Simple Machines Simply Put.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood, James J.

    1994-01-01

    Students explore the workings of the lever, wheel and axle, and the inclined plane as they build simple toys--a bulldozer and a road grader. The project takes four weeks. Diagrams and procedures are included. (PR)

  1. A Simple Raman Spectrometer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blond, J. P.; Boggett, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses some basic physical ideas about light scattering and describes a simple Raman spectrometer, a single prism monochromator and a multiplier detector. This discussion is intended for British undergraduate physics students. (HM)

  2. Simple Ontology Format (SOFT)

    SciTech Connect

    Sorokine, Alexandre

    2011-10-01

    Simple Ontology Format (SOFT) library and file format specification provides a set of simple tools for developing and maintaining ontologies. The library, implemented as a perl module, supports parsing and verification of the files in SOFt format, operations with ontologies (adding, removing, or filtering of entities), and converting of ontologies into other formats. SOFT allows users to quickly create ontologies using only a basic text editor, verify it, and portray it in a graph layout system using customized styles.

  3. Amodal Completion in Bonobos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagasaka, Yasuo; Brooks, Daniel I.; Wasserman, Edward A.

    2010-01-01

    We trained two bonobos to discriminate among occluded, complete, and incomplete stimuli. The occluded stimulus comprised a pair of colored shapes, one of which appeared to occlude the other. The complete and incomplete stimuli involved the single shape that appeared to have been partially covered in the occluded stimulus; the complete stimulus…

  4. Strategy as simple rules.

    PubMed

    Eisenhardt, K M; Sull, D N

    2001-01-01

    The success of Yahoo!, eBay, Enron, and other companies that have become adept at morphing to meet the demands of changing markets can't be explained using traditional thinking about competitive strategy. These companies have succeeded by pursuing constantly evolving strategies in market spaces that were considered unattractive according to traditional measures. In this article--the third in an HBR series by Kathleen Eisenhardt and Donald Sull on strategy in the new economy--the authors ask, what are the sources of competitive advantage in high-velocity markets? The secret, they say, is strategy as simple rules. The companies know that the greatest opportunities for competitive advantage lie in market confusion, but they recognize the need for a few crucial strategic processes and a few simple rules. In traditional strategy, advantage comes from exploiting resources or stable market positions. In strategy as simple rules, advantage comes from successfully seizing fleeting opportunities. Key strategic processes, such as product innovation, partnering, or spinout creation, place the company where the flow of opportunities is greatest. Simple rules then provide the guidelines within which managers can pursue such opportunities. Simple rules, which grow out of experience, fall into five broad categories: how- to rules, boundary conditions, priority rules, timing rules, and exit rules. Companies with simple-rules strategies must follow the rules religiously and avoid the temptation to change them too frequently. A consistent strategy helps managers sort through opportunities and gain short-term advantage by exploiting the attractive ones. In stable markets, managers rely on complicated strategies built on detailed predictions of the future. But when business is complicated, strategy should be simple. PMID:11189455

  5. Figuring the Acceleration of the Simple Pendulum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberherr, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The centripetal acceleration has been known since Huygens' (1659) and Newton's (1684) time. The physics to calculate the acceleration of a simple pendulum has been around for more than 300 years, and a fairly complete treatise has been given by C. Schwarz in this journal. But sentences like "the acceleration is always directed towards the…

  6. Simple Ontology Format (SOFT)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2011-10-01

    Simple Ontology Format (SOFT) library and file format specification provides a set of simple tools for developing and maintaining ontologies. The library, implemented as a perl module, supports parsing and verification of the files in SOFt format, operations with ontologies (adding, removing, or filtering of entities), and converting of ontologies into other formats. SOFT allows users to quickly create ontologies using only a basic text editor, verify it, and portray it in a graph layoutmore » system using customized styles.« less

  7. Complete analyticity for 2D Ising completed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schonmann, Roberto H.; Shlosman, Senya B.

    1995-06-01

    We study the behavior of the two-dimensional nearest neighbor ferromagnetic Ising model under an external magnetic field h. We extend to every subcritical value of the temperature a result previously proven by Martirosyan at low enough temperature, and which roughly states that for finite systems with — boundary conditions under a positive external field, the boundary effect dominates in the bulk if the linear size of the system is of order B/h with B small enough, while if B is large enough, then the external field dominates in the bulk. As a consequence we are able to complete the proof that “complete analyticity for nice sets” holds for every value of the temperature and external field in the interior of the uniqueness region in the phase diagram of the model. The main tools used are the results and techniques developed to study large deviations for the block magnetization in the absence of the magnetic field, and recently extended to all temperatures below the critical one by Ioffe.

  8. A Simple Hydrogen Electrode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggen, Per-Odd

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the construction of an inexpensive, robust, and simple hydrogen electrode, as well as the use of this electrode to measure "standard" potentials. In the experiment described here the students can measure the reduction potentials of metal-metal ion pairs directly, without using a secondary reference electrode. Measurements…

  9. Entropy Is Simple, Qualitatively.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Frank L.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that qualitatively, entropy is simple. Entropy increase from a macro viewpoint is a measure of the dispersal of energy from localized to spread out at a temperature T. Fundamentally based on statistical and quantum mechanics, this approach is superior to the non-fundamental "disorder" as a descriptor of entropy change. (MM)

  10. A Simple Wave Driver

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temiz, Burak Kagan; Yavuz, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    This study was done to develop a simple and inexpensive wave driver that can be used in experiments on string waves. The wave driver was made using a battery-operated toy car, and the apparatus can be used to produce string waves at a fixed frequency. The working principle of the apparatus is as follows: shortly after the car is turned on, the…

  11. Simple Library Bookkeeping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Herbert H.

    A simple and cheap manual double entry continuous transaction posting system with running balances is developed for bookkeeping by small libraries. A very small library may operate without any system of fiscal control but when a library's budget approaches three figures, some kind of bookkeeping must be introduced. To maintain control over his…

  12. Climate Change Made Simple

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shallcross, Dudley E.; Harrison, Tim G.

    2007-01-01

    The newly revised specifications for GCSE science involve greater consideration of climate change. This topic appears in either the chemistry or biology section, depending on the examination board, and is a good example of "How Science Works." It is therefore timely that students are given an opportunity to conduct some simple climate modelling.…

  13. On Simple Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, K.C.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses San Francisco's Exploratorium, a science teaching center with 500 exhibits focusing on human perception, but extending to everything from the mechanics of voice to the art of illusion, from holograms to harmonics. The Exploratorium emphasizes "simple science" (refractions/resonances, sounds/shadows) to tune in the senses and turn on the…

  14. Simple Lookup Service

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-05-01

    Simple Lookup Service (sLS) is a REST/JSON based lookup service that allows users to publish information in the form of key-value pairs and search for the published information. The lookup service supports both pull and push model. This software can be used to create a distributed architecture/cloud.

  15. Working with Simple Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, John W.

    2006-01-01

    A set of examples is provided that illustrate the use of work as applied to simple machines. The ramp, pulley, lever and hydraulic press are common experiences in the life of a student, and their theoretical analysis therefore makes the abstract concept of work more real. The mechanical advantage of each of these systems is also discussed so that…

  16. Latino College Completion: Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  17. Latino College Completion: Washington

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  18. Latino College Completion: Wisconsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  19. Latino College Completion: Wyoming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  20. Latino College Completion: Utah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  1. Latino College Completion: Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  2. Latino College Completion: Kansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  3. Latino College Completion: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  4. Latino College Completion: Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  5. Latino College Completion: Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  6. Latino College Completion: Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  7. Latino College Completion: Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  8. Latino College Completion: Minnesota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  9. Latino College Completion: Maine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  10. Latino College Completion: Connecticut

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  11. Latino College Completion: Indiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  12. Latino College Completion: Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  13. Latino College Completion: Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  14. Latino College Completion: Delaware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  15. Latino College Completion: Alaska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  16. Latino College Completion: Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  17. Latino College Completion: Mississippi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  18. Latino College Completion: Nevada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  19. Latino College Completion: California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  20. Latino College Completion: Missouri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  1. Latino College Completion: Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  2. Latino College Completion: Vermont

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  3. Latino College Completion: Montana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  4. Latino College Completion: Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  5. Latino College Completion: Oregon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  6. Latino College Completion: Louisiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  7. Latino College Completion: Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  8. Latino College Completion: Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  9. Latino College Completion: Idaho

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  10. Latino College Completion: Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  11. Latino College Completion: Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  12. Latino College Completion: Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  13. Latino College Completion: Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  14. Latino College Completion: Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  15. Latino College Completion: Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  16. Classical versus quantum completeness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Stefan; Schneider, Marc

    2015-06-01

    The notion of quantum-mechanical completeness is adapted to situations where the only adequate description is in terms of quantum field theory in curved space-times. It is then shown that Schwarzschild black holes, although geodesically incomplete, are quantum complete.

  17. How To Prioritize and Complete Renovation Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiens, Janet

    2000-01-01

    Examines some simple, yet critical, steps that can facilitate both the prioritizing and completion of college building renovation projects. Areas addressed include the value of communication between interested parties in the project, funding challenges, and use of consultants. A list of strategies for renovation success concludes the article. (GR)

  18. Modeling and Design of an Electro-Rheological Fluid Based Haptic System for Tele-Operation of Space Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavroidis, Constantinos; Pfeiffer, Charles; Paljic, Alex; Celestino, James; Lennon, Jamie; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2000-01-01

    For many years, the robotic community sought to develop robots that can eventually operate autonomously and eliminate the need for human operators. However, there is an increasing realization that there are some tasks that human can perform significantly better but, due to associated hazards, distance, physical limitations and other causes, only robot can be employed to perform these tasks. Remotely performing these types of tasks requires operating robots as human surrogates. While current "hand master" haptic systems are able to reproduce the feeling of rigid objects, they present great difficulties in emulating the feeling of remote/virtual stiffness. In addition, they tend to be heavy, cumbersome and usually they only allow limited operator workspace. In this paper a novel haptic interface is presented to enable human-operators to "feel" and intuitively mirror the stiffness/forces at remote/virtual sites enabling control of robots as human-surrogates. This haptic interface is intended to provide human operators intuitive feeling of the stiffness and forces at remote or virtual sites in support of space robots performing dexterous manipulation tasks (such as operating a wrench or a drill). Remote applications are referred to the control of actual robots whereas virtual applications are referred to simulated operations. The developed haptic interface will be applicable to IVA operated robotic EVA tasks to enhance human performance, extend crew capability and assure crew safety. The electrically controlled stiffness is obtained using constrained ElectroRheological Fluids (ERF), which changes its viscosity under electrical stimulation. Forces applied at the robot end-effector due to a compliant environment will be reflected to the user using this ERF device where a change in the system viscosity will occur proportionally to the force to be transmitted. In this paper, we will present the results of our modeling, simulation, and initial testing of such an electrorheological fluid (ERF) based haptic device.

  19. Working with simple machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norbury, John W.

    2006-11-01

    A set of examples is provided that illustrate the use of work as applied to simple machines. The ramp, pulley, lever and hydraulic press are common experiences in the life of a student, and their theoretical analysis therefore makes the abstract concept of work more real. The mechanical advantage of each of these systems is also discussed so that students can evaluate their usefulness as machines.

  20. Simple Schlieren Light Meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, David B.; Franke, John M.; Jones, Stephen B.; Leighty, Bradley D.

    1992-01-01

    Simple light-meter circuit used to position knife edge of schlieren optical system to block exactly half light. Enables operator to check quickly position of knife edge between tunnel runs to ascertain whether or not in alignment. Permanent measuring system made part of each schlieren system. If placed in unused area of image plane, or in monitoring beam from mirror knife edge, provides real-time assessment of alignment of schlieren system.

  1. Probabilistic simple splicing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvarajoo, Mathuri; Heng, Fong Wan; Sarmin, Nor Haniza; Turaev, Sherzod

    2014-06-01

    A splicing system, one of the early theoretical models for DNA computing was introduced by Head in 1987. Splicing systems are based on the splicing operation which, informally, cuts two strings of DNA molecules at the specific recognition sites and attaches the prefix of the first string to the suffix of the second string, and the prefix of the second string to the suffix of the first string, thus yielding the new strings. For a specific type of splicing systems, namely the simple splicing systems, the recognition sites are the same for both strings of DNA molecules. It is known that splicing systems with finite sets of axioms and splicing rules only generate regular languages. Hence, different types of restrictions have been considered for splicing systems in order to increase their computational power. Recently, probabilistic splicing systems have been introduced where the probabilities are initially associated with the axioms, and the probabilities of the generated strings are computed from the probabilities of the initial strings. In this paper, some properties of probabilistic simple splicing systems are investigated. We prove that probabilistic simple splicing systems can also increase the computational power of the splicing languages generated.

  2. Simple Machine Science Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chessin, Debby

    2007-01-01

    Science centers can engage students; accommodate different learning styles and individual interests; help students become independent and confident learners; and encourage social skills among students. In this article, the author worked with third-grade students as they completed activities at learning centers during a week-long unit on simple…

  3. Dimensional analysis made simple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lira, Ignacio

    2013-11-01

    An inductive strategy is proposed for teaching dimensional analysis to second- or third-year students of physics, chemistry, or engineering. In this strategy, Buckingham's theorem is seen as a consequence and not as the starting point. In order to concentrate on the basics, the mathematics is kept as elementary as possible. Simple examples are suggested for classroom demonstrations of the power of the technique and others are put forward for homework or experimentation, but instructors are encouraged to produce examples of their own.

  4. Making College Completion Personal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Heather

    2011-01-01

    There are countless justifications for why young adults, faced with so many distractions, do not complete their educations. Many students fail to finish college because of a lack of information and understanding about healthy relationships and sex education. The author's own struggles and eventual successes as a student and mother compelled her to…

  5. Beyond FASFA Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castleman, Ben; Page, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    The Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA)--which students must complete to qualify for most federal, state, and institutional financial aid--is a gateway to college through which many students must pass, particularly those from low- to moderate-income households (King, 2004; Kofoed, 2013). Yet given the complexity of the…

  6. Simple, efficient UHV manipulator

    SciTech Connect

    Thiel, P.A.; Anderegg, J.W.

    1984-10-01

    A simple manipulator is described for use in ultrahigh vacuum. Unhindered rotation within vacuum is provided by a commercial differentially pumped adapter to which the entire XYZ stage is attached. The combination of movements provided by the XYZ stage, the rotating vacuum flange, and a gimbal permits alignment of the sample with any of the peripheral view ports. The resistively heated sample support, mounted through a cold finger, permits rapid variation of sample temperature from several hundred degrees Kelvin to near cryogenic. It is anticipated that this design could be easily used with many existing types of commercial vacuum systems, with the consequent advantage of increased ease and simplicity of both mechanical motion and cryogenic cooling.

  7. A simple radon well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahti, Katariina; Graeffe, Gunnar

    The development of a simple radon well, as effective but less expensive and technically easier to put into practice than is usual, was addressed. The wall was accomplished by a drill well technique. A long plastic tube, partly perforated, is put into the ground. To the top end of the tube an exhaust fan is connected to suck the air from the soil to make an underpressure. By this method radon is prevented from entering dwellings. Measurements were carried out in a one family house in four-day periods by a continuously monitoring radon detector. The radon concentration was usually 3000 to 4000 Bq/cu m without the use of the well. When the fan was turned on it reduced the radon concentration below 200 Bq/cu m.

  8. A Simple Harmonic Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Peter W.; Horn, Bart; Kachru, Shamit; Rajendran, Surjeet; Torroba, Gonzalo; /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC

    2011-12-14

    We explore simple but novel bouncing solutions of general relativity that avoid singularities. These solutions require curvature k = +1, and are supported by a negative cosmological term and matter with -1 < w < -1 = 3. In the case of moderate bounces (where the ratio of the maximal scale factor a{sub +} to the minimal scale factor a{sub -} is {Omicron}(1)), the solutions are shown to be classically stable and cycle through an infinite set of bounces. For more extreme cases with large a{sub +} = a{sub -}, the solutions can still oscillate many times before classical instabilities take them out of the regime of validity of our approximations. In this regime, quantum particle production also leads eventually to a departure from the realm of validity of semiclassical general relativity, likely yielding a singular crunch. We briefly discuss possible applications of these models to realistic cosmology.

  9. Complete scanpaths analysis toolbox.

    PubMed

    Augustyniak, Piotr; Mikrut, Zbigniew

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a complete open software environment for control, data processing and assessment of visual experiments. Visual experiments are widely used in research on human perception physiology and the results are applicable to various visual information-based man-machine interfacing, human-emulated automatic visual systems or scanpath-based learning of perceptual habits. The toolbox is designed for Matlab platform and supports infra-red reflection-based eyetracker in calibration and scanpath analysis modes. Toolbox procedures are organized in three layers: the lower one, communicating with the eyetracker output file, the middle detecting scanpath events on a physiological background and the one upper consisting of experiment schedule scripts, statistics and summaries. Several examples of visual experiments carried out with use of the presented toolbox complete the paper. PMID:17945877

  10. Image Zoom Completion.

    PubMed

    Hidane, Moncef; El Gheche, Mireille; Aujol, Jean-Francois; Berthoumieu, Yannick; Deledalle, Charles-Alban

    2016-08-01

    We consider the problem of recovering a high-resolution image from a pair consisting of a complete low-resolution image and a high-resolution but incomplete one. We refer to this task as the image zoom completion problem. After discussing possible contexts in which this setting may arise, we introduce a nonlocal regularization strategy, giving full details concerning the numerical optimization of the corresponding energy and discussing its benefits and shortcomings. We also derive two total variation-based algorithms and evaluate the performance of the proposed methods on a set of natural and textured images. We compare the results and get with those obtained with two recent state-of-the-art single-image super-resolution algorithms. PMID:27249829

  11. Feynman's simple quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Edwin F.

    1997-03-01

    This sample class presents an alternative to the conventional introduction to quantum mechanics and describes its current use in a credit course. This alternative introduction rests on theory presented in professional and popular writings by Richard Feynman. Feynman showed that Nature gives a simple command to the electron: "Explore all paths." All of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, among other fundamental results, comes from this command. With a desktop computer the student points and clicks to tell a modeled electron which paths to follow. The computer then shows the results, which embody the elemental strangeness and paradoxical behaviors of the world of the very small. Feynman's approach requires few equations and provides a largely non-mathematical introduction to the wave function of conventional quantum mechanics. Draft software and materials already used for two semesters in an e-mail computer conference credit university course show that Feynman's approach works well with a variety of students. The sample class explores computer and written material and describes the next steps in its development.

  12. A simple wave driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kağan Temiz, Burak; Yavuz, Ahmet

    2015-08-01

    This study was done to develop a simple and inexpensive wave driver that can be used in experiments on string waves. The wave driver was made using a battery-operated toy car, and the apparatus can be used to produce string waves at a fixed frequency. The working principle of the apparatus is as follows: shortly after the car is turned on, the wheel starts to turn at a constant angular speed. A rod that is fixed on the wheel turns at the same constant angular speed, too. A tight string that the wave will be created on is placed at a distance where the rod can touch the string. During each rotation of the wheel, the rod vibrates the string up and down. The vibration frequency of this rod equals the wheel’s rotation frequency, and this frequency value can be measured easily with a small magnet and a bicycle speedometer. In this way, the frequency of the waves formed in the rope can also be measured.

  13. Endoscopic simple prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Borkowski, Tomasz; Chłosta, Piotr; Dobruch, Jakub; Fiutowski, Marek; Jaskulski, Jarosław; Słojewski, Marcin; Szydełko, Tomasz; Szymański, Michał; Demkow, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Many options exist for the surgical treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), including transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), laser surgery, and open adenomectomy. Recently, endoscopic techniques have been used in the treatment of BPH. Material and methods We reviewed clinical studies in PubMed describing minimally invasive endoscopic procedures for the treatment of BPH. Results Laparoscopic adenomectomy (LA) and robotic–assisted simple prostatectomy (RASP) were introduced in the early 2000s. These operative techniques have been standardized and reproducible, with some individual modifications. Studies analyzing the outcomes of LA and RASP have reported significant improvements in urinary flow and decreases in patient International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). These minimally invasive approaches have resulted in a lower rate of complications, shorter hospital stays, smaller scars, faster recoveries, and an earlier return to work. Conclusions Minimally invasive techniques such as LA and RASP for the treatment BPH are safe, efficacious, and allow faster recovery. These procedures have a short learning curve and offer new options for the surgeon treating BPH. PMID:25667758

  14. Telemedicine kept simple

    PubMed Central

    Vassallo, DJ

    2000-01-01

    Telemedicine (“medicine from a distance”) is about bringing specialist knowledge to a patient from afar, by the use of communication technology. This article is based on personal experience in helping set up a simple, versatile, cheap and effective store-and-forward telemedicine system for the British Defence Medical Services. This system uses readily available still digital cameras to record clinical, radiographic and microscopic images, which are then sent by electronic mail to an organised network of specialists for secondary or tertiary opinion. The system is in use in various countries throughout the world, and has also proven to have civilian and humanitarian uses. The system is now being emulated in civilian practice in the United Kingdom, the United States, and in previously isolated hospitals in the Third World. I also describe the active role played by a telemedicine charity and by medical students on elective in the Third World in setting up telemedicine links using this system. Readers are invited to co-operate in the setting up of a global outreach telemedicine programme, linking elective students, isolated Third World hospitals, and University Teaching Hospitals. PMID:22368578

  15. [Clustering of simple obesity].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, K; Matsuda, H; Kurita, M; Umetada, Y

    1988-05-01

    An attempt was made to classify persons with simple obesity from the viewpoint of health education. Subjects of the study were 1,278 male workers in a financing company who underwent health examination. At the time of health examinations, questionnaire survey concerning their life styles was carried out on all the subjects. The obese group consisted of 127 subjects whose obesity indices were over 15% and the control group consisted of 342 subjects whose obesity indices ranged from -5 to 5%. Subjects in the obese group were classified into four clusters based on cluster analysis using five life-style parameters; that is, frequency of taking breakfast, frequency of taking staple food, drinking habits, smoking habits, and frequency of exercise. The first cluster (N = 10) included inactive persons, the second cluster (N = 46) non smokers, the third cluster (N = 39) smokers and heavy drinkers, and the fourth cluster (N = 32) smokers and non-drinkers. Comparison of the four clusters of obese persons with the control group revealed the following findings: 1) All the four clusters had significantly high frequencies of abnormal values of triglyceride (TG) and fasting blood sugar (FBS). 2) The first cluster had significantly high frequencies of abnormal values of glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT). 3) The second cluster had significantly high frequencies of abnormal values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, TG, FBS, uric acid, GOT, GPT and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3172544

  16. Insert tree completion system

    SciTech Connect

    Brands, K.W.; Ball, I.G.; Cegielski, E.J.; Gresham, J.S.; Saunders, D.N.

    1982-09-01

    This paper outlines the overall project for development and installation of a low-profile, caisson-installed subsea Christmas tree. After various design studies and laboratory and field tests of key components, a system for installation inside a 30-in. conductor was ordered in July 1978 from Cameron Iron Works Inc. The system is designed to have all critical-pressure-containing components below the mudline and, with the reduced profile (height) above seabed, provides for improved safety of satellite underwater wells from damage by anchors, trawl boards, and even icebergs. In addition to the innovative nature of the tree design, the completion includes improved 3 1/2-in. through flowline (TFL) pumpdown completion equipment with deep set safety valves and a dual detachable packer head for simplified workover capability. The all-hydraulic control system incorporates a new design of sequencing valve for both Christmas tree control and remote flowline connection. A semisubmersible drilling rig was used to initiate the first end flowline connection at the wellhead for subsequent tie-in to the prelaid, surface-towed, all-welded subsea pipeline bundle.

  17. Development of Three-Dimensional Completion of Complex Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soska, Kasey C.; Johnson, Scott P.

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) object completion, the ability to perceive the backs of objects seen from a single viewpoint, emerges at around 6 months of age. Yet, only relatively simple 3D objects have been used in assessing its development. This study examined infants' 3D object completion when presented with more complex stimuli. Infants…

  18. Completely bootstrapped tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Weening, R.H. ); Boozer, A.H. )

    1992-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the evolution of large-scale magnetic fields have been developed using a mean-field Ohm's law. The Ohm's law is coupled to a {Delta}{prime} stabilty analysis and a magnetic island growth equation in order to simulate the behavior of tokamak plasmas that are subject to tearing modes. In one set of calculations, the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD)-stable regime of the tokamak is examined via the construction of an {ital l}{sub {ital i}} -{ital q}{sub {ital a}} diagram. The results confirm previous calculations that show that tearing modes introduce a stability boundary into the {ital l}{sub {ital i}} -{ital q}{sub {ital a}} space. In another series of simulations, the interaction between tearing modes and the bootstrap current is investigated. The results indicate that a completely bootstrapped tokamak may be possible, even in the absence of any externally applied loop voltage or current drive.

  19. A general framework for complete positivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominy, Jason M.; Shabani, Alireza; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    Complete positivity of quantum dynamics is often viewed as a litmus test for physicality; yet, it is well known that correlated initial states need not give rise to completely positive evolutions. This observation spurred numerous investigations over the past two decades attempting to identify necessary and sufficient conditions for complete positivity. Here, we describe a complete and consistent mathematical framework for the discussion and analysis of complete positivity for correlated initial states of open quantum systems. This formalism is built upon a few simple axioms and is sufficiently general to contain all prior methodologies going back to Pechakas (Phys Rev Lett 73:1060-1062, 1994). The key observation is that initial system-bath states with the same reduced state on the system must evolve under all admissible unitary operators to system-bath states with the same reduced state on the system, in order to ensure that the induced dynamical maps on the system are well defined. Once this consistency condition is imposed, related concepts such as the assignment map and the dynamical maps are uniquely defined. In general, the dynamical maps may not be applied to arbitrary system states, but only to those in an appropriately defined physical domain. We show that the constrained nature of the problem gives rise to not one but three inequivalent types of complete positivity. Using this framework, we elucidate the limitations of recent attempts to provide conditions for complete positivity using quantum discord and the quantum data processing inequality. In particular, we correct the claim made by two of us (Shabani and Lidar in Phys Rev Lett 102:100402-100404, 2009) that vanishing discord is necessary for complete positivity, and explain that it is valid only for a particular class of initial states. The problem remains open, and may require fresh perspectives and new mathematical tools. The formalism presented herein may be one step in that direction.

  20. Study Guide: Seven Simple Secrets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satterfield, Nancy; Breaux, Annette; Whitaker, Todd

    2007-01-01

    This study guide has been developed to accompany the "Seven Simple Secrets" book written by Dr. Todd Whitaker and Annette Breaux. "Seven Simple Secrets" focuses on those attributes that have been found to help teachers be their absolute best in their daily challenges of teaching and improving student learning. The study guide is divided into the…

  1. Simple ocean carbon cycle models

    SciTech Connect

    Caldeira, K.; Hoffert, M.I.; Siegenthaler, U.

    1994-02-01

    Simple ocean carbon cycle models can be used to calculate the rate at which the oceans are likely to absorb CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere. For problems involving steady-state ocean circulation, well calibrated ocean models produce results that are very similar to results obtained using general circulation models. Hence, simple ocean carbon cycle models may be appropriate for use in studies in which the time or expense of running large scale general circulation models would be prohibitive. Simple ocean models have the advantage of being based on a small number of explicit assumptions. The simplicity of these ocean models facilitates the understanding of model results.

  2. Figuring the Acceleration of the Simple Pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieberherr, Martin

    2011-12-01

    The centripetal acceleration has been known since Huygens' (1659) and Newton's (1684) time.1,2 The physics to calculate the acceleration of a simple pendulum has been around for more than 300 years, and a fairly complete treatise has been given by C. Schwarz in this journal.3 But sentences like "the acceleration is always directed towards the equilibrium position" beside the picture of a swing on a circular arc can still be found in textbooks, as e.g. in Ref. 4. Vectors have been invented by Grassmann (1844)5 and are conveniently used to describe the acceleration in curved orbits, but acceleration is more often treated as a scalar with or without sign, as the words acceleration/deceleration suggest. The component tangential to the orbit is enough to deduce the period of the simple pendulum, but it is not enough to discuss the forces on the pendulum, as has been pointed out by Santos-Benito and A. Gras-Marti.6 A suitable way to address this problem is a nice figure with a catch for classroom discussions or homework. When I plotted the acceleration vectors of the simple pendulum in their proper positions, pictures as in Fig. 1 appeared on the screen. The endpoints of the acceleration vectors, if properly scaled, seemed to lie on a curve with a familiar shape: a cardioid. Is this true or just an illusion?

  3. Science Notebook: A Simple Seismometer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mims, Forrest M., III

    1991-01-01

    Describes how to construct a simple pendulum seismometer. Includes schematic drawing of the electronic circuitry, a working drawing of the apparatus, and typical seismometer outputs caused by nearby trains and various earthquake-generated waves. (JJK)

  4. Student Conceptions of Simple Circuits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredette, Norman; Lochhead, John

    1980-01-01

    Investigates some conceptual difficulties which college students have with regard to simple direct current circuits. The clinical interview technique was used with 57 students in a freshman level engineering course. (HM)

  5. Simple device measures solar radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, W. R.

    1977-01-01

    Simple inexpensive thermometer, insolated from surroundings by transparent glass or plastic encasement, measures intensities of solar radiation, or radiation from other sources such as furnaces or ovens. Unit can be further modified to accomplish readings from remote locations.

  6. Simple formulation of magnetoplasmadynamic acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Sasoh, A. )

    1994-03-01

    A simple formulation of magnetoplasmadynamic acceleration has been made based on energy conservation relations and a generalized Ohm's law. An exhaust velocity is expressed using three characteristic parameters: (1) a dimensionless characteristic velocity [ital [tilde U

  7. Simple Interval Timers for Microcomputers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, M.; Burgess, G.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses simple interval timers for microcomputers, including (1) the Jiffy clock; (2) CPU count timers; (3) screen count timers; (4) light pen timers; and (5) chip timers. Also examines some of the general characteristics of all types of timers. (JN)

  8. Is the Simple View of Reading Too Simple?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoien-Tengesdal, Ingjerd

    2010-01-01

    According to the Simple View of Reading (SVR), reading comprehension is the product of word decoding ability and linguistic comprehension (R = D x C). However, there is also evidence showing that an additive model (R = D + C) explains just as much or even more of the variance in reading comprehension than the product model. To further evaluate…

  9. Futur "simple" et futur "proche" ("Simple" Future and "Immediate" Future).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franckel, Jean-Jacques

    1984-01-01

    An analysis of the use of simple and immediate future tenses in French shows that the expression of time is controlled more by context and modals than by specifically temporal cues. The role of negation in this situation is discussed. (MSE)

  10. How Simple is the Simple View of Reading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Stefan; Samuelsson, Christina; Johansson, Ellinor; Wallmann, Julia

    2013-01-01

    According to the Simple View of Reading, reading ability can be divided into decoding and language comprehension. In the present study, decoding and comprehension's contribution to reading ability was studied both in children with reading difficulties and in children with typical reading ability. Decoding and comprehension was further divided…

  11. Company profile: Complete Genomics Inc.

    PubMed

    Reid, Clifford

    2011-02-01

    Complete Genomics Inc. is a life sciences company that focuses on complete human genome sequencing. It is taking a completely different approach to DNA sequencing than other companies in the industry. Rather than building a general-purpose platform for sequencing all organisms and all applications, it has focused on a single application - complete human genome sequencing. The company's Complete Genomics Analysis Platform (CGA™ Platform) comprises an integrated package of biochemistry, instrumentation and software that sequences human genomes at the highest quality, lowest cost and largest scale available. Complete Genomics offers a turnkey service that enables customers to outsource their human genome sequencing to the company's genome sequencing center in Mountain View, CA, USA. Customers send in their DNA samples, the company does all the library preparation, DNA sequencing, assembly and variant analysis, and customers receive research-ready data that they can use for biological discovery. PMID:21345140

  12. Complete to Compete: Common College Completion Metrics. Technical Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyna, Ryan; Reindl, Travis; Witham, Keith; Stanley, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Improved college completion rates are critical to the future of the United States, and states must have better data to understand the nature of the challenges they confront or target areas for policy change. The 2010-2011 National Governors Association (NGA) Chair's initiative, "Complete to Compete", recommends that all states collect data from…

  13. Score Big! Pinball Project Teaches Simple Machine Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Matthew K.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a design brief for a pinball game. The design brief helps students get a better grasp on the operation and uses of simple machines. It also gives them an opportunity to develop their problem-solving skills and use design skills to complete an interesting, fun product. (Contains 2 tables and 3 photos.)

  14. A Simple Proof of an Interesting Fibonacci Generalization. Classroom Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falcon, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    It is reasonably well known that the ratios of consecutive terms of a Fibonacci series converge to the golden ratio. This note presents a simple, complete proof of an interesting generalization of this result to a whole family of 'precious metal ratios'.

  15. Harmonic and Anharmonic Behaviour of a Simple Oscillator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shea, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    We consider a simple oscillator that exhibits harmonic and anharmonic regimes and analyse its behaviour over the complete range of possible amplitudes. The oscillator consists of a mass "m" fixed at the midpoint of a horizontal rope. For zero initial rope tension and small amplitude the period of oscillation, tau, varies as tau is approximately…

  16. Practical Session: Simple Linear Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausel, M.; Grégoire, G.

    2014-12-01

    Two exercises are proposed to illustrate the simple linear regression. The first one is based on the famous Galton's data set on heredity. We use the lm R command and get coefficients estimates, standard error of the error, R2, residuals …In the second example, devoted to data related to the vapor tension of mercury, we fit a simple linear regression, predict values, and anticipate on multiple linear regression. This pratical session is an excerpt from practical exercises proposed by A. Dalalyan at EPNC (see Exercises 1 and 2 of http://certis.enpc.fr/~dalalyan/Download/TP_ENPC_4.pdf).

  17. A simple hindlimb suspension apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, E.; Schultz, E.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the assembly of a simple, inexpensive apparatus for application of the hindlimb suspension model to studies of the effects of unloading on mammalian physiology. Construction of a cage and suspension assembly is described using materials that can be obtained from most hardware stores. The design is kept simple for easy assembly and disassembly to facilitate cleaning and storage. The suspension assembly allows the animals full access to all portions of the floor area and provides an effective environment to study the effects of unloading.

  18. Generalized Gradient Approximation Made Simple

    SciTech Connect

    Perdew, J.P.; Burke, K.; Ernzerhof, M.

    1996-10-01

    Generalized gradient approximations (GGA{close_quote}s) for the exchange-correlation energy improve upon the local spin density (LSD) description of atoms, molecules, and solids. We present a simple derivation of a simple GGA, in which all parameters (other than those in LSD) are fundamental constants. Only general features of the detailed construction underlying the Perdew-Wang 1991 (PW91) GGA are invoked. Improvements over PW91 include an accurate description of the linear response of the uniform electron gas, correct behavior under uniform scaling, and a smoother potential. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  19. Simple Machines in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Robert; Laroder, Aris; Tippins, Deborah; Emaz, Meliza; Fox, Ryan

    2008-01-01

    The community can be a powerful context and mini-laboratory for cultivating students' common understandings of science and mathematics. On the island of Panay in the Philippines, the community was the starting place for a group of fifth- and sixth-grade students to explore simple machines in their daily lives. What students learned in the process…

  20. Simple modeling of hydrostatic bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, Charlie

    2014-07-01

    Hydrostatic bearings are a key component for many large telescopes due to their high load bearing capacity, stiffness and low friction. A simple technique is presented to model these bearings to understand the effects of geometry, oil viscosity, flow control, temperature, etc. on the bearings behavior.

  1. Solving Simple Kinetics without Integrals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Pen~a, Lisandro Herna´ndez

    2016-01-01

    The solution of simple kinetic equations is analyzed without referencing any topic from differential equations or integral calculus. Guided by the physical meaning of the rate equation, a systematic procedure is used to generate an approximate solution that converges uniformly to the exact solution in the case of zero, first, and second order…

  2. Simple Astronomical Theory of Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benumof, Reuben

    1979-01-01

    The author derives, applying perturbation theory, from a simple astronomical model the approximate periods of secular variation of some of the parameters of the Earth's orbit and relates these periods to the past climate of the Earth, indicating the difficulties in predicting the climate of the future. (GA)

  3. Simple Echoes and Subtle Reverberations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeports, David

    2010-01-01

    Reverberation within an enclosed space can be viewed as a superposition of a large number of simple echoes. The echoes that make up the sound of reverberation fall neatly into two categories, relatively loud and sparse early reflections, and relatively soft and dense late reflections. Ways in which readily available music production software can…

  4. Simple manipulator for rotating spheres.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, B W; Hendricks, C D; Ward, C M; Willenborg, D L

    1978-06-01

    We describe a simple device for rapidly rotating a small sphere to any orientation for inspection of the surface. The ball is held between two small, flat surfaces and rolls as the surfaces are moved differentially parallel to one another. PMID:18699214

  5. Simple Games . . . or Are They?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arn, Susan Kyle

    2006-01-01

    Students today begin using computers and playing video games as early as two years old. The technology behind these games is more complicated than most people can imagine. In this article, the author presents some simple number games which seem easy at the beginning, but as the games are repeated, mathematical content becomes more of the focus…

  6. Simple Stringy Dynamical SUSY Breaking

    SciTech Connect

    Aharony, Ofer; Kachru, Shamit; Silverstein, Eva; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2007-08-08

    We present simple string models which dynamically break supersymmetry without non-Abelian gauge dynamics. The Fayet model, the Polonyi model, and the O'Raifeartaigh model each arise from D-branes at a specific type of singularity. D-brane instanton effects generate the requisite exponentially small scale of supersymmetry breaking.

  7. Simple Techniques for Microclimate Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unwin, D. M.

    1978-01-01

    Describes simple ways of measuring the very local climate near the ground, and explains what these measurements mean. Equipment included a solar radiometer, a dew point instrument, and a thermocouple psychrometer. Examples are given of field measurements taken with some of the equipment and the results and their interpretation are discussed.…

  8. Simple Machines Curriculum. [Teachers' Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anoka-Hennepin Independent School District No. 11, Coon Rapids, MN.

    This manual provides suggestions for investigating simple machines and the teaching of certain basic concepts which pertain to them. Many of the lessons are designed to be used with the commercially available LEGO kits, in an effort to teach concepts in a way in which students must translate pictures shown in two dimension into three-dimensional…

  9. A Simple Relativistic Bohr Atom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzis, Andreas F.

    2008-01-01

    A simple concise relativistic modification of the standard Bohr model for hydrogen-like atoms with circular orbits is presented. As the derivation requires basic knowledge of classical and relativistic mechanics, it can be taught in standard courses in modern physics and introductory quantum mechanics. In addition, it can be shown in a class that…

  10. Correcting Slightly Less Simple Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aivar, M. P.; Brenner, E.; Smeets, J. B. J.

    2005-01-01

    Many studies have analysed how goal directed movements are corrected in response to changes in the properties of the target. However, only simple movements to single targets have been used in those studies, so little is known about movement corrections under more complex situations. Evidence from studies that ask for movements to several targets…

  11. A Simple Plant Growth Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxlade, E.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the analysis of dandelion peduncle growth based on peduncle length, epidermal cell dimensions, and fresh/dry mass. Methods are simple and require no special apparatus or materials. Suggests that limited practical work in this area may contribute to students' lack of knowledge on plant growth. (Author/DH)

  12. Grief: Difficult Times, Simple Steps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waszak, Emily Lane

    This guide presents techniques to assist others in coping with the loss of a loved one. Using the language of 9 layperson, the book contains more than 100 tips for caregivers or loved ones. A simple step is presented on each page, followed by reasons and instructions for each step. Chapters include: "What to Say"; "Helpful Things to Do"; "Dealing…

  13. A Simple Audio Conductivity Device.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berenato, Gregory; Maynard, David F.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a simple audio conductivity device built to address the problem of the lack of sensitivity needed to measure small differences in conductivity in crude conductivity devices. Uses a 9-V battery as a power supply and allows the relative resistance differences between substances to be detected by the frequency of its audible tones. Presents…

  14. Latino College Completion: Rhode Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  15. Latino College Completion: United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  16. Latino College Completion: North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  17. Latino College Completion: New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  18. Latino College Completion: South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  19. Latino College Completion: New Hampshire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  20. Latino College Completion: South Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  1. Latino College Completion: North Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  2. Latino College Completion: New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  3. Latino College Completion: West Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  4. Record completeness for individual volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bebbington, Mark

    2016-04-01

    There has been considerable recent attention paid to completeness in global and regional (e.g. Japan) eruption data bases. This has taken the form of estimating dates at which the record is complete, either at a global or regional level, at a given VEI or magnitude. This has obvious utility when estimating hazard from very large eruptions, which may have effects 1000s of km from source. However, at a more local level, the question of interest is not so much the global, or the regional, completeness level, but the completeness of the record for an individual volcano. For example, forecast hazard is critically dependent on the size of the eruption, but it is impossible even to statistically describe the size distribution without knowing the completeness of the record. Current methods for eruption catalogue completeness using extreme value statistics rely on large samples for their validity, so a new approach is required for individual volcanoes, which may have only a handful of known eruptions. We will consider one possible such approach based using a Bayesian sequential algorithm assuming that the underlying process is Poissonian and that completeness at a lower VEI implies completeness at all higher VEIs. Results for individual volcanoes are compared with regional figures and, time-permitting, implications for a statistical model of VEI discussed.

  5. Strictly homogeneous laterally complete modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilin, V. I.; Karimov, J. A.

    2016-03-01

    Let A be a laterally complete commutative regular algebra and X be a laterally complete A-module. In this paper we introduce a notion of homogeneous and strictly homogeneous A-modules. It is proved that any homogeneous A-module is strictly homogeneous A-module, if the Boolean algebra of all idempotents in A is multi-σ-finite.

  6. High School Completion Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    While Alberta enjoys proven high, world-class results in student achievement, raising high school completion rates is one of the top priorities in improving the provincial education system. The 2011-12 targeted high school completion rate is 82% five years after entering Grade 10--a 2.5% increase from the current average rate of 79.5%. The purpose…

  7. Latino College Completion: New Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  8. Pure-state informationally complete and 'really' complete measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Finkelstein, J.

    2004-11-01

    I construct a positive-operator-valued measure (POVM) which has 2d rank-1 elements and which is informationally complete for generic pure states in d dimensions, thus confirming a conjecture made by Flammia, Silberfarb, and Caves (e-print quant-ph/0404137). I show that if a rank-1 POVM is required to be informationally complete for all pure states in d dimensions, it must have at least 3d-2 elements. I also show that, in a POVM which is informationally complete for all pure states in d dimensions, for any vector there must be at least 2d-1 POVM elements which do not annihilate that vector.

  9. Simple Resonance Hierarchy for Surmounting Quantum Uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Amoroso, Richard L.

    2010-12-22

    For a hundred years violation or surmounting the Quantum Uncertainty Principle has remained a Holy Grail of both theoretical and empirical physics. Utilizing an operationally completed form of Quantum Theory cast in a string theoretic Higher Dimensional (HD) form of Dirac covariant polarized vacuum with a complex Einstein energy dependent spacetime metric, M{sub 4{+-}}C{sub 4} with sufficient degrees of freedom to be causally free of the local quantum state, we present a simple empirical model for ontologically surmounting the phenomenology of uncertainty through a Sagnac Effect RF pulsed Laser Oscillated Vacuum Energy Resonance hierarchy cast within an extended form of a Wheeler-Feynman-Cramer Transactional Calabi-Yau mirror symmetric spacetime bachcloth.

  10. Electrokinetic Remediation: I. Modeling of simple systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.J.; Rodriguez-Maroto, J.M.; Gomez-Lahoz, C.

    1995-09-01

    A one-dimensional model is developed for simulating the electrokinetic treatment of saturated porous media contaminated with an ionic salt. Simulations of simple, unenhanced electrokinetic treatment for the removal of a nonamphoteric salt such as cadmium sulfate exhibit a severe drop-off in electric current and in remediation rate after about 50-60% of the cation has been removed. Simulation of electrokinetic treatment in which the OH{sup -} generated in the cathode compartment is partially neutralized by the addition of acid show rapid and complete removal of the cation. Partial neutralization of H{sup +} in the anode compartment by addition of base results in immobilization of the toxic metal as the solid hydroxide, although this should be a useful technique for the removal of arsenate and selenate.

  11. A simple and reproducible capacitive electrode.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Enrique; Guerrero, Federico; García, Pablo; Haberman, Marcelo

    2016-03-01

    Capacitive Electrodes (CE) allow the acquisition of biopotentials through a dielectric layer, without the use of electrolytes, just by placing them on skin or clothing, but demands front-ends with ultra-high input impedances. This must be achieved while providing a path for bias currents, calling for ultra-high value resistors and special components and construction techniques. A simple CE that uses bootstrap techniques to avoid ultra-high value components and special materials is proposed. When electrodes are placed on the skin; that is, with coupling capacitances CS of around 100 pF, they present a noise level of 3.3 µVRMS in a 0.5-100 Hz bandwidth, which is appropriate for electrocardiography (ECG) measurements. Construction details of the CE and the complete circuit, including a fast recovery feature, are presented. PMID:26792172

  12. A Simple shower and matching algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Giele, Walter T.; Kosower, David A.; Skands, Peter Z.; /Fermilab

    2007-07-01

    We present a simple formalism for parton-shower Markov chains. As a first step towards more complete 'uncertainty bands', we incorporate a comprehensive exploration of the ambiguities inherent in such calculations. To reduce this uncertainty, we then introduce a matching formalism which allows a generated event sample to simultaneously reproduce any infrared safe distribution calculated at leading or next-to-leading order in perturbation theory, up to sub-leading corrections. To enable a more universal definition of perturbative calculations, we also propose a more general definition of the hadronization cutoff. Finally, we present an implementation of some of these ideas for final-state gluon showers, in a code dubbed VINCIA.

  13. Improving Course Completions in Distance Education: An Institutional Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thistoll, Tony; Yates, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This article reports two studies undertaken at The Open Polytechnic of New Zealand, a vocational distance education (DE) provider, where course completion rates have risen to match those of face-to-face technical institutions. A simple model of student engagement is presented, which reflects the triality between the student, institution, and…

  14. Simple Indolizidine and Quinolizidine Alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Michael, Joseph P

    2016-01-01

    This review of simple indolizidine and quinolizidine alkaloids (i.e., those in which the parent bicyclic systems are in general not embedded in polycyclic arrays) is an update of the previous coverage in Volume 55 of this series (2001). The present survey covers the literature from mid-1999 to the end of 2013; and in addition to aspects of the isolation, characterization, and biological activity of the alkaloids, much emphasis is placed on their total synthesis. A brief introduction to the topic is followed by an overview of relevant alkaloids from fungal and microbial sources, among them slaframine, cyclizidine, Steptomyces metabolites, and the pantocins. The important iminosugar alkaloids lentiginosine, steviamine, swainsonine, castanospermine, and related hydroxyindolizidines are dealt with in the subsequent section. The fourth and fifth sections cover metabolites from terrestrial plants. Pertinent plant alkaloids bearing alkyl, functionalized alkyl or alkenyl substituents include dendroprimine, anibamine, simple alkaloids belonging to the genera Prosopis, Elaeocarpus, Lycopodium, and Poranthera, and bicyclic alkaloids of the lupin family. Plant alkaloids bearing aryl or heteroaryl substituents include ipalbidine and analogs, secophenanthroindolizidine and secophenanthroquinolizidine alkaloids (among them septicine, julandine, and analogs), ficuseptine, lasubines, and other simple quinolizidines of the Lythraceae, the simple furyl-substituted Nuphar alkaloids, and a mixed quinolizidine-quinazoline alkaloid. The penultimate section of the review deals with the sizable group of simple indolizidine and quinolizidine alkaloids isolated from, or detected in, ants, mites, and terrestrial amphibians, and includes an overview of the "dietary hypothesis" for the origin of the amphibian metabolites. The final section surveys relevant alkaloids from marine sources, and includes clathryimines and analogs, stellettamides, the clavepictines and pictamine, and bis

  15. [Biological review of completed suicide].

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Ikuo; Sora, Ichiro; Hishimoto, Akitoyo

    2016-06-01

    Family, twin and adoption studies have revealed genetic factors involved in suicide, while the accumulation of stress and mental illnesses are major contributing factors of suicide. Since higher lethality of suicidal behavior is considered to increase familial liability to suicidal behavior, we believe biological research of completed suicide is most important for a better understanding of the pathophysiology in suicide. Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis has gained a special interest in the neurobiology of suicide, mostly because of the findings using a dexamethasone suppression test (DST), in which DST non-suppressors show a nearly 10-fold higher risk of completed suicide than DST suppressors in a depressed cohort. Other data mainly from postmortem brain studies indicate abnormalities of the noradrenergic-locus coeruleus system, serotonergic system, endogenous opioid system, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, inflammatory cytokines and omega-3 fatty acid in completed suicide. However, genetic research of complete suicide is behind other mental problems because it is extremely difficult to obtain tissue samples of completed suicide. Under the difficult situation, we now retain over 800 blood samples of suicide completers thanks to bereaved families' cooperation. We are actively working on the research of suicide, for instance, by performing a GWAS using 500 samples of suicide completers. PMID:27506081

  16. Genotype imputation via matrix completion.

    PubMed

    Chi, Eric C; Zhou, Hua; Chen, Gary K; Del Vecchyo, Diego Ortega; Lange, Kenneth

    2013-03-01

    Most current genotype imputation methods are model-based and computationally intensive, taking days to impute one chromosome pair on 1000 people. We describe an efficient genotype imputation method based on matrix completion. Our matrix completion method is implemented in MATLAB and tested on real data from HapMap 3, simulated pedigree data, and simulated low-coverage sequencing data derived from the 1000 Genomes Project. Compared with leading imputation programs, the matrix completion algorithm embodied in our program MENDEL-IMPUTE achieves comparable imputation accuracy while reducing run times significantly. Implementation in a lower-level language such as Fortran or C is apt to further improve computational efficiency. PMID:23233546

  17. Completeness for sparse potential scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Zhongwei

    2014-01-15

    The present paper is devoted to the scattering theory of a class of continuum Schrödinger operators with deterministic sparse potentials. We first establish the limiting absorption principle for both modified free resolvents and modified perturbed resolvents. This actually is a weak form of the classical limiting absorption principle. We then prove the existence and completeness of local wave operators, which, in particular, imply the existence of wave operators. Under additional assumptions on the sparse potential, we prove the completeness of wave operators. In the context of continuum Schrödinger operators with sparse potentials, this paper gives the first proof of the completeness of wave operators.

  18. Simple model of hydrophobic hydration.

    PubMed

    Lukšič, Miha; Urbic, Tomaz; Hribar-Lee, Barbara; Dill, Ken A

    2012-05-31

    Water is an unusual liquid in its solvation properties. Here, we model the process of transferring a nonpolar solute into water. Our goal was to capture the physical balance between water's hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions in a model that is simple enough to be nearly analytical and not heavily computational. We develop a 2-dimensional Mercedes-Benz-like model of water with which we compute the free energy, enthalpy, entropy, and the heat capacity of transfer as a function of temperature, pressure, and solute size. As validation, we find that this model gives the same trends as Monte Carlo simulations of the underlying 2D model and gives qualitative agreement with experiments. The advantages of this model are that it gives simple insights and that computational time is negligible. It may provide a useful starting point for developing more efficient and more realistic 3D models of aqueous solvation. PMID:22564051

  19. Simple Fixed Functional Space Maintainer

    PubMed Central

    Sarawgi, Aditi; Marwah, Nikhil; Gumber, Parvind; Dutta, Samir

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT% Premature loss of a primary tooth is one of the most common etiology for malocclusion. Space maintainers are employed to prevent this complication. In anterior region, esthetics is an important concern along with function and space management. Fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) retained space maintainer solves all these purposes ef ficiently and ef fectively. In addition, the technique is simple and the appliance is very comfortable inside the oral cavity. Here is a case of premature loss of anterior primary tooth which was replaced by FRC retained esthetic functional space maintainer. The appliance was found to be functioning satisfactorily inside the oral cavity till the last visit (1 Year). How to cite this article: Goenka P, Sarawgi A, Marwah N, Gumber P, Dutta S. Simple Fixed Functional Space Maintainer. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):225-228. PMID:25709309

  20. Webcam classification using simple features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramoun, Thitiporn; Choe, Jeehyun; Li, He; Chen, Qingshuang; Amornraksa, Thumrongrat; Lu, Yung-Hsiang; Delp, Edward J.

    2015-03-01

    Thousands of sensors are connected to the Internet and many of these sensors are cameras. The "Internet of Things" will contain many "things" that are image sensors. This vast network of distributed cameras (i.e. web cams) will continue to exponentially grow. In this paper we examine simple methods to classify an image from a web cam as "indoor/outdoor" and having "people/no people" based on simple features. We use four types of image features to classify an image as indoor/outdoor: color, edge, line, and text. To classify an image as having people/no people we use HOG and texture features. The features are weighted based on their significance and combined. A support vector machine is used for classification. Our system with feature weighting and feature combination yields 95.5% accuracy.

  1. The Simple Science of Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennekes, Henk

    1997-05-01

    From the smallest gnat to the largest aircraft, all things that fly obey the same aerodynamic principles. The Simple Science of Flight offers a leisurely introduction to the mechanics of flight and, beyond that, to the scientific attitude that finds wonder in simple calculations, forging connections between, say, the energy efficiency of a peanut butter sandwich and that of the kerosene that fuels a jumbo jet. It is the product of a lifetime of watching and investigating the way flight happens. The hero of the book is the Boeing 747, which Tennekes sees as the current pinnacle of human ingenuity in mastering the science of flight. Also covered are paper airplanes, kites, gliders, and human-powered flying machines as well as birds and insects. Tennekes explains concepts like lift, drag, wing loading, and cruising speed through many fascinating comparisons, anecdotes, and examples.

  2. Four simple ocean carbon models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Berrien, III

    1992-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the key processes that determine oceanic CO2 uptake and sets this description within the context of four simple ocean carbon models. These models capture, in varying degrees, these key processes and establish a clear foundation for more realistic models that incorporate more directly the underlying physics and biology of the ocean rather than relying on simple parametric schemes. The purpose of this paper is more pedagogical than purely scientific. The problems encountered by current attempts to understand the global carbon cycle not only require our efforts but set a demand for a new generation of scientist, and it is hoped that this paper and the text in which it appears will help in this development.

  3. Simple echoes and subtle reverberations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeports, David

    2010-03-01

    Reverberation within an enclosed space can be viewed as a superposition of a large number of simple echoes. The echoes that make up the sound of reverberation fall neatly into two categories, relatively loud and sparse early reflections, and relatively soft and dense late reflections. Ways in which readily available music production software can be used for the study of reverberation are suggested. Additionally, methods of adding reverberation to recorded sound are discussed.

  4. Spontaneous chirality in simple systems

    PubMed

    Pickett; Gross; Okuyama

    2000-10-23

    Two simple examples of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking are presented. The first is close-packed cylindrically confined spheres. As the cylinder diameter is varied, one obtains a variety of chiral phases. The second example involves unconfined dipolar particles with an isotropic attraction, which also exhibits chiral ground states. We speculate that a dilute magnetorheological fluid film, with the addition of smaller particles to provide an attractive entropic interaction, will exhibit a chiral columnar ground state. PMID:11030973

  5. Correlation and simple linear regression.

    PubMed

    Eberly, Lynn E

    2007-01-01

    This chapter highlights important steps in using correlation and simple linear regression to address scientific questions about the association of two continuous variables with each other. These steps include estimation and inference, assessing model fit, the connection between regression and ANOVA, and study design. Examples in microbiology are used throughout. This chapter provides a framework that is helpful in understanding more complex statistical techniques, such as multiple linear regression, linear mixed effects models, logistic regression, and proportional hazards regression. PMID:18450049

  6. Tracking simple and complex sequences.

    PubMed

    Large, Edward W; Fink, Philip; Kelso, J A Scott

    2002-02-01

    We address issues of synchronization to rhythms of musical complexity. In two experiments, synchronization to simple and more complex rhythmic sequences was investigated. Experiment 1 examined responses to phase and tempo perturbations within simple, structurally isochronous sequences, presented at different base rates. Experiment 2 investigated responses to similar perturbations embedded within more complex, metrically structured sequences; participants were explicitly instructed to synchronize at different metrical levels (i.e., tap at different rates to the same rhythmic patterns) on different trials. We found evidence that (1) the intrinsic tapping frequency adapts in response to temporal perturbations in both simple (isochronous) and complex (metrically structured) rhythms, (2) people can synchronize with unpredictable, metrically structured rhythms at different metrical levels, with qualitatively different patterns of synchronization seen at higher versus lower levels of metrical structure, and (3) synchronization at each tapping level reflects information from other metrical levels. The latter finding provides evidence for a dynamic and flexible internal representation of the sequence's metrical structure. PMID:11963276

  7. The Simple Spectral Access protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolensky, Markus; Tody, Doug

    2004-09-01

    The goal of the Simple Spectral Access (SSA) specification is to define a uniform interface to spectral data including spectral energy distributions (SEDs), 1D spectra, and time series data. In contrast to 2D images, spectra are stored in a wide variety of formats and there is no widely used standard in astronomy for representing spectral data, hence part of the challenge of specifying SSA was defining a general spectrophotometric data model as well as definitions of standard serializations in a variety of data formats including XML and FITS. Access is provided to both atlas (pre-computed) data and to virtual data which is computed on demand. The term simple in Simple Spectrum Access refers to the design goal of simplicity in both implementing spectral data services and in retrieving spectroscopic data from distributed data collections. SSA is a product of the data access layer (DAL) working group of the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA). The requirements were derived from a survey among spectral data providers and data consumers and were further refined in a broad discussion in meetings and electronic forums as well as by prototyping efforts within the European Astrophysical Virtual Observatory (AVO) and the US National Virtual Observatory (NVO).

  8. JWST Primary Mirror Installation Complete

    NASA Video Gallery

    Completing the assembly of the primary mirror, which took place at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, is a significant milestone and the culmination of over a decade of desi...

  9. Is complete seizure control imperative?

    PubMed

    Andermann, Frederick

    2002-01-01

    Is complete control imperative? The answer depends on whether complete control is indeed possible, on the possibility of achieving modifications of lifestyle, and on the type of epilepsy, with particular reference to the presence of progressive dysfunction. This may be seen in patients with temporal lobe or other forms of focal epilepsy, in the epileptic encephalopathies such as West and Lennox Gastaut Syndromes and even in some patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Progressive memory changes and global cognitive problems are examples. Progressive language deterioration, secondary epileptogenesis and phenomena analogous to kindling are also important issues. How long treatment should be continued depends on many factors, not least the preference of the patient and of the family. Weighing the benefits of complete control versus the side effects and risks of medication or surgery is crucial. There are obvious benefits to complete control; it is imperative if these benefits are greater than the cost. PMID:12143366

  10. Complete Blood Count (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... Metabolic Panel (BMP) Blood Test: Hemoglobin Basic Blood Chemistry Tests Word! Complete Blood Count (CBC) Medical Tests ...

  11. Laparoscopic Pyloromyotomy: A Modified Simple Technique

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, Mohammed Omer; Omran, Yasser Al; Al-Hindi, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Background: A modified laparoscopic pyloromyotomy (LP) technique may provide an alternative to treating infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) by improving operative timing with reduction of postoperative complication rates, compared with a three-port trocar system. Methods: Thirty-three infants were treated with IHPS at a single-centre between January 2002 and December 2011. The local surgical incision to the pylorus was performed according to Ramstedt’s pyloromyotomy; but with a two-port trocar system (umbilical and right lower abdominal crease ports), following a controlled stab wound into the epigastric region and a 3mm incision to allow introduction of ophthalmic knife. With the aid of atraumatic forceps and camera guidance, the ophthalmic knife was used to carefully incise the seromuscular layer, which allows improved manual tactile sensation compared to ergonomic laparoscopic spreaders. A Benson pyloric spreader was then used to further separate the pyloric muscle layer to complete the procedure. Results: In all 33 infants treated, LP was safely performed with no evidence of duodenal or mucosal perforation with complete pyloromyotomy achieved in each case. The postoperative course was rather uneventful apart from an umbilical wound infection. Conclusion: This modified approach is simple, safe and allows improved operative timing, whilst increasing surgeon’s confidence by tactile sensation. PMID:26793595

  12. The Complete Reconfiguration of Dendritic Gold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paneru, Govind; Flanders, Bret

    2014-03-01

    Reconfigurability-by-design is an important strategy in modern materials science, as materials with this capability could potentially be used to confer hydrophobic, lipophobic, or anti-corrosive character to substrates in a regenerative manner. The present work extends the directed electrochemical nanowire assembly (DENA) methodology, which is a technique that employs alternating voltages to grow single crystalline metallic nanowires and nano-dendrites from simple salt solutions, to enable the complete dissolution of macroscopic arrays of metallic dendrites following their growth. Our main finding is that structural reconfiguration of dendritic gold is induced by changes in the MHz-level frequencies of voltages that are applied to the dendrites. Cyclic voltammetry and micro-Raman spectroscopy have been used to show that dendritic gold grows and dissolves by the same chemical mechanisms as bulk gold. Hence, the redox chemistry that occurs at the crystal-solution interface is no different than the established electrochemistry of gold. What differs in this process and allows for reconfiguration to occur is the diffusive behavior of the gold chloride molecules in the solution adjacent to the interface. We will present a simple model that captures the physics of this behavior.

  13. What Is a Simple Liquid?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingebrigtsen, Trond S.; Schrøder, Thomas B.; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to identify the real essence of simplicity of liquids in John Locke’s understanding of the term. Simple liquids are traditionally defined as many-body systems of classical particles interacting via radially symmetric pair potentials. We suggest that a simple liquid should be defined instead by the property of having strong correlations between virial and potential-energy equilibrium fluctuations in the NVT ensemble. There is considerable overlap between the two definitions, but also some notable differences. For instance, in the new definition simplicity is not a direct property of the intermolecular potential because a liquid is usually only strongly correlating in part of its phase diagram. Moreover, not all simple liquids are atomic (i.e., with radially symmetric pair potentials) and not all atomic liquids are simple. The main part of the paper motivates the new definition of liquid simplicity by presenting evidence that a liquid is strongly correlating if and only if its intermolecular interactions may be ignored beyond the first coordination shell (FCS). This is demonstrated by NVT simulations of the structure and dynamics of several atomic and three molecular model liquids with a shifted-forces cutoff placed at the first minimum of the radial distribution function. The liquids studied are inverse power-law systems (r-n pair potentials with n=18,6,4), Lennard-Jones (LJ) models (the standard LJ model, two generalized Kob-Andersen binary LJ mixtures, and the Wahnstrom binary LJ mixture), the Buckingham model, the Dzugutov model, the LJ Gaussian model, the Gaussian core model, the Hansen-McDonald molten salt model, the Lewis-Wahnstrom ortho-terphenyl model, the asymmetric dumbbell model, and the single-point charge water model. The final part of the paper summarizes properties of strongly correlating liquids, emphasizing that these are simpler than liquids in general. Simple liquids, as defined here, may be characterized in three quite

  14. Multidirectional direct simple shear apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    DeGroot, D.J.; Germaine, J.T.; Ladd, C.C.

    1993-09-01

    The paper describes a new simple shear testing device, the multidirectional direct simple shear (MDSS) apparatus, for testing soil specimens under conditions that simulate, at the element level, the state of stress acting within the foundation soil of an offshore Arctic gravity structure. The MDSS uses a circular specimen that is consolidated under both a vertical effective stress ({sigma}{sub vc}{prime}) and a horizontal shear stress ({tau}{sub 1}). The specimen is subsequently sheared undrained by applying a second independent horizontal shear stress ({tau}{sub 2}) at an angle {theta} relative to the horizontal consolidation shear stress {tau}{sub 1}. Evaluation of the MDSS first compares conventional K{sub D}-consolidated undrained direct simple shear (CK{sub 0}UDSS) test data ({tau}{sub 1} = 0) on normally consolidated Boston blue clay (BBC) with results obtained in the Geonor DSS device. The MDSS gives lower secant Young`s modulus values and on average 8% lower strengths, but produces remarkably less scatter in the test results than the Geonor DSS. Kinematic proof tests with an elastic material (rubber) confirm that the setup procedure, application of forces, and strain measurement systems in the MDSS work properly and produce repeatable results. Results from a MDSS test program on BBC wherein specimens were first normally consolidated with {sigma}{sub vc}{prime} and {tau}{sub 1} = 0.2{sigma}{sub vc}{prime} and then sheared undrained at {theta} varing in 30{degree} increments from zero (shear in same direction) to 150{degree} show dramatic differences in the response of the soil as a function of {theta}. The peak undrained strength varies almost twofold from 0 = 0 to 120{degree}, while the deformation behavior varies from very brittle at low {theta} angles to becoming ductile at higher angles. 11 refs., 15 figs.

  15. Retinal connectomics: towards complete, accurate networks.

    PubMed

    Marc, Robert E; Jones, Bryan W; Watt, Carl B; Anderson, James R; Sigulinsky, Crystal; Lauritzen, Scott

    2013-11-01

    Connectomics is a strategy for mapping complex neural networks based on high-speed automated electron optical imaging, computational assembly of neural data volumes, web-based navigational tools to explore 10(12)-10(15) byte (terabyte to petabyte) image volumes, and annotation and markup tools to convert images into rich networks with cellular metadata. These collections of network data and associated metadata, analyzed using tools from graph theory and classification theory, can be merged with classical systems theory, giving a more completely parameterized view of how biologic information processing systems are implemented in retina and brain. Networks have two separable features: topology and connection attributes. The first findings from connectomics strongly validate the idea that the topologies of complete retinal networks are far more complex than the simple schematics that emerged from classical anatomy. In particular, connectomics has permitted an aggressive refactoring of the retinal inner plexiform layer, demonstrating that network function cannot be simply inferred from stratification; exposing the complex geometric rules for inserting different cells into a shared network; revealing unexpected bidirectional signaling pathways between mammalian rod and cone systems; documenting selective feedforward systems, novel candidate signaling architectures, new coupling motifs, and the highly complex architecture of the mammalian AII amacrine cell. This is but the beginning, as the underlying principles of connectomics are readily transferrable to non-neural cell complexes and provide new contexts for assessing intercellular communication. PMID:24016532

  16. Retinal Connectomics: Towards Complete, Accurate Networks

    PubMed Central

    Marc, Robert E.; Jones, Bryan W.; Watt, Carl B.; Anderson, James R.; Sigulinsky, Crystal; Lauritzen, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Connectomics is a strategy for mapping complex neural networks based on high-speed automated electron optical imaging, computational assembly of neural data volumes, web-based navigational tools to explore 1012–1015 byte (terabyte to petabyte) image volumes, and annotation and markup tools to convert images into rich networks with cellular metadata. These collections of network data and associated metadata, analyzed using tools from graph theory and classification theory, can be merged with classical systems theory, giving a more completely parameterized view of how biologic information processing systems are implemented in retina and brain. Networks have two separable features: topology and connection attributes. The first findings from connectomics strongly validate the idea that the topologies complete retinal networks are far more complex than the simple schematics that emerged from classical anatomy. In particular, connectomics has permitted an aggressive refactoring of the retinal inner plexiform layer, demonstrating that network function cannot be simply inferred from stratification; exposing the complex geometric rules for inserting different cells into a shared network; revealing unexpected bidirectional signaling pathways between mammalian rod and cone systems; documenting selective feedforward systems, novel candidate signaling architectures, new coupling motifs, and the highly complex architecture of the mammalian AII amacrine cell. This is but the beginning, as the underlying principles of connectomics are readily transferrable to non-neural cell complexes and provide new contexts for assessing intercellular communication. PMID:24016532

  17. A simple theory of condensation

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinovich, S.

    2011-04-15

    A simple assumption of the emergence in gas of small atomic clusters consisting of c particles each leads to a phase separation (first-order transition). It reveals itself by the emergence of a 'forbidden' density range starting at a certain temperature. Defining this latter value as the critical temperature predicts the existence of an interval with the anomalous heat capacity behavior c{sub p} {proportional_to} {Delta}T{sup -1/c}. The value c = 13 suggested in the literature yields the heat capacity exponent {alpha} = 0.077.

  18. A simple Cavendish experimental apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossler, W. J.; Klein, Susann; Morrow, Dominick; Juliao, Andre

    2016-03-01

    A simple Cavendish apparatus is described that allows measurement of the gravitational constant G and makes observable the gravitational attraction between commonplace objects. The apparatus consists of a torsion balance constructed from readily available materials, including lead bricks and fishing weights ("sinkers"). A computer program is used to determine the gravitational field at the location of the small mass due to a nearby lead brick, which allows students to gain experience with numerical methods. Experimental results obtained are compatible with the accepted value of G.

  19. Simple Simulations of DNA Condensation

    SciTech Connect

    STEVENS,MARK J.

    2000-07-12

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a simple, bead-spring model of semiflexible polyelectrolytes such as DNA are performed. All charges are explicitly treated. Starting from extended, noncondensed conformations, condensed structures form in the simulations with tetravalent or trivalent counterions. No condensates form or are stable for divalent counterions. The mechanism by which condensates form is described. Briefly, condensation occurs because electrostatic interactions dominate entropy, and the favored Coulombic structure is a charge ordered state. Condensation is a generic phenomena and occurs for a variety of polyelectrolyte parameters. Toroids and rods are the condensate structures. Toroids form preferentially when the molecular stiffness is sufficiently strong.

  20. Controlling chaos with simple limiters

    PubMed

    Corron; Pethel; Hopper

    2000-04-24

    New experimental results demonstrate that chaos control can be accomplished using controllers that are very simple relative to the system being controlled. Chaotic dynamics in a driven pendulum and a double scroll circuit are controlled using an adjustable, passive limiter-a weight for the pendulum and a diode for the circuit. For both experiments, multiple unstable periodic orbits are selectively controlled using minimal perturbations. These physical examples suggest that chaos control can be practically applied to a much wider array of important problems than initially thought possible. PMID:11019218

  1. Ultraviolet completion without symmetry restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endlich, Solomon; Nicolis, Alberto; Penco, Riccardo

    2014-03-01

    We show that it is not possible to UV complete certain low-energy effective theories with spontaneously broken spacetime symmetries by embedding them into linear sigma models, that is, by adding "radial" modes and restoring the broken symmetries. When such a UV completion is not possible, one can still raise the cutoff up to arbitrarily higher energies by adding fields that transform nonlinearly under the broken symmetries, that is, new Goldstone bosons. However, this (partial) UV completion does not necessarily restore any of the broken symmetries. We illustrate this point by considering a concrete example in which a combination of spacetime and internal symmetries is broken down to a diagonal subgroup. Along the way, we clarify a recently proposed interpretation of inverse Higgs constraints as gauge-fixing conditions.

  2. Complete nitrification by Nitrospira bacteria.

    PubMed

    Daims, Holger; Lebedeva, Elena V; Pjevac, Petra; Han, Ping; Herbold, Craig; Albertsen, Mads; Jehmlich, Nico; Palatinszky, Marton; Vierheilig, Julia; Bulaev, Alexandr; Kirkegaard, Rasmus H; von Bergen, Martin; Rattei, Thomas; Bendinger, Bernd; Nielsen, Per H; Wagner, Michael

    2015-12-24

    Nitrification, the oxidation of ammonia via nitrite to nitrate, has always been considered to be a two-step process catalysed by chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms oxidizing either ammonia or nitrite. No known nitrifier carries out both steps, although complete nitrification should be energetically advantageous. This functional separation has puzzled microbiologists for a century. Here we report on the discovery and cultivation of a completely nitrifying bacterium from the genus Nitrospira, a globally distributed group of nitrite oxidizers. The genome of this chemolithoautotrophic organism encodes the pathways both for ammonia and nitrite oxidation, which are concomitantly activated during growth by ammonia oxidation to nitrate. Genes affiliated with the phylogenetically distinct ammonia monooxygenase and hydroxylamine dehydrogenase genes of Nitrospira are present in many environments and were retrieved on Nitrospira-contigs in new metagenomes from engineered systems. These findings fundamentally change our picture of nitrification and point to completely nitrifying Nitrospira as key components of nitrogen-cycling microbial communities. PMID:26610024

  3. Horizontal completions challenge for industry

    SciTech Connect

    Zaleski, T.E. Jr.; Spatz, E.

    1988-05-02

    As the technology to drill horizontal wells continues to evolve, the problem of efficiently and cost-effectively completing such wells grows. The economics of applying horizontal technology in high-productivity reservoirs demands both increased production and lower development costs. Such high productivity reservoirs are typical of the Gulf of Mexico, North Sea, South China basin, and other areas. Lowering development costs is achieved by drilling fewer wells and in the offshore environment by reducing the number of platforms and other well structures. Specifically addressed in this article are the problems of achieving high efficiency, long lasting completions while controlling costs in unconsolidated and poorly consolidated sandstone reservoirs.

  4. A Simple Theory for Waterspouts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rennó, Nilton O.; Bluestein, Howard B.

    2001-04-01

    It is shown that the simple thermodynamic theory for dust devils, proposed by Rennó et al., also applies to waterspouts. The theory is based on the thermodynamics of heat engines and predicts the central pressure and the wind speed of these convective vortices. Moreover, it provides a simple physical interpretation of their general characteristics. In particular, the heat engine theory shows that convective vortices are more likely to form in the regions where the occurrence of the warmest and moistest updrafts and the coldest and driest downdrafts are supported by the local environment. These are the regions where both the heat input into the convective heat engine is maximum and the solenoidal generation of vorticity is the greatest. This explains why waterspouts are frequently observed near the boundaries between relatively warm and relatively cold waters. Moreover, since the work done by the convective heat engine is equal to the total heat input multiplied by the thermodynamic efficiency, the theory shows that another necessary condition for the formation of intense vortices is the presence of intense convection.

  5. Simple theories of complex lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyrard, Michel

    1998-11-01

    While the theory of solitons has been very successful for continuous systems, very few nonlinear discrete lattices are amenable to an exact analytical treatment. In these “complex lattices” discreteness can be hostile to the solitons, preventing them to move due to the lack of translational invariance or even to exist as localized excitations. On the other hand, lattice discreteness can sometimes be very helpful. It can stabilize solutions that otherwise would split apart as in the discrete sine-Gordon lattice, or even allow the existence of localized oscillatory modes as exact solutions in systems where they would decay in the continuum limit. It is interesting that many of these phenomena can be understood qualitatively, and sometimes quantitatively, with very simple theories that rely on the usual concepts of linear wave propagation, resonances, linear stability of waves, for instance. There are, however, phenomena specific to discrete nonlinear lattices which allow the build up of large amplitude localized excitations, sometimes out of thermal fluctuations, which are more resistant to simple approaches and could deserve further interest because they may be relevant for various physical systems.

  6. Program Costs and Student Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Terri M.; Crosta, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    Community colleges are under pressure to increase completion rates, prepare students for the workplace, and contain costs. Colleges need to know the financial implications of what are often perceived as routine decisions: course scheduling, program offerings, and the provision of support services. This chapter presents a methodology for estimating…

  7. Algebraic Squares: Complete and Incomplete.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardella, Francis J.

    2000-01-01

    Illustrates ways of using algebra tiles to give students a visual model of competing squares that appear in algebra as well as in higher mathematics. Such visual representations give substance to the symbolic manipulation and give students who do not learn symbolically a way of understanding the underlying concepts of completing the square. (KHR)

  8. Review of "A Complete Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Beth

    2010-01-01

    The research summary, "A Complete Education," presents the Obama administration's proposal for ensuring that all students have a comprehensive education. The key areas include: strengthening instruction in literacy and in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM); increasing access to instruction in a broader range of subject…

  9. A-3 steel work completed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Stennis Space Center engineers celebrated a key milestone in construction of the A-3 Test Stand on April 9 - completion of structural steel work. Workers with Lafayette (La.) Steel Erector Inc. placed the last structural steel beam atop the stand during a noon ceremony attended by more than 100 workers and guests.

  10. Completing College: Rethinking Institutional Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinto, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Even as the number of students attending college has more than doubled in the past forty years, it is still the case that nearly half of all college students in the United States will not complete their degree within six years. It is clear that much remains to be done toward improving student success. For more than twenty years, Vincent Tinto's…

  11. Complete feeds-intensive systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most commercially cultivated fish are raised in high-density culture systems where the assumption is that the contribution of natural foods to the nutrition of the fish is insignificant. Thus, intensively cultured fish must be fed a nutritionally complete feed. A short section on the concept and im...

  12. Simple photoreceptors in Limulus polyphemus.

    PubMed

    Millecchia, R; Bradbury, J; Mauro, A

    1966-12-01

    The "olfactory nerve," the endoparietal eye, and the rudimentary lateral eyes of Limulus (polyphemus) contain simple photoreceptor cells that duplicate many of the electrical responses of the retinular cells of the lateral eye; the responses are a receptor potential consisting of aninitial transient phase and a subsequent steady phase,low-amplitude fluctuations, and a small locally regenerative response to pulses of both light and current. Photic stimulation does not induce conducted action potentials, but does increase the membrane conductance. The receptor potentialrequires the presence of sodium ions in the external medium. Measurements of action and absorption spectra indicate a photopigment whose maximum absorption is of light with wavelength of 535 nanometers. The functional significance of these cells has not been ascertained. PMID:5921383

  13. Simple types of anisotropic inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Barrow, John D.; Hervik, Sigbjoern

    2010-01-15

    We display some simple cosmological solutions of gravity theories with quadratic Ricci curvature terms added to the Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian which exhibit anisotropic inflation. The Hubble expansion rates are constant and unequal in three orthogonal directions. We describe the evolution of the simplest of these homogeneous and anisotropic cosmological models from its natural initial state and evaluate the deviations they will create from statistical isotropy in the fluctuations produced during a period of anisotropic inflation. The anisotropic inflation is not a late-time attractor in these models but the rate of approach to a final isotropic de Sitter state is slow and is conducive to the creation of observable anisotropic statistical effects in the microwave background. The statistical anisotropy would not be scale invariant and the level of statistical anisotropy will grow with scale.

  14. Quantized Cosmology: A Simple Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, M

    2004-06-03

    I discuss the problem of inflation in the context of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Cosmology and show how, after a simple change of variables, to quantize the problem in a way which parallels the classical discussion. The result is that two of the Einstein equations arise as exact equations of motion and one of the usual Einstein equations (suitably quantized) survives as a constraint equation to be imposed on the space of physical states. However, the Friedmann equation, which is also a constraint equation and which is the basis of the Wheeler-deWitt equation, acquires a welcome quantum correction that becomes significant for small scale factors. To clarify how things work in this formalism I briefly outline the way in which our formalism works for the exactly solvable case of de-Sitter space.

  15. Simple lattice model of macroevolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borkowski, Wojciech

    2009-04-01

    In future astrobiology, like in modern astrophysics, the numerical simulations can be a very important tool for proving theories. In this paper, I propose a simple lattice model of a multi-species ecosystem suitable for the study of emergent properties of macroevolution. Unlike the majority of ecological models, the number of species is not fixed - they emerge by "mutation" of existing species, then survive or go extinct depending on the balance between local ecological interactions. The Monte-Carlo numerical simulations show that this model is able to qualitatively reproduce phenomena that have been empirically observed, like the dependence between size of the isolated area and the number of species inhabiting there, primary production and species-diversity. The model allows also studying the causes of mass extinctions and more generally, repeatability, and the role of pure chance in macroevolution.

  16. A Simple Statistical Thermodynamics Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2010-03-01

    Comparing the predicted and actual rolls of combinations of both two and three dice can help to introduce many of the basic concepts of statistical thermodynamics, including multiplicity, probability, microstates, and macrostates, and demonstrate that entropy is indeed a measure of randomness, that disordered states (those of higher entropy) are more likely than more ordered ones. It can also show that predictions based on statistics are more accurate with larger samples of data. What follows is a simple experiment introducing some of the basic elements of statistical thermodynamics that can be a light and even fun way to end a unit on thermodynamics, often the end of a challenging first semester of introductory physics.

  17. MIDP-based Realization of a Simple Phone Contact Book

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Yan; Xia, Heng; Huan, Lele

    This paper describes the architecture of J2ME and MIDP specification, use the Java language to implement a simple cell phone contact book system, to complete a contact to add, delete, modify, query functions. Different from existing phone contacts, it can run any MIDP-enabled mobile phones, avoid the question of using tool software into and out of phone contact book after user change phone.

  18. Classification of linearly compact simple Nambu-Poisson algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantarini, Nicoletta; Kac, Victor G.

    2016-05-01

    We introduce the notion of a universal odd generalized Poisson superalgebra associated with an associative algebra A, by generalizing a construction made in the work of De Sole and Kac [Jpn. J. Math. 8, 1-145 (2013)]. By making use of this notion we give a complete classification of simple linearly compact (generalized) n-Nambu-Poisson algebras over an algebraically closed field of characteristic zero.

  19. Simple aging in molecular glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niss, Kristine

    2015-03-01

    The glass transition takes place when the structural (alpha) relaxation freezes in and the liquid enters a non-equilibrium solid state. This usually happens when the relaxation time, τ, reaches a timescale of 1000 seconds, and τ = 1000 s is pragmatically used as a definition of the glass transition temperature Tg. However, if the glass is studied on a long enough time scale then relaxation is still seen as physical aging. Aging is a non-linear signature of the alpha relaxation in which the relaxation dynamics changes as a function of how far the system has relaxed. If the system is studied well below Tg then equilibrium will not be achieved, but just below or around Tg it is possible to systematically monitor the non-linear relaxation all the way to equilibrium. We have developed a micro crystat which is optimized for making fast changes in temperature and keeping temperature stable over days and even weeks. Combining this micro cryostat with a small dielectric cell it is possible to monitor non-linear relaxation in a dynamical range of more than 4 decades from 10 seconds to a 105 seconds. The aging is monitored after a fast temperature jump. This means that the aging itself is isotherm, and the data therefore directly shows, how the relaxation-rate changes as volume and structure change on the isotherm. We have studied several molecular liquids and find that the data to a very large extend can be understood in terms of a TNM formalism. This implies time-aging-time superposition and suggests a simple picture where the out of equlibrium ``states'' correspond to equilibrium states - at an other temperature. If the alpha relaxation is dynamically heterogeneous as it is commonly believed, then the aging results show that fast and slow ``modes'' of the relaxation are governed in the same way by structure and volume. We hypothesize that aging according to TNM formalism is an intrinsic property of Roskilde Simple liquids.

  20. Field testing of tele-operation versus shared and traded control for military assets: an evaluation involving real-time embedded simulation and soldier assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalfe, Jason S.; Alban, Jillyn; Cosenzo, Keryl; Johnson, Tony; Capstick, Erin

    2010-04-01

    Those applying autonomous technologies to military systems strive to enhance human-robot and robot-robot performance. Beyond performance, the military must be concerned with local area security. Characterized as "secure mobility", military systems must enable safe and effective terrain traversal concurrent with maintenance of situational awareness (SA). One approach to interleaving these objectives is supervisory control, with popular options being shared and traded control. Yet, with the scale and expense of military assets, common technical issues such as transition time and safeguarding become critical; especially as they interact with Soldier capabilities. Study is required to enable selection of control methods that optimize Soldier-system performance while safeguarding both individually. The current report describes a study utilizing experimental military vehicles and simulation systems enabling teleoperation and supervisory control. Automated triggering of SA demands was interspersed with a set of challenging driving maneuvers in a 'teleoperation-like' context to examine the influence of supervisory control on Soldier-system performance. Results indicated that direct application of supervisory control, while beneficial under particular demands, requires continued development to be perceived by Soldiers as useful. Future efforts should more tightly couple the information exchanged between the Soldier and system to overcome current challenges not addressed by standard control methods.

  1. Experiment D009: Simple navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, R. M.; Jorris, T. R.; Vallerie, E. M., III

    1971-01-01

    Space position-fixing techniques have been investigated by collecting data on the observable phenomena of space flight that could be used to solve the problem of autonomous navigation by the use of optical data and manual computations to calculate the position of a spacecraft. After completion of the developmental and test phases, the product of the experiment would be a manual-optical technique of orbital space navigation that could be used as a backup to onboard and ground-based spacecraft-navigation systems.

  2. Near-complete teleportation of a superposed coherent state

    SciTech Connect

    Cheong, Yong Wook; Kim, Hyunjae; Lee, Hai-Woong

    2004-09-01

    The four Bell-type entangled coherent states, {alpha}>-{alpha}>{+-}-{alpha}>{alpha}> and {alpha}>{alpha}>{+-}-{alpha}>-{alpha}>, can be discriminated with a high probability using only linear optical means, as long as {alpha} is not too small. Based on this observation, we propose a simple scheme to almost completely teleport a superposed coherent state. The nonunitary transformation that is required to complete the teleportation can be achieved by embedding the receiver's field state in a larger Hilbert space consisting of the field and a single atom and performing a unitary transformation on this Hilbert space00.

  3. Complete EOS for PBX 9502

    SciTech Connect

    Menikoff, Ralph S

    2009-10-08

    PBX 9502 is an insensitive plastic-bonded explosive based on triamino-trinitrobenzene (TATB). A complete equation of state (EOS) is constructed for unreacted PBX 9502 suitable for reactive burn models, i.e., high pressure regime in which material strength is unimportant. The PBX EOS is composed of two parts: a complete EOS for TATB and a porosity model which allows for variations in the initial PBX density. The TATB EOS is based on a cold curve and a thermal model for lattice vibrations. The heat capacity, and hence thermal model, is determined by the vibrational spectrum from Raman scattering. The cold curve is calibrated to diamond anvil cell data for isothermal compression using a two-piece Keane fitting form. Hugoniot data for PBX 9502 is used as a consistency check.

  4. Complete lives in the balance.

    PubMed

    Kerstein, Samuel J; Bognar, Greg

    2010-04-01

    The allocation of scarce health care resources such as flu treatment or organs for transplant presents stark problems of distributive justice. Persad, Wertheimer, and Emanuel have recently proposed a novel system for such allocation. Their "complete lives system" incorporates several principles, including ones that prescribe saving the most lives, preserving the most life-years, and giving priority to persons between 15 and 40 years old. This paper argues that the system lacks adequate moral foundations. Persad and colleagues' defense of giving priority to those between 15 and 40 leaves them open to the charge that they discriminate unfairly against children. Second, the paper contends that the complete lives system fails to provide meaningful practical guidance in central cases, since it contains no method for balancing its principles when they conflict. Finally, the paper proposes a new method for balancing principles of saving the most lives and maximizing life-years. PMID:20379920

  5. Subsea completion technology needs advances

    SciTech Connect

    Ledbetter, R.

    1995-09-18

    Subsea technology needs further advances to reduce operational costs before operators will expand the use of subsea well completions in the Gulf of Mexico. They will continue to choose surface completion-oriented systems as long as these are more economical operationally than subsea system. Designs of subsea equipment such as trees, connectors, control pods, umbilicals, and flow lines, must bring about reductions in the cost of both installation and workover compatibility. Remote operated vehicle (ROV) manipulation is one avenue that should be exploited. The bottom line is that significant cooperation between equipment manufacturers and ROV companies is needed to develop advanced ROV technology, and operators should be involved to help guide operational strategies.

  6. Complete liquefaction methods and apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.

    2013-10-15

    A method and apparatus are described to provide complete gas utilization in the liquefaction operation from a source of gas without return of natural gas to the source thereof from the process and apparatus. The mass flow rate of gas input into the system and apparatus may be substantially equal to the mass flow rate of liquefied product output from the system, such as for storage or use.

  7. Complete normal ordering 1: Foundations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, John; Mavromatos, Nick E.; Skliros, Dimitri P.

    2016-08-01

    We introduce a new prescription for quantising scalar field theories (in generic spacetime dimension and background) perturbatively around a true minimum of the full quantum effective action, which is to 'complete normal order' the bare action of interest. When the true vacuum of the theory is located at zero field value, the key property of this prescription is the automatic cancellation, to any finite order in perturbation theory, of all tadpole and, more generally, all 'cephalopod' Feynman diagrams. The latter are connected diagrams that can be disconnected into two pieces by cutting one internal vertex, with either one or both pieces free from external lines. In addition, this procedure of 'complete normal ordering' (which is an extension of the standard field theory definition of normal ordering) reduces by a substantial factor the number of Feynman diagrams to be calculated at any given loop order. We illustrate explicitly the complete normal ordering procedure and the cancellation of cephalopod diagrams in scalar field theories with non-derivative interactions, and by using a point splitting 'trick' we extend this result to theories with derivative interactions, such as those appearing as non-linear σ-models in the world-sheet formulation of string theory. We focus here on theories with trivial vacua, generalising the discussion to non-trivial vacua in a follow-up paper.

  8. Simple model of the slingshot effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiore, Gaetano; De Nicola, Sergio

    2016-07-01

    We present a detailed quantitative description of the recently proposed "slingshot effect." Namely, we determine a broad range of conditions under which the impact of a very short and intense laser pulse normally onto a low-density plasma (or matter locally completely ionized into a plasma by the pulse) causes the expulsion of a bunch of surface electrons in the direction opposite to the one of propagation of the pulse, and the detailed, ready-for-experiments features of the expelled electrons (energy spectrum, collimation, etc). The effect is due to the combined actions of the ponderomotive force and the huge longitudinal field arising from charge separation. Our predictions are based on estimating 3D corrections to a simple, yet powerful plane 2-fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model where the equations to be solved are reduced to a system of Hamilton equations in one dimension (or a collection of) which become autonomous after the pulse has overcome the electrons. Experimental tests seem to be at hand. If confirmed by the latter, the effect would provide a new extraction and acceleration mechanism for electrons, alternative to traditional radio-frequency-based or Laser-Wake-Field ones.

  9. Simple trachelectomy during pregnancy for cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Luna, Estefania; Alonso, Patricia; Santiago, Javier De; Zapardiel, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Invasive cervical cancer is rare during a pregnancy, even though it is one of the most frequently diagnosed neoplasias during that time. It is noted that around 30% of women diagnosed with cervical cancer are of reproductive age. This means that up to 3% of cases of cervical cancer are found in pregnant women or those who are in the post-birth period. A cervicovaginal Pap smear is performed as part of the regular checkup for a pregnant woman during the first visit so that cervical cancer can easily be diagnosed early in these women, detecting it early in up to 70–80% of cases. We present here the case of a patient with initial diagnosis of cervical cancer made around 20th week of pregnancy. It was then treated by a simple trachelectomy and cerclage during week 24. The pregnant woman gave birth to a healthy baby at the end of her pregnancy. Definitive treatment was completed three months after giving birth with a total hysterectomy and laparoscopic bilateral salpingectomy while preserving both ovaries. After 17 months of monitoring the patient showed no signs of reoccurrence. In conclusion, during the early stage of cervical cancer conservative management may be a reasonable option to preserve the current pregnancy. PMID:27610199

  10. Simple trachelectomy during pregnancy for cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Luna, Estefania; Alonso, Patricia; Santiago, Javier De; Zapardiel, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Invasive cervical cancer is rare during a pregnancy, even though it is one of the most frequently diagnosed neoplasias during that time. It is noted that around 30% of women diagnosed with cervical cancer are of reproductive age. This means that up to 3% of cases of cervical cancer are found in pregnant women or those who are in the post-birth period. A cervicovaginal Pap smear is performed as part of the regular checkup for a pregnant woman during the first visit so that cervical cancer can easily be diagnosed early in these women, detecting it early in up to 70-80% of cases. We present here the case of a patient with initial diagnosis of cervical cancer made around 20th week of pregnancy. It was then treated by a simple trachelectomy and cerclage during week 24. The pregnant woman gave birth to a healthy baby at the end of her pregnancy. Definitive treatment was completed three months after giving birth with a total hysterectomy and laparoscopic bilateral salpingectomy while preserving both ovaries. After 17 months of monitoring the patient showed no signs of reoccurrence. In conclusion, during the early stage of cervical cancer conservative management may be a reasonable option to preserve the current pregnancy. PMID:27610199

  11. Simple Waves in Ideal Radiation Hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B M

    2008-09-03

    In the dynamic diffusion limit of radiation hydrodynamics, advection dominates diffusion; the latter primarily affects small scales and has negligible impact on the large scale flow. The radiation can thus be accurately regarded as an ideal fluid, i.e., radiative diffusion can be neglected along with other forms of dissipation. This viewpoint is applied here to an analysis of simple waves in an ideal radiating fluid. It is shown that much of the hydrodynamic analysis carries over by simply replacing the material sound speed, pressure and index with the values appropriate for a radiating fluid. A complete analysis is performed for a centered rarefaction wave, and expressions are provided for the Riemann invariants and characteristic curves of the one-dimensional system of equations. The analytical solution is checked for consistency against a finite difference numerical integration, and the validity of neglecting the diffusion operator is demonstrated. An interesting physical result is that for a material component with a large number of internal degrees of freedom and an internal energy greater than that of the radiation, the sound speed increases as the fluid is rarefied. These solutions are an excellent test for radiation hydrodynamic codes operating in the dynamic diffusion regime. The general approach may be useful in the development of Godunov numerical schemes for radiation hydrodynamics.

  12. Two Simple Models for Fracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Jaren Quinn

    Recent developments in fracking have enable the recovery of oil and gas from tight shale reservoirs. These developments have also made fracking one of the most controversial environmental issues in the United States. Despite the growing controversy surrounding fracking, there is relatively little publicly available research. This dissertation introduces two simple models for fracking that were developed using techniques from non-linear and statistical physics. The first model assumes that the volume of induced fractures must be equal to the volume of injected fluid. For simplicity, these fractures are assumed to form a spherically symmetric damage region around the borehole. The predicted volumes of water necessary to create a damage region with a given radius are in good agreement with reported values. The second model is a modification of invasion percolation which was previously introduced to model water flooding. The reservoir rock is represented by a regular lattice of local traps that contain oil and/or gas separated by rock barriers. The barriers are assumed to be highly heterogeneous and are assigned random strengths. Fluid is injected from a central site and the weakest rock barrier breaks allowing fluid to flow into the adjacent site. The process repeats with the weakest barrier breaking and fluid flowing to an adjacent site each time step. Extensive numerical simulations were carried out to obtain statistical properties of the growing fracture network. The network was found to be fractal with fractal dimensions differing slightly from the accepted values for traditional percolation. Additionally, the network follows Horton-Strahler and Tokunaga branching statistics which have been used to characterize river networks. As with other percolation models, the growth of the network occurs in bursts. These bursts follow a power-law size distribution similar to observed microseismic events. Reservoir stress anisotropy is incorporated into the model by assigning

  13. Simple method for model reference adaptive control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, H.

    1989-01-01

    A simple method is presented for combined signal synthesis and parameter adaptation within the framework of model reference adaptive control theory. The results are obtained using a simple derivation based on an improved Liapunov function.

  14. Simple Solutions for Treating Dry Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    Patient Education Sheet Simple Solutions for Treating Dry Mouth Clinicians: Please make as many copies of this ... Philadelphia, for authoring “Simple Solutions for Treating Dry Mouth.” Ask your family doctor to discontinue or provide ...

  15. Simple molecules as complex systems.

    PubMed

    Furtenbacher, Tibor; Arendás, Péter; Mellau, Georg; Császár, Attila G

    2014-01-01

    For individual molecules quantum mechanics (QM) offers a simple, natural and elegant way to build large-scale complex networks: quantized energy levels are the nodes, allowed transitions among the levels are the links, and transition intensities supply the weights. QM networks are intrinsic properties of molecules and they are characterized experimentally via spectroscopy; thus, realizations of QM networks are called spectroscopic networks (SN). As demonstrated for the rovibrational states of H2(16)O, the molecule governing the greenhouse effect on earth through hundreds of millions of its spectroscopic transitions (links), both the measured and first-principles computed one-photon absorption SNs containing experimentally accessible transitions appear to have heavy-tailed degree distributions. The proposed novel view of high-resolution spectroscopy and the observed degree distributions have important implications: appearance of a core of highly interconnected hubs among the nodes, a generally disassortative connection preference, considerable robustness and error tolerance, and an "ultra-small-world" property. The network-theoretical view of spectroscopy offers a data reduction facility via a minimum-weight spanning tree approach, which can assist high-resolution spectroscopists to improve the efficiency of the assignment of their measured spectra. PMID:24722221

  16. Simple Substrates for Complex Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Dayan, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Complex cognitive tasks present a range of computational and algorithmic challenges for neural accounts of both learning and inference. In particular, it is extremely hard to solve them using the sort of simple policies that have been extensively studied as solutions to elementary Markov decision problems. There has thus been recent interest in architectures for the instantiation and even learning of policies that are formally more complicated than these, involving operations such as gated working memory. However, the focus of these ideas and methods has largely been on what might best be considered as automatized, routine or, in the sense of animal conditioning, habitual, performance. Thus, they have yet to provide a route towards understanding the workings of rule-based control, which is critical for cognitively sophisticated competence. Here, we review a recent suggestion for a uniform architecture for habitual and rule-based execution, discuss some of the habitual mechanisms that underpin the use of rules, and consider a statistical relationship between rules and habits. PMID:19225599

  17. Simple molecules as complex systems

    PubMed Central

    Furtenbacher, Tibor; Árendás, Péter; Mellau, Georg; Császár, Attila G.

    2014-01-01

    For individual molecules quantum mechanics (QM) offers a simple, natural and elegant way to build large-scale complex networks: quantized energy levels are the nodes, allowed transitions among the levels are the links, and transition intensities supply the weights. QM networks are intrinsic properties of molecules and they are characterized experimentally via spectroscopy; thus, realizations of QM networks are called spectroscopic networks (SN). As demonstrated for the rovibrational states of H216O, the molecule governing the greenhouse effect on earth through hundreds of millions of its spectroscopic transitions (links), both the measured and first-principles computed one-photon absorption SNs containing experimentally accessible transitions appear to have heavy-tailed degree distributions. The proposed novel view of high-resolution spectroscopy and the observed degree distributions have important implications: appearance of a core of highly interconnected hubs among the nodes, a generally disassortative connection preference, considerable robustness and error tolerance, and an “ultra-small-world” property. The network-theoretical view of spectroscopy offers a data reduction facility via a minimum-weight spanning tree approach, which can assist high-resolution spectroscopists to improve the efficiency of the assignment of their measured spectra. PMID:24722221

  18. Asymptotic safety: A simple example

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, Jens; Gies, Holger; Scherer, Daniel D.

    2011-04-15

    We use the Gross-Neveu model in 2simple fermionic example for Weinberg's asymptotic safety scenario: despite being perturbatively nonrenormalizable, the model defines an interacting quantum field theory being valid to arbitrarily high momentum scales owing to the existence of a non-Gaussian fixed point. Using the functional renormalization group, we study the uv behavior of the model in both the purely fermionic as well as a partially bosonized language. We show that asymptotic safety is realized at non-Gaussian fixed points in both formulations, the universal critical exponents of which we determine quantitatively. The partially bosonized formulation allows to make contact to the large-N{sub f} expansion where the model is known to be renormalizable to all orders. In this limit, the fixed-point action as well as all universal critical exponents can be computed analytically. As asymptotic safety has become an important scenario for quantizing gravity, our description of a well-understood model is meant to provide for an easily accessible and controllable example of modern nonperturbative quantum field theory.

  19. Bilateral Occurrence and Morphologic Analysis of Complete Discoid Lateral Meniscus

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jun Young; Roh, Jeong-Ho; Kim, Joon Ho; Kim, Jay Joong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the study was to investigate and analyze bilateral incidence and morphology of complete discoid lateral meniscus (DLM) with possible relation to tears and symptoms in knee joints. Materials and Methods Thirty-eight consecutive patients with symptomatic or already-torn complete DLM on magnetic resonance imaging in a unilateral knee underwent diagnostic arthroscopy on both knee joints upon agreement. The presence and shape of complete DLM as well as presence and pattern of tear were recorded accordingly. Results In total, 89.5% (34 of 38 patients) showed bilateral complete DLM, and 84.2% yielded bilateralism with identical shape. Cape-slab was the most frequent shape, comprising 68.8% of patients with identically-shaped bilateral DLM overall. Tear patterns were more frequent, in the order of longitudinal, simple horizontal, radial, and degenerative; however, the morphological shape of complete DLM was not significantly related to tear incidence or pattern. Meniscus tears and knee symptoms occurred in the contralateral knee with incidences of 32.4% and 26.5% in patients with bilateral complete DLM, respectively. Conclusion Based on these findings, more aggressive warning on the presence of discoid pathology and the need for evaluation on the contralateral knee should be considered during consultation with patients with symptomatic complete DLM in a unilateral knee in the outpatient clinic. PMID:25837182

  20. Completable scheduling: An integrated approach to planning and scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gervasio, Melinda T.; Dejong, Gerald F.

    1992-01-01

    The planning problem has traditionally been treated separately from the scheduling problem. However, as more realistic domains are tackled, it becomes evident that the problem of deciding on an ordered set of tasks to achieve a set of goals cannot be treated independently of the problem of actually allocating resources to the tasks. Doing so would result in losing the robustness and flexibility needed to deal with imperfectly modeled domains. Completable scheduling is an approach which integrates the two problems by allowing an a priori planning module to defer particular planning decisions, and consequently the associated scheduling decisions, until execution time. This allows a completable scheduling system to maximize plan flexibility by allowing runtime information to be taken into consideration when making planning and scheduling decision. Furthermore, through the criteria of achievability placed on deferred decision, a completable scheduling system is able to retain much of the goal-directedness and guarantees of achievement afforded by a priori planning. The completable scheduling approach is further enhanced by the use of contingent explanation-based learning, which enables a completable scheduling system to learn general completable plans from example and improve its performance through experience. Initial experimental results show that completable scheduling outperforms classical scheduling as well as pure reactive scheduling in a simple scheduling domain.

  1. Complete Photo-production Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    D'Angelo, A.; Bartalini, O.; Fantini, A.; Schaerf, C.; Vegna, V.; Ardashev, K.; Bade, C.; Hicks, K.; Kizilgul, S.; Lucas, M.; Mahon, J.; Bellini, V.; Blecher, M.; Bocquet, J.-P.; Lleres, A.; Rebreyend, D.; Capogni, M.; Caracappa, A.; Kistner, O. C.; Miceli, L.

    2011-10-24

    The extraction of resonance parameters from meson photo-reaction data is a challenging effort, that would greatly benefit from the availability of several polarization observables, measured for each reaction channel on both proton and neutron targets. In the aim of obtaining such complete experiments, polarized photon beams and targets have been developed at facilities, worldwide. We report on the latest results from the LEGS and GRAAL collaborations, providing single and double polarization measurements on pseudo-scalar meson photo-production from the nucleon.

  2. A Simple Class of Kripke-Style Models in Which Logic and Computation Have Equal Standing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabbay, Michael; Gabbay, Murdoch J.

    We present a sound and complete model of lambda-calculus reductions based on structures inspired by modal logic (closely related to Kripke structures). Accordingly we can construct a logic which is sound and complete for the same models, and we identify lambda-terms with certain simple sentences (predicates) in this logic, by direct compositional translation. Reduction then becomes identified with logical entailment.

  3. Complete bicornuate uterus with complete transverse vaginal septum

    PubMed Central

    Tehrani, Hatav Ghasemi; Hashemi, Leila; Ghasemi, Mojdeh

    2014-01-01

    Bicornuate uterus has two symmetric uterine cavities that are fused caudally and have some degree of communication between two cavities, usually at the uterine isthmus. A complete bicornuate uterus has a seperatory cleft of tissue that is extended to the internal OS. Lesser degree of septation of the two uterine horns has constitution, a partial bicornuate uterus. Bicornuate uterus is a class of four anomaly of American fertility society classification of mullerian anomalies. Here we report a case of a 19-year-old female patient with complaint of abdominal pain and spotting since 4 months ago. In sonography it revealed bicornuate uterus and hematocolpos. The patient underwent general anesthesia and examination that reveal the transverse vaginal septum. Septum removed by resectoscope was successful. PMID:25097613

  4. SSL - THE SIMPLE SOCKETS LIBRARY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, C. E.

    1994-01-01

    The Simple Sockets Library (SSL) allows C programmers to develop systems of cooperating programs using Berkeley streaming Sockets running under the TCP/IP protocol over Ethernet. The SSL provides a simple way to move information between programs running on the same or different machines and does so with little overhead. The SSL can create three types of Sockets: namely a server, a client, and an accept Socket. The SSL's Sockets are designed to be used in a fashion reminiscent of the use of FILE pointers so that a C programmer who is familiar with reading and writing files will immediately feel comfortable with reading and writing with Sockets. The SSL consists of three parts: the library, PortMaster, and utilities. The user of the SSL accesses it by linking programs to the SSL library. The PortMaster initializes connections between clients and servers. The PortMaster also supports a "firewall" facility to keep out socket requests from unapproved machines. The "firewall" is a file which contains Internet addresses for all approved machines. There are three utilities provided with the SSL. SKTDBG can be used to debug programs that make use of the SSL. SPMTABLE lists the servers and port numbers on requested machine(s). SRMSRVR tells the PortMaster to forcibly remove a server name from its list. The package also includes two example programs: multiskt.c, which makes multiple accepts on one server, and sktpoll.c, which repeatedly attempts to connect a client to some server at one second intervals. SSL is a machine independent library written in the C-language for computers connected via Ethernet using the TCP/IP protocol. It has been successfully compiled and implemented on a variety of platforms, including Sun series computers running SunOS, DEC VAX series computers running VMS, SGI computers running IRIX, DECstations running ULTRIX, DEC alpha AXPs running OSF/1, IBM RS/6000 computers running AIX, IBM PC and compatibles running BSD/386 UNIX and HP Apollo 3000

  5. Are polar liquids less simple?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragiadakis, D.; Roland, C. M.

    2013-03-01

    Strong correlation between equilibrium fluctuations under isochoric conditions of the potential energy, U, and the virial, W, is a characteristic of liquids that implies the presence of certain dynamic properties, such as density scaling of the relaxation times and isochronal superpositioning of the relaxation function. In this work we employ molecular dynamics simulations on methanol and two variations, lacking hydrogen bonds and a dipole moment, to assess the connection between the correlation of U and W and these dynamic properties. We show, in accord with prior results of others [T. S. Ingebrigtsen, T. B. Schrøder, and J. C. Dyre, Phys. Rev. X 2, 011011 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevX.2.011011], that simple van der Waals liquids exhibit both strong correlations and the expected dynamic behavior. However, for polar liquids this correspondence breaks down—weaker correlation between U and W is not associated with worse conformance to density scaling or isochronal superpositioning. The reason for this is that strong correlation between U and W only requires their proportionality, whereas the expected dynamic behavior depends primarily on constancy of the proportionality constant for all state points. For hydrogen-bonded liquids, neither strong correlation nor adherence to the dynamic properties is observed; however, this nonconformance is not directly related to the concentration of hydrogen bonds, but rather to the greater deviation of the intermolecular potential from an inverse power law (IPL). Only (hypothetical) liquids having interactions governed strictly by an IPL are perfectly correlating and exhibit the consequent dynamic properties over all thermodynamic conditions.

  6. Colligative properties of simple solutions.

    PubMed

    Andrews, F C

    1976-11-01

    Vapor pressure lowering, osmotic pressure, boiling point elevation, and freezing point depression are all related quantitatively to the decrease in micro(1)(soln) upon the addition of solute in forming a solution. In any equilibrium system, regardless of whether it is in a gravitational field or whether it contains walls, semipermeable membranes, phase transitions, or solutes, all equilibria are maintained locally, in the small region of the equilibrium, by the equality of micro(1)(soln). If there are several subsystems in a gravitational field, at any fixed height, microi will have the same value in each subsystem into which substance i can get, and microi + M(i)gh is constant throughout the entire system. In a solution, there is no mechanism by which solvent and solute molecules could sustain different pressures. Both the solvent and solute are always under identical pressures in a region of solution, namely, the pressure of the solution in that region. Since nature does not know which component we call the solvent and which the solute, equations should be symmetric in the two (acknowledging that the nonvolatile component, if any, is commonly chosen to be solute). Simple molecular pictures illustrate what is happening to cause pressure (positive or negative) in liquids, vapor pressure of liquids, and the various colligative properties of solutions. The only effect of solute involved in these properties is that it dilutes the solvent, with the resulting increase in S and decrease in micro(1)(soln). Water can be driven passively up a tree to enormous heights by the difference between its chemical potential in the roots and the ambient air. There is nothing mysterious about the molecular bases for any of these phenomena. Biologists can use the well-understood pictures of these phenomena with confidence to study what is happening in the complicated living systems they consider. PMID:17818408

  7. Contour Completion Without Region Segmentation.

    PubMed

    Ming, Yansheng; Li, Hongdong; He, Xuming

    2016-08-01

    Contour completion plays an important role in visual perception, where the goal is to group fragmented low-level edge elements into perceptually coherent and salient contours. Most existing methods for contour completion have focused on pixelwise detection accuracy. In contrast, fewer methods have addressed the global contour closure effect, despite psychological evidences for its importance. This paper proposes a purely contour-based higher order CRF model to achieve contour closure, through local connectedness approximation. This leads to a simplified problem structure, where our higher order inference problem can be transformed into an integer linear program and be solved efficiently. Compared with the methods based on the same bottom-up edge detector, our method achieves a superior contour grouping ability (measured by Rand index), a comparable precision-recall performance, and more visually pleasing results. Our results suggest that contour closure can be effectively achieved in contour domain, in contrast to a popular view that segmentation is essential for this purpose. PMID:27168599

  8. Chaotic pendulum: The complete attractor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeSerio, Robert

    2003-03-01

    A commercial chaotic pendulum is modified to study nonlinear dynamics, including the determination of Poincaré sections, fractal dimensions, and Lyapunov exponents. The apparatus is driven by a simple oscillating mechanism powered by a 200 pulse per revolution stepper motor running at constant angular velocity. A computer interface generates the uniform pulse train needed to run the stepper motor and, with each pulse, reads a rotary encoder attached to the pendulum axle. Ten million readings from overnight runs of 50 000 drive cycles were smoothed and differentiated to obtain the pendulum angle θ and the angular velocity ω at each pulse of the drive. A plot of the 50 000 (θ,ω) phase points corresponding to one phase of the drive system produces a single Poincaré section. Thus, 200 Poincaré sections are experimentally available, one at each step of the drive. Viewed separately, any one of them strikingly illustrates the fractal geometry of the underlying chaotic attractor. Viewed sequentially in a repeating loop, they demonstrate the stretching and folding of phase point density typical of chaotic dynamics. Results for four pendulum damping conditions are presented and compared.

  9. a Unified Blending Framework for Panorama Completion via Graph Cuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kai; Yao, Jian; Xia, Menghan; Gui, Xinyuan; Lu, Xiaohu; Li, Li

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a unified framework for efficiently completing streetview and indoor 360° panoramas due to the lack of bottom areas caused by the occlusion of the acquisition platform. To greatly reduce the severe distortion at the bottom of the panorama, we first reproject it onto the ground perspective plane containing the whole occluded region to be completed. Then, we formulate the image completion problem in an improved graph cuts optimization framework based on the statistics of similar patches by strengthening the boundary constraints. To further eliminate image luminance differences and color deviations and conceal geometrical parallax among the optimally selected patches for completion, we creatively apply a multi-bland image blending algorithm for perfect image mosaicking from the completed patches and the originally reprojected image. Finally, we back-project the completed and blended ground perspective image into the cylindrical-projection panorama followed by a simple feathering to further reduce artifacts in the panorama. Experimental results on some representative non-panoramic images and streetview and indoor panoramas demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the proposed method even in some challenging cases.

  10. Simple sequence repeats in Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Power, Peter M; Sweetman, W A; Gallacher, N J; Woodhall, M R; Kumar, G A; Moxon, E R; Hood, D W

    2009-03-01

    Simple sequence repeat (SSRs) of DNA are subject to high rates of mutation and are important mediators of adaptation in Haemophilus influenzae. Previous studies of the Rd KW20 genome identified the primacy of tetranucleotide SSRs in mediating phase variation (the rapid reversible switching of gene expression) of surface exposed structures such as lipopolysaccharide. The recent sequencing of the genomes of multiple strains of H. influenzae allowed the comparison of the SSRs (repeat units of one to nine nucleotides in length) in detail across four complete H. influenzae genomes and then comparison with a further 12 genomes when they became available. The SSR loci were broadly classified into three groups: (1) those that did not vary; (2) those for which some variation between strains was observed but this could not be linked to variation of gene expression; and (3) those that both varied and were located in regions consistent with mediating phase variable gene expression. Comparative analysis of 988 SSR associated loci confirmed that tetranucleotide repeats were the major mediators of phase variation and extended the repertoire of known tetranucleotide SSR loci by identifying ten previously uncharacterised tetranucleotide SSR loci with the potential to mediate phase variation which were unequally distributed across the H. influenzae pan-genome. Further, analysis of non-tetranucleotide SSR in the 16 strains revealed a number of mononucleotide, dinucleotide, pentanucleotide, heptanucleotide, and octanucleotide SSRs which were consistent with these tracts mediating phase variation. This study substantiates previous findings as to the important role that tetranucleotide SSRs play in H. influenzae biology. Two Brazilian isolates showed the most variation in their complement of SSRs suggesting the possibility of geographic and phenotypic influences on SSR distribution. PMID:19095084

  11. Modified complete-arch impression technique for facilitating esthetic and biomechanical precision in complete-arch rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Mizrahi, Basil

    2011-08-01

    Treating complex cases is clinically and technically challenging, yet highly rewarding to both patient and clinician when successfully completed. Precision in the fit of the restorations, the definitive occlusal scheme, and the esthetic result are the key elements to long-term success. Clinicians should aim to achieve the same level of precision when treating these cases as they do when treating simple cases; however, with the numerous stages and increased complexity involved comes the potential for errors to compound and magnify as treatment progresses. Areas particularly prone to difficulties are the making of a complete-arch impression and the ability to maintain patient comfort and eliminate unwanted dental emergencies throughout the time-consuming treatment. This report illustrates the techniques and concepts used to achieve esthetic and biomechanical precision when treating complex cases. Specific emphasis is placed on the importance of an accurate complete-arch impression technique, the detail of which is described in the article. PMID:21843229

  12. Ear recognition: a complete system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abaza, Ayman; Harrison, Mary Ann F.

    2013-05-01

    Ear Recognition has recently received significant attention in the literature. Even though current ear recognition systems have reached a certain level of maturity, their success is still limited. This paper presents an efficient complete ear-based biometric system that can process five frames/sec; Hence it can be used for surveillance applications. The ear detection is achieved using Haar features arranged in a cascaded Adaboost classifier. The feature extraction is based on dividing the ear image into several blocks from which Local Binary Pattern feature distributions are extracted. These feature distributions are then fused at the feature level to represent the original ear texture in the classification stage. The contribution of this paper is three fold: (i) Applying a new technique for ear feature extraction, and studying various optimization parameters for that technique; (ii) Presenting a practical ear recognition system and a detailed analysis about error propagation in that system; (iii) Studying the occlusion effect of several ear parts. Detailed experiments show that the proposed ear recognition system achieved better performance (94:34%) compared to other shape-based systems as Scale-invariant feature transform (67:92%). The proposed approach can also handle efficiently hair occlusion. Experimental results show that the proposed system can achieve about (78%) rank-1 identification, even in presence of 60% occlusion.

  13. Tag Completion for Image Retrieval.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lei; Jin, Rong; Jain, Anil K

    2013-03-01

    Many social image search engines are based on keyword/tag matching. This is because tag-based image retrieval (TBIR) is not only efficient but also effective. The performance of TBIR is highly dependent on the availability and quality of manual tags. Recent studies have shown that manual tags are often unreliable and inconsistent. In addition, since many users tend to choose general and ambiguous tags in order to minimize their efforts in choosing appropriate words, tags that are specific to the visual content of images tend to be missing or noisy, leading to a limited performance of TBIR. To address this challenge, we study the problem of tag completion, where the goal is to automatically fill in the missing tags as well as correct noisy tags for given images. We represent the image-tag relation by a tag matrix, and search for the optimal tag matrix consistent with both the observed tags and the visual similarity. We propose a new algorithm for solving this optimization problem. Extensive empirical studies show that the proposed algorithm is significantly more effective than the state-of-the-art algorithms. Our studies also verify that the proposed algorithm is computationally efficient and scales well to large databases. PMID:22641703

  14. Simple scale interpolator facilitates reading of graphs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetterman, D. E., Jr.

    1965-01-01

    Simple transparent overlay with interpolation scale facilitates accurate, rapid reading of graph coordinate points. This device can be used for enlarging drawings and locating points on perspective drawings.

  15. 40 CFR 72.61 - Completeness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... REGULATION Federal Acid Rain Permit Issuance Procedures § 72.61 Completeness. (a) Determination of Completeness. The Administrator will determine whether the Acid Rain permit application is complete within 60... the Acid Rain permit application is complete under paragraph (a) of this section, the...

  16. 40 CFR 72.61 - Completeness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... REGULATION Federal Acid Rain Permit Issuance Procedures § 72.61 Completeness. (a) Determination of Completeness. The Administrator will determine whether the Acid Rain permit application is complete within 60... the Acid Rain permit application is complete under paragraph (a) of this section, the...

  17. 40 CFR 72.61 - Completeness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... REGULATION Federal Acid Rain Permit Issuance Procedures § 72.61 Completeness. (a) Determination of Completeness. The Administrator will determine whether the Acid Rain permit application is complete within 60... the Acid Rain permit application is complete under paragraph (a) of this section, the...

  18. 40 CFR 72.61 - Completeness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... REGULATION Federal Acid Rain Permit Issuance Procedures § 72.61 Completeness. (a) Determination of Completeness. The Administrator will determine whether the Acid Rain permit application is complete within 60... the Acid Rain permit application is complete under paragraph (a) of this section, the...

  19. 24 CFR 884.212 - Project completion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Project completion. 884.212 Section... RENTAL HOUSING PROJECTS Project Development and Operation § 884.212 Project completion. (a) FmHA certifications upon completion. Upon completion of the project, FmHA shall inspect the project and, if...

  20. 24 CFR 884.212 - Project completion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Project completion. 884.212 Section... RENTAL HOUSING PROJECTS Project Development and Operation § 884.212 Project completion. (a) FmHA certifications upon completion. Upon completion of the project, FmHA shall inspect the project and, if...

  1. 24 CFR 884.212 - Project completion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Project completion. 884.212 Section... RENTAL HOUSING PROJECTS Project Development and Operation § 884.212 Project completion. (a) FmHA certifications upon completion. Upon completion of the project, FmHA shall inspect the project and, if...

  2. 24 CFR 884.212 - Project completion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Project completion. 884.212 Section... RENTAL HOUSING PROJECTS Project Development and Operation § 884.212 Project completion. (a) FmHA certifications upon completion. Upon completion of the project, FmHA shall inspect the project and, if...

  3. 24 CFR 884.212 - Project completion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Project completion. 884.212 Section... RENTAL HOUSING PROJECTS Project Development and Operation § 884.212 Project completion. (a) FmHA certifications upon completion. Upon completion of the project, FmHA shall inspect the project and, if...

  4. 30 CFR 250.505 - Subsea completions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations § 250.505 Subsea completions. No subsea well completion shall be commenced until the lessee obtains written approval from the... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Subsea completions. 250.505 Section...

  5. 30 CFR 250.505 - Subsea completions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations § 250.505 Subsea completions. No subsea well completion shall be commenced until the... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Subsea completions. 250.505 Section...

  6. Autocorrelation and regularization in digital images. II - Simple image models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jupp, David L. B.; Strahler, Alan H.; Woodcock, Curtis E.

    1989-01-01

    The variogram function used in geostatistical analysis is a useful statistic in the analysis of remotely sensed images. Using the results derived by Jupp et al. (1988), the basic second-order, or covariance, properties of scenes modeled by simple disks of varying size and spacing after imaging into disk-shaped pixels are analyzed to explore the relationship betwee image variograms and discrete object scene structure. The models provide insight into the nature of real images of the earth's surface and the tools for a complete analysis of the more complex case of three-dimensional illuminated discrete-object images.

  7. Completely quantized collapse and consequences

    SciTech Connect

    Pearle, Philip

    2005-08-15

    Promotion of quantum theory from a theory of measurement to a theory of reality requires an unambiguous specification of the ensemble of realizable states (and each state's probability of realization). Although not yet achieved within the framework of standard quantum theory, it has been achieved within the framework of the continuous spontaneous localization (CSL) wave-function collapse model. In CSL, a classical random field w(x,t) interacts with quantum particles. The state vector corresponding to each w(x,t) is a realizable state. In this paper, I consider a previously presented model, which is predictively equivalent to CSL. In this completely quantized collapse (CQC) model, the classical random field is quantized. It is represented by the operator W(x,t) which satisfies [W(x,t),W(x{sup '},t{sup '})]=0. The ensemble of realizable states is described by a single state vector, the 'ensemble vector'. Each superposed state which comprises the ensemble vector at time t is the direct product of an eigenstate of W(x,t{sup '}), for all x and for 0{<=}t{sup '}{<=}t, and the CSL state corresponding to that eigenvalue. These states never interfere (they satisfy a superselection rule at any time), they only branch, so the ensemble vector may be considered to be, as Schroedinger put it, a 'catalog' of the realizable states. In this context, many different interpretations (e.g., many worlds, environmental decoherence, consistent histories, modal interpretation) may be satisfactorily applied. Using this description, a long-standing problem is resolved, where the energy comes from the particles gain due to the narrowing of their wave packets by the collapse mechanism. It is shown how to define the energy of the random field and its energy of interaction with particles so that total energy is conserved for the ensemble of realizable states. As a by-product, since the random-field energy spectrum is unbounded, its canonical conjugate, a self-adjoint time operator, can be

  8. A simple approach to nonlinear oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhong-Fu; He, Ji-Huan

    2009-10-01

    A very simple and effective approach to nonlinear oscillators is suggested. Anyone with basic knowledge of advanced calculus can apply the method to finding approximately the amplitude-frequency relationship of a nonlinear oscillator. Some examples are given to illustrate its extremely simple solution procedure and an acceptable accuracy of the obtained solutions.

  9. Simple Numerical Analysis of Longboard Speedometer Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Simple numerical data analysis is described, using a standard spreadsheet program, to determine distance, velocity (speed) and acceleration from voltage data generated by a skateboard/longboard speedometer (Hare 2012 "Phys. Educ." 47 409-17). This simple analysis is an introduction to data processing including scaling data as well as…

  10. Sunspots and Their Simple Harmonic Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, C. I.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper an example of a simple harmonic motion, the apparent motion of sunspots due to the Sun's rotation, is described, which can be used to teach this subject to high-school students. Using real images of the Sun, students can calculate the star's rotation period with the simple harmonic motion mathematical expression.

  11. Restoration Monitoring - A Simple Photo Monitoring Method

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, J.K.

    2000-02-14

    Through the use of a simple photo monitoring design, it is possible to visually document, with both landscape and ground views, the progression of a restoration/revegetation project in a repeatable, cost-effective manner. The use of web browser technology can display the results in a simple, informative, professional manner, suitable for presentations and displays.

  12. The Fluid Foil: The Seventh Simple Machine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitts, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    A simple machine does one of two things: create a mechanical advantage (lever) or change the direction of an applied force (pulley). Fluid foils are unique among simple machines because they not only change the direction of an applied force (wheel and axle); they convert fluid energy into mechanical energy (wind and Kaplan turbines) or vice versa,…

  13. MHD simple waves and the divergence wave

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, G. M.; Pogorelov, N. V.; Zank, G. P.

    2010-03-25

    In this paper we investigate magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simple divergence waves in MHD, for models in which nablacentre dotBnot =0. These models are related to the eight wave Riemann solvers in numerical MHD, in which the eighth wave is the divergence wave associated with nablacentre dotBnot =0. For simple wave solutions, all physical variables (the gas density, pressure, fluid velocity, entropy, and magnetic field induction in the MHD case) depend on a single phase function phi. We consider the form of the MHD equations used by both Powell et al. and Janhunen. It is shown that the Janhunen version of the equations possesses fully nonlinear, exact simple wave solutions for the divergence wave, but no physically meaningful simple divergence wave solution exists for the Powell et al. system. We suggest that the 1D simple, divergence wave solution for the Janhunen system, may be useful for the testing and validation of numerical MHD codes.

  14. Nonequilibrium Gibbs' criterion for completely wetting volatile liquids.

    PubMed

    Tsoumpas, Yannis; Dehaeck, Sam; Galvagno, Mariano; Rednikov, Alexey; Ottevaere, Heidi; Thiele, Uwe; Colinet, Pierre

    2014-10-14

    During the spreading of a liquid over a solid substrate, the contact line can stay pinned at sharp edges until the contact angle exceeds a critical value. At (or sufficiently near) equilibrium, this is known as Gibbs' criterion. Here, we show both experimentally and theoretically that, for completely wetting volatile liquids, there also exists a dynamically-produced contribution to the critical angle for depinning, which increases with the evaporation rate. This suggests that one may introduce a simple modification of the Gibbs' criterion for (de)pinning that accounts for the nonequilibrium effect of evaporation. PMID:25222133

  15. MVAPACK: A Complete Data Handling Package for NMR Metabolomics

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Data handling in the field of NMR metabolomics has historically been reliant on either in-house mathematical routines or long chains of expensive commercial software. Thus, while the relatively simple biochemical protocols of metabolomics maintain a low barrier to entry, new practitioners of metabolomics experiments are forced to either purchase expensive software packages or craft their own data handling solutions from scratch. This inevitably complicates the standardization and communication of data handling protocols in the field. We report a newly developed open-source platform for complete NMR metabolomics data handling, MVAPACK, and describe its application on an example metabolic fingerprinting data set. PMID:24576144

  16. Significance of norms and completeness in variational based methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storch, Joel A.

    1989-01-01

    By means of a simple structural problem, an important requirement often overlooked in practice on the basis functions used in Rayleigh-Ritz-Galerkin type methods is brought into focus. The problem of the static deformation of a uniformly loaded beam is solved variationally by expanding the beam displacement in a Fourier Cosine series. The potential energy functional is rendered stationary subject to the geometric boundary conditions. It is demonstrated that the variational approach does not converge to the true solution. The object is to resolve this paradox, and in so doing, indicate the practical implications of norms and completeness in an appropriate inner product space.

  17. Complete characterization of partially coherent and partially polarized optical fields.

    PubMed

    Basso, Gabriel; Oliveira, Luimar; Vidal, Itamar

    2014-03-01

    We suggest a method to access the second-order, or two-point, Stokes parameters of a partially coherent and partially polarized Gaussian model optical field from an intensity interferometry experiment. Through a remarkably simple experimental arrangement, it is possible to measure the two-point and one-point Stokes parameters simultaneously, allowing the reconstruction of the coherence matrix and the polarization matrix, thus completely characterizing the optical field both statistically and locally on the observation plane. Developments, automation, and applications are pointed out. PMID:24690711

  18. The complete mitochondrial genome of Bryodema miramae (Orthoptera: Oedipodidae).

    PubMed

    Hao, Jing; Liu, Nian; Zhou, Fei; Huang, Yuan

    2016-07-01

    The complete circular mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Bryodema miramae is 15,919 bp in length, containing 37 typical genes and 1 non-coding AT-rich region. The AT content of the AT-rich region is 84.7%. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) start with standard ATN initiation codon and end with complete termination codons TAG or TAA except for cox1 gene using an incomplete stop codon T. tRNA genes are predicted with a characteristic cloverleaf secondary structure except for trnS(AGN), whose dihydrouridine (DHU) arm is replaced by a simple loop. The lengths of the large and small ribosomal RNA genes are 1319 and 836 bp, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis found: (i) Bryodema miramae has a close relationship with Bryodema luctuosum luctuosum, but with low credibility, the bootstrap value was under 50% and (ii) the Bryodema clade forms a sister group with another clade containing Orinhippus tibetanus and Pacris xizangensis. PMID:26024137

  19. Successful Manipulation in Stable Marriage Model with Complete Preference Lists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Hirotatsu; Matsui, Tomomi

    This paper deals with a strategic issue in the stable marriage model with complete preference lists (i.e., a preference list of an agent is a permutation of all the members of the opposite sex). Given complete preference lists of n men over n women, and a marriage µ, we consider the problem for finding preference lists of n women over n men such that the men-proposing deferred acceptance algorithm (Gale-Shapley algorithm) adopted to the lists produces µ. We show a simple necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a set of preference lists of women over men. Our condition directly gives an O(n2) time algorithm for finding a set of preference lists, if it exists.

  20. Dinuclear systems in complete fusion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Zubov, A. S.

    2014-09-01

    Formation and evolution of dinuclear systems in reactions of complete fusion are considered. Based on the dinuclear system concept, the process of compound nucleus formation is studied. Arguments confirming the validity of this concept are given. The main problems of describing the complete fusion in adiabatic approximation are listed. Calculations of evaporation residue cross sections in complete fusion reactions leading to formation of superheavy nuclei are shown. Isotopic trends of the cross sections of heavy nuclei formation in complete fusion reactions are considered.

  1. Simple Bone Cyst of Metacarpal: Rare Lesion with Unique Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Patwardhan, Sandeep; Shah, Kunal; Shyam, Ashok; Sancheti, Parag

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Simple bone cyst or unicameral bone cyst (UBC) are benign cystic lesions commonly found in femur and humerus. However hand is a very rare site of occurrence. Treatment described for UBC of hand commonly involves curettage and bone grafting. Case Report: A 7 year old right hand dominant girl presented to us with chief complaints of pain and swelling in right 4th metacarpal since 2 month. On imaging, plain radiographs of right hand showed expansile lytic lesion on Metaphyseal-diaphyseal region of 4th metacarpal with pathological fracture. MRI showed cystic lesions with internal loculations and fluid-fluid levels (Fig 2). There was minimal soft tissue extension. We performed aspiration which showed serosanguinous fluid with haemorrhagic tinge. With the diagnosis of unicameral bone cyst in mind we performed and closed intramedullary nail with k wire. The cyst healed up completely within 2 months. There was no recurrence at 18 month follow up. Conclusion: In conclusion simple bone cyst is very rare in metacarpal bone. However it should be considered as important differential since it warrants simple treatment and extensive procedures should be avoided. PMID:27298987

  2. Repeated cryostimulation improves position sense and simple reaction time.

    PubMed

    Giemza, Czesław; Bieć, Ewa; Ostrowska, Bożena; Piechaczek, Bogusława; Sitny, Georg; Kuczyński, Michał

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] Whole body cryotherapy has been shown to have many benefits, yet nothing is known if and how this modality can improve neuromuscular performance and retain those improvements. [Subjects and Methods] Joint position sense based on the bilateral knee joint matching test and simple reaction time was investigated in 25 young healthy adults who underwent an extended period of whole body cryostimulation. The measurements were taken at baseline and after 10, 20, and 30 whole body cryotherapy sessions, with three days elapsing after the last treatment, and comparing the results with 24 control subjects. [Results] Only when 20 sessions were completed did joint position sense and simple reaction time improve in the intervention group. After 30 sessions, the outcome was similar. Equal results were found at baseline and after 10 sessions in both groups, but the intervention group outstripped controls after 20 and 30 sessions in both joint position sense and simple reaction time. [Conclusion] These results indicate that the common standard of 10 sessions is insufficient, while approximately 20 sessions of whole body cryotherapy may efficiently enhance neuromuscular performance with an ability to sustain the effects for at least three days. PMID:27313369

  3. Repeated cryostimulation improves position sense and simple reaction time

    PubMed Central

    Giemza, Czesław; Bieć, Ewa; Ostrowska, Bożena; Piechaczek, Bogusława; Sitny, Georg; Kuczyński, Michał

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Whole body cryotherapy has been shown to have many benefits, yet nothing is known if and how this modality can improve neuromuscular performance and retain those improvements. [Subjects and Methods] Joint position sense based on the bilateral knee joint matching test and simple reaction time was investigated in 25 young healthy adults who underwent an extended period of whole body cryostimulation. The measurements were taken at baseline and after 10, 20, and 30 whole body cryotherapy sessions, with three days elapsing after the last treatment, and comparing the results with 24 control subjects. [Results] Only when 20 sessions were completed did joint position sense and simple reaction time improve in the intervention group. After 30 sessions, the outcome was similar. Equal results were found at baseline and after 10 sessions in both groups, but the intervention group outstripped controls after 20 and 30 sessions in both joint position sense and simple reaction time. [Conclusion] These results indicate that the common standard of 10 sessions is insufficient, while approximately 20 sessions of whole body cryotherapy may efficiently enhance neuromuscular performance with an ability to sustain the effects for at least three days. PMID:27313369

  4. Documentation, critique, and suggested changes in a simple ocean model

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, K.E.

    1986-10-01

    A simple upwelling-diffusion model originally formulated by the NYU modeling group and described in Hoffert et al. (1983) has been rederived and critically analyzed. The purpose was to evaluate how to best incorporate the model into a climate model such as the Livermore Statistical Dynamical Model (LSDM). Hoffert's model was one of the first models to be used to study the question of the transient response of the ocean to climate perturbations. It successfully reproduces the equilibrium temperature structure of the deep ocean. I have found that there are some problems in the formulation of the model when it is applied at individual latitudes. I have offered a simple alternative that allows the thermohaline circulation to vary in such a way as to keep the polar temperature just above the freezing point. I have also corrected some inconsistencies in the poleward heat transport equations. Analytic solutions of the model equations under simple harmonic forcing have been found and can be used to verify the finite-difference schemes of numerical models. Full analysis of a more complex model that includes upwelling driven by surface wind stress has not yet been completed.

  5. Improving Completion Rates for TAFE Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uren, Judith

    A study examined individual student, institutional, and environmental factors influencing student non-completions and determined strategies that Western Australia's Central TAFE (technical and further education) might introduce to improve student retention. After completing a multivariate analysis of module completion rates, further data for a…

  6. 40 CFR 72.61 - Completeness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Completeness. 72.61 Section 72.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Federal Acid Rain Permit Issuance Procedures § 72.61 Completeness. (a) Determination of Completeness. The Administrator will...

  7. Completion Mindsets and Contexts in Doctoral Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Pam; Bowden, John

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Doctoral candidates are now located within a research context of performativity where the push to successfully complete in a timely manner is central. The purpose of this paper is to develop a model of completion mindset within a completion context to assist research students and supervisors. Design/methodology/approach: The research was…

  8. Isaac Newton and Student College Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinto, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Success in college is built upon classroom success, but success in the classroom does not in itself ensure college completion. Completion arises from success in a sequence of classes one after another over time. It does so most frequently when students are presented with coherent course pathways to degree completion, are able to gain degree credit…

  9. Measuring Homework Completion in Behavioral Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Andrew M.; Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Kalibatseva, Zornitsa; Miller, Ivan W.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate an observer-based coding system for the characterization and completion of homework assignments during Behavioral Activation (BA). Existing measures of homework completion are generally unsophisticated, and there is no current measure of homework completion designed to capture the particularities…

  10. Completing cremation forms: a practical guide.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Ian; Winstanley, Alison

    2013-07-01

    Before a body can be cremated doctors must complete a series of lengthy forms better known as 'crem forms'. One doctor first completes a medical certificate (Cremation Form 4, previously known as 'Part B') while a second must complete a confirmatory medical certificate (Cremation Form 5, previously 'Part C'). PMID:24145671

  11. Governing Board Oversight of College Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The issue of college completion has become a hot-button topic for higher education and the public in recent years. While completion is not a new issue, several national and state-level efforts, including President Obama's 2020 college-completion goal to increase the number of college graduates to 50 percent of the population, have brought…

  12. Simple shear of deformable square objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treagus, Susan H.; Lan, Labao

    2003-12-01

    Finite element models of square objects in a contrasting matrix in simple shear show that the objects deform to a variety of shapes. For a range of viscosity contrasts, we catalogue the changing shapes and orientations of objects in progressive simple shear. At moderate simple shear ( γ=1.5), the shapes are virtually indistinguishable from those in equivalent pure shear models with the same bulk strain ( RS=4), examined in a previous study. In theory, differences would be expected, especially for very stiff objects or at very large strain. In all our simple shear models, relatively competent square objects become asymmetric barrel shapes with concave shortened edges, similar to some types of boudin. Incompetent objects develop shapes surprisingly similar to mica fish described in mylonites.

  13. Thirty Simple Ideas for Interactive Whiteboards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Caralee

    2011-01-01

    This article presents thirty simple ideas for interactive whiteboards and how IWB can make one's teaching life easier. These teaching ideas for the interactive whiteboard can be used by teachers every day. Tips for classroom management are also presented.

  14. Simple and Clear Proofs of Stirling's Formula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niizeki, Shozo; Araki, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of our article is to show two simpler and clearer methods of proving Stirling's formula than the traditional and conventional ones. The distinction of our method is to use the simple trapezoidal formula.

  15. Pendulum: Rich physics from a simple system

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.A.; Olsson, M.G.

    1986-02-01

    We provide a comprehensive discussion of the corrections needed to accurately measure the acceleration of gravity using a plane pendulum. A simple laboratory experiment is described in which g was determined to four significant figures of accuracy.

  16. The Invention Convention: Mind Meets Simple Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadi-Tabassum, Samina

    1997-01-01

    Describes an Earth Day celebration where students had to design an invention made of simple machines that could crush an empty aluminum can through 10 rapid mechanical movements using materials foraged from the students' homes. (JRH)

  17. A simple and inexpensive external fixator.

    PubMed

    Noor, M A

    1988-11-01

    A simple and inexpensive external fixator has been designed. It is constructed of galvanized iron pipe and mild steel bolts and nuts. It can easily be manufactured in a hospital workshop with a minimum of tools. PMID:3267638

  18. Tight gas sands study breaks down drilling and completion costs

    SciTech Connect

    Brunsman, B. ); Saunders, B. )

    1994-06-06

    Given the high cost to drill and complete tight gas sand wells, advances in drilling and completion technology that result in even modest cost savings to the producer have the potential to generate tremendous savings for the natural gas industry. The Gas Research Institute sponsored a study to evaluate drilling and completion costs in selected tight gas sands. The objective of the study was to identify major expenditures associated with tight gas sand development and determine their relative significance. A substantial sample of well cost data was collected for the study. Individual well cost data were collected from nearly 300 wells in three major tight gas sand formations: the Cotton Valley sand in East Texas, the Frontier sand in Wyoming, and the Wilcox sand in South Texas. The data were collected and organized by cost category for each formation. After the information was input into a data base, a simple statistical analysis was performed. The statistical analysis identified data discrepancies that were then resolved, and it helped allow conclusions to be drawn regarding drilling and completion costs in these tight sand formations. Results are presented.

  19. Direct memory access transfer completion notification

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J. , Blocksome; Michael A. , Parker; Jeffrey J.

    2011-02-15

    Methods, systems, and products are disclosed for DMA transfer completion notification that include: inserting, by an origin DMA on an origin node in an origin injection FIFO, a data descriptor for an application message; inserting, by the origin DMA, a reflection descriptor in the origin injection FIFO, the reflection descriptor specifying a remote get operation for injecting a completion notification descriptor in a reflection injection FIFO on a reflection node; transferring, by the origin DMA to a target node, the message in dependence upon the data descriptor; in response to completing the message transfer, transferring, by the origin DMA to the reflection node, the completion notification descriptor in dependence upon the reflection descriptor; receiving, by the origin DMA from the reflection node, a completion packet; and notifying, by the origin DMA in response to receiving the completion packet, the origin node's processing core that the message transfer is complete.

  20. Direct memory access transfer completion notification

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Parker, Jeffrey J.

    2011-02-15

    DMA transfer completion notification includes: inserting, by an origin DMA engine on an origin node in an injection first-in-first-out (`FIFO`) buffer, a data descriptor for an application message to be transferred to a target node on behalf of an application on the origin node; inserting, by the origin DMA engine, a completion notification descriptor in the injection FIFO buffer after the data descriptor for the message, the completion notification descriptor specifying a packet header for a completion notification packet; transferring, by the origin DMA engine to the target node, the message in dependence upon the data descriptor; sending, by the origin DMA engine, the completion notification packet to a local reception FIFO buffer using a local memory FIFO transfer operation; and notifying, by the origin DMA engine, the application that transfer of the message is complete in response to receiving the completion notification packet in the local reception FIFO buffer.

  1. Nonlinear Quantum Mechanics Implies Polynomial-Time Solution for NP-Complete and # P Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrams, Daniel S.; Lloyd, Seth

    1998-11-01

    If quantum states exhibit small nonlinearities during time evolution, then quantum computers can be used to solve NP-complete and # P problems in polynomial time. We provide algorithms that solve NP-complete and # P oracle problems by exploiting nonlinear quantum logic gates. Using the Weinberg model as a simple example, the explicit construction of these gates is derived from the underlying physics. Nonlinear quantum algorithms are also presented using Polchinski type nonlinearities which do not allow for superluminal communication.

  2. The Design of SimpleITK

    PubMed Central

    Lowekamp, Bradley C.; Chen, David T.; Ibáñez, Luis; Blezek, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    SimpleITK is a new interface to the Insight Segmentation and Registration Toolkit (ITK) designed to facilitate rapid prototyping, education and scientific activities via high level programming languages. ITK is a templated C++ library of image processing algorithms and frameworks for biomedical and other applications, and it was designed to be generic, flexible and extensible. Initially, ITK provided a direct wrapping interface to languages such as Python and Tcl through the WrapITK system. Unlike WrapITK, which exposed ITK's complex templated interface, SimpleITK was designed to provide an easy to use and simplified interface to ITK's algorithms. It includes procedural methods, hides ITK's demand driven pipeline, and provides a template-less layer. Also SimpleITK provides practical conveniences such as binary distribution packages and overloaded operators. Our user-friendly design goals dictated a departure from the direct interface wrapping approach of WrapITK, toward a new facade class structure that only exposes the required functionality, hiding ITK's extensive template use. Internally SimpleITK utilizes a manual description of each filter with code-generation and advanced C++ meta-programming to provide the higher-level interface, bringing the capabilities of ITK to a wider audience. SimpleITK is licensed as open source software library under the Apache License Version 2.0 and more information about downloading it can be found at http://www.simpleitk.org. PMID:24416015

  3. The Design of SimpleITK.

    PubMed

    Lowekamp, Bradley C; Chen, David T; Ibáñez, Luis; Blezek, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    SimpleITK is a new interface to the Insight Segmentation and Registration Toolkit (ITK) designed to facilitate rapid prototyping, education and scientific activities via high level programming languages. ITK is a templated C++ library of image processing algorithms and frameworks for biomedical and other applications, and it was designed to be generic, flexible and extensible. Initially, ITK provided a direct wrapping interface to languages such as Python and Tcl through the WrapITK system. Unlike WrapITK, which exposed ITK's complex templated interface, SimpleITK was designed to provide an easy to use and simplified interface to ITK's algorithms. It includes procedural methods, hides ITK's demand driven pipeline, and provides a template-less layer. Also SimpleITK provides practical conveniences such as binary distribution packages and overloaded operators. Our user-friendly design goals dictated a departure from the direct interface wrapping approach of WrapITK, toward a new facade class structure that only exposes the required functionality, hiding ITK's extensive template use. Internally SimpleITK utilizes a manual description of each filter with code-generation and advanced C++ meta-programming to provide the higher-level interface, bringing the capabilities of ITK to a wider audience. SimpleITK is licensed as open source software library under the Apache License Version 2.0 and more information about downloading it can be found at http://www.simpleitk.org. PMID:24416015

  4. Direct memory access transfer completion notification

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Parker, Jeffrey J.

    2010-08-17

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for DMA transfer completion notification that include: inserting, by an origin DMA engine on an origin compute node in an injection FIFO buffer, a data descriptor for an application message to be transferred to a target compute node on behalf of an application on the origin compute node; inserting, by the origin DMA engine, a completion notification descriptor in the injection FIFO buffer after the data descriptor for the message, the completion notification descriptor specifying an address of a completion notification field in application storage for the application; transferring, by the origin DMA engine to the target compute node, the message in dependence upon the data descriptor; and notifying, by the origin DMA engine, the application that the transfer of the message is complete, including performing a local direct put operation to store predesignated notification data at the address of the completion notification field.

  5. Informationally complete sets of Gaussian measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiukas, Jukka; Schultz, Jussi

    2013-12-01

    We prove the necessary and sufficient conditions for the informational completeness of an arbitrary set of Gaussian observables on continuous variable systems with a finite number of degrees of freedom. In particular, we show that an informationally complete set either contains a single informationally complete observable, or includes infinitely many observables. We show that for a single informationally complete observable, the minimal outcome space is the phase space, and the corresponding probability distribution can always be obtained from the quantum optical Q-function by linear postprocessing and Gaussian convolution, in a suitable symplectic coordinatization of the phase space. In the case of projection valued Gaussian observables, e.g., generalized field quadratures, we show that an informationally complete set of observables is necessarily infinite. Finally, we generalize the treatment to the case where the measurement coupling is given by a general linear bosonic channel, and characterize informational completeness for an arbitrary set of the associated observables.

  6. Simple microfluidic stagnation point flow geometries.

    PubMed

    Dockx, Greet; Verwijlen, Tom; Sempels, Wouter; Nagel, Mathias; Moldenaers, Paula; Hofkens, Johan; Vermant, Jan

    2016-07-01

    A geometrically simple flow cell is proposed to generate different types of stagnation flows, using a separation flow and small variations of the geometric parameters. Flows with high local deformation rates can be changed from purely rotational, over simple shear flow, to extensional flow in a region surrounding a stagnation point. Computational fluid dynamic calculations are used to analyse how variations of the geometrical parameters affect the flow field. These numerical calculations are compared to the experimentally obtained streamlines of different designs, which have been determined by high speed confocal microscopy. As the flow type is dictated predominantly by the geometrical parameters, such simple separating flow devices may alleviate the requirements for flow control, while offering good stability for a wide variety of flow types. PMID:27462382

  7. Maximal temperature in a simple thermodynamical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, De-Chang; Stojkovic, Dejan

    2016-06-01

    Temperature in a simple thermodynamical system is not limited from above. It is also widely believed that it does not make sense talking about temperatures higher than the Planck temperature in the absence of the full theory of quantum gravity. Here, we demonstrate that there exist a maximal achievable temperature in a system where particles obey the laws of quantum mechanics and classical gravity before we reach the realm of quantum gravity. Namely, if two particles with a given center of mass energy come at the distance shorter than the Schwarzschild diameter apart, according to classical gravity they will form a black hole. It is possible to calculate that a simple thermodynamical system will be dominated by black holes at a critical temperature which is about three times lower than the Planck temperature. That represents the maximal achievable temperature in a simple thermodynamical system.

  8. An Operationally Simple Sonogashira Reaction for an Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cranwell, Philippa B.; Peterson, Alexander M.; Littlefield, Benjamin T. R.; Russell, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    An operationally simple, reliable, and cheap Sonogashira reaction suitable for an undergraduate laboratory class that can be completed within a day-long (8 h) laboratory session has been developed. Cross-coupling is carried out between 2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol and various aryl iodides using catalytic amounts of bis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II)…

  9. Lunar Simple Crater Impact Melt Volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plescia, Jeffrey B.; Barnouin, O. S.; Cintala, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    Impact melt is observed in simple lunar craters having diameters as small as less than 200 m. The presence of ponds of impact melt on the floor of such small craters is interpreted to indicate vertical impacts. Data from the LRO LROC and LOLA experiments allow quantitative estimates of the volume of impact melt in simple crater. Such estimates allow for validation of theoretical models of impact melt generation and examination of target effects. Preliminary data have considerable scatter but are broadly consistent with the models.

  10. Simple cloud chambers using gel ice packs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamata, Masahiro; Kubota, Miki

    2012-07-01

    Although cloud chambers are highly regarded as teaching aids for radiation education, school teachers have difficulty in using cloud chambers because they have to prepare dry ice or liquid nitrogen before the experiment. We developed a very simple and inexpensive cloud chamber that uses the contents of gel ice packs which can substitute for dry ice or liquid nitrogen. The gel can be frozen in normal domestic freezers, and can be used repeatedly by re-freezing. The tracks of alpha-ray particles can be observed continuously for about 20 min, and the operation is simple and easy.

  11. Investigating decoherence in a simple system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrecht, Andreas

    1991-01-01

    The results of some simple calculations designed to study quantum decoherence are presented. The physics of quantum decoherence are briefly reviewed, and a very simple 'toy' model is analyzed. Exact solutions are found using numerical techniques. The type of incoherence exhibited by the model can be changed by varying a coupling strength. The author explains why the conventional approach to studying decoherence by checking the diagonality of the density matrix is not always adequate. Two other approaches, the decoherence functional and the Schmidt paths approach, are applied to the toy model and contrasted to each other. Possible problems with each are discussed.

  12. Simple 2-D navigation for wheeled vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Klarer, P.R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a simple algorithm to perform navigation in a two-dimensional world model. The algorithm utilizes a simple geometric approach which is first applied to a bicycle. The equations are then expeanded to apply to 3- and 4-wheeled vehicles with ''conventional'' steering mechanism (such as the Ackerman steering geometry in the 4-wheeled case). Calculations for omnidirectional robots which utilize differential odometry and differential drive are described as well. Practical considerations and sources of error are discussed, as are possible extensions of this method to a three-dimensional world model. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  13. Simple 2-D navigation for wheeled vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Klarer, P.R.

    1988-04-01

    This paper describes a simple algorithm to perform navigation in a two-dimensional world model. The algorithm utilizes a simple geometric approach which is first applied to a bicycle. The equations are then expanded to apply to 3- and 4-wheeled vehicles with ''conventional'' steering mechanisms (such as the Ackerman steering geometry in the 4-wheeled case). Calculations for omnidirectional robots which utilize differential odometry and differential drive are described as well. Practical considerations and sources of error are discussed, as are possible extensions of this method to a three-dimensional world model. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  14. Circularly Polarized Luminescence from Simple Organic Molecules.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Carnerero, Esther M; Agarrabeitia, Antonia R; Moreno, Florencio; Maroto, Beatriz L; Muller, Gilles; Ortiz, María J; de la Moya, Santiago

    2015-09-21

    This article aims to show the identity of "circularly polarized luminescent active simple organic molecules" as a new concept in organic chemistry due to the potential interest of these molecules, as availed by the exponentially growing number of research articles related to them. In particular, it describes and highlights the interest and difficulty in developing chiral simple (small and non-aggregated) organic molecules able to emit left- or right-circularly polarized light efficiently, the efforts realized up to now to reach this challenging objective, and the most significant milestones achieved to date. General guidelines for the preparation of these interesting molecules are also presented. PMID:26136234

  15. TRSkit: A Simple Digital Library Toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Esler, Sandra L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper introduces TRSkit, a simple and effective toolkit for building digital libraries on the World Wide Web. The toolkit was developed for the creation of the Langley Technical Report Server and the NASA Technical Report Server, but is applicable to most simple distribution paradigms. TRSkit contains a handful of freely available software components designed to be run under the UNIX operating system and served via the World Wide Web. The intended customer is the person that must continuously and synchronously distribute anywhere from 100 - 100,000's of information units and does not have extensive resources to devote to the problem.

  16. Precision measurements of a simple chaotic circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiers, Ken; Schmidt, Dory; Sprott, J. C.

    2004-04-01

    We describe a simple nonlinear electrical circuit that can be used to study chaotic phenomena. The circuit employs simple electronic elements such as diodes, resistors, and operational amplifiers, and is easy to construct. A novel feature of the circuit is its use of an almost ideal nonlinear element, which is straightforward to model theoretically and leads to excellent agreement between experiment and theory. For example, comparisons of bifurcation points and power spectra give agreement to within 1%. The circuit yields a broad range of behavior and is well suited for qualitative demonstrations and as a serious research tool.

  17. DP-Complete Problems Derived from Extremal NP-Complete Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yi; Culberson, Joseph; Stewart, Lorna

    In contrast to the extremal variants of coNP-complete problems, which are frequently DP-complete, many extremal variants of NP-complete problems are in P. We investigate the extremal variants of two NP-complete problems, the extremal colorability problem with restricted degree and the extremal unfrozen non-implicant problem, and show that both of them are DP-complete.

  18. Perceptual Completion in Newborn Human Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valenza, Eloisa; Leo, Irene; Gava, Lucia; Simion, Francesca

    2006-01-01

    Despite decades of studies of human infants, a still open question concerns the role of visual experience in the development of the ability to perceive complete shapes over partial occlusion. Previous studies show that newborns fail to manifest this ability, either because they lack the visual experience required for perceptual completion or…

  19. Computer Scoring of Sentence Completion Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veldman, Donald J.; And Others

    This paper outlines the development of techniques for computer-based personality assessment from sentence completions. The One-Word Sentence Completion (OWSC) instrument was designed to elicit data suitable for machine processing, while retaining most of the advantages of a free-response format. Two operative scoring systems are described. The…

  20. Gravel packing feasible in horizontal well completions

    SciTech Connect

    Zaleski, T.E. Jr.; Ashton, J.P. )

    1990-06-11

    Successful completion of horizontal wells in unconsolidated formations depends on proper equipment selection and installation method balanced with reservoir objectives, formation parameters, and costs. The guidelines for designing these completions are based on generalized field experience, including horizontal cases where applicable.

  1. Improving Closing Task Completion in a Drugstore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fante, Rhiannon; Davis, Ora L.; Kempt, Vivian

    2013-01-01

    A within-subject ABAB reversal design was utilized to investigate the effects of graphic feedback and goal setting on employee closing task completion. Goal setting was contingent upon baseline performance and graphic feedback was posted weekly. It was found that goal setting and graphic feedback improved employee closing task completion.…

  2. 78 FR 76257 - Rural Call Completion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ...In this document the FCC seeks comments on additional measures that may help the Commission ensure a reasonable and nondiscriminatory level of service for completing long-distance calls to rural areas. This document also; seeks to improve the Commission's ability to monitor problems with completing calls to rural areas, and enhance our ability to enforce restrictions against blocking, choking,......

  3. 7 CFR 1703.134 - Completed application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Completed application. 1703.134 Section 1703.134 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Combination Loan and Grant Program § 1703.134 Completed application....

  4. 7 CFR 1703.144 - Completed application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Completed application. 1703.144 Section 1703.144 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Loan Program § 1703.144 Completed application. The following items are...

  5. Completion Agenda for Baby Boomers. Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishman, Seth

    2011-01-01

    In the article, "Completion Agenda for Baby Boomers", Moltz highlights how community colleges are currently implementing programs, such as the American Association of Community Colleges' Plus 50 Completion strategy, to encourage older learners to return to America's college campuses. The effects of the recent recession and the educational desires…

  6. Postscript: Filling-in Models of Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Barton L.

    2007-01-01

    Presents some additional comments from the current author regarding his original article "Filling-in models of completion: Rejoinder to Kellman, Garrigan, Shipley, and Keane (2007) and Albert (2007)." Despite repeated assertions by Kellman et al., I have never claimed that luminance constraints block modal completion; rather, they merely weaken…

  7. 30 CFR 777.15 - Completeness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Completeness. 777.15 Section 777.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL... CONTENT REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMIT APPLICATIONS § 777.15 Completeness. An application for a permit to...

  8. 30 CFR 777.15 - Completeness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Completeness. 777.15 Section 777.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL... CONTENT REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMIT APPLICATIONS § 777.15 Completeness. An application for a permit to...

  9. 30 CFR 777.15 - Completeness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Completeness. 777.15 Section 777.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL... CONTENT REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMIT APPLICATIONS § 777.15 Completeness. An application for a permit to...

  10. 30 CFR 777.15 - Completeness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Completeness. 777.15 Section 777.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL... CONTENT REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMIT APPLICATIONS § 777.15 Completeness. An application for a permit to...

  11. 30 CFR 777.15 - Completeness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Completeness. 777.15 Section 777.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL... CONTENT REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMIT APPLICATIONS § 777.15 Completeness. An application for a permit to...

  12. Using Simple Machines to Leverage Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dotger, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    What would your students say if you told them they could lift you off the ground using a block and a board? Using a simple machine, they'll find out they can, and they'll learn about work, energy, and motion in the process! In addition, this integrated lesson gives students the opportunity to investigate variables while practicing measurement…

  13. Amplitude Frequency Response Measurement: A Simple Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satish, L.; Vora, S. C.

    2010-01-01

    A simple method is described to combine a modern function generator and a digital oscilloscope to configure a setup that can directly measure the amplitude frequency response of a system. This is achieved by synchronously triggering both instruments, with the function generator operated in the "Linear-Sweep" frequency mode, while the oscilloscope…

  14. Air: Simple Experiments for Young Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Larry

    This book contains simple experiments through which students explore air and its properties. Some of the topics discussed include alternative energy, bacteria, carbon dioxide, motion, weather, and flight. Experiments include: blowing a balloon up in a bottle; seeing air in water; making a lunch-bag kite, weather vanes, and paper glider;…

  15. Seismic Safety Of Simple Masonry Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Guadagnuolo, Mariateresa; Faella, Giuseppe

    2008-07-08

    Several masonry buildings comply with the rules for simple buildings provided by seismic codes. For these buildings explicit safety verifications are not compulsory if specific code rules are fulfilled. In fact it is assumed that their fulfilment ensures a suitable seismic behaviour of buildings and thus adequate safety under earthquakes. Italian and European seismic codes differ in the requirements for simple masonry buildings, mostly concerning the building typology, the building geometry and the acceleration at site. Obviously, a wide percentage of buildings assumed simple by codes should satisfy the numerical safety verification, so that no confusion and uncertainty have to be given rise to designers who must use the codes. This paper aims at evaluating the seismic response of some simple unreinforced masonry buildings that comply with the provisions of the new Italian seismic code. Two-story buildings, having different geometry, are analysed and results from nonlinear static analyses performed by varying the acceleration at site are presented and discussed. Indications on the congruence between code rules and results of numerical analyses performed according to the code itself are supplied and, in this context, the obtained result can provide a contribution for improving the seismic code requirements.

  16. Simple high-temperature thermal diffusivity apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, C.; Zoltan, A.

    1984-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive thermal diffusivity apparatus is described for measurement up to 1600 K. The novel features of apparatus include a light pipe, a long furnace, and a differential thermocouple. A low heat-load sample holder for clamping the sample in a vertical position is also described. The results of measurements on AXM-5Q graphite are reported.

  17. Simple Phenomena, Slow Motion, Surprising Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koupil, Jan; Vicha, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a few simple experiments that are worthwhile for slow motion recording and analysis either because of interesting phenomena that can be seen only when slowed down significantly or because of the ability to do precise time measurements. The experiments described in this article are quite commonly done in Czech schools. All…

  18. Richard Kluger's "Simple Justice" after 29 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Although it is obligatory to mark the anniversary of "Brown v. Board of Education," why it deserves to be commemorated is not necessarily obvious at a distance of fifty years. In this article, the author discusses this issue in the light of Richard Kluger's remarkable book--"Simple Justice." He states that, today the widespread existence of…

  19. Simple Analysis of Historical Lime Mortars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pires, Joa~o

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described in which a simple characterization of a historical lime mortar is made by the determination of its approximate composition by a gravimetric method. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) are also used for the qualitative characterization of the lime mortar components. These…

  20. Nature versus Nurture: The Simple Contrast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidoff, Jules; Goldstein, Julie; Roberson, Debi

    2009-01-01

    We respond to the commentary of Franklin, Wright, and Davies ("Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 102", 239-245 [2009]) by returning to the simple contrast between nature and nurture. We find no evidence from the toddler data that makes us revise our ideas that color categories are learned and never innate. (Contains 1 figure.)

  1. Experimental Control of Simple Pendulum Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina, C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper conveys information about a Physics laboratory experiment for students with some theoretical knowledge about oscillatory motion. Students construct a simple pendulum that behaves as an ideal one, and analyze model assumption incidence on its period. The following aspects are quantitatively analyzed: vanishing friction, small amplitude,…

  2. Learning in a Simple Motor System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broussard, Dianne M.; Kassardjian, Charles D.

    2004-01-01

    Motor learning is a very basic, essential form of learning that appears to share common mechanisms across different motor systems. We evaluate and compare a few conceptual models for learning in a relatively simple neural system, the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) of vertebrates. We also compare the different animal models that have been used to…

  3. Simple Enrichment System for Hydrogen Producers ▿

    PubMed Central

    Tolvanen, Katariina E. S.; Mangayil, Rahul K.; Karp, Matti T.; Santala, Ville P.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a simple enrichment system where gas pressure produced by microbes performs functions that are normally done by labor. The system was tested with Escherichia coli strains with different hydrogen production and growth capabilities. The results show that the system can enrich the best hydrogen producer. PMID:21531834

  4. Building Simple Hidden Markov Models. Classroom Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ching, Wai-Ki; Ng, Michael K.

    2004-01-01

    Hidden Markov models (HMMs) are widely used in bioinformatics, speech recognition and many other areas. This note presents HMMs via the framework of classical Markov chain models. A simple example is given to illustrate the model. An estimation method for the transition probabilities of the hidden states is also discussed.

  5. Revisiting the Simple View of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendeou, Panayiota; Savage, Robert; van den Broek, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Background: Reading component models such as the Simple View of Reading (SVR; Gough & Tunmer, 1986; Hoover & Gough, 1990) provide a concise framework for describing the processes and skills involved when readers comprehend texts. According to the Independent Review of the Teaching of Early Reading (Rose, 2006) strong evidence for the SVR comes…

  6. A simple urine test for sulfonamides

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida-Filho, Juvenal; de Souza, José Maria

    1983-01-01

    The lack of a simple and reliable test for sulfonamides has created a problem because of the increasing use of these drugs in the chemotherapy of malaria. This paper describes a modification of the Bratton-Marshall technique, for which the reagents are easily obtainable and which can be carried out in simply equipped primary health care laboratories. PMID:6601540

  7. [A simple vibratome for brain slice].

    PubMed

    Xia, J H; Xing, B R; Gu, Q; Hua, S Y

    1989-12-01

    A simple vibratome was fabricated using double-function electric shaver and microscopic platform. Spontaneous discharge of neurons in hippocampal and hypothalamic brain slices (in 300-400 microns thick) prepared by the vibratome could kept above 12 hours in artificial cerebro-spinal fluid. PMID:2697084

  8. Simple Demonstration of the Seebeck Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molki, Arman

    2010-01-01

    In this article we propose a simple and low-cost experimental set-up through which science educators can demonstrate the Seebeck effect using a thermocouple and an instrumentation amplifier. The experiment can be set up and conducted during a 1-hour laboratory session. (Contains 3 tables and 3 figures.)

  9. Earthways: Simple Environmental Activities for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrash, Carol

    This book presents simple environmental activities designed for young children. The contents are organized seasonally and each section features subsections: The Whole Earth Home and Classroom, Bringing Nature In, The Season Garden, Seasonal Crafts, and Supplying the Missing Links. These sections provide information on how to set up an indoor…

  10. Jacks--A Study of Simple Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Ralph

    This vocational physics individualized student instructional module on jacks (simple machines used to lift heavy objects) contains student prerequisites and objectives, an introduction, and sections on the ratchet bumper jack, the hydraulic jack, the screw jack, and load limitations. Designed with a laboratory orientation, each section consists of…

  11. Simple suture and anchor in rabbit hips

    PubMed Central

    Garcia Filho, Fernando Cal; Guarniero, Roberto; de Godoy Júnior, Rui Maciel; Pereira, César Augusto Martins; Matos, Marcos Almeida; Garcia, Lucas Cortizo

    2012-01-01

    Objective Using biomechanical studies, this research aims to compare hip capsulorrhaphy in rabbits, carried out with two different techniques: capsulorrhaphy with simple sutures and with anchors. Method Thirteen New Zealand Albino (Oryctolaguscuniculus) male rabbits, twenty-six hip joints, were used. First, a pilot project was performed with three rabbits (six hip joints). This experiment consisted of ten rabbits divided into two groups: group 1 underwent capsulorrhaphy on both right and left hips with simple suture using polyglycolic acid absorbable thread, and group 2 underwent capsulorrhaphy with titanium anchors. After a four-week postoperative period, the animals were euthanized and the hip joints were frozen. On the same day of the biomechanical studies, after the hip joints were previously unfrozen, the following parameters were evaluated: rigidity, maximum force, maximum deformity and energy. Results There was no relevant statistical difference in rigidity, maximum force, maximum deformity and energy between the simple suture and anchor groups. Conclusion Through biomechanical analyses, using parameters of rigidity, maximum force, maximum deformity and energy, it has been shown that capsulorrhaphy with simple suture and with anchors has similar results in rabbit hip joints. Level of Evidence II, Prospective Comparative Study. PMID:24453618

  12. Simple adaptive tracking control for mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobtsov, Alexey; Faronov, Maxim; Kolyubin, Sergey; Pyrkin, Anton

    2014-12-01

    The problem of simple adaptive and robust control is studied for the case of parametric and dynamic dimension uncertainties: only the maximum possible relative degree of the plant model is known. The control approach "consecutive compensator" is investigated. To illustrate the efficiency of proposed approach an example with the mobile robot motion control using computer vision system is considered.

  13. SLURM: Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management

    SciTech Connect

    Jette, M; Grondona, M

    2002-12-19

    Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management (SLURM) is an open source, fault-tolerant, and highly scalable cluster management and job scheduling system for Linux clusters of thousands of nodes. Components include machine status, partition management, job management, scheduling and stream copy modules. This paper presents an overview of the SLURM architecture and functionality.

  14. Simple Steps Can Keep Lawn Mowing Safe

    MedlinePlus

    ... FAQs Contact Us Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Latest Health News → Article URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158341.html Simple Steps Can Keep Lawn Mowing Safe Before cutting the grass, review these safety tips To use ...

  15. Simple Numerical Simulation of Strain Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, H.

    2002-01-01

    By adopting the basic principle of the reflection (and transmission) of a plane polarized electromagnetic wave incident normal to a stack of films of alternating refractive index, a simple numerical code was written to simulate the maximum reflectivity (transmittivity) of a fiber optic Bragg grating corresponding to various non-uniform strain conditions including photo-elastic effect in certain cases.

  16. A novel and simple atrial retractor.

    PubMed

    Kofidis, Theo; Lee, Chuen Neng

    2011-05-01

    Minimally invasive cardiac operations require specialized equipment. Atrial retractors are a frequently used tool to expose heart valves for minimally invasive and open procedures. The models currently available in the market are efficient; however, they may be complex, bulky, or expensive. We introduce a novel, very simple atrial retractor we designed using ubiquitously available materials. PMID:21524488

  17. Correcting the SIMPLE Model of Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Michael D.; Pooley, James P.

    2013-01-01

    The scale-invariant memory, perception, and learning (SIMPLE) model developed by Brown, Neath, and Chater (2007) formalizes the theoretical idea that scale invariance is an important organizing principle across numerous cognitive domains and has made an influential contribution to the literature dealing with modeling human memory. In the context…

  18. Teaching Alveolar Ventilation with Simple, Inexpensive Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2008-01-01

    When teaching and learning about alveolar ventilation with our class of 300 first-year medical students, we use four simple, inexpensive "models." The models, which encourage research-oriented learning and help our students to understand complex ideas, are distributed to the students before class. The students anticipate something new every day,…

  19. Simple Cloud Chambers Using Gel Ice Packs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamata, Masahiro; Kubota, Miki

    2012-01-01

    Although cloud chambers are highly regarded as teaching aids for radiation education, school teachers have difficulty in using cloud chambers because they have to prepare dry ice or liquid nitrogen before the experiment. We developed a very simple and inexpensive cloud chamber that uses the contents of gel ice packs which can substitute for dry…

  20. A Simple Technique for High Resistance Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Horacio Munguia; Landin, Ramon Ochoa

    2012-01-01

    A simple electronic system for the measurement of high values of resistance is shown. This system allows the measurement of resistance in the range of a few megohm up to 10[superscript 9] [omega]. We have used this system for the evaluation of CdS thin film resistance, but other practical uses in the basic physics laboratory are presented.…

  1. Energy: Simple Experiments for Young Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Larry

    This book contains simple experiments through which students can learn about the properties of energy. These experiments include making a kitchen "volcano," a soda-pop "cannon," and a puffed-rice "scooter." Topics include: energy and work, fossil fuels, solar energy, kinetic energy, potential energy, mechanical energy, heat energy, sound energy,…

  2. A Simple ELISA Exercise for Undergraduate Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Moore, Cathy R.

    Understanding of immunological techniques such as the Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA) is an important part of instructional units in human health, developmental biology, microbiology, and biotechnology. This paper describes a simple ELISA exercise for undergraduate biology that effectively simulates the technique using a paper model.…

  3. Simple Harmonic Motion in Harmonic Plane Waves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benumof, Reuben

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the distribution of kinetic and potential energy in transverse and longitudinal waves and examines the transmission of power and momentum. This discussion is intended to aid in understanding the simple harmonic motion of a particle involved in the propagation of a harmonic mechanical plane wave. (HM)

  4. A Simple View of Linguistic Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallotti, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Although a growing number of second language acquisition (SLA) studies take linguistic complexity as a dependent variable, the term is still poorly defined and often used with different meanings, thus posing serious problems for research synthesis and knowledge accumulation. This article proposes a simple, coherent view of the construct, which is…

  5. A Simple Acronym for Doing Calculus: CAL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hathaway, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    An acronym is presented that provides students a potentially useful, unifying view of the major topics covered in an elementary calculus sequence. The acronym (CAL) is based on viewing the calculus procedure for solving a calculus problem P* in three steps: (1) recognizing that the problem cannot be solved using simple (non-calculus) techniques;…

  6. Tour of a Simple Trigonometry Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, Kin-Keung

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on a simple trigonometric problem that generates a strange phenomenon when different methods are applied to tackling it. A series of problem-solving activities are discussed, so that students can be alerted that the precision of diagrams is important when solving geometric problems. In addition, the problem-solving plan was…

  7. Simulated Holograms: A Simple Introduction to Holography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittmann, H.; Schneider, W. B.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a project that uses a computer and a dot matrix printer to simulate the holographic recording process of simple object structures. The process' four steps are (1) superposition of waves; (2) representing the superposition of a plane reference wave on the monitor screen; (3) photographic reduction of the images; and (4) reconstruction of…

  8. Extremely simple holographic projection of color images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makowski, Michal; Ducin, Izabela; Kakarenko, Karol; Suszek, Jaroslaw; Kolodziejczyk, Andrzej; Sypek, Maciej

    2012-03-01

    A very simple scheme of holographic projection is presented with some experimental results showing good quality image projection without any imaging lens. This technique can be regarded as an alternative to classic projection methods. It is based on the reconstruction real images from three phase iterated Fourier holograms. The illumination is performed with three laser beams of primary colors. A divergent wavefront geometry is used to achieve an increased throw angle of the projection, compared to plane wave illumination. Light fibers are used as light guidance in order to keep the setup as simple as possible and to provide point-like sources of high quality divergent wave-fronts at optimized position against the light modulator. Absorbing spectral filters are implemented to multiplex three holograms on a single phase-only spatial light modulator. Hence color mixing occurs without any time-division methods, which cause rainbow effects and color flicker. The zero diffractive order with divergent illumination is practically invisible and speckle field is effectively suppressed with phase optimization and time averaging techniques. The main advantages of the proposed concept are: a very simple and highly miniaturizable configuration; lack of lens; a single LCoS (Liquid Crystal on Silicon) modulator; a strong resistance to imperfections and obstructions of the spatial light modulator like dead pixels, dust, mud, fingerprints etc.; simple calculations based on Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) easily processed in real time mode with GPU (Graphic Programming).

  9. Studying the Greenhouse Effect: A Simple Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papageorgiou, G.; Ouzounis, K.

    2000-01-01

    Studies the parameters involved in a presentation of the greenhouse effect and describes a simple demonstration of this effect. Required equipment includes a 100-120 watt lamp, a 250mL beaker, and a thermometer capable of recording 0-750 degrees Celsius together with a small amount of chloroform. (Author/SAH)

  10. Charge operators in simple Lie groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taormina, A.

    1984-03-01

    Charge operators for representations of dimension less than or equal to 16 are computed in all simple Lie groups. The representations for which the charge operator reproduces the charge spectrum of leptons and quarks of one family are analyzed from a GUT point of view.

  11. Long, polymorphic microsatellites in simple organisms.

    PubMed

    Field, D; Wills, C

    1996-02-22

    We have examined the phylogenetic distribution of the longest, perfect microsatellites in GenBank. Despite the large contributions of model higher-eukaryotic organisms to GenBank, the selective cloning of long microsatellites from these organisms as genetic markers, and the relative lack of concentration on the microsatellites in lower eukaryotes and prokaryotes, we found that simple organisms, defined here as slime molds, fungi, protists, prokaryotes, viruses, organelles and plasmids, contributed 78 of the 375 examined sequences. These 78 simple-organism microsatellites are characterized predominantly by trinucleotide repeats, nearly half of which lie in exons, and in general show a bias towards A+T rich motifs. Simple-organism microsatellites represented more than once in GenBank displayed length polymorphisms when independent clones were compared. These facts collectively raise speculation as to the role of these 'junk' sequences in such highly economical genomes, especially when precise changes in long microsatellites are known to regulate critical virulence factors in several prokaryotes. Regardless of their biological significance, simple-organism microsatellites may provide a general source of molecular markers to track disease outbreaks and the evolution of microorganisms in unprecedented detail. PMID:8728984

  12. Insights into Biological Complexity from Simple Foundations.

    PubMed

    Albergante, L; Liu, D; Palmer, S; Newman, T J

    2016-01-01

    We discuss an overtly "simple approach" to complex biological systems borrowing selectively from theoretical physics. The approach is framed by three maxims, and we show examples of its success in two different applications: investigating cellular robustness at the level of gene regulatory networks and quantifying rare events of DNA replication errors. PMID:27193550

  13. Knowledge acquisition for a simple expert controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bieker, B.

    1987-01-01

    A method is presented for process control which has the properties of being incremental, cyclic and top-down. It is described on the basis of the development of an expert controller for a simple, but nonlinear control route. A quality comparison between expert controller and process operator shows the ability of the method for knowledge acquisition.

  14. Gravity: Simple Experiments for Young Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Larry

    This book contains 12 simple experiments through which students can learn about gravity and its implications. Some of the topics included are weight, weightlessness, artificial gravity, the pull of gravity on different shapes, center of gravity, the universal law of gravity, and balancing. Experiments include: finding the balancing point; weighing…

  15. Making Simple Folk Instruments for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, Dallas

    1980-01-01

    Instructions are provided for making these simple musical instruments from inexpensive materials: an Indian bull-roarer; bottle chimes; a ham can guitar; flower pot, box, and steel drums; a xylophone; a musical sawhorse; rattles; a melody box; and a box thumb harp. (SJL)

  16. A Simple Method for Collecting Airborne Pollen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kevan, Peter G.; DiGiovanni, Franco; Ho, Rong H.; Taki, Hisatomo; Ferguson, Kristyn A.; Pawlowski, Agata K.

    2006-01-01

    Pollination is a broad area of study within biology. For many plants, pollen carried by wind is required for successful seed set. Airborne pollen also affects human health. To foster studies of airborne pollen, we introduce a simple device--the "megastigma"--for collecting pollen from the air. This device is flexible, yielding easily obtained data…

  17. A Simple Photometer to Study Skylight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh Gordon

    2006-01-01

    A simple photometer constructed from an LED and an op amp can be used to measure light in a number of physical situations. A variety of LEDs exist to investigate different wavelength ranges. Combined with an inexpensive transit, the LED photometer can be used to carry out skylight studies and atmospheric optical depth measurements. The activities…

  18. Special Relativity as a Simple Geometry Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Abreu, Rodrigo; Guerra, Vasco

    2009-01-01

    The null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment and the constancy of the one-way speed of light in the "rest system" are used to formulate a simple problem, to be solved by elementary geometry techniques using a pair of compasses and non-graduated rulers. The solution consists of a drawing allowing a direct visualization of all the fundamental…

  19. A simple homemade polarised sunglasses test card

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamdad, Farzad

    2016-05-01

    In this article construction of a simple and inexpensive test card which can be used to demonstrate the polarisation ability of sunglasses is described. The card was fabricated simply by using a piece of polariser sheet with one to three layers of cellophane tape fixed on it.

  20. A Simple Homemade Polarised Sunglasses Test Card

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamdad, Farzad

    2016-01-01

    In this article construction of a simple and inexpensive test card which can be used to demonstrate the polarisation ability of sunglasses is described. The card was fabricated simply by using a piece of polariser sheet with one to three layers of cellophane tape fixed on it.

  1. A Simple Classroom Demonstration of Natural Convection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Dean R.

    2005-01-01

    This article explains a simple way to demonstrate natural convection, such as from a lit candle, in the classroom using an overhead projector. The demonstration is based on the principle of schlieren imaging, commonly used to visualize variations in density for gas flows.

  2. A Simple Laser Microphone for Classroom Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, James M.; Trout, K. P.

    2006-12-01

    Communication through the modulation of electromagnetic radiation has become a foundational technique in modern technology. In this paper we discuss a modern day method of eavesdropping based upon the modulation of laser light reflected from a window pane. A simple and affordable classroom demonstration of a "laser microphone" is described.

  3. A simple animal support for convenient weighing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pan, H.P.; Caslick, J.W.; Harke, D.T.; Decker, D.G.

    1965-01-01

    A simple animal support constructed of web belts to hold skittish pigs for weighing was developed. The support is easily made, noninjurious to the pigs, and compact, facilitating rapid, accurate weighing. With minor modifications, the support can probably be used in weighing other animals.

  4. Fractal surfaces from simple arithmetic operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Morales, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    Fractal surfaces ('patchwork quilts') are shown to arise under most general circumstances involving simple bitwise operations between real numbers. A theory is presented for all deterministic bitwise operations on a finite alphabet. It is shown that these models give rise to a roughness exponent H that shapes the resulting spatial patterns, larger values of the exponent leading to coarser surfaces.

  5. The Simple Gifts of Chris Raschka.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ammon, Richard

    1999-01-01

    Describes how writer and artist Chris Raschka creates children's books that transcend their silent, static medium to skip and sing their way into the hearts of children. Discusses Raschka's background as an artist and writer, as well as a bit of history about his "seemingly simple" style. (SR)

  6. Jarzynski's Equality Illustrated by Simple Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hijar, Humberto; Ortiz de Zarate, Jose M.

    2010-01-01

    The Jarzynski theorem is perhaps the most recently discovered simple general formula in elementary statistical physics. In this paper, written with a pedagogical aim, we illustrate the physical concepts under the Jarzynski and related results by a detailed calculation with a representative example. The physics of the model is sufficiently…

  7. A Simple Illustration of Hemihedral Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ault, Addison

    2004-01-01

    A simple way to represent hemihedral faces and to illustrate the relationship between the resulting left-handed and right-handed hemihedra is presented. The illustrations highlight that the chirality corresponds to the absence of reflective symmetry but not necessarily to the absence of a C2 axis of symmetry.

  8. Water: Simple Experiments for Young Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Larry

    This book contains simple experiments and projects through which students can learn about water and its properties. Some of the topics discussed include acid rain, dehydration, distillation, electrons, tidal waves, and the water cycle. Experiments include: finding out about the amount of water in the body; why there is water in the body; how to…

  9. Design and Fabrication of a Simple Schlierenscope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitra, S. C.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes details of the construction of a simple compact schlieren experimental setup as an instructional aid. This new optical method is easy to apply, noninterfering, nondestructive, free from inertia, and can produce instantaneous records of transient phenomena, and is comparatively inexpensive. (Author/SK)

  10. A Simple Band for Gastric Banding.

    PubMed

    Broadbent

    1993-08-01

    The author has noted that flexible gastric bands have occasionally stenosed the gastric stoma or allowed it to dilate. A band was developed using a soft outer silicone rubber tube over a holding mechanism made out of a nylon cable tie passed within the silicone tube. This simple, easily applied band is rigid, resisting scar contracture and dilatation. PMID:10757939

  11. Simple Test For Organic Material In Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barzana, Eduardo; Klibanov, Alexander; Karel, Marcus

    1989-01-01

    Dried enzymes and color indicators test sensitively and selectively. Dehydrated enzymes used in convenient method for analyzing gases for specific organic substances, outside laboratory. Method used to detect alcohol in breath or formaldehyde in gas streams. Used for simple semiquantitative detection or for precise quantitative measurement.

  12. From Complex to Simple: Interdisciplinary Stochastic Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazilu, D. A.; Zamora, G.; Mazilu, I.

    2012-01-01

    We present two simple, one-dimensional, stochastic models that lead to a qualitative understanding of very complex systems from biology, nanoscience and social sciences. The first model explains the complicated dynamics of microtubules, stochastic cellular highways. Using the theory of random walks in one dimension, we find analytical expressions…

  13. A Simple Laser Microphone for Classroom Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, James M.; Trout, K. P.

    2006-01-01

    Communication through the modulation of electromagnetic radiation has become a foundational technique in modern technology. In this paper we discuss a modern day method of eavesdropping based upon the modulation of laser light reflected from a window pane. A simple and affordable classroom demonstration of a "laser microphone" is…

  14. Simple Activity Demonstrates Wind Energy Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    Wind energy is an exciting and clean energy option often described as the fastest-growing energy system on the planet. With some simple materials, teachers can easily demonstrate its key principles in their classroom. (Contains 1 figure and 2 tables.)

  15. Unusual presentation of a simple renal cyst

    PubMed Central

    Maheshwari, Veena; Alam, Kiran; Varshney, Manoranjan; Khan, Roobina; Gaur, Kavita; Harris, S Hasan

    2011-01-01

    The authors present the case of a 23-year-old woman who presented with a lump in her right abdomen which was 7 cm in diameter. Ultrasonography showed a unilocular cyst, which was diagnosed as a simple renal cyst. This case is presented for its rare occurrence in young females and unusual clinical presentation as a huge abdominal mass. PMID:22715271

  16. Monobore completions for slim-hole wells

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, C.E. )

    1994-09-01

    A growing number of operators are looking at monobore and slimhole completion techniques as possible solutions to economic and operational problems. Each technique can enhance the completion, and because the advantages of each concept affect a different phase of well technology, a broad spectrum of operational advantages could be generated is these techniques were merged into a single completion approach. Each philosophy, however, requires specialized equipment to provide its benefits, and attempts to unite the two strategies have created unique challenges for equipment designers. In many cases, these challenges are not really fully understood. This paper overviews several new equipment designs that are ideally suited for monobore completions in slim-hole wells. Also discussed are new servicing methods and how using these options and the newly designed equipment can overcome the difficulties challenging the design of completion equipment for the combined technologies.

  17. Completion processing for data communications instructions

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael A.; Kumar, Sameer; Parker, Jeffrey J.

    2014-07-01

    Completion processing of data communications instructions in a distributed computing environment with computers coupled for data communications through communications adapters and an active messaging interface (`AMI`), injecting for data communications instructions into slots in an injection FIFO buffer a transfer descriptor, at least some of the instructions specifying callback functions; injecting a completion descriptor for each instruction that specifies a callback function into an injection FIFO buffer slot having a corresponding slot in a pending callback list; listing in the pending callback list callback functions specified by data communications instructions; processing each descriptor in the injection FIFO buffer, setting a bit in a completion bit mask corresponding to the slot in the FIFO where the completion descriptor was injected; and calling by the AMI any callback functions in the pending callback list as indicated by set bits in the completion bit mask.

  18. Completion processing for data communications instructions

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael A.; Kumar, Sameer; Jeffrey, Parker J.

    2014-06-10

    Completion processing of data communications instructions in a distributed computing environment with computers coupled for data communications through communications adapters and an active messaging interface (`AMI`), injecting for data communications instructions into slots in an injection FIFO buffer a transfer descriptor, at least some of the instructions specifying callback functions; injecting a completion descriptor for each instruction that specifies a callback function into an injection FIFO buffer slot having a corresponding slot in a pending callback list; listing in the pending callback list callback functions specified by data communications instructions; processing each descriptor in the injection FIFO buffer, setting a bit in a completion bit mask corresponding to the slot in the FIFO where the completion descriptor was injected; and calling by the AMI any callback functions in the pending callback list as indicated by set bits in the completion bit mask.

  19. A simple demonstration of corrosion cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guichelaar, Philip J.; Williams, Molly W.

    1990-01-01

    The objective is to reinforce and enhance the understanding of galvanic cells, anode cathode reactions and polarization phenomena. Complete instructions are given for laboratory demonstration to be performed by students.

  20. Cuentos Faciles. Habia una vez.... (Simple Stories. There was a Time....) (Presenting Simple Stories in Spanish.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arroyo, Nancy; And Others

    For Spanish-speaking children, simple stories in Spanish, told in a natural language suitable for their age, are not only entertaining, but a means of developing vocabulary and concepts. Non-Spanish-speaking children, too, need exposure to more language than they can understand word for word. However, the simple stories for the Spanish speaker…

  1. Simple solutions for reduced fish farm hazards.

    PubMed

    Myers, Melvin L; Cole, Henry P

    2009-01-01

    Aquaculture poses emerging challenges for agricultural safety and health. Fish farming has many of the same hazards as other types of farming, but it also poses additional hazards associated with water impoundments and night-time work. In a multidisciplinary approach, researchers from four universities are identifying occupational hazards in fish farming and identifying no-cost or low-cost "simple solutions" to reduce or eliminate them. Simple solutions are discovered through farm visits so as to understand the countermeasures that individual stakeholders have taken to protect their workforce, and these countermeasures are documented and photographed to inform other farmers of these solutions. Equipping tractors with rollover protective structures is a standard practice to protect operators from serious injury in the event of an overturn. Other solutions identified include eliminating the need to climb feed bins to open and close the hatch for feed delivery by using a pull-cable at ground level. This simple technology eliminates the exposure to falling from an elevation, a risk that accounts for at least one reported death of a worker on a fish farm. Another solution is to replace metal paddles on a hatchery trough with plastic paddles that if and when entangled in a worker's hair or clothing slip on the rotating drive shaft and thus reduce laceration and entanglement injuries. Another simple solution to prevent entanglements in large pond aerators, used to mechanically dissolve oxygen into the water, that are operated by farm tractor power take-off shafts is to use electrically powered aerators. Bubble-type aerators are safer than electrically powered paddle aerators because workers are shielded from moving parts. Many additional simple solutions have been identified for a range of tasks in this environment. PMID:19437271

  2. Complex Dynamic Behavior in Simple Gene Regulatory Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santillán Zerón, Moisés

    2007-02-01

    Knowing the complete genome of a given species is just a piece of the puzzle. To fully unveil the systems behavior of an organism, an organ, or even a single cell, we need to understand the underlying gene regulatory dynamics. Given the complexity of the whole system, the ultimate goal is unattainable for the moment. But perhaps, by analyzing the most simple genetic systems, we may be able to develop the mathematical techniques and procedures required to tackle more complex genetic networks in the near future. In the present work, the techniques for developing mathematical models of simple bacterial gene networks, like the tryptophan and lactose operons are introduced. Despite all of the underlying assumptions, such models can provide valuable information regarding gene regulation dynamics. Here, we pay special attention to robustness as an emergent property. These notes are organized as follows. In the first section, the long historical relation between mathematics, physics, and biology is briefly reviewed. Recently, the multidisciplinary work in biology has received great attention in the form of systems biology. The main concepts of this novel science are discussed in the second section. A very slim introduction to the essential concepts of molecular biology is given in the third section. In the fourth section, a brief introduction to chemical kinetics is presented. Finally, in the fifth section, a mathematical model for the lactose operon is developed and analyzed..

  3. Measuring Homework Completion in Behavioral Activation

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Andrew M.; Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Kalibatseva, Zornitsa; Miller, Ivan W.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate an observer-based coding system for the characterization and completion of homework assignments during Behavioral Activation (BA). Existing measures of homework completion are generally unsophisticated, and there is no current measure of homework completion designed to capture the particularities of BA. The tested scale sought to capture the type of assignment, realm of functioning targeted, extent of completion, and assignment difficulty. Homework assignments were drawn from 12 (mean age = 48, 83% female) clients in two trials of a 10-session BA manual targeting treatment-resistant depression in primary care. The two coders demonstrated acceptable or better reliability on most codes, and unreliable codes were dropped from the proposed scale. In addition, correlations between homework completion and outcome were strong, providing some support for construct validity. Ultimately, this line of research aims to develop a user-friendly, reliable measure of BA homework completion that can be completed by a therapist during session. PMID:20562324

  4. History of network detection completeness in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schorlemmer, Danijel; Hirata, Naoshi; Ishigaki, Yuzo; Nanjo, Kazuyoshi; Tsuruoka, Hiroshi; Beutin, Thomas; Euchner, Fabian

    2016-04-01

    An important characteristic of any seismic network is its detection completeness, which should be considered a function of space and time. Many researchers rely on robust estimates of detection completeness, especially when investigating statistical parameters of earthquake occurrence like earthquake rates. Contrary to traditional approaches, we do not estimate completeness using methods in which the completeness magnitude is defined as the deviation of the frequency-magnitude distribution from the linear Gutenberg-Richter relation. Here, we present a method based on empirical data only: phase data, station information, and the network-specific attenuation relation. For each station of the network we estimate a time-dependent distribution function describing the detection capability depending on magnitude and distance to the earthquake. For each point in time, maps of detection probabilities for certain magnitudes or overall completeness levels are compiled based on these distributions. Therefore, this method allows for inspection of station performances and their evolution as well as investigations on local detection probabilities even in regions without seismic activity. We present a full history (1923-2014) of network detection completeness for Japan and discuss details of this evolution, e.g. the effects of the Tohoku-oki earthquake sequence. These results are compared with estimated completeness levels of other methods. We present scenario computations showing the impact of different possible network failures. All presented results are published on the CompletenessWeb (www.completenessweb.org) from which the user can download completeness data from all investigated regions, software codes for reproducing the results, and publication-ready and customizable figures.

  5. Assessing the Robustness of Complete Bacterial Genome Segmentations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devillers, Hugo; Chiapello, Hélène; Schbath, Sophie; El Karoui, Meriem

    Comparison of closely related bacterial genomes has revealed the presence of highly conserved sequences forming a "backbone" that is interrupted by numerous, less conserved, DNA fragments. Segmentation of bacterial genomes into backbone and variable regions is particularly useful to investigate bacterial genome evolution. Several software tools have been designed to compare complete bacterial chromosomes and a few online databases store pre-computed genome comparisons. However, very few statistical methods are available to evaluate the reliability of these software tools and to compare the results obtained with them. To fill this gap, we have developed two local scores to measure the robustness of bacterial genome segmentations. Our method uses a simulation procedure based on random perturbations of the compared genomes. The scores presented in this paper are simple to implement and our results show that they allow to discriminate easily between robust and non-robust bacterial genome segmentations when using aligners such as MAUVE and MGA.

  6. Prosthodontic rehabilitation of completely edentulous patient with partial glossectomy.

    PubMed

    Garg, Aditi

    2016-01-01

    Oral cancer accounts for about 40% of all cancers inflicting the human beings. Those involving the tongue results in mild to severe deficiencies of phonation, deglutition, mastication, and taste depending upon the degree and extent tissues involved. Often rehabilitation of such patient is a challenge for the prosthodontist and involves a careful observation and evaluation of the residual oral function and ways to restore them. This article presents a case report of prosthodontic rehabilitation completely edentulous patient, who underwent partial glossectomy following surgical resection of the squamous cell carcinoma involving left lateral borders of the tongue. An attempt was made to restore the comfort and function of the patient with the help of palatal augmentation prosthesis, with additional assistance through speech therapy and simple oral exercises. PMID:27141173

  7. Challenging Case of Postmenopausal Bleeding and Complete Urogenital Duplication.

    PubMed

    Grechukhina, Olga; English, Diana P; Miller, Devin; Ratner, Elena

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Müllerian duct anomalies represent a wide spectrum of congenital abnormalities ranging from simple uterine anomalies to more complex multisystem derangements. Complete duplication of uterus, cervix, and vagina may be associated with urologic and caudal gastrointestinal malformations. CASE REPORT We present a case report detailing the management of a morbidly obese patient with postmenopausal bleeding and thickened endometrial stripe who had a very rare condition of pelvic organ duplication, including 2 hemiuteri, 2 vaginas, 2 hemibladders, and 2 each of ovaries, fallopian tubes, kidneys, and ureters. Laparoscopic hysterectomy was complicated by difficulties understanding urinary system anatomy requiring intraoperative urology consultation and imaging. CONCLUSIONS Management of patients with urogenital duplication and abnormal uterine bleeding requires a thorough understanding of possible associated malformations. Thorough preoperative evaluation, careful surgical exploration, and multidisciplinary approach may be necessary to avoid urologic injury in such patients. PMID:27180733

  8. Determination of gamma glutamyltransferase in completely haemolysed blood samples.

    PubMed

    Gjerde, H; Mørland, J

    1985-11-01

    A simple method for the determination of gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) in completely haemolysed blood samples is described. Haemolysed blood was incubated in the presence of gamma glutamyl-p-nitroanilide and glycylglycine at 37 degrees C for 15 min, and the enzyme reaction was terminated by adding trichloroacetic acid. The pH in the supernatant was adjusted to 7.5 by using a buffer, and the amount of p-nitroaniline formed was measured spectrophotometrically. The correlation between this method and the GGT activity in serum as determined by the standard kinetic method was good, r = 0.982. The blood GGT activity (y) was related to the serum activity (x) as follows: y = 0.415x + 3.8. The effect of storage of blood at room temperature on the GGT activity was studied. The enzyme activity did not change during the first 12 days of storage. PMID:2866579

  9. Completing the Copernican Revolution: The search for other planetary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, David C.

    1995-01-01

    The past few decades have witnessed significant advances in our understanding of how stars form, and there has been an associated increase in our knowledge of conditions and phenomena in the early solar system. These have led to the formulation of a paradigm for the origin of the solar system that is sufficiently complete that its basic elements can be tested directly through observations. A simple, but profound, consequence of the paradigm is that most if not all stars should be accompanied by planetary systems. The accuracy of instruments that can be used in such searches has improved to the point that Jupiter-like companions to a number of nearby stars could be detected. However, the results to date are that no other planetary systems have been detected, and the absence of detection is becoming statistically significant, particularly as it relates to the existence of brown dwarf companions to main-sequence stars.

  10. Spatiotemporally Complete Condensation in a Non-Poissonian Exclusion Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Concannon, Robert J.; Blythe, Richard A.

    2014-02-01

    We investigate a non-Poissonian version of the asymmetric simple exclusion process, motivated by the observation that coarse graining the interactions between particles in complex systems generically leads to a stochastic process with a non-Markovian (history-dependent) character. We characterize a large family of one-dimensional hopping processes using a waiting-time distribution for individual particle hops. We find that when its variance is infinite, a real-space condensate forms that is complete in space (involves all particles) and time (exists at almost any given instant) in the thermodynamic limit. The mechanism for the onset and stability of the condensate is rather subtle and depends on the microscopic dynamics subsequent to a failed particle hop attempt.

  11. Simple method for locking birefringent resonators.

    PubMed

    Libson, Adam; Brown, Nicolas; Buikema, Aaron; López, Camilo Cela; Dordevic, Tamara; Heising, Matthew; Evans, Matthew

    2015-02-01

    We report on a simple method of locking a laser to a birefringent cavity using polarization spectroscopy. The birefringence of the resonator permits the simple extraction of an error signal by using one polarization state as a phase reference for another state. No modulation of the light or the resonator is required, reducing the complexity of the laser locking setup. This method of producing an error signal can be used on most birefringent optical resonators, even if the details of birefringence and eigenpolarizations are not known. This technique is particularly well suited for fiber ring resonators due to the inherent birefringence of the fiber and the unknown nature of that birefringence. We present an experimental demonstration of this technique using a fiber ring. PMID:25836232

  12. Molecular implementation of simple logic programs.

    PubMed

    Ran, Tom; Kaplan, Shai; Shapiro, Ehud

    2009-10-01

    Autonomous programmable computing devices made of biomolecules could interact with a biological environment and be used in future biological and medical applications. Biomolecular implementations of finite automata and logic gates have already been developed. Here, we report an autonomous programmable molecular system based on the manipulation of DNA strands that is capable of performing simple logical deductions. Using molecular representations of facts such as Man(Socrates) and rules such as Mortal(X) <-- Man(X) (Every Man is Mortal), the system can answer molecular queries such as Mortal(Socrates)? (Is Socrates Mortal?) and Mortal(X)? (Who is Mortal?). This biomolecular computing system compares favourably with previous approaches in terms of expressive power, performance and precision. A compiler translates facts, rules and queries into their molecular representations and subsequently operates a robotic system that assembles the logical deductions and delivers the result. This prototype is the first simple programming language with a molecular-scale implementation. PMID:19809454

  13. Characterization of simple wireless neurostimulators and sensors.

    PubMed

    Gulick, Daniel W; Towe, Bruce C

    2014-01-01

    A single diode with a wireless power source and electrodes can act as an implantable stimulator or sensor. We have built such devices using RF and ultrasound power coupling. These simple devices could drastically reduce the size, weight, and cost of implants for applications where efficiency is not critical. However, a shortcoming has been a lack of control: any movement of the external power source would change the power coupling, thereby changing the stimulation current or modulating the sensor response. To correct for changes in power and signal coupling, we propose to use harmonic signals from the device. The diode acts as a frequency multiplier, and the harmonics it emits contain information about the drive level and bias. A simplified model suggests that estimation of power, electrode bias, and electrode resistance is possible from information contained in radiated harmonics even in the presence of significant noise. We also built a simple RF-powered stimulator with an onboard voltage limiter. PMID:25570654

  14. Dynamics and kinematics of simple neural systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinovich, M. |; Selverston, A.; Rubchinsky, L.; Huerta, R.

    1996-09-01

    The dynamics of simple neural systems is of interest to both biologists and physicists. One of the possible roles of such systems is the production of rhythmic patterns, and their alterations (modification of behavior, processing of sensory information, adaptation, control). In this paper, the neural systems are considered as a subject of modeling by the dynamical systems approach. In particular, we analyze how a stable, ordinary behavior of a small neural system can be described by simple finite automata models, and how more complicated dynamical systems modeling can be used. The approach is illustrated by biological and numerical examples: experiments with and numerical simulations of the stomatogastric central pattern generators network of the California spiny lobster. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Dynamics and kinematics of simple neural systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinovich, Mikhail; Selverston, Allen; Rubchinsky, Leonid; Huerta, Ramón

    1996-09-01

    The dynamics of simple neural systems is of interest to both biologists and physicists. One of the possible roles of such systems is the production of rhythmic patterns, and their alterations (modification of behavior, processing of sensory information, adaptation, control). In this paper, the neural systems are considered as a subject of modeling by the dynamical systems approach. In particular, we analyze how a stable, ordinary behavior of a small neural system can be described by simple finite automata models, and how more complicated dynamical systems modeling can be used. The approach is illustrated by biological and numerical examples: experiments with and numerical simulations of the stomatogastric central pattern generators network of the California spiny lobster.

  16. Molecular implementation of simple logic programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Tom; Kaplan, Shai; Shapiro, Ehud

    2009-11-01

    Autonomous programmable computing devices made of biomolecules could interact with a biological environment and be used in future biological and medical applications. Biomolecular implementations of finite automata and logic gates have already been developed. Here, we report an autonomous programmable molecular system based on the manipulation of DNA strands that is capable of performing simple logical deductions. Using molecular representations of facts such as Man(Socrates) and rules such as Mortal(X) <-- Man(X) (Every Man is Mortal), the system can answer molecular queries such as Mortal(Socrates)? (Is Socrates Mortal?) and Mortal(X)? (Who is Mortal?). This biomolecular computing system compares favourably with previous approaches in terms of expressive power, performance and precision. A compiler translates facts, rules and queries into their molecular representations and subsequently operates a robotic system that assembles the logical deductions and delivers the result. This prototype is the first simple programming language with a molecular-scale implementation.

  17. Nonexponential relaxation in a simple liquid metal.

    PubMed

    Demmel, F; Morkel, C

    2012-05-01

    A hallmark of the changes in dynamics towards the glass transition is the stretched exponential structural relaxation. Quasielastic neutron scattering results on liquid rubidium demonstrate such a nonexponential relaxation process in a simple liquid metal above the melting point. The nonexponential decay is an indication of non-Markovian dynamics and points to the collective character of the relaxation process. Describing the relaxation dynamics by a two-step process, the long lasting part of the decay process is in remarkable quantitative agreement with predictions from mode coupling theory. The feedback mechanism of the slowing down process in the theoretical description suggests that this contribution is at the origin of the structural arrest. With rising temperature the intermediate scattering function transforms into a simple exponential decay at a temperature range which indicates the end of the highly viscous solidlike behavior in the liquid. PMID:23004742

  18. Robotic Lander Prototype Completes Initial Tests

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Robotic Lunar Lander Development Project at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., completed an initial series of integrated tests on a new lander prototype. The prototype lander ...

  19. Robotic Lander Completes Multiple Outdoor Flight

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA’s Robotic Lander Development Project in Huntsville, Ala., has successfully completed seven autonomous outdoor flight tests of a lander prototype, dubbed Mighty Eagle. On Oct. 14, Mighty Eagl...

  20. Simple Flame Test Techniques Using Cotton Swabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanger, Michael J.; Phelps, Amy J.

    2004-07-01

    This article describes three new methods for performing simple flame tests using cotton swabs. The first method uses a Bunsen burner and solid metal salts; the second method uses a Bunsen burner and 1 M aqueous solutions of metal salts; and the third method uses candles, rubbing alcohol, and solid metal salts. These methods have the advantage of being easy to perform, require inexpensive and easily-obtained materials, and have easy cleanup and disposal methods. See the Discussion on this Tested Demonstation .

  1. Rack Protection Monitor - A Simple System

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, S.

    1997-12-01

    The Rack Protection Monitor is a simple, fail-safe device to monitor smoke, temperature and ventilation sensors. It accepts inputs from redundant sensors and has a hardwired algorithm to prevent nuisance power trips due to random sensor failures. When a sensor is triggered the Rack Protection Monitor latches and annunicates the alarm. If another sensor is triggered, the Rack Protection Monitor locally shuts down the power to the relay rack and sends alarm to central control.

  2. Simple digital pulse-programing circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langston, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    Pulse-sequencing circuit uses only shift register and Exclusive-OR gates. Circuit also serves as date-transition edge detector (for rising or falling edges). It is used in sample-and-hold, analog-to-digital conversion sequence control, multiphase clock logic, precise delay control computer control logic, edge detectors, other timing applications, and provides simple means to generate timing and control signals for data transfer, addressing, or mode control in microprocessors and minicomputers.

  3. Simple analytic model of wormhole formation

    SciTech Connect

    Maeda, Hideki

    2009-01-15

    An explicit and simple solution representing the wormhole formation is presented. The spacetime is constructed by gluing the Minkowski and Roberts spacetimes at null hypersurfaces in a regular manner. The parameters in the Roberts solution are required to give the negative kinetic term for the massless scalar field. Although a curvature singularity appears at the moment of the wormhole formation, it disappears instantaneously. This instantaneous singularity is weak in the senses of both Tipler and Krolak along radial causal geodesics.

  4. A Simple Experiment for Visualizing Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helseth, L. E.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a simple and fascinating experiment for studying diffusion in gels using a pH-sensitive dye. By doping agar with methyl red, we obtain a gel which rapidly reacts to changes in pH by changing its absorption spectrum. The pH gradients can be followed using a digital camera, and we demonstrate here that the pH-sensitive colour changes can…

  5. SLURM: Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management

    SciTech Connect

    Jette, M; Dunlap, C; Garlick, J; Grondona, M

    2002-07-08

    Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management (SLURM) is an open source, fault-tolerant, and highly scalable cluster management and job scheduling system for Linux clusters of thousands of nodes. Components include machine status, partition management, job management, scheduling and stream copy modules. The design also includes a scalable, general-purpose communication infrastructure. This paper presents a overview of the SLURM architecture and functionality.

  6. Badlands: too complex to be simple?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2016-04-01

    Badlands are an intensively dissected barren landscape, devoid of soil cover, with a sparse or absent vegetation. The very high drainage densities, V-shaped valleys and steep slopes, have often led to believe that badlands represent a landscape where the frequency and magnitude of overland flow and erosion processes are very high, resulting in rapid landscape evolution and a close connection between form and process. This perceived proximity between form and process is the main reason why badlands have sometimes been regarded as "ideal field laboratories" for testing landscape evolution hypothesis. Recent research has shed a critical light on the "simple landscape" perspective. Two key issues support this change in persprective. First, the erosion rates and sediment yields observed badland areas vary widely. As a consequence, only weak relationships were found between average annual rainfall and average erosion rates for annual rainfalls in the wide range of 80-1250 mm. Both the spatial variability and the limited relationship to annual rainfall present a serious barrier for the extrapolation of erosion rates from the hill slope to catchment scales and certainly to landscape evolution over longer geological time scales under changing climatic conditions. A second reason contradicting the simple landscape assessment is the mismatch observed between current erosion rates and the long-term denudation rates, indicating a hiatus between a potentially short period of badland formation and the overall age of the landform. As a consequence, the actual meaning of badland has been questioned, ranging from a description for features to a more complex meaning including current erosion and complex interaction of processes, such as pipe and tunnel erosion. In the light of this critical assessment, the idea of badlands as a "natural and simple laboratory" for landscape development can be questioned because badlands are too complex to be simple. However, one could also wonder

  7. A simple method for simulating gasdynamic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Tom T.

    1991-01-01

    A simple method for performing digital simulation of gasdynamic systems is presented. The approach is somewhat intuitive, and requires some knowledge of the physics of the problem as well as an understanding of the finite difference theory. The method is explicitly shown in appendix A which is taken from the book by P.J. Roache, 'Computational Fluid Dynamics,' Hermosa Publishers, 1982. The resulting method is relatively fast while it sacrifices some accuracy.

  8. Multiphase flow in geometrically simple fracture intersections

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Basagaoglu, H.; Meakin, P.; Green, C.T.; Mathew, M.

    2006-01-01

    A two-dimensional lattice Boltzmann (LB) model with fluid-fluid and solid-fluid interaction potentials was used to study gravity-driven flow in geometrically simple fracture intersections. Simulated scenarios included fluid dripping from a fracture aperture, two-phase flow through intersecting fractures and thin-film flow on smooth and undulating solid surfaces. Qualitative comparisons with recently published experimental findings indicate that for these scenarios the LB model captured the underlying physics reasonably well.

  9. Precision Ultrasonic Wave Measurements With Simple Equipment

    PubMed Central

    Fick, Steven E.; Palmer, C. Harvey

    2001-01-01

    We describe the design and construction of a relatively simple, inexpensive laser interferometer system for accurate measurements of ultrasonic surface displacement waveforms in reasonably friendly environments. We show how analysis of a single waveform can provide both the calibration constant required for absolute measurements and an estimate of the uncertainty of these measurements. We demonstrate the performance of this interferometer by measuring ultrasonic waveforms generated by a novel conical-element ultrasonic transducer.

  10. Simple games to illustrate Parrondo's paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Hal; von Baeyer, Hans Christian

    2004-05-01

    Parrondo's paradox is the proposition that two losing strategies can, by alternating randomly, produce a winner. R. D. Astumian has recently created a simple board game to illustrate this counterintuitive phenomenon. We prove that the inherent symmetry of Astumian's game prevents it from achieving its purpose, and suggest amended versions that do. We also display the additional paradoxical effect of two slow, losing games combining into a fast, winning one.

  11. A Simple Sensor Model for THUNDER Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Joel F.; Bryant, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    A quasi-static (low frequency) model is developed for THUNDER actuators configured as displacement sensors based on a simple Raleigh-Ritz technique. This model is used to calculate charge as a function of displacement. Using this and the calculated capacitance, voltage vs. displacement and voltage vs. electrical load curves are generated and compared with measurements. It is shown this model gives acceptable results and is useful for determining rough estimates of sensor output for various loads, laminate configurations and thicknesses.

  12. Finite-dimensional simple graded algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Bahturin, Yu A; Zaicev, M V; Sehgal, S K

    2008-08-31

    Let R be a finite-dimensional algebra over an algebraically closed field F graded by an arbitrary group G. In the paper it is proved that if the characteristic of F is zero or does not divide the order of any finite subgroup of G, then R is graded simple if and only if it is isomorphic to a matrix algebra over a finite-dimensional graded skew field. Bibliography: 24 titles.

  13. Simple Benchmark Specifications for Space Radiation Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singleterry, Robert C. Jr.; Aghara, Sukesh K.

    2013-01-01

    This report defines space radiation benchmark specifications. This specification starts with simple, monoenergetic, mono-directional particles on slabs and progresses to human models in spacecraft. This report specifies the models and sources needed to what the team performing the benchmark needs to produce in a report. Also included are brief descriptions of how OLTARIS, the NASA Langley website for space radiation analysis, performs its analysis.

  14. APPLYING SIMPLE TECHNOLOGY ACCOMPLISHES VISUAL INSPECTION CHALLENGES

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, C

    2007-07-21

    This paper discusses the successful implementation of simple video technologies at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to perform complex visual inspection, monitoring, and surveillance tasks. Because SRS facilities are similar to those of an industrial plant, the environmental and accessibility considerations for remote viewing are the primary determining factors in the selection of technology. The constraints and challenges associated with remote viewing are discussed, and examples of applications are given.

  15. Simple Example of Backtest Overfitting (SEBO)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-01-06

    In the field of mathematical finance, a "backtest" is the usage of historical market data to assess the performance of a proposed trading strategy. It is a relatively simple matter for a present-day computer system to explore thousands, millions or even billions of variations of a proposed strategy, and pick the best performing variant as the "optimal" strategy "in sample" (i.e., on the input dataset). Unfortunately, such an "optimal" strategy often performs very poorly "out of sample" (i.e. on another dataset), because the parameters of the invest strategy have been oversit to the in-sample data, a situation known as "backtest overfitting". While the mathematics of backtest overfitting has been examined in several recent theoretical studies, here we pursue a more tangible analysis of this problem, in the form of an online simulator tool. Given a input random walk time series, the tool develops an "optimal" variant of a simple strategy by exhaustively exploring all integer parameter values among a handful of parameters. That "optimal" strategy is overfit, since by definition a random walk is unpredictable. Then the tool tests the resulting "optimal" strategy on a second random walk time series. In most runs using our online tool, the "optimal" strategy derived from the first time series performs poorly on the second time series, demonstrating how hard it is not to overfit a backtest. We offer this online tool, "Simple Example of Backtest Overfitting (SEBO)", to facilitate further research in this area.

  16. Necessity of Antibiotics following Simple Exodontia

    PubMed Central

    Yousuf, Waqas; Khan, Moiz; Mehdi, Hasan; Mateen, Sana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of our study is to assess the need for postoperative antibiotics following simple exodontia and determine its role in minimizing patient discomfort and postoperative complications. Material and Methods. All the patients undergoing simple extractions were grouped into two categories: Group 1, patients receiving antibiotics, and Group 2, patients receiving no antibiotics. Patients were recalled on the sixth day to assess postoperative complications. On recall, patients were evaluated for signs of persistent inflammation and signs of dry socket. Presence of persistent inflammation and/or suppuration on the 6th day was considered as wound infection. Results. A total of 146 patients were included in this study. Out of the total sample, 134 (91.8%) presented with no postoperative complications and 12 (8.2%) had postoperative complications, out of which 11 (7.5%) patients presented with dry socket (alveolar osteitis), 5 (3.4%) in the antibiotic group and 6 (4.1%) in the nonantibiotic group. Only 1 patient (0.7%) was reported with infection of the extraction socket in the nonantibiotic group, whereas no case of infection was found in the antibiotic group. Conclusion. Antibiotics are not required after simple extractions in patients who are not medically comprised nor do they have any role in preventing postoperative complications. PMID:27110426

  17. Simple Example of Backtest Overfitting (SEBO)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2015-01-06

    In the field of mathematical finance, a "backtest" is the usage of historical market data to assess the performance of a proposed trading strategy. It is a relatively simple matter for a present-day computer system to explore thousands, millions or even billions of variations of a proposed strategy, and pick the best performing variant as the "optimal" strategy "in sample" (i.e., on the input dataset). Unfortunately, such an "optimal" strategy often performs very poorly "outmore » of sample" (i.e. on another dataset), because the parameters of the invest strategy have been oversit to the in-sample data, a situation known as "backtest overfitting". While the mathematics of backtest overfitting has been examined in several recent theoretical studies, here we pursue a more tangible analysis of this problem, in the form of an online simulator tool. Given a input random walk time series, the tool develops an "optimal" variant of a simple strategy by exhaustively exploring all integer parameter values among a handful of parameters. That "optimal" strategy is overfit, since by definition a random walk is unpredictable. Then the tool tests the resulting "optimal" strategy on a second random walk time series. In most runs using our online tool, the "optimal" strategy derived from the first time series performs poorly on the second time series, demonstrating how hard it is not to overfit a backtest. We offer this online tool, "Simple Example of Backtest Overfitting (SEBO)", to facilitate further research in this area.« less

  18. Necessity of Antibiotics following Simple Exodontia.

    PubMed

    Yousuf, Waqas; Khan, Moiz; Mehdi, Hasan; Mateen, Sana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of our study is to assess the need for postoperative antibiotics following simple exodontia and determine its role in minimizing patient discomfort and postoperative complications. Material and Methods. All the patients undergoing simple extractions were grouped into two categories: Group 1, patients receiving antibiotics, and Group 2, patients receiving no antibiotics. Patients were recalled on the sixth day to assess postoperative complications. On recall, patients were evaluated for signs of persistent inflammation and signs of dry socket. Presence of persistent inflammation and/or suppuration on the 6th day was considered as wound infection. Results. A total of 146 patients were included in this study. Out of the total sample, 134 (91.8%) presented with no postoperative complications and 12 (8.2%) had postoperative complications, out of which 11 (7.5%) patients presented with dry socket (alveolar osteitis), 5 (3.4%) in the antibiotic group and 6 (4.1%) in the nonantibiotic group. Only 1 patient (0.7%) was reported with infection of the extraction socket in the nonantibiotic group, whereas no case of infection was found in the antibiotic group. Conclusion. Antibiotics are not required after simple extractions in patients who are not medically comprised nor do they have any role in preventing postoperative complications. PMID:27110426

  19. Comparison of simple sequence repeats in 19 Archaea.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, S

    2006-01-01

    All organisms that have been studied until now have been found to have differential distribution of simple sequence repeats (SSRs), with more SSRs in intergenic than in coding sequences. SSR distribution was investigated in Archaea genomes where complete chromosome sequences of 19 Archaea were analyzed with the program SPUTNIK to find di- to penta-nucleotide repeats. The number of repeats was determined for the complete chromosome sequences and for the coding and non-coding sequences. Different from what has been found for other groups of organisms, there is an abundance of SSRs in coding regions of the genome of some Archaea. Dinucleotide repeats were rare and CG repeats were found in only two Archaea. In general, trinucleotide repeats are the most abundant SSR motifs; however, pentanucleotide repeats are abundant in some Archaea. Some of the tetranucleotide and pentanucleotide repeat motifs are organism specific. In general, repeats are short and CG-rich repeats are present in Archaea having a CG-rich genome. Among the 19 Archaea, SSR density was not correlated with genome size or with optimum growth temperature. Pentanucleotide density had an inverse correlation with the CG content of the genome. PMID:17183484

  20. Quantifying prosthetic gait deviation using simple outcome measures

    PubMed Central

    Kark, Lauren; Odell, Ross; McIntosh, Andrew S; Simmons, Anne

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To develop a subset of simple outcome measures to quantify prosthetic gait deviation without needing three-dimensional gait analysis (3DGA). METHODS: Eight unilateral, transfemoral amputees and 12 unilateral, transtibial amputees were recruited. Twenty-eight able-bodied controls were recruited. All participants underwent 3DGA, the timed-up-and-go test and the six-minute walk test (6MWT). The lower-limb amputees also completed the Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire. Results from 3DGA were summarised using the gait deviation index (GDI), which was subsequently regressed, using stepwise regression, against the other measures. RESULTS: Step-length (SL), self-selected walking speed (SSWS) and the distance walked during the 6MWT (6MWD) were significantly correlated with GDI. The 6MWD was the strongest, single predictor of the GDI, followed by SL and SSWS. The predictive ability of the regression equations were improved following inclusion of self-report data related to mobility and prosthetic utility. CONCLUSION: This study offers a practicable alternative to quantifying kinematic deviation without the need to conduct complete 3DGA. PMID:27335814

  1. Simple Limbal Epithelial Transplantation in Acid Injury and Severe Dry Eye.

    PubMed

    Arya, Sudesh Kumar; Bhatti, Anubha; Raj, Amit; Bamotra, Ravi Kant

    2016-06-01

    The epithelial cells of cornea constantly undergo renewal and regeneration and the stem cells responsible for renewal resides within basal epithelium at the limbus in palisades of Vogt. Simple limbal epithelial transplantation (SLET) is a simplified technique for limbal stem cell deficiency and it combines the benefits of both conjunctival limbal autografting and cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation by being single-stage and utilizing minimal donor tissue. We will be discussing two cases of ocular surface disorder which were managed successfully by new technique simple limbal epithelial transplantation. Two patients one with unilateral Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency (LSCD) following acid injury and other with bilateral LSCD due to severe dry eye underwent limbal epithelial transplantation using the SLET method after taking prior consent for the procedure. Success was termed complete when a completely epithelialized, avascular and stable corneal surface was seen. The follow up examinations were done on first day, at 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks and at 3 months after the surgery. A completely epithelialised, avascular and stable corneal surface was achieved by 4 weeks in both patients. Simple limbal epithelial transplantation is a new technique which is simple, cheap and easily affordable and it has decreased the dependence on stem cell laboratory. PMID:27504323

  2. Simple Limbal Epithelial Transplantation in Acid Injury and Severe Dry Eye

    PubMed Central

    Arya, Sudesh Kumar; Raj, Amit; Bamotra, Ravi Kant

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial cells of cornea constantly undergo renewal and regeneration and the stem cells responsible for renewal resides within basal epithelium at the limbus in palisades of Vogt. Simple limbal epithelial transplantation (SLET) is a simplified technique for limbal stem cell deficiency and it combines the benefits of both conjunctival limbal autografting and cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation by being single-stage and utilizing minimal donor tissue. We will be discussing two cases of ocular surface disorder which were managed successfully by new technique simple limbal epithelial transplantation. Two patients one with unilateral Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency (LSCD) following acid injury and other with bilateral LSCD due to severe dry eye underwent limbal epithelial transplantation using the SLET method after taking prior consent for the procedure. Success was termed complete when a completely epithelialized, avascular and stable corneal surface was seen. The follow up examinations were done on first day, at 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks and at 3 months after the surgery. A completely epithelialised, avascular and stable corneal surface was achieved by 4 weeks in both patients. Simple limbal epithelial transplantation is a new technique which is simple, cheap and easily affordable and it has decreased the dependence on stem cell laboratory. PMID:27504323

  3. Simple settlement decisions explain common dispersal patterns in territorial species.

    PubMed

    Gilroy, James J; Lockwood, Julie L

    2016-09-01

    Dispersal is one of the least-understood aspects of animal behaviour. For example, little is known of the mechanisms that determine how individuals express different dispersal behaviours in response to different circumstances. Uncovering these mechanisms is important for our understanding of spatial population dynamics. Using agent-based simulations, we examine how simple decision rules generate individual-level dispersal plasticity, and how this can influence population-scale dispersal dynamics. We model a territorial, monogamous population inhabiting a completely homogeneous environment. Dispersal variability therefore emerges solely as a result of between-individual interactions (competition, settlement, reproduction), which are governed by simple decision-making algorithms. We show that complex dispersal dynamics, including sex biases and strong density dependence, emerge naturally from simple rule-based behaviours. Dispersal is particularly sensitive to the inclusion of mate availability as a criterion for settlement: if neither sex evaluates mate availability, dispersal distances tend to decline at low densities, leading to a strong Allee effect from reduced pairing success. If one sex evaluates mate availability (females), Allee effects are largely avoided, but female-biased dispersal generates increasingly male-biased adult sex ratios at low densities. Sex biases are eliminated if both sexes evaluate mate availability, but population growth rates tend to be reduced due to survival costs and reduced pairing success. Our models suggest that simple decision mechanisms can explain several dynamic patterns that are commonly observed among territorial species. Importantly, these patterns emerge in the absence of environmental heterogeneity or between-individual variation in dispersal phenotypes, two conditions that are often invoked to explain dispersal heterogeneity in nature. This has implications for studies seeking to examine the causes of dispersal

  4. College Completion: Additional Efforts Could Help Education with Its Completion Goals. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Cornelia M.

    Because of concerns that not enough students who start college are completing a bachelor's degree, and in response to a Congressional request, the General Accounting Office (GAO) examined the extent to which students who enroll in a 4-year college complete a bachelor's degree and the factors that affect completion. The study also investigated what…

  5. Enhancement of orientation gradients during simple shear deformation by application of simple compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahedi, Mohammad; Ardeljan, Milan; Beyerlein, Irene J.; Paydar, Mohammad Hossein; Knezevic, Marko

    2015-06-01

    We use a multi-scale, polycrystal plasticity micromechanics model to study the development of orientation gradients within crystals deforming by slip. At the largest scale, the model is a full-field crystal plasticity finite element model with explicit 3D grain structures created by DREAM.3D, and at the finest scale, at each integration point, slip is governed by a dislocation density based hardening law. For deformed polycrystals, the model predicts intra-granular misorientation distributions that follow well the scaling law seen experimentally by Hughes et al., Acta Mater. 45(1), 105-112 (1997), independent of strain level and deformation mode. We reveal that the application of a simple compression step prior to simple shearing significantly enhances the development of intra-granular misorientations compared to simple shearing alone for the same amount of total strain. We rationalize that the changes in crystallographic orientation and shape evolution when going from simple compression to simple shearing increase the local heterogeneity in slip, leading to the boost in intra-granular misorientation development. In addition, the analysis finds that simple compression introduces additional crystal orientations that are prone to developing intra-granular misorientations, which also help to increase intra-granular misorientations. Many metal working techniques for refining grain sizes involve a preliminary or concurrent application of compression with severe simple shearing. Our finding reveals that a pre-compression deformation step can, in fact, serve as another processing variable for improving the rate of grain refinement during the simple shearing of polycrystalline metals.

  6. Differences between adolescents who complete and fail to complete residential substance abuse treatment

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Anne; Ojong, Tambetta N.; Yanes, Paula K.; Tumiel-Berhalter, Laurene; Daigler, Gerald E.; Blondell, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the admission characteristics associated with failure to complete residential substance abuse treatment among male adolescents. Of 160 admissions, 48 (30%) completed treatment. Having commercial health insurance (P = 0.005), having a family history of a substance use disorder (P = 0.05), and living with only one biological parent (P = 0.015) were admission characteristics associated with non-completion. Those reporting a history of physical or sexual abuse also appeared to be at risk for non-completion (P = 0.014); none of these patients completed the treatment. Interventions that improve residential substance abuse treatment retention for adolescents are needed. PMID:20924878

  7. Eight Simple Rules for Singing Multicultural Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parr, Clayton

    2006-01-01

    Performing music of another culture can give a direct, visceral experience that listening alone cannot. If music is to function as a bridge between cultures, as a performer one must be ready to move out of one's comfort zones and experience music in a completely new way. The musical expressions of a culture come from the shared beliefs of that…

  8. Simple Derivation of the Lindblad Equation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearle, Philip

    2012-01-01

    The Lindblad equation is an evolution equation for the density matrix in quantum theory. It is the general linear, Markovian, form which ensures that the density matrix is Hermitian, trace 1, positive and completely positive. Some elementary examples of the Lindblad equation are given. The derivation of the Lindblad equation presented here is…

  9. Predictors of completed childhood vaccination in Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Osetinsky, Brianna; Gaydos, Laura M; Leon, Juan S

    2015-01-01

    This project examines how access issues, ethnicity, and geographic region affect vaccination of children by two years of age in Bolivia. Bolivia’s rich variation in culture and geography results in unequal healthcare utilization even for basic interventions such as childhood vaccination. This study utilizes secondary data from the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey for Bolivia to examine predictors of vaccination completion in children by two years of age. Using logistic regression methods, we control for health system variables (difficulty getting to a health center and type of health center as well as demographic and socio-economic covariates). The results indicated that children whose parents reported distance as a problem in obtaining health care were less likely to have completed all vaccinations. Ethnicity was not independently statistically significant, however, in a sub-analysis, people from the Quechua ethnic group were more likely to report ‘distance as a problem in obtaining healthcare.’ Surprisingly, living in a rural environment has a protective effect on completed vaccinations. However, geographic region did predict significant differences in the probability that children would be fully vaccinated; children in the region with the lowest vaccination completion coverage were 80% less likely to have completed vaccination compared to children in the best performing region, which may indicate unequal access and utilization of health services nationally. Further study of regional differences, urbanicity, and distance as a healthcare access problem will help refine implications for the Bolivian health system. PMID:26609338

  10. Lubrication approximation in completed double layer boundary element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasseri, S.; Phan-Thien, N.; Fan, X.-J.

    This paper reports on the results of the numerical simulation of the motion of solid spherical particles in shear Stokes flows. Using the completed double layer boundary element method (CDLBEM) via distributed computing under Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM), the effective viscosity of suspension has been calculated for a finite number of spheres in a cubic array, or in a random configuration. In the simulation presented here, the short range interactions via lubrication forces are also taken into account, via the range completer in the formulation, whenever the gap between two neighbouring particles is closer than a critical gap. The results for particles in a simple cubic array agree with the results of Nunan and Keller (1984) and Stoksian Dynamics of Brady etal. (1988). To evaluate the lubrication forces between particles in a random configuration, a critical gap of 0.2 of particle's radius is suggested and the results are tested against the experimental data of Thomas (1965) and empirical equation of Krieger-Dougherty (Krieger, 1972). Finally, the quasi-steady trajectories are obtained for time-varying configuration of 125 particles.

  11. The complete chloroplast genome of Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Donghwan; Raveendar, Sebastin; Lee, Jung-Ro; Lee, Gi-An; Ro, Na-Young; Jeon, Young-Ah; Cho, Gyu-Taek; Lee, Ho-Sun; Ma, Kyung-Ho; Chung, Jong-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: We report the complete sequence of the chloroplast genome of Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae), a species of chili pepper. Methods and Results: Using an Illumina platform, we sequenced the chloroplast genome of C. frutescens. The total length of the genome is 156,817 bp, and the overall GC content is 37.7%. A pair of 25,792-bp inverted repeats is separated by small (17,853 bp) and large (87,380 bp) single-copy regions. The C. frutescens chloroplast genome encodes 132 unique genes, including 87 protein-coding genes, 37 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and eight ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Of these, seven genes are duplicated in the inverted repeats and 12 genes contain one or two introns. Comparative analysis with the reference chloroplast genome revealed 125 simple sequence repeat motifs and 34 variants, mostly located in the noncoding regions. Conclusions: The complete chloroplast genome sequence of C. frutescens reported here is a valuable genetic resource for Capsicum species. PMID:27213127

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome of Coptotermes testaceus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Ya-Xiao; Wang, Xin-Guo; Ou, Jing; Yao, Fu-Jiao; Yang, Yan; Wei, Zhao-Ming

    2016-09-01

    The complete circular mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Coptotermes testaceus is 15 752bp in size, containing 37 typical genes and one non-coding AT-rich region. The AT content of the AT-rich region is 68.3%. All protein coding genes (PCGs) start with standard ATN initiation codons and end with complete termination codons TAA or TAG except for cox2, atp8, and nad5 genes using an incomplete stop codon T. tRNA genes are predicted with a characteristic cloverleaf secondary structure except for trnS1(()(AGN)()), whose dihydrouridine (DHU) arm is replaced by a simple loop. The size of the large and small ribosomal RNA genes are 1315 and 818 bp, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis found that (i) the C. testaceus clade formed the sister group with another clade containing Coptotermes lacteus and Coptotermes formosanus; and (ii) Coptotermes lacteus had a close relationship with Coptotermes clade, but with lower credibility than other clades, the bootstrap value was 97%. PMID:26242721

  13. A SIMPLE MODEL FOR QUASAR DEMOGRAPHICS

    SciTech Connect

    Conroy, Charlie; White, Martin

    2013-01-10

    We present a simple model for the relationship between quasars, galaxies, and dark matter halos from 0.5 < z < 6. In the model, black hole (BH) mass is linearly related to galaxy mass, and galaxies are connected to dark matter halos via empirically constrained relations. A simple 'scattered' light bulb model for quasars is adopted, wherein BHs shine at a fixed fraction of the Eddington luminosity during accretion episodes, and Eddington ratios are drawn from a lognormal distribution that is redshift independent. This model has two free, physically meaningful parameters at each redshift: the normalization of the M {sub BH}-M {sub gal} relation and the quasar duty cycle; these parameters are fit to the observed quasar luminosity function (LF) over the interval 0.5 < z < 6. This simple model provides an excellent fit to the LF at all epochs and also successfully predicts the observed projected two-point correlation of quasars from 0.5 < z < 2.5. It is significant that a single quasar duty cycle at each redshift is capable of reproducing the extant observations. The data are therefore consistent with a scenario wherein quasars are equally likely to exist in galaxies, and therefore dark matter halos, over a wide range in masses. The knee in the quasar LF is a reflection of the knee in the stellar-mass-halo-mass relation. Future constraints on the quasar LF and quasar clustering at high redshift will provide strong constraints on the model. In the model, the autocorrelation function of quasars becomes a strong function of luminosity only at the very highest luminosities and will be difficult to observe because such quasars are so rare. Cross-correlation techniques may provide useful constraints on the bias of such rare objects. The simplicity of the model allows for rapid generation of quasar mock catalogs from N-body simulations that match the observed LF and clustering to high redshift.

  14. THE SIMPLE SURVEY: OBSERVATIONS, REDUCTION, AND CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Damen, M.; Franx, M.; Taylor, E. N.; Labbe, I.; Van Dokkum, P. G.; Muzzin, A.; Brandt, W. N.; Dickinson, M.; Gawiser, E.; Illingworth, G. D.; Marchesini, D.; Papovich, C.; Rix, H.-W.

    2011-01-20

    We present the Spitzer IRAC/MUSYC Public Legacy Survey in the Extended CDF-South (SIMPLE), which consists of deep IRAC observations covering the {approx}1600 arcmin{sup 2} area surrounding GOODS-S. The limiting magnitudes of the SIMPLE IRAC mosaics typically are 23.8, 23.6, 21.9, and 21.7, at 3.6 {mu}m, 4.5 {mu}m, 5.8 {mu}m, and 8.0 {mu}m, respectively (5{sigma} total point source magnitudes in AB). The SIMPLE IRAC images are combined with the 10' x 15' GOODS IRAC mosaics in the center. We give detailed descriptions of the observations, data reduction, and properties of the final images, as well as the detection and photometry methods used to build a catalog. Using published optical and near-infrared data from the Multiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile (MUSYC), we construct an IRAC-selected catalog, containing photometry in UBVRIz'JHK, [3.6 {mu}m], [4.5 {mu}m], [5.8 {mu}m], and [8.0 {mu}m]. The catalog contains 43,782 sources with S/N >5 at 3.6 {mu}m, 19,993 of which have 13-band photometry. We compare this catalog to the publicly available MUSYC and FIREWORKS catalogs and discuss the differences. Using a high signal-to-noise sub-sample of 3391 sources with ([3.6] + [4.5])/2 < 21.2, we investigate the star formation rate history of massive galaxies out to z {approx} 1.8. We find that at z {approx} 1.8 at least 30% {+-} 7% of the most massive galaxies (M{sub *} >10{sup 11} M{sub sun}) are passively evolving, in agreement with earlier results from surveys covering less area.

  15. Physical fitness gains following simple environmental change.

    PubMed

    Linenger, J M; Chesson, C V; Nice, D S

    1991-01-01

    Inactivity is the risk factor with potentially the greatest public health impact, according to the 1989 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force report. Our study reports changes in subjects' physical fitness level after simple changes aimed at enabling community members to adopt more easily active lifestyles. Simple environmental and social alterations occurred at a San Diego Naval air station. We administered to a cohort of active-duty personnel from within this community (n = 1,609) both a physical readiness test (PRT) and a lifestyle questionnaire at baseline and at one year. The PRT consisted of a 1.5-mile timed run, sit-ups, push-ups, and percentage body fat components, and the questionnaire addressed demographics, current exercise behavior, and attitudes toward exercise. We took similar measures within a comparison community cohort (n = 217) and within a Navy-wide sample cohort (n = 546). Both overall PRT category and 1.5-mile run time improved significantly (P less than .05) over time in the intervention community (0.3 category points and 18 seconds, respectively). The increase was significantly greater (P less than .01) than in either the control community or the Navy-wide sample. Subgroup analysis showed that, in the intervention community, 12.4% failed the overall fitness test in 1987, but only 5.1% failed in 1988. Similarly, the 1.5-mile run failures decreased from 8.4% to 4%. Reported leisure time kilocalorie expenditure showed no significant improvement. This simple program successfully improved fitness performance. The improvement was distributed throughout the community and included those who were substandard at baseline. Similar programs could easily be adopted in a variety of communities. PMID:1790036

  16. Simple analytic potentials for linear ion traps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janik, G. R.; Prestage, J. D.; Maleki, L.

    1989-01-01

    A simple analytical model was developed for the electric and ponderomotive (trapping) potentials in linear ion traps. This model was used to calculate the required voltage drive to a mercury trap, and the result compares well with experiments. The model gives a detailed picture of the geometric shape of the trapping potenital and allows an accurate calculation of the well depth. The simplicity of the model allowed an investigation of related, more exotic trap designs which may have advantages in light-collection efficiency.

  17. Simple analytic potentials for linear ion traps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janik, G. R.; Prestage, J. D.; Maleki, L.

    1990-01-01

    A simple analytical model was developed for the electric and ponderomotive (trapping) potentials in linear ion traps. This model was used to calculate the required voltage drive to a mercury trap, and the result compares well with experiments. The model gives a detailed picture of the geometric shape of the trapping potential and allows an accurate calculation of the well depth. The simplicity of the model allowed an investigation of related, more exotic trap designs which may have advantages in light-collection efficiency.

  18. Desiccant cooling system performance: A simple approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, M.; Grolmes, M. A.

    1982-10-01

    The wave nature of heat and mass transfer in fixed desiccant bed adsorption is explained. A simple algebraic model of wave motion under single low desiccant bed operation is developed and applied to the prediction of the performance potential of the overall desiccant cooling system. The model is used to explain the increase in cooling system performance that is realized through the use of mixed inert desiccant material adsorption beds. The response of cooling system performance to changes in external process conditions is examined and conclusions are drawn relative to optimization of system characteristics.

  19. Simple novel all-optical wavelength converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhixin

    2009-02-01

    Based on Sagnac interferometric structure, a simple novel ultrafast scheme for an all-optical wavelength converter is proposed. The operations of this scheme with a 80-Gbits/s return to zero (RZ) pseudorandom bit sequence (PRBS) are simulated correctly with an output extinction ratio of more than 17.2 dB. Through numerical analysis, by comparison of the performance at 40- and 80-Gbits/s operation, the operating characteristics of the scheme are illustrated. Furthermore, the carrier recovery time of the semiconductor amplifier (SOA) is no longer a crucial parameter to restrict the operation speed of this scheme.

  20. Detection and recognition of simple spatial forms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, A. B.

    1983-01-01

    A model of human visual sensitivity to spatial patterns is constructed. The model predicts the visibility and discriminability of arbitrary two-dimensional monochrome images. The image is analyzed by a large array of linear feature sensors, which differ in spatial frequency, phase, orientation, and position in the visual field. All sensors have one octave frequency bandwidths, and increase in size linearly with eccentricity. Sensor responses are processed by an ideal Bayesian classifier, subject to uncertainty. The performance of the model is compared to that of the human observer in detecting and discriminating some simple images.

  1. Simple orbital theory for the molecular electrician.

    PubMed

    Ernzerhof, Matthias

    2011-07-01

    Theories of molecular electronic devices (MEDs) are quite involved in general. However, various prominent features of MEDs can be understood drawing only on elementary quantum theory. To support this point of view, we provide a two component orbital theory that enables one to reproduce various important features of MEDs. In this theory, the device orbitals are divided into two components, each of which is obtained from simple rules. To illustrate our two-component model, we apply it to explain, among other things, the conductance suppression in cross-conjugated systems and the dependence of the conductance on the contact position in aromatic systems. PMID:21744885

  2. Oscillatory dissipation of a simple confined liquid.

    PubMed

    Maali, Abdelhamid; Cohen-Bouhacina, Touria; Couturier, Gérard; Aimé, Jean-Pierre

    2006-03-01

    We present a sensitive measurement of the dissipation and the effective viscosity of a simple confined liquid (octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane) using an atomic force microscope. The experimental data show that the damping and the effective viscosity increase and present oscillations as the gap between the cantilever tip and the surface is diminished. To our knowledge, the damping and the viscosity modulation are reported here with such good accuracy for the first time. Such an experimental result is different from what has been reported earlier where only a continuous increase of the damping and the viscosity are observed. PMID:16606201

  3. Simple microwave preionization source for ohmic plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choe, W.; Kwon, Gi-Chung; Kim, Junghee; Kim, Jayhyun; Jeon, Sang-Jean; Huh, Songwhe

    2000-07-01

    A simple economical 2.45 GHz microwave system has been developed and utilized for preionization on the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST)-TOKAMAK. The magnetron microwave source was obtained from a widely used, household microwave oven. Since ac operation of the magnetron is not suitable for tokamak application, the magnetron cathode bias circuit was modified to obtain continuous and stable operation of the magnetron for several hundred milliseconds. Application of the developed microwave system to KAIST-TOKAMAK resulted in a reduction of ohmic flux consumption.

  4. [Simple partial frontal nonconvulsive status epilepticus].

    PubMed

    Thomas, P; Mottin, Y

    1997-07-01

    Non convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) of frontal origin is a rare cause of mental confusion. The present case of possible frontal-onset NCSE proved to have a neuropsychological examination that was suggestive either of a disruption of attentional function or a left prefrontal dysfunction, exhibiting disturbances of immediate memory and logical programmation, perseverations and affective disinhibition. Vigilance was not impaired. This case was therefore, on a nosographic point of view, more consistent with a simple partial status epilepticus with cognitive and affective symptomatology rather than with a complex partial status epilepticus of extra-temporal origin. PMID:9684010

  5. A Simple Apparatus for Optical Polarization Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krieble, Kelly; Powlette, Joseph L.

    2003-12-01

    The phenomenon of polarization is usually covered, although very briefly, in most introductory college and high school physics classes. Experiments such as Malus's law are often performed with inexpensive linear polarization filters or lenses from polarized sunglasses. Investigations of more complex forms of polarization, using retarders such as quarter-wave plates (QWPs) and half-wave plates (HWPs), are often omitted because the acquisition of equipment necessary for multiple setups can be cost-prohibitive. We present here a simple rotational apparatus for accurate polarization measurements and applications using inexpensive substitutes of QWP and HWP for use with common laser wavelengths.

  6. Uncertainty relations from simple entropic properties.

    PubMed

    Coles, Patrick J; Colbeck, Roger; Yu, Li; Zwolak, Michael

    2012-05-25

    Uncertainty relations provide constraints on how well the outcomes of incompatible measurements can be predicted, and as well as being fundamental to our understanding of quantum theory, they have practical applications such as for cryptography and witnessing entanglement. Here we shed new light on the entropic form of these relations, showing that they follow from a few simple properties, including the data-processing inequality. We prove these relations without relying on the exact expression for the entropy, and hence show that a single technique applies to several entropic quantities, including the von Neumann entropy, min- and max-entropies, and the Rényi entropies. PMID:23003225

  7. Simple approach for ranking structure determining residues

    PubMed Central

    Luna-Martínez, Oscar D.; Vidal-Limón, Abraham; Villalba-Velázquez, Miryam I.; Sánchez-Alcalá, Rosalba; Garduño-Juárez, Ramón; Uversky, Vladimir N.

    2016-01-01

    Mutating residues has been a common task in order to study structural properties of the protein of interest. Here, we propose and validate a simple method that allows the identification of structural determinants; i.e., residues essential for preservation of the stability of global structure, regardless of the protein topology. This method evaluates all of the residues in a 3D structure of a given globular protein by ranking them according to their connectivity and movement restrictions without topology constraints. Our results matched up with sequence-based predictors that look up for intrinsically disordered segments, suggesting that protein disorder can also be described with the proposed methodology. PMID:27366642

  8. Simple analytic approximations for the Blasius problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacono, R.; Boyd, John P.

    2015-08-01

    The classical boundary layer problem formulated by Heinrich Blasius more than a century ago is revisited, with the purpose of deriving simple and accurate analytical approximations to its solution. This is achieved through the combined use of a generalized Padé approach and of an integral iteration scheme devised by Hermann Weyl. The iteration scheme is also used to derive very accurate bounds for the value of the second derivative of the Blasius function at the origin, which plays a crucial role in this problem.

  9. Simple effective interaction for dimensional crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantin, Lucian A.

    2016-03-01

    We show that the effective electron-electron interaction veff[n ] (r ,r') =erf [|r - r'|b (n ) ]/|r -r'| , with n being the electronic density and b (n ) fixed from the compressibility sum rule, is remarkably accurate in both three and two dimensions, competing with the actual state-of-the-art exchange-correlation static kernels. Using this result, we propose a simple isotropic approximation for the quasi-two-dimensional regime, which gives a realistic wave vector analysis of the correlation energy, in the context of the linear response time-dependent density functional theory.

  10. Simple Forest Canopy Thermal Exitance Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith J. A.; Goltz, S. M.

    1999-01-01

    We describe a model to calculate brightness temperature and surface energy balance for a forest canopy system. The model is an extension of an earlier vegetation only model by inclusion of a simple soil layer. The root mean square error in brightness temperature for a dense forest canopy was 2.5 C. Surface energy balance predictions were also in good agreement. The corresponding root mean square errors for net radiation, latent, and sensible heat were 38.9, 30.7, and 41.4 W/sq m respectively.

  11. Term rules for simple metal clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Daisuke; Raebiger, Hannes

    2015-10-01

    Hund’s term rules are only valid for isolated atoms, but have no generalization for molecules or clusters of several atoms. We present a benchmark calculation of Al2 and Al3, for which we find the high and low-spin ground states 3Πu and , respectively. We show that the relative stabilities of all the molecular terms of Al2 and Al3 can be described by simple rules pertaining to bonding structures and symmetries, which serve as guiding principles to determine ground state terms of arbitrary multi-atom clusters.

  12. A simple laser system for atom interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlet, S.; Volodimer, L.; Lours, M.; Pereira Dos Santos, F.

    2014-07-01

    We present here a simple laser system for a laser-cooled atom interferometer, where all functions (laser cooling, interferometry and detection) are realized using only two extended cavity laser diodes, amplified by a common tapered amplifier. One laser is locked by frequency modulation transfer spectroscopy, the other being phase locked with an offset frequency determined by an field-programmable gate array-controlled direct digital synthesizer, which allows for efficient and versatile tuning of the laser frequency. Raman lasers are obtained with a double pass acoustooptic modulator. We demonstrate a gravimeter using this laser system, with performances close to the state of the art.

  13. Drift estimation from a simple field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Mendes, F. M.; Figueiredo, A.

    2008-11-06

    Given the outcome of a Wiener process, what can be said about the drift and diffusion coefficients? If the process is stationary, these coefficients are related to the mean and variance of the position displacements distribution. However, if either drift or diffusion are time-dependent, very little can be said unless some assumption about that dependency is made. In Bayesian statistics, this should be translated into some specific prior probability. We use Bayes rule to estimate these coefficients from a single trajectory. This defines a simple, and analytically tractable, field theory.

  14. A simple method for global sequence comparison.

    PubMed Central

    Pizzi, E; Attimonelli, M; Liuni, S; Frontali, C; Saccone, C

    1992-01-01

    A simple method of sequence comparison, based on a correlation analysis of oligonucleotide frequency distributions, is here shown to be a reliable test of overall sequence similarity. The method does not involve sequence alignment procedures and permits the rapid screening of large amounts of sequence data. It identifies those sequences which deserve more careful analysis of sequence similarity at the level of resolution of the single nucleotide. It uses observed quantities only and does not involve the adoption of any theoretical model. PMID:1738591

  15. Implementing successful strategic plans: a simple formula.

    PubMed

    Blondeau, Whitney; Blondeau, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    Strategic planning is a process. One way to think of strategic planning is to envision its development and design as a framework that will help your hospital navigate through internal and external changing environments over time. Although the process of strategic planning can feel daunting, following a simple formula involving five steps using the mnemonic B.E.G.I.N. (Begin, Evaluate, Goals & Objectives, Integration, and Next steps) will help the planning process feel more manageable, and lead you to greater success. PMID:26058285

  16. Fourier's law: insight from a simple derivation.

    PubMed

    Dubi, Y; Di Ventra, M

    2009-04-01

    The onset of Fourier's law in a one-dimensional quantum system is addressed via a simple model of weakly coupled quantum systems in contact with thermal baths at their edges. Using analytical arguments we show that the crossover from the ballistic (invalid Fourier's law) to diffusive (valid Fourier's law) regimes is characterized by a thermal length scale, which is directly related to the profile of the local temperature. In the same vein, dephasing is shown to give rise to classical Fourier's law, similarly to the onset of Ohm's law in mesoscopic conductors. PMID:19518279

  17. Simple approach for ranking structure determining residues.

    PubMed

    Luna-Martínez, Oscar D; Vidal-Limón, Abraham; Villalba-Velázquez, Miryam I; Sánchez-Alcalá, Rosalba; Garduño-Juárez, Ramón; Uversky, Vladimir N; Becerril, Baltazar

    2016-01-01

    Mutating residues has been a common task in order to study structural properties of the protein of interest. Here, we propose and validate a simple method that allows the identification of structural determinants; i.e., residues essential for preservation of the stability of global structure, regardless of the protein topology. This method evaluates all of the residues in a 3D structure of a given globular protein by ranking them according to their connectivity and movement restrictions without topology constraints. Our results matched up with sequence-based predictors that look up for intrinsically disordered segments, suggesting that protein disorder can also be described with the proposed methodology. PMID:27366642

  18. A simple statistical model for geomagnetic reversals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constable, Catherine

    1990-01-01

    The diversity of paleomagnetic records of geomagnetic reversals now available indicate that the field configuration during transitions cannot be adequately described by simple zonal or standing field models. A new model described here is based on statistical properties inferred from the present field and is capable of simulating field transitions like those observed. Some insight is obtained into what one can hope to learn from paleomagnetic records. In particular, it is crucial that the effects of smoothing in the remanence acquisition process be separated from true geomagnetic field behavior. This might enable us to determine the time constants associated with the dominant field configuration during a reversal.

  19. Progress with simple binary alloy solidification problems

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.G.; Solomon, A.D.; Alexiades, V.

    1981-01-01

    We give a preliminary report of our studies on binary alloy solidification. In what follows we state the mathematical problem, which we assume represents the solidification of a simple binary alloy; we give a very brief introduction to two component phase diagrams, whose relations we assume hold at the solidification front; we describe our phlogiston formulation of the problem, which is derived by analogy with the enthalpy method for simpler problems; we describe the finite difference scheme, with which we computer the various constituents of our phlogiston formulation; and finally we relate our computational experience with the model so far.

  20. Simple and Clean Photoinduced Aromatic Trifluoromethylation Reaction.

    PubMed

    Li, Lu; Mu, Xiaoyue; Liu, Wenbo; Wang, Yichen; Mi, Zetian; Li, Chao-Jun

    2016-05-11

    We describe a simple, metal- and oxidant-free photochemical strategy for the direct trifluoromethylation of unactivated arenes and heteroarenes under either ultraviolet or visible light irradiation. We demonstrated that photoexcited aliphatic ketones, such as acetone and diacetyl, can be used as promising low-cost radical initiators to generate CF3 radicals from sodium triflinate efficiently. The broad utility of this strategy and its benefit to medicinal chemistry are demonstrated by the direct trifluoromethylation of unprotected bidentate chelating ligand, xanthine alkaloids, nucleosides, and related antiviral drug molecules. PMID:27137478