The province of British Columbia has a dubious history where support for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) issues in education is concerned. Most notable is the Surrey School Board's decision in 1997 to ban three picture books for children that depict families with two moms or two dads. The North Vancouver School Board has also…
Carr, Sharon D.; Parrish, Randall R.; Brown, Richard L.
The Valhalla complex, a Cordilleran metamorphic core complex, is a 100 km by 30 km structural culmination within the Omineca belt of southeastern British Columbia. It comprises sheets of granitic orthogneiss ranging in age from 100 to 59 Ma with intervening paragneiss of uncertain age and stratigraphic correlation. The complex is roofed by the ductile Valkyr shear zone and the ductile/brittle Slocan Lake fault zone; the upper plate comprises lower grade metasedimentary rocks intruded by middle Jurassic plutons. The Valkyr shear zone and the Slocan Lake fault zone deform 62 and 59 Ma granitic sheets in their footwalls. The easterly directed Valkyr shear zone is a 2 to 3 km thick zone of distributed ductile strain which is arched over the complex and is exposed around the periphery on the northern, western, and southern margins. The shear zone was active between 59 and 54 Ma under amphibolite facies conditions. The juxtaposition of upper and lower plates with different structural and metamorphic histories indicates that the Valkyr shear zone is a significant structure with large displacement. There is evidence to support an easterly rooting direction consistent with an extensional origin; its surface breakaway is suggested to be west of the Valhalla complex. The Slocan Lake fault zone on the eastern side of the complex is a gently (30°), easterly dipping ductile/brittle normal fault which roots to the east. It was active between 54 and approximately 45 Ma and truncates the Valkyr shear zone. Timing and structural relationships indicate that the Valkyr shear zone and the Slocan Lake fault zone are genetically related. Movement on the ductile Valkyr shear zone, arching of the complex, and displacement on the Slocan Lake fault zone occurred as a continuum in Early to Middle Eocene time. This paper documents the presence of significant Eocene ductile strain in the Valhalla complex and suggests that the role of extension in this region is more profound than had been
VERNER, COOLIE, ED.
PREPARED UNDER THE SPECIAL EDITORSHIP OF COOLIE VERNER, THIS JOURNAL ISSUE REVIEWS THE OVERALL DEVELOPMENT OF ADULT EDUCATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA FROM THE LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY TO THE PRESENT, TRACES THE GROWTH OF UNIVERSITY EXTENSION DURING THE PERIOD 1915-63, DISCUSSES RECENT TRENDS AND ACTIVITIES IN VOCATIONAL AND NONVOCATIONAL PUBLIC SCHOOL…
Hamblock, J. M.; Andronicos, C. L.; Hurtado, J. M.
The Coast Plutonic Complex of western British Columbia constitutes the largest batholith within the North American Cordillera. The field area for this study is Mt. Gamsby, an unexplored region above the Kitlope River, east of the Coast Shear Zone and at the southern end of the Central Gneiss Complex. The dominant lithologies on Mt. Gamsby include amphibolite and metasedimentary gneiss, gabbro-diorite, and orthogneiss. The amphibolite gneiss contains alternating amphibolite and felsic layers, with chlorite and epidote pervasive in some regions and garnet rare. This unit is commonly migmatized and contains various folds, boudins, and shear zones. The metasedimentary gneiss contains quartz, k-spar, graphite, chlorite, and perhaps cordierite, but appears to lack muscovite and aluminosilicates. The gabbro-diorite is salt and pepper in color and contains ca. 50% pyroxene and plagioclase. The orthogneiss is light in color and plagioclase-rich, with a texture varying from coarse-grained and undeformed to mylonitic. In some regions, this unit contains abundant mafic enclaves. At least four deformational events (D1-4) are observed. The second generation of folding, F2, is dominant in the area and resulted in the production of a large synform during sinistral shearing. The S1 foliation is observed only in the amphibolite gneiss and is orthogonal to S2, creating mushroom- type fold interference patterns. S2 foliations strike NW-SE and dip steeply to the SW, suggesting SW-NE directed shortening. L2 lineations developed on S2 plunge shallowly to the NW and SE, implying strike-slip motion. Although both dextral and sinistral motions are indicated by shear band data, sinistral motion is dominant. The average right and left lateral shear band orientation is nearly identical to S2, suggesting that right and left lateral shearing were synchronous. Foliations within the orthogneiss are parallel to the axes of S2 folds and boudins in the amphibolite gneiss, suggesting that emplacement
Brardinoni, Francesco; Hassan, Marwan A.; Slaymaker, H. Olav
The impacts of logging activities on mass wasting were examined in five watersheds in the coastal mountains of British Columbia. Historical aerial photos were used to document mass wasting events, and their occurrence was related to logging activities in the study basins. Logged and forested areas were compared in terms of mass wasting magnitude and frequency, with reference to site characteristics. The recovery time of the landscape after logging was assessed. Bedrock type and basin physiography had no identifiable effect on mass wasting frequency and magnitude. Mass wasting failure was primarily controlled by slope gradient. Basin vulnerability increased, following clearcutting relative to forested areas, in that mass wasting was initiated on gentler slopes. The volume of sediment produced from logged slopes is of the same order as that from forested areas, which are steeper by as much as 10°. In both logged and forested areas, the size distribution of mass wasting events follows an exponential distribution. However, the variability in mass wasting size in forested areas is much higher than that obtained for logged areas. The recovery time after forest harvesting is over 20 years, which confirms published estimates based on vegetation reestablishment. Continuous disturbance of the basin, however, may extend the recovery time for the whole basin well beyond 20 years.
Berch, Shannon M; Bonito, Gregory
To improve baseline data for the developing truffle industry in British Columbia, we compiled existing Tuber species sequences from published and unpublished studies and generated new ITS sequences for truffles belonging to Tuber collected in the province. In doing so, we obtained evidence that 13 species of Tuber occur in the province, including six introduced and seven native species, two of which are putative undescribed species. Of the native species, the Tuber anniae species complex is widely distributed in the province while Tuber beyerlei appears to be much more restricted in distribution. Four of the introduced species have commercial value (Tuber melanosporum, Tuber aestivum, Tuber brumale, and Tuber borchii) as do two of the native species (Tuber gibbosum and Tuber oregonense). Focused sampling on likely tree hosts, both hardwood and Pinaceae species, as well as in currently unexplored parts of the province seems likely to expand our knowledge of the diversity and distribution of Tuber species in British Columbia. PMID:27083929
In this article, the author discusses British Columbia's integrated curriculum programs (ICPs). In this province of sea and mountains, outdoor adventures figure prominently in its ICPs--with a healthy dose of environmental and sustainability education mixed in. The author presents five examples from British Columbia's ICPs: (1) Earthquest Outdoor…
Salisbury, D A; Band, P R; Threlfall, W J; Gallagher, R P
We studied the mortality experience of all pilots who died in the province of British Columbia between 1950 and 1984, using proportional mortality ratios (PMR) and proportional cancer mortality ratios (PCMR). There were 341 deaths during that time in males whose usual occupation was listed as pilot. The PMR for aircraft accidents was significantly elevated (PMR = 3196, 95% C.I. 2810, 3634), and the PMR for atherosclerotic heart disease was significantly depressed (PMR = 47, 95% C.I. 30, 70). Although based on small numbers of deaths, and not statistically significant, elevated PCMRs were seen for cancers of the colon, brain, and nervous system, as well as for Hodgkin's disease. These findings suggest the need for further epidemiologic studies of commercial airline pilots. PMID:2031640
Bowers, T.L.; Rowan, L.C.
The Ice River Alkaline Complex is a late Paleozoic intrusion of mafic alkaline rocks, syenite, and carbonatite exposed in southeastern British Columbia, Canada. The complex intrudes Cambrian and Ordovician shales, slates, and limestones of the Chancellor and Ottertail Formations and the McKay Group. We examined the alkaline complex and adjacent country rocks using Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data. The data were first calibrated to relative reflectance and then used to spectrally map mineralogies in the study area by using a linear spectral unmixing program. This technique models each pixel spectrum in an AVIRIS image as a linear combination of unique endmember spectra. We selected endmember spectra from well-exposed and spectrally distinct mineralogic units, vegetation, and snow. Four of the endmembers reflect mineralogic variations within the McKay group in the study area, and may represent lateral and vertical variations of sedimentary or metamorphic facies. Otherwise, the resultant spatial distribution of endmembers shows generally close agreement with the published geologic map, although, in several places, our image-map is more accurate than the published map.
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Microbial communities are architects of incredibly complex and diverse morphological structures. Each morphology is a snapshot that reflects the complex interactions within the microbial community and between the community and its environment. Characterizing morphology as an emergent property of microbial communities is thus relevant to understanding the evolution of multicellularity and complexity in developmental systems, to the identification of biosignatures, and to furthering our understanding of modern and ancient microbial ecology. Recently discovered cyanobacterial mats in Pavilion Lake, British Columbia construct unusual complex architecture on the scale of decimeters that incorporates significant void space. Fundamental mesoscale morphological elements include terraces, arches, bridges, depressions, domes, and pillars. The mats themselves also exhibit several microscale morphologies, with reticulate structures being the dominant example. The reticulate structures exhibit a diverse spectrum of morphologies with endmembers characterized by either angular or curvilinear ridges. In laboratory studies, aggregation into reticulate structures occurs as a result of the random gliding and colliding among motile cyanobacterial filaments. Likewise, when Pavilion reticulate mats were sampled and brought to the surface, cyanobacteria invariably migrated out of the mat onto surrounding surfaces. Filaments were observed to move rapidly in clumps, preferentially following paths of previous filaments. The migrating filaments organized into new angular and ropey reticulate biofilms within hours of sampling, demonstrating that cell motility is responsible for the reticulate patterns. Because the morphogenesis of reticulate structures can be linked to motility behaviors of filamentous cyanobacteria, the Willow Point mats provide a unique natural laboratory in which to elucidate the connections between a specific microbial behavior and the construction of complex microbial
Aoki, Ted T.; And Others
An 18-month project assessed social studies in British Columbia during 1976-77. Part of a general educational assessment program of the British Columbia Ministry of Education, the project was carried out in four major phases. During Phase I, an assessment framework was established which represented viewpoints of teachers, students, and the public…
Brew, D. A.; Ford, A. B.
The northern Coast plutonic-metamorphic complex is but one segment of an 8,000-km-long batholithic complex that extends the length of the North American Cordillera from Baja, California to the Aleutian Islands. Different segments of the Cordilleran batholithic complex have significantly different features. This report documents the main characteristics and inferred evolutionary history of the northern Coast plutonic-metamorphic complex that should facilitate comparisons between segments.
Toraman, Erkan; Teyssier, Christian; Whitney, Donna L.; Fayon, Annia K.; Thomson, Stuart N.; Reiners, Peter W.
Exhumed mid-to-lower crustal rocks offer an opportunity to determine the mechanisms, conditions, timing, and consequences of the ascent of hot rocks from deep to shallow crustal levels. We used results of low-T thermochronology (zircon and apatite (U-Th)/He, apatite fission track) to document the very shallow emplacement (<2 km) of high-grade metamorphic rocks and to determine the timing and rates of Cenozoic cooling, exhumation, and subsequent incision of the Thor-Odin migmatite dome of the Shuswap metamorphic core complex, British Columbia (Canada). Samples collected at high elevation in the dome (>1800 m) have preserved Eocene fission-track ages and evidence of rapid cooling (≥60°C/Myr). This Eocene cooling event corresponds to rapid exhumation by upward flow of partially molten crust and final exhumation by detachment faulting. Samples collected below 1800 m in elevation display a wide range of apatite fission track ages (43-15 Ma) and track length distributions that reflect prolonged residence in the apatite partial annealing zone. These age-elevation relations imply that the dome rocks reached the near surface (<2 km) during initial upward flow and tectonic exhumation in the Eocene and that little erosion of the Eocene surface has occurred since that time. Thermal modeling of the lowest elevation samples (≤ ~600 m) and intrasample apatite (U-Th)/He age variations reveal enhanced erosion and relief production at the onset of continental glaciations at ~3 Ma. Our work illustrates the dynamic links between deep and shallow crustal processes and the evolution of topography in a deeply incised hot orogen.
Fillmore, Julie; Coulson, Ian M.
The Garibaldi Volcanic Complex (GVC) is located in southwestern British Columbia and comprises two related but distinct volcanic fields: the Garibaldi Lake and the Mount Garibaldi volcanic fields. The rocks of the GVC range from basalt to rhyolite, and analyses of samples from both fields distinguish these as adakites. The GVC magmas have high Sr/Y, Mg#, and Al2O3; low K2O/Na2O; and fractionated rare earth element compositions. Models of adakite genesis fall into two main groups: slab melting and non-slab melting. Adakites generated by slab melting commonly occur from young subducting crust (≤25 Ma) and are felsic partial melts of the subducting slab that interact with the mantle wedge during ascent. Non-slab melting models vary widely and include basalt fractionation, assimilation, fractional crystallization processes and partial melting of mafic lower crust. Data from the GVC are too limited to fully elucidate the mechanisms of adakite genesis; however, the petrographical and geochemical characteristics of the GVC rocks in this study do not refute an origin by slab partial melts. Variations in trace elements that reflect non-adakitic values (e.g., low La, low Cr) are likely the result of magma mixing at shallow depths within the magma reservoirs of each center, for which there is mineralogical and textural evidence. The adakite rocks of the GVC share geochemical traits akin to both low-SiO2 adakite (LSA) and high-SiO2 adakite (HSA) groups, though additional data are needed to investigate whether LSA- or HSA-type dominates within the GVC, and by extension, which should be the preferred model of adakite genesis.
Edwards, Benjamin R.; Skilling, Ian P.; Cameron, Barry; Haynes, Courtney; Lloyd, Alex; Hungerford, Jefferson H. D.
Glaciovolcanic deposits are critical for documenting the presence and thickness of terrestrial ice-sheets, and for testing hypotheses about inferred terrestrial ice volumes based on the marine record. Deposits formed by the coincidence of volcanism and ice at the Mount Edziza volcanic complex (MEVC) in northern British Columbia, Canada, preserve an important record for documenting local and possibly regional ice dynamics. Pillow Ridge, located at the northwestern end of the MEVC, formed by ice-confined, fissure-fed eruptions. It comprises predominantly pillow lavas and volcanic breccias of alkaline basalt composition, with subordinate finer-grained volcaniclastic deposits and dykes. The ridge is presently ˜ 4 km long, ˜ 1000 m in maximum width, and ˜ 600 m high. Fifteen syn- and post-eruptive lithofacies are recognized in excellent exposures along the glacially dissected western side of the ridge. We recognize five lithofacies associations: (1) poorly sorted tuff breccia and dykes, (2) proximal pillow lava, dykes and tuff breccia, (3) distal pillow lava, poorly sorted conglomerate and well-sorted volcanic sandstone, (4) interbedded tuff, lapilli tuff, and tuff breccia units, and (5) heterolithic volcanogenic conglomerate and sandstone. Given the abundance of pillow lavas and the lack of surrounding topographic barriers capable of impounding water, we agree with Souther [Souther, J.G., 1992. The late Cenozoic Mount Edziza volcanic complex. Geol. Soc. Can. Mem., vol. 420. 320 pp] that the bulk of the edifice formed while confined by ice, but have found evidence for a more complex and variable eruption history than that which he proposed. Preliminary estimates of water-ice depths derived from FTIR analyses of H 2O give ranges of 300 to 680 m assuming 0 ppm CO 2, and 857 to 1297 m assuming 25 ppm CO 2. Variations in depth estimates among samples may indicate that water/ice depths changed during the evolution of the ridge, which is consistent with our interpretations
Kalenchuk, K. S.; Hutchinson, D.; Diederichs, M. S.
Downie Slide, one of the world's largest landslides, is a massive, active, composite, extremely slow rockslide located on the west bank of the Revelstoke Reservoir in British Columbia. It is a 1.5 billion m3 rockslide measuring 2400 m along the river valley, 3300m from toe to headscarp and up to 245 m thick. Significant contributions to the field of landslide geomechanics have been made by analyses of spatially and temporally discriminated slope deformations, and how these are controlled by complex geological and geotechnical factors. Downie Slide research demonstrates the importance of delineating massive landslides into morphological regions in order to characterize global slope behaviour and identify localized events, which may or may not influence the overall slope deformation patterns. Massive slope instabilities do not behave as monolithic masses, rather, different landslide zones can display specific landslide processes occurring at variable rates of deformation. The global deformation of Downie Slide is extremely slow moving; however localized regions of the slope incur moderate to high rates of movement. Complex deformation processes and composite failure mechanism are contributed to by topography, non-uniform shear surfaces, heterogeneous rockmass and shear zone strength and stiffness characteristics. Further, from the analysis of temporal changes in landslide behaviour it has been clearly recognized that different regions of the slope respond differently to changing hydrogeological boundary conditions. State-of-the-art methodologies have been developed for numerical simulation of large landslides; these provide important tools for investigating dynamic landslide systems which account for complex three-dimensional geometries, heterogenous shear zone strength parameters, internal shear zones, the interaction of discrete landslide zones and piezometric fluctuations. Numerical models of Downie Slide have been calibrated to reproduce observed slope behaviour
Hallett, Benjamin W.; Spear, Frank S.
Migmatitic paragneiss and amphibolite gneiss from the Valhalla metamorphic core complex, southeastern B.C. record a complex retrograde history that includes melt-involving net transfer reactions and partial re-equilibration at lower pressure conditions. Pelitic paragneiss from ~ 1.5 km above the Gwillim Creek shear zone contains diffusion zoned garnet porphyroblasts that indicate a slow then fast cooling history that is different from fast cooling from peak recorded in samples from within the shear zone. Fast cooling is consistent with transport of this migmatitic crustal root zone of the Canadian Cordillera up a cold footwall ramp of the thrust sense Gwillim Creek shear zone, followed by exhumation via the Valkyr Shear zone-Slocan Lake detachment after melt crystallization. Forward modeling of the interdiffusivity of Fe + Mg in garnet, governed by a retrograde net transfer reaction, indicates distinctly different cooling histories for rocks above the Gwillim Creek shear zone, suggesting these rocks may have been at similar peak temperatures at different times. Thermobarometry and thermodynamic modeling of these gneisses constrain a cooling and decompression P-T path segment consistent with retrograde amphibolite facies re-equilibration. 2-D thermal modeling suggests that slow followed by fast, then slower cooling can be accommodated by movement up a shallow thrust ramp, then rapid thrusting up a steeper ramp, and finally normal-sense shearing with erosional denudation. Ductile flow onto a cool footwall, coupled with erosion, is a viable mechanism of cooling and partial exhumation of lower crustal rocks.
Countries around the world refer to twenty-first century education as essential to maintaining personal and national economic advantage and draw on this discourse to advocate for and embark on educational reform. This paper examines issues around education reform, particularly in British Columbia. It argues that reformers should give careful…
Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).
This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of British Columbia and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. A discussion of the province's history includes the early European explorers, Indian natives, and later fur traders and settlers. The building of the transcontinental railway, entry…
Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Ottawa (Ontario).
An historical review is presented of the 6 major groups of Indians of the coastal region of British Columbia: the Coast Salish, Nootka, Kwakiutl, Bella Coola, Tsimshian, and Haida. Characteristics of each tribe are contrasted in the following 7 sections of the review: (1) Introduction--the life style, sociocultural factors, and unique…
Schmitt, N.; Hole, L. W.; Barclay, W. S.
A statistical and epidemiological review of British Columbia native Indian and non-Indian mortality revealed that accidents were the leading cause of death among Indians but ranked only fourth among non-Indians. Comparison of accidental death rates by age and sex showed that, without exception, the rates among Indians were considerably higher than the corressponding rates for non-Indians. While the Indians represented some 2% of the total population of British Columbia, they accounted for over 10% of the total accident fatalities, 29% of drownings, and 21% of fatal burns. Socioeconomic, environmental and psychosocial factors and excessive drinking are considered the chief causes responsible for this rather unusual epidemiological phenomenon. This study revealed certain hazardous conditions which are specific to the Indian's present way of life. In the authors' opinion the recognition of these specific hazards is imperative for the planning of effective preventive campaigns. PMID:5902238
Oestreicher, Zachery; Lower, Steven K.; Rees, Eric; Bazylinski, Dennis A.; Lower, Brian H.
Pavilion Lake is a slightly alkaline, freshwater lake located in British Columbia, Canada (50°51'N, 121°44'W). It is known for unusual organosedimentary structures, called microbialites that are found along the lake basin. These deposits are complex associations of fossilized microbial communities and detrital- or chemical-sedimentary rocks. During the summer, a sediment sample was collected from near the lake's shore, approximately 25–50 cm below the water surface. Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) were isolated from this sample using a simple magnetic enrichment protocol. The MTB isolated from Pavilion Lake belonged to the Alphaproteobacteria class as determined by nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA genes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the bacteria were spirillum-shaped and contained a single chain of cuboctahedral-shaped magnetite (Fe3O4) crystals that were approximately 40 nm in diameter. This discovery of MTB in Pavilion Lake offers an opportunity to better understand the diversity of MTB habitats, the geobiological function of MTB in unique freshwater ecosystems, and search for magnetofossils contained within the lake's microbialites. PMID:24391636
Oestreicher, Zachery; Lower, Steven K; Rees, Eric; Bazylinski, Dennis A; Lower, Brian H
Pavilion Lake is a slightly alkaline, freshwater lake located in British Columbia, Canada (50°51'N, 121°44'W). It is known for unusual organosedimentary structures, called microbialites that are found along the lake basin. These deposits are complex associations of fossilized microbial communities and detrital- or chemical-sedimentary rocks. During the summer, a sediment sample was collected from near the lake's shore, approximately 25-50 cm below the water surface. Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) were isolated from this sample using a simple magnetic enrichment protocol. The MTB isolated from Pavilion Lake belonged to the Alphaproteobacteria class as determined by nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA genes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the bacteria were spirillum-shaped and contained a single chain of cuboctahedral-shaped magnetite (Fe3O4) crystals that were approximately 40 nm in diameter. This discovery of MTB in Pavilion Lake offers an opportunity to better understand the diversity of MTB habitats, the geobiological function of MTB in unique freshwater ecosystems, and search for magnetofossils contained within the lake's microbialites. PMID:24391636
Wilson, L.K.; Elliott, J.E.; Langelier, K.M.; Scheuhammer, A.M.; Bowes, V.
Between February 29 and March 15, 1992, 30 trumpeter swans (Cygnus buccinator) were found dead or debilitated at Judson Lake in the lower Fraser valley of southwestern British Columbia. Autopsies of 17 swans revealed the cause of death as lead poisoning from ingestion of lead shot. Lead shot was present in the gizzards of 20 of the swans examined; average number of pellets was nine. Lead was detected in all liver and kidney samples tested. Liver lead concentrations ranged from 21 to 166 ug/g dry wt., with a mean of 64 ug/g d.w. Lead levels in kidneys ranged from 212 to 303 ug/g d.w., with a mean of 120 ug/g d.w. The amount of lead shot in the gizzard was not well correlated with lead levels in the liver and kidney; correlation coefficients of 0.20 and 0.54 were attained, respectively. High iron levels were noted in livers. Other elements (Se, Co, Zn, Mn, Cd, Ca, Mg) were not elevated in either the liver or kidney. The incident prompted the authors to review lead poisoning of swans in British Columbia; data from published and unpublished sources are analyzed, presented and discussed.
Dennison, John D.
The consequences of the 1980-83 economic recession in Canada for the political climate in British Columbia and for the University of British Columbia are discussed. The University's response to budgetary cuts is placed in a provincial and national context, and the implications of reductions in public support for higher education are addressed.…
Intended to assist in the formulation of effective policies for adult literacy in British Columbia, this paper reviews the current discussion of adult literacy policy and programming across Canada. It also reviews existing policies in Canada and in British Columbia, in education ministries, and in other ministries with interests and activities…
Hutton, A.N.; Varsek, J.L. )
Northeast British Columbia has been extensively explored since the early fifties. Evaluated as a part of the Western Canada sedimentary basin, with a passive undeformed basement and only Laramide deformation, the basin must be considered mature. Recent work involving detailed stratigraphic analysis, extensive field observations, potential field data analysis, and deep crustal reflection seismic work lead to an exciting new view of this portion of the Western Canada basin. Situated over the middle Proterozoic continental margin, a complexly deformed and deeply truncated foreland forms a ramp against highly magnetic crystalline rocks. Dipping features within the Proterozoic intersect the Phanerozoic, producing local structure and uplift which has had a profound influence on Devonian reef paleogeography. A major contractional episode created previously unrecognized Devonian to Carboniferous folds and this discovery has led to a complete reinterpretation of the structural style and deformational history of the area. The structural complexity of the basin is increased by right lateral strike-slip faulting. This system is highlighted in the subsurface by a series of faults fanning out across the basin with displacements of up to 20 km in the Proterozoic foreland and accommodation continuing until the Cretaceous. Strike-slip deformation has generated an embayment in the Proterozoic continental margin and within the Phanerozoic shelf, indicating the occurrence of several previously unrecognized prospective shelf to basin transitions. The complex interplay of structure and paleogeography results in a series of play opportunities that could result in new giant discoveries.
Chang, J.M.; Andronicos, C.L.
Petrology and P-T estimates indicate that a magmatic epidote-bearing quartz diorite pluton from Mt. Gamsby, Coast Plutonic Complex, British Columbia, was sourced at pressures below ???1.4 GPa and cooled nearly isobarically at ???0.9 GPa. The P-T path indicates that the magma was within the stability field of magmatic epidote early and remained there upon final crystallization. The pluton formed and crystallized at depths greater than ???30 km. REE data indicate that garnet was absent in the melting region and did not fractionate during crystallization. This suggests that the crust was less than or equal to ???55 km thick at 188 Ma during the early phases of magmatism in the Coast Plutonic Complex. Late Cretaceous contractional deformation and early Tertiary extension exhumed the rocks to upper crustal levels. Textures of magmatic epidote and other magmatic phases, combined with REE data, can be important for constraining the P-T path followed by magmas. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Discussed is the trend in British Columbia, Canada, towards diversification of secondary special education programs, which in the past were restricted to occupational programs that became "dumping grounds" for all types of problem students. (DLS)
Patterns in the geographic distribution of seven species groups were used to identify important areas for conservation in British Columbia, Canada. Potential priority sites for conservation were determined using an integer programming algorithm that maximized the number of speci...
Haugerud, R.A.; Van Der Heyden, P.; Tabor, R.W.; Stacey, J.S.; Zartman, R.E.
The Skagit Gneiss Complex forms a more-or-less continuous terrane within the North Cascade Range. The complex comprises abundant plutons intruded at mid-crustal depths into a variety of metamorphosed supracrustal rocks of both oceanic and volcanic-arc origin. U-Pb zircon ages from gneissis plutons within and near the Skagit Gneiss Complex indicate magmatic crystallziations between 75 and 60 Ma. Deformation, recrystallization, and migmatization in part postdate intrusion of the 75-60 Ma plutons. This latest Cretaceous and earliest Tertiary plutonism and migmatization may reflect thermal relaxation following early Late Cretaceous orogeny. The complex was ductilely extended northwest-southeast shortly after intrusion of granite dikes at ~45 Ma, but before emplacement of the earliest (~34 Ma) plutons of the Cascade arc. -from Authors
Vázquez Riveiros, Natalia; Patterson, R. Timothy
Foraminiferal and thecamoebian faunas from the Seymour-Belize Inlet Complex (SBIC), a fjord network situated on the mainland coast of British Columbia, were studied to assess climatic cycles and trends impacting the area through the ˜ AD 850-AD 2002 interval. Ocean circulation patterns prevalent in the SBIC are strongly linked to precipitation, which is closely linked to the relative strength and position (center of action; COA) of the seasonally developed Aleutian Low (AL) and North Pacific High (NPH) atmospheric circulation gyres. Through interpretation of cluster analysis and ordination methods, a period of weak estuarine circulation was recognized to have impacted the SBIC area between ˜ AD 850 and AD 1500. During this time waters in the SBIC were dysoxic to anoxic and the sediment-water interface was comprised of a depauperate foraminiferal fauna consisting of low diversity agglutinated forms. These reduced oxygen conditions came about as a result of diminished precipitation in the SBIC catchment as the COA of the AL progressively migrated westward over time, resulting in greatly reduced estuarine circulation and only infrequent and feeble incursions of well oxygenated open ocean water into the SBIC basin. By ˜AD 1575, following a gradual transition period of ˜75 years when circulation patterns in the inlet were unstable, very strong estuarine circulation developed in the SBIC, concomitant with the onset of the Little Ice Age (LIA) in western Canada. In the SBIC this interval was characterized by higher levels of precipitation, which greatly enhanced estuarine circulation resulting in frequent incursions of cold, well oxygenated ocean currents into the bottom waters of the SBIC and the development of a diverse calcareous foraminiferal fauna. This circulation pattern began to break down in the late 19th century AD and by ˜AD 1940 conditions similar to those that existed in the inlet prior to ˜AD 1500 had redeveloped, a process that continues at present.
MacLeod, D.; Pearson, D. M.
The Central Gneiss Complex, located in western British Columbia, preserves mid and lower crustal igneous and metasedimentary rocks that yield insight into deformational and thermal processes at the roots of a continental magmatic arc. The complex primarily consists of gneiss interpreted as a volcanic sequence with calcareous interlayers and lesser clastic metasedimentary rocks. Cretaceous U-Pb zircon ages from granulite-facies equivalent rocks in the core of the complex hint at rapid burial following deposition. However, a Permian or older crinoid fossil found in one locality (Hill, 1985) requires the presence of some late Paleozoic or early Mesozoic material. A new U-Pb zircon age (313±5 Ma; LA-ICPMS) from ~10 km west of this fossil locality is interpreted to record volcanism. We also conducted focused structural and geochronological analysis at higher structural levels in the northeastern Central Gneiss Complex to positively identify sedimentary lithologies with which to document the early structural history of the complex prior to early Cenozoic rapid exhumation. In this area, a subhorizontal shear zone forms the boundary between mainly clastic metasedimentary rocks and the widespread metavolcanic and carbonate rocks where an important stretched pebble conglomerate has been previously documented. In the footwall of the shear zone, flattening fabrics transition structurally upward into E-W trending stretching lineations, lineation-parallel isoclinal fold axes, and boudinage that record E-W stretching and major shear strain near the contact. S-C fabrics and shear bands yield a top to the east sense of shear. Where observed, a shallowly dipping, ~15 m thick zone of cataclasite forms the lithologic contact and overprints the shear zone. Sills and dikes record ongoing but localized magmatism throughout deformation and steep NE striking brittle normal faults crosscut all features. Ongoing work will further constrain the protolith age of these rocks, the timing of
Moertle, J.; Holk, G. J.
Stable isotope geochemistry reveals a complex fluid evolution for the Western Metamorphic Belt (WMB), Coast Ranges Batholith (CRB), Central Gneiss Complex (CGC) and Coast Ranges Megalineament (CRM). These fluids are a product of a complex tectonic history related to terrane accretion that includes oblique convergence, metamorphism, magmatism, and orogenic collapse. From W-to-E, these fluid systems are as follows. High-pressure greenschist-to-amphibolite facies metasedimentary rocks of the WMB record variable mineral δD (-61 to -104‰) and δ18O (e.g., quartz +9.6 to +13.4‰) values with multiple minerals in apparent isotopic equilibrium (T ~ 450-550°C) suggest a low W/R system dominated by metamorphic fluids. Variable and non-equilibrium δD (-53 to -143‰) and δ18O (e.g., biotite +2.3 to +5.3‰) values from diorites of the Quottoon pluton affected by the ductile CRM suggest a complex evolution that involved both metamorphic and meteoric-hydrothermal fluids in this dextral shear zone; these results differ from those 300 km along strike to the north that documented only metamorphic fluids in the CRM (Goldfarb et al., 1988). Our data and those of Magaritz and Taylor (1976) from granulite facies metasediments of the CGC and plutons of the western CRB reveal homogeneous δD values (-62 to -78‰) and a restricted range of δ18O values (e.g., quartz +8.5 to +11.5‰) with all minerals in equilibrium at T > 570°C indicate a system dominated by magmatic fluids. Calculated whole-rock δ18O values (~ +7‰) for the Quottoon pluton and CRB intrusive rocks suggest a mantle origin for these magmas. Reinterpretation of very low δD (< -150‰) and quartz-feldspar δ18O pairs that display extreme disequilibrium (feldspar δ18O values as low as -5‰) from the Ponder pluton, eastern CRB, and Hazelton Group point reveals that the major meteoric-hydrothermal system that affected these rocks was related to Eocene detachment faulting along the Shames Lake fault system, a
Cubley, J. F.; Pattison, D. R. M.; Tinkham, D. K.; Fanning, C. M.
The Grand Forks complex (GFC) is a fault-bounded metamorphic core complex in the southern Omineca Belt of British Columbia, Canada. It experienced prograde metamorphism ranging from upper-amphibolite to granulite facies conditions during the Mesozoic to early Tertiary compressional stage of the Cordilleran orogeny. Peak metamorphism was followed by multi-stage exhumation in the Early Eocene. This study provides U-Pb monazite and zircon constraints on the timing of metamorphic episodes in the GFC and subsequent high-T, amphibolite facies decompression in the Early Eocene. Monazite LA-ICP-MS ages from metapelitic gneisses record episodic metamorphism from the Late Jurassic to Paleocene, with peak metamorphism occurring between ~ 59 and 50 Ma. Peak metamorphism was followed by rapid, near-isothermal decompression of the GFC between ~ 52 and 50 Ma, and leucosome crystallization at ~ 50 Ma. Thermodynamic modeling of metapelites in the system MnNCKFMASHPYCe predicts that monazite was not stable at peak metamorphic conditions, consistent with the dominant population of ~ 59 Ma ages representing growth along the prograde path, most likely at subsolidus conditions. Growth of widespread high-Y monazite rims (~ 50 Ma) is predicted along suprasolidus decompression and cooling paths. Zircon SHRIMP ages from igneous bodies in the GFC and hanging wall of the bounding Kettle River fault (KRF) suggest ductile deformation related to high-T decompression of the GFC was ongoing at 51 Ma but had ceased by 50 Ma, truncated by post-kinematic granitoids. This high-T deformation predates subsequent greenschist facies extension on the overlying KRF. A pre-KRF, hanging wall ductile shear zone is constrained to ~ 59-51 Ma. It deforms 59 Ma Ladybird suite leucogranites and may be related to high-T exhumation of the core complex. Rapid, > 100 °C/Ma cooling rates are required to accommodate high-T (amphibolite facies) exhumation of the GFC at 52-50 Ma followed by low-T (greenschist facies
Eyal, Yehuda; Osadetz, Kirk G.; Feinstein, Shimon
We studied the brittle deformational history of the Okanagan metamorphic core complex, and its hanging wall carapace, in the Canadian Cordillera, in southern British Columbia by an extensive structural investigation at mesoscopic scale. The deformational history reveals that the transition from ductile to brittle deformation occurred during the early-middle Eocene and was associated with cooling due to tectonic and/or extensive erosional unroofing of the Okanagan portion of the Sushwap metamorphic core complex. Our study is based on mesostructures because in this region macro-structures are rarely exposed, although their existence can be deduced from field relationships. Measured fault systems that are either perpendicular to bedding, or which were sub-vertical to inferred paleohorizontal and with very small dispersion of strike are interpreted as faulted joints, i.e. joints that were reactivated by subsequent shear due to a relative change in stress orientation. The faulted joints are similar to observed open-mode I fracture system that exhibit no evidence for subsequent reactivation. In this study we suggest that fault sets characterized by consistent attitude with a very small dispersion can be interpreted as faulted joints using only their stereographic projection pattern relative to the inferred paleohorizontal. The first brittle deformation was a pervasive open-mode fracturing in the hanging wall carapace of both Eocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks and Eocene and older igneous rocks characterized by a N-S trend, with a very small dispersion, which formed either perpendicular to bedding or was sub-vertical with respect to the inferred paleohorizontal. These fractures are of similar trend to a middle Eocene dyke swarm in part of the study area and beyond. The Okanagan core complex metamorphic rocks exhibit brittle fractures that are interpreted as metamorphic foliation planes which were reactivated as faults in response to the same E-W extension recorded by
Stack, Michelle; Mazawi, Andre Elias
In 2005, the School Leadership Society, later renamed the British Columbia Educational Leadership Council (BCELC), was launched with the assistance of the British Columbia Ministry of Education to transform the goals and objectives of educational leadership and management in the Province of British Columbia (BC), Canada. In this paper the authors…
This document presents a brief history of important events in the development and maintenance of the post-secondary transfer system in British Columbia (BC) over the last six decades. Information is presented in point form and in chronological order. Several points related to the expansion of the post-secondary system are included, and hence the…
Kouritzin, Sandra G.
A critique of the prescribed Literature 12 curriculum for British Columbia teachers, this article is a life-history narrative juxtaposed against my own literary education, examining how my lived experiences were reflected and reinforced in the Literature 12 curriculum, and in the literary canons of both high school and university English teaching…
Among 36 secondary schools in British Columbia, those with high Native enrollment (HNE) had higher dropout rates, lower graduation rates, and lower participation rates on grade 12 government examinations, compared with low Native enrollment schools. Over the past 10 years, however, HNE graduation rates increased 16 percent. Contains 15 references.…
This scenic moonrise scene was taken over the Coastal Mountain Range, British Columbia (56.0N, 135W) and shows the moon at the day/night terminator. The moon appears as a tiny dot on the earth limb, partially intersected by the thin blue line of airglow.
Halbert, Judy; Kaser, Linda
This article describes how "learning to be", with a specific focus on social-emotional competencies, has become part of the educational mindset--and educational policy--in British Columbia, Canada. The development of a set of learning progressions for social responsibility, an emphasis on social emotional learning in the new curriculum…
Siegel, Linda; Ladyman, Stewart
This report presents findings of a special team to review special education policy, its implementation, accountability, and program effectiveness in British Columbia. The team identified a set of issues to address including: inclusion/integration, parental involvement, assessment, Individual Education Plans, evaluation, transitions, employees who…
MacDonald, R. W.
This report presents results from Phase 1 of the British Columbia Library Network (BCLN) Project, which included the installation and evaluation of a comprehensive library cataloging system using the University of Victoria Computing Center IBM 4341 computer. Evaluation included actual use of the system, performance and cost studies, feature and…
Perry, Nancy E.; McNamara, John K.; Mercer, K. Louise
Analysis of special education services in British Columbia (BC) for students with learning disabilities in light of a current legal challenge finds the province's policies and practices are supported by theory and research on best practices. However, BC's Ministry of Education is urged to ensure policies are enacted consistently and to increase…
Lee, Yew-Jin; Roth, Wolff-Michael
The purpose of this article is to describe the history of a state-sponsored salmon enhancement project in British Columbia and to explicate the development of the former using cultural historical activity theory. We make thematic the notion of inner contradictions, which express themselves outwardly as a function of both quantitative and…
Lowry, R. B.; Tischler, B.; Cockcroft, W. H.; Renwick, D. H. G.
The incidence of PKU in British Columbia in the 1950-1971 period is 1/18,750 which corresponds to that found in two other Canadian studies.2, 3 Evidence is presented which shows a trend toward a decline in incidence; however, this is not statistically significant. There is a preponderance of male cases in all age groups. PMID:5035136
Kamin, Jonathan; Erickson, Donald A.
A 1978 survey in British Columbia of 993 mostly urban parents, with children in 121 public and private schools, sought to discover the ways they chose their children's schools, the qualities they desired in those schools, and the effects on their choice of a new provincial aid program. The factors examined included social class, income,…
In British Columbia, K-12 school Aboriginal students' completion rates are far from equivalent to those of their non-Aboriginal peers. In addition, there is a high degree of variability in Aboriginal students' school completion rates across schools and communities. Administrative data associating approximately 1.5 million school census records of…
Oloo, James Alan
Educational outcomes for Aboriginal students in British Columbia, and Canada in general, are a cause for considerable concern. High dropout rates, low participation, completion and success rates at educational institutions have challenged educators for decades. Solutions have included lowering admission requirements for Aboriginal candidates and…
Walker, Susan P.
In an effort to meet the training needs of the British Columbia (BC) labor force, Open College (OC), in Burnaby, has focused future activities on market-driven, employer-centered training programs utilizing advanced technologies and traditional on-site instructional methods. Designed to ensure that these courses and programs reflect actual labor…
Clark, Penney; Gleason, Mona; Petrina, Stephen
The development of the Child Study Centre (CSC) at University of British Columbia (UBC) provides a unique perspective on the complex and often contradictory relationship between child study and preschool education in postwar Canada. In this article, the authors detail the development and eventual closure of the CSC at UBC, focusing on the uneasy…
Calam, John, Ed.
Alex Lord, a pioneer inspector of rural British Columbia (Canada) schools, shares in these recollections of his experiences in a province barely out of the stagecoach era. Traveling through vast northern territory, using unreliable transportation, and enduring climate extremes, Lord became familiar with the aspirations of remote communities and…
Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; McClaren, Erica L.; Doyle, Frank I.; Titus, K.; Sage, George K.; Wilson, Robert E.; Gust, J.R.; Talbot, Sandra L.
Northern Goshawks occupying the Alexander Archipelago, Alaska, and coastal British Columbia nest primarily in old-growth and mature forest, which results in spatial heterogeneity in the distribution of individuals across the landscape. We used microsatellite and mitochondrial data to infer genetic structure, gene flow, and fluctuations in population demography through evolutionary time. Patterns in the genetic signatures were used to assess predictions associated with the three population models: panmixia, metapopulation, and isolated populations. Population genetic structure was observed along with asymmetry in gene flow estimates that changed directionality at different temporal scales, consistent with metapopulation model predictions. Therefore, Northern Goshawk assemblages located in the Alexander Archipelago and coastal British Columbia interact through a metapopulation framework, though they may not fit the classic model of a metapopulation. Long-term population sources (coastal mainland British Columbia) and sinks (Revillagigedo and Vancouver islands) were identified. However, there was no trend through evolutionary time in the directionality of dispersal among the remaining assemblages, suggestive of a rescue-effect dynamic. Admiralty, Douglas, and Chichagof island complex appears to be an evolutionarily recent source population in the Alexander Archipelago. In addition, Kupreanof island complex and Kispiox Forest District populations have high dispersal rates to populations in close geographic proximity and potentially serve as local source populations. Metapopulation dynamics occurring in the Alexander Archipelago and coastal British Columbia by Northern Goshawks highlight the importance of both occupied and unoccupied habitats to long-term population persistence of goshawks in this region.
Anderson, Gail S.; Belton, Peter; Kleider, Nicholas
Culicoides hypersensitivity is a chronic, recurrent, seasonal dermatitis of horses that has a worldwide distribution, but has only recently been reported in Canada. It is characterized by intense pruritus resulting in lesions associated with self-induced trauma. A survey of veterinarians and horse-owners in British Columbia showed no differences in susceptibility due to the sex, color, breed, or height of the horses. The prevalence of the disease in the 209 horses surveyed was 26%. Horses sharing the same pasture could be unaffected. The disease was reported primarily from southwestern British Columbia; it occurred between April and October and usually affected the ventral midline, mane, and tail. Horses were generally less than nine years old when the clinical signs first appeared ([unk]=5.9 yr). Culicoides hypersensitivity was common in the lineage of several affected horses, possibly indicating a genetic susceptibility. Most cases were severe enough to require veterinary attention and some horses were euthanized. PMID:17423117
Equity in healthcare in British Columbia is defined as the provision of services based on need rather than ability to pay and a separation of contributions to financing from the use of services. Physician and hospital services in Canada are financed mainly through general tax revenues, and there is a perception that this financing is progressive. This paper uses Gini coefficients, concentration indexes and Kakwani indexes of progressivity to assess the progressivity of medicare financing in British Columbia in 1992 and 2002. It also measures the overall redistributive effect of medicare services, considering both contributions to financing and use of hospital and physician services. The conclusion is that medicare does redistribute across income groups, but this redistribution is the result solely of the positive correlation between health status and income; financing is nearly proportionate across income groups, but use is higher among lower-income groups. Informed public debate requires a better understanding of these concepts of equity. PMID:19305738
Root, K.G. )
An extensional duplex consisting of fault-bounded blocks (horses) located between how-angle normal faults is exposed in Proterozoic strata in the Purcell Mountains of British Columbia, Canada. This is one of the first documented extensional duplexes, and it is geometrically and kinematically analogous to duplexes developed in contractional and strike-slip fault systems. The duplex formed within an extensional fault with a ramp and flat geometry when horses were sliced from the ramp and transported within the fault system.
Ewbank, Ann Dutton
This modified case study examines how the members of the British Columbia Teacher-Librarians' Association (BCTLA), a Provincial Specialist Association (PSA) of the British Columbia Teachers' Federation (BCTF), work together to advocate for strong school library programs headed by a credentialed school librarian. Since 2002, despite nullification…
This study examines the wind energy planning frameworks from ten North American jurisdictions, drawing important lessons that British Columbia could use to build on its current model which has been criticized for its limited scope and restriction of local government powers. This study contributes to similar studies conducted by Kimrey (2006), Longston (2006), and Eriksen (2009). This study concludes that inclusion of wind resource zones delineated through strategic environmental assessment, programme assessment, and conducting research-oriented studies could improve the current British Columbia planning framework. The framework should also strengthen its bat impact assessment practices and incorporate habitat compensation. This research also builds upon Rosenberg's (2008) wind energy planning framework typologies. I conclude that the typology utilized in Texas should be employed in British Columbia in order to facilitate utilizing wind power. The only adaptation needed is the establishment of a cross-jurisdictional review committee for project assessment to address concerns about local involvement and site-specific environmental and social concerns.
Insua, T. L.; Grilli, A. R.; Grilli, S. T.; Shelby, M. R.; Wang, K.; Gao, D.; Cherniawsky, J. Y.; Harris, J. C.; Heesemann, M.; McLean, S.; Moran, K.
Ocean Networks Canada (ONC), a not-for-profit initiative by the University of Victoria that operates several cabled ocean observatories, is developing a new generation of ocean observing systems (referred to as Smart Ocean Systems™), involving advanced undersea observation technologies, data networks and analytics. The ONC Tsunami project is a Smart Ocean Systems™ project that addresses the need for a near-field tsunami detection system for the coastal areas of British Columbia. Recent studies indicate that there is a 40-80% probability over the next 50 for a significant tsunami impacting the British Columbia (BC) coast with runups higher than 1.5 m. The NEPTUNE cabled ocean observatory, operated by ONC off of the west coast of British Columbia, could be used to detect near-field tsunami events with existing instrumentation, including seismometers and bottom pressure recorders. As part of this project, new tsunami simulations are underway for the BC coast. Tsunami propagation is being simulated with the FUNWAVE-TVD model, for a suite of new source models representing Cascadia megathrust rupture scenarios. Simulations are performed by one-way coupling in a series of nested model grids (from the source to the BC coast), whose bathymetry was developed based on digital elevation maps (DEMs) of the area, to estimate both tsunami arrival time and coastal runup/inundation for different locations. Besides inundation, maps of additional parameters such as maximum current are being developed, that will aid in tsunami hazard assessment and risk mitigation, as well as developing evacuation plans. We will present initial results of this work for the Port Alberni inlet, in particular Ucluelet, based on new source models developed using the best available data. We will also present a model validation using measurements of the 2011 transpacific Tohoku-oki tsunami recorded in coastal BC by several instruments from various US and Canadian agencies.
Prins, Bert; Loewen, Ken
Rabies virus was demonstrated in 99 of 1154 bats submitted from British Columbia between 1971 and 1985. Rabies was diagnosed in seven species including big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), the latter accounting for 51% of all positive cases. Colonial species represented 92.9% of all identified bats and 87.7% of all rabid cases. Most bats were submitted from the more densely populated areas of the province, and submissions and positive cases both peaked in the month of August. Daytime activity and inability to fly were the most common behaviors reported in rabid bats. PMID:17422945
Prior, David B.; Bornhold, Brian D.; Coleman, James M.; Bryant, William R.
A digitally acquired, scale-corrected side-scan sonar survey yielded high-resolution imagery of a submarine landslide in British Columbia. The landslide, in a fjord-head setting at Kitimat, was last active in 1975 and created a wide area of deformed sea floor. The sediment failure involved shallow rotational movements on the slopes of a fjord-head delta, marginal tearing, translational sliding, compressional folding, and block gliding of fjord-bottom marine clays. The slide is shallow and elongate and appears to have been produced by failure in mobile, low-strength sediments.
Toraman, E.; Simon-Labric, T.; Fayon, A. K.; Teyssier, C.; Whitney, D. L.; Thomson, S. N.; Reiners, P. W.
The contribution of exogenic processes on the denudation history of mountain belts has been documented in many regions but the long-term and large scale effects of glacial erosion on denudation rates, relief development and sediment flux into basins are much debated. We use multiple low-temperature chronometers, apatite fission track (AFT) and apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He, along with thermal modeling to better constrain exhumation history of the Thor-Odin Dome in the Monashee Mountains, British Columbia. The present day topographic relief in the region reaches up to 2.5 km, with deeply incised valleys and ubiquitous glacial features such as hanging valleys, glacial lakes. In order to investigate the timing and rates of exhumation we collected samples from various altitudes across the region and along a vertical profile from Mt. Symons. AFT ages vary between 44-14 Ma, and show a strong correlation with elevation. Combined with track length distribution, AFT data indicates that the exposed crustal section experienced two episodes of cooling: a Middle Eocene cooling event related with dome exhumation by detachment tectonics, and a recent, post-Middle Miocene (< 14 Ma) event. We applied apatite (AHe) and zircon (ZHe) (U-Th)/He chronometry to a subset of these samples, primarily collected at valley bottoms (~500-600 m). Our results show that zircon crystals record the Middle Eocene cooling event (37-45 Ma), whereas apatite grains reveal late Miocene (6-12 Ma) ages. Thermal history reconstructions of low-elevation samples using inverse modeling strongly suggest a pulse of rapid exhumation at ~3 Ma, which coincides with the onset of glaciation in Northern Hemisphere. We employed best possible T-t paths from inverse modeling into forward models of AFT-AHe age pairs. The result indicates that these samples was residing at temperatures ~50-80 °C prior to the onset of rapid cooling at ~3 Ma, which fits well with the expected paleotemperatures from observed fission track
Hickson, C. J.; Russell, J. K.; Stasiuk, M. V.
The Pebble Creek Formation (previously known as the Bridge River Assemblage) comprises the eruptive products of a 2350 calendar year B.P. eruption of the Mount Meager volcanic complex and two rock avalanche deposits. Volcanic rocks of the Pebble Creek Formation are the youngest known volcanic rocks of this complex. They are dacitic in composition and contain phenocrysts of plagioclase, orthopyroxene, amphibole, biotite and minor oxides in a glassy groundmass. The eruption was episodic, and the formation comprises fallout pumice (Bridge River tephra), pyroclastic flows, lahars and a lava flow. It also includes a unique form of welded block and ash breccia derived from collapsing fronts of the lava flow. This Merapi-type breccia dammed the Lillooet River. Collapse of the dam triggered a flood that flowed down the Lillooet Valley. The flood had an estimated total volume of 109 m3 and inundated the Lillooet Valley to a depth of at least 30m above the paleo-valley floor 5.5km downstream of the blockage. Rock avalanches comprising mainly blocks of Plinth Assemblage volcanic rocks (an older formation making up part of the Mount Meager volcanic complex) underlie and overlie the primary volcanic units of the Formation. Both rock avalanches are unrelated to the 2350 B.P. eruption, although the post-eruption avalanche may have its origins in the over-steepened slopes created by the explosive phase of the eruption. Much of the stratigraphic complexity evident in the Pebble Creek Formation results from deposition in a narrow, steep-sided mountain valley containing a major river.
Harrison, Edward B.; Lautensach, Alexander K.; McDonald, Verna Lynn
In 2007 the University of Northern British Columbia initiated a two-year elementary teacher education program at the Northwest Campus in Terrace, British Columbia. The program was designed to meet specific community needs in the North that arise from inequities in the cultural safety of Indigenous teachers and students. The authors share three…
Anderson, John O.; And Others
The impacts of the Grade 12 Provincial Examination Program on the educational system in British Columbia and its participants were studied. Beginning with the 1983-84 school year, students in British Columbia have been required to take an end-of-course provincial examination in each academic course they take. The study began with a review of…
British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, Vancouver.
This document provides background information as well as degree completion statistics for Associate Degrees awarded in British Columbia from 1993-1994 to 2001-2002. The Associate Degree is a 2-year academic credential available with an art or science focus. The British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer initiated the credential in…
We report findings on the methodological phase of a research project designed to assess the progress of the British Columbia Open University (BCOU) toward a 1997 goal of increasing distance education course completion rates to British Columbia system levels by adapting existing "off-line" courses for online delivery (a virtualization strategy).…
Selman, Gordon R.
This chronicle outlines the development of adult education in British Columbia from 1833 to 1976. The introduction states that the development of adult education activities and services in British Columbia can be traced back almost one hundred and fifty years. The author stresses that the outline is tentative, and he encourages others to fill in…
The Associate Degree is a two year academic credential available with an Arts or Science focus. The British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) initiated development of this provincial credential at the request of British Columbia's (BC's) public post-secondary institutions. In March 2003, BCCAT prepared a report detailing the…
Menounos, Brian; Koch, Johannes; Osborn, Gerald; Clague, John J.; Mazzucchi, David
Terrestrial and lake sediment records from several sites in the southern Coast Mountains, British Columbia, provide evidence for an advance of alpine glaciers during the early Holocene. Silty intervals within organic sediments recovered from two proglacial lakes are bracketed by AMS 14C-dated terrestrial macrofossils and Mazama tephra to 8780-6730 and 7940- 6730 14C yr BP [10,150-7510 and 8990- 7510 cal yr BP]. Radiocarbon ages ranging from 7720 to 7380 14C yr BP [8630- 8020 cal yr BP] were obtained from detrital wood in recently deglaciated forefields of Sphinx and Sentinel glaciers. These data, together with previously published data from proglacial lakes in the Canadian Rockies, imply that glaciers in western Canada advanced during the early Holocene. The advance coincides with the well-documented 8200-yr cold event identified in climate proxy data sets in the North Atlantic region and elsewhere.
Barendregt, R. W.; Roed, M.; Smith, S.; Sanborn, P.; Greenough, J.; Layer, P. W.; Huscroft, C.; Mathewes, R.; Benowitz, J.; Tessler, D.
During construction of a road cut related to the Westside Road Interchange Project in West Kelowna, British Columbia, a till was encountered below one of the Lambly Creek valley basalts. The basalts are composed of a number of flows, ranging in age from 0.97 +- 0.05 Ma to 1.62 +-0.25 Ma based on new and available 40Ar/39Ar dating of basalt ground mass. Paleomagnetic data from all major units at the study site fall within one of the normal subchrons of the late Matuyama Reversed Chron and are in general agreement with the radiometric dates. Chemical signatures of the basalt are nearly identical to similar flows belonging to the Chilcotin Group of plateau lavas. This newly identified Chilcotin flow, combined with coeval flows at other locations imply that Chilcotin volcanism was more active during the Quaternary than previously thought. The underlying till is up to four metres thick and is mantled by a minimal Ah horizon in a paleosol. The till overlies laminated and cross bedded fluvial silty sand up to five metres thick that displays injection features and minor faulting. A layer of stratified gravel underlain by gray banded clay of unknown thickness underlies the sand. The till represents the earliest evidence of glaciation in the Okanagan Valley. Till fabric analysis indicates a southeasterly flow of this glacier. The present study site has yielded radiometric ages and polarities similar to those described by Mathews and Rouse for the Dog Creek locality, 320 km to the northwest in south-central British Columbia, where basalts occur below and above glacial deposits. The newly identified glacial till, here referred to as the Westbank First Nations till, is discussed in relation to other Early Pleistocene glaciations in the Cordillera and to the global paleoclimate record. Key Words: Early Pleistocene glaciations, Cordilleran glaciations in western Canada, magnetostratigraphy of glacial sediments, Lambly Creek basalt, Chilcotin Group, Ar/Ar ages of basalts
Levin, John S.
This qualitative investigation identified a condition of frenetic change experienced by two colleges in British Columbia, Canada, accompanying their change from community colleges to university colleges. Explored how economic globalization influenced the formation and functioning of these institutions. (EV)
Two cyclosporiasis outbreaks in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC) were investigated using molegular epidemiology. The cause of the 1999 outbreak has not been identiifed whereas the 2001 oubreak has been linked epidemiologically to the consumption of Thai basil. The internal tran...
We studied the abundance, diversity, and dispersion patterns of managed and wild bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) populations in commercial highbush blueberry and cranberry (Ericaceae: Vaccinium corymbosum L., Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) fields in the Fraser Valley of British Columbia, and assessed their ...
Clague, John J.; Turner, Robert J. W.; Reyes, Alberto V.
Rivers flowing from glacier-clad Quaternary volcanoes in southwestern British Columbia have high sediment loads and anabranching and braided planforms. Their floodplains aggrade in response to recurrent large landslides on the volcanoes and to advance of glaciers during periods of climate cooling. In this paper, we document channel instability and aggradation during the last 200 years in lower Cheakamus River valley. Cheakamus River derives much of its flow and nearly all of its sediment from the Mount Garibaldi massif, which includes a number of volcanic centres dominated by Mount Garibaldi volcano. Stratigraphic analysis and radiocarbon and dendrochronological dating of recent floodplain sediments at North Vancouver Outdoor School in Cheakamus Valley show that Cheakamus River aggraded its floodplain about 1-2 m and buried a valley-floor forest in the early or mid 1800s. The aggradation was probably caused by a large (ca. 15-25×10 6 m 3) landslide from the flank of Mount Garibaldi, 15 km north of our study site, in 1855 or 1856. Examination of historical aerial photographs dating back to 1947 indicates that channel instability triggered by this event persisted until the river was dyked in the late 1950s. Our observations are consistent with data from many other mountain areas that suggest rivers with large, but highly variable sediment loads may rapidly aggrade their floodplains following a large spike in sediment supply. Channel instability may persist for decades to centuries after the triggering event.
McClenagan, J. Donald
The upland-lowland pattern in the plateau region of central British Columbia, Canada forms an extremely large anastomosing channel network, with the uplands representing interfluves between channels. The study area landscape is remarkably similar in form to water-produced channel systems and qualitatively resembles flood landscapes from the Channelled Scablands and the margins of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Numerical shape analysis of the area erosional residuals gives similar results as those derived from known flood landscapes; the length-to-width ratios of the uplands (L/W = 2.38, R2 = 0.89) are similar to those reported for braid bars and erosional residuals formed by glacial outburst floods. Thus, the study area landscape records a megaflood or floods that almost completely immersed the landscape. Drumlins with, in places, ubiquitous hairpin furrows, locations downstream from steep slopes facing into the flow, and eroded into till and bedrock similarly reflect regional-scale meltwater flow that immersed the landscape. The regional flow submerged the anastomosing channels at the time of drumlin formation. Drumlins likely formed as the anastomosing network developed; divergent drumlin orientations probably reflect either late flow or separate drumlin-forming events that did not appreciably alter the anastomosing system.
Charles, Grant; Bainbridge, Lesley; Gilbert, John
The College of Health Disciplines, at the University of British Columbia (UBC) has a long history of developing interprofessional learning opportunities for students and practitioners. Historically, many of the courses and programmes were developed because they intuitively made sense or because certain streams of funding were available at particular times. While each of them fit generally within our understanding of interprofessional education in the health and human service education programs, they were not systematically developed within an educational or theoretical framework. This paper discusses the model we have subsequently developed at the College for conceptualizing the various types of interprofessional experiences offered at UBC. It has been developed so that we can offer the broadest range of courses and most effective learning experiences for our students. Our model is based on the premise that there are optimal learning times for health and human services students (and practitioners) depending upon their stage of development as professionals in their respective disciplines and their readiness to learn and develop new perspectives on professional interaction. PMID:20001544
Foster, B.R.; Rahs, E.Y.
The behavioral responses of more than 800 mountain goats, comprised of 195 social groups, were recorded during hydroelectric exploration activities (primarily aircraft) in northwestern British Columbia. Four categories of overt response were recorded during case tests, ranging from maintenance activity to severe flight. More than 80 percent (n=667) of the observed goats elicited some form of behavioral stress-response, with 33 percent (n=265) displaying a severe flight response to local rock or plant cover. Multiple regression analysis inferred goat responses to be statistically independent of the time of year, type, and vertical orientation of disturbance and group size. As expected, significant correlations (p less than or equal to 0.05) existed between distance of disturbance, geographic area, cover availability, and degree of awareness. Responses were stimulated primarily by auditory and secondarily by visual cues. Repeated aerial and ground follow-up surveys documented temporary range abandonment and changing observability indices (habitat use and activity patterns) associated with areas of intense exploration activity. The assessed data offer mitigation possibilities and enable formulation of management guidelines to lessen project impacts during future exploration, construction, and operation phases.
This paper examines a recent government initiative aimed at raising adult literacy levels across the Canadian province of British Columbia by 2010. Through analysis of policy documents and interviews conducted with policymakers, analysts, researchers and practitioners, the author argues that the current focus on adult literacy in British Columbia…
Tumuluru, J.S.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Lim, C. Jim; Bi, X.T.; Lau, A.K.; Melin, Staffan; Oveisi, E.; Sowlati, T.
Wood pellet production and its use for heat and power production are increasing worldwide. The quality of export pellets has to consistently meet certain specifications as stipulated by the larger buyers, such as power utilities or as specified by the standards used for the non-industrial bag market. No specific data is available regarding the quality of export pellets to Europe. To develop a set of baseline data, wood pellets were sampled at an export terminal in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The sampling period was 18 months in 2007-2008 when pellets were transferred from storage bins to the ocean vessels. The sampling frequency was once every 1.5 to 2 months for a total of 9 loading/shipping events. The physical properties of the wood pellets measured were moisture content in the range of 3.5% to 6.5%, bulk density from 728 to 808 kg/m3, durability from 97% to 99%, fines content from 0.03% to 0.87%, calorific value as is from 17 to almost 18 MJ/kg, and ash content from 0.26% to 0.93%.The diameter and length were in the range of 6.4 to 6.5 mm and 14.0 to 19.0 mm, respectively. All of these values met the published non-industrial European grades (CEN) and the grades specified by the Pellet Fuel Institute for the United States for the bag market. The measured values for wood pellet properties were consistent except the ash content values decreased over the test period.
J. S. Tumuluru; S. Sokhansanj; C. J. Lim; T. Bi; A. Lau; S. Melin; T. Sowlati; E. Oveisi
Wood pellet production and its use for heat and power production are increasing worldwide. The quality of export pellets has to consistently meet certain specifications as stipulated by the larger buyers, such as power utilities or as specified by the standards used for the non-industrial bag market. No specific data is available regarding the quality of export pellets to Europe. To develop a set of baseline data, wood pellets were sampled at an export terminal in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The sampling period was 18 months in 2007-2008 when pellets were transferred from storage bins to the ocean vessels. The sampling frequency was once every 1.5 to 2 months for a total of 9 loading/shipping events. The physical properties of the wood pellets measured were moisture content in the range of 3.5% to 6.5%, bulk density from 728 to 808 kg/m3, durability from 97% to 99%, fines content from 0.03% to 0.87%, calorific value as is from 17 to almost 18 MJ/kg, and ash content from 0.26% to 0.93%.The diameter and length were in the range of 6.4 to 6.5 mm and 14.0 to 19.0 mm, respectively. All of these values met the published non-industrial European grades (CEN) and the grades specified by the Pellet Fuel Institute for the United States for the bag market. The measured values for wood pellet properties were consistent except the ash content values decreased over the test period.
Hiebert, J.; Anslow, F. S.
Until recently, British Columbia suffered from a dearth of publicly and easily accessible (open) meteorological data. While Environment Canada (EC) maintains approximately 250 active in situ weather stations, the remaining meteorological and climate data -- which represent the majority of observations made in the province -- have been gathered by the provincial government within several disparate, ministry-specific networks. Those observations have traditionally been either inaccessible to non-government employees or only available on a network-by-network basis by contacting network managers and requesting custom data queries. Under a collaborative agreement between several provincial ministries, private industry and the Pacific Climate Impacts Consortium (PCIC) and with support from EC, the entire province's meteorological archive has been collected into a single database at PCIC and made publicly accessible via web services and open data protocols. In this paper, we describe our web services, built on open-source software, which provide users access to the full catalogue of BC's meteorological observations through a simple user interface. Our geographic web services provide users access to station locations using Open Geospatial Consortium's Web Mapping Service and Web Feature Service protocols. We use OpenDAP to provide users download access to over a century of weather observations through a variety of open formats such as NetCDF, HDF, ASCII, and others. The goals of these web services are twofold. We primarily aim to provide planners, scientists and researchers with timely and comprehensive climate data as conveniently and efficiently as possible. A natural consequence of this is to enable the flexibility to expand the volume and types of data served and to facilitate more sophisticated analysis regarding past and future climate.
Mood, Bryan J.; Smith, Dan J.
The Coast Mountains flank the Pacific Ocean in western British Columbia, Canada. Subdivided into the southern Pacific Ranges, central Kitimat Ranges and northern Boundary Ranges, the majority of large glaciers and icefields are located in the Boundary and Pacific ranges. Prior descriptions of the Holocene glacial history of this region indicate the Holocene was characterized by repeated episodes of ice expansion and retreat. Recent site-specific investigations augment our understanding of the regional character and duration of these events. In this paper, previously reported and new radiocarbon evidence is integrated to provide an updated regional assessment. The earliest evidence of glacier expansion in the Coast Mountains comes from the Boundary Ranges at 8.9 and 7.8 ka and in the Pacific Ranges at 8.5-8.2 ka, with the latter advance corresponding to an interval of rapid, global climate deterioration. Although generally warm and dry climates from 7.3 to 5.3 ka likely limited the size of glaciers in the region, there is radiocarbon evidence for advances over the interval from 7.3 to 6.0 and at 5.4-5.3 ka in the Pacific Ranges. Following these advances, glaciers in the Pacific Ranges expanded down valley at 4.8-4.6, 4.4-4.0, 3.5-2.6, 1.4-1.2, and 0.8-0.4 ka, while glaciers in Boundary Ranges were advancing at 4.1-4.0, 3.7-3.4, 3.1-2.8, 2.3, 1.7-1.1, and 0.8-0.4 ka. After 0.4 ka, it appears that most glaciers in the Coast Mountains continued to expand to attain their maximum Holocene extents by the early 18th to late 19th centuries. This enhanced record of Holocene glacier activity highlights the temporal synchrony in the Coast Mountains. Individual expansion events in the mid-to late Holocene broadly correspond to intervals of regional glacier activity reported in the Canadian Rocky Mountains, in Alaska, and on high-elevation volcanic peaks in Washington State.
Shaw, John; Lintern, Gwyn
Recent systematic multibeam sonar mapping and ground-truthing surveys in the fjords and coastal waters of central and northern British Columbia, Canada, provide information on glacial processes associated with the Cordilleran Ice Sheet, and also on postglacial processes that have strongly modified the glacial terrain. During the last glacial maximum, ice covered the Coast Range, except for nunataks. Convergent streamlined glacial landforms in the Strait of Georgia testify to a strong flow of ice towards the southeast, between Vancouver Island and the mainland. During ice retreat, thick deposits of acoustically stratified glaciomarine mud were deposited in glacially over deepened basins. Retreat through the Douglas Channel fjord system was punctuated by still stands, resulting in a series of submarine moraines. Postglacial processes have created a suite of landforms that mask the primary glacial terrain: 1) Fjord floors host thick deposits of acoustically transparent postglacial mud with highly variable distribution: banks up to 80-m thick are commonly adjacent to erosional zones with glaciomarine mud exposed at the seafloor; 2) In this region of high precipitation and snowpack melt, numerous cone-shaped Holocene fan deltas developed on the fjord sidewalls transport coarse sediment to the fjord floors. Larger deltas are developed at fjord heads, notably at Kitimat and Kildala; 3) Submarine slope failures in this tectonically active area have resulted in a suite of mass transport deposits on sidewalls and fjord floors. The very large submarine slope failures at Camano Sound and KitKat Inlet occurred on the steep, rear facets of large transverse moraines, and involved the failure of glaciomarine sediment that moved into deeper basins, perhaps as a retrogressive failure. The ages of these events are unknown, although the presence of postglacial mud in the slide scar at Caamano suggests that the event at that location occurred in the late glacial or early Holocene. Also
Marchildon, Gregory P; O'Byrne, Nicole C
Introduced as a federal-provincial cost-sharing program in the 1960s, Canadian Medicare arose in the context of competing provincial models implemented by Saskatchewan, Alberta, and British Columbia. This article examines Bennettcare in British Columbia which, unlike the Saskatchewan and Alberta models, has never been analysed historically. Named after Premier W. A. C. Bennett, Bennettcare initially attempted to balance public support for a government-sponsored health insurance program with the free enterprise ideology espoused by the followers of Social Credit, the insurance industry, and the British Columbia Medical Association. However, in order to receive cost-sharing dollars from the federal government, Bennett was eventually compelled to change the design features in order to comply with the federal government's requirements of universality and public administration, morphing Bennettcare into Saskatchewan-style Medicare. PMID:20509548
In the event of a major earthquake affecting the lower mainland of British Columbia, the University of British Columbia (UBC) would be expected to provide emergency services and support to a population of over 51,000 students, 14,000 faculty and staff and over 10,000 UBC community residents and private companies who live and work on the Point Grey peninsula. This paper will detail how UBC would provide shelter, food, accommodation and support (together known as mass care) to this demographic. PMID:27318287
British Columbia Teachers' Federation, 2012
Public schools are places where all students are welcomed and supported in their learning. Making changes to the Graduation Program should reinforce and support students' opportunities to learn and grow. In reviewing the current graduation requirements for the province of British Columbia (BC), the British Columbia Teachers' Federation…
Selman, Gordon R.
This paper traces the origin and development of the British Columbia provincial adult education organization during 1953-62. A series of biannual conferences for those interested in adult education began in late 1954. A more formal structure, the British Columbia Adult Education Council, was created in 1957 and continued until 1962, when it was…
Pakzad-Vaezi, Kaivon; Singhal, Ash
BACKGROUND: Sport- and recreation-related injuries are a major source of morbidity in the paediatric population. Long-term trends for these injuries are largely unknown. METHODS: A traumatic injury surveillance system (the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program) was used to examine the demographics and trends of paediatric sports injuries in children who presented to or were directly admitted to the British Columbia Children’s Hospital (Vancouver, British Columbia) emergency department or intensive care unit from 1992 to 2005. RESULTS: Over the 14-year study period, there was a significant increase in sport- and recreation-related injuries among patients who presented to the British Columbia Children’s Hospital. Of 104,414 injuries between 1992 and 2005, 27,466 were related to sports and recreational activities. The number of sport-related injuries increased by 28%, while all-cause injuries did not change significantly. Males comprised 68% of the sport-related injuries, and both sexes displayed an increasing trend over time. Cycling, basketball, soccer and ice hockey were the top four injury-causing activities. The main body parts injured were the face, head and digits. CONCLUSIONS: Paediatric sports injuries significantly increased at the British Columbia Children’s Hospital over the 14-year study period. This is likely due to increased sport participation, increased risk associated with certain sports, or both. Trends in paediatric sports injury may be predicted by changes in popular media, possibly allowing prevention programs to help to avoid these injuries before they occur. PMID:22468125
Roberts, N. J.; McKillop, R.; Clague, J. J.; Lawrence, M. L.
The 2007 Chehalis Lake tsunami in the southern Coast Mountains of British Columbia is one of the most comprehensively described landslide-generated tsunamis in the world. We use field observations and remotely sensed data collected during the two years following the tsunami to characterize its geomorphic impact and propose a suite of geomorphic features characteristic of tsunamis generated by subaerial landslides. On December 4, 2007, a highly fragmented 3 Mm3 rockslide entered the north end of Chehalis Lake and generated a tsunami that drastically altered much of the shore of the 8.5-km-long lake, with local run-up exceeding 35 m. The tsunami continued as a surge down lower Chehalis River, at the south end of the lake. We characterized geomorphic features produced by the tsunami by collecting multi-scale data, starting immediately after the event. Data included reconnaissance helicopter and ground observations, low-altitude aerial digital photography and aerial LiDAR survey, detailed GPS-controlled field traverses, and an underwater survey using side-scan sonar and swath bathymetric sounding. The impact of the tsunami was greatest on low-gradient shores and the shoreline nearest the landslide. Erosional features include wave-cut scarps, soil erosion, and complete removal of forest, leaving sharp trimlines. Debris transported by the tsunami stripped bark from standing trees, left impact marks on them, and embedded gravel in them. Depositional features include imbricated cobbles and boulders, ripples in sand and gravel, pebble lags, rip-up clasts of glaciolacustrine silt, and trash lines of woody debris in forest at and near the limit of tsunami run-up. Similar features have been reported at sites of landslide-triggered tsunamis, notably in Alaska, Chile, Norway, and elsewhere in Canada. We grouped geomorphic features at Chehalis Lake on the basis of their areal distribution and their inferred formative energy. The geomorphic groups form a continuum, reflecting
Grimmett, Peter P.; D'Amico, Laura
Beginning with the Sullivan Royal Commission on Education in 1988, British Columbia (BC) teachers experienced a policy context that led to a decade of intense professional learning around innovative instructional strategies and curriculum. From 2001 on, the policy context changed considerably. There has been a flurry of changes designed to bring…
Boyd, Marcia A.
Advantages of the performance simulation setting are considered, along with what can be studied or developed within this setting. Experiences at the University of British Columbia (UBC) and views on future development and research opportunities in the performance simulation setting are also discussed. The benefits of simulating the clinical…
Andres, Lesley; Dawson, Jane
This paper examines the historical development and current structure of transfer mechanisms within British Columbia (Canada), as reflected in a selection of reports, research studies, policy documents, and conversations with post-secondary education specialists in the province. It reviews the growth of the higher education system in British…
This research explored the politics of educational choice through a case study of one public school testing the limits of difference in the British Columbia (Canada) school system in the 1990s. The Fine Arts elementary school was created by the school board based on pedagogical ideas from teachers. This fine arts magnet offered teachers a great…
High profile sexual assault cases by British Columbia elementary school teachers in 2010 revealed BC school boards had "disturbingly inconsistent" child protection policies. As a result of the intense media scrutiny, the BC Ministry of Education required all school boards to reassess and update their policies on reporting suspected child…
Many coastal First Nations communities, particularly in British Columbia, see consultation as a positive way of getting around the firmly entrenched position of both provincial and federal governments on fish farming. Even those Native groups such as the Musgamagw Tsawataineuk Tribal Council (MTTC) and the Homalco First Nation, who are adamantly…
Background: This paper considers how textbooks resolve the tension between contradictory goals of promoting a cohesive national identity while teaching respect and equality among diverse social groups in British Columbia (B.C.), Canada. Purpose: The article presents preliminary results of a larger study examining the content of required civic…
This article uses Melucci's approach to social movements to explore how the women"s movement changed education in British Columbia in the 1970s. The women's movement was a multifaceted social phenomenon with multiple agendas and actors. In the early 1970s, it developed a temporary sense of cohesion in the field of education in the context of a…
British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2009
This report presents the results of an analysis of admissions and transfer data from the 2008 British Columbia (BC) Diploma, Associate Degree, and Certificate Student Outcomes (DACSO) Survey (formerly the BC College and Institute Student Outcomes Survey). This province-wide survey contacted former students 9 to 20 months after they completed all,…
British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2009
The role of the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) is to facilitate admission, articulation, and transfer arrangements in the BC post-secondary system. BCCAT carries out this work in various ways; for example, engaging in research on admissions and student transitions, evaluating the effectiveness of the transfer system…
Odo, Dennis Murphy
This essay explores the validity of including ELL students in British Columbia provincial high school exit exams. Data and a sample exam from the BC Ministry of education are used to scrutinize the practice of using BC provincial exams for high school exit decisions regarding ELLs. A comparison of failure rates of ELLs and mainstream students…
The B.C. Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) is considering whether to commission a full study of the benefits of British Columbia's articulated post-secondary system. The purpose of this report is to provide information and recommendations on the issues, costs, and advantages that would be associated with such a benefits study. Earlier,…
Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Tephritidae), is native to the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. and British Columbia in Canada and is known to attack and develop in the fruit of 12 plant species in nature. Here we report that R. indifferens in nature infests yet another plant,...
Price, Ruth; Burtch, Brian
This article presents a case study of a First Nations educational initiative in British Columbia. Simon Fraser University's (SFU) Integrated Studies Program created two unique adult education programs in response to a request from the Aboriginal-operated Nicola Valley Institute of Technology (NVIT); this request involved the two institutions…
Nicholas, George P.
In British Columbia, Canada, the practice of archaeology has been strongly influenced by issues of First Nations rights and the ways government and industry have chosen to address them. In turn, this situation has affected academic (i.e., research-based) and consulting (i.e., cultural resource management) archaeology, which have had to respond to…
MILLERD, FRANK W.; VERNER, COOLIE
THIS STUDY ANALYZED THE GENERAL BEHAVIOR OF ORCHARDISTS IN THE OKANAGAN VALLEY, BRITISH COLUMBIA, AND THE FACTORS RELATED TO ADOPTION OF INNOVATIONS IN THIS SETTING. FIVE PERCENT SAMPLES WERE DRAWN FROM 19 DISTRICTS CONSISTING OF 2,721 ORCHARDS, AND DATA WERE GATHERED BY RESIDENT AGRICULTURISTS. THE DATA WERE ANALYZED BY STAGE IN THE ADOPTION…
This summary of the Instructional Use of Microcomputers Scope Document dated February 22, 1980, outlines short-term plans for the educational use of microcomputers in British Columbia, indicates long-term possibilities, and describes current project activities. The project comprises two major phases: continued field liaison and research, and…
Herbst, Diana S.; Baird, Patricia A.
Findings from the British Columbia Health Surveillance Registry revealed information about the age specific prevalence of mental retardation with no known etiology; association of mild and profound retardation with microcephalus, hydrocephalus, cerebral palsy, or epilepsy; and survival rates. (Author/CL)
Ogden, Russel D.; Hassan, Shereen
This article researches a relatively new suicide method advanced by right-to-die organizations: oxygen deprivation by breathing helium inside a plastic hood. The article begins with a review of the role of the coroner and the history of oxygen deprivation with helium; it then examines 20 Judgements of Inquiry (JOI) by British Columbia coroners…
Clark, Erica; Minnes, Patricia; Lutke, Jan; Ouellette-Kuntz, Helene
Background: Adults with foetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) require support to be part of the community; however, most have few supports other than family and friends. The purpose of this study was to assess caregiver perceptions of community integration of adults with FASD living in British Columbia. Method: The Assimilation, Integration,…
Bryson, Mary; Petrina, Stephen; Braundy, Marcia
Analyzes provincial trends in gender-differentiated participation and performance of students in technology-intensive courses in British Columbia public secondary education at a time in Canadian history when competence and confidence with a range of technologies are essential for full cultural participation. Represents a step towards the…
A simple model that incorporates elements of the leading hypotheses is tested using a unique data set spanning 35 years of conventional arbitration experience among teachers in British Columbia. Found that bargaining units that used arbitration in earlier round of negotiations were more likely than others to use it in the current round. (JOW)
Holmes, Richard A.; And Others
In this analysis of 1,815 arbitration cases in British Columbia in 1982-85, bias is identified in the bivariate estimates of the probability of management wins by industry and issue. Bivariate estimate errors in these cases can result from failure of estimates to adjust for the effects of omitted variables. (TJH)
Examines the impact of the Sekani (British Columbia, Canada) homeland's village, economic, and political reorganization on cultural and language maintenance, focusing on why the Sekani speak English when there is little direct contact with Euro-Canadians and no particular advantages. (Author/CB)
Gibbons, Sandra L., Ed.; Liedtke, Werner W., Ed.
This proceedings contains 13 papers from the 1999 annual conference of the Faculty of Education, University of Victoria (British Columbia). The papers are: (1) "Sacred and the Profane in Advertising Art" (Bill Zuk, Robert Dalton); (2) "Finding the Fund$ in Fun Run: Evaluating the Effectiveness and Efficiency of Physical Activity Events as…
Gibbons, Sandra L., Ed.; Anderson, John O., Ed.
This proceedings contains 13 papers from the 1998 annual Faculty of Education conference at the University of Victoria, British Columbia (Canada). The papers are: (1) "Struggling with Re-Presentation, Voice, and Self in Narrative Research" (Marla Arvay); (2) "Women's Soccer in Canada: A Slow Road to Equity" (Meredith Bogle, Bruce Howe); (3)…
Liedtke, Werner, Ed.
This proceedings contains 17 papers presented at the third annual faculty conference at the University of Victoria (British Columbia, Canada). Papers cover a wide variety of disciplines and topics, including student teaching, athletics, researcher-teacher collaboration, hands-on science instruction, violence prevention, youth violence, counseling,…
In 1997 the British Columbia Open University (BCOU) adopted a virtualization strategy based primarily on twinning off-line independent study distance education courses (textbook-based with study guide and telephone and e-mail tutor support) with alternate online versions (textbook-based with integrated conferencing and communications provided…
Interviews with 50 First Nations adults in British Columbia generated 437 incidents illuminating the facilitation of mental healing. Fourteen categories emerged, including participation in ceremonies and cultural traditions, expressing emotions, learning from role models, spirituality, connection to nature, exercise, and social connections.…
Markey, Sean; Halseth, Greg; Manson, Don
In current policy discourse, rural decline is often described as an inevitable process associated with such broader structural trends as globalization and urbanization. The purpose of this paper is to challenge the supposed inevitability of rural decline in northern British Columbia (BC), Canada. We argue that rural decline in northern BC has been…
Dayton-Sakari, Mary, Ed.; Miller, Carole S., Ed.; Liedtke, Werner, Ed.
This proceedings contains 19 papers presented at the second annual faculty conference at the University of Victoria (British Columbia, Canada). Papers cover a wide variety of disciplines, including preschool education, classroom communication, mathematics instruction, theater, attention deficit disorders, distance learning by rural home schoolers,…
MacPhail, Fiona; Bowles, Paul
Analysis of casual work in British Columbia is an important issue given that the increase in casual work has been greater in this province than in other provinces in Canada and given that the labour market has been substantially deregulated since 2001. In this paper, we analyse how individuals' casual employment status affects their economic…
Perra, Leonel L.
The purpose of this study was to determine the status of the use of computers in the schools within the West Kootenay region of southeastern British Columbia (Canada). Thirty teachers, librarians, principals, and senior district administrators were interviewed to determine the computing background of the interviewees and how they were using…
Akinbode, Isaac A.; Dorling, M. J.
This study analyzed data gathered in a Canada Land Inventory project in British Columbia; the purpose was to measure the degree of communication between farmers and the agricultural extension service by analyzing the nature and extent of contacts, and the relationship of the contacts to socioeconomic characteristics. The farmers tended to be an…
Native Courtworker and Counseling Association of British Columbia, Vancouver.
The Native Courtworker and Counselling Association of British Columbia, with objectives of providing courtworker services for Native Indians charged with offenses; supplying information on legal rights, responsibilities, and operation of the justice system; and reducing the number of Native people in conflict with the law, handled 4,860 Native…
Beck, Kirk A.; And Others
Knowledge of, compliance with, and attitudes toward mandatory child abuse reporting were studied for 216 elementary and secondary school teachers in British Columbia (Canada). Teachers were aware of the law's existence but not its particulars. The tendency to report abuse varied as a function of the type of maltreatment. (SLD)
Since its inception in the 1980s, the Home Oxygen Program in British Columbia was centrally managed by the Ministry of Health. Initially a small program with few clients across the province, it soon became a large program with many clients and increasing expenditures. A pilot program started in Victoria (British Columbia) in 1996 demonstrated that managing the program locally could offer better client care, better contract management and significant cost savings. In 2002, the pilot’s model and recommendations were implemented in British Columbia’s five health authorities. The present review details the experiences of regionalizing the program in the Vancouver Coastal Health authority. After fine adjustments to the model were developed and new contracts and criteria changes made, better care for clients was provided than the previous centralized model at a reduced cost to the taxpayer. PMID:26078624
The basal-type uranium deposits in south central British Columbia occur within unconsolidated, late Miocene fluvial paleochannel sediments that overlie major fault zones within the Okanagan Highlands Intrusive Complex. Five uranium deposits have been outlined to date, of which the Blizzard (4,020 metric tons U) and Tyee (650 metric tons U) are the largest. The basement intrusive complex underlying the deposits varies in age from early Cretaceous to Eocene and is comprised of quartz monzonite, granodiorite, Coryell monzonite, porphyritic granite, and pegmatite. Uranium mineralization is present in the form of uranous (ningyoite) or uranyl (saleeite, autunite) phosphates coating clastic grains and filling voids. Because of very strong reducing conditions related to large concentrations of marcasite and organic material, ningyoite is the only uranium mineral in the Tyee deposit, whereas the Blizzard deposit contains a more complex assemblage of minerals (saleeite, autunite, ningyoite). The observed paragenetic sequence of mineral precipitation in the Blizzard deposit (autunite-saleeite-ningyoite) indicates that the uranyl minerals, saleeite and autunite, are primary. Investigations of the source of the ore-forming elements (U, Ca, Mg, PO/sub 4/) showed the deposits to be formed by the infiltration into fluvial sediments of deep-seated, structurally controlled, ground waters that migrated in a well-developed regional hydrologic system within the Complex. Research indicates that the ore-forming ground waters were cold, slightly bicarbonated (150-400 ppm), highly uraniferous (10-50 ppb), and slightly oxidizing (dissolved oxygen = 2-4 ppm).
Michalos, Alex C.; Kahlke, P. Maurine
The aims of this investigation were (1) to measure the impact of arts-related activities on the perceived quality of life of a representative sample of British Columbians aged 18 years or more in the spring of 2007, and (2) to compare the findings of this study with those of a sample of 1,027 adults drawn from five B.C. communities (Comox Valley,…
This booklet has been published to help understand and comply with the Regulation under the British Columbia Water Act for works and changes in and about a stream. Works carried out under the Regulation are those that do not involve water diversion, may be completed within a short period of time, and have little environmental impact. Examples include installation or removal of culverts or docks, repair of dikes, beaver dam removal, and installation of drain tile outlets. Information is included on definitions of terms, scope of the Regulation, general conditions for projects, specific project requirements, notification requirements, and enforcement. A copy of the Regulation is included.
Geertsema, Marten; Pojar, James J.
Landslides have long been overlooked or underestimated as important natural disturbance agents. In particular the ecological role of landslides in maintaining biological diversity has been largely ignored. Here we provide a western Canadian ( British Columbian) perspective on the influences of landslides on biophysical diversity, which is related in several ways to biological diversity. We recognize several types of biophysical/ecological diversity: site diversity, soil diversity, and the derivative habitat or ecosystem (including aquatic ecosystems) diversity. There are also a variety of landslide types, depending on materials and on the rate and style of movement. We discuss the roles of different landslide types on various aspects of terrestrial diversity. Landslides are simultaneously depositional and erosional processes that influence sites by redistributing materials and changing surface expression — usually creating a complex microtopography that can include very dry ridges and hummocks, and sometimes depressions with standing water. Landslide impacts to site also influence soil and soil development. Portions of landslides with exposed parent material are set back to the initial stages of soil development and ecological succession. Landslides can also change soil density, structure, porosity, surface texture, chemistry and microclimate. By changing site and soil, landslides also influence habitat. Landslides influence habitat diversity by engendering a mosaic of seral stages (often both primary and secondary), and in overwhelmingly forested landscapes often create nodes or hotspots of non-forested habitat and biota. In some areas, like the boreal forest, there is an important interplay between landslides and fire, while on the coast of British Columbia debris and snow avalanches can be the dominant disturbance agent. Low-gradient and deep-seated landslides are often opportunistically colonized by beaver and other water and shrub-loving fauna. Sag ponds and
Peregrine, Andrew S.; Jenkins, Emily J.; Barnes, Brian; Johnson, Shannon; Polley, Lydden; Barker, Ian K.; De Wolf, Bradley; Gottstein, Bruno
An adult dog that lived in central British Columbia was examined because of a history of lethargy and vomiting. Histology, immunohistochemistry, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) examination of a hepatic mass confirmed the presence of an alveolar hydatid cyst, the first description of Echinococcus multilocularis in British Columbia. We provide recommendations for case management and remind practitioners in endemic areas of western Canada that dogs can serve as definitive and, rarely, intermediate hosts for E. multilocularis. PMID:23372195
Stephen, C; Ribble, C S; Kent, M L
Marine anemia, also known as plasmacytoid leukemia, is a recently described disease of farmed Pacific salmon in British Columbia. Most of what is known about the disease has been generated through laboratory studies or field investigations of severely affected farms. The goals of this study were to determine the range of the spatial and temporal distribution of naturally occurring marine anemia, identify potential risk factors, and provide an initial description of the impact of the disease on commercial salmon farms in British Columbia. Data were obtained from mail surveys, farm visits, and reviews of clinical and laboratory records. An attempt was made to evaluate negative, as well as mildly, moderately, and severely affected sites. The results showed marine anemia to be widely distributed throughout the major salmon farming regions in British Columbia. The disease was most commonly diagnosed in August and September, when water temperatures were at their seasonal peaks. A wide variety of lineage's and fish sources were associated with the disease. The average mortality rate attributed to marine anemia was 6% (range 2.5% to 11%). The peak occurrence of the disease was associated with a peak in the occurrence of other infectious and inflammatory diseases. The broad demographic distribution of marine anemia, coupled with its endemic nature, indicated that the disease is unlikely to be due to the recent introduction of a new pathogen and that causal factors are widespread in southern British Columbia. It is concluded that the significance of diagnosing marine anemia is not that it is predictive of an impending epidemic of mortality, but that it is an indicator of the general pattern of disease on a farm. PMID:8809395
Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy
Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock), Artemisia sp. (wormwood), Chenopodium album (lambsquarters) and C. ambrosioides (epazote), Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle), Juniperus spp. (juniper), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Nicotiana sp. (tobacco), Papaver somniferum (opium poppy), Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives), Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion), Thuja plicata (western redcedar) and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle). PMID:21756341
Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock), Artemisia sp. (wormwood), Chenopodium album (lambsquarters) and C. ambrosioides (epazote), Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle), Juniperus spp. (juniper), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Nicotiana sp. (tobacco), Papaver somniferum (opium poppy), Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives), Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion), Thuja plicata (western redcedar) and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle). PMID:21756341
Allan, G. Michael; Innes, Grant D.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost of 46 commonly used investigations and therapies and to assess British Columbia family doctors' awareness of these costs. DESIGN: Mailed survey asking about costs of 23 investigations and 23 therapies relevant to family practice. A random sample of 600 doctors was asked to report their awareness of costs and to estimate costs of the 46 items. SETTING: British Columbia. PARTICIPANTS: Six hundred family physicians. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Estimates within 25% of actual cost were considered correct. Associations between cost awareness and respondents'characteristics (eg, sex, practice location) were sought. Degree of error in estimates was also assessed. RESULTS: Overall, 283 (47.2%) surveys were returned and 259 analyzed. Few respondents estimated costs within 25% of true cost, and estimates were highly variable. Physicians underestimated costs of expensive drugs and laboratory investigations and overestimated costs of inexpensive drugs. Cost awareness did not correlate with sex, practice location, College certification, faculty appointment, or years in practice. CONCLUSION: Family doctors in British Columbia have little awareness of the costs of medical care. PMID:15000338
Booth, Annie L. Skelton, Norm W.
Research was conducted with West Moberly First Nations, Halfway First Nation and the Treaty 8 Tribal Association (located in northeastern British Columbia, Canada) on effective engagement in environmental assessment processes. As part of this research, we examined the perspectives of a subset of resource industry proponents and their consultants, as well as staff from the British Columbia Environmental Assessment Office on their experiences with the requirement to consult with Canada's indigenous peoples. Research into the perspectives of industry proponents and consultants is almost non-existent, yet industry and governments are key participants within environmental assessments. This research found that industry proponents were disenfranchised by the British Columbia environmental assessment process and its mechanisms for consulting with First Nations, and that they sought changes to that process. Their concerns and their implications are documented and some recommendations are offered for addressing those concerns. Understanding industry and government views on First Nations engagement could suggest not only potential improvements in EA processes that facilitate all parties but provide common grounds for mutually engaging to resolve challenges.
Brody, B L; Simon, H J; Stadler, K L
Finding ways to organize and deliver long-term care that provides for quality of life at an affordable price is of increasing importance as the population ages, family size decreases, and women enter the workforce. For the past 2 decades, British Columbia has provided a model system that has apparently avoided disruptive conflicts. Although formal users' complaints are rare, this study--based on focus groups and interviews with users, their families, and advocates--identified problems users encountered toward resolving concerns about the structure, process, and outcome of long-term care. We present these findings in the context of British Columbia's current devolution from provincial to regional control that aims to save costs and keep disabled elderly persons in the community. British Columbia may be continuing to lead the way in meeting the needs of its burgeoning elderly population for long-term care. Study findings have implications for the development of US long-term care policy by pointing to the value of obtaining users' views of long-term care to identify both obvious and more subtle trouble spots. PMID:9392982
Schmitt, N; Saville, J M; Greenway, J A; Stovell, P L; Friis, L; Hole, L
The results of a 3-year study of trichinosis in British Columbia wild-life, based on the testing of more than 9,000 tissue specimens from a large variety of animal species, indicated that trichinosis is widespread among wild mammals in the southern and central parts of British Columbia. This continuing survey has established that the disease is carried by at least 15 species of terrestrial mammals including 3 species of rodents. The finding of Trichinella spiralis in ground squirrels and nonsynanthropic mice may be the first reported in North America. Although trichinosis appears to be eradicated in domestic pigs in British Columbia, a sylvatic cycle of the disease continues to exist independently and poses a potential threat to human health. It is possible for human beings to contract trichinosis by consuming inadequately cooked meat from certain wildlife species, especially bears, as well as meat products (such as pork or beef sausage) to which game meat has been added; several local outbreaks were caused by this source. Another hazard of unknown potential is the spread of trichinosis from the wild animal reservoir--from rodents in particular--to domestic pigs and thus to man. PMID:635095
Weckworth, B.V.; Dawson, N.G.; Talbot, S.L.; Flamme, M.J.; Cook, J.A.
Background: Many coastal species occupying the temperate rainforests of the Pacific Northwest in North America comprise endemic populations genetically and ecologically distinct from interior continental conspecifics. Morphological variation previously identified among wolf populations resulted in recognition of multiple subspecies of wolves in the Pacific Northwest. Recently, separate genetic studies have identified diverged populations of wolves in coastal British Columbia and coastal Southeast Alaska, providing support for hypotheses of distinct coastal subspecies. These two regions are geographically and ecologically contiguous, however, there is no comprehensive analysis across all wolf populations in this coastal rainforest. Methodology/Principal Findings: By combining mitochondrial DNA datasets from throughout the Pacific Northwest, we examined the genetic relationship between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolf populations and compared them with adjacent continental populations. Phylogenetic analysis indicates complete overlap in the genetic diversity of coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves, but these populations are distinct from interior continental wolves. Analyses of molecular variation support the separation of all coastal wolves in a group divergent from continental populations, as predicted based on hypothesized subspecies designations. Two novel haplotypes also were uncovered in a newly assayed continental population of interior Alaska wolves. Conclusions/Significance: We found evidence that coastal wolves endemic to these temperate rainforests are diverged from neighbouring, interior continental wolves; a finding that necessitates new international strategies associated with the management of this species. ?? 2011 This is an open-access article.
Moslow, T.F. ); Munroe, H.D. )
A subsurface investigation of the mid-Triassic Doig formation in northeastern British Columbia documented two main reservoir facies. Both are a product of mass movement and sediment gravity flow processes on a progradational, tectonically active continental shelf margin. Substrate instability was likely a product of sediment loading, perhaps in concert with seismic activity. Sedimentary facies and reservoir parameters were determined from analysis of approximately 150 cores and 900 well logs. Laterally discontinuous Doig sandstones are up to 60 m thick and trend northeasterly within the study area. The main reservoir facies are incised density flow deposits and laterally extensive slump deposits. Reservoir quality within these sands is extremely variable with porosity ranging from less than 5% to 15%. In core, these deposits consist of moderately well sorted, very fine grained sandstones with no vertical grain size variation. The best production to date is in the Buick Creek field with initial flows of 346 BOPD. The slump deposits are thinner and tend to be more elongate parallel to paleoshoreline. These sands were subject to some wave or current reworking. Modern analogs where similar processes and products of deposition are known to occur include the Gulf of Alaska continental shelf and the Fraser River Delta slope. Doig sandstones usually are enclosed in fine-grained shelf deposits that provide a good stratigraphic trapping mechanism. Successful development of Doig reservoirs must incorporate geologic modes that assist in understanding the complex and highly variable reservoir quality of sandstones units.
Radic, V.; Fitzpatrick, N.; Tessema, M.; Menounos, B.; Shea, J. M.; Dery, S. J.
The most physically-based method to simulate surface glacier melting is by surface energy balance models since they account for radiative and turbulent heat exchanges occurring at the snow or ice surface. Direct measurements of turbulent fluxes, however, are uncommon given the complexity of making reliable measurements of turbulent energy exchange on alpine glaciers. Most studies thus rely on the bulk aerodynamic method used to parametrize turbulent fluxes; an approach that may be inaccurate due to poorly specified empirical coefficients, such as the transfer coefficient and roughness lengths. Here we present direct measurements of turbulent energy fluxes for two alpine glaciers in British Columbia: Castle Glacier in the Interior Mountains for ablation seasons 2010 and 2012, and Nordic Glacier in Canadian Rockies for ablation season 2014. On both glaciers the turbulent heat fluxes may account for up to 35% of energy available for daily melt. Using eddy-covariance method we derive the roughness lengths for momentum, temperature and humidity, and evaluate the performance of bulk method with different parametrizations for transfer coefficient in simulating the turbulent fluxes. Finally, we estimate the transfer coefficient directly from our measurements, and investigate its dependence on meteorological variables measured at the glaciers.
Galway, L. P.; Allen, D. M.; Parkes, M. W.; Li, L.; Takaro, T. K.
Using epidemiologic time series analysis, we examine associations between three hydroclimatic variables (temperature, precipitation, and streamflow) and waterborne acute gastro-intestinal illness (AGI) in two communities in the province of British Columbia (BC), Canada. The communities were selected to represent the major hydroclimatic regimes that characterize BC: rainfall-dominated and snowfall dominated. Our results show that the number of monthly cases of AGI increased with increasing temperature, precipitation, and streamflow in the same month in the context of a rainfall-dominated regime, and with increasing streamflow in the previous month in the context of a snowfall-dominated regime. These results suggest that hydroclimatology plays a role in driving the occurrence and variability of AGI in these settings. Further, this study highlights that the nature and magnitude of the effects of hydroclimatic variability on AGI are different in the context of a snowfall-dominated regime versus a rainfall-dominated regimes. We conclude by proposing that the watershed may be an appropriate context for enhancing our understanding of the complex linkages between hydroclimatic variability and waterborne illness in the context of a changing climate.
Berger, B.R.; Snee, L.W. )
The Kettle dome, northeastern Washington and southern British Columbia, is one of several large metamorphic core complexes in the region. New Ar-40/Ar-39 cooling dates from the mylonite immediately beneath the Kettle River detachment fault at Barney's Junction, a cross-cutting mafic dike, and the youngest Eocene lavas in the Republic graben set constraints on kinematic models of the tectonic evolution of the dome and related grabens: Amphibolite--hornblende (59.0 [+-] 0.2); Pegmatite--muscovite (49.3 [+-] 0.2); Pegmatite--K-feldspar (49.2 [+-] 1); Augen gneiss--K-feldspar (48.0 [+-] 1); Mafic dike--hornblende (54.5 [+-] 0.1) and biotite (49.6 [+-] 0.1); Klondike Mt. Formation lava--feeder dike (48.8 [+-] 1). The authors interpret the dates to indicate that the tectonized amphibolite, part of a Cretaceous and older metamorphosed terrane, had formed and cooled to [approx] 500 C by Late Paleocene, the mylonite zone was being domed above the ductile zone by Early Eocene at the time of emplacement of the dike--temporally equivalent to the Keller Butte suite, Eocene Colville batholith--which crosscuts the mylonite, and incipient rifting was occurring in the Republic graben as evidenced by dike swarms. The mylonite complex reached 300 C by 49Ma coincident with the termination of Sanpoil volcanism, and then cooled rapidly to near or below 150 C by 48 Ma. At about this time, mafic Klondike Mt. lavas mark the termination of Republic graben rifting and possibly detachment faulting along the Kettle River fault.
Hayes, Gavin P.; Smoczyk, Gregory M.; Ooms, Jonathan G.; McNamara, Daniel E.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Benz, Harley M.; Villaseñor, Antonio
The tectonics of the Pacific margin of North America between Vancouver Island and south-central Alaska are dominated by the northwest motion of the Pacific plate with respect to the North America plate at a velocity of approximately 50 mm/yr. In the south of this mapped region, convergence between the northern extent of the Juan de Fuca plate (also known as the Explorer microplate) and North America plate dominate. North from the Explorer, Pacific, and North America plate triple junction, Pacific:North America motion is accommodated along the ~650-km-long Queen Charlotte fault system. Offshore of Haida Gwaii and to the southwest, the obliquity of the Pacific:North America plate motion vector creates a transpressional regime, and a complex mixture of strike-slip and convergent (underthrusting) tectonics. North of the Haida Gwaii islands, plate motion is roughly parallel to the plate boundary, resulting in almost pure dextral strike-slip motion along the Queen Charlotte fault. To the north, the Queen Charlotte fault splits into multiple structures, continuing offshore of southwestern Alaska as the Fairweather fault, and branching east into the Chatham Strait and Denali faults through the interior of Alaska. The plate boundary north and west of the Fairweather fault ultimately continues as the Alaska-Aleutians subduction zone, where Pacific plate lithosphere subducts beneath the North America plate at the Aleutians Trench. The transition is complex, and involves intraplate structures such as the Transition fault. The Pacific margin offshore British Columbia is one of the most active seismic zones in North America and has hosted a number of large earthquakes historically.
The Meager Mountain Volcanic Complex, 150 km north of Vancouver, B.C. has been a target of geothermal exploration since 1974. The study has been carried out jointly by B.C. Hydro, Energy, Mines and Resources Canada and co-funded by the Provincial Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources. Results indicate presence of two geothermal reservoirs approximately 12 km apart (South - North) within permeable fractured quartz diorite basement complex at depths between 1000-2000 m. Three diamond-drilled holes were completed in the South Reservoir area during 1979 and drilling results are compatible with earlier electrical resistivity surveys. The highest temperature recorded was 202 C at 367 m.
Guthrie, R. H.; Evans, S. G.
One hundred and one landslides were documented across 370km2 following a rainstorm that swept the British Columbia coastline on 18 November 2001. Despite the regional nature of the storm, the landslides were spaced close together, even within the study area. Landslide clustering is attributed to high intensity storm cells too small to be recorded by the general hydrometric network. The evidence nicely corroborates previous historical studies that reached similar conclusions, but against which there was no modern analog analyzed for coastal British Columbia. Magnitude-cumulative frequency data plotted well on a power law curve for landslides greater than 10000m2, however, below that size several curves would fit. The rollover effect, a point where the data is no longer represented by the power law, therefore occurs at about 1.5 orders of magnitude higher than the smallest landslide. Additional work on Vancouver Island has provided evidence for rollovers at similar values. We propose that the rollover is a manifestation of the physical conditions of landslide occurrence and process uniformity. The data was fit to a double Pareto distribution and P-P plots were generated for several data sets to examine the fit of that model. The double Pareto model describes the bulk of the data well, however, less well at the tails. For small landslides (<650m2) this may still be a product of censoring. Landscape denudation from the storm was averaged over the study area and equal to 2mm of erosion. This is more than an order of magnitude larger than the annual rate of denudation reported by other authors for coastal British Columbia, but substantially less than New Zealand. The number is somewhat affected by the rather arbitrary choice of a study area boundary.
Wilson, Devon J; Orsel, Karin; Waddington, Josh; Rajeev, Malavika; Sweeny, Amy R; Joseph, Tomy; Grigg, Michael E; Raverty, Stephen A
The protozoan pathogen Neospora caninum is recognized as a leading cause of infectious abortions in cattle worldwide. To evaluate the impact of neosporosis on dairy and beef herd production, a retrospective, longitudinal study was performed to identify the impact of neosporosis alongside other causes of fetal abortion in British Columbia, Canada. Retrospective analysis of pathology records of bovine fetal submissions submitted to the Animal Health Centre, Abbotsford, British Columbia, a provincial veterinary diagnostic laboratory, from January 2007 to July 2013 identified 182 abortion cases (passive surveillance). From July 2013 to May 2014, an active surveillance program identified a further 54 abortion cases from dairy farmers in the Upper Fraser Valley, British Columbia. Of the total 236 fetal submissions analyzed, N. caninum was diagnosed in 18.2% of cases, making it the most commonly identified infectious agent associated with fetal loss. During active surveillance, N. caninum was associated with 41% of fetuses submitted compared to 13.3% during passive surveillance (p<0.001). Breed of dam was significantly associated with N. caninum diagnosis, with a higher prevalence in dairy versus beef breeds, and fetuses of 3-6 months gestational age had the highest prevalence of N. caninum. There was no significant association with dam parity. N. caninum was diagnosed in every year except 2009 and cases were geographically widespread throughout the province. Furthermore, the active surveillance program demonstrates that N. caninum is highly prevalent in the Upper Fraser Valley and is a major causal agent of production losses in this dairy intensive region. PMID:26872927
In British Columbia, Pineapple Express storms can lead to flooding, slope failures and negative impacts to water quality. Mitigating the impacts of extreme weather events in a changing climate requires an understanding of how local climate responds to regional-toglobal climate forcing patterns. In this study, I use historical and proxy data to identify the distinguishing characteristics of Pineapple Express storms and to develop a tree ring oxygen isotope record (1960--1995) of local climate conditions in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia. I found that high magnitude Pineapple Express storms have significantly higher precipitation and streamflow than other storms types, which result in relatively high contributions of Pineapple Express storms to the annual water budget. As well, Pineapple Express precipitation is characterized by an enriched delta18O isotopic signature when compared to precipitation originating from the North Pacific Ocean. However, differences in source water do not appear to be driving the variability in tree ring delta18O ratios. Instead, tree ring isotopic values exhibit a regional climate pattern that is strongly driven by latitudinal temperature gradients and the Rayleigh distillation effect. Therefore, future warmer conditions may decrease the temperature gradient between the equator and the poles, which can be recorded in the tree ring isotope record. The results also suggest that warmer temperatures due to climate change could result in more active Pineapple Express storm seasons, with multiple PE storms happening over a short period of time. Concurrent storms significantly increase the risk to society because the resulting antecedent saturated soil conditions can trigger precipitationinduced natural hazards. Keywords: extreme weather; stable isotopes; Pineapple Express; British Columbia; climate change; tree rings.
Guy, Meghan; Norman, Wendy V.; Malhotra, Unjali
Objective To design reliable survey instruments to evaluate needs and expectations for provision of women's health services in rural communities in British Columbia (BC). These tools will aim to plan programming for, and evaluate effectiveness of, a women's health enhanced skills residency program at the University of British Columbia. Design A qualitative design that included administration of written surveys and on-site interviews in several rural communities. Setting Three communities participated in initial questionnaire and interview administration. A fourth community participated in the second interview iteration. Participating communities did not have obstetrician-gynecologists but did have hospitals capable of supporting outpatient specialized women's health procedural care. Participants Community physicians, leaders of community groups serving women, and allied health providers, in Vancouver Island, Southeast Interior BC, and Northern BC. Methods Two preliminary questionnaires were developed to assess local specialized women's health services based on the curriculum of the enhanced skills training program; one was designed for physicians and the other for women's community group leaders and aboriginal health and community group leaders. Interview questions were designed to ensure the survey could be understood and to identify important areas of women's health not included on the initial questionnaires. Results were analyzed using quantitative and qualitative methods, and a second draft of the questionnaires was developed for a second iteration of interviews. Main findings Clarity and comprehension of questionnaires were good; however, nonphysician participants answered that they were unsure on many questions pertaining to specific services. Topics identified as important and missing from questionnaires included violence and mental health. A second version of the questionnaires was shown to have addressed these concerns. Conclusion Through iterations of
Scheffler, C.; Rosin, K.; Weiler, M.
Increasing winter temperature in combination with forest management practices are the main drivers for the Mountain Pine Beetle (MPB) epidemic in British Columbia (BC). The infestation of MPB has now turned into a major threat to the natural habitat of the province. The Fraser basin, the largest watershed in BC, is the most affected watershed with an infested forest area of 7.7 million hectares (88% of the watershed) [Redding and Pike 2007]. Forest cover is a key modifier of the watershed's peak flow regime. The peak flow generally increases when forest cover is reduced. Major parts of the Fraser basin have only a limited number of gauging stations (or are even ungauged). The goal of the project was to develop a hydrological model that can predict peak flow increases but does not rely on complex data inputs for its validation and calibration procedures. The model consists of two major components: climate input and runoff. The climate input component determines the mean annual snowmelt as well as the maximum rainfall based on long term climatic averages. This information is then used to determine the time and the capacity of the peak flow for every 3rd order watershed. The runoff component delineates hydrologic processes such as Hortonain Overland Flow, Saturation Overland Flow and Shallow Surface Flow. The model combines the two components and computes a map of peak flow contribution. A peak flow analysis has been carried out to validate the model results using available gauging stations in subcatchments. The validated model has been then applied to the entire watershed to analyze the impacts of MPB on peak flow in the Fraser basin. The presentation will show the conceptual presentation of the hydrological model. It will highlight the results of the peak flow analysis and show initial results of the application of the model. Cited Literature: Redding, T. and Pike, R (2007). Mountain Pine Beetle and Watershed Hydrology Workshop Summary, Streamline Watershed
Ramachandran, K.; Dosso, S.E.; Spence, G.D.; Hyndman, R.D.; Brocher, T.M.
This paper presents a three-dimensional compressional wave velocity model of the forearc crust and upper mantle and the subducting Juan de Fuca plate beneath southwestern British Columbia and the adjoining straits of Georgia and Juan de Fuca. The velocity model was constructed through joint tomographic inversion of 50,000 first-arrival times from earthquakes and active seismic sources. Wrangellia rocks of the accreted Paleozoic and Mesozoic island arc assemblage underlying southern Vancouver Island in the Cascadia forearc are imaged at some locations with higher than average lower crustal velocities of 6.5-7.2 km/s, similar to observations at other island arc terranes. The mafic Eocene Crescent terrane, thrust landward beneath southern Vancouver Island, exhibits crustal velocities in the range of 6.0-6.7 km/s and is inferred to extend to a depth of more than 20 km. The Cenozoic Olympic Subduction Complex, an accretionary prism thrust beneath the Crescent terrane in the Olympic Peninsula, is imaged as a low-velocity wedge to depths of at least 20 km. Three zones with velocities of 7.0-7.5 km/s, inferred to be mafic and/or ultramafic units, lie above the subducting Juan de Fuca plate at depths of 25-35 km. The forearc upper mantle wedge beneath southeastern Vancouver Island and the Strait of Georgia exhibits low velocities of 7.2-7.5 km/s, inferred to correspond to ???20% serpentinization of mantle peridotites, and consistent with similar observations in other warm subduction zones. Estimated dip of the Juan de Fuca plate beneath southern Vancouver Island is ???11??, 16??, and 27?? at depths of 30, 40, and 50 km, respectively. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.
Taylor, Marsha; McIntyre, Lorraine; Ritson, Mark; Stone, Jason; Bronson, Roni; Bitzikos, Olga; Rourke, Wade; Galanis, Eleni
In 2011, a Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) outbreak occurred in British Columbia (BC), Canada that was associated with cooked mussel consumption. This is the first reported DSP outbreak in BC. Investigation of ill individuals, traceback of product and laboratory testing for toxins were used in this investigation. Sixty-two illnesses were reported. Public health and food safety investigation identified a common food source and harvest area. Public health and regulatory agencies took actions to recall product and notify the public. Shellfish monitoring program changes were implemented after the outbreak. Improved response and understanding of toxin production will improve management of future DSP outbreaks. PMID:23697950
Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Brauer, Gerhard; Khan, Tonya
In 2003, semi-structured interviews were conducted in British Columbia, Canada with participants obtained using a purposive sample on the ethnoveterinary remedies used for animals. Twenty-nine participants provided the information in this paper on the ethnoveterinary remedies used for reproductive health in dogs and cats. The plants used for pregnancy support and milk production in pets were raspberry-leaf (Rubus idaeus), motherwort (Leonurus cardiaca), flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) and ginger (Zingiber officinale). Uterine infections were treated with black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) and goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis). Most of the studies conducted on these plants have not been conducted on companion animals. PMID:19482367
Ching, H L
Adults of Profilicollis botulus were found in 6 species of diving ducks in British Columbia including 3 new hosts: common goldeneye, Bucephala clangula (L.); Barrow's goldeneye, B. islandica (Gmelin); and greater scaup, Aythya marila (L.). The identification of the species was verified by the examination of co-types and specimens from eider ducks, Somateria mollissima (L.), from Scotland and oldsquaw, Clangula hyemalis (L.), from New Brunswick. Cystacanths from the hairy shore crab, Hemigrapsus oregonensis (Dana), were similar in morphology to those from Carcinus maenas (L.) from Scotland. PMID:2918442
Mcelroy, C. T.; Elokhov, A. S.; Elansky, N.; Frank, H.; Johnston, P.; Kerr, J. B.
Under the auspices of the World Meteorological Organization, Environment Canada hosted an international comparison of visible light spectrophotometers at Mt. Kobau, British Columbia in August of 1991. Instruments from four countries were involved. The intercomparison results have indicated that some significant differences exist in the responses of the various instruments, and have provided a basis for the comparison of the historical data sets which currently exist as a result of the independent researches carried out in the past in the former Soviet Union, New Zealand, and Canada.
Insua, Tania Lado; Moran, Kate
Geological and historical records of the coast of British Columbia (BC) and orally transmitted legends from the First Nations in the area indicate the recurrence of tsunamis in this region. Recent studies show a 40% to 80% probability of a local earthquake occurring in the next 50 years over the Cascadia subduction zone, generating a tsunami run-up higher than 1.5 meters. Ocean Networks Canada (ONC) operates ocean observatories off the west coast of BC. Smart Oceans BC is a new multifaceted program to support coastal communities and decision makers by leveraging the unique capabilities of ONC's advanced cabled ocean observatories to inform public safety, marine safety, and environmental monitoring.
Austin, William C.; Ott, Bruce S.; Reiswig, Henry M.; Romagosa, Paula; McDaniel, Neil G.
Abstract Two new species of Demospongiae are described for British Columbia and adjacent waters in the family Axinellidae, Auletta krautteri sp. n. and Dragmacidon kishinensis sp. n. They represent range extensions for both of these genera. Both are fairly commonly encountered, Auletta krautteri below diving depths (87 to at least 300 m) and Dragmacidon kishinensis in shallow water (intertidal to 30 m). We propose an amended genus diagnosis for Auletta to account for the variability among species in principal spicules that form the ascending tracts to be either oxeas, styles or strongyles rather than just oxeas. PMID:24146581
Austin, William C; Ott, Bruce S; Reiswig, Henry M; Romagosa, Paula; McDaniel, Neil G
Two new species of Demospongiae are described for British Columbia and adjacent waters in the family Axinellidae, Auletta krautteri sp. n. and Dragmacidon kishinensis sp. n. They represent range extensions for both of these genera. Both are fairly commonly encountered, Auletta krautteri below diving depths (87 to at least 300 m) and Dragmacidon kishinensis in shallow water (intertidal to 30 m). We propose an amended genus diagnosis for Auletta to account for the variability among species in principal spicules that form the ascending tracts to be either oxeas, styles or strongyles rather than just oxeas. PMID:24146581
Taxonomic synopsis of invasive and native Spartina (Poaceae, Chloridoideae) in the Pacific Northwest (British Columbia, Washington and Oregon), including the first report of Spartina ×townsendii for British Columbia, Canada
Saarela, Jeffery M.
Abstract Five species of the grass genus Spartina are invading salt marshes along the Pacific coast of North America, of which three have been documented in British Columbia, Canada, in only the last decade. A taxonomic synopsis of the two native (Spartina gracilis, Spartina pectinata) and five introduced Spartina taxa (Spartina anglica, Spartina alterniflora, Spartina densiflora, Spartina patens, Spartina ×townsendii) in the Pacific Northwest is presented to facilitate their identification, including nomenclature, a new taxonomic key, new descriptions for a subset of taxa, and representative specimens. Spartina ×townsendii is newly reported for the flora of British Columbia. The non-coastal species Spartina pectinata is reported from an urban site in British Columbia, the first confirmed report of the taxon for the province. Lectotypes are newly designated for Spartina anglica C.E. Hubb., Spartina maritima subvar. fallax St.-Yves, and Spartina cynosuroides f. major St.-Yves. PMID:22461730
Marty, G D; Morrison, D B; Bidulka, J; Joseph, T; Siah, A
Piscine reovirus (PRV) was common among wild and farmed salmonids in British Columbia, western Canada, from 1987 to 2013. Salmonid tissues tested for PRV by real-time rRT-PCR included sections from archived paraffin blocks from 1974 to 2008 (n = 363) and fresh-frozen hearts from 2013 (n = 916). The earliest PRV-positive sample was from a wild-source steelhead trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), from 1977. By histopathology (n = 404), no fish had lesions diagnostic for heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI). In some groups, lymphohistiocytic endocarditis affected a greater proportion of fish with PRV than fish without PRV, but the range of Ct values among affected fish was within the range of Ct values among unaffected fish. Also, fish with the lowest PRV Ct values (18.4-21.7) lacked endocarditis or any other consistent lesion. From 1987 to 1994, the proportion of PRV positives was not significantly different between farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. (44% of 48), and wild-source salmonids (31% of 45). In 2013, the proportion of PRV positives was not significantly different between wild coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum), sampled from British Columbia (5.0% of 60) or the reference region, Alaska, USA (10% of 58). PMID:25048977
Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Brauer, Gerhard; Lourenco, Grant; Georges, Karla
This paper investigates the commonalities in ethnoveterinary medicine used for horses between Trinidad (West Indies) and British Columbia (Canada). These research areas are part of a common market in pharmaceuticals and are both involved in the North American racing circuit. There has been very little research conducted on medicinal plants used for horses although their use is widespread. The data on ethnoveterinary medicines used for horses was obtained through key informant interviews with horse owners, trainers, breeders, jockeys, grooms and animal care specialists in two research areas: Trinidad and British Columbia (BC). A participatory validation workshop was held in BC. An extensive literature review and botanical identification of the plants was also done. In all, 20 plants were found to be used in treating racehorses in Trinidad and 97 in BC. Of these the most-evidently effective plants 19 of the plants used in Trinidad and 66 of those used in BC are described and evaluated in this paper. Aloe vera, Curcuma longa and Ricinus communis are used in both research areas. More research is needed in Trinidad to identify plants that respondents claimed were used in the past. Far more studies have been conducted on the temperate and Chinese medicinal plants used in BC and therefore these ethnoveterinary remedies reflect stronger evidence of efficacy. PMID:16893454
Cummins, Patrick F.; Masson, Diane
Multi-decadal records of monthly sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) collected at a set of lighthouse stations are used to examine climatic variability and trends in the coastal waters of British Columbia. Particular attention is given to relations between the water property anomalies and variability in coastal freshwater discharge and alongshore wind stress. Within the Strait of Georgia, SSS anomalies are closely related to Fraser River discharge anomalies. Along the Pacific coast, anomalies in alongshore wind stress and freshwater runoff have the characteristics of white noise processes. A cross-correlation analysis demonstrates that SST and SSS variability along the open west coast is consistent with the response of a first-order autoregressive process driven by anomalous alongshore wind stress and coastal freshwater discharge, respectively. Thus climatic variability of SST and SSS along the Pacific coast of British Columbia occurs, in part, through the integration of noisy atmospheric forcing and coastal precipitation. Seasonal correlations show that SST is strongly related to wind stress during winter and fall. Conversely, SSS is relatively weakly related to the alongshore wind during spring, suggesting that variability in upwelling makes only a modest contribution to variability of SSS in the nearshore environment. Consistent with previous studies, secular trends indicate long-term warming and freshening of the coastal ocean at most stations. It is shown that long-term SST trends can be obscured by the pronounced climatic variability of these waters, requiring that time series extend for several decades to be reliably detected.
Fine, Isaac V.; Cherniawsky, Josef Y.; Thomson, Richard E.; Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Krassovski, Maxim V.
A major ( M w 7.7) earthquake occurred on October 28, 2012 along the Queen Charlotte Fault Zone off the west coast of Haida Gwaii (formerly the Queen Charlotte Islands). The earthquake was the second strongest instrumentally recorded earthquake in Canadian history and generated the largest local tsunami ever recorded on the coast of British Columbia. A field survey on the Pacific side of Haida Gwaii revealed maximum runup heights of up to 7.6 m at sites sheltered from storm waves and 13 m in a small inlet that is less sheltered from storms (L eonard and B ednarski 2014). The tsunami was recorded by tide gauges along the coast of British Columbia, by open-ocean bottom pressure sensors of the NEPTUNE facility at Ocean Networks Canada's cabled observatory located seaward of southwestern Vancouver Island, and by several DART stations located in the northeast Pacific. The tsunami observations, in combination with rigorous numerical modeling, enabled us to determine the physical properties of this event and to correct the location of the tsunami source with respect to the initial geophysical estimates. The initial model results were used to specify sites of particular interest for post-tsunami field surveys on the coast of Moresby Island (Haida Gwaii), while field survey observations (L eonard and B ednarski 2014) were used, in turn, to verify the numerical simulations based on the corrected source region.
Osorio, F. G.; MacKenzie, W.
High elevation ecosystems (alpine and subalpine) form nearly 20% of British Columbia's terrestrial land base. Most of these ecosystems remain pristine, yet the current surge in mineral exploration and recreation is presenting an unprecedented challenge for ecosystem management in the province. The current effort to describe and classify alpine plant ecosystems can be significantly aided by integrating and further developing GLORIA sites throughout British Columbia. The yearly data from each target region of GLORIA's Multi- summit approach can be used to quantify and differentiate alpine ecosystems based on botanical composition and timing of snowmelt. These site descriptors will strengthen the ongoing development of alpine site associations across the province while providing researchers further information to understand the edaphic amplitudes of indicator species for high-elevation plant communities. Furthermore, the soil temperature measurements can provide an efficient way to map the regional variation in snowmelt patterns, which is a primary gradient in the high-elevation biogeoclimatic ecosystem classification approach. A comprehensive and accurate classification will provide land managers a much needed starting point in high- elevation ecosystem management.
Berch, Shannon M; Bonito, Gregory
Based on an assessment of soil and climatic conditions in British Columbia (BC), the Truffle Association of British Columbia (TABC) determined that the cultivation of Mediterranean Tuber melanosporum and Tuber aestivum might be possible in the warmer parts of the province. With the cooperation of independent truffle growers, TABC assessed the colonization of host tree roots collected from eight truffle orchards planted 2-7 years earlier using morphological and molecular criteria. Both Tuber species persisted on the roots of inoculated trees in six of the eight truffle orchards studied. The identity of Tuber ectomycorrhizas that had been characterized morphologically as differing from those of T. melanosporum and T. aestivum were determined using DNA sequence analysis to belong to three species of truffles native to the Pacific Northwest. One of those species, Tuber anniae, had been previously reported from BC, but the other two, Tuber menseri nom. prov. and Tuber beyerlei, are reported here from BC for the first time. Recently, production of three Périgord black truffles in one truffle orchard and one Burgundy truffle in another orchard demonstrates that these truffles are able to fruit in BC. PMID:24496857
Teichman, Kristine J.; Cristescu, Bogdan; Nielsen, Scott E.
Wildlife-human conflicts occur wherever large carnivores overlap human inhabited areas. Conflict mitigation can be facilitated by understanding long-term dynamics and examining sex-structured conflict patterns. Predicting areas with high probability of conflict helps focus management strategies in order to proactively decrease carnivore mortality. We investigated the importance of cougar (Puma concolor) habitat, human landscape characteristics and the combination of habitat and human features on the temporal and spatial patterns of cougar-human conflicts in British Columbia. Conflicts (n = 1,727; 1978–2007) involved similar numbers of male and female cougars with conflict rate decreasing over the past decade. Conflicts were concentrated within the southern part of the province with the most conflicts per unit area occurring on Vancouver Island. For both sexes, the most supported spatial models for the most recent (1998–2007) conflicts contained both human and habitat variables. Conflicts were more likely to occur close to roads, at intermediate elevations and far from the northern edge of the cougar distribution range in British Columbia. Male cougar conflicts were more likely to occur in areas of intermediate human density. Unlike cougar conflicts in other regions, cattle density was not a significant predictor of conflict location. With human populations expanding, conflicts are expected to increase. Conservation tools, such as the maps predicting conflict hotspots from this study, can help focus management efforts to decrease carnivore-human conflict. PMID:24040312
Miller, Ruth R.; Langille, Morgan G. I.; Montoya, Vincent; Crisan, Anamaria; Stefanovic, Aleksandra; Martin, Irene; Patrick, David M.; Romney, Marc; Tyrrell, Gregory; Jones, Steven J. M.; Brinkman, Fiona S. L.; Tang, Patrick
Background. Streptococcus pneumoniae can cause a wide spectrum of disease, including invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). From 2005 to 2009 an outbreak of IPD occurred in Western Canada, caused by a S. pneumoniae strain with multilocus sequence type (MLST) 289 and serotype 5. We sought to investigate the incidence of IPD due to this S. pneumoniae strain and to characterize the outbreak in British Columbia using whole-genome sequencing. Methods. IPD was defined according to Public Health Agency of Canada guidelines. Two isolates representing the beginning and end of the outbreak were whole-genome sequenced. The sequences were analyzed for single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and putative genomic islands. Results. The peak of the outbreak in British Columbia was in 2006, when 57% of invasive S. pneumoniae isolates were serotype 5. Comparison of two whole-genome sequenced strains showed only 10 SNVs between them. A 15.5 kb genomic island was identified in outbreak strains, allowing the design of a PCR assay to track the spread of the outbreak strain. Discussion. We show that the serotype 5 MLST 289 strain contains a distinguishing genomic island, which remained genetically consistent over time. Whole-genome sequencing holds great promise for real-time characterization of outbreaks in the future and may allow responses tailored to characteristics identified in the genome. PMID:27366170
Teichman, Kristine J; Cristescu, Bogdan; Nielsen, Scott E
Wildlife-human conflicts occur wherever large carnivores overlap human inhabited areas. Conflict mitigation can be facilitated by understanding long-term dynamics and examining sex-structured conflict patterns. Predicting areas with high probability of conflict helps focus management strategies in order to proactively decrease carnivore mortality. We investigated the importance of cougar (Puma concolor) habitat, human landscape characteristics and the combination of habitat and human features on the temporal and spatial patterns of cougar-human conflicts in British Columbia. Conflicts (n = 1,727; 1978-2007) involved similar numbers of male and female cougars with conflict rate decreasing over the past decade. Conflicts were concentrated within the southern part of the province with the most conflicts per unit area occurring on Vancouver Island. For both sexes, the most supported spatial models for the most recent (1998-2007) conflicts contained both human and habitat variables. Conflicts were more likely to occur close to roads, at intermediate elevations and far from the northern edge of the cougar distribution range in British Columbia. Male cougar conflicts were more likely to occur in areas of intermediate human density. Unlike cougar conflicts in other regions, cattle density was not a significant predictor of conflict location. With human populations expanding, conflicts are expected to increase. Conservation tools, such as the maps predicting conflict hotspots from this study, can help focus management efforts to decrease carnivore-human conflict. PMID:24040312
Ogden, Russel D; Hassan, Shereen
This article researches a relatively new suicide method advanced by right-to-die organizations: oxygen deprivation by breathing helium inside a plastic hood. The article begins with a review of the role of the coroner and the history of oxygen deprivation with helium; it then examines 20 Judgements of Inquiry (JOI) by British Columbia coroners into this form of suicide. The JOI were obtained through the Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy Act and cover the period of 1999 to 2007. Findings raise concerns about the coding system used by coroners as well as adherence to internal documentation guidelines. The British Columbia Coroners Service (BCCS) has a public safety mandate to investigate all unnatural deaths and to make recommendations to prevent deaths in similar circumstances. It is a concern that BCCS has no recommendations to prevent suicides by oxygen deprivation with helium. More in-depth, systematic research is recommended to determine the prevalence of suicide by oxygen deprivation and to develop strategies to benefit public health and safety. PMID:24501824
McClenagan, J. Donald
A response is given to 'Discussion: “Streamlined erosional residuals and drumlins in central British Columbia, Canada”'. Emphasis is made that the main purpose of the paper under discussion is to present the recognition of a distinctive landscape pattern in central British Columbia that appears to be an immense anastomosing channel network. A channel network of the magnitude described requires a large magnitude of flowing water to form it. Thus, that recognizable landscape pattern and associated upland landform shapes can be explained as products of water erosion. Such landscape patterns are observed being formed by water today.
Cannon, Charles M.; Ramirez, Mary F.; Heatwole, Danelle W.; Burke, Jennifer L.; Simenstad, Charles A.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Marcoe, Keith Marcoe
Estuarine ecosystems are controlled by a variety of processes that operate at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Understanding the hierarchical nature of these processes will aid in prioritization of restoration efforts. This hierarchical Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification (henceforth "Classification") of the Columbia River estuary is a spatial database of the tidally-influenced reaches of the lower Columbia River, the tidally affected parts of its tributaries, and the landforms that make up their floodplains for the 230 kilometers between the Pacific Ocean and Bonneville Dam. This work is a collaborative effort between University of Washington School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences (henceforth "UW"), U.S. Geological Survey (henceforth "USGS"), and the Lower Columbia Estuary Partnership (henceforth "EP"). Consideration of geomorphologic processes will improve the understanding of controlling physical factors that drive ecosystem evolution along the tidal Columbia River. The Classification is organized around six hierarchical levels, progressing from the coarsest, regional scale to the finest, localized scale: (1) Ecosystem Province; (2) Ecoregion; (3) Hydrogeomorphic Reach; (4) Ecosystem Complex; (5) Geomorphic Catena; and (6) Primary Cover Class. For Levels 4 and 5, we mapped landforms within the Holocene floodplain primarily by visual interpretation of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) topography supplemented with aerial photographs, Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) soils data, and historical maps. Mapped landforms are classified as to their current geomorphic function, the inferred process regime that formed them, and anthropogenic modification. Channels were classified primarily by a set of depth-based rules and geometric relationships. Classification Level 5 floodplain landforms ("geomorphic catenae") were further classified based on multivariate analysis of land-cover within the mapped landform area and attributed as "sub
This report traces the development of the workplace apprenticeship system and college-based pre-apprenticeship training in Canada's most western province, British Columbia. The Canadian system is mildly distinctive in an international context and within Canada, British Columbia is increasingly distinctive. Federal government influence has been…
Reh-Bosch, Susan; Atkins, Lorraine
This report assesses the transfer credit process for British Columbia (BC) college transfer applicants to the University of British Columbia (UBC). Results indicate that students are earning on average 49.7 credits from the BC college attended and are being granted an average of 42.2 credits when transferring to UBC. This translated into 84.9% of…
Raptis, Helen; Fleming, Thomas
During the first half of the twentieth century in British Columbia, French language was considered a school subject to be taught as any other using formal classical approaches. Generally, no specific provincial or local policies existed to guide how French was taught and learned. By 1981, however, British Columbia had developed explicit language…
Koohzare, A.; Rezaeian, M.; McIntosh, A.
The Kerr Sulphurets property in North Western British Columbia has been explored primarily as a placer gold holding since the 1880s; and, potentially includes one of Canada's largest gold deposits (e.g. the Mitchell Zone). The Sulphurets camp has been classified by Taylor in 2007 as a prominent global epithermal high-sulphidation subtype with 10 million tonnes of ore (reserves + production) containing approximately 10 g/t gold. The geological and geophysical observations of this deposit indicate intrusion- related mineralized veins which are known to overlap as the result of structural complexities. Faulting predates mineralization and alteration and dramatically dominates the location of the mineralization for this porphyry- epithermal high-sulphidation deposit (Britton and Alldrick 1988, British Columbia Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources, 1992; Margolis, 1993). However, the surface trace of these structures and lineaments within the site is obscured by vegetation, glacial cover and steep topographic relief. We used high resolution LiDAR airborne bare-earth sensing (vegetative data deleted) in an effort to detect the surface geological features and lineaments in the Kerr Sulphurets site. The LiDAR flight was designed to acquire high density data with 2 points per square meter using a 150 kHz multipulse system. High resolution LiDAR data provides a level of detail not achievable by other digital terrain modelling techniques, whether extracted from aerial photography, low-resolution topographic contour maps, 10-30 meter USGS, or SRTM digital elevation models. LiDAR bare-earth data spectacularly revealed hidden geological structures within the property district, which in turn assisted in identifying the high potential zones for mineralization in Sulphurets.
Holmes, Keith Richard
Understanding the relationships between biodiversity and climate is essential for predicting the impact of climate change on broad-scale landscape processes. Utilizing indirect indicators of biodiversity derived from remotely sensed imagery, we present an approach to forecast shifts in the spatial distribution of biodiversity. Indirect indicators, such as remotely sensed plant productivity metrics, representing landscape seasonality, minimum growth, and total greenness have been linked to species richness over broad spatial scales, providing unique capacity for biodiversity modeling. Our goal is to map future spatial distributions of plant productivity metrics based on expected climate change and to quantify anticipated change to park habitat in British Columbia. Using an archival dataset sourced from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite from the years 1987 to 2007 at 1km spatial resolution, corresponding historical climate data, and regression tree modeling, we developed regional models of the relationships between climate and annual productivity growth. Historical interconnections between climate and annual productivity were coupled with three climate change scenarios modeled by the Canadian Centre for Climate Modeling and Analysis (CCCma) to predict and map productivity components to the year 2065. Results indicate we can expect a warmer and wetter environment, which may lead to increased productivity in the north and higher elevations. Overall, seasonality is expected to decrease and greenness productivity metrics are expected to increase. The Coastal Mountains and high elevation edge habitats across British Columbia are forecasted to experience the greatest amount of change. In the future, protected areas may have potential higher greenness and lower seasonality as represented by indirect biodiversity indicators. The predictive model highlights potential gaps in protection along the central interior and Rocky Mountains. Protected
Stanford, S.D.; Seidl, M.A.; Ashley, G.M.
The aim of this study is to examine the annual regime of channel scour and fill by monitoring bed-elevation changes in a reach of Squamish River in southwestern British Columbia, Canada. Sonar surveys of 13 river cross-sections in a sandy gravel-bed single-channel study reach were repeated biweekly over a full hydrologic year (1995/6). The survey results show that bedload movement occurs as waves or pulses forming bedwaves that appear to maintain an overall coherence with movement downstream. These bedwaves propagate downstream by a mode here termed pulse scour and pulse fill, a process distinguished from the conventional mode of scour and fill commonly associated with flood events (here termed local scour and local fill). Bedwave celerity was estimated to be about 15.5 m d-1 corresponding to a bedwave residence time in the study reach of almost one hydrologic year. The total amount of local bed-elevation change ranged between 0.22 m and 2.41 m during the period of study. Analysis of the bed-elevation and flow data reveals that, because of the bedware phenomenon, there is no simple relation between the mean bed-elevation and discharge nor any strong linear correlation among cross-sectional behaviour. The bed-elevation data also suggest that complex changes to the bed within a cross-section are masked when the bed is viewed in one dimension, although no definitive trends in bed behaviour were found in the two-dimensional analysis. Although a weak seasonal effect is evident in this study, the bed-elevation regime is dominated by sediment supply-driven fluctuations in bedload transport occurring at timescales shorter than the seasonal fluctuation in discharge. The study also indicates that bed-elevation monitoring on Squamish River, and others like it, for purposes of detecting and measuring aggradation/degradation must take into account very considerable and normal channel-bed variability operating at timescales from hours to months. Copyright (C) 2000 John Wiley and
Burke, Matthew J.; Brennand, Tracy A.; Perkins, Andrew J.
Glacier drainage systems are never steady state; instead they fluctuate over time and space in response to variation in water input. In order to improve numerical models of glacier hydrology it is important to fully understand the processes controlling subglacial drainage system evolution, but contemporary ice sheet beds are typically inaccessible. Thus, esker distribution, morphology, and sedimentology have been used to infer the dynamics and hydrology of former ice sheets. However, debate remains as to the processes responsible for esker formation and most theoretical investigations have assumed that they formed due to processes that operated beneath thick ice despite many field investigations to the contrary. We investigate esker formation during the final stages of the thin, inactive, and rapidly decaying Cordilleran Ice Sheet (CIS) in interior British Columbia, Canada. A combination of geomorphological, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data suggest esker ridge sedimentary architecture is consistent with synchronous formation during a glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF). These data reveal esker ridge deposition most likely took place within an ice tunnel that evacuated late-waning stage flow, following erosion and partial fill of a broader meltwater corridor. Esker ridge sedimentary architecture reveals this depositional environment was dynamic, reflecting complex interaction between ice thickness, ice structure, ice tunnel geometry, flow conditions, and sediment supply. Under these thin, inactive ice conditions ice tunnel location was initially governed by structural weaknesses in the ice and/or equipotential gradient. Because creep closure rates were low, the ice tunnel evolved through feedbacks between conduit growth via frictional melting/mechanical ice excavation, and conduit closure due to sediment infilling, rather than ice creep. This resulted in a non-uniform ice tunnel that enlarged in an upglacier direction
Tong, Jinjun; Dery, Stephen; Jackson, Peter; Derksen, Chris
This presentation will review some recent work examining the validation and application of remote sensing snow products in the Cariboo Mountains of British Columbia, Canada. Various remote sensing products are utilized to investigate snow distribution, duration and accumulation in the region. We will first introduce Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 8-day maximum snow cover extent products (MOD10A2) from 2000-2007 that are filtered to reduce cloud coverage and evaluated with ground-based snow measurements. The resulting data are used to monitor snow cover duration (SCD) and snow cover fraction (SCF) in the Cariboo Mountains where elevations range from about 500 m to 3000 m above sea level. Elevation, slope, and aspect greatly influence the distribution and duration of snow cover in the watershed. For instance, the gradient of SCF with elevation (d(SCF)/dz) during the snowmelt season is 8% (100 m)-1. The average ablation rates of SCF are similar for different 100 m elevation bands at about 5.5% (8 days)-1 for altitudes < 1500 m with decreasing values with elevation to near 0% (8 days)-1 for altitudes > 2500 m where perennial snow and glaciers dominate the landscape. We will then discuss brightness temperatures (TB) from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) from 2003-2007 that are utilized to retrieve and evaluate the snow water equivalent (SWE) over the Cariboo Mountains. Various algorithms including the Environment Canada (EC) algorithms, the spectral polarization difference and an artificial neural network for both SSM/I and AMSR-E are evaluated against in-situ SWE observations by several statistical metrics. The results show that the EC algorithms developed specifically for the southern prairies and boreal forest of Canada perform poorly across the complex topography and generally deep snowpack of the region. For other frequency combinations of SSM/I and AMSR-E measurements
Lock, Gwen E.
Interviews with 26 information technology professionals in British Columbia government indicated that all wanted to feel their input was valued and to make a difference. They wanted management and leadership skill training and opportunities for advancement. The unstable environment of the government workplace made retention a challenge. (Contains…
This report describes programs that require a bachelor's degree, not necessarily in the same field, for entry to the program. They are equivalent to at least one semester of full-time study, with at least some of the instruction delivered face-to-face in British Columbia, Canada. Graduate programs, professional programs such as law and medicine,…
This document addresses a study that aimed to better understand the historical development of British Columbia community college, university college, and institute system with special attention given to recent changes in inter-institutional collaboration in relation to provincial coordination. The study also addresses centralization and…
Tonkin, Roger S.; And Others
Over 200 families from lower and middle income areas of British Columbia, including a group representing the Indian communities, were studied in this effort to examine poverty as it relates to families, especially to young children. A wide variety of health, social, and economic variables were examined in the hope of developing output criteria for…
Neufeld, Margaret R. M.
Historically, Northwest Coast First Nations artists have been active participants in local and external economic markets. In Alert Bay, British Columbia, home of the 'Namgis People of the Kwakwaka'wakw Nation, artists have sold their work in urban centers since the 1950s. Now they are more rigorously involved in selling their work to local shops…
British Columbia Teachers' Federation, 2012
Students in British Columbia are being shortchanged in comparison to students elsewhere in Canada. The teachers of BC are urgently appealing to the Select Standing Committee on Finance and Government Services to recommend to government sufficient increases in education funding to reverse this situation and provide more educational services to BC…
Poole, Wendy; Fallon, Gerald
This paper examines increasing privatisation of education in the province of British Columbia, Canada. Conceptually, the paper is informed by theories of privatisation and social justice; and methodologically, it uses policy analysis to examine documents and financial records obtained from government departments. The paper critically analyses…
This report describes agencies (established by government) and organizations (established by others) that dealt exclusively with postsecondary education in British Columbia, Canada and which had at least one professional employee and/or were separate legal entities. Of the fifty groups described since 1960, about two dozen existed in 2012. The…
University of Victoria Genome British Columbia Proteomics Centre, a leader in proteomic technology development, has partnered with the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI) to make targeted proteomic assays accessible to the community through NCI’s CPTAC Assay Portal.
British Columbia Teachers' Federation, 2009
A fundamental goal of teachers in public schools in British Columbia (BC) is to ensure all students of every age, through the principle of continuous learning, have an equal opportunity to develop their full capacity for artistic, cultural, emotional, intellectual, and physical growth. BC public school teachers believe that the primary purpose of…
In September 1939, Amy (Brown) Dauphinee took up her first teaching appointment at Tate Creek, British Columbia where 518 refugees had recently settled after fleeing Czechoslovakia's Sudetenland. Amy--an avowed Social Democrat and member of the Young Socialist League--quickly embraced the refugees who were largely trade union activists and Social…
This report examines the demographics, performance, and success of students who were admitted to the University of British Columbia's Vancouver campus on the basis of a minimum 24 transfer credits earned at a BC college during the five year period comprising the 2003/04 through 2007/08 academic years. The report mines familiar ground--similar…
Kunkel, Titi; Schorcht, Blanca; Brazzoni, Randall
Aboriginal communities in Canada are typically marginalized, have very low employment participation rates, and have limited economic infrastructure. The downturn in global economies further marginalized these communities. The University of Northern British Columbia's (UNBC) Continuing Studies department piloted an Aboriginal and Small Business…
Ministry of Advanced Education, 2007
This is the twenty-second edition of the Adult Basic Education (ABE) Articulation Handbook for British Columbia's public postsecondary institutions. The purpose of ABE articulation is to ensure learners have access to quality courses, receive appropriate credits and are able to transfer easily among publicly-funded colleges, university colleges,…
Himsworth, Chelsea G; Zabek, Erin; Desruisseau, Andrea; Parmley, E Jane; Reid-Smith, Richard; Leslie, Mira; Ambrose, Neil; Patrick, David M; Cox, William
We report avian pathogenic and antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli in wild Norway rats ( Rattus norvegicus ) trapped at a commercial chicken hatchery in British Columbia, Canada, and provide evidence that rats can become colonized with, and possibly act as a source of, poultry pathogens present in their environment. PMID:27054468
Usman, Lantana M.
In Canadian public primary schools, newcomer West African refugees like other ethnic immigrant students are a visible minority group, often referred as Linguistic and Culturally Different (LCD) students. In the province of British Columbia, newcomer immigrant students are subjected to a battery of tests, as soon as they enroll in the primary…
Dennison, John D.; Schuetze, Hans G.
British Columbia has implemented two significant higher education reforms in the last 15 years. The first was an "Access for All" policy, and in particular, the creation of a new breed of institution--university colleges--and recognition of the right of colleges and institutes to confer "applied" degrees. The second reform, more recent and…
This study examines the management and outcome of the public-private partnerships (P3s) school construction project used in the Auguston housing development in Abbotsford, British Columbia to build a traditionally-designed elementary school. The study explored the relationship between the project's major players, the fiscal incentives that drove…
This report describes private colleges serving adults which since 1936 have been required to register with the provincial government of British Columbia, Canada or, since 1993, with a regulatory body created by the government. The sector has always included career colleges, but registration was expanded temporarily in the 1990s to include all…
British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2009
The British Columbia (BC) post-secondary system is a geographically dispersed network of colleges, institutes, university colleges, and universities. The success of such a diverse system depends on students' ability to move easily through the system, accessing the institutions, programs of study, and courses that they need and, where appropriate,…
Zhang, Siduo; Bi, Xiaotao Tony; Clift, Roland
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anticipated environmental benefits from integrating a dairy farm and a greenhouse; the integration is based on anaerobic digestion of manures to produce biogas energy, biogenic CO2, and digested slurry. A full Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been conducted on six modeled cases applicable in British Columbia, to evaluate non-renewable energy consumption, climate change, acidification, eutrophication, respiratory effects and human toxicity. Compared to conventional practice, an integrated system has the potential to nearly halve eutrophication and respiratory effects caused by inorganic emissions and to reduce non-renewable energy consumption, climate change, and acidification by 65-90%, while respiratory effects caused by organic emissions become negative as co-products substitute for other materials. Co-digestion of other livestock manures, greenhouse plant waste, or food and food processing waste with dairy manure can further improve the performance of the integrated system. PMID:24138886
Lim, D. S. S.; McKay, C. P.; Laval, B.; Bird, J.; Cady, S.
Pavillion Lake is 5.7km long and an average of 0.8 km in width, and is located in Marble Canyon in the interior of British Columbia, Canada. It is a slightly alkaline, freshwater lake with a maximum-recorded depth of 65m. The basin walls of Pavilion Lake are lined with microbialite structures that are oriented perpendicularly to the shoreline, and which are found from depths of 5 meters to the bottom of the photic zone (light levels 1% of ambient; approximately 30m depth). These structures are speculated to have begun formation nearly 11,000 years ago, after the glacial retreat of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet. They are likely a distinctive assemblage of freshwater calcite microbialites, which display micromorphologies possibly related to the ancient Epiphyton and Girvanella classes of calcareous organosedimentary structures.
Klein, Carolin; Kennedy, M Alexis; Gorzalka, Boris B
In an effort to characterize the attitudes and characteristics of men who solicit sex, this study investigated rape myth acceptance as assessed by a modification of Burt's Rape Myth Acceptance Scale. The participants were all men who took part in the Prostitution Offender Program of British Columbia after being arrested for attempting to solicit sex from an undercover police officer. Relationships between endorsement of rape myths, other attitudes, sexual behavior, and demographic variables were examined. Results reveal that age, education, use of pornography, ideal frequency of intercourse, and believing that purchasing sex is a problem are all negatively correlated with rape myth acceptance. Positive correlations were found between rape myth acceptance and sexual conservatism, sexual violence/coercion, and social desirability. Results are discussed in terms of the association between rape myth acceptance and the violence frequently perpetrated against those working in the sex trade. PMID:18397991
The CALPUFF modeling system was used to investigate two episodes of high particulate matter (PM) during December 2005 and February 2006. During this time, Golden was a British Columbia Ministry of Environment (BC MOE) intensive observation site for air quality research specific to PM. Observations from 4 meteorological stations were used to characterize the winds and dispersion parameters within CALMET. Emission rates were determined from the existing Golden Emissions Inventory and receptor modelling commissioned by the BC MOE. Statistical comparison of model predicted and observed PM concentrations show that model performance compares well to similar CALPUFF studies at two of the air quality monitoring stations in Golden. The source apportionment of the CALPUFF results identified the major contributors to degraded air quality levels during the two episodes under investigation as space heating, road dust and, intermittently, Louisiana Pacific operations.
Hoang, L. M. N.; Fyfe, M.; Ong, C.; Harb, J.; Champagne, S.; Dixon, B.; Isaac-Renton, J.
Sporadic outbreaks of cyclosporiasis, a common cause of protracted diarrhoea in underdeveloped countries, are often undetected and undiagnosed in industrial countries. In May 2001, an outbreak of Cyclospora cayetanensis gastroenteritis was identified in British Columbia, Canada, with 17 reported cases. We conducted a case-control study involving 12 out of the 17 reported and confirmed case patients. Eleven (92%) of the patients had consumed Thai basil, an essential ingredient in Vietnamese cuisine, compared to 3 out of 16 (19%) of the control patients (P = 0.003). Trace-back investigations implicated Thai basil imported via the United States as the vehicle for this outbreak. This is the first documented sporadic outbreak of cyclosporiasis linked to Thai basil in Canada, and the first outbreak of cyclosporiasis identified in an ethnic immigrant population. This outbreak provides the opportunity to increase our understanding of this emerging pathogen and improve on our prevention and control for future outbreaks. PMID:15724706
Kingscote, Barbara F.
An outbreak of leptospirosis due to Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo in the South Okanagan District of British Columbia was investigated. The infection was associated primarily with bulls, but serovar hardjo was isolated from both bulls and cows at slaughter. Kidney and cerebrospinal fluid were found to contain leptospires, independently of the presence and level of serum agglutinins. Treatment of a bull twice in six months with dihydrostreptomycin failed to diminish an agglutinin titer (1/200) which persisted for two years without reexposure of the bull. A serological survey of cull cows sold through a central auction mart revealed the presence of hardjo agglutinins in 15.4% of 1300 sera representing 163 herds in 20 locations. Thirty percent of these herds contained reactor cattle. The number of premises from which reactor cattle came in a given locality varied from 4% to 67.7%. Measures to control leptospirosis in the study are suggested. PMID:17422584
Kleider, N; Lees, M J
The investigation of a chronic, seasonal dermatitis of horses in southwestern British Columbia is described. Typically the history indicated an insidious onset, followed by a gradual progression in the severity of the signs each year. Lesions appeared during the warmer months of the year and tended to regress during the winter. The clinical signs consisted of areas of pruritus and excoriation, affecting predominantly the ventral midline, mane and tailhead. In all cases corticosteroid therapy relieved the pruritus and allowed the lesions to heal.The salient pathological findings were hyperkeratosis, spongiosis and a dermal infiltration of eosinophils together with mononuclear cells. These changes are typical of an allergic dermatitis, which has been recognized in many parts of the world as a hypersensitivity reaction to the bites of Culicoides spp. In this instance, the epidemiological findings relating to the geographic area, the local insect population and the distribution of lesions implicated Culicoides obsoletus as the etiological agent. PMID:17422351
Qayumi, A K; Cheifetz, R E; Forward, A D; Baird, R M; Litherland, H K; Koetting, S E
Surgical technical education has traditionally followed an apprenticeship format. The need for innovative undergraduate programs using dry and wet labs prior to clinical exposure continues to be an area of debate. Specific programs have been described to improve surgical skills; however, an accepted platform for training and evaluation of surgical skills programs has not been recognized. Therefore, introduction of specific programs to teach undergraduate medical students surgical skills is essential. This article describes the Basic Surgical Technique (BST) program taught at the University of British Columbia and reports the effectiveness of this program in improving the practical skills of undergraduate medical students. The program includes BST I for third-year students performed in a dry lab setting, and BST II for medical student interns (MSI) performed at the animal laboratories using female domestic swine as subjects. A total of 87 students participated in the study. The program is designed using Piaget's and Vygotsky's pedagogical philosophy of "learning by doing." A semiquantitative method is used to measure and analyze the outcome of this project. Data were validated using student self-evaluation tests and by quantitative evaluation by surgical staff from the surgical wards. Results of this prospective project indicated that the BST program significantly (p < .05) improved the surgical performance of undergraduate students, and that the time lapse between BST I and II has had a negative impact in retention of acquired surgical skills. This study concludes that the BST program taught at the University of British Columbia significantly improves the surgical skills of medical students and improves their self-confidence during their internship. PMID:10630398
Garvie, Kathryn Henderson
As the province of British Columbia seeks to rapidly develop an extensive natural gas industry, it faces a number of challenges. One of these is that of ensuring that development does not disproportionately impact some of the province's most marginalized communities: the First Nations on whose land extraction will take place. This is particularly crucial given that environmental problems are often caused by unjust and inequitable social conditions that must be rectified before sustainable development can be advanced. This research investigates how the BC Oil and Gas Commission's consultation process addresses, and could be improved to better address Treaty 8 First Nations' concerns regarding shale gas development within their traditional territories. Interviews were conducted with four Treaty 8 First Nations, the Treaty 8 Tribal Association, and provincial government and industry staff. Additionally, participant observation was conducted with the Fort Nelson First Nation Lands and Resources Department. Findings indicate that like many other resource consultation processes in British Columbia, the oil and gas consultation process is unable to meaningfully address First Nations' concerns and values due to fundamental procedural problems, including the permit-by-permit approach and the exclusion of First Nations from the point of decision-making. Considering the government's failure to regulate the shale gas industry in a way that protects ecological, social and cultural resilience, we argue that new governance mechanisms are needed that reallocate authority to First Nations and incorporate proposals for early engagement, long-term planning and cumulative impact assessment and monitoring. Additionally, considering the exceptional power differential between government, industry and First Nations, we argue that challenging industry's social license to operate is an important strategy for First Nations working to gain greater influence over development within their
Rabinovich, A.; Thomson, R.
The Great Tohoku Earthquake (Mw 9.0) of 11 March 2011 generated highly catastrophic tsunami waves that reached runup heights of up to 40 m along the coast of Japan and were recorded by numerous coastal tide gauges and bottom pressure stations throughout the Pacific Ocean. Near the coast of British Columbia (BC), the tsunami was measured by 15 permanent tide gauges, including gauges located well inside the Strait of Georgia and at Patricia Bay in Saanich Inlet (the site of the Institute of Ocean Sciences, IOS). Tsunami waves were also recorded by 5 temporary tide gauges within Victoria Harbour waterways (Gorge and Portage inlets), by 4 NEPTUNE-Canada bottom cable observatories on the Vancouver Island shelf and by 3 VENUS bottom pressure recorders within Saanich Inlet. Maximum tsunami wave heights observed on the outer BC coast were 1.0-1.5 m, while those within the sheltered basins of the inner coast were about ten times lower. The tsunami wave signal was also observed in the temperature, salinity and current velocity records of CTDs and an ADCP installed in an anoxic Canadian fjord on the coast of Vancouver Island. The collected data enabled us to examine the statistical and spectral properties of the 2011 Tohoku tsunami on the coast of British Columbia and to estimate the relative tsunami risk for this coast from distant earthquakes. The tsunami record from the deepest NEPTUNE (CORK) station was used as the input function for the IOS regional tsunami forecast model. The computed and observed tsunami wave forms for this event were in good agreement.
Tzemis, Despina; Al-Qutub, Diana; Amlani, Ashraf; Kesselring, Sarah
Background In August 2012, the British Columbia Take Home Naloxone (BCTHN) program was introduced to help to reduce opioid overdose and its consequences. This study evaluates the BCTHN program, identifying the successes and challenges of implementing a provincial program in Canada. Methods In this cross-sectional study, we reviewed the records of the BCTHN administrative program to report on program outcomes (participation and overdose reversals). Focus groups and individual interviews were conducted with 40 clients in Vancouver; 12 individual interviews were completed with service providers, police officers and parents of people who use opioids from both the Vancouver and Interior regions of British Columbia. Qualitative data were analyzed using content analysis and a qualitative descriptive approach. Results As of March 13, 2014, the BCTHN program had been implemented at 40 sites, trained 1318 participants in overdose prevention, recognition and response, distributed 836 kits to clients and received reports of 85 overdose reversals. Stakeholders were supportive of the program, and clients reported greater confidence in response to overdose. Service providers found the program training materials easy to use and that training increased client engagement. Some of the challenges included difficulty in identifying physician willing to prescribe, recruitment of some at-risk populations (e.g., long-term opioid users and patients with chronic pain), and clients’ reluctance to call 911. We also found that the police had some misconceptions about BCTHN. Interpretation The BCTHN program was easy to implement, empowering for clients and was responsible for reversing 85 overdoses in its first 20 months. We suggest communities across Canada should consider implementing take-home naloxone programs and evaluate their findings. PMID:25295235
Thakur, Yogesh; Bjarnason, Thorarin A; Baxter, Patricia; Griffith, Mitch; Eaton, Kirk
In 2013 Health Canada conducted a national survey of computed tomography (CT) radiation usage. We analysed contributions from all 7 public health authorities in the province of British Columbia, which covered scanner age, number of slices, and common adult protocols (≥ 19 years: 70 ± 20 kg, head, chest, abdomen/pelvis, and trunk). Patient doses were recorded for common protocols. Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) was calculated using scanner data with >10 patient doses recorded for each protocol. Data was analysed based on image reconstruction (filtered backprojection vs iterative reconstruction [IR] vs IR available but not in use). Provincial response was 92%, with 59 of 64 CT data used for analysis. The average scanner age was 5.5 years old, with 39% of scanners installed between 2008-2013; 78.5% of scanners were multislice (>64 slices), and 44% of scanners had IR available. Overall British Columbia DRLs were: head = 1305, chest = 529, abdomen/pelvis = 819, and trunk = 1225. DRLs were consistent with Health Canada recommendations and other Canadian published values, but above international standards. For sites with IR available, less than 50% used this technology routinely for head, chest and trunk exams. Overall, use of IR reduced radiation usage between 11%-32% compared to filtered backprojection, while sites using IR vs IR available used 30%/43% less radiation for head/chest exams (P < .05). No significant difference was observed for abdomen/pelvis exams (P = .385). With the fast pace of CT technical advancement, DRLs should reflect the technology used, instead of just globally applied to anatomical regions. Federal guidelines should be updated at a higher frequency to reflect new technology. In addition, new technologies must be utilised to optimize image quality vs radiation usage. PMID:26608253
Martin, Y.; Sjogren, D.
The large inventory of mass wasting data collected by Gimbarzevsky (1988) for the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia is an exceptional data base. The archipelago is located approximately 80 km off the coast of British Columbia and is seismically active, having the potential for earthquakes of large magnitude. The climate is mild, wet (1300 to 3600 mm/yr) and very windy. These factors together contribute to a high frequency of landsliding. The inventory consists of 8328 debris slides, debris avalanches, debris flows and debris torrents. Identification and characterization of events were based on 1:50 000 panchromatic aerial photographs and 1:50 000 map sheets. UTM grid cells of area 1 km^2 were used to classify landslide attributes, such as gradient and aspect. Since the original analysis was undertaken, significant advances have been made in the availability of topographic data and techniques to assess the spatial distribution of mass wasting events and associated landscape attributes. The mass wasting events, originally plotted on 1:50 000 NTS map sheets, are digitized and transferred to the 25-m DEM available for the Queen Charlotte Islands. This format allows for improved analysis of the original data base and, in particular, landscape attributes which may affect mass wasting frequency. Sensitivity analysis is undertaken to explore the effects of improved topographic resolution on results. In addition, the GIS format allows us to extend the original analysis using the sophisticated analytical techniques now available. Gimbarzevsky, P. (1988) Mass Wasting on the Queen Charlotte Islands: A Regional Inventory, BC Ministry of Forests and Lands, Land Management Report, 29, 96 pp.
Wood, Jayde L; Chen, Jessica C; Friesen, Elsie; Delaquis, Pascal; Allen, Kevin J
Increased consumer demand for fresh leafy produce has been paralleled by an increase in outbreaks and illness associated with these foods. Presently, data on the microbiological quality and safety of produce harvested in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia is lacking. Therefore, fresh green, red, and romaine lettuce samples (n = 68) were obtained from five regional farmers' markets in late summer of 2012 and subsequently analyzed to determine total numbers of aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and Escherichia coli. Additionally, enrichment procedures were used to detect low concentrations of E. coli. Obtained E. coli isolates were subjected to multiplex PCRs to determine phylogenetic groupings and the presence of virulence genes (eaeA, hlyA, stx1, and stx2). All E. coli were tested for resistance to 15 antibiotics using a disk diffusion assay. Lettuce samples yielded mean aerobic colony counts of 6.3 log CFU/g. Coliforms were detected in 72% of samples, with a median concentration of 1.9 log CFU/g. Of samples, 13% were found to harbor E. coli, with a median level of 0.7 log CFU/g. Antibiogram typing of all E. coli (n = 33) revealed that 97% possessed resistance to one or more antimicrobials, with resistance to amikacin (58%), trimethoprim (48%), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (45%) being the most common. Phylogroup typing showed that 79% of these isolates belonged to group B1, with the remaining assigned to groups A (9%) or D (12%); no virulence genes were detected. Considering that phylogroup indicators suggestive of fecal contamination (groups A and D E. coli) were recovered in lettuce samples presented at retail, further work is required to explore at what point along the food chain contamination occurs. Also, this study shows the presence of multidrug-resistant E. coli in fresh vegetables. Summed, these data provide important information on the microbiological quality of leafy vegetables grown in British Columbia through the detection and characterization of
Thommasen, H. V.; Lavanchy, M.; Connelly, I.; Berkowitz, J.; Grzybowski, S.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of depression and burnout among family physicians working in British Columbia's Northern and Isolation Allowance communities. Current level of satisfaction with work and intention to move were also investigated. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, mailed survey. SETTING: Family practices in rural communities eligible for British Columbia's Northern and Isolation Allowance. PARTICIPANTS: A random sample of family physicians practising in rural BC communities. Initial response rate was 66% (131/198 surveys returned); excluding physicians on leave and in temporary situations and those who received duplicate mailings gave a corrected response rate of 92% (131/142 surveys returned). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Demographics; self-reported depression and burnout; Beck Depression Inventory and Maslach Burnout Inventory scores; job satisfaction; and intention to leave. RESULTS: Self-reported depression rate was 29%; the Beck Depression Inventory indicated 31% of physicians suffered from mild to severe depression. About 13% of physicians reported taking antidepressants in the past 5 years. Self-reported burnout rate was 55%; the Maslach Burnout Inventory showed that 80% of physicians suffered from moderate-to-severe emotional exhaustion, 61% suffered from moderate-to-severe depersonalization, and 44% had moderate-to-low feelings of personal accomplishment. Depression scores correlated with emotional exhaustion scores. More than half the respondents were considering relocation. CONCLUSION: Physicians working in these communities suffer from high levels of depression and very high levels of burnout and are dissatisfied with their current jobs. More than half are considering relocating. Intention to move is strongly associated with poor mental health. PMID:11340754
Modern technical education in British Columbia has been affected by two societal trends: in industry, engineering technology evolved as a discipline to bridge the increasing chasm between the process-oriented skill sets of tradespersons/technicians, and the declarative knowledge focus of engineering; in education, the provincial college and institute system was created to address the need for a new post-secondary credential situated between trades certificates and university degrees. The Applied Science Technologist arguably forms the intersection of these two concepts. Almost forty years after its inception, it is timely to ask if the original model has matured into a distinct occupational category in industry, education, and in the public mind. The thesis proposes three environments, the Formative, Market and Public Domain, respectively. Interviews, surveys and personal experience afforded insights into the dynamics of these domains with respect to a fledgling occupational category, while the socio-philosophical concepts of culture, habitus and social imaginary provide the tools to interpret the findings. The thesis postulates that an emerging occupational category will not only challenge existing cultures and habitus, but that over time it will influence the imaginaries of each domain and society as a whole. Ultimately, the occupational category will be truly successful only when the general public is able to distinguish it from related disciplines. Charles Taylor's writings on multiculturalism are used to discuss identity and recognition of the Applied Science Technologist in each domain while Pierre Bourdieu's perspectives on the existence of habitus and self-proliferating elites form the framework to examine the relationships between technologists and engineers. Taylor's theory of multiple concurrent social imaginaries guides the comparison of divergent expectations among academic, career and vocational instructors at British Columbia's colleges. The thesis
Quinonez, S. M.; Olaya, J. C.; Miller, K. C.; Romero, R.; Velasco, A. A.; Harder, S. H.; Cerda, I.
The Coast Mountains Batholith on the west coast of British Columbia, Canada comprises a series of granitic to tonalitic plutons; where felsic continental crust is generated from the subduction of mafic oceanic crust by partial melting and fractionation, leaving ultra-mafic roots. In July of 2009, a large controlled-source experiment was conducted along a 400km east - west transect from Bella Bella into central British Columbia. Student volunteers from multiple universities deployed 1,800 one-component and 200 three-component geophones plus 2400 Texan data recorders with 200-m spacing intervals and shot spacing at 30-km. The 18-point sources ranged from 160 to 1,000 kg of high explosive. The geoscience component of the NSF-funded Cyber-ShARE project at UTEP focuses on fusing models developed from different data sets to develop 3-D Earth models. Created in 2007, the Cyber-ShARE Center brings together experts in computer science, computational mathematics, education, earth science, and environmental science. We leverage the Cyber-ShARE work to implement an enhanced 3-D finite difference tomography approach for P-wave delays times (Hole, 1992) with a graphical user interface and visualization framework. In particular, to account for model sensitivity to picked P-wave arrival times, we use a model fusion approach (Ochoa et al., 2010) to generate a model with the lowest RMS residual that a combination of a set of Monte Carlo sample models. In order to make the seismic tomography process more interactive at many points, visualizations of model perturbation at each iteration will help to troubleshoot when a model is not converging to highlight where the RMS residual values are the highest to pinpoint where changes need to be made to achieve model convergence. Finally, a model of the upper mantle using 3-D P-wave tomography will be made to determine the location of these ultra-mafic roots.
Data for selected water quality variables were evaluated for trends at two sampling stations--Flathead River at Flathead, British Columbia (Flathead station) and Flathead River at Columbia Falls, Montana (Columbia Falls station). The results were compared between stations. The analyses included data from water years 1975-86 at the Flathead station and water years 1979-86 at the Columbia Falls station. The seasonal Kendall test was applied to adjusted concentrations for variables related to discharge and to unadjusted concentrations for the remaining variables. Slope estimates were made for variables with significant trends unless data were reported as less than the detection limit. At the Flathead station, concentrations of dissolved solids, calcium, magnesium, sodium, dissolved nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen (total and dissolved), total organic nitrogen, and total phosphorus increased during the study period. Concentrations of total nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen and dissolved iron decreased during the same period. At the Columbia Falls station, concentrations increased for calcium and magnesium and decreased for sulfate and dissolved phosphorus. No trends were detected for 10 other variables tested at each station. Data for the Flathead station were reanalyzed for water years 1979-86. Trends in the data increased for magnesium and dissolved nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen and decreased for dissolved iron. Magnesium was the only variable that displayed a trend (increasing) at both stations. The increasing trends that were detected probably will not adversely affect the water quality of the Flathead River in the near future. (USGS)
Sjogren, D.; Martin, Y. E.; Jagielko, L.
Gimbarzevsky (1988) collected an exceptional landsliding inventory for the Haida Gwaii, British Columbia (formerly called the Queen Charlotte Islands). This data base includes more than 8 000 landsliding vectors, with an areal coverage of about 10 000 km2. Unfortunately, this landsliding inventory was never published in the referred literature, despite its regional significance. The data collection occurred prior to widespread use of GIS technologies in landsliding analysis, thus restricting the types of analyses that were undertaken at the time relative to what is possible today. Gimbarzevsky identified the landsliding events from 1:50 000 aerial photographs, and then transferred the landslide vectors to NTS map sheets. In this study, we digitized the landslide vectors from these original map sheets and connected each vector to a digital elevation model. Lengths of landslide vectors were then compared to results of Rood (1984), whose landsliding inventory for the Haida Gwaii relied on larger-scale aerial photographs (~ 1:13 000). A comparison of the two data bases shows that Rood’s inventory contains a more complete record of smaller landslides, whereas Gimbarzevsky’s inventory provides a much better statistical representation of less frequently occurring, medium to large landslide events. We then apply discriminant analysis to the Gimbarzevsky data base to assess which of a set of ten predictor variables, selected on the basis of mechanical theory, best predict failed vs. unfailed locations in the landscape (referred to as the grouping variable in discriminant analysis). Certain predictor variables may be cross-correlated, and any one particular variable may be related to several aspects of mechanical theory (for example, a particular variable may affect various components of shear stress and/or shear strength); it is important to recognize that the significance of particular groupings may reflect this information. Eight of the original variables were found
Hoffman, Kira; Smith, Dan; Lertzman, Ken; Starzomski, Brian
The coastal temperate rainforests of British Columbia's Central Coast are comprised of old growth, mixed-age stands and a mosaic of non-forested bogs. This region receives approximately 4000 mm of annual rainfall, and fire disturbances caused by lightning are thought to be very rare. Because of the late successional characteristics of these forests and the presumed lack of visible fire evidence, fires have been estimated to occur at up to 6000-year return intervals. We attempt to distinguish the roles of natural and cultural (First Nations) fires using multiple lines of evidence from tree ring records, fire-scarred trees, soil charcoal and archaeological evidence from First Nations settlement areas. To reconstruct the Holocene fire history of the study area located on Hecate Island (N 51 38 W -128 05), thirty 400m2 forest mensuration plots were systematically established in a 287-hectare area burned in 1893. Analyses focused on the relationship between fire events and climate recorded in tree rings and instrumental records, as well as nutrient concentrations and pH of soils and plant community characteristics. Four fire events (1893, 1776, 1525, 1372) were recorded in forty-five living, fire-scarred western redcedar (Thuja plicata), yellow cedar (Xanthocyparis nootkatensis) and shore pine (Pinus contorta var. contorta) trees. Five additional fire events (1785 Cal BP, 2760 Cal BP, 3355 Cal BP, 4735 Cal BP, 7740 Cal BP) were dated with accelerated mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating of in situ macro charcoal (> 5mm) buried in stratigraphy in both organic and mineral soils. The short intervals between fire events, coupled with the long history of First Nations settlement and land use in the study area, suggest purposeful and repeated low-intensity ground fires. Our research demonstrates that fires are more widespread and common than previously recorded on the very wet Central Coast of British Columbia. It is important to incorporate cultural fires into fire history
Turnbull, M.; Porritt, L. A.; Edwards, B. R.; Russell, K.
Kima'Kho Mountain is a 1.8 Ma (40Ar/39Ar of 1.82 +/- 40 ka) Pleistocene an alkali-olivine basaltic tuya situated in northern British Columbia. The volcanic edifice rises 460 m from its base and comprises a central vent, dominated by lapilli-tuff and minor pillow lava and dykes; and a surrounding plateau underlain by a sequence of dipping beds of basaltic tuff-breccia and capped by a series of flat-lying, subaerial lava flows. We present a 1:10,000 geological map for Kima'Kho Mountain building on the preliminary work of Ryane et al. (2010). We use the volcanic stratigraphy to explore the implications of three unique features. (1) The central cone comprises massive to crudely-bedded lapilli tuffs containing abundant armoured lapilli - cores of highly-vesicular pyroclasts coated with blocky to cuspate vitric ash. These units suggest an explosive origin from within an ice-enclosed lake, and deposited by wet, dilute pyroclastic surge events. (2) The entire stratigraphic sequence hosts at least two "passage zones" (cf. Jones, 1969); the presence and geometry of these passage zones constrain ice thicknersses at the time of eruption and inform on the englacial lake dynamics. (3) Lastly, our field-based stratigraphic relationships are at odds with the classic tuya model (i.e. an effusive onset to the eruption, forming pillow basalts, followed by explosive activity). Our field mapping suggests an alternative model of tuya architecture, involving a highly-energetic, sustained explosive onset creating a tephra cone that become emergent followed by effusive eruption to create lavas and a subaqueous lava-fed delta. Jones, J. G. Intraglacial volcanoes of the Laugarvatn region, south-west Iceland-I. Geological Society of London Quarterly Journal 124, 197-211 (1969). Ryane, C., Edwards, B. R. & Russell, J. K. The volcanic stratigraphy of Kima'Kho Mountain: A Pleistocene tuya, northwestern British Columbia. Geological Survey of Canada, Current Research 2011-104, 12p, doi:10
Baker, J.; Lowe, C.
The Bowser and Sustut basins occupy an area of more than 60,000 km2 in northern British Columbia, Canada. They comprise three, dominantly sedimentary, stratigraphic successions, in part overlapping in age: the Bowser Lake Group, the Skeena Group, and the Sustut Group. These three successions overlie arc volcanic and volcaniclastic strata of Stikinia, an allochtonous island arc terrane that accreted to the western margin of North America in the Early Jurassic to early Middle Jurassic. All three basin successions and underlying Stikinia were deformed during development of a thin-skinned fold and thrust belt (the Skeena Fold and Thrust Belt) in Cretaceous and possibly into earliest Tertiary time. Recently, the basins have been the focus of intense geological studies which have resulted in major revisions to the stratigraphic and structural framework of the basins and demonstrated that they have significantly higher petroleum potential than had been previously recognized. To advance these new findings further requires better imaging of the three-dimensional geometry and architecture of the basins. In this study we harness existing magnetic anomaly data to provide the first quantitative estimates of sedimentary thickness across the entire extents of both basins. Our results, which are in general in accord with geological interpretations, indicate that basin-fill is relatively thin and fairly uniform in the Sustut Basin (2.5-3 km), but highly variable in the Bowser Basin, ranging from less than 2 km to more than 6 km. Overall, sedimentary fill is thicker in the northern half of Bowser Basin compared to the south and is typically less than 2 km near the basins northern, western and southern margins. In addition, we demonstrate how a large, buried intrusion beneath the northeast part of Bowser Basin can account for an observed magnetic anomaly and explain the high coalification gradients and localized high maturation levels of the overlying sedimentary rocks. Neither of
Kirkham, C M; Lobb, D J
OBJECTIVE: To describe the health, social environment, medical care received and satisfaction with medical care of HIV-infected women in British Columbia. DESIGN: Self-administered 75-item questionnaire distributed by mail or in person between March 1994 and February 1996 through community AIDS organizations and physicians' offices. SETTING: British Columbia. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 110 HIV-positive women. OUTCOME MEASURES: Sociodemographic data, risk factors for HIV infection, details about HIV testing, health status and medical treatment, use of health care services, degree of satisfaction with medical care and psychosocial stressors. RESULTS: Most of the women surveyed were aged 25 to 39 years (70.0%), were Canadian born (76.4%) and were white (80.9%). Over one-third did not complete high school, and half had an annual household income of less than $20,000. Of the 110 women 51.8% had children, who were HIV-positive in 12.3% of cases. The most frequently reported risk factor for HIV infection was sex with a man (49.1%); 19.1% reported both sex with a man and injection drug use, and 12.7% reported injection drug use only. Seventy-five women indicated that they had become infected through sex with a man, with or without injection drug use. Of these, 65 indicated whether or not this was the result of sexual assault or rape; 8 (12.3%) answered affirmatively. Of the 81 women who responded to the question regarding prior sexual assault or abuse, 43 (53.1%) reported being sexually assaulted as an adult, 35 (43.2%) reported being sexually abused as a child, and 22 (27.2%) reported being sexually abused or assaulted both as a child and as an adult. Women who were sexually abused as a child were more likely than those who were not abused as a child to have injection drug use as a risk factor (54.3% v. 7.5%). Menstrual cycle changes were reported by 70.1% of the respondents. Most women stated that they had not received adequate pre- or post-test counselling, and 47.0% were
Bowes, Victoria A
In spring 2004, an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), subtype H7N3, occurred in the Fraser Valley of British Columbia, Canada. The active outbreak lasted more than 90 days; 42 commercial poultry farms were identified as infected premises, and more than 17 million birds were culled. Through the depopulation of HPAI-positive farms and the strategic depopulation of adjacent test-negative farms, a total of 410 commercial poultry farms were emptied. The goals for the commercial poultry industry were to expedite restocking, reduce nonproductive downtime, negotiate equitable financial compensation, review and restructure emergency disease response plans, and identify and implement mitigation strategies. After the outbreak, multijurisdictional reviews identified the strengths and weaknesses of the outbreak control strategy. Lessons learned were incorporated into current emergency disease response protocols for both industry and government. The industry-led challenge to initial compensation values, especially for specialty poultry and breeder birds, resulted in a review of the federal Health of Animals Act. The British Columbia poultry industry, in collaboration with the British Columbia Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, developed an Enhanced Biosecurity Initiative that included the identification of mandatory on-farm biosecurity standards for commercial producers, an educational biosecurity self-assessment guide, and provisions for a producer self-quarantine to be enacted upon the first suspicion of disease. PMID:17494573
Stephen, R C; Ribble, C S
The changing geographic distribution of marine anemia (plasmacytoid leukemia) was compared with the evolving demographics of the chinook farming industry in British Columbia to explore the hypothesis that the disease had spread throughout the province between 1987 and 1992. Through retrospective and prospective methods, it was shown that the apparent spread of the disease was likely an artifact, resulting from changes in the distribution of fish farms throughout the province and corresponding changes in the intensity of regional disease surveillance. When viewed over a 5-year period, there were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence of the disease amongst fish sampled from each of the major salmon farming regions of British Columbia. By increasing the intensity of surveillance for the disease in apparently negative regions or chinook farms, one could routinely find cases of the disease. The results suggest that marine anemia is an endemic problem for farmed chinook salmon in British Columbia and is not a spreading epidemic. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:7497425
Austin, William C; Ott, Bruce S; Reiswig, Henry M; Romagosa, Paula; Mcdaniel, Neil G
The history of sponge collecting and systematics in British Columbia is reviewed over the period 1878 to 1966. Recent additions and changes are provided in an on-line species list: www.mareco/org/kml/projects/NEsponges.asp. Hadromerids are the focus of this paper as eight of 19 species in British Columbia are considered new. An additional new species is described from southern California to clarify the status of Tethya californiana in BC. An update is timely for hadromerids in BC as there is new material and renewed interest, while existing descriptions are often inadequate. We describe new species and provide additions to previous descriptions for sponges of the order Hadromerida (Porifera: Demospongiae) in the cold temperate NE Pacific off British Columbia and adjacent waters. We propose one range extension and one new species in Clionaidae; two range extensions and five new species in Polymastiidae; one range extension, two name changes and two new species in Suberitidae; and one new species in Tethyidae. New species include Pione gibraltarensis n.sp., Polymastia piscesae n. sp., Radiella endeavourensis n. sp., Sphaerotylus raphidophora n. sp., Sphaerotylus verenae n. sp., Weberella perlucida n. sp., Prosuberites saanichensis n. sp., Suberites lambei n. sp., and Tethya vacua n. sp.. PMID:24989879
Zhao, Jinhui; Martin, Gina; Macdonald, Scott; Vallance, Kate; Treno, Andrew; Ponicki, William; Tu, Andrew; Buxton, Jane
Objectives. We investigated whether periodic increases in minimum alcohol prices were associated with reduced alcohol-attributable hospital admissions in British Columbia. Methods. The longitudinal panel study (2002–2009) incorporated minimum alcohol prices, density of alcohol outlets, and age- and gender-standardized rates of acute, chronic, and 100% alcohol-attributable admissions. We applied mixed-method regression models to data from 89 geographic areas of British Columbia across 32 time periods, adjusting for spatial and temporal autocorrelation, moving average effects, season, and a range of economic and social variables. Results. A 10% increase in the average minimum price of all alcoholic beverages was associated with an 8.95% decrease in acute alcohol-attributable admissions and a 9.22% reduction in chronic alcohol-attributable admissions 2 years later. A Can$ 0.10 increase in average minimum price would prevent 166 acute admissions in the 1st year and 275 chronic admissions 2 years later. We also estimated significant, though smaller, adverse impacts of increased private liquor store density on hospital admission rates for all types of alcohol-attributable admissions. Conclusions. Significant health benefits were observed when minimum alcohol prices in British Columbia were increased. By contrast, adverse health outcomes were associated with an expansion of private liquor stores. PMID:23597383
Schwarcz, Henry P; Chisholm, Brian S; Burchell, Meghan
In 1982, Chisholm et al. used δ(13) C data for human burials from shell midden sites widely distributed on the coast of British Columbia (BC) to show the extreme dependence of these individuals on high trophic level marine consumers, principally salmon and marine mammals. Here, we present previously unpublished analyses of δ(15) N for some of the same individuals as well as δ(13) C data for additional individuals. Nitrogen isotope data show that the diet was dominated by high trophic level marine fauna including carnivorous fish and marine mammals. Although most burials were found in shell middens, marine mollusks made up of only a minor component of diet. The data for δ(13) C demonstrate that terrestrial faunal foods are undetectable in the diet of the majority of individuals, and seldom constitute more than 10% of the dietary protein of individuals living on the coast although terrestrial fauna were widely available as a potential source of protein. This dietary pattern of exclusion of land-based animals from their diet persisted for almost 6,000 years along a wide expanse of coastline. In contrast, people from the BC interior (100 km or more from the coast) consumed a mixed diet of terrestrial and marine foods including spawning salmon. PMID:25137242
Guo, S.; Leighton, H.
The British Columbia wildfires of 2004 was one of the largest wildfire events in the last ten years in Canada. Both the shortwave and longwave smoke aerosol radiative forcing at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) are investigated using data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments. Relationships between the radiative forcing fluxes (??F) and wildfire aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at 0.55 ??m (??0.55) are deduced for both noontime instantaneous forcing and diurnally averaged forcing. The noontime averaged instantaneous shortwave and longwave smoke aerosol radiative forcing at the TOA are 45.8??27.5 W m-2 and -12.6??6.9 W m-2, respectively for a selected study area between 62??N and 68??N in latitude and 125??W and 145??W in longitude over three mainly clear-sky days (23-25 June). The derived diurnally averaged smoke aerosol shortwave radiative forcing is 19.9??12.1 W m-2 for a mean ??0.55 of 1.88??0.71 over the same time period. The derived ??F-?? relationship can be implemented in the radiation scheme used in regional climate models to assess the effect of wildfire aerosols.
Clague, J.J.; Naesgaard, E.; Nelson, A.R.
In late 1994, sand dykes, large sand blows, and deformed strata were exposed in the walls of an excavation at Annacis Island on the Fraser River delta near Vancouver, British Columbia. The features record liquefaction during a large earthquake about 1700 years ago; this was perhaps the largest earthquake to affect the Vancouver area in the last 3500 years. Similar, less well-dated features have been reported from several other sites on the Fraser delta and may be products of the same earthquake. Three radiocarbon ages that closely delimit the time of liquefaction on Annacis Island are similar to the most precise radiocarbon ages on coseismically subsided marsh soils at estuaries in southern Washington and Oregon. Both the liquefaction and the subsidence may have been produced by a single great plate-boundary earthquake at the Cascadia subduction zone. Alternatively, liquefaction at Annacis Island may have been caused by a large crustal or subcrustal earthquake of about the same age as a plate-boundary earthquake farther west. The data from Annacis Island and other sites on the Fraser delta suggest that earthquakes capable of producing extensive liquefaction in this area are rare events. Further, liquefaction analysis using historical seismicity suggests that current assessment procedures may overestimate liquefaction risk.
Jiang, S.-Y.; Palmer, M.R.; McDonald, A.M.; Slack, J.F.; Leitch, C.H.B.
Feruvite, an uncommon Ca- and Fe2+-rich tourmaline species, has been discovered in the footwall of the Sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag deposit (British Columbia) near gabbro sills and dikes. Its chemical composition varies according to occurrence: feruvite from the shallow footwall has lower Ca, higher Al, and higher X-site vacancies than that from the deep footwall. The major chemical substitution involved in the feruvite is the exchange vector CaMgO???-1Al-1(OH)-1. The most important factor controlling feruvite formation at Sullivan is likely the reaction of Fe-rich hydrothermal fluids with Ca-rich minerals in gabbro and host rocks. This reaction led to the breakdown of Ca-rich minerals (plagioclase and hornblende), with release of Ca to solution and its incorporation into feruvite. This process probably postdated the main stages of formation of fine-grained, intermediate schorl-dravite in the tourmalinite pipe in the footwall, and is attributed to postore intrusion of gabbro and associated albite-chlorite-pyrite alteration.
Marsh, S. J.; Gillies, S. L.; Ehrenbrink, B. P. E.; Voss, B.; Bulygina, E.; Fiske, G. J.; Birdwhistell, S.; Janmaat, A.; Yakemchuk, A.; Smith, S.; Faber, A.; Luymes, R.; Epp, A.; Bennett, M. C.; Fanslau, J.; Downey, B.; Wiebe, B.; VanKoughnett, H.; Macklam-Harron, G.; Herbert, J.
The University of the Fraser Valley has undertaken the time series sampling of water chemistry of the Fraser River at Fort Langley, British Columbia and five Fraser Valley tributary creeks as a member of the Global Rivers Observatory (GRO, www.globalrivers.org) which is coordinated by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institutionand Woods Hole Research Center. Kanaka Creek (Maple Ridge), Silverdale Creek (Mission), Clayburn Creek, Willband Creek and Nathan Creek (Abbotsford) have been sampled as part of the GRO. The creeks have been sampled for nutrient concentrations (silicate, phosphate, nitrate/nitrite, and ammonium), major ions and water chemistry parameters, such as dissolved oxygen, temperature, conductivity, pH, and turbidity monthly over the past four years. Each of these salmon bearing creeks is being threatened by anthropogenic activity (agricultural, industrial and residential development) that is occurring in the watersheds. Nathan and Willband Creeks are being threatened by agricultural activity, while Kanaka, Clayburn and Silverdale Creeks are being threatened by residential developments. Understanding these changes and their seasonal variations is crucial in assisting in protecting the natural habitat of these watersheds and streams.
Benson, Boyd E.; Grimm, Kurt A.; Clague, John J.
Two sand sheets underlying tidal marshes at Fair Harbour, Neroutsos Inlet, and Koprino Harbour on the northwestern coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, were probably deposited by tsunamis. The sand sheets become thinner and finer-grained landward, drape former land surfaces, contain marine microfossils, are locally graded or internally stratified, and can be correlated with earthquakes that generated tsunamis in the region. 137Cs dating and historical accounts indicate that the upper sand sheet was deposited by the tsunami from the great Alaska earthquake in 1964. Radiocarbon ages on plant fossils within and on top of the lower sand sheet show that it was deposited sometime after about A.D. 1660. We attribute the lower sand sheet to a tsunami from the most recent plate-boundary earthquake on the Cascadia subduction zone about 300 yr ago, extending the documented effects of this earthquake north of the Nootka fault zone. The 1964 tsunami deposits differ little in thickness and continuity among the three marshes. In contrast, the lower sand sheet becomes thinner and less continuous to the north, implying a tsunami source south of the study area.
Koch, Johannes; Menounos, Brian; Clague, John J.
Fluctuations of glaciers during the 20th century in Garibaldi Provincial Park, in the southern Coast Mountains of British Columbia, were reconstructed from historical documents, aerial photographs, and fieldwork. Over 505 km 2, or 26%, of the park, was covered by glacier ice at the beginning of the 18th century. Ice cover decreased to 297 km 2 by 1987-1988 and to 245 km 2 (49% of the early 18th century value) by 2005. Glacier recession was greatest between the 1920s and 1950s, with typical frontal retreat rates of 30 m/a. Many glaciers advanced between the 1960s and 1970s, but all glaciers retreated over the last 20 years. Times of glacier recession coincide with warm and relatively dry periods, whereas advances occurred during relatively cold periods. Rapid recession between 1925 and 1946, and since 1977, coincided with the positive phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), whereas glaciers advanced during its negative phase (1890-1924 and 1947-1976). The record of 20th century glacier fluctuations in Garibaldi Park is similar to that in southern Europe, South America, and New Zealand, suggesting a common, global climatic cause. We conclude that global temperature change in the 20th century explains much of the behaviour of glaciers in Garibaldi Park and elsewhere.
Gilbert, Robert; Desloges, Joseph R.; Lamoureux, Scott F.; Serink, Andrea; Hodder, Kyle R.
Atlin Lake in northern British Columbia and southern Yukon Territory is the largest natural lake in the North American Cordillera (791 km 2). Inflow from the Juneau Ice Field delivers large volumes of sediment to the proximal basins of Willison Bay and Llewellyn Inlet. Sediment is distributed by interflow and underflow through these basins. Based on acoustic data, each of these basins contain Holocene deposits about 120 m thick, representing mean annual accumulation since deglaciation of more than 1 cm/a. Cores confirm this, except that the formation of a small lake at the toe of Llewellyn Glacier during about the past 50 years is trapping sediment and has reduced accumulation in Llewellyn Inlet by an order of magnitude. Sills separate these basins from the main body of Atlin Lake and Torres Channel where accumulation is much less, averaging about 1-4 mm/a during the history of the lake. Late Pleistocene glacilacustrine sediment occurs as a thin, patchy deposit and is overlain by up to 10 m of Holocene lacustrine deposits. Unlike other large lakes in the Cordillera with thick late Pleistocene deposits indicating large volumes of sediment contributed by glaciers in the lakes and their basins, the pattern in Atlin Lake documents rapid retreat of glaciers from the lake and much of the drainage basin.
Ehlers, Todd A.; Farley, Kenneth A.; Rusmore, Margaret E.; Woodsworth, Glenn J.
Alpine glaciers are efficient agents of erosion and capable of significantly modifying topography. Despite recent advances in theoretical and field studies that quantify glacial erosion processes, few studies have documented glacial erosion rates over long (>106 yr) or large (more than tens of kilometers) scales. We use apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) and apatite fission track (AFT) cooling ages to address the late Miocene to Holocene erosion history across two 60-km-long transects of the heavily glaciated southern Coast Mountains, British Columbia. Observed AHe cooling ages from equal elevation samples range between 1.5 and 8 Ma and suggest that thick alpine glaciers resulted in a 16 km shift of the highest point in the topography in the past 1.5 4.0 m.y. We evaluated temporal and spatial variations in erosion rates using a three-dimensional thermal-kinematic model that predicted AHe and AFT ages at the surface for different erosion histories. Comparison of model predicted and observed cooling ages suggests an increase in erosion rates of as much as 300% over the past 1.5 7 m.y., coincident with the onset of glaciation of this range.
Robinson, D G; Trites, D G; Banister, E W
Tree planters in British Columbia have reported symptoms that are congruent with musculoskeletal stress and organophosphate or carbamate pesticide intoxication. The purpose of this research was to determine the existence of any physiological or biochemical correlate supporting the existence of these potential hazards in tree planting. Worker's health complaints were assessed from regularly distributed questionnaires. Blood samples were obtained from 14 male and three female Canadian subjects before and after tree planting work on 10 occasions throughout a tree planting season. The strenuous physical challenge of tree planting was confirmed by a significant elevation of serum enzyme activity (ESEA) at the beginning of the season, which did not return to a normal level during the remainder of the season. Significant (p < or = 0.05) inhibition of erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE) postwork was observed in 15.9% of individuals, and a significant group mean prework-postwork difference of AChE or plasma pseudocholinesterase (PChE) was observed on two days of testing, indicating a potential toxicological hazard from pesticide absorption. No correlation was found between the degree of ESEA or cholinesterase inhibition and the number of health complaints. PMID:8365393
Christensen, Jennie R; MacDuffee, Misty; Macdonald, Robie W; Whiticar, Michael; Ross, Peter S
Nitrogen and carbon stable isotope signatures in growing hair reveal that while some British Columbia grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) rely entirely on terrestrial foods, others switch in late summer to returning Pacific salmon (Oncorynchus spp.). Implications for persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations and patterns measured in the two feeding groups of grizzly bears were profound. While the bears consuming a higher proportion of terrestrial vegetation ("interior" grizzlies) exhibited POP patterns dominated bythe more volatile organochlorine (OC) pesticides and the heavier polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs: e.g., BDE-209), the bears consuming salmon were dominated by the more bioaccumulative POPs (e.g., DDT, chlordanes, and BDE-47). The ocean-salmon-bear pathway appeared to preferentially select for those contaminants with intermediate partitioning strength from water into lipid (log Kow approximately 6.5). This pattern reflects an optimum contaminant log Kow range for atmospheric transport, deposition into the marine environment, uptake into marine biota, accumulation through the food web, and retention in the bear tissues. We estimate that salmon deliver 70% of all OC pesticides, up to 85% of the lower brominated PBDE congeners, and 90% of PCBs found in salmon-eating grizzly bears, thereby inextricably linking these terrestrial predators to contaminants from the North Pacific Ocean. PMID:16201616
Elmoslemany, Ahmed; Revie, Crawford W; Milligan, Barry; Stewardson, Lance; Vanderstichel, Raphael
The Muchalat Inlet, British Columbia, is among the most westerly points at which aquaculture is practiced in Canada. In this paper, we summarise data from over 18000 wild fish sampled at 16 sites over an 8 yr period, between 2004 and 2011. The most prevalent wild species was chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta (82.4%), followed by Chinook O. tshawytscha (10%) and coho O. kisutch (4.3%). However, inter-annual and seasonal variation was evident, and smaller numbers of other Pacific salmon and stickleback species were sporadically observed. A high percentage of wild salmon (~95%) had no sea lice parasites present, with less than 1% of the fish hosting a mobile-stage sea louse. Of the data for which sea lice species were recorded, just over 96% of samples were identified as Lepeophtheirus salmonis. Logistic regression models assessed the association between the presence of lice and a range of independent variables. These models indicated a significant degree of spatial variation, much of which could be explained in terms of salinity levels. There were also important variations through time, both over the season within a year and across years. In addition, coho salmon were significantly more likely (odds ratio = 1.65; 95% CI = 1.20-2.3) to be infected than chum salmon. The protective effect of low salinity was most clearly seen at values lower than 15 psu, although this was dependent on fish species. PMID:26648103
Moran, K.; Insua, T. L.; Pirenne, B.; Hoeberechts, M.; McLean, S.
Smart Oceans BC is a new multi-faceted program to support decision-makers faced with responding to natural disasters and hazards in Canada's Province of British Columbia. It leverages the unique capabilities of Ocean Networks Canada's cabled ocean observatories, NEPTUNE and VENUS to enhance public safety, marine safety and environmental monitoring. Smart Oceans BC combines existing and new marine sensing technology with its robust data management and archive system, Oceans 2.0, to deliver information and science for good ocean management and responsible ocean use. Smart Oceans BC includes new ocean observing infrastructure for: public safety, through natural hazard detection for earthquake groundshaking and near-field tsunamis; marine safety, by monitoring and providing alerts on sea state, ship traffic, and marine mammal presence; and environmental protection, by establishing baseline data in critical areas, and providing real-time environmental observations. Here we present the elements of this new ocean observing initiative that are focused on tsunami and earthquake early warning including cabled and autonomous sensor systems, real-time data delivery, software developments that enable rapid detection, analytics used in notification development, and stakeholder engagement plans.
Ballantyne, V. A.; Foreman, M. G. G.; Crawford, W. R.; Jacques, R.
A three-dimensional finite element model is used to calculate the barotropic tides and buoyancy-driven flows along the north coast of British Columbia. The model tides are compared to historical constituent harmonics and results from a previous two-dimensional model for the same region. Apart from improvements due to the inclusion of a bottom Ekman layer, the three-dimensional tidal accuracy is essentially the same as that for the two-dimensional model. However, the tidal residual currents are shown to correspond more closely to observations both around Cape St. James and in Dixon Entrance. The diagnostic, buoyancy-driven calculations are forced with the density fields arising from six water property surveys in Dixon Entrance. The model currents are shown to compare favourably with low-pass filtered current meter observations and velocities deduced from drifter tracks. The Rose Spit Eddy is shown to be a consistent feature in all seasons and, as suggested by Bowman et al., its origin appears to arise from a combination of buoyancy-driven and tidally rectified forcing.
Holtz, Kaila A.; Kokotilo, Kristen J.; Fitzgerald, Barbara E.; Frank, Erica
Objective To describe the physical activity (PA) levels and counseling attitudes of Canadian undergraduate medical students. Design Online or paper survey. Setting The University of British Columbia (UBC). Participants Fourth-year medical students at UBC from 2007 to 2010. Main outcome measures Physical activity levels, relationship between exercise behaviour and attitudes toward counseling, and student perception of training in the area of exercise prescription. Results A total of 546 out of 883 students participated in the survey (62% response rate). Sixty-four percent of students met the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology 2011 recommendations for PA. Attitudes toward healthy living were related to PA levels, but the rate of counseling patients about exercise was not; however, students who engaged in more strenuous PA were more likely to perceive exercise counseling as being highly relevant to future clinical practice (P = .018). Overall, 69% of students perceived exercise counseling to be highly relevant to clinical practice, but 86% thought that their training in this area was less than extensive. Conclusion Fourth-year UBC medical students engage in more strenuous PA than average age-matched Canadians, which affects their attitudes toward perceived future counseling practices. Encouraging more student participation in strenuous PA and encouraging academic training in the area of exercise counseling might be important next steps in preparing future physicians to effectively prescribe exercise to their patients. PMID:23341676
McIntyre, Lorraine; Wilcott, Lynn; Naus, Monika
Soft ripened cheese (SRC) caused over 130 foodborne illnesses in British Columbia (BC), Canada, during two separate listeriosis outbreaks. Multiple agencies investigated the events that lead to cheese contamination with Listeria monocytogenes (L.m.), an environmentally ubiquitous foodborne pathogen. In both outbreaks pasteurized milk and the pasteurization process were ruled out as sources of contamination. In outbreak A, environmental transmission of L.m. likely occurred from farm animals to personnel to culture solutions used during cheese production. In outbreak B, birds were identified as likely contaminating the dairy plant's water supply and cheese during the curd-washing step. Issues noted during outbreak A included the risks of operating a dairy plant in a farm environment, potential for transfer of L.m. from the farm environment to the plant via shared toilet facilities, failure to clean and sanitize culture spray bottles, and cross-contamination during cheese aging. L.m. contamination in outbreak B was traced to wild swallows defecating in the plant's open cistern water reservoir and a multibarrier failure in the water disinfection system. These outbreaks led to enhanced inspection and surveillance of cheese plants, test and release programs for all SRC manufactured in BC, improvements in plant design and prevention programs, and reduced listeriosis incidence. PMID:25918702
Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya
Research conducted in 2003/2004 documented and validated (in a non-experimental way) ethnoveterinary medicines used by small-scale, organic livestock farmers in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Interviews were conducted with 60 participants who were organic farmers or holistic medicinal/veterinary practitioners. A workshop was held with selected participants to discuss the plant-based treatments. This paper reports on the medicinal plants used for fleas in cats and dogs. Fleas and flies are treated with Artemisia vulgaris L. (Asteraceae), Citrus x limon (L.), Juniperus communis L. var. depressa Pursh. (Cupressaceae), Lavandula officinalis L. (Labiatae), Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae), and Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don (Cupressaceae). All of the plants used have insecticidal activity. Ear problems are treated with Achillea millefolium L., Calendula officinalis L., and Helichrysum angustifolium (Roth.) G. Don. (Asteraceae), Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Berberis aquifolium Pursh./Mahonia aquifolium (Berberidaceae), Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Fabaceae), Lobelia inflata L. (Campanulaceae), Matricaria recutita L., Melaleuca alternifolia L. (Myrtaceae), Origanum vulgare L. (Labiatae), Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae), Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L. M. Perry (Myrtaceae), Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae), and Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae). PMID:18563443
King, A S; Threlfall, W J; Band, P R; Gallagher, R P
The mortality profile of female nurses and teachers in British Columbia (BC) was examined using age-standardized proportional mortality ratios (PMRs) calculated for the period 1950-1984. Lowered overall mortality among nurses was seen for degenerative heart disease and for cerebrovascular accidents. Significantly elevated PMR values were observed for cancer of the breast and ovary in nurses of age 20-65 years. PMRs were significantly elevated for cancer of the pancreas and leukemia among those age 20 years and older. Elevated values were also observed for motor vehicle accidents and suicide among nurses in both age groups. Lower than expected mortality from degenerative heart disease and cerebrovascular accidents was seen in working age teachers (age 20-65 years). However, elevated PMRs were detected for carcinoma of the colon, breast, endometrium, brain, and melanoma. Among those 20 years and over, significantly elevated PMRs were also observed for cancers of the ovary and other digestive organs. Elevated PMRs were found for motor vehicle and aircraft accidents. Mortality from cirrhosis of the liver was lower than anticipated in both teachers and nurses. A number of significant PMRs declined when deaths of "homemakers" were withdrawn from the comparison group used to generate PMR values, suggesting that risk of death from various causes among women working outside the home differ from those seen in women who are predominantly in the home. PMID:8074120
This paper details the scientific basis and results for the development of a real-time operational hydro-meteorological debris flow warning system for the North Shore Mountains of Vancouver. The main component of the warning system is a multivariate statistical model that demonstrates that the 4 week antecedent rainfall, the two day antecedent rainfall and the 48 hour storm rainfall intensity explain if a given storm will result in a debris flow or not. Discriminant functions were developed that allow real-time calculation of discriminant scores and thus the relative likelihood of a storm resulting in shallow landslides. A 48 hour forecast of spatially distributed rainfall on the North Shore Mountains is made through a high resolution climatic model generated by the Geophysical Disaster Computational Fluid Dynamic Centre at the University of British Columbia. This step is an integral part in predicting threshold exceedence well before debris flows would likely occur and thus allowing sufficient time to provide warning. The system would have two levels of warning. The first is based on a lower threshold exceedences and is called ‘Debris Flow Watch'. The second would be based on a higher threshold and is called ‘Debris Flow Warning". There will be at least several hours time to react to those exceedences before shallow landsliding is likely to occur.
Westin, A. M.; Francioni, M.; Kremsater, R.; Stead, D.; Clague, J. J.
A range of remote sensing tools can be used to document hazardous and sensitive environments. Presented at this time are the first results of an ongoing study of a rapidly eroding, steep sea cliff in Vancouver, British Columbia. The sea cliff is formed in a 70-m-thick sequence of outwash sands and silts (Quadra Sand) deposited during the early part of the last glaciation, known locally as the Fraser Glaciation. The sea cliff is unstable and retreating due to wave attack, groundwater seepage, and shallow-seated landslides. If no measures are taken to stem wave erosion, the sea cliff will likely retreat faster with rising seas over the remainder of this century. The beach below the cliff is a popular recreational location, thus a hard engineering solution to the erosion problem might be unacceptable to Vancouver residents. We have used conventional photogrammetry, structures from motion, thermal imaging, and terrestrial full waveform laser scanning to provide base-line spatial data for the most rapidly eroding section of the cliff. Here, we present some of our results and discuss the challenges that we faced in characterizing this large soil slope.
Wan, Di; Hannah, Charles; Foreman, Mike
Douglas Channel, a deep fjord on the west coast of British Columbia, Canada, is the main waterway in Kitimat fjord system that opens to Queen Charlotte Sound and Hecate Strait. The fjord is separated from the open shelf by a broad sill that is about 150 m deep, and there is another sill (200 m) that separates the fjord into an outer and an inner basin. This study examines the low-frequency (from seasonal to meteorological bands) circulation in Douglas Channel from data collected from three moorings deployed during 2013-2015, and the water property observations collected during six cruises (2014 and 2015). Estuarine flow dominates the circulation above the sill-depth. The deep flows are dominated by a yearly renewal that takes place from early June to September, and this dense water renews both basins in the form of gravity currents at 0.1 - 0.2 m/s with a thickness of 100 m. At other times of the year, the deep flow structures and water properties suggest horizontal and vertical processes and support the re-circulation idea in the inner and the outer basins. The near surface current velocity fluctuations are dominated by the along-channel wind. Overall, the circulation in the meteorological band is a mix of the estuarine flow, direct wind driven flow, and the baroclinic response to changes to the surface pressure gradient caused by the wind driven currents.