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1

The Suzaku Observation of NGC 3516: Complex Absorption and the Broad and Narrow Fe K Lines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present results from a 150 ksec Suzaku observation of the Seyfert 1 NGC 3516 in October 2005. The source was in a relatively highly absorbed state. Our best-fit model is consistent with partial covering by a lowly-ionized absorber with a column density near 5x10(exp 22) cm(exp -2) and with a covering fraction 96-100 percent. Narrow K-shell absorption features due to He- and H-like Fe confirm the presence of a high-ionization absorbing component as well. A broad Fe K(alpha) diskline is required in all fits, even after the complex absorption is taken into account; an additional partial-covering component is an inadequate substitute for the continuum curvature associated with the broad line. The narrow Fe Ka line at 6.4 keV is resolved, yielding a velocity width commensurate with the optical Broad Line Region. The strength of the Compton reflection hump suggests a contribution mainly from the broad Fe line origin. We include in our model soft band emission lines from He- and H-like ions and radiative recombination lines, consistent with photo-ionization, though a small contribution from collisional ionization is possible.

Markowitz, Alex; Reeves, James N.; Miniutti, Giovanni; Serlemitsos, Peter; Kunieda, Hideyo; Taqoob, Tahir; Fabian, Andrew C.; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Mushotzky, Richard; Okajima, Takashi; Gallo, Luigi; Awaki, Hisamitsu; Griffiths, Richard E.

2007-01-01

2

XMM-Newton and Broad Iron Lines  

E-print Network

Iron line emission is common in the X-ray spectra of accreting black holes. When the line emission is broad or variable then it is likely to originate from close to the black hole. X-ray irradiation of the accretion flow by the power-law X-ray continuum produces the X-ray 'reflection' spectrum which includes the iron line. The shape and variability of the iron lines and reflection can be used as a diagnostic of the radius, velocity and nature of the flow. The inner radius of the dense flow corresponds to the innermost stable circular orbit and thus can be used to determine the spin of the black hole. Studies of broad iron lines and reflection spectra offer much promise for understanding how the inner parts of accretion flows (and outflows) around black holes operate. There remains great potential for XMM-Newton to continue to make significant progress in this work. The need for high quality spectra and thus for long exposure times is paramount.

A. C. Fabian

2007-11-19

3

Spectrophotometry of six broad absorption line QSOs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectrophotometric observations of six broad absorption-line QSOs (BALQSOs) are presented. The continua and emission lines are compared with those in the spectra of QSOs without BALs. A statistically significant difference is found in the emission-line intensity ratio for (N V 1240-A)/(C IV 1549-A). The median value of (N V)/(C IV) for the BALQSOs is two to three times the median for QSOs without BALs. The absorption features of the BALQSOs are described, and the column densities and limits on the ionization structure of the BAL region are discussed. If the dominant ionization mechanism is photoionization, then it is likely that either the ionizing spectrum is steep or the abundances are considerably different from solar. Collisional ionization may be a significant factor, but it cannot totally dominate the ionization rate.

Junkkarinen, Vesa T.; Burbidge, E. Margaret; Smith, Harding E.

1987-01-01

4

MICROLENSING OF QUASAR BROAD EMISSION LINES: CONSTRAINTS ON BROAD LINE REGION SIZE  

SciTech Connect

We measure the differential microlensing of the broad emission lines between 18 quasar image pairs in 16 gravitational lenses. We find that the broad emission lines are in general weakly microlensed. The results show, at a modest level of confidence (1.8{sigma}), that high ionization lines such as C IV are more strongly microlensed than low ionization lines such as H{beta}, indicating that the high ionization line emission regions are more compact. If we statistically model the distribution of microlensing magnifications, we obtain estimates for the broad line region size of r{sub s} = 24{sup +22} {sub -15} and r{sub s} = 55{sup +150} {sub -35} lt-day (90% confidence) for the high and low ionization lines, respectively. When the samples are divided into higher and lower luminosity quasars, we find that the line emission regions of more luminous quasars are larger, with a slope consistent with the expected scaling from photoionization models. Our estimates also agree well with the results from local reveberation mapping studies.

Guerras, E.; Mediavilla, E. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Via Lactea S/N, La Laguna E-38200, Tenerife (Spain)] [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Via Lactea S/N, La Laguna E-38200, Tenerife (Spain); Jimenez-Vicente, J. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, Campus de Fuentenueva, E-18071 Granada (Spain)] [Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, Campus de Fuentenueva, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Kochanek, C. S. [Department of Astronomy and the Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, The Ohio State University, 4055 McPherson Lab, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43221 (United States)] [Department of Astronomy and the Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, The Ohio State University, 4055 McPherson Lab, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43221 (United States); Munoz, J. A. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad de Valencia, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)] [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad de Valencia, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Falco, E. [Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)] [Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Motta, V. [Departamento de Fisica y Astronomia, Universidad de Valparaiso, Avda. Gran Bretana 1111, Valparaiso (Chile)] [Departamento de Fisica y Astronomia, Universidad de Valparaiso, Avda. Gran Bretana 1111, Valparaiso (Chile)

2013-02-20

5

Constraining broad-line regions from time lags of broad emission lines relative to radio emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a new method is proposed to estimate the broad-line region sizes of ultraviolet (UV) lines RuvBLR. It is applied to 3C 273. First, we derive the time lags of radio emission relative to broad emission lines Ly? and C IV by the z-transformed discrete correlation function (ZDCF) method. The broad lines lag the 5-, 8-, 15-, 22- and 37-GHz emission. The measured lags ?uvob are of the order of years. For a given line, ?uvob decreases as the radio frequency increases. This trend results from the radiative cooling of relativistic electrons. Both UV lines have a lag of ?uvob=-2.74+0.06- 0.25 yr relative to the 37-GHz emission. These results are consistent with those derived from the Balmer lines in Paper I. Secondly, we derive the time lags of the lines Ly?, C IV, H?, H? and H? relative to the 37-GHz emission by the flux randomization/random subset selection (FR/RSS) Monte Carlo method. The measured lags are ?ob=-3.40+0.31- 0.05, -3.40+0.41- 0.14, -2.06+0.36- 0.92, -3.40+1.15- 0.20 and -3.56+0.35- 0.18 yr for the lines Ly?, C IV, H?, H? and H?, respectively. These estimated lags are consistent with those derived by the ZDCF method within the uncertainties. Based on the new method, we derive RuvBLR= 2.54+0.71- 0.35 to 4.01+0.90- 1.16 and 2.54+0.80- 0.43 to 4.01+0.98- 1.24 light-years for the Ly? and C IV lines, respectively. Considering the uncertainties, these estimated sizes are consistent with those obtained in the classical reverberation mapping for the UV and the Balmer lines. This indicates that their emitting regions are not separated so large as in the classical mapping of the UV and optical lines. These results seem to depart from the stratified ionization structures obtained in the classical mapping.

Liu, H. T.; Bai, J. M.; Wang, J. M.; Li, S. K.

2011-11-01

6

SN 2007bg: the complex circumstellar medium around one of the most radio-luminous broad-lined Type Ic supernovae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present the results of the radio light curve and X-ray observations of broad-lined Type Ic (Ic-BL) SN 2007bg. The light curve shows three distinct phases of spectral and temporal evolution, implying that the supernova (SN) shock likely encountered at least three different circumstellar medium regimes. We interpret this as the progenitor of SN 2007bg having at least two distinct mass-loss episodes (i.e. phases 1 and 3) during its final stages of evolution, yielding a highly stratified circumstellar medium. Modelling the phase 1 light curve as a freely expanding, synchrotron-emitting shell, self-absorbed by its own radiating electrons, requires a progenitor mass-loss rate of skew4dot{M}? 1.9× 10^{-6}(v_w/1000 km s^{-1}) M? yr-1 for the last t ˜ 20(vw/1000 km s-1) yr before explosion and a total energy of the radio-emitting ejecta of E ? 1 × 1048 erg 10 d after explosion. This places SN 2007bg among the most energetic Type Ib/c events. We interpret the second phase as a sparser `gap' region between the two winds stages. Phase 3 shows a second absorption turn-on before rising to a peak luminosity 2.6 times higher than in phase 1. Assuming this luminosity jump is due to a circumstellar medium density enhancement from a faster previous mass-loss episode, we estimate that the phase 3 mass-loss rate could be as high as skew4dot{M}lesssim 4.3× 10^{-4}(v_w/1000 km s^{-1}) M? yr-1. The phase 3 wind would have transitioned directly into the phase 1 wind for a wind speed difference of ?2. In summary, the radio light curve provides robust evidence for dramatic global changes in at least some Ic-BL progenitors just prior (˜10-1000 yr) to explosion. The observed luminosity of this SN is the highest observed for a non-gamma-ray-burst Ic-BL SN, reaching L8.46 GHz ? 1 × 1029 erg Hz-1 s-1, ˜567 d after explosion.

Salas, P.; Bauer, F. E.; Stockdale, C.; Prieto, J. L.

2013-01-01

7

Complex Line Integrals I  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Lang More of the Connected Curriculum Project, the purpose of this module is to investigate the behavior of complex line integrals. This is one lesson within a much larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Moore, Lang

8

Variability in Low Ionization Broad Absorption Line Outflows  

E-print Network

We present results of our time variability studies of Mg II and Al III absorption lines in a sample of 22 Low Ionization Broad Absorption Line QSOs (LoBAL QSOs) at 0.2 = 1 year) absorption line variability is seen in 8 cases (36% systems) while only 4 of them (i.e 18% systems) show variability over short time-scales (i.e < 1 year). We notice a tendency of highly variable LoBAL QSOs to have high ejection velocity, low equivalent width and low redshift. The detection rate of variability in LoBAL QSOs showing Fe fine-structure lines (FeLoBAL QSOs) is less than that seen in non-Fe LoBAL QSOs. Absorption line variability is more frequently detected in QSOs having continuum dominated by Fe emission lines compared to rest of the QSOs. Confirming these trends with a bigger sample will give vital clues for understanding the physical distinction between different BAL QSO sub-classes. We correlate the absorption line variability with various parameters derived from continuum light curves and find no clear correlation...

Vivek, M; Petitjean, P; Mohan, V; Mahabal, A; Samui, S

2014-01-01

9

Variability in Low Ionization Broad Absorption Line outflows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of our time variability studies of Mg II and Al III absorption lines in a sample of 22 Low Ionization Broad Absorption Line QSOs (LoBAL QSOs) at 0.2 ? zem ? 2.1 using the 2-m telescope at IUCAA Girawali Observatory over a time-scale of 10 d to 7.69 years in the QSO's rest frame. Spectra are analysed in conjunction with photometric light curves from Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey. Long time-scale (i.e. ?1 year) absorption line variability is seen in eight cases (36 per cent systems) while only four of them (i.e. 18 per cent systems) show variability over short time-scales (i.e. <1 year). We notice a tendency of highly variable LoBAL QSOs to have high ejection velocity, low equivalent width and low redshift. The detection rate of variability in LoBAL QSOs showing Fe fine-structure lines (FeLoBAL QSOs) is less than that seen in non-Fe LoBAL QSOs. Absorption line variability is more frequently detected in QSOs having continuum dominated by Fe emission lines compared to rest of the QSOs. Confirming these trends with a bigger sample will give vital clues for understanding the physical distinction between different BAL QSO sub-classes. We correlate the absorption line variability with various parameters derived from continuum light curves and find no clear correlation between continuum flux and absorption line variabilities. However, sources with large absorption line variability also show large variability in their light curves. We also see appearance/disappearance of absorption components in two cases and clear indications for profile variations in four cases. The observed variability can be best explained by a combination of process driven by continuum variations and clouds transiting across the line of sight.

Vivek, M.; Srianand, R.; Petitjean, P.; Mohan, V.; Mahabal, A.; Samui, S.

2014-05-01

10

Quasar Cartography: from Black Hole to Broad Line Region Scales  

E-print Network

A generalized approach to reverberation mapping (RM) is presented, which is applicable to broad- and narrow-band photometric data, as well as to spectroscopic observations. It is based on multivariate correlation analysis techniques and, in its present implementation, is able to identify reverberating signals across the accretion disk and the broad line region (BLR) of active galactic nuclei (AGN). Statistical tests are defined to assess the significance of time-delay measurements using this approach, and the limitations of the adopted formalism are discussed. It is shown how additional constraints on some of the parameters of the problem may be incorporated into the analysis thereby leading to improved results. When applied to a sample of 14 Seyfert 1 galaxies having good-quality high-cadence photometric data, accretion disk scales and BLR sizes are simultaneously determined, on a case-by-case basis, in most objects. The BLR scales deduced here are in good agreement with the findings of independent spectrosc...

Chelouche, Doron

2013-01-01

11

Clues to QSO BLR Structure from Broad Line Profile Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopic study was undertaken of ~ 130 high-redshift (z ~ 1.5 -- 3.5) radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars (QSOs) of moderate brightness for their class. Radio data at a mininum of two frequencies are also available for the radio-loud QSOs. The goals were to analyze the UV line profiles for clues to the fundamental differences between the two QSO types, and to study the relative source inclination effects in the profile shapes of radio-louds and what can be inferred about their apparent central geometry. The adopted approach includes (a) a comparison of radio-loud and radio-quiet samples matched in luminosity and redshift, (b) use of a robust parameter scheme, including the interpercentile parameters presented by Whittle (1985; MNRAS, 213, 1), and (c) a reliable error estimation. Detailed modeling of the line profiles is performed to reduce errors on the measured parameters due to varying signal-to-noise among the spectra. Here the emphasis is on the detailed analysis of the C iv line profile. Contrary to some reports, profile differences are found to exist depending on the radio power. Radio-loud QSOs have relatively peakier C iv lines, stronger, narrower C iv line cores, and predominantly red asymmetries, while radio-quiets have blue C iv asymmetries on average. The C iv full width at half maximum does not correlate with aspect angle in this radio-loud sample, but strong correlations with the full widths of the line base and the half flux interpercentile velocity width are detected which have not been reported earlier. This aspect dependence is similar to that reported for the broad H? line in low-z QSOs (e.g., Wills & Browne 1986, Ap.J. 302, 56). The radio-loud C iv line core does not correlate with aspect angle indicating it is emitted isotropically, in contrast to the line base. The constraints which these results place on a few current models of the broad emission-line region are presented.

Vestergaard, M.

1998-12-01

12

Radiation pressure confinement - IV. Application to broad absorption line outflows  

E-print Network

A fraction of quasars present broad absorption lines, produced by outflowing gas with typical velocities of 3000 - 10,000 km/s. If the outflowing gas fills a significant fraction of the volume where it resides, then it will be highly ionized by the quasar due to its low density, and will not produce the observed UV absorption. The suggestion that the outflow is shielded from the ionizing radiation was excluded by recent observations. The remaining solution is a dense outflow with a filling factor $fradiation pressure confinement (RPC) inevitably leads to gas compression and the formation of dense thin gas sheets/filaments, with a large gradient in density and ionization along the line of sight. The total column of ionized dustless gas is a few times $10^{22}$ cm$^{-2}$, consistent with the observed X-ray absorption and detectable P V absorption. The predicted maximal columns of various ions show a small dependence on the system parameters, a...

Baskin, Alexei; Stern, Jonathan

2014-01-01

13

Shielding Gas Variations in Transforming Broad Absorption Line Quasars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray/EUV absorbing shielding gas is thought to be essential for the driving of Broad Absorption Line (BAL) quasar winds, but the nature of this key component requires further investigation. Using a large sample of multi-year BAL variability observations from SDSS-I/II/III, we have discovered a set of quasars that have fully transformed from being BAL quasars to non-BAL quasars; all BAL troughs have disappeared. A promising model for these transformations invokes variations of the shielding gas that increase the level of ionizing X-ray/EUV radiation reaching the BAL wind. We propose timely Chandra observations of 9 transforming BAL quasars to determine if their shielding gas has moved entirely out of our line-of-sight, leaving behind an X-ray unabsorbed non-BAL quasar.

Brandt, W. N.

2014-09-01

14

The Nature of Quasars with Redshifted Broad Absorption Lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have recently identified the first compelling examples of quasars with redshifted Broad Absorption Lines (BALs) in the massive spectroscopic databases from the SDSS-I/II/III. These quasars can provide novel insights into the structure of quasar inflows/outflows; we may be observing gas infall to small radii, rotationally dominated outflows, or binary quasars where a wind is seen in silhouette. Here we propose exploratory Chandra observations that will test these models by assessing if heavy X-ray absorption from shielding gas, thought to be essential for the driving of typical BAL winds, lies along our line of sight. These observations will be a central part of our multiwavelength program aiming to determine robustly the nature of quasars with redshifted BALs.

Brandt, W. N.

2014-09-01

15

Microlensing of the broad line region in 17 lensed quasars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When an image of a strongly lensed quasar is microlensed, the different components of its spectrum are expected to be differentially magnified owing to the different sizes of the corresponding emitting region. Chromatic changes are expected to be observed in the continuum while the emission lines should be deformed as a function of the size, geometry and kinematics of the regions from which they originate. Microlensing of the emission lines has been reported only in a handful of systems so far. In this paper we search for microlensing deformations of the optical spectra of pairs of images in 17 lensed quasars with bolometric luminosities between 1044.7 - 47.4 erg/s and black hole masses 107.6 - 9.8 M?. This sample is composed of 13 pairs of previously unpublished spectra and four pairs of spectra from literature. Our analysis is based on a simple spectral decomposition technique which allows us to isolate the microlensed fraction of the flux independently of a detailed modeling of the quasar emission lines. Using this technique, we detect microlensing of the continuum in 85% of the systems. Among them, 80% show microlensing of the broad emission lines. Focusing on the most common emission lines in our spectra (C III] and Mg II) we detect microlensing of either the blue or the red wing, or of both wings with the same amplitude. This observation implies that the broad line region is not in general spherically symmetric. In addition, the frequent detection of microlensing of the blue and red wings independently but not simultaneously with a different amplitude, does not support existing microlensing simulations of a biconical outflow. Our analysis also provides the intrinsic flux ratio between the lensed images and the magnitude of the microlensing affecting the continuum. These two quantities are particularly relevant for the determination of the fraction of matter in clumpy form in galaxies and for the detection of dark matter substructures via the identification of flux ratio anomalies. Based on observations made with the ESO-VLT Unit Telescope # 2 Kueyen (Cerro Paranal, Chile; Proposals 074.A-0563, 075.A-0377, 077.A-0155, PI: G. Meylan).Figure 1 and the new spectra presented in this paper are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/544/A62 and via the German virtual observatory http://dc.g-vo.org/mlqso/q/web/formAppendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Sluse, D.; Hutsemékers, D.; Courbin, F.; Meylan, G.; Wambsganss, J.

2012-08-01

16

The Physical Nature of Polar Broad Absorption Line Quasars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has been shown based on radio variability arguments that some BALQSOs (broad absorption line quasars) are viewed along the polar axis (o rthogonal to accretion disk) in the recent article of Zhou et a. Thes e arguments are based on the brightness temperature, T(sub b) exceedi ng 10(exp 12) K which leads to the well-known inverse Compton catastr ophe unless the radio jet is relativistic and is viewed along its axi s. In this letter, we expand the Zhou et al sample of polar BALQSOs u sing their techniques applied to SDSS DR5. In the process, we clarify a mistake in their calculation of brightness temperature. The expanded sample of high T(sub b) BALQSOS, has an inordinately large fraction of LoBALQSOs (low ionization BALQSOs). We consider this an important clue to understanding the nature of the polar BALQSOs. This is expec ted in the polar BALQSO analytical/numerical models of Punsly that pr edicted that LoBALQSOs occur when the line of sight is very close to the polar axis, where the outflow density is the highest.

Ghost, Kajal; Punsly, Brian

2007-01-01

17

Broad Absorption Line QSOs Observed by the ROSAT PSPC  

E-print Network

Recent results from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS) have shown that broad absorption line (BAL) QSOs are either highly absorbed or underluminous in the soft X-ray bandpass. Here, we extend this work by analyzing all known bona fide BALQSOs observed within the inner 20' of the ROSAT PSPC. This sample includes both targeted and serendipitous exposures ranging from 8 to 75 ksec. Despite these deep exposures, most of the BALQSOs are undetected, and have unusually weak X-ray emission, as evidenced by large optical-to-X-ray slopes (AOX). Large values of AOX ($\\gapprox$1.8) may prove to be a defining characteristic of BALQSOs. We predict that samples of QSO candidates with large AOX will yield a higher percentage of BALQSOs, particularly at low redshift. As a corollary, X-ray-selected QSO samples should yield The optical/UV emission line spectra of BAL and non-BAL QSOs are quite similar, suggesting that their intrinsic spectral energy distributions are similar as well. Absorption thus seems the likely reason for the X-ray quiet nature of BALQSOs. To constrain the total absorbing column of the BAL clouds, we compare our measured soft X-ray fluxes or upper limits to those expected from normal radio quiet QSOs of comparable optical continuum magnitude and redshift. From sensitive X-ray observations, we derive column densities of greater than about 2 times 10^22 cm-2, for intrinsic cold absorbers of solar metallicity. These new results suggest columns {\\em at least} an order of magnitude larger than the columns previously estimated from optical/UV spectra alone.

Paul J. Green; Smita Mathur

1995-12-06

18

X-Ray Continua of Broad Absorption Line Quasars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The targets for this program, PG1416-129 and LBQS 2212-1759 were known to be Broad Absorption Line Quasars (BALQSOs). BALQSOs are highly absorbed in soft X-rays. Good high energy response of Rossi-XTE made them ideal targets for observation. We observed LBQS 2212-1759 with PCA. We have now analyzed the data and found that the source was not detected. Since our target was expected to be faint, reliable estimate of background was very important. With the release of new FTOOLS (version 4.1) we were able to do so. We also analyzed a well known bright object and verified our results with the published data. This gave us confidence in the non-detection of our target LBQS 2212-1759. We are currently investigating the implications of this non-detection. Due to some scheduling problems, our second target PG1416-129 was not observed in A01. It was observed on 06/26/98. This target was detected with RXTE. We are now working on the spectral analysis with XSPEC.

Mathur, S.

1999-01-01

19

Weak Line Quasars at High Redshift: Extremely High Accretion Rates or Anemic Broad-line Regions?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present Gemini-North K-band spectra of two representative members of the class of high-redshift quasars with exceptionally weak rest-frame ultraviolet emission lines (WLQs), SDSS J114153.34+021924.3 at z = 3.55 and SDSS J123743.08+630144.9 at z = 3.49. In both sources, we detect an unusually weak broad H? line and place tight upper limits on the strengths of their [O III] lines. Virial, H?-based black hole mass determinations indicate normalized accretion rates of L/L Edd=0.4 for these sources, which is well within the range observed for typical quasars with similar luminosities and redshifts. We also present high-quality XMM-Newton imaging spectroscopy of SDSS J114153.34+021924.3 and find a hard-X-ray photon index of ? = 1.91+0.24 -0.22, which supports the virial L/L Edd determination in this source. Our results suggest that the weakness of the broad emission lines in WLQs is not a consequence of an extreme continuum-emission source but instead due to abnormal broad emission line region properties.

Shemmer, Ohad; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Anderson, Scott F.; Brandt, W. N.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan, Xiaohui; Lira, Paulina; Netzer, Hagai; Plotkin, Richard M.; Richards, Gordon T.; Schneider, Donald P.; Strauss, Michael A.

2010-10-01

20

What Drives the Outflows in Broad Absorption Line QSOs?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have made progress in the areas related to the propulsion and confinement of gas responsible for broad absorption troughts in QSOs: Radiative Acceleration in BALQSOs; The "Ghost" of Lyman (alpha); and Magnetic Confinement of Absorbing Gas.

Begelman, Mitchell C.

1997-01-01

21

LINE SHIFTS, BROAD-LINE REGION INFLOW, AND THE FEEDING OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI  

SciTech Connect

Velocity-resolved reverberation mapping suggests that the broad-line regions (BLRs) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) can have significant net inflow. We use the STOKES radiative transfer code to show that electron and Rayleigh scattering off the BLR and torus naturally explains the blueshifted profiles of high-ionization lines and the ionization dependence of the blueshifts. This result is insensitive to the geometry of the scattering region. If correct, then this model resolves the long-standing conflict between the absence of outflow implied by velocity-resolved reverberation mapping and the need for outflow if the blueshifting is the result of obscuration. The accretion rate implied by the inflow is sufficient to power the AGN. We suggest that the BLR is part of the outer accretion disk and that similar magnetohydrodynamic processes are operating. In the scattering model, the blueshifting is proportional to the accretion rate so high-accretion-rate AGNs will show greater high-ionization line blueshifts, as is observed. Scattering can lead to systematically too high black hole mass estimates from the C IV line. We note many similarities between narrow-line region (NLR) and BLR blueshiftings, and suggest that NLR blueshiftings have a similar explanation. Our model explains the higher blueshifts of broad absorption line QSOs if they are more highly inclined. Rayleigh scattering from the BLR and torus could be more important in the UV than electron scattering for predominantly neutral material around AGNs. The importance of Rayleigh scattering versus electron scattering can be assessed by comparing line profiles at different wavelengths arising from the same emission-line region.

Gaskell, C. Martin [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Goosmann, Rene W., E-mail: martin.gaskell.astro@gmail.com, E-mail: rene.goosmann@astro.unistra.fr [Astronomical Institute of the Academy of Sciences, Bocni II 1401, 14131 Prague (Czech Republic)

2013-05-20

22

Correlation between radio and broad-line emissions in radio-loud quasars  

E-print Network

Radio emission is a good indicator of the jet power of radio-loud quasars, while the emission in broad-line can well represent the accretion disc radiation in quasars. We compile a sample of all sources of which the broad-line fluxes are available from 1 Jy, S4 and S5 radio source catalogues. A correlation between radio and broad-line emission for this sample of radio-loud quasars is presented, which is in favour of a close link between the accretion processes and the relativistic jets. The BL Lac objects seem to follow the statistical behaviour of the quasars, but with fainter broad-line emission.

Xinwu Cao; D. R. Jiang

1999-04-23

23

DISCOVERY OF THE TRANSITION OF A MINI-BROAD ABSORPTION LINE INTO A BROAD ABSORPTION LINE IN THE SDSS QUASAR J115122.14+020426.3  

SciTech Connect

We present the detection of a rare case of dramatic strengthening in the UV absorption profiles in the spectrum of the quasar J115122.14+020426.3 between observations {approx}2.86 yr apart in the quasar rest frame. A spectrum obtained in 2001 by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey shows a C IV ''mini-broad'' absorption line (FWHM = 1220 km s{sup -1}) with a maximum blueshift velocity of {approx}9520 km s{sup -1}, while a later spectrum from the Very Large Telescope shows a significantly broader and stronger absorption line, with a maximum blueshift velocity of {approx}12, 240 km s{sup -1} that qualifies as a broad absorption line. A similar variability pattern is observed in two additional systems at lower blueshifted velocities and in the Ly{alpha} and N V transitions as well. One of the absorption systems appears to be resolved and shows evidence for partial covering of the quasar continuum source (C{sub f} {approx} 0.65), indicating a transverse absorber size of, at least, {approx}6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} cm. In contrast, a cluster of narrower C IV lines appears to originate in gas that fully covers the continuum and broad emission line sources. There is no evidence for changes in the centroid velocity of the absorption troughs. This case suggests that at least some of the absorbers that produce ''mini-broad'' and broad absorption lines in quasar spectra do not belong to intrinsically separate classes. Here, the ''mini-broad'' absorption line is most likely interpreted as an intermediate phase before the appearance of a broad absorption line due to their similar velocities. While the current observations do not provide enough constraints to discern among the possible causes for this variability, future monitoring of multiple transitions at high resolution will help achieve this goal.

Hidalgo, Paola Rodriguez; Eracleous, Michael; Charlton, Jane [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hamann, Fred [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Murphy, Michael T. [Center for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Nestor, Daniel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

2013-09-20

24

Hints of Correlation between Broad-line and Radio Variations for 3C 120  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we investigate the correlation between broad-line and radio variations for the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 120. By the z-transformed discrete correlation function method and the model-independent flux randomization/random subset selection (FR/RSS) Monte Carlo method, we find that broad H? line variations lead the 15 GHz variations. The FR/RSS method shows that the H? line variations lead the radio variations by a factor of ?ob = 0.34 ± 0.01 yr. This time lag can be used to locate the position of the emitting region of radio outbursts in the jet, on the order of ~5 lt-yr from the central engine. This distance is much larger than the size of the broad-line region. The large separation of the radio outburst emitting region from the broad-line region will observably influence the gamma-ray emission in 3C 120.

Liu, H. T.; Bai, J. M.; Wang, J. M.; Li, S. K.

2014-01-01

25

Polarization of Quasars: Resonant Line Scattering in the Broad Absorption Line Region  

E-print Network

Recent works showed that the absorbing material in broad absorption line (BAL) quasars is optically thick to major resonant absorption lines. This material may contribute significantly to the polarization in the absorption lines. In this paper, we present a detailed study of the resonant line scattering process using Monte-Carlo method to constrain the optical depth, the geometry and the kinematics of BAL Region (BALR). By comparing our results with observed polarized spectra of BAL quasars, we find: (1) Resonant scattering can produce polarization up to 9% at the absorption trough for doublet transitions and up to 20% for singlet transitions in radially accelerated flows. To explain the large polarization degree in the CIV, NV absorption line troughs detected in a small fraction of BAL QSOs, a nonmonotonic velocity distribution along the line of sight or/and additional contribution from the electron scattering region is required. (2) The rotation of the flow can lead to the rotation of the polarization position angle (PA) in the line trough. Large extending angle of BALR is required to produce the observed large PA rotation in a few BAL QSOs. (3) A large extending angle of BALR is required to explain a sub-trough in the polarized flux that was observed in a number of BAL QSOs. (4) The resonant-scattering can contribute a significant part of NV emission line in some QSOs, and may give rise to anomalous strong NV lines in these quasars. (5) The polarized flux and PA rotation produced by the resonant scattering in non-BAL is uniquely asymmetric, which may be used to test the presence of BALR in non-BAL QSOs.

Hui-Yuan Wang; Ting-Gui Wang; Jun-Xian Wang

2006-09-17

26

Are the broad optical Balmer lines in PG 1613+658 from the central accretion disc?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this letter, we report on the positive correlations between the broad-line width and broad-line flux for the broad Balmer lines of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) PG 1613+658, which has been observed for a long time. Rather than the expected negative correlations that come with the widely accepted virialization assumption for AGN broad emission-line regions (BLRs), the positive correlations indicate very different BLR structures of PG 1613+658 from the commonly considered BLR structures that are dominated by the equilibrium between radiation pressure and gas pressure. Therefore, it is preferable to assume that the observed broad single-peaked optical Balmer lines of PG 1613+658 originate from the accretion disc, because the mainly gravity-dominated disc-like BLRs with radial structures have few effects from radiation pressure.

Zhang, Xue-Guang

2015-02-01

27

A Broad Iron Line in LMC X-1  

E-print Network

We present results from a deep Suzaku observation of the black hole in LMC X-1, supplemented by coincident monitoring with RXTE. We identify broad relativistic reflection features in a soft disc-dominated spectrum. A strong and variable power-law component of emission is present which we use to demonstrate that enhanced Comptonisation strengthens disc reflection. We constrain the spin parameter of the black hole by modelling LMC X-1's broad reflection features. For our primary and most comprehensive spectral model, we obtain a high value for the spin: a* = 0.97(+0.01,-0.13) (68 per cent confidence). However, by additionally considering two alternate models as a measure of our systematic uncertainty, we obtain a broader constraint: a* = 0.97(+0.02,-0.25). Both of these spin values are entirely consistent with a previous estimate of spin obtained using the continuum-fitting method. At 99 per cent confidence, the reflection features require a* > 0.2. In addition to modelling the relativistically broadened reflection, we also model a sharp and prominent reflection component that provides strong evidence for substantial reprocessing in the wind of the massive companion. We infer that this wind sustains the ionisation cone surrounding the binary system; this hypothesis naturally produces appropriate and consistent mass, time, and length scales for the cone structure.

James F. Steiner; Rubens C. Reis; Andrew C. Fabian; Ronald A. Remillard; Jeffrey E. McClintock; Lijun Gou; Ryan Cooke; Laura W. Brenneman; Jeremy S. Sanders

2012-09-14

28

Consequences of hot gas in the broad line region of active galactic nuclei  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Models for hot gas in the broad line region of active galactic nuclei are discussed. The results of the two phase equilibrium models for confinement of broad line clouds by Compton heated gas are used to show that high luminosity quasars are expected to show Fe XXVI L alpha line absorption which will be observed with spectrometers such as those planned for the future X-ray spectroscopy experiments. Two phase equilibrium models also predict that the gas in the broad line clouds and the confining medium may be Compton thick. It is shown that the combined effects of Comptonization and photoabsorption can suppress both the broad emission lines and X-rays in the Einstein and HEAO-1 energy bands. The observed properties of such Compton thick active galaxies are expected to be similar to those of Seyfert 2 nuclei. The implications for polarization and variability are also discussed.

Kallman, T.; Mushotzky, R.

1985-01-01

29

Constraining the quasar population with the broad-line width distribution  

E-print Network

We measure the width of the MgII $\\lambda2799$ line in quasar spectra from the SDSS, 2QZ and 2SLAQ surveys and, by invoking an unnormalised virial mass estimator, relate the scatter in line width to the scatter in mass in the underlying black hole population. We find conclusive evidence for a trend such that there is less scatter in line width, and hence black hole mass, in more luminous objects. However, the most luminous objects in our sample show such a low degree of scatter in line width that, when combined with measures for the intrinsic scatter in the radius-luminosity relation for the broad-line region in active galaxies, an inconsistency arises in the virial technique for estimating black hole masses. This analysis implies that, at least for the most luminous quasars, either there is little-to-no intrinsic scatter in the radius-luminosity relation or the MgII broad emission line region is not totally dominated by virial velocities. Finally we exploit the measured scatter in line widths to constrain models for the velocity field of the broad-line region. We show that the lack of scatter in broad line-widths for luminous quasars is inconsistent with a pure planar/disk-like geometry for the broad-line region... (abridged)

S. Fine; S. M. Croom; P. F. Hopkins; L. Hernquist; J. Bland-Hawthorn; M. Colless; P. B. Hall; L. Miller; A. D. Myers; R. Nichol; K. A. Pimbblet; N. P. Ross; D. P. Schneider; T. Shanks; R. G. Sharp

2008-07-08

30

Implications of Asymmetric Broad-Line Reverberation for Binary Black Hole Searches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One proposed method for identification of binary supermassive black holes involves searching for temporal variations in the line-of-sight velocity of broad emission lines in quasars. If one member of a binary black hole is active and possesses a broad-line region, then the orbital motion of the binary will cause the observed broad-line velocity centroid to oscillate over an orbital period. However, with only a few observations it is difficult to distinguish orbital motion from other possible causes of velocity changes. We will discuss the impact of reverberation on broad-line velocity shifts. If the reverberation transfer function is asymmetric due to radial motions in the broad-line region, reverberation will cause temporal variations in broad-line velocity centroids that can mimic the appearance of acceleration. We will illustrate this effect with simulations and with data from the Lick AGN Monitoring Project 2011, where we find reverberation-induced velocity shifts of up to ~250 km/s over 1-month timescales. When only two widely-separated epochs of spectroscopic observations are available, such profile shifts will be difficult to distinguish from genuine acceleration, and we suggest that the majority of candidate binaries selected by detection of velocity shifts in two-epoch observations will be spurious.

Barth, Aaron J.; LAMP2011 Collaboration

2015-01-01

31

Is There a Connection between Broad Absorption Line Quasars and Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider whether broad absorption line quasars (BAL QSOs) and narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s) are similar, as suggested by Brandt & Gallagher and Boroson. For this purpose, we constructed a sample of 11 BAL QSOs from existing Chandra and Swift observations. We found that BAL QSOs and NLS1s both operate at high Eddington ratios L/{{L}Edd}, although BAL QSOs have slightly lower L/{{L}Edd}. BAL QSOs and NLS1s in general have high Fe ii/H? and low [O iii]/H? ratios following the classic “Boroson & Green” eigenvector 1 relation. We also found that the mass accretion rates \\dot{M} of BAL QSOs and NLS1s are more similar than previously thought, although some BAL QSOs exhibit extreme mass accretion rates of more than 10 {{M}? } yr?1. These extreme mass accretion rates may suggest that the black holes in BAL QSOs are relativistically spinning. Black hole masses in BAL QSOs are a factor of 100 larger than NLS1s. From their location on a M-? plot, we find that BAL QSOs contain fully developed black holes. Applying a principal component analysis to our sample, we find eigenvector 1 to correspond to the Eddington ratio L/{{L}Edd}, and eigenvector 2 to black hole mass.

Grupe, Dirk; Nousek, John. A.

2015-02-01

32

X-Ray Absorbed, Broad-Lined, Red AGN and the Cosmic X-Ray Background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have obtained XMM spectra for five red, 2MASS AGN, selected from a sample observed by Chandra to be X-ray bright and to cover a range of hardness ratios. Our results confirm the presence of substantial absorbing material in three sources which have optical classifications ranging from Type 1 to Type 2, with an intrinsically flat (hard) power law continuum indicated in the other two. The presence of both X-ray absorption and broad optical emission lines with the usual strength suggests either a small (nuclear) absorber or a favored viewing angle so as to cover the X-ray source but not the broad emission line region (BELR). A soft excess is detected in all three Type 1 sources. We speculate that this soft X-ray emission may arise in an extended region of ionized gas, perhaps linked with the polarized (scattered) light which is a feature of these sources. The spectral complexity revealed by XMM emphasizes the limitations of the low S/N Chandra data. Overall, the new XMM results strengthen our conclusions (Wilkes et al. 2002) that the observed X-ray continua of red AGN are unusually hard at energies greater than 2 keV. Whether due to substantial line-of-sight absorption or to an intrinsically hard or reflection-dominated spectrum, these 'red' AGN have an observed spectral form consistent with contributing significantly to the missing had absorbed population of the Cosmic X-ray Background (CXRB). When absorption and or reflection is taken into account, all these AGN have power law slopes typical of broad-line (Type 1) AGN (Gamma approximately 1.9). This appears to resolve the spectral paradox which for so long has existed between the CXRB and the AGN thought to be the dominant contributors. It also suggests two scenarios whereby Type 1 AGN/QSOs may be responsible for a significant fraction of the CXRB at energies above 2 keV: 1) X-ray absorbed AGN/QSOs with visible broad emission lines; 2) AGN/QSOs with complex spectra whose hardness greater than 2 keV is not detectable in the typically low S/N data of X-ray surveys. Even if absorption is present in only half of the population, the large number of 'red' AGN suggests a development of unification models, where the continuum source is surrounded, over a substantial solid angle, by the wind or atmosphere of an accretion disk/torus. X-ray observations of such AGN not only provide a check on the presence of absorption, but also a unique probe of the absorbing material. Improved information on their space density, in particular as a function of redshift, will soon be provided by Spitzer-Chandra wide area surveys, allowing better estimates of both the importance of red AGN to the full AGN population and their contribution to the CXRB.

Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor); Wilkes, Belinda

2005-01-01

33

Evidence for Active Galactic Nucleus Feedback in the Broad Absorption Lines and Reddening of Mrk 231  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first J-band spectrum of Mrk 231, which reveals a large He I* ?10830 broad absorption line with a profile similar to that of the well-known Na I broad absorption line. Combining this spectrum with optical and UV spectra from the literature, we show that the unusual reddening noted by Veilleux et al. is explained by a reddening curve like those previously used to explain low values of total-to-selective extinction in Type Ia supernovae. The nuclear starburst may be the origin and location of the dust. Spatially resolved emission in the broad absorption line trough suggests nearly full coverage of the continuum emission region. The broad absorption lines reveal higher velocities in the He I* lines (produced in the quasar-photoionized H II region) compared with the Na I and Ca II lines (produced in the corresponding partially ionized zone). Cloudy simulations show that a density increase is required between the H II and partially ionized zones to produce ionic column densities consistent with the optical and IR absorption line measurements and limits, and that the absorber lies ~100 pc from the central engine. These results suggest that the He I* lines are produced in an ordinary quasar BAL wind that impacts upon, compresses, and accelerates the nuclear starburst's dusty effluent (feedback in action), and the Ca II and Na I lines are produced in this dusty accelerated gas. This unusual circumstance explains the rarity of Na I absorption lines; without the compression along our line of sight, Mrk 231 would appear as an ordinary iron low-ionization, broad absorption line quasar.

Leighly, Karen M.; Terndrup, Donald M.; Baron, Eddie; Lucy, Adrian B.; Dietrich, Matthias; Gallagher, Sarah C.

2014-06-01

34

Structure of Broad Emission-Line Region in AGN and Obscuring Gas and Dust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure of the broad emission-line region in an Active Galactic Nucleus and of the obscuring material that surrounds it are unclear. X-ray emission is clearly absorbed along some lines of sight, and the broad lines are reddened or completely missed. The obscuring material is distributed in an approximate disk geometry (either a warped disk or torus) and is quite possibly clumpy. Elitzur, Nenkova and collaborators have proposed a simple model whereby clouds distributed in an approximate torus geometry both produce the broad lines (from the innermost, hot region, in which dust is sublimated so only atomic gas is present) and redden or absorb light (along dusty lines of sight further away from the nucleus). We test this model using a hard X-ray-selected AGN sample (from the Swift BAT survey) that should be nearly unbiased with respect to orientation. We estimate the X-ray-absorbing column density, N_H, by fitting the spectrum with a plausible two-power-law model, and we estimate the reddening toward the broad-line region from Balmer line ratios. We compare these two measures of reddening in the context of the Elitzur et al. model.

Lazzarini, Margaret; Urry, C. M.; Glikman, E.; Elitzur, M.; LaMassa, S. M.; Schawinski, K.; Vasudevan, R.; Winter, L. M.; Koss, M.

2013-01-01

35

Broad Balmer-Line Absorption in SDSS J172341.10+555340.5  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the discovery of Balmer-line absorption from H? to H9 in an iron low-ionizaton broad absorption line (FeLoBAL) quasar, SDSS J172341.10+555340.5, by near-infrared spectroscopy with the Cooled Infrared Spectrograph and Camera for OHS (CISCO) attached to the Subaru Telescope. The redshift of the Balmer-line absorption troughs is 2.0530±0.0003, and it is blueshifted by 5370 km s-1 from the Balmer emission lines. It is more than 4000 km s-1 blueshifted from the previously known UV absorption lines. We detected relatively strong (EWrest = 20 Å) [OIII] emission lines that are similar to those found in other broad absorption line quasars with Balmer-line absorption. We also derived the column density of neutral hydrogen of 5.2 × 1017 cm-2 by using the curve of growth and taking account of Ly? trapping. We searched for UV absorption lines that had the same redshift with Balmer-line absorption, and found Ali III and Fe III absorption lines at z = 2.053 that correspond to previously unidentified absorption lines, and the presence of other blended troughs that were difficult to identify.

Aoki, Kentaro

2010-10-01

36

The Transition from "Normal" to "Broad Absorption Line Quasar" of Ton 34  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the emergence of a high-velocity, broad absorption line outflow in the luminous quasar Ton 34, at zq = 1.928. The outflow is detected through an ultraviolet C IV broad absorption line, in a spectrum obtained in 2006 January by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. No absorption trough was present in two different spectra acquired in 1981 at Las Campanas and Palomar observatories, indicating the emergence of the outflow in less than ~8 yr (rest frame). The absorption line spans a velocity range from ~5000 to 25,000 km s-1, and resembles typical troughs found in broad absorption line quasars (BALQSOs). We measure a balnicity index gsim600 (though this value might be an underestimation due to a conservative placing of the continuum). The absorption trough is likely saturated, with the absorbing gas covering ~25% of the emitting region. We explore different scenarios for the emergence of this outflow, and find an existing wind moving across our line of sight to the source as the most likely explanation. This indicates that high-velocity outflows (producing broad absorption troughs in BALQSOs) might be ubiquitous in quasars, yet only become observable when the wind accidentally crosses our line of vision to the central source.

Krongold, Y.; Binette, L.; Hernández-Ibarra, F.

2010-12-01

37

Balmer-lines Broad Absorption in SDSS J172341.10+555340.5  

E-print Network

We discovered Balmer-lines absorption from Halpha to H9 in iron low-ionizaton broad absorption line (FeLoBAL) quasar, SDSS J172341.10+555340.5 by near-infrared spectroscopy with the Cooled Infrared Spectrograph and Camera for OHS (CISCO) attached to the Subaru telescope. The redshift of the Balmer-lines absorption is 2.0530+/-0.0003, and it is blueshifted by 5370 km/s from Balmer emission lines. They are > 4000 km/s blueshifted from the previously known UV absorption lines. Relatively strong (EW_res}=20 A) [O III] emission lines are detected, and it is similar to other broad absorption line quasars with Balmer-lines absorption We derived the column density of neutral hydrogen of 5.2 x 10^17 cm^-2 by using the curve of growth and taking account of Lyalpha trapping. We searched for UV absorption lines which have the same redshift with Balmer-lines absorption. We found at least Al III and Fe ||| absorption lin es at z=2.053 which corresponds to previously unidentified absorption lines.

Aoki, Kentaro

2010-01-01

38

The structure of the broad-line region in the Seyfert galaxy Markarian 590  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have undertaken a nine-month study of continuum and emission-line variability in the Seyfert galaxy Mrk 590 in order to determine the structure of the broad-line region. The H-beta variations are found to lag behind those of the optical continuum by about 19 days. We apply a maximum entropy method to solve for the transfer function which relates the line and continuum variability. This analysis suggests that there is a deficit of emission-line response due to gas along the line of sight to the continuum source, as in the case of NGC 5548, although these data do not allow us to reject with confidence models with significant line-of-sight response. We also show that the H-beta line variability is apparently confined to the core of the emission line, as suggested previously by Ferland, Korista, and Peterson (1990).

Peterson, Bradley M.; Ali, Babar; Horne, Keith; Bertram, Ray; Lame, Nancy J.; Pogge, Richard W.; Wagner, R. M.

1993-01-01

39

Broad Band X-Ray Telescope observations of NGC 4151 - Iron line diagnostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Fe K-alpha emission line is a potentially powerful diagnostic tool in the X-ray spectra of AGNs, however, this feature has previously been observed with relatively poor spectral resolution. The Broad Band X-Ray Telescope has provided us with the first high-quality, medium-resolution X-ray spectral data. We are able to constrain the width of the 6.4 keV Fe K-alpha line in NGC 4151 to be less than 160 eV FWHM (7,500 km/s), in contrast with former measurements of the line width. Also, we have limited information on the shape of the line profile. In addition to the strong narrow Fe K-alpha feature, we detect weaker broad residuals between 5-8 keV.

Weaver, K. A.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Arnaud, K. A.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Marshall, F. E.; Petre, R.; Jahoda, K. M.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. S.; Swank, J.

1992-01-01

40

Broad-line region structure and kinematics in the radio galaxy 3C 120  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Broad emission lines originate in the surroundings of supermassive black holes in the centers of active galactic nuclei (AGN). These broad-line emitting regions are spatially unresolved even for the nearest AGN. The origin and geometry of broad-line region (BLR) gas and their connection with geometrically thin or thick accretion disks is of fundamental importance for the understanding of AGN activity. Aims: One method to investigate the extent, structure, and kinematics of the BLR is to study the continuum and line profile variability in AGN. We selected the radio-loud Seyfert 1 galaxy 3C 120 as a target for this study. Methods: We took spectra with a high signal-to-noise ratio of 3C 120 with the 9.2 m Hobby-Eberly Telescope between Sept. 2008 and March 2009. In parallel, we photometrically monitored the continuum flux at the Wise observatory. We analyzed the continuum and line profile variations in detail (1D and 2D reverberation mapping) and modeled the geometry of the line-emitting regions based on the line profiles. Results: We show that the BLR in 3C 120 is stratified with respect to the distance of the line-emitting regions from the center with respect to the line widths (FWHM) of the rms profiles and with respect to the variability amplitude of the emission lines. The emission line wings of H? and H? respond much faster than their central region. This is explained by accretion disk models. In addition, these lines show a stronger response in the red wings. However, the velocity-delay maps of the helium lines show a stronger response in the blue wing. Furthermore, the He ii ?4686 line responds faster in the blue wing in contradiction to observations made one and a half years later when the galaxy was in a lower state. The faster response in the blue wing is an indication for central outflow motions when this galaxy was in a bright state during our observations. The vertical BLR structure in 3C 120 coincides with that of other AGN. We confirm the general trend: the emission lines of narrow line AGN originate at larger distances from the midplane than AGN with broader emission lines. Based on observations obtained with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, which is a joint project of the University of Texas at Austin, the Pennsylvania State University, Stanford University, the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, and the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen.Tables 1, 2, 4, 5 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Kollatschny, W.; Ulbrich, K.; Zetzl, M.; Kaspi, S.; Haas, M.

2014-06-01

41

Time Variable Broad Line Emission in NGC 4203: Evidence for Stellar Contrails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dual epoch spectroscopy of the lenticular galaxy, NGC 4203, obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope has revealed that the double-peaked component of the broad H? emission line is time variable, increasing by a factor of 2.2 in brightness between 1999 and 2010. Modeling the gas distribution responsible for the double-peaked profiles indicates that a ring is a more appropriate description than a disk and most likely represents the contrail of a red supergiant star that is being tidally disrupted at a distance of 1500 AU from the central black hole. There is also a bright core of broad H? line emission that is not time variable and identified with a large scale inflow from an outer radius 1 pc. If the gas number density is ? 106 cm-3, as suggested by the absence of similarly broad [O I] and [O III] emission lines, then the steady state inflow rate is 2 × 10-2 M?/yr which exceeds the inflow requirement to explain the X-ray luminosity in terms of radiatively inefficient accretion by a factor of 6. The central AGN is unable to sustain ionization of the broad line region, the discrepancy is particularly acute in 2010 when the broad H? emission line is dominated by the contrail of the in-falling supergiant star. However, ram pressure shock ionization produced by the interaction of the in-falling supergiant with the ambient interstellar medium may help alleviate the ionizing deficit by generating a mechanical source of ionization supplementing the photoionization provided by the AGN. Support for Program number HST AR-11752.01-A was provided by NASA through a grant from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, incorporated, under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

Devereux, Nicholas A.

2012-01-01

42

Broadband X-ray spectrum of the newly discovered broad line radio galaxy IGR J21247+5058  

E-print Network

In this paper we present radio and high energy observations of the INTEGRAL source IGR J21247+5058, a broad line emitting galaxy obscured by the Galactic plane. Archival VLA radio data indicate that IGR J21247+5058 can be classified as an FRII Broad Line Radio Galaxy. The spectrum between 610 MHz and 15 GHz is typical of synchrotron self-absorbed radiation with a peak at 8 GHz and a low energy turnover; the core fraction is 0.1 suggestive of a moderate Doppler boosting of the base of the jet. The high energy broad-band spectrum was obtained by combining XMM-Newton and Swift/XRT observation with INTEGRAL/IBIS data. The 0.4-100 keV spectrum is well described by a power law, with slope $\\Gamma$=1.5, characterised by complex absorption due to two layers of material partially covering the source and a high energy cut-off around 70-80 keV. Features such as a narrow iron line and a Compton reflection component, if present, are weak, suggesting that reprocessing of the power law photons in the accretion disk plays a negligible role in the source.

M. Molina; M. Giroletti; A. Malizia; R. Landi; L. Bassani; A. J. Bird; A. J. Dean; A. De Rosa; M. Fiocchi; F. Panessa

2007-09-12

43

Broadband X-ray spectrum of the newly discovered broad line radio galaxy IGR J21247+5058  

E-print Network

In this paper we present radio and high energy observations of the INTEGRAL source IGR J21247+5058, a broad line emitting galaxy obscured by the Galactic plane. Archival VLA radio data indicate that IGR J21247+5058 can be classified as an FRII Broad Line Radio Galaxy. The spectrum between 610 MHz and 15 GHz is typical of synchrotron self-absorbed radiation with a peak at 8 GHz and a low energy turnover; the core fraction is 0.1 suggestive of a moderate Doppler boosting of the base of the jet. The high energy broad-band spectrum was obtained by combining XMM-Newton and Swift/XRT observation with INTEGRAL/IBIS data. The 0.4-100 keV spectrum is well described by a power law, with slope $\\Gamma$=1.5, characterised by complex absorption due to two layers of material partially covering the source and a high energy cut-off around 70-80 keV. Features such as a narrow iron line and a Compton reflection component, if present, are weak, suggesting that reprocessing of the power law photons in the accretion disk plays a ...

Molina, M; Malizia, A; Landi, R; Bassani, L; Bird, A J; Dean, A J; De Rosa, A; Fiocchi, M; Panessa, F

2007-01-01

44

Weak-Line Quasars at High Redshift: Extremely High Accretion Rates or Anemic Broad-Line Regions?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present Gemini-North K-band spectra of two representative members of the class of high-redshift quasars with exceptionally weak rest-frame ultraviolet emission lines (WLQs), SDSS J114153.34+021924.3 at z=3.55 and SDSS J123743.08+630144.9 at z=3.49. In both sources we detect an unusually weak broad H? line and we place tight upper limits on the strengths of their [O III] lines. Virial, H?-based black-hole mass determinations indicate normalized accretion rates of L/LEdd=0.4 for these sources, which is well within the range observed for typical quasars with similar luminosities and redshifts. We also present high-quality XMM-Newton imaging spectroscopy of SDSS J114153.34+021924.3 and find a hard-X-ray photon index of ?=1.91+0.24-0.22which supports the virial L/LEdd determination in this source. Our results suggest that the weakness of the broad-emission lines in WLQs is not a consequence of an extreme continuum-emission source but instead due to abnormal broad-emission line region properties.

Shemmer, Ohad; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Anderson, S. F.; Brandt, W. N.; Diamond-Stanic, A. M.; Fan, X.; Lira, P.; Netzer, H.; Plotkin, R. M.; Richards, G. T.; Schneider, D. P.; Strauss, M. A.

2011-01-01

45

The Broad Line Region in AGNs: Velocity-Delay Maps from Reverberation Mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results from a detailed analysis of photometric and spectrophotometric data on five Seyfert 1 galaxies observed as a part of a recent reverberation mapping program. The data were collected at several observatories over a 140-day span beginning in 2010 August and ending in 2011 January. We obtained high sampling-rate light curves for five objects: Mrk 335, Mrk 1501, 3C 120, Mrk 6, and PG 2130+099. From these data, we recovered velocity-delay maps using the maximum-entropy method for four out of the five objects, all of which show different kinematic signatures. The maps for 3C120 and Mrk 335 are two of the most clearly defined velocity-delay maps to date. We have measured the time lag between variations in the 5100 Å continuum and the H? broad emission line in these objects and calculated the mass of the supermassive black hole at the center of each galaxy. In Mrk 335, we also measure the lag in the He II ? 4686 broad emission line relative to the optical continuum. This constitutes the first robust lag measurement for a high-ionization line in a narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy. Our new measurements substantially improve previous black hole mass measurements and the size of the broad line-emitting region for four sources and add a measurement for one new object. Our results from the He II emission and the velocity-delay maps are consistent with photoionization physics regulating the location of the broad line region in active galactic nuclei. In our four velocity-delay maps, we see kinematic signatures consistent with both inclined disks and infalling gas, and signatures of the radial stratification of the broad line region. These maps constitute a large increase in the number of objects for which velocity-delay maps have been recovered. The signatures consistent with infall and disk structure, both of which are signs of gravitationally-bound material, provide evidence supporting the reliability of reverberation-based black hole mass measurements. The velocity-delay maps offer potential for future detailed modeling of the structure of the broad line region and improvement in our understanding of the physics powering active galactic nuclei.

Grier, Catherine

2013-01-01

46

The view through the wind: X-ray observations of broad absorption line quasi-stellar objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2 10 keV bandpasses and unprecedented sensitivity of modern X-ray observatories have enabled new insights into the immediate environments of Broad Absorption Line (BAL) QSOs. BAL QSOs, approximately 10% of the QSO population, exhibit deep, broad absorption lines from high ionization ultraviolet resonance transitions. These blueshifted absorption features are understood to arise along lines of sight which travel through

Sarah Connoran Gallagher

2002-01-01

47

BROAD IRON LINES IN NEUTRONS STARS: DYNAMICAL BROADENING OR WIND SCATTERING?  

SciTech Connect

Broad iron emission lines are observed in many accreting systems from black holes in active galactic nuclei and X-ray binaries to neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries. The origin of the line broadening is often interpreted as due to dynamical broadening and relativistic effects. However, alternative interpretations have been proposed, included broadening due to Compton scattering in a wind or accretion disk atmosphere. Here we explore the observational signatures expected from broadening in a wind, in particular that the iron line width should increase with an increase in the column density of the absorber (due to an increase in the number of scatterings). We study the data from three neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries where both a broad iron emission line and absorption lines are seen simultaneously, and show that there is no significant correlation between line width and column density. This favors an inner disk origin for the line broadening rather than scattering in a wind.

Cackett, Edward M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University, 666 W. Hancock Street, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Miller, Jon M., E-mail: ecackett@wayne.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (United States)

2013-11-01

48

Evidence for a Broad Relativistic Iron Line from the Neutron Star LMXB Ser X-1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report on an analysis of XMM-Newton data from the neutron star low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) Serpens X-1 (Ser X-1). Spectral analysis of EPIC PN data indicates that the previously known broad iron Ka emission line in this source has a significantly skewed structure with a moderately extended red wing. The asymmetric shape of the line is well described with the laor and diskline models in XSPEC, which strongly supports an inner accretion disk origin of the line. To our knowledge this is the first strong evidence for a relativistic line in a neutron star LMXB. This finding suggests that the broad lines seen in other neutron star LMXBs likely originate from the inner disk as well. Detailed study of such lines opens up a new way to probe neutron star parameters and their strong gravitational fields. The laor model describes the line from Ser X-1 somewhat better than diskline, and suggests that the inner accretion disk radius is less than 6GM/c(exp 2). This is consistent with the weak magnetic fields of LMXBs, and may point towards a high compactness and rapid spin of the neutron star. Finally, the inferred source inclination angle in the approximate range 50-60 deg is consistent with the lack of dipping from Ser X-1.

Bhattacharyya, Sudip; Strohmayer, Tod E.

2007-01-01

49

Active Galaxies With Double-Peaked Emission Lines and What They Imply About the "Broad-Line Region"  

E-print Network

I review the distinguishing observational characteristics of active galaxies with double-peaked emission lines and their implications for the nature of the line-emitting region. Since double-peaked lines most likely originate in the outer parts of the accretion disk, they can be used to study the structure and dynamics of the disk and the associated wind. Such studies lead to general inferences about the broad-line regions of all AGNs. To this end, I describe the results of recent UV spectroscopy of double-peaked emitters that probes the disk-wind relation. I also summarize efforts to exploit the variability of the lines to study dynamical and thermal phenomena in the disk.

Michael Eracleous

2003-10-22

50

Nuclear Spin-Echo Fourier-Transform Mapping Spectroscopy for Broad NMR Lines in Solids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A basic theoretical description of nuclear spin-echo Fourier-transform mapping spectroscopy (NSEFTMS) for broad NMR lines was derived from the well-established time-domain spin-echo theory. It has been shown that when the mapping step is less than the radiation field strength under typical conditions of spin-echo experiments, the NSEFTMS mimics precisely the original NMR spectrum. Most important, the NSEFTMS present a more efficient alternative in practice to the conventional point-by-point scanning technique that is, in general, time consuming in studying broad NMR lines in solids, especially when there exist some sharp features. A preliminary 31P NMR study of an iron (II) diphosphate (Fe 2P 2O 7) sample, which is one kind of precursor for the heterogeneous catalytic ferri-phosphate system (FePO), has been taken as an example of the application of the theory.

Tong, Y. Y.

51

Constraining Variable High Velocity Winds from Broad Absorption Line Quasars with Multi-Epoch Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Broad absorption line (BAL) quasars probe the high-velocity gas ejected by luminous accreting black holes. BAL variability timescales place constraints on the size, location, and dynamics of the emitting and absorbing gas near the supermassive black hole. We present multi-epoch spectroscopy of seventeen BAL QSOs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) using the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory's 1.5m telescope's FAST Spectrograph. These objects were identified as BALs in SDSS, observed with Chandra, and then monitored with FAST at observed-frame cadences of 1, 3, 9, 27, and 81 days, as well as 1 and 2 years. We also monitor a set of non-BAL quasars with matched redshift and luminosity as controls. We identify significant variability in the BALs, particularly at the 1 and 2 year cadences, and use its magnitude and frequency to constrain the outflows impacting the broad absorption line region.

Haggard, D.; Arraki, K. S.; Green, P. J.; Aldcroft, T.; Anderson, S. F.

2012-08-01

52

X-Ray Emission from Seyfert 2 Galaxies with Optical Polarized Broad Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the 0.5-10 keV spectra of six Seyfert 2 galaxies observed with the X-ray satellite ASCA: Mrk 3, Mrk 348, Mrk 1210, Mrk 477, NGC 7212, and Was 49b. These galaxies were selected based on their possession of optical polarized broad lines. In the 2-10 keV band, their spectra are heavily absorbed, with 2-10 keV absorption-corrected X-ray luminosities ranging

Hisamitsu Awaki; Shiro Ueno; Yoshiaki Taniguchi; Kimberly A. Weaver

2000-01-01

53

DO QUASAR BROAD-LINE VELOCITY WIDTHS ADD ANY INFORMATION TO VIRIAL BLACK HOLE MASS ESTIMATES?  

SciTech Connect

We examine how much information measured broad-line widths add to virial black hole (BH) mass estimates for flux-limited samples of quasars. We do this by comparing the BH mass estimates to those derived by randomly reassigning the quasar broad-line widths to different objects and re-calculating the BH mass. For 9000 BH masses derived from the H{beta} line we find that the distributions of original and randomized BH masses in the M{sub BH}-redshift plane and the M{sub BH}-luminosity plane are formally identical. A two-dimensional Kolmogorov-Smirnov test does not find a difference at >90% confidence. For the Mg II line (32,000 quasars) we do find very significant differences between the randomized and original BH masses, but the amplitude of the difference is still small. The difference for the C IV line (14,000 quasars) is 2{sigma}-3{sigma} and again the amplitude of the difference is small. Subdividing the data into redshift and luminosity bins we find that the median absolute difference in BH mass between the original and randomized data is 0.025, 0.01, and 0.04 dex for H{beta}, Mg II, and C IV, respectively. The maximum absolute difference is always {<=}0.1 dex. We investigate whether our results are sensitive to corrections to Mg II virial masses, such as those suggested by Onken and Kollmeier. These corrections do not influence our results, other than to reduce the significance of the difference between original and randomized BH masses to only 1{sigma}-2{sigma} for Mg II. Moreover, we demonstrate that the correlation between mass residuals and Eddington ratio discussed by Onken and Kollmeier is more directly attributable to the slope of the relation between H{beta} and Mg II line width. The implication is that the measured quasar broad-line velocity widths provide little extra information, after allowing for the mean velocity width. In this case virial estimates are equivalent to M{sub BH}{proportional_to}L{sup {alpha}}, with L/L{sub Edd}{proportional_to}L{sup 1-{alpha}} (with {alpha} {approx_equal} 0.5). This leaves an unanswered question of why the accretion efficiency changes with luminosity in just the right way to keep the mean broad-line widths fixed as a function of luminosity.

Croom, Scott M., E-mail: scroom@physics.usyd.edu.au [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

2011-08-01

54

Are Seyfert 2 Galaxies without Polarized Broad Emission Lines More Obscured?  

E-print Network

The new $XMM-Newton$ data of seven Seyfert 2 galaxies with optical spectropolarimetric observations are presented. The analysis of 0.5 -- 10 keV spectra shows that all four Seyfert 2 galaxies with polarized broad lines (PBLs) are absorbed with $N_{\\rm H}<10^{24}$ cm$^{-2}$, while two of three Seyfert 2 galaxies without PBLs have evidence suggesting Compton-thick obscuration, supporting the conclusion that Seyfert 2 galaxies without PBLs are more obscured than those with PBLs. Adding the measured obscuration indicators ($N_{\\rm H}$, $T$ ratio, and Fe K$\\alpha$ line EW) of six luminous AGNs to our previous sample improves the significance level of the difference in absorption from 92.3% to 96.3% for $N_{\\rm H}$, 99.1% to 99.4% for $T$ ratio, and 95.3% to 97.4% for Fe K$\\alpha$ line EW. The present results support and enhance the suggestions that the absence of PBLs in Seyfert 2 galaxies can be explained by larger viewing angle of line of sight to the putative dusty torus, which lead to the obscuration of broad-line scattering screen, as expected by the unification model.

X. W. Shu; J. X. Wang; P. Jiang

2007-12-03

55

Gamma Ray Lines from the Orion Complex  

E-print Network

We show that the 4.44 and 6.13 MeV line emission observed with COMPTEL from Orion is consistent with gamma ray spectra consisting of a mixture of narrow and broad lines or spectra containing only broad lines. We employed several accelerated particle compositions and showed that the current COMPTEL data in the 3--7 MeV region alone cannot distinguish between the various possibilities. However, the COMPTEL upper limits in the 1--3 MeV band favor a composition similar to that of the winds of Wolf-Rayet stars of spectral type WC. The power dissipated by the accelerated particles at Orion is about 4 $\\times$ 10$^{38}$ erg s$^{-1}$. These particles are not expected to produce significant amounts of $^{26}$Al.

Reuven Ramaty; Benzion Kozlovsky; Richard E. Lingenfelter

1994-11-10

56

Two cases of culture proven Mycobacterium tuberculosis presenting with a broad-complex tachycardia and non-caseating granulomas  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis is a leading cause of death worldwide. It affects pulmonary and extra-pulmonary sites with a multitude of differing presentations. In this report, we describe two cases in which TB causes myopericarditis and presents with a broad-complex tachycardia that did not respond typically to standard anti-arrhythmic therapy; a very rare presentation with limited description in the literature. Both patients required extensive investigation culminating in identifying lymph nodes amenable to biopsy under endobronchial ultrasound guidance. It was not until both patients received anti-tuberculous chemotherapy alongside anti-arrhythmic management that any improvement to their condition was witnessed. Therefore, we recommend that the clinician should have a high index of suspicion for TB in any patient presenting with a broad-complex tachycardia that is not responding to standard first line management, especially if the patient is from a high risk background. We recommend an active diagnostic pursuit, and lymph node biopsy under endobronchial ultrasound guidance.

Farah, Z.; Beasley, V.E.; Berry, M.; Coker, R.K.; Kon, O.M.

2014-01-01

57

Inconsistencies of the photoionized model for the broad line region in the Seyfert galaxy NGC 7469  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a study of ultraviolet and optical spectra of the active galaxy NGC 7469 taken as part of the International AGN Watch database. We have measured the CIV/L?, L?/H? and H?/H? line ratios across the line profiles. The modeling of the observed line ratios has been done with the photoionization code CLOUDY in two variants, with and without taking into account the turbulence in the Broad Line Region (BLR).The comparison of the observed and theoretical emission shows that there are problems with both variants. The observed line ratios can be accounted for by two systems of clouds without turbulence. One corresponds to the high-ionization line (HIL) zone with an electron density n_{e} ? 10^{9-11} cm^{-3}. It is presumably located above the accretion disk. The other system corresponds to the low-ionization line (LIL) zone which is probably the inner part of the accretion disk and which has a high electron density, n_{e}?10^{12.5 - 13} cm^{-3}

Nazarova, L. S.; Bochkarev, N. G.

58

Radiatively driven winds for different power law spectra. [for explaining narrow and broad quasar absorption lines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The analytic solutions for radiatively driven winds are given for the case in which the winds are driven by absorption of line and continuum radiation. The wind solutions are analytically estimated for different parameters of the central source and for different power law spectra. For flat spectra, three sonic points can exist; it is shown, however, that only one of these sonic points is physically realistic. Parameters of the central source are given which generate winds of further interest for explaining the narrow and broad absorption lines in quasars. For the quasar model presented here, winds which could give rise to the narrow absorption lines are generated by central sources with parameters which are not realistic for quasars.

Beltrametti, M.

1980-01-01

59

The metallicities of the broad emission line regions in the nitrogen-loudest quasars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured the metallicity Z in the broad emission-line regions (BELRs) of 43 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars with the strongest N IV] and N III] emission lines. These N-loud quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) have unusually low-black-hole masses. We used the intensity ratio of N lines to collisionally excited emission lines of other heavy elements to find metallicities in their BELR regions. We found that seven of the eight line-intensity ratios that we employed give roughly consistent metallicities as measured, but that for each individual QSO their differences from the mean of all metallicity measurements depend on the ionization potential of the ions that form the emission lines. After correcting for this effect, the different line-intensity ratios give metallicities that generally agree to within the 0.24 dex uncertainty in the measurements of the line-intensity ratios. The metallicities are very high, with mean log Z for the whole sample of 5.5 Z? and a maximum of 18 Z?. Our results argue against the possibility that the strong N lines represent an overabundance only of N but not of all heavy elements. They are compatible with either that (1) the BELR gas has been chemically enriched by the general stellar population in the central bulge of the host galaxy, but the locally optimally emitting cloud model used in the analysis needs some fine tuning or (2) that instead this gas has been enriched by intense star formation on the very local scale of the active nucleus that has resulted in an abundance gradient within the BELR.

Batra, Neelam Dhanda; Baldwin, Jack A.

2014-03-01

60

OPTICAL MONITORING OF THE BROAD-LINE RADIO GALAXY 3C 390.3  

SciTech Connect

We have undertaken a new ground-based monitoring campaign on the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 390.3 to improve the measurement of the size of the broad emission-line region and to estimate the black hole mass. Optical spectra and g-band images were observed in late 2005 for three months using the 2.4 m telescope at MDM Observatory. Integrated emission-line flux variations were measured for the hydrogen Balmer lines H{alpha}, H{beta}, H{gamma}, and for the helium line He II{lambda}4686, as well as g-band fluxes and the optical active galactic nucleus (AGN) continuum at {lambda} = 5100 A. The g-band fluxes and the optical AGN continuum vary simultaneously within the uncertainties, {tau}{sub cent} (0.2 {+-} 1.1) days. We find that the emission-line variations are delayed with respect to the variable g-band continuum by {tau}(H{alpha}) 56.3{sup +2.4}{sub -6.6} days, {tau}(H{beta}) = 44.3{sup +3.0}{sub -3.3} days, {tau}(H{gamma}) = 58.1{sup +4.3}{sub -6.1} days, and {tau}(He II 4686) = 22.3{sup +6.5}{sub -3.8} days. The blue and red peaks in the double-peaked line profiles, as well as the blue and red outer profile wings, vary simultaneously within {+-}3 days. This provides strong support for gravitationally bound orbital motion of the dominant part of the line-emitting gas. Combining the time delay of the strong Balmer emission lines of H{alpha} and H{beta} and the separation of the blue and red peaks in the broad double-peaked profiles in their rms spectra, we determine M {sup vir}{sub bh} = 1.77{sup +0.29}{sub -0.31} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun} and using {sigma}{sub line} of the rms spectra M {sup vir}{sub bh} 2.60{sup +0.23}{sub -0.31} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun} for the central black hole of 3C 390.3, respectively. Using the inclination angle of the line-emitting region which is measured from superluminal motion detected in the radio range, accretion disk models to fit the optical double-peaked emission-line profiles, and X-ray observations, the mass of the black hole amounts to M{sub bh} = 0.86{sup +0.19}{sub -0.18} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} (peak separation) and M{sub bh} 1.26{sup +0.21}{sub -0.16} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} ({sigma}{sub line}), respectively. This result is consistent with the black hole masses indicated by simple accretion disk models to describe the observed double-peaked profiles, derived from the stellar dynamics of 3C 390.3, and with the AGN radius-luminosity relation. Thus, 3C 390.3 as a radio-loud AGN with a low Eddington ratio, L{sub edd}/L{sub bol} = 0.02, follows the same AGN radius-luminosity relation as radio-quiet AGNs.

Dietrich, Matthias; Peterson, Bradley M.; Grier, Catherine J.; Bentz, Misty C.; Eastman, Jason; Frank, Stephan; Gonzalez, Raymond; Marshall, Jennifer L.; DePoy, Darren L.; Prieto, Jose L., E-mail: dietrich@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

2012-09-20

61

PHOTOMETRIC REVERBERATION MAPPING OF THE BROAD EMISSION LINE REGION IN QUASARS  

SciTech Connect

A method is proposed for measuring the size of the broad emission line region (BLR) in quasars using broadband photometric data. A feasibility study, based on numerical simulations, points to the advantages and pitfalls associated with this approach. The method is applied to a subset of the Palomar-Green quasar sample for which independent BLR size measurements are available. An agreement is found between the results of the photometric method and the spectroscopic reverberation mapping technique. Implications for the measurement of BLR sizes and black hole masses for numerous quasars in the era of large surveys are discussed.

Chelouche, Doron [Department of Physics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, Haifa 31905 (Israel); Daniel, Eliran, E-mail: doron@sci.haifa.ac.il, E-mail: elirandviv@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

2012-03-01

62

Study of transmission line attenuation in broad band millimeter wave frequency range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Broad band millimeter wave transmission lines are used in fusion plasma diagnostics such as electron cyclotron emission (ECE), electron cyclotron absorption, reflectometry and interferometry systems. In particular, the ECE diagnostic for ITER will require efficient transmission over an ultra wide band, 100 to 1000 GHz. A circular corrugated waveguide transmission line is a prospective candidate to transmit such wide band with low attenuation. To evaluate this system, experiments of transmission line attenuation were performed and compared with theoretical loss calculations. A millimeter wave Michelson interferometer and a liquid nitrogen black body source are used to perform all the experiments. Atmospheric water vapor lines and continuum absorption within this band are reported. Ohmic attenuation in corrugated waveguide is very low; however, there is Bragg scattering and higher order mode conversion that can cause significant attenuation in this transmission line. The attenuation due to miter bends, gaps, joints, and curvature are estimated. The measured attenuation of 15 m length with seven miter bends and eighteen joints is 1 dB at low frequency (300 GHz) and 10 dB at high frequency (900 GHz), respectively.

Pandya, Hitesh Kumar B.; Austin, M. E.; Ellis, R. F.

2013-10-01

63

Off-axis irradiation and the polarization of broad emission lines in active galactic nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The STOKES Monte Carlo radiative transfer code has been extended to model the velocity dependence of the polarization of emission lines. We use STOKES to present improved modeling of the velocity-dependent polarization of broad emission lines in active galactic nuclei. We confirm that off-axis continuum emission can produce observed velocity dependencies of both the degree and position angle of polarization. The characteristic features are a dip in the percentage polarization and an S-shaped swing in the position angle of the polarization across the line profile. Some differences between our STOKES results and previous modeling of polarization due to off-axis emission are noted. In particular we find that the presence of an offset between the maximum in line flux and the dip in the percentage of polarization or the central velocity of the swing in position angle does not necessarily imply that the scattering material is moving radially. Our model is an alternative scenario to the equatorial scattering disk described by Smith et al. (2005). We discuss strategies to discriminate between both interpretations and to constrain their relative contributions to the observed velocity-resolved line and polarization.

Goosmann, René W.; Gaskell, C. Martin; Marin, Frédéric

2014-10-01

64

Chandra Detection of a Parsec Scale Wind in the Broad Line Radio Galaxy 3C 382  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present unambiguous evidence for a parsec scale wind in the Broad-Line Radio Galaxy (BLRG) 3C 382, the first radio-loud AGN whereby an outflow has been measured with X-ray grating spectroscopy. A 118 ks Chandra grating (HETG) observation of 3C 382 has revealed the presence of several high ionization absorption lines in the soft X-ray band, from Fe, Ne, Mg and Si. The absorption lines are blue-shifted with respect to the systemic velocity of 3C 382 by -840+/-60 km/s and are resolved by Chandra with a velocity width of sigma = 340+/-70 km/s. The outflow appears to originate from a single zone of gas of column density N(sub H) = 1.3 x 10(exp 21)/sq cm and ionization parameter log(E/erg/cm/s) = 2.45. From the above measurements we calculate that the outflow is observed on parsec scales, within the likely range from 10-1000 pc, i.e., consistent with an origin in the Narrow Line Region. Finally we also discuss the possibility of a much faster (0.1c) outflow component, based on a blue-shifted iron K(alpha) emission line in the Suzaku observation of 3C 382, which could have an origin in an accretion disk wind.

Reeves, J. N.; Sambruna, R. M.; Braito, V.; Eracleous, Michael

2009-01-01

65

Starburst-AGN Connections: Clues from Poststarburst Broad Line AGN in the SDSS DR2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sample of 74 poststarburst broad line AGN are selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 2 (SDSS DR2). Because in these so-called "Q+A"s, we can catch with a smoking gun the change of the recent star formation in the host galaxies, and in the meantime, view the nuclear activity directly, the present sample suits to address the important yet long debated issue concerning the physical link between starburst and AGN phenomena. We find that more than half of the Q+As can be classified as Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s) and the mass accretion rate of the sample is significantly higher than that of optically-selected quasars. If these engorging objects, especially the NLS1s are indeed AGN in their early evolution stage, this result strongly suggests that the nuclear activity be driven by starburst with a time delay of ˜ a few hundred Myr.

Zhou, H.; Wang, T.; Dong, X.; Wang, J.; Lu, H.

66

Structure and Kinematics of the Broad-Line Region and Torus of Active Galactic Nuclei  

E-print Network

Energetics considerations imply that the broad-line region (BLR) has a high covering factor. The absence of absorption from the BLR means that the BLR has to have a flattened distribution and be seen through a polar hole. The BLR is the inward extension of the torus and they have similar geometries and covering factors. Reconciling velocity-resolved reverberation mapping, spectropolarimetry, and the increasing blueshifting of BLR lines with decreasing distance from the centre, implies that the BLR has a significant inflow component. This inflow provides the mass inflow rate needed to power the AGN. We suggest that the mechanism producing the outward transport of angular momentum necessary for the net inflow of the BLR is the magneto-rotational instability, and that the BLR and outer accretion disc are one and the same.

C. Martin Gaskell; Rene W. Goosmann; Elizabeth S. Klimek

2008-07-17

67

MEASUREMENT OF THE BROAD-LINE REGION SIZE IN A LUMINOUS MACHO QUASAR  

SciTech Connect

We measure the broad emission line region (BLR) size of a luminous, L {approx} 10{sup 47} erg s{sup -1}, high-z quasar using broadband photometric reverberation mapping. To this end, we analyze {approx}7.5 years of photometric data for MACHO 13.6805.324 (z {approx_equal} 1.72) in the B and R MACHO bands and find a time delay of 180 {+-} 40 days in the rest frame of the object. Given the spectral-variability properties of high-z quasars, we associate this lag with the rest-UV iron emission blends. Our findings are consistent with a simple extrapolation of the BLR size-luminosity relation in local active galactic nuclei to the more luminous, high-z quasar population. Long-term spectroscopic monitoring of MACHO 13.6805.324 may be able to directly measure the line-to-continuum time delay and test our findings.

Chelouche, Doron [Department of Physics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, Haifa 31905 (Israel); Daniel, Eliran; Kaspi, Shai, E-mail: doron@sci.haifa.ac.il, E-mail: shai@wise.tau.ac.il, E-mail: elirandviv@gmail.com [School of Physics and Astronomy and the Wise Observatory, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel)

2012-05-10

68

Discovery of an X-ray Violently Variable Broad Absorption Line Quasar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this letter, we report on a quasar that is violently variable in the X-rays, XVV. It is also a broad absorption line quasar (BALQSO) that exhibits both high ionization and low ionization UV absorption lines (LoBALQSO). It is very luminous in the X-rays (approximately 10(exp 46) ergs s(sup -l) over the entire X-ray band). Surprisingly, this does not over ionize the LoBAL outflow. The X-rays vary by a factor of two within minutes in the quasar rest frame, which is shorter than 1/30 of the light travel time across a scale length equal to the black hole radius. We concluded that the X-rays are produced in a relativistic jet beamed toward earth in which variations in the Doppler enhancement produce the XVV behavior.

Ghosh, Kajal K.; Gutierrez, Carlos M.; Punsly, Brian; Chevallier, Loic; Goncalves, Anabela C.

2006-01-01

69

Reverberation and Photoionization Estimates of the Broad-line Region Radius in Low-z Quasars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Black hole mass estimation in quasars, especially at high redshift, involves the use of single-epoch spectra with signal-to-noise ratio and resolution that permit accurate measurement of the width of a broad line assumed to be a reliable virial estimator. Coupled with an estimate of the radius of the broad-line region (BLR) this yields the black hole mass M BH. The radius of the BLR may be inferred from an extrapolation of the correlation between source luminosity and reverberation-derived r BLR measures (the so-called Kaspi relation involving about 60 low-z sources). We are exploring a different method for estimating r BLR directly from inferred physical conditions in the BLR of each source. We report here on a comparison of r BLR estimates that come from our method and from reverberation mapping. Our "photoionization" method employs diagnostic line intensity ratios in the rest-frame range 1400-2000 Å (Al III ?1860/Si III] ?1892, C IV ?1549/Al III ?1860) that enable derivation of the product of density and ionization parameter with the BLR distance derived from the definition of the ionization parameter. We find good agreement between our estimates of the density, ionization parameter, and r BLR and those from reverberation mapping. We suggest empirical corrections to improve the agreement between individual photoionization-derived r BLR values and those obtained from reverberation mapping. The results in this paper can be exploited to estimate M BH for large samples of high-z quasars using an appropriate virial broadening estimator. We show that the width of the UV intermediate emission lines are consistent with the width of H?, thereby providing a reliable virial broadening estimator that can be measured in large samples of high-z quasars.

Negrete, C. Alenka; Dultzin, Deborah; Marziani, Paola; Sulentic, Jack W.

2013-07-01

70

Quasar broad absorption line variability measurements using reconstructions of unabsorbed spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a two-epoch Sloan Digital Sky Survey and Gemini/GMOS+William Herschel Telescope/ISIS variability study of 50 broad absorption line (BAL) quasars of redshift range 1.9 < z < 4.2, containing 38 Si IV and 59 C IV BALs and spanning rest-frame time intervals of ?10 months to 3.7 years. We find that 35/50 quasars exhibit one or more variable BALs, with 58 per cent of Si IV and 46 per cent of C IV BALs showing variability across the entire sample. On average, Si IV BALs show larger fractional change in BAL pseudo-equivalent width than C IV BALs, as referenced to an unabsorbed continuum+emission line spectrum constructed using non-negative matrix factorization. No correlation is found between BAL variability and quasar luminosity, suggesting that ionizing continuum changes do not play a significant role in BAL variability (assuming the gas is in photoionization equilibrium with the ionizing continuum). A subset of 14 quasars have one variable BAL from each of Si IV and C IV with significant overlap in velocity space and for which variations are in the same sense (strengthening or weakening) and which appear to be correlated (98 per cent confidence). We find examples of both appearing and disappearing BALs in weaker/shallower lines with disappearance rates of 2.3 per cent for C IV and 5.3 per cent for Si IV, suggesting average lifetimes of 142 and 43 years, respectively. We identify five objects in which the BAL is coincident with the broad emission line, but appears to cover only the continuum source. Assuming a clumpy inhomogeneous absorber model and a typical size for the continuum source, we infer a maximum cloud radius of 1013 to 1014 cm, assuming Eddington limited accretion.

Wildy, C.; Goad, M. R.; Allen, J. T.

2014-01-01

71

Investigating the radio-loud phase of broad absorption line quasars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Broad absorption lines (BALs) are present in the spectra of ~20% of quasars (QSOs); this indicates fast outflows (up to 0.2c) that intercept the observer's line of sight. These QSOs can be distinguished again into radio-loud (RL) BAL QSOs and radio-quiet (RQ) BAL QSOs. The first are very rare, even four times less common than RQ BAL QSOs. The reason for this is still unclear and leaves open questions about the nature of the BAL-producing outflows and their connection with the radio jet. Aims: We explored the spectroscopic characteristics of RL and RQ BAL QSOs with the aim to find a possible explanation for the rarity of RL BAL QSOs. Methods: We identified two samples of genuine BAL QSOs from SDSS optical spectra, one RL and one RQ, in a suitable redshift interval (2.5 < z < 3.5) that allowed us to observe the Mg ii and H? emission lines in the adjacent near-infrared (NIR) band. We collected NIR spectra of the two samples using the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG, Canary Islands). By using relations known in the literature, we estimated the black-hole mass, the broad-line region radius, and the Eddington ratio of our objects and compared the two samples. Results: We found no statistically significant differences from comparing the distributions of the cited physical quantities. This indicates that they have similar geometries, accretion rates, and central black-hole masses, regardless of whether the radio-emitting jet is present or not. Conclusions: These results show that the central engine of BAL QSOs has the same physical properties with and without a radio jet. The reasons for the rarity of RL BAL QSOs must reside in different environmental or evolutionary variables. Figure 3 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Bruni, G.; González-Serrano, J. I.; Pedani, M.; Benn, C. R.; Mack, K.-H.; Holt, J.; Montenegro-Montes, F. M.; Jiménez-Luján, F.

2014-09-01

72

Climatic change and the broad-scale distribution of terrestrial ecosystem complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The broad-scale distribution of terrestrial ecosystem complexes is determined in large part by climate and can be altered by climatic change due to natural causes or due to human activities such as those leading to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration. Classifications that recognize the dependence of natural vegetation on climate provide one means of constructing maps to display the impact of

William R. Emanuel; Herman H. Shugart; Mary P. Stevenson

1985-01-01

73

H? line profiles for a sample of supergiant HII regions. II. Broad, low intensity components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the broad, low intensity, high velocity components that are seen in the H? line profiles for a sample of HII regions. These HII regions are chosen from among the brightest and most isolated in a sample of spiral galaxies for which we have photometric and spectroscopic data: NGC 157, NGC 3631, NGC 6764, NGC 3344, NGC 4321, NGC 5364, NGC 5055, NGC 5985, and NGC 7479. We confirm that the line profiles of most of these bright, giant extragalactic HII regions contain broad kinematic components of low intensity, but high velocity, that we denote as wings. We analyze these components, deriving emission measures, central velocities, and velocity dispersions of the blue and red features, which are similar. We interpret these components as expanding shells within the HII regions and produced by the stellar winds from the ionizing stars. We compare the kinetic energies of these expanding shells with the kinetic energy available from the stellar winds. If we allow for the hypothesis that the brightest HII regions are density bounded, we show that, for these HII regions, the stellar wind mechanism can explain the observed shell kinetic energies.

Rozas, M.; Richer, M. G.; López, J. A.; Relaño, M.; Beckman, J. E.

2006-08-01

74

Differential microlensing measurements of quasar broad-line kinematics in Q2237+0305  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detailed workings of the central engines of powerful quasars remain a mystery. This is primarily due to the fact that, at their cosmological distances, the inner regions of these quasars are spatially unresolvable. Reverberation mapping is now beginning to unlock the physics of the broad emission line region (BELR) in nearby, low-luminosity quasars; however it is still unknown whether this gas is dominated by virial motion, by outflows or infall. The challenge is greater for more distant, powerful sources due to the very long response time of the BELR to changes in the continuum. We present a new technique for probing the kinematic properties of the BELR and accretion disc of high-z quasars using differential microlensing, and show how substantial information can be gained through a single observation of a strongly lensed quasar using integral field spectroscopy. We apply this technique to integral field spectroscopy of the multiply imaged quasar Q2237+0305, and find that the observed microlensing signature in the C III] broad emission line favours gravitationally dominated dynamics over an accelerating outflow.

O'Dowd, M.; Bate, N. F.; Webster, R. L.; Wayth, R.; Labrie, K.

2011-08-01

75

When galaxies collide: understanding the broad absorption-line radio galaxy 4C +72.26  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a range of new observations of the `broad absorption-line radio galaxy' 4C +72.26 (z ~ 3.5), including sensitive rest-frame ultraviolet integral field spectroscopy using the Gemini/GMOS-N instrument and Subaru/CISCO K-band imaging and spectroscopy. We show that 4C +72.26 is a system of two vigorously star-forming galaxies superimposed along the line of sight separated by ~1300 +/- 200 km s-1 in velocity, with each demonstrating spectroscopically resolved absorption lines. The most active star-forming galaxy also hosts the accreting supermassive black hole which powers the extended radio source. We conclude that the star formation is unlikely to have been induced by a shock caused by the passage of the radio jet, and instead propose that a collision is a more probable trigger for the star formation. Despite the massive starburst, the ultraviolet-mid-infrared spectral energy distribution suggests that the pre-existing stellar population comprises ~1012Msolar of stellar mass, with the current burst only contributing a further ~2 per cent, suggesting that 4C +72.26 has already assembled most of its final stellar mass.

Smith, D. J. B.; Simpson, C.; Swinbank, A. M.; Rawlings, S.; Jarvis, M. J.

2010-05-01

76

Weak Reprocessed Features in the Broad Line Radio Galaxy 3C382  

E-print Network

We present a detailed X-ray study of the Broad Line Radio Galaxy 3C382, observed with the BeppoSAX satellite in a very bright state. The continuum emission is well modeled with a power law that steepens at high energies, with an e-folding energy of about 120 keV. At soft energies a clear excess of emission is detected, which can not be explained solely by the extended thermal halo seen in a ROSAT HRI image. A second, more intense soft X-ray component, possibly related to an accretion disk, is required by the data. Both a reflection component (R=0.3) and an iron line (EW \\sim 50) are detected, at levels much weaker than in Seyfert galaxies, suggesting a common origin. Combining our measurements with results from the literature we find that the iron line has remained approximately constant over 9 years while the continuum varied by a factor of 5. Thus the fluorescent gas does not respond promptly to the variations of the X-ray primary source, suggesting that the reprocessing site is located away, likely at parsec distances. While the continuum shape indicates that X-rays derive from a thermal Comptonization process, the weakness of other spectral features implies that either the upper layers of the optically thick accretion disk are completely ionized or the corona above the disk is outflowing with mildly relativistic velocity.

Paola Grandi; Laura Maraschi; C. Meg Urry; Giorgio Matt

2001-03-26

77

X-ray spectral constraints on the broad-line cloud geometry of NGC 4151  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X-ray spectral data from NGC 4151 taken with the Einstein Solid-State Spectrometer (SSS) and the HEAO-1 A-2 experiment cannot be simply reconciled with absorption from a uniform column of cold gas. The SSS data can, however, be explained in terms of a clumped absorber with approximately 10% uncovered fraction and factor-of-two overabundances in Z equal to or greater than 14 elements relative to solar oxygen. It is shown that these and previously reported spectral and variability data can be quantitatively reconciled with absorption arising in the cold clouds responsible for the broad optical line emission if the cloud dimensions are small compared to the central source size. It is suggested that the lack of significant X-ray absorption observed from much higher luminosity Seyferts and quasars is a natural consequence of our picture for NGC 4151.

Holt, S. S.; Muchotzky, R. F.; Becker, R. H.; Boldt, E. A.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Szymkowiak, A. E.; White, N. E.

1980-01-01

78

X-ray spectral constraints on the broad-line cloud geometry of NGC 4151  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X-ray spectral data from NGC 4151 taken with the Einstein Solid-State Spectrometer (SSS) and the HEAO 1 A-2 experiment cannot be simply reconciled with absorption from a uniform column of cold gas. The SSS data can, however, be explained in terms of a clumped absorber with approximately 10% uncovered fraction and factor-of-two overabundances in Z equal to or greater than 14 elements relative to solar oxygen. It is shown that these and previously reported spectral and variability data can be quantitatively reconciled with absorption arising in the cold clouds responsible for the broad optical line emission if the cloud dimensions are small compared to the central source size. It is suggested that the lack of significant X-ray absorption observed from much higher luminosity Seyferts and quasars is a natural consequence of the proposed picture for NGC 4151.

Holt, S. S.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Boldt, E. A.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Becker, R. H.; Szymkowiak, A. E.; White, N. E.

1980-01-01

79

Star-disk collisions in active galactic nuclei and the origin of the broad line region  

SciTech Connect

Stars of a cluster surrounding the central black hole in an AGN will collide with the accretion disk. For a central black hole of 10{sup 8} M{circle dot} and a cluster with 10{sup 7} {minus} 10{sup 8} stars within a parsec, one estimates that {approximately}10{sup 4} such collisions will occur per year. Collisions are hypersonic (Mach number M {much gt} 1). Some of the wake of the star -- the disk material shocked by its passage -- will follow it out of the disk. Such star tails'' with the estimated masses {delta}m {approximately} 10{sup 25} {minus} 10{sup 27} g subsequently expand, cool and begin to recombine. We propose that -- when illuminated by the ionizing flux from the central source -- they are likely to be the origin of the observed broad emission lines.

Zurek, W.H.; Colgate, S.A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Siemiginowska, A. (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States))

1991-12-05

80

Star-disk collisions in active galactic nuclei and the origin of the broad line region  

SciTech Connect

Stars of a cluster surrounding the central black hole in an AGN will collide with the accretion disk. For a central black hole of 10{sup 8} M{circle_dot} and a cluster with 10{sup 7} {minus} 10{sup 8} stars within a parsec, one estimates that {approximately}10{sup 4} such collisions will occur per year. Collisions are hypersonic (Mach number M {much_gt} 1). Some of the wake of the star -- the disk material shocked by its passage -- will follow it out of the disk. Such ``star tails`` with the estimated masses {delta}m {approximately} 10{sup 25} {minus} 10{sup 27} g subsequently expand, cool and begin to recombine. We propose that -- when illuminated by the ionizing flux from the central source -- they are likely to be the origin of the observed broad emission lines.

Zurek, W.H.; Colgate, S.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Siemiginowska, A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States)

1991-12-05

81

Comparisons of the emission-line and continuum properties of broad absorption line and normal quasi-stellar objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compare the emission-line and continuum properties of a set of 25 broad absorption line QSOs (BALQSOs) and 29 normal QSOs (i.e., non-BALQSOs), both taken from the Large Bright Quasar Survey (LBQS), whose candidates were identified using the Cambridge Automatic Plate Measuring Facility. The LBQS sample of 25 BALQSOs is augmented by an additional 17 BALQSOs taken from other sources. We define a balnicity index in order to separate the non-BALQSOs from the BALQSOs as objectively as possible, as well as to provide a measure of the strength of the broad absorption line features. The comparisons are made by defining indices for various features, measuring them for each object, and applying the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test to various BALQSO and non-BALQSO samples. We also compare the BALQSOs and non-BALQSOs by creating and comparing mean spectra for various samples. Our principal result is that the emission-line properties of non-BALQSOs and BALQSOs are remarkably similar. A comparison of the LBQS BALQSOs and non-BALQSOs reveals no statistically significant differences. However, when the full set of BALQSOs and various subsamples of the full set of BALQSOs are considered, we do find a small N V enhancement in the BALQSOs relative to the non-BALQSOs. We find enhanced emission around Al III ?1857, but comparison of the mean spectrum of the BALQSOs to the mean spectrum of the non-BALQSOs suggests that species other than Al III (probably Fe II and/or Fe III) are responsible for the difference. We also find a strong correlation between the strength of the Fe II emission and the balnicity index. We define an index which measures the degree of detachment of the absorption trough. We find a weak anticorrelation between the detachment index and the equivalent widths of the C III] and C IV emission lines, but find no evidence of a correlation with this index and the Fe II strength. We confirm recent work by Corbin on velocity shifts between the peaks of Mg II, C III] and C IV: there is a small blueward displacement of the C IV peak relative to the C III] peak which is strongly correlated with the much larger blueward shift of C IV relative to Mg II. However, in contrast to Corbin's results, we do not find the shifts to be larger in the BALQSOs compared with the non-BALQSOs. There is evidence for structure in the C IV absorption troughs which has a velocity difference equal to that of the N V + Ly? velocity separation. This strongly suggests that radiation pressure is important in the dynamics of the outflow. The continua of the BALQSOs and non-BALQSOs are remarkably similar, with the striking exception of the relatively rare BALQSOs which show strong Mg II and Al III absorption. These objects are much redder in the interval ˜1550 Å to ˜2200 Å than the other BALQSOs and non-BALQSOs. They also show especially strong Fe II emission, and evidence for Fe III emission much stronger than C III]. The close similarity between the emission-line and continuum properties of BALQSOs and non-BALQSOs is consistent with the view that BALQSOs do not form an intrinsically different class of objects from non- BALQSOs. We conclude that the small emission-line differences between non-BALQSOs and BALQSOs are more likely due to a difference in viewing angle, coupled with a mild anisotropy in the angular distribution of the flux of the emission lines, and a selection effect associated with a distribution of covering factors described by Morris. The Mg n-Al III BALQSOs may belong to an extreme population of objects where there is a large amount of obscuration present accompanying large, and therefore self-shielding, column densities, along with high electron densities.

Weymann, Ray J.; Morris, Simon L.; Foltz, Craig B.; Hewett, Paul C.

1991-05-01

82

THE INTRINSIC FRACTIONS AND RADIO PROPERTIES OF LOW-IONIZATION BROAD ABSORPTION LINE QUASARS  

SciTech Connect

Low-ionization (Mg II, Fe II, and Fe III) broad absorption line quasars (LoBALs) probe a relatively obscured quasar population and could be at an early evolutionary stage for quasars. We study the intrinsic fractions of LoBALs using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), Two Micron All Sky Survey, and Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty cm survey. We find that the LoBAL fractions of the near-infrared (NIR) and radio samples are approximately 5-7 times higher than those measured in the optical sample. This suggests that the fractions measured in the NIR and radio bands are closer to the intrinsic fractions of the populations, and that the optical fractions are significantly biased due to obscuration effects, similar to high-ionization broad absorption line quasars (HiBALs). Considering a population of obscured quasars that do not enter the SDSS, which could have a much higher LoBAL fraction, we expect that the intrinsic fraction of LoBALs could be even higher. We also find that the LoBAL fractions decrease with increasing radio luminosities, again, similarly to HiBALs. In addition, we find evidence for increasing fractions of LoBALs toward higher NIR luminosities, especially for FeLoBALs with a fraction of {approx}18% at M{sub K{sub s}}< -31 mag. This population of NIR-luminous LoBALs may be at an early evolutionary stage of quasar evolution. To interpret the data, we use a luminosity-dependent model for LoBALs that yields significantly better fits than those from a pure geometric model.

Dai Xinyu [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Shankar, Francesco [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, University of Paris Diderot, 5 Place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France); Sivakoff, Gregory R., E-mail: xdai@ou.edu [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1 (Canada)

2012-10-01

83

C IV absorption-line variability in X-ray-bright broad absorption-line quasi-stellar objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the kinematic shift and strength variability of the C IV broad absorption-line (BAL) trough in two high-ionization X-ray-bright quasi-stellar objects (QSOs): SDSS J085551+375752 (at zem ˜ 1.936) and SDSS J091127+055054 (at zem ˜ 2.793). Both these QSOs have shown a combination of profile shifts and the appearance and disappearance of absorption components belonging to a single BAL trough. The observed average kinematic shift of the whole BAL profile resulted in an average deceleration of ˜-0.7 ± 0.1, -2.0 ± 0.1 cm s-2 over rest-frame time-spans of 3.11 and 2.34 yr for SDSS J085551+375752 and SDSS J091127+055054, respectively. To our knowledge, these are the largest kinematic shifts known, exceeding by factors of about 2.8 and 7.8 the highest deceleration reported in the literature; this makes both objects potential candidates to investigate outflows using multiwavelength monitoring of their line and continuum variability. We explore various possible mechanisms to understand the observed profile variations. Outflow models involving many small self-shielded clouds, probably moving in a curved path, provide the simplest explanation for the C IV BAL strength and velocity variations, along with the X-ray-bright nature of these sources.

Joshi, Ravi; Chand, Hum; Srianand, Raghunathan; Majumdar, Jhilik

2014-07-01

84

A CENSUS OF BROAD-LINE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN NEARBY GALAXIES: COEVAL STAR FORMATION AND RAPID BLACK HOLE GROWTH  

SciTech Connect

We present the first quantified, statistical map of broad-line active galactic nucleus (AGN) frequency with host galaxy color and stellar mass in nearby (0.01 < z < 0.11) galaxies. Aperture photometry and z-band concentration measurements from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey are used to disentangle AGN and galaxy emission, resulting in estimates of uncontaminated galaxy rest-frame color, luminosity, and stellar mass. Broad-line AGNs are distributed throughout the blue cloud and green valley at a given stellar mass, and are much rarer in quiescent (red sequence) galaxies. This is in contrast to the published host galaxy properties of weaker narrow-line AGNs, indicating that broad-line AGNs occur during a different phase in galaxy evolution. More luminous broad-line AGNs have bluer host galaxies, even at fixed mass, suggesting that the same processes that fuel nuclear activity also efficiently form stars. The data favor processes that simultaneously fuel both star formation activity and rapid supermassive black hole accretion. If AGNs cause feedback on their host galaxies in the nearby universe, the evidence of galaxy-wide quenching must be delayed until after the broad-line AGN phase.

Trump, Jonathan R.; Fang, Jerome J.; Faber, S. M.; Koo, David C.; Kocevski, Dale D. [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)] [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Hsu, Alexander D. [The Harker School, 500 Saratoga Avenue, San Jose, CA 95129 (United States)] [The Harker School, 500 Saratoga Avenue, San Jose, CA 95129 (United States)

2013-02-15

85

BROAD IRON-K EMISSION LINES AS A DIAGNOSTIC OF BLACK HOLE SPIN Christopher S. Reynolds1  

E-print Network

BROAD IRON-K EMISSION LINES AS A DIAGNOSTIC OF BLACK HOLE SPIN Christopher S. Reynolds1 and Andrew iron emission lines from black hole accretion disks to diagnose the spin of the black hole. Using of the accretion flow within the ISCO of a Kerr black hole, and use this model to estimate the systematic error

Reynolds, Christopher S.

86

BROAD ABSORPTION LINE DISAPPEARANCE ON MULTI-YEAR TIMESCALES IN A LARGE QUASAR SAMPLE  

SciTech Connect

We present 21 examples of C IV broad absorption line (BAL) trough disappearance in 19 quasars selected from systematic multi-epoch observations of 582 bright BAL quasars (1.9 < z < 4.5) by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-I/II (SDSS-I/II) and SDSS-III. The observations span 1.1-3.9 yr rest-frame timescales, longer than have been sampled in many previous BAL variability studies. On these timescales, Almost-Equal-To 2.3% of C IV BAL troughs disappear and Almost-Equal-To 3.3% of BAL quasars show a disappearing trough. These observed frequencies suggest that many C IV BAL absorbers spend on average at most a century along our line of sight to their quasar. Ten of the 19 BAL quasars showing C IV BAL disappearance have apparently transformed from BAL to non-BAL quasars; these are the first reported examples of such transformations. The BAL troughs that disappear tend to be those with small-to-moderate equivalent widths, relatively shallow depths, and high outflow velocities. Other non-disappearing C IV BALs in those nine objects having multiple troughs tend to weaken when one of them disappears, indicating a connection between the disappearing and non-disappearing troughs, even for velocity separations as large as 10,000-15,000 km s{sup -1}. We discuss possible origins of this connection including disk-wind rotation and changes in shielding gas.

Filiz Ak, N.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, D. P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hall, P. B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, 4700 Keele St., Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3 (Canada); Anderson, S. F.; Gibson, R. R. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Lundgren, B. F. [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Myers, A. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Petitjean, P. [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, Universite Paris 6, F-75014, Paris (France); Ross, Nicholas P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 92420 (United States); Shen Yue [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-51, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); York, D. G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, and Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Bizyaev, D.; Brinkmann, J.; Malanushenko, E.; Oravetz, D. J.; Pan, K.; Simmons, A. E. [Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349-0059 (United States); Weaver, B. A., E-mail: nfilizak@astro.psu.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

2012-10-01

87

Grazing incidence broad ion beams for reducing line-edge roughness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As semiconductor feature sizes continue to decrease, the phenomena of line-edge roughness (LER) becomes more disruptive in chip manufacturing. While many efforts are underway to decrease LER from the photoresist, post-developed smoothing techniques may be required to continue shrinking chip features economically. This paper reports on one such method employing the use of a broad ion beam at grazing incidence along the features. This method smooths relatively long spatial-length LER, a potential advantage over other smoothing techniques that focus on just molecular-scale LER. LER reduction numbers using Ne and Ar beams are reported at both short and long spatial wavelengths. Variables include beam energy, length of time and angular dependence. LER measurements are taken using the Hitachi image-analysis software on top-down analytical scanning electron microscope (SEM) measurements. Line-profile data are taken from cross-sectional SEM photographs. Tests have achieved a reduction in LER from 9.8 ± 0.67 nm to 5.5 ± 0.86 nm for 45 nm critical dimensions using an Ar beam at 500 eV for 6 s at an 85° angle of incidence. A reduction from 10.1 ± 1.07 nm to 6 ± 1.02 nm was shown using an Ar beam at 1000 eV for 4 s at a 60° angle of incidence.

Struck, C. R. M.; Flauta, R.; Neumann, M. J.; Kim, K. N.; Raju, R.; Bristol, R. L.; Ruzic, D. N.

2010-07-01

88

SDSS J1138+3517: A quasar showing remarkably variable broad absorption lines  

E-print Network

We report on the highly variable SiIV and CIV broad absorption lines in SDSS J113831.4+351725.2 across four observational epochs. Using the SiIV doublet components, we find that the blue component is usually saturated and non-black, with the ratio of optical depths between the two components rarely being 2:1. This indicates that these absorbers do not fully cover the line-of-sight and thus a simple apparent optical depth model is insufficient when measuring the true opacity of the absorbers. Tests with inhomogeneous (power-law) and pure-partial coverage (step-function) models of the absorbing SiIV optical depth predict the most un-blended doublet's component profiles equally well. However, when testing with Gaussian-fitted doublet components to all SiIV absorbers and averaging the total absorption predicted in each doublet, the upper limit of the power law index is mostly unconstrained. This leads us to favour pure partial coverage as a more accurate measure of the true optical depth than the inhomogeneous po...

Wildy, Conor

2015-01-01

89

Determining Quasar Black Hole Mass Functions from their Broad Emission Lines: Application to the Bright Quasar Survey  

E-print Network

We describe a Bayesian approach to estimating quasar black hole mass functions (BHMF) when using the broad emission lines to estimate black hole mass. We show how using the broad line mass estimates in combination with statistical techniques developed for luminosity function estimation leads to statistically biased results. We derive the likelihood function for the BHMF based on the broad line mass estimates, and derive the posterior distribution for the BHMF, given the observed data. We develop our statistical approach for a flexible model where the BHMF is modelled as a mixture of Gaussian functions. Statistical inference is performed using markov chain monte carlo (MCMC) methods. Our method has the advantage that it is able to constrain the BHMF even beyond the survey detection limits at the adopted confidence level, accounts for measurement errors and the intrinsic uncertainty in broad line mass estimates, and provides a natural way of estimating the probability distribution of any quantities derived from the BHMF. We conclude by using our method to estimate the local active BHMF using the z 10^8. Our analysis implies that z < 0.5 broad line quasars have a typical Eddington ratio of ~ 0.4 and a dispersion in Eddington ratio of < 0.5 dex (abridged).

Brandon C. Kelly; Marianne Vestergaard; Xiaohui Fan

2008-11-12

90

EVOLUTION AND HYDRODYNAMICS OF THE VERY BROAD X-RAY LINE EMISSION IN SN 1987A  

SciTech Connect

Observations of SN 1987A by the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) in 1999 and the XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) in 2003 show very broad (v-b) lines with a full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of order 10{sup 4} km s{sup -1}; at these times the blast wave (BW) was primarily interacting with the H II region around the progenitor. Since then, the X-ray emission has been increasingly dominated by narrower components as the BW encounters dense equatorial ring (ER) material. Even so, continuing v-b emission is seen in the grating spectra suggesting that the interaction with H II region material is ongoing. Based on the deep HETG 2007 and 2011 data sets, and confirmed by RGS and other HETG observations, the v-b component has a width of 9300 {+-} 2000 km s{sup -1} FWHM and contributes of order 20% of the current 0.5-2 keV flux. Guided by this result, SN 1987A's X-ray spectra are modeled as the weighted sum of the non-equilibrium-ionization emission from two simple one-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations; this '2 Multiplication-Sign 1D' model reproduces the observed radii, light curves, and spectra with a minimum of free parameters. The interaction with the H II region ({rho}{sub init} Almost-Equal-To 130 amu cm{sup -3}, {+-} 15 Degree-Sign opening angle) produces the very broad emission lines and most of the 3-10 keV flux. Our ER hydrodynamics, admittedly a crude approximation to the multi-D reality, gives ER densities of {approx}10{sup 4} amu cm{sup -3}, requires dense clumps ( Multiplication-Sign 5.5 density enhancement in {approx}30% of the volume), and predicts that the 0.5-2 keV flux will drop at a rate of {approx}17% per year once no new dense ER material is being shocked.

Dewey, D.; Canizares, C. R. [MIT Kavli Institute, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Dwarkadas, V. V. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Haberl, F.; Sturm, R., E-mail: dd@space.mit.edu, E-mail: vikram@oddjob.uchicago.edu [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, Garching D-85748 (Germany)

2012-06-20

91

A variable P v broad absorption line and quasar outflow energetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Broad absorption lines (BALs) in quasar spectra identify high-velocity outflows that might exist in all quasars and could play a major role in feedback to galaxy evolution. The viability of BAL outflows as a feedback mechanism depends on their kinetic energies, as derived from the outflow velocities, column densities, and distances from the central quasar. We estimate these quantities for the quasar, Q1413+1143 (redshift ze = 2.56), aided by the first detection of P V ??1118, 1128 BAL variability in a quasar. In particular, P V absorption at velocities where the C IV trough does not reach zero intensity implies that the C IV BAL is saturated and the absorber only partially covers the background continuum source (with characteristic size <0.01 pc). With the assumption of solar abundances, we estimate that the total column density in the BAL outflow is log NH ? 22.3 cm-2. Variability in the P V and saturated C IV BALs strongly disfavours changes in the ionization as the cause of the BAL variability, but supports models with high column density BAL clouds moving across our lines of sight. The observed variability time of 1.6 yr in the quasar rest frame indicates crossing speeds >750 km s-1 and a radial distance from the central black hole of ? 3.5 pc, if the crossing speeds are Keplerian. The total outflow mass is ˜4100 M?, the kinetic energy ˜4 × 1054 erg, and the ratio of the outflow kinetic energy luminosity to the quasar bolometric luminosity is ˜0.02 (at the minimum column density and maximum distance), which might be sufficient for important feedback to the quasar's host galaxy.

Capellupo, D. M.; Hamann, F.; Barlow, T. A.

2014-10-01

92

BROAD ABSORPTION LINE VARIABILITY ON MULTI-YEAR TIMESCALES IN A LARGE QUASAR SAMPLE  

SciTech Connect

We present a detailed investigation of the variability of 428 C IV and 235 Si IV broad absorption line (BAL) troughs identified in multi-epoch observations of 291 quasars by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-I/II/III. These observations primarily sample rest-frame timescales of 1-3.7 yr over which significant rearrangement of the BAL wind is expected. We derive a number of observational results on, e.g., the frequency of BAL variability, the velocity range over which BAL variability occurs, the primary observed form of BAL-trough variability, the dependence of BAL variability upon timescale, the frequency of BAL strengthening versus weakening, correlations between BAL variability and BAL-trough profiles, relations between C IV and Si IV BAL variability, coordinated multi-trough variability, and BAL variations as a function of quasar properties. We assess implications of these observational results for quasar winds. Our results support models where most BAL absorption is formed within an order-of-magnitude of the wind-launching radius, although a significant minority of BAL troughs may arise on larger scales. We estimate an average lifetime for a BAL trough along our line-of-sight of a few thousand years. BAL disappearance and emergence events appear to be extremes of general BAL variability, rather than being qualitatively distinct phenomena. We derive the parameters of a random-walk model for BAL EW variability, finding that this model can acceptably describe some key aspects of EW variability. The coordinated trough variability of BAL quasars with multiple troughs suggests that changes in 'shielding gas' may play a significant role in driving general BAL variability.

Filiz Ak, N.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, D. P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hall, P. B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, 4700 Keele St., Toronto, Ontario, M3J 1P3 (Canada); Anderson, S. F. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Hamann, F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-2055 (United States); Lundgren, B. F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Myers, Adam D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Pâris, I. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Petitjean, P. [Universite Paris 6, Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, 75014, Paris (France); Ross, Nicholas P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 92420 (United States); Shen, Yue [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., MS-51, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); York, Don, E-mail: nfilizak@astro.psu.edu [The University of Chicago, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

2013-11-10

93

Broad Absorption Line Variability on Multi-Year Timescales in a Large Quasar Sample  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have performed a detailed investigation of the variability of 428 C IV and 235 Si IV Broad Absorption Line (BAL) troughs identified in multi-epoch observations of 291 quasars by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-I/II/III. These observations primarily sample rest-frame timescales of 1-3 yr over which significant rearrangement of the BAL wind is expected. We derive a number of observational results on, e.g., the frequency of BAL variability, the velocity range over which BAL variability occurs, the primary observed form of BAL-trough variability, the dependence of BAL variability upon timescale, the frequency of BAL strengthening vs. weakening, correlations between BAL variability and BAL-trough profiles, relations between C IV and Si IV BAL variability, coordinated multi-trough variability, and BAL variations as a function of quasar properties. We assess implications of these observational results for quasar winds. Our results support models where most BAL absorption is formed within an order-of-magnitude of the wind-launching radius, although a significant minority of BAL troughs may arise on larger scales. We estimate an average lifetime for a BAL trough along our line-of-sight of a few thousand years. BAL disappearance and emergence events appear to be extremes of general BAL variability, rather than being qualitatively distinct phenomena. We derive the parameters of a random-walk model for BAL EW variability, finding that this model can acceptably describe some key aspects of EW variability. The coordinated trough variability of BAL quasars with multiple troughs suggests that changes in "shielding gas" may play a significant role in driving general BAL variability. The good prospects for significantly extending this work will be briefly summarized.

Brandt, W. N.; Filiz Ak, N.; Hall, P. B.; Schneider, D. P.; SDSS-III BAL Variability Team

2014-01-01

94

Gravitational microlensing of a reverberating quasar broad-line region - I. Method and qualitative results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The kinematics and morphology of the broad emission-line region (BELR) of quasars are the subject of significant debate. The two leading methods for constraining BELR properties are microlensing and reverberation mapping. Here we combine these two methods with a study of the microlensing behaviour of the BELR in Q2237+0305, as a change in continuum emission (a 'flare') passes through it. Beginning with some generic models of the BELR - sphere, bicones, disc - we slice in velocity and time to produce brightness profiles of the BELR over the duration of the flare. These are numerically microlensed to determine whether microlensing of reverberation mapping provides new information about the properties of BELRs. We describe our method and show images of the models as they are flaring, and the unlensed and lensed spectra that are produced. Qualitative results and a discussion of the spectra are given in this paper, highlighting some effects that could be observed. Our conclusion is that the influence of microlensing, while not strong, can produce significant observable effects that will help in differentiating the properties of BELRs. Research undertaken as part of the Commonwealth Cosmology Initiative (CCI: ), an international collaboration supported by the Australian Research Council.

Garsden, H.; Bate, N. F.; Lewis, G. F.

2011-12-01

95

Strong Variability of Overlapping Iron Broad Absorption Lines in five Radio-selected Quasars  

E-print Network

We present the results of a variability study of broad absorption lines (BALs) in a uniformly radio-selected sample of 28 BAL quasars using the archival data from the first bright quasar survey (FBQS) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), as well as those obtained by ourselves, covering time scales $\\sim 1-10$ years in the quasar's rest-frame. The variable absorption troughs are detected in 12 BAL quasars. Among them, five cases showed strong spectral variations and are all belong to a special subclass of overlapping iron low ionization BALs (OFeLoBALs). The absorbers of \\ion{Fe}{2} are estimated to be formed by a relative dense (\\mbox{$n\\rm _{e} > 10^6~cm^{-3}$}) gas at a distance from the subparsec scale to the dozens of parsec-scale from the continuum source. They differ from those of invariable non-overlapping FeLoBALs (non-OFeLoBALs), which are the low-density gas and locate at the distance of hundreds to thousands parsecs. OFeLoBALs and non-OFeLoBALs, i.e., FeLoBALs with/without strong BAL variations...

Zhang, Shaohua; Wang, Tinggui; Wang, Huiyuan; Shi, Xiheng; Liu, Bo; Liu, Wenjuan; Li, Zhenzhen; Wang, Shufen

2015-01-01

96

Optical observations of the broad-lined type Ic supernova SN 2012ap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optical observations of the type Ic supernova (SN Ic) SN 2012ap in NGC 1729 are presented. A comparison with other SNe Ic indicates that SN 2012ap is highly reddened (with E(B — V)host~0.8 mag) and may represent one of the most luminous SNe Ic ever observed, with an absolute V-band peak magnitude of ~ ?19.3±0.5 mag after extinction correction. The near-maximum-light spectrum shows wide spectral features that are typical of broad-lined SNe Ic. One interesting feature in the spectrum is the appearance of some narrow absorption features that can be attributed to the diffuse interstellar bands, consistent with the large reddening inferred from the photometric method. Based on the light curves and the spectral data, we estimate that SN 2012ap produced a 56Ni mass of ~ 0.3 ± 0.1Msolar 1 in the explosion, with an ejecta mass of 2.4?0.7+0.7Msolar and a kinetic energy of EK = 1.1?0.4+0.4 × 1052 erg. The properties of its progenitor are also briefly discussed.

Liu, Zheng; Zhao, Xu-Lin; Huang, Fang; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Tian-Meng; Chen, Jun-Cheng; Zhang, Tong-Jie

2015-02-01

97

The Compact Structure of Radio-Loud Broad Absorption Line Quasars  

E-print Network

We present the results of EVN+MERLIN VLBI polarization observations of 8 Broad Absorption Line (BAL) quasars at 1.6 GHz, including 4 LoBALs and 4 HiBALs with either steep or flat spectra on VLA scales. Only one steep-spectrum source, J1122+3124, shows two-sided structure on the scale of 2 kpc. The other four steep-spectrum sources and three flat-spectrum sources display either an unresolved image or a core-jet structure on scales of less than three hundred parsecs. In all cases the marginally resolved core is the dominant radio component. Linear polarization in the cores has been detected in the range of a few to 10 percent. Polarization, together with high brightness temperatures (from 2*10^9-5*10^10 K), suggest a synchrotron origin for the radio emission. There is no apparent difference in the radio orphologies or polarization between low-ionization and high-ionization BAL QSOs nor between flat- and steep-spectrum sources. We discuss the orientation of BAL QSOs with both flat and steep spectra, and consider a possible evolutionary scenario for BAL QSOs. In this scenario, BAL QSOs are probably the young population of radio sources, which are Compact Steep Spectrum or GHz peaked radio source analog at the low end of radio power.

Y. Liu; D. R. Jiang; T. G. Wang; F. G. Xie

2008-08-15

98

Neutrino-heated stars and broad-line emission from active galactic nuclei  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nonthermal radiation from active galactic nuclei indicates the presence of highly relativistic particles. The interaction of these high-energy particles with matter and photons gives rise to a flux of high-energy neutrinos. In this paper, the influence of the expected high neutrino fluxes on the structure and evolution of single, main-sequence stars is investigated. Sequences of models of neutrino-heated stars in thermal equilibrium are presented for masses 0.25, 0.5, 0.8, and 1.0 solar mass. In addition, a set of evolutionary sequences for mass 0.5 solar mass have been computed for different assumed values for the incident neutrino energy flux. It is found that winds driven by the heating due to high-energy particles and hard electromagnetic radiation of the outer layers of neutrino-bloated stars may satisfy the requirements of the model of Kazanas (1989) for the broad-line emission clouds in active galactic nuclei.

Macdonald, James; Stanev, Todor; Biermann, Peter L.

1991-01-01

99

Complex magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator  

SciTech Connect

A magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) is a crossed-field device designed specifically to generate microwave power at the gigawatt level, which is a major hotspot in the field of high-power microwaves (HPM) research at present. It is one of the major thrust for MILO development to improve the power conversion efficiency. In order to improve the power conversion efficiency of MILO, a complex MILO is presented and investigated theoretically and numerically, which comprises the MILO-1 and MILO-2. The MILO-2 is used as the load of the MILO-1. The theoretical analyses show that the maximum power conversion efficiency of the complex MILO has an increase of about 50% over the conventional load-limited MILO. The complex MILO is optimized with KARAT code (V. P. Tarakanov, Berkeley Research Associates, Inc., 1992), and the simulation results agree with the theoretical results.

Fan Yuwei; Zhong Huihuang; Shu Ting; Li Zhiqiang [College of Optoelectric Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

2008-08-15

100

Equatorial scattering and the structure of the broad-line region in Seyfert nuclei: evidence for a rotating disc  

E-print Network

We present detailed scattering models confirming that distinctive variations in polarization across the broad Halpha line, which are observed in a significant fraction of Seyfert 1 galaxies, can be understood in terms of a rotating line-emitting disc surrounded by a co-planar scattering region (the equatorial scattering region). The predicted polarization properties are: averaged over wavelength, the position angle of polarization is aligned with the projected disc rotation axis and hence also with the radio source axis; (ii) the polarization PA rotates across the line profile, reaching equal but opposite (relative to the continuum PA) rotations in the blue and red wings; (iii) the degree of polarization peaks in the line wings and passes through a minimum in the line core. We identify 11 objects which exhibit these features to different degrees. In order to reproduce the large amplitude PA rotations observed in some cases, the scattering region must closely surround the emission disc and the latter must itself be a relatively narrow annulus -- presumably the Halpha-emitting zone of a larger accretion disc. Asymmetries in the polarization spectra may be attributable to several possible causes, including bulk radial infall in the equatorial scattering region, or contamination by polar scattered light. The broad Halpha lines do not, in general, exhibit double-peaked profiles, suggesting that a second Halpha-emitting component of the broad-line region is present, in addition to the disc.

J. E. Smith; A. Robinson; S. Young; D. J. Axon; Elizabeth A. Corbett

2005-01-28

101

The Nature of Low-ionization Broad Absorption Line Quasi-stellar Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tight correlations between properties of galaxy bulges and their central supermassive black holes have been reproduced successfully in simulations of galaxy collisions if feedback processes are invoked. Mergers of gas-rich galaxies of comparable size have been shown to trigger starbursts, fuel the central black holes, and transform disks into ellipticals. Feedback from the black hole accretion in the form of extreme outflows has need suggested as the mechanism by which the black hole stop its own growth and quenches the star formation in the galaxy by expelling the gas supply. Such winds have been detected in Broad Absorption Line (BAL) QSOs. However, observational evidence that BAL QSOs may be an evolutionary link between mergers and QSO is missing. In this thesis, we provide the first detailed study of the spectral energy distributions and host galaxy morphologies of a statistically significant volume-limited sample of 22 optically-selected low-ionization Broad Absorption Line QSOs (LoBALs) at 0.5 < z < 0.6. By comparing their mid-IR spectral properties and far-IR SEDs with those of a control sample of 35 non-LoBALs (non-LoBALs) matched in Mi, we investigate the differences between the two populations in terms of their infrared emission and star formation activity. We model the SEDs and decouple the AGN and starburst contributions to the far-infrared luminosity in LoBALs and in non-LoBALs. We estimate star formation rates (SFRs) corrected for the AGN contribution to the FIR flux and find that LoBALs have comparable levels of star formation activity to non-LoBALs when considering the entire samples. Overall, our results show that there is no strong evidence from the mid- and far-IR properties that LoBALs are drawn from a different parent population than non-LoBALs. We conducted the first high-resolution morphological analysis of LoBALs using observations obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 in two channels. Signs of recent or ongoing tidal interaction are seen in 59% of the host galaxies, including interacting companions, tidal tails, bridges, asymmetries, plumes, and boxy isophotes. The presence of a second nucleus within ~1" (6.4 kpc) is revealed in seven of the systems. A detailed two-dimensional surface brightness analysis with GALFIT indicates that the majority (73%) have prominent early-type (bulge, n>4) morphology and only four systems have exponential disk profiles (n<2). Two of the disks and one bulge are better described as pseudobulges (n<2.2). The dominance of bulges and unambiguous signs of tidal interaction strongly suggests that the population LoBALs are QSOs that result from major mergers. Nevertheless, most of the merger-induced start formation is already quenched. This sample of LoBALs represents merger systems at various stages of the interaction process, hence, either the outflows which characterize these systems persist for as long as the interaction signs are observable in the galaxy, or very short-lived outflows are triggered and die out during various stages of the merger process. Overall, our results are consistent with LoBALs representing the last stages of the blowout phase when QSO winds have already quenched the star formation.

Lazarova, Mariana Spasova

102

Gamma-Ray Emision from the Broad-Line Radio Galaxy 3C 111  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The broad-line radio galaxy 3C 111 has been suggested as the counterpart of the Gamma-ray source 3EGJ0416+3650. While 3C 111 meets most of the criteria for a high-probability identification, like a bright fla t-spectrum radio core and a blazarlike broadband SED, in the Third EG RET Catalog, the large positional offset of about 1.5 degrees put 3C1 11 outside the 99% probability region for 3EG J0416+3650, making this association questionable. We present a re-analysis of all available data for 3C111 from the EGRET archives, resulting in probable detection of high-energy Gamma-ray emission above 1000MeV from a position clo se to the nominal position of 3C 111, in two separate viewing periods (VPs), at a 3sigma level in each. A new source, GROJ0426+3747, appea rs to be present nearby, seen only in the >1000MeV data. For >100MeV, the data are in agreement with only one source (at the original cata log position) accounting for most of the EGRET-detected emission of 3 EGJ0416+3650. A follow-up Swift UVOT/XRT observation reveals one mode rately bright X-ray source in the error box of 3EGJ0416+3650, but bec ause of the large EGRET position uncertainty, it is not certain that the X-ray and Gamma-ray sources are associated. A Swift observation of GROJ0426+3747 detected no X.ray source nearby.

Hartman, Robert C.; Kadler, Matthias; Tueller, Jack

2008-01-01

103

Gamma-Ray Emission from the Broad-Line Radio Galaxy 3C 111  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The broad-line radio galaxy 3C 111 has been suggested as the counterpart of the y-ray source 3EG J0416+3650. While 3C 111 meets most of the criteria for a high-probability identification, like a bright flat-spectrum radio core and a blazar-like broadband SED, in the Third EGRET Catalog, the large positional offset of about 1.5' put 3C 111 outside the 99% probability region for 3EG J0416+3650, making this association questionable. We present a re-analysis of all available archival data for 3C 111 from the EGRET archives, resulting in detection of variable hard-spectrum high-energy gamma-ray emission above 1000 MeV from a position close to the nominal position of 3C 111, in three separate viewing periods (VPs), at a 3sigma level in each. A second variable hard-spectrum source is present nearby. At >100 MeV, one variable soft-spectrum source seems to account for most of the EGRET-detected emission of 3EG J0416+3650. A follow-up Swift UVOT/XRT observation reveals one moderately bright X-ray source in the error box of 3EG J0416+3650, but because of the large EGRET position uncertainty, it is not certain that the X-ray and gamma-ray sources are associated. Another Swift observation near the second (unidentified) hard gamma-ray source detected no X-ray source nearby.

Hartman, Robert C.; Kadler, M.; Tueller, Jack

2008-01-01

104

Polarization of Quasars: Electron Scattering in the Broad Absorption Line Region  

E-print Network

It is widely accepted that the broad absorption line region (BALR) exists in most (if not all) quasars with a small covering factor. Recent works showed that the BALR is optically thick to soft and even medium energy X-rays, with a typical hydrogen column density of a few 10$^{23}$ to $>$ 10$^{24}$ cm$^{-2}$. The electron scattering in the thick absorber might contribute significantly to the observed continuum polarization for both BAL QSOs and non-BAL QSOs. In this paper, we present a detailed study of the electron scattering in the BALR by assuming an equatorial and axisymmetric outflow model. Monte-Carlo simulations are performed to correct the effect of the radiative transfer. Assuming an average covering factor of 0.2 of the BALR, which is consistent with observations, we find the electron scattering in the BALR with a column density of $\\sim$ 4 $\\times$ 10$^{23}$ cm$^{-2}$ can successfully produce the observed average continuum polarization for both BAL QSOs and non-BAL QSOs. The observed distribution of the continuum polarization of radio quiet quasars (for both BAL QSOs and non-BAL QSOs) is used to constrain the dispersal distribution of the BALR. We find that, to match the observations, the maximum continuum polarization produced by the BALR (while viewed edge-on) peaks at $P$ = 0.34%, which is much smaller than the average continuum polarization of BAL QSOs ($P$ = 0.93%). The discrepancy can be explained by a selection bias that the BAL with larger covering factor, and thus producing larger continuum polarization, is more likely to be detected. A larger sample of radio quiet quasars with accurate measurement of the continuum polarization will give better constraints to the distribution of the BALR properties.

Hui-Yuan Wang; Ting-Gui Wang; Jun-Xian Wang

2005-08-02

105

THE LONG-TERM X-RAY VARIABILITY OF BROAD ABSORPTION LINE QUASARS  

SciTech Connect

We analyze the long-term (rest-frame 3-30 yr) X-ray variability of 11 broad absorption line (BAL) quasars, mainly to constrain the variation properties of the X-ray absorbing shielding gas that is thought to play a critical role in BAL wind launching. Our BAL quasar sample has coverage with multiple X-ray observatories including Chandra, XMM-Newton, BeppoSAX, ASCA, ROSAT, and Einstein; 3-11 observations are available for each source. For seven of the eleven sources we have obtained and analyzed new Chandra observations suitable for searching for any strong X-ray variability. We find highly significant X-ray variability in three sources (PG 1001+054, PG 1004+130, and PG 2112+059). The maximum observed amplitude of the 2-8 keV variability is a factor of 3.8 {+-} 1.3, 1.5 {+-} 0.2, and 9.9 {+-} 2.3 for PG 1001+054, PG 1004+130, and PG 2112+059, respectively, and these sources show detectable variability on rest-frame timescales down to 5.8, 1.4, and 0.5 yr. For PG 1004+130 and PG 2112+059 we also find significant X-ray spectral variability associated with the flux variability. Considering our sample as a whole, we do not find that BAL quasars exhibit exceptional long-term X-ray variability when compared to the quasar population in general. We do not find evidence for common strong changes in the shielding gas owing to physical rearrangement or accretion-disk rotation, although some changes are found; this has implications for modeling observed ultraviolet BAL variability. Finally, we report for the first time an X-ray detection of the highly polarized and well-studied BAL quasar IRAS 14026+4341 in its new Chandra observation.

Saez, C.; Brandt, W. N.; Garmire, G. P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Gallagher, S. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Bauer, F. E. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile)

2012-11-01

106

A novel composite right-\\/left-handed coupled-line directional coupler with arbitrary coupling level and broad bandwidth  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel composite right-\\/left-handed (CRLH) backward-wave coupled-line directional coupler with arbitrary coupling level and broad bandwidth is presented, explained by even\\/odd-mode analysis, validated by full-wave simulations, and demonstrated by experiments. First, the CRLH-transmission-line (CRLH TL) theory is given, and a microstrip implementation of a CRLH TL is described. A simple circuit model is then proposed both for the understanding and

Christophe Caloz; Atsushi Sanada; Tatsuo Itoh

2004-01-01

107

X-RAYS FROM A RADIO-LOUD COMPACT BROAD ABSORPTION LINE QUASAR 1045+352 AND THE NATURE OF OUTFLOWS IN RADIO-LOUD BROAD ABSORPTION LINE QUASARS  

SciTech Connect

We present new results on X-ray properties of radio-loud broad absorption line (BAL) quasars and focus on broadband spectral properties of a high-ionization BAL (HiBAL) compact steep spectrum (CSS) radio-loud quasar 1045+352. This HiBAL quasar has a very complex radio morphology indicating either strong interactions between a radio jet and the surrounding interstellar medium or a possible re-start of the jet activity. We detected 1045+352 quasar in a short 5 ksec Chandra ACIS-S observation. We applied theoretical models to explain spectral energy distribution of 1045+352 and argue that non-thermal, inverse-Compton (IC) emission from the innermost parts of the radio jet can account for a large fraction of the observed X-ray emission. In our analysis, we also consider a scenario in which the observed X-ray emission from radio-loud BAL quasars can be a sum of IC jet X-ray emission and optically thin corona X-ray emission. We compiled a sample of radio-loud BAL quasars that were observed in X-rays to date and report no correlation between their X-ray and radio luminosity. However, the radio-loud BAL quasars show a large range of X-ray luminosities and absorption columns. This is consistent with the results obtained earlier for radio-quiet BAL quasars and may indicate an orientation effect in BAL quasars or more complex dependence between X-ray emission, radio emission, and an orientation based on the radio morphology.

Kunert-Bajraszewska, Magdalena; Katarzynski, Krzysztof [Torun Centre for Astronomy, N. Copernicus University, Gagarina 11, 87-100 Torun (Poland); Siemiginowska, Aneta [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Janiuk, Agnieszka [N. Copernicus Astronomical Center, Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warsaw (Poland)

2009-11-10

108

Evolution and Hydrodynamics of the Very-Broad X-ray Line Emission in SN1987A  

E-print Network

Observations of SN 1987A by the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) in 1999 and the XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) in 2003 show very broad (v-b) lines with a full width at half-maximum (FWHM) ...

Dewey, Dan

109

The complex FeK line of the Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 galaxy IRAS 13349+2438  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The observation of the Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 galaxy IRAS 13349+2438 performed by XMM-Newton European Photon Imaging Camera between 0.3-10 keV, is presented here. The broadband spectrum of the source is dominated at low energies (E <=2 keV) by a strong excess of emission and by complex emission/absorption features between ~ 5.5-8.0 keV. The soft X-ray spectrum is consistent with ionized absorption found by the Reflection Grating Spectrometer (Sako et al. 2001a). We focus on the 2-10 keV spectrum which shows clear evidence for a broad, complex FeKalpha line, previously unseen by ASCA, and for an Fe K-shell edge detected at ~ 7.3-7.4 keV (rest-frame). The presence of this edge could be explained by either partial covering or ionized/relativistic reflection models, with the latter being preferred and with a resulting power law slope of Gamma ~ 2.2. The line profile is complex, with a broad bump between ~ 5.5-6.5 keV and a narrow emission line at ~ 7 keV, separated by a sharp drop at ~ 6.8 keV. This profile is compatible with two possible scenarios: i) a broad, ionized and gravitationally redshifted Laor diskline plus a narrow and ionized emission line; ii) a broad, ionized and single Schwarzschild (double-peaked) diskline with a superimposed narrow absorption line.

Longinotti, A. L.; Cappi, M.; Nandra, K.; Dadina, M.; Pellegrini, S.

2003-11-01

110

Broadband nuclear emission in two radio-loud broad absorption line quasars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: We present modelling and interpretation of the continuum broadband emission of two broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. The X-ray weakness of BAL quasars in comparison to non-BAL objects is possibly caused by the absorption of X-ray emission by the shielding material near the equatorial plane. On the other hand, the radio-loud BAL quasars are more X-ray loud than the radio-quiet ones. This suggests that part of the X-ray emission may arise from the radio jet. To investigate this possibility, we modelled the nuclear spectra of two BAL quasars in the whole available energy range. Methods: We focus on the emission from the very centres of these two objects, not greater than several parsecs. The source of emission was approximated by a single, homogeneous component that produces synchrotron and inverse-Compton radiation. The simplicity of the model allowed us to estimate the basic physical parameters of the emitting regions, using a universal analytic approach. Such methods have already been proposed to estimate basic physical parameters in blazars. For the first time, in a simplified form we propose this solution for quasars. In addition, we modelled the radiation spectra of the accretion disk and its corona to compare them with the jets' spectra. Results: We find that in the case of radio and X-ray luminous high-redshift object 3C 270.1, the nuclear X-ray continuum is dominated by the non-thermal, inverse-Compton emission from the innermost parts of the radio jet. However, the radio core of the lobe-dominated PG 1004+130 is probably too weak to produce significant part of the observed X-ray emission. A large contribution from the X-ray emitting accretion disk and corona is produced in our model for a sufficiently high mass of the black hole. However, it then exceeds the observed flux. Because the large intrinsic absorption was postulated recently by the NuSTAR observations, we propose that the disk-corona component may still account for the X-rays produced in this source. This part of the spectrum must nevertheless be dominated by the X-ray jet. The results of our modelling show that the jet-linked X-ray emission is present in both strong and weak radio sources, but its fraction seems to scale with the radio jet power. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Kunert-Bajraszewska, M.; Katarzy?ski, K.; Janiuk, A.

2015-02-01

111

Dependence of the Broad Absorption Line Quasar Fraction on Radio Luminosity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We find that the fraction of classical broad absorption line quasars (BALQSOs) among the FIRST radio sources in the Sloan Data Release 3, is 20.5+7.3-5.9% at the faintest radio powers detected (L1.4GHz~1032 erg s-1), and rapidly drops to <~8% at L1.4GHz~3×1033 erg s-1. Similarly, adopting the broader absorption index (AI) definition of Trump et al., we find the fraction of radio BALQSOs to be 44+8.1-7.8%, reducing to 23.1+7.3-6.1% at high luminosities. While the high fraction at low radio power is consistent with the recent near-IR estimates by Dai et al., the lower fraction at high radio powers is intriguing and confirms previous claims based on smaller samples. The trend is independent of the redshift range, the optical and radio flux selection limits, or the exact definition of a radio match. We also find that at fixed optical magnitude, the highest bins of radio luminosity are preferentially populated by non-BALQSOs, consistent with the overall trend. We do find, however, that those quasars identified as AI-BALQSOs but not under the classical definition do not show a significant drop in their fraction as a function of radio power, further supporting independent claims that these sources, characterized by lower equivalent width, may represent an independent class from the classical BALQSOs. We find the balnicity index, a measure of the absorption trough in BALQSOs, and the mean maximum wind velocity to be roughly constant at all radio powers. We discuss several plausible physical models which may explain the observed fast drop in the fraction of the classical BALQSOs with increasing radio power, although none is entirely satisfactory. A strictly evolutionary model for the BALQSO and radio emission phases requires a strong fine-tuning to work, while a simple geometric model, although still not capable of explaining polar BALQSOs and the paucity of FRII BALQSOs, is statistically successful in matching the data if part of the apparent radio luminosity function is due to beamed, non-BALQSOs.

Shankar, Francesco; Dai, Xinyu; Sivakoff, Gregory R.

2008-11-01

112

Broad absorption line variability on multi-year timescales in a large quasar sample  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Outflows launched near the central supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are a common and important component of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Outflows in luminous AGNs (i.e., quasars) play a key role in mass accretion onto SMBH as well as in the feedback into host galaxies. The most prominent signature of such outflows appears as broad absorption lines (BALs) that are blueshifted from the emission line with a few thousands km s--1 velocities. In this dissertation, I place further constrains upon the size scale, internal structure, dynamics, and evolution of the outflows investigating profiles, properties, and variation characteristics of BAL troughs. I present observational results on BAL troughs in a large quasar sample utilizing spectroscopic observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey spanning on multi-year timescales. The results presented here, for the first time, provide a large and well-defined variability data base capable of discriminating between time-dependent hydrodynamic wind calculations in a statistically powerful manner. In a study of 582 quasars, I present 21 examples of BAL trough disappearance. Approximately 3.3% of BAL quasars show disappearing C IV trough on rest-frame timescales of 1.1--3.9 yr. BAL disappearance appears to occur mainly for shallow and weak or moderate-strength absorption troughs but not the strongest ones. When one BAL trough in a quasar spectrum disappears, the other present troughs usually weaken. Possible causes of such coordinated variations could be disk-wind rotation or variations of shielding gas that lead to variations of ionizing-continuum radiation. I present a detailed study on the variability of 428 C IV and 235 Si IV BAL troughs using a systematically observed sample of 291 BAL quasars. BAL variation distributions indicate that BAL disappearance is an extreme type of general BAL variability, rather than a qualitatively distinct phenomenon. The high observed frequency of BAL variability on multi-year timescales is generally supportive of models where most BAL absorption arises at radii of 10--1000 light days. Average lifetime for a BAL trough along our line-of-sight is a few thousand years which is long compared to the orbital time of the accretion disk at the wind-launching radius. We have examined if BAL variations on several timescales depend upon quasar properties, including quasar luminosity, Eddington luminosity ratio, black hole mass, redshift, and radio loudness. Within the ranges of these properties spanned by our sample, we do not find any strong dependences. The coordinated trough variability of BAL quasars with multiple troughs suggests that changes in "shielding gas" may play a significant role in driving general BAL variability. I present a study investigating the dependence of C IV BAL properties and variation characteristics on accompanying Si IV and Al III absorption. Results of this study show that C IV BAL trough shapes, depths, velocity widths and strengths show a strong dependence on the presence of Si IV and Al III BAL troughs at corresponding velocities. Similarly, the variation characteristics and depth variation profiles of C IV BAL troughs also show a strong connection to BAL troughs in these transitions. Using these ions as a basic tracer of ionization level of the absorbing gas, systematic measurements of variability and profiles for a large sample of C IV , Si IV, and Al III BAL troughs present observational evidences of the relation between ionization level, column density and kinematics of outflows. Utilizing observational investigations on a large BAL quasar sample, we show that ionization level, column density and kinematics of outflows show correlated object-to-object differences. We present a detailed comparison between the observational results of this study and the well studied disk-wind model of quasar outflows, which suggests that the wind is launched from the accretion disk at ˜ 1016--1017 cm and radiatively driven by UV line pressure. Results of this study show that lines-of-sight with different viewing inclinations suc

Filiz Ak, Nurten

113

AGN Space Telescope and Optical Reverberation Mapping Project. IV. Velocity-Delay Mapping of Broad Emission Lines in NGC 5548  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two-dimensional velocity-delay maps of AGN broad emission line regions can be recovered by modelling observations of reverberating emission-line profiles on the assumption that the line profile variations are driven by changes in ionising radiation from a compact source near the black hole. The observable light travel time delay resolves spatial structure on iso-delay paraboloids, while the doppler shift resolves kinematic structure along the observer's line-of-sight. Velocity-delay maps will be presented and briefly discussed for the Lyman alpha, CIV and Hbeta line profiles based on the HST and ground-based spectrophotometric monitoring of NGC 5548 during the 2014 AGN STORM campaign.

Horne, Keith D.; Agn Storm Team

2015-01-01

114

WISE J233237.05-505643.5: A Double-Peaked Broad-Lined AGN with Spiral-Shaped Radio Morphology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present radio continuum mapping, optical imaging and spectroscopy of the newly discovered double-peaked broad-lined AGN WISE J233237.05-505643.5 at redshift z = 0.3447. This source exhibits an FR-I and FR-II hybrid-morphology, characterized by bright core, jet, and Doppler-boosted lobe structures in ATCA continuum maps at 1.5, 5.6, and 9 GHz. Unlike most FR-II objects, W2332-5056 is hosted by a disk-like galaxy. The core has a projected 5" linear radio feature that is perpendicular to the curved primary jet, hinting at unusual and complex activity within the inner 25 kpc. The multi-epoch optical-near-IR photometric measurements indicate significant variability over a 3-20 year baseline from the AGN component. Gemini-South optical data shows an unusual double-peaked emission-line features: the centroids of the broad-lined components of H-alpha and H-beta are blueshifted with respect to the narrow lines and host galaxy by approximately 3800 km/s. We examine possible cases which involve single or double supermassive black holes in the system, and discuss required future investigations to disentangle the mystery nature of this system.

Tsai, Chao Wei; Jarrett, Thomas H.; Stern, Daniel; Emonts, Bjorn; Barrows, R. Scott; Assef, Roberto J.; Norris, Ray P.; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Lonsdale, Carol; Blain, Andrew W.; Benford, Dominic J.; Wu, Jingwen; Stalder, Brian; Stubbs, Christopher W.; High, F. William; Li, K. L.; Kong, Albert K. H.

2013-01-01

115

Constraints on the broad line region from regularized linear inversion: Velocity-delay maps for five nearby active galactic nuclei  

E-print Network

Reverberation mapping probes the structure of the broad emission-line region (BLR) in active galactic nuclei (AGN). The radius of the BLR along with the virial velocity of the BLR gas can be used to measure the mass of the supermassive black hole. The main systematic uncertainty affecting reverberation mapping is the unknown structure of the BLR. We develop a new method for analysing reverberation mapping data based on regularized linear inversion (RLI) that includes statistical modelling of the AGN continuum light curves. This method enables fast, flexible, and robust calculation of velocity-resolved response maps to probe BLR structure. Contrary to other methods, RLI allows for negative response in the BLR, such as when some areas of the BLR respond in inverse proportion to a change in ionizing continuum luminosity. We present time delays, integrated response functions, and velocity-delay maps for the H{\\beta} broad emission line in five nearby AGN, as well as H{\\alpha} and H{\\gamma} broad emission lines in...

Skielboe, Andreas; Treu, Tommaso; Park, Daeseong; Barth, Aaron J; Bentz, Misty C

2015-01-01

116

Chandra High Resolution Spectroscopy of the Circumnuclear Matter in the Broad Line Radio Galaxy, 3C 445  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present evidence for X-ray line emitting and absorbing gas in the nucleus of the Broad-Line Radio Galaxy (BLRG), 3C445. A 200 ks Chandra LETG observation of 3C 445 reveals the presence of several highly ionized emission lines in the soft X-ray spectrum, primarily from the He and H-like ions of O, Ne, Mg and Si. Radiative recombination emission is detected from O VII and O VIII, indicating that the emitting gas is photoionized. The He-like emission appears to be resolved into forbidden and intercombination line components, which implies a high density of greater than 10(sup 10) cm(sup -3), while the lines are velocity broadened with a mean width of 2600 km s(sup -1). The density and widths of the ionized lines indicate an origin of the gas on sub-parsec scales in the Broad Line Region (BLR). The X-ray continuum of 3C 445 is heavily obscured by a photoionized absorber of column density N(sub H) = 2 x 10(sup 23) cm(sup -2) and ionization parameter log xi = 1.4 erg cm s(sup -1). However the view of the X-ray line emission is unobscured, which requires the absorber to be located at radii well within any parsec scale molecular torus. Instead we suggest that the X-ray absorber in 3C 445 may be associated with an outflowing, but clumpy accretion disk wind, with an observed outflow velocity of approximately 10000 km s(sup -1).

Reeves, J. N.; Gofford, J.; Braito, V.; Sambruna, R.

2010-01-01

117

A REVERBERATION LAG FOR THE HIGH-IONIZATION COMPONENT OF THE BROAD-LINE REGION IN THE NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 Mrk 335  

SciTech Connect

We present the first results from a detailed analysis of photometric and spectrophotometric data on the narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxy Mrk 335, collected over a 120 day span in the fall of 2010. From these data we measure the lag in the He II {lambda}4686 broad emission line relative to the optical continuum to be 2.7 {+-} 0.6 days and the lag in the H{beta}{lambda}4861 broad emission line to be 13.9 {+-} 0.9 days. Combined with the line width, the He II lag yields a black hole mass M{sub BH} = (2.6 {+-} 0.8) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun }. This measurement is consistent with measurements made using the H{beta}{lambda}4861 line, suggesting that the He II emission originates in the same structure as H{beta}, but at a much smaller radius. This constitutes the first robust lag measurement for a high-ionization line in an NLS1 galaxy and supports a scenario in which the He II emission originates from gas in virial motion rather than outflow.

Grier, C. J.; Peterson, B. M.; Pogge, R. W.; Martini, Paul; Zu, Y.; Kochanek, C. S.; Shappee, B. J.; Stanek, K. Z.; Araya Salvo, C.; Beatty, T. G.; Bird, J. C. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 W 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Denney, K. D. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Bentz, M. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Astronomy Offices, One Park Place South SE, Suite 700, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Sergeev, S. G.; Borman, G. A. [Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, P/O Nauchny Crimea 98409 (Ukraine); Kaspi, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Bord, D. J. [Department of Natural Sciences, The University of Michigan-Dearborn, 4901 Evergreen Rd, Dearborn, MI 48128 (United States); Che, X. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 41809 (United States); Chen, C.; Cohen, S. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); and others

2012-01-15

118

Discovery of H? Absorption in the Unusual Broad Absorption Line Quasar SDSS J083942.11+380526.3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discovered H? absorption in the broad H? emission line of an unusual broad absorption line quasar, SDSS J083942.11+380526.3, at z=2.318, through near-infrared spectroscopy with the Cooled Infrared Spectrograph and Camera for OHS (CISCO) on the Subaru telescope. The presence of nonstellar H? absorption is known only in the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151 to date; thus, our discovery is the first case for quasars. The H? absorption line is blueshifted by 520 km s-1 relative to the H? emission line, and its redshift almost coincides with those of UV low-ionization metal absorption lines. The width of the H? absorption (~340 km s-1) is similar to those of the UV low-ionization absorption lines. These facts suggest that the H? and low-ionization metal absorption lines are produced by the same low-ionization gas, which has a substantial amount of neutral gas. The column density of the neutral hydrogen is estimated to be ~1018 cm-2 by assuming a gas temperature of 10,000 K from the analysis of the curve of growth. The continuum spectrum is reproduced by a reddened [E(B-V)~0.15 mag for the SMC-like reddening law] composite quasar spectrum. Furthermore, the UV spectrum of SDSS J083942.11+380526.3 shows a remarkable similarity to that of NGC 4151 in its low state, suggesting that the physical condition of the absorber in SDSS J083942.11+380526.3 is similar to that of NGC 4151 in the low state. As proposed for NGC 4151, SDSS J083942.11+380526.3 may also be seen through the edge of the obscuring torus. Based in part on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

Aoki, Kentaro; Iwata, Ikuru; Ohta, Kouji; Ando, Masataka; Akiyama, Masayuki; Tamura, Naoyuki

2006-11-01

119

Discovery of H alpha absorption in the unusual broad absorption line quasar SDSS J083942.11+380526.3  

E-print Network

We discovered an H alpha absorption in a broad H alpha emission line of an unusual broad absorption line quasar, SDSS J083942.11+380526.3 at z=2.318, by near-infrared spectroscopy with the Cooled Infrared Spectrograph and Camera for OHS (CISCO) on the Subaru telescope. The Presence of non-stellar H alpha absorption is known only in the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151 to date, thus our discovery is the first case for quasars. The H alpha absorption line is blueshifted by 520 km/s relative to the H alpha emission line, and its redshift almost coincides with those of UV low-ionization metal absorption lines. The width of the H alpha absorption (~ 340 km/s) is similar to those of the UV low-ionization absorption lines. These facts suggest that the H alpha and the low-ionization metal absorption lines are produced by the same low-ionization gas which has a substantial amount of neutral gas. The column density of the neutral hydrogen is estimated to be ~ 10^18 cm^-2 by assuming a gas temperature of 10,000 K from the analysis of the curve of growth. The continuum spectrum is reproduced by a reddened (E(B-V) ~ 0.15 mag for the SMC-like reddening law) composite quasar spectrum. Furthermore, the UV spectrum of SDSS J083942.11+380526.3 shows a remarkable similarity to that of NGC 4151 in its low state, suggesting the physical condition of the absorber in SDSS J083942.11+380526.3 is similar to that of NGC 4151 in the low state. As proposed for NGC 4151, SDSS J083942.11+380526.3 may be also seen through the close direction of the surface of the obscuring torus.

Kentaro Aoki; Ikuru Iwata; Kouji Ohta; Masataka Ando; Masayuki Akiyama; Naoyuki Tamura

2006-07-04

120

Variability of broad absorption lines in QSO SDSS J022844.09+000217.0 on multiyear time-scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The variability of broad absorption lines is investigated for a broad-absorption-line (BAL) quasar (QSO), SDSS J022844.09+000217.0 (z = 2.719), with 18 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)/Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) spectra covering 4128 d in the observed frame. Using the ratio of the root-mean-square (rms) spectrum to the mean spectrum, the relative flux change of the BAL trough is larger than that of the emission lines and the continuum. Fitting a power-law continuum and the emission-line profiles of C IV ?1549 and Si IV?1399, we calculate the equivalent width (EW) for different epochs, as well as the continuum luminosity and the spectral index. It is found that there is a strong correlation between the BAL-trough EW and the spectral index and a weak negative correlation between the BAL-trough EW and the continuum luminosity. The strong correlation between the BAL-trough EW and the spectral index for this particular QSO suggests that dust is intrinsic to outflows. The weak correlation between the BAL variability and the continuum luminosity for this particular QSO implies that the BAL-trough variation is not dominated by photoionization.

He, Zhi-Cheng; Bian, Wei-Hao; Jiang, Xiao-Lei; Wang, Yue-Feng

2014-09-01

121

OBSERVATION OF ANOMALOUSLY BROAD GAUSSIAN HeII 4686A SPECTRAL LINES IN TORMAC  

E-print Network

fields, or by the Doppler effect, if there is appreciablebroadening, by the Doppler effect, if there is appreciableeffect (GRIEM, 1974). Gaussian Heii 4686A line shapes that are not explained by Doppler

Shaw, R.S.

2013-01-01

122

Final report: A Broad Research Project in the Sciences of Complexity  

SciTech Connect

Previous DOE support for ''A Broad Research Program in the Sciences of Complexity'' permitted the Santa Fe Institute to initiate new collaborative research within its Integrative Core activities as well as to host visitors to participate in research on specific topics that serve as motivation and testing-ground for the study of general principles of complex systems. The critical aspect of this support is its effectiveness in seeding new areas of research. Indeed, this Integrative Core has been the birthplace of dozens of projects that later became more specifically focused and then won direct grant support independent of the core grants. But at early stages most of this multidisciplinary research was unable to win grant support as individual projects--both because it did not match well with existing grant program guidelines, and because the amount of handing needed was often too modest to justify a formal proposal to an agency. In fact, one of the attributes of core support has been that it permitted SFI to encourage high-risk activities because the cost was quite low. What is significant is how many of those initial efforts have been productive in the SFI environment. Many of SFI'S current research foci began with a short visit from a researcher new to the SFI community, or as small working groups that brought together carefully selected experts from a variety of fields. As mentioned above, many of the ensuing research projects are now being supported by other funding agencies or private foundations. Some of these successes are described.

None

2000-02-01

123

Broad iron K emission line and spectral variability of the Seyfert 2 galaxy IRAS 18325-5926  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A very broad iron K alpha emission line is observed in the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) spectrum of the Seyfert 2 galaxy IRAS 18325-5926. The line profile is peaked at 6.9 keV and skewed down to 4 keV. The breadth and shift of the line energy can be interpreted by Doppler and relativistic effects in a cold accretion disk about a black hole with a intermediate inclination of between 40 and 50 deg. The steep spectral slope and the fast variability on a timescale of 10(exp 4) s are confirmed for this object. A study of spectral variability reveal that the X-ray flux change mainly occurred above 1 keV and the soft X-ray component below 1 keV appears to be less variable or constant and should lie outside of the nuclear obscuration.

Iwasawa, K.; Fabian, A. C.; Mushotsky, R. F.; Brandt, W. N.; Awaki, H.; Kunieda, H.

1996-01-01

124

Broad-line AGNs with Candidate Intermediate-mass Black holes in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey  

E-print Network

We have conducted a systematic search of AGNs with IMBHs from the SDSS DR4. As results we found 245 candidates of broad-line AGN with M_{BH}<10^6 \\Msun estimated from the luminosity and width of the broad Halpha component. Compared to the pioneer Greene & Ho (2004) sample of 19 IMBH AGNs, our sample has improved in covering a larger range of the Eddington ratio, as well as black hole mass and redshift, taking the advantage of our AGN-galaxy spectral decomposition algorithm. Among these, thirty-six have L_{bol}/L_{Edd} < 0.1, hinting that a significant fraction of IMBHs might exist with weak or no nuclear activity.

Xiaobo Dong; Tinggui Wang; Weimin Yuan; Hongyan Zhou; Hongguang Shan; Huiyuan Wang; Honglin Lu; Kai Zhang

2006-12-17

125

EXTREMELY BROAD RADIO RECOMBINATION MASER LINES TOWARD THE HIGH-VELOCITY IONIZED JET IN CEPHEUS A HW2  

SciTech Connect

We present the first detection of the H40{alpha}, H34{alpha}, and H31{alpha} radio recombination lines (RRLs) at millimeter wavelengths toward the high-velocity ionized jet in the Cepheus A HW2 star-forming region. From our single-dish and interferometric observations, we find that the measured RRLs show extremely broad asymmetric line profiles with zero-intensity line widths of {approx}1100 km s{sup -1}. From the line widths, we estimate a terminal velocity for the ionized gas in the jet of {>=}500 km s{sup -1}, consistent with that obtained from the proper motions of the HW2 radio jet. The total integrated line-to-continuum flux ratios of the H40{alpha}, H34{alpha}, and H31{alpha} lines are 43, 229, and 280 km s{sup -1}, clearly deviating from LTE predictions. These ratios are very similar to those observed for the RRL masers toward MWC349A, suggesting that the intensities of the RRLs toward HW2 are affected by maser emission. Our radiative transfer modeling of the RRLs shows that their asymmetric profiles could be explained by maser emission arising from a bi-conical radio jet with a semi-opening angle of 18 deg., electron density distribution varying as r {sup -2.11}, and turbulent and expanding wind velocities of 60 and 500 km s{sup -1}.

Jimenez-Serra, I.; Patel, N. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Martin-Pintado, J.; Baez-Rubio, A. [Centro de Astrobiologia (CSIC/INTA), Ctra. de Torrejon a Ajalvir km 4, E-28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Thum, C., E-mail: ijimenez-serra@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: npatel@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: jmartin@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: baezra@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: thum@iram.fr [Institut de Radio Astronomie Millimetrique, 300 Rue de la Piscine, F-38406 St. Martin d'Heres (France)

2011-05-10

126

Adaptive technique for impulsive noise cancellation in broad-band power line communication system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The object of this work is to address impulsive noise cancellation for digital broadband power line communication scheme. This paper presents details of impulsive noise model based on its statistical properties and defined broadband OFDM technique. By adding a noise power (SINR) estimator a new adaptive noise canceller based on Matsuo algorithm is proposed. Presented simulation results show that the

Fatma Rouissi; F. Tlili; A. Ghazel; A. Zeddam

2004-01-01

127

The Structure of the Broad Line Region in AGN: I. Reconstructed Velocity-Delay Maps  

E-print Network

We present velocity-resolved reverberation results for five active galactic nuclei. We recovered velocity-delay maps using the maximum-entropy method for four objects: Mrk 335, Mrk 1501, 3C120, and PG2130+099. For the fifth, Mrk 6, we were only able to measure mean time delays in different velocity bins of the H\\beta\\ emission line, but see tentative evidence of combined virial motion and infalling gas. The four velocity-delay maps show unique dynamical signatures for each object. For 3C120, the Balmer lines show kinematic signatures consistent with both an inclined disk and infalling gas, but the HeII 4686 emission line is suggestive only of inflow. The Balmer lines in Mrk 335, Mrk 1501, and PG 2130+099 show signs of infalling gas, but the HeII emission in Mrk 335 is consistent with an inclined disk. The maps for 3C120 and Mrk 335 are two of the most clearly defined velocity-delay maps to date. These maps constitute a large increase in the number of objects for which we have resolved velocity-delay maps and ...

Grier, C J; Horne, Keith; Bentz, M C; Pogge, R W; Denney, K D; De Rosa, G; Martini, Paul; Kochanek, C S; Zu, Y; Shappee, B; Siverd, R; Beatty, T G; Sergeev, S G; Kaspi, S; Salvo, C Araya; Bird, J C; Bord, D J; Borman, G A; Che, X; Chen, C; Cohen, S A; Dietrich, M; Doroshenko, V T; Efimov, Yu S; Free, N; Ginsburg, I; Henderson, C B; King, A L; Mogren, K; Molina, M; Mosquera, A M; Nazarov, S V; Okhmat, D N; Pejcha, O; Rafter, S; Shields, J C; Skowron, J; Szczygiel, D M; Valluri, M; van Saders, J L

2012-01-01

128

SUZAKU OBSERVATION OF THE BRIGHTEST BROAD-LINE RADIO GALAXY 4C 50.55 (IGR J21247+5058)  

SciTech Connect

We report the results from a deep Suzaku observation of 4C 50.55 (IGR J21247+5058), the brightest broad-line radio galaxy in the hard X-ray (>10 keV) sky. The simultaneous broadband spectra over 1-60 keV can be represented by a cutoff power law with two layers of absorption and a significant reflection component from cold matter with a solid angle of {Omega}/2{pi} {approx} 0.2. A rapid flux rise by {approx}20% over 2 x 10{sup 4} s is detected in the 2-10 keV band. The spectral energy distribution suggests that there is little contribution to the total X-ray emission from jets. Applying a thermal Comptonization model, we find that corona is optically thick ({tau}{sub e} {approx} 3) and has a relatively low temperature (kT{sub e} {approx} 30 keV). The narrow iron-K emission line is consistent with a picture where the standard disk is truncated and/or its inner part is covered by optically thick Comptonizing corona smearing out relativistic broad-line features. The inferred disk structure may be a common feature of accretion flows onto black holes that produce powerful jets.

Tazaki, Fumie; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Ishino, Yukiko; Eguchi, Satoshi; Isobe, Naoki [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Terashima, Yuichi [Department of Physics, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Mushotzky, Richard F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

2010-10-01

129

Testing the space-time geometry around black hole candidates with the analysis of the broad K$?$ iron line  

E-print Network

Astrophysical black hole candidates are thought to be the Kerr black holes predicted by General Relativity, but there is not yet clear evidence that the geometry of the space-time around these objects is really described by the Kerr metric. In order to confirm the Kerr black hole hypothesis, we have to observe strong gravity features and check that they are in agreement with the ones predicted by General Relativity. In this paper, I study the broad K$\\alpha$ iron line, which is often seen in the X-ray spectrum of both stellar-mass and super-massive black hole candidates and whose shape is supposed to be strongly affected by the space-time geometry. As found in previous studies in the literature, there is a strong correlation between the spin parameter and the deformation parameter; that is, the line emitted around a Kerr black hole with a certain spin can be very similar to the one coming from the space-time around a non-Kerr object with a quite different spin. Despite that, the analysis of the broad K$\\alpha$ iron line is potentially more powerful than the continuum-fitting method, as it can put an interesting bound on possible deviations from the Kerr geometry independently of the value of the spin parameter and without additional measurements.

Cosimo Bambi

2013-01-19

130

Final Report: A Broad Research Project on the Sciences of Complexity, September 15, 1994 - November 15, 1999  

SciTech Connect

DOE support for a broad research program in the sciences of complexity permitted the Santa Fe Institute to initiate new collaborative research within its integrative core activities as well as to host visitors to participate in research on specific topics that serve as motivation and testing ground for the study of the general principles of complex systems. Results are presented on computational biology, biodiversity and ecosystem research, and advanced computing and simulation.

None

2000-02-01

131

Diagnostic Power of Broad Emission Line Profiles in Searches for Binary Supermassive Black Holes.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by advances in observational searches for sub-parsec supermassive black hole binaries (SBHBs) made in the past few years we develop a semi-analytic model to describe the spectral emission line signatures of these systems. The goal of this work is to test one of the leading models of binary accretion flows in the literature: SBHB in a circumbinary disk. In this context, we model SBHB accretion flows as a set of three accretion disks: two mini-disks that are gravitationally bound to the individual black holes and a circumbinary disk that forms a common envelope about a gravitationally bound binary. We find that emission line profiles tend to have different statistical properties depending on the semi-major axis, mass ratio, eccentricity of the binary, and the alignment of the triple-disk system, and can in principle be used to infer the statistical distribution of these parameters.

Nguyen, Khai; Bogdanovic, Tamara

2015-01-01

132

Global trade in dairy products involves complex and con-tentious issues. Viewed broadly from the perspective of  

E-print Network

Global trade in dairy products involves complex and con- tentious issues. Viewed broadly from the perspective of "society," there are large benefits from liberalizing trade. Viewed narrowly from the perspective of dairy producers, liberalized trade is desirable only if it expands exports and reduces imports

Radeloff, Volker C.

133

Discovery of ultra-fast outflows in a sample of Broad Line Radio Galaxies observed with Suzaku  

E-print Network

We present the results of a uniform and systematic search for blue-shifted Fe K absorption lines in the X-ray spectra of five bright Broad-Line Radio Galaxies (BLRGs) observed with Suzaku. We detect, for the first time at X-rays in radio-loud AGN, several absorption lines at energies greater than 7 keV in three out of five sources, namely 3C 111, 3C 120 and 3C 390.3. The lines are detected with high significance according to both the F-test and extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Their likely interpretation as blue-shifted Fe XXV and Fe XXVI K-shell resonance lines implies an origin from highly ionized gas outflowing with mildly relativistic velocities, in the range 0.04-0.15c. A fit with specific photo-ionization models gives ionization parameters in the range log_xi~4-5.6 and column densities of N_H~10^22-10^23 cm^-2. These characteristics are very similar to those of the Ultra-Fast Outflows (UFOs) previously observed in radio-quiet AGN. Their estimated location within ~0.01-0.3pc from the central super-mass...

Tombesi, F; Reeves, J N; Braito, V; Ballo, L; Gofford, J; Cappi, M; Mushotzky, R F

2010-01-01

134

Broad-Line Reverberation in the Kepler-Field Seyfert Galaxy Zw 229-015  

E-print Network

The Seyfert 1 galaxy Zw 229-015 is among the brightest active galaxies being monitored by the Kepler mission. In order to determine the black hole mass in Zw 229-015 from H-beta reverberation mapping, we have carried out nightly observations with the Kast Spectrograph at the Lick 3m telescope during the dark runs from June through December 2010, obtaining 54 spectroscopic observations in total. We have also obtained nightly V-band imaging with the Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope at Lick Observatory and with the 0.9m telescope at the Brigham Young University West Mountain Observatory over the same period. We detect strong variability in the source, which exhibited more than a factor of 2 change in broad H-beta flux. From cross-correlation measurements, we find that the H-beta light curve has a rest-frame lag of 3.86(+0.69,-0.90) days with respect to the V-band continuum variations. We also measure reverberation lags for H-alpha and H-gamma and find an upper limit to the H-delta lag. Combining the H-beta la...

Barth, A J; Malkan, M A; Filippenko, A V; Li, W; Gorjian, V; Joner, M D; Bennert, V N; Botyanszki, J; Cenko, S B; Childress, M; Choi, J; Comerford, J M; Cucciara, A; da Silva, R; Duchene, G; Fumagalli, M; Ganeshalingam, M; Gates, E L; Gerke, B F; Griffith, C V; Harris, C; Hintz, E G; Hsiao, E; Kandrashoff, M T; Keel, W C; Kirkman, D; Kleiser, I K W; Laney, C D; Lee, J; Lopez, L; Lowe, T B; Moody, J W; Morton, A; Nierenberg, A M; Nugent, P; Pancoast, A; Rex, J; Rich, R M; Silverman, J M; Smith, G H; Sonnenfeld, A; Suzuki, N; Tytler, D; Walsh, J L; Woo, J -H; Yang, Y; Zeisse, C

2011-01-01

135

Echo mapping of active galactic nuclei broad-line regions: Fundamental algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We formulate and test a series of algorithms for echo mapping the emission-line regions near active galactic nuclei from measurements of correlated variability in their line and continuum light curves. The linear regularization method (LRM) employs a direct inversion of evenly spaced light-curve data, with a regularization parameter that can be used to control the trade-off between noise and resolution. Matrix formulas express the formal solution as well as its variance and covariance in terms of uncertainties in the measurements. Unlike the maximum-entropy method (MEM), LRM applies to kernels with both positive and negative values, but the results are somewhat limited by ringing effects. A positivity constraint proves effective in controlling the ringing. MEM combines regularization and positivity in a natural way, but similar results are also found using positivity constraints with nonentropic regularization functions. Direct inversions of unevenly sampled light curves require interpolating the noisy data. In this case better results are found by solving for both the continuum light curve and kernel function in a simultaneous fit to the data. Our conclusion is that while echo mapping currently gives ambiguous results, the algorithms are not the limiting factor. Progress depends on efforts to increase the accuracy and completeness of sampling of the observed light curves.

Vio, Roberto; Horne, Keith; Wamsteker, Willem

1994-10-01

136

Constraints on Black Hole Spin in a Sample of Broad Iron Line AGN  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a uniform X-ray spectral analysis of nine type-1 active galactic nuclei (AGN) that have been previously found to harbor relativistically broadened iron emission lines. We show that the need for relativistic effects in the spectrum is robust even when one includes continuum "reflection" from the accretion disk. We then proceed to model these relativistic effects in order to constrain the spin of the supermassive black holes in these AGN. Our principal assumption, supported by recent simulations of geometrically-thin accretion disks, is that no iron line emission (or any associated Xray reflection features) can originate from the disk within the innermost stable circular orbit. Under this assumption, which tends to lead to constraints in the form of lower limits on the spin parameter, we obtain non-trivial spin constraints on five AGN. The spin parameters of these sources range from moderate (a approximates 0.6) to high (a > 0.96). Our results allow, for the first time, an observational constraint on the spin distribution function of local supermassive black holes. Parameterizing this as a power-law in dimensionless spin parameter (f(a) varies as absolute value of (a) exp zeta), we present the probability distribution for zeta implied by our results. Our results suggest 90% and 95% confidence limits of zeta > -0.09 and zeta > -0.3 respectively.

Brenneman, Laura W.; Reynolds, Christopher S.

2008-01-01

137

Reverberation Mapping Analysis of the Broad-Line Region in Seyfert Galaxy NGC 4151  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By careful and intensive monitoring the continuum variations and the resulting emission-line response in AGN, it is possible to determine the physical conditions and the structure of the BLR through the process of "reverberation mapping (RM)". We have applied such a technique to Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151 by using the optical monitoring data obtained in a recent international AGN watch campaign in 1993. In order to tackle the issue revealed by the preliminary analysis of this watch campaign, i.e. the BLR size is very different from the result determined several years ago, we carried out the following two kinds of RM analysis: a) Test how a specific continuum variation can affect the delay of the emission-lines by use of Mone-Carlo simulations. b) Solve the BLR transfer function, which describes the size and the structure of the BLR in NGC 4151, by use of the regularized linear-inversion method. We find that the transfer function of NGC 4151 was drastically changed from the shape in 1988, and this naturally explains the size problem of NGC 4151.

Xue, S. J.; Cheng, F. Z.

138

On the difference of torus geometry between hidden and non-hidden broad line active galactic nuclei  

E-print Network

We present results from the fitting of infrared (IR) spectral energy distributions of 21 active galactic nuclei (AGN) with clumpy torus models. We compiled high spatial resolution ($\\sim 0.3$--$0.7$ arcsec) mid-IR $N$-band spectroscopy, $Q$-band imaging and nuclear near- and mid-IR photometry from the literature. Combining these nuclear near- and mid-IR observations, far-IR photometry and clumpy torus models, enables us to put constraints on the torus properties and geometry. We divide the sample into three types according to the broad line region (BLR) properties; type-1s, type-2s with scattered or hidden broad line region (HBLR) previously observed, and type-2s without any published HBLR signature (NHBLR). Comparing the torus model parameters gives us the first quantitative torus geometrical view for each subgroup. We find that NHBLR AGN have smaller torus opening angles and larger covering factors than those of HBLR AGN. This suggests that the chance to observe scattered (polarized) flux from the BLR in NH...

Ichikawa, Kohei; Almeida, Cristina Ramos; Ramos, Andres Asensio; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Gonzalez-Martin, Omaira; Lopez-Rodriguez, Enrique; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Diaz-Santos, Tanio; Elitzur, Moshe; Hoenig, Sebastian F; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Levenson, Nancy A; Mason, Rachel E; Perlman, Eric S; Alsip, Crystal D

2015-01-01

139

STRUCTURE OF THE ACCRETION FLOW IN BROAD-LINE RADIO GALAXIES: THE CASE OF 3C 390.3  

SciTech Connect

We present XMM-Newton and Suzaku observations of the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 390.3 acquired in 2004 October and 2006 December, respectively. An archival Swift BAT spectrum from the 9 month survey is also analyzed, as well as an optical spectrum simultaneous to XMM-Newton. At soft X-rays, no absorption features are detected in the Reflection Grating Spectrometer spectrum of 3C 390.3; a narrow emission line is found at 0.564 keV, most likely originating in the narrow-line region. Both the EPIC and XIS data sets confirm the presence of an Fe K{alpha} emission line at 6.4 keV with equivalent width (EW) = 40 eV. The Fe K{alpha} line has a width FWHM {approx} 8800 km s{sup -1}, consistent within a factor of 2 with the width of the double-peaked H{alpha} line, suggesting an origin from the broad-line region. The data show for the first time a weak, broad bump extending from 5 to 7 keV. When fitted with a Gaussian, its centroid energy is 6.6 keV in the source's rest frame with FWHM of 43,000 km s{sup -1} and EW of 50 eV; its most likely interpretation is emission from He-like Fe (Fe XXV), suggesting the presence of an ionized medium in the inner regions of 3C 390.3. The broadband 0.5-100 keV continuum is well described by a single power law with photon index {gamma} = 1.6 and cutoff energy 157 keV, plus cold reflection with strength R = 0.5. In addition, ionized reflection is required to account for the 6.6 keV bump in the broadband continuum, yielding an ionization parameter {xi} {approx} 2700 erg cm s{sup -1}; the inner radius of the ionized reflector is constrained to be larger than 20r{sub G} , although this result depends on the assumed emissivity profile of the disk. If true, we argue that the lack of broad Fe K emission from within 20r{sub G} indicates that the innermost regions of the disk in 3C 390.3 are obscured and/or poorly illuminated. While the spectral energy distribution (SED) of 3C 390.3 is generally dominated by accretion-related continuum, during accretion low states the jet can significantly contribute in the optical to X-ray bands via synchrotron self-Compton emission. The Compton component is expected to extend to and peak at GeV gamma rays where it will be detected with the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope during its first few years of operation.

Sambruna, R. M.; Tueller, J. [NASA/GSFC, Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Reeves, J. N.; Lewis, K. T. [NASA/GSFC, Code 662, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Braito, V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Eracleous, M. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Gliozzi, M. [George Mason University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4400 University Dr., Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Tavecchio, F. [INAF, Osserv. Astron. di Brera, via Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Ballantyne, D. R. [Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, 837 State Street, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Ogle, P. M. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Barth, A. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-4575 (United States)

2009-08-01

140

Heat shock protein 90 maintains the stability and function of transcription factor Broad Z7 by interacting with its Broad-Complex-Tramtrack-Bric-a-brac domain.  

PubMed

Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a highly conserved chaperone protein that interacts with various client proteins to mediate their folding and stability. The Broad-Complex-Tramtrack-Bric-a-brac (BTB) domain, also known as poxvirus and zinc finger (POZ) domain, exists widely in different proteins and is highly conserved. However, the stability mechanism of BTB domain-containing proteins has not been fully understood. Co-immunoprecipitation and a protein pull-down assay were performed to investigate the interaction between Hsp90 and the transcription factor Broad isoform Z7 (BrZ7) in vivo and in vitro. The middle domain of Hsp90 directly associated with the BTB domain of BrZ7. The Hsp90 inhibitor 17-(Allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) interrupted the interaction between Hsp90 and BrZ7 and decreased the protein level of BrZ7 but did not affect the mRNA level of BrZ7. The addition of the proteasome inhibitor peptide aldehyde Cbz-leu-leu leucinal suppressed the 17-AAG-induced degradation of BrZ7. BTB domain deletion and 17-AAG treatment resulted in inhibition of BrZ7 function in gene expression in the 20-hydroxyecdysone and juvenile hormone pathways. These results reveal that the middle domain of Hsp90 associates with the BTB domain of BrZ7 to prevent BrZ7 degradation and maintain BrZ7 function in gene expression in the lepidopteran insect Helicoverpa armigera. PMID:25060629

Cai, M-J; Li, X-R; Pei, X-Y; Liu, W; Wang, J-X; Zhao, X-F

2014-12-01

141

Are we Seeing the Earliest Stage of Galaxy Evolution in Low-Ionization Broad Absorption Line Quasars?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Common evolutionary models have the merger of two gas-rich spiral galaxies result in the birth of a quasar. About 10-20% of quasars show Broad Absorption Lines (BALs), interpreted as gaseous outflows with speeds up to 30,000 km/s. Though most of the BAL quasars show only high ionization outflows (such as C IV), about 10% show low-ionization lines ("LoBALs"), like Mg II. BAL quasars are dusty, and the LoBALs are dustier still. How does the dust fit in? Studies suggest that BAL quasars could either be explained by a unified model or by an evolutionary model. In the unified models, the outflows originate as an accretion disk wind, with normal and BAL quasars differing only in viewing angle. In evolutionary models, dusty BAL quasars are a stage between the merger of the progenitor galaxies and before the emergence of a normal quasar, and the even dustier LoBALs would be the very first part of this stage. In this case, we would expect their host galaxies to be more distorted than normal quasars. In this study, we analyze LoBALs at redshifts of 0.4 < z < 0.7, identified from broad-absorption Mg II lines in Sloan spectra. Using the Hubble's WFC3 IR imagery, we first perform careful PSF fitting and removal to reveal the host galaxies. We then compare the distortion of their hosts to a control sample, using the non-parametric techniques of the Gini coefficient and concentration index.

Hamilton, Timothy S.; Turnshek, D. A.

2013-01-01

142

SN 2010ay is a Luminous and Broad-lined Type Ic Supernova within a Low-metallicity Host Galaxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on our serendipitous pre-discovery detection and follow-up observations of the broad-lined Type Ic supernova (SN Ic) 2010ay at z = 0.067 imaged by the Pan-STARRS1 3? survey just ~4 days after explosion. The supernova (SN) had a peak luminosity, MR ? -20.2 mag, significantly more luminous than known GRB-SNe and one of the most luminous SNe Ib/c ever discovered. The absorption velocity of SN 2010ay is v Si ? 19 × 103 km s-1 at ~40 days after explosion, 2-5 times higher than other broad-lined SNe and similar to the GRB-SN 2010bh at comparable epochs. Moreover, the velocity declines ~2 times slower than other SNe Ic-BL and GRB-SNe. Assuming that the optical emission is powered by radioactive decay, the peak magnitude implies the synthesis of an unusually large mass of 56Ni, M Ni = 0.9 M ?. Applying scaling relations to the light curve, we estimate a total ejecta mass, M ej ? 4.7 M ?, and total kinetic energy, EK ? 11 × 1051 erg. The ratio of M Ni to M ej is ~2 times as large for SN 2010ay as typical GRB-SNe and may suggest an additional energy reservoir. The metallicity (log (O/H)PP04 + 12 = 8.19) of the explosion site within the host galaxy places SN 2010ay in the low-metallicity regime populated by GRB-SNe, and ~0.5(0.2) dex lower than that typically measured for the host environments of normal (broad-lined) SNe Ic. We constrain any gamma-ray emission with E ? <~ 6 × 1048 erg (25-150 keV), and our deep radio follow-up observations with the Expanded Very Large Array rule out relativistic ejecta with energy E >~ 1048 erg. We therefore rule out the association of a relativistic outflow like those that accompanied SN 1998bw and traditional long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), but we place less-stringent constraints on a weak afterglow like that seen from XRF 060218. If this SN did not harbor a GRB, these observations challenge the importance of progenitor metallicity for the production of relativistic ejecta and suggest that other parameters also play a key role.

Sanders, N. E.; Soderberg, A. M.; Valenti, S.; Foley, R. J.; Chornock, R.; Chomiuk, L.; Berger, E.; Smartt, S.; Hurley, K.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Levesque, E. M.; Narayan, G.; Botticella, M. T.; Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, V.; Terada, Y.; Gehrels, N.; Golenetskii, S.; Mazets, E.; Cline, T.; von Kienlin, A.; Boynton, W.; Chambers, K. C.; Grav, T.; Heasley, J. N.; Hodapp, K. W.; Jedicke, R.; Kaiser, N.; Kirshner, R. P.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Luppino, G. A.; Lupton, R. H.; Magnier, E. A.; Monet, D. G.; Morgan, J. S.; Onaka, P. M.; Price, P. A.; Stubbs, C. W.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waterson, M. F.

2012-09-01

143

SN 2010ay is a Luminous and Broad-lined Type Ic Supernova within a Low-metallicity Host Galaxy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report on our serendipitous pre-discovery detection and detailed follow-up of the broad-lined Type Ic supernova SN2010ay at z approx 0.067 imaged by the Pan-STARRS1 3pi survey just approx 4 days after explosion. Combining our photometric observations with those available in the literature, we estimate the explosion date and the peak luminosity of the SN, M(sub R) approximately equals 20.2 mag, significantly brighter than known GRB-SNe and one of the most luminous SNe Ibc ever discovered. We measure the photospheric expansion velocity of the explosion from our spectroscopic follow-up observations, v(sub ph) approximately equals 19.2 X 10 (exp 3) km/s at approx 40 days after explosion. In comparison with other broad-lined SNe, the characteristic velocity of SN2010ay is 2 - 5 X higher and similar to the measurements for GRB-SNe at comparable epochs. Moreover the velocity declines two times slower than other SNe Ic-BL and GRB-SNe. Assuming that the optical emission is powered by radioactive decay, the peak magnitude implies the synthesis of an unusually large mass of Ni-56, M(sub Ni) = 0.9(+0.1/-0.1) solar mass. Our modeling of the light-curve points to a total ejecta mass, M(sub ej) approx 4.7 Solar Mass, and total kinetic energy, E(sub K,51) approximately equals 11. Thus the ratio of M(sub Ni) to M(sub ej) is at least twice as large for SN2010ay than in GRB-SNe and may indicate an additional energy reservoir. We also measure the metallicity (log(O/H) + 12 = 8.19) of the explosion site within the host galaxy using a high S/N optical spectrum. Our abundance measurement places this SN in the low-metallicity regime populated by GRB-SNe, and approx 0.2(0.5) dex lower than that typically measured for the host environments of normal (broad-lined) Ic supernovae. Despite striking similarities to the recent GRB-SN100316D/2010bh, we show that gamma-ray observations rule out an associated GRB with E(sub gamma) approx < 6 X 10(exp 48) erg (25-150 keV). Similarly, our deep radio follow-up observations with the Expanded Very Large Array rule out relativistic ejecta with energy, E approx > 10(exp 48) erg. These observations challenge the importance of progenitor metallicity for the production of a GRB, and suggest that other parameters also play a key role.

Sanders, N. E.; Soderberg, A. M.; Valenti, S.; Chomiuk, L.; Berger, E.; Smartt, S.; Hurley, K.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Chornock, R.; Foley, R. J.; Levesque, E. M.; Narayan, G.; Botticella, M. T.; Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, V.; Terada, Y.; Gehrels, N.; Golenetskii, S.; Mazets, E.; Cline, T.; von Kienlin, A.; Boynton, W.; Chambers, K. C.; Grav, T.; Heasley, J. N.

2011-01-01

144

DISCOVERY OF ULTRA-FAST OUTFLOWS IN A SAMPLE OF BROAD-LINE RADIO GALAXIES OBSERVED WITH SUZAKU  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of a uniform and systematic search for blueshifted Fe K absorption lines in the X-ray spectra of five bright broad-line radio galaxies observed with Suzaku. We detect, for the first time in radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at X-rays, several absorption lines at energies greater than 7 keV in three out of five sources, namely, 3C 111, 3C 120, and 3C 390.3. The lines are detected with high significance according to both the F-test and extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Their likely interpretation as blueshifted Fe XXV and Fe XXVI K-shell resonance lines implies an origin from highly ionized gas outflowing with mildly relativistic velocities, in the range v {approx_equal} 0.04-0.15c. A fit with specific photoionization models gives ionization parameters in the range log {xi} {approx_equal} 4-5.6 erg s{sup -1} cm and column densities of N {sub H} {approx_equal} 10{sup 22}-10{sup 23} cm{sup -2}. These characteristics are very similar to those of the ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) previously observed in radio-quiet AGNs. Their estimated location within {approx}0.01-0.3 pc of the central super-massive black hole suggests a likely origin related with accretion disk winds/outflows. Depending on the absorber covering fraction, the mass outflow rate of these UFOs can be comparable to the accretion rate and their kinetic power can correspond to a significant fraction of the bolometric luminosity and is comparable to their typical jet power. Therefore, these UFOs can play a significant role in the expected feedback from the AGN to the surrounding environment and can give us further clues on the relation between the accretion disk and the formation of winds/jets in both radio-quiet and radio-loud AGNs.

Tombesi, F. [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Sambruna, R. M.; Mushotzky, R. F. [Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Reeves, J. N.; Gofford, J. [Astrophysics Group, School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Braito, V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Ballo, L. [Istituto de Fisica de Cantabria (CSIC-UC), 39005 Santander (Spain); Cappi, M., E-mail: tombesi@iasfbo.inaf.i [INAF-IASF Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy)

2010-08-10

145

Discovery of Ultra-fast Outflows in a Sample of Broad-line Radio Galaxies Observed with Suzaku  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of a uniform and systematic search for blueshifted Fe K absorption lines in the X-ray spectra of five bright broad-line radio galaxies observed with Suzaku. We detect, for the first time in radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at X-rays, several absorption lines at energies greater than 7 keV in three out of five sources, namely, 3C 111, 3C 120, and 3C 390.3. The lines are detected with high significance according to both the F-test and extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Their likely interpretation as blueshifted Fe XXV and Fe XXVI K-shell resonance lines implies an origin from highly ionized gas outflowing with mildly relativistic velocities, in the range v ~= 0.04-0.15c. A fit with specific photoionization models gives ionization parameters in the range log ? ~= 4-5.6 erg s-1 cm and column densities of N H ~= 1022-1023 cm-2. These characteristics are very similar to those of the ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) previously observed in radio-quiet AGNs. Their estimated location within ~0.01-0.3 pc of the central super-massive black hole suggests a likely origin related with accretion disk winds/outflows. Depending on the absorber covering fraction, the mass outflow rate of these UFOs can be comparable to the accretion rate and their kinetic power can correspond to a significant fraction of the bolometric luminosity and is comparable to their typical jet power. Therefore, these UFOs can play a significant role in the expected feedback from the AGN to the surrounding environment and can give us further clues on the relation between the accretion disk and the formation of winds/jets in both radio-quiet and radio-loud AGNs.

Tombesi, F.; Sambruna, R. M.; Reeves, J. N.; Braito, V.; Ballo, L.; Gofford, J.; Cappi, M.; Mushotzky, R. F.

2010-08-01

146

Discovery of a broad O VIII Ly? line in the ultracompact X-ray binary 4U 1543-624  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the discovery of a broad emission feature at ˜0.7 keV in the spectra of the ultracompact X-ray binary 4U 1543-624, obtained with the high-resolution spectrographs of the XMM-Newton and Chandra satellites. We confirm the presence of the feature in the broad-band MOS2 spectrum of the source. As suggested before in the literature, the donor star in this source is a CO or ONe white dwarf, which transfers oxygen-rich material to the accretor, conceivably a neutron star. The X-rays reprocessed in this oxygen-rich accretion disc could give a reflection spectrum with O VIII Ly? as the most prominent emission line. Apart from the feature at ˜0.7 keV, we confirm the possible presence of a weak emission feature at ˜6.6 keV, which was reported in the literature for this data set. We interpret the feature at ˜0.7 and ˜6.6 keV as O VIII Ly? and Fe K? emission, respectively, caused by X-rays reflected off the accretion disc in the strong gravitational field close to the accretor.

Madej, O. K.; Jonker, P. G.

2011-03-01

147

DISCOVERY OF THE BROAD-LINED TYPE Ic SN 2013cq ASSOCIATED WITH THE VERY ENERGETIC GRB 130427A  

SciTech Connect

Long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) at z < 1 are found in most cases to be accompanied by bright, broad-lined Type Ic supernovae (SNe Ic-BL). The highest-energy GRBs are mostly located at higher redshifts, where the associated SNe are hard to detect observationally. Here, we present early and late observations of the optical counterpart of the very energetic GRB 130427A. Despite its moderate redshift, z = 0.3399 ± 0.0002, GRB 130427A is at the high end of the GRB energy distribution, with an isotropic-equivalent energy release of E{sub iso} ? 9.6 × 10{sup 53} erg, more than an order of magnitude more energetic than other GRBs with spectroscopically confirmed SNe. In our dense photometric monitoring, we detect excess flux in the host-subtracted r-band light curve, consistent with that expected from an emerging SN, ?0.2 mag fainter than the prototypical SN 1998bw. A spectrum obtained around the time of the SN peak (16.7 days after the GRB) reveals broad undulations typical of SNe Ic-BL, confirming the presence of an SN, designated SN 2013cq. The spectral shape and early peak time are similar to those of the high expansion velocity SN 2010bh associated with GRB 100316D. Our findings demonstrate that high-energy, long-duration GRBs, commonly detected at high redshift, can also be associated with SNe Ic-BL, pointing to a common progenitor mechanism.

Xu, D.; Krühler, T.; Hjorth, J.; Malesani, D.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Watson, D. J.; Geier, S. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 København Ø (Denmark); De Ugarte Postigo, A.; Thöne, C. C.; Sánchez-Ramírez, R. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Leloudas, G. [The Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Cano, Z.; Jakobsson, P. [Centre for Astrophysics and Cosmology, Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhagi 5, IS-107 Reykjavik (Iceland); Schulze, S. [Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Kaper, L. [Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sollerman, J. [The Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Cabrera-Lavers, A. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Cao, C. [Department of Space Science and Physics, Shandong University at Weihai, Weihai, Shandong 264209 (China); Covino, S. [INAF/Brera Astronomical Observatory, via Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Flores, H., E-mail: dong@dark-cosmology.dk [Laboratoire Galaxies Etoiles Physique et Instrumentation, Observatoire de Paris, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France); and others

2013-10-20

148

Use of Sindbis virus-mediated RNA interference to demonstrate a conserved role of Broad-Complex in insect metamorphosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transcription factor Broad-Complex (BR-C) is required for differentiation of adult structures as well as for the programmed death of obsolete larval organs during metamorphosis of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Whether BR-C has a similar role in other holometabolous insects could not be proven without a loss-of-function genetic test, performed in a non-drosophilid spe- cies. Here we use a

Mirka Uhlirova; Brian D. Foy; Barry J. Beaty; Ken E. Olson; Lynn M. Riddiford; Marek Jindra

2003-01-01

149

The role of radiative acceleration in outflows from broad absorption line QSOs. 1: Comparison with O star winds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We investigate the role of radiation pressure in accelerating the broad absorption line (BAL) outflows in QSOs by comparing their properties with those of radiatively driven O star winds. We find that, owing to their lower column densities and higher velocity spreads, BAL outflows have only a few tens of strong resonance lines that are dynamically important, as compared with 10(exp 3) - 10(exp 4) lines in O star winds. We show that the combined radiative force (the 'force multiplier') declines more rapidly as a function of column density for BAL outflows than for O star winds. This is mainly attributed to the absence of lines from excited states in the BAL region. The absorbing gas in BAL outflows must have a small filling factor in order for radiative acceleration to be important dynamically. This allows the absorbing material to remain at a high enough density to maintain the ion species necessary for efficient radiative acceleration as well (as those responsible for the observed absorption), without the average flow density becoming so large that the absorbing matter cannot be accelerated by an increment larger than its own sound speed. The latter condition is necessary if the outflow is to tap a large portion of the incident photon momentum. Once a small filling factor is assumed, radiative acceleration can be more efficient in BAL outflows than in O stars. We show that terminal velocities of a few times 10(exp 4) km/sec can be expected, provided that the absorbing matter does not have to drag with it a much heavier substrate.

Arav, Nahum; Li, Zhi-Yun

1994-01-01

150

1992 annual report on scientific programs: A broad research program on the sciences of complexity  

SciTech Connect

In 1992 the Santa Fe Institute hosted more than 100 short- and long-term research visitors who conducted a total of 212 person-months of residential research in complex systems. To date this 1992 work has resulted in more than 50 SFI Working Papers and nearly 150 publications in the scientific literature. The Institute`s book series in the sciences of complexity continues to grow, now numbering more than 20 volumes. The fifth annual complex systems summer school brought nearly 60 graduate students and postdoctoral fellows to Santa Fe for an intensive introduction to the field. Research on complex systems-the focus of work at SFI-involves an extraordinary range of topics normally studied in seemingly disparate fields. Natural systems displaying complex adaptive behavior range upwards from DNA through cells and evolutionary systems to human societies. Research models exhibiting complex behavior include spin glasses, cellular automata, and genetic algorithms. Some of the major questions facing complex systems researchers are: (1) explaining how complexity arises from the nonlinear interaction of simple components; (2) describing the mechanisms underlying high-level aggregate behavior of complex systems (such as the overt behavior of an organism, the flow of energy in an ecology, the GNP of an economy); and (3) creating a theoretical framework to enable predictions about the likely behavior of such systems in various conditions.

Not Available

1992-12-31

151

The Optical/NearIR Colors of Broad Absorption Line Quasars, Including the Candidate RadioLoud BAL Quasar 1556+3517  

E-print Network

The Optical/Near­IR Colors of Broad Absorption Line Quasars, Including the Candidate Radio­Loud BAL Quasar 1556+3517 Patrick B. Hall Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave line quasar (RLBAL) has been reported by Becker et al. (1997). We present JHK observations

Martini, Paul

152

Broad-Band Continuum and Line Emission of the gamma-Ray Blazar PKS 0537-441  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PKS 0537-441, a bright gamma ray emitting blazar was observed at radio, optical, UV and X-ray frequencies during various EGRET paintings, often quasi-simultaneously. In 1995 the object was found in an intense emission state at all wavelengths. BeppoSAX observations made in 1998, non-simultaneously with exposures at other frequencies, allow us to characterize precisely the spectral shape of the high energy blazer component, which we attribute to inverse Compton scatter in The optical-to-gamma-ray spectral energy distributions at the different epochs show that the gamma-ray luminosity dominates the barometric output. This, together with the presence of optical and UV line emission, suggests that, besides the synchrotron self-Compton mechanism, the Compton upscattering of photons external to the jet (e.g., in the broad line region) may have a significant role for high energy radiation. The multiwavelength variability can be reproduced by changes of the plasma bulk Lorentz factor. The spectrum secured by ICE in 1995 appears to be partially absorbed shortward of approximately 1700 Angstroms. However, this signature is not detected in the HST spectrum taker during a lower state of the source. The presence of intervening absorbers is not supported by optical imaging and spectroscopy of the field.

Pian, E.; Falomo, R.; Hartman, R. C.; Maraschi, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Tornikoski, M.; Treves, A.; Urry, C. M.; Ballo, L.; Mukherjee, R.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

153

Discovery of an Obscured Broad-Line Region in the High-Redshift Radio Galaxy MRC 2025-218.  

PubMed

This Letter presents infrared spectra taken with the newly commissioned near-infrared spectrometer (NIRSPEC) on the Keck II telescope of the high-redshift radio galaxy MRC 2025-218 (z=2.63). These observations represent the deepest infrared spectra of a radio galaxy to date and have allowed for the detection of Hbeta, [O iii] lambdalambda4959, 5007, [O i] lambda6300, Halpha, [N ii] lambdalambda6548, 6583, and [S ii] lambdalambda6716, 6713. The Halpha emission is very broad (FWHM=9300 km s-1) and luminous (2.6x1044 ergs s-1), and it is very comparable to the line widths and strengths of radio-loud quasars at the same redshift. This strongly supports active galactic nucleus unification models linking radio galaxies and quasars, although we discuss some of the outstanding differences. The line [O iii] lambda5007 is extremely strong and has extended emission with large relative velocities toward the nucleus. We also derive that if the extended emission is due to star formation, each knot has a star formation rate comparable to a Lyman-break galaxy at the same redshift. PMID:10727392

Larkin; McLean; Graham; Becklin; Figer; Gilbert; Levenson; Teplitz; Wilcox; Glassman

2000-04-10

154

A comparison of C IV and H-beta broad emission-line profiles in low-redshift active galactic nuclei  

SciTech Connect

Recently published IUE spectra of low-redshift QSOs and Seyfert 1 galaxies have permitted a comparison of the profiles of the C IV 1549A and H-beta broad emission lines. A linear correlation between the FWHM values of the profiles has been found in a sample of 19 objects and is verified to not be the result of separate correlations between these parameters and luminosity. Interpreted in terms of the geometry of the broad-line region, this result is contrary to models which predict low-ionization line emission from an optically thick, geometrically thin accretion disk surrounding the central object. Current evidence favors a model in which broad-line emission arises predominantly in a stratified ensemble of clouds moving radially relative to the central continuum source. 46 refs.

Corbin, M.R. (Ohio State University, Columbus (USA))

1991-04-01

155

Broad Line Radio Galaxies Observed with Fermi-LAT: The Origin of the GeV Gamma-Ray Emission  

SciTech Connect

We report on a detailed investigation of the {gamma}-ray emission from 18 broad line radio galaxies (BLRGs) based on two years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data. We confirm the previously reported detections of 3C 120 and 3C 111 in the GeV photon energy range; a detailed look at the temporal characteristics of the observed {gamma}-ray emission reveals in addition possible flux variability in both sources. No statistically significant {gamma}-ray detection of the other BLRGs was however found in the considered dataset. Though the sample size studied is small, what appears to differentiate 3C 111 and 3C 120 from the BLRGs not yet detected in {gamma}-rays is the particularly strong nuclear radio flux. This finding, together with the indications of the {gamma}-ray flux variability and a number of other arguments presented, indicate that the GeV emission of BLRGs is most likely dominated by the beamed radiation of relativistic jets observed at intermediate viewing angles. In this paper we also analyzed a comparison sample of high accretion-rate Seyfert 1 galaxies, which can be considered radio-quiet counterparts of BLRGs, and found none were detected in {gamma}-rays. A simple phenomenological hybrid model applied for the broad-band emission of the discussed radio-loud and radio-quiet type 1 active galaxies suggests that the relative contribution of the nuclear jets to the accreting matter is {ge} 1% on average for BLRGs, while {le} 0.1% for Seyfert 1 galaxies.

Kataoka, J.; /Waseda U., RISE; Stawarz, L.; /JAXA, Sagamihara /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.; Takahashi, Y.; /Waseda U., RISE; Cheung, C.C.; /Natl. Acad. Sci. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Hayashida, M.; /SLAC /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Grandi, P.; /Bologna Observ.; Burnett, T.H.; /Washington U., Seattle; Celotti, A.; /SISSA, Trieste; Fegan, S.J.; Fortin, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Maeda, K.; Nakamori, T.; /Waseda U., RISE; Taylor, G.B.; /New Mexico U.; Tosti, G.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Digel, S.W.; /SLAC /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; McConville, W.; /NASA, Goddard /Maryland U.; Finke, J.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; D'Ammando, F.; /IASF, Palermo /INAF, Rome

2012-06-07

156

SN 2010ay IS A LUMINOUS AND BROAD-LINED TYPE Ic SUPERNOVA WITHIN A LOW-METALLICITY HOST GALAXY  

SciTech Connect

We report on our serendipitous pre-discovery detection and follow-up observations of the broad-lined Type Ic supernova (SN Ic) 2010ay at z = 0.067 imaged by the Pan-STARRS1 3{pi} survey just {approx}4 days after explosion. The supernova (SN) had a peak luminosity, M{sub R} Almost-Equal-To -20.2 mag, significantly more luminous than known GRB-SNe and one of the most luminous SNe Ib/c ever discovered. The absorption velocity of SN 2010ay is v{sub Si} Almost-Equal-To 19 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} km s{sup -1} at {approx}40 days after explosion, 2-5 times higher than other broad-lined SNe and similar to the GRB-SN 2010bh at comparable epochs. Moreover, the velocity declines {approx}2 times slower than other SNe Ic-BL and GRB-SNe. Assuming that the optical emission is powered by radioactive decay, the peak magnitude implies the synthesis of an unusually large mass of {sup 56}Ni, M{sub Ni} = 0.9 M{sub Sun }. Applying scaling relations to the light curve, we estimate a total ejecta mass, M{sub ej} Almost-Equal-To 4.7 M{sub Sun }, and total kinetic energy, E{sub K} Almost-Equal-To 11 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 51} erg. The ratio of M{sub Ni} to M{sub ej} is {approx}2 times as large for SN 2010ay as typical GRB-SNe and may suggest an additional energy reservoir. The metallicity (log (O/H){sub PP04} + 12 = 8.19) of the explosion site within the host galaxy places SN 2010ay in the low-metallicity regime populated by GRB-SNe, and {approx}0.5(0.2) dex lower than that typically measured for the host environments of normal (broad-lined) SNe Ic. We constrain any gamma-ray emission with E{sub {gamma}} {approx}< 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 48} erg (25-150 keV), and our deep radio follow-up observations with the Expanded Very Large Array rule out relativistic ejecta with energy E {approx}> 10{sup 48} erg. We therefore rule out the association of a relativistic outflow like those that accompanied SN 1998bw and traditional long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), but we place less-stringent constraints on a weak afterglow like that seen from XRF 060218. If this SN did not harbor a GRB, these observations challenge the importance of progenitor metallicity for the production of relativistic ejecta and suggest that other parameters also play a key role.

Sanders, N. E.; Soderberg, A. M.; Foley, R. J.; Chornock, R.; Chomiuk, L.; Berger, E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Valenti, S.; Smartt, S.; Botticella, M. T. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Maths and Physics, Queen's University, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Hurley, K. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Barthelmy, S. D.; Gehrels, N.; Cline, T. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Levesque, E. M. [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Narayan, G. [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, V. [CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL (United States); Terada, Y. [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama-shi, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Golenetskii, S.; Mazets, E., E-mail: nsanders@cfa.harvard.edu [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Laboratory for Experimental Astrophysics, 26 Polytekhnicheskaya, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); and others

2012-09-10

157

Constraining UV Continuum Slopes of Active Galactic Nuclei with CLOUDY Models of Broad-line Region Extreme-ultraviolet Emission Lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the composition and structure of the broad-line region (BLR) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is important for answering many outstanding questions in supermassive black hole evolution, galaxy evolution, and ionization of the intergalactic medium. We used single-epoch UV spectra from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope to measure EUV emission-line fluxes from four individual AGNs with 0.49 <= z <= 0.64, two AGNs with 0.32 <= z <= 0.40, and a composite of 159 AGNs. With the CLOUDY photoionization code, we calculated emission-line fluxes from BLR clouds with a range of density, hydrogen ionizing flux, and incident continuum spectral indices. The photoionization grids were fit to the observations using single-component and locally optimally emitting cloud (LOC) models. The LOC models provide good fits to the measured fluxes, while the single-component models do not. The UV spectral indices preferred by our LOC models are consistent with those measured from COS spectra. EUV emission lines such as N IV ?765, O II ?833, and O III ?834 originate primarily from gas with electron temperatures between 37,000 K and 55,000 K. This gas is found in BLR clouds with high hydrogen densities (n H >= 1012 cm-3) and hydrogen ionizing photon fluxes (?H >= 1022 cm-2 s-1). Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the data archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute. STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

Moloney, Joshua; Shull, J. Michael

2014-10-01

158

NuSTAR Reveals the Comptonizing Corona of the Broad-line Radio Galaxy 3C 382  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Broad-line radio galaxies (BLRGs) are active galactic nuclei that produce powerful, large-scale radio jets, but appear as Seyfert 1 galaxies in their optical spectra. In the X-ray band, BLRGs also appear like Seyfert galaxies, but with flatter spectra and weaker reflection features. One explanation for these properties is that the X-ray continuum is diluted by emission from the jet. Here, we present two NuSTAR observations of the BLRG 3C 382 that show clear evidence that the continuum of this source is dominated by thermal Comptonization, as in Seyfert 1 galaxies. The two observations were separated by over a year and found 3C 382 in different states separated by a factor of 1.7 in flux. The lower flux spectrum has a photon-index of \\Gamma =1.68^{+0.03}_{-0.02}, while the photon-index of the higher flux spectrum is \\Gamma =1.78^{+0.02}_{-0.03}. Thermal and anisotropic Comptonization models provide an excellent fit to both spectra and show that the coronal plasma cooled from kTe = 330 ± 30 keV in the low flux data to 231^{+50}_{-88} keV in the high flux observation. This cooling behavior is typical of Comptonizing corona in Seyfert galaxies and is distinct from the variations observed in jet-dominated sources. In the high flux observation, simultaneous Swift data are leveraged to obtain a broadband spectral energy distribution and indicates that the corona intercepts ~10% of the optical and ultraviolet emitting accretion disk. 3C 382 exhibits very weak reflection features, with no detectable relativistic Fe K? line, that may be best explained by an outflowing corona combined with an ionized inner accretion disk.

Ballantyne, D. R.; Bollenbacher, J. M.; Brenneman, L. W.; Madsen, K. K.; Balokovi?, M.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Gandhi, P.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Lohfink, A. M.; Marinucci, A.; Markwardt, C. B.; Stern, D.; Walton, D. J.; Zhang, W. W.

2014-10-01

159

NGC 5548: The AGN Energy Budget Problem and the Geometry of the Broad-Line Region and Torus  

E-print Network

We consider in detail the spectral energy distribution (SED) and multi-wavelength variability of NGC5548. Comparison with the SEDs of other AGNs implies that the internal reddening of NGC5548 is E(B-V) = 0.17 mag. The extinction curve is consistent with the mean curve of other AGNs found by Gaskell & Benker, but inconsistent with an SMC-type reddening curve. Because most IR emission originates exterior to the broad-line region (BLR), the SED seen by the inner BLR is different from that seen by the outer BLR and from the earth. The most likely BLR covering factor is ~ 40% and it is not possible to get an overall BLR covering factor of less than 20%. This requires that the BLR is not spherically symmetric and that we are viewing through a hole. Line-continuum variability transfer functions are consistent with this geometry. The covering factor and geometry imply that near the equatorial plane the BLR covering approaches 100%. The spectrum seen by the outer regions of the BLR and by the torus is thus modified by the absorption in the inner BLR. This shielding solves the problem of observed BLR ionization stratification being much greater than implied by photoionization models. The BLR obscuration also removes the problem of the torus covering factor being greater than the BLR covering factor, and gives consistency with the observed fraction of obscured AGNs. The flux reduction at the torus also reduces the problem of AGN dust-reverberation lags giving sizes smaller than the dust-sublimation radii.

C. Martin Gaskell; Elizabeth S. Klimek; Ludmila S. Nazarova

2007-11-07

160

Variability of Soft X-ray Spectral Shape: Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies versus Broad-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies  

E-print Network

In order to understand how the soft X-ray spectra vary we present the Hardness Ratio 1 versus Count Rates (HR1-CTs) correlation of 8 Narrow-line Seyfert 1 Galaxies (NLS1s) and 14 Broad-line Seyfert1 Galaxies (BLS1s) obtained during the ROSAT PSPC pointing observations. According to our criteria, six of the NLS1s show a positive HR1-CTs correlation, and seven of the BLS1s display an anti-correlation of HR1 versus CTs. The other 2 NLS1s and 7 BLS1s do not show a clear HR1-CTs correlation. From these we can see that the NLS1s statistically show a different spectral shape variability with flux change from the BLS1s: the spectra of NLS1s become harder as total flux increases while those of BLS1s soften. We attribute the different spectral variations to a strong stable 'soft excess' in NLS1s, while it is weak in BLS1s. For two types of objects, the power law component similarly becomes softer with increasing intensity. These imply that the soft excess originates from the Big Blue Bump and power law emission is from Compton upscattering of UV or Soft X-ray photons. Our results are consistent with what is widely accepted that NLS1s have smaller black hole masses and higher accretion rates than BLS1s.

Linpeng Cheng; Jianyan Wei; Yongheng Zhao

2001-10-26

161

High-resolution line-shape spectroscopy during a laser pulse based on Dual-Broad-Band-CARS interferometry  

SciTech Connect

A high-resolution spectroscopic method is developed for recording Raman spectra of molecular transitions in transient objects during a laser pulse with a resolution of {approx}0.1 cm{sup -1}. The method is based on CARS spectroscopy using a Fabry-Perot interferometer for spectral analysis of the CARS signal and detecting a circular interferometric pattern on a two-dimensional multichannel photodetector. It is shown that the use of the Dual-Broad-Band-CARS configuration to obtain the CARS process provides the efficient averaging of the spectral-amplitude noise of the CARS signal generated by a laser pulse and, in combination with the angular integration of the two-dimensional interference pattern, considerably improves the quality of interferograms. The method was tested upon diagnostics of the transient oxygen-hydrogen flame where information on the shapes of spectral lines of the Q-branch of hydrogen molecules required for measuring temperature was simultaneously obtained and used. (special issue devoted to the 90th anniversary of a.m. prokhorov)

Vereschagin, Konstantin A; Vereschagin, Alexey K; Smirnov, Valery V; Stelmakh, O M; Fabelinskii, V I [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Clauss, W; Klimenko, D N; Oschwald, M, E-mail: veresch@kapella.gpi.r, E-mail: Al_Vereshchagin@mail.r, E-mail: vvs@kapella.gpi.r, E-mail: stelmakh@kapella.gpi.r [German Aerospace Research Centre, DLR, Hardthausen (Germany)

2006-07-31

162

On the dynamics of clouds in the broad-line region of AGNs with an ADAF atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate orbital motion of spherical, pressure-confined clouds in the broad-line region (BLR) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The combined influence of gravity of the central object and the non-isotropic radiation of the central source are taking into account. While most of the previous studies assume that the pressure of the intercloud gaseous component is proportional to a power-law function of the radial coordinate, we generalize it to a case where the external pressure depends on both the radial distance and the latitudinal angle. Our prescribed pressure profile determines the radius and the column density of BLR clouds as a function of their location. We also discuss about stability of the orbits and a condition for the existence of bound orbits is obtained. We found that BLR clouds tend to populate the equatorial regions more than other parts simply because of the stability considerations. Although this finding is obtained for a particular pressure profile, we think, this result is valid as long as the pressure distribution of the intercloud medium decreases from the equator to the pole.

Khajenabi, Fazeleh

2015-01-01

163

On the dynamics of clouds in the broad-line region of AGNs with an ADAF atmosphere  

E-print Network

We investigate orbital motion of spherical, pressure-confined clouds in the broad-line region (BLR) of active galactic nuclei (AGN). The combined influence of gravity of the central object and the non-isotropic radiation of the central source are taking into account. While most of the previous studies assume that the pressure of the intercloud gaseous component is proportional to a power-law function of the radial coordinate, we generalize it to a case where the external pressure depends on both the radial distance and the latitudinal angle. Our prescribed pressure profile determines the radius and the column density of BLR clouds as a function of their location. We also discuss about stability of the orbits and a condition for the existence of bound orbits is obtained. We found that BLR clouds tend to populate the equatorial regions more than other parts simply because of the stability considerations. Although this finding is obtained for a particular pressure profile, we think, this result is valid as long ...

Khajenabi, Fazeleh

2014-01-01

164

Weak Hard X-Ray Emission from Broad Absorption Line Quasars: Evidence for Intrinsic X-Ray Weakness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report NuSTAR observations of a sample of six X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. These targets, at z = 0.148-1.223, are among the optically brightest and most luminous BAL quasars known at z < 1.3. However, their rest-frame ?2 keV luminosities are 14 to >330 times weaker than expected for typical quasars. Our results from a pilot NuSTAR study of two low-redshift BAL quasars, a Chandra stacking analysis of a sample of high-redshift BAL quasars, and a NuSTAR spectral analysis of the local BAL quasar Mrk 231 have already suggested the existence of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL quasars, i.e., quasars not emitting X-rays at the level expected from their optical/UV emission. The aim of the current program is to extend the search for such extraordinary objects. Three of the six new targets are weakly detected by NuSTAR with <~ 45 counts in the 3-24 keV band, and the other three are not detected. The hard X-ray (8-24 keV) weakness observed by NuSTAR requires Compton-thick absorption if these objects have nominal underlying X-ray emission. However, a soft stacked effective photon index (?eff ? 1.8) for this sample disfavors Compton-thick absorption in general. The uniform hard X-ray weakness observed by NuSTAR for this and the pilot samples selected with <10 keV weakness also suggests that the X-ray weakness is intrinsic in at least some of the targets. We conclude that the NuSTAR observations have likely discovered a significant population (gsim 33%) of intrinsically X-ray weak objects among the BAL quasars with significantly weak <10 keV emission. We suggest that intrinsically X-ray weak quasars might be preferentially observed as BAL quasars.

Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Alexander, D. M.; Stern, D.; Teng, S. H.; Arévalo, P.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Craig, W. W.; Farrah, D.; Gandhi, P.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Koss, M.; Ogle, P.; Puccetti, S.; Saez, C.; Scott, A. E.; Walton, D. J.; Zhang, W. W.

2014-10-01

165

NuSTAR Reveals the Comptonizing Corona of the Broad-Line Radio Galaxy 3C 382  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Broad-line radio galaxies (BLRGs) are active galactic nuclei that produce powerful, large-scale radio jets, but appear as Seyfert 1 galaxies in their optical spectra. In the X-ray band, BLRGs also appear like Seyfert galaxies, but with flatter spectra and significantly weaker reflection features. One possible explanation for these properties is that the X-ray continuum is diluted by emission from the jet. Here, we present two NuSTAR observations of the BLRG 3C 382 that show clear evidence that the continuum of this source is dominated by thermal Comptonization, as in Seyfert 1 galaxies. The two observations were seperated by over a year and found 3C 382 in different states separated by a factor of 1.7 in flux. The lower flux spectrum has a photon-index of ?=1.68+0.03-0.02, while the photon-index of the higher flux spectrum is ?=1.78+0.02-0.03. Thermal and anisotropic Comptonization models provide an excellent fit to both spectra and show that the coronal plasma cooled from kTe=228± 19 keV in the low flux data to 158+35-76 keV in the high flux observation (assuming a slab geometry). These are precisely the characteristics of a Comptonizing corona, and are distinct from those found in jet-dominated sources. 3C 382 exhibits very weak reflection features, which may be best explained by an outflowing corona combined with an ionized inner accretion disk.

Ballantyne, David R.; Bollenbacher, John; Brenneman, Laura; Madsen, Kristin; Balokovic, Mislav; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn; Craig, William W.; Gandhi, Poshak; Hailey, Charles James; Harrison, Fiona; Lohfink, Anne M.; Marinucci, Andrea; Markwardt, Craig; Stern, Daniel; Walton, Dom; Zhang, William

2014-08-01

166

STAR FORMATION IN SELF-GRAVITATING DISKS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. I. METALLICITY GRADIENTS IN BROAD-LINE REGIONS  

SciTech Connect

It has been suggested that the high metallicity generally observed in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and quasars originates from ongoing star formation in the self-gravitating part of accretion disks around supermassive black holes (SMBHs). We designate this region as the star-forming (SF) disk, in which metals are produced from supernova explosions (SNexp) while at the same time inflows are driven by SNexp-excited turbulent viscosity to accrete onto the SMBHs. In this paper, an equation of metallicity governed by SNexp and radial advection is established to describe the metal distribution and evolution in the SF disk. We find that the metal abundance is enriched at different rates at different positions in the disk, and that a metallicity gradient is set up that evolves for steady-state AGNs. Metallicity as an integrated physical parameter can be used as a probe of the SF disk age during one episode of SMBH activity. In the SF disk, evaporation of molecular clouds heated by SNexp blast waves unavoidably forms hot gas. This heating is eventually balanced by the cooling of the hot gas, but we show that the hot gas will escape from the SF disk before being cooled, and diffuse into the broad-line regions (BLRs) forming with a typical rate of {approx}1 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. The diffusion of hot gas from an SF disk depends on ongoing star formation, leading to the metallicity gradients in BLR observed in AGNs. We discuss this and other observable consequences of this scenario.

Wang Jianmin; Ge Junqiang; Hu Chen; Li Yanrng; Xiang Fei; Zhang Shu [Key Laboratory for Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19B Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Baldwin, Jack A. [Physics and Astronomy Department, 3270 Biomedical Physical Sciences Building, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Ferland, Gary J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 177 Chemistry/Physics Building, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Yan Changshuo, E-mail: wangjm@mail.ihep.ac.cn [National Astronomical Observatories of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Beijing 100020 (China)

2011-09-20

167

Differential interferometry of QSO broad-line regions - I. Improving the reverberation mapping model fits and black hole mass estimates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reverberation mapping (RM) estimates the size and kinematics of broad-line regions (BLR) in quasars and type I AGNs. It yields size-luminosity relation to make QSOs standard cosmological candles, and mass-luminosity relation to study the evolution of black holes and galaxies. The accuracy of these relations is limited by the unknown geometry of the BLR clouds distribution and velocities. We analyse the independent BLR structure constraints given by super-resolving differential interferometry. We developed a three-dimensional BLR model to compute all differential interferometry and RM signals. We extrapolate realistic noises from our successful observations of the QSO 3C 273 with AMBER on the VLTI. These signals and noises quantify the differential interferometry capacity to discriminate and measure BLR parameters including angular size, thickness, spatial distribution of clouds, local-to-global and radial-to-rotation velocity ratios, and finally central black hole mass and BLR distance. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo model-fit, of data simulated for various VLTI instruments, gives mass accuracies between 0.06 and 0.13 dex, to be compared to 0.44 dex for RM mass-luminosity fits. We evaluate the number of QSOs accessible to observe with current (AMBER), upcoming (GRAVITY) and possible (OASIS with new generation fringe trackers) VLTI instruments. With available technology, the VLTI could resolve more than 60 BLRs, with a luminosity range larger than four decades, sufficient for a good calibration of RM mass-luminosity laws, from an analysis of the variation of BLR parameters with luminosity.

Rakshit, Suvendu; Petrov, Romain G.; Meilland, Anthony; Hönig, Sebastian F.

2015-03-01

168

Modeling Reverberation Mapping Data: Precise Black Hole Masses and Constraints on the Geometry and Dynamics of the Broad Line Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present dynamical modeling of the broad line region (BLR) using high-quality reverberation mapping data taken as part of the Lick AGN Monitoring Project 2008 and 2010 MDM campaigns. While traditional reverberation mapping analysis yields estimates of the mean radius of the BLR, c ?, and black hole mass, Mvir = (f v2 c ?)/G, the dynamical modeling approach yields further constraints on the geometry and dynamics of the BLR and a measurement of the black hole mass that does not depend upon the normalizing factor f. For this combined sample of 10 AGN, we generally measure the black hole mass to within 0.15-0.3 dex uncertainty, a significant improvement over the ~0.4 dex uncertainty assumed when using an average value of f. We also find that the H?-emitting BLR is typically a nearly face-on thick disk with dynamics dominated by near-circular or inflowing orbits. We also test whether the normalizing factor f is correlated with any properties of the BLR or AGN that might lead to more precise reverberation mapping or single-epoch black hole mass measurements without dynamical modeling. Measuring black hole masses precisely in AGN is crucial for understanding the co-evolution of black holes and their host galaxies. Dynamical modeling of reverberation mapping data has provided the first detailed constraints on the geometry and dynamics of the BLR and has the potential to provide a more precise measurement of the average f factor, reducing the uncertainties in all AGN black hole mass measurements.

Pancoast, Anna; Brewer, Brendon J.; Treu, Tommaso; Grier, Catherine; LAMP 2008

2015-01-01

169

Purification and preliminary characterization of mitochondrial complex I (NADH: ubiquinone reductase) from broad bean (Vicia faba L.).  

PubMed Central

NADH:ubiquinone reductase (EC 1.6.19.3), or complex I, was isolated from broad bean (Vicia faba L.) mitochondria. Osmotic shock and sequential treatment with 0.2% (v/v) Triton X-100 and 0.5% (w/v) [3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfate (CHAPS) removed all other NADH dehydrogenase activities. Complex I was solubilized in the presence of 4% Triton X-100 and then purified by sucrose-gradient centrifugation in the presence of the same detergent. The second purification step was hydroxylapatite chromatography. Substitution of CHAPS for Triton X-100 helped remove contaminants such as ATPase. The high molecular mass complex is composed of at least 26 subunits with molecular masses ranging from 6000 to 75,000 kD. The purified complex I reduced ferricyanide and ubiquinone analogs but not cytochrome c. NADPH could not substitute for NADH as an electron donor. The KM for NADH was 20 microM at the optimum pH of 8.0. The NH2-terminal sequence of several subunits was determined, revealing the ambiguous nature of the 42-kD subunit. PMID:8108509

Leterme, S; Boutry, M

1993-01-01

170

Herschel-ATLAS: the far-infrared properties and star formation rates of broad absorption line quasi-stellar objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used data from the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large-Area Survey (H-ATLAS) at 250, 350 and 500 ?m to determine the far-infrared (FIR) properties of 50 broad absorption line quasars (BAL QSOs). Our sample contains 49 high-ionization BAL QSOs (HiBALs) and one low-ionization BAL QSO (LoBAL) which are compared against a sample of 329 non-BAL QSOs. These samples are matched over the redshift range 1.5 ? z < 2.3 and in absolute i-band magnitude over the range -28 ? Mi ? -24. Of these, three BAL QSOs (HiBALs) and 27 non-BAL QSOs are detected at the >5 ? level. We calculate star formation rates (SFRs) for our individually detected HiBAL QSOs and the non-detected LoBAL QSO as well as average SFRs for the BAL and non-BAL QSO samples based on stacking the Herschel data. We find no difference between the HiBAL and non-BAL QSO samples in the FIR, even when separated based on differing BAL QSO classifications. Using Mrk 231 as a template, the weighted mean SFR is estimated to be ?240 ± 21 M? yr-1 for the full sample, although this figure should be treated as an upper limit if active galactic nucleus (AGN)-heated dust makes a contribution to the FIR emission. Despite tentative claims in the literature, we do not find a dependence of C IV equivalent width on FIR emission, suggesting that the strength of any outflow in these objects is not linked to their FIR output. These results strongly suggest that BAL QSOs (more specifically HiBALs) can be accommodated within a simple AGN unified scheme in which our line of sight to the nucleus intersects outflowing material. Models in which HiBALs are caught towards the end of a period of enhanced spheroid and black hole growth, during which a wind terminates the star formation activity, are not supported by the observed FIR properties. The Herschel-ATLAS is a project with Herschel, which is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA. The H-ATLAS website is http://www/h-atlas.org/.

Cao Orjales, J. M.; Stevens, J. A.; Jarvis, M. J.; Smith, D. J. B.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Auld, R.; Baes, M.; Cava, A.; Clements, D. L.; Cooray, A.; Coppin, K.; Dariush, A.; De Zotti, G.; Dunne, L.; Dye, S.; Eales, S.; Hopwood, R.; Hoyos, C.; Ibar, E.; Ivison, R. J.; Maddox, S.; Page, M. J.; Valiante, E.

2012-12-01

171

Conversion of complex contour line definitions into polygonal element mosaics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple algorithm is presented for processing complex contour arrangements to produce polygonal element mosaics which are suitable for line drawing and continuous tone display. The program proceeds by mapping adjacent contours onto the same unit square and, subject to ordering limitations, connecting nodes of one contour to their nearest neighbors in the other contour. While the mapping procedure provides

H. N. Christiansen; T. W. Sederberg

1978-01-01

172

The Discovery of Broad P Cygni X-ray Lines from Circinus X-1 with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer  

E-print Network

We present the first grating-resolution X-ray spectra of the X-ray binary Cir X-1, obtained with the High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer on Chandra. These reveal a rich set of lines from H-like and/or He-like Ne, Mg, Si, S and Fe detected with a high signal-to-noise ratio. The lines are broad (+/- 2000 km/s) and show P Cygni profiles. The absorption components of the lines extend to low velocity, and they have about the same widths and strengths as the corresponding emission components. The widths of the X-ray P Cygni lines are comparable to that of the broad component of the strong, asymmetric H-alpha line from Cir X-1, suggesting that the two phenomena may be related. We discuss outflow models and propose that the P Cygni profiles may arise in the moderate temperature (5 x 10^6 K) region of the wind from an X-ray heated accretion disk. This basic picture strengthens the idea that the accretion disk in Cir X-1 is viewed in a relatively edge-on manner, and it suggests that Cir X-1 is the X-ray binary analog of a Broad Absorption Line quasar.

W. N. Brandt; N. S. Schulz

2000-07-26

173

STRONG RESPONSE OF THE VERY BROAD H{beta} EMISSION LINE IN THE LUMINOUS RADIO-QUIET QUASAR PG 1416-129  

SciTech Connect

We report new spectroscopic observations performed in 2010 and 2011 for the luminous radio-quiet quasar PG 1416-129. Our new spectra with high quality cover both H{beta} and H{alpha} regions, and show negligible line profile variation within a timescale of one year. The two spectra allow us to study the variability of the Balmer line profile by comparing the spectra with previous ones taken at 10 and 20 years ago. By decomposing the broad Balmer emission lines into two Gaussian profiles, our spectral analysis suggests a strong response to the continuum level for the very broad component, and significant variations in both bulk blueshift velocity/FWHM and flux for the broad component. The new observations additionally indicate flat Balmer decrements (i.e., too strong H{beta} emission) at the line wings, which is hard to reproduce using recent optically thin models. With these observations we argue that a separate inner optically thin emission-line region might not be necessary in the object to reproduce the observed line profiles.

Wang, J.; Li, Y., E-mail: wj@bao.ac.cn [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing (China)

2011-11-20

174

A microlensing measurement of the size of the broad emission-line region in the lensed quasar QSO 2237+0305  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present spatially resolved spectroscopic images of the gravitationally lensed quasar QSO 2237+0305 taken with the GMOS integral field unit (IFU) on the Gemini North Telescope. These observations have the best spatial resolution of any IFU observations of this object to date, and include the redshifted CIII] and MgII QSO broad lines. Unlike Mediavilla et al. some years ago, we

R. B. Wayth; M. O'Dowd; R. L. Webster

2005-01-01

175

A three-line lateral flow assay strip for the measurement of C-reactive protein covering a broad physiological concentration range in human sera.  

PubMed

The lateral flow assay (LFA) strip sensor possesses many advantages as a diagnostic device, including the capabilities of rapid, one-step assay performance, and high throughput production. A major limitation of the sensor, however, is its difficulty in measuring a broad concentration range of target proteins, including C-reactive protein (CRP), due to the "hook effect." In this study, we report the use of a three-line LFA strip sensor, adding an antigen line to the conventional two-line LFA sensor, for detecting CRP within a broad concentration range in human sera. We introduced an antigen line between test and control lines in the LFA sensor. The antigen line was formed by dispensing a CRP antibody solution followed by a CRP solution in nitrocellulose membrane. All other conditions were identical to those applied to the conventional LFA strip sensor. The CRP level in test samples was generated by data processing from the intensities of three lines. The strip sensor measured a linear detection range of CRP concentration from 1 ng/mL to 500 ?g/mL within 10 min, with a calculated detection range of 0.69 ng/mL-1.02 mg/mL. Using the developed three-line LFA sensor, 50 clinical samples were measured at a detection range of 0.4-84.7 ?g/mL. This novel and easy-to-use CRP sensor can be a useful tool for rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective detection of a broad physiological concentration range of CRP capabilities that are vital for various diagnostic applications. PMID:24906087

Oh, Young Kyoung; Joung, Hyou-Arm; Han, Hyung Soo; Suk, Ho-Jun; Kim, Min-Gon

2014-11-15

176

The Effects of S/N on Measuring CIV Broad Emission Line Widths in Quasars - An Early Science Result from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping (SDSS-RM) Project spectroscopically monitored ~850 quasars over a seven square degree field for approximately six months with the BOSS spectrograph. While the time series analysis of the quasar continuum and emission-line variability, and thereby the potential to measure reverberation time delays from this sample, is still underway, we have used the subset (roughly half) of this sample containing the CIV 1549A broad emission line to investigate the effects of S/N on measuring this broad emission line width. Line width measurements are necessary for inferring the broad line region gas velocities used to determine the quasar black hole mass. However, literature studies have suggested line width measurements, and therefore black hole mass estimates, may be biased by the use of relatively low S/N, typical survey-quality, data, compared to the high S/N data that calibrate single-epoch black hole mass scaling relations. The SDSS-RM data set provides a unique opportunity to search for any systematic uncertainties in CIV line width measurements through a comparison of line widths measured from the single-epoch spectra, which are roughly equivalent to other SDSS/BOSS quasar spectra (though still twice the exposure time) to those measured from the high-S/N, campaign co-added spectra, which contain more than 30 epochs of each source. Here we present results from this investigation, which have implications for estimating CIV single-epoch black hole masses from the SDSS/BOSS and other surveys.

Denney, Kelly; SDSS-RM Team

2015-01-01

177

Transient Positional Protection of Transmission Lines Using Complex Wavelet Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new high-speed protection scheme, transient positional protection (TPP) for power transmission lines. This scheme is developed using complex wavelet analysis, based on the concept of transient-based protection (TBP), in which the fault-generated high-frequency transient signals contained in the primary voltages are utilized to detect fault position according to their relative traveling time and polarities. Combined information

D. J. Zhang; Q. H. Wu; Z. Q. Bo; B. Caunce

2002-01-01

178

Modelling photometric reverberation data: a disk-like broad-line region and a potentially larger black hole mass for 3C 120  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider photometric reverberation mapping, where the nuclear continuum variations are monitored via a broad-band filter and the echo of emission line clouds of the broad-line region (BLR) is measured with a suitable narrow-band (NB) filter. We investigate how an incomplete emission-line coverage by the NB filter influences the determination of the BLR size. This includes two basic cases: 1) a symmetric cut of the blue and red part of the line wings; and 2) the filter positioned asymmetrically to the line centre so that essentially a complete half of the emission line is contained in the NB filter. Under the assumption that the BLR is dominated by circular Keplerian orbits, we find that symmetric cutting of line wings may lead to overestimating the BLR size by less than 5%. The case of asymmetric half-line coverage, similar as for our data of the Seyfert 1 galaxy 3C 120, yields a BLR size with a bias of less than 1%. Our results suggest that any BLR size bias due to a narrow-band line cut in photometric reverberation mapping is small and in most cases negligible. We used well-sampled photometric reverberation mapping light curves with sharp variation features in both the continuum and the H? light curves to determine the geometry type of the H? BLR for 3C 120. Modelling of the light curve, under the assumption that the BLR is essentially virialised, argues against a spherical geometry and favours a nearly face-on disk-like geometry with an inclination i = 10° ± 4° and an extension from 22 to 28 light days. The low inclination may lead to a larger black hole mass MBH than that derived when using the average geometry scaling factor f = 5.5. We discuss deviations of Seyfert 1 galaxies from the MBH-?? relation.

Pozo Nuñez, F.; Haas, M.; Ramolla, M.; Bruckmann, C.; Westhues, C.; Chini, R.; Steenbrugge, K.; Lemke, R.; Murphy, M.; Kollatschny, W.

2014-08-01

179

Keplerian Motion of Broad-Line Region Gas as Evidence for Supermassive Black Holes in Active Galactic Nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emission-line variability data on NGC 5548 argue strongly for the existence of a mass of order 7×107 Msolar within the inner few light-days of the nucleus in the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548. The time-delayed response of the emission lines to continuum variations is used to infer the size of the line-emitting region, and these determinations are combined with measurements of the Doppler widths of the variable line components to estimate a virial mass. The data for several different emission lines spanning an order of magnitude in distance from the central source show the expected V~r-1/2 correlation and are consistent with a single value for the mass.

Peterson, Bradley M.; Wandel, Amri

1999-08-01

180

One-carbon metabolism in neurodevelopmental disorders: using broad-based nutraceutics to treat cognitive deficits in complex spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

Folate and choline, two nutrients involved in the one-carbon metabolic cycle, are intimately involved in regulating DNA integrity, synthesis, biogenic amine synthesis, and methylation. In this review, we discuss evidence that folate and choline play an important role in normal cognitive development, and that altered levels of these nutrients during periods of high neuronal proliferation and synaptogenesis can result in diminished cognitive function. We also discuss the use of these nutrients as therapeutic agents in a spectrum of developmental disorders in which intellectual disability is a prominent feature, such as in Fragile-X, Rett syndrome, Down syndrome, and Autism spectrum disorders. A survey of recent literature suggests that nutritional supplements have mild, but generally consistent, effects on improving cognition. Intervening with supplements earlier rather than later during development is more effective in improving cognitive outcomes. Given the mild improvements seen after treatments using nutrients alone, and the importance of the genetic profile of parents and offspring, we suggest that using nutraceutics early in development and in combination with other therapeutics are likely to have positive impacts on cognitive outcomes in a broad spectrum of complex neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:24769289

Schaevitz, Laura; Berger-Sweeney, Joanne; Ricceri, Laura

2014-10-01

181

The broad bacterial blight resistance of rice line CBB23 is triggered by a novel transcription activator-like (TAL) effector of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.  

PubMed

Bacterial blight (BB), caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), is not only a disease devastating rice production worldwide, but also an ideal model system for the study of the interaction between plants and their bacterial pathogens. The rice near-isogenic line (NIL) CBB23, derived from a cross between a wild rice Oryza rufipogon accession (RBB16) and a susceptible indica rice variety (Jingang 30), is highly resistant to all field Xoo strains tested so far. Although the BB resistance of CBB23 has been widely used in rice breeding programmes, the mechanism of its extremely broad-spectrum resistance remains unknown. Here, we report the molecular cloning of an avirulence gene, designated as avrXa23, from Xoo strain PXO99(A) . We validate that AvrXa23, a novel transcription activator-like effector, specifically triggers the broad-spectrum BB resistance in CBB23. The prevalence of avrXa23 in all 38 Xoo strains surveyed may explain the broad-spectrum feature of BB resistance in CBB23. The results will significantly facilitate the molecular cloning of the corresponding resistance (R) gene in the host, and provide new insights into our understanding of the molecular mechanism for broad-spectrum disease resistance in plants. PMID:24286630

Wang, Chun-Lian; Qin, Teng-Fei; Yu, Hong-Man; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Che, Jin-Ying; Gao, Ying; Zheng, Chong-Ke; Yang, Bing; Zhao, Kai-Jun

2014-05-01

182

Spectrophotometry and Imaging of the Lensed, Clover Leaf Broad Absorption Line QSO 1413+117-PART II-Cyc 4 High-Spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of the gravitationally lensed "Cloverleaf" Broad Absorption Line (BAL) QSO Q1413+117 are a follow-on to a Cycle 1 proposal. Red and blue WFPC2 images and FOS spectra will be taken to achieve the following aims: (1) The red WFPC2 PC images, taken earlier in 1994, were used as EARLY ACQs and searched for other component images and the lensing galaxy. Note that the lensing was not discovered and so must be fainter than models suggest. (2) FOS data on the QSO image components will be used to check sight-line dependent differences in BAL profiles. The results can be used to place constraints on BAL region cloud sizes and shapes. WFPC2 Red (f814w) and blue(f336w) images will replace (11/94) the FOS galaxy spectrum in grating 650L. These images will yield sight-line dependent differences in dust extinction.

Turnshek, David

1994-01-01

183

The broad emission-line region: the confluence of the outer accretion disc with the inner edge of the dusty torus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the observational characteristics of a class of broad emission line region (BLR) geometries that connect the outer accretion disc with the inner edge of the dusty toroidal obscuring region (TOR). We suggest that the BLR consists of photoionized gas of densities which allow for efficient cooling by ultraviolet (UV)/optical emission lines and of incident continuum fluxes which discourage the formation of grains, and that such gas occupies the range of distance and scale height between the continuum-emitting accretion disc and the dusty TOR. As a first approximation, we assume a population of clouds illuminated by ionizing photons from the central source, with the scale height of the illuminated clouds growing with increasing radial distance, forming an effective surface of a 'bowl'. Observer lines of sight which peer into the bowl lead to a Type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGN) spectrum. We assume that the gas dynamics are dominated by gravity, and we include in this model the effects of transverse Doppler shift (TDS), gravitational redshift (GR) and scale-height-dependent macroturbulence. Our simple model reproduces many of the commonly observed phenomena associated with the central regions of AGN, including (i) the shorter than expected continuum-dust delays (geometry), (ii) the absence of response in the core of the optical recombination lines on short time-scales (geometry/photoionization), (iii) an enhanced redwing response on short time-scales (GR and TDS), (iv) the observed differences between the delays for high- and low-ionization lines (photoionization), (v) identifying one of the possible primary contributors to the observed line widths for near face-on systems even for purely transverse motion (GR and TDS), (vi) a mechanism responsible for producing Lorentzian profiles (especially in the Balmer and Mg II emission lines) in low-inclination systems (turbulence), (vii) the absence of significant continuum-emission-line delays between the line wings and line core (turbulence; such time delays are weak for virialized motion, and turbulence serves to reduce any differences which may be present), (viii) associating the boundary between population A and population B sources as the cross-over between inclination-dependent (population A) and inclination-independent (population B) line profiles (GR+TDS), (ix) a partial explanation of the differences between the emission-line profiles, here explained in terms of their line formation radius (photoionization and/or turbulence) and (x) the unexpectedly high (but necessary) covering fractions (geometry). A key motivation of this work was to reveal the physical underpinnings of the reported measurements of supermassive black hole (SMBH) masses and their uncertainties. We have driven our model with simulated continuum light curves in order to determine the virial scale factor f from measurements of the simulated continuum-emission-line delay, and the width (fwhm, ?l) and shape (fwhm / ?l) of the rms and mean line profiles for the energetically more important broad UV and optical recombination lines used in SMBH mass determinations. We thus attempt to illuminate the physical dependencies of the empirically determined value of f. We find that SMBH masses derived from measurements of the fwhm of the mean and rms profiles show the closest correspondence between the emission lines in a single object, even though the emission-line fwhm is a more biased mass indicator with respect to inclination. The predicted large discrepancies in the SMBH mass estimates between emission lines at low inclination, as derived using ?l, we suggest may be used as a means of identifying near face-on systems. Our general results do not depend on specific choices in the simplifying assumptions, but are in fact generic properties of BLR geometries with axial symmetry that span a substantial range in radially increasing scale height supported by turbulence, which then merge into the inner dusty TOR.

Goad, M. R.; Korista, K. T.; Ruff, A. J.

2012-11-01

184

Unshifted Metastable He I* Mini-broad Absorption Line System in the Narrow-line Type 1 Quasar SDSS J080248.18+551328.9  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the identification of an unusual absorption-line system in the quasar SDSS J080248.18+551328.9 and present a detailed study of the system, incorporating follow-up optical and near-IR spectroscopy. A few tens of absorption lines are detected, including He I*, Fe II*, and Ni II*, which arise from metastable or excited levels, as well as resonant lines in Mg I, Mg II, Fe II, Mn II, and Ca II. All of the isolated absorption lines show the same profile of width ?v ~ 1500 km s–1 centered at a common redshift as that of the quasar emission lines, such as [O II], [S II], and hydrogen Paschen and Balmer series. With narrow Balmer lines, strong optical Fe II multiplets, and weak [O III] doublets, its emission-line spectrum is typical for that of a narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy (NLS1). We have derived reliable measurements of the gas-phase column densities of the absorbing ions/levels. Photoionization modeling indicates that the absorber has a density of n H ~ (1.0-2.5) × 105 cm–3 and a column density of N H ~ (1.0-3.2) × 1021 cm–2 and is located at R ~100-250 pc from the central supermassive black hole. The location of the absorber, the symmetric profile of the absorption lines, and the coincidence of the absorption- and emission-line centroid jointly suggest that the absorption gas originates from the host galaxy and is plausibly accelerated by stellar processes, such as stellar winds and/or supernova explosions. The implications for the detection of such a peculiar absorption-line system in an NLS1 are discussed in the context of coevolution between supermassive black hole growth and host galaxy buildup.

Ji, Tuo; Zhou, Hongyan; Jiang, Peng; Wang, Tinggui; Ge, Jian; Wang, Huiyuan; Komossa, S.; Hamann, Fred; Zuther, Jens; Liu, Wenjuan; Lu, Honglin; Zuo, Wenwen; Yang, Chenwei; Yuan, Weimin

2015-02-01

185

Unshifted Metastable He I* Mini-Broad Absorption Line System in the Narrow Line Type 1 Quasar SDSS J080248.18$+$551328.9  

E-print Network

We report the identification of an unusual absorption line system in the quasar SDSS J080248.18$+$551328.9 and present a detailed study of the system, incorporating follow-up optical and NIR spectroscopy. A few tens of absorption lines are detected, including He I*, Fe II* and Ni II* that arise from metastable or excited levels, as well as resonant lines in Mg I, Mg II, Fe II, Mn II, and Ca II. All of the isolated absorption lines show the same profile of width $\\Delta v\\sim 1,500$km s$^{-1}$ centered at a common redshift as that of the quasar emission lines, such as [O II], [S II], and hydrogen Paschen and Balmer series. With narrow Balmer lines, strong optical Fe II multiplets, and weak [O III] doublets, its emission line spectrum is typical for that of a narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy (NLS1). We have derived reliable measurements of the gas-phase column densities of the absorbing ions/levels. Photoionization modeling indicates that the absorber has a density of $n_{\\rm H} \\sim (1.0-2.5)\\times 10^5~ {\\rm cm}^...

Ji, Tuo; Jiang, Peng; Wang, Tinggui; Ge, Jian; Wang, Huiyuan; Komossa, S; Hamann, Fred; Zuther, Jens; Liu, Wenjuan; Lu, Honglin; Zuo, Wenwen; Yang, Chenwei; Yuan, Weimin

2014-01-01

186

MISALIGNMENT OF THE JET AND THE NORMAL TO THE DUSTY TORUS IN THE BROAD ABSORPTION LINE QSO FIRST J155633.8+351758  

SciTech Connect

We performed Very Long Baseline Array observations of the broad absorption line quasar FIRST J155633.8+351758, ''the first radio loud BALQSO''. Our observations at 15.3 GHz partially resolved a secondary component at position angle (P.A.) Almost-Equal-To 35 Degree-Sign . We combine this determination of the radio jet projection on the sky plane, with the constraint that the jet is viewed within 14. Degree-Sign 3 of the line of sight (as implied by the high variability brightness temperature) and with the P.A. of the optical/UV continuum polarization in order to study the quasar geometry. Within the context of the standard model, the data indicates a ''dusty torus'' (scattering surface) with a symmetry axis tilted relative to the accretion disk normal and a polar broad absorption line outflow aligned with the accretion disk normal. We compare this geometry to that indicated by the higher resolution radio data, brightness temperature, and optical/UV continuum polarization P.A. of a similar high optical polarization BALQSO, Mrk 231. A qualitatively similar geometry is found in these two polar BALQSOs; the continuum polarization is determined primarily by the tilt of the dusty torus.

Reynolds, Cormac [ICRAR-Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, Western Australia 6102 (Australia); Punsly, Brian [1415 Granvia Altamira, Palos Verdes Estates, CA 90274 (United States); O'Dea, Christopher P., E-mail: brian.punsly1@verizon.net, E-mail: brian.punsly@comdev-usa.com [Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)

2013-08-10

187

Evidence for a Circum-Nuclear and Ionised Absorber in the X-ray Obscured Broad Line Radio Galaxy 3C 445  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Here we present the results of a Suzaku observation of the Broad Line Radio Galaxy 3C 445. We confirm the results obtained with the previous X-ray observations which unveiled the presence of several soft X-ray emission lines and an overall X-ray emission which strongly resembles a typical Seyfert 2 despite of the optical classification as an unobscured AGN. The broad band spectrum allowed us to measure for the first time the amount of reflection (R approximately 0.9) which together with the relatively strong neutral Fe Ka emission line (EW approximately 100 eV) strongly supports a scenario where a Compton-thick mirror is present. The primary X ray continuum is strongly obscured by an absorber with a column density of NH = 2 - 3 x 10(exp 23) per square centimeter. Two possible scenarios are proposed for the absorber: a neutral partial covering or a mildly ionised absorber with an ionisation parameter log xi approximately 1.0 erg centimeter per second. A comparison with the past and more recent X-ray observations of 3C 445 performed with XMM-Newton and Chandra is presented, which provided tentative evidence that the ionised and outflowing absorber varied. We argue that the absorber is probably associated with an equatorial diskwind located within the parsec scale molecular torus.

Braito, V.; Reeves, J. N.; Sambruna, R. M.; Gofford, J.

2012-01-01

188

Hubble Space Telescope Observations of the Gravitationally Lensed Cloverleaf Broad Absorption Line QSO H1413+1143: Spectroscopy of the Ly? Forest and Metal-Line Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intervening Ly? forest and metal-line absorbers toward the ``Cloverleaf'' gravitational lens H1413+1143 (zem = 2.54, mv ~ 17) are examined along the four individual sight lines using HST-FOS spectra. The observations probe the Ly? forest systems on size scales of up to 4 h-1 kpc (H0 = 100 h km s-1 Mpc-1, q0 = 0.5) and metal-line systems on scales up to 6 h-1 kpc. The equivalent widths of Ly? forest lines in general are well correlated along the four different lines of sight and are consistent with the sight lines piercing the same absorbers. The heavy-element systems clearly show evidence for differences. One striking difference is seen in a system at zabs = 2.0969 in which the Ly? line possesses a column density approaching log N(H I) = 19.7 in component B but not exceeding log N(H I) = 18.4 in any of the other three components. Simulations show that a circular absorber responsible for such a scenario has a radius of <=10 h-1 kpc with a 90% confidence level, assuming a lens redshift of zlens = 1.55. The zabs = 1.6595 system contains a probable damped Ly? line and shows evidence for rotation. A system at zabs = 1.4377 exhibits very significant Fe II absorption in only two of the components at the level of sensitivity of the observations. Examination of how the absorption-line equivalent widths are correlated between the component spectra can provide information about whether all four lines of sight to the QSO are passing through the same absorbers, placing limits on absorber sizes and shapes. The four sight lines toward H1413+1143 provide a unique geometry for this type of study. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

Monier, Eric M.; Turnshek, David A.; Lupie, Olivia L.

1998-03-01

189

Steps toward determination of the size and structure of the broad-line region in active galactic nuclei. III - Further observations of NGC 5548 at optical wavelengths  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the second year of an intensive ground-based spectroscopic and photometric study of variability in the bright Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548 are reported in order to study the relationship between continuum and emission-line variability. Relative to the first year of the monitoring program, the nucleus of NGC 5548 was considerably fainter and the continuum variations slower during the second year, but the continuum H-beta cross-correlation results for the two years are nearly identical. The variations in the broad H-beta emission-line lag behind those in the continuum by somewhat less than 20 days, as concluded from the first year's data.

Peterson, B. M.; Alloin, D.; Axon, D.; Balonek, T. J.; Bertram, R.; Boroson, T. A.; Christensen, J. A.; Clements, S. D.; Dietrich, M.; Elvis, M.

1992-01-01

190

A Chandra HETGS Spectral Study of the Iron K Bandpass in MCG-6-30-15: A Narrow View of the Broad Iron Line  

E-print Network

We present a high resolution X-ray spectrum of the iron K bandpass in MCG-6-30-15 based on a 522 ksec observation with Chandra's High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer. The Chandra spectrum is consistent with the presence of a relativistically broadened, highly redshifted iron K alpha emission line with a similar profile to previous observations. A number of narrow features are detected above 2 keV, including a narrow Fe K alpha emission line and narrow absorption lines from H- and He-like Fe, H-like S and H-like Si. This absorption is well described by a photoionized plasma with a column density log N_H = 23.2 and an ionization parameter log xi = 3.6, assuming the iron abundance has the Solar value and a velocity dispersion parameter b = 100 km/s. Applying this absorption model to a high fidelity XMM-Newton EPIC-pn spectrum we find that a broad iron line is still required with emission extending to within 1.9 gravitational radii of the black hole. If the iron line comes from an accretion disk truncated at the innermost stable circular orbit, this indicates that the black hole must be spinning rapidly with a>0.95. Ionized absorption models attempting to explain the 3-6 keV spectral curvature without strong gravity predict absorption lines in the 6.4-6.6 keV range that are inconsistent with the Chandra spectrum. The H- and He-like iron absorption lines in the Chandra spectrum are blueshifted by 2.0 (+0.7/-0.9) x 10^3 km/s compared to the source frame, and may originate in a high velocity, high ionization component of the warm absorber outflow. This high ionization component may dominate the energy budget of the outflow, and account for a significant fraction of the outflowing mass. (Abstract truncated).

A. J. Young; J. C. Lee; A. C. Fabian; C. S. Reynolds; R. R. Gibson; C. R. Canizares

2005-06-03

191

C-13H3OH in OMC-1. [and spectral line identifications combining laboratory spectroscopy with broad-band astronomical line searches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transition line data for C-13H3OH in OMC-1 were gathered with a superconducting tunnel junction receiver and a 512 channel spectrometer on a 10.4 m telescope at the Owens Valley Radio Observatory. The methanol was scanned at 236 GHz and an observational efficiency of 85 percent. The survey was carried out to complement the data base on the line frequencies of internal rotors such as methanol and thereby the resolution of the C-12/C-13 ratio toward the galactic center. The data indicated that previous emission lines attributed to CO(+) and CH3CHO are actually methanol emissions, and the associated C-12/C-13 ratio is about 30.

Blake, G. A.; Sutton, E. C.; Masson, C. R.; Phillips, T. G.; Herbst, E.; Plummer, G. M.; De Lucia, F. C.

1984-01-01

192

Looking for the broad emission lines in AGN2 with deep NIR spectroscopy and the measure of the mass of Intermediate Mass BH  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the current models of galaxy evolution, in a hierarchical cosmology low mass Black Holes (10 (4) - 10 (7) M_?) at low redshift contain clues about the formation of the first Black Holes and Galaxies. Moreover, as they extend the dynamic range of the BH-mass/galaxy scaling relations to extreme values, they could be very useful in constraining the AGN/Galaxy co-evolutionary models. In the past years, in the framework of the verification of the AGN unified model, there have been several attempts to detect faint broad emission lines in type 2 AGN with both NIR and polarised spectroscopy. We here present the new results from a systematic study, performed using deep NIR (VLT and LBT) spectroscopy, of about 50 AGN2, drawn from the complete SWIFT/BAT 22-month had X-ray selected sample. A new virial relation able to measure the BH mass using the broad component of the Paschenbeta line will be also presented. Thanks to the above relation we have been able to directly measure, when the BLR has been detected, the BH mass of type 2 AGNs, finding that AGN2 show on average lower masses than the AGN1 population. The implications to the AGN unified model and AGN/galaxy co-evolution scenarios will be discussed.

Onori, Francesca; La Franca, Fabio; Ricci, Federica

193

Spectrophotometry and Imaging of the Lensed, Clover Leaf Broad Absorption Line QSO 1413+117-PART II-Cyc 4 High-Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of the gravitationally lensed "Cloverleaf" Broad Absorption Line (BAL) QSO Q1413+117 are proposed as a follow-on to a Cycle 1 proposal. Red and UV WFPC2 images and FOS spectra will be taken to achieve the following aims: (1) The red WFPC2 PC images will be used as an EARLY ACQ and to search for other component images and the lensing galaxy, followed by FOS observations to determine the galaxy's redshift. The information will be used to delineate and model the geometry of this unique gravitationally lensed BAL QSO. (2) FOS data on the QSO image components will be used to check sight-line dependent differences in the BAL profiles. The results can be used to place constraints on BAL region cloud sizes and shapes. (3) The same FOS observations will be used to constrain the sizes and shapes of Ly-alpha forest clouds and two intervening narrow absorption-line metal systems. (4) The UV and red images will be compared to search for possible sight-line dependent differences in dust-extinction. Thus, results from this study will yield relevant information on a number of different important astrophysical problems.

Turnshek, David

1994-01-01

194

The Dependence of C IV Broad Absorption Line Properties on Accompanying Si IV and Al III Absorption: Relating Quasar-wind Ionization Levels, Kinematics, and Column Densities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider how the profile and multi-year variability properties of a large sample of C IV Broad Absorption Line (BAL) troughs change when BALs from Si IV and/or Al III are present at corresponding velocities, indicating that the line of sight intercepts at least some lower ionization gas. We derive a number of observational results for C IV BALs separated according to the presence or absence of accompanying lower ionization transitions, including measurements of composite profile shapes, equivalent width (EW), characteristic velocities, composite variation profiles, and EW variability. We also measure the correlations between EW and fractional-EW variability for C IV, Si IV, and Al III. Our measurements reveal the basic correlated changes between ionization level, kinematics, and column density expected in accretion-disk wind models; e.g., lines of sight including lower ionization material generally show deeper and broader C IV troughs that have smaller minimum velocities and that are less variable. Many C IV BALs with no accompanying Si IV or Al III BALs may have only mild or no saturation.

Filiz Ak, N.; Brandt, W. N.; Hall, P. B.; Schneider, D. P.; Trump, J. R.; Anderson, S. F.; Hamann, F.; Myers, Adam D.; Pâris, I.; Petitjean, P.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Shen, Yue; York, Don

2014-08-01

195

Detecting Compton Reflection and a Broad Iron Line in MCG-5-23-16 with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer  

E-print Network

We report the detection with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer of a Compton reflection signature in the Seyfert galaxy MCG-5-23-16. RXTE also resolves the Fe K-alpha fluorescence line with FWHM ~48,000 km s^{-1}. This measurement provides the first independent confirmation of ASCA detections in Seyfert galaxies of broad Fe K-alpha lines that are thought to be the signature of emission from the inner regions of an accretion disk orbiting a black hole. Under the assumption that reflection arises from an isotropic source located above a neutral accretion disk, and using a theoretical model that accounts for the dependence of the reflected spectrum on inclination angle, we derive a 90% confidence range for the disk inclination of i = 50 to 81 degrees. The large inclination is consistent with that expected from the unified model for MCG-5-23-16 based on its Seyfert 1.9 classification. If we assume that the high-energy cutoff in the incident spectrum lies at energies larger than a few hundred keV, then the equivalent width of the Fe K-alpha line is much larger than predicted for the amount of reflection. This implies either an enhanced iron abundance, a covering factor of reflecting material > 0.5, or a cutoff in the incident spectrum at energies between ~60 and ~200 keV.

K. A. Weaver; J. H. Krolik; E. A. Pier

1997-12-02

196

Steps toward determination of the size and structure of the broad-line region in active nuclei. 7: Variability of the optical spectrum of NGC 5548 over years  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report on the results of a continuation of a large monitoring program of optical spectroscopy of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548. The new observations presented here were obtained between 1990 December and 1992 October, and extend the existing database to nearly 1400 days, dating back to 1988 December. The continuum variations are generally smooth and well-resolved, except during the third year of this 4 year project, when the variations were apparently more rapid and of lower amplitude than observed at other times. The broad H(beta) emission line is found to vary in response to the continuum variations with a lag of about 18 days, but with some changes from year to year. The H(beta) transfer functions for each of the 4 yr and for the entire 4 yr database are derived by using a maximum entropy method.

Peterson, B. M.; Berlind, P.; Bertram, R.; Bochkarev, N. G.; Bond, D.; Brotherton, M. S.; Busler, J. R.; Chuvaev, K. K.; Cohen, R. D.; Dietrich, M.

1994-01-01

197

Short-timescale Monitoring of the X-Ray, UV, and Broad Double-peak Emission Line of the Nucleus of NGC 1097  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies have suggested that the short-timescale (lsim 7 days) variability of the broad (~10,000 km s–1) double-peaked H? profile of the LINER nucleus of NGC 1097 could be driven by a variable X-ray emission from a central radiatively inefficient accretion flow. To test this scenario, we have monitored the NGC 1097 nucleus in X-ray and UV continuum with Swift and the H? flux and profile in the optical spectrum using SOAR and Gemini-South from 2012 August to 2013 February. During the monitoring campaign, the H? flux remained at a very low level—three times lower than the maximum flux observed in previous campaigns and showing only limited (~20%) variability. The X-ray variations were small, only ~13% throughout the campaign, while the UV did not show significant variations. We concluded that the timescale of the H? profile variation is close to the sampling interval of the optical observations, which results in only a marginal correlation between the X-ray and H? fluxes. We have caught the active galaxy nucleus in NGC 1097 in a very low activity state, in which the ionizing source was very weak and capable of ionizing just the innermost part of the gas in the disk. Nonetheless, the data presented here still support the picture in which the gas that emits the broad double-peaked Balmer lines is illuminated/ionized by a source of high-energy photons which is located interior to the inner radius of the line-emitting part of the disk.

Schimoia, Jaderson S.; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Grupe, Dirk; Eracleous, Michael; Peterson, Bradley M.; Baldwin, Jack A.; Nemmen, Rodrigo S.; Winge, Cláudia

2015-02-01

198

THE DEMOGRAPHICS OF BROAD-LINE QUASARS IN THE MASS-LUMINOSITY PLANE. II. BLACK HOLE MASS AND EDDINGTON RATIO FUNCTIONS  

SciTech Connect

We employ a flexible Bayesian technique to estimate the black hole (BH) mass and Eddington ratio functions for Type 1 (i.e., broad line) quasars from a uniformly selected data set of {approx}58, 000 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR7. We find that the SDSS becomes significantly incomplete at M {sub BH} {approx}< 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M {sub Sun} or L/L {sub Edd} {approx}< 0.07, and that the number densities of Type 1 quasars continue to increase down to these limits. Both the mass and Eddington ratio functions show evidence of downsizing, with the most massive and highest Eddington ratio BHs experiencing Type 1 quasar phases first, although the Eddington ratio number densities are flat at z < 2. We estimate the maximum Eddington ratio of Type 1 quasars in the observable universe to be L/L {sub Edd} {approx} 3. Consistent with our results in Shen and Kelly, we do not find statistical evidence for a so-called sub-Eddington boundary in the mass-luminosity plane of broad-line quasars, and demonstrate that such an apparent boundary in the observed distribution can be caused by selection effect and errors in virial BH mass estimates. Based on the typical Eddington ratio in a given mass bin, we estimate growth times for the BHs in Type 1 quasars and find that they are comparable to or longer than the age of the universe, implying an earlier phase of accelerated (i.e., with higher Eddington ratios) and possibly obscured growth. The large masses probed by our sample imply that most of our BHs reside in what are locally early-type galaxies, and we interpret our results within the context of models of self-regulated BH growth.

Kelly, Brandon C. [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93107 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93107 (United States); Shen, Yue [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-51, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)] [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-51, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2013-02-10

199

Experimental and numerical understanding of localized spin wave mode behavior in broadly tunable spatially complex magnetic configurations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spin wave modes confined in a ferromagnetic film by the spatially inhomogeneous magnetic field generated by a scanned micromagnetic tip of a ferromagnetic resonance force microscope (FMRFM) enable microscopic imaging of the internal fields and spin dynamics in nanoscale magnetic devices. Here we report a detailed study of spin wave modes in a thin ferromagnetic film localized by magnetic field configurations frequently encountered in FMRFM experiments, including geometries in which the probe magnetic moment is both parallel and antiparallel to the applied uniform magnetic field. We demonstrate that characteristics of the localized modes, such as resonance field and confinement radius, can be broadly tuned by controlling the orientation of the applied field relative to the film plane. Micromagnetic simulations accurately reproduce our FMRFM spectra allowing quantitative understanding of the localized modes. Our results reveal a general method of generating tightly confined spin wave modes in various geometries with excellent spatial resolution that significantly facilitates the broad application of FMRFM. This paves the way to imaging of magnetic properties and spin wave dynamics in a variety of contexts for uncovering new physics of nanoscale spin excitations.

Du, Chunhui; Adur, Rohan; Wang, Hailong; Manuilov, Sergei A.; Yang, Fengyuan; Pelekhov, Denis V.; Hammel, P. Chris

2014-12-01

200

Off-line reduced complexity layout design for MPLS networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main reasons for the present market enthusiasm for the MPLS architecture is its capability for implementing evolved traffic engineering (TE) functionalities, as they are required, for example, to support the next generation Internet. MPLS paths (LSPs) can be calculated on-line, as demands arrive, or off-line for a given estimate of the traffic matrix. Off-line calculation has the

Sergio Beker; Daniel Kofman; Nicolas Puech

2003-01-01

201

Experimental Oscillator Strengths for Forbidden Lines in Complex Spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In dilute astrophysical plasmas, such as planetary nebulae and H II regions, strong lines appear that only have weak, if any, correspondence to the spectrum of laboratory light sources. Some of these are parity forbidden lines, i.e. emission from long-lived metastable states that cannot decay via normal electric dipole (E1) routes but only via the slower M1 and E2 transitions. The long lifetime of the upper levels and their sensitivity to collisions make the lines good diagnostics of the emitting plasma, but then the transition probability, or A-value, of these lines must be known. We report on a technique to experimentally determine A-values for forbidden lines using the method of combining the lifetime of the upper level with the branching fractions for the different decay channels. The lifetime is measured using the laser probing technique (LPT) on a stored ion beam. Since these lines are rarely produced in laboratory plasmas, we use astrophysical spectra to determine the branching fractions (BF). The lifetime and the BF then give the A-value, which is one quantity needed for modeling the spectrum of the plasma emitting the forbidden lines. The present measurements are performed within the FERRUM project, an international collaboration producing and evaluating transition probabilities for iron group element lines of astrophysical importance (Johansson P I S et al 2002 Physica Scripta T100 71)

Hartman, H.; Johansson, S.; Lundberg, H.; Lundin, P.; Mannervik, S.; Schef, P.

2005-01-01

202

The Broad-lined Type Ic SN 2012ap and the Nature of Relativistic Supernovae Lacking a Gamma-Ray Burst Detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared observations of SN 2012ap, a broad-lined Type Ic supernova in the galaxy NGC 1729 that produced a relativistic and rapidly decelerating outflow without a gamma-ray burst signature. Photometry and spectroscopy follow the flux evolution from -13 to +272 days past the B-band maximum of -17.4 ± 0.5 mag. The spectra are dominated by Fe II, O I, and Ca II absorption lines at ejecta velocities of v ? 20,000 km s-1 that change slowly over time. Other spectral absorption lines are consistent with contributions from photospheric He I, and hydrogen may also be present at higher velocities (v >~ 27,000 km s-1). We use these observations to estimate explosion properties and derive a total ejecta mass of ~2.7 M ?, a kinetic energy of ~1.0 × 1052 erg, and a 56Ni mass of 0.1-0.2 M ?. Nebular spectra (t > 200 days) exhibit an asymmetric double-peaked [O I] ??6300, 6364 emission profile that we associate with absorption in the supernova interior, although toroidal ejecta geometry is an alternative explanation. SN 2012ap joins SN 2009bb as another exceptional supernova that shows evidence for a central engine (e.g., black hole accretion or magnetar) capable of launching a non-negligible portion of ejecta to relativistic velocities without a coincident gamma-ray burst detection. Defining attributes of their progenitor systems may be related to notable observed properties including environmental metallicities of Z >~ Z ?, moderate to high levels of host galaxy extinction (E(B - V) > 0.4 mag), detection of high-velocity helium at early epochs, and a high relative flux ratio of [Ca II]/[O I] >1 at nebular epochs. These events support the notion that jet activity at various energy scales may be present in a wide range of supernovae.

Milisavljevic, D.; Margutti, R.; Parrent, J. T.; Soderberg, A. M.; Fesen, R. A.; Mazzali, P.; Maeda, K.; Sanders, N. E.; Cenko, S. B.; Silverman, J. M.; Filippenko, A. V.; Kamble, A.; Chakraborti, S.; Drout, M. R.; Kirshner, R. P.; Pickering, T. E.; Kawabata, K.; Hattori, T.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Marion, G. H.; Vinko, J.; Wheeler, J. C.

2015-01-01

203

LOW-COMPLEXITY DYNAMIC SPECTRUM MANAGEMENT ALGORITHMS FOR DIGITAL SUBSCRIBER LINES  

E-print Network

between different lines in the same cable bundle. By carefully choosing the transmit power spectra. INTRODUCTION Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) technology remains by far the most popular broadband accessLOW-COMPLEXITY DYNAMIC SPECTRUM MANAGEMENT ALGORITHMS FOR DIGITAL SUBSCRIBER LINES Paschalis

204

Upper Limit on Transient Emission of a Broad, Redshifted 0.511 MeV gamma -Ray Line from the Galactic Center Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A broad gamma -ray line (FWHM >200 keV) has been reported on two separate occasions from distinct sources in the Galactic Center region, at energies below 0.511 MeV: at ~ 0.46 MeV from V1223 Sgr in 1977 by HEAO-1 (Briggs 1990, Briggs et al. 1991) and at ~ 0.48 MeV from 1E 1740.7--2942 on 1990 13 October by SIGMA (Bouchet et al. 1991). These features have been interpreted as a 0.511 MeV line arising from annihilation of positrons in a hot accretion disk surrounding a black hole, thermally broadened and gravitationally redshifted (reviewed by Ramaty et al. 1992). We have searched in SMM Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) data for transient emission of this feature from the broad region of the Galactic Center containing the two sources (which, at ~ 12 deg apart, are not resolved by the GRS). The data were obtained between 1981 and 1989, and were searched for transient emission of the feature on time-scales between ~ 1 d and ~ 1 yr by the method of Harris et al. (1991, 1993). We find no evidence for significant emission in such a feature, down to 3 sigma upper limits which are characteristically \\(\\simeq 3 \\times 10^{-3} \\) gamma cm(-2) s(-1) over time-scales 12 d or greater, and \\(\\simeq 1.2 \\times 10^{-2} \\) gamma cm(-2) s(-1) over time-scales ~ 1 d. For comparison, Briggs (1990) measured a transient flux of \\(6 \\times 10^{-3} \\) gamma cm(-2) s(-1) from V1223 Sgr on a time-scale of a few months, and Bouchet et al. (1991) detected \\(1.3 \\times 10^{-2} \\) gamma cm(-2) s(-1) from 1E 1740.7--2942 on a time-scale ~ 1 d. We deduce a duty cycle for this transient at the reported intensities, from either source, of < 1.3% on ~ 12 d time-scales, or of <= 0.3% on ~ 1 d time-scales. This work was supported by NASA grant DPR--W17, 808. L. Bouchet et al., 1991, ApJ 383, L45 M.S. Briggs, PhD Thesis, Univ. of California, San Diego M.S. Briggs et al., IAUC 5229 M.J. Harris et al., 1991, Bull AAS 23, 1440 M.J. Harris et al., 1993, ApJ in press R. Ramaty et al., 1992, ApJ 392, L63

Harris, M. J.; Share, G. H.; Leising, M. D.

1993-05-01

205

The complex interaction of normal biases in line bisection.  

PubMed

To better understand neglect it is necessary to understand the inherent biases of normal subjects. We attempted to determine whether the biases present in normal subjects' line bisection are based on visual and representational biases or whether misbisection is simply due to perceptual/illusionary biases toward the narrower end of the stimulus. Normal subjects' bisected lines presented in four orientations: horizontal, vertical, and radial (both above and below eye level). Arrowheads were chosen as the stimulus placed at each end of the line. Misbisection toward the narrow end of the arrow would support the hypothesis that bisection bias is based on illusionary factors. However, in all four orientations subjects erred toward the wider end of the arrow. This suggests that the visual and representational biases that underlie normal subjects' upward bias on bisecting vertical and radial lines cannot be explained solely on the basis of a perceptual/illusionary bias. PMID:9305363

Kashmere, J L; Kirk, A

1997-09-01

206

Low Complexity Turbo Equalisation for Power Line Communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the highly dispersive nature of the power line channel, there has been a strong trend towards the use of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation for wideband power line communications (PLC). However, OFDM modulation has the drawbacks of high peak-to-average power ratio and increased sensitivity to carrier synchronisation errors. On the other hand, single-carrier (SC) modulation techniques do

Bamidele Adebisi; Carlos López Giovaneli; Bahram Honary; Mohammad Mowlavi

2007-01-01

207

Complexity cost analysis in a large product line  

E-print Network

Hewlett-Packard's Industry Standard Servers (ISS) organization offers a large variety of server computers and accessories. The large range of options available to its customers gives way to complex processes and less than ...

Landivar Chávez, José Luis

2006-01-01

208

TESTING THE EVOLUTIONARY SEQUENCE BETWEEN HIDDEN BROAD-LINE REGION (HBLR) AND NON-HBLR SEYFERT 2 GALAXIES WITH THE 4000 A BREAK STRENGTHS  

SciTech Connect

We compare the 4000 A break (D{sub n} (4000)) strength in the central kpc of hidden broad-line region (HBLR) and non-HBLR Seyfert 2 galaxies to investigate the origin of these galaxies. Our results show that the D{sub n} (4000) strengths in the nuclear regions of the non-HBLR Seyfert 2 galaxies are larger than those in the HBLR galaxies. We also show that the D{sub n} (4000) strength is not related to the morphology of host galaxies. These results imply that the non-HBLR Seyfert 2 galaxies have an older stellar population in nuclear regions than the HBLR galaxies. This suggests that an evolutionary connection might exist between non-HBLR and HBLR Seyfert 2 galaxies. We propose a potential evolutionary scenario and a modified unification model for Seyfert galaxies. In this scheme, Seyfert 1 and HBLR Seyfert 2 galaxies evolve into unabsorbed and absorbed non-HBLR Seyfert 2 galaxies. We also discuss the implications of our results in the hydrogen column density distribution of the non-HBLR Seyfert 2 galaxies.

Yu, Po-Chieh; Hwang, Chorng-Yuan [Graduate Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Chung-Li 32054, Taiwan (China); Huang, Kui-Yun; Ohyama, Youichi, E-mail: pcyu@astro.ncu.edu.tw, E-mail: hwangcy@astro.ncu.edu.tw, E-mail: ljhuang@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw, E-mail: ohyama@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

2013-05-01

209

Broad Hexagonal Columnar Mesophases Formation in Bioinspired Transition-Metal Complexes of Simple Fatty Acid meta-Octaester Derivatives of meso-Tetraphenyl Porphyrins.  

PubMed

A series of meta-substituted fatty acid octaester derivatives and their transition-metal complexes of meso- tetraphenyl porphyrins (TPP-8OOCR, with R=Cn-1 H2n-1 , n=8, 12, or 16) have been prepared through very simple synthesis protocols. The thermotropic phase behavior and the liquid crystalline (LC) organization structures of the synthesized porphyrin derivatives were systematically investigated by a combination of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarized optical microscopy (POM), and variable-temperature small-angle X-ray scattering/wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) techniques. The shorter octanoic acid ester substituted porphyrin (C8-TPP) did not show liquid crystallinity and its metal porphyrins exhibited an uncommon columnar mesophase. The lauric acid octaester (C12-TPP) and the palmitic acid octaester (C16-TPP) series porphyrins generated hexagonal columnar mesophase Colh . Moreover, the metal porphyrins C12-TPPM and C16-TPPM with M=Zn, Cu, or Ni, exhibited well-organized Colh mesophases of broad LC temperature ranges increasing in the order of TPPNibroadness of the discotic LC range, and the specific UV/Vis absorption and fluorescence emission behaviors make the symmetrically substituted fatty acid octaester porphyrins and their metal complexes very attractive for variant applications. PMID:25619819

Wu, Bin; Chen, Keyang; Deng, Yuchen; Chen, Jian; Liu, Chengjie; Cheng, Rongshi; Chen, Dongzhong

2015-02-23

210

A SAR study of novel antiproliferative ruthenium and osmium complexes with quinoxalinone ligands in human cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

A series of ruthenium(II) arene complexes with 3-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-1H-quinoxalin-2-one, bearing pharmacophoric groups of known protein kinase inhibitors, and related benzoxazole and benzothiazole derivatives have been synthesized. In addition, the corresponding osmium complexes of the unsubstituted ligands have also been prepared. The compounds have been characterized by NMR, UV-vis, and IR spectroscopy, ESI mass spectrometry, elemental analysis, and by X-ray crystallography. Antiproliferative activity in three human cancer cell lines (A549, CH1, SW480) was determined by MTT assays, yielding IC(50) values of 6-60 ?M for three unsubstituted metal-free ligands, whereas values for the metal complexes vary in a broad range from 0.3 to 140 ?M. Complexation with osmium of quinoxalinone derivatives with benzimidazole or benzothiazole results in a more consistent increase in cytotoxicity than complexation with ruthenium. For selected compounds, the capacity to induce apoptosis was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy and flow-cytometric analysis, whereas cell cycle effects are only moderate. PMID:22417128

Ginzinger, Werner; Mühlgassner, Gerhard; Arion, Vladimir B; Jakupec, Michael A; Roller, Alexander; Galanski, Markus; Reithofer, Michael; Berger, Walter; Keppler, Bernhard K

2012-04-12

211

Implementing a Software Product Line for a Complex Avionics System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing number of customers and their spe- cific application domains for the NH90 has led to an increasing number of functionally different helicopter variants. In order to cope with the high number of software variants, the NH90 software team has developed a software architecture that is based on Software Product Line (SPL) principles. Military avionics systems are constrained by

Frank Dordowsky; Richard Bridges; Holger Tschope

2011-01-01

212

Variability of Optical \\ion{Fe}{ii} Complex in Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxy NGC 4051  

E-print Network

The variability of optical FeII blends in NGC 4051 is examined from spectra extracted from the AGN Watch program.In our analysis, the FeII complex are subtracted and measured with the following results. Firstly, the FeII variations were detected in NGC 4051 during a 3-year period. The identified FeII variations followed the variations in continuum closely. Secondly, the EW of FeII is reported to increase with the rising continuum flux, which is consistent with previous claims that there is no convincing Baldwin Effect in optical FeII. Thirdly, by comparing the variations of H$\\beta$ and FeII, we find that RFe scales with continuum flux as $\\rm{R_{Fe}\\propto (5.0\\pm0.8) \\log(L/M)}$, which is significantly different from the theoretical expectations. Finally, in six selected Seyferts, four out of five Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 galaxies present positive correlation between RFe and the continuum flux. The negative correlations are identified in the remaindng two objects that have relatively broad profiles of H$\\beta$ ($\\rm{FWHM>1500 km\\ s^{-1}}$).We argue that the difference of electron density of broad line clouds and/or variability behavior of incident high-energy radiation can explain the dichotomy in variability behavior of RFe.

J. Wang; J. Y. Wei; X. T. He

2005-04-05

213

A vaccine based on the rhesus cytomegalovirus UL128 complex induces broadly neutralizing antibodies in rhesus macaques.  

PubMed

Neutralizing antibodies (NAb) are important for interfering with horizontal transmission of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) leading to primary and congenital HCMV infection. Recent findings have shown that a pentameric virion complex formed by the glycoproteins gH/gL, UL128, UL130, and UL131A (UL128C) is required for HCMV entry into epithelial/endothelial cells (Epi/EC) and is the target of potent NAb in HCMV-seropositive individuals. Using bacterial artificial chromosome technology, we have generated a modified vaccinia Ankara virus (MVA) that stably coexpresses all 5 rhesus CMV (RhCMV) proteins homologous to HCMV UL128C, termed MVA-RhUL128C. Coimmunoprecipitation confirmed the interaction of RhgH with the other 4 RhCMV subunits of the pentameric complex. All 8 RhCMV-naïve rhesus macaques (RM) vaccinated with MVA-RhUL128C developed NAb that blocked infection of monkey kidney epithelial cells (MKE) and rhesus fibroblasts. NAb titers induced by MVA-RhUL128C measured on both cell types at 2 to 6 weeks postvaccination were comparable to levels observed in naturally infected RM. In contrast, MVA expressing a subset of RhUL128C proteins or RhgB glycoprotein only minimally stimulated NAb that inhibited infection of MKE. In addition, following subcutaneous RhCMV challenge at 8 weeks postvaccination, animals vaccinated with MVA-RhUL128C showed reduced plasma viral loads. These results indicate that MVA expressing the RhUL128C induces NAb inhibiting RhCMV entry into both Epi/EC and fibroblasts and limits RhCMV replication in RM. This novel approach is the first step in developing a prophylactic HCMV vaccine designed to interfere with virus entry into major cell types permissive for viral replication, a required property of an effective vaccine. PMID:23152525

Wussow, Felix; Yue, Yujuan; Martinez, Joy; Deere, Jesse D; Longmate, Jeff; Herrmann, Andreas; Barry, Peter A; Diamond, Don J

2013-02-01

214

Diagnostic line ratios in the IC 1805 optical gas complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large H II regions, with angular dimensions exceeding 10 pc, usually enclose numerous massive O-stars. Stellar winds from such stars are expected to play a sizeable role in the dynamical, morphological and chemical evolution of the targeted nebula. Kinematically, stellar winds remain hardly observable, i.e. the typical expansion velocities of wind-blown bubbles being often confused with other dynamical processes also regularly found H II regions. However, supersonic shock waves, developed by stellar winds, should favour shock excitation and leave a well-defined spectral signature in the ionized nebular content. In this work, the presence of stellar winds, observed through shock excitation, is investigated in the brightest portions of the Galactic IC 1805 nebula, a giant H II region encompassing at least 10 O-stars from main-sequence O9 to giant and supergiant O4. The use of the imaging Fourier transform spectrometer SpIOMM enabled the simultaneous acquisition of the spectral information associated with the H? ?6563 Å, [N II] ??6548, 6584 Å, and [S II] ??6716, 6731 Å ionic lines. Diagnostic diagrams, first introduced by Sabbadin and collaborators, were used to circumscribe portions of the nebula likely subject to shock excitation from other areas dominated by photoionization. The gas compression, expected from supersonic shocks, is investigated by comparing the pre- and post-shocked material's densities computed from the ? line ratio. The typical ? line ratio slightly exceeds the theoretical value of 3 expected in low-density regimes. To explain such behaviour, a scenario based on collisional de-excitations affecting the [N II] ?6548 Å line is proposed.

Lagrois, Dominic; Joncas, Gilles; Drissen, Laurent

2012-03-01

215

A Germin-Like Protein Gene Family Functions as a Complex Quantitative Trait Locus Conferring Broad-Spectrum Disease Resistance in Rice1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Plant disease resistance governed by quantitative trait loci (QTL) is predicted to be effective against a broad spectrum of pathogens and long lasting. Use of these QTL to improve crop species, however, is hindered because the genes contributing to the trait are not known. Five disease resistance QTL that colocalized with defense response genes were accumulated by marker-aided selection to develop blast-resistant varieties. One advanced backcross line carrying the major-effect QTL on chromosome (chr) 8, which included a cluster of 12 germin-like protein (OsGLP) gene members, exhibited resistance to rice (Oryza sativa) blast disease over 14 cropping seasons. To determine if OsGLP members contribute to resistance and if the resistance was broad spectrum, a highly conserved portion of the OsGLP coding region was used as an RNA interference trigger to silence a few to all expressed chr 8 OsGLP family members. Challenge with two different fungal pathogens (causal agents of rice blast and sheath blight diseases) revealed that as more chr 8 OsGLP genes were suppressed, disease susceptibility of the plants increased. Of the 12 chr 8 OsGLPs, one clustered subfamily (OsGER4) contributed most to resistance. The similarities of sequence, gene organization, and roles in disease resistance of GLP family members in rice and other cereals, including barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum), suggest that resistance contributed by the chr 8 OsGLP is a broad-spectrum, basal mechanism conserved among the Gramineae. Natural selection may have preserved a whole gene family to provide a stepwise, flexible defense response to pathogen invasion. PMID:19011003

Manosalva, Patricia M.; Davidson, Rebecca M.; Liu, Bin; Zhu, Xiaoyuan; Hulbert, Scot H.; Leung, Hei; Leach, Jan E.

2009-01-01

216

BROAD-LINE RADIO GALAXIES OBSERVED WITH FERMI-LAT: THE ORIGIN OF THE GeV {gamma}-RAY EMISSION  

SciTech Connect

We report on a detailed investigation of the {gamma}-ray emission from 18 broad-line radio galaxies (BLRGs) based on two years of Fermi Large Area Telescope data. We confirm the previously reported detections of 3C 120 and 3C 111 in the GeV photon energy range; a detailed look at the temporal characteristics of the observed {gamma}-ray emission reveals in addition possible flux variability in both sources. No statistically significant {gamma}-ray detection of the other BLRGs was found, however, in the considered data set. Though the sample size studied is small, what appears to differentiate 3C 111 and 3C 120 from the BLRGs not yet detected in {gamma}-rays is the particularly strong nuclear radio flux. This finding, together with the indications of the {gamma}-ray flux variability and a number of other arguments presented, indicates that the GeV emission of BLRGs is most likely dominated by the beamed radiation of relativistic jets observed at intermediate viewing angles. In this paper we also analyzed a comparison sample of high-accretion-rate Seyfert 1 galaxies, which can be considered radio-quiet counterparts of BLRGs, and found that none were detected in {gamma}-rays. A simple phenomenological hybrid model applied for the broadband emission of the discussed radio-loud and radio-quiet type 1 active galaxies suggests that the relative contribution of the nuclear jets to the accreting matter is {>=}1% on average for BLRGs, whereas it is {<=}0.1% for Seyfert 1 galaxies.

Kataoka, J.; Takahashi, Y.; Maeda, K.; Nakamori, T. [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Stawarz, L. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, JAXA, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Cheung, C. C. [National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC 20001 (United States); Hayashida, M.; Digel, S. W. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Grandi, P. [INAF-IASF Bologna, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Burnett, T. H. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1560 (United States); Celotti, A. [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (SISSA), 34014 Trieste (Italy); Fegan, S. J.; Fortin, P. [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France); Taylor, G. B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, MSC07 4220, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Tosti, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); McConville, W. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Finke, J. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5352 (United States); D'Ammando, F., E-mail: kataoka.jun@waseda.jp [IASF Palermo, 90146 Palermo (Italy)

2011-10-10

217

WEAK HARD X-RAY EMISSION FROM TWO BROAD ABSORPTION LINE QUASARS OBSERVED WITH NuSTAR: COMPTON-THICK ABSORPTION OR INTRINSIC X-RAY WEAKNESS?  

SciTech Connect

We present Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) hard X-ray observations of two X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars, PG 1004+130 (radio loud) and PG 1700+518 (radio quiet). Many BAL quasars appear X-ray weak, probably due to absorption by the shielding gas between the nucleus and the accretion-disk wind. The two targets are among the optically brightest BAL quasars, yet they are known to be significantly X-ray weak at rest-frame 2-10 keV (16-120 times fainter than typical quasars). We would expect to obtain Almost-Equal-To 400-600 hard X-ray ({approx}> 10 keV) photons with NuSTAR, provided that these photons are not significantly absorbed (N{sub H} {approx}< 10{sup 24} cm{sup -2}). However, both BAL quasars are only detected in the softer NuSTAR bands (e.g., 4-20 keV) but not in its harder bands (e.g., 20-30 keV), suggesting that either the shielding gas is highly Compton-thick or the two targets are intrinsically X-ray weak. We constrain the column densities for both to be N{sub H} Almost-Equal-To 7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 24} cm{sup -2} if the weak hard X-ray emission is caused by obscuration from the shielding gas. We discuss a few possibilities for how PG 1004+130 could have Compton-thick shielding gas without strong Fe K{alpha} line emission; dilution from jet-linked X-ray emission is one likely explanation. We also discuss the intrinsic X-ray weakness scenario based on a coronal-quenching model relevant to the shielding gas and disk wind of BAL quasars. Motivated by our NuSTAR results, we perform a Chandra stacking analysis with the Large Bright Quasar Survey BAL quasar sample and place statistical constraints upon the fraction of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL quasars; this fraction is likely 17%-40%.

Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Alexander, D. M.; Hickox, R. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Harrison, F. A.; Fuerst, F.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Madsen, K. K. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stern, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Bauer, F. E. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Christensen, F. E. [DTU Space-National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Comastri, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Fabian, A. C. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Farrah, D. [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Fiore, F. [Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio Catone (Italy); Hailey, C. J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Matt, G. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Universita degli Studi Roma Tre, via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Ogle, P. [IPAC, California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); and others

2013-08-01

218

Drying of complex fluids at a moving contact line  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the pattern formation induced by drying colloidal suspensions in a vertical Hele-Shaw cell immersed in a reservoir [1]. The contact line velocity can be well controlled by pumping out the solution from the reservoir. At low capillary number, we observe stick-slip motion and periodic strip deposition [2]. We measured the pinning force variation and the wavelength. We systematically vary the following parameters: receding velocity, evaporation rate, concentration, particle size, and pH of the suspension. Results allow determining the power law governing the pinning force variation. The pH, which has no effect on the pinning force variation, changes the deposition morphology significantly. Finally, we present a detailed comparison between colloidal suspensions and polymer solutions. [4pt] [1] H. Bodiguel, F. Doumenc, B. Guerrier EPJ-ST 166, 29-32 (2009) [0pt] [2] H. Bodiguel, F. Doumenc, B. Guerrier Langmuir, 13, 10758-10763 (2010)

Hsueh, Ching; Doumenc, Frederic; Guerrier, Beatrice

2011-11-01

219

Electromagnetic Dipole Radiation Fields, Shear-Free Congruences and Complex Center of Charge World Lines  

E-print Network

We show that for asymptotically vanishing Maxwell fields in Minkowski space with non-vanishing total charge, one can find a unique geometric structure, a null direction field, at null infinity. From this structure a unique complex analytic world-line in complex Minkowski space that can be found and then identified as the complex center of charge. By ''sitting'' - in an imaginary sense, on this world-line both the (intrinsic) electric and magnetic dipole moments vanish. The (intrinsic) magnetic dipole moment is (in some sense) obtained from the `distance' the complex the world line is from the real space (times the charge). This point of view unifies the asymptotic treatment of the dipole moments For electromagnetic fields with vanishing magnetic dipole moments the world line is real and defines the real (ordinary center of charge). We illustrate these ideas with the Lienard-Wiechert Maxwell field. In the conclusion we discuss its generalization to general relativity where the complex center of charge world-line has its analogue in a complex center of mass allowing a definition of the spin and orbital angular momentum - the analogues of the magnetic and electric dipole moments.

Carlos N. Kozameh; Ezra T. Newman

2005-04-20

220

Iron-salophen complexes involving azole-derived ligands: A new group of compounds with high-level and broad-spectrum in vitro antitumor activity.  

PubMed

A series of iron(II/III) salophen (salph) complexes involving monodentate azole-derived ligands, having the composition [Fe(II)(salph)(HL1)] (1) and [Fe(III)(salph)(L)] (2-6), where HL1=imidazole, L=1,2,4-triazol-1-ido (L2), benzo[d][1,2,3]triazol-1-ido (L3), 5-aminotetrazol-1-ido (L4), 5-phenyltetrazol-1-ido (L5), and 5-methyltetrazol-1-ido (L6) ligand, was prepared and characterized by elemental analyses, infrared, Mössbauer and X-ray photolelectron spectroscopy, magnetic data and electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry. X-ray structure of 1 revealed a distorted square-pyramidal geometry in the vicinity of the iron(II) atom. The complexes were evaluated for their in vitro antitumor activity against the panel of six human cancer cell lines (HOS, MCF7, A549, HeLa, A2780 and G-361) and were found to be highly cytotoxic, showing the best IC50 value of 58nM for [Fe(III)(salph)(L6)] (6) against the ovarian carcinoma A2780 cell line, being 200-times more effective than cisplatin. In vitro cytotoxicity of complexes 1-6 on primary culture of human hepatocytes and calf-thymus DNA (CT-DNA) binding studies using the fluorescence titration were also performed. PMID:25450023

Van?o, Ján; Sindelá?, Zden?k; Dvo?ák, Zden?k; Trávní?ek, Zden?k

2014-10-25

221

The Properties of X-Ray--selected Active Galactic Nuclei. IV. The Local Optical Luminosity Function of Broad-Line Active Galactic Nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have selected a local (z <= 0.3) subsample of 226 broad line active galactic nuclei (BLAGNs) from the Einstein Observatory Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey. This sample represents the largest unbiased and complete sample of local BLAGNs ever assembled and has allowed us to derive their space density in regions of the m_B_ - z plane where, with the usual optical selection criteria, it is very difficult to obtain complete samples of BLAGNs. Using total integrated magnitudes (i.e., nucleus + host galaxy), we have computed the local optical luminosity function of this X-ray selected sample and compared it with those derived from local optical samples. Thanks to the large number of objects at our disposal we can set more stringent constraints on the space density of BLAGNs than has previously been possible. The luminosity function derived from our sample is in good agreement with the composite luminosity function which can be derived from optically selected samples only by using different selection criteria in different ranges of absolute magnitude. In particular, at low luminosity (M_B_ >= - 22) we confirm the flattening of the local optical luminosity function originally suggested by Meurs & Wilson (1984) while in the magnitude range from M_B_ ~ -23 to -25 we find a very good agreement with the optical spatial density derived using data from the Bright Quasars Survey. By convolving our luminosity function with the distribution of the ratio of nuclear to total flux of a sample of ~40 Seyfert 1 and 1.5 galaxies from the literature, we have also derived an estimate for the nuclear luminosity function of BLAGNs: This nuclear luminosity function is in rather good agreement with the nuclear luminosity functions previously derived, using a much smaller number of objects, from optical samples of low-luminosity BLAGNs. A reasonably good agreement is also found between our luminosity function and the extrapolation to low redshift (z = 0.15, the average redshift of our sample) of the quasar luminosity function derived from more than 1000 optically selected quasars. The integration of our nuclear luminosity function over the M_B_ - z plane shows that good agreement is obtained with the observed number counts of low luminosity (M_B_ >= - 23) BLAGNs at faint magnitudes, if the M_B_ >= -23 population evolves similarly to the QSO population.

della Ceca, Roberto; Zamorani, Giovanni; Maccacaro, Tommaso; Setti, Giancarlo; Wolter, Anna

1996-07-01

222

Zooming into the broad line region of the gravitationally lensed quasar QSO 2237 + 0305 ? the Einstein Cross. III. Determination of the size and structure of the C iv and C iii] emitting regions using microlensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: We aim to use microlensing taking place in the lensed quasar QSO 2237 + 0305 to study the structure of the broad line region (BLR) and measure the size of the region emitting the C iv and C iii] lines. Methods: Based on 39 spectrophotometric monitoring data points obtained between Oct. 2004 and Dec. 2007, we derived lightcurves for the C iv and C iii] emission lines. We used three different techniques to analyse the microlensing signal. Different components of the lines (narrow, broad, and very broad) were identified and studied. We built a library of the simulated microlensing lightcurves that reproduce the signal observed in the continuum and in the lines provided only the source size is changed. A Bayesian analysis scheme is then developed to derive the size of the various components of the BLR. Results: 1. The half-light radius of the region emitting the C iv line is found to be RC IV} ˜ 66+110-46} light-days = 0.06+0.09-0.04 pc = 1.7+2.8-1.1 × 1017 cm (at 68.3% CI). Similar values are obtained for C iii]. Relative sizes of the carbon-line and V-band continuum emitting-regions are also derived with median values of Rline/Rcont in the range 4 to 29, depending on the FWHM of the line component. 2. The size of the C iv emitting region agrees with the radius-luminosity relationship derived from reverberation mapping. Using the virial theorem, we derive the mass of the black hole in QSO 2237 + 0305 to be MBH ~ 108.3 ± 0.3 M?. 3. We find that the C iv and C iii] lines are produced in at least 2 spatially distinct regions, the most compact one giving rise to the broadest component of the line. The broad and narrow line profiles are slightly different for C iv and C iii]. 4. Our analysis suggests a different structure for the C iv and Fe ii+iii emitting regions, with the latter produced in the inner part of the BLR or in a less extended emitting region than C iv. Based on observations made with the ESO-VLT Unit Telescope # 2 Kueyen (Cerro Paranal, Chile; Proposals 073.B-0243(A&B), 074.B-0270(A), 075.B-0350(A), 076.B-0197(A), 177.B-0615(A&B), PI: F. Courbin).

Sluse, D.; Schmidt, R.; Courbin, F.; Hutsemékers, D.; Meylan, G.; Eigenbrod, A.; Anguita, T.; Agol, E.; Wambsganss, J.

2011-04-01

223

Broad coverage identification of multiple proteolytic cleavage site sequences in complex high molecular weight proteins using quantitative proteomics as a complement to edman sequencing.  

PubMed

Proteolytic processing modifies the pleiotropic functions of many large, complex, and modular proteins and can generate cleavage products with new biological activity. The identification of exact proteolytic cleavage sites in the extracellular matrix laminins, fibronectin, and other extracellular matrix proteins is not only important for understanding protein turnover but is needed for the identification of new bioactive cleavage products. Several such products have recently been recognized that are suggested to play important cellular regulatory roles in processes, including angiogenesis. However, identifying multiple cleavage sites in extracellular matrix proteins and other large proteins is challenging as N-terminal Edman sequencing of multiple and often closely spaced cleavage fragments on SDS-PAGE gels is difficult, thus limiting throughput and coverage. We developed a new liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry approach we call amino-terminal oriented mass spectrometry of substrates (ATOMS) for the N-terminal identification of protein cleavage fragments in solution. ATOMS utilizes efficient and low cost dimethylation isotopic labeling of original N-terminal and proteolytically generated N termini of protein cleavage fragments followed by quantitative tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Being a peptide-centric approach, ATOMS is not dependent on the SDS-PAGE resolution limits for protein fragments of similar mass. We demonstrate that ATOMS reliably identifies multiple proteolytic sites per reaction in complex proteins. Fifty-five neutrophil elastase cleavage sites were identified in laminin-1 and fibronectin-1 with 34 more identified by matrix metalloproteinase cleavage. Hence, our degradomics approach offers a complimentary alternative to Edman sequencing with broad applicability in identifying N termini such as cleavage sites in complex high molecular weight extracellular matrix proteins after in vitro cleavage assays. ATOMS can therefore be useful in identifying new cleavage products of extracellular matrix proteins cleaved by proteases in pathology for bioactivity screening. PMID:20876890

Doucet, Alain; Overall, Christopher M

2011-05-01

224

Detection of a broad iron emission line and sub-millisecond quasiperiodic oscillations from the type I X-ray burster 4U1728-34 in a high state  

E-print Network

We report results from simultaneous RossiXTE and BeppoSAX observations of the neutron-star x-ray binary and type I X-ray burster 4U1728-34. The source was found in a high luminosity state, L_X near 0.1 L_Edd, and quasiperiodic oscillations were detected at 1284 +/- 6 Hz, the highest frequency ever observed from this source. The x-ray spectrum shows a broad, FWHM = 0.8 keV, iron K-alpha fluorescence line. We discuss interpretations of the broad line and the quasiperiodic oscillations and how future simultaneous spectral and timing observations can be used to test these interpretations and, potentially, to estimate the mass of the compact object.

S. Piraino; A. Santangelo; P. Kaaret

2000-08-09

225

Solution structures of the Bacillus cereus metallo-?-lactamase BcII and its complex with the broad spectrum inhibitor R-thiomandelic acid  

PubMed Central

Metallo-?-lactamases, enzymes which inactivate ?-lactam antibiotics, are of increasing biological and clinical significance as a source of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria. In the present study we describe the high-resolution solution NMR structures of the Bacillus cereus metallo-?-lactamase BcII and of its complex with R-thiomandelic acid, a broad-spectrum inhibitor of metallo-?-lactamases. This is the first reported solution structure of any metallo-?-lactamase. There are differences between the solution structure of the free enzyme and previously reported crystal structures in the loops flanking the active site, which are important for substrate and inhibitor binding and catalysis. The binding of R-thiomandelic acid and the roles of active-site residues are defined in detail. Changes in the enzyme structure upon inhibitor binding clarify the role of the mobile ?3–?4 loop. Comparisons with other metallo-?-lactamases highlight the roles of individual amino-acid residues in the active site and the ?3–?4 loop in inhibitor binding and provide information on the basis of structure–activity relationships among metallo-?-lactamase inhibitors. PMID:24059435

Karsisiotis, Andreas Ioannis; Damblon, Christian F.; Roberts, Gordon C. K.

2013-01-01

226

Faint early-type stars and emission-line stars in the Canis Majoris complex.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to study the distribution of OB stars in the Canis Majoris complex, a survey and classification have been done for stars in the area. The study is based on spectral observations at the Kiso Schmidt tlescope. In the present field about 1800 OBA stars were classified, where the majority is dominated by B late and A early type stars. A survey for emission-line stars was also carried out in the same region. In total, 128 emission-line stars were detected, ranging from V = 6 to 15. A comparison shows that some emission-line stars of this region contained in the existing catalogs are common with the authors', and some exhibit no detectable emission line on the plates. This can probably be considered as the result of variation in emission-line strength.

Wiramihardja, S. D.; Kogure, T.

227

Identification of Triploid Individuals and Clonal Lines in Carassius Auratus Complex Using Microsatellites  

PubMed Central

The Carassius auratus complex in natural populations includes diploid triploid and polyploidy individuals. Diploid individuals belong to the species Carassius auratus whereas triploid and polyploidy individuals are from the subspecies Carassius auratus gibelio. Triploid individuals are all female and reproduce clonally by gynogenesis. Therefore the Carassius auratus complex is an ideal system for studying evolution of unisexual reproduction. Identification of triploid individuals and clonal lines is the first step towards understanding of the evolution of unisexual clonal lines. We examined the ability of 10 microsatellites in identifying triploid individuals in 94 individuals from Japan and China. In 40 confirmed triploid individuals and eight confirmed diploid individuals, all triploid and diploid individuals can be identified by genotyping 10 microsatellite, and four triploid clonal lines were identified. Using the 10 microsatellites we genotyped 46 adult individuals (40 females and six males) from a natural population in China and found that all six males were diploid whereas the majority of females (36 of 40) were triploid and three triploid clonal lines were detected. In 18 diploid individuals from China, all individuals showed different genotypes, suggesting there is no diploid clonal line in diploid crucian carp. A phylogenetic analysis of 94 individuals from China and Japan showed that triploid individuals and clonal lines have originated recurrently. PMID:21448338

Bai, Zhiyi; Liu, Feng; Li, Jiale; Yue, Gen Hua

2011-01-01

228

Macrophage cell lines derived from major histocompatibility complex II-negative mice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two bone-marrow-derived macrophage cell lines, C2D and C2Dt, were isolated from major histocompatibility class II negative knock-out mice. The C2D cell line was stabilized by continuous culture in colony-stimulating factor-1 and the C2Dt cell line was transformed with SV40 virus large T antigen. These cells exhibited phenotypic properties of macrophages including morphology and expression of Mac 1 and Mac 2 cell surface molecules. These cells also had comparable growth to the bone-marrow-derived macrophage cell line B6MP102. These new cell lines were not spontaneously cytotoxic and were only capable of modest killing of F5b tumor cells when stimulated with LPS and interferon-gamma, but not when stimulated with LPS alone or with staphylococcal exotoxin. C2D and C2Dt cells phagocytosed labeled Staphylococcus aureus similarly to B6MP102 cells but less well than C2D peritoneal macrophages. These cell lines secreted interleukin-6, but not tumor necrosis factor or nitric oxide in response to LPS or staphlococcal enterotoxins A or B C2D(t) cells were tumorigenic in C2D and C57BL/6J mice but C2D cells were not. These data suggest that macrophage cell lines can be established from bone marrow cells of major histocompatibility complex II-negative mice.

Beharka, A. A.; Armstrong, J. W.; Chapes, S. K.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

1998-01-01

229

Steps toward determination of the size and structure of the broad-line region in active galactic nuclei. II - An intensive study of NGC 5548 at optical wavelengths  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A large, international program of ground-based optical spectroscopy and photometry of the variable Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548 undertaken in support of an IUE monitoring campaign is described. This contribution presents the data base and describes the methods used to correct for systematic differences between spectra from different sources. Optical continuum and H-beta emission-line light curves are derived from the spectra. The behavior of the optical continuum is qualitatively the same as the behavior of the ultraviolet continuum. Cross-correlation of the ultraviolet and optical continuum measurements does not reveal any significant lag between them. The h-beta emission-line variations show the same basic pattern as seen in the continuum and ultraviolet emission lines, with H-beta lagging behind the continuum by about 20 days. This is significantly larger than the about 10 day lag deduced for Ly-alpha.

Peterson, B. M.; Balonek, T. J.; Barker, E. S.; Bechtold, J.; Bertram, R.

1991-01-01

230

3-mm spectral line survey of two lines of sight towards two typical cloud complexes in the Galactic Centre  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of two Mopra 3-mm spectral line surveys of the lines of sight (LOS) towards the Galactic Centre (GC) molecular complexes Sgr B2 (LOS+0.693) and Sgr A (LOS-0.11). The spectra covered the frequency ranges of ˜77-93 GHz and ˜105-113 GHz. We have detected 38 molecular species and 25 isotopologues. The isotopic ratios derived from column density ratios are consistent with the canonical values, indicating that chemical isotopic fractionation and/or selective photodissociation can be considered negligible (<10 per cent) for the GC physical conditions. The derived abundances and rotational temperatures are very similar for both LOSs, indicating very similar chemical and excitation conditions for the molecular gas in the GC. The excitation conditions are also very similar to those found for the nucleus of the starburst galaxy NGC 253. We report for the first time the detection of HCO and HOC+ emission in LOS+0.693. Our comparison of the abundance ratios between CS, HCO, HOC+ and HCO+ found in the two LOSs with those in typical Galactic photodissociation regions (PDRs) and starbursts galaxies does not show any clear trend to distinguish between ultraviolet- and X-ray-induced chemistries. We propose that the CS/HOC+ ratio could be used as a tracer of the PDR components in the molecular clouds in the nuclei of galaxies.

Armijos-Abendaño, J.; Martín-Pintado, J.; Requena-Torres, M. A.; Martín, S.; Rodríguez-Franco, A.

2015-02-01

231

Antioxidant Enzyme Inhibitor Role of Phosphine Metal Complexes in Lung and Leukemia Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Phosphine metal complexes have been recently evaluated in the field of cancer therapy. In this research, the cytotoxic effects of some metal phosphines {[PdCl2((CH2OH)2PCH2)2NCH3] (C1), [RuCl2(((CH2OH)2PCH2)2NCH3)2] (C2), [PtCl2((Ph2PCH2)2NCH3)(timin)2] (C3)} on K562 (human myelogenous leukemia cell line) and A549 (adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cells) cells were investigated using the MTT test. C1 and C2 are water-soluble metal complexes, which may have some advantages in in vitro and in vivo studies. The effects of the above-mentioned metal complexes on thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) (EC: 1.8.1.9), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) (EC: 1.11.1.9), and catalase (Cat) (EC: 1.11.1.6) enzymes were also tested. The results of this research showed that all three metal complexes indicated dose-dependent cytotoxicity on A549 and K562 cell lines and that the complexes inhibited different percentages of the TrxR, GPx, and Cat enzymes of these tumor cells. PMID:25610346

Kele?, Tu?ba; Serinda?, Osman

2014-01-01

232

Structural measurements and cell line studies of the copper-PEG-Rifampicin complex against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

The bacterium responsible for tuberculosis is increasing its resistance to antibiotics resulting in new multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB). In this study, several analytical techniques including NMR, FT-ICR, MALDI-MS, LC-MS and UV/Vis are used to study the copper-Rifampicin-Polyethylene glycol (PEG-3350) complex. The copper (II) cation is a carrier for the antibiotic Rifampicin as well as nutrients for the bacterium. The NIH-NIAID cell line containing several Tb strains (including antibiotic resistant strains) is tested against seven copper-PEG-RIF complex variations. PMID:25575660

Manning, Thomas; Mikula, Rachel; Wylie, Greg; Phillips, Dennis; Jarvis, Jackie; Zhang, Fengli

2015-02-01

233

Categories of holomorphic line bundles on higher dimensional noncommutative complex tori  

SciTech Connect

We construct explicitly noncommutative deformations of categories of holomorphic line bundles over higher dimensional tori. Our basic tools are Heisenberg modules over noncommutative tori and complex/holomorphic structures on them introduced by Schwarz ['Theta functions on noncommutative tori', Lett. Math. Phys. 58, 81-90 (2001)]. We obtain differential graded (DG) categories as full subcategories of curved DG categories of Heisenberg modules over the complex noncommutative tori. Also, we present the explicit composition formula of morphisms, which, in fact, depends on the noncommutativity.

Kajiura, Hiroshige [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

2007-05-15

234

Fe K LINE COMPLEX IN THE NUCLEAR REGION OF NGC 253  

SciTech Connect

A bright, nearby edge-on starburst galaxy, NGC 253, was studied using the Suzaku, XMM, and Chandra X-ray observatories. With Suzaku and XMM we detected complex line structure of Fe K, which is resolved into three lines (Fe I at 6.4 keV, Fe XXV at 6.7 keV, and Fe XXVI at 7.0 keV) around the center of NGC 253. Especially, the Fe I and Fe XXVI lines are the first clear detections, with a significance of >99.99% and 99.89% estimated by a Monte Carlo procedure. Imaging spectroscopy with Chandra revealed that the emission is distributed in {approx}60 arcsec{sup 2} region around the nucleus, which suggests that the source is not only the buried active galactic nucleus. The flux of highly ionized Fe lines can be explained by the accumulation of 10-1000 supernova remnants that are the result of high star-forming activity, while the Fe I line flux is consistent with the fluorescent line emission expected with the molecular clouds in the region.

Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Yamasaki, Noriko Y.; Takei, Yoh [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ISAS/JAXA), 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku Sagamihara, Kanagawa, 252-5210 (Japan)

2011-12-15

235

ON THE DIVERSITY AND COMPLEXITY OF ABSORPTION LINE PROFILES PRODUCED BY OUTFLOWS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the origin of active galactic nucleus (AGN) absorption line profiles and their diversity could help to explain the physical structure of the accretion flow, and also to assess the impact of accretion on the evolution of the AGN host galaxies. Here, we present our first attempt to systematically address the issue of the origin of the complexities observed in absorption profiles. Using a simple method, we compute absorption line profiles against a continuum point source for several simulations of accretion disk winds. We investigate the geometrical, ionization, and dynamical effects on the absorption line shapes. We find that significant complexity and diversity of the absorption line profile shapes can be produced by the non-monotonic distribution of the wind velocity, density, and ionization state. Non-monotonic distributions of such quantities are present even in steady-state, smooth disk winds, and naturally lead to the formation of multiple and detached absorption troughs. These results demonstrate that the part of a wind where an absorption line is formed is not representative of the entire wind. Thus, the information contained in the absorption line is incomplete if not even insufficient to well estimate gross properties of the wind such as the total mass and energy fluxes. In addition, the highly dynamical nature of certain portions of disk winds can have important effects on the estimates of the wind properties. For example, the mass outflow rates can be off by up to two orders of magnitude with respect to estimates based on a spherically symmetric, homogeneous, constant velocity wind.

Giustini, Margherita [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica di Bologna, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Proga, Daniel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada Las Vegas, 4505 Maryland Pkwy, Las Vegas, NV 891541-4002 (United States)

2012-10-10

236

Comparison of complex Langevin and mean field methods applied to effective Polyakov line models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effective Polyakov line models, derived from SU(3) gauge-matter systems at finite chemical potential, have a sign problem. In this article I solve two such models, derived from SU(3) gauge-Higgs and heavy quark theories by the relative weights method, over a range of chemical potentials where the sign problem is severe. Two values of the gauge-Higgs coupling are considered, corresponding to a heavier and a lighter scalar particle. Each model is solved via the complex Langevin method, following the approach of Aarts and James, and also by a mean field technique. It is shown that where the results of mean field and complex Langevin agree, they agree almost perfectly. Where the results of the two methods diverge, it is found that the complex Langevin evolution has a branch cut crossing problem, associated with a logarithm in the action, that was pointed out by Møllgaard and Splittorff.

Greensite, Jeff

2014-12-01

237

In vivo formation of complex microvessels lined by human endothelial cells in an immunodeficient mouse.  

PubMed

We have identified conditions for forming cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) into tubes within a three-dimensional gel that on implantation into immunoincompetent mice undergo remodeling into complex microvessels lined by human endothelium. HUVEC suspended in mixed collagen/fibronectin gels organize into cords with early lumena by 24 h and then apoptose. Twenty-hour constructs, s.c. implanted in immunodeficient mice, display HUVEC-lined thin-walled microvessels within the gel 31 days after implantation. Retroviral-mediated overexpression of a caspase-resistant Bcl-2 protein delays HUVEC apoptosis in vitro for over 7 days. Bcl-2-transduced HUVEC produce an increased density of HUVEC-lined perfused microvessels in vivo compared with untransduced or control-transduced HUVEC. Remarkably, Bcl-2- but not control-transduced HUVEC recruit an ingrowth of perivascular smooth-muscle alpha-actin-expressing mouse cells at 31 days, which organize by 60 days into HUVEC-lined multilayered structures resembling true microvessels. This system provides an in vivo model for dissecting mechanisms of microvascular remodeling by using genetically modified endothelium. Incorporation of such human endothelial-lined microvessels into engineered synthetic skin may improve graft viability, especially in recipients with impaired angiogenesis. PMID:10890921

Schechner, J S; Nath, A K; Zheng, L; Kluger, M S; Hughes, C C; Sierra-Honigmann, M R; Lorber, M I; Tellides, G; Kashgarian, M; Bothwell, A L; Pober, J S

2000-08-01

238

In vivo formation of complex microvessels lined by human endothelial cells in an immunodeficient mouse  

PubMed Central

We have identified conditions for forming cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) into tubes within a three-dimensional gel that on implantation into immunoincompetent mice undergo remodeling into complex microvessels lined by human endothelium. HUVEC suspended in mixed collagen/fibronectin gels organize into cords with early lumena by 24 h and then apoptose. Twenty-hour constructs, s.c. implanted in immunodeficient mice, display HUVEC-lined thin-walled microvessels within the gel 31 days after implantation. Retroviral-mediated overexpression of a caspase-resistant Bcl-2 protein delays HUVEC apoptosis in vitro for over 7 days. Bcl-2-transduced HUVEC produce an increased density of HUVEC-lined perfused microvessels in vivo compared with untransduced or control-transduced HUVEC. Remarkably, Bcl-2- but not control-transduced HUVEC recruit an ingrowth of perivascular smooth-muscle ?-actin-expressing mouse cells at 31 days, which organize by 60 days into HUVEC-lined multilayered structures resembling true microvessels. This system provides an in vivo model for dissecting mechanisms of microvascular remodeling by using genetically modified endothelium. Incorporation of such human endothelial-lined microvessels into engineered synthetic skin may improve graft viability, especially in recipients with impaired angiogenesis. PMID:10890921

Schechner, Jeffrey S.; Nath, Anjali K.; Zheng, Lian; Kluger, Martin S.; Hughes, Christopher C. W.; Sierra-Honigmann, M. Rocio; Lorber, Marc I.; Tellides, George; Kashgarian, Michael; Bothwell, Alfred L. M.; Pober, Jordan S.

2000-01-01

239

Steps toward determination of the size and structure of the broad-line region in active galactic nuclei. 6: Variability of NGC 3783 from ground-based data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 3783 was intensely monitored in several bands between 1991 December and 1992 August. This paper presents the results from the ground-based observations in the optical and near-IR bands, which complement the data set formed by the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) spectra, discussed elsewhere. Spectroscopic and photometric data from several observatories were combined in order to obtain well-sampled light curves of the continuum and of H(beta). During the campaign the source underwent significant variability. The light curves of the optical continuum and of H(beta) display strong similarities to those obtained with the IUE. The near-IR flux did not vary significantly except for a slight increase at the end of the campaign. The cross-correlation analysis shows that the variations of the optical continuum have a lag of 1 day or less with respect to those of the UV continuum, with an uncertainty of is less than or equal to 4 days. The integrated flux of H(beta) varies with a delay of about 8 days. These results confirm that (1) the continuum variations occur simultaneously or with a very small lag across the entire UV-optical range, as in the Seyfert galaxy NGC 5548; and (2) the emission lines of NGC 3783 respond to ionizing continuum variations with less delay than those of NGC 5548. As observed in NGC 5548, the lag of H(beta) with respect to the continuum is greater than those of the high-ionization lines.

Stirpe, G. M.; Winge, C.; Altieri, B.; Alloin, D.; Aguero, E. L.; Anupama, G. C.; Ashley, R.; Bertram, R.; Calderon, J. H.; Catchpole, R. M.

1994-01-01

240

Identification of Triploid Individuals and Clonal Lines in Carassius Auratus Complex Using Microsatellites  

E-print Network

licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/). Reproduction is permitted for personal, noncommercial use, provided that the article is in whole, unmodified, and properly cited. Received: 2011.01.24; Accepted: 2011.03.11; Published: 2011.03.18 The Carassius auratus complex in natural populations includes diploid triploid and polyploidy individuals. Diploid individuals belong to the species Carassius auratus whereas triploid and polyploidy individuals are from the subspecies Carassius auratus gibelio. Triploid individuals are all female and reproduce clonally by gynogenesis. Therefore the Carassius auratus complex is an ideal system for studying evolution of unisexual reproduction. Identification of triploid individuals and clonal lines is the first step towards understanding of the evolution of unisexual clonal lines. We examined the ability of 10 microsatellites in identifying triploid individuals in 94 individuals from Japan and China. In 40 confirmed triploid individuals and eight confirmed diploid individuals, all triploid and diploid individuals can be identified by genotyping 10 microsatellite, and four triploid clonal lines were identified. Using the 10 microsatellites we genotyped 46 adult individuals (40 females and six males) from a natural population in China and found that all six males were diploid whereas the majority of females (36 of 40) were

Zhiyi Bai; Feng Liu; Jiale Li; Gen Hua Yue

241

Unraveling the Mysteries of Complex Interstellar Organic Chemistry Using Hifi Line Surveys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are undertaking a Herschel Space Observatory OT1 program to conduct HIFI spectral line surveys of interstellar clouds to probe the influence of physical environment on molecular complexity. We will observe a large sample of sources, cover a range of physical environments, and target selected frequency windows containing transitions from several known complex organic molecules. We have an ongoing complementary program in ground-based astronomy using the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory to collect spectral line surveys at lower frequencies, and plan to undertake additional interferometric observations using the CARMA and ALMA arrays to further examine the spatial distributions of the molecules detected toward our target sources. The goal of these observations is to correlate the relative abundances of organic molecules with the physical properties of the source (i.e. temperature, density, age, dynamics, etc.). Our broader research goal is to improve astrochemical models to the point where accurate predictions of complex molecular inventory can be based on the physical and chemical environment of a given source. The information gained from these observations will serve as a benchmark for these astrochemical models and holds the promise of significantly advancing our understanding of interstellar chemical processes. In this talk, we will overview the major goals of this observational program, and report on any preliminary results from these ongoing observations.

Weaver, Susanna L. Widicus; Radhuber, Mary L.; Kroll, Jay A.; McGuire, Brett A.; Laas, Jacob C.; Lis, Darek C.; Herbst, Eric

2011-06-01

242

The radial transmission line as a broad-band shielded exposure system for microwave irradiation of large numbers of culture flasks.  

PubMed

The problem of simultaneously exposing large numbers of culture flasks at nominally equivalent incident power densities and with good thermal control is considered, and the radial transmission line (RTL) is proposed as a solution. The electromagnetic design of this structure is discussed, and an extensively bench-tested realization is described. Referred to 1 W of net forward power, the following specific absorption rate (SAR) data were obtained: at 835.62 MHz, 16.0+/-2.5 mW/kg (mean+/-SD) with range (11-22); at 2450 MHz, 245+/-50 mW/kg with range (130-323). Radio-frequency interference from an RTL driven at roughly 100 W is so low as to be compatible with a cellular base station only 500 m distant. To avoid potential confounding by temperature differences among as many as 144 T-75 flasks distributed over 9 RTLs (six irradiates and three shams), temperature within all flasks was controlled to 37.0+/-0.3 degrees C. Experience with over two years of trouble-free operation suggests that the RTL offers a robust, logistically friendly, and environmentally satisfactory solution to the problem of large-scale in vitro experiments in bioelectromagnetics. PMID:10029133

Moros, E G; Straube, W L; Pickard, W F

1999-01-01

243

Complex Saddle Points and Disorder Lines in QCD at finite temperature and density  

E-print Network

The properties and consequences of complex saddle points are explored in phenomenological models of QCD at non-zero temperature and density. Such saddle points are a consequence of the sign problem, and should be considered in both theoretical calculations and lattice simulations. Although saddle points in finite-density QCD are typically in the complex plane, they are constrained by a symmetry that simplifies analysis. We model the effective potential for Polyakov loops using two different potential terms for confinement effects, and consider three different cases for quarks: very heavy quarks, massless quarks without modeling of chiral symmetry breaking effects, and light quarks with both deconfinement and chiral symmetry restoration effects included in a pair of PNJL models. In all cases, we find that a single dominant complex saddle point is required for a consistent description of the model. This saddle point is generally not far from the real axis; the most easily noticed effect is a difference between the Polyakov loop expectation values $\\left\\langle {\\rm Tr}_{F}P\\right\\rangle $ and $\\left\\langle {\\rm Tr}_{F}P^{\\dagger}\\right\\rangle $, and that is confined to small region in the $\\mu-T$ plane. In all but one case, a disorder line is found in the region of critical and/or crossover behavior. The disorder line marks the boundary between exponential decay and sinusoidally modulated exponential decay of correlation functions. Disorder line effects are potentially observable in both simulation and experiment. Precision simulations of QCD in the $\\mu-T$ plane have the potential to clearly discriminate between different models of confinement.

Hiromichi Nishimura; Michael C. Ogilvie; Kamal Pangeni

2014-11-18

244

In-line concentration measurement in complex liquids using ultrasonic sensors  

PubMed

Recently there has been increased demand for chemical sensors measuring in-line the concentration of selected substances in complex liquids in order to guarantee a high product quality in the process industry. At present there is a great interest in acoustic sensor systems for concentration measurements. This article presents a new ultrasonic sensor system consisting of a miniaturized multi-sensor arrangement for the comprehensive acoustic characterization of liquid mixtures. The sensor system measures sound velocity, impedance coefficient, attenuation coefficient and temperature. PMID:10829774

Henning; Daur; Prange; Dierks; Hauptmann

2000-03-01

245

Steps toward determination of the size and structure of the broad-line region in active galactic nuclei. IV - Intensity variations of the optical emission lines of NGC 5548  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of optical emission-line flux variations based on spectra of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 5548 obtained between December 1988 and October 1989 are reported. All of the measured optical emission lines, H-alpha, H-beta, H-gamma, He I 5876, and He II 4686, exhibit the same qualitative behavior as the UV and optical continua, but with short time delays, or lags, which are different for the various lines. Cross-correlation analysis is applied to measure the lags between the various lines and the continuum. Similar lags are found with respect to the UV continuum for H-alpha and H-beta, 17 and 19 d, respectively. The lag for H-gamma is shorter (13 d), only somewhat larger than the lag measured for Ly-alpha (about 10 d). The helium lines respond to continuum variations more rapidly than the hydrogen lines, with lags of about 7 d for He II 4686 and 11 d for He I 5876.

Dietrich, M.; Kollatschny, W.; Peterson, B. M.; Bechtold, J.; Bertram, R.; Bochkarev, N. G.; Boroson, T. A.; Carone, T. E.; Elvis, M.; Filippenko, A. V.

1993-01-01

246

Steps toward determination of the size and structure of the broad-line region in active galactic nuclei. 8: An intensive HST, IUE, and ground-based study of NGC 5548  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present the data and initial results from a combined HST/IUE/ground-based spectroscopic monitoring campaign on the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548 that was undertaken in order to address questions that require both higher temporal resolution and higher signal-to-noise ratios than were obtained in our previous multiwavelength monitoring of this galaxy in 1988-89. IUE spectra were obtained once every two days for a period of 74 days beginning on 14 March 1993. During the last 39 days of this campaign, spectroscopic observations were also made with the HST Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) on a daily basis. Ground-based observations, consisting of 165 optical spectra and 77 photometric observations (both CCD imaging and aperture photometry), are reported for the period 1992 October to 1993 September, although much of the data are concentrated around the time of the satellite-based program. These data constitute a fifth year of intensive optical monitoring of this galaxy. In this contribution, we describe the acquisition and reduction of all of the satellite and ground-based data obtained in this program. We describe in detail various photometric problems with the FOS and explain how we identified and corrected for various anomalies. During the HST portion of the monitoring campaign, the 1350 A continuum flux is found to have varied by nearly a factor of two. In other wavebands, the continuum shows nearly identical behavior, except that the amplitude of variability is larger at shorter wavelengths, and the continuum light curves appear to show more short time-scale variability at shorter wavelengths. The broad emission lines also vary in flux, with amplitudes that are slightly smaller than the UV continuum variations and with a small time delay relative to the UV continuum. On the basis of simple time-series analysis of the UV and optical continuum and emission line light curves, we find (1) that the ultraviolet and optical continuum variations are virtually simultaneous, with any lag between the 1350 A continuum and the 5100 A continuum amounting to less than about one day; (2) that the variations in the highest ionization lines observed, He II lambda 1640 and N V lambda 1240, lag behind the continuum variations by somewhat less than 2 days, and (3) that the velocity field of the C IV-emitting region is not dominated by radial motion. The results on the C IV velocity field are preliminary and quite uncertain, but there are some weak indications that the emission-line (wings absolute value of Delta upsilon is greater than or equal to 3000 km/s) respond to continuum variations slightly more rapidly than does the core. The optical observations show that the variations in the broad H beta line flux follow the continuum variations with a time lag of around two weeks, about twice the lag for Ly alpha and C IV, as in our previous monitoring campaign on this same galaxy. However, the lags measured for Ly alpha, C IV, and H Beta are each slightly smaller than previously determined. We confirm two trends reported earlier, namely (1) that the UV/optical continuum becomes 'harder' as it gets brighter, and (2) that the highest ionization emission lines have the shortest lags, thus indicating radial ionization stratificatin of a broad-line region that spans over an order of magnitude range in radius.

Korista, K.; Alloin, D.; Barr, P. (e6889478); Clavel, J.; Cohen, R. D.; Crenshaw, D. M.; Evans, I. N.; Horne, K.; Koratkar, A. P.; Kriss, G. A.

1994-01-01

247

Uptake and handling of iron from transferrin, lactoferrin and immune complexes by a macrophage cell line.  

PubMed Central

The murine macrophage-like cell line P388D1 has been used as a model to investigate whether iron acquired simultaneously from different sources (transferrin, lactoferrin, and ovotransferrin-anti-ovotransferrin immune complexes) is handled in the same way. P388D1 cells bound both lactoferrin and transferrin, but over a 6 h incubation period only the latter actually donated iron to the cells. When the cells were incubated with [55Fe]transferrin and [59Fe]ovotransferrin-anti-ovotransferrin immune complexes iron was acquired from both sources. However, there was a difference in the intracellular distribution of the two isotopes, proportionally more 55Fe entering haem compounds and less entering ferritin. When the cells were precultured in a low-iron serum-free medium almost no transferrin-iron was incorporated into ferritin, whereas the proportion of immune complex-derived iron incorporated into ferritin was unchanged. Lactoferrin enhanced the rate of cellular proliferation, as measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation, despite its inability to donate iron to the cells, suggesting a stimulatory effect independent of iron donation. In contrast immune complexes inhibited cell proliferation. These findings indicate that iron acquired from transferrin and iron acquired by scavenging mechanisms are handled differently, and suggest that more than one intracellular iron transit pool may exist. PMID:3421902

Oria, R; Alvarez-Hernández, X; Licéaga, J; Brock, J H

1988-01-01

248

SUBARU HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY OF COMPLEX METAL ABSORPTION LINES OF THE QUASAR HS 1603+38201  

E-print Network

SUBARU HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY OF COMPLEX METAL ABSORPTION LINES OF THE QUASAR HS 1603-resolution spectrum of the quasar HS 1603+3820 (zem = 2.542), observed with the High Dispersion Spectrograph on the Subaru Telescope. This quasar, first discovered in the Hamburg/CfA Quasar Survey, has 11 C iv lines at 1

Iye, Masanori

249

Six Years of Fermi-LAT and Multi-Wavelength Monitoring of the Broad-Line Radio Galaxy 3c 120: Jet Dissipation At Sub-Parsec Scales from the Central Engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present multi-wavelength monitoring results for the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 120 in the MeV/GeV, sub-millimeter, and 43 GHz bands over 6 yr. Over the past 2 yr, the Fermi-Large Area Telescope sporadically detected 3C 120 with high significance and the 230 GHz data also suggest an enhanced activity of the source. After the MeV/GeV detection from 3C 120 in MJD 56240–56300, 43 GHz Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) monitoring revealed a brightening of the radio core, followed by the ejection of a superluminal knot. Since we observed the ?-ray and VLBA phenomena in temporal proximity to each other, it is naturally assumed that they are physically connected. This assumption was further supported by the subsequent observation that the 43 GHz core brightened again after a ?-ray flare occurred around MJD 56560. We can then infer that the MeV/GeV emission took place inside an unresolved 43 GHz core of 3C 120 and that the jet dissipation occurred at sub-parsec distances from the central black hole (BH), if we take the distance of the 43 GHz core from the central BH as ˜0.5 pc, as previously estimated from the time lag between X-ray dips and knot ejections. Based on our constraints on the relative locations of the emission regions and energetic arguments, we conclude that the ? rays are more favorably produced via the synchrotron self-Compton process, rather than inverse Compton scattering of external photons coming from the broad line region or hot dusty torus. We also derived the electron distribution and magnetic field by modeling the simultaneous broadband spectrum.

Tanaka, Y. T.; Doi, A.; Inoue, Y.; Cheung, C. C.; Stawarz, L.; Fukazawa, Y.; Gurwell, M. A.; Tahara, M.; Kataoka, J.; Itoh, R.

2015-02-01

250

LINE-1 Retroelements Complexed and Inhibited by Activation Induced Cytidine Deaminase  

PubMed Central

LINE-1 (abbreviated L1) is a major class of retroelements in humans and mice. If unrestricted, retroelements accumulate in the cytoplasm and insert their DNA into the host genome, with the potential to cause autoimmune disease and cancer. Retroviruses and other retroelements are inhibited by proteins of the APOBEC family, of which activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is a member. Although AID is mainly known for being a DNA mutator shaping the antibody repertoire in B lymphocytes, we found that AID also restricts de novo L1 integrations in B- and non-B-cell lines. It does so by decreasing the protein level of open reading frame 1 (ORF1) of both exogenous and endogenous L1. In activated B lymphocytes, AID deficiency increased L1 mRNA 1.6-fold and murine leukemia virus (MLV) mRNA 2.7-fold. In cell lines and activated B lymphocytes, AID forms cytoplasmic high-molecular-mass complexes with L1 mRNA, which may contribute to L1 restriction. Because AID-deficient activated B lymphocytes do not express ORF1 protein, we suggest that ORF1 protein expression is inhibited by additional restriction factors in these cells. The greater increase in MLV compared to L1 mRNA in AID-deficient activated B lymphocytes may indicate less strict surveillance of retrovirus. PMID:23133680

Metzner, Mirjam; Jäck, Hans-Martin; Wabl, Matthias

2012-01-01

251

Differential effects of a complex organochlorine mixture on the proliferation of breast cancer cell lines  

SciTech Connect

Organochlorine compounds (OCs) are a group of persistent chemicals that accumulate in fatty tissues with age. Although OCs has been tested individually for their capacity to induce breast cancer cell proliferation, few studies examined the effect of complex mixtures that comprise compounds frequently detected in the serum of women. We constituted such an OC mixture containing 15 different components in environmentally relevant proportions and assessed its proliferative effects in four breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47D, CAMA-1, MDAMB231) and in non-cancerous CV-1 cells. We also determined the capacity of the mixture to modulate cell cycle stage of breast cancer cells and to induce estrogenic and antiandrogenic effects using gene reporter assays. We observed that low concentrations of the mixture (100x10{sup 3} and 50x10{sup 3} dilutions) stimulated the proliferation of MCF-7 cells while higher concentrations (10x10{sup 3} and 5x10{sup 3} dilutions) had the opposite effect. In contrast, the mixture inhibited the proliferation of non-hormone-dependent cell lines. The mixture significantly increased the number of MCF-7 cells entering the S phase, an effect that was blocked by the antiestrogen ICI 182,780. Low concentrations of the mixture also caused an increase in CAMA-1 cell proliferation but only in the presence estradiol and dihydrotestosterone (p<0.05 at the 50x10{sup 3} dilution). DDT analogs and polychlorinated biphenyls all had the capacity to stimulate the proliferation of CAMA-1 cells in the presence of sex steroids. Reporter gene assays further revealed that the mixture and several of its constituents (DDT analogs, aldrin, dieldrin, {beta}-hexachlorocyclohexane, toxaphene) induced estrogenic effects, whereas the mixture and several components (DDT analogs, aldrin, dieldrin and PCBs) inhibited the androgen signaling pathway. Our results indicate that the complex OC mixture increases the proliferation of MCF-7 cells due to its estrogenic potential. The proliferative effect of the mixture on CAMA-1 cells in the presence of sex steroids appears mostly due to the antiandrogenic properties of p,p'-DDE, a major constituent of the mixture. Other mixtures of contaminants that include emerging compounds of interest such as brominated flame retardants and perfluoroalkyl compounds should be tested for their capacity to induce breast cancer cell proliferation. - Research highlights: {yields} We studied effects of a complex organochlorine mixture on breast cancer cell growth. {yields} Weak xenoestrogens in the mixture stimulated the proliferation of MCF-7 cells. {yields} Antiandrogens increased the proliferation CAMA-1 cells grown with sex steroids. {yields} High concentrations of the mixture decreased the proliferation of all cell lines.

Aube, Michel, E-mail: 4aubem@videotron.ca [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada)] [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada); Larochelle, Christian, E-mail: christian.larochelle@inspq.qc.ca [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada)] [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada); Ayotte, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.ayotte@inspq.qc.ca [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada) [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada); Laboratoire de Toxicologie, Institut national de sante publique du Quebec, 945 avenue Wolfe, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 5B3 (Canada)

2011-04-15

252

A heterotrimetallic Ir(iii), Au(iii) and Pt(ii) complex incorporating cyclometallating bi- and tridentate ligands: simultaneous emission from different luminescent metal centres leads to broad-band light emission.  

PubMed

Di- and tri-nuclear metal complexes incorporating gold(iii), iridium(iii) and platinum(ii) units linked via a 1,3,5-triethynylbenzene core are reported, together with the corresponding mononuclear complexes as models. The gold(iii) and platinum(ii) units comprise tridentate, cyclometallating, C^N^C and N^N^C-coordinating ligands, respectively, with the Ar-C[triple bond, length as m-dash]C- directly bound to the metal at the fourth coordination site. The iridium moiety is an Ir(ppy)2(acac) unit bound to the triethynylbenzene through a phenyl substituent at the 3-position of the acac ligand. The multinuclear compounds are prepared, using a modular synthetic strategy, from the monometallic complexes. All of the compounds are luminescent in solution at room temperature, and their photophysical properties were studied. The triplet excited state energies of the mononuclear complexes lie in the order Au > Ir > Pt. Consistent with this order, energy transfer from Au to Ir and from Au to Pt is observed, leading to quenching of the Au emission in the gold-containing multinuclear complexes. Energy transfer from Ir to Pt occurs at a rate that only partially quenches the Ir-based emission. As a result, the dinuclear Ir-Pt and trinuclear Au-Ir-Pt complexes display broad emission across most of the visible region of the spectrum. PMID:25325719

Muñoz-Rodríguez, Rebeca; Buñuel, Elena; Fuentes, Noelia; Williams, J A Gareth; Cárdenas, Diego J

2014-10-17

253

A CO LINE AND INFRARED CONTINUUM STUDY OF THE ACTIVE STAR-FORMING COMPLEX W51  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of an extensive observational study of the active star-forming complex W51 that was observed in the J = 2 - 1 transition of the {sup 12}CO and {sup 13}CO molecules over a 1.{sup 0}25 x 1.{sup 0}00 region with the University of Arizona Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope. We use a statistical equilibrium code to estimate physical properties of the molecular gas. We compare the molecular cloud morphology with the distribution of infrared (IR) and radio continuum sources and find associations between molecular clouds and young stellar objects (YSOs) listed in Spitzer IR catalogs. The ratios of CO lines associated with H II regions are different from the ratios outside the active star-forming regions. We present evidence of star formation triggered by the expansion of the H II regions and by cloud-cloud collisions. We estimate that about 1% of the cloud mass is currently in YSOs.

Kang, Miju; Lee, Youngung; Choi, Minho [International Center for Astrophysics, Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 838 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Bieging, John H.; Kulesa, Craig A.; Peters, William L., E-mail: mjkang@kasi.re.k [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

2010-09-15

254

HOLLIS CROFT BROAD STREET  

E-print Network

SHOREHAM STREET LEADMILL ROAD FU RN IVAL RO AD VIC TORIA STATIO N ROAD COMMERCIAL STREET FORNHAM ST TURNERHOLLIS CROFT TENTER STREET W EST BAR GREEN THE W ICKER BLO NK STREET CASTLEGATE BROAD STREET LEE CROFT HAWLEY STREETBROAD LANE BROAD LANE PINFOLD STREET TRIPPET LANE FITZALAN SQUARE POND HILL HOW ARD

Williamson, Mike P.

255

Broad-band beam buncher  

DOEpatents

A broad-band beam buncher is disclosed, comprising an evacuated housing, an electron gun therein for producing an electron beam, a buncher cavity having entrance and exit openings through which the beam is directed, grids across such openings, a source providing a positive DC voltage between the cavity and the electron gun, a drift tube through which the electron beam travels in passing through such cavity, grids across the ends of such drift tube, gaps being provided between the drift tube grids and the entrance and exit grids, a modulator for supplying an ultrahigh frequency modulating signal to the drift tube for producing velocity modulation of the electrons in the beam, a drift space in the housing through which the velocity modulated electron beam travels and in which the beam is bunched, and a discharge opening from such drift tube and having a grid across such opening through which the bunched electron beam is discharged into an accelerator or the like. The buncher cavity and the drift tube may be arranged to constitute an extension of a coaxial transmission line which is employed to deliver the modulating signal from a signal source. The extended transmission line may be terminated in its characteristic impedance to afford a broad-band response and the device as a whole designed to effect broad-band beam coupling, so as to minimize variations of the output across the response band.

Goldberg, David A. (Walnut Creek, CA); Flood, William S. (Berkeley, CA); Arthur, Allan A. (Martinez, CA); Voelker, Ferdinand (Orinda, CA)

1986-01-01

256

Petrogenesis of the Sabongari alkaline complex, cameroon line (central Africa): Preliminary petrological and geochemical constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The petrography, mineral chemistry and geochemical features of the Sabongari alkaline complex are presented and discussed in this paper with the aim of constraining its petrogenesis and comparing it with other alkaline complexes of the Cameroon Line. The complex is mainly made up of felsic rocks: (i) granites predominate and include pyroxene-amphibole (the most abundant), amphibole-biotite, biotite and pyroxene types; (ii) syenites are subordinate and comprise amphibole-pyroxene and amphibole-biotite quartz syenites; (iii) pyroxene-amphibole-biotite trachyte and (iv) relatively abundant rhyolite. The minor basic and intermediate terms associated with felsic rocks consist of basanites, microdiorite and monzodioites. Two groups of pyroxene bearing rocks are distinguished: a basanite-trachyte-granite (Group 1) bimodal series (SiO2 gap: 44 and 63 wt.%) and a basanite-microdiorite-monzodiorite-syenite-granite (Group 2) less pronounced bimodal series (reduced SiO2 gap: 56-67 wt.%). Both are metaluminous to peralkaline whereas felsic rocks bare of pyroxene (Group 3) are metaluminous to peraluminous. The Group 1 basanite is SiO2-undersaturated (modal analcite in the groundmass and 11.04 wt.% normative nepheline); its Ni (240 ppm) and Cr (450 ppm) contents, near mantle values, indicate its most primitive character. The Group 2 basanite is rather slightly SiO2-saturated (1.56 wt.% normative hypersthene), a marker of its high crustal contamination (low Nb/Y-high Rb/Y). The La/Yb and Gd/Yb values of both basanites (1: 19.47 and 2.92; 2: 9.09 and 2.23) suggest their common parental magma composition, and their crystallization through two episodes of partial melting (2% and 3% respectively) of a lherzolite mantle source with <4% residual garnet. The effects of crustal contamination were selectively felt in the values of HFSE/LREE, LREE/LILE and LREE/HFSE ratios, known as indicators. Similar features have been recently obtained in the felsic lavas of the Cameroon Volcanic Line.

Njonfang, Emmanuel; Tchoneng, Gilbert Tchuenté; Cozzupoli, Domenico; Lucci, Federico

2013-07-01

257

Gas chromatography and gateway sensors for on-line-state estimation of complex fermentations (butanol-acetone fermentation)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fermentation system has been designed to demonstrate the use of gas chromatography (GC) for on-line monitoring of the butanol-acetone and other complex saccharolytic fermentations. Tangential flow ultrafiltration was used to sterilely and continuously obtain a cell-free filtrate from the fermentation broth for on-line GC analysis of butanol, butyrate, acetate, acetone, ethanol, and acetoin. The liquid injection system consists of

Joseph K. McLaughlin; Charles L. Meyer; Eleftherios T. Papoutsakis

1985-01-01

258

Six Years of Fermi-LAT and Multi-wavelength Monitoring of the Broad-Line Radio Galaxy 3C 120: Jet Dissipation at Sub-parsec Scales from the Central Engine  

E-print Network

We present multi-wavelength monitoring results for the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 120 in the MeV/GeV, sub-millimeter, and 43 GHz bands over six years. Over the past two years, Fermi-LAT sporadically detected 3C 120 with high significance and the 230 GHz data also suggest an enhanced activity of the source. After the MeV/GeV detection from 3C 120 in MJD 56240-56300, 43 GHz VLBA monitoring revealed a brightening of the radio core, followed by the ejection of a superluminal knot. Since we observed the gamma-ray and VLBA phenomena in temporal proximity to each other, it is naturally assumed that they are physically connected. This assumption was further supported by the subsequent observation that the 43 GHz core brightened again after a second gamma-ray flare around MJD 56560. We can then infer that the MeV/GeV emission took place inside an unresolved 43 GHz core of 3C 120 and that the jet dissipation occurred at sub-parsec distances from the central black hole, if we take the distance of the 43 GHz core from th...

Tanaka, Y T; Inoue, Y; Cheung, C C; Stawarz, L; Fukazawa, Y; Gurwell, M A; Tahara, M; Kataoka, J; Itoh, R

2014-01-01

259

Comparative assessment of the cytotoxic effects of carboxylato-bridged dinuclear platinum (II) complexes against human tumor cell lines.  

PubMed

The cytotoxic effects of a series of carboxylato-bridged dinuclear platinum (II) complexes with acetate (BAP), propionate (BPP) and valerate (BVP) ligands were evaluated in a panel of human tumor cell lines. BAP proved to be the most potent antineoplastic agent, whose cytotoxic effect reached and even outclassed that of the referent drug cisplatin. This compound also exerted substantial efficacy against a broader spectrum of tumor models including the multidrug-resistant HL-60/Dox cell line. In the latter case, BAP showed lower resistance index than cisplatin. BAP was furthermore found to induce apoptosis in different cell lines as evidenced by DNA-laddering and Cell-death ELISA. Our experimental data give us reason to conclude that the dinuclear Pt(II) complex with acetate ligands is perspective for further detailed pharmacological and toxicological evaluation as an antineoplastic drug candidate. PMID:16284691

Momekov, G; Bakalova, A; Konstantinov, S; Todorov, D; Karaivanova, M

2005-01-01

260

Separation and identification of flavonoids from complex samples using off-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

In this study, a LC-based identification strategy was proposed and off-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography was developed for the separation and identification of flavonoids from complex samples. The highly orthogonal separation system was composed of a CD column, an OEG column and an XTerra C(18) column. The CD column was employed for the first dimensional separation and the OEG column and XTerra C(18) column were used for the second dimensional separation in parallel. A mixture of six traditional Chinese medicines was used as a complex sample in testing this method. Unknown peaks were identified by matching their retention times and accurate mass molecular weights with those of references. The identification efficacy of parallel unidimensional liquid chromatography and off-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography was compared, and the latter was demonstrated to be more efficient for the identification of target compounds-especially co-eluted compounds or minor compounds from complex samples. PMID:22176737

Zeng, Jing; Zhang, Xiuli; Guo, Zhimou; Feng, Jiatao; Zeng, Jianguo; Xue, Xingya; Liang, Xinmiao

2012-01-13

261

Broad-band beam buncher  

DOEpatents

A broad-band beam bunther is disclosed, comprising an evacuated housing, an electron gun therein for producing an electron beam, a buncher cavity having entrance and exit openings through which the beam is directed, grids across such openings, a source providing a positive DC voltage between the cavity and the electron gun, a drift tube through which the electron beam travels in passing through such cavity, grids across the ends of such drift tube, gaps being provided between the drift tube grids and the entrance and exit grids, a modulator for supplying an ultrahigh frequency modulating signal to the drift tube for producing velocity modulation of the electrons in the beam, a drift space in the housing through which the velocity modulated electron beam travels and in which the beam is bunched, and a discharge opening from such drift tube and having a grid across such opening through which the bunched electron beam is discharged into an accelerator or the like. The buncher cavity and the drift tube may be arranged to constitute an extension of a coaxial transmission line which is employed to deliver the modulating signal from a signal source. The extended transmission line may be terminated in its characteristic impedance to afford a broad-

Goldberg, D.A.; Flood, W.S.; Arthur, A.A.; Voelker, F.

1984-03-20

262

Broad Bandwidth Telecommunications Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Broad bandwidth transmission systems have been around for years. They include microwave, assorted cable systems, and recently, satellites. With the exception of some privately owned systems, broadband services have been furnished by the common carriers. Recently, a new element has been added--Cable Antenna Television (CATV) distribution systems.…

Sodolski, John

263

The Broad Foundations, 2006  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The mission of the Broad Foundations is to transform K-12 urban public education through better governance, management, labor relations and competition; make significant contributions to advance major scientific and medical research; foster public appreciation of contemporary art by increasing access for audiences worldwide; and lead and…

Broad Foundation, 2006

2006-01-01

264

Interferon gamma regulates binding of two nuclear protein complexes in a macrophage cell line.  

PubMed Central

Interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) is a potent inducer of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens during normal immune responses and in abnormal responses in autoimmune disease. In this report we identify two nuclear factors whose binding to the murine E beta class II MHC beta-chain gene is regulated by this cytokine. IFN-gamma stimulation of murine macrophages results in the appearance of increased binding of one protein complex, complex A, and decreased binding of a second, faster migrating protein complex, complex B. Although the contact residues for both of these proteins lie within the highly conserved Y-box transcriptional element, their binding specificity differs. The protein in complex B is a CCAAT-box-binding protein that may be similar or identical to NF-Y or YB1, previously identified class II Y-box-binding proteins. The DNA sequence requirements for the binding of the slower migrating complex, complex A, are not limited to CCAAT-box sequences but include sequences upstream of the Y box. These upstream sequences are required both for IFN-gamma-induced gene transcription and for IFN-gamma-induced modulation of binding activity. These data suggest a model in which upstream sequences contribute to formation of a lymphokine-regulated complex downstream. The IFN-gamma-induced binding protein described as complex A in this report differs from the IFN-gamma, -alpha, or -beta-induced nuclear factors previously identified. Images PMID:2105504

Finn, P W; Kara, C J; Douhan, J; Van, T T; Folsom, V; Glimcher, L H

1990-01-01

265

COS Observations of Metal Line and Broad Lyman-? Absorption in the Multi-phase O VI and Ne VIII System at z = 0.20701 toward HE 0226-4110  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of the QSO HE 0226-4110 (z em = 0.495) with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) from 1134 to 1796 Å with a resolution of ~17 km s-1 and signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) per resolution element of 20-40 are used to study the multi-phase absorption system at z = 0.20701 containing O VI and Ne VIII. The system was previously studied with lower S/N observations with Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) and Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). The COS observations provide more reliable measures of the H I and metal lines present in the system and reveal the clear presence of broad Ly? (BLA) absorption with b = 72(+13, -6) km s-1 and log N(H I) = 13.87 ± 0.08. Detecting BLAs associated with warm gas absorbers is crucial for determining the temperature, metallicity, and total baryonic content of the absorbers. The BLA is probably recording the trace amount of thermally broadened H I in the collisionally ionized plasma with log T ~ 5.7 that also produces the O VI and Ne VIII absorption. The total hydrogen column in the collisionally ionized gas, log N(H) ~ 20.1, exceeds that in the cooler photoionized gas in the system by a factor of ~22. The oxygen abundance in the collisionally ionized gas is [O/H] = -0.89 ± 0.08 ± 0.07. The absorber probably occurs in the circumgalactic environment (halo) of a foreground L = 0.25L * disk galaxy with an impact parameter of 109 h 70 -1 kpc identified by Mulchaey & Chen. Based on observations obtained with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under NASA contract NAS5-26555, and the NASA-CNES/ESA Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer mission operated by Johns Hopkins University, supported by NASA contract NAS 05-32985.

Savage, B. D.; Lehner, N.; Narayanan, A.

2011-12-01

266

BRG1, a Component of the SWI-SNF Complex, Is Mutated in Multiple Human Tumor Cell Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human BRG1 is a component of the evolutionarily conserved SWI-SNF chromatin remodeling complex. BRG1 has been implicated in growth control through its interaction with the tumor suppressor pRb and may consequently serve as a negative regulator of proliferation. Postulating that BRG1 may itself be a tumor suppressor gene, we screened a panel of tumor cell lines to determine whether the

Alexander K. C. Wong; Frances Shanahan; Yuan Chen; Lubing Lian; Kristin Hendricks; Siavash Ghaffari; Diana Iliev; Brandon Penn; Anne-Marie Woodland; Richard Smith; Arlene Carillo; Kirsten Laity; Jamila Gupte; Brad Swedlund; Sean V. Tavtigian; Emma Lees

267

Mechanisms of drug resistance to the platinum complex ZD0473 in ovarian cancer cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acquired drug resistance to the sterically hindered platinum drug ZD0473 (formerly known as JM473 and AMD473) and currently being tested in phase I clinical trials, has been studied in two human ovarian carcinoma cell lines (CH1 and A2780) where previously, acquired cisplatin resistance has been described. Common mechanisms of resistance were observed in A2780 acquired cisplatin and ZD0473R (resistant) lines

J. Holford; P. J. Beale; F. E. Boxall; S. Y. Sharp; L. R. Kelland

2000-01-01

268

Broad band waveguide spectrometer  

DOEpatents

A spectrometer for analyzing a sample of material utilizing a broad band source of electromagnetic radiation and a detector. The spectrometer employs a waveguide possessing an entry and an exit for the electromagnetic radiation emanating from the source. The waveguide further includes a surface between the entry and exit portions which permits interaction between the electromagnetic radiation passing through the wave guide and a sample material. A tapered portion forms a part of the entry of the wave guide and couples the electromagnetic radiation emanating from the source to the waveguide. The electromagnetic radiation passing from the exit of the waveguide is captured and directed to a detector for analysis.

Goldman, Don S. (Folsom, CA)

1995-01-01

269

Complex organic molecules in the interstellar medium: IRAM 30 m line survey of Sagittarius B2(N) and (M)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The discovery of amino acids in meteorites fallen to Earth and the detection of glycine, the simplest of them, in samples returned from a comet to Earth strongly suggest that the chemistry of the interstellar medium is capable of producing such complex organic molecules and that they may be widespread in our Galaxy. Aims: Our goal is to investigate the degree of chemical complexity that can be reached in the interstellar medium, in particular in dense star-forming regions. Methods: We performed an unbiased, spectral line survey toward Sgr B2(N) and (M), two regions where high-mass stars are formed, with the IRAM 30 m telescope in the 3 mm atmospheric transmission window. Partial surveys at 2 and 1.3 mm were performed in parallel. The spectra were analyzed with a simple radiative transfer model that assumes local thermodynamic equilibrium but takes optical depth effects into account. Results: About 3675 and 945 spectral lines with a peak signal-to-noise ratio higher than 4 are detected at 3 mm toward Sgr B2(N) and (M), i.e. about 102 and 26 lines per GHz, respectively. This represents an increase by about a factor of two over previous surveys of Sgr B2. About 70% and 47% of the lines detected toward Sgr B2(N) and (M) are identified and assigned to 56 and 46 distinct molecules as well as to 66 and 54 less abundant isotopologues of these molecules, respectively. In addition, we report the detection of transitions from 59 and 24 catalog entries corresponding to vibrationally or torsionally excited states of some of these molecules, respectively, up to a vibration energy of 1400 cm-1 (2000 K). Excitation temperatures and column densities were derived for each species but should be used with caution. The rotation temperatures of the detected complex molecules typically range from ~50 to 200 K. Among the detected molecules, aminoacetonitrile, n-propyl cyanide, and ethyl formate were reported for the first time in space based on this survey, as were five rare isotopologues of vinyl cyanide, cyanoacetylene, and hydrogen cyanide. We also report the detection of transitions from within twelve new vibrationally or torsionally excited states of known molecules. Absorption features produced by diffuse clouds along the line of sight are detected in transitions with low rotation quantum numbers of many simple molecules and are modeled with ~30-40 velocity components with typical linewidths of ~3-5 km s-1. Conclusions: Although the large number of unidentified lines may still allow future identification of new molecules, we expect most of these lines to belong to vibrationally or torsionally excited states or to rare isotopologues of known molecules for which spectroscopic predictions are currently missing. Significant progress in extending the inventory of complex organic molecules in Sgr B2(N) and deriving tighter constraints on their location, origin, and abundance is expected in the near future thanks to an ongoing spectral line survey at 3 mm with ALMA in its cycles 0 and 1. The present single-dish survey will serve as a solid basis for the line identification and analysis of such an interferometric survey. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30 m telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain).Figures 2-7 and Tables 6-107 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgThe observed and synthetic 3 mm spectra of Sgr B2(N) and (M), as well as the lists of line identifications corresponding to the blue lab- els in Figs. 2-7, are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/559/A47

Belloche, A.; Müller, H. S. P.; Menten, K. M.; Schilke, P.; Comito, C.

2013-11-01

270

INVESTIGATION OF A DYNAMIC POWER LINE RATING CONCEPT FOR IMPROVED WIND ENERGY INTEGRATION OVER COMPLEX TERRAIN  

SciTech Connect

Dynamic Line Rating (DLR) is a smart grid technology that allows the rating of power line to be based on real-time conductor temperature dependent on local weather conditions. In current practice overhead power lines are generally given a conservative rating based on worst case weather conditions. Using historical weather data collected over a test bed area, we demonstrate there is often additional transmission capacity not being utilized with the current static rating practice. We investigate a new dynamic line rating methodology using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to determine wind conditions along transmission lines at dense intervals. Simulated results are used to determine conductor temperature by calculating the transient thermal response of the conductor under variable environmental conditions. In calculating the conductor temperature, we use both a calculation with steady-state assumption and a transient calculation. Under low wind conditions, steady-state assumption predicts higher conductor temperatures that could lead to curtailments, whereas transient calculations produce conductor temperatures that are significantly lower, implying the availability of additional transmission capacity.

Jake P. Gentle; Kurt S Myers; Tyler B Phillips; Inanc Senocak; Phil Anderson

2014-08-01

271

CONTACT METAMORPHISM AND INTRUSIVE RELATIONS OF THE HODGES COMPLEX ALONG CAMERON'S LINE,  

E-print Network

) and surrounding rocks indicate that the Hodges is a small mass of pyroxenite, hornblendite, gabbro, and diorite Hornblende diorite 50 Relative ages and intrusive nature of the Hodges Complex 51 Evidence for an igneous

Merguerian, Charles

272

Supermassive black holes and spectral emission lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely accepted that active galactic nuclei (AGN) are hosting a supermassive black hole in their center. The supermassive black hole is actively fueled by surrounding gas through an accretion disk, which produces a broad band continuum (from X-ray to radio emission). The hard photons from the accretion disk create the photoionized plasma around the central black hole, which emits a number of broad emission lines. Therefore, one of the signatures of the strong activity in galaxies is the emission of the broad spectral lines (line widths of several 1000 km/s), which are seen only in a fraction of AGN, so called Type 1 AGN. These broad emission lines often show very complex line profiles, usually strongly variable in time. Here we will describe the basic properties of the broad emission lines and how can we use them to derive the properties of the central supermassive black hole, i.e., the mass and spin, or see signatures of supermassive binary black holes.

Ili?, D.; Popovi?, L. ?.

2014-11-01

273

Broadly tunable picosecond ir source  

DOEpatents

A picosecond traveling-wave parametric device capable of controlled spectral bandwidth and wavelength in the infrared is reported. Intense 1.064 ..mu..m picosecond pulses (1) pass through a 4.5 cm long LiNbO/sub 3/ optical parametric oscillator crystal (2) set at its degeneracy angle. A broad band emerges, and a simple grating (3) and mirror (4) arrangement is used to inject a selected narrow-band into a 2 cm long LiNbO/sub 3/ optical parametric amplifier crystal (5) along a second pump line. Typical input energies at 1.064 ..mu..m along both pump lines are 6 to 8 mJ for the oscillator and 10 mJ for the amplifier. This yields 1 mJ of tunable output in the range 1.98 to 2.38 ..mu..m which when down-converted in a 1 cm long CdSe crystal mixer (6) gives 2 ..mu..J of tunable radiation over the 14.8 to 18.5 ..mu..m region. The bandwidth and wavelength of both the 2 and 16 ..mu..m radiation output are controlled solely by the diffraction grating.

Campillo, A.J.; Hyer, R.C.; Shapiro, S.L.

1980-04-23

274

Measuring the complex permittivity tensor of uniaxial biological materials with coplanar waveguide transmission line  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A simple and accurate technique is described for measuring the uniaxial permittivity tensor of biological materials with a coplanar waveguide transmission-line configuration. Permittivity tensor results are presented for several chicken and beef fresh meat samples at 2.45 GHz....

275

Broad spectrum bioactive sunscreens.  

PubMed

The development of sunscreens containing reduced concentration of chemical UV filters, even though, possessing broad spectrum effectiveness with the use of natural raw materials that improve and infer UV absorption is of great interest. Due to the structural similarities between polyphenolic compounds and organic UV filters, they might exert photoprotection activity. The objective of the present research work was to develop bioactive sunscreen delivery systems containing rutin, Passiflora incarnata L. and Plantago lanceolata extracts associated or not with organic and inorganic UV filters. UV transmission of the sunscreen delivery system films was performed by using diffuse transmittance measurements coupling to an integrating sphere. In vitro photoprotection efficacy was evaluated according to the following parameters: estimated sun protection factor (SPF); Boot's Star Rating category; UVA/UVB ratio; and critical wavelength (lambda(c)). Sunscreen delivery systems obtained SPF values ranging from 0.972+/-0.004 to 28.064+/-2.429 and bioactive compounds interacted with the UV filters positive and negatively. This behavior may be attributed to: the composition of the delivery system; the presence of inorganic UV filter and quantitative composition of the organic UV filters; and the phytochemical composition of the P. incarnata L. and P. lanceolata extracts. Among all associations of bioactive compounds and UV filters, we found that the broad spectrum sunscreen was accomplished when 1.68% (w/w) P. incarnata L. dry extract was in the presence of 7.0% (w/w) ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, 2.0% (w/w) benzophenone-3 and 2.0% (w/w) TiO(2). It was demonstrated that this association generated estimated SPF of 20.072+/-0.906 and it has improved the protective defense against UVA radiation accompanying augmentation of the UVA/UVB ratio from 0.49 to 0.52 and lambda(c) from 364 to 368.6nm. PMID:18662760

Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles; Sarruf, Fernanda Daud; Salgado-Santos, Idalina Maria Nunes; Haroutiounian-Filho, Carlos Alberto; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Baby, André Rolim

2008-11-01

276

Gas chromatography and gateway sensors for on-line state estimation of complex fermentations (butanol-acetone fermentation).  

PubMed

A fermentation system has been designed to demonstrate the use of gas chromatography (GC) for on-line monitoring of the butanol-acetone and other complex saccharolytic fermentations. Tangential flow ultrafiltration was used to sterilely and continuously obtain a cell-free filtrate from the fermentation broth for on-line GC analysis of butanol, butyrate, acetate, acetone, ethanol, and acetoin. The liquid injection system consists of a phosphoric acid contactor, a slider-type injection valve, and a heater to address the difficulties (ghosting) encountered in the analysis of carboxylic acids. The fermentation headspace gas was also analyzed by on-line GC for nitrogen and carbon dioxide, while hydrogen was measured by difference. Raw chromatographic data were analyzed by a chromatography data system. Both raw and processed data were transmitted to a VAX 11/750 computer for further processing (using the fermentation equation) and archiving. The fermentation equation, which has recently been derived and tested on completed fermentation data, was also found to be valid during transient fermentations and thus useful as a gateway sensor for calculating various fermentation parameters on-line. Such parameters include glucose concentration and gas composition, as well as a number of unobservable parameters (such as Y(ATP), excess ATP, and NAD reduced by FdH(2)), which characterize the state of the fermentation. PMID:18553808

McLaughlin, J K; Meyer, C L; Papoutsakis, E T

1985-08-01

277

Manipulation of a Schlenk Line: Preparation of Tetrahydrofuran Complexes of Transition-Metal Chlorides  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Before taking an inorganic laboratory course few students have experience handling air-sensitive materials using Schlenk techniques. This exercise introduces them to techniques they will employ in later syntheses. The procedure involves the formation of anhydrous tetrahydrofuran complexes of transition-metal chlorides from metal-chloride hydrates;…

Davis, Craig M.; Curran, Kelly A.

2007-01-01

278

On-line complexation\\/cloud point preconcentration for the sensitive determination of dysprosium in urine by flow injection inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

An on-line dysprosium preconcentration and determination system based on the hyphenation of cloud point extraction (CPE) to flow injection analysis (FIA) associated with ICP-OES was studied. For the preconcentration of dysprosium, a Dy(III)-2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol complex was formed on-line at pH 9.22 in the presence of nonionic micelles of PONPE-7.5. The micellar system containing the complex was thermostated at 30 °C in

Claudia Ortega; Soledad Cerutti; Roberto A. Olsina; María F. Silva; Luis D. Martinez

2003-01-01

279

Trans- and cis-2-phenylindole platinum(II) complexes as cytotoxic agents against human breast adenocarcinoma cell lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The synthesis and characterization of the new 2-phenylindole derivative: C8H3N-2-C6H5-3NOMe-5OMe (3c) and the trans- and cis-isomers of [Pt(3c)Cl2(DMSO)] complexes (4c and 5c, respectively) are described. The crystal structures of 4c·CH2Cl2 and 5c confirm: (a) the existence of a Pt-Nindole bond, (b) the relative arrangement of the Cl- ligands [trans- (in 4c) or cis- (in 5c)] and (c) the anti-(E) configuration of the oxime. The cytotoxic assessment of C8H3N-2-(C6H4-4?R1)-3NOMe-5R2 [with R1 = R2 = H (3a); R1 = Cl, R2 = H (3b) and R1 = H, R2 = OMe (3c)] and the geometrical isomers of [Pt(L)Cl2(DMSO)] with L = 3a-3c [trans- (4a-4c) and cis- (5a-5c), respectively] against human breast adenocarcinoma cell lines (MDA-MB231 and MCF-7) is also reported and reveals that all the platinum(II) complexes (except 4a) are more cytotoxic than cisplatin in front of the MCF7 cell line. Electrophoretic DNA migration studies of the synthesized compounds in the absence and in the presence of topoisomerase-I have been performed, in order to get further insights into their mechanism of action.

Tomé, Maria; López, Concepción; González, Asensio; Ozay, Bahadir; Quirante, Josefina; Font-Bardía, Mercè; Calvet, Teresa; Calvis, Carme; Messeguer, Ramon; Baldomá, Laura; Badía, Josefa

2013-09-01

280

Antileukemic Efficacy of Monomeric Manganese-Based Metal Complex on KG-1A and K562 Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Transitional metals and metal compounds have been used in versatile platforms for biomedical applications and therapeutic intervention. Severe side effects of anticancer drugs produce an urgent urge to develop new classes of anticancer agents with great potency as well as selectivity. In this background, recent studies demonstrate that monomeric manganese (MnII) thiocyanate complex (MMTC) holds great promise to exert effective antileukemic effects. MMTC was developed by a simple chemical reaction and characterized by elemental analyses, thermal analyses, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Anti-leukemic efficacy of the developed MMTC was estimated in KG-1A (AML) and K562 (CML) cell lines. Cell viability study, drug uptake assay, cellular redox balance (GSH and GSSG level), nitric oxide (NO) release level, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, alteration of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and DNA fragmentation revealed that MMTC was able to produce significant antiproliferative effects on both cell lines at 25??g?mL?1 without showing any toxicological impact on normal lymphocytes. These findings will enlighten the biomedical application of manganese-based metal complexes as anti-leukemic agents. PMID:24223312

Dash, Sandeep Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Sourav; Ghosh, Totan; Tripathy, Satyajit; Das, Sabyasachi; Das, Debasis; Roy, Somenath

2013-01-01

281

Calibration-independent measurement of complex permittivity of liquids using a coaxial transmission line.  

PubMed

In recent years, several calibration-independent transmission/reflection methods have been developed to determine the complex permittivity of liquid materials. However, these methods experience their own respective defects, such as the requirement of multi measurement cells, or the presence of air gap effect. To eliminate these drawbacks, a fast calibration-independent method is proposed in this paper. There are two main advantages of the present method over those in the literature. First, only one measurement cell is required. The cell is measured when it is empty and when it is filled with liquid. This avoids the air gap effect in the approach, in which the structure with two reference ports connected with each other is needed to be measured. Second, it eliminates the effects of uncalibrated coaxial cables, adaptors, and plug sections; systematic errors caused by the experimental setup are avoided by the wave cascading matrix manipulations. Using this method, three dielectric reference liquids, i.e., ethanol, ethanediol, and pure water, and low-loss transformer oil are measured over a wide frequency range to validate the proposed method. Their accuracy is assessed by comparing the results with those obtained from the other well known techniques. It is demonstrated that this proposed method can be used as a robust approach for fast complex permittivity determination of liquid materials. PMID:25638105

Guoxin, Cheng

2015-01-01

282

Calibration-independent measurement of complex permittivity of liquids using a coaxial transmission line  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, several calibration-independent transmission/reflection methods have been developed to determine the complex permittivity of liquid materials. However, these methods experience their own respective defects, such as the requirement of multi measurement cells, or the presence of air gap effect. To eliminate these drawbacks, a fast calibration-independent method is proposed in this paper. There are two main advantages of the present method over those in the literature. First, only one measurement cell is required. The cell is measured when it is empty and when it is filled with liquid. This avoids the air gap effect in the approach, in which the structure with two reference ports connected with each other is needed to be measured. Second, it eliminates the effects of uncalibrated coaxial cables, adaptors, and plug sections; systematic errors caused by the experimental setup are avoided by the wave cascading matrix manipulations. Using this method, three dielectric reference liquids, i.e., ethanol, ethanediol, and pure water, and low-loss transformer oil are measured over a wide frequency range to validate the proposed method. Their accuracy is assessed by comparing the results with those obtained from the other well known techniques. It is demonstrated that this proposed method can be used as a robust approach for fast complex permittivity determination of liquid materials.

Guoxin, Cheng

2015-01-01

283

Line narrowing spectroscopic studies of DNA-carcinogen adducts and DNA-dye complexes  

SciTech Connect

Laser-induced fluorescence line narrowing and non-line narrowing spectroscopic methods were applied to conformational studies of stable DNA adducts of the 7{beta}, 8{alpha}-dihydoxy-9{alpha}, l0{alpha}-epoxy-7,8,9, 10-tetrahydrobenzo[{alpha}]pyrene (anti-BPDE). Stereochemically distinct (+)-trans-, ({minus})-trans-, (+)-cis- and ({minus})-cis adducts of anti-BPDE bound to exocyclic amino group of the central guanine in an 11-mer oligonucleotide, exist in a mixture of conformations in frozen aqueous buffer matrices. The (+)-trans adduct adopts primarily an external conformation with a smaller fraction ( {approximately} 25 %) exists in a partially base-stacked conformation. Both cis adducts were found to be intercalated with significant {pi}-{pi} stacking interactions between the pyrenyl residues and the bases. Conformations of the trans-adduct of (+)-anti -BPDE in 11-mer oligonucleotides were studied as a function of flanking bases. In single stranded form the adduct at G{sub 2} or G{sub 3} (5 ft-flanking, base guanine) adopts a conformation with strong, interaction with the bases. In contrast, the adduct with a 5ft-flanking, thymine exists in a primarily helixexternal conformation. Similar differences were observed in the double stranded oligonucleotides. The nature of the 3ft-flanking base has little influence on the conformational equilibrium of the (+)-trans-anti BPDE-dG adduct. The formation and repair of BPDE-N{sup 2}-dG in DNA isolated from the skin of mice treated topically with benzo[{alpha}]pyrene (BP) was studied. Low-temperature fluorescence spectroscopy of the intact DNA identified the major adduct as (+)-trans-anti-BPDE-N-dG, and the minor adduct fraction consisted mainly of (+)-cis-anti-BPDE-N{sup 2}-dG.

Suh, Myungkoo

1995-12-06

284

Evolution of Mhc Class i Complex Region with Special Reference to Fragmentary Line Sequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We reviewed the origin and evolution of the two pairs of immune genes, (MHC-B and MHC-C) and (MICA and MICB) in man, chimpanzee and rhesus monkey based mainly on our previous work. Since those genes were well known to have been subject to strong natural selection in evolution, they themselves were not suitable for our study. We thus took another approach to use fragmented and nonfunctional LINEs that had coevolved with the two pairs in the same genomic fragments. Our results showed that MHC-B and MHC-C duplicated about 22 Mry (million years) ago, and MICA and MICB duplicated about 14 Myr ago. Interestingly, rhesus monkey was found not to have either pair but many repeats similar to MHC-B. Therefore, we estimated the divergence time of the monkey, and found that it diverged out from a common ancestor of man and chimpanzee about 30 Myr ago. The divergence time was consistent with the duplication times of the two pairs of immune genes. Based on our results we would predict that orangutan and gorilla also have the two pairs, because the both primate species are considered to have diverged less than 14 Myr ago.

Tateno, Yoshio; Fukami-Kobayashi, Kaoru; Inoko, Hidetoshi

2008-03-01

285

Complex Actions of Thyroid Hormone Receptor Antagonist NH-3 on Gene Promoters in Different Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

It is desirable to obtain new antagonists for thyroid hormone (TRs) and other nuclear receptors (NRs). We previously used X-ray structural models of TR ligand binding domains (LBDs) to design compounds, such as NH-3, that impair coactivator binding to activation function 2 (AF-2) and block thyroid hormone (triiodothyronine, T3) actions. However, TRs bind DNA and are transcriptionally active without ligand. Thus, NH-3 could modulate TR activity via effects on other coregulator interaction surfaces, such as activation function (AF-1) and corepressor binding sites. Here, we find that NH-3 blocks TR-LBD interactions with coactivators and corepressors and also inhibits activities of AF-1 and AF-2 in transfections. While NH-3 lacks detectable agonist activity at T3-activated genes in GC pituitary cells it nevertheless activates spot 14 (S14) in HTC liver cells with the latter effect accompanied by enhanced histone H4 acetylation and coactivator recruitment at the S14 promoter. Surprisingly, T3 promotes corepressor recruitment to target promoters. NH-3 effects vary; we observe transient recruitment of N-CoR to S14 in GC cells and dismissal and rebinding of N-CoR to the same promoter in HTC cells. We propose that NH-3 will generally behave as an antagonist by blocking AF-1 and AF-2 but that complex effects on coregulator recruitment may result in partial/mixed agonist effects that are independent of blockade of T3 binding in some contexts. These properties could ultimately be utilized in drug design and development of new selective TR modulators. PMID:18930112

Shah, Vanya; Nguyen, Phuong; Nguyen, Ngoc-Ha; Togashi, Marie; Scanlan, Thomas S.; Baxter, John D.; Webb, Paul

2014-01-01

286

Withaferin A modulates the Spindle assembly checkpoint by degradation of Mad2-Cdc20 complex in colorectal cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

Withania somnifera L. Dunal (Ashwagandha) is used over centuries in the ayurvedic medicines in India. Withaferin A, a withanolide, is the major compound present in leaf extract of the plant which shows anticancer activity against leukemia, breast cancer and colorectal cancer. It arrests the ovarian cancer cells in the G2/M phase in dose dependent manner. In the current study we show the effect of Withaferin A on cell cycle regulation of colorectal cancer cell lines HCT116 and SW480 and its effect on cell fate. Treatment of these cells with this compound leads to apoptosis in a dose dependent manner. It causes the G2/M arrest in both the cell lines. We show that Withaferin A (WA) causes mitotic delay by blocking Spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) function. Apoptosis induced by Withaferin A is associated with proteasomal degradation of Mad2 and Cdc20, an important constituent of the Spindle Checkpoint Complex. Further overexpression of Mad2 partially rescues the deleterious effect of WA by restoring proper anaphase initiation and keeping more number of cells viable. We hypothesize that Withaferin A kills cancer cells by delaying the mitotic exit followed by inducing chromosome instability. PMID:24995417

Das, Tania; Roy, Kumar Singha; Chakrabarti, Tulika; Mukhopadhyay, Sibabrata; Roychoudhury, Susanta

2014-09-01

287

Efficient migration of complex off-line computer vision software to real-time system implementation on generic computer hardware.  

PubMed

This paper addresses the problem of migrating large and complex computer vision code bases that have been developed off-line, into efficient real-time implementations avoiding the need for rewriting the software, and the associated costs. Creative linking strategies based on Linux loadable kernel modules are presented to create a simultaneous realization of real-time and off-line frame rate computer vision systems from a single code base. In this approach, systemic predictability is achieved by inserting time-critical components of a user-level executable directly into the kernel as a virtual device driver. This effectively emulates a single process space model that is nonpreemptable, nonpageable, and that has direct access to a powerful set of system-level services. This overall approach is shown to provide the basis for building a predictable frame-rate vision system using commercial off-the-shelf hardware and a standard uniprocessor Linux operating system. Experiments on a frame-rate vision system designed for computer-assisted laser retinal surgery show that this method reduces the variance of observed per-frame central processing unit cycle counts by two orders of magnitude. The conclusion is that when predictable application algorithms are used, it is possible to efficiently migrate to a predictable frame-rate computer vision system. PMID:15217259

Tyrrell, James Alexander; LaPre, Justin M; Carothers, Christopher D; Roysam, Badrinath; Stewart, Charles V

2004-06-01

288

Investigation of transport of genistein, daidzein and their inclusion complexes prepared with different cyclodextrins on Caco-2 cell line.  

PubMed

Isoflavonoids are widespread constituents in medical plants especially in legumes (Fabaceae), but occur in other different plant families as well (Rosaceae, Iridaceae, Amaranthaceae). Their antioxidant, estrogen-like, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects make them promising compounds in therapy of important disorders especially in estrogen related diseases. Poor solubility in aqueous system of genistein and daidzein needs a solubility enhancement for pharmaceutical use. These compounds are suitable guest molecules for inclusion complex formation with cyclodextrins (CDs) considering matching their size and polarity. The molecular encapsulation with beta-cyclodextrin (?-CD), gamma-cyclodextrin (?-CD), hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-?-CD) and random methyl-beta cyclodextrin (RAMEB-CD) results in a solid, molecularly dispersed form and in a significantly improved aqueous solubility of genistein and daidzein. Determining enhancement in solubility and bioavailability we investigated the transport of these inclusion complexes across Caco-2 cell line comparing that of the pure compounds and found significant improving effect of the different CD derivatives on membrane permeation of the two isoflavone aglycons. PMID:23810850

Daruházi, Agnes Emma; Kiss, Tímea; Vecsernyés, Miklós; Szente, Lajos; Sz?ke, Eva; Lemberkovics, Eva

2013-10-01

289

Steps toward Determination of the Size and Structure of the Broad-Line Region in Active Galactic Nuclei. XII. Ground-based Monitoring of 3C 390.3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of a ground-based optical monitoring campaign on 3C 390.3 in 1994-1995 are presented. The broadband fluxes (B, V, R, and I), the spectrophotometric optical continuum flux F lambda (5177 A), and the integrated emission-line fluxes of H alpha , H beta , H gamma , He I lambda 5876, and He II lambda 4686 all show a nearly monotonic

M. Dietrich; B. M. Peterson; P. Albrecht; M. Altmann; A. J. Barth; P. J. Bennie; R. Bertram; N. G. Bochkarev; H. Bock; J. M. Braun; A. Burenkov; S. Collier; L.-Z. Fang; O. P. Francis; A. V. Filippenko; C. B. Foltz; W. Gaessler; C. M. Gaskell; M. Geffert; K. K. Ghosh; R. W. Hilditch; R. K. Honeycutt; K. Horne; J. P. Huchra; S. Kaspi; M. Kuemmel; K. M. Leighly; D. C. Leonard; Yu. F. Malkov; V. Mikhailov; H. R. Miller; A. C. Morrill; J. Noble; P. T. O'Brien; T. D. Oswalt; S. P. Pebley; M. Pfeiffer; V. I. Pronik; B.-C. Qian; J. W. Robertson; A. Robinson; K. S. Rumstay; J. Schmoll; S. G. Sergeev; E. A. Sergeeva; A. I. Shapovalova; D. R. Skillman; S. A. Snedden; S. Soundararajaperumal; G. M. Stirpe; J. Tao; G. W. Turner; R. M. Wagner; S. J. Wagner; J. Y. Wei; H. Wu; W. Zheng; Z. L. Zou

1998-01-01

290

On-line speciation analysis of inorganic arsenic in complex environmental aqueous samples by pervaporation sequential injection analysis.  

PubMed

A proof of concept of a novel pervaporation sequential injection (PSI) analysis method for automatic non-chromatographic speciation analysis of inorganic arsenic in complex aqueous samples is presented. The method is based on hydride generation of arsine followed by its on-line pervaporation-based membrane separation and CCD spectrophotometric detection. The concentrations of arsenite (As(III)) and arsenate (As(V)) are determined sequentially in a single sample zone. The leading section of the sample zone merges with a citric acid/citrate buffer solution (pH 4.5) for the selective reduction of As(III) to arsine while the trailing section of the sample zone merges with hydrochloric acid solution to allow the reduction of both As(III) and As(V) to arsine at pH lower than 1. Virtually identical analytical sensitivity is obtained for both As(III) and As(V) at this high acidity. The flow analyzer also accommodates in-line pH detector for monitoring of the acidity throughout the sample zone prior to hydride generation. Under optimal conditions the proposed PSI method is characterized by a limit of detection, linear calibration range and repeatability for As(III) of 22 ?g L(-1) (3sblank level criterion), 50-1000 ?g L(-1) and 3.0% at the 500 ?g L(-1) level and for As(V) of 51 ?g L(-1), 100-2000 ?g L(-1) and 2.6% at the 500 ?g L(-1) level, respectively. The method was validated with mixed As(III)/As(V) standard aqueous solutions and successfully applied to the determination of As(III) and As(V) in river water samples with elevated content of dissolved organic carbon and suspended particulate matter with no prior sample pretreatment. Excellent relative recoveries ranging from 98% to 104% were obtained for both As(III) and As(V). PMID:24209302

Boonjob, Warunya; Miró, Manuel; Kolev, Spas D

2013-12-15

291

Research on infrared dim-point target detection and tracking under sea-sky-line complex background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Target detection and tracking technology in infrared image is an important part of modern military defense system. Infrared dim-point targets detection and recognition under complex background is a difficulty and important strategic value and challenging research topic. The main objects that carrier-borne infrared vigilance system detected are sea-skimming aircrafts and missiles. Due to the characteristics of wide field of view of vigilance system, the target is usually under the sea clutter. Detection and recognition of the target will be taken great difficulties .There are some traditional point target detection algorithms, such as adaptive background prediction detecting method. When background has dispersion-decreasing structure, the traditional target detection algorithms would be more useful. But when the background has large gray gradient, such as sea-sky-line, sea waves etc .The bigger false-alarm rate will be taken in these local area .It could not obtain satisfactory results. Because dim-point target itself does not have obvious geometry or texture feature ,in our opinion , from the perspective of mathematics, the detection of dim-point targets in image is about singular function analysis .And from the perspective image processing analysis , the judgment of isolated singularity in the image is key problem. The foregoing points for dim-point targets detection, its essence is a separation of target and background of different singularity characteristics .The image from infrared sensor usually accompanied by different kinds of noise. These external noises could be caused by the complicated background or from the sensor itself. The noise might affect target detection and tracking. Therefore, the purpose of the image preprocessing is to reduce the effects from noise, also to raise the SNR of image, and to increase the contrast of target and background. According to the low sea-skimming infrared flying small target characteristics , the median filter is used to eliminate noise, improve signal-to-noise ratio, then the multi-point multi-storey vertical Sobel algorithm will be used to detect the sea-sky-line ,so that we can segment sea and sky in the image. Finally using centroid tracking method to capture and trace target. This method has been successfully used to trace target under the sea-sky complex background.

Dong, Yu-xing; Li, Yan; Zhang, Hai-bo

2011-08-01

292

Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Therapeutics  

E-print Network

Currently there are relatively few antiviral therapeutics, and most which do exist are highly pathogen-specific or have other disadvantages. We have developed a new broad-spectrum antiviral approach, dubbed Double-stranded ...

Rider, Todd H.

293

Polarized emission lines from A-and B-type excitonic complexes in single InGaN/GaN quantum dots  

E-print Network

Polarized emission lines from A- and B-type excitonic complexes in single InGaN/GaN quantum dots M Cathodoluminescence measurements on single InGaN/GaN quantum dots QDs are reported. Complex spectra with up to five spectral region have been realized based on InGaN structures.1 Single-photon emission from GaN/AlN quantum

Nabben, Reinhard

294

Vanadium and cancer treatment: antitumoral mechanisms of three oxidovanadium(IV) complexes on a human osteosarcoma cell line.  

PubMed

We report herein the antitumor actions of three oxidovanadium(IV) complexes on MG-63 human osteosarcoma cell line. The three complexes: VO(oda), VO(oda)bipy and VO(oda)phen (oda=oxodiacetate), caused a concentration dependent inhibition of cell viability. The antiproliferative action of VO(oda)phen could be observed in the whole range of concentrations (at 2.5 ?M), while VO(oda)bipy and VO(oda) showed a decrease of cell viability only at higher concentrations (at 50 and 75 ?M, respectively) (p<0.01). Moreover, VO(oda)phen caused a decrease of lysosomal and mitochondrial activities at 2.5 ?M, while VO(oda) and VO(oda)bipy affected neutral red uptake and mitochondrial metabolism at 50 ?M (p<0.01). On the other hand, no DNA damage studied by the Comet assay could be observed in MG-63 cells treated with VO(oda) at 2.5-10 ?M. Nevertheless, VO(oda)phen and VO(oda)bipy induced DNA damage at 2.5 and 10 ?M, respectively (p<0.01). The generation of reactive oxygen species increased at 10 ?M of VO(oda)phen and only at 100 ?M of VO(oda) and VO(oda)bipy (p<0.01). Besides, VO(oda)phen and VO(oda)bipy triggered apoptosis as determined by externalization of the phosphatidylserine. The determination of DNA cleavage by agarose gel electrophoresis showed that the ability of VO(oda)(bipy) is similar to that of VO(oda), while VO(oda)(phen) showed the highest nuclease activity in this series. Overall, our results showed a good relationship between the bioactivity of the complexes and their structures since VO(oda)phen presented the most potent antitumor action in human osteosarcoma cells followed by VO(oda)bipy and then by VO(oda) according to the number of intercalating heterocyclic moieties. PMID:24199985

León, I E; Butenko, N; Di Virgilio, A L; Muglia, C I; Baran, E J; Cavaco, I; Etcheverry, S B

2014-05-01

295

Power line-induced ac potential on natural gas pipelines for complex rights-of-way configurations. Volume 4. Field verification of horizontal wire mitigation method. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The joint use of common corridors for overhead electric power transmission lines and buried natural gas transmission pipelines is increasing. While many benefits accrue from the sharing of corridors, the coupling of electromagnetic energy onto the natural gas transmission pipelines is an undesired consequence of this joint usage. The steady-state pipeline voltage that can result may require mitigation as a safety measure. Many common corridors include multiple power lines and pipelines with complexities such as bonds or crossovers between the pipelines and terminating pipelines or insulators. This project has resulted in the development of the methodology and techniques for analyzing such complex common corridor coupling problems. Field tests were conducted to verify key aspects of the analysis.

Frazier, M.

1984-04-01

296

Broad-band power amplifier using dielectric photonic bandgap structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two class AB GaAs field-effect transistor (FET) power amplifiers have been designed and fabricated in the 4.4-4.8 GHz range. In the first case, a dielectric PBG line was incorporated in the design to tune the second harmonic. In the second case, a 50-? line is used with no harmonic tuning. The PBG structure allows broad-band harmonic tuning and is inexpensive

Vesna Radisic; Yongxi Qian; Tatsuo Itoh

1998-01-01

297

Analysis of a complex polysaccharide (gum arabic) by multi-angle laser light scattering coupled on-line to size exclusion chromatography and flow field flow fractionation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heterogeneous polysaccharide gum arabic has been characterized using size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and flow field flow fractionation (F4) coupled on-line to multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS). Two distinct populations have been shown. About 80% of the material consist of highly branched arabinogalactan (AG) units. The rest is mainly composed of heterogeneous arabinogalactan–protein complex (AGP) of high molecular weight. The

L. Picton; I. Bataille; G. Muller

2000-01-01

298

Mapping and expression pattern analysis of key components of the major histocompatibility complex class I antigen processing and presentation pathway in a representative human renal cell carcinoma cell line.  

PubMed

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) represent approximately 5% of all cancer deaths. At the time of presentation, over 50% of the patients have already developed locally advanced or metastatic disease with five-year survival rates of less than 20%. Although relative resistant to conventional regimens, RCC are partially susceptible to T cell-based immunotherapy. To further develop this treatment modality, two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE) was applied for both the mapping of the key components of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigen processing and presentation machinery (APM) and the characterization of the constitutive and cytokine-regulated protein expression profiles in a representative human RCC cell line. The latter aspect is based on the fact, that the expression level of some of the APM components can be altered in response to interferon (IFN)-gamma treatment. Total cell lysates from untreated and IFN-gamma-treated tumor cells were separated on 2-D PAGE gels using broad range immobilized pH gradient (IPG) strips. Serial Western blot analyses using sets of APM-specific antibodies were performed to target the relevant protein spots. Protein verification was mostly accomplished via peptide mass finger-printing using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). To date, the majority of the APM-related components have been identified and mapped. In addition, the different protein expression profiles of untreated and IFN-gamma-treated RCC cells are under investigation. PMID:11425235

Lichtenfels, R; Ackermann, A; Kellner, R; Seliger, B

2001-05-01

299

Hydroxynaphthoquinone Metal Complexes as Antitumor Agents X: Synthesis, Structure, Spectroscopy and In Vitro Antitumor Activity of 3-Methyl-Phenylazo Lawsone Derivatives and Their Metal Complexes Against Human Breast Cancer Cell Line MCF-7  

PubMed Central

The C-3 substituted phenylazo derivatives of lawsone (2-hydroxy-l,4 p-naphthoquinone, III) were synthesized and characterized. The X-ray crystal structure was determined for the ligand 3-(3?-methyl phenylazo) lawsone. The copper complexes of these derivatives were found to possess 1:2 metal stoichiometry and square planar geometries with intermolecular stackings, resulting in antiferromagnetic exchange interactions. The in vitro activity of all the synthesized compounds was examined against human breast cancer cell-line, MCF-7, which revealed enhanced activities for the metal complexes, the highest activity being observed for the copper compound of 3-(3?-methyl phenylazo) lawsone. PMID:18475934

Gokhale, Nikhil; Newton, Chris; Pritchard, Robin

2000-01-01

300

Study of peptide on-line complexation with transition-metal ions generated from sacrificial electrodes in thin-chip polymer microsprays.  

PubMed

A miniaturized polymer electrospray-type interface is used to study metal-ion chelation with model peptides. Taking advantage of the intrinsic electrochemical behavior of electrospray, a sacrificial electrode is used to generate at the same time electrospray and transition-metal ions coming from the anodic dissolution of the electrode. The microspray interface provides enhanced mass transport due to its small dimensions, increasing the yield of possible reactions, in particular complex formation. Transition-metal electrodes, e.g. copper, zinc, nickel, iron and silver, are used to obtain on-line complexation with model peptides. It is demonstrated that the use of in-reservoir sacrificial electrodes is an efficient way to generate metal ions in order to form and study complexes with peptides, avoiding the addition of metallic salts. PMID:15818723

Rohner, Tatiana C; Girault, Hubert H

2005-01-01

301

Characterization of the Androgen-sensitive MDA-kb2 Cell Line for Assessing Complex Environmental Mixtures  

EPA Science Inventory

Complex mixtures of synthetic and natural androgens and estrogens, and many other non-steroidal components are commonly released to the aquatic environment from anthropogenic sources. It is important to understand the potential interactive (i.e., additive, synergistic, antagonist...

302

Broad-spectrum antiviral therapeutics.  

PubMed

Currently there are relatively few antiviral therapeutics, and most which do exist are highly pathogen-specific or have other disadvantages. We have developed a new broad-spectrum antiviral approach, dubbed Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) Activated Caspase Oligomerizer (DRACO) that selectively induces apoptosis in cells containing viral dsRNA, rapidly killing infected cells without harming uninfected cells. We have created DRACOs and shown that they are nontoxic in 11 mammalian cell types and effective against 15 different viruses, including dengue flavivirus, Amapari and Tacaribe arenaviruses, Guama bunyavirus, and H1N1 influenza. We have also demonstrated that DRACOs can rescue mice challenged with H1N1 influenza. DRACOs have the potential to be effective therapeutics or prophylactics for numerous clinical and priority viruses, due to the broad-spectrum sensitivity of the dsRNA detection domain, the potent activity of the apoptosis induction domain, and the novel direct linkage between the two which viruses have never encountered. PMID:21818340

Rider, Todd H; Zook, Christina E; Boettcher, Tara L; Wick, Scott T; Pancoast, Jennifer S; Zusman, Benjamin D

2011-01-01

303

Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Therapeutics  

PubMed Central

Currently there are relatively few antiviral therapeutics, and most which do exist are highly pathogen-specific or have other disadvantages. We have developed a new broad-spectrum antiviral approach, dubbed Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) Activated Caspase Oligomerizer (DRACO) that selectively induces apoptosis in cells containing viral dsRNA, rapidly killing infected cells without harming uninfected cells. We have created DRACOs and shown that they are nontoxic in 11 mammalian cell types and effective against 15 different viruses, including dengue flavivirus, Amapari and Tacaribe arenaviruses, Guama bunyavirus, and H1N1 influenza. We have also demonstrated that DRACOs can rescue mice challenged with H1N1 influenza. DRACOs have the potential to be effective therapeutics or prophylactics for numerous clinical and priority viruses, due to the broad-spectrum sensitivity of the dsRNA detection domain, the potent activity of the apoptosis induction domain, and the novel direct linkage between the two which viruses have never encountered. PMID:21818340

Rider, Todd H.; Zook, Christina E.; Boettcher, Tara L.; Wick, Scott T.; Pancoast, Jennifer S.; Zusman, Benjamin D.

2011-01-01

304

ITS Design Technology for the Broad Class of Domains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The elements of Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) design technology for a broad class of domains are described. Characteristic features of proposed technology are considered. Restrictions on the area of its application are posed. Describing technology has been realized in the authoring tools for ITS design, which are the part of program complex MONAP-II. For a number of domains MONAP-II provides

Ildar Kn. Galeev; Sergey A. Sosnovsky; Vadim I. Chepegin

2001-01-01

305

Structure of a Novel Shoulder-to-Shoulder p24 Dimer in Complex with the Broad-Spectrum Antibody A10F9 and Its Implication in Capsid Assembly  

PubMed Central

Mature HIV-1 viral particles assemble as a fullerene configuration comprising p24 capsid hexamers, pentamers and dimers. In this paper, we report the X-ray crystal structures of the p24 protein from natural HIV-1 strain (BMJ4) in complex with Fab A10F9, which recognizes a conserved epitope in the C-terminal domain of the BMJ4 p24 protein. Our structures reveal a novel shoulder-to-shoulder p24 dimerization mode that is mediated by an S-S bridge at C177. Consistent with these structures, the shoulder-to-shoulder dimer that was obtained from the BMJ4 strain was also observed in p24 proteins from other strains by the introduction of a cysteine residue at position 177. The potential biological significance was further validated by the introduction of a C177A mutation in the BMJ4 strain, which then displays a low infectivity. Our data suggest that this novel shoulder-to-shoulder dimer interface trapped by this unique S-S bridge could represent a physiologically relevant mode of HIV-1 capsid assembly during virus maturation, although Cys residue itself may not be critical for HIV-I replication. PMID:23620741

Gu, Ying; Cao, Fang; Wang, Lei; Hou, Wangheng; Zhang, Jun; Hew, Choy-leong; Li, Shaowei; Yuan, Y. Adam; Xia, Ningshao

2013-01-01

306

Five-lipoxygenase inhibitors can mediate apoptosis in human breast cancer cell lines through complex eicosanoid interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many arachidonic acid metabolites function in growth signaling for epithelial cells, and we previously reported the expression of the major arachidonic acid enzymes in human breast cancer cell lines. To evaluate the role of the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) pathway on breast cancer growth regulation, we exposed cells to insulinlike growth factor-1 or transferrin, which increased the levels of the 5-LO metabolite,

Ingalill Avis; Sung H. Hong; Alfredo Martínez; Terry Moody; Yung H. Choi; Jane Trepel; Rina Das; Marti Jett; James L. Mulshine

2001-01-01

307

On the importance of satellite lines to the He-like alpha complex and the G ration for calcium, iron, and nickel  

SciTech Connect

New, more detailed calculations of the emission spectra of the He-like Ko complex of calcium, iron and nickel have been carried out using data from both distorted-wave and R-matrix calculations. The value of the GD ratio (a corrected version of the G ratio that accounts for the effect of unresolved satellite lines) is significantly enhanced at temperatures below the temperature of He-like maximum abundance. Furthermore it is shown that satellite lines are important contributors to the G D ratio at temperatures well above the temperature of maximum abundance. These new calculations demonstrate that satellite lines need to be included in models of He-like Ko spectra even at relatively high temperatures. The excellent agreement between spectra and line ratios calculated from R-matrix and distorted-wave data also confirms the validity of models based on distorted-wave data for highly charged systems, provided the effect of resonances are taken into account as independent processes.

Oelgoetz, Justin R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fontes, Christopher J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zhang, Hong L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nahar, Sultana N [OHIO STATE UNIV; Pradhan, Anil K [OHIO STATE UNIV

2008-01-01

308

DDX3X, the X homologue of AZFa gene DDX3Y, expresses a complex pattern of transcript variants only in the male germ line.  

PubMed

DDX3X, the functional X homologue of the major AZFa gene, DDX3Y, belongs to the highly conserved PL10-subfamily of DEAD-box RNA helicase genes which are functionally conserved from yeast to man. They are mainly involved in cell cycle control and translation initiation control of gene transcripts with long 5'UTR extensions containing complex secondary structures. Interestingly, in humans both gene copies were found to be expressed at different phases of human spermatogenesis. Whereas DDX3Y transcripts are translated only in premeiotic male germ cells, the DDX3X protein is expressed only in postmeiotic spermatids. In this study, we found that the major class of DDX3X transcripts in human testis become activated first after meiosis and at a specific core promoter not active in somatic tissues and not present upstream of the DDX3Y homologue. Two alternative 5'UTR transcript lengths are subsequently produced by an additional testis-specific 5'UTR splicing event. Both transcripts are mainly processed for polyadenylation in their proximal 3'UTR. A minor transcript class starting at the same male germ line-specific core promoter produces primary transcripts with an extremely long 3'UTR (?17 kb), which is subsequently spliced at distinct sites resulting in six short 3'UTR splice variants (I-VI). Comparative analyses of the DDX3X transcripts in mouse and primates revealed that this complex pattern of male germ line-specific transcript variants first evolved in primates. Our data thus suggest complex translational control mechanism(s) for the human DDX3X gene locus functioning only in the male germ line and resulting in expression of its protein only in the postmeiotic spermatids. PMID:25208899

Rauschendorf, Marc-Alexander; Zimmer, Jutta; Ohnmacht, Caroline; Vogt, Peter H

2014-12-01

309

Characterization of the Androgen-sensitive MDA-kb2 Cell Line for Assessing Complex Environmental Mixtures, Presentation  

EPA Science Inventory

Synthetic and natural steroidal androgens and estrogens and many other non-steroidal endocrine-active compounds commonly occur as complex mixtures in aquatic environments. It is important to understand the potential interactive effects of these mixtures to properly assess their r...

310

Developing the Broad Process Excellence Program  

E-print Network

This thesis is based on the author's experience as an intern at the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard. The Broad Institute has been working on applying and implementing traditional manufacturing process improvement tools ...

Datta, Subhrangshu, 1975-

2007-01-01

311

The Nogo-C2/Nogo Receptor Complex Regulates the Morphogenesis of Zebrafish Lateral Line Primordium through Modulating the Expression of dkk1b, a Wnt Signal Inhibitor  

PubMed Central

The fish lateral line (LL) is a mechanosensory system closely related to the hearing system of higher vertebrates, and it is composed of several neuromasts located on the surface of the fish. These neuromasts can detect changes in external water flow, to assist fish in maintaining a stationary position in a stream. In the present study, we identified a novel function of Nogo/Nogo receptor signaling in the formation of zebrafish neuromasts. Nogo signaling in zebrafish, like that in mammals, involves three ligands and four receptors, as well as three co-receptors (TROY, p75, and LINGO-1). We first demonstrated that Nogo-C2, NgRH1a, p75, and TROY are able to form a Nogo-C2 complex, and that disintegration of this complex causes defective neuromast formation in zebrafish. Time-lapse recording of the CldnB::lynEGFP transgenic line revealed that functional obstruction of the Nogo-C2 complex causes disordered morphogenesis, and reduces rosette formation in the posterior LL (PLL) primordium during migration. Consistent with these findings, hair-cell progenitors were lost from the PLL primordium in p75, TROY, and Nogo-C2/NgRH1a morphants. Notably, the expression levels of pea3, a downstream marker of Fgf signaling, and dkk1b, a Wnt signaling inhibitor, were both decreased in p75, TROY, and Nogo-C2/NgRH1a morphants; moreover, dkk1b mRNA injection could rescue the defects in neuromast formation resulting from knockdown of p75 or TROY. We thus suggest that a novel Nogo-C2 complex, consisting of Nogo-C2, NgRH1a, p75, and TROY, regulates Fgf signaling and dkk1b expression, thereby ensuring stable organization of the PLL primordium. PMID:24466042

Han, Hao-Wei; Chou, Chih-Ming; Chu, Cheng-Ying; Cheng, Chia-Hsiung; Yang, Chung-Hsiang; Hung, Chin-Chun; Hwang, Pung-Pung; Lee, Shyh-Jye; Liao, Yung-Feng; Huang, Chang-Jen

2014-01-01

312

The 2006 Broad Prize for Urban Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The $1 million Broad Prize in Urban Education is the nation's largest award in K-12 public education. The Broad Prize is given annually by The Broad Foundation in the form of scholarships to urban school districts that demonstrate the greatest overall performance and improvement in student achievement while reducing achievement gaps among ethnic…

Broad Foundation, 2006

2006-01-01

313

Fluorescence-based Broad Dynamic Range Viscosity Probes.  

PubMed

We introduce two new fluorescent viscosity probes, SYBR Green (SG) and PicoGreen (PG), that we have studied over a broad range of viscosity and in collagen solutions. In water, both dyes have low quantum yields and excited state lifetimes, while in viscous solvents or in complex with DNA both parameters dramatically (300-1000-fold) increase. We show that in log-log scale the dependence of the dyes' quantum yield vs. viscosity is linear, the slope of which is sensitive to temperature. Application of SG and PG, as a fluorescence-based broad dynamic range viscosity probes, to the life sciences is discussed. PMID:24241893

Dragan, Anatoliy; Graham, August E; Geddes, Chris D

2013-11-16

314

33 CFR 110.27 - Lynn Harbor in Broad Sound, Mass.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lynn Harbor in Broad Sound, Mass. 110.27 Section 110.27 Navigation and Navigable Waters...Special Anchorage Areas § 110.27 Lynn Harbor in Broad Sound, Mass. North of a line bearing 244° from the tower of...

2011-07-01

315

Multipotent adult germ-line stem cells, like other pluripotent stem cells, can be killed by cytotoxic T lymphocytes despite low expression of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Multipotent adult germ-line stem cells (maGSCs) represent a new pluripotent cell type that can be derived without genetic manipulation from spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) present in adult testis. Similarly to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), they could provide a source of cellular grafts for new transplantation therapies of a broad variety of diseases. To test whether these stem cells

Ralf Dressel; Kaomei Guan; Jessica Nolte; Leslie Elsner; Sebastian Monecke; Karim Nayernia; Gerd Hasenfuss; Wolfgang Engel

2009-01-01

316

Jupiter's Temperatures--Broad Latitude  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is one of the highest resolution images ever recorded of Jupiter's temperature field. It was obtained by NASA's Galileo mission, with its Photopolarimeter-Radiometer (PPR) experiment, during the seventh of its 10 orbits around Jupiter to date. This map, shown in the left panel, indicates the forces powering Jovian winds, and differentiates between areas of strongest upwelling and downwelling winds in the upper part of the atmosphere. A Hubble Space Telescope Planetary Camera color composite of this same region, taken within 10 hours of the PPR map, is shown in the right panel for the same region, as a reference to the visual clouds. An outline of the region mapped by the PPR is also shown.

This atmospheric observation covered a broad latitude region, and it shows that the visually dark regions generally have warmer temperatures than the visually light ones, indicating that they are regions of downwelling, dry air which clear out cloud condensate particles. The 'little red spot' at the northernmost part of this image is colder than its surroundings, consistent with it being a region of upwelling and cooling gas. The smaller spots to its southeast (lower right) and other lighter spots in the HST image are all colder than their surroundings, consistent with regions of upwelling and cooling gas. The northern half of the brightest band in the map is brighter than the southern half, and it reveals some detailed structure, down to the 1900- kilometer (1200-mile) resolution of the PPR, which is not always readily correlated with variations of the visual cloud field.

One surprise of this temperature map involved temperatures near the dark blue-gray feature in the map, an area like the one into which the Probe descended. While large regions of downwelling wind heat the local area elsewhere in Jupiter, this region of vigorous downwelling appears close to being thermally neutral. The drying, downwelling winds may be deeper in the atmosphere than sensed by the PPR, or this region may have enough downwelling motions so that additional downwelling has little effect on energy and temperature. Either scenario indicates these generally clear and dry regions are fundamentally different from most of Jupiter's downwelling regions.

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

1997-01-01

317

A Short Review of Relativistic Iron Lines from Stellar-Mass Black Holes  

E-print Network

In this contribution, I briefly review recent progress in detecting and measuring the properties of relativistic iron lines observed in stellar-mass black hole systems, and the aspects of these lines that are most relevant to studies of similar lines in Seyfert-1 AGN. In particular, the lines observed in stellar-mass black holes are not complicated by complex low-energy absorption or partial-covering of the central engine, and strong lines are largely independent of the model used to fit the underlying broad-band continuum flux. Indeed, relativistic iron lines are the most robust diagnostic of black hole spin that is presently available to observers, with specific advantages over the systematics-plagued disk continuum. If accretion onto stellar-mass black holes simply scales with mass, then the widespread nature of lines in stellar-mass black holes may indicate that lines should be common in Seyfert-1 AGN, though perhaps harder to detect.

J. M. Miller

2006-09-15

318

Chemical Complexity in the Helix Nebula: Multi-line Observations of H2CO, HCO+, and CO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of CO, HCO+, and H2CO have been carried out at nine positions across the Helix Nebula (NGC 7293) using the Submillimeter Telescope and the 12 m antenna of the Arizona Radio Observatory. Measurements of the J = 1 ? 0, 2 ? 1, and 3 ?2 transitions of CO, two transitions of HCO+ (J = 1 ? 0 and 3 ?2), and five lines of H2CO (J Ka, Kc = 10, 1 ? 00, 0, 21, 2 ? 11, 1, 20, 2 ? 10, 1, 21, 1 ? 11, 0, and 30, 3 ?20, 2) were conducted in the 0.8, 1, 2, and 3 mm bands toward this highly evolved planetary nebula. HCO+ and H2CO were detected at all positions, along with three transitions of CO. From a radiative transfer analysis, the kinetic temperature was found to be T K ~ 15-40 K across the Helix with a gas density of n(H2) ~ 0.1-5 × 105 cm-3. The warmer gas appears to be closer to the central star, but high density material is distributed throughout the nebula. For CO, the column density was found to be N tot ~ 0.25-4.5 × 1015 cm-2, with a fractional abundance of f (CO/H2) ~ 0.3-6 × 10-4. Column densities for HCO+ and H2CO were determined to be N tot ~ 0.2-5.5 × 1011 cm-2 and 0.2-1.6 × 1012 cm-2, respectively, with fractional abundances of f (HCO+/H2) ~ 0.3-7.3 × 10-8 and f (H2CO/H2) ~ 0.3-2.1 × 10-7—several orders of magnitude higher than predicted by chemical models. Polyatomic molecules in the Helix appear to be well-protected from photodissociation and may actually seed the diffuse interstellar medium.

Zack, L. N.; Ziurys, L. M.

2013-03-01

319

Craterellus fallax, a Black Trumpet mushroom from eastern North America with a broad host range  

E-print Network

SHORT NOTE Craterellus fallax, a Black Trumpet mushroom from eastern North America with a broad of Tsuga, Quercus, and possibly Castanea supports a broad host range in North America for the ECM symbiont complex are recorded from Europe, North America, Central America, South America, and Asia (Pilz et al

Matheny, P. Brandon

320

An on-line analysis of reduced sulfur gases in the ambient air surrounding a large industrial complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the concentrations of reduced sulfur compounds (RSC: H 2S, CH 3SH, DMS, and DMDS) were continuously measured from an odor monitoring station over a 4-month period (August-November 2005) using an on-line GC system. The hourly measurement data of RSC, collected along with some major aromatic VOCs (benzene, toluene, xylene, etc.), approached the sum of 1500; the mean for all hourly H 2S was computed to be 295 ppt, while those of the others were seen at 7 (DMS), 1 (CH 3SH), and 0.4 ppt (DMDS). When these RSC data were compared across two seasons and on a 24 h scale basis, the values for either the summer or nighttime periods were generally high relative to their counterparts in the fall and daytime. Analysis of these RSC data generally suggests that most RSCs occur at some ppt concentration ranges and that their values frequently fall below detection limits (DL) values (except for H 2S). If the total number of effective data sets (i.e., above DL values) are compared to each other, the results tend to differ significantly between H 2S and the others: the proportion of effective number was as high as 75% for H 2S, while the others were very low (6% of DMS and even less than that for the others). The distributions of RSC were hence clearly distinguished from those of VOCs in that the determination of the latter was scarcely limited by the instrumental detectability. According to the present study, the H 2S data exhibit strong potential as the malodor tracers, while those of the other RSCs are unlikely due to the limited detectability. The overall results of this study hence suggest that several factors which include the selection of target compounds, the location of the monitoring points, and the scale (or number) of total monitoring points should be considered simultaneously to effectively track down the odor occurrence patterns in areas near strong source processes.

Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jeon, Eui-Chan; Koo, Youn-Seo; Im, Moon-Soon; Youn, Yong-Hoon

321

Effects of an inhibitor of the ?-secretase complex on proliferation and apoptotic parameters in a FOXL2-mutated granulosa tumor cell line (KGN).  

PubMed

Ovarian granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) represent 3%-5% of all ovarian malignancies. Treatments have limited proven efficacy and biologically targeted treatment is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Notch signaling in the proliferation, steroidogenesis, apoptosis, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway in a FOXL2-mutated granulosa tumor cell line (KGN) representative of the adult form of GCTs. When Notch signaling is initiated, the receptors expose a cleavage site in the extracellular domain to the metalloproteinase TACE and, following this cleavage, Notch undergoes another cleavage mediated by the presenilin-gamma-secretase complex. To achieve our goal, DAPT, an inhibitor of the gamma-secretase complex, was used to investigate the role of the Notch system in parameters associated with cell growth and death, using a human granulosa cell tumor line (KGN) as an experimental model. We observed that JAGGED1, DLL4, NOTCH1, and NOTCH4 were highly expressed in KGN cells as compared to granulosa-lutein cells obtained from assisted reproductive techniques patients. The proliferation and viability of KGN cells, as well as progesterone and estradiol production, decreased in the presence of 20 ?M DAPT. Apoptotic parameters like PARP and caspase 8 cleavages, BAX, and BCLXs increased in KGN cells cultured with DAPT, whereas others such as BCL2, BCLXl, FAS, and FAS ligand did not change. AKT phosphorylation decreased and PTEN protein increased when Notch signaling was inhibited in KGN cells. We conclude that the Notch system acts as a survival pathway in KGN cells, and might be interacting with the PI3K/AKT pathway. PMID:23699387

Irusta, Griselda; Pazos, Maria Camila; Maidana, Camila Pazos; Abramovich, Dalhia; De Zúñiga, Ignacio; Parborell, Fernanda; Tesone, Marta

2013-07-01

322

Broad Prize: Do the Successes Spread?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When the Broad Prize for Urban Education was created in 2002, billionaire philanthropist Eli Broad said he hoped the awards, in addition to rewarding high-performing school districts, would foster healthy competition; boost the prestige of urban education, long viewed as dysfunctional; and showcase best practices. Over the 10 years the prize has…

Samuels, Christina A.

2011-01-01

323

Broad Academy's Growing Reach Draws Scrutiny  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Billionaire businessman Eli Broad, one of the country's most active philanthropists, founded the "Broad Superintendents Academy" in 2002 with an extraordinarily optimistic goal: Find leaders from both inside and outside education, train them, and have them occupying the superintendencies in a third of the 75 largest school districts--all in just…

Samuels, Christina A.

2011-01-01

324

Broad Academy's Growing Reach Draws Scrutiny  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Billionaire businessman Eli Broad, one of the country's most active philanthropists, founded the Broad Superintendents Academy in 2002 with an extraordinarily optimistic goal: Find leaders from both inside and outside education, train them, and have them occupying the superintendencies in a third of the 75 largest school districts--in just two…

Samuels, Christina A.

2011-01-01

325

Petrology of the Guenfalabo ring-complex: An example of a complete series along the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL), Cameroon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Guenfalabo ring-complex (GRC), two non-comagmatic rock suites have been identified as a result of two volcanic episodes: Suite 1 (68.8 ± 1.7 Ma by K/Ar on trachyte) of peralkaline trachytes and pantellerites cogenetic with alkaline syenites, granites and rhyolitic flows and tuffs; Suite 2 (62 ± 2 Ma by K/Ar on basalt), a bimodal and complete series of alkali olivine basalts and associated microgabbro dykes, diorites, syenites and granites, cross-cutting the former. Kaersutite in the trachytes of Suite 1 has mantle-derived signatures: TiO2 > 4%, MgO < 15%, FeO > 8%, Ti = 0.63 c.p.f.u. and Al = 2, characteristic of kaersutites of HP and HT origin: 13-23 kbar, 1100-1220 °C. The trachytes are probably products of FC of a basaltic parent that did not attain higher crustal levels. The Suite 1 rocks are enriched in Rb, K, Zr, Nb, LREE, alkalis, and (Ce/Yb)N = 7-15 probably due to some effect of metasomatism during the magma ascension. Fe-Ti enrichment is corroborated by the presence of ferropseudobrookite-ilmenite-ulvospinel in the syenites and ilmenite in the pantellerite. The Rb/Ba > 1 in the trachytes (2.44, 26.7), pantellerite (6.33), alkaline granites (0.63-1.8) and the 87Sr/86Sr in the alkaline granites (=0.74060) depict the role of AFC. The ankaramites of the Suite 2 rocks are olivine-phyric (25%), Fo85-88, have 50-52% clinopyroxene (salite), 5% plagioclase (An55-36) and 7% Fe-Ti oxides. Trace element modeling indicates an origin from a basaltic magma of about 25% PM of spinel lherzolite mixed with a magma from <1% PM of garnet lherzolite (3-4% garnet) in a proportion of 1:4. The cogenetic alkali basalts and the microgabbro-diorite-syenite-granite that constitute the Suite 2 rocks, with a Daly gap of 54% > SiO2 < 58%, result from this Early Cenozoic magmatic event. The basalts have: Zr = 225-253, Nb = 98-111, Y = 33-56, typical of FOZO, a HIMU-type OIB related magmas (Sr/Sri = 0.70202-0.7034; Nd/Nd = 0.51282-0.512545; 206Pb/204Pb = 19.13, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.59 and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.64. The (La/Yb)N ratios (9-20) indicate a high REE fractionation and garnet-lherzolite source. Elemental ratios as La/Nb = 0.49-0.81, Nb/Y = 1.00-2.04 suggest crustal contamination of minor importance. The (La/Sm)N ratios (2-3.5) and LREE enrichment corroborate the contribution of a subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM). REE spectra and minor element spidergrams are concordant for each rock suite.

Donald Ngonge, E.; Hollanda, Maria Helena B. M.; Nsifa, E. Nkonguin; Tchoua, Felix M.

2014-08-01

326

Active infrared hyperspectral imaging system using a broadly tunable optical parametric oscillator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The in situ identification and spatial location of gases, discrete liquid droplets and residues on surfaces is a technically challenging problem. Active Infrared (IR) hyperspectral imaging is a powerful technique that combines real-time imaging and optical spectroscopy for "standoff" detection of suspected chemical substances, including chemical warfare agents, toxic industrial chemicals, explosives and narcotics. An active IR hyperspectral imaging system requires a coherent, broadly tunable IR light source of high spectral purity, in order to detect a broad range of target substances. In this paper we outline a compact and power-efficient IR illumination source with high stability, efficiency, tuning range and spectral purity based upon an optical parametric oscillator (OPO). The fusion of established OPO technology with novel diode-pumped laser technology and electro-mechanical scanning has enabled a broadly applicable imaging system. This system is capable of hyperspectral imaging at both Near-IR (1.3 - 1.9 ?m) and Mid-IR (2.3 - 4.6 ?m) wavelengths simultaneously with a line width of < 3 cm-1. System size and complexity are minimised by using a dual InGaAs/InSb single element detector, and images are acquired by raster scanning the coaxial signal and idler beams simultaneously, at ranges up to 20 m. Reflection, absorption and scatter of incident radiation by chemical targets and their surroundings provide a method for spatial location, and characteristic spectra obtained from each sample can be used to identify targets uniquely. To date, we have recognized liquids in sample sizes as small 20 ?l-and gases with sensitivity as high as 10ppm.m-at detection standoff distances > 10 m.

Malcolm, G. P. A.; Maker, G. T.; Robertson, G.; Dunn, M. H.; Stothard, D. J. M.

2009-09-01

327

New {\\it Chandra} Results on Seyfert I galaxies: Fe-K lines  

E-print Network

We present measurements of the Fe-K line for nine Seyfert I galaxies using Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS) data. The centroid energies are narrowly dispersed (6.403 +/- 0.062 keV) and indicate an origin of the line cores in cold matter. If {\\it all} the lines in this sample were the peaks of a relativistically broadened disk line, it would require unrealistically fine tuning. However, at least three of the nine AGN clearly show a complex Fe-K line with an underlying broad component, possibly from a disk. In the others, an apparently narrow Fe-K line (even if it is resolved by Chandra) may still be due to the peak of a disk line. To distinguish this scenario from an origin in distant matter requires variability information.

U. Padmanabhan; T. Yaqoob

2002-11-17

328

Double troughs in broad absorption line quasars and Ly-alpha-N V line-locking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It was investigated whether the double trough (DT) structure in the mean C IV BAL trough reported by Weymann et al. (1991) is real or due to statistical fluctuations of BAL troughs over random outflow velocities in a limited sample. A sample of 72 BAL QSOs with C IV BAL troughs was analyzed. It is found that only 22 percent of the sample explicitly exhibits the DT feature; when present the DTs are deep. A Monte Carlo simulation of the mean C IV BAL suggests that the DT feature is real at only the 95-98 percent level.

Korista, Kirk T.; Voit, G. M.; Morris, Simon L.; Weymann, Ray J.

1993-01-01

329

Polarisation of the Broad H alpha Wing in Symbiotic Stars  

E-print Network

In many symbiotic stars there appear broad wings around H alpha, of which the formation mechanism proposed thus far includes a fast outflow, the inner accretion disc motion, electron scattering and Raman scattering of Ly beta. We adopt a Monte Carlo technique to simulate the Raman scattering of UV photons that are converted into optical photons around H alpha forming broad wings, and compute its polarisation. Noting that many symbiotic stars exhibit a bipolar nebular morphology and polarisation flip in the red wing part of the Raman scattered O {\\tiny{VI}} features, we assume that the neutral scattering region is composed of the two components. The first component is a static cylindrical shell with finite thickness and the other component is a finite slab that is moving away with velocity v_p = 100 km s^{-1} along the symmetry axis of the first component. The cylindrical shell component yields polarisation in the direction parallel to the cylinder axis. The polarisation near the line-centre is weaker than in the far wing regions because of the large Rayleigh scattering numbers due to the large scattering cross sections near the line centre. The receding polar scattering component produces strong polarisation in the direction perpendicular to the cylinder axis. When the both scattering components coexist, the polarisation is characterised by weak parallel polarisation near the line-centre and strong perpendicular polarisation in the red part. We discuss the observational implications of our computation.

Jerry Jaiyul Yoo; Jih-Yong Bak; Hee-Won Lee

2002-08-01

330

Broadening of the spectral lines of a buffer gas and target substance in laser ablation  

SciTech Connect

The broadening of discrete spectral lines from the plasma produced in the laser ablation of metal targets in a broad pressure range (10{sup 2} - 10{sup 7} Pa) of the ambient gas (Ar, He, H{sub 2}) was studied experimentally. The behaviour of spectral line broadening for the buffer gases was found to be significantly different from that for the atoms and ions of the target material. In comparison with target atoms, the atoms of buffer gases radiate from denser plasma layers, and their spectral line profiles are complex in shape. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

Kask, Nikolai E; Michurin, Sergei V [D.V. Skobel'tsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2012-11-30

331

SHAPEMOL: a 3D code for calculating CO line emission in planetary and protoplanetary nebulae. Detailed model-fitting of the complex nebula NGC 6302  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Modern instrumentation in radioastronomy constitutes a valuable tool for studying the Universe: ALMA has reached unprecedented sensitivities and spatial resolution, while Herschel/HIFI has opened a new window (most of the sub-mm and far-infrared ranges are only accessible from space) for probing molecular warm gas (~50-1000 K). On the other hand, the software SHAPE has emerged in the past few years as a standard tool for determining the morphology and velocity field of different kinds of gaseous emission nebulae via spatio-kinematical modelling. Standard SHAPE implements radiative transfer solving, but it is only available for atomic species and not for molecules. Aims: Being aware of the growing importance of the development of tools for simplifying the analyses of molecular data from new-era observatories, we introduce the computer code shapemol, a complement to SHAPE, with which we intend to fill the so-far under-developed molecular niche. Methods: shapemol enables user-friendly, spatio-kinematic modelling with accurate non-LTE calculations of excitation and radiative transfer in CO lines. Currently, it allows radiative transfer solving in the 12CO and 13CO J = 1-0 to J = 17-16 lines, but its implementation permits easily extending the code to different transitions and other molecular species, either by the code developers or by the user. Used along SHAPE, shapemol allows easily generating synthetic maps to test against interferometric observations, as well as synthetic line profiles to match single-dish observations. Results: We give a full description of how shapemol works, and we discuss its limitations and the sources of uncertainty to be expected in the final synthetic profiles or maps. As an example of the power and versatility of shapemol, we build a model of the molecular envelope of the planetary nebula NGC 6302 and compare it with 12CO and 13CO J = 2-1 interferometric maps from SMA and high-J transitions from Herschel/HIFI. We find the molecular envelope to have a complex, broken ring-like structure with an inner, hotter region and several "fingers" and high-velocity blobs, emerging outwards from the plane of the ring. We derive a mass of 0.11 M? for the molecular envelope. A copy of the code is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/573/A56

Santander-García, M.; Bujarrabal, V.; Koning, N.; Steffen, W.

2015-01-01

332

Widespread Synchronous Volcanism Reveals a Broad Galapagos Hotspot Melting Anomaly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The massive aseismic ridges and associated seamounts dominating the morphology of the Panama Basin, eastern Central Pacific, have long been attributed to a Galapagos hotspot melting anomaly linked to a deep-seated mantle plume. Although these structures can provide information about the origin of hotspots and existence, or otherwise, of mantle plumes very little is known about their volcanic histories due to a lack of direct age and geochemical information. We report here 74 whole rock and 2 plagioclase 40Ar/39Ar ages for rocks dredged from 53 locations during the first systematic sampling of the Cocos, Carnegie, Coiba and Malpelo aseismic ridges and associated seamounts (F.S. SONNE PAGANINI expedition). In addition we also report ages for DSDP drill sites on Cocos, Carnegie and Coiba ridges and 7 Cocos Island subaerial samples. The distribution of new, and published ages for the Galapagos Archipelago-platform and NE end of the Cocos Ridge, show a general trend of increasing age with distance from the Galapagos Archipelago. A more dominant trend however is one of aseismic ridge-seamount formation in a progression of broad zones of synchronous, often overlapping volcanism created at discrete intervals. Broad zones of coeval Cocos and Carnegie volcanism once formed much larger regions of synchronous volcanism that have been split apart by the complex history of seafloor spreading associated with the Cocos-Nazca spreading center. We link these broad regions of synchronous volcanism to a correspondingly large hotspot melting anomaly. The present day, as yet unfragmented, zone of synchronous volcanism associated with this proposed broad hotspot is marked by the extensive region of recent volcanism extending across the Nazca and Cocos plates encompassing the Galapagos Archipelago-Platform and the Cocos Ridge as far north as Cocos Island. The complex tectonic history of the Cocos-Nazca spreading-center has controlled how the broad zones of synchronous, often overlapping volcanism created by the broad Galapagos melting anomaly have been fragmented between the Cocos and Nazca plates. However, interplay between the broad Galapagos melting anomaly and the Cocos-Nazca spreading center is a second-order process compared to a fundamental underlying mantle process responsible for a broad Galapagos hotspot melting anomaly exhibiting long-lived characteristics (size, time-progression, episodicity) which, on a first-order, are independent of local tectonics and lithospheric architecture. Evidence for a broad Galapagos hotspot melting anomaly and the possibility of detecting long-lived underlying mantle processes has implications for how oceanic hotspot volcanism is sampled for purposes of rigorously testing the mantle plume paradigm. A major question posed by our results is whether individual Pacific seamount chains are in fact the product of tectonic plate drift over narrow hotspots? If not, then inferring the existence and behavior of a mantle plume on the basis of age progression of volcanism produced by a narrow seamount chain could well prove to be misleading. Thus, although great leaps are being made in the theory and numerical modeling - often on a global scale - of hypothesized deep plumes, significantly more high-quality age and geochemical data are needed for oceanic hotspot volcanism that gave birth to the mantle plume hypothesis in the first place.

O'Connor, J. M.; Stoffers, P.; Wijbrans, J. R.; Worthington, T. J.

2004-12-01

333

Broad Halpha Wing Formation in the Planetary Nebula IC 4997.  

PubMed

The young and compact planetary nebula IC 4997 is known to exhibit very broad wings with a width exceeding 5000 km s-1 around Halpha. We propose that the broad wings are formed through Rayleigh-Raman scattering that involves atomic hydrogen, by which Lybeta photons with a velocity width of a few 102 km s-1 are converted to optical photons and fill the Halpha broad wing region. The conversion efficiency reaches 0.6 near the line center, where the scattering optical depth is much larger than 1, and rapidly decreases in the far wings. Assuming that close to the central star there exists an unresolved inner compact core of high density, nH approximately 109-1010 cm-3, we use the photoionization code "CLOUDY" to show that sufficient Lybeta photons for scattering are produced. Using a top-hat-incident profile for the Lybeta flux and a scattering region with a H i column density NHi=2x1020 cm-2 and a substantial covering factor, we perform a profile-fitting analysis in order to obtain a satisfactory fit to the observed flux. We briefly discuss the astrophysical implications of the Rayleigh-Raman processes in planetary nebulae and other emission objects. PMID:10642203

Lee; Hyung

2000-02-10

334

Effects of injected atomic coherence in broad-area lasers  

SciTech Connect

We analyze the effect of injected atomic coherence on transverse patterns of a broad area laser by means of the semiclassical two-level Maxwell-Bloch equations. A single longitudinal mode is considered. The injected atomic coherence forces a spatially homogeneous profile to appear and locks the field phase to a single value. Above a pump threshold value a very rich scenario of patterns is developed. Near threshold we find stationary patterns such as rhombic and hexagonal lattices. Well above threshold nonstationary patterns such as complex highly ordered vortex lattices traveling along the cross section, and nearly traveling waves appear.

Calderon, Oscar G.; Cabrera, Eduardo; Carreno, F.; Anton, M.A.; Melle, Sonia; Guerra, J.M. [Departamento de Optica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

2005-09-15

335

Broad-beam modeling and experiments for electric spacecraft propulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At IOM Leipzig, we developed an efficient grid erosion simulation code. In our approach to ion beam extraction and grid erosion occurring in a multi-grid multi-aperture ion thruster we break down the complex interplay of pertinent elementary processes into consecutive steps. On the basis of ion optical and short-time grid-erosion measurements on a small broad-beam ion source, a comprehensive experimental validation of this code has been done. The good agreement between measured and simulated data furnishes confidence in the methodology.

Tartz, M.; Hartmann, E.; Deltschew, R.; Neumann, H.

2000-02-01

336

Novel and global approach of the complex and interconnected phenomena related to the contact line movement past a solid surface from hydrophobized silica gel.  

PubMed

In this work a generalized hydrodynamic theory for water flow into a mesoporous matrix from hydrophobized silica gel is suggested. Although we examine a fluid dynamics problem, the motion of the water-gas-solid contact line past a hydrophobized silica gel surface, motivation for such research derives from the investigation of a novel principle of mechanical energy dissipation, called surface dissipation, and its attached machine element, named a colloidal damper (CD). Similar to a hydraulic damper, this absorber has a cylinder-piston structure, but oil is replaced by a colloid consisting of a mesoporous matrix and a lyophobic liquid. Here, the mesoporous matrix is from silica gel modified by linear chains of alkyldimethylchlorosilanes and water is the associated lyophobic liquid. Mainly, the colloidal damper energy loss can be explained by the dynamic contact angle hysteresis in advancing (liquid displaces gas) and receding motion (gas displaces liquid); such hysteresis occurs due to the geometrical and chemical heterogeneities of the solid surface. Although this new kind of dissipation could be attractive for many applications, the subject remains almost unexplored in the scientific literature. Many different, complex, and interconnected aspects are related to this subject: capillary hydrodynamics, slippage effect, contact angle hysteresis, estimation of dissipated energy, thickness optimization of the grafted layer on the surface of the mesoporous matrix, etc. For this reason, a novel and global approach to all the complex and interconnected phenomena related to the contact line movement past a solid surface from hydrophobized silica gel is proposed. Our approach has a modest experimental basis but this is compensated for with rich references to other experimental and theoretical work oriented to the study of surface phenomena in such systems. We tried to sort the existing results and to find the right place for each in building our global view of the problem. This work is structured as follows. The measurement technique of the hysteresis loop is described. From experimental data one calculates the dissipated energy versus length of the grafted molecule on the silica gel surface. These results are justified by flow analysis. Generalized hydrodynamic theory means here that the basic structure of the Navier-Stokes equations is kept, but in order to include the relation between macroscopic flow and molecular interactions, slip is allowed on the solid wall. The nanopillar architecture of the silica gel hydrophobic coating is described. Concepts of slip and contact angle hysteresis are detailed and their connection is revealed. During adsorption, water penetrates the pore space by maintaining contact with the top of the coating molecules (region of -CH(3) groups); after that, water is forced into and partially or totally fills the space between molecules (region of -CH(2) groups). In such circumstances, at the release of the external pressure, desorption occurs. An original energetic-barriers approach is proposed to understand the filling of the nanosize canals which occur in the hydrophobic grafted layer. Employing this energetic-barriers approach, one finds the optimum length of the grafted molecule which maximizes the dissipated energy of the CD reversible cycle. Such results are useful for the appropriate design of ultrahydrophobic surfaces in general, and for the optimal design of a hydrophobic coating of a mesoporous matrix destined for CD use. PMID:15694440

Suciu, C V; Iwatsubo, T; Yaguchi, K; Ikenaga, M

2005-03-01

337

Probing the cell death signaling pathway of HepG2 cell line induced by copper-1,10-phenanthroline complex.  

PubMed

Copper-1,10-phenanthroline (phen) complex [Cu(phen)2] has been typically known as DNA-cleaving agent. And now it becomes more important for developing multifunctional drugs with its improved cytotoxic properties. In our study, we probed the cytophysiological mechanism of Cu(phen)2. HepG2 cells were more sensitive to Cu(phen)2 with an IC50 of 4.03 ?M than other three kinds of cell lines. After treated by Cu(phen)2, HepG2 cells had some typical morphological changes which happened to its nucleus. DNA ladder's occurence and Annexin V-positive increased cells indicated that Cu(phen)2 induced HepG2 cells into apoptosis. Further studies showed that Cu(phen)2 treatment resulted in significant G2/M phase arrest and collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential. Several cell cycle-related factors were down-regulated, including Cyclin A, Cyclin B1 and Cdc2. But p21 and p53 were up-regulated. DNA damage, microtubule disorganization and mitotic arrest through spindle assembly checkpoint activation were observed in Cu(phen)2-treated cells. The activation of caspase-3, 8 & 9 were checked out. The increased-expression ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 was detected. The expression levels of Bcl-xL and Bid were found to decrease. These meant that a mitochondrial-related apoptosis pathway was activated in treated HepG2 cells. Furthermore, some ER stress-associated signaling factors were found to be up-regulated, such as Grp78, XBP-1and CHOP. Ca(2+) was also found to be released from the ER lumen. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that Cu(phen)2 induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells via mitotic arrest and mitochondrial- and ER-stress-related signaling pathways. PMID:24638265

Wu, Jieyuan; Chen, Wei; Yin, Yan; Zheng, Zhongliang; Zou, Guolin

2014-06-01

338

The GREGOR Broad-Band Imager  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design and characteristics of the Broad-Band Imager (BBI) of GREGOR are described. BBI covers the visible spectral range with two cameras simultaneously for a large field and with critical sampling at 390 nm, and it includes a mode for observing the pupil in a Foucault configuration. Samples of first-light observations are shown.

von der Lühe, O.; Volkmer, R.; Kentischer, T. J.; Geißler, R.

2012-11-01

339

Lightweight, broad-band spectrum analyzer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectrum analyzer, utilizing techniques similar to those used to classify energy levels of nuclear particles, is incorporated into electric field detector. Primary advantage is ability to perform qualitative broad-band frequency analysis over a large dynamic amplitude range with minimum weight and electrical power requirements.

Crook, G. M.

1972-01-01

340

Broad-Enrich: functional interpretation of large sets of broad genomic regions  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Functional enrichment testing facilitates the interpretation of Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) data in terms of pathways and other biological contexts. Previous methods developed and used to test for key gene sets affected in ChIP-seq experiments treat peaks as points, and are based on the number of peaks associated with a gene or a binary score for each gene. These approaches work well for transcription factors, but histone modifications often occur over broad domains, and across multiple genes. Results: To incorporate the unique properties of broad domains into functional enrichment testing, we developed Broad-Enrich, a method that uses the proportion of each gene’s locus covered by a peak. We show that our method has a well-calibrated false-positive rate, performing well with ChIP-seq data having broad domains compared with alternative approaches. We illustrate Broad-Enrich with 55 ENCODE ChIP-seq datasets using different methods to define gene loci. Broad-Enrich can also be applied to other datasets consisting of broad genomic domains such as copy number variations. Availability and implementation: http://broad-enrich.med.umich.edu for Web version and R package. Contact: sartorma@umich.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25161225

Cavalcante, Raymond G.; Lee, Chee; Welch, Ryan P.; Patil, Snehal; Weymouth, Terry; Scott, Laura J.; Sartor, Maureen A.

2014-01-01

341

Insights into the Composition and Assembly of the Membrane Arm of Plant Complex I through Analysis of Subcomplexes in Arabidopsis Mutant Lines*  

PubMed Central

NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I, EC 1.6.5.3) is the largest complex of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. In eukaryotes, it is composed of more than 40 subunits that are encoded by both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Plant Complex I differs from the enzyme described in other eukaryotes, most notably due to the large number of plant-specific subunits in the membrane arm of the complex. The elucidation of the assembly pathway of Complex I has been a long-standing research aim in cellular biochemistry. We report the study of Arabidopsis mutants in Complex I subunits using a combination of Blue-Native PAGE and immunodetection to identify stable subcomplexes containing Complex I components, along with mass spectrometry analysis of Complex I components in membrane fractions and two-dimensional diagonal Tricine SDS-PAGE to study the composition of the largest subcomplex. Four subcomplexes of the membrane arm of Complex I with apparent molecular masses of 200, 400, 450, and 650 kDa were observed. We propose a working model for the assembly of the membrane arm of Complex I in plants and assign putative roles during the assembly process for two of the subunits studied. PMID:21606486

Meyer, Etienne H.; Solheim, Cory; Tanz, Sandra K.; Bonnard, Géraldine; Millar, A. Harvey

2011-01-01

342

THE BREEDING BIOLOGY OF BROAD-WINGED  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nesting Red-shouldered (Buteo lineatus; RSH) and Broad-winged Hawks (Buteo platypterus; BWH) were studied in 1978-1980 in Chautauqua County, New York. Both species nested predominantly in upland maple-beech-hemlock associations. Six of 18 BWH nests were in larch (Larix decidua); 7 of 18 RSH nests were in American beech (Fagus grandifolia). BWH nested closer to woodland openings and lower in a tree

SCOTT T. CROGOLL; JAMES W. PARKER

343

Probing the Warm Hot IGM with Broad Ly? Absorbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Broad Lyman alpha absorbers (BLAs) offer an alternative method to highly-ionized metal lines for tracing the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) at T>105 K. Such features are thermally broadened to line widths of greater than 40 km s-1 and are typically weak (N<1014 cm-2). Observing such low-contrast spectral features and clearly identifying lines likely shaped by thermal broadening requires high-quality data and accurate continuum placement. Thanks to the high sensitivity of the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS), high signal-to-noise (S/N) far-UV spectra of faint AGN are now attainable in modest observing times. We present early COS G130M/G160M observations (lambda=1130-1800 A) of the quasars PKS 0405-123 (z=0.57, S/N=30-50) and 1ES 1553+113 (z 0.40, S/N=15-20). Both sight lines are rich in IGM absorption systems and the high S/N allows us to catalog several dozen BLA features. We compare the new COS observations of PKS 0405-123 with archival STIS/E140M observations (S/N=10-15) and find qualitative agreement with roughly half of the published BLA systems. As comparable previous observations of 1ES 1553+113 do not exist, we present several new BLA candidates along this sight line. We measure the BLA detection frequency, determine the coincidence of BLAs with other WHIM tracers such as OVI, and estimate the contribution of BLAs to the total baryon density of the universe. Finally, we outline some of the biases and systematic assumptions inherent in BLA WHIM surveys and discuss how each affects the search for missing baryons.

Danforth, Charles; Stocke, J. T.; Shull, J.; Savage, B. D.; Sembach, K. R.

2010-01-01

344

Passive broad-spectrum influenza immunoprophylaxis.  

PubMed

Influenza is a perennial problem affecting millions of people annually with the everpresent threat of devastating pandemics. Active prophylaxis by vaccination against influenza virus is currently the main countermeasure supplemented with antivirals. However, disadvantages of this strategy include the impact of antigenic drift, necessitating constant updating of vaccine strain composition, and emerging antiviral drug resistance. The development of other options for influenza prophylaxis, particularly with broad acting agents able to provide protection in the period between the onset of a pandemic and the development of a strain specific vaccine, is of great interest. Exploitation of broad-spectrum mediators could provide barricade protection in the early critical phase of influenza virus outbreaks. Passive immunity has the potential to provide immediate antiviral effects, inhibiting virus replication, reducing virus shedding, and thereby protecting vulnerable populations in the event of an impending influenza pandemic. Here, we review passive broad-spectrum influenza prophylaxis options with a focus on harnessing natural host defenses, including interferons and antibodies. PMID:25328697

Berry, Cassandra M; Penhale, William J; Sangster, Mark Y

2014-01-01

345

Ultra-broad-band doubly balanced star mixers using planar Mouw's hybrid junction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The planar Mouw's hybrid junction is realized by coplanar waveguide (CPW) to coplanar strip (CPS) or CPW to CPW T-junctions. A new explanation of Mouw's theory based on coupled transmission lines and including the transmission line losses is presented, The modified theory is more suitable for ultra-broad-band mixer design. Some prototype mixers with CPW to CPS or CPW to CPW

Chi-Yang Chang; Ching-Wen Tang; Dow-Chih Niu

2001-01-01

346

Validating classical line profile analyses using microbeam diffraction from individual dislocation cell walls and cell interiors  

SciTech Connect

Dislocation structures in deformed metals produce broad asymmetric diffraction line profiles. During analysis, these profiles are generally separated into two nearly symmetric subprofiles corresponding to diffraction by dislocation cell walls and cell interiors. These subprofiles are then interpreted using complex models of dislocation-based line broadening. Until now, it has not been possible to test the many assumptions that are made in such an analysis. Here, depth-resolved microbeam diffraction was used to measure diffraction line profiles from numerous individual dislocation cell walls and cell interiors in a heavily deformed Cu single crystal. Summing these profiles directly constructed the cell-interior and cell-wall subprofiles that have been approximated in the line profile analysis literature for the past 30 years. Direct comparison between the reconstructed subprofiles and the macroscopic asymmetric line profile from the same sample allows the first direct tests of many of the assumptions that have been used for interpreting these X-ray measurements.

Levine, Lyle E. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Geantil, P. [University of Southern California; Larson, Ben C [ORNL; Tischler, Jonathan Zachary [ORNL; Kassner, Michael E. [University of Southern California; Liu, Wenjun [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

2012-01-01

347

Measurement of Broad Absorption Features Using a Tunable External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate the use of a tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser system for measurement of broad absorption features in the mid-infrared spectral region. The thermoelectrically cooled external cavity laser was tuned over a 65 cm-1 range centered at 8.7 microns using stepper motor control. Pulsing the laser at a high duty cycle provided 3-5 mW average output power over the tuning range, and enabled phase-sensitive detection of amplitude-modulated signals. We used the laser system to measure the absorption spectra of Freon-125 using a Herriott cell. In addition, the absorption spectrum of water in the laboratory air was measured. The measurements showed excellent agreement with reference spectra, in both wavelength and amplitude. The measured scan resolution of 0.14 cm-1 is suitable for measurement of the absorption features of complex molecules as well as simple molecules with atmospherically broadened lines. We discuss the limits to the scan resolution due to effects of spectral chirp and mode-hops during pulsed operation.

Phillips, Mark C.; Myers, Tanya L.; Wojcik, Michael D.; Cannon, Bret D.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Scott, David C.

2007-09-25

348

The Occasional Case Against Broad Dissemination and Implementation  

PubMed Central

Mental illness imposes a staggering public health burden in the United States. Although the past 40 years have witnessed tremendous advances in the identification of evidence-based practices (EBPs) in psychological treatments, gaps persist between treatment in experimental settings and services available in the community. In response, considerable attention and large financial commitments have focused in recent years on broad dissemination and implementation efforts designed to improve the quality of psychological services delivered by a variety of generalist practitioners across practice settings. Increasingly, under the influence of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, it is envisioned that these generalists will practice in integrated primary care settings. These advances hold enormous potential, and yet, given the tremendous diversity of mental health problems and human suffering, broad dissemination and implementation efforts to generalists alone may not be sufficient to adequately address the burden of mental illness. Some EBPs may prove too complex for universal dissemination, and the time and expense required for quality dissemination and implementation preclude large-scale training in the treatment of low base rate disorders. As dissemination and implementation efforts work to ensure a quality generalist mental health care workforce, herein we highlight the vital need for available specialty care in the delivery of psychological treatments. Given traditional barriers that interfere with the accessibility of specialty care, we propose the transformative potential of a specialty behavioral telehealth care workforce, transacting with the generalist practitioner workforce to collectively ensure the highest quality and timely delivery of needed treatments to affected individuals. PMID:23915401

Comer, Jonathan S.; Barlow, David H.

2014-01-01

349

Broad-band acoustic Doppler current profiler  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The broad-band acoustic Doppler current profiler is an instrument that determines velocity based on the Doppler principle by reflecting acoustic signals off sediment particles in the water. The instrument is capable of measuring velocity magnitude and direction throughout a water column and of measuring water depth. It is also capable of bottom tracking and can, therefore, keep track of its own relative position as it is moved across a channel. Discharge measurements can be made quickly and, based on limited tests, accurately with this instrument. ?? 1993.

Cobb, E.D.

1993-01-01

350

Broad-Spectrum Drugs Against Viral Agents  

PubMed Central

Development of antivirals has focused primarily on vaccines and on treatments for specific viral agents. Although effective, these approaches may be limited in situations where the etiologic agent is unknown or when the target virus has undergone mutation, recombination or reassortment. Augmentation of the innate immune response may be an effective alternative for disease amelioration. Nonspecific, broad-spectrum immune responses can be induced by double-stranded (ds)RNAs such as poly (ICLC), or oligonucleotides (ODNs) containing unmethylated deocycytidyl-deoxyguanosinyl (CpG) motifs. These may offer protection against various bacterial and viral pathogens regardless of their genetic makeup, zoonotic origin or drug resistance. PMID:19325820

Christopher, Mary E.; Wong, Jonathan P.

2008-01-01

351

Complex dynamics of 1.3.5-trimethylbenzene-2.4.6-D3 studied by proton spin-lattice NMR relaxation and second moment of NMR line  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular dynamics of a solid 1.3.5-trimethylbenzene-2.4.6-D3 in phase I is studied on the basis of the proton T1 (24.7 MHz and 15 MHz) relaxation time measurements and the proton second moment of NMR line, M2. The measurements of the T1 were performed for temperatures from 20 to 167 K, while those of the second moment M2 from 23 to 220 K. The phase I was accurately prepared. The obtained second moment, M2 values were correlated with those based on T1 relaxation time measurements. The proton spin pairs of the methyl groups perform a complex motion being a resultant of two components characterized by the correlation times ?3T and ?3H, referring to the tunneling and over the barrier jumps in a triple potential. For ?3H the Arrhenius temperature dependence was assumed, while for ?3T - the Schrödinger one. The jumps over the barrier causes a minimum in T1 (24.7 MHz) at temperature about 35 K. The high temperatures slope of this minimum permits evaluation of the activation energy as EH=2.0 kJ/mol. The relaxation time T1 is temperature independent in the lowest temperature regime. This indicates that tunnelling correlation time assumes a constant value of about 1.3·10-10 s according to the Schrödinger equation (?3T ? ?03T e B?{EH } at lowest temperatures). The tunneling jumps of methyl protons reduce M2 from the rigid lattice value 22.6 G2 to the value 5.7 G2 at zero Kelvin temperature. The second reduction to the value 1.41 G2 at 4.5-7 K is due to C3 jumps over the barrier. According to the Schrödinger equation the tunnelling jumps ceases above Ttun temperature where the thermal energy is equal to the activation energy. The Ttun equals 43.8 K (from T1 data fit, EH=2.0 kJ/mol) or 35 K (from M2 data fit, EH=1.47 kJ/mol). The second moment assumes again the value 5.7 G2 above Ttun temperature. The tunneling splitting, ?T, was estimated equal 2.47 GHz as best fit parameter from the T1 fit. The symmetrical T1 minimum indicates the same value of ?T for the all methyl groups. This frequency is in good agreement with the value of ?T (??T=10.2 ?eV, tunnel splitting energy) obtained from the neutron powder scattering method. This high tunneling splitting is responsible for the long and Larmor frequency independent of T1 relaxation time. The presented results are compared to those of Köksal et al.

Ho?derna-Natkaniec, K.; Latanowicz, L.; Medycki, W.; ?wiergiel, J.; Natkaniec, I.

2015-02-01

352

Ia antigen-bearing B cell tumor lines can present protein antigen and alloantigen in a major histocompatibility complex-restricted fashion to antigen-reactive T cells  

PubMed Central

Several Ia-positive BALB/c B cell tumor lines were screened for their ability to present alloantigen and protein antigens to alloreactive and antigen-reactive T cells. Of six Ia-positive tumor lines studied, three were found to be effective as antigen presenting cells (APC). Indeed, on a per cell basis, one of the stimulatory lines, A20.3, was substantially more effective than whole spleen cells. The other three lines, although Ia-positive, were nonstimulatory. A20.3 was chosen for further study. This tumor appeared to behave like the conventional APC because (a) the tumor cells presented alloantigen, (b) they presented protein antigen in an MHC-restricted fashion to both primed donor T cells and to long-term continuous T cell lines, (c) alloantigen presentation was blocked by the inclusion of an anti-Ia antibody in the culture system, and (d) A20.3 cells could be effectively pulsed with antigen, although the continuous presence of antigen in the culture system resulted in a superior response. The addition of an exogenous source of interleukin 1 proved necessary to obtain an alloreactive but not an antigen-specific T cell response, although its inclusion did enhance the magnitude of antigen-stimulated proliferation. These tumor cells should prove useful in studying the biochemical events that occur during antigen processing and the requirements for T cell triggering by processed antigen in association with Ia molecules. PMID:6460073

1982-01-01

353

Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, electrochemical behavior and computational analysis of mixed diamine ligand gold(III) complexes: antiproliferative and in vitro cytotoxic evaluations against human cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

The gold(III) complexes of the type [(DACH)Au(en)]Cl3, 1,2-Diaminocyclohexane ethylenediamine gold(III) chloride [where 1,2-DACH = cis-, trans-1,2- and S,S-1,2diaminocyclohexane and en = ethylenediamine] have been synthesized and characterized using various analytical and spectroscopic techniques including elemental analysis, UV-Vis and FTIR spectra; and solution as well as solid-state NMR measurements. The solid-state (13)C NMR shows that 1,2-diaminocyclohexane (1,2-DACH) and ethylenediamine (en) are strongly bound to the gold(III) center via N donor atoms. The stability of the mixed diamine ligand gold(III) was determined by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra. Their electrochemical behavior was studied by cyclic voltammetry. The structural details and relative stabilities of the four possible isomers of the complexes were also reported at the B3LYP/LANL2DZ level of theory. The coordination sphere of these complexes around gold(III) center adopts distorted square planar geometry. The computational study also demonstrates that trans- conformations is slightly more stable than the cis-conformations. The antiproliferative effects and cytotoxic properties of the mixed diamine ligand gold(III) complexes were evaluated in vitro on human gastric SGC7901 and prostate PC3 cancer cells using MTT assay. The antiproliferative study of the gold(III) complexes on PC3 and SGC7901 cells indicate that complex 1 is the most effective antiproliferative agent among mixed ligand based gold(III) complexes 1-3. The IC50 data reveal that the in vitro cytotoxicity of complexes 1 and 3 against SGC7901 cancer cells are fairly better than that of cisplatin. PMID:25034122

Al-Jaroudi, Said S; Monim-ul-Mehboob, M; Altaf, Muhammad; Al-Saadi, Abdulaziz A; Wazeer, Mohammed I M; Altuwaijri, Saleh; Isab, Anvarhusein A

2014-12-01

354

Broad-band distributed amplifier impedance-matching techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A circuit concept is developed which allows impedance transformations to be performed over extremely broad bandwidths. The transformation is obtained by coupling one or more input or output lines of a distributed amplifier into several output or input lines, respectively. The circuit technique is demonstrated by results for an amplifier for a 1:2 impedance transformation over a 2-20-GHz bandwidth. The amplifier yields a voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) of better than 1.7:1 into 25 Omega at the input and better than 1.5:1 into 50 Omega at the output while maintaining a gain of 9 + or - 1 dB. An application of the technique to the broadband impedance-matching problem of a laser diode driver is discussed. The circuit has a gain of 8.5 + or - 1 dB from 0.5 to 12.5 GHz and better than 10 dB return loss at both the input and output.

Cioffi, Kenneth R.

1989-12-01

355

Oblique incidence for broad monoenergetic proton beams  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The depth dose of a monoenergetic broad parallel proton beam has been modeled in a number of ways, but evidently not yet for oblique incidence. The purpose of this investigation is to find an accurate analytic formula for this case, which can then be used to model the depth dose of a broad beam with an initial Gaussian angular distribution. Methods: The Bortfeld model of depth dose in a broad normally incident proton beam has been extended to the case of oblique incidence. This extension uses an empirically determined Gaussian parameter {sigma}{sub x} which (roughly) characterizes the off-axis dose of a proton pencil beam. As with Bortfeld's work, the modeling is done in terms of parabolic cylinder functions. To obtain the depth dose for an initial angular distribution, the result is integrated over the angle of incidence, weighted by a Gaussian probability function. The predictions of the theory have been compared to MCNPX Monte Carlo calculations for four phantom materials (water, bone, aluminum, and copper) and for initial proton energies of 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 MeV. Results: Comparisons of the depth dose predicted by this theory with Monte Carlo calculations have established that with very good accuracy, {sigma}{sub x} can be taken to be independent both of the depth and of the angle of incidence. As a function of initial proton range or of initial proton energy, {sigma}{sub x} has been found to obey a power law to very high accuracy. Good fits to Monte Carlo calculations have also been found for an initial Gaussian angular distribution. Conclusions: This investigation is the first step in the accurate modeling of a proton pencil beam with initial Gaussian angular distribution. It provides the longitudinal factor, with its Bragg peak buildup and sharp distal falloff. A transverse factor must still be incorporated into this theory and this will give the lateral penumbra of a collimated proton beam. Also, it will be necessary to model the dose of product particles from nuclear interactions of the proton beam. With the accurate modeling of a pencil beam, it will be possible to accurately take into account the effect of localized tissue inhomogeneities.

Jette, David; Yuan Jiankui; Chen Weimin [ICT Radiotherapy Services, Livingston, New Jersey 07039 (United States) and Department of Medical Physics, Rush University, Chicago, Illinois 60612 (United States); ICT Radiotherapy Services, Livingston, New Jersey 07039 (United States)

2010-11-15

356

The NDUFB6 subunit of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I is required for electron transfer activity: A proof of principle study on stable and controlled RNA interference in human cell lines  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: {yields} NDUFB6 is required for activity of mitochondrial complex I in human cell lines. {yields} Lentivirus based RNA interference results in frequent off target insertions. {yields} Flp-In recombinase mediated miRNA insertion allows gene-specific extinction. -- Abstract: Molecular bases of inherited deficiencies of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I are still unknown in a high proportion of patients. Among 45 subunits making up this large complex, more than half has unknown function(s). Understanding the function of these subunits would contribute to our knowledge on mitochondrial physiology but might also reveal that some of these subunits are not required for the catalytic activity of the complex. A direct consequence of this finding would be the reduction of the number of candidate genes to be sequenced in patients with decreased complex I activity. In this study, we tested two different methods to stably extinct complex I subunits in cultured cells. We first found that lentivirus-mediated shRNA expression frequently resulted in the unpredicted extinction of additional gene(s) beside targeted ones. This can be ascribed to uncontrolled genetic material insertions in the genome of the host cell. This approach thus appeared inappropriate to study unknown functions of a gene. Next, we found it possible to specifically extinct a CI subunit gene by direct insertion of a miR targeting CI subunits in a Flp site (HEK293 Flp-In cells). By using this strategy we unambiguously demonstrated that the NDUFB6 subunit is required for complex I activity, and defined conditions suitable to undertake a systematic and stable extinction of the different supernumerary subunits in human cells.

Loublier, Sandrine; Bayot, Aurelien; Rak, Malgorzata; El-Khoury, Riyad; Benit, Paule [Inserm U676, Hopital Robert Debre, F-75019 Paris (France) [Inserm U676, Hopital Robert Debre, F-75019 Paris (France); Universite Paris 7, Faculte de medecine Denis Diderot, IFR02 Paris (France); Rustin, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.rustin@inserm.fr [Inserm U676, Hopital Robert Debre, F-75019 Paris (France) [Inserm U676, Hopital Robert Debre, F-75019 Paris (France); Universite Paris 7, Faculte de medecine Denis Diderot, IFR02 Paris (France)

2011-10-22

357

Stereospecific ligands and their complexes. Part XII. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro antiproliferative activity of platinum(IV) complexes with some O,O?-dialkyl esters of (S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N?-di-2-propanoic acid against colon cancer (HCT-116) and breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) cell lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthesis of three new platinum(IV) complexes C1-C3, with bidentate N,N?-ligand precursors, O,O?-dialkyl esters (alkyl = propyl, butyl and pentyl), of (S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N?-di-2-propanoic acid, H2-S,S-eddp were reported. The reported platinum(IV) complexes characterized by elemental analysis and their structures were discussed on the bases of their infrared, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. In vitro antiproliferative activity was determined on tumor cell lines: human colon carcinoma HCT-116 and human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231, using MTT test.

Stojkovi?, Danijela Lj.; Jevti?, Verica V.; Radi?, Gordana P.; ?a?i?, Dragana S.; ?ur?i?, Milena G.; Markovi?, Snežana D.; Ðinovi?, Vesna M.; Petrovi?, Vladimir P.; Trifunovi?, Sre?ko R.

2014-03-01

358

Arene-Ru(II)-chloroquine complexes interact with DNA, induce apoptosis on human lymphoid cell lines and display low toxicity to normal mammalian cells.  

PubMed

The complexes [Ru(eta(6)-p-cymene)(CQ)Cl(2)] (1), [Ru(eta(6)-benzene)(CQ)Cl(2)] (2), [Ru(eta(6)-p-cymene)(CQ)(H(2)O)(2)][BF(4)](2) (3), [Ru(eta(6)-p-cymene)(en)(CQ)][PF(6)](2) (4), [Ru(eta(6)-p-cymene)(eta(6)-CQDP)][BF(4)](2) (5) (CQ = chloroquine base; CQDP = chloroquine diphosphate; en = ethylenediamine) interact with DNA to a comparable extent to that of CQ and in analogous intercalative manner with no evidence for any direct contribution of the metal, as shown by spectrophotometric and fluorimetric titrations, thermal denaturation measurements, circular dichroism spectroscopy and electrophoresis mobility shift assays. Complexes 1-5 induced cytotoxicity in Jurkat and SUP-T1 cancer cells primarily via apoptosis. Despite the similarities in the DNA binding behavior of complexes 1-5 with those of CQ the antitumor properties of the metal drugs do not correlate with those of CQ, indicating that DNA is not the principal target in the mechanism of cytotoxicity of these compounds. Importantly, the Ru-CQ complexes are generally less toxic toward normal mouse splenocytes and human foreskin fibroblast cells than the standard antimalarial drug CQDP and therefore this type of compound shows promise for drug development. PMID:20605217

Martínez, Alberto; Rajapakse, Chandima S K; Sánchez-Delgado, Roberto A; Varela-Ramirez, Armando; Lema, Carolina; Aguilera, Renato J

2010-09-01

359

Arene-Ru(II)-Chloroquine Complexes Interact With DNA, Induce Apoptosis on Human Lymphoid Cell Lines and Display Low Toxicity to Normal Mammalian Cells  

PubMed Central

The complexes [Ru(?6-p-cymene)(CQ)Cl2] (1), [Ru(?6-benzene)(CQ)Cl2] (2), [Ru(?6-p-cymene)(CQ)(H2O)2][BF4]2 (3), [Ru(?6- p-cymene)(en)(CQ)][PF6]2 (4), [Ru(?6-p-cymene)(?6-CQDP)][BF4]2 (5) (CQ = chloroquine base; CQDP = chloroquine diphosphate; en = ethylenediamine) interact with DNA to a comparable extent to that of CQ and in analogous intercalative manner with no evidence for any direct contribution of the metal, as shown by spectrophotometric and fluorimetric titrations, thermal denaturation measurements, circular dichroism spectroscopy and electrophoresis mobility shift assays. Complexes 1–5 induced cytotoxicity in Jurkat and SUP-T1 cancer cells primarily via apoptosis. Despite the similarities in the DNA binding behavior of complexes 1–5 with those of CQ the antitumor properties of the metal drugs do not correlate with those of CQ, indicating that DNA is not the principal target in the mechanism of cytotoxicity of these compounds. Importantly, the Ru-CQ complexes are generally less toxic toward normal mouse splenocytes and human foreskin fibroblast cells than the standard antimalarial drug CQDP and therefore this type of compound shows promise for drug development. PMID:20605217

Martínez, Alberto; Rajapakse, Chandima S.K.; Varela-Ramírez, Armando; Lema, Carolina; Aguilera, Renato J.; Sánchez-Delgado, Roberto A.

2010-01-01

360

Modulation of keratin 1, 10 and involucrin expression as part of the complex response of the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT to ultraviolet radiation  

PubMed Central

Skin exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light evokes a complex stress response in keratinocytes. Keratin filament organization provides structural stability and mechanical integrity of keratinocytes. Involucrin is a transglutaminase substrate protein contributing to the formation of insoluble cornified envelopes. However, a more complex role for keratins and involucrin has been proposed, including the regulation of cell stress response. The aim was to evaluate modulations of keratin 1, 10 and involucrin expression in HaCaT in the light of the complex response of these cells to UV-B radiation, including effects on c-Jun and matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1) gene expression and production of interleukin (IL) 6 and 8. A UV-B (300±5 nm) dose of 10 mJ/cm2 was selected since this dose resulted in a partial decrease in cell viability in contrast to higher UV-B doses, which induced complete cell death 48 h after treatment. The UV-B radiation induced significant expression of keratin 1 and 10 and decreased expression of involucrin. This was accompanied by increased expression of c-Jun and MMP-1 and IL-6 and IL-8 production. The data suggest that the expression of keratin 1, 10 and involucrin is modulated in HaCaT keratinocytes as a part of the complex stress response to UV radiation. PMID:24678259

Moravcová, Martina; Libra, Antonín; Dvo?áková, Jana; Víšková, Alena; Muthný, Tomáš; Velebný, Vladimír

2013-01-01

361

Correlation between degradation and broadness of the transition in CICC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cable in conduit conductor (CICC) performance is characterized in terms of relationships involving the electric field (E), voltage (V), temperature (T), current (I), magnetic field (B) and strain. Development of the electrical field in the V-T or V-I transitions in CICCs is exponential. These transitions plotted in the coordinates log E versus T or log E versus I look like straight lines. ITER Nb3Sn CICCs show degradation of properties versus load cycles that could be attributed to plastic deformation of the Nb3Sn strands or fracture of the superconducting filaments. The degradation is expressed in terms of the reduction of the current sharing temperature Tcs or critical current Ic, respectively. It was noticed long ago that degradation is accompanied by a significant broadening of the V-T or V-I transition, that looks like a change in the slope in the semi-log coordinate plot. This paper presents some systematic observations of correlations between the critical parameters and broadness of the transition in many CICCs. In most cases, the broadness of the transition seems to be a more sensitive indicator of the conductor damage even in cases where Tcs degradation is not clearly seen. Tcs degradation typically becomes obvious later in the cycling, especially after warm-up and following cool-down and more cycling. In some cases, a CICC manifests temporary or even a permanent growth of Tcs with load cycles, especially in the latest measurements of the CS conductors with short twist pitches. A possible mechanism of degradation that allows qualitative explanation of this phenomenon is discussed and is supported by the voltage measurements on the cable in the TFUS1 sample with the voltage taps penetrating the jacket to the cable.

Martovetsky, Nicolai

2013-10-01

362

Broad Street elevation of the competition design for the New ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Broad Street elevation of the competition design for the New Masonic Temple, Philadelphia, by architects Collins and Authenrieth, 1867 - Masonic Temple, 1 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

363

Applications of broad class knowledge for noise robust speech recognition  

E-print Network

This thesis introduces a novel technique for noise robust speech recognition by first describing a speech signal through a set of broad speech units, and then conducting a more detailed analysis from these broad classes. ...

Sainath, Tara N

2009-01-01

364

A Fe(3+)/DNA complex induces an anti-human immunodeficiency virus factor(s) in CD4+ lymphocyte cell lines.  

PubMed

Numerous cytokines and chemokines are involved in inflammatory and immune response. Whereas some of them inhibit virus replication in vitro directly or increase the patients' T4-lymphocyte level, others effects are not so clear. Using human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and cell cultures we have studied the antiviral effect of complexes of salmon DNA with metals and of a new factor(s) (antiviral factor, AVF) induced in cells by the complexes. The Fe3+/DNA complex possessed the highest antiviral activity. It was found that MT-2, MT-4, CEM and Jurkat cells treated with the complexes secreted AVF which inhibited the replication of nine HIV-1 isolates, was noncytotoxic and stimulated cell proliferation. AVF did not inactivate HIV. The molecular mass analysis of AVF showed that its antiviral activity is associated with its fraction of M(r) of 3 K. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of mRNA from MT-4 cells treated with the complexes showed an increase in the the expression of genes for interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and TNF-beta while expression of genes for IL-1-beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8. IL-10, IL-12; 35p, 40p, IL-13, GMCSF, GSF and RANTES was not detected at all. However, the anti-HIV activity of the cell culture supernatant in vitro cannot be explained by mere presence of the inflammatory substances mentioned above, because they do not possess such activity and their M(r) is higher than that of AVF. Our findings raise the possibility that AVF(s) may be involved in the mechanism of cell resistance against HIV. PMID:10672340

Nossik, D; Kaplina, E; Nossik, N; Kalnina, L; Tsutsumi, R; Miura, Y; Sera, K; Itoh, C; Sato, S; Lvov, D

1999-02-01

365

Broad-Spectrum Transgenic Resistance against Distinct Tospovirus Species at the Genus Level  

PubMed Central

Thrips-borne tospoviruses cause severe damage to crops worldwide. In this investigation, tobacco lines transgenic for individual WLm constructs containing the conserved motifs of the L RNA-encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L) gene of Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV) were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The WLm constructs included: (i) translatable WLm in a sense orientation; (ii) untranslatable WLmt with two stop codons; (iii) untranslatable WLmts with stop codons and a frame-shift; (iv) untranslatable antisense WLmA; and (v) WLmhp with an untranslatable inverted repeat of WLm containing the tospoviral S RNA 3?-terminal consensus sequence (5?-ATTGCTCT-3?) and an NcoI site as a linker to generate a double-stranded hairpin transcript. A total of 46.7–70.0% transgenic tobacco lines derived from individual constructs showed resistance to the homologous WSMoV; 35.7–100% plants of these different WSMoV-resistant lines exhibited broad-spectrum resistance against four other serologically unrelated tospoviruses Tomato spotted wilt virus, Groundnut yellow spot virus, Impatiens necrotic spot virus and Groundnut chlorotic fan-spot virus. The selected transgenic tobacco lines also exhibited broad-spectrum resistance against five additional tospoviruses from WSMoV and Iris yellow spot virus clades, but not against RNA viruses from other genera. Northern analyses indicated that the broad-spectrum resistance is mediated by RNA silencing. To validate the L conserved region resistance in vegetable crops, the constructs were also used to generate transgenic tomato lines, which also showed effective resistance against WSMoV and other tospoviruses. Thus, our approach of using the conserved motifs of tospoviral L gene as a transgene generates broad-spectrum resistance against tospoviruses at the genus level. PMID:24811071

Raja, Joseph A. J.; Yang, Ching-Fu; Chien, Wan-Chu; Lin, Chen-Hsuan; Liu, Fang-Lin; Wu, Hui-Wen; Yeh, Shyi-Dong

2014-01-01

366

Main elevation of 3516 South Broad Place, SW. This house ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Main elevation of 3516 South Broad Place, SW. This house was used by the agent for Merrimack Mills, and now is the headquarters of Impact Ministries - 3516 South Broad Place, Southwest (House), 3516 South Broad Place, Southwest, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

367

Multimode Broad-Band Patch Antennas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microstrip patch antennas of a proposed type would be tunable over broad wavelength ranges. These antennas would be attractive for use in a variety of microwave communication systems in which there are requirements for transmission and/or reception at multiple, widely separated frequencies. Prior efforts to construct tunable microstrip patch antennas have involved integration of microstrip circuitry with, variously, ferrite films with magneticfield tuning, solid-state electronic tuning devices, or piezoelectric tuning actuators. Those efforts have been somewhat successful, but have yielded tuning ranges of 20 percent and smaller much smaller than needed in typical practical cases. Like prior microstrip patch antennas (both tunable and non-tunable), the proposed antennas would have instantaneous bandwidths of about 1 percent of their nominal or resonance frequencies. However, these would be tunable over much broader frequency ranges as much as several octaves, depending on specific designs. They could be fabricated relatively simply and inexpensively by use of conventional photolithography, and without need for integration with solid-state electronic or piezoelectric control devices. An antenna as proposed (see figure) would include a microstrip patch radiating element on a thin ferroelectric film on a semiconductor substrate with a ground-plane conductor on the underside of the substrate. The ferroelectric film could be, for example, SrTiO3 with a thickness of the order of 1 or 2 micrometers.

Romanofsky, Robert R.

2003-01-01

368

Broad area optical debris impact sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fiber optic sensors offer many advantages over electrical sensors for use in harsh environments. One advantage over distributed electrical sensors is the elimination of the need to route electrical power and wiring to the sensors, which, in general, improves safety and reduces power consumption. Another advantage is that the optical sensors are immune to electromagnetic interference that may be caused by radio frequency signals used for communications. Another benefit of using an optical approach for impact detectors is the implicit immunity from false detections that may otherwise be caused by unrelated mechanical shock or vibration events. Previous studies have documented the characteristics of the Optical Debris Impact Sensor (ODIS). With the ODIS, the impacts are inferred by detecting the brief triboluminescent optical pulses generated by the abrupt charge separation within a phosphor that is caused by the particle impacts. The main limitations of the ODIS are the small detection area and the limited sensitivity. This paper describes a method for extending the ODIS to accomplish broad area detection on a surface with potentially higher sensitivity. The sensing element is comprised of a stack of planar optical waveguides with phosphor-coated strips. The geometry of the design ensures optical pulses are automatically captured by the waveguides and routed to a fiber optic cable that transports the signal to a remote high-speed photodetector. Background light levels in the vicinity of the detector are filtered out by the tailored frequency response of the photodetector.

Gauthier, L. R., Jr.; Jansen, M. E.; Meyer, J. R.

2012-06-01

369

Studying the complex absorption profiles of Si IV in 21 HiBALQSO spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the physical conditions and kinematics of broad absorption line region clouds of Si IV in 21 HiBAL Quasars. We use the Danezis et al. method [1], [2], [3] in order to fit and analyze the broad absorption troughs of Si IV resonance lines in the UV region of the electromagnetic spectrum. We find that the BAL flow is not smooth but instead plasma clouds are formed in it. BAL troughs present multicomponent structure which indicates the existence of more than one absorbing cloud in the line of sight, where every absorbing cloud produces a Si IV doublet. We show that the blending of these doublets produces the apparent broad absorption troughs we observe. One of our main achievements is that we managed to decompose and deblend each complex absorption trough to the individual doublets that it consists of. Apart from that, we succeeded in deblending the resonance lines of every doublet. By achieving accurate fits to the BAL troughs we calculated some physical and kinematical parameters that describe the plasma clouds in the line of sight. These parameters are: the radial outflow velocities of the clouds, the random velocities of ions inside each plasma cloud, the apparent optical depth in the center of every absorption component, the FWHM and the equivalent width. As a final step we correlate these physical parameters in order to draw useful conclusions.

Stathopoulos, D.; Danezis, E.; Lyratzi, E.; Antoniou, A.; Popovi?, L. ?.; Tzimeas, D.; Dimitrijevi?, M. S.

2014-12-01

370

Arctic Change Information for a Broad Audience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Demonstrable environmental changes have occurred in the Arctic over the past three decades. NOAA's Arctic Theme Page is a rich resource web site focused on high latitude studies and the Arctic, with links to widely distributed data and information focused on the Arctic. Included is a collection of essays on relevant topics by experts in Arctic research. The website has proven useful to a wide audience, including scientists, students, teachers, decision makers and the general public, as indicated through recognition by USA Today, Science magazine, etc. (http://www.arctic.noaa.gov) Working jointly with NSF and the University of Washington's Polar Science Center as part of the Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) program, NOAA has developed a website for access to pan-Arctic time series spanning diverse data types including climate indices, atmospheric, oceanic, sea ice, terrestrial, biological and fisheries. Modest analysis functions and more detailed analysis results are provided. (http://www.unaami.noaa.gov/). This paper will describe development of an Artic Change Detection status website to provide a direct and comprehensive view of previous and ongoing change in the Arctic for a broad climate community. For example, composite metrics are developed using principal component analysis based on 86 multivariate pan-Arctic time series for seven data types. Two of these metrics can be interpreted as a regime change/trend component and an interdecadal component. Changes can also be visually observed through tracking of 28 separate biophysical indicators. Results will be presented in the form of a web site with relevant, easily understood, value-added knowledge backed by peer review from Arctic scientists and scientific journals.

Soreide, N. N.; Overland, J. E.; Calder, J.

2002-12-01

371

Broad spectrum anthelmintic potential of Cassia plants  

PubMed Central

Objective To study the in vitro anthelmintic efficacy of Cassia alata (C. alata), Cassia angustifolia (C. angustifolia) and Cassia occidentalis (C. occidentalis). Methods Crude ethanol extract from leaves of the three plants were prepared in rotary evaporator and different concentrations (10, 20 and 40 mg/mL) of leaf extracts were used for treatment on different representatives of helminthes (Heterakis gallinarum, Raillietina tetragona and Catatropis sp.) from domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus). Loss of motility and death were monitored frequently. Results C. alata showed early paralysis in all worms treated followed by C. angustifolia. C. occidentalis in combination with C. alata together caused early paralysis in all treated worms than the combination of C. alata with C. angustfolia. While Heterakis gallinarum in control survived for (81.33±2.07) h, treated worms lost their motility at (5.71±0.10) h, (6.60±0.86) h and (13.95±0.43) h with C. angustifolia, C. alata and C. occidentalis respectively at a concentration of 40 mg/mL which showed better efficacy than albendazole. Catatropis sp. survival period was (26.49±1.38) h in control, but with plant treatment, it lost its motility in just (0.57±0.08) h, (1.00±0.12) h and (1.47±0.40) h at 40 mg/mL concentration of C. alata, C. angustifolia and C. occidentalis respectively. Raillietina tetragona on the other hand became paralysed at (1.68±0.27) h, (2.95±0.29) h and (4.13±0.31) h with above concentrations treated with three plants respectively, however in control it survived up to (81.93±4.71) h. Conclusions This present study indicated broad spectrum vermifugal activity of all plants tested. PMID:25183125

Kundu, Suman; Roy, Saptarshi; Lyndem, Larisha Mawkhleing

2014-01-01

372

Constitutive apical secretion of an 80-kD sulfated glycoprotein complex in the polarized epithelial Madin-Darby canine kidney cell line.  

PubMed

The biosynthesis, processing, and apical secretion of a group of polypeptides (Kondor-Koch, C., R. Bravo, S. D. Fuller, D. Cutler, and H. Garoff. 1985. Cell. 43:297-306) are studied in MDCK cells using a specific polyclonal antiserum. These polypeptides are synthesized as a precursor protein which has an apparent Mr of 65,000 in its high mannose form. This precursor is converted into a protein with an apparent Mr of 80,000 containing complex carbohydrates and sulfate. After intracellular cleavage of the 80-kD protein, the 35-45-kD subunits are secreted as an 80-kD glycoprotein complex (gp 80) linked together by disulfide bonds. Secretion of the protein complex occurs by a constitutive pathway at the apical surface of the epithelial monolayer. Since the immediate post-translational precursor, the 65-kD protein, is hydrophilic in nature as shown by its partitioning behavior in a phase-separated Triton X-114 solution, gp 80 is segregated into the apical exocytotic pathway as a soluble molecule. The proteolytic maturation of gp 80 is blocked in the presence of chloroquine and its secretion is retarded. The 80-kD precursor is released at the apical cell surface, demonstrating that proteolytic processing is not necessary for the apical secretion of this protein. If N-glycosylation is inhibited by tunicamycin treatment the protein is secreted in equal amounts at both cell surfaces, indicating a role of the carbohydrate moieties in the vectorial transport of this protein. PMID:3693398

Urban, J; Parczyk, K; Leutz, A; Kayne, M; Kondor-Koch, C

1987-12-01

373

Arsenic trioxide in front-line therapy of acute promyelocytic leukemia (C9710): prognostic significance of FLT3 mutations and complex karyotype  

PubMed Central

The addition of arsenic trioxide (ATO) to frontline therapy of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has been shown to result in significant improvements in disease-free survival (DFS). FLT3 mutations are frequently observed in APL, but its prognostic significance remains unclear. We analyzed 245 newly diagnosed adult patients with APL treated on intergroup trial C9710 and evaluated previously defined biological and prognostic factors and their relationship to FLT3 mutations and to additional karyotypic abnormalities. FLT3 mutations were found in 48% of patients, including 31% with an internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD), 14% with a point mutation (FLT3-D835) and 2% with both mutations. The FLT3-ITD mutant level was uniformly low, <0.5. Neither FLT3 mutation had an impact on remission rate, induction death rate, DFS or overall survival (OS). The addition of ATO consolidation improved outcomes regardless of FLT3 mutation type or level, initial white blood cell count, PML–RARA isoform type or transcript level. The presence of a complex karyotype was strongly associated with an inferior OS independently of post-remission treatment. In conclusion, the addition of ATO to frontline therapy overcomes the impact of previously described adverse prognostic factors including FLT3 mutations. However, complex karyotype is strongly associated with an inferior OS despite ATO therapy. PMID:24160850

Poiré, Xavier; Moser, Barry K.; Gallagher, Robert E.; Laumann, Kristina; Bloomfield, Clara D.; Powell, Bayard L.; Koval, Gregory; Gulati, Kabir; Holowka, Nicholas; Larson, Richard A.; Tallman, Martin S.; Appelbaum, Frederick R.; Sher, Dorie; Willman, Cheryl; Paietta, Elisabeth; Stock, Wendy

2014-01-01

374

Enhanced Methanol Production in Plants Provides Broad Spectrum Insect Resistance  

PubMed Central

Plants naturally emit methanol as volatile organic compound. Methanol is toxic to insect pests; but the quantity produced by most of the plants is not enough to protect them against invading insect pests. In the present study, we demonstrated that the over-expression of pectin methylesterase, derived from Arabidopsis thaliana and Aspergillus niger, in transgenic tobacco plants enhances methanol production and resistance to polyphagous insect pests. Methanol content in the leaves of transgenic plants was measured using proton nuclear spectroscopy (1H NMR) and spectra showed up to 16 fold higher methanol as compared to control wild type (WT) plants. A maximum of 100 and 85% mortality in chewing insects Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura larvae was observed, respectively when fed on transgenic plants leaves. The surviving larvae showed less feeding, severe growth retardation and could not develop into pupae. In-planta bioassay on transgenic lines showed up to 99 and 75% reduction in the population multiplication of plant sap sucking pests Myzus persicae (aphid) and Bemisia tabaci (whitefly), respectively. Most of the phenotypic characters of transgenic plants were similar to WT plants. Confocal microscopy showed no deformities in cellular integrity, structure and density of stomata and trichomes of transgenic plants compared to WT. Pollen germination and tube formation was also not affected in transgenic plants. Cell wall enzyme transcript levels were comparable with WT. This study demonstrated for the first time that methanol emission can be utilized for imparting broad range insect resistance in plants. PMID:24223989

Dixit, Sameer; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Singh, Harpal; Sidhu, Om Prakash; Verma, Praveen Chandra; K, Chandrashekar

2013-01-01

375

Effect of Regulatory Architecture on Broad versus Narrow Sense Heritability  

PubMed Central

Additive genetic variance (VA) and total genetic variance (VG) are core concepts in biomedical, evolutionary and production-biology genetics. What determines the large variation in reported VA/VG ratios from line-cross experiments is not well understood. Here we report how the VA/VG ratio, and thus the ratio between narrow and broad sense heritability (h2/H2), varies as a function of the regulatory architecture underlying genotype-to-phenotype (GP) maps. We studied five dynamic models (of the cAMP pathway, the glycolysis, the circadian rhythms, the cell cycle, and heart cell dynamics). We assumed genetic variation to be reflected in model parameters and extracted phenotypes summarizing the system dynamics. Even when imposing purely linear genotype to parameter maps and no environmental variation, we observed quite low VA/VG ratios. In particular, systems with positive feedback and cyclic dynamics gave more non-monotone genotype-phenotype maps and much lower VA/VG ratios than those without. The results show that some regulatory architectures consistently maintain a transparent genotype-to-phenotype relationship, whereas other architectures generate more subtle patterns. Our approach can be used to elucidate these relationships across a whole range of biological systems in a systematic fashion. PMID:23671414

Wang, Yunpeng; Vik, Jon Olav; Omholt, Stig W.; Gjuvsland, Arne B.

2013-01-01

376

Isotopic composition of precipitation in a topographically complex, seasonally snow-dominated watershed: hydrometeorological controls and variations from the global meteoric water line  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between the stable isotope compositions (?2H & ?18O) of world-wide meteoric water is expressed in the global meteoric water line (GMWL), which serves as baseline for a number of hydrologic applications (e.g. groundwater recharge, residence time, surface-groundwater interactions, rock/mineral-water exchange, etc.). Deviations from the GMWL arise for a variety of reasons, most commonly because of local climatic conditions. The goal of this project is to establish a local meteoric water line (LMWL) for southwestern Idaho to fill a critical gap in the local hydrologic literature. Precipitation was collected from September of 2008 until May of 2012 at three locations in Dry Creek Experimental Watershed (Boise, ID) and several locations in the Boise-Metro area for stable isotope analysis. To determine the LMWL linear regression analysis was applied to the stable isotope data. Results from 394 analyzed samples exhibit a linear trend defined by ?D = 7.12*?18O - 6.32 with r2 = 0.96, which presents a significant deviation from the GMWL (?D = 8*?18O + 10). Additionally, the isotopic composition of individual precipitation events and corresponding hydrometeorological data within Dry Creek Experimental Watershed has been analyzed. Preliminary analysis shows correlations between several hydrometeorlogic variables (temperature, relative humidity, precipitation amount, duration of precipitation, etc.), and the isotopic composition of precipitation from individual events. The strongest correlation exists between duration of precipitation and the isotopic composition of precipitation (r = -0.85). Further analysis needs to be completed to verify the statistical significance of these correlations.

Tappa, D. J.; Flores, A. N.; Benner, S. G.; Kohn, M. J.; McNamara, J. P.; Evans, S.

2012-12-01

377

Broad-band properties of the CfA Seyfert galaxies. III - Ultraviolet variability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A total of 657 archived IUE spectra are used to study the UV variability properties of six members of the CfA Seyfert I galaxy sample. All show strong evidence for continuum and line variations and a tendency for less luminous objects to be more strongly variable. Most objects show a clear correlation at zero lag between UV spectral index and luminosity, evidence that the variable component is an accretion disk around a black hole which is systematically smaller in less luminous sources. No correlation is seen between the continuum luminosity and equivalent width of the C IV, Mg II, and semiforbidden C III emission lines when the entire sample is examined, but a clear anticorrelation is present when only repeated observations of individual objects are considered. This is due to a combination of light-travel time effects in the broad-line region and the nonlinear responses of lines to continuum fluctuations.

Edelson, R. A.; Pike, G. F.; Krolik, J. H.

1990-01-01

378

The inclusion complex of 4-hydroxynonenal with a polymeric derivative of ?-cyclodextrin enhances the antitumoral efficacy of the aldehyde in several tumor cell lines and in a three-dimensional human melanoma model.  

PubMed

4-Hydroxynonenal (HNE) is the most studied end product of the lipoperoxidation process, by virtue of its relevant biological activity. The antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects of HNE have been widely demonstrated in a great variety of tumor cell types in vitro. Thus, it might represent a promising new molecule in anticancer therapy strategies. However, the extreme reactivity of this aldehyde, as well as its insolubility in water, a limiting factor for drug bioavailability, and its rapid degradation by specific enzymes represent major obstacles to its possible in vivo application. Various strategies can used to overcome these problems. One of the most attractive strategies is the use of nanovehicles, because loading drugs into nanosized structures enhances their stability and solubility, thus improving their bioavailability and their antitumoral effectiveness. Several natural or synthetic polymers have been used to synthesize nanosized structures and, among them, ?-cyclodextrin (?CD) polymers are playing a very important role in drug formulation by virtue of the ability of ?CD to form inclusion compounds with a wide range of solid and liquid molecules by molecular complexation. Moreover, several ?CD derivatives have been designed to improve their physicochemical properties and inclusion capacities. Here we report that the inclusion complex of HNE with a derivative of ?CD, the ?CD-poly(4-acryloylmorpholine) conjugate (PACM-?CD), enhances the aldehyde stability. Moreover, the inclusion of HNE in PACM-?CD potentiates its antitumor effects in several tumor cell lines and in a more complex system, such as a human reconstructed skin carrying melanoma tumor cells. PMID:23811007

Pizzimenti, Stefania; Ciamporcero, Eric; Pettazzoni, Piergiorgio; Osella-Abate, Simona; Novelli, Mauro; Toaldo, Cristina; Husse, Miriam; Daga, Martina; Minelli, Rosalba; Bisazza, Agnese; Ferruti, Paolo; Ranucci, Elisabetta; Grazia Bernengo, Maria; Dianzani, Chiara; Biasi, Fiorella; Cavalli, Roberta; Barrera, Giuseppina

2013-12-01

379

Measure Lines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One tool for enhancing students' work with data in the science classroom is the measure line. As a coteacher and curriculum developer for The Inquiry Project, the author has seen how measure lines--a number line in which the numbers refer to units of measure--help students not only represent data but also analyze it in ways that generate…

Crissman, Sally

2011-01-01

380

Simultaneous and sensitive analysis of aliphatic carboxylic acids by ion-chromatography using on-line complexation with copper(II) ion.  

PubMed

A new approach to ion chromatography is proposed to improve the UV detection of aliphatic carboxylic acids separated by anion-exchange chromatography. When copper(II) ion added to the mobile phase, it forms complexes with carboxylic acids that can be detected at 240nm. The absorbance was found to increase with increasing copper(II) ion concentration. The retention times of ?-hydroxy acids were also found to depend on the copper(II) ion concentration. Addition of acetonitrile to the mobile phase improved the separation of aliphatic carboxylic acids. The detection limits of the examined carboxylic acids (formate, glycolate, acetate, lactate, propionate, 3-hydroxypropionate, n-butyrate, isobutyrate, n-valerate, isovalerate, n-caproate) calculated at S/N=3 ranged from 0.06 to 3?M. The detector signal was linear over three orders of magnitude of carboxylic acid concentration. The proposed method was successfully applied to analyze aliphatic carboxylic acids in rainwater and bread. PMID:25523885

Kemmei, Tomoko; Kodama, Shuji; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Inoue, Yoshinori; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

2015-01-01

381

Treating glabellar lines with botulinum toxin type A-hemagglutinin complex: A review of the science, the clinical data, and patient satisfaction  

PubMed Central

Botulinum toxin type A treatment is the foundation of minimally invasive aesthetic facial procedures. Clinicians and their patients recognize the important role, both negative and positive, that facial expression, particularly the glabellar frown lines, plays in self-perception, emotional well-being, and perception by others. This article provides up-to-date information on fundamental properties and mechanisms of action of the major approved formulations of botulinum toxin type A, summarizes recent changes in naming conventions (nonproprietary names) mandated by the United States Food and Drug Administration, and describes the reasons for these changes. The request for these changes provides recognition that formulations of botulinum toxins (eg, onabotulinumtoxinA and abobotulinumtoxinA) are not interchangeable and that dosing recommendations cannot be based on any one single conversion ratio. The extensive safety, tolerability, and efficacy data are summarized in detail, including the patient-reported outcomes that contribute to overall patient satisfaction and probability treatment continuation. Based on this in-depth review, the authors conclude that botulinum toxin type A treatment remains a cornerstone of facial aesthetic treatments, and clinicians must realize that techniques and dosing from one formulation cannot be applied to others, that each patient should undergo a full aesthetic evaluation, and that products and procedures must be selected in the context of individual needs and goals. PMID:20458348

De Boulle, Koenraad; Fagien, Steven; Sommer, Boris; Glogau, Richard

2010-01-01

382

Exploring the Complexities of Experimental Design: Using an On-line Reaction Time Program as a Teaching Tool for Diverse Student Populations.  

PubMed

Students are rarely given an opportunity to think deeply about experimental design or asked to develop experimental protocols on their own. Without participating in these endeavors, they are often unaware of the many decisions necessary to construct a precise methodology. This article describes an on-line reaction time program, and how I have used this program as a teaching tool for students to explore experimental design. This approach can be tailored to meet the level of any undergraduate student - from non-science majors to upper-level biology/psychology/neuroscience majors, affording all students the opportunity to think like a scientist. Described is how I use the reaction time program for a whole class demonstration and discussion, as well as, how it can be used for a written assignment in which each student designs and conducts his/her own experiment outside of the classroom. Comments from several students, who did the written assignment, are included to provide a sense of their thoughts and considerations. When students are given a simple method, such as the measurement of reaction time, it allows them to focus exclusively on developing precise methodology, which taps into types of thinking that they are not often asked to exhibit in other science classes. PMID:23494764

Pollack, Alexia E

2010-01-01