Sample records for complex broad line

  1. Investigating the complex X-ray spectrum of a broad-line 2MASS red quasar: XMM-Newton observation of FTM 0830+3759

    E-print Network

    Piconcelli, E; Bianchi, S; Nicastro, F; Miniutti, G; Fiore, F

    2010-01-01

    We report results from a 50 ks XMM-Newton observation of the dust-reddened broad-line quasar FTM 0830+3759 (z=0.413) selected from the FIRST/2MASS Red Quasar survey. For this AGN, a very short 9 ks Chandra exposure had suggested a feature-rich X-ray spectrum and HST images revealed a very disturbed host galaxy morphology. Contrary to classical, optically-selected quasars, the X-ray properties of red (i.e. with J-Ks> 1.7 and R-Ks> 4) broad line quasars are still quite unexplored, although there is a growing consensus that, due to moderate obscuration, these objects can offer a unique view of spectral components typically swamped by the AGN light in normal, blue quasars. The XMM-Newton observation discussed here has definitely confirmed the complexity of the X-ray spectrum revealing the presence of a cold (or mildly-ionized) absorber with Nh ~10^{22} cm^-2 along the line of sight to the nucleus and a Compton reflection component accompanied by an intense Fe K emission line in this quasar with a Lum(2-10) ~5 x 1...

  2. Relativistic Redshifts in Quasar Broad Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremaine, Scott; Shen, Yue; Liu, Xin; Loeb, Abraham

    2014-10-01

    The broad emission lines commonly seen in quasar spectra have velocity widths of a few percent of the speed of light, so special- and general-relativistic effects have a significant influence on the line profile. We have determined the redshift of the broad H? line in the quasar rest frame (determined from the core component of the [O III] line) for over 20,000 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 quasar catalog. The mean redshift as a function of line width is approximately consistent with the relativistic redshift that is expected if the line originates in a randomly oriented Keplerian disk that is obscured when the inclination of the disk to the line of sight exceeds ~30°-45°, consistent with simple active galactic nucleus unification schemes. This result also implies that the net line-of-sight inflow/outflow velocities in the broad-line region are much less than the Keplerian velocity when averaged over a large sample of quasars with a given line width.

  3. INVESTIGATING THE COMPLEX X-RAY SPECTRUM OF A BROAD-LINE 2MASS RED QUASAR: XMM-NEWTON OBSERVATION OF FTM 0830+3759

    SciTech Connect

    Piconcelli, Enrico; Nicastro, Fabrizio; Fiore, Fabrizio [Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma (INAF), Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone, Italy. (Italy); Vignali, Cristian [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Bianchi, Stefano [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi Roma Tre, via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Miniutti, Giovanni, E-mail: piconcelli@oa-roma.inaf.i [LAEX, Centro de Astrobiologia (CSIC-INTA) LAEFF, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-02-20

    We report results from a 50 ks XMM-Newton observation of the dust-reddened broad-line quasar FTM 0830+3759 (z = 0.413) selected from the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty cm/Two Micron All Sky Survey red quasar survey. For this active galactic nucleus (AGN), a very short 9 ks Chandra exposure had suggested a feature-rich X-ray spectrum and Hubble Space Telescope images revealed a very disturbed host galaxy morphology. Contrary to classical, optically selected quasars, the X-ray properties of red (i.e., with J - K{sub s} > 1.7 and R - K{sub s} > 4.0) broad-line quasars are still quite unexplored, although there is a growing consensus that, due to moderate obscuration, these objects can offer a unique view of spectral components typically swamped by the AGN light in normal, blue quasars. The XMM-Newton observation discussed here has definitely confirmed the complexity of the X-ray spectrum revealing the presence of a cold (or mildly ionized) absorber with N{sub H} {approx} 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2} along the line of sight to the nucleus and a Compton reflection component accompanied by an intense Fe Kalpha emission line in this quasar with a L{sub 2-10{sub keV}} {approx} 5 x 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}. A soft-excess component is also required by the data. The match between the column density derived by our spectral analysis and that expected on the basis of reddening due to the dust suggests the possibility that both absorptions occur in the same medium. FTM 0830+3759 is characterized by an extinction/absorption-corrected X-ray-to-optical flux ratio alpha{sub ox} = -2.3, which is steeper than expected on the basis of its UV luminosity. These findings indicate that the X-ray properties of FTM 0830+3759 differ from those typically observed for optically selected broad-line quasars with comparable hard X-ray luminosity.

  4. Fermi/LAT broad emission line blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghisellini, G.; Tavecchio, F.

    2015-04-01

    We study the broad emission line blazars detected in the ?-ray band by the Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi satellite and with the optical spectrum studied by Shaw et al. The observed broad line strength provides a measure of the ionizing luminosity of the accretion disc, while the ?-luminosity is a proxy for the bolometric non-thermal beamed jet emission. The resulting sample, composed by 217 blazars, is the best suited to study the connection between accretion and jet properties. We compare the broad emission line properties of these blazars with those of radio-quiet and radio-loud quasars present in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, to asses differences and similarities of the disc luminosity and the virial black hole mass. For most sources, we could derive the black hole mass by reproducing the IR-optical-UV data with a standard accretion disc spectrum, and we compared the black hole masses derived with the two methods. The distributions of the masses estimated in the two ways agree satisfactorily. We then apply a simple, one-zone, leptonic model to all the 217 objects of our sample. The knowledge of the black hole mass and disc luminosity helps to constrain the jet parameters. On average, they are similar to what found by previous studies of smaller samples of sources.

  5. Magnetohydrodynamic stability of broad line region clouds

    E-print Network

    Krause, Martin; Burkert, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Hydrodynamic stability has been a longstanding issue for the cloud model of the broad line region in active galactic nuclei. We argue that the clouds may be gravitationally bound to the supermassive black hole. If true, stabilisation by thermal pressure alone becomes even more difficult. We further argue that if magnetic fields should be present in such clouds at a level that could affect the stability properties, they need to be strong enough to compete with the radiation pressure on the cloud. This would imply magnetic field values of a few Gauss for a sample of Active Galactic Nuclei we draw from the literature. We then investigate the effect of several magnetic configurations on cloud stability in axi-symmetric magnetohydrodynamic simulations. For a purely azimuthal magnetic field which provides the dominant pressure support, the cloud first gets compressed by the opposing radiative and gravitational forces. The pressure inside the cloud then increases, and it expands vertically. Kelvin-Helmholtz and colu...

  6. Magnetohydrodynamic stability of broad line region clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Martin; Schartmann, Marc; Burkert, Andreas

    2012-10-01

    Hydrodynamic stability has been a longstanding issue for the cloud model of the broad line region in active galactic nuclei. We argue that the clouds may be gravitationally bound to the supermassive black hole. If true, stabilization by thermal pressure alone becomes even more difficult. We further argue that if magnetic fields are present in such clouds at a level that could affect the stability properties, they need to be strong enough to compete with the radiation pressure on the cloud. This would imply magnetic field values of a few gauss for a sample of active galactic nuclei we draw from the literature. We then investigate the effect of several magnetic configurations on cloud stability in axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic simulations. For a purely azimuthal magnetic field which provides the dominant pressure support, the cloud first gets compressed by the opposing radiative and gravitational forces. The pressure inside the cloud then increases, and it expands vertically. Kelvin-Helmholtz and column density instabilities lead to a filamentary fragmentation of the cloud. This radiative dispersion continues until the cloud is shredded down to the resolution level. For a helical magnetic field configuration, a much more stable cloud core survives with a stationary density histogram which takes the form of a power law. Our simulated clouds develop sub-Alfvénic internal motions on the level of a few hundred km s-1.

  7. AGN Broad Line Regions Scale with Bolometric Luminosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trippe, Sascha

    2015-06-01

    The masses of supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei (AGN) can be derived spectroscopically via virial mass estimators based on selected broad optical/ultraviolet emission lines. These estimates commonly use the line width as a proxy for the gas speed and the monochromatic continuum luminosity, ?L?, as a proxy for the radius of the broad line region. However, if the size of the broad line region scales with the bolometric AGN luminosity rather than ?L?, mass estimates based on different emission lines will show a systematic discrepancy which is a function of the color of the AGN continuum. This has actually been observed in mass estimates based on Hα/Hβ and Civ lines, indicating that AGN broad line regions indeed scale with bolometric luminosity. Given that this effect seems to have been overlooked as yet, currently used single-epoch mass estimates are likely to be biased.

  8. Complex Line Integrals I

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Moore, Lang

    Created by Lang More of the Connected Curriculum Project, the purpose of this module is to investigate the behavior of complex line integrals. This is one lesson within a much larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

  9. Photoionization Models of the Broad-line Region

    E-print Network

    Karen M. Leighly; Darrin Casebeer

    2007-01-15

    The strong broad emission lines in the optical and UV spectra of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are important for several reasons. Not only do they give us information about the structure of the AGN, their properties are now used to estimate black hole masses and metallicities in the vicinity of quasars, and these estimates are propagated widely throughout astronomy today. Photoionization codes such as Cloudy are invaluable for understanding the physical conditions of the gas emitting AGN broad lines. In this review, we discuss briefly the development of the historical ``standard'' model. We then review evidence that the following are important: 1.) the column density, in particular the presence of gas optically thin to the hydrogen continuum, influences the line emission; 2.) the BLR emission region is comprised of gas with a range of densities and ionization parameters; 3.) the spectral energy distribution of an individual AGN influences the line ratios in an observable way.

  10. Broad Absorption Line Quasars Observed by the ROSAT PSPC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul J. Green; Smita Mathur

    1996-01-01

    Recent results from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey have shown that broad absorption line (BAL) QSOs are either highly absorbed or underluminous in the soft X-ray bandpass. Here we extend this work by analyzing all known bona fide BAL QSOs observed within the inner 20' of the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter. This sample includes both targeted and serendipitous exposures ranging

  11. NEW CONSTRAINTS ON THE QUASAR BROAD EMISSION LINE REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Ruff, Andrea J.; Floyd, David J. E.; Webster, Rachel L.; Landt, Hermine [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010 (Australia); Korista, Kirk T., E-mail: aruff@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Physics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States)

    2012-07-20

    We demonstrate a new technique for determining the physical conditions of the broad-line-emitting gas in quasars, using near-infrared hydrogen emission lines. Unlike higher ionization species, hydrogen is an efficient line emitter for a very wide range of photoionization conditions, and the observed line ratios depend strongly on the density and photoionization state of the gas present. A locally optimally emitting cloud model of the broad emission line region was compared to measured emission lines of four nearby (z Almost-Equal-To 0.2) quasars that have optical and NIR spectra of sufficient signal to noise to measure their Paschen lines. The model provides a good fit to three of the objects, and a fair fit to the fourth object, an ultraluminous infrared galaxy. We find that low-incident-ionizing fluxes ({Phi}{sub H} < 10{sup 18} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}) and high gas densities (n{sub H} > 10{sup 12} cm{sup -3}) are required to reproduce the observed hydrogen emission line ratios. This analysis demonstrates that the use of composite spectra in photoionization modeling is inappropriate; models must be fitted to the individual spectra of quasars.

  12. Molecule formation in quasar broad-line cloud gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kallman, T.; Lepp, S.; Giovannoni, P.

    1987-01-01

    Models for the broad-line emitting clouds of quasars typically assume that the clouds have column densities of at most 10 to the 23rd/sq cm. The consequences of relaxing this assumption are examined, and it is shown that: (1) at slightly larger column densities the gas may cool to about 1000 K as a result of molecule formation; (2) in much of the molecule-forming region the temperature may have either of two values, about 1000 K or 6000-8000 K; (3) the strengths of most observable optical lines, including C II semiforbidden 2326-A lines and Fe II lines, are unaffected by such large column densities; and (4) lines from low-ionization species such as Na I are readily formed at large column densities. Observations of such lines provide evidence for large cloud column densities.

  13. Clues to Quasar Broad Line Region Geometry and Kinematics

    E-print Network

    M. Vestergaard; B. J. Wilkes; P. D. Barthel

    2000-06-12

    We present evidence that the high-velocity CIV lambda 1549 emission line gas of radio-loud quasars may originate in a disk-like configuration, in close proximity to the accretion disk often assumed to emit the low-ionization lines. For a sample of 36 radio-loud z~2 quasars we find the 20--30% peak width to show significant inverse correlations with the fractional radio core-flux density, R, the radio axis inclination indicator. Highly inclined systems have broader line wings, consistent with a high-velocity field perpendicular to the radio axis. By contrast, the narrow line-core shows no such relation with R, so the lowest velocity CIV-emitting gas has an inclination independent velocity field. We propose that this low-velocity gas is located at higher disk-altitudes than the high-velocity gas. A planar origin of the high-velocity CIV-emission is consistent with the current results and with an accretion disk-wind emitting the broad lines. A spherical distribution of randomly orbiting broad-line clouds and a polar high-ionization outflow are ruled out.

  14. Clues to Quasar Broad-Line Region Geometry and Kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vestergaard, M.; Wilkes, B. J.; Barthel, P. D.

    2000-08-01

    We present evidence that the high-velocity C IV ?1549 emission-line gas of radio-loud quasars may originate in a disklike configuration, in close proximity to the accretion disk often assumed to emit the low-ionization lines. For a sample of 36 radio-loud z~2 quasars, we find the 20%-30% peak widths to show significant inverse correlations with the fractional radio core-flux density R, which is the radio axis inclination indicator. Highly inclined systems have broader line wings, consistent with a high-velocity field perpendicular to the radio axis. By contrast, the narrow line core shows no such relation with R, so the lowest velocity C IV-emitting gas has an inclination-independent velocity field. We propose that this low-velocity gas is located at higher disk altitudes than the high-velocity gas. A planar origin of the high-velocity C IV emission is consistent with the current results and with an accretion disk wind emitting the broad lines. A spherical distribution of randomly orbiting broad-line clouds and a polar high-ionization outflow are ruled out. Observations reported in this Letter were obtained at the Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT) Observatory, a facility operated jointly by the University of Arizona and the Smithsonian Institution.

  15. Clues to Quasar Broad Line Region Geometry and Kinematics

    E-print Network

    Vestergaard, M; Barthel, P D

    2000-01-01

    We present evidence that the high-velocity CIV lambda 1549 emission line gas of radio-loud quasars may originate in a disk-like configuration, in close proximity to the accretion disk often assumed to emit the low-ionization lines. For a sample of 36 radio-loud z~2 quasars we find the 20--30% peak width to show significant inverse correlations with the fractional radio core-flux density, R, the radio axis inclination indicator. Highly inclined systems have broader line wings, consistent with a high-velocity field perpendicular to the radio axis. By contrast, the narrow line-core shows no such relation with R, so the lowest velocity CIV-emitting gas has an inclination independent velocity field. We propose that this low-velocity gas is located at higher disk-altitudes than the high-velocity gas. A planar origin of the high-velocity CIV-emission is consistent with the current results and with an accretion disk-wind emitting the broad lines. A spherical distribution of randomly orbiting broad-line clouds and a p...

  16. Broad Absorption Line QSOs Observed by the ROSAT PSPC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul J. Green; Smita Mathur

    1995-01-01

    Recent results from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS) have shown that broad\\u000aabsorption line (BAL) QSOs are either highly absorbed or underluminous in the\\u000asoft X-ray bandpass. Here, we extend this work by analyzing all known bona fide\\u000aBALQSOs observed within the inner 20' of the ROSAT PSPC. This sample includes\\u000aboth targeted and serendipitous exposures ranging from 8 to

  17. Broad Absorption Line Quasar catalogues with Supervised Neural Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Scaringi, Simone; Knigge, Christian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Cottis, Christopher E.; Goad, Michael R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University road, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-05

    We have applied a Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) algorithm to SDSS DR5 quasar spectra in order to create a large catalogue of broad absorption line quasars (BALQSOs). We first discuss the problems with BALQSO catalogues constructed using the conventional balnicity and/or absorption indices (BI and AI), and then describe the supervised LVQ network we have trained to recognise BALQSOs. The resulting BALQSO catalogue should be substantially more robust and complete than BI-or AI-based ones.

  18. Broad Absorption Line Quasar catalogues with Supervised Neural Networks

    E-print Network

    Simone Scaringi; Christopher E. Cottis; Christian Knigge; Michael R. Goad

    2008-10-24

    We have applied a Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) algorithm to SDSS DR5 quasar spectra in order to create a large catalogue of broad absorption line quasars (BALQSOs). We first discuss the problems with BALQSO catalogues constructed using the conventional balnicity and/or absorption indices (BI and AI), and then describe the supervised LVQ network we have trained to recognise BALQSOs. The resulting BALQSO catalogue should be substantially more robust and complete than BI- or AI-based ones.

  19. A simple disc wind model for broad absorption line quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higginbottom, N.; Knigge, C.; Long, K. S.; Sim, S. A.; Matthews, J. H.

    2013-12-01

    Approximately 20 per cent of quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) exhibit broad, blue-shifted absorption lines in their ultraviolet spectra. Such features provide clear evidence for significant outflows from these systems, most likely in the form of accretion disc winds. These winds may represent the `quasar' mode of feedback that is often invoked in galaxy formation/evolution models, and they are also key to unification scenarios for active galactic nuclei (AGN) and QSOs. To test these ideas, we construct a simple benchmark model of an equatorial, biconical accretion disc wind in a QSO and use a Monte Carlo ionization/radiative transfer code to calculate the ultraviolet spectra as a function of viewing angle. We find that for plausible outflow parameters, sightlines looking directly into the wind cone do produce broad, blue-shifted absorption features in the transitions typically seen in broad absorption line (BAL) QSOs. However, our benchmark model is intrinsically X-ray weak in order to prevent overionization of the outflow, and the wind does not yet produce collisionally excited line emission at the level observed in non-BAL QSOs. As a first step towards addressing these shortcomings, we discuss the sensitivity of our results to changes in the assumed X-ray luminosity and mass-loss rate, ?wind. In the context of our adopted geometry, ?wind ˜ ?acc is required in order to produce significant BAL features. The kinetic luminosity and momentum carried by such outflows would be sufficient to provide significant feedback.

  20. Metallicities and Abundance Ratios from Quasar Broad Emission Lines

    E-print Network

    Fred Hamann; K. T. Korista; G. J. Ferland; Craig Warner; Jack Baldwin

    2001-11-20

    The broad emission lines (BELs) of quasars and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are important diagnostics of the relative abundances and overall metallicity in the gas. Here we present new theoretical predictions for several UV BELs. We focus specifically on the relative nitrogen abundance as a metallicity indicator, based on the expected secondary enrichment of nitrogen at metallicities Z > 0.2 Z_o. Among the lines we consider, N III] 1750/O III] 1664, N V 1240/(C IV 1549 + O VI 1034) and N V/He II 1640 are the most robust diagnostics. We argue, in particular, that the average N V BEL is not dominated by scattered Ly-alpha photons from a broad absorption line wind. We then compare our calculated line ratios with observations from the literature. The results support earlier claims that the gas-phase metallicities near quasars are typically near or several times above the solar value. We conclude that quasar activity is preceded by, or coeval with, an episode of rapid and extensive star formation in the surrounding galactic (or proto-galactic) nuclei. Chemical evolution models of these environments suggest that, to reach Z > Z_o in well-mixed interstellar gas, the star formation must have begun > 10^8 yr before the observed quasar activity.

  1. A Simple Disk Wind Model for Broad Absorption Line Quasars

    E-print Network

    Higginbottom, N; Long, K S; Sim, S A; Matthews, J H

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 20% of quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) exhibit broad, blue-shifted absorption lines in their ultraviolet spectra. Such features provide clear evidence for significant outflows from these systems, most likely in the form of accretion disk winds. These winds may represent the "quasar" mode of feedback that is often invoked in galaxy formation/evolution models, and they are also key to unification scenarios for active galactic nuclei (AGN) and QSOs. To test these ideas, we construct a simple benchmark model of an equatorial, biconical accretion disk wind in a QSO and use a Monte Carlo ionization/radiative transfer code to calculate the ultraviolet spectra as a function of viewing angle. We find that for plausible outflow parameters, sightlines looking directly into the wind cone do produce broad, blue-shifted absorption features in the transitions typically seen in broad absorption line QSOs. However, our benchmark model is intrinsically X-ray weak in order to prevent overionization of the outflow, an...

  2. X-ray observations of broad absorption-line quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bregman, J. N.

    1984-01-01

    The present 0.1-4 keV observer frame data was obtained for three broad absorption-line quasars with the imaging proportional counter on the Einstein Observatory. Data for one object, UM 232, are sufficiently good to tell that absorption at 1 keV is unimportant (quasar rest frame), which leads to an upper limit to the column density of absorbing gas of 10 to the 22nd/sq cm. Because this gas absorbs optical continuum and line emission, it must have a size of 10 to the 19th cm or greater, and therefore a density of less than 1000/cu cm. This absorbing gas is unlike the much denser clouds responsible for the broad emission lines. It is also calculated that the mass of absorbing gas is greater than 1 solar mass, and that it is at least 300 pc distant from the ionizing continuum source. Free-free absorption, which is calculated to be unimportant at frequencies above 2 GHz, is probably not the cause of the radio-quiet nature of this quasar in the 5 and 10.7 GHz survey of Strittmatter et al. (1980).

  3. Radiation pressure confinement - IV. Application to broad absorption line outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskin, Alexei; Laor, Ari; Stern, Jonathan

    2014-12-01

    A fraction of quasars present broad absorption lines, produced by outflowing gas with typical velocities of 3000-10 000 km s-1. If the outflowing gas fills a significant fraction of the volume where it resides, then it will be highly ionized by the quasar due to its low density, and will not produce the observed UV absorption. The suggestion that the outflow is shielded from the ionizing radiation was excluded by recent observations. The remaining solution is a dense outflow with a filling factor f < 10-3. What produces such a small f? Here, we point out that radiation pressure confinement (RPC) inevitably leads to gas compression and the formation of dense thin gas sheets/filaments, with a large gradient in density and ionization along the line of sight. The total column of ionized dustless gas is a few times 1022 cm-2, consistent with the observed X-ray absorption and detectable P V absorption. The predicted maximal columns of various ions show a small dependence on the system parameters, and can be used to test the validity of RPC as a solution for the overionization problem. The ionization structure of the outflow implies that if the outflow is radiatively driven, then broad absorption line quasars should have L/L_Eddgtrsim 0.1.

  4. Kinematics of the Broad Emission Line Region in NGC 5548

    E-print Network

    Christine Done; Julian Krolik

    1995-10-19

    We derive both total flux and velocity-resolved response functions for the CIV 1549 emission line from the data obtained in the 1993 NGC 5548 monitoring campaign. These response functions imply: 1.) the emission region stretches from inside 1 lt-d to outside 10 lt-d, and is probably better described as round than flat; 2.) the velocity field is dominated by a red/blue symmetric component (e.g. 2--d or 3--d random motions, or rotation in a disk) but there is also {\\it significant} radial infall. Quantitative modelling indicates that the random speeds are typically a few times as large as the radial speed. However, no simple model gives a completely acceptable fit to the data. These inferences rule out numerous simple and otherwise plausible models for broad line region dynamics, including outflowing winds, radial free-fall, rotation in a disk, or collisionless orbital motion.

  5. Radiation pressure confinement - IV. Application to broad absorption line outflows

    E-print Network

    Baskin, Alexei; Stern, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    A fraction of quasars present broad absorption lines, produced by outflowing gas with typical velocities of 3000 - 10,000 km/s. If the outflowing gas fills a significant fraction of the volume where it resides, then it will be highly ionized by the quasar due to its low density, and will not produce the observed UV absorption. The suggestion that the outflow is shielded from the ionizing radiation was excluded by recent observations. The remaining solution is a dense outflow with a filling factor $fgas compression and the formation of dense thin gas sheets/filaments, with a large gradient in density and ionization along the line of sight. The total column of ionized dustless gas is a few times $10^{22}$ cm$^{-2}$, consistent with the observed X-ray absorption and detectable P V absorption. The predicted maximal columns of various ions show a small dependence on the system parameters, a...

  6. The Nature of Quasars with Redshifted Broad Absorption Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, W. N.

    2014-09-01

    We have recently identified the first compelling examples of quasars with redshifted Broad Absorption Lines (BALs) in the massive spectroscopic databases from the SDSS-I/II/III. These quasars can provide novel insights into the structure of quasar inflows/outflows; we may be observing gas infall to small radii, rotationally dominated outflows, or binary quasars where a wind is seen in silhouette. Here we propose exploratory Chandra observations that will test these models by assessing if heavy X-ray absorption from shielding gas, thought to be essential for the driving of typical BAL winds, lies along our line of sight. These observations will be a central part of our multiwavelength program aiming to determine robustly the nature of quasars with redshifted BALs.

  7. The X-Ray Absorber in Broad Absorption Line Quasars

    E-print Network

    T. G. Wang; W. Brinkmann; W. Yuan; J. X. Wang; Y. Y. Zhou

    2000-08-19

    Recent observations of Broad Absorption Line (BAL) quasars demonstrated that the soft X-ray emission of these objects is extremely weak and convincing evidence for very strong absorption by a high column density (~ 10^23.5 cm^-2) was obtained for PG 1411+442, even though it is one of the few BAL QSOs strongly detected in soft X-rays. This paper examines the ionization status and geometry of the X-ray absorber by combining the properties of the UV lines with the X-ray continuum absorption. We show that the gas has to have large column densities in ions of major UV absorption lines, such as CIV, NV, OVI and Ne VIII, in order to have sufficient opacity around 0.2 to 0.35 keV. The UV absorption lines have to be saturated if the X-ray absorber intersects the line of sight to the UV continuum emission region. A uniformly covering UV and X-ray absorption model can be constructed for PG 1411+442 but in some other soft X-ray detected BAL QSOs, such as PG 1001+054, the observed line optical depth is much lower than expected from the X-ray absorbing material. We propose a scheme in which a substantial fraction of the line of sight to the continuum source may be covered by either an optically thick flow or clouds in a narrow velocity range, but in which the total covering factor of either the whole flow or all clouds is close to unity.

  8. Spectral decomposition of broad-line agns and host galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Vanden Berk, Daniel E.; Shen, Jiajian; /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys.; Yip, Ching-Wa; /Pittsburgh U.; Schneider, Donald P.; /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys.; Connolly,; /Pittsburgh U.; Burton, Ross E.; /Pittsburgh U. /Case Western Reserve U.; Jester, Sebastian; /Fermilab; Hall, Patrick B.; /York U., Canada; Szalay, Alex S.; /Johns Hopkins; Brinkmann, John; /Apache Point Observ.

    2005-09-01

    Using an eigenspectrum decomposition technique, we separate the host galaxy from the broad line active galactic nucleus (AGN) in a set of 4666 spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), from redshifts near zero up to about 0.75. The decomposition technique uses separate sets of galaxy and quasar eigenspectra to efficiently and reliably separate the AGN and host spectroscopic components. The technique accurately reproduces the host galaxy spectrum, its contributing fraction, and its classification. We show how the accuracy of the decomposition depends upon S/N, host galaxy fraction, and the galaxy class. Based on the eigencoefficients, the sample of SDSS broad-line AGN host galaxies spans a wide range of spectral types, but the distribution differs significantly from inactive galaxies. In particular, post-starburst activity appears to be much more common among AGN host galaxies. The luminosities of the hosts are much higher than expected for normal early-type galaxies, and their colors become increasingly bluer than early-type galaxies with increasing host luminosity. Most of the AGNs with detected hosts are emitting at between 1% and 10% of their estimated Eddington luminosities, but the sensitivity of the technique usually does not extend to the Eddington limit. There are mild correlations among the AGN and host galaxy eigencoefficients, possibly indicating a link between recent star formation and the onset of AGN activity. The catalog of spectral reconstruction parameters is available as an electronic table.

  9. The sub-millimeter properties of broad absorption line quasars

    E-print Network

    Chris J. Willott; Steve Rawlings; Jennifer A. Grimes

    2003-08-11

    We have carried out the first systematic survey of the sub-millimeter properties of broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. 30 BAL quasars drawn from a homogeneously selected sample from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey at redshifts 2 2 sigma significance, four of which are at > 3 sigma significance. The far-infrared luminosities of these quasars are > 10^{13} L_solar. There is no correlation of sub-millimeter flux with either the strength of the broad absorption feature or with absolute magnitude in our sample. We compare the sub-millimeter flux distribution of the BAL quasar sample with that of a sample of quasars which do not show BAL features in their optical spectra and find that the two are indistinguishable. BAL quasars do not have higher sub-millimeter luminosities than non-BAL quasars. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that all quasars would contain a BAL if viewed along a certain line-of-sight. The data are inconsistent with a model in which the BAL phenomenon indicates a special evolutionary stage which co-incides with a large dust mass in the host galaxy and a high sub-millimeter luminosity. Our work provides constraints on alternative evolutionary explanations of BAL quasars.

  10. The broad-lined Type Ic supernova 2003jd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenti, S.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Patat, F.; Mazzali, P.; Turatto, M.; Hurley, K.; Maeda, K.; Gal-Yam, A.; Foley, R. J.; Filippenko, A. V.; Pastorello, A.; Challis, P.; Frontera, F.; Harutyunyan, A.; Iye, M.; Kawabata, K.; Kirshner, R. P.; Li, W.; Lipkin, Y. M.; Matheson, T.; Nomoto, K.; Ofek, E. O.; Ohyama, Y.; Pian, E.; Poznanski, D.; Salvo, M.; Sauer, D. N.; Schmidt, B. P.; Soderberg, A.; Zampieri, L.

    2008-02-01

    The results of a worldwide coordinated observational campaign on the broad-lined Type Ic supernova (SN Ic) 2003jd are presented. In total, 74 photometric data points and 26 spectra were collected using 11 different telescopes. SN 2003jd is one of the most luminous SN Ic ever observed. A comparison with other Type Ic supernovae (SNe Ic) confirms that SN 2003jd represents an intermediate case between broad-line events (2002ap, 2006aj) and highly energetic SNe (1997ef, 1998bw, 2003dh, 2003lw), with an ejected mass of Mej = 3.0 +/- 1Msolar and a kinetic energy of Ek(tot) = 7+3-2 × 1051erg. SN 2003jd is similar to SN 1998bw in terms of overall luminosity, but it is closer to SNe 2006aj and 2002ap in terms of light-curve shape and spectral evolution. The comparison with other SNe Ic suggests that the V-band light curves of SNe Ic can be partially homogenized by introducing a time-stretch factor. Finally, because of the similarity of SN 2003jd to the SN 2006aj/XRF 060218 event, we discuss the possible connection of SN 2003jd with a gamma-ray burst (GRB). E-mail: svalenti@eso.org Based on observations at ESO-Paranal, Prog. 074.D-0161A.

  11. Spectral Decomposition of Broad-Line AGNs and Host Galaxies

    E-print Network

    Daniel E. Vanden Berk; Jiajian Shen; Ching-Wa Yip; Donald P. Schneider; Andrew J. Connolly; Ross E. Burton; Sebastian Jester; Patrick B. Hall; Alex S. Szalay; John Brinkmann

    2005-09-13

    Using an eigenspectrum decomposition technique, we separate the host galaxy from the broad line active galactic nucleus (AGN) in a set of 4666 spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), from redshifts near zero up to about 0.75. The decomposition technique uses separate sets of galaxy and quasar eigenspectra to efficiently and reliably separate the AGN and host spectroscopic components. The technique accurately reproduces the host galaxy spectrum, its contributing fraction, and its classification. We show how the accuracy of the decomposition depends upon S/N, host galaxy fraction, and the galaxy class. Based on the eigencoefficients, the sample of SDSS broad-line AGN host galaxies spans a wide range of spectral types, but the distribution differs significantly from inactive galaxies. In particular, post-starburst activity appears to be much more common among AGN host galaxies. The luminosities of the hosts are much higher than expected for normal early-type galaxies, and their colors become increasingly bluer than early-type galaxies with increasing host luminosity. Most of the AGNs with detected hosts are emitting at between 1% and 10% of their estimated Eddington luminosities, but the sensitivity of the technique usually does not extend to the Eddington limit. There are mild correlations among the AGN and host galaxy eigencoefficients, possibly indicating a link between recent star formation and the onset of AGN activity. The catalog of spectral reconstruction parameters is available as an electronic table.

  12. The broad Fe K line profile in NGC 4151

    E-print Network

    Junxian. Wang; Youyuan. Zhou; Tinggui. Wang

    1999-09-16

    We present an analysis of the Fe K line profile of NGC 4151 by using long ASCA observation data obtained in May 1995. The unprecedented good data quality, which is much better in the energy band around 6.4 keV than that of the famous 4.2-day ASCA observation of MCG -6-30-15 in July 1994, offers a unique opportunity to study the details of Fe K line profile. Apart from those characteristics already noticed in earlier ASCA observations on this object (Yaqoob et al. 1995): a broad and skewed profile, with a strong peak at about 6.4 keV and a large red wing extending to $\\sim$4 - 5 keV, which is remarkably similar to that of MCG -6-30-15, we also find a weak blue wing extending to about 8 keV, thanks to the good quality of the data. When fitted by a relativistic accretion disk line plus a narrow core at 6.4 keV, the data constrain the accretion disk to be nearly face-on, contrary to the edge-on geometry inferred from optical and UV observations. However, the extended blue wing can not be well fitted even after we include corresponding Fe K$\\beta$ components. Ni K$\\alpha$ line emission by an amount of 12% of Fe K$\\alpha$ is statistically required. An alternative explanation is a model consisting of a narrow core and two disk lines with inclinations of 58$^{\\rm o}$ and 0$^{\\rm o}$, respectively. We suppose that the component with inclination of 58$^{\\rm o}$ was observed directly, consistent with its edge-on geometry, and the component with inclination of 0$^{\\rm o}$ was scattered into our line of sight by a Compton mirror, which might be the cool accretion disk corona proposed by Poutanen et al. (1996).

  13. X-ray Diagnostics of Broad Absorption Line Quasar Geometry

    E-print Network

    Brian Punsly; Sebastian Lipari

    2005-03-09

    A new generation of sensitive X-ray measurements are indicating that the existence of X-ray attenuation column densities, $N_{H}>10^{24}\\mathrm{cm}^{-2}$ is quite common amongst broad absorption line quasars (BALQSOs). This is significant to the geometry of the broad absorption line (BAL) outflow. In particular, such an X-ray shield also shields equatorial accretion disk winds from the UV, thereby preventing high velocity equatorial outflows from being launched. By contrast, bipolar winds initiated by continuum radiation pressure from the funnel of a slim accretion disk flare outward (like a trumpet) and offer vastly different absorbing columns to the X-ray and UV emission which are emitted from distinct regions of the disk, $\\sim 6M$ and $\\sim 10M-40M$, respectively (where $M$ is the radius of the black hole). Recent numerical work indicates that it is also possible to launch bipolar outflows from the inner regions of a thin disk. The recent discovery with VLBI that the Galactic analog of a BALQSO, the X-ray binary Circinus X-1 (with high velocity P Cygni X-ray absorption lines) is viewed virtually along the radio jet axis (and therefore along the spin axis of the black hole and the normal to the accretion disk) has rekindled interest in the bipolar models of BALQSOs. We explore this possibility by studying the nearest BAL QSO, MRK 231. High resolution 2-D optical spectroscopy and VLBI mappings of the radio jet axis indicates that the BAL outflow is parallel to the parsec scale radio jet.

  14. Broad Absorption Line QSOS: Seeing Past the Disguise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, P.

    1999-01-01

    Broad absorption line quasars (BALQSOs) have proven to be elusive soft X-ray sources. Their highly ionized, high column density clouds flow out from the nucleus at 0.1c. On the other hand, the optical/UV emission line spectra of BAL and non-BAL QSOs are quite similar, suggesting similar intrinsic continua. Absorption thus seems the likely reason for the soft X- ray quiet nature of BALQSOs, but this is unproven to date. With hard (2-60 kev) X-raY observations with RXTE, of PG1700+508, we hoped to answer the fundamental question; are BALQSOs highly absorbed or rather are they intrinsically underluminous in X-rays? Together with Kendra J. Michaud, we analyzed our broadband XTE PCA observations of this object to help answer the question of whether BALQSOs represent a separate class of QSOs or merely a different line of sight to the nucleus. Despite difficulties in obtaining a convincing background subtraction, we believe that the result is an XTE non-detection. While the sensitivity of XTE exposure limits the utility of an upper limit, we plan to publish these results within a year.

  15. Extragalactic jets of broad absorption line (BAL) quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunert-Bajraszewska, M.; Ceg?owski, M.; Roskowi?ski, C.; Gawro?ski, M.

    2015-03-01

    Fast outflows of the ionized plasma, probably lunched in proximity of Supermassive Black Hole, are responsible for blue-shifted Broad Absorption Lines (BALs) in quasar spectrum. Outflows together with powerful jets produced in AGN are important feedback processes. Therefore, understanding physics behind BAL outflows might be a key to comprehend Galaxy Evolution as a whole. Discovery of the existence of radio-loud BAL quasars gave us another opportunity to study the BAL phenomenon, this time on the ground on radio emission. The radio emission is an additional tool to understand the BAL quasars, their orientation and age, by the VLBI imaging (detection of radio jets and their direction, size determination), the radio-loudness parameter distribution and variability study.

  16. SPECTROSCOPY OF BROAD-LINE BLAZARS FROM 1LAC

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, Michael S.; Romani, Roger W.; Healey, Stephen E.; Michelson, Peter F. [Department of Physics/KIPAC, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Cotter, Garret; Potter, William J. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Readhead, Anthony C. S.; Richards, Joseph L.; Max-Moerbeck, Walter; King, Oliver G. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2012-03-20

    We report on optical spectroscopy of 165 flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) in the Fermi 1LAC sample, which have helped allow a nearly complete study of this population. Fermi FSRQs show significant evidence for non-thermal emission even in the optical; the degree depends on the {gamma}-ray hardness. They also have smaller virial estimates of hole mass than the optical quasar sample. This appears to be largely due to a preferred (axial) view of the {gamma}-ray FSRQ and non-isotropic (H/R {approx} 0.4) distribution of broad-line velocities. Even after correction for this bias, the Fermi FSRQs show higher mean Eddington ratios than the optical population. A comparison of optical spectral properties with Owens Valley Radio Observatory radio flare activity shows no strong correlation.

  17. Significant contribution of the Cerenkov line-like radiation to the broad emission lines of quasars

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, D. B.; You, J. H. [Institute of Nuclear, Particle, Astronomy and Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Shanghai Key Lab for Particle Physics and Cosmology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Chen, W. P. [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Central University, Chung-Li 32054, Taiwan (China); Chen, L., E-mail: dbliu@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: dliu@cfa.Harvard.edu [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121, Bonn (Germany)

    2014-01-01

    The Cerenkov line-like radiation in a dense gas (N {sub H} > 10{sup 13} cm{sup –3}) is potentially important in the exploration of the optical broad emission lines of quasars and Seyfert 1 galaxies. With this quasi-line emission mechanism, some long standing puzzles in the study of quasars could be resolved. In this paper, we calculate the power of the Cerenkov line-like radiation in dense gas and compare with the powers of other radiation mechanisms by a fast electron to confirm its importance. From the observed gamma-ray luminosity of 3C 279, we show that the total number of fast electrons is sufficiently high to allow effective operation of the quasi-line emission. We present a model calculation for the luminosity of the Cerenkov Ly? line of 3C 279, which is high enough to compare with observations. We therefore conclude that the broad line of quasars may be a blend of the Cerenkov emission line with the real line produced by the bound-bound transition. A new approach to the absorption of the Cerenkov line is presented with the method of escape probability, which markedly simplifies the computation in the optically thick case. The revised set of formulae for the Cerenkov line-like radiation is more convenient in applications.

  18. The Physical Nature of Polar Broad Absorption Line Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghost, Kajal; Punsly, Brian

    2007-01-01

    It has been shown based on radio variability arguments that some BALQSOs (broad absorption line quasars) are viewed along the polar axis (o rthogonal to accretion disk) in the recent article of Zhou et a. Thes e arguments are based on the brightness temperature, T(sub b) exceedi ng 10(exp 12) K which leads to the well-known inverse Compton catastr ophe unless the radio jet is relativistic and is viewed along its axi s. In this letter, we expand the Zhou et al sample of polar BALQSOs u sing their techniques applied to SDSS DR5. In the process, we clarify a mistake in their calculation of brightness temperature. The expanded sample of high T(sub b) BALQSOS, has an inordinately large fraction of LoBALQSOs (low ionization BALQSOs). We consider this an important clue to understanding the nature of the polar BALQSOs. This is expec ted in the polar BALQSO analytical/numerical models of Punsly that pr edicted that LoBALQSOs occur when the line of sight is very close to the polar axis, where the outflow density is the highest.

  19. Broad absorption line QSOs observed by the ROSAT PSPC

    E-print Network

    Green, P J; Green, Paul J; Mathur, Smita

    1995-01-01

    Recent results from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS) have shown that broad absorption line (BAL) QSOs are either highly absorbed or underluminous in the soft X-ray bandpass. Here, we extend this work by analyzing all known bona fide BALQSOs observed within the inner 20' of the ROSAT PSPC. This sample includes both targeted and serendipitous exposures ranging from 8 to 75 ksec. Despite these deep exposures, most of the BALQSOs are undetected, and have unusually weak X-ray emission, as evidenced by large optical-to-X-ray slopes (AOX). Large values of AOX (\\gapprox1.8) may prove to be a defining characteristic of BALQSOs. We predict that samples of QSO candidates with large AOX will yield a higher percentage of BALQSOs, particularly at low redshift. As a corollary, X-ray-selected QSO samples should yield The optical/UV emission line spectra of BAL and non-BAL QSOs are quite similar, suggesting that their intrinsic spectral energy distributions are similar as well. Absorption thus seems the likely reason for the X...

  20. Bloated Stars as AGN Broad Line Clouds: The Emission Lines Response to Continuum Variations

    E-print Network

    Tal Alexander

    1996-10-30

    The `Bloated Stars Scenario' proposes that AGN broad line emission originates in the winds or envelopes of bloated stars (BS). Alexander and Netzer (1994, 1996) established that ~ 5e4 BSs with dense, decelerating winds can reproduce the observed emission line spectrum and line profiles while avoiding rapid collisional destruction. Here, I investigate a third prediction of the model, related to the size of the broad line region, by deriving the emission line response to variations in the ionizing continuum (`line reverberation') and comparing it to observations. The expected time lags, as well as the order of response of the various lines, strongly depend on the typical variability time scale of the ionizing continuum. The BS model studied here corresponds to a bright Syfert 1 galaxy (Sy1) or a low luminosity QSO. I find that the BS model is consistent with the observed correlation between the Balmer lines time lags and the AGN luminosity, which at present is the only line reverberation information available for this luminosity class. The model displays also some of the anti-correlation between the time lags of the metal emission lines and their degree of ionization that has been observed in a few low-luminosity Sy1s. However, the bright Sy1 model results differs from the low-luminosity Sy1 data in that the Hb time lag is relatively shorter and the CIV time lag relatively longer.

  1. Line splitting in broad-line gamma-ray spectroscopy of

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Bykov; S. V. Bozhokin; H. Bloemen

    1996-01-01

    We present modelling results of broad-line gamma-ray spectra (from the deexcitation of energetic nuclei), which may apply to gamma-ray sources like Orion as detected by COMPTEL. We show that distinct line splitting can occur even if the distribution of fast emitting nuclei is essentially isotropic. The splitting results from the anisotropy of the photon emission in the rest frame of

  2. Polarization of Thomson Scattered Line Radiation from Broad Absorption Line Outflows in Quasars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyoung Min Baek; Jeong Hoon Bang; Yeon-Kyeong Jeon; Suna Kang; Hee-Won Lee

    2007-01-01

    About 10 percent of quasars are known to exhibit deep broad absorption troughs blueward of prominent permitted emission lines, which are usually attributed to the existence of outflows slightly above the accretion disk around the supermassive black hole. Typical widths up to 0.2 c of these absorption troughs indicate the velocity scales in which special relativistic effects may not be

  3. Broad Absorption Line QSOs Observed by the ROSAT PSPC

    E-print Network

    Paul J. Green; Smita Mathur

    1995-12-06

    Recent results from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS) have shown that broad absorption line (BAL) QSOs are either highly absorbed or underluminous in the soft X-ray bandpass. Here, we extend this work by analyzing all known bona fide BALQSOs observed within the inner 20' of the ROSAT PSPC. This sample includes both targeted and serendipitous exposures ranging from 8 to 75 ksec. Despite these deep exposures, most of the BALQSOs are undetected, and have unusually weak X-ray emission, as evidenced by large optical-to-X-ray slopes (AOX). Large values of AOX ($\\gapprox$1.8) may prove to be a defining characteristic of BALQSOs. We predict that samples of QSO candidates with large AOX will yield a higher percentage of BALQSOs, particularly at low redshift. As a corollary, X-ray-selected QSO samples should yield The optical/UV emission line spectra of BAL and non-BAL QSOs are quite similar, suggesting that their intrinsic spectral energy distributions are similar as well. Absorption thus seems the likely reason for the X-ray quiet nature of BALQSOs. To constrain the total absorbing column of the BAL clouds, we compare our measured soft X-ray fluxes or upper limits to those expected from normal radio quiet QSOs of comparable optical continuum magnitude and redshift. From sensitive X-ray observations, we derive column densities of greater than about 2 times 10^22 cm-2, for intrinsic cold absorbers of solar metallicity. These new results suggest columns {\\em at least} an order of magnitude larger than the columns previously estimated from optical/UV spectra alone.

  4. WEAK LINE QUASARS AT HIGH REDSHIFT: EXTREMELY HIGH ACCRETION RATES OR ANEMIC BROAD-LINE REGIONS?

    SciTech Connect

    Shemmer, Ohad [Department of Physics, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 (United States); Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Netzer, Hagai [School of Physics and Astronomy and the Wise Observatory, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Anderson, Scott F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan Xiaohui [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Lira, Paulina [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Camino del Observatorio 1515, Santiago (Chile); Plotkin, Richard M. [Astronomical Institute 'Anton Pannekoek', University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Richards, Gordon T. [Department of Physics, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Strauss, Michael A., E-mail: ohad@unt.ed [Princeton University Observatory, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2010-10-20

    We present Gemini-North K-band spectra of two representative members of the class of high-redshift quasars with exceptionally weak rest-frame ultraviolet emission lines (WLQs), SDSS J114153.34+021924.3 at z = 3.55 and SDSS J123743.08+630144.9 at z = 3.49. In both sources, we detect an unusually weak broad H{beta} line and place tight upper limits on the strengths of their [O III] lines. Virial, H{beta}-based black hole mass determinations indicate normalized accretion rates of L/L {sub Edd}=0.4 for these sources, which is well within the range observed for typical quasars with similar luminosities and redshifts. We also present high-quality XMM-Newton imaging spectroscopy of SDSS J114153.34+021924.3 and find a hard-X-ray photon index of {Gamma} = 1.91{sup +0.24} {sub -0.22}, which supports the virial L/L {sub Edd} determination in this source. Our results suggest that the weakness of the broad emission lines in WLQs is not a consequence of an extreme continuum-emission source but instead due to abnormal broad emission line region properties.

  5. Weak Line Quasars at High Redshift: Extremely High Accretion Rates or Anemic Broad-line Regions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shemmer, Ohad; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Anderson, Scott F.; Brandt, W. N.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan, Xiaohui; Lira, Paulina; Netzer, Hagai; Plotkin, Richard M.; Richards, Gordon T.; Schneider, Donald P.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2010-10-01

    We present Gemini-North K-band spectra of two representative members of the class of high-redshift quasars with exceptionally weak rest-frame ultraviolet emission lines (WLQs), SDSS J114153.34+021924.3 at z = 3.55 and SDSS J123743.08+630144.9 at z = 3.49. In both sources, we detect an unusually weak broad H? line and place tight upper limits on the strengths of their [O III] lines. Virial, H?-based black hole mass determinations indicate normalized accretion rates of L/L Edd=0.4 for these sources, which is well within the range observed for typical quasars with similar luminosities and redshifts. We also present high-quality XMM-Newton imaging spectroscopy of SDSS J114153.34+021924.3 and find a hard-X-ray photon index of ? = 1.91+0.24 -0.22, which supports the virial L/L Edd determination in this source. Our results suggest that the weakness of the broad emission lines in WLQs is not a consequence of an extreme continuum-emission source but instead due to abnormal broad emission line region properties.

  6. Line splitting in broad-line gamma-ray spectroscopy of "Orion-like sources"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykov, A. M.; Bozhokin, S. V.; Bloemen, H.

    1996-03-01

    We present modelling results of broad-line ?-ray spectra (from the deexcitation of energetic nuclei), which may apply to ?-ray sources like Orion as detected by COMPTEL. We show that distinct line splitting can occur even if the distribution of fast emitting nuclei is essentially isotropic. The splitting results from the anisotropy of the photon emission in the rest frame of the nuclei, as is seen in accelerator experiments, followed by Doppler shifting. This can have a drastic impact on the interpretation of observed ?-ray spectra. We have modelled in detail an extended source powered by stellar winds and supernovae, but our findings also apply to other candidate sources for broad-line ?-ray emission, such as accretion powered binary systems.

  7. Infrared spectroscopy around 4micron of Seyfert 2 galaxies: Obscured broad line regions and coronal lines

    E-print Network

    D. Lutz; R. Maiolino; A. F. M. Moorwood; H. Netzer; S. J. Wagner; E. Sturm; R. Genzel

    2002-09-23

    The state of the matter that is obscuring a small circumnuclear region in AGN can be probed by observations of its broad emission lines. Infrared lines are particularly useful since they penetrate significant columns of obscuring matter, the properties of which can be constrained by comparing infrared and X-ray obscuration. We report on new 4um spectroscopy of a sample of 12 Seyfert 2 galaxies, probing for broad components to the Brackett alpha 4.05um line. Broad components are observed in 3 to 4 objects. All objects with a broad component exhibit relatively low X-ray obscuring columns, and our results are consistent with a Galactic ratio of 4um obscuration to the BLR and X-ray column. In combination with observations of a NON-Galactic ratio of VISUAL obscuration of BLRs and X-ray obscuring column in Seyferts, and interpreted in a unified AGN scheme, this result can be reconciled with two interpretations. Either the properties of dust near the AGN are modified towards larger grains, for example through coagulation, in a way that significantly flattens the optical/IR extinction curve, or the ratio of dust obscuration to X-ray column varies for different viewing angles with respect to the axis of symmetry of the putative torus. Our spectra also provide a survey of emission in the [SiIX] 3.94um coronal line, finding variation by an order of magnitude in its ratio to Br alpha. The first extragalactic detection of the [CaVII] 4.09um and [CaV] 4.16um coronal lines is reported in the spectrum of the Circinus galaxy.

  8. DISCOVERY OF THE TRANSITION OF A MINI-BROAD ABSORPTION LINE INTO A BROAD ABSORPTION LINE IN THE SDSS QUASAR J115122.14+020426.3

    SciTech Connect

    Hidalgo, Paola Rodriguez; Eracleous, Michael; Charlton, Jane [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hamann, Fred [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Murphy, Michael T. [Center for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Nestor, Daniel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2013-09-20

    We present the detection of a rare case of dramatic strengthening in the UV absorption profiles in the spectrum of the quasar J115122.14+020426.3 between observations {approx}2.86 yr apart in the quasar rest frame. A spectrum obtained in 2001 by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey shows a C IV ''mini-broad'' absorption line (FWHM = 1220 km s{sup -1}) with a maximum blueshift velocity of {approx}9520 km s{sup -1}, while a later spectrum from the Very Large Telescope shows a significantly broader and stronger absorption line, with a maximum blueshift velocity of {approx}12, 240 km s{sup -1} that qualifies as a broad absorption line. A similar variability pattern is observed in two additional systems at lower blueshifted velocities and in the Ly{alpha} and N V transitions as well. One of the absorption systems appears to be resolved and shows evidence for partial covering of the quasar continuum source (C{sub f} {approx} 0.65), indicating a transverse absorber size of, at least, {approx}6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} cm. In contrast, a cluster of narrower C IV lines appears to originate in gas that fully covers the continuum and broad emission line sources. There is no evidence for changes in the centroid velocity of the absorption troughs. This case suggests that at least some of the absorbers that produce ''mini-broad'' and broad absorption lines in quasar spectra do not belong to intrinsically separate classes. Here, the ''mini-broad'' absorption line is most likely interpreted as an intermediate phase before the appearance of a broad absorption line due to their similar velocities. While the current observations do not provide enough constraints to discern among the possible causes for this variability, future monitoring of multiple transitions at high resolution will help achieve this goal.

  9. Hints of correlation between broad-line and radio variations for 3C 120

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H. T.; Bai, J. M.; Li, S. K. [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650011 (China); Wang, J. M., E-mail: htliu@ynao.ac.cn [Key Laboratory for Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19B Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the correlation between broad-line and radio variations for the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 120. By the z-transformed discrete correlation function method and the model-independent flux randomization/random subset selection (FR/RSS) Monte Carlo method, we find that broad H? line variations lead the 15 GHz variations. The FR/RSS method shows that the H? line variations lead the radio variations by a factor of ?{sub ob} = 0.34 ± 0.01 yr. This time lag can be used to locate the position of the emitting region of radio outbursts in the jet, on the order of ?5 lt-yr from the central engine. This distance is much larger than the size of the broad-line region. The large separation of the radio outburst emitting region from the broad-line region will observably influence the gamma-ray emission in 3C 120.

  10. Polarization of Quasars: Resonant Line Scattering in the Broad Absorption Line Region

    E-print Network

    Hui-Yuan Wang; Ting-Gui Wang; Jun-Xian Wang

    2006-09-17

    Recent works showed that the absorbing material in broad absorption line (BAL) quasars is optically thick to major resonant absorption lines. This material may contribute significantly to the polarization in the absorption lines. In this paper, we present a detailed study of the resonant line scattering process using Monte-Carlo method to constrain the optical depth, the geometry and the kinematics of BAL Region (BALR). By comparing our results with observed polarized spectra of BAL quasars, we find: (1) Resonant scattering can produce polarization up to 9% at the absorption trough for doublet transitions and up to 20% for singlet transitions in radially accelerated flows. To explain the large polarization degree in the CIV, NV absorption line troughs detected in a small fraction of BAL QSOs, a nonmonotonic velocity distribution along the line of sight or/and additional contribution from the electron scattering region is required. (2) The rotation of the flow can lead to the rotation of the polarization position angle (PA) in the line trough. Large extending angle of BALR is required to produce the observed large PA rotation in a few BAL QSOs. (3) A large extending angle of BALR is required to explain a sub-trough in the polarized flux that was observed in a number of BAL QSOs. (4) The resonant-scattering can contribute a significant part of NV emission line in some QSOs, and may give rise to anomalous strong NV lines in these quasars. (5) The polarized flux and PA rotation produced by the resonant scattering in non-BAL is uniquely asymmetric, which may be used to test the presence of BALR in non-BAL QSOs.

  11. Are the broad optical Balmer lines in PG 1613+658 from the central accretion disc?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xue-Guang

    2015-02-01

    In this letter, we report on the positive correlations between the broad-line width and broad-line flux for the broad Balmer lines of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) PG 1613+658, which has been observed for a long time. Rather than the expected negative correlations that come with the widely accepted virialization assumption for AGN broad emission-line regions (BLRs), the positive correlations indicate very different BLR structures of PG 1613+658 from the commonly considered BLR structures that are dominated by the equilibrium between radiation pressure and gas pressure. Therefore, it is preferable to assume that the observed broad single-peaked optical Balmer lines of PG 1613+658 originate from the accretion disc, because the mainly gravity-dominated disc-like BLRs with radial structures have few effects from radiation pressure.

  12. X-ray absorption in active galaxies - Constraints on the broad-line emitting regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichert, G. A.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Holt, S. S.

    1986-01-01

    X-ray observations of intrinsic absorption in active galactic nuclei (AGN) provide direct information concerning the amount and physical properties of cool (unionized) material along the line of sight. The X-ray absorption is assumed to occur in the broad-line emitting gas, so that the X-ray data can be used to probe the conditions in the broad-line regions of AGN. The results of Einstein Observatory solid state spectrometer observations are used to derive detailed physical constraints concerning the geometry of the broad-line region. Physical implications of these constraints are also discussed.

  13. Broad K$?$ iron line from accretion disks around traversable wormholes

    E-print Network

    Cosimo Bambi

    2013-04-08

    It has been proposed that the supermassive black hole candidates at the centers of galaxies might be wormholes formed in the early Universe and connecting our Universe with other sister Universes. The analysis of the profile of the relativistic K$\\alpha$ iron line is currently the only available approach to probe the spacetime geometry around these objects. In this paper, I compute the expected K$\\alpha$ iron line in some wormhole spacetimes and I compare the results with the line produced around Kerr black holes. The line produced in accretion disks around non-rotating or very slow-rotating wormholes is relatively similar to the one expected around Kerr black holes with mid or high value of spin parameter and current observations are still marginally compatible with the possibility that the supermassive black hole candidates in galactic nuclei are these objects. For wormholes with spin parameter $a_* \\gtrsim 0.02$, the associated K$\\alpha$ iron line is instead quite different from the one produced around Kerr black holes, and their existence may already be excluded.

  14. A Broad Iron Line in LMC X-1

    E-print Network

    James F. Steiner; Rubens C. Reis; Andrew C. Fabian; Ronald A. Remillard; Jeffrey E. McClintock; Lijun Gou; Ryan Cooke; Laura W. Brenneman; Jeremy S. Sanders

    2012-09-14

    We present results from a deep Suzaku observation of the black hole in LMC X-1, supplemented by coincident monitoring with RXTE. We identify broad relativistic reflection features in a soft disc-dominated spectrum. A strong and variable power-law component of emission is present which we use to demonstrate that enhanced Comptonisation strengthens disc reflection. We constrain the spin parameter of the black hole by modelling LMC X-1's broad reflection features. For our primary and most comprehensive spectral model, we obtain a high value for the spin: a* = 0.97(+0.01,-0.13) (68 per cent confidence). However, by additionally considering two alternate models as a measure of our systematic uncertainty, we obtain a broader constraint: a* = 0.97(+0.02,-0.25). Both of these spin values are entirely consistent with a previous estimate of spin obtained using the continuum-fitting method. At 99 per cent confidence, the reflection features require a* > 0.2. In addition to modelling the relativistically broadened reflection, we also model a sharp and prominent reflection component that provides strong evidence for substantial reprocessing in the wind of the massive companion. We infer that this wind sustains the ionisation cone surrounding the binary system; this hypothesis naturally produces appropriate and consistent mass, time, and length scales for the cone structure.

  15. Crossing a Broad Gray Line to Help Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Megan M.

    2015-01-01

    Helping students with mental health issues sometimes presents teachers with the dilemma of following the letter of school rules or doing what is best for the child. One teacher tells her story of crossing such lines, but only in service to children. She also outlines what teachers can and should do to help students who need mental health services.

  16. Consequences of hot gas in the broad line region of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kallman, T.; Mushotzky, R.

    1985-01-01

    Models for hot gas in the broad line region of active galactic nuclei are discussed. The results of the two phase equilibrium models for confinement of broad line clouds by Compton heated gas are used to show that high luminosity quasars are expected to show Fe XXVI L alpha line absorption which will be observed with spectrometers such as those planned for the future X-ray spectroscopy experiments. Two phase equilibrium models also predict that the gas in the broad line clouds and the confining medium may be Compton thick. It is shown that the combined effects of Comptonization and photoabsorption can suppress both the broad emission lines and X-rays in the Einstein and HEAO-1 energy bands. The observed properties of such Compton thick active galaxies are expected to be similar to those of Seyfert 2 nuclei. The implications for polarization and variability are also discussed.

  17. Unusual Broad Absorption Line Quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    E-print Network

    Patrick B. Hall; S. F. Anderson; M. A. Strauss; D. G. York; G. T. Richards; X. Fan; G. R. Knapp; D. P. Schneider; D. E. Vanden Berk

    2002-03-15

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey has confirmed the existence of populations of broad absorption line (BAL) quasars with various unusual properties. We present and discuss twenty-three such objects and consider the implications of their wide range of properties for models of BAL outflows and quasars in general. We have discovered one BAL quasar with a record number of absorption lines. Two other similarly complex objects with many narrow troughs show broad MgII absorption extending longward of their systemic host galaxy redshifts. This can be explained as absorption of an extended continuum source by the rotation-dominated base of a disk wind. Five other objects have absorption which removes an unprecedented ~90% of all flux shortward of MgII. The absorption in one of them has varied across the ultraviolet with an amplitude and rate of change as great as ever seen. This same object may also show broad H-beta absorption. Numerous reddened BAL quasars have been found, including at least one reddened mini-BAL quasar with very strong FeII emission. The five reddest objects have continuum reddenings of E(B-V)~0.5, and in two of them we find strong evidence that the reddening curve is even steeper than that of the SMC. We have found at least one object with absorption from FeIII but not FeII. This may be due to a high column density of moderately high-ionization gas, but the FeIII level populations must also be affected by some sort of resonance. Finally, we have found two luminous, probably reddened high-redshift objects which may be BAL quasars whose troughs partially cover different regions of the continuum source as a function of velocity.

  18. The symbiotic star CH Cygni. The broad Ly? emission line explained by shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contini, M.; Angeloni, R.; Rafanelli, P.

    2009-03-01

    Context: In 1985, at the end of the active phase 1977-1986, a broad (4000 km s-1) Ly? line appeared in the symbiotic system CH Cygni that had never been observed previously. Aims: In this work we investigate the origin of this anomalous broad Ly? line. Methods: We suggest a new interpretation of the broad Ly? based on the theory of charge transfer reactions between ambient hydrogen atoms and post-shock protons at a strong shock front. Results: We have found that the broad Ly? line originated from the blast wave created by the outburst, while the contemporary optical and UV lines arose from the nebula downstream of the expanding shock in the colliding-wind scenario.

  19. Spectropolarimetry of Broad H_alpha Lines and Geometry of the BLR

    E-print Network

    Marshall H. Cohen; Andre' R. Martel

    2001-06-09

    In a small fraction of Broad Line Radio Galaxies (BLRG) and Seyfert 1 galaxies, the polarization position angle rotates across the broad emission lines, especially at H_alpha. An understanding of this behavior can potentially yield important information on the scattering geometry in the nucleus. We show two examples of this phenomenon, 3C 445, a BLRG, and Mrk 231, a Seyfert 1, and present an equatorial scattering model that explains some of its features in a straightforward way.

  20. Broad Recombination Line Objects in W49N on 600 AU Scales

    E-print Network

    C. G. De Pree; D. J. Wilner; A. J. Mercer; L. E. Davis; W. M. Goss; S. Kurtz

    2003-11-18

    High resolution 7 mm observations of the W49N massive star forming region have detected recombination line emission from the individual ultracompact (UC) HII regions on 50 milliarcsecond (600 AU) scales. These line observations, combined with multifrequency, high-resolution continuum imaging of the region at 7 mm (VLA) and at 3 mm and 1 mm (BIMA), indicate that five to seven of the eighteen ultracompact sources in W49N are broad recombination line objects (BRLOs) as described by Jaffe & Martin-Pintado (1999). BRLOs have both broad radio recombination lines ($\\Delta$V$>$60 \\kms) and rising spectra (S$_{\

  1. Is There a Connection between Broad Absorption Line Quasars and Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grupe, Dirk; Nousek, John. A.

    2015-02-01

    We consider whether broad absorption line quasars (BAL QSOs) and narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s) are similar, as suggested by Brandt & Gallagher and Boroson. For this purpose, we constructed a sample of 11 BAL QSOs from existing Chandra and Swift observations. We found that BAL QSOs and NLS1s both operate at high Eddington ratios L/{{L}Edd}, although BAL QSOs have slightly lower L/{{L}Edd}. BAL QSOs and NLS1s in general have high Fe ii/H? and low [O iii]/H? ratios following the classic “Boroson & Green” eigenvector 1 relation. We also found that the mass accretion rates \\dot{M} of BAL QSOs and NLS1s are more similar than previously thought, although some BAL QSOs exhibit extreme mass accretion rates of more than 10 {{M}? } yr?1. These extreme mass accretion rates may suggest that the black holes in BAL QSOs are relativistically spinning. Black hole masses in BAL QSOs are a factor of 100 larger than NLS1s. From their location on a M-? plot, we find that BAL QSOs contain fully developed black holes. Applying a principal component analysis to our sample, we find eigenvector 1 to correspond to the Eddington ratio L/{{L}Edd}, and eigenvector 2 to black hole mass.

  2. X-Ray Absorbed, Broad-Lined, Red AGN and the Cosmic X-Ray Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor); Wilkes, Belinda

    2005-01-01

    We have obtained XMM spectra for five red, 2MASS AGN, selected from a sample observed by Chandra to be X-ray bright and to cover a range of hardness ratios. Our results confirm the presence of substantial absorbing material in three sources which have optical classifications ranging from Type 1 to Type 2, with an intrinsically flat (hard) power law continuum indicated in the other two. The presence of both X-ray absorption and broad optical emission lines with the usual strength suggests either a small (nuclear) absorber or a favored viewing angle so as to cover the X-ray source but not the broad emission line region (BELR). A soft excess is detected in all three Type 1 sources. We speculate that this soft X-ray emission may arise in an extended region of ionized gas, perhaps linked with the polarized (scattered) light which is a feature of these sources. The spectral complexity revealed by XMM emphasizes the limitations of the low S/N Chandra data. Overall, the new XMM results strengthen our conclusions (Wilkes et al. 2002) that the observed X-ray continua of red AGN are unusually hard at energies greater than 2 keV. Whether due to substantial line-of-sight absorption or to an intrinsically hard or reflection-dominated spectrum, these 'red' AGN have an observed spectral form consistent with contributing significantly to the missing had absorbed population of the Cosmic X-ray Background (CXRB). When absorption and or reflection is taken into account, all these AGN have power law slopes typical of broad-line (Type 1) AGN (Gamma approximately 1.9). This appears to resolve the spectral paradox which for so long has existed between the CXRB and the AGN thought to be the dominant contributors. It also suggests two scenarios whereby Type 1 AGN/QSOs may be responsible for a significant fraction of the CXRB at energies above 2 keV: 1) X-ray absorbed AGN/QSOs with visible broad emission lines; 2) AGN/QSOs with complex spectra whose hardness greater than 2 keV is not detectable in the typically low S/N data of X-ray surveys. Even if absorption is present in only half of the population, the large number of 'red' AGN suggests a development of unification models, where the continuum source is surrounded, over a substantial solid angle, by the wind or atmosphere of an accretion disk/torus. X-ray observations of such AGN not only provide a check on the presence of absorption, but also a unique probe of the absorbing material. Improved information on their space density, in particular as a function of redshift, will soon be provided by Spitzer-Chandra wide area surveys, allowing better estimates of both the importance of red AGN to the full AGN population and their contribution to the CXRB.

  3. Broad absorption line quasars have the same cool dust emission as quasars without BALs

    E-print Network

    Chris J. Willott; Steve Rawlings; Jennifer A. Grimes

    2003-10-22

    The results of a sub-millimeter survey of SDSS broad CIV absorption line quasars is discussed. It is found that the sub-millimeter flux distribution of BAL quasars is similar to that of non-BAL quasars. This is consistent with the idea that all quasars contain broad absorption line regions, but only a fraction of them are visible along our line-of-sight. The observations are inconsistent with BAL quasars being observed at a special evolutionary epoch co-inciding with a high star-formation rate and dust mass.

  4. Evidence for a Very Broad Line Region in PG 1138+222

    E-print Network

    Paolo Marziani; Jack W. Sulentic

    1992-10-20

    We present a high S/N spectrum for the quasar PG 1138+222. We detect a very broad HeII$\\lambda$4686 emission line component with twice the FWHM of the conventional broad line region (BLR) as evidenced by the Balmer lines. The profile shape and centroid redshift also distinguish this HeII component from the BLR features. The large ratio of HeII\\l 4686 to any analogous H$\\beta$ emission component is an indicator that it arises in a very high density region ($n_e \\simgt 10^{11}-10^{13}$ \\cm3). This Helium component is probably emitted in a Very Broad Line Region (VBLR), where the radiation field is so strong that the Str\\"omgren depth becomes similar to the geometrical thickness of the emitting clouds. The gas could therefore be optically thin to the Lyman continuum.

  5. An Atlas of Computed Equivalent Widths of Quasar Broad Emission Lines

    E-print Network

    Kirk Korista; Jack Baldwin; Gary Ferland; Dima Verner

    1996-11-26

    We present graphically the results of several thousand photoionization calculations of broad emission line clouds in quasars, spanning seven orders of magnitude in hydrogen ionizing flux and particle density. The equivalent widths of 42 quasar emission lines are presented as contours in the particle density - ionizing flux plane for a typical incident continuum shape, solar chemical abundances, and cloud column density of $N(H) = 10^{23} cm^{-2}$. Results are similarly given for a small subset of emission lines for two other column densities ($10^{22} cm^{-2}$ and $10^{24} cm^{-2}$), five other incident continuum shapes, and a gas metallicity of 5 \\Zsun. These graphs should prove useful in the analysis of quasar emission line data and in the detailed modeling of quasar broad emission line regions. The digital results of these emission line grids and many more are available over the Internet.

  6. Unusual broad-line Mg II emitters among luminous galaxies in the baryon oscillation spectroscopic survey

    SciTech Connect

    Roig, Benjamin; Blanton, Michael R. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Ross, Nicholas P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94270 (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Many classes of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) have been observed and recorded since the discovery of Seyfert galaxies. In this paper, we examine the sample of luminous galaxies in the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. We find a potentially new observational class of AGNs, one with strong and broad Mg II ?2799 line emission, but very weak emission in other normal indicators of AGN activity, such as the broad-line H?, H?, and the near-ultraviolet AGN continuum, leading to an extreme ratio of broad H?/Mg II flux relative to normal quasars. Meanwhile, these objects' narrow-line flux ratios reveal AGN narrow-line regions with levels of activity consistent with the Mg II fluxes and in agreement with that of normal quasars. These AGN may represent an extreme case of the Baldwin effect, with very low continuum and high equivalent width relative to typical quasars, but their ratio of broad Mg II to broad Balmer emission remains very unusual. They may also be representative of a class of AGN where the central engine is observed indirectly with scattered light. These galaxies represent a small fraction of the total population of luminous galaxies (? 0.1%), but are more likely (about 3.5 times) to have AGN-like nuclear line emission properties than other luminous galaxies. Because Mg II is usually inaccessible for the population of nearby galaxies, there may exist a related population of broad-line Mg II emitters in the local universe which is currently classified as narrow-line emitters (Seyfert 2 galaxies) or low ionization nuclear emission-line regions.

  7. The Remarkable X-ray Spectrum of the Broad-Line Radio Galaxy 3C 445

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sambruna, R. M.; Reeves, J. N.; Braito, V.

    2007-01-01

    The nearby (z=0.057) radio-loud source 3C 445, optically classified as a Broad-Line Radio Galaxy, exhibits an X-ray spectrum strongly reminiscent of an obscured AGN, suggesting we are seeing this source at a relatively large angle from the radio jet. Here we present an archival 15 ks XMM-Newton observation of 3C 445 which confirms the remarkable complexity of its X-ray emission. The X-ray emission is described by a power law continuum with GAMMA approximately equal to 1.4, absorbed by several layers of cold gas, plus strong cold reflection. A narrow, unresolved Fe Kalpha emission line is detected, confirming previous findings, with EW approximately equal to 400 eV. A soft excess is present below 2 keV over the extrapolation of the hard X-ray power law, which we model with a power law with the same photon index and absorbed by a column density N(sub H)5 approximately equal to 10(sup 20) cm(sup -2) in excess to Galactic. Remarkably, a host of emission lines are present below 2 keV, confirming previous indications from ASCA, due to H- and He-like O, Mg, and Si. The detection of two features at 0.74 and 0.87 keV, identified with OVII and OVIII Radiative Recombination Continuum features, suggest an origin of the lines from a photoionized gas, with properties very similar to radio-quiet obscured AGN. Two different ionized media, or a single stratified medium, are required to fit the soft X-ray data satisfactorily. The similarity of the X-ray spectrum of 3C 445 to Seyferts underscores that the central engines of radio-loud and radio-quiet AGN similarly host both cold and warm gas.

  8. Broad emission lines from opaque electron-scattering environment of SN 1998S

    E-print Network

    N. N. Chugai

    2001-06-13

    I propose that broad narrow-topped emission lines with full width at zero intensity >20000 km/s, seen in early-time spectra of SN 1998S, originate from a dense circumstellar gas and not from the supernova ejecta. The tremendous line width is the result of multiple scattering of the narrow line radiation on thermal electrons of the circumstellar shell with the Thomson optical depth of about 4 on 1998 March 6.

  9. Broad emission lines from the mass-loss envelopes of giant stars in active galactic nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Scoville, N.; Norman, C.

    1988-09-01

    The source of emission lines with broad range of critical densities emitted from AGNs is investigated. The envelope structure and optical line emissivity of a typical red giant mass-loss envelope is calculated, the emission line profiles are computed for power-law distributions of stars and are compared with the observed line profiles, and the constraints on the orbital motions and stellar distributions, provided by the stellar collision rate, are discussed. The results obtained suggest that the emission lines of active galaxies arise from self-replenishing giant star envelopes during a brief phase (less than 1,000,000 yr) of stellar evolution. 33 references.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Broad-line Balmer decrements in blue AGN (Dong+, 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, X.; Wang, T.; Wang, J.; Yuan, W.; Zhou, H.; Dai, H.; Zhang, K.

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the broad-line Balmer decrements (H{alpha/H{beta}) for a large, homogeneous sample of Seyfert 1 galaxies and quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) using spectroscopic data obtained in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The sample, drawn from the Fourth Data Release, comprises 446 low-redshift (z<=0.35) active galactic nuclei (AGN) that have blue optical continua as indicated by the spectral slopes in order to minimize the effect of dust extinction. We find that (i) the distribution of the intrinsic broad-line H?/H{beta} ratio can be well described by log-Gaussian, with a peak at H?/H{beta}=3.06 and a standard deviation of about 0.03dex only; (ii) the Balmer decrement does not correlate with AGN properties such as luminosity, accretion rate and continuum slope, etc.; (iii) on average, the Balmer decrements are found to be only slightly larger in radio-loud sources (3.37) and sources having double-peaked emission-line profiles (3.27) compared to the rest of the sample. We therefore suggest that the broad-line H?/H{beta} ratio can be used as a good indicator for dust extinction in the AGN broad-line region; this is especially true for radio-quiet AGN with regular emission-line profiles, which constitute the vast majority of the AGN population. (2 data files).

  11. The structure of the broad-line region in the Seyfert galaxy Markarian 590

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Bradley M.; Ali, Babar; Horne, Keith; Bertram, Ray; Lame, Nancy J.; Pogge, Richard W.; Wagner, R. M.

    1993-01-01

    We have undertaken a nine-month study of continuum and emission-line variability in the Seyfert galaxy Mrk 590 in order to determine the structure of the broad-line region. The H-beta variations are found to lag behind those of the optical continuum by about 19 days. We apply a maximum entropy method to solve for the transfer function which relates the line and continuum variability. This analysis suggests that there is a deficit of emission-line response due to gas along the line of sight to the continuum source, as in the case of NGC 5548, although these data do not allow us to reject with confidence models with significant line-of-sight response. We also show that the H-beta line variability is apparently confined to the core of the emission line, as suggested previously by Ferland, Korista, and Peterson (1990).

  12. Radio spectra and morphology of Radio-Loud Broad Absorption Line Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruni, Gabriele

    2011-07-01

    About 15% of the quasar population show broad absorption lines in their spectra generated from outflows with velocities up to 0.2 c. We selected a complete sample of Radio Loud Broad Absorption Line Quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, in order to study their spectral properties and orientation features at radio wavelengths. At the moment two models have been presented to explain these objects: an orientation model (Elvis 2000) and an evolutionary scenario (Becker et al. 2000). Results from our radio campaign will be presented, focusing on the spectral and morphological properties that can discriminate between the two models.

  13. Complex-type N-glycan recognition by potent broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies.

    PubMed

    Mouquet, Hugo; Scharf, Louise; Euler, Zelda; Liu, Yan; Eden, Caroline; Scheid, Johannes F; Halper-Stromberg, Ariel; Gnanapragasam, Priyanthi N P; Spencer, Daniel I R; Seaman, Michael S; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Feizi, Ten; Nussenzweig, Michel C; Bjorkman, Pamela J

    2012-11-20

    Broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies (bNAbs) can recognize carbohydrate-dependent epitopes on gp120. In contrast to previously characterized glycan-dependent bNAbs that recognize high-mannose N-glycans, PGT121 binds complex-type N-glycans in glycan microarrays. We isolated the B-cell clone encoding PGT121, which segregates into PGT121-like and 10-1074-like groups distinguished by sequence, binding affinity, carbohydrate recognition, and neutralizing activity. Group 10-1074 exhibits remarkable potency and breadth but no detectable binding to protein-free glycans. Crystal structures of unliganded PGT121, 10-1074, and their likely germ-line precursor reveal that differential carbohydrate recognition maps to a cleft between complementarity determining region (CDR)H2 and CDRH3. This cleft was occupied by a complex-type N-glycan in a "liganded" PGT121 structure. Swapping glycan contact residues between PGT121 and 10-1074 confirmed their importance for neutralization. Although PGT121 binds complex-type N-glycans, PGT121 recognized high-mannose-only HIV envelopes in isolation and on virions. As HIV envelopes exhibit varying proportions of high-mannose- and complex-type N-glycans, these results suggest promiscuous carbohydrate interactions, an advantageous adaptation ensuring neutralization of all viruses within a given strain. PMID:23115339

  14. Broad emission lines in the duelling wind model of active galaxies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Mobasher; D. J. Raine

    1989-01-01

    The broad-line emission from clouds formed by the interaction of a nuclear mass outflow and a disk wind is investigated in the context of a quasar model. The line ratios and profiles are shown to be in general agreement with observations. Particular results include: (1) a density range compatible with suggested solutions to the Ly-alpha\\/H-beta problem which nevertheless yields the

  15. THE LICK AGN MONITORING PROJECT: ALTERNATE ROUTES TO A BROAD-LINE REGION RADIUS

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, Jenny E. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Hood, Carol E.; Barth, Aaron J.; Bentz, Misty C.; Walsh, Jonelle L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-4575 (United States); Bennert, Vardha N.; Treu, Tommaso [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Filippenko, Alexei V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Gates, Elinor [Lick Observatory, P.O. Box 85, Mount Hamilton, CA 95140 (United States); Malkan, Matthew A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024 (United States); Woo, Jong-Hak [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-01

    It is now possible to estimate black hole (BH) masses across cosmic time, using broad emission lines in active galaxies. This technique informs our views of how galaxies and their central BHs coevolve. Unfortunately, there are many outstanding uncertainties associated with these 'virial' mass estimates. One of these comes from using the accretion luminosity to infer a size for the broad-line region (BLR). Incorporating the new sample of low-luminosity active galaxies from our recent monitoring campaign at Lick Observatory, we recalibrate the radius-luminosity relation with tracers of the accretion luminosity other than the optical continuum. We find that the radius of the BLR scales as the square root of the X-ray and H{beta} luminosities, in agreement with recent optical studies. On the other hand, the scaling appears to be marginally steeper with narrow-line luminosities. This is consistent with a previously observed decrease in the ratio of narrow-line to X-ray luminosity with increasing total luminosity. The radius of the BLR correlates most tightly with H{beta} luminosity, while the X-ray and narrow-line relations both have comparable scatter of a factor of 2. These correlations provide useful alternative virial BH masses in objects with no detectable optical/UV continuum emission, such as high-redshift galaxies with broad emission lines, radio-loud objects, or local active galaxies with galaxy-dominated continua.

  16. Detection of broad ultraviolet Fe II lines in the spectrum of NGC 1068

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snijders, M. A. J.; Netzer, Hagai; Boksenberg, A.

    1986-10-01

    Ultraviolet observations of the nucleus ofo NGC 1068, obtained by the IUE over a period of 5 yr, are combined to give a high signal-to-noise spectrum of this source. The ultraviolet stellar continuum, obtained by comparison with ground-based data, is subtracted to show the nuclear nonstellar component. The resulting spectrum shows clearly the presence of strong broad Fe II emission bands similar to those observed in many broad-line objects. Broad profiles are also seen in other strong emission lines. These observations confirm the recent discovery of an optical Seyfert type 1 spectrum in NGC 1068 by Antonucci and Miller (1985). Some of the findings do not support the claim by Antonucci and Miller that the polarized fraction of the nuclear flux is wavelength independent. The nonstellar continuum is much flatter than deduced in previous investigations and not very different from that observed in many Seyfert 1 nuclei. It did not vary by more than 15 percent over the 5 yr period. It is suggested that a search for the broad ultraviolet Fe II lines may be the best way to look for a 'hidden Seyfert 1 nucleus' in other narrow-line objects.

  17. Structure of the Accretion Flows in Broad-Line Radio Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eracleous, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this project was to obtain high-signal-to-noise ratio X-ray spectra of broad-line radio galaxies in order to compare the properties of their Fe K(alpha) lines with those of their radio-quiet counterparts, the Seyfert galaxies. By fitting the line profiles with relativistic disk models, it is possible to determine the range of radii in the disk where the lines originate and thus test models for the inner accretion disk. More specifically, geometrically thin disk models place the origin of the line very close to the innermost stable orbit of the disk, while models of advection dominated accretion flows require the lines to originate at larger distances from the central black hole, of order a few hundred gravitational radii.

  18. Weak-Line Quasars at High Redshift: Extremely High Accretion Rates or Anemic Broad-Line Regions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shemmer, Ohad; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Anderson, S. F.; Brandt, W. N.; Diamond-Stanic, A. M.; Fan, X.; Lira, P.; Netzer, H.; Plotkin, R. M.; Richards, G. T.; Schneider, D. P.; Strauss, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    We present Gemini-North K-band spectra of two representative members of the class of high-redshift quasars with exceptionally weak rest-frame ultraviolet emission lines (WLQs), SDSS J114153.34+021924.3 at z=3.55 and SDSS J123743.08+630144.9 at z=3.49. In both sources we detect an unusually weak broad H? line and we place tight upper limits on the strengths of their [O III] lines. Virial, H?-based black-hole mass determinations indicate normalized accretion rates of L/LEdd=0.4 for these sources, which is well within the range observed for typical quasars with similar luminosities and redshifts. We also present high-quality XMM-Newton imaging spectroscopy of SDSS J114153.34+021924.3 and find a hard-X-ray photon index of ?=1.91+0.24-0.22which supports the virial L/LEdd determination in this source. Our results suggest that the weakness of the broad-emission lines in WLQs is not a consequence of an extreme continuum-emission source but instead due to abnormal broad-emission line region properties.

  19. The spectrum of the Broad Line Region and the high-energy emission of powerful blazars

    E-print Network

    F. Tavecchio; G. Ghisellini

    2008-02-06

    High-energy emission (from the X-ray through the gamma-ray band) of Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars is widely associated with the inverse Compton (IC) scattering of ambient photons, produced either by the accretion disk or by the Broad Line Region, by high-energy electrons in a relativistic jet. In the modelling of the IC spectrum one usually adopts a simple black-body approximation for the external radiation field, though the real shape is probably more complex. The knowledge of the detailed spectrum of the external radiation field would allow to better characterize the soft-medium X-ray IC spectrum, which is crucial to address several issues related to the study of these sources. Here we present a first step in this direction, calculating the IC spectra expected by considering a realistic spectrum for the external radiation energy density produced by the BLR, as calculated with the photoionization code CLOUDY. We find that, under a wide range of the physical parameters characterizing the BLR clouds, the IC spectrum calculated with the black-body approximation reproduces quite well the exact spectrum for energies above few keV. In the soft energy band, instead, the IC emission calculated using the BLR emission shows a complex shape, with a moderate excess with respect to the approximate spectrum, which becomes more important for decreasing values of the peak frequency of the photoionizing continuum. We also show that the high-energy spectrum shows a marked steepening, due to the energy dependence of the scattering cross section, above a characteristic energy of 10-20 GeV, quasi independent on the Lorentz factor of the jet.

  20. The Lick AGN Monitoring Project: Alternate Routes to a Broad-line Region Radius

    E-print Network

    Greene, Jenny E; Barth, Aaron J; Bennert, Vardha N; Bentz, Misty C; Filippenko, Alexei V; Gates, Elinor; Malkan, Matthew A; Treu, Tommaso; Walsh, Jonelle L; Woo, Jong-Hak

    2010-01-01

    It is now possible to estimate black hole masses across cosmic time, using broad emission lines in active galaxies. This technique informs our views of how galaxies and their central black holes coevolve. Unfortunately, there are many outstanding uncertainties associated with these "virial" mass estimates. One of these comes from using the accretion luminosity to infer a size for the broad-line region. Incorporating the new sample of low-luminosity active galaxies from our recent monitoring campaign at Lick Observatory, we recalibrate the radius-luminosity relation with tracers of the accretion luminosity other than the optical continuum. We find that the radius of the broad-line region scales as the square root of the X-ray and Hbeta luminosities, in agreement with recent optical studies. On the other hand, the scaling appears to be marginally steeper with narrow-line luminosities. This is consistent with a previously observed decrease in the ratio of narrow-line to X-ray luminosity with increasing total lum...

  1. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping Project: Rapid CIV Broad Absorption Line Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grier, C. J.; Hall, P. B.; Brandt, W. N.; Trump, J. R.; Shen, Yue; Vivek, M.; Filiz Ak, N.; Chen, Yuguang; Dawson, K. S.; Denney, K. D.; Green, Paul J.; Jiang, Linhua; Kochanek, C. S.; McGreer, Ian D.; Pâris, I.; Peterson, B. M.; Schneider, D. P.; Tao, Charling; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Ge, Jian; Kinemuchi, Karen; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Simmons, Audrey

    2015-06-01

    We report the discovery of rapid variations of a high-velocity C iv broad absorption line trough in the quasar SDSS J141007.74+541203.3. This object was intensively observed in 2014 as a part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping Project, during which 32 epochs of spectroscopy were obtained with the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey spectrograph. We observe significant (>4?) variability in the equivalent width (EW) of the broad (?4000 km s?1 wide) C iv trough on rest-frame timescales as short as 1.20 days (?29 hr), the shortest broad absorption line variability timescale yet reported. The EW varied by ?10% on these short timescales, and by about a factor of two over the duration of the campaign. We evaluate several potential causes of the variability, concluding that the most likely cause is a rapid response to changes in the incident ionizing continuum. If the outflow is at a radius where the recombination rate is higher than the ionization rate, the timescale of variability places a lower limit on the density of the absorbing gas of ne ? 3.9 × 105 cm?3. The broad absorption line variability characteristics of this quasar are consistent with those observed in previous studies of quasars, indicating that such short-term variability may in fact be common and thus can be used to learn about outflow characteristics and contributions to quasar/host-galaxy feedback scenarios.

  2. Active Galaxies With Double-Peaked Emission Lines and What They Imply About the "Broad-Line Region"

    E-print Network

    Michael Eracleous

    2003-10-22

    I review the distinguishing observational characteristics of active galaxies with double-peaked emission lines and their implications for the nature of the line-emitting region. Since double-peaked lines most likely originate in the outer parts of the accretion disk, they can be used to study the structure and dynamics of the disk and the associated wind. Such studies lead to general inferences about the broad-line regions of all AGNs. To this end, I describe the results of recent UV spectroscopy of double-peaked emitters that probes the disk-wind relation. I also summarize efforts to exploit the variability of the lines to study dynamical and thermal phenomena in the disk.

  3. Interpretation of line drawings of complex objects

    E-print Network

    Winckler, Marco Antonio Alba

    Interpretation of line drawings of complex objects Martin C Cooper Before research on the machine interpretation of line drawings can find practical applications it is essential to study realistic models of real curvature) are permitted on object surfaces. Keywords: line drawing interpretation, labelling, smooth edges

  4. Broad-line region physical conditions along the quasar eigenvector 1 sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marziani, P.; Sulentic, J. W.; Negrete, C. A.; Dultzin, D.; Zamfir, S.; Bachev, R.

    2010-12-01

    We compare broad emission-line profiles and estimate line ratios for all major emission lines between Ly? and H? in a sample of six quasars. The sources were chosen with two criteria in mind: the existence of high-quality optical and ultraviolet spectra and the possibility of sampling the spectroscopic diversity in the 4D eigenvector 1 (4DE1) context. In the latter sense, each source occupies a region (bin) in the full width at half-maximum (FWHM)(H?) versus Fe IIopt strength plane that is significantly different from the others. High signal-to-noise ratio H? emission-line profiles are used as templates for modelling the other lines (Ly?, C IV ?1549, He II ?1640, Al III ?1860, Si III] ?1892 and Mg II ?2800). We can adequately model all broad lines assuming the existence of three components distinguished by blueshifted, unshifted and redshifted centroids [indicated as a blue component (BLUE), broad component (BC) and very broad component (VBC), respectively]. BC (electron density ne˜ 1012 cm-3, ionization parameter U˜ 10-2 and column density Nc? 1023 cm-2) is present in almost all type-1 quasars and therefore corresponds most closely to the classical broad-line emitting region (the reverberating component). The bulk of Mg II ?2800 and Fe II emission also arises in this region. The BLUE emission (log ne˜ 10, log U˜-1 and log Nc < 23) arises in less optically thick gas; it is often thought to arise in an accretion disc wind. The least understood component involves the VBC (high ionization and large column density), which is found in no more than half (but almost all radio-loud) type-1 quasars and luminous Seyfert nuclei. It is perhaps the most distinguishing characteristic of quasars with FWHM (H?) ? 4000 km s-1 that belong to the so-called population B of our 4DE1 space. Population A quasars [FWHM (H?) ? 4000 km s-1] are dominated by BC emission in H? and BLUE component emission in C IV ?1549 and other high ionization lines. 4DE1 appears to be the most useful current context for revealing and unifying spectral diversity in type-1 quasars.

  5. An X-ray variable absorber within the broad line region in Fairall 51

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svoboda, J.; Beuchert, T.; Guainazzi, M.; Longinotti, A. L.; Piconcelli, E.; Wilms, J.

    2015-06-01

    Context. Fairall 51 is a polar-scattered Seyfert 1 galaxy, a type of active galaxy believed to represent a bridge between unobscured type-1 and obscured type-2 objects. Fairall 51 has shown complex and variable X-ray absorption, but little is known about its origin. Aims: In our research, we observed Fairall 51 with the X-ray satellite Suzaku in order to constrain a characteristic time scale of its variability. Methods: We performed timing and spectral analysis of four observations separated by 1.5, 2, and 5.5 day intervals. Results: We found that the 0.5-50 keV broadband X-ray spectra are dominated by a primary power-law emission (with the photon index ~2). This emission is affected by at least three absorbers with different ionisations (log ? ? 1-4). The spectrum is shaped further by a reprocessed emission, possibly coming from two regions, the accretion disc and a more distant scattering region. The accretion disc emission is smeared by the relativistic effects, from which we measured the spin of the black hole as a ? 0.8 ± 0.2. We found that most of the spectral variability can be attributed to the least ionised absorber whose column density changed by a factor of two between the first (highest-flux) and the last (lowest-flux) observation. Conclusions: A week-long scale of the variability indicates that the absorber is located at the distance ?0.05 pc from the centre, i.e., in the broad line region.

  6. Broad-band characterization of magnetic and dielectric thin films using a microstrip line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Queffelec; M. Le Floc'h; P. Gelin

    1998-01-01

    A measurement method for the broad-band determination (100 MHz-10 GHz) of the permeability and permittivity of thin films with thicknesses of 1-10 ?m has been developed. The technique is based on the measurement of the S parameters of a microstrip line loaded with the test sample. The S parameters are measured with a network analyzer. Besides its band width, the

  7. A microstrip device for the broad band simultaneous measurement of complex permeability and permittivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Queffelec; Philippe Gelin; Jacek Gieraltowski; Jean Loaec

    1994-01-01

    The method presented here aims at determining the complex permeability ?* and permittivity of ?* with an automatic and broad band (45 MHz-18 GHz) system from the reflection-transmission measurement of the S-parameters of a microstrip test device. The complex values ?* and ?* are obtained with the S-parameters from a specific software created within the context of this work. Compared

  8. Structure and kinematics of the broad-line regions in active galaxies from IUE variability data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koratkar, Anuradha P.; Gaskell, C. Martin

    1991-01-01

    IUE archival data are used here to investigate the structure nad kinematics of the broad-line regions (BLRs) in nine AGN. It is found that the centroid of the line-continuum cross-correlation functions (CCFs) can be determined with reasonable reliability. The errors in BLR size estimates from CCFs for irregularly sampled light curves are fairly well understood. BLRs are found to have small luminosity-weighted radii, and lines of high ionization tend to be emitted closer to the central source than lines of low ionization, especially for low-luminosity objects. The motion of the gas is gravity-dominated with both pure inflow and pure outflow of high-velocity gas being excluded at a high confidence level for certain geometries.

  9. Microlensing of the Broad Emission Line Region in the Quadruple Lens SDSS J1004+4112

    E-print Network

    Gordon T. Richards; Charles R. Keeton; Bartosz Pindor; Joseph F. Hennawi; Patrick B. Hall; Edwin L. Turner; Naohisa Inada; Masamune Oguri; Shin-Ichi Ichikawa; Robert H. Becker; Michael D. Gregg; Richard L. White; J. Stuart B. Wyithe; Donald P. Schneider; David E. Johnston; Joshua A. Frieman; J. Brinkmann

    2004-02-13

    We present seven epochs of spectroscopy on the quadruply imaged quasar SDSS J1004+4112, spanning observed-frame time delays from 1 to 322 days. The spectra reveal differences in the emission lines between the lensed images. Specifically, component A showed a strong enhancement in the blue wings of several high-ionization lines relative to component B, which lasted at least 28 days (observed frame) then faded. Since the predicted time delay between A and B is <30 days, our time coverage suggests that the event was not intrinsic to the quasar. We attribute these variations to microlensing of part of the broad emission line region of the quasar, apparently resolving structure in the source plane on a scale of ~10^{16} cm at z=1.734. In addition, we observed smaller differences in the emission line profiles between components A and B that persisted throughout the time span, which may also be due to microlensing or millilensing. Further spectroscopic monitoring of this system holds considerable promise for resolving the structure of the broad emission line region in quasars.

  10. The lick AGN monitoring project 2011: Fe II reverberation from the outer broad-line region

    SciTech Connect

    Barth, Aaron J.; Cooper, Michael C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-4575 (United States); Pancoast, Anna; Treu, Tommaso [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Bennert, Vardha N. [Physics Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407 (United States); Brewer, Brendon J. [Department of Statistics, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Canalizo, Gabriela [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Filippenko, Alexei V.; Li, Weidong; Cenko, S. Bradley; Clubb, Kelsey I. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Gates, Elinor L. [Lick Observatory, P.O. Box 85, Mount Hamilton, CA 95140 (United States); Greene, Jenny E. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Malkan, Matthew A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Sand, David J. [Texas Tech University, Physics Department, Box 41051, Lubbock, TX 79409-1051 (United States); Stern, Daniel; Assef, Roberto J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Woo, Jong-Hak [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Hyun-Jin [Department of Astronomy and Center for Galaxy Evolution Research, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Buehler, Tabitha, E-mail: barth@uci.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, N283 ESC, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602-4360 (United States); and others

    2013-06-01

    The prominent broad Fe II emission blends in the spectra of active galactic nuclei have been shown to vary in response to continuum variations, but past attempts to measure the reverberation lag time of the optical Fe II lines have met with only limited success. Here we report the detection of Fe II reverberation in two Seyfert 1 galaxies, NGC 4593 and Mrk 1511, based on data from a program carried out at Lick Observatory in Spring 2011. Light curves for emission lines including H? and Fe II were measured by applying a fitting routine to decompose the spectra into several continuum and emission-line components, and we use cross-correlation techniques to determine the reverberation lags of the emission lines relative to V-band light curves. In both cases, the measured lag (?{sub cen}) of Fe II is longer than that of H?, although the inferred lags are somewhat sensitive to the choice of Fe II template used in the fit. For spectral decompositions done using the Fe II template of Véron-Cetty et al., we find ?{sub cen}(Fe II)/?{sub cen}(H?) = 1.9 ± 0.6 in NGC 4593 and 1.5 ± 0.3 in Mrk 1511. The detection of highly correlated variations between Fe II and continuum emission demonstrates that the Fe II emission in these galaxies originates in photoionized gas, located predominantly in the outer portion of the broad-line region.

  11. A transition mass for black holes to show broad emission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravorty, Susmita; Elvis, Martin; Ferland, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Although the supermassive (AGN) and stellar mass (BHBs) black holes have many properties in common, the broad emission lines (BELs) are exclusively signatures of the active galactic nuclei (AGN). Based on the detection of these lines from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data bases, there seems to be no AGN with mass MBH ? 105 M?. In this paper, we investigate if such low-mass black holes are really non-existent or they are undetected because the BELs in them are not produced efficiently. Using the ionizing spectral energy distribution for a wide range of black hole mass, 10-109 M?, spanning black hole X-ray binaries (BHBs) to AGN, we calculate the equivalent widths (EWs) of ultraviolet and optical lines Ly? 1216 Å, H? 4861 Å, C IV 1549 Å and Mg II 2798 Å. The LOC (locally optimally emitting cloud) model has been used to describe the broad emission-line region (BELR) for the calculations. We find that the hardening of the SED shape with decreasing mass do not decrease the BEL EWs. However, finite size of the BELR, as measured by the line widths, which is controlled by the mass of the black hole, regulates the production of these emission lines. There seems to be a peak in the EWs of the emission lines for typical AGN black holes of ˜108 M?, below which the lines become intrinsically fainter with a sharp fall-off below ˜106 M?. This may be the cause of the absence of low-mass AGN in SDSS.

  12. The Evolution of the Broad-Line Region among SDSS Quasars

    E-print Network

    Tohru Nagao; Alessandro Marconi; Roberto Maiolino

    2005-10-16

    Based on 5344 quasar spectra taken from the SDSS Data Release 2, the dependences of various emission-line flux ratios on redshift and quasar luminosity are investigated in the ranges 2.0 M_B > -29.5$. We show that the emission lines in the composite spectra are fitted better with power-law profiles than with double Gaussian or modified Lorentzian profiles, and in particular we show that the power-law profiles are more appropriate to measure broad emission-line fluxes than other methods. The composite spectra show that there are statistically significant correlations between quasar luminosity and various emission-line flux ratios, such as NV/CIV and NV/HeII, while there are only marginal correlations between quasar redshift and emission-line flux ratios. We obtain detailed photoionization models to interpret the observed line ratios. The correlation of line ratios with luminosity is interpreted in terms of higher gas metallicity in more luminous quasars. For a given quasar luminosity, there is no metallicity evolution for the redshift range 2.0 gas clouds is estimated to be Z ~ 5 Z_sun, although the inferred metallicity depends on the assumed BLR cloud properties, such as their density distribution function and their radial distribution. The absence of a metallicity evolution up to z ~ 4.5 implies that the active star-formation epoch of quasar host galaxies occurred at z > 7.

  13. Magnetic fields of active galactic nuclei and quasars with regions of polarized broad H ? lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silant'ev, N. A.; Gnedin, Yu. N.; Buliga, S. D.; Piotrovich, M. Yu.; Natsvlishvili, T. M.

    2013-01-01

    Estimates of magnetic fields for a number of active galactic nuclei are presented. These estimates are based on the observed polarization degrees and position angles of broad H ? lines and in the nearby continuum and on asymptotic analytical formulas for the Stokes parameters of the radiation emerging from a magnetized accretion disk (the Milne problem in a magnetized atmosphere). The characteristic observed feature of the wavelength dependence of the polarization degree inside the line—a minimum at the center and a fast increase of the position angle from one wing to another—can be explained by the superposition of resonance emission from two or more clouds located in the right (Keplerian velocity directed away from the observer) and left (Keplerian velocity directed toward the observer) parts of the orbit in the rotating magnetized accretion disk. The main component in our mechanism is the azimuthal magnetic field in the disk. The presence of a magnetic field perpendicular to the disk plane (which is usually weaker than the azimuthal field) results in the asymmetry of the distribution of the polarization degree and position angle inside the line. The inferred magnetic field strengths at the galactocentric distances where broad lines are emitted can be used to estimate the magnetic fields in the region of the centermost stable orbit and at the horizon of the central black hole, using the power-law dependence of the magnetic field strength corresponding to the standard model of the accretion disk.

  14. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping Project: Rapid CIV Broad Absorption Line Variability

    E-print Network

    Grier, C J; Brandt, W N; Trump, J R; Shen, Yue; Vivek, M; Ak, N Filiz; Chen, Yuguang; Dawson, K; Denney, K D; Jiang, Linhua; Kochanek, C S; McGreer, Ian D; Pâris, I; Peterson, B M; Schneider, D P; Tao, Charling; Wood-Vasey, W M; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Ge, Jian; Kinemuchi, Karen; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Simmons, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of rapid variations of a high-velocity CIV broad absorption line trough in the quasar SDSS J141007.74+541203.3. This object was intensively observed in 2014 as a part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping Project, during which 32 epochs of spectroscopy were obtained with the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey spectrograph. We observe significant (>4sigma) variability in the equivalent width of the broad (~4000 km/s wide) CIV trough on rest-frame timescales as short as 1.20 days (~29 hours), the shortest broad absorption line variability timescale yet reported. The equivalent width varied by ~10% on these short timescales, and by about a factor of two over the duration of the campaign. We evaluate several potential causes of the variability, concluding that the most likely cause is a rapid response to changes in the incident ionizing continuum. If the outflow is at a radius where the recombination rate is higher than the ionization rate, the timescale of variability...

  15. OPTICAL MONITORING OF THE BROAD-LINE RADIO GALAXY 3C 390.3

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, Matthias; Peterson, Bradley M.; Grier, Catherine J.; Bentz, Misty C.; Eastman, Jason; Frank, Stephan; Gonzalez, Raymond; Marshall, Jennifer L.; DePoy, Darren L.; Prieto, Jose L., E-mail: dietrich@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2012-09-20

    We have undertaken a new ground-based monitoring campaign on the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 390.3 to improve the measurement of the size of the broad emission-line region and to estimate the black hole mass. Optical spectra and g-band images were observed in late 2005 for three months using the 2.4 m telescope at MDM Observatory. Integrated emission-line flux variations were measured for the hydrogen Balmer lines H{alpha}, H{beta}, H{gamma}, and for the helium line He II{lambda}4686, as well as g-band fluxes and the optical active galactic nucleus (AGN) continuum at {lambda} = 5100 A. The g-band fluxes and the optical AGN continuum vary simultaneously within the uncertainties, {tau}{sub cent} (0.2 {+-} 1.1) days. We find that the emission-line variations are delayed with respect to the variable g-band continuum by {tau}(H{alpha}) 56.3{sup +2.4}{sub -6.6} days, {tau}(H{beta}) = 44.3{sup +3.0}{sub -3.3} days, {tau}(H{gamma}) = 58.1{sup +4.3}{sub -6.1} days, and {tau}(He II 4686) = 22.3{sup +6.5}{sub -3.8} days. The blue and red peaks in the double-peaked line profiles, as well as the blue and red outer profile wings, vary simultaneously within {+-}3 days. This provides strong support for gravitationally bound orbital motion of the dominant part of the line-emitting gas. Combining the time delay of the strong Balmer emission lines of H{alpha} and H{beta} and the separation of the blue and red peaks in the broad double-peaked profiles in their rms spectra, we determine M {sup vir}{sub bh} = 1.77{sup +0.29}{sub -0.31} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun} and using {sigma}{sub line} of the rms spectra M {sup vir}{sub bh} 2.60{sup +0.23}{sub -0.31} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun} for the central black hole of 3C 390.3, respectively. Using the inclination angle of the line-emitting region which is measured from superluminal motion detected in the radio range, accretion disk models to fit the optical double-peaked emission-line profiles, and X-ray observations, the mass of the black hole amounts to M{sub bh} = 0.86{sup +0.19}{sub -0.18} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} (peak separation) and M{sub bh} 1.26{sup +0.21}{sub -0.16} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} ({sigma}{sub line}), respectively. This result is consistent with the black hole masses indicated by simple accretion disk models to describe the observed double-peaked profiles, derived from the stellar dynamics of 3C 390.3, and with the AGN radius-luminosity relation. Thus, 3C 390.3 as a radio-loud AGN with a low Eddington ratio, L{sub edd}/L{sub bol} = 0.02, follows the same AGN radius-luminosity relation as radio-quiet AGNs.

  16. Chandra Detection of a Parsec Scale Wind in the Broad Line Radio Galaxy 3C 382

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, J. N.; Sambruna, R. M.; Braito, V.; Eracleous, Michael

    2009-01-01

    We present unambiguous evidence for a parsec scale wind in the Broad-Line Radio Galaxy (BLRG) 3C 382, the first radio-loud AGN whereby an outflow has been measured with X-ray grating spectroscopy. A 118 ks Chandra grating (HETG) observation of 3C 382 has revealed the presence of several high ionization absorption lines in the soft X-ray band, from Fe, Ne, Mg and Si. The absorption lines are blue-shifted with respect to the systemic velocity of 3C 382 by -840+/-60 km/s and are resolved by Chandra with a velocity width of sigma = 340+/-70 km/s. The outflow appears to originate from a single zone of gas of column density N(sub H) = 1.3 x 10(exp 21)/sq cm and ionization parameter log(E/erg/cm/s) = 2.45. From the above measurements we calculate that the outflow is observed on parsec scales, within the likely range from 10-1000 pc, i.e., consistent with an origin in the Narrow Line Region. Finally we also discuss the possibility of a much faster (0.1c) outflow component, based on a blue-shifted iron K(alpha) emission line in the Suzaku observation of 3C 382, which could have an origin in an accretion disk wind.

  17. Study of transmission line attenuation in broad band millimeter wave frequency range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, Hitesh Kumar B.; Austin, M. E.; Ellis, R. F.

    2013-10-01

    Broad band millimeter wave transmission lines are used in fusion plasma diagnostics such as electron cyclotron emission (ECE), electron cyclotron absorption, reflectometry and interferometry systems. In particular, the ECE diagnostic for ITER will require efficient transmission over an ultra wide band, 100 to 1000 GHz. A circular corrugated waveguide transmission line is a prospective candidate to transmit such wide band with low attenuation. To evaluate this system, experiments of transmission line attenuation were performed and compared with theoretical loss calculations. A millimeter wave Michelson interferometer and a liquid nitrogen black body source are used to perform all the experiments. Atmospheric water vapor lines and continuum absorption within this band are reported. Ohmic attenuation in corrugated waveguide is very low; however, there is Bragg scattering and higher order mode conversion that can cause significant attenuation in this transmission line. The attenuation due to miter bends, gaps, joints, and curvature are estimated. The measured attenuation of 15 m length with seven miter bends and eighteen joints is 1 dB at low frequency (300 GHz) and 10 dB at high frequency (900 GHz), respectively.

  18. Surprises from a Deep ASCA Spectrum of the Broad Absorption Line Quasar PHL 5200

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, Smita; Matt, G.; Green, P. J.; Elvis, M.; Singh, K. P.

    2002-01-01

    We present a deep (approx. 85 ks) ASCA observation of the prototype broad absorption line quasar (BALQSO) PHL 5200. This is the best X-ray spectrum of a BALQSO yet. We find the following: (1) The source is not intrinsically X-ray weak. (2) The line-of-sight absorption is very strong, with N(sub H) = 5 x 10(exp 23)/sq cm. (3) The absorber does not cover the source completely; the covering fraction is approx. 90%. This is consistent with the large optical polarization observed in this source, implying multiple lines of sight. The most surprising result of this observation is that (4) the spectrum of this BALQSO is not exactly similar to other radio-quiet quasars. The hard X-ray spectrum of PHL 5200 is steep, with the power-law spectral index alpha approx. 1.5. This is similar to the steepest hard X-ray slopes observed so far. At low redshifts, such steep slopes are observed in narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies, believed to be accreting at a high Eddington rate. This observation strengthens the analogy between BALQSOs and NLS1 galaxies and supports the hypothesis that BALQSOs represent an early evolutionary state of quasars. It is well accepted that the orientation to the line of sight determines the appearance of a quasar: age seems to play a significant role as well.

  19. Temporal comparison of Broad-Complex expression during eggshell-appendage patterning and morphogenesis in two

    E-print Network

    Borenstein, Elhanan

    Temporal comparison of Broad-Complex expression during eggshell-appendage patterning and morphogenesis in two Drosophila species with different eggshell-appendage numbers Karen E. James, Celeste A in eggshell-appendage number--from as few as one to as many as nine, depending on the species. Appendage

  20. Climatic change and the broad-scale distribution of terrestrial ecosystem complexes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William R. Emanuel; Herman H. Shugart; Mary P. Stevenson

    1985-01-01

    The broad-scale distribution of terrestrial ecosystem complexes is determined in large part by climate and can be altered by climatic change due to natural causes or due to human activities such as those leading to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration. Classifications that recognize the dependence of natural vegetation on climate provide one means of constructing maps to display the impact of

  1. The Discovery of Soft X-ray Loud Broad Absorption Line Quasars

    E-print Network

    Kajal K. Ghosh; Brian Punsly

    2008-01-08

    It is been known for more than a decade that BALQSOs (broad absorption line quasars) are highly attenuated in the X-ray regime compared to other quasars, especially in the soft band ($density ratios that are higher than typical nonBAL radio quiet quasars. Our sample of 3 sources includes one LoBALQSO (low ionization BALQSO) which are generally considered to be the most highly attenuated in the X-rays. The three QSOs are the only known BALQSOs that have X-ray observations that are consistent with no intrinsic soft X-ray absorption. The existence of a large X-ray luminosity and the hard ionizing continuum that it presents to potential UV absorption gas is in conflict with the ionization states that are conducive to line driving forces within BAL winds (especially for the LoBALs).

  2. Spatially Resolving the Kinematics of the <100 {\\mu}as Quasar Broad Line Region using Spectroastrometry

    E-print Network

    Stern, Jonathan; Pott, Jörg-Uwe

    2015-01-01

    The broad line region (BLR) of luminous active galactic nuclei (AGN) is a prominent observational signature of the accretion flow around supermassive black holes, which can be used to measure their masses (M_BH) over cosmic history. Due to the mapping studies, which are most efficiently carried out on low-luminosity L and low-redshift z AGN. We analyze the possibility to measure the BLR size and study its kinematic structure using spectroastrometry, whereby one measures the spatial position centroid of emission line photons as a function of velocity. We calculate the expected spectroastrometric signal of a rotation-dominated BLR for various assumptions about the ratio of random to rotational motions, and the radial distribution of the BLR gas. We show that for hyper-luminous quasars at z < 2.5, the size of the low-ionization BLR can already be constrained with existing telesc...

  3. Broad P Cygni X-ray Lines from Circinus X-1

    E-print Network

    N. S. Schulz; W. N. Brandt

    2000-12-01

    Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS) observations of the extremely luminous and violent X-ray binary Cir X-1 reveal many X-ray emission lines showing broad P Cygni profiles. These are from H-like and He-like ions of Ne, Mg, Si, S, Ar, and Fe. The lines originate in a high-velocity (up to 2000 km s^-1) outflow, which may be an accretion disk wind. Cir X-1 has a radio jet, and during some periastron passages of the neutron star (orbital phase = 0.0), it flares at radio, infrared and X-ray wavelengths. The X-ray P Cygni profiles were observed during this phase, where we also expect the strongest mass transfer from the companion star. We present new results on the time variability of the P Cygni profiles and discuss their general importance.

  4. REVERBERATION AND PHOTOIONIZATION ESTIMATES OF THE BROAD-LINE REGION RADIUS IN LOW-z QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Negrete, C. Alenka [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (Mexico); Dultzin, Deborah [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Marziani, Paola [INAF, Astronomical Observatory of Padova, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Sulentic, Jack W., E-mail: cnegrete@inaoep.mx, E-mail: deborah@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: paola.marziani@oapd.inaf.it, E-mail: sulentic@iaa.es [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, E-18008 Granada (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    Black hole mass estimation in quasars, especially at high redshift, involves the use of single-epoch spectra with signal-to-noise ratio and resolution that permit accurate measurement of the width of a broad line assumed to be a reliable virial estimator. Coupled with an estimate of the radius of the broad-line region (BLR) this yields the black hole mass M{sub BH}. The radius of the BLR may be inferred from an extrapolation of the correlation between source luminosity and reverberation-derived r{sub BLR} measures (the so-called Kaspi relation involving about 60 low-z sources). We are exploring a different method for estimating r{sub BLR} directly from inferred physical conditions in the BLR of each source. We report here on a comparison of r{sub BLR} estimates that come from our method and from reverberation mapping. Our ''photoionization'' method employs diagnostic line intensity ratios in the rest-frame range 1400-2000 A (Al III {lambda}1860/Si III] {lambda}1892, C IV {lambda}1549/Al III {lambda}1860) that enable derivation of the product of density and ionization parameter with the BLR distance derived from the definition of the ionization parameter. We find good agreement between our estimates of the density, ionization parameter, and r{sub BLR} and those from reverberation mapping. We suggest empirical corrections to improve the agreement between individual photoionization-derived r{sub BLR} values and those obtained from reverberation mapping. The results in this paper can be exploited to estimate M{sub BH} for large samples of high-z quasars using an appropriate virial broadening estimator. We show that the width of the UV intermediate emission lines are consistent with the width of H{beta}, thereby providing a reliable virial broadening estimator that can be measured in large samples of high-z quasars.

  5. Elemental Abundances in the Broad Emission Line Region of Quasars at Redshifts larger than 4

    E-print Network

    M. Dietrich; I. Appenzeller; F. Hamann; J. Heidt; K. Jaeger; M. Vestergaard; S. J. Wagner

    2002-11-20

    We present observations of 11 high redshift quasars ($3.9 \\la z \\la 5.0$) observed with low spectral resolution in the restframe ultraviolet using FORS 1 at the VLT UT 1. The emission-line fluxes of strong permitted and intercombination ultraviolet emission lines are measured to estimate the chemical composition of the line emitting gas. Comparisons to photoionization calculations indicate gas metallicities in the broad emission line region in the range of solar to several times solar. The average of the mean metallicity of each high-z quasar in this sample is $Z/Z_\\odot = 4.3 \\pm 0.3$. Assuming a chemical evolution time scale of $\\tau_{evol} \\simeq 0.5 - 0.8$ Gyrs, we derive a redshift of $z_f \\simeq 6 {\\rm to} 8$ for the onset of the first major star formation episode (H$_o = 65$ km s$^{-1}$ Mpc$^{-1}$, $\\Omega_M = 0.3$, $\\Omega_\\Lambda = 0.7$), corresponding to an age of the universe of several $10^8$ yrs at this epoch. We note that this epoch is also supposed to be the era of re-ionization of the universe.

  6. The Lick AGN Monitoring Project 2011: Fe II Reverberation from the Outer Broad-Line Region

    E-print Network

    Barth, Aaron J; Bennert, Vardha N; Brewer, Brendon J; Canalizo, Gabriela; Filippenko, Alexei V; Gates, Elinor L; Greene, Jenny E; Li, Weidong; Malkan, Matthew A; Sand, David J; Stern, Daniel; Treu, Tommaso; Woo, Jong-Hak; Assef, Roberto J; Bae, Hyun-Jin; Buehler, Tabitha; Cenko, S Bradley; Clubb, Kelsey I; Cooper, Michael C; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M; Hoenig, Sebastian F; Joner, Michael D; Laney, C David; Lazarova, Mariana S; Nierenberg, A M; Silverman, Jeffrey M; Tollerud, Erik J; Walsh, Jonelle L

    2013-01-01

    The prominent broad Fe II emission blends in the spectra of active galactic nuclei have been shown to vary in response to continuum variations, but past attempts to measure the reverberation lag time of the optical Fe II lines have met with only limited success. Here we report the detection of Fe II reverberation in two Seyfert 1 galaxies, NGC 4593 and Mrk 1511, based on data from a program carried out at Lick Observatory in Spring 2011. Light curves for emission lines including H-beta and Fe II were measured by applying a fitting routine to decompose the spectra into several continuum and emission-line components, and we use cross-correlation techniques to determine the reverberation lags of the emission lines relative to V-band light curves. In both cases the measured lag (t_cen) of Fe II is longer than that of H-beta, although the inferred lags are somewhat sensitive to the choice of Fe II template used in the fit. For spectral decompositions done using the Fe II template of Veron-Cetty et al. (2004), we f...

  7. Chandra detection of a parsec scale wind in the Broad Line Radio Galaxy 3C 382

    E-print Network

    Reeves, J N; Braito, V; Eracleous, M

    2009-01-01

    We present unambiguous evidence for a parsec scale wind in the Broad-Line Radio Galaxy (BLRG) 3C 382, the first radio-loud AGN, with $R_{\\rm L} = \\log_{10}(f_{\\rm 5GHz}/f_{4400})>1$, whereby an outflow has been measured with X-ray grating spectroscopy. A 118 ks Chandra grating (HETG) observation of 3C 382 has revealed the presence of several high ionization absorption lines in the soft X-ray band, from Fe, Ne, Mg and Si. The absorption lines are blue-shifted with respect to the systemic velocity of 3C 382 by -840\\pm60 km/s and are resolved by Chandra with a velocity width of 340\\pm70 km/s. The outflow appears to originate from a single zone of gas of column density $N_{\\rm H} = 1.3 \\times 10^{21}$ cm$^{-2}$ and ionization parameter $\\log \\xi = 2.45$. From the above measurements we calculate that the outflow is observed on parsec scales, within the likely range from 10-1000 pc, i.e., consistent with an origin in the Narrow Line Region.

  8. Correlations among the Jet, Accretion Disk, and Broad-line Region of Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jin; Xue, Zi-Wei; He, Jian-Jian; Liang, En-Wei; Zhang, Shuang-Nan

    2015-07-01

    On the basis of the spectral energy distribution fits and emission line fluxes of 18 GeV flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), we calculate their jet power ({P}{jet}), disk luminosity ({L}{disk}), and broad-line region luminosity ({L}{BLR}). No correlation between {P}{jet} with either {L}{disk} or {L}{BLR} is found, but {L}{BLR} is strongly correlated with {L}{disk}. On average, the broad-line region (BLR) covering factors of GeV-FSRQs in our sample are smaller than those of large samples of quasars. {P}{jet} of some GeV-FSRQs are higher than their {L}{disk}, but all of them are lower than the accretion power of black holes (BHs), which is estimated by \\dot{M}{c}2={L}{disk}/0.1, indicating that the total accretion power of BHs is sufficient to drive the jets in these sources; however, lack of correlation between {L}{disk} and {P}{jet} of the GeV-FSRQs may suggest that their jets are launched by the Blandford–Znajek process via extracting the rotational energy of BHs. Using the {L}{BLR}–{L}{disk} relation of the GeV-FSRQs, we estimate {L}{disk} of a BL Lac sample with their {L}{BLR}. A comparison of {L}{BLR} and the Eddington ratio ({L}{disk}/{L}{Edd}) among BL Lacs, very radio-loud NLS1 galaxies, and FSRQs is also presented. It is found that along with the BL Lac–NLS1–FSRQ sequence {L}{BLR} and {L}{disk}/{L}{Edd} increase, which may correspond to the change of the accretion disk structure and the transformation of the dominant mechanism for jet launching. This is also consistent with the division of blazar parent populations, i.e., low/high-excitation radio galaxies.

  9. Unveiling the X-ray/UV properties of AGN winds using Broad and mini-Broad Absorption Line Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giustini, M.

    2015-07-01

    BAL/mini-BALs are observed in the UV spectra of ˜ 20-30% of optically selected AGN as broad absorption troughs blueshifted by several thousands km/s, indicative of powerful nuclear winds. They could be representative of the average AGN if their winds cover only 20-30% of the continuum source, and/or represent an evolutionary state analogous to the high-soft state of BHB, when the jet emission is quenched and strong X-ray absorbing equatorial disk winds are virtually ubiquitous. High-quality, possibly time-resolved X-ray/UV studies are crucial to assess the global amount and 'character' of absorption in BAL/mini-BAL QSOs and to constrain the physical mechanism responsible for the launch and acceleration of their winds, therefore placing them in the broader context of AGN geometry and evolution. I will review here the known X-ray properties of BAL/mini-BAL QSOs, and present new results from a comprehensive X-ray spectral analysis of all the Palomar-Green BAL/mini-BAL QSOs with available XMM-Newton observations, for a total of 51 pointings of 14 different sources. These will include the most recent results from a high-quality simultaneous XMM/HST observational campaign on the mini-BAL QSO PG 1126-041, that unveiled with stunning details the X-ray/UV connection in action in an AGN disk wind through correlated X-ray/UV absorption variability.

  10. Interpreting Broad Double-Peaked Emission Lines in Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Jules; Chen, Kaiyou

    1999-01-01

    The principal objectives of this project were to probe the inner regions of active galactic nuclei and to test general relativity in the strong-field limit. The approach takes advantage of broad atomic line emission observed from material deep in the potential well of an active galactic nucleus which contains key information as to the physics of the system. Line profiles in a wide range of wavebands from optical to X-ray have provided compelling evidence of the existence of a relativistic accretion disk around a supermassive black hole in a number of galaxies. The simplest model posits a geometrically thin disk in Keplerian orbit, with general relativistic effects in evidence. This model is the point of departure for the proposed work. We developed a high-performance numerical code to calculate photon trajectories in a Schwarzschild or Kerr metric and implemented it on parallel supercomputers. This code includes a general purpose ray tracer that calculates line profiles, light curves, and other observable quantities for a wide variety of emitter configurations. The versatility comes from the fact that the ray tracing algorithm does not depend on any symmetries regarding emitter locations. The speed comes from parallel implementation which enables us to sample hitherto unattainable volumes of disk model parameter space. During the period 1 March 1997 through 28 February 1998, two papers, supported in whole or in part by this grant, were published in refereed journals. They are reproduced in their entirety in the next two sections of this report.

  11. Do the Broad Emission Line Clouds See the Same Continuum that We See?

    E-print Network

    Kirk Korista; Gary Ferland; Jack Baldwin

    1997-04-27

    Recent observations of quasars, Mrk 335 and the HST quasar composite spectrum, have indicated that many of them have remarkably soft ionizing continua (fnu ~ nu^-2.0, 13.6 eV -- 100 eV). We point out that the number of E > 54.4 eV photons is insufficient to create the observed strengths of the He II emission lines. While the numbers of photons which energize C IV 1549 and O VI 1034 are sufficient, even the most efficiently emitting clouds for these two lines must each cover at least 20% -- 40% of the source. If the typical quasar ionizing continuum is indeed this soft, then we must conclude that the broad emission line clouds must see a very different (harder) continuum than we see. The other viable possibility is that the UV -- EUV SED is double-peaked, with the second peaking near 54 eV, its Wien tail the observed soft X-ray excess.

  12. Quasar cartography: From black hole to broad-line region scales

    SciTech Connect

    Chelouche, Doron [Department of Physics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, Haifa 31905 (Israel); Zucker, Shay, E-mail: doron@sci.haifa.ac.il, E-mail: shayz@post.tau.ac.il [Department of Geophysical, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2013-06-01

    A generalized approach to reverberation mapping (RM) is presented, which is applicable to broad- and narrowband photometric data, as well as to spectroscopic observations. It is based on multivariate correlation analysis techniques and, in its present implementation, is able to identify reverberating signals across the accretion disk and the broad-line region (BLR) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Statistical tests are defined to assess the significance of time-delay measurements using this approach, and the limitations of the adopted formalism are discussed. It is shown how additional constraints on some of the parameters of the problem may be incorporated into the analysis thereby leading to improved results. When applied to a sample of 14 Seyfert 1 galaxies having good-quality high-cadence photometric data, accretion disk scales and BLR sizes are simultaneously determined, on a case-by-case basis, in most objects. The BLR scales deduced here are in good agreement with the findings of independent spectroscopic RM campaigns. Implications for the photometric RM of AGN interiors in the era of large surveys are discussed.

  13. Thomson Thick X-Ray Absorption in a Broad Absorption Line Quasar, PG 0946+301.

    PubMed

    Mathur; Green; Arav; Brotherton; Crenshaw; deKool; Elvis; Goodrich; Hamann; Hines; Kashyap; Korista; Peterson; Shields; Shlosman; van Breugel W; Voit

    2000-04-20

    We present a deep ASCA observation of a broad absorption line quasar (BALQSO) PG 0946+301. The source was clearly detected in one of the gas imaging spectrometers, but not in any other detector. If BALQSOs have intrinsic X-ray spectra similar to normal radio-quiet quasars, our observations imply that there is Thomson thick X-ray absorption (NH greater, similar1024 cm-2) toward PG 0946+301. This is the largest column density estimated so far toward a BALQSO. The absorber must be at least partially ionized and may be responsible for attenuation in the optical and UV. If the Thomson optical depth toward BALQSOs is close to 1, as inferred here, then spectroscopy in hard X-rays with large telescopes like XMM would be feasible. PMID:10770695

  14. Thomson Thick X-ray Absorption in a Broad Absorption Line Quasar PG0946+301

    E-print Network

    S. Mathur; P. J. Green; N. Arav; M. Brotherton; M. Crenshaw; M. deKool; M. Elvis; R. W. Goodrich; F. Hamann; D. C. Hines; V. Kashyap; K. Korista; B. M. Peterson; J. Shields; I. Shlosman; W. van Breugel; M. Voit

    2000-02-02

    We present a deep ASCA observation of a Broad Absorption Line Quasar (BALQSO) PG0946+301. The source was clearly detected in one of the gas imaging spectrometers, but not in any other detector. If BALQSOs have intrinsic X-ray spectra similar to normal radio-quiet quasars, our observations imply that there is Thomson thick X-ray absorption (N_H >~10^{24} cm^{-2}) toward PG0946+301. This is the largest column density estimated so far toward a BALQSO. The absorber must be at least partially ionized and may be responsible for attenuation in the optical and UV. If the Thomson optical depth toward BALQSOs is close to one, as inferred here, then spectroscopy in hard X-rays with large telescopes like XMM would be feasible.

  15. X-Rays from Broad Absorption Line Quasars with Extreme Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Patrick

    2002-09-01

    We propose short exploratory observations of 3 Low-Ionization Broad Absorption Line Quasars with unusual properties. One is the most radio-loud LoBAL quasar known and only the second classical radio double BAL quasar known. Since RLQs are X-ray brighter than RQQs, this BAL quasar should be intrinsically X-ray bright. The second target has LoBAL troughs spanning at least 13000 km/s, with 90% absorption of its flux blueward of MgII. However, since most BAL troughs are saturated, its BAL gas column density may be the same as in less extreme LoBAL quasars; X-ray observations can test this possibility. The last target is a unique bright LoBAL quasar with stronger FeIII than FeII absorption; X-ray data probing absorption from different ionization states will help understand its unique spectrum.

  16. BROAD ABSORPTION LINE DISAPPEARANCE ON MULTI-YEAR TIMESCALES IN A LARGE QUASAR SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Filiz Ak, N.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, D. P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hall, P. B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, 4700 Keele St., Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3 (Canada); Anderson, S. F.; Gibson, R. R. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Lundgren, B. F. [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Myers, A. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Petitjean, P. [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, Universite Paris 6, F-75014, Paris (France); Ross, Nicholas P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 92420 (United States); Shen Yue [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-51, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); York, D. G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, and Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Bizyaev, D.; Brinkmann, J.; Malanushenko, E.; Oravetz, D. J.; Pan, K.; Simmons, A. E. [Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349-0059 (United States); Weaver, B. A., E-mail: nfilizak@astro.psu.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    We present 21 examples of C IV broad absorption line (BAL) trough disappearance in 19 quasars selected from systematic multi-epoch observations of 582 bright BAL quasars (1.9 < z < 4.5) by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-I/II (SDSS-I/II) and SDSS-III. The observations span 1.1-3.9 yr rest-frame timescales, longer than have been sampled in many previous BAL variability studies. On these timescales, Almost-Equal-To 2.3% of C IV BAL troughs disappear and Almost-Equal-To 3.3% of BAL quasars show a disappearing trough. These observed frequencies suggest that many C IV BAL absorbers spend on average at most a century along our line of sight to their quasar. Ten of the 19 BAL quasars showing C IV BAL disappearance have apparently transformed from BAL to non-BAL quasars; these are the first reported examples of such transformations. The BAL troughs that disappear tend to be those with small-to-moderate equivalent widths, relatively shallow depths, and high outflow velocities. Other non-disappearing C IV BALs in those nine objects having multiple troughs tend to weaken when one of them disappears, indicating a connection between the disappearing and non-disappearing troughs, even for velocity separations as large as 10,000-15,000 km s{sup -1}. We discuss possible origins of this connection including disk-wind rotation and changes in shielding gas.

  17. The Discovery of Soft X-Ray-loud Broad Absorption Line Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Kajal K.; Punsly, Brian

    2008-02-01

    It has been known for more than a decade that BALQSOs (broad absorption line quasars) are highly attenuated in the X-ray regime compared to other quasars, especially in the soft band (<1 keV). Using X-ray selection techniques, we have found ``soft X-ray-loud'' BALQSOs that, by definition, have soft X-ray (0.3 keV) to UV (3000 Å) flux density ratios that are higher than typical non-BAL radio-quiet quasars. Our sample of three sources includes one LoBALQSO (low-ionization BALQSO), which is generally considered to be the most highly attenuated in X-rays. The three QSOs are the only known BALQSOs that have X-ray observations that are consistent with no intrinsic soft X-ray absorption. The existence of a large X-ray luminosity and the hard ionizing continuum that it presents to potential UV absorption gas is in conflict with the ionization states that are conducive to line-driving forces within BAL winds (especially for the LoBALs).

  18. The Discovery of Soft X-ray Loud Broad Absorption Line Quasars

    E-print Network

    Ghosh, Kajal K

    2008-01-01

    It is been known for more than a decade that BALQSOs (broad absorption line quasars) are highly attenuated in the X-ray regime compared to other quasars, especially in the soft band ($loud" BALQSOs that, by definition, have soft X-ray (0.3 keV) to UV ($3000 \\AA$) flux density ratios that are higher than typical nonBAL radio quiet quasars. Our sample of 3 sources includes one LoBALQSO (low ionization BALQSO) which are generally considered to be the most highly attenuated in the X-rays. The three QSOs are the only known BALQSOs that have X-ray observations that are consistent with no intrinsic soft X-ray absorption. The existence of a large X-ray luminosity and the hard ionizing continuum that it presents to potential UV absorption gas is in conflict with the ionization states that are conducive to line driving forces within BAL winds (especially for the LoBALs).

  19. The parsec-scale structure of radio-loud broad absorption line quasars

    E-print Network

    Bruni, G; Mack, K -H; Montenegro-Montes, F M; González-Serrano, J I; Holt, J; Jiménez-Luján, F

    2013-01-01

    Broad Absorption Line Quasars (BAL QSOs) belong to a class of objects not well-understood as yet. Their UV spectra show BALs in the blue wings of the UV resonance lines, due to ionized gas with outflow velocities up to 0.2 c. They can have radio emission difficult to characterize, and that needs to be studied at various wavelengths and resolutions. We aim at studying the pc-scale properties of their synchrotron emission, and in particular at determining their core properties. We performed observations in Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technique, using both the European VLBI Network (EVN) at 5 GHz, and the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at 5 and 8.4 GHz to map the pc-scale structure of the brightest radio-loud objects of our sample, allowing a proper morphological interpretation. A variety of morphologies have been found: 9 BAL QSOs on a total of 11 observed sources have a resolved structure. Core-jet, double and symmetric objects are present, suggesting different orientations. In some cases the sou...

  20. The radio core and jet in the broad absorption line quasar PG 1700+518

    E-print Network

    Yang, J; Paragi, Z; An, T

    2011-01-01

    The blue-shifted broad absorption lines (BAL) or troughs are observed in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) when our line of sight is intercepted by a high speed outflow (wind), likely originating in the accretion disc. The outflow or wind can shed light on the internal structure obscured by the AGN torus. Recently, it has been shown that this outflow is rotating in the BAL quasar PG 1700+518, further supporting the accretion disc origin of the wind. With the purpose of giving independent constraints on the wind geometry, we performed high-resolution European VLBI Network (EVN) observations at 1.6 GHz in 2010. Combining the VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) results with the Very Large Array (VLA) archival data at 8.4 GHz, we present its jet structure on scales of parsec (pc) to kiloparsec (kpc) for the first time. The source shows two distinct jet features in East-West direction with a separation of around 4 kpc. The Eastern feature, which has so far been assumed to hide the core, is a kpc-scale hot spot, w...

  1. A New Method to Obtain the Broad Line Region Size of High Redshift Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrete, C. Alenka; Dultzin, Deborah; Marziani, Paola; Sulentic, Jack W.

    2014-10-01

    We present high signal-to-noise ratio UV spectra for eight quasars at z ~ 3 obtained with Very Large Telescope/FORS. The spectra enable us to analyze in detail the strong and weak emission features in the rest frame range 1300-2000 Å of each source (C III] ?1909, Si III] ?1892, Al III ?1860, Si II ?1814, C IV ?1549 and blended Si IV ?1397+O IV] ?1402). The flux ratios Al III ?1860/Si III] ?1892, C IV ?1549/Al III ?1860, Si IV ?1397+O IV] ?1402/Si III] ?1892 and Si IV ?1397+O IV] ?1402/C IV ?1549 strongly constrain ionizing photon flux and metallicity through the use of diagnostic maps built from CLOUDY simulations. The radius of the broad line region is then derived from the ionizing photon flux applying the definition of the ionization parameter. The r BLR estimate and the width of a virial component isolated in prominent UV lines yields an estimate of black hole mass. We compare our results with previous estimates obtained from the r BLR-luminosity correlation customarily employed to estimate the black hole masses of high redshift quasars. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at Paranal Observatory under program ID 078.B-0109(A).

  2. Spatially Resolving the Kinematics of the ? 100 ?as Quasar Broad-line Region Using Spectroastrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Jonathan; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Pott, Jörg-Uwe

    2015-05-01

    The broad-line region (BLR) of luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is a prominent observational signature of the accretion flow around supermassive black holes, which can be used to measure their masses ({{M}BH}) over cosmic history. Due to the ? 100 ? as angular size of the BLR, current direct constraints on BLR kinematics are limited to those provided by reverberation mapping studies, which are most efficiently carried out on low-luminosity (L) and low-redshift (z) AGNs. We analyze the possibility of measuring the BLR size and study its kinematic structure using spectroastrometry, whereby one measures the spatial position centroid of emission-line photons as a function of velocity. We calculate the expected spectroastrometric signal of a rotation-dominated BLR for various assumptions about the ratio of random to rotational motions and the radial distribution of the BLR gas. We show that for hyper-luminous quasars at z\\lt 2.5, the size of the low-ionization BLR can already be constrained with existing telescopes and adaptive optics systems, thus providing a novel method to spatially resolve the kinematics of the accretion flow at 103–104 gravitational radii and measure {{M}BH} at the high-L end of the AGN family. With a 30 m class telescope, BLR spectroastrometry should be routinely detectable for much fainter quasars out to z? 6, and for various emission lines. This will enable kinematic {{M}BH} measurements as a function of luminosity and redshift, providing a compelling science case for next-generation telescopes.

  3. On the origins of C IV absorption profile diversity in broad absorption line quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskin, Alexei; Laor, Ari; Hamann, Fred

    2015-05-01

    There is a large diversity in the C IV broad absorption line (BAL) profile among BAL quasars (BALQs). We quantify this diversity by exploring the distribution of the C IV BAL properties, full width at half-maximum (FWHM), maximum depth of absorption and its velocity shift (vmd), using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 quasar catalogue. We find the following: (i) Although the median C IV BAL profile in the quasar rest-frame becomes broader and shallower as the UV continuum slope (?UV at 1700-3000 Å) gets bluer, the median individual profile in the absorber rest-frame remains identical, and is narrow (FWHM = 3500 km s-1) and deep. Only 4 per cent of BALs have FWHM > 10 000 km s-1. (ii) As the He II emission equivalent width (EW) decreases, the distributions of FWHM and vmd extend to larger values, and the median maximum depth increases. These trends are consistent with theoretical models in which softer ionizing continua reduce overionization, and allow radiative acceleration of faster BAL outflows. (iii) As ?UV becomes bluer, the distribution of vmd extends to larger values. This trend may imply faster outflows at higher latitudes above the accretion disc plane. (iv) For non-BALQs, the C IV emission line decreases with decreasing He II EW, and becomes more asymmetric and blueshifted. This suggests an increasing relative contribution of emission from the BAL outflow to the C IV emission line as the ionizing spectral energy distribution (SED) gets softer, which is consistent with the increasing fraction of BALQs as the ionizing SED gets softer.

  4. Broad supernatural punishment but not moralizing high gods precede the evolution of political complexity in Austronesia.

    PubMed

    Watts, Joseph; Greenhill, Simon J; Atkinson, Quentin D; Currie, Thomas E; Bulbulia, Joseph; Gray, Russell D

    2015-04-01

    Supernatural belief presents an explanatory challenge to evolutionary theorists-it is both costly and prevalent. One influential functional explanation claims that the imagined threat of supernatural punishment can suppress selfishness and enhance cooperation. Specifically, morally concerned supreme deities or 'moralizing high gods' have been argued to reduce free-riding in large social groups, enabling believers to build the kind of complex societies that define modern humanity. Previous cross-cultural studies claiming to support the MHG hypothesis rely on correlational analyses only and do not correct for the statistical non-independence of sampled cultures. Here we use a Bayesian phylogenetic approach with a sample of 96 Austronesian cultures to test the MHG hypothesis as well as an alternative supernatural punishment hypothesis that allows punishment by a broad range of moralizing agents. We find evidence that broad supernatural punishment drives political complexity, whereas MHGs follow political complexity. We suggest that the concept of MHGs diffused as part of a suite of traits arising from cultural exchange between complex societies. Our results show the power of phylogenetic methods to address long-standing debates about the origins and functions of religion in human society. PMID:25740888

  5. Revisiting correlations between broad-line and jet emission variations for AGNs: 3C 120 and 3C 273

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H. T.; Bai, J. M.; Feng, H. C.; Li, S. K.

    2015-06-01

    We restudy the issue of cross-correlations between broad-line and jet emission variations, and aim to locate the position of a radio (and gamma-ray) emitting region in a jet of active galactic nuclei. Considering the radial profiles of the radius and number density of clouds in a spherical broad-line region (BLR), we derive new formulae connecting the jet-emitting position Rjet to the time lag ?ob between broad-line and jet emission variations, and the BLR radius. Also, formulae are derived for a disc-like BLR and a spherical shell BLR. The model-independent flux randomization/random subset selection method is used to estimate ?ob. For 3C 120, positive lags of about 0.3 yr are found between the 15 GHz emission and the H?, H? and He II ?4686 lines, including broad-line data in a newly published paper, indicating that the line variations lead the 15 GHz ones. Each of the broad-line light curves corresponds to a radio outburst. Rjet = 1.1-1.5 parsec (pc) is obtained for 3C 120. For 3C 273, a common feature of negative time lags is found in the cross-correlation functions between light curves of radio emission and the Balmer lines, as well as Ly? ?1216 and C IV ?1549 lines. Rjet = 1.0-2.6 pc is obtained for 3C 273. The estimated Rjet is comparable for 3C 120 and 3C 273, and the gamma-ray-emitting positions will be within ˜1-3 pc from the central engines. Comparisons show that the cloud number density and radius radial distributions and the BLR structures have only negligible effects on Rjet.

  6. Multiharmonic electron paramagnetic resonance for extended samples with both narrow and broad lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhelin; Tseytlin, Mark; Eaton, Sandra S.; Eaton, Gareth R.

    2015-05-01

    Multiharmonic electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy was demonstrated for two samples with both narrow and broad lines: (i) ?,?-Bisdiphenylene-?-phenylallyl (BDPA) with ?Bpp of 0.85 G plus ultramarine blue with ?Bpp of 17 G, and (ii) a nitroxide radical immobilized in sucrose octaacetate. Modulation amplitudes up to 17 G at 41 kHz were generated with a rapid scan coil driver and Litz wire coils that provide uniform magnetic field sweeps over samples with heights of 5 mm. Data were acquired with a 2-D experiment in the Xepr software through the transient signal path of a Bruker E500T and digitized in quadrature with a Bruker SpecJet II. Signals at the modulation frequency and its harmonics were calculated by digital phase-sensitive detection. The number of harmonics with signal intensity greater than noise increases as the ratio of the modulation amplitude to the narrowest peak increases. Spectra reconstructed by the multiharmonic method from data obtained with modulation amplitudes up to five times the peak-to-peak linewidths of the narrowest features have linewidths that are broadened by up to only about 10% relative to linewidths in spectra obtained at low modulation amplitudes. The signal-to-noise improves with increasing modulation amplitude up to the point where the modulation amplitude is slightly larger than the linewidth of the narrowest features. If this high a modulation amplitude had been used in conventional methodology the linewidth of the narrowest features would have been severely broadened. The multiharmonic reconstruction methodology means that the selection of the modulation amplitude that can be used without spectral distortion is no longer tightly tied to the linewidth of the narrowest line.

  7. Lens or Binary? Chandra Observations of the Wide Separation Broad Absorption Line Quasar Pair UM425

    E-print Network

    T. L. Aldcroft; P. J. Green

    2003-04-22

    We have obtained a 110 ksec Chandra ACIS-S exposure of UM425, a pair of QSOs at z=1.47 separated by 6.5 arcsec, which show remarkably similar emission and broad absorption line (BAL) profiles in the optical/UV. Our 5000 count X-ray spectrum of UM425A (the brighter component) is well-fit with a power law (photon spectral index Gamma=2.0) partially covered by a hydrogen column of 3.8x10^22 cm^-2. The underlying power-law slope for this object and for other recent samples of BALQSOs is typical of radio-quiet quasars, lending credence to the hypothesis that BALs exist in every quasar. Assuming the same Gamma for the much fainter image of UM425B, we detect an obscuring column 5 times larger. We search for evidence of an appropriately large lensing mass in our Chandra image and find weak diffuse emission near the quasar pair, with an X-ray flux typical of a group of galaxies at redshift z ~ 0.6. From our analysis of archival HST WFPC2 and NICMOS images, we find no evidence for a luminous lensing galaxy, but note a 3-sigma excess of galaxies in the UM425 field with plausible magnitudes for a z=0.6 galaxy group. However, the associated X-ray emission does not imply sufficient mass to produce the observed image splitting. The lens scenario thus requires a dark (high M/L ratio) lens, or a fortuitous configuration of masses along the line of sight. UM425 may instead be a close binary pair of BALQSOs, which would boost arguments that interactions and mergers increase nuclear activity and outflows.

  8. Broad Absorption Line Quasars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey with VLA-FIRST Radio Detections

    E-print Network

    Kristen Menou; Daniel E. Vanden Berk; Zeljko Ivezic; Rita S. J. Kim; Gillian R. Knapp; Gordon T. Richards; Iskra Strateva; Xiaohui Fan; James E. Gunn; Patrick B. Hall; Tim Heckman; Julian Krolik; Robert H. Lupton; Donald P. Schneider; Donald G. York

    2001-06-29

    We present 13 Broad Absorption Line (BAL) quasars, including 12 new objects, which were identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and matched within 2'' to sources in the FIRST radio survey catalog. The surface density of this sample of radio-detected BAL quasars is 4.5 +- 1.2 per 100 deg^2, i.e. approximately 4 times larger than previously found by the shallower FIRST Bright Quasar Survey (FBQS). A majority of these radio-detected BAL quasars are moderately radio-loud objects. The fraction of BAL quasars in the entire radio quasar sample, 4.8 +- 1.3 %, is comparable to the fraction of BAL quasars among the SDSS optical quasar sample (ignoring selection effects). We estimate that the true fraction of BAL quasars (mostly HiBALs) in the radio sample is 9.2 +- 2.6 % once selection effects are accounted for. We caution that the absorption troughs of 4 of the 13 radio-detected quasars considered do not strictly satisfy the standard BALnicity criterion. One or possibly two of the new radio-detected BAL quasars are of the rare ``iron LoBAL'' type. BAL quasars are generally redder than the median SDSS quasar at the same redshift.

  9. Seven Broad Absorption Line Quasars With Excess Broadband Absorption Near 2250 Å

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shaohua; Ge, Jian; Jiang, Peng; Zhou, Hongyan; Ma, Jingzhe; Brandt, W. N.; York, Donald G.; Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Schneider, Donald P.

    2015-04-01

    We report the discovery of excess broadband absorption (EBBA) near 2250 Å in the spectra of seven broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. By comparing with the statistical results from the control quasar sample, the significance for the detections are all above the ? 4? level, with five above \\gt 5? . The detections have also been verified by several other independent methods. The EBBAs present broader and weaker bumps at smaller wavenumbers than the Milky Way, and similar to the Large Magellanic Cloud. The EBBA bump may be related to the 2175 Å bump seen in the Local Group and may be a counterpart of the 2175 Å bump under different conditions in the early universe. Furthermore, five objects in this sample show low-ionization BAL (LoBALs), such as Mg ii and Al iii, in addition to the high-ionization BAL of C iv and Si iv. The fraction of LoBALs in our sample, ?70%, is surprisingly high compared to that of general BAL quasars, ?10%. Although the origin of the bump is still not clear, the coexistence of both BALs and bumps and the significantly high fraction of LoBALs may indicate that the bump carriers are closely related to the early evolution phase of quasars.

  10. Optical observations of the broad-lined type Ic supernova SN 2012ap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zheng; Zhao, Xu-Lin; Huang, Fang; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Tian-Meng; Chen, Jun-Cheng; Zhang, Tong-Jie

    2015-02-01

    The optical observations of the type Ic supernova (SN Ic) SN 2012ap in NGC 1729 are presented. A comparison with other SNe Ic indicates that SN 2012ap is highly reddened (with E(B — V)host~0.8 mag) and may represent one of the most luminous SNe Ic ever observed, with an absolute V-band peak magnitude of ~ -19.3±0.5 mag after extinction correction. The near-maximum-light spectrum shows wide spectral features that are typical of broad-lined SNe Ic. One interesting feature in the spectrum is the appearance of some narrow absorption features that can be attributed to the diffuse interstellar bands, consistent with the large reddening inferred from the photometric method. Based on the light curves and the spectral data, we estimate that SN 2012ap produced a 56Ni mass of ~ 0.3 ± 0.1Msolar 1 in the explosion, with an ejecta mass of 2.4-0.7+0.7Msolar and a kinetic energy of EK = 1.1-0.4+0.4 × 1052 erg. The properties of its progenitor are also briefly discussed.

  11. The Lick AGN Monitoring Project 2011: Dynamical Modeling of the Broad Line Region in Mrk 50

    E-print Network

    Pancoast, Anna; Treu, Tommaso; Barth, Aaron J; Bennert, Vardha N; Canalizo, Gabriela; Filippenko, Alexei V; Gates, Elinor L; Greene, Jenny E; Li, Weidong; Malkan, Matthew A; Sand, David J; Stern, Daniel; Woo, Jong-Hak; Assef, Roberto J; Bae, Hyun-Jin; Buehler, Tabitha; Cenko, S Bradley; Clubb, Kelsey I; Cooper, Michael C; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M; Hiner, Kyle D; Hoenig, Sebastian F; Joner, Michael D; Kandrashoff, Michael T; Laney, C David; Lazarova, Mariana S; Nierenberg, A M; Park, Dawoo; Silverman, Jeffrey M; Son, Donghoon; Sonnenfeld, Alessandro; Thorman, Shawn J; Tollerud, Erik J; Walsh, Jonelle L; Walters, Richard

    2012-01-01

    We present dynamical modeling of the broad line region (BLR) in the Seyfert 1 galaxy Mrk 50 using reverberation mapping data taken as part of the Lick AGN Monitoring Project (LAMP) 2011. We model the reverberation mapping data directly, constraining the geometry and kinematics of the BLR, as well as deriving a black hole mass estimate that does not depend on a normalizing factor or virial coefficient. We find that the geometry of the BLR in Mrk 50 is a nearly face-on thick disk, with a mean radius of 9.6(+1.2,-0.9) light days, a width of the BLR of 6.9(+1.2,-1.1) light days, and a disk opening angle of 25\\pm10 degrees above the plane. We also constrain the inclination angle to be 9(+7,-5) degrees, close to face-on. Finally, the black hole mass of Mrk 50 is inferred to be log10(M(BH)/Msun) = 7.57(+0.44,-0.27). By comparison to the virial black hole mass estimate from traditional reverberation mapping analysis, we find the normalizing constant (virial coefficient) to be log10(f) = 0.78(+0.44,-0.27), consistent ...

  12. Neutrino-heated stars and broad-line emission from active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, James; Stanev, Todor; Biermann, Peter L.

    1991-01-01

    Nonthermal radiation from active galactic nuclei indicates the presence of highly relativistic particles. The interaction of these high-energy particles with matter and photons gives rise to a flux of high-energy neutrinos. In this paper, the influence of the expected high neutrino fluxes on the structure and evolution of single, main-sequence stars is investigated. Sequences of models of neutrino-heated stars in thermal equilibrium are presented for masses 0.25, 0.5, 0.8, and 1.0 solar mass. In addition, a set of evolutionary sequences for mass 0.5 solar mass have been computed for different assumed values for the incident neutrino energy flux. It is found that winds driven by the heating due to high-energy particles and hard electromagnetic radiation of the outer layers of neutrino-bloated stars may satisfy the requirements of the model of Kazanas (1989) for the broad-line emission clouds in active galactic nuclei.

  13. Hidden Broad Line Seyfert 2 Galaxies in the CfA and 12micron Samples

    E-print Network

    Hien D. Tran

    2001-05-25

    We report the results of a spectropolarimetric survey of the CfA and 12micron samples of Seyfert 2 galaxies (S2s). Polarized (hidden) broad line regions (HBLRs) are confirmed in a number of galaxies, and several new cases (F02581-1136, MCG -3-58-7, NGC 5995, NGC 6552, NGC 7682) are reported. The 12micron S2 sample shows a significantly higher incidence of HBLR (50%) than its CfA counterpart (30%), suggesting that the latter may be incomplete in hidden AGNs. Compared to the non-HBLR S2s, the HBLR S2s display distinctly higher radio power relative to their far-infrared output and hotter dust temperature as indicated by the f25/f60 color. However, the level of obscuration is indistinguishable between the two types of S2. These results strongly support the existence of two intrinsically different populations of S2: one harboring an energetic, hidden S1 nucleus with BLR, and the other, a ``pure S2'', with weak or absent S1 nucleus and a strong, perhaps dominating starburst component. Thus, the simple purely orientation-based unification model is not applicable to all Seyfert galaxies.

  14. A VLBI survey of compact Broad Absorption Lines (BAL) quasars with BALnicity Index BI=0

    E-print Network

    Ceglowski, M; Roskowinski, C

    2015-01-01

    We present high-resolution observations, using both the European VLBI Network (EVN) at 1.7-GHz, and the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at 5 and 8.4-GHz to image radio structures of 14 compact sources classified as broad absorption line (BAL) quasars based on the absorption index (AI). All source but one were resolved, with the majority showing core-jet morphology typical for radio-loud quasars. We discuss in details the most interesting cases. The high radio luminosities and small linear sizes of the observed objects indicate they are strong young AGNs. Nevertheless, the distribution of the radio-loudness parameter, log(Ri), of a larger sample of AI quasars shows that the objects observed by us constitute the most luminous, small subgroup of AI population. Additionally we report that for the radio-loudness parameter, the distribution of AI quasars and those selected by using the traditional balnicity index (BI), BI quasars differ significantly. Strong absorption is connected with the lower log(Ri), and thus ...

  15. VLBI survey of compact broad absorption line quasars with balnicity index BI = 0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceg?owski, M.; Kunert-Bajraszewska, M.; Roskowi?ski, C.

    2015-06-01

    We present high-resolution observations, using both the European VLBI Network (EVN) at 1.7 GHz and the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at 5 and 8.4 GHz, to image radio structures of 14 compact sources classified as broad absorption line (BAL) quasars based on the absorption index (AI). All sources but one were resolved, with the majority showing core-jet morphology typical for radio-loud quasars. We discuss in detail the most interesting cases. The high radio luminosities and small linear sizes of the observed objects indicate they are strong young active galactic nuclei. Nevertheless, the distribution of the radio-loudness parameter, log RI, of a larger sample of AI quasars shows that the objects observed by us constitute the most luminous, small subgroup of the AI population. Additionally, we report that for the radio-loudness parameter, the distribution of AI quasars and that for those selected using the traditional balnicity index differ significantly. Strong absorption is connected with lower log RI and thus probably larger viewing angles. Since the AI quasars have on average larger log RI, the orientation can mean that we see them less absorbed. However, we suggest that the orientation is not the only parameter that affects the detected absorption. That the strong absorption is associated with the weak radio emission is equally important and worth exploring.

  16. On the origins of C IV absorption profile diversity in broad absorption line quasars

    E-print Network

    Baskin, Alexei; Hamann, Fred

    2015-01-01

    There is a large diversity in the C IV broad absorption line (BAL) profile among BAL quasars (BALQs). We quantify this diversity by exploring the distribution of the C IV BAL properties, FWHM, maximum depth of absorption and its velocity shift ($v_{\\rm md}$), using the SDSS DR7 quasar catalogue. We find the following: (i) Although the median C IV BAL profile in the quasar rest-frame becomes broader and shallower as the UV continuum slope ($\\alpha_{\\rm UV}$ at 1700-3000 A) gets bluer, the median individual profile in the absorber rest-frame remains identical, and is narrow (FWHM = 3500 km/s) and deep. Only 4 per cent of BALs have FWHM > 10,000 km/s. (ii) As the He II emission equivalent-width (EW) decreases, the distributions of FWHM and $v_{\\rm md}$ extend to larger values, and the median maximum depth increases. These trends are consistent with theoretical models in which softer ionizing continua reduce overionization, and allow radiative acceleration of faster BAL outflows. (iii) As $\\alpha_{\\rm UV}$ become...

  17. Evidence for Binary Orbital Motion of a Quasar Broad-Line Region

    E-print Network

    C. M. Gaskell

    1996-05-29

    Analysis of spectra of the quasar 3C 390.3 covering a period of over 20 yr shows that the blueshifted peak of H beta has been changing its radial velocity at an almost constant rate during this time. The radial velocity has increased by over 1500 km/s. The lower limit to the period of radial velocity changes is 210 yr. Although very long periods cannot be excluded by the radial velocity curve alone, other considerations suggest that the period is about 300 yr. If the radial velocity changes are due to orbital motion, the radius of the orbit is about 0.3 pc and the total mass of the system is about 7 * 10**9 solar masses. In the binary black-hole model the masses of the two holes are about 2.2 * 10**9 solar masses. and about 4.4 * 10**9 solar masses. A possible third peak claimed to be present in some 1974-75 spectra is shown to be an instrumental artifact. The narrowness of the displaced peaks in 3C 390.3 objects requires that the broad line region cloud motions are not governed solely by gravity. The black hole masses derived by Koratkar & Gaskell (1991) need to be increased significantly. This probably lowers accretion efficiences to less than 1\\% of the Eddington limit.

  18. Lens or Binary? Chandra Observations of the Wide Separation Broad Absorption Line Quasar Pair UM425

    E-print Network

    Aldcroft, T L

    2003-01-01

    We have obtained a 110 ksec Chandra ACIS-S exposure of UM425, a pair of QSOs at z=1.47 separated by 6.5 arcsec, which show remarkably similar emission and broad absorption line (BAL) profiles in the optical/UV. Our 5000 count X-ray spectrum of UM425A (the brighter component) is well-fit with a power law (photon spectral index Gamma=2.0) partially covered by a hydrogen column of 3.8x10^22 cm^-2. The underlying power-law slope for this object and for other recent samples of BALQSOs is typical of radio-quiet quasars, lending credence to the hypothesis that BALs exist in every quasar. Assuming the same Gamma for the much fainter image of UM425B, we detect an obscuring column 5 times larger. We search for evidence of an appropriately large lensing mass in our Chandra image and find weak diffuse emission near the quasar pair, with an X-ray flux typical of a group of galaxies at redshift z ~ 0.6. From our analysis of archival HST WFPC2 and NICMOS images, we find no evidence for a luminous lensing galaxy, but note a ...

  19. Strong Variability of Overlapping Iron Broad Absorption Lines in five Radio-selected Quasars

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Shaohua; Wang, Tinggui; Wang, Huiyuan; Shi, Xiheng; Liu, Bo; Liu, Wenjuan; Li, Zhenzhen; Wang, Shufen

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of a variability study of broad absorption lines (BALs) in a uniformly radio-selected sample of 28 BAL quasars using the archival data from the first bright quasar survey (FBQS) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), as well as those obtained by ourselves, covering time scales $\\sim 1-10$ years in the quasar's rest-frame. The variable absorption troughs are detected in 12 BAL quasars. Among them, five cases showed strong spectral variations and are all belong to a special subclass of overlapping iron low ionization BALs (OFeLoBALs). The absorbers of \\ion{Fe}{2} are estimated to be formed by a relative dense (\\mbox{$n\\rm _{e} > 10^6~cm^{-3}$}) gas at a distance from the subparsec scale to the dozens of parsec-scale from the continuum source. They differ from those of invariable non-overlapping FeLoBALs (non-OFeLoBALs), which are the low-density gas and locate at the distance of hundreds to thousands parsecs. OFeLoBALs and non-OFeLoBALs, i.e., FeLoBALs with/without strong BAL variations...

  20. Evidence for a low-density component in the broad-line region of Seyfert 1 galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crenshaw, D. M.; Peterson, B. M.

    1986-01-01

    It is found that the forbidden 4959-5007 A broad O III lines, good candidates for the excess shelf emission, are found in the vicinity of H-beta in Seyfert 1 galaxy spectra. The shelf-study method used to remove Fe II assumes that the profiles of the contributors to the shelf are known, and that subtraction of these contributors in the correct amount will result in a fairly smooth H-beta profile. Data were obtained with the Ohio State University Image-Dissector Scanner with a 600 line/mm grating, on a 1.8-m reflector. The estimated cloud electron density of 1 billion/sq cm is at the low end of those used for BLR photoionization models. The presence of a broad residual emission feature in the neighborhood of 5050 A after subtraction of the shelf is thought to be the result of a weak broad emission in this range from yet another species.

  1. Evidence for a low-density component in the broad-line region of Seyfert 1 galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crenshaw, D. M.; Peterson, B. M.

    1986-02-01

    It is found that the forbidden 4959-5007 A broad O III lines, good candidates for the excess shelf emission, are found in the vicinity of H-beta in Seyfert 1 galaxy spectra. The shelf-study method used to remove Fe II assumes that the profiles of the contributors to the shelf are known, and that subtraction of these contributors in the correct amount will result in a fairly smooth H-beta profile. Data were obtained with the Ohio State University Image-Dissector Scanner with a 600 line/mm grating, on a 1.8-m reflector. The estimated cloud electron density of 1 billion/sq cm is at the low end of those used for BLR photoionization models. The presence of a broad residual emission feature in the neighborhood of 5050 A after subtraction of the shelf is thought to be the result of a weak broad emission in this range from yet another species.

  2. Evolution and Hydrodynamics of the Very-Broad X-ray Line Emission in SN1987A

    E-print Network

    Dewey, Dan

    Observations of SN 1987A by the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) in 1999 and the XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) in 2003 show very broad (v-b) lines with a full width at half-maximum (FWHM) ...

  3. Reverberation Mapping and the Disk Wind Model of the Broad Line Region J. Chiang and N. Murray

    E-print Network

    Murray, Norman

    Reverberation Mapping and the Disk Wind Model of the Broad Line Region J. Chiang and N. Murray Explorer)/ground­based observations of NGC 5548 in 1988­89 (Clavel et al. 1991). Several major insights. Based on the structure of the response functions, Krolik et al. (1991) concluded that the BLR in NGC

  4. LENS OR BINARY? CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF THE WIDE-SEPARATION BROAD ABSORPTION LINE QUASAR PAIR UM 425

    E-print Network

    Green, Paul

    LENS OR BINARY? CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF THE WIDE-SEPARATION BROAD ABSORPTION LINE QUASAR PAIR UM-law slope for this object and for other recent samples of BALQSOs is typical of radio-quiet quasars, lending credence to the hypothesis that BALs exist in every quasar. Assuming the same C for the much fainter image

  5. Polarization of Quasars: Electron Scattering in the Broad Absorption Line Region

    E-print Network

    Hui-Yuan Wang; Ting-Gui Wang; Jun-Xian Wang

    2005-08-02

    It is widely accepted that the broad absorption line region (BALR) exists in most (if not all) quasars with a small covering factor. Recent works showed that the BALR is optically thick to soft and even medium energy X-rays, with a typical hydrogen column density of a few 10$^{23}$ to $>$ 10$^{24}$ cm$^{-2}$. The electron scattering in the thick absorber might contribute significantly to the observed continuum polarization for both BAL QSOs and non-BAL QSOs. In this paper, we present a detailed study of the electron scattering in the BALR by assuming an equatorial and axisymmetric outflow model. Monte-Carlo simulations are performed to correct the effect of the radiative transfer. Assuming an average covering factor of 0.2 of the BALR, which is consistent with observations, we find the electron scattering in the BALR with a column density of $\\sim$ 4 $\\times$ 10$^{23}$ cm$^{-2}$ can successfully produce the observed average continuum polarization for both BAL QSOs and non-BAL QSOs. The observed distribution of the continuum polarization of radio quiet quasars (for both BAL QSOs and non-BAL QSOs) is used to constrain the dispersal distribution of the BALR. We find that, to match the observations, the maximum continuum polarization produced by the BALR (while viewed edge-on) peaks at $P$ = 0.34%, which is much smaller than the average continuum polarization of BAL QSOs ($P$ = 0.93%). The discrepancy can be explained by a selection bias that the BAL with larger covering factor, and thus producing larger continuum polarization, is more likely to be detected. A larger sample of radio quiet quasars with accurate measurement of the continuum polarization will give better constraints to the distribution of the BALR properties.

  6. The parsec-scale structure of radio-loud broad absorption line quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruni, G.; Dallacasa, D.; Mack, K.-H.; Montenegro-Montes, F. M.; González-Serrano, J. I.; Holt, J.; Jiménez-Luján, F.

    2013-06-01

    Context. Broad absorption line quasars (BAL QSOs) belong to a class of objects not well-understood as yet. Their UV spectra show BALs in the blue wings of the UV resonance lines, owing to ionized gas with outflow velocities up to 0.2 c. They can have radio emission that is difficult to characterize and that needs to be studied at various wavelengths and resolutions. Aims: We aim to study the pc-scale properties of their synchrotron emission and, in particular, to determine their core properties. Methods: We performed observations in the Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technique, using both the European VLBI Network (EVN) at 5 GHz, and the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at 5 and 8.4 GHz to map the pc-scale structure of the brightest radio-loud objects of our sample, allowing a proper morphological interpretation. Results: A variety of morphologies have been found: 9 BAL QSOs on a total of 11 observed sources have a resolved structure. Core-jet, double, and symmetric objects are present, suggesting different orientations. In some cases the sources can be young GPS or CSS. The projected linear size of the sources, also considering observations from our previous work for the same objects, can vary from tens of pc to hundreds of kpc. In some cases, a diffuse emission can be supposed from the missing flux-density with respect to previous lower resolution observations. Finally, the magnetic field strength does not significantly differ from the values found in the literature for radio sources with similar sizes. Conclusions: These results are not easily interpreted with the youth scenario for BAL QSOs, in which they are generally compact objects still expelling a dust cocoon. The variety of orientations, morphologies, and extensions found are presumably related to different possible angles for the BAL producing outflows, with respect to the jet axis. Moreover, the phenomenon could be present in various phases of the QSO evolution. Table 3 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  7. Orientation dependency of broad-line widths in quasars and consequences for black-hole mass estimation

    E-print Network

    Matt J. Jarvis; Ross J. McLure

    2006-03-09

    In this paper we report new evidence that measurements of the broad-line widths in quasars are dependent on the source orientation, consistent with the idea that the broad-line region is flattened or disc-like. This reinforces the view derived from radio-selected samples, where the radio-core dominance has been used as a measure of orientation. The results presented here show a highly significant (>99.95%) correlation between radio spectral index (which we use as a proxy for source orientation) and broad-line width derived from the H-beta and MgII emission lines. This is the first time that this type of study has used quasars derived from a large optically selected quasar sample, where the radio-loud quasars (RLQs) and radio-quiet quasars (RQQs) have indistinguishable distributions in redshift, bolometric luminosity and colour, and therefore overcomes any biases which may be present in only selecting via radio emission. We find that the mean FWHM for the flat-spectrum radio-loud quasars (FSQs) to be = 4990 +/- 536km/s, which differs significant from the mean FWHM of the steep-spectrum radio-loud quasars (SSQs), where =6464 +/- 506km/s. We also find that the distribution in FWHM for the FSQs is indistinguishable from that of the radio-quiet quasars (RQQs), where = 4831 +/-25km/s. Considering other observational results in the literature we interpret this result in the context of a significant fraction of the FSQs being derived from the underlying RQQ population which have their radio flux Doppler boosted above the RLQ/RQQ divide. Under the assumption of a disc-like broad-line region we find no evidence for a difference in the average line-of-sight angle for RQQs and RLQs, implying that the difference is due to black-hole mass. (abridged)

  8. A Simultaneous RXTE and XMM-Newton Observation of the Broad-Line Radio Galaxy 3C 111

    E-print Network

    Karen T. Lewis; Michael Eracleous; Mario Gliozzi; Rita M. Sambruna; Richard F. Mushotzky

    2004-12-20

    We present the results of simultaneous XMM-Newton and RXTE observations of the Broad-Line Radio Galaxy 3C 111. We find that the Compton reflection bump is extremely weak, however, broad residuals are clearly present in the spectrum near the Fe Kalpha emission line region. When fitted with a Gaussian emission line,the feature has an equivalent width of 40-100eV and full-width at half maximum of greater than 20,000 km/s, however the exact properties of this weak line are highly dependent upon the chosen continuum model. The width of the line suggests an origin in the inner accretion disk, which is, however, inconsistent with the lack of Compton reflection. We find that much of the broad residual emission can be attributed to continuum curvature. The data are consistent with a model in which the primary powerlaw continuum is reprocessed by an accretion disk which is truncated as small radii. Alternatively, the primary source could be partially covered by a dense absorber. The latter model is less attractive than the former because of the small inclination angle of the jet of 3C 111 to the line of sight. We consider it likely that the curved continuum of the partial covering model is fortuitously similar to the continuum shape of the reprocessing model. In both models, the fit is greatly improved by the addition of an unresolved Fe K alpha emission line, which could arise either in a Compton-thin obscuring torus or dense clouds lying along the line of sight. We also find that there are unacceptable residuals at low energies in the MOS data in particular, which were modeled as a Gaussian with an energy of ~1.5 keV; we attribute these residuals to calibration uncertainties of the MOS detectors.

  9. A VLBI survey of compact broad absorption line quasars with balnicity index BI > 0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunert-Bajraszewska, M.; Ceg?owski, M.; Katarzy?ski, K.; Roskowi?ski, C.

    2015-07-01

    Aims: Outflows manifest as broad absorption lines (BALs) in the quasars spectra. Although outflows are one of the most common astrophysical processes in the Universe, the BAL quasars are rare. Radio emission is another tool that can help to understand the phenomenon of BAL quasars. The aim of this paper is to study their orientation and age by very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) imaging and radio-loudness parameter distribution. Methods: We performed high resolution radio observations of a new sample of ten BAL quasars using both the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) and the European VLBI Network (EVN) at 5 GHz. All the selected sources have balnicity indices (BI) more than 0 and radio flux densities less than 80 mJy at 1.4 GHz. They are very compact with linear sizes of the order of a few tens of parsecs and radio luminosities at 1.4 GHz above the FR I-FR II luminosity threshold. Results: Most of the observed objects have been resolved at 5 GHz showing one-sided, probably core-jet structures, typical for quasars. We discuss in detail their age and orientation based on the radio observations. We then used the largest available sample of BAL quasars to study the relationships between the radio and optical properties in these objects. We found that (1) the strongest absorption (high values of the balnicity index BI) is connected with the lower values of the radio-loudness parameter, log RI< 1.5, and thus probably with large viewing angles; (2) the large span of the BI values in each bin of the radio-loudness parameter indicates that the orientation is only one of the factors influencing the measured absorption; (3) most of the radio-loud BAL quasars are compact, low luminosity objects with a wide range of jet power (although the highest values of BI seem to be associated with the lower values of jet power). In addition, we suggest that the short lifetime postulated for some compact active galactic nuclei could also explain the scarcity of the large-scale radio sources among BAL quasars.

  10. Broad absorption line variability on multi-year timescales in a large quasar sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filiz Ak, Nurten

    Outflows launched near the central supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are a common and important component of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Outflows in luminous AGNs (i.e., quasars) play a key role in mass accretion onto SMBH as well as in the feedback into host galaxies. The most prominent signature of such outflows appears as broad absorption lines (BALs) that are blueshifted from the emission line with a few thousands km s--1 velocities. In this dissertation, I place further constrains upon the size scale, internal structure, dynamics, and evolution of the outflows investigating profiles, properties, and variation characteristics of BAL troughs. I present observational results on BAL troughs in a large quasar sample utilizing spectroscopic observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey spanning on multi-year timescales. The results presented here, for the first time, provide a large and well-defined variability data base capable of discriminating between time-dependent hydrodynamic wind calculations in a statistically powerful manner. In a study of 582 quasars, I present 21 examples of BAL trough disappearance. Approximately 3.3% of BAL quasars show disappearing C IV trough on rest-frame timescales of 1.1--3.9 yr. BAL disappearance appears to occur mainly for shallow and weak or moderate-strength absorption troughs but not the strongest ones. When one BAL trough in a quasar spectrum disappears, the other present troughs usually weaken. Possible causes of such coordinated variations could be disk-wind rotation or variations of shielding gas that lead to variations of ionizing-continuum radiation. I present a detailed study on the variability of 428 C IV and 235 Si IV BAL troughs using a systematically observed sample of 291 BAL quasars. BAL variation distributions indicate that BAL disappearance is an extreme type of general BAL variability, rather than a qualitatively distinct phenomenon. The high observed frequency of BAL variability on multi-year timescales is generally supportive of models where most BAL absorption arises at radii of 10--1000 light days. Average lifetime for a BAL trough along our line-of-sight is a few thousand years which is long compared to the orbital time of the accretion disk at the wind-launching radius. We have examined if BAL variations on several timescales depend upon quasar properties, including quasar luminosity, Eddington luminosity ratio, black hole mass, redshift, and radio loudness. Within the ranges of these properties spanned by our sample, we do not find any strong dependences. The coordinated trough variability of BAL quasars with multiple troughs suggests that changes in "shielding gas" may play a significant role in driving general BAL variability. I present a study investigating the dependence of C IV BAL properties and variation characteristics on accompanying Si IV and Al III absorption. Results of this study show that C IV BAL trough shapes, depths, velocity widths and strengths show a strong dependence on the presence of Si IV and Al III BAL troughs at corresponding velocities. Similarly, the variation characteristics and depth variation profiles of C IV BAL troughs also show a strong connection to BAL troughs in these transitions. Using these ions as a basic tracer of ionization level of the absorbing gas, systematic measurements of variability and profiles for a large sample of C IV , Si IV, and Al III BAL troughs present observational evidences of the relation between ionization level, column density and kinematics of outflows. Utilizing observational investigations on a large BAL quasar sample, we show that ionization level, column density and kinematics of outflows show correlated object-to-object differences. We present a detailed comparison between the observational results of this study and the well studied disk-wind model of quasar outflows, which suggests that the wind is launched from the accretion disk at ˜ 1016--1017 cm and radiatively driven by UV line pressure. Results of this study show that lines-of-sight with different viewing inclinations suc

  11. AGN Space Telescope and Optical Reverberation Mapping Project. IV. Velocity-Delay Mapping of Broad Emission Lines in NGC 5548

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horne, Keith D.; Agn Storm Team

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional velocity-delay maps of AGN broad emission line regions can be recovered by modelling observations of reverberating emission-line profiles on the assumption that the line profile variations are driven by changes in ionising radiation from a compact source near the black hole. The observable light travel time delay resolves spatial structure on iso-delay paraboloids, while the doppler shift resolves kinematic structure along the observer's line-of-sight. Velocity-delay maps will be presented and briefly discussed for the Lyman alpha, CIV and Hbeta line profiles based on the HST and ground-based spectrophotometric monitoring of NGC 5548 during the 2014 AGN STORM campaign.

  12. WISE J233237.05–505643.5: A double-peaked, broad-lined active galactic nucleus with a spiral-shaped radio morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Chao-Wei [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Jarrett, T. H. [Astronomy Department, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Stern, Daniel; Assef, Roberto J.; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Wu, Jingwen [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Emonts, Bjorn [Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), Ctra de Torrejón a Ajalvir, km 4, E-28850 Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Barrows, R. Scott [Arkansas Center for Space and Planetary Sciences, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Norris, Ray P. [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping NSW 1710 (Australia); Lonsdale, Carol [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Blain, Andrew W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, 1 University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Benford, Dominic J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Stalder, Brian; Stubbs, Christopher W. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); High, F. William [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Li, K. L.; Kong, Albert K. H., E-mail: Chao-Wei.Tsai@jpl.nasa.gov [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-10

    We present radio continuum mapping, optical imaging, and spectroscopy of the newly discovered double-peaked, broad-lined active galactic nucleus (AGN) WISE J233237.05–505643.5 at redshift z = 0.3447. This source exhibits an FR-I and FR-II hybrid morphology, characterized by a bright core, jet, and Doppler-boosted lobe structures in Australian Telescope Compact Array continuum maps at 1.5, 5.6, and 9 GHz. Unlike most FR-II objects, W2332–5056 is hosted by a disk-like galaxy. The core has a projected 5'' linear radio feature that is perpendicular to the curved primary jet, hinting at unusual and complex activity within the inner 25 kpc. The multi-epoch, optical-near-IR photometric measurements indicate significant variability over a 3-20 yr baseline from the AGN component. Gemini South optical data show unusual double-peaked emission-line features: the centroids of the broad-lined components of H? and H? are blueshifted with respect to the narrow lines and host galaxy by ?3800 km s{sup –1}. We examine possible cases that involve single or double supermassive black holes in the system and discuss the required future investigations to disentangle the mysterious nature of this system.

  13. WISE J233237.05-505643.5: A Double-Peaked Broad-Lined AGN with Spiral-Shaped Radio Morphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, Chao Wei; Jarrett, Thomas H.; Stern, Daniel; Emonts, Bjorn; Barrows, R. Scott; Assef, Roberto J.; Norris, Ray P.; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Lonsdale, Carol; Blain, Andrew W.; Benford, Dominic J.; Wu, Jingwen; Stalder, Brian; Stubbs, Christopher W.; High, F. William; Li, K. L.; Kong, Albert K. H.

    2013-01-01

    We present radio continuum mapping, optical imaging and spectroscopy of the newly discovered double-peaked broad-lined AGN WISE J233237.05-505643.5 at redshift z = 0.3447. This source exhibits an FR-I and FR-II hybrid-morphology, characterized by bright core, jet, and Doppler-boosted lobe structures in ATCA continuum maps at 1.5, 5.6, and 9 GHz. Unlike most FR-II objects, W2332-5056 is hosted by a disk-like galaxy. The core has a projected 5" linear radio feature that is perpendicular to the curved primary jet, hinting at unusual and complex activity within the inner 25 kpc. The multi-epoch optical-near-IR photometric measurements indicate significant variability over a 3-20 year baseline from the AGN component. Gemini-South optical data shows an unusual double-peaked emission-line features: the centroids of the broad-lined components of H-alpha and H-beta are blueshifted with respect to the narrow lines and host galaxy by approximately 3800 km/s. We examine possible cases which involve single or double supermassive black holes in the system, and discuss required future investigations to disentangle the mystery nature of this system.

  14. Ripple effects & oscillations in the broad FeKa line as a probe of massive black hole mergers

    E-print Network

    McKernan, B; Kocsis, B; Haiman, Z

    2013-01-01

    (abridged) When a sufficiently massive satellite (or secondary) black hole is embedded in a gas disk around a (primary) supermassive black hole, it can open an empty gap in the disk. A gap-opening secondary close to the primary will leave an imprint in the broad component of the FeKa emission line, which varies in a unique and predictable manner. If the gap persists into the innermost disk, the effect consists of a pair of dips in the broad line which ripple blue-ward and red-ward from the line centroid energy respectively, as the gap moves closer to the primary. This ripple effect could be unambiguously detectable and allow an electromagnetic monitoring of massive black hole mergers as they occur. As the mass ratio of the secondary to primary black hole increases to q>0.01, we expect the gap to widen, possibly clearing a central cavity in the inner disk, which shows up in the broad FeKa line component. If the secondary stalls at >100r_{g} in its in-migration, due to low co-rotating gas mass, a detectable rip...

  15. X-ray Absorption in Type II Quasars: Implications for the Equatorial Paradigm of Broad Absorption Line Quasars

    E-print Network

    Brian Punsly

    2006-05-01

    In this article, the hydrogen column densities derived from X-ray observations of type II (hidden) quasars and broad absorption line quasars (BALQSOs) are compared. These column densities represent the amount of absorbing material between the X-ray source and the observer. A sample of type II QSOs with strong narrow emission lines, weak UV continuum and no broad emission lines that also have deep X-ray observations was collected from the literature for analysis. The standard model of equatorial BAL (broad absorption line) winds predicts that the column densities of this type II QSO sample should significantly exceed BALQSO column densities. Based on the existing published deep hard X-ray observations this does not seem to be true, the BALQSO absorption columns are anomalously large. Actually, the limited existing data indicate that BALQSOs have column densities which are larger than the type II QSO column densities at a statistically significant level. The implication to BAL outflows and the fundamental physical geometry of QSOs is discussed.

  16. The sizes of BLRs and BH masses of double-peaked broad low-ionization emission line objects

    E-print Network

    Xue-Guang Zhang; Dultzin-Hacyan Deborah; Ting-Gui Wang

    2007-02-16

    In this paper, the sizes of the BLRs and BH masses of DouBle-Peaked broad low-ionization emission line emitters (dbp emitters) are compared using different methods: virial BH masses vs BH masses from stellar velocity dispersions, the size of BLRs from the continuum luminosity vs the size of BLRs from the accretion disk model. First, the virial BH masses of dbp emitters estimated by the continumm luminosity and line width of broad H$\\beta$ are about six times (a much larger value, if including another dbp emitters, of which the stellar velocity dispersions are traced by the line widths of narrow emission lines) larger than the BH masses estimated from the relation $M_{BH} - \\sigma$ which is a more accurate relation to estimate BH masses. Second, the sizes of the BLRs of dbp emitters estimated by the empirical relation of $R_{BLR} - L_{5100\\AA}$ are about three times (a much larger value, if including another dbp emitters, of which the stellar velocity dispersions are traced by the line widths of narrow emission lines) larger than the mean flux-weighted sizes of BLRs of dbp emitters estimated by the accretion disk model. The higher electron density of BLRs of dbp emitters would be the main reason which leads to smaller size of BLRs than the predicted value from the continuum luminosity.

  17. A Broadly Applicable Strategy for Entry into Homogeneous Nickel(0) Catalysts from Air-Stable Nickel(II) Complexes

    E-print Network

    Müller, Peter

    A Broadly Applicable Strategy for Entry into Homogeneous Nickel(0) Catalysts from Air-Stable Nickel ABSTRACT: A series of air-stable nickel complexes of the form L2Ni(aryl) X (L = monodentate phosphine, X of precatalysts suitable for a wide variety of nickel-catalyzed transformations. These complexes are easily

  18. EVIDENCE FOR THE INTERMEDIATE BROAD-LINE REGION OF REVERBERATION-MAPPED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS PG 0052+251

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xueguang, E-mail: xgzhang@pmo.ac.cn [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2 Beijing Xi Lu, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210008 (China)

    2011-11-10

    We study the properties of the broad-line region (BLR) of a well-known reverberation-mapped active galactic nucleus (AGN) in order to find reliable evidence for the intermediate BLR. We first check properties of the mapped AGN collected from the literature in the plane of {sigma}{sup 2}{sub H}{beta}/{sigma}H{alpha} {sup 2} versus R {sup H}{alpha}{sub BLR}/R{sub BLR} {sup H}{beta}. Commonly, virial black hole masses based on observed broad H{alpha} and H{beta} should be coincidental. However, among the mapped objects, PG 0052 and NGC 4253 are two apparent outliers in the plane of {sigma}{sup 2}{sub H}{beta}/{sigma}H{alpha} {sup 2} versus R {sup H}{alpha}{sub BLR}/R{sub BLR} {sup H}{beta}, which indicates that BLRs of PG 0052 and NGC 4253 have some special characters. Based on the 55 public spectra of PG 0052, the BLR of PG 0052 has been carefully studied in detail. We find that the line width ratio of the total observed broad H{alpha} to the total observed broad H{beta} is {approx}0.7, which is much smaller than the theoretical/observational value of {approx}0.9. Furthermore, the flux ratio of the total broad H{alpha} to the total broad H{beta} is about 6.8 (Balmer decrement), which is not a reasonable value for the blue quasar PG 0052+251. Moreover, properties of line cores based on the principal component analysis technique confirm that there is one inner broad component and one seriously obscured intermediate broad component in the BLR of PG 0052. If the seriously obscured intermediate BLR was accepted, properties of PG 0052 in the plane of {sigma}{sup 2}{sub H}{beta}/{sigma}H{alpha} {sup 2} versus R {sup H}{alpha}{sub BLR}/R{sub BLR} {sup H}{beta} could be reproduced, which indicates that the intermediate BLR actually is appropriate for the mapped quasar PG 0052+251. Finally, the large distance between the inner and the intermediate components of the BLR based on the results of the cross-correlation function rejects the possibility that the intermediate component is probably an extended part of the inner component of the BLR.

  19. Modular Broad-Host-Range Expression Vectors for Single-Protein and Protein Complex Purification

    PubMed Central

    Fodor, Barna D.; Kovács, Ákos T.; Csáki, Róbert; Hunyadi-Gulyás, Éva; Klement, Éva; Maróti, Gergely; Mészáros, Lívia S.; Medzihradszky, Katalin F.; Rákhely, Gábor; Kovács, Kornél L.

    2004-01-01

    A set of modular broad-host-range expression vectors with various affinity tags (six-His-tag, FLAG-tag, Strep-tag II, T7-tag) was created. The complete nucleotide sequences of the vectors are known, and these small vectors can be mobilized by conjugation. They are useful in the purification of proteins and protein complexes from gram-negative bacterial species. The plasmids were easily customized for Thiocapsa roseopersicina, Rhodobacter capsulatus, and Methylococcus capsulatus by inserting an appropriate promoter. These examples demonstrate the versatility and flexibility of the vectors. The constructs harbor the T7 promoter for easy overproduction of the desired protein in an appropriate Escherichia coli host. The vectors were useful in purifying different proteins from T. roseopersicina. The FLAG-tag-Strep-tag II combination was utilized for isolation of the HynL-HypC2 protein complex involved in hydrogenase maturation. These tools should be useful for protein purification and for studying protein-protein interactions in a range of bacterial species. PMID:14766546

  20. The Evolution of Quasar C IV and Si IV Broad Absorption Lines over Multi-year Timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Robert R.; Brandt, W. N.; Gallagher, S. C.; Hewett, Paul C.; Schneider, Donald P.

    2010-04-01

    We investigate the variability of C IV ?1549 broad absorption line (BAL) troughs over rest-frame timescales of up to ?7 yr in 14 quasars at redshifts z >~ 2.1. For nine sources at sufficiently high redshift, we also compare the C IV and Si IV ?1400 absorption variation. We compare shorter and longer term variability using spectra from up to four different epochs per source and find complex patterns of variation in the sample overall. The scatter in the change of absorption equivalent width (EW), ?EW, increases with the time between observations. BALs do not, in general, strengthen or weaken monotonically, and variation observed over shorter (lsimmonths) timescales is not predictive of multi-year variation. We find no evidence for asymmetry in the distribution of ?EW that would indicate that BALs form and decay on different timescales, and we constrain the typical BAL lifetime to be gsim30 yr. The BAL absorption for one source, LBQS 0022+0150, has weakened and may now be classified as a mini-BAL. Another source, 1235+1453, shows evidence of variable, blue continuum emission that is relatively unabsorbed by the BAL outflow. C IV and Si IV BAL shape changes are related in at least some sources. Given their high velocities, BAL outflows apparently traverse large spatial regions and may interact with parsec-scale structures such as an obscuring torus. Assuming BAL outflows are launched from a rotating accretion disk, notable azimuthal symmetry is required in the outflow to explain the relatively small changes observed in velocity structure over times up to 7 yr.

  1. The Discovery of Broad P Cygni Xray Lines from Circinus X1 with the CHANDRA High Energy Transmission Grating

    E-print Network

    Brandt, William Nielsen

    quasar. Subject headings: stars: individual (Cir X­1) --- stars: neutron --- X­rays: stars --- binaries­resolution X­ray spectra of the X­ray binary Cir X­1, obtained with the High Energy Transmission Grating in a relatively edge­on manner, and it suggests that Cir X­1 is the X­ray binary analog of a Broad Absorption Line

  2. Space Telescope and Optical Reverberation Mapping Project: Unraveling the Broad Line Region and the Intrinsic Absorption in NGC 5548

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriss, G.; Storm Team

    2015-07-01

    The Space Telescope and Optical Reverberation Mapping (STORM) project monitored the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548 over a six-month period, obtaining 171 far-ultraviolet HST/COS spectra at approximately daily intervals. We find significant correlated variability in the continuum and broad emission lines, with amplitudes ranging from a factor of two in the emission lines to a factor of three in the continuum. The variations of all the strong emission lines lag behind those of the continuum, with He II lagging by ˜ 2.5 days and Ly&alpha,; C IV, and Si IV lagging by 5 to 6 days. The broad UV absorption lines discovered by Kaastra et al. (2014) and associated with the new soft X-ray obscurer are continuously present in the STORM campaign COS spectra. Their strength varies with the degree of soft X-ray obscuration as revealed by the Swift X-ray spectra. The narrow absorption lines associated with the historical warm absorber varied in response to the changing UV flux on a daily basis with lags of 3 to 8 days. The ionization response allows precise determinations of the locations, mass flux, and kinetic luminosities of the absorbers.

  3. Measuring the Size of Quasar Broad-Line Clouds Through Time Delay Light-Curve Anomalies of Gravitational Lenses

    E-print Network

    Stuart Wyithe; Abraham Loeb

    2002-04-30

    Intensive monitoring campaigns have recently attempted to measure the time delays between multiple images of gravitational lenses. Some of the resulting light-curves show puzzling low-level, rapid variability which is unique to individual images, superimposed on top of (and concurrent with) longer time-scale intrinsic quasar variations which repeat in all images. We demonstrate that both the amplitude and variability time-scale of the rapid light-curve anomalies, as well as the correlation observed between intrinsic and microlensed variability, are naturally explained by stellar microlensing of a smooth accretion disk which is occulted by optically-thick broad-line clouds. The rapid time-scale is caused by the high velocities of the clouds (~5x10^3 km/s), and the low amplitude results from the large number of clouds covering the magnified or demagnified parts of the disk. The observed amplitudes of variations in specific lenses implies that the number of broad-line clouds that cover ~10% of the quasar sky is ~10^5 per 4 pi steradian. This is comparable to the expected number of broad line clouds in models where the clouds originate from bloated stars.

  4. Constraints on the broad line region from regularized linear inversion: Velocity-delay maps for five nearby active galactic nuclei

    E-print Network

    Skielboe, Andreas; Treu, Tommaso; Park, Daeseong; Barth, Aaron J; Bentz, Misty C

    2015-01-01

    Reverberation mapping probes the structure of the broad emission-line region (BLR) in active galactic nuclei (AGN). The radius of the BLR along with the virial velocity of the BLR gas can be used to measure the mass of the supermassive black hole. The main systematic uncertainty affecting reverberation mapping is the unknown structure of the BLR. We develop a new method for analysing reverberation mapping data based on regularized linear inversion (RLI) that includes statistical modelling of the AGN continuum light curves. This method enables fast, flexible, and robust calculation of velocity-resolved response maps to probe BLR structure. Contrary to other methods, RLI allows for negative response in the BLR, such as when some areas of the BLR respond in inverse proportion to a change in ionizing continuum luminosity. We present time delays, integrated response functions, and velocity-delay maps for the H{\\beta} broad emission line in five nearby AGN, as well as H{\\alpha} and H{\\gamma} broad emission lines in...

  5. Pure nuclear quadrupole resonance determination of the electric field gradient asymmetry for broad lines

    E-print Network

    Keren, Amit

    Pure nuclear quadrupole resonance determination of the electric field gradient asymmetry for broad nuclear quadrupole resonance (ADNQR) method to determine the electric field gradient asymmetry parameter g in a coil so that the sym- metry axis of the coil is pointing in the br direction. In the experiment

  6. Low-Ionization Emission Regions in Quasars: Gas Properties Probed with Broad O I and Ca II Lines

    E-print Network

    Y. Matsuoka; K. Kawara; S. Oyabu

    2007-12-19

    We have compiled the emission-line fluxes of O I 8446, O I 11287, and the near-IR Ca II triplet (8579) observed in 11 quasars. These lines are considered to emerge from the same gas as do the Fe II lines in the low-ionized portion of the broad emission line region (BELR). The compiled quasars are distributed over wide ranges of redshift (0.06 gas properties in various quasar environments. The measured line strengths and velocities, as functions of the quasar properties, are analyzed using photoionization model calculations. We found that the flux ratio between Ca II and O I 8446 is hardly dependent on the redshift or luminosity, indicating similar gas density in the emission region from quasar to quasar. On the other hand, a scatter of the O I 11287/8446 ratios appears to imply the diversity of the ionization parameter. These facts invoke a picture of the line-emitting gases in quasars that have similar densities and are located at regions exposed to various ionizing radiation fluxes. The observed O I line widths are found to be remarkably similar over more than 3 orders of magnitude in luminosity, which indicates a kinematically determined location of the emission region and is in clear contrast to the well-studied case of H I lines. We also argue about the dust presence in the emission region since the region is suggested to be located near the dust sublimation point at the outer edge of the BELR.

  7. VLA observations of broad 6-cm excited state OH lines in W49A

    E-print Network

    Patrick Palmer; W. M. Goss

    2005-04-05

    Using the Very Large Array (VLA), we observed all three of the 6-cm lines of the doublet Pi 1/2, J=1/2 state of OH with sub-arcsecond resolution (about 0.4 arcsec) in W49A. While the spatial distribution and the range in velocities of the 6-cm lines are similar to those of the ground state (18-cm) OH lines, a large fraction of the total emission in all three 6-cm lines has large linewidths (about 5 -- 10 km/s) and is spatially-extended, very unlike typical ground state OH masers which typically are point-like at VLA resolutions and have linewidths less than 1 km/s. We find brightness temperatures of 5900 K, 4700 K, and greater than 730 K for the 4660-MHz, 4750-MHz, and 4765-MHz lines, respectively. We conclude that these are indeed maser lines. However, the gains are about 0.3, again very unlike the 18-cm lines which have gains greater than 10000. We compare the excited state OH emission with that from other molecules observed with comparable angular resolution to estimate physical conditions in the regions emitting the peculiar, low-gain maser lines. We also comment on the relationship with the 18-cm masers

  8. Discovery of H alpha absorption in the unusual broad absorption line quasar SDSS J083942.11+380526.3

    E-print Network

    Kentaro Aoki; Ikuru Iwata; Kouji Ohta; Masataka Ando; Masayuki Akiyama; Naoyuki Tamura

    2006-07-04

    We discovered an H alpha absorption in a broad H alpha emission line of an unusual broad absorption line quasar, SDSS J083942.11+380526.3 at z=2.318, by near-infrared spectroscopy with the Cooled Infrared Spectrograph and Camera for OHS (CISCO) on the Subaru telescope. The Presence of non-stellar H alpha absorption is known only in the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151 to date, thus our discovery is the first case for quasars. The H alpha absorption line is blueshifted by 520 km/s relative to the H alpha emission line, and its redshift almost coincides with those of UV low-ionization metal absorption lines. The width of the H alpha absorption (~ 340 km/s) is similar to those of the UV low-ionization absorption lines. These facts suggest that the H alpha and the low-ionization metal absorption lines are produced by the same low-ionization gas which has a substantial amount of neutral gas. The column density of the neutral hydrogen is estimated to be ~ 10^18 cm^-2 by assuming a gas temperature of 10,000 K from the analysis of the curve of growth. The continuum spectrum is reproduced by a reddened (E(B-V) ~ 0.15 mag for the SMC-like reddening law) composite quasar spectrum. Furthermore, the UV spectrum of SDSS J083942.11+380526.3 shows a remarkable similarity to that of NGC 4151 in its low state, suggesting the physical condition of the absorber in SDSS J083942.11+380526.3 is similar to that of NGC 4151 in the low state. As proposed for NGC 4151, SDSS J083942.11+380526.3 may be also seen through the close direction of the surface of the obscuring torus.

  9. Comparison of the performance of three diagnostic algorithms for regular broad complex tachycardia in practical application.

    PubMed

    Lau, Ernest W; Ng, G André

    2002-05-01

    The authors previously proposed a Bayesian approach to the electrocardiographic diagnosis of regular broad complex tachycardia (BCT), which can be due to VT or supraventricular tachycardia with aberrant conduction (SVTAC). They also published an account comparing the theoretical merits in the design of two of the most commonly used diagnostic algorithms for the same purpose, those of Brugada et al. and Griffith et al. In this study, a direct head-to-head comparison was performed on the practical performances of the three algorithms in this study. A set of 111 ECGs showing regular BCT (77 VT, 34 SVTAC) whose diagnoses were confirmed by electrophysiological study was shown to five internists in general medicine at a district general hospital. The observers were asked to comment on whether the ECG criteria in the three algorithms tested were fulfilled or not, and a computer program then derived the corresponding diagnoses. The sensitivity and specificity for VT achieved by the Brugada algorithm were 92% and 44%, 92% and 44% by the Griffith algorithm, and 97% and 56% by the Bayesian algorithm. The Bayesian algorithm achieved a higher sensitivity and specificity than the other two algorithms, but the differences are not statistically significant (P = 0.6583 and P = 0.5334, respectively). The Brugada, Griffith, and Bayesian algorithms show comparable performances in terms of overall sensitivity and specificity when tested in practice. Of the three algorithms, the Griffith algorithm excels in simplicity and is the easiest to implement in practice. The Bayesian algorithm achieved slightly higher values for sensitivity and specificity than the Brugada and Griffith algorithms but may be more suitable for automated computer-aided diagnosis of ECG due to its complexity. PMID:12049375

  10. Final report: A Broad Research Project in the Sciences of Complexity

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2000-02-01

    Previous DOE support for ''A Broad Research Program in the Sciences of Complexity'' permitted the Santa Fe Institute to initiate new collaborative research within its Integrative Core activities as well as to host visitors to participate in research on specific topics that serve as motivation and testing-ground for the study of general principles of complex systems. The critical aspect of this support is its effectiveness in seeding new areas of research. Indeed, this Integrative Core has been the birthplace of dozens of projects that later became more specifically focused and then won direct grant support independent of the core grants. But at early stages most of this multidisciplinary research was unable to win grant support as individual projects--both because it did not match well with existing grant program guidelines, and because the amount of handing needed was often too modest to justify a formal proposal to an agency. In fact, one of the attributes of core support has been that it permitted SFI to encourage high-risk activities because the cost was quite low. What is significant is how many of those initial efforts have been productive in the SFI environment. Many of SFI'S current research foci began with a short visit from a researcher new to the SFI community, or as small working groups that brought together carefully selected experts from a variety of fields. As mentioned above, many of the ensuing research projects are now being supported by other funding agencies or private foundations. Some of these successes are described.

  11. The Drosophila Broad-Complex Encodes a Family of Related Proteins Containing Zinc Fingers

    PubMed Central

    DiBello, P. R.; Withers, D. A.; Bayer, C. A.; Fristrom, J. W.; Guild, G. M.

    1991-01-01

    The Broad-Complex (BR-C) is essential for metamorphosis in Drosophila melanogaster. This locus is coextensive with the 2B5 ecdysone-responsive early puff and is necessary for puffing and transcription of many subsequently activated late genes in the developing salivary gland. Mapping of 31 cDNA clones indicates that approximately 100 kb of the genome is devoted to the synthesis of many BR-C RNAs. Sequence analyses of these cDNA clones show that the BR-C encodes a family of related proteins characterized by a common core amino-terminal domain fused to alternate carboxy domains each containing a pair of zinc fingers. Most proteins also contain domains rich in distinctive amino acids located between the common core and zinc finger regions. BR-C mutant alleles resulting from chromosomal rearrangements at 2B5 are associated with deletions of 5'-untranslated sequences, separation of the core coding domain from the downstream zinc finger domains, or a P element insertional disruption of a zinc finger coding sequence. We infer that the BR-C directly regulates late gene expression by specifying the synthesis of a family of proteins with DNA binding potential. PMID:1743483

  12. Ripple effects and oscillations in the broad Fe K? line as a probe of massive black hole mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKernan, B.; Ford, K. E. S.; Kocsis, B.; Haiman, Z.

    2013-06-01

    When a sufficiently massive satellite (or secondary) black hole is embedded in a gas disc around a (primary) supermassive black hole, it can open an empty gap in the disc. A gap-opening secondary close to the primary will leave an imprint in the broad component of the Fe K? emission line, which varies in a unique and predictable manner. If the gap persists into the innermost disc, the effect consists of a pair of dips in the broad line which ripple blue-ward and red-ward from the line centroid energy, respectively, as the gap moves closer to the primary. This ripple effect could be unambiguously detectable and allow an electromagnetic monitoring of massive black hole mergers as they occur. As the mass ratio of the secondary to primary black hole increases to q ? 0.01, we expect the gap to widen, possibly clearing a central cavity in the inner disc, which shows up in the broad Fe K? line component. If the secondary stalls at ? 102rg in its in-migration, due to low corotating gas mass, a detectable ripple effect occurs in the broad line component on the disc viscous time-scale as the inner disc drains and the outer disc is dammed. If the secondary maintains an accretion disc within a central cavity, due to dam bursting or leakage, a periodic `see-saw' oscillation effect is exhibited in the observed line profile. Here, we demonstrate the range of ripple effect signatures potentially detectable with Astro-H and IXO/Athena, and oscillation effects potentially detectable with XMM-Newton or LOFT for a wide variety of merger and disc conditions, including gap width (or cavity size), disc inclination angle and emissivity profile, damming of the accretion flow by the secondary, and a minidisc around the satellite black hole. A systematic study of ripple effects would require a telescope effective area substantially larger than that planned for IXO/Athena. Future mission planning should take this into account. Observations of the ripple effect and periodic oscillations can be used to provide an early warning of gravitational radiation emission from the AGN. Once gravitational waves consistent with massive black hole mergers are detected, an archival search for the Fe K? ripple effect or periodic oscillations will help in localizing their origin.

  13. Broad iron K emission line and spectral variability of the Seyfert 2 galaxy IRAS 18325-5926

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwasawa, K.; Fabian, A. C.; Mushotsky, R. F.; Brandt, W. N.; Awaki, H.; Kunieda, H.

    1996-01-01

    A very broad iron K alpha emission line is observed in the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) spectrum of the Seyfert 2 galaxy IRAS 18325-5926. The line profile is peaked at 6.9 keV and skewed down to 4 keV. The breadth and shift of the line energy can be interpreted by Doppler and relativistic effects in a cold accretion disk about a black hole with a intermediate inclination of between 40 and 50 deg. The steep spectral slope and the fast variability on a timescale of 10(exp 4) s are confirmed for this object. A study of spectral variability reveal that the X-ray flux change mainly occurred above 1 keV and the soft X-ray component below 1 keV appears to be less variable or constant and should lie outside of the nuclear obscuration.

  14. Profile variability of the H-alpha and H-beta broad emission lines in NGC5548

    E-print Network

    A. I. Shapovalova; V. T. Doroshenko; N. G. Bochkarev; A. N. Burenkov. L. Carrasco; V. H. Chavushyan; S. Collin; J. R. Valdes; N. Borisov; A-M. Dumont; V. V. Vlasuyk; I. Chillingarian; I. S. Fioktistova; O. M. Martinez

    2004-05-11

    Between 1996 and 2002, we have carried out a spectral monitoring program for the Seyfert galaxy NGC 5548. High quality spectra (S/N>50), covering the spectral range (4000-7500)AA were obtained with the 6 m and 1 m telescopes of SAO (Russia) and with the 2.1 m telescope GHO (Mexico). We found that both the flux in the lines and the continuum gradually decreased, reaching minimum values during May-June 2002. The mean, rms, and the averaged over years, observed and difference line profiles of H-alpha and H-beta reveal the double peaked structure at the radial velocity ~+-1000km/s. The relative intensity of these peaks changes with time. During 1996, the red peak was the brightest, while in 1998 - 2002, the blue peak became the brighter one. In 2000-2002 a distinct third peak appeared in the red wing of H-alpha and H-beta line profiles. The radial velocity of this feature decreased between 2000 and 2002 from ~+2500 km/s to ~+2000 km/s. The fluxes of the various parts of the line profiles are well correlated with each other and also with the continuum flux. Shape changes of the different parts of the broad line are not correlated with continuum variations and, apparently, are not related to reverberation effects. Changes of the integral Balmer decrement are, on average, anticorrelated with the continuum flux variations. This is probably due to an increasing role of collisional excitation as the ionizing flux decreases. Our results favor the formation of the broad Balmer lines in a turbulent accretion disc with large and moving "optically thick" inhomogeneities, capable of reprocessing the central source continuum.

  15. Broad frequency-band characterizations of electromagnetic energy propagation in planar thin-film transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dongchul; Eo, Yungseon

    2014-04-01

    Thin-film transmission lines are experimentally characterized in the frequency range from 10 MHz to 110 GHz. Scattering (S-) parameters for several test lines are measured. Then, two important transmission line parameters ( i.e., the propagation constant and characteristic impedance) are determined in the measured frequency range. The resonances, which are inevitable in a practical experimental environment, are carefully eliminated by de-embedding parasitic effects and by determining the frequency-variant dielectric permittivity based on the Debye model. Based on the experimental work, we showed that the conventional skin-effect model may not be accurate for high-frequencies. Further, the 3-dimensional (3D) numerical field solver does not reflect the radiation loss at high-frequency. Finally, in the millimeter (mm)-wave region, all the three loss mechanisms due to the skin-effect, dielectric polarization, and electromagnetic radiation have to be taken into account.

  16. Final Report: A Broad Research Project on the Sciences of Complexity, September 15, 1994 - November 15, 1999

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2000-02-01

    DOE support for a broad research program in the sciences of complexity permitted the Santa Fe Institute to initiate new collaborative research within its integrative core activities as well as to host visitors to participate in research on specific topics that serve as motivation and testing ground for the study of the general principles of complex systems. Results are presented on computational biology, biodiversity and ecosystem research, and advanced computing and simulation.

  17. Global trade in dairy products involves complex and con-tentious issues. Viewed broadly from the perspective of

    E-print Network

    Radeloff, Volker C.

    Global trade in dairy products involves complex and con- tentious issues. Viewed broadly from the perspective of "society," there are large benefits from liberalizing trade. Viewed narrowly from the perspective of dairy producers, liberalized trade is desirable only if it expands exports and reduces imports

  18. Comparison of two diagnostic algorithms for regular broad complex tachycardia by decision theory analysis.

    PubMed

    Lau, E W; Ng, G A

    2001-07-01

    Sensitivity and specificity are two inversely related properties of a diagnostic test and it is often practically infeasible to secure a high value for both simultaneously. Decision theory analysis shows that the utility of a diagnostic test depends not only on its sensitivity and specificity but also on the prevalence of the intended target disorder: when prevalence is low, a high specificity is more important than a high sensitivity, whereas when prevalence is high, a high sensitivity is more important than a high specificity. The significance of this principle is illustrated by two popular algorithms for the electrocardiographic diagnosis of regular broad complex tachycardia (BCT), of which the two main differential diagnoses are ventricular tachycardia (VT) and supraventricular tachycardia with aberrant conduction (SVTAG). Brugada et al. focused on criteria highly specific for VT and used them to build a four-step algorithm. In contrast, Griffith et al. first selected criteria highly sensitive for VT and then criteria highly specific for VT to build a simple two-step algorithm. It can be objectively demonstrated that the Griffith algorithm is more efficient and effective than the Brugada algorithm in terms of clinching the final diagnosis and improving overall diagnostic accuracy. The main reason for this is that VT is more common than SVTAC as the cause of regular BCT, and the Griffith algorithm adhered to the aforementioned principle governing the choice between sensitivity and specificity according to prevalence in its design. The Griffith algorithm also embodies an additional important principle, namely, it is easier and more efficient to choose alternatively between criteria highly specific and highly sensitive for the intended target disorder than concentrating on just one or the other in designing a multiple-step sequential diagnostic algorithm. PMID:11475829

  19. Broad Spectrum of Skeletal Malformation Complex in Patients with Cleidocranial Dysplasia Syndrome: Radiographic and Tomographic Study

    PubMed Central

    Al Kaissi, Ali; Ben Chehida, Farid; Kenis, Vladimir; Ganger, Rudolf; Radler, Christof; Hofstaetter, Jochen G.; Klaushofer, Klaus; Grill, Franz

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Cleidocranial dysplasia is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by defective ossification of the intramembraneous ossification (primarily the clavicles, cranium, and pelvis), and it is caused by mutations in the RUNX2 gene that is responsible for osteoblast differentiation. Spine deformities were of progressive nature and considered to be the major orthopedic abnormalities encountered in our practice in patients with cleidocranial dysplasia. We aimed to further delineate the underlying spine pathology and its etiological understanding. Extraspinal deformities were dealt with respectively. Material and methods In this paper, we describe 7 patients who were consistent with the phenotypic and the genotypic characterization of cleidocranial dysplasia. Reformatted computed tomography (CT) scans have been applied in several instances to further understand the underlying pathology of progressive spine tilting. Radiographs were sufficient to illustrate other skeletal malformations. Results Anatomical survey demonstrates that a broad spectrum of frequently unrecognized orthopedic aberrations were encountered. We believe that torticollis has evolved in connection with the persistence of synchondrosis of the skull base and the upper cervical spine and these are strongly correlated to the well-known pathology of posterior occipital synchondrosis. Similarly, scoliosis and kyphoscoliosis resulted from the pathologic aberration of the cartilaginous stage of disrupted embryological development. All our results are discussed for the first time. Coxa vara, patellar dysplasia, and genu valgum were observed as extraspinal deformities. Conclusion This paper includes for the first time the anatomical analysis of the malformation complex of the craniocervical and the entire spine in patients with cleidocranial dysplasia. Reformatted CT scan was the modality of choice. We were able to illustrate that the persistence of skull base and the cervical spine synchondrosis were correlated with the pathological mechanism of the posterior occipital synchondrosis. Therefore, injuries to the craniocervical region in these patients might lead to a wide range of dreadful complications, ranging from complete atlanto-occipital or atlanto-axial dislocation to nondisplaced occipital condyle avulsion fractures with the possibility of morbid and or mortal outcome. On the other hand, the persistence of a cartilaginous spine was the reason behind the progressive spine tilting. This pathological form can be considered as a notoriously unpredictable malformation complex. The value of presenting these patients is to demonsterate that the genotype is not a precise index to assess the severity and the natural history of the phenotype. PMID:24023524

  20. X-ray heating and ionization of broad-emission-line regions in QSO's and active galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Weisheit, J.C.; Shields, G.A.; Tarter, C.B.

    1980-07-01

    Absorption of x-rays deep within the broad-line emitting clouds in QSO's and the nuclei of active galaxies creates extensive zones of warm (T approx. 10/sup 4/K), partially ionized N/sub e//N approx. 0.1) gas. Because Lyman alpha photons are trapped in these regions, the x-ray energy is efficiently channeled into Balmer lines collisionally excited from the n = 2 level. The HI regions plus the HII regions created by ultraviolet photons illuminating the surfaces of the clouds give rise to integrated L..cap alpha../H..cap alpha.. line emission ratios between 1 and 2. Enhanced MgII line emission from the HI regions gives rise to integrated MgII/H..cap alpha.. ratios near 0.5. The OI line lambda 8446 is efficiently pumped by trapped H..cap alpha.. photons and in the x-ray heated zone an intensity ratio I (lambda 8446)/I(H..cap alpha..) approx. < 0.1 is calculated. All of these computed ratios now are in agreement with observations.

  1. Broad-Line Reverberation in the Kepler-Field Seyfert Galaxy Zw 229-015

    E-print Network

    Barth, A J; Malkan, M A; Filippenko, A V; Li, W; Gorjian, V; Joner, M D; Bennert, V N; Botyanszki, J; Cenko, S B; Childress, M; Choi, J; Comerford, J M; Cucciara, A; da Silva, R; Duchene, G; Fumagalli, M; Ganeshalingam, M; Gates, E L; Gerke, B F; Griffith, C V; Harris, C; Hintz, E G; Hsiao, E; Kandrashoff, M T; Keel, W C; Kirkman, D; Kleiser, I K W; Laney, C D; Lee, J; Lopez, L; Lowe, T B; Moody, J W; Morton, A; Nierenberg, A M; Nugent, P; Pancoast, A; Rex, J; Rich, R M; Silverman, J M; Smith, G H; Sonnenfeld, A; Suzuki, N; Tytler, D; Walsh, J L; Woo, J -H; Yang, Y; Zeisse, C

    2011-01-01

    The Seyfert 1 galaxy Zw 229-015 is among the brightest active galaxies being monitored by the Kepler mission. In order to determine the black hole mass in Zw 229-015 from H-beta reverberation mapping, we have carried out nightly observations with the Kast Spectrograph at the Lick 3m telescope during the dark runs from June through December 2010, obtaining 54 spectroscopic observations in total. We have also obtained nightly V-band imaging with the Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope at Lick Observatory and with the 0.9m telescope at the Brigham Young University West Mountain Observatory over the same period. We detect strong variability in the source, which exhibited more than a factor of 2 change in broad H-beta flux. From cross-correlation measurements, we find that the H-beta light curve has a rest-frame lag of 3.86(+0.69,-0.90) days with respect to the V-band continuum variations. We also measure reverberation lags for H-alpha and H-gamma and find an upper limit to the H-delta lag. Combining the H-beta la...

  2. The Lick AGN Monitoring Project: Broad-Line Region Radii and Black Hole Masses from Reverberation Mapping of Hbeta

    E-print Network

    Bentz, Misty C; Barth, Aaron J; Baliber, Nairn; Bennert, Nicola; Canalizo, Gabriela; Filippenko, Alexei V; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Gates, Elinor L; Greene, Jenny E; Hidas, Marton G; Hiner, Kyle D; Lee, Nicholas; Li, Weidong; Malkan, Matthew A; Minezaki, Takeo; Sakata, Yu; Serduke, Frank J D; Silverman, Jeffrey M; Steele, Thea N; Stern, Daniel; Street, Rachel A; Thornton, Carol E; Treu, Tommaso; Wang, Xiaofeng; Woo, Jong-Hak; Yoshii, Yuzuru

    2009-01-01

    We have recently completed a 64-night spectroscopic monitoring campaign at the Lick Observatory 3-m Shane telescope with the aim of measuring the masses of the black holes in 12 nearby (z < 0.05) Seyfert 1 galaxies with expected masses in the range ~10^6-10^7 M_sun and also the well-studied nearby active galactic nucleus (AGN) NGC 5548. Nine of the objects in the sample (including NGC 5548) showed optical variability of sufficient strength during the monitoring campaign to allow for a time lag to be measured between the continuum fluctuations and the response to these fluctuations in the broad Hbeta emission. We present here the light curves for the objects in this sample and the subsequent Hbeta time lags for the nine objects where these measurements were possible. The Hbeta lag time is directly related to the size of the broad-line region, and by combining the lag time with the measured width of the Hbeta emission line in the variable part of the spectrum, we determine the virial mass of the central supe...

  3. STRUCTURE OF THE ACCRETION FLOW IN BROAD-LINE RADIO GALAXIES: THE CASE OF 3C 390.3

    SciTech Connect

    Sambruna, R. M.; Tueller, J. [NASA/GSFC, Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Reeves, J. N.; Lewis, K. T. [NASA/GSFC, Code 662, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Braito, V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Eracleous, M. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Gliozzi, M. [George Mason University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4400 University Dr., Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Tavecchio, F. [INAF, Osserv. Astron. di Brera, via Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Ballantyne, D. R. [Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, 837 State Street, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Ogle, P. M. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Barth, A. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-4575 (United States)

    2009-08-01

    We present XMM-Newton and Suzaku observations of the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 390.3 acquired in 2004 October and 2006 December, respectively. An archival Swift BAT spectrum from the 9 month survey is also analyzed, as well as an optical spectrum simultaneous to XMM-Newton. At soft X-rays, no absorption features are detected in the Reflection Grating Spectrometer spectrum of 3C 390.3; a narrow emission line is found at 0.564 keV, most likely originating in the narrow-line region. Both the EPIC and XIS data sets confirm the presence of an Fe K{alpha} emission line at 6.4 keV with equivalent width (EW) = 40 eV. The Fe K{alpha} line has a width FWHM {approx} 8800 km s{sup -1}, consistent within a factor of 2 with the width of the double-peaked H{alpha} line, suggesting an origin from the broad-line region. The data show for the first time a weak, broad bump extending from 5 to 7 keV. When fitted with a Gaussian, its centroid energy is 6.6 keV in the source's rest frame with FWHM of 43,000 km s{sup -1} and EW of 50 eV; its most likely interpretation is emission from He-like Fe (Fe XXV), suggesting the presence of an ionized medium in the inner regions of 3C 390.3. The broadband 0.5-100 keV continuum is well described by a single power law with photon index {gamma} = 1.6 and cutoff energy 157 keV, plus cold reflection with strength R = 0.5. In addition, ionized reflection is required to account for the 6.6 keV bump in the broadband continuum, yielding an ionization parameter {xi} {approx} 2700 erg cm s{sup -1}; the inner radius of the ionized reflector is constrained to be larger than 20r{sub G} , although this result depends on the assumed emissivity profile of the disk. If true, we argue that the lack of broad Fe K emission from within 20r{sub G} indicates that the innermost regions of the disk in 3C 390.3 are obscured and/or poorly illuminated. While the spectral energy distribution (SED) of 3C 390.3 is generally dominated by accretion-related continuum, during accretion low states the jet can significantly contribute in the optical to X-ray bands via synchrotron self-Compton emission. The Compton component is expected to extend to and peak at GeV gamma rays where it will be detected with the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope during its first few years of operation.

  4. Echo mapping of active galactic nuclei broad-line regions: Fundamental algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vio, Roberto; Horne, Keith; Wamsteker, Willem

    1994-01-01

    We formulate and test a series of algorithms for echo mapping the emission-line regions near active galactic nuclei from measurements of correlated variability in their line and continuum light curves. The linear regularization method (LRM) employs a direct inversion of evenly spaced light-curve data, with a regularization parameter that can be used to control the trade-off between noise and resolution. Matrix formulas express the formal solution as well as its variance and covariance in terms of uncertainties in the measurements. Unlike the maximum-entropy method (MEM), LRM applies to kernels with both positive and negative values, but the results are somewhat limited by ringing effects. A positivity constraint proves effective in controlling the ringing. MEM combines regularization and positivity in a natural way, but similar results are also found using positivity constraints with nonentropic regularization functions. Direct inversions of unevenly sampled light curves require interpolating the noisy data. In this case better results are found by solving for both the continuum light curve and kernel function in a simultaneous fit to the data. Our conclusion is that while echo mapping currently gives ambiguous results, the algorithms are not the limiting factor. Progress depends on efforts to increase the accuracy and completeness of sampling of the observed light curves.

  5. X-Raying the Ultraluminous Infrared Starburst Galaxy and Broad Absorption Line QSO Markarian 231 with Chandra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, S. C.; Brandt, W. N.; Chartas, G.; Garmire, G. P.; Sambruna, R. M.

    2002-04-01

    With 40 ks of Chandra ACIS-S3 exposure, new information on both the starburst and QSO components of the X-ray emission of Markarian 231, an ultraluminous infrared galaxy and broad absorption line QSO, has been obtained. The bulk of the X-ray luminosity is emitted from an unresolved nuclear point source, and the spectrum is remarkably hard, with the majority of the flux emitted above 2 keV. Most notably, significant nuclear variability (a decrease of ~45% in approximately 6 hr) at energies above 2 keV indicates that Chandra has probed within light-hours of the central black hole. Although we concur with Maloney & Reynolds that the direct continuum is not observed, this variability coupled with the 188 eV upper limit on the equivalent width of the Fe K? emission line argues against the reflection-dominated model put forth by these authors based on their ASCA data. Instead, we favor a model in which a small, Compton-thick absorber blocks the direct X-rays, and only indirect, scattered X-rays from multiple lines of sight can reach the observer. Extended soft, thermal emission encompasses the optical extent of the galaxy and exhibits resolved structure. An off-nuclear X-ray source with a 0.35-8.0 keV luminosity of LX=7×1039 ergs s-1, consistent with the ultraluminous X-ray sources in other nearby starbursts, is detected. We also present an unpublished Faint Object Spectrograph spectrum from the Hubble Space Telescope archive showing the broad C IV absorption.

  6. X-Raying the Ultraluminous Infrared Starburst Galaxy and Broad Absorption Line QSO Markarian 231 with Chandra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, S. C.; Brandt, W. N.; Chartas, G.; Garmire, G. P.; Sambruna, R. M.

    2002-01-01

    With 40 ks of Clzandra ACIS-S3 exposure, new information on both the starburst and QSO components of the X-ray emission of Markarian 231, an ultraluminous infrared galaxy and broad absorption line QSO, has been obtained. The bulk of the X-ray luminosity is emitted from an unresolved nuclear point source, and the spectrum is remarkably hard, with the majority of the flux emitted above 2 keV. Most notably, significant nuclear variability (a decrease of -45% in approximately 6 hr) at energies above 2 keV indicates that Chuizdra has probed within light-hours of the central black hole. Although we concur with Maloney & Reynolds that the direct continuum is not observed, this variability coupled with the 188 eV upper limit on the equivalent width of the Fe K o emission line argues against the reflection-dominated model put forth by these authors based on their ASCA data. Instead, we favor a model in which a small, Compton-thick absorber blocks the direct X-rays, and only indirect, scattered X-rays from multiple lines of sight can reach the observer. Extended soft, thermal emission encompasses the optical extent of the galaxy and exhibits resolved structure. An off-nuclear X-ray source with a 0.35-8.0 keV luminosity of Lx = 7 x 10 sup39 ergs s sup -1 , consistent with the ultraluminous X-ray sources in other nearby starbursts, is detected. We also present an unpublished Faint Object Spectrograph spectrum from the Hirhhle Spuce Telescope archive showing the broad C IV absorption.

  7. Emergence of a Broad-Absorption-Line Outflow in the Narrow-line Seyfert 1 Galaxy WPVS 007

    E-print Network

    Leighly, Karen M; Casebeer, Darrin A; Grupe, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    We report results from a 2003 FUSE observation, and reanalysis of a 1996 HST observation of the unusual X-ray transient Narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy WPVS 007. The HST FOS spectrum revealed mini-BALs with V_max ~ 900 km s^-1 and FWHM ~ 550 km s^-1. The FUSE spectrum showed that an additional BAL outflow with V_max ~ 6000 km s^-1 and FWHM ~ 3400 km s^-1 had appeared. WPVS 007 is a low-luminosity object in which such a high velocity outflow is not expected; therefore, it is an outlier on the M_V/V_max relationship. Template spectral fitting yielded apparent ionic columns, and a Cloudy analysis showed that the presence of PV requires a high ionization parameter log(U) >= 0 and high column density log(N_H) >= 23 assuming solar abundances and a nominal SED for low-luminosity NLS1s with alpha_ox=-1.28. A recent long Swift observation revealed the first hard X-ray detection and an intrinsic (unabsorbed) alpha_ox ~ -1.9$. Using this SED in our analysis yielded lower column density constraints (log(N_H) >= 22.2 for Z=1...

  8. SN 2010ay is a Luminous and Broad-lined Type Ic Supernova within a Low-metallicity Host Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, N. E.; Soderberg, A. M.; Valenti, S.; Chomiuk, L.; Berger, E.; Smartt, S.; Hurley, K.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Chornock, R.; Foley, R. J.; Levesque, E. M.; Narayan, G.; Botticella, M. T.; Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, V.; Terada, Y.; Gehrels, N.; Golenetskii, S.; Mazets, E.; Cline, T.; von Kienlin, A.; Boynton, W.; Chambers, K. C.; Grav, T.; Heasley, J. N.

    2011-01-01

    We report on our serendipitous pre-discovery detection and detailed follow-up of the broad-lined Type Ic supernova SN2010ay at z approx 0.067 imaged by the Pan-STARRS1 3pi survey just approx 4 days after explosion. Combining our photometric observations with those available in the literature, we estimate the explosion date and the peak luminosity of the SN, M(sub R) approximately equals 20.2 mag, significantly brighter than known GRB-SNe and one of the most luminous SNe Ibc ever discovered. We measure the photospheric expansion velocity of the explosion from our spectroscopic follow-up observations, v(sub ph) approximately equals 19.2 X 10 (exp 3) km/s at approx 40 days after explosion. In comparison with other broad-lined SNe, the characteristic velocity of SN2010ay is 2 - 5 X higher and similar to the measurements for GRB-SNe at comparable epochs. Moreover the velocity declines two times slower than other SNe Ic-BL and GRB-SNe. Assuming that the optical emission is powered by radioactive decay, the peak magnitude implies the synthesis of an unusually large mass of Ni-56, M(sub Ni) = 0.9(+0.1/-0.1) solar mass. Our modeling of the light-curve points to a total ejecta mass, M(sub ej) approx 4.7 Solar Mass, and total kinetic energy, E(sub K,51) approximately equals 11. Thus the ratio of M(sub Ni) to M(sub ej) is at least twice as large for SN2010ay than in GRB-SNe and may indicate an additional energy reservoir. We also measure the metallicity (log(O/H) + 12 = 8.19) of the explosion site within the host galaxy using a high S/N optical spectrum. Our abundance measurement places this SN in the low-metallicity regime populated by GRB-SNe, and approx 0.2(0.5) dex lower than that typically measured for the host environments of normal (broad-lined) Ic supernovae. Despite striking similarities to the recent GRB-SN100316D/2010bh, we show that gamma-ray observations rule out an associated GRB with E(sub gamma) approx < 6 X 10(exp 48) erg (25-150 keV). Similarly, our deep radio follow-up observations with the Expanded Very Large Array rule out relativistic ejecta with energy, E approx > 10(exp 48) erg. These observations challenge the importance of progenitor metallicity for the production of a GRB, and suggest that other parameters also play a key role.

  9. SN 2010ay Is a Luminous and Broad-Lined Type Ic Supernova Within a Low-Metallicity Host Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, N. E.; Soderberg, A. M.; Valenti, S.; Foley, R. J.; Chornock, R.; Chomiuk, L.; Berger, E.; Smartt, S.; Hurley, K.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Levesque, E. M.; Narayan, G.; Botticella, M. T.; Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, V.; Terada, Y.; Gehrels, N.; Golenetskii, S.; Mazets, E.; Cline, T.; von Kienlin, A.; Boynton, W.; Chambers, K. C.; Grav, T.; Heasley, J. N.

    2012-01-01

    We report on our serendipitous pre-discovery detection and follow-up observations of the broad-lined Type Ic supernova (SN Ic) 2010ay at z = 0.067 imaged by the Pan-STARRS1 3pi survey just approximately 4 days after explosion. The supernova (SN) had a peak luminosity, MR approx. -20.2 mag, significantly more luminous than known GRB-SNe and one of the most luminous SNe Ib/c ever discovered. The absorption velocity of SN 2010ay is v Si (is) approx. 19×10(exp 3) km s-1 at approximately 40 days after explosion, 2-5 times higher than other broad-lined SNe and similar to the GRB-SN 2010bh at comparable epochs. Moreover, the velocity declines approximately 2 times slower than other SNe Ic-BL and GRB-SNe. Assuming that the optical emission is powered by radioactive decay, the peak magnitude implies the synthesis of an unusually large mass of 56Ni, MNi = 0.9 solar mass. Applying scaling relations to the light curve, we estimate a total ejecta mass, Mej (is) approx. 4.7 solar mass, and total kinetic energy, EK (is) approx. 11 × 10(exp 51) erg. The ratio of MNi to Mej is approximately 2 times as large for SN 2010ay as typical GRB-SNe and may suggest an additional energy reservoir. The metallicity (log(O/H)PP04 + 12 = 8.19) of the explosion site within the host galaxy places SN 2010ay in the low-metallicity regime populated by GRB-SNe, and (is) approximately 0.5(0.2) dex lower than that typically measured for the host environments of normal (broad-lined) SNe Ic. We constrain any gamma-ray emission with E(gamma) (is) approximately less than 6 × 10(exp 48) erg (25-150 keV), and our deep radio follow-up observations with the Expanded Very Large Array rule out relativistic ejecta with energy E (is) approximately greater than 10(exp 48) erg. We therefore rule out the association of a relativistic outflow like those that accompanied SN 1998bw and traditional long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), but we place less-stringent constraints on a weak afterglow like that seen from XRF 060218. If this SN did not harbor a GRB, these observations challenge the importance of progenitor metallicity for the production of relativistic ejecta and suggest that other parameters also play a key role.

  10. Extreme Emission Line Galaxies in CANDELS: Broad-Band Selected, Star-Bursting Dwarf Galaxies at z>1

    E-print Network

    van der Wel, A; Rix, H -W; Finkelstein, S L; Koekemoer, A M; Weiner, B J; Wuyts, S; Bell, E F; Faber, S M; Trump, J R; Koo, D; Ferguson, H C; Scarlata, C; Hathi, N P; Dunlop, J S; Newman, J A; Dickinson, M; Salmon, B; Kocevski, D F de Mello D D; Lai, K; Grogin, N A; Rodney, S A; Guo, Yicheng; McGrath, E G; Lee, K -S; Calvo, G B; Huang, K -H

    2011-01-01

    We identify an abundant population of extreme emission line galaxies (EELGs) at redshift z=1.6-1.8 in the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) imaging from Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 (HST/WFC3). 69 EELG candidates are selected by the large contribution of exceptionally bright emission lines to their near-infrared, broad-band fluxes. Supported by spectroscopic confirmation of strong [OIII] emission lines -- with rest-frame equivalent widths ~1000\\AA -- in the four candidates that have HST/WFC3 grism observations, we conclude that these objects are dwarf galaxies with ~10^8 Msol in stellar mass, undergoing an enormous starburst phase with M*/(dM*/dt) of only ~15 Myr. These bursts may cause outflows that are strong enough to produce cored dark matter profiles in low-mass galaxies. The individual star formation rates and the co-moving number density (3.7 x 10^-4 Mpc^-3) can produce in ~4 Gyr much of the stellar mass density that is presently contained in 10^8-10^9 Mso...

  11. Extreme Emission Line Galaxies in CANDELS: Broad-Band Selected, Star-Bursting Dwarf Galaxies at Z greater than 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanDerWel, A.; Straughn, A. N.; Rix, H.-W.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Weiner, B. J.; Wuyts, S.; Bell, E. F.; Faber, S. M.; Trump, J. R.; Koo, D.; Ferguson, H. C.; Scarlata, C.; Hathi, N. P.; Dunlop, J. S.; Newman, J. A.; Kocevski, D. D.; Lai, K.; Grogin, N. A.; Rodney, S. A.; Lee, K.-S.; Guo, Y.

    2011-01-01

    We identify an abundant population of extreme emission line galaxies at redshift z=1.6 - 1.8 in the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) imaging from Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 (HST/WFC3). 69 candidates are selected by the large contribution of exceptionally bright emission lines to their near-infrared, broad-band fluxes. Supported by spectroscopic confirmation of strong [OIII] emission lines - with equivalent widths approximately 1000A - in the four candidates that have HST/WFC3 grism observations, we conclude that these objects are dwarf galaxies with approximately 10(exp 8) solar mass in stellar mass, undergoing an enormous star-burst phase with M*/M* of only approximately 10 Myr. The star formation activity and the co-moving number density (3.7 x 10(exp -4) Mpc(exp -3)) imply that strong, short-lived bursts play a significant, perhaps even dominant role in the formation and evolution of dwarf galaxies at z greater than 1. The observed star formation activity can produce in less than 5 Gyr the same amount of stellar mass density as is presently contained in dwarf galaxies. Therefore, our observations provide a strong indication that the stellar populations of present-day dwarf galaxies formed mainly in strong, short-lived bursts, mostly at z greater than 1.

  12. Extreme Emission Line Galaxies in CANDELS: Broad-Band Selected, Star-Bursting Dwarf Galaxies at Z greater than 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanderWel, A.; Straughn, A. N.; Rix, H.-W.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Weiner, B. J.; Wuyts, S.; Bell, E. F.; Faber, S. M.; Trump, J. R.; Koo, D. C.; Ferguson, H. C.; Scarlata, C.; Hathi, N. P.; Dunlop, J. S.; Newman, J. A.; Dickinson, M.; Jahnke, K.; Salmon, B. W.; deMello, D. F.; Kkocevski, D. D.; Lai, K.; Grogin, N. A.; Rodney, S. A.; Guo, Yicheng

    2012-01-01

    We identify an abundant population of extreme emission line galaxies (EELGs) at redshift z approx. 1.7 in the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) imaging from Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 (HST/WFC3). 69 EELG candidates are selected by the large contribution of exceptionally bright emission lines to their near-infrared broad-band magnitudes. Supported by spectroscopic confirmation of strong [OIII] emission lines . with rest-frame equivalent widths approx. 1000A in the four candidates that have HST/WFC3 grism observations, we conclude that these objects are galaxies with approx.10(exp 8) Solar Mass in stellar mass, undergoing an enormous starburst phase with M*/M* of only approx. 15 Myr. These bursts may cause outflows that are strong enough to produce cored dark matter profiles in low-mass galaxies. The individual star formation rates and the co-moving number density (3.7x10(exp -4) Mpc(sup -3) can produce in approx.4 Gyr much of the stellar mass density that is presently contained in 10(exp 8) - 10(exp 9) Solar Mass dwarf galaxies. Therefore, our observations provide a strong indication that many or even most of the stars in present-day dwarf galaxies formed in strong, short-lived bursts, mostly at z > 1.

  13. Dramatically Variable C IV Mini-Broad Absorption Line System in the Quasar HS 1603+3820

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misawa, T.; Eracleous, M.; Charlton, J. C.; Chartas, G.; Kashikawa, N.

    2008-10-01

    We observed the quasar HS 1603+3820 (z_{em} = 2.542, first discovered by Dobrzycki et al. 1996) six times over an interval of 4.2 yrs (1.2 yrs in the quasar rest frame) using the High Dispersion Spectrograph on Subaru telescope. The purpose was to study the mini-broad absorption line (mini-BAL; FWHM ˜ 1,000 km s^{-1}) that is blue-shifted from the quasar by ˜ 9,500 km s^{-1}. We found significant time variability, which supported the physical association of the mini-BAL gas with an outflow from the quasar. We have narrowed down the cause of the variability to two possible scenarios. We also used archival Chandra x-ray data to study the x-ray properties of this quasar. The results constrain the location of the absorbing gas relative to the overall outflow.

  14. The 1992 annual report on scientific programs: A broad research program on the sciences of complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In 1992 the Santa Fe Institute hosted more than 100 short- and long-term research visitors who conducted a total of 212 person-months of residential research in complex systems. To date this 1992 work has resulted in more than 50 SFI Working Papers and nearly 150 publications in the scientific literature. The Institute's book series in the sciences of complexity continues to grow, now numbering more than 20 volumes. The fifth annual complex systems summer school brought nearly 60 graduate students and postdoctoral fellows to Santa Fe for an intensive introduction to the field. Research on complex systems - the focus of work at SFI - involves an extraordinary range of topics normally studied in seemingly disparate fields. Natural systems displaying complex adaptive behavior range upwards from DNA through cells and evolutionary systems to human societies. Research models exhibiting complex behavior include spin glasses, cellular automata, and genetic algorithms. Some of the major questions facing complex systems researchers are: (1) explaining how complexity arises from the nonlinear interaction of simple components; (2) describing the mechanisms underlying high-level aggregate behavior of complex systems (such as the overt behavior of an organism, the flow of energy in an ecology, and the Gross National Product (GNP) of an economy); and (3) creating a theoretical framework to enable predictions about the likely behavior of such systems in various conditions.

  15. Discovery of an Obscured Broad-Line Region in the High-Redshift Radio Galaxy MRC 2025-218.

    PubMed

    Larkin; McLean; Graham; Becklin; Figer; Gilbert; Levenson; Teplitz; Wilcox; Glassman

    2000-04-10

    This Letter presents infrared spectra taken with the newly commissioned near-infrared spectrometer (NIRSPEC) on the Keck II telescope of the high-redshift radio galaxy MRC 2025-218 (z=2.63). These observations represent the deepest infrared spectra of a radio galaxy to date and have allowed for the detection of Hbeta, [O iii] lambdalambda4959, 5007, [O i] lambda6300, Halpha, [N ii] lambdalambda6548, 6583, and [S ii] lambdalambda6716, 6713. The Halpha emission is very broad (FWHM=9300 km s-1) and luminous (2.6x1044 ergs s-1), and it is very comparable to the line widths and strengths of radio-loud quasars at the same redshift. This strongly supports active galactic nucleus unification models linking radio galaxies and quasars, although we discuss some of the outstanding differences. The line [O iii] lambda5007 is extremely strong and has extended emission with large relative velocities toward the nucleus. We also derive that if the extended emission is due to star formation, each knot has a star formation rate comparable to a Lyman-break galaxy at the same redshift. PMID:10727392

  16. Broad-Band Continuum and Line Emission of the gamma-Ray Blazar PKS 0537-441

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pian, E.; Falomo, R.; Hartman, R. C.; Maraschi, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Tornikoski, M.; Treves, A.; Urry, C. M.; Ballo, L.; Mukherjee, R.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    PKS 0537-441, a bright gamma ray emitting blazar was observed at radio, optical, UV and X-ray frequencies during various EGRET paintings, often quasi-simultaneously. In 1995 the object was found in an intense emission state at all wavelengths. BeppoSAX observations made in 1998, non-simultaneously with exposures at other frequencies, allow us to characterize precisely the spectral shape of the high energy blazer component, which we attribute to inverse Compton scatter in The optical-to-gamma-ray spectral energy distributions at the different epochs show that the gamma-ray luminosity dominates the barometric output. This, together with the presence of optical and UV line emission, suggests that, besides the synchrotron self-Compton mechanism, the Compton upscattering of photons external to the jet (e.g., in the broad line region) may have a significant role for high energy radiation. The multiwavelength variability can be reproduced by changes of the plasma bulk Lorentz factor. The spectrum secured by ICE in 1995 appears to be partially absorbed shortward of approximately 1700 Angstroms. However, this signature is not detected in the HST spectrum taker during a lower state of the source. The presence of intervening absorbers is not supported by optical imaging and spectroscopy of the field.

  17. Broad-band continuum and line emission of the gamma-ray blazar PKS 0537-441

    E-print Network

    E. Pian; R. Falomo; R. C. Hartman; L. Maraschi; F. Tavecchio; M. Tornikoski; A. Treves; C. M. Urry; L. Ballo; R. Mukherjee; R. Scarpa; D. J. Thompson; J. E. Pesce

    2002-07-17

    PKS 0537-441, a bright gamma-ray emitting blazar, was observed at radio, optical, UV and X-ray frequencies during various EGRET pointings, often quasi-simultaneously. In 1995 the object was found in an intense emission state at all wavelengths. BeppoSAX observations made in 1998, non-simultaneously with exposures at other frequencies, allow us to characterize precisely the spectral shape of the high energy blazar component, which we attribute to inverse Compton scattering. The optical-to-gamma-ray spectral energy distributions at the different epochs show that the gamma-ray luminosity dominates the bolometric output. This, together with the presence of optical and UV line emission, suggests that, besides the synchrotron self-Compton mechanism, the Compton upscattering of photons external to the jet (e.g., in the broad line region) may have a significant role for high energy radiation. The multiwavelength variability can be reproduced by changes of the plasma bulk Lorentz factor. The spectrum secured by IUE in 1995 appears to be partially absorbed shortward of ~1700 A. However, this signature is not detected in the HST spectrum taken during a lower state of the source. The presence of intervening absorbers is not supported by optical imaging and spectroscopy of the field.

  18. X-raying the Ultraluminous Infrared Starburst Galaxy and Broad Absorption Line QSO, Markarian 231, with Chandra

    E-print Network

    Gallagher, S C; Chartas, G; Garmire, G P

    2002-01-01

    With 40 ks of Chandra ACIS-S3 exposure, new information on both the starburst and QSO components of the X-ray emission of Markarian 231, an ultraluminous infrared galaxy and Broad Absorption Line QSO, has been obtained. The bulk of the X-ray luminosity is emitted from an unresolved nuclear point source, and the spectrum is remarkably hard with the majority of the flux emitted above 2 keV. Most notably, significant nuclear variability (a decrease of ~45% in approximately 6 hours) at energies above 2 keV indicates that Chandra has probed within light hours of the central black hole. Though we concur with Maloney & Reynolds that the direct continuum is not observed, this variability coupled with the 188 eV upper limit on the equivalent width of the FeKalpha emission line argues against the reflection-dominated model put forth by these authors based on their ASCA data. Instead, we favor a model in which a small, Compton-thick absorber blocks the direct X-rays, and only indirect, scattered X-rays from multiple...

  19. Broad Line Radio Galaxies Observed with Fermi-LAT: The Origin of the GeV Gamma-Ray Emission

    SciTech Connect

    Kataoka, J.; /Waseda U., RISE; Stawarz, L.; /JAXA, Sagamihara /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.; Takahashi, Y.; /Waseda U., RISE; Cheung, C.C.; /Natl. Acad. Sci. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Hayashida, M.; /SLAC /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Grandi, P.; /Bologna Observ.; Burnett, T.H.; /Washington U., Seattle; Celotti, A.; /SISSA, Trieste; Fegan, S.J.; Fortin, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Maeda, K.; Nakamori, T.; /Waseda U., RISE; Taylor, G.B.; /New Mexico U.; Tosti, G.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Digel, S.W.; /SLAC /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; McConville, W.; /NASA, Goddard /Maryland U.; Finke, J.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; D'Ammando, F.; /IASF, Palermo /INAF, Rome

    2012-06-07

    We report on a detailed investigation of the {gamma}-ray emission from 18 broad line radio galaxies (BLRGs) based on two years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data. We confirm the previously reported detections of 3C 120 and 3C 111 in the GeV photon energy range; a detailed look at the temporal characteristics of the observed {gamma}-ray emission reveals in addition possible flux variability in both sources. No statistically significant {gamma}-ray detection of the other BLRGs was however found in the considered dataset. Though the sample size studied is small, what appears to differentiate 3C 111 and 3C 120 from the BLRGs not yet detected in {gamma}-rays is the particularly strong nuclear radio flux. This finding, together with the indications of the {gamma}-ray flux variability and a number of other arguments presented, indicate that the GeV emission of BLRGs is most likely dominated by the beamed radiation of relativistic jets observed at intermediate viewing angles. In this paper we also analyzed a comparison sample of high accretion-rate Seyfert 1 galaxies, which can be considered radio-quiet counterparts of BLRGs, and found none were detected in {gamma}-rays. A simple phenomenological hybrid model applied for the broad-band emission of the discussed radio-loud and radio-quiet type 1 active galaxies suggests that the relative contribution of the nuclear jets to the accreting matter is {ge} 1% on average for BLRGs, while {le} 0.1% for Seyfert 1 galaxies.

  20. Crosslinked HIV-1 envelope–CD4 receptor complexes elicit broadly cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies in rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Fouts, Timothy; Godfrey, Karla; Bobb, Kathryn; Montefiori, David; Hanson, Carl V.; Kalyanaraman, V. S.; DeVico, Anthony; Pal, Ranajit

    2002-01-01

    The identification of HIV envelope structures that generate broadly cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies is a major goal for HIV-vaccine development. In this study, we evaluated one such structure, expressed as either a gp120–CD4 or a gp140–CD4 complex, for its ability to elicit a neutralizing antibody response. In rhesus macaques, covalently crosslinked complexes of soluble human CD4 (shCD4) and HIV-1IIIB envelope glycoproteins (gp120 or gp140) generated antibodies that neutralized a wide range of primary HIV-1 isolates regardless of the coreceptor usage or genetic subtype. Ig with cross-reactive neutralizing activity was recovered by affinity chromatography with a chimeric single-chain polypeptide containing sequences for HIVBaL gp120 and a mimetic peptide that induces a CD4-triggered envelope structure. These results suggest that covalently crosslinked complexes of the HIV-1 surface envelope glycoprotein and CD4 elicit broadly neutralizing humoral responses that, in part, may be directed against a novel epitope(s) found on the HIV-1 envelope. PMID:12192089

  1. Constraining UV Continuum Slopes of Active Galactic Nuclei with CLOUDY Models of Broad-line Region Extreme-ultraviolet Emission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moloney, Joshua; Shull, J. Michael

    2014-10-01

    Understanding the composition and structure of the broad-line region (BLR) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is important for answering many outstanding questions in supermassive black hole evolution, galaxy evolution, and ionization of the intergalactic medium. We used single-epoch UV spectra from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope to measure EUV emission-line fluxes from four individual AGNs with 0.49 <= z <= 0.64, two AGNs with 0.32 <= z <= 0.40, and a composite of 159 AGNs. With the CLOUDY photoionization code, we calculated emission-line fluxes from BLR clouds with a range of density, hydrogen ionizing flux, and incident continuum spectral indices. The photoionization grids were fit to the observations using single-component and locally optimally emitting cloud (LOC) models. The LOC models provide good fits to the measured fluxes, while the single-component models do not. The UV spectral indices preferred by our LOC models are consistent with those measured from COS spectra. EUV emission lines such as N IV ?765, O II ?833, and O III ?834 originate primarily from gas with electron temperatures between 37,000 K and 55,000 K. This gas is found in BLR clouds with high hydrogen densities (n H >= 1012 cm–3) and hydrogen ionizing photon fluxes (?H >= 1022 cm–2 s–1). Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the data archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute. STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  2. Broad scale effects of sulfur deposition: A response surface analysis of a complex model

    SciTech Connect

    Hettelingh, J.P.; Gardner, R.H.; Rose, K.A.; Brenkert, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    Prediction of the broad-scale environmental effects of acid deposition requires the extrapolation of site specific measurements to larger geographical regions. This paper uses Monte Carlo simulation of the RAINS Lake Model to investigate changes in parameter sensitivity and prediction uncertainty for geographic regions which differ in critical soil characteristics and levels of sulfur deposition. Statistical analysis of the results show that: (1) sensitivities and uncertainties shift with regional changes in soil characteristics; (2) simple response surface models can sometimes describe the pattern of predicted sulfur deposition effects; and (3) the degree of fit of the response surface model (R/sup 2/) indicates the relative homogeneity of response to acid deposition. 31 refs., 8 tabs.

  3. A broad research program on the sciences of complexity: Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-20

    1988 was the first full year of operation on the Santa Fe Institute, under multiyear grants from the Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation, with additional major grants from Citicorp, Russell Sage Foundation, and MacArthur Foundation. The research, educational, and publishing program of the Institute developed rapidly, especially in the last half of 1988. All of the seemingly disparate subjects in the program represent examples of complex systems with certain common properties that help define the content of an emerging general science of complexity. Major elements of progress in the SFI program were as follows: Economy; Theoretical Immunology; Global Security; Other Research; Summer School; Publishing Program; and Computer Support. This report describes proposed extensions of the 1988 programs into 1989 as well as proposed new workshops and research programs on complex adaptive systems; complexity, entropy, and the physics of information; 1989 complex systems summer school; evolution of human language; organization and evolution of prehistoric southwestern society; public policy studies; modeling human cognition and emotion; proteins, glasses, and spin glasses; theoretical ecology; and computational learning systems.

  4. Elicitation of broadly reactive antibodies against glycan-modulated neutralizing V3 epitopes of HIV-1 by immune complex vaccines.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajnish; Tuen, Michael; Liu, Jianping; Nàdas, Arthur; Pan, Ruimin; Kong, Xiangpeng; Hioe, Catarina E

    2013-11-01

    HIV-1 envelope gp120 is the target for neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against the virus. Various approaches have been explored to improve immunogenicity of broadly neutralizing epitopes on this antigen with limited success. We previously demonstrated that immunogenicity of gp120 and especially its V3 epitopes was enhanced when gp120 was co-administered as immune-complex vaccines with monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to the CD4-binding site (CD4bs). To define the mechanisms by which immune complexes influence V3 immunogenicity, we compared gp120 complexed with mAbs specific for the C2 region (1006-30), the V2 loop (2158), or the CD4bs (654), and found that the gp120/654 and gp120/2158 complexes elicited anti-V3 NAbs, but the gp120/654 complex was the most effective. gp120 complexed with 654 F(ab')2 was as potent, indicating that V3 immunogenicity is determined by the specificity of the mAb's Fab fragment used to form the complexes. Importantly, the gp120/654 complex not only induced anti-gp120 antibodies (Abs) to higher titers, but also of greater avidity. The Abs were cross-reactive with V3 peptides from most subtype B and some subtype C isolates. Neutralization was detected only against Tier-1 HIV-1 pseudoviruses, while Tier-2 viruses, including the homologous JRFL strain, were not neutralized. However, JRFL produced in the presence of a mannosidase inhibitor was sensitive to anti-V3 NAbs in the immune sera. These results demonstrate that the gp120/654 complex is a potent immunogen for eliciting cross-reactive functional NAbs against V3 epitopes, of which exposure is determined by the specific compositions of glycans shrouding the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins. PMID:24051158

  5. Elicitation of broadly reactive antibodies against glycan-modulated neutralizing V3 epitopes of HIV-1 by immune complex vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rajnish; Tuen, Michael; Liu, Jianping; Nàdas, Arthur; Pan, Ruimin; Kong, Xiangpeng; Hioe, Catarina E.

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 envelope gp120 is the target for neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against the virus. Various approaches have been explored to improve immunogenicity of broadly neutralizing epitopes on this antigen with limited success. We previously demonstrated that immunogenicity of gp120 and especially its V3 epitopes was enhanced when gp120 was co-administered as immune-complex vaccines with monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to the CD4-binding site (CD4bs). To define the mechanisms by which immune complexes influence V3 immunogenicity, we compared gp120 complexed with mAbs specific for the C2 region (1006-30), the V2 loop (2158), or the CD4bs (654), and found that the gp120/654 and gp120/2158 complexes elicited anti-V3 NAbs, but the gp120/654 complex was the most effective. gp120 complexed with 654 F(ab?)2 was as potent, indicating that V3 immunogenicity is determined by the specificity of the mAb’s Fab fragment used to form the complexes. Importantly, the gp120/654 complex not only induced anti-gp120 antibodies (Abs) to higher titers, but also of greater avidity. The Abs were cross-reactive with V3 peptides from most subtype B and some subtype C isolates. Neutralization was detected only against Tier-1 HIV-1 pseudoviruses, while Tier-2 viruses, including the homologous JRFL strain, were not neutralized. However, JRFL produced in the presence of a mannosidase inhibitor was sensitive to anti-V3 NAbs in the immune sera. These results demonstrate that the gp120/654 complex is a potent immunogen for eliciting cross-reactive functional NAbs against V3 epitopes, of which exposure is determined by the specific compositions of glycans shrouding the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins. PMID:24051158

  6. 1993 Annual report on scientific programs: A broad research program on the sciences of complexity

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    This report provides a summary of many of the research projects completed by the Santa Fe Institute (SFI) during 1993. These research efforts continue to focus on two general areas: the study of, and search for, underlying scientific principles governing complex adaptive systems, and the exploration of new theories of computation that incorporate natural mechanisms of adaptation (mutation, genetics, evolution).

  7. Star Formation in Self-gravitating Disks in Active Galactic Nuclei. II. Episodic Formation of Broad-line Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian-Min; Du, Pu; Baldwin, Jack A.; Ge, Jun-Qiang; Hu, Chen; Ferland, Gary J.

    2012-02-01

    This is the second in a series of papers discussing the process and effects of star formation in the self-gravitating disk around the supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We have previously suggested that warm skins are formed above the star-forming (SF) disk through the diffusion of warm gas driven by supernova explosions. Here we study the evolution of the warm skins when they are exposed to the powerful radiation from the inner part of the accretion disk. The skins initially are heated to the Compton temperature, forming a Compton atmosphere (CAS) whose subsequent evolution is divided into four phases. Phase I is the duration of pure accumulation supplied by the SF disk. During phase II clouds begin to form due to line cooling and sink to the SF disk. Phase III is a period of preventing clouds from sinking to the SF disk through dynamic interaction between clouds and the CAS because of the CAS overdensity driven by continuous injection of warm gas from the SF disk. Finally, phase IV is an inevitable collapse of the entire CAS through line cooling. This CAS evolution drives the episodic appearance of broad-line regions (BLRs). We follow the formation of cold clouds through the thermal instability of the CAS during phases II and III, using linear analysis. Since the clouds are produced inside the CAS, the initial spatial distribution of newly formed clouds and angular momentum naturally follow the CAS dynamics, producing a flattened disk of clouds. The number of clouds in phases II and III can be estimated, as well as the filling factor of clouds in the BLR. Since the cooling function depends on the metallicity, the metallicity gradients that originate in the SF disk give rise to different properties of clouds in different radial regions. We find from the instability analysis that clouds have column density N H <~ 1022 cm-2 in the metal-rich regions whereas they have N H >~ 1022 cm-2 in the metal-poor regions. The metal-rich clouds compose the high-ionization line regions whereas the metal-poor clouds are in low-ionization line (LIL) regions. Since metal-rich clouds are optically thin, they will be blown away by radiation pressure, forming the observed outflows. The outflowing clouds could set up a metallicity correlation between the BLRs and narrow-line regions. The LIL regions are episodic due to the mass cycle of clouds with the CAS in response to continuous injection by the SF disk, giving rise to different types of AGNs. Based on Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasar spectra, we identify a spectral sequence in light of emission-line equivalent width from phase I to IV. A key phase in the episodic appearance of the BLRs is bright type II AGNs with no or only weak BLRs, contrary to the popular picture in which the absence of a BLR is due to a low accretion rate. We discuss observational implications and tests of the theoretical predictions of this model.

  8. STAR FORMATION IN SELF-GRAVITATING DISKS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. II. EPISODIC FORMATION OF BROAD-LINE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    WangJianmin; Du Pu; Ge Junqiang; Hu Chen [Key Laboratory for Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19B Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Baldwin, Jack A. [Physics and Astronomy Department, 3270 Biomedical Physical Sciences Building, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Ferland, Gary J., E-mail: wangjm@mail.ihep.ac.cn [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 177 Chemistry/Physics Building, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)

    2012-02-20

    This is the second in a series of papers discussing the process and effects of star formation in the self-gravitating disk around the supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We have previously suggested that warm skins are formed above the star-forming (SF) disk through the diffusion of warm gas driven by supernova explosions. Here we study the evolution of the warm skins when they are exposed to the powerful radiation from the inner part of the accretion disk. The skins initially are heated to the Compton temperature, forming a Compton atmosphere (CAS) whose subsequent evolution is divided into four phases. Phase I is the duration of pure accumulation supplied by the SF disk. During phase II clouds begin to form due to line cooling and sink to the SF disk. Phase III is a period of preventing clouds from sinking to the SF disk through dynamic interaction between clouds and the CAS because of the CAS overdensity driven by continuous injection of warm gas from the SF disk. Finally, phase IV is an inevitable collapse of the entire CAS through line cooling. This CAS evolution drives the episodic appearance of broad-line regions (BLRs). We follow the formation of cold clouds through the thermal instability of the CAS during phases II and III, using linear analysis. Since the clouds are produced inside the CAS, the initial spatial distribution of newly formed clouds and angular momentum naturally follow the CAS dynamics, producing a flattened disk of clouds. The number of clouds in phases II and III can be estimated, as well as the filling factor of clouds in the BLR. Since the cooling function depends on the metallicity, the metallicity gradients that originate in the SF disk give rise to different properties of clouds in different radial regions. We find from the instability analysis that clouds have column density N{sub H} {approx}< 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2} in the metal-rich regions whereas they have N{sub H} {approx}> 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2} in the metal-poor regions. The metal-rich clouds compose the high-ionization line regions whereas the metal-poor clouds are in low-ionization line (LIL) regions. Since metal-rich clouds are optically thin, they will be blown away by radiation pressure, forming the observed outflows. The outflowing clouds could set up a metallicity correlation between the BLRs and narrow-line regions. The LIL regions are episodic due to the mass cycle of clouds with the CAS in response to continuous injection by the SF disk, giving rise to different types of AGNs. Based on Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasar spectra, we identify a spectral sequence in light of emission-line equivalent width from phase I to IV. A key phase in the episodic appearance of the BLRs is bright type II AGNs with no or only weak BLRs, contrary to the popular picture in which the absence of a BLR is due to a low accretion rate. We discuss observational implications and tests of the theoretical predictions of this model.

  9. Nustar Reveals an Intrinsically X-ray Weak Broad Absorption Line Quasar in the Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxy Markarian 231

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Brandt. W. N.; Harrison, F. A.; Luo, B.; Alexander, D. M.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Craig, W. W.; Fabian, A. C.; Farrah, D.; Fiore, F.; Gandhi, P.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Hailey, C. J.; Hickox, R. C.; Madsen, K. K.; Ptak, A. F.; Rigby, Jane Rebecca; Risaliti, G.; Saz, C.; Stern, D.; Veilleux, S.; Walton, D. J.; Wik, D. R.; Zhang, W. W.

    2014-01-01

    We present high-energy (3-30 keV) NuSTAR observations of the nearest quasar, the ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) Markarian 231 (Mrk 231), supplemented with new and simultaneous low-energy (0.5-8 keV) data from Chandra. The source was detected, though at much fainter levels than previously reported, likely due to contamination in the large apertures of previous non-focusing hard X-ray telescopes. The full band (0.5-30 keV) X-ray spectrum suggests the active galactic nucleus (AGN) in Mrk 231 is absorbed by a patchy and Compton-thin N(sub H) approx. 1.2(sup +0.3) sub-0.3) x 10(exp 23) / sq cm) column. The intrinsic X-ray luminosity L(sub 0.5-30 Kev) approx. 1.0 x 10(exp 43) erg /s) is extremely weak relative to the bolometric luminosity where the 2-10 keV to bolometric luminosity ratio is approx. 0.03% compared to the typical values of 2-15%. Additionally, Mrk 231 has a low X-ray-to-optical power law slope alpha(sub 0X) approx. -1.7. It is a local example of a low-ionization broad absorption line (LoBAL) quasar that is intrinsically X-ray weak. The weak ionizing continuum may explain the lack of mid-infrared [O IV], [Ne V], and [Ne VI] fine-structure emission lines which are present in sources with otherwise similar AGN properties. We argue that the intrinsic X-ray weakness may be a result of the super-Eddington accretion occurring in the nucleus of this ULIRG, and may also be naturally related to the powerful wind event seen in Mrk 231, a merger remnant escaping from its dusty cocoon.

  10. Lens or Binary? Chandra Observations of the Wide-Separation Broad Absorption Line Quasar Pair UM 425

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldcroft, Thomas L.; Green, Paul J.

    2003-08-01

    We have obtained a 110 ks Chandra ACIS-S exposure of UM 425, a pair of QSOs at z=1.47 separated by 6.5", which show remarkably similar emission and broad absorption line (BAL) profiles in the optical/UV. Our 5000 count X-ray spectrum of UM 425A (the brighter component) is well fitted with a power law (photon spectral index ?=2.0) partially covered by a hydrogen column of 3.8×1022 cm-2. The underlying power-law slope for this object and for other recent samples of BALQSOs is typical of radio-quiet quasars, lending credence to the hypothesis that BALs exist in every quasar. Assuming the same ? for the much fainter image of UM 425B, we detect an obscuring column 5 times larger. We search for evidence of an appropriately large lensing mass in our Chandra image and find weak diffuse emission near the quasar pair, with an X-ray flux typical of a group of galaxies at redshift z~0.6. From our analysis of archival HST WFPC2 and NICMOS images, we find no evidence for a luminous lensing galaxy, but note a 3 ? excess of galaxies in the UM 425 field with plausible magnitudes for a z=0.6 galaxy group. However, the associated X-ray emission does not imply sufficient mass to produce the observed image splitting. The lens scenario thus requires a dark (high M/L ratio) lens or a fortuitous configuration of masses along the line of sight. UM 425 may instead be a close binary pair of BALQSOs, which would boost arguments that interactions and mergers increase nuclear activity and outflows.

  11. Multifrequency VLBI Observations of the Broad Absorption Line Quasar J1020+4320: Recently Restarted Jet Activity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doi, Akihiro; Murata, Yasuhiro; Mochizuki, Nanako; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Asada, Keiichi; Hayashi, Takayuki J.; Nagai, Hiroshi; Shibata, Katsunori M.; Oyama, Tomoaki; Jike, Takaaki; Fujisawa, Kenta; Sugiyama, Koichiro; Ogawa, Hideo; Kimura, Kimihiro; Honma, Mareki; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Koyama, Shoko

    2013-06-01

    This paper reports on very-long-baseline interferometry observations of the radio-loud broad absorption line (BAL) quasar J1020+4320 at 1.7, 2.3, 6.7, and 8.4 GHz using the Japanese VLBI network (JVN) and European VLBI network (EVN). The radio morphology is compact with a size of ˜10 pc. The convex radio spectrum has been stable over the last decade; an observed peak frequency of 3.2 GHz is equivalent to 9.5 GHz in the rest frame, suggesting an age on the order of ˜100 years as a radio source, according to an observed correlation between the linear size and the peak frequency of compact steep spectrum (CSS) and giga-hertz peaked spectrum (GPS) radio sources. A low-frequency radio excess suggests a relic of past jet activity. J1020+4320 may be one of the quasars with recurrent and short-lived jet activity during a BAL-outflowing phase.

  12. The black hole fundamental plane from a uniform sample of radio and X-ray emitting broad line AGNs

    E-print Network

    Ran Wang; Xue-Bing Wu; Min-Zhi Kong

    2006-03-19

    We derived the black hole fundamental plane relationship among the 1.4GHz radio luminosity (L_r), 0.1-2.4keV X-ray luminosity (L_X), and black hole mass (M) from a uniform broad line SDSS AGN sample including both radio loud and radio quiet X-ray emitting sources. We found in our sample that the fundamental plane relation has a very weak dependence on the black hole mass, and a tight correlation also exists between the Eddington luminosity scaled X-ray and radio luminosities for the radio quiet subsample. Additionally, we noticed that the radio quiet and radio loud AGNs have different power-law slopes in the radio--X-ray non-linear relationship. The radio loud sample displays a slope of 1.39, which seems consistent with the jet dominated X-ray model. However, it may also be partly due to the relativistic beaming effect. For radio quiet sample the slope of the radio--X-ray relationship is about 0.85, which is possibly consistent with the theoretical prediction from the accretion flow dominated X-ray model. We briefly discuss the reason why our derived relationship is different from some previous works and expect the future spectral studies in radio and X-ray bands on individual sources in our sample to confirm our result.

  13. Interaction between the Broad-lined Type Ic Supernova 2012ap and Carriers of Diffuse Interstellar Bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milisavljevic, Dan; Margutti, Raffaella; Crabtree, Kyle N.; Foster, Jonathan B.; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Fesen, Robert A.; Parrent, Jerod T.; Sanders, Nathan E.; Drout, Maria R.; Kamble, Atish; Chakraborti, Sayan; Pickering, Timothy E.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Mazzali, Paolo; Maeda, Keiichi; Marion, G. H. Howie; Vinko, Jozsef; Wheeler, J. Craig

    2014-02-01

    Diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) are absorption features observed in optical and near-infrared spectra that are thought to be associated with carbon-rich polyatomic molecules in interstellar gas. However, because the central wavelengths of these bands do not correspond to electronic transitions of any known atomic or molecular species, their nature has remained uncertain since their discovery almost a century ago. Here we report on unusually strong DIBs in optical spectra of the broad-lined Type Ic supernova SN 2012ap that exhibit changes in equivalent width over short (lsim 30 days) timescales. The 4428 Å and 6283 Å DIB features get weaker with time, whereas the 5780 Å feature shows a marginal increase. These nonuniform changes suggest that the supernova is interacting with a nearby source of DIBs and that the DIB carriers possess high ionization potentials, such as small cations or charged fullerenes. We conclude that moderate-resolution spectra of supernovae with DIB absorptions obtained within weeks of outburst could reveal unique information about the mass-loss environment of their progenitor systems and provide new constraints on the properties of DIB carriers.

  14. High-resolution line-shape spectroscopy during a laser pulse based on Dual-Broad-Band-CARS interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Vereschagin, Konstantin A; Vereschagin, Alexey K; Smirnov, Valery V; Stelmakh, O M; Fabelinskii, V I [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Clauss, W; Klimenko, D N; Oschwald, M, E-mail: veresch@kapella.gpi.r, E-mail: Al_Vereshchagin@mail.r, E-mail: vvs@kapella.gpi.r, E-mail: stelmakh@kapella.gpi.r [German Aerospace Research Centre, DLR, Hardthausen (Germany)

    2006-07-31

    A high-resolution spectroscopic method is developed for recording Raman spectra of molecular transitions in transient objects during a laser pulse with a resolution of {approx}0.1 cm{sup -1}. The method is based on CARS spectroscopy using a Fabry-Perot interferometer for spectral analysis of the CARS signal and detecting a circular interferometric pattern on a two-dimensional multichannel photodetector. It is shown that the use of the Dual-Broad-Band-CARS configuration to obtain the CARS process provides the efficient averaging of the spectral-amplitude noise of the CARS signal generated by a laser pulse and, in combination with the angular integration of the two-dimensional interference pattern, considerably improves the quality of interferograms. The method was tested upon diagnostics of the transient oxygen-hydrogen flame where information on the shapes of spectral lines of the Q-branch of hydrogen molecules required for measuring temperature was simultaneously obtained and used. (special issue devoted to the 90th anniversary of a.m. prokhorov)

  15. Constraining Sub-Parsec Binary Supermassive Black Holes in Quasars with Multi-Epoch Spectroscopy. II. The Population with Kinematically Offset Broad Balmer Emission Lines

    E-print Network

    Liu, Xin; Bian, Fuyan; Loeb, Abraham; Tremaine, Scott

    2013-01-01

    A small fraction of quasars have long been known to show bulk velocity offsets in the broad Balmer lines with respect to the systemic redshift of the host galaxy. Models to explain these offsets usually invoke broad line region gas kinematics/asymmetry around single black holes (BHs), orbital motion of massive (~sub-pc) binary black holes (BBHs), or recoil BHs, but single-epoch spectra are unable to distinguish between these scenarios. The line-of-sight (LOS) radial velocity (RV) shifts from long-term spectroscopic monitoring can be used to test the BBH hypothesis. We have selected a sample of 399 quasars with offset broad H-beta lines from the SDSS DR7 quasar catalog, and have conducted second-epoch optical spectroscopy for 50 of them. Combined with the existing SDSS spectra, the new observations enable us to constrain the LOS RV shifts of broad H-beta lines with a rest-frame baseline of a few years to nearly a decade. Using cross-correlation analysis, we detect significant (99% confidence) radial accelerati...

  16. Evidence of a Broad Relativistic Iron Line from the Neutron Star Low-Mass X-ray Binary Serpens X-1

    E-print Network

    Sudip Bhattacharyya; Tod E. Strohmayer

    2007-08-27

    We report on an analysis of XMM-Newton data from the neutron star low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) Serpens X-1 (Ser X-1). Spectral analysis of EPIC PN data indicates that the previously known broad iron K$\\alpha$ emission line from this source has a significantly skewed structure with a moderately extended red wing. The asymmetric shape of the line is well described with the laor and diskline models in XSPEC and strongly supports an inner accretion disk origin of the line. To our knowledge this is the first strong evidence of a relativistic line in a neutron star LMXB. This finding suggests that the broad lines seen in other neutron star LMXBs likely originate from the inner disk as well. Detailed study of such lines opens up a new way to probe neutron star parameters and their strong gravitational fields. The red wing of the iron line from Ser X-1 is not as broad as that observed from some black hole systems. This is not unreasonable for a neutron star system, as the accretion disk has to terminate at or before the hard stellar surface. Finally, the inferred source inclination angle in the approximate range 40 degree to 60 degree is consistent with the lack of dips and eclipses from Ser X-1.

  17. The complexity of understanding line drawings of origami scenes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pietro Parodi

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with the interpretation of line drawings of Origami scenes(Kanade, 1980), that is scenes obtained by assembling planar panels of negligiblethickness, and it addresses the computational complexity of the problemof consistently assigning suitable labels to the segments describing 3D propertiesas convexity, concavity and occlusion (labeling problem). The mainresults of the paper are the following: (a) the labeling problem

  18. Purification and preliminary characterization of mitochondrial complex I (NADH: ubiquinone reductase) from broad bean (Vicia faba L.).

    PubMed Central

    Leterme, S; Boutry, M

    1993-01-01

    NADH:ubiquinone reductase (EC 1.6.19.3), or complex I, was isolated from broad bean (Vicia faba L.) mitochondria. Osmotic shock and sequential treatment with 0.2% (v/v) Triton X-100 and 0.5% (w/v) [3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfate (CHAPS) removed all other NADH dehydrogenase activities. Complex I was solubilized in the presence of 4% Triton X-100 and then purified by sucrose-gradient centrifugation in the presence of the same detergent. The second purification step was hydroxylapatite chromatography. Substitution of CHAPS for Triton X-100 helped remove contaminants such as ATPase. The high molecular mass complex is composed of at least 26 subunits with molecular masses ranging from 6000 to 75,000 kD. The purified complex I reduced ferricyanide and ubiquinone analogs but not cytochrome c. NADPH could not substitute for NADH as an electron donor. The KM for NADH was 20 microM at the optimum pH of 8.0. The NH2-terminal sequence of several subunits was determined, revealing the ambiguous nature of the 42-kD subunit. PMID:8108509

  19. THE LICK AGN MONITORING PROJECT 2011: DYNAMICAL MODELING OF THE BROAD-LINE REGION IN Mrk 50

    SciTech Connect

    Pancoast, Anna; Brewer, Brendon J.; Treu, Tommaso; Bennert, Vardha N.; Sand, David J. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Barth, Aaron J.; Cooper, Michael C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-4575 (United States); Canalizo, Gabriela [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Filippenko, Alexei V.; Li, Weidong; Cenko, S. Bradley; Clubb, Kelsey I. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Gates, Elinor L. [Lick Observatory, P.O. Box 85, Mount Hamilton, CA 95140 (United States); Greene, Jenny E. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Malkan, Matthew A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Stern, Daniel; Assef, Roberto J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Woo, Jong-Hak [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Hyun-Jin [Department of Astronomy and Center for Galaxy Evolution Research, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Buehler, Tabitha, E-mail: pancoast@physics.ucsb.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, N283 ESC, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602-4360 (United States); and others

    2012-07-20

    We present dynamical modeling of the broad-line region (BLR) in the Seyfert 1 galaxy Mrk 50 using reverberation mapping data taken as part of the Lick AGN Monitoring Project (LAMP) 2011. We model the reverberation mapping data directly, constraining the geometry and kinematics of the BLR, as well as deriving a black hole mass estimate that does not depend on a normalizing factor or virial coefficient. We find that the geometry of the BLR in Mrk 50 is a nearly face-on thick disk, with a mean radius of 9.6{sup +1.2}{sub -0.9} light days, a width of the BLR of 6.9{sup +1.2}{sub -1.1} light days, and a disk opening angle of 25 {+-} 10 deg above the plane. We also constrain the inclination angle to be 9{sup +7}{sub -5} deg, close to face-on. Finally, the black hole mass of Mrk 50 is inferred to be log{sub 10}(M{sub BH}/M{sub Sun }) = 7.57{sup +0.44}{sub -0.27}. By comparison to the virial black hole mass estimate from traditional reverberation mapping analysis, we find the normalizing constant (virial coefficient) to be log{sub 10} f = 0.78{sup +0.44}{sub -0.27}, consistent with the commonly adopted mean value of 0.74 based on aligning the M{sub BH}-{sigma}* relation for active galactic nuclei and quiescent galaxies. While our dynamical model includes the possibility of a net inflow or outflow in the BLR, we cannot distinguish between these two scenarios.

  20. Differential interferometry of QSO broad-line regions - I. Improving the reverberation mapping model fits and black hole mass estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakshit, Suvendu; Petrov, Romain G.; Meilland, Anthony; Hönig, Sebastian F.

    2015-03-01

    Reverberation mapping (RM) estimates the size and kinematics of broad-line regions (BLR) in quasars and type I AGNs. It yields size-luminosity relation to make QSOs standard cosmological candles, and mass-luminosity relation to study the evolution of black holes and galaxies. The accuracy of these relations is limited by the unknown geometry of the BLR clouds distribution and velocities. We analyse the independent BLR structure constraints given by super-resolving differential interferometry. We developed a three-dimensional BLR model to compute all differential interferometry and RM signals. We extrapolate realistic noises from our successful observations of the QSO 3C 273 with AMBER on the VLTI. These signals and noises quantify the differential interferometry capacity to discriminate and measure BLR parameters including angular size, thickness, spatial distribution of clouds, local-to-global and radial-to-rotation velocity ratios, and finally central black hole mass and BLR distance. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo model-fit, of data simulated for various VLTI instruments, gives mass accuracies between 0.06 and 0.13 dex, to be compared to 0.44 dex for RM mass-luminosity fits. We evaluate the number of QSOs accessible to observe with current (AMBER), upcoming (GRAVITY) and possible (OASIS with new generation fringe trackers) VLTI instruments. With available technology, the VLTI could resolve more than 60 BLRs, with a luminosity range larger than four decades, sufficient for a good calibration of RM mass-luminosity laws, from an analysis of the variation of BLR parameters with luminosity.

  1. STAR FORMATION IN SELF-GRAVITATING DISKS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. I. METALLICITY GRADIENTS IN BROAD-LINE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Jianmin; Ge Junqiang; Hu Chen; Li Yanrng; Xiang Fei; Zhang Shu [Key Laboratory for Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19B Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Baldwin, Jack A. [Physics and Astronomy Department, 3270 Biomedical Physical Sciences Building, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Ferland, Gary J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 177 Chemistry/Physics Building, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Yan Changshuo, E-mail: wangjm@mail.ihep.ac.cn [National Astronomical Observatories of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Beijing 100020 (China)

    2011-09-20

    It has been suggested that the high metallicity generally observed in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and quasars originates from ongoing star formation in the self-gravitating part of accretion disks around supermassive black holes (SMBHs). We designate this region as the star-forming (SF) disk, in which metals are produced from supernova explosions (SNexp) while at the same time inflows are driven by SNexp-excited turbulent viscosity to accrete onto the SMBHs. In this paper, an equation of metallicity governed by SNexp and radial advection is established to describe the metal distribution and evolution in the SF disk. We find that the metal abundance is enriched at different rates at different positions in the disk, and that a metallicity gradient is set up that evolves for steady-state AGNs. Metallicity as an integrated physical parameter can be used as a probe of the SF disk age during one episode of SMBH activity. In the SF disk, evaporation of molecular clouds heated by SNexp blast waves unavoidably forms hot gas. This heating is eventually balanced by the cooling of the hot gas, but we show that the hot gas will escape from the SF disk before being cooled, and diffuse into the broad-line regions (BLRs) forming with a typical rate of {approx}1 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. The diffusion of hot gas from an SF disk depends on ongoing star formation, leading to the metallicity gradients in BLR observed in AGNs. We discuss this and other observable consequences of this scenario.

  2. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF OPTICAL/ULTRAVIOLET VARIABILITY OF NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 AND BROAD-LINE SEYFERT 1 ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Ai, Y. L. [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Yuan, W. [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Zhou, H.; Wang, T. G.; Dong, X.-B.; Lu, H. L. [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Wang, J. G., E-mail: aiyl@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: wmy@nao.cas.cn [National Astronomical Observatories/Yunnan Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 110, Kunming, Yunnan (China)

    2013-04-15

    The ensemble optical/ultraviolet (UV) variability of narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1)-type active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is investigated, based on a sample selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82 region with multi-epoch photometric scanning data. As a comparison, a control sample of broad-line Seyfert 1 (BLS1)-type AGNs is also incorporated. To quantify properly the intrinsic variation amplitudes and their uncertainties, a novel method of parametric maximum likelihood is introduced that has, as we argued, certain virtues over previously used methods. The majority of NLS1-type AGNs exhibit significant variability on timescales from about 10 days to a few years with, however, smaller amplitudes on average compared to BLS1-type AGNs. About 20 NLS1-type AGNs that show relatively large variations are presented and may deserve future monitoring observations, for instance, reverberation mapping. The averaged structure functions of variability, constructed using the same maximum likelihood method, show remarkable similarity in shape for the two types of AGNs on timescales longer than about 10 days, which can be approximated by a power law or an exponential function. This, along with other similar properties, such as the wavelength-dependent variability, is indicative of a common dominant mechanism responsible for the long-term optical/UV variability of both NLS1- and BLS1-type AGNs. Toward the short timescales, however, there is tentative evidence that the structure function of NLS1-type AGNs continues to decline, whereas that of BLS1-type AGNs flattens with some residual variability on timescales of days. If this can be confirmed, it may suggest that an alternative mechanism, such as X-ray reprocessing, starts to dominate in BLS1-type AGNs, but not in NLS1-type AGNs, on such timescales.

  3. Contrasting phylogeographic histories between broadly sympatric topminnows in the Fundulus notatus species complex.

    PubMed

    Duvernell, David D; Meier, Stephanie L; Schaefer, Jacob F; Kreiser, Brian R

    2013-12-01

    Sympatrically distributed closely related species provide opportunities for studying evolutionary patterns of diversification. Such studies must account for historical contingencies in interpreting contemporary patterns of variation. Topminnows in the Fundulus notatus species complex are distributed sympatrically across much of the southern and Midwestern United States. Throughout most of their ranges F. olivaceus is often found in headwater stream habitats, and F. notatus is more typically distributed along the margins of larger river habitats. However, in some drainages, ecological associations of the respective species are reversed, with F. notatus populations isolated in headwater streams and F. olivaceus in downstream river habitats. Phylogeographic analyses of AFLP marker and multi-locus sequence data detected historical isolation in F. notatus consistent with pre-Pleistocene drainage patterns. Four F. notatus clades corresponded to (i) the Western Gulf Slope, (ii) the southwestern Ouachita Highlands, (iii) the Mobile Basin, and (iv) central Coastal Plain and Mississippi River Basin. In contrast, a relative lack of range-wide geographic structure in F. olivaceus is consistent with recent range expansion over much of the same geographic area. The southwestern Ouachita Highlands and Mobile Basin F. notatus clades corresponded to regions where ecological associations between the two species are reversed, providing evidence of the independent evolution of variation in contemporary habitat associations. Fundulus olivaceus from several drainages demonstrated introgression of mitochondrial DNA from F. notatus, but none of the sites in this study included individuals with hybrid ancestry in their nuclear genome. Phylogenetic analyses that included only nuclear loci supported the reciprocal monophyly of F. notatus, F. olivaceus and a third narrowly endemic species, Fundulus euryzonus, and supported a sister relationship between F. olivaceus and F. euryzonus. PMID:23887036

  4. Comparing Narrow- and Broad-line AGNs in a New Diagnostic Diagram for Emission-line Galaxies Based on WISE Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coziol, R.; Torres-Papaqui, J. P.; Andernach, H.

    2015-06-01

    Using a new color–color diagnostic diagram in the mid-infrared (MIR) built from WISE data, the MIRDD, we compare narrow-emission-line galaxies (NELGs) that exhibit different activity types (star-forming galaxies (SFGs) and active galactic nuclei (AGNs), i.e., LINERs, Seyfert 2 galaxies (Sy2s), and Transition-type Objects (TOs)), as determined using one standard diagnostic diagram in the optical (BPT–VO), with broad-line AGNs (QSOs and Sy1s) and BL Lac objects at low redshift (z?slant 0.25). We show that the BL Lac objects occupy the same region as the LINERs in the MIRDD, whereas the QSOs and Sy1s occupy an intermediate region between the LINERs and the Sy2s. In the MIRDD these galaxies trace a sequence that can be reproduced by a power law, {{F}? }={{? }? }, where the spectral index, ?, varies from 0 to ?2, which is similar to what is observed in the optical/ultraviolet part of the spectra of AGNs with different luminosities. For the NELGs with different activity types, we perform a stellar-population synthesis analysis, confirming that their specific positions in the MIRD depend on their star formation histories (SFH) and demonstrating that the W2-W3 color is tightly correlated with the level of star formation in their host galaxies. In good agreement with the SFH analysis, a comparison of their MIR colors with the colors yielded by spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of galaxies with different activity types shows that the SED of the LINERs is similar to the SEDs of the QSOs and Sy1s, consistent with AGN galaxies with mild star formation, whereas the SEDs of the Sy2s and TOs are consistent with AGN galaxies with strong star formation components. For the BL Lac objects, we show that their blue MIR colors can only be fitted with an SED that has no star formation component, consistent with AGNs in elliptical-type galaxies. From their similarities in MIR colors and SEDs, we infer that, in the nearby universe, the level of star formation activity most probably increases in the host galaxies of emission-line galaxies with different activity types along the sequence BL Lac \\to LINER \\to QSO/Sy1 \\to Sy2 \\to TO \\to SFG.

  5. A three-line lateral flow assay strip for the measurement of C-reactive protein covering a broad physiological concentration range in human sera.

    PubMed

    Oh, Young Kyoung; Joung, Hyou-Arm; Han, Hyung Soo; Suk, Ho-Jun; Kim, Min-Gon

    2014-11-15

    The lateral flow assay (LFA) strip sensor possesses many advantages as a diagnostic device, including the capabilities of rapid, one-step assay performance, and high throughput production. A major limitation of the sensor, however, is its difficulty in measuring a broad concentration range of target proteins, including C-reactive protein (CRP), due to the "hook effect." In this study, we report the use of a three-line LFA strip sensor, adding an antigen line to the conventional two-line LFA sensor, for detecting CRP within a broad concentration range in human sera. We introduced an antigen line between test and control lines in the LFA sensor. The antigen line was formed by dispensing a CRP antibody solution followed by a CRP solution in nitrocellulose membrane. All other conditions were identical to those applied to the conventional LFA strip sensor. The CRP level in test samples was generated by data processing from the intensities of three lines. The strip sensor measured a linear detection range of CRP concentration from 1 ng/mL to 500 ?g/mL within 10 min, with a calculated detection range of 0.69 ng/mL-1.02 mg/mL. Using the developed three-line LFA sensor, 50 clinical samples were measured at a detection range of 0.4-84.7 ?g/mL. This novel and easy-to-use CRP sensor can be a useful tool for rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective detection of a broad physiological concentration range of CRP capabilities that are vital for various diagnostic applications. PMID:24906087

  6. Modelling photometric reverberation data: a disk-like broad-line region and a potentially larger black hole mass for 3C 120

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozo Nuñez, F.; Haas, M.; Ramolla, M.; Bruckmann, C.; Westhues, C.; Chini, R.; Steenbrugge, K.; Lemke, R.; Murphy, M.; Kollatschny, W.

    2014-08-01

    We consider photometric reverberation mapping, where the nuclear continuum variations are monitored via a broad-band filter and the echo of emission line clouds of the broad-line region (BLR) is measured with a suitable narrow-band (NB) filter. We investigate how an incomplete emission-line coverage by the NB filter influences the determination of the BLR size. This includes two basic cases: 1) a symmetric cut of the blue and red part of the line wings; and 2) the filter positioned asymmetrically to the line centre so that essentially a complete half of the emission line is contained in the NB filter. Under the assumption that the BLR is dominated by circular Keplerian orbits, we find that symmetric cutting of line wings may lead to overestimating the BLR size by less than 5%. The case of asymmetric half-line coverage, similar as for our data of the Seyfert 1 galaxy 3C 120, yields a BLR size with a bias of less than 1%. Our results suggest that any BLR size bias due to a narrow-band line cut in photometric reverberation mapping is small and in most cases negligible. We used well-sampled photometric reverberation mapping light curves with sharp variation features in both the continuum and the H? light curves to determine the geometry type of the H? BLR for 3C 120. Modelling of the light curve, under the assumption that the BLR is essentially virialised, argues against a spherical geometry and favours a nearly face-on disk-like geometry with an inclination i = 10° ± 4° and an extension from 22 to 28 light days. The low inclination may lead to a larger black hole mass MBH than that derived when using the average geometry scaling factor f = 5.5. We discuss deviations of Seyfert 1 galaxies from the MBH-?? relation.

  7. One-carbon metabolism in neurodevelopmental disorders: using broad-based nutraceutics to treat cognitive deficits in complex spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Schaevitz, Laura; Berger-Sweeney, Joanne; Ricceri, Laura

    2014-10-01

    Folate and choline, two nutrients involved in the one-carbon metabolic cycle, are intimately involved in regulating DNA integrity, synthesis, biogenic amine synthesis, and methylation. In this review, we discuss evidence that folate and choline play an important role in normal cognitive development, and that altered levels of these nutrients during periods of high neuronal proliferation and synaptogenesis can result in diminished cognitive function. We also discuss the use of these nutrients as therapeutic agents in a spectrum of developmental disorders in which intellectual disability is a prominent feature, such as in Fragile-X, Rett syndrome, Down syndrome, and Autism spectrum disorders. A survey of recent literature suggests that nutritional supplements have mild, but generally consistent, effects on improving cognition. Intervening with supplements earlier rather than later during development is more effective in improving cognitive outcomes. Given the mild improvements seen after treatments using nutrients alone, and the importance of the genetic profile of parents and offspring, we suggest that using nutraceutics early in development and in combination with other therapeutics are likely to have positive impacts on cognitive outcomes in a broad spectrum of complex neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:24769289

  8. Broad-range PCR-TTGE for the first-line detection of bacterial pathogen DNA in ticks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lénaïg Halos; Maria Mavris; Gwenaël Vourc’h; Renaud Maillard; Jacques Barnouin; Henri-Jean Boulouis; Muriel Vayssier-Taussat

    2006-01-01

    Ticks are known or suspected vectors for a wide range of bacterial pathogens. One of the first steps for tick-borne risk assessment is the detection of these pathogens in their vectors. In the present study, a broad-range PCR amplification of the eubacterial gene encoding the 16S rRNA gene combined with Temporal Temperature Gradient gel Electrophoresis (TTGE) was evaluated as a

  9. TWO-COMPONENT STRUCTURE OF THE H{beta} BROAD-LINE REGION IN QUASARS. I. EVIDENCE FROM SPECTRAL PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Chen; Wang Jianmin [Key Laboratory for Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19B Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Ho, Luis C. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Ferland, Gary J.; Wang Ye [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 177 Chemistry/Physics Building, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Baldwin, Jack A., E-mail: huc@ihep.ac.cn [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 3270 Biomedical Physical Sciences Building, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2012-12-01

    We report on a spectral principal component analysis (SPCA) of a sample of 816 quasars, selected to have small Fe II velocity shifts with spectral coverage in the rest wavelength range 3500-5500 A. The sample is explicitly designed to mitigate spurious effects on SPCA induced by Fe II velocity shifts. We improve the algorithm of SPCA in the literature and introduce a new quantity, the fractional-contribution spectrum, that effectively identifies the emission features encoded in each eigenspectrum. The first eigenspectrum clearly records the power-law continuum and very broad Balmer emission lines. Narrow emission lines dominate the second eigenspectrum. The third eigenspectrum represents the Fe II emission and a component of the Balmer lines with kinematically similar intermediate-velocity widths. Correlations between the weights of the eigenspectra and parametric measurements of line strength and continuum slope confirm the above interpretation for the eigenspectra. Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate the validity of our method to recognize cross talk in SPCA and firmly rule out a single-component model for broad H{beta}. We also present the results of SPCA for four other samples that contain quasars in bins of larger Fe II velocity shift; similar eigenspectra are obtained. We propose that the H{beta}-emitting region has two kinematically distinct components: one with very large velocities whose strength correlates with the continuum shape and another with more modest, intermediate velocities that is closely coupled to the gas that gives rise to Fe II emission.

  10. Time-Variable Complex Metal Absorption Lines in the Quasar HS 1603+3820

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misawa, Toru; Eracleous, Michael; Charlton, Jane C.; Tajitsu, Akito

    2005-08-01

    We present a new spectrum of the quasar HS 1603+3820 taken 1.28 yr (0.36 yr in the quasar rest frame) after a previous observation with Subaru+HDS. The new spectrum enables us to search for time variability as an identifier of intrinsic narrow absorption lines (NALs). This quasar shows a rich complex of C IV NALs within 60,000 km s-1 of the emission redshift. On the basis of covering factor analysis, Misawa et al. found that the C IV NAL system at zabs=2.42-2.45 (system A, at a shift velocity of vsh=8300-10,600 km s-1 relative to the quasar) was intrinsic to the quasar. With our new spectrum, we perform time variability analysis, as well as covering factor analysis, to separate intrinsic NALs from intervening NALs for eight C IV systems. Only system A, which was identified as an intrinsic system in the earlier paper by Misawa et al., shows a strong variation in line strength (Wobs~10.4-->19.1 Å). We speculate that a broad absorption line (BAL) could be forming in this quasar (i.e., many narrower lines will blend together to make a BAL profile). We illustrate the plausibility of this suggestion with the help of a simulation in which we vary the column densities and covering factors of the NAL complex. Under the assumption that a change of ionization state causes the variability, a lower limit can be placed on the electron density (ne>~3×104cm-3) and an upper limit on the distance from the continuum source (r<=6 kpc). On the other hand, if the motion of clumpy gas causes the variability (a more likely scenario), the crossing velocity and the distance from the continuum source are estimated to be vcross>8000 km s-1 and r<3 pc. In this case, the absorber does not intercept any flux from the broad emission line region, but only flux from the UV continuum source. If we adopt the dynamical model of Murray et al., we can obtain a much more strict constraint on the distance of the gas parcel from the continuum source, r<0.2 pc. Based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  11. To be published in Astrophysical Journal Optical Monitoring of the Broad-Line Radio Galaxy 3C 390.3

    E-print Network

    Dietrich, Matthias

    -line region (BLR) of AGN (Blandford & McKee 1982; Horne et al. 2004; Netzer & Peterson 1997; Pe- te.3 Matthias Dietrich 1 , Bradley M. Peterson 1 , Catherine J. Grier 1 , Misty C. Bentz 1,2 , Jason Eastman 1

  12. Electrocardiographic criteria for diagnosis of irregular broad complex tachycardia with a high sensitivity for preexcited atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Lau, E W; Pathamanathan, R K; Ng, G A; Griffith, M J

    2000-12-01

    AF may appear as an irregular broad complex tachycardia (BCT) if atrioventricular conduction occurs via an accessory pathway (preexcited AF) or if bundle branch block (BBB), preexistent or rate related, exists in the His-Purkinje system (BBB-AF). While BBB-AF is relatively benign, preexcited AF may herald sudden cardiac death. Hence it is important that the two conditions can be reliably distinguished. Yet, there is no preexistent algorithms for this purpose. Griffith et al. previously proposed a simple algorithm for a similar problem, that of distinguishing the two differential diagnoses for regular BCT: VT and SVT with BBB, on the basis that unless the QRS morphologies in V1 and V6 are absolutely typical of BBB, VT will be diagnosed. The authors propose an extrapolation of this principle to irregular BCT by stating that, unless the QRS morphologies in V1 and V6 are absolutely typical of BBB, preexcited AF will be diagnosed. Seventy-five ECGs showing irregular BCT (41 preexcited AF and 34 BBB-AF) were shown to two fellows in electrophysiology who were given no other information and were instructed to diagnose preexcited AF unless the QRS morphology pattern was typical of BBB. Observer 1 achieved a sensitivity of 100% (41/41) and a specificity of 79% (27/34), while observer 2 achieved a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 85% (29/34). By QRS morphology pattern, an average sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 82% were achieved for the diagnosis of irregular BCT. The algorithm is simple and easy to implement and recommended for clinical use. PMID:11202244

  13. Newly Cultured Bacteria with Broad Diversity Isolated from Eight-Week Continuous Culture Enrichments of Cow Feces on Complex Polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    One of the functions of the mammalian large intestinal microbiota is the fermentation of plant cell wall components. In ruminant animals, the majority of their nutrients are obtained via pregastric fermentation; however, up to 20% can be recovered from microbial fermentation in the large intestine. Eight-week continuous culture enrichments of cattle feces with cellulose and xylan-pectin were used to isolate bacteria from this community. A total of 459 bacterial isolates were classified phylogenetically using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Six phyla were represented: Firmicutes (51.9%), Bacteroidetes (30.9%), Proteobacteria (11.1%), Actinobacteria (3.5%), Synergistetes (1.5%), and Fusobacteria (1.1%). The majority of bacterial isolates had <98.5% identity to cultured bacteria with sequences in the Ribosomal Database Project and thus represent new species and/or genera. Within the Firmicutes isolates, most were classified in the families Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, Erysipelotrichaceae, and Clostridiaceae I. The majority of the Bacteroidetes were most closely related to Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, B. ovatus, and B. xylanisolvens and members of the Porphyromonadaceae family. Many of the Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes isolates were related to species demonstrated to possess enzymes which ferment plant cell wall components; the others were hypothesized to cross-feed these bacteria. The microbial communities that arose in these enrichment cultures had broad bacterial diversity. With over 98% of the isolates not represented as previously cultured, there are new opportunities to study the genomic and metabolic capacities of these members of the complex intestinal microbiota. PMID:24212576

  14. Unshifted Metastable He I* Mini-broad Absorption Line System in the Narrow-line Type 1 Quasar SDSS J080248.18+551328.9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Tuo; Zhou, Hongyan; Jiang, Peng; Wang, Tinggui; Ge, Jian; Wang, Huiyuan; Komossa, S.; Hamann, Fred; Zuther, Jens; Liu, Wenjuan; Lu, Honglin; Zuo, Wenwen; Yang, Chenwei; Yuan, Weimin

    2015-02-01

    We report the identification of an unusual absorption-line system in the quasar SDSS J080248.18+551328.9 and present a detailed study of the system, incorporating follow-up optical and near-IR spectroscopy. A few tens of absorption lines are detected, including He I*, Fe II*, and Ni II*, which arise from metastable or excited levels, as well as resonant lines in Mg I, Mg II, Fe II, Mn II, and Ca II. All of the isolated absorption lines show the same profile of width ?v ~ 1500 km s-1 centered at a common redshift as that of the quasar emission lines, such as [O II], [S II], and hydrogen Paschen and Balmer series. With narrow Balmer lines, strong optical Fe II multiplets, and weak [O III] doublets, its emission-line spectrum is typical for that of a narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy (NLS1). We have derived reliable measurements of the gas-phase column densities of the absorbing ions/levels. Photoionization modeling indicates that the absorber has a density of n H ~ (1.0-2.5) × 105 cm-3 and a column density of N H ~ (1.0-3.2) × 1021 cm-2 and is located at R ~100-250 pc from the central supermassive black hole. The location of the absorber, the symmetric profile of the absorption lines, and the coincidence of the absorption- and emission-line centroid jointly suggest that the absorption gas originates from the host galaxy and is plausibly accelerated by stellar processes, such as stellar winds and/or supernova explosions. The implications for the detection of such a peculiar absorption-line system in an NLS1 are discussed in the context of coevolution between supermassive black hole growth and host galaxy buildup.

  15. The possible mechanism of the formation of emission clouds radiating broad lines in the spectra of active galactic nuclei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Zentsova

    1991-01-01

    The present study proves the hypothesis that the formation of emission clouds radiating the permitted lines in the spectra of active galaxies takes place in the outer parts of an accretion disk around a massive black hole. These parts of the disk become self-gravitating and may disintegrate into fragments. The nonlinear effects in the disk must provoke the slow drift

  16. Phase-Dependent Observations of Intermediate Polars and The Broad Emission and Absorption Line Region in NGC 3516

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koratkar, Anuradha; Bond, Howard E.

    1995-01-01

    The Intermediate Polars (IP's) constitute a class of Cataclysmic Variables (CV's), which are binary star systems in which mass is transferred from a late-type main-sequence star to a white dwarf via Roche lobe overflow. In the IP's, the inner accretion disk is evidently disrupted by the magnetic field of the white dwarf. High-temperature shocks at the white dwarf's magnetic poles (where accretion occurs) produce X-rays, which are reprocessed into photons over a broad energy band across the electromagnetic spectrum. Because the white dwarf typically spins rapidly (rotation periods a few 10s to a few 100s of seconds), the signals due to both the X-rays and reprocessed photons are pulsed. The shape of the spectrum of pulse amplitude as a function of wavelength yields information about both the temperature and size of the pulse-emitting region. It has been noted by several investigators that the optical pulsation amplitudes rise steeply toward short wavelengths. It is therefore a fair surmise that pulsation amplitudes peak in the ultraviolet. The scientific goal of this project was to observe a representative sample of IP's, using IUE, in search of the expected strong UV pulsations, and hence to further our understanding of pulse-producing mechanisms.

  17. C-13H3OH in OMC-1. [and spectral line identifications combining laboratory spectroscopy with broad-band astronomical line searches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, G. A.; Sutton, E. C.; Masson, C. R.; Phillips, T. G.; Herbst, E.; Plummer, G. M.; De Lucia, F. C.

    1984-01-01

    Transition line data for C-13H3OH in OMC-1 were gathered with a superconducting tunnel junction receiver and a 512 channel spectrometer on a 10.4 m telescope at the Owens Valley Radio Observatory. The methanol was scanned at 236 GHz and an observational efficiency of 85 percent. The survey was carried out to complement the data base on the line frequencies of internal rotors such as methanol and thereby the resolution of the C-12/C-13 ratio toward the galactic center. The data indicated that previous emission lines attributed to CO(+) and CH3CHO are actually methanol emissions, and the associated C-12/C-13 ratio is about 30.

  18. Differential reactivity of germ line allelic variants of a broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibody to a gp41 fusion intermediate conformation.

    PubMed

    Alam, S Munir; Liao, Hua-Xin; Dennison, S Moses; Jaeger, Frederick; Parks, Robert; Anasti, Kara; Foulger, Andrew; Donathan, Michele; Lucas, Judith; Verkoczy, Laurent; Nicely, Nathan; Tomaras, Georgia D; Kelsoe, Garnett; Chen, Bing; Kepler, Thomas B; Haynes, Barton F

    2011-11-01

    Genetic factors, as well as antigenic stimuli, can influence antibody repertoire formation. Moreover, the affinity of antigen for unmutated naïve B cell receptors determines the threshold for activation of germinal center antibody responses. The gp41 2F5 broadly neutralizing antibody (bNAb) uses the V(H)2-5 gene, which has 10 distinct alleles that use either a heavy-chain complementarity-determining region 2 (HCDR2) aspartic acid (D(H54)) or an HCDR2 asparagine (N(H54)) residue. The 2F5 HCDR2 D(H54) residue has been shown to form a salt bridge with gp41 (665)K; the V(H)2-5 germ line allele variant containing N(H54) cannot do so and thus should bind less avidly to gp41. Thus, the induction of 2F5 bNAb is dependent on both genetic and structural factors that could affect antigen affinity of unmutated naïve B cell receptors. Here, we studied allelic variants of the V(H)2-5 inferred germ line forms of the HIV-1 gp41 bNAb 2F5 for their antigen binding affinities to gp41 linear peptide and conformational protein antigens. Both V(H)2-5 2F5 inferred germ line variants bound to gp41 peptides and protein, including the fusion intermediate protein mimic, although more weakly than the mature 2F5 antibody. As predicted, the affinity of the N(H54) variant for fusion-intermediate conformation was an order of magnitude lower than that of the D(H54) V(H)2-5 germ line antibody, demonstrating that allelic variants of 2F5 germ line antibodies differentially bind to gp41. Thus, these data demonstrate a genetically determined trait that may affect host responses to HIV-1 envelope epitopes recognized by broadly neutralizing antibodies and has implications for unmutated ancestor-based immunogen design. PMID:21917975

  19. An HST/COS Observation of Broad Ly? Emission and Associated Absorption Lines of the BL Lacertae Object H 2356-309

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Taotao; Danforth, Charles W.; Buote, David A.; Stocke, John T.; Shull, J. Michael; Canizares, Claude R.; Gastaldello, Fabio

    2014-11-01

    Weak spectral features in BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs) often provide a unique opportunity to probe the inner region of this rare type of active galactic nucleus. We present a Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph observation of the BL Lac H 2356-309. A weak Ly? emission line was detected. This is the fourth detection of a weak Ly? emission feature in the ultraviolet (UV) band in the so-called high-energy peaked BL Lacs, after Stocke et al. Assuming the line-emitting gas is located in the broad line region (BLR) and the ionizing source is the off-axis jet emission, we constrain the Lorentz factor (?) of the relativistic jet to be >=8.1 with a maximum viewing angle of 3.°6. The derived ? is somewhat larger than previous measurements of ? ? 3-5, implying a covering factor of ~3% of the line-emitting gas. Alternatively, the BLR clouds could be optically thin, in which case we constrain the BLR warm gas to be ~10-5 M ?. We also detected two H I and one O VI absorption lines that are within |?v| < 150 km s-1 of the BL Lac object. The O VI and one of the H I absorbers likely coexist due to their nearly identical velocities. We discuss several ionization models and find a photoionization model where the ionizing photon source is the BL Lac object that can fit the observed ion column densities with reasonable physical parameters. This absorber can either be located in the interstellar medium of the host galaxy or in the BLR.

  20. The Dependence of C IV Broad Absorption Line Properties on Accompanying Si IV and Al III Absorption: Relating Quasar-Wind Ionization Levels, Kinematics, and Column Densities

    E-print Network

    Ak, N Filiz; Hall, P B; Schneider, D P; Trump, J R; Anderson, S F; Hamann, F; Myers, Adam D; Paris, I; Petitjean, P; Ross, Nicholas P; Shen, Yue; York, Don

    2014-01-01

    We consider how the profile and multi-year variability properties of a large sample of C IV Broad Absorption Line (BAL) troughs change when BALs from Si IV and/or Al III are present at corresponding velocities, indicating that the line-of-sight intercepts at least some lower ionization gas. We derive a number of observational results for C IV BALs separated according to the presence or absence of accompanying lower ionization transitions, including measurements of composite profile shapes, equivalent width (EW), characteristic velocities, composite variation profiles, and EW variability. We also measure the correlations between EW and fractional-EW variability for C IV, Si IV, and Al III. Our measurements reveal the basic correlated changes between ionization level, kinematics, and column density expected in accretion-disk wind models; e.g., lines-of-sight including lower ionization material generally show deeper and broader C IV troughs that have smaller minimum velocities and that are less variable. Many C ...

  1. The Dependence of C IV Broad Absorption Line Properties on Accompanying Si IV and Al III Absorption: Relating Quasar-wind Ionization Levels, Kinematics, and Column Densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filiz Ak, N.; Brandt, W. N.; Hall, P. B.; Schneider, D. P.; Trump, J. R.; Anderson, S. F.; Hamann, F.; Myers, Adam D.; Pâris, I.; Petitjean, P.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Shen, Yue; York, Don

    2014-08-01

    We consider how the profile and multi-year variability properties of a large sample of C IV Broad Absorption Line (BAL) troughs change when BALs from Si IV and/or Al III are present at corresponding velocities, indicating that the line of sight intercepts at least some lower ionization gas. We derive a number of observational results for C IV BALs separated according to the presence or absence of accompanying lower ionization transitions, including measurements of composite profile shapes, equivalent width (EW), characteristic velocities, composite variation profiles, and EW variability. We also measure the correlations between EW and fractional-EW variability for C IV, Si IV, and Al III. Our measurements reveal the basic correlated changes between ionization level, kinematics, and column density expected in accretion-disk wind models; e.g., lines of sight including lower ionization material generally show deeper and broader C IV troughs that have smaller minimum velocities and that are less variable. Many C IV BALs with no accompanying Si IV or Al III BALs may have only mild or no saturation.

  2. Time-Variable Complex Metal Absorption Lines in the Quasar HS1603+3820

    E-print Network

    Toru Misawa; Michael Eracleous; Jane C. Charlton; Akito Tajitsu

    2005-04-29

    We present a new spectrum of the quasar HS1603+3820 taken 1.28 years (0.36 years in the quasar rest frame) after a previous observation with Subaru+HDS. The new spectrum enables us to search for time variability as an identifier of intrinsic narrow absorption lines (NALs). This quasar shows a rich complex of C IV NALs within 60,000 km/s of the emission redshift. Based on covering factor analysis, Misawa et al. found that the C IV NAL system at z_abs= 2.42--2.45 (System A, at a shift velocity of v_sh = 8,300--10,600 km/s relative to the quasar) was intrinsic to the quasar. With our new spectrum, we perform time variability analysis as well as covering factor analysis to separate intrinsic NALs from intervening NALs for 8 C IV systems. Only System A, which was identified as an intrinsic system in the earlier paper by Misawa et al., shows a strong variation in line strength (W_obs ~ 10.4A -> 19.1A). We speculate that a broad absorption line (BAL) could be forming in this quasar. We illustrate the plausibility of this suggestion with the help of a simulation. Under the assumption that a change of ionization state causes the variability, a lower limit can be placed on the electron density (n_e > 3x10^4 cm^-3) and an upper limit on the distance from the continuum source (r gas causes the variability (a more likely scenario), the crossing velocity and the distance from the continuum source are estimated to be v_cross > 8,000 km/s and r gas parcel from the continuum source, r < 0.2 pc.

  3. The black hole fundamental plane: revisit with a larger sample of radio and X-ray emitting broad-line AGNs

    E-print Network

    Zhao-Yu Li; Xue-Bing Wu; Ran Wang

    2008-08-05

    We use a recently released SDSS catalog of X-ray emitting AGNs in conjunction with the FIRST 20cm radio survey to investigate the black hole fundamental plane relationship between the 1.4GHz radio luminosity ($L_r$), 0.1-2.4 keV X-ray luminosity ($L_X$), and the black hole mass ($M$), namely, $log L_r=\\xi_{RX}log L_X+\\xi_{RM}log M +const$. For this purpose, we have compiled a large sample of 725 broad-line AGNs, which consists of 498 radio-loud sources and 227 radio-quiet sources. Our results are generally consistent with those in our previous work based on a smaller sample of 115 SDSS AGNs. We confirm that radio-loud objects have a steeper slope ($\\xi_{RX}$) in the radio-X-ray relationship with respect to radio-quiet objects, and the dependence of the black hole fundamental plane on the black hole mass ($\\xi_{RM}$) is weak. We also find a tight correlation with a similar slope between the soft X-ray luminosity and broad emission line luminosity for both radio-loud and radio-quiet AGNs, which implies that their soft X-ray emission is unbeamed and probably related to the accretion process. With the current larger sample of AGNs, we are able to study the redshift evolution of the black hole fundamental plane relation for both radio-loud and radio-quiet subsamples. We find that there is no clear evidence of evolution for radio-quiet AGNs, while for radio-loud ones there is a weak trend where $\\xi_{RM}$ decreases as the redshift increases. This may be understood in part as due to the observed evolution of the radio spectral index as a function of redshift. Finally, we discuss the relativistic beaming effect and some other uncertainties related to the black hole fundamental plane (Abridged).

  4. BROAD-LINE REGION PHYSICAL CONDITIONS IN EXTREME POPULATION A QUASARS: A METHOD TO ESTIMATE CENTRAL BLACK HOLE MASS AT HIGH REDSHIFT

    SciTech Connect

    Negrete, C. Alenka; Dultzin, Deborah [Instituto de Astonomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Marziani, Paola [INAF, Astronomical Observatory of Padova, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Sulentic, Jack W., E-mail: anegrete@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: deborah@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: paola.marziani@oapd.inaf.it, E-mail: sulentic@iaa.es [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, E-18008 Granada (Spain)

    2012-09-20

    We describe a method for estimating physical conditions in the broad-line region (BLR) for a significant subsample of Seyfert 1 nuclei and quasars. Several diagnostic ratios based on intermediate (Al III {lambda}1860, Si III] {lambda}1892) and high (C IV {lambda}1549, Si IV {lambda}1397) ionization lines in the UV spectra of quasars are used to constrain density, ionization, and metallicity of the emitting gas. We apply the method to two extreme Population A quasars-the prototypical NLSy1 I Zw 1 and higher z source SDSS J120144.36+011611.6. Under assumptions of spherical symmetry and pure photoionization we infer BLR physical conditions: low ionization (ionization parameter <10{sup -2}), high density (10{sup 12}-10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}), and significant metal enrichment. Ionization parameter and density can be derived independently for each source with an uncertainty that is less than {+-}0.3 dex. We use the product of density and ionization parameter to estimate the BLR radius and derive an estimation of the virial black hole mass (M{sub BH}). Estimates of M{sub BH} based on the 'photoionization' analysis described in this paper are probably more accurate than those derived from the mass-luminosity correlations widely employed to compute black hole masses for high-redshift quasars.

  5. The Broad-lined Type Ic SN 2012ap and the Nature of Relativistic Supernovae Lacking a Gamma-Ray Burst Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milisavljevic, D.; Margutti, R.; Parrent, J. T.; Soderberg, A. M.; Fesen, R. A.; Mazzali, P.; Maeda, K.; Sanders, N. E.; Cenko, S. B.; Silverman, J. M.; Filippenko, A. V.; Kamble, A.; Chakraborti, S.; Drout, M. R.; Kirshner, R. P.; Pickering, T. E.; Kawabata, K.; Hattori, T.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Marion, G. H.; Vinko, J.; Wheeler, J. C.

    2015-01-01

    We present ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared observations of SN 2012ap, a broad-lined Type Ic supernova in the galaxy NGC 1729 that produced a relativistic and rapidly decelerating outflow without a gamma-ray burst signature. Photometry and spectroscopy follow the flux evolution from -13 to +272 days past the B-band maximum of -17.4 ± 0.5 mag. The spectra are dominated by Fe II, O I, and Ca II absorption lines at ejecta velocities of v ? 20,000 km s-1 that change slowly over time. Other spectral absorption lines are consistent with contributions from photospheric He I, and hydrogen may also be present at higher velocities (v >~ 27,000 km s-1). We use these observations to estimate explosion properties and derive a total ejecta mass of ~2.7 M ?, a kinetic energy of ~1.0 × 1052 erg, and a 56Ni mass of 0.1-0.2 M ?. Nebular spectra (t > 200 days) exhibit an asymmetric double-peaked [O I] ??6300, 6364 emission profile that we associate with absorption in the supernova interior, although toroidal ejecta geometry is an alternative explanation. SN 2012ap joins SN 2009bb as another exceptional supernova that shows evidence for a central engine (e.g., black hole accretion or magnetar) capable of launching a non-negligible portion of ejecta to relativistic velocities without a coincident gamma-ray burst detection. Defining attributes of their progenitor systems may be related to notable observed properties including environmental metallicities of Z >~ Z ?, moderate to high levels of host galaxy extinction (E(B - V) > 0.4 mag), detection of high-velocity helium at early epochs, and a high relative flux ratio of [Ca II]/[O I] >1 at nebular epochs. These events support the notion that jet activity at various energy scales may be present in a wide range of supernovae.

  6. Complexity cost analysis in a large product line

    E-print Network

    Landivar Chávez, José Luis

    2006-01-01

    Hewlett-Packard's Industry Standard Servers (ISS) organization offers a large variety of server computers and accessories. The large range of options available to its customers gives way to complex processes and less than ...

  7. Complex permittivity and permeability characterization from transmission-line measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Hinojosa

    2001-01-01

    Two broadband methods for simultaneously measuring the complex values of the permittivity and permeability of film-shaped materials are presented. The complex properties of these materials are calculated from S-parameter measurements of coplanar or microstrip cells propagating the quasi-TEM dominant mode. The S-parameter measurements are easy to be implement. They are carried out from a network analyzer and on-wafer systems allowing

  8. Ultraviolet/X-ray variability and the extended X-ray emission of the radio-loud broad absorption line quasar PG 1004+130

    E-print Network

    Scott, A E; Miller, B P; Luo, B; Gallagher, S C

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of recent Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Hubble Space Telescope observations of the radio-loud (RL), broad absorption line (BAL) quasar PG 1004+130. We compare our new observations to archival X-ray and UV data, creating the most comprehensive, high signal-to-noise, multi-epoch, spectral monitoring campaign of a RL BAL quasar to date. We probe for variability of the X-ray absorption, the UV BAL, and the X-ray jet, on month-year timescales. The X-ray absorber has a low column density of $N_{H}=8\\times10^{20}-4\\times10^{21}$ cm$^{-2}$ when it is assumed to be fully covering the X-ray emitting region, and its properties do not vary significantly between the 4 observations. This suggests the observed absorption is not related to the typical "shielding gas" commonly invoked in BAL quasar models, but is likely due to material further from the central black hole. In contrast, the CIV BAL shows strong variability. The equivalent width (EW) in 2014 is EW=11.24$\\pm$0.56 \\AA, showing a fractional increa...

  9. Weak Hard X-ray Emission from Two Broad Absorption Line Quasars Observed with NuSTAR: Compton-thick Absorption or Intrinsic X-ray Weakness?

    E-print Network

    Luo, B; Alexander, D M; Harrison, F A; Stern, D; Bauer, F E; Boggs, S E; Christensen, F E; Comastri, A; Craig, W W; Fabian, A C; Farrah, D; Fiore, F; Fuerst, F; Grefenstette, B W; Hailey, C J; Hickox, R; Madsen, K K; Matt, G; Ogle, P; Risaliti, G; Saez, C; Teng, S H; Walton, D J; Zhang, W W

    2013-01-01

    We present NuSTAR hard X-ray observations of two X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars, PG 1004+130 (radio loud) and PG 1700+518 (radio quiet). Many BAL quasars appear X-ray weak, probably due to absorption by the shielding gas between the nucleus and the accretion-disk wind. The two targets are among the optically brightest BAL quasars, yet they are known to be significantly X-ray weak at rest-frame 2-10 keV (16-120 times fainter than typical quasars). We would expect to obtain ~400-600 hard X-ray (>10 keV) photons with NuSTAR, provided that these photons are not significantly absorbed (NHquasars are only detected in the softer NuSTAR bands (e.g., 4-20 keV) but not in its harder bands (e.g., 20-30 keV), suggesting that either the shielding gas is highly Compton-thick or the two targets are intrinsically X-ray weak. We constrain the column densities for both to be NH~7E24 cm^{-2} if the weak hard X-ray emission is caused by obscuration from the shielding gas. We d...

  10. Optical Follow-Up Observations of PTF10qts, a Luminous Broad-Lined Type Ic Supernova Found by the Palomar Transient Factory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, E. S.; Mazzali, P. A.; Pian, E.; Hurley, K.; Arcavi, I.; Cenko, S. B.; Gal-Yam, A.; Horesh, A.; Kasliwal, M.; Poznanski, D.; Silverman, J. M.; Barthelmy, S.

    2014-01-01

    We present optical photometry and spectroscopy of the broad-lined Type Ic supernova (SN Ic-BL) PTF10qts, which was discovered as part of the Palomar Transient Factory. The supernova was located in a dwarf galaxy of magnitude r = 21.1 at a redshift z = 0.0907.We find that the R-band light curve is a poor proxy for bolometric data and use photometric and spectroscopic data to construct and constrain the bolometric light curve. The derived bolometric magnitude at maximum light is Mbol = -18.51 +/- 0.2 mag, comparable to that of SN1998bw (Mbol = -18.7 mag) which was associated with a gamma-ray burst (GRB). PTF10qts is one of the most luminous SN Ic-BL observed without an accompanying GRB. We estimate the physical parameters of the explosion using data from our programme of follow-up observations, finding that it produced a larger mass of radioactive nickel compared to other SNeIc-BL with similar inferred ejecta masses and kinetic energies. The progenitor of the event was likely a approximately 20 solar mass star.

  11. Testing the Evolutionary Sequence between Hidden Broad-line Region (HBLR) and Non-HBLR Seyfert 2 Galaxies with the 4000 Å Break Strengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Po-Chieh; Huang, Kui-Yun; Hwang, Chorng-Yuan; Ohyama, Youichi

    2013-05-01

    We compare the 4000 Å break (Dn (4000)) strength in the central kpc of hidden broad-line region (HBLR) and non-HBLR Seyfert 2 galaxies to investigate the origin of these galaxies. Our results show that the Dn (4000) strengths in the nuclear regions of the non-HBLR Seyfert 2 galaxies are larger than those in the HBLR galaxies. We also show that the Dn (4000) strength is not related to the morphology of host galaxies. These results imply that the non-HBLR Seyfert 2 galaxies have an older stellar population in nuclear regions than the HBLR galaxies. This suggests that an evolutionary connection might exist between non-HBLR and HBLR Seyfert 2 galaxies. We propose a potential evolutionary scenario and a modified unification model for Seyfert galaxies. In this scheme, Seyfert 1 and HBLR Seyfert 2 galaxies evolve into unabsorbed and absorbed non-HBLR Seyfert 2 galaxies. We also discuss the implications of our results in the hydrogen column density distribution of the non-HBLR Seyfert 2 galaxies.

  12. A Vaccine Based on the Rhesus Cytomegalovirus UL128 Complex Induces Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies in Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Wussow, Felix; Yue, Yujuan; Martinez, Joy; Deere, Jesse D.; Longmate, Jeff; Herrmann, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Neutralizing antibodies (NAb) are important for interfering with horizontal transmission of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) leading to primary and congenital HCMV infection. Recent findings have shown that a pentameric virion complex formed by the glycoproteins gH/gL, UL128, UL130, and UL131A (UL128C) is required for HCMV entry into epithelial/endothelial cells (Epi/EC) and is the target of potent NAb in HCMV-seropositive individuals. Using bacterial artificial chromosome technology, we have generated a modified vaccinia Ankara virus (MVA) that stably coexpresses all 5 rhesus CMV (RhCMV) proteins homologous to HCMV UL128C, termed MVA-RhUL128C. Coimmunoprecipitation confirmed the interaction of RhgH with the other 4 RhCMV subunits of the pentameric complex. All 8 RhCMV-naïve rhesus macaques (RM) vaccinated with MVA-RhUL128C developed NAb that blocked infection of monkey kidney epithelial cells (MKE) and rhesus fibroblasts. NAb titers induced by MVA-RhUL128C measured on both cell types at 2 to 6 weeks postvaccination were comparable to levels observed in naturally infected RM. In contrast, MVA expressing a subset of RhUL128C proteins or RhgB glycoprotein only minimally stimulated NAb that inhibited infection of MKE. In addition, following subcutaneous RhCMV challenge at 8 weeks postvaccination, animals vaccinated with MVA-RhUL128C showed reduced plasma viral loads. These results indicate that MVA expressing the RhUL128C induces NAb inhibiting RhCMV entry into both Epi/EC and fibroblasts and limits RhCMV replication in RM. This novel approach is the first step in developing a prophylactic HCMV vaccine designed to interfere with virus entry into major cell types permissive for viral replication, a required property of an effective vaccine. PMID:23152525

  13. Broadband complex permeability characterization of magnetic thin films using shorted microstrip transmission-line perturbation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Liu; Linfeng Chen; C. Y. Tan; H. J. Liu; C. K. Ong

    2005-01-01

    A brief review of the methods used for broadband complex permeability measurement of magnetic thin films up to microwave frequencies is given. In particular, the working principles of the transmission-line perturbation methods for the characterization of magnetic thin films are discussed, with emphasis on short-circuited planar transmission-line perturbation methods. The algorithms for calculating the complex permeability of magnetic thin films

  14. Order Release and Product Mix Coordination in a Complex PCB Manufacturing Line with Batch Processors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rohit Bhatnagar; Pankaj Chandra; Richard Loulou; Jin Qiu

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we study the role of order releases and product mix coordination in a complex manufacturing line with batch processors. We develop a planning methodology for synchronizing production in such manufacturing lines and discuss the decision-making process in the context of a PCB production environment at Northern Telecom's Fiberworld Division. The planning methodology includes developing mathematical programming models

  15. Complex Singular Points of the Tie-Line Vector Field Diagrams of Ternary Mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. Serafimov; T. V. Chelyuskina

    2005-01-01

    Complex singular points of the tie-line vector field diagrams of liquid-vapor ternary systems are considered in terms of the theory of stationary vector fields and bifurcation theory. These complex singular points are found to be tangential azeotropic points of different orders, which play a decisive role in transformations of the diagrams of heterogeneous mixtures.

  16. Fast Analytical Computation of Power-Line Magnetic Fields by Complex Vector Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Federico Moro; Roberto Turri

    2008-01-01

    The electromagnetic environment related to electric power installations is typically evaluated by numerical integration methods. Numerical techniques, although powerful, are not well suited for assessing the dependence of the field strength on electric and geometric parameters. In this paper, a fast procedure to analytically evaluate power-line magnetic fields, based on complex vectors, is proposed. The use of complex algebra greatly

  17. Weak Hard X-ray Emission from Broad Absorption Line Quasars Observed with NuSTAR: Evidence for Intrinsic X-ray Weakness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Bin; Brandt, W. Niel; Alexander, David M; Stern, Daniel; Teng, Stacy H.; Arevalo, Patricia; Bauer, Franz E.; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn; Comastri, Andrea; Craig, William W.; Farrah, Duncan; Gandhi, Poshak; Hailey, Charles James; Harrison, Fiona; Koss, Michael; Ogle, Patrick M.; Puccetti, Simonetta; Saez, Cristian; Scott, Amy; Walton, Dom; Zhang, William

    2014-08-01

    We report NuSTAR observations of a sample of six X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. These targets, at z=0.148-1.223, are among the optically brightest and most luminous BAL quasars known at z<1.3. However, their rest-frame 2 keV luminosities are 14 to >330 times weaker than expected for typical quasars. Our results from a pilot NuSTAR study of two low-redshift BAL quasars, a Chandra stacking analysis of a sample of high-redshift BAL quasars, and a NuSTAR spectral analysis of the local BAL quasar Mrk 231 have already suggested the existence of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL quasars, i.e., quasars not emitting X-rays at the level expected from their optical/UV emission. The aim of the current program is to extend the search for such extraordinary objects. Three of the six new targets are weakly detected by NuSTAR with <45 counts in the 3-24 keV band, and the other three are not detected. The hard X-ray (8-24 keV) weakness observed by NuSTAR requires Compton-thick absorption if these objects have nominal underlying X-ray emission. However, a soft stacked effective photon index (? 1.8) for this sample disfavors Compton-thick absorption in general. The uniform hard X-ray weakness observed by NuSTAR for this and the pilot samples selected with <10 keV weakness also suggests that the X-ray weakness is intrinsic in at least some of the targets. We conclude that the NuSTAR observations have likely discovered a significant population (>33%) of intrinsically X-ray weak objects among the BAL quasars with significantly weak <10 keV emission. We suggest that intrinsically X-ray weak quasars might be preferentially observed as BAL quasars.

  18. BROAD-LINE RADIO GALAXIES OBSERVED WITH FERMI-LAT: THE ORIGIN OF THE GeV {gamma}-RAY EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Kataoka, J.; Takahashi, Y.; Maeda, K.; Nakamori, T. [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Stawarz, L. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, JAXA, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Cheung, C. C. [National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC 20001 (United States); Hayashida, M.; Digel, S. W. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Grandi, P. [INAF-IASF Bologna, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Burnett, T. H. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1560 (United States); Celotti, A. [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (SISSA), 34014 Trieste (Italy); Fegan, S. J.; Fortin, P. [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France); Taylor, G. B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, MSC07 4220, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Tosti, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); McConville, W. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Finke, J. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5352 (United States); D'Ammando, F., E-mail: kataoka.jun@waseda.jp [IASF Palermo, 90146 Palermo (Italy)

    2011-10-10

    We report on a detailed investigation of the {gamma}-ray emission from 18 broad-line radio galaxies (BLRGs) based on two years of Fermi Large Area Telescope data. We confirm the previously reported detections of 3C 120 and 3C 111 in the GeV photon energy range; a detailed look at the temporal characteristics of the observed {gamma}-ray emission reveals in addition possible flux variability in both sources. No statistically significant {gamma}-ray detection of the other BLRGs was found, however, in the considered data set. Though the sample size studied is small, what appears to differentiate 3C 111 and 3C 120 from the BLRGs not yet detected in {gamma}-rays is the particularly strong nuclear radio flux. This finding, together with the indications of the {gamma}-ray flux variability and a number of other arguments presented, indicates that the GeV emission of BLRGs is most likely dominated by the beamed radiation of relativistic jets observed at intermediate viewing angles. In this paper we also analyzed a comparison sample of high-accretion-rate Seyfert 1 galaxies, which can be considered radio-quiet counterparts of BLRGs, and found that none were detected in {gamma}-rays. A simple phenomenological hybrid model applied for the broadband emission of the discussed radio-loud and radio-quiet type 1 active galaxies suggests that the relative contribution of the nuclear jets to the accreting matter is {>=}1% on average for BLRGs, whereas it is {<=}0.1% for Seyfert 1 galaxies.

  19. Weak Hard X-Ray Emission from Two Broad Absorption Line Quasars Observed with NuStar: Compton-Thick Absorption or Intrinsic X-Ray Weakness?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Alexander, D. M.; Harrison, F. A.; Stern, D.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Craig, W. W..; Fabian, A. C.; Farrah, D.; Fiore, F.; Fuerst, F.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Hailey, C. J.; Hickox, R.; Madsen, K. K.; Matt, G.; Ogle, P.; Risaliti, G.; Saez, C.; Teng, S. H.; Walton, D. J.; Zhang, W. W.

    2013-01-01

    We present Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) hard X-ray observations of two X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars, PG 1004+130 (radio loud) and PG 1700+518 (radio quiet). Many BAL quasars appear X-ray weak, probably due to absorption by the shielding gas between the nucleus and the accretion-disk wind. The two targets are among the optically brightest BAL quasars, yet they are known to be significantly X-ray weak at rest-frame 2-10 keV (16-120 times fainter than typical quasars). We would expect to obtain approx. or equal to 400-600 hard X-ray (is greater than or equal to 10 keV) photons with NuSTAR, provided that these photons are not significantly absorbed N(sub H) is less than or equal to 10(exp24) cm(exp-2). However, both BAL quasars are only detected in the softer NuSTAR bands (e.g., 4-20 keV) but not in its harder bands (e.g., 20-30 keV), suggesting that either the shielding gas is highly Compton-thick or the two targets are intrinsically X-ray weak. We constrain the column densities for both to be N(sub H) 7 × 10(exp 24) cm(exp-2) if the weak hard X-ray emission is caused by obscuration from the shielding gas. We discuss a few possibilities for how PG 1004+130 could have Compton-thick shielding gas without strong Fe Ka line emission; dilution from jet-linked X-ray emission is one likely explanation. We also discuss the intrinsic X-ray weakness scenario based on a coronal-quenching model relevant to the shielding gas and disk wind of BAL quasars. Motivated by our NuSTAR results, we perform a Chandra stacking analysis with the Large Bright Quasar Survey BAL quasar sample and place statistical constraints upon the fraction of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL quasars; this fraction is likely 17%-40%.

  20. WEAK HARD X-RAY EMISSION FROM TWO BROAD ABSORPTION LINE QUASARS OBSERVED WITH NuSTAR: COMPTON-THICK ABSORPTION OR INTRINSIC X-RAY WEAKNESS?

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Alexander, D. M.; Hickox, R. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Harrison, F. A.; Fuerst, F.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Madsen, K. K. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stern, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Bauer, F. E. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Christensen, F. E. [DTU Space-National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Comastri, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Fabian, A. C. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Farrah, D. [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Fiore, F. [Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio Catone (Italy); Hailey, C. J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Matt, G. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Universita degli Studi Roma Tre, via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Ogle, P. [IPAC, California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); and others

    2013-08-01

    We present Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) hard X-ray observations of two X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars, PG 1004+130 (radio loud) and PG 1700+518 (radio quiet). Many BAL quasars appear X-ray weak, probably due to absorption by the shielding gas between the nucleus and the accretion-disk wind. The two targets are among the optically brightest BAL quasars, yet they are known to be significantly X-ray weak at rest-frame 2-10 keV (16-120 times fainter than typical quasars). We would expect to obtain Almost-Equal-To 400-600 hard X-ray ({approx}> 10 keV) photons with NuSTAR, provided that these photons are not significantly absorbed (N{sub H} {approx}< 10{sup 24} cm{sup -2}). However, both BAL quasars are only detected in the softer NuSTAR bands (e.g., 4-20 keV) but not in its harder bands (e.g., 20-30 keV), suggesting that either the shielding gas is highly Compton-thick or the two targets are intrinsically X-ray weak. We constrain the column densities for both to be N{sub H} Almost-Equal-To 7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 24} cm{sup -2} if the weak hard X-ray emission is caused by obscuration from the shielding gas. We discuss a few possibilities for how PG 1004+130 could have Compton-thick shielding gas without strong Fe K{alpha} line emission; dilution from jet-linked X-ray emission is one likely explanation. We also discuss the intrinsic X-ray weakness scenario based on a coronal-quenching model relevant to the shielding gas and disk wind of BAL quasars. Motivated by our NuSTAR results, we perform a Chandra stacking analysis with the Large Bright Quasar Survey BAL quasar sample and place statistical constraints upon the fraction of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL quasars; this fraction is likely 17%-40%.

  1. Fluorescence signaling of hydrogen sulfide in broad pH range using a copper complex based on BINOL-benzimidazole ligands.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mingtai; Yu, Huan; Li, Huihui; Xu, Hongda; Huang, Dejian; Wang, Suhua

    2015-04-20

    A weakly fluorescent complex derived from a binaphthol-benzimidazole ligand was designed and synthesized for hydrogen sulfide at different pH conditions. It was demonstrated that the probe showed the same reactivity to various hydrogen sulfide species in a broad range of pH values to generate highly fluorescent product through a displacement reaction mechanism, whereas the product's fluorescence spectrum exhibited a hypsochromic shift of ?73 nm (2393 cm(-1)) as pH increased from neutral to basic, which can be used for distinguishing the various species of hydrogen sulfide. This turn-on fluorescence probe was highly selective and sensitive to hydrogen sulfide with a detection limit of 0.11 ?M. It was then applied for evaluating the total content of sulfide (including hydrogen sulfide, hydrosulfide, and sulfide) as well as for the visual detection of gaseous H2S in air using a simple test paper strip. PMID:25839192

  2. Cytotoxic Effects of Newly Synthesized Palladium(II) Complexes of Diethyldithiocarbamate on Gastrointestinal Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Hadizadeh, Shahram; Najafzadeh, Nowruz; Mazani, Mohammad; Amani, Mojtaba; Mansouri-Torshizi, Hassan; Niapour, Ali

    2014-01-01

    As a part of a drug development program to discover novel therapeutic and more effective palladium (Pd) based anticancer drugs, a series of water-soluble Pd complexes have been synthesized by interaction between [Pd (phen)(H2O)2(NO3)2] and alkylenebisdithiocarbamate(al-bis-dtc) disodium salts. This study was undertaken to examine the possible cytotoxic effect of three novel complexes (0.125-64?µg/mL) on human gastric carcinoma (AGS), esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (Kyse-30), and hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines. The cytotoxicity was examined using cell proliferation and acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) assay. In order to examine the effects of new Pd(II) complexes on cell cycle status, we performed cell cycle analysis. The complexes were found to have completely lethal effects on the cell lines, and the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values obtained for the cell lines were much lower in comparison with cisplatin. We demonstrated that the three new Pd(II) complexes are able to induce G2/M phase arrest in AGS and HepG2; in addition, the Pd(II) complexes caused an S phase arrest in Kyse-30 cell line. Our results indicate that newly synthesized Pd(II) complexes may provide a novel class of chemopreventive compounds for anticancer therapy. PMID:25147738

  3. Zooming into the broad line region of the gravitationally lensed quasar QSO 2237 + 0305 ? the Einstein Cross. III. Determination of the size and structure of the C iv and C iii] emitting regions using microlensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sluse, D.; Schmidt, R.; Courbin, F.; Hutsemékers, D.; Meylan, G.; Eigenbrod, A.; Anguita, T.; Agol, E.; Wambsganss, J.

    2011-04-01

    Aims: We aim to use microlensing taking place in the lensed quasar QSO 2237 + 0305 to study the structure of the broad line region (BLR) and measure the size of the region emitting the C iv and C iii] lines. Methods: Based on 39 spectrophotometric monitoring data points obtained between Oct. 2004 and Dec. 2007, we derived lightcurves for the C iv and C iii] emission lines. We used three different techniques to analyse the microlensing signal. Different components of the lines (narrow, broad, and very broad) were identified and studied. We built a library of the simulated microlensing lightcurves that reproduce the signal observed in the continuum and in the lines provided only the source size is changed. A Bayesian analysis scheme is then developed to derive the size of the various components of the BLR. Results: 1. The half-light radius of the region emitting the C iv line is found to be RC IV} ˜ 66+110-46} light-days = 0.06+0.09-0.04 pc = 1.7+2.8-1.1 × 1017 cm (at 68.3% CI). Similar values are obtained for C iii]. Relative sizes of the carbon-line and V-band continuum emitting-regions are also derived with median values of Rline/Rcont in the range 4 to 29, depending on the FWHM of the line component. 2. The size of the C iv emitting region agrees with the radius-luminosity relationship derived from reverberation mapping. Using the virial theorem, we derive the mass of the black hole in QSO 2237 + 0305 to be MBH ~ 108.3 ± 0.3 M?. 3. We find that the C iv and C iii] lines are produced in at least 2 spatially distinct regions, the most compact one giving rise to the broadest component of the line. The broad and narrow line profiles are slightly different for C iv and C iii]. 4. Our analysis suggests a different structure for the C iv and Fe ii+iii emitting regions, with the latter produced in the inner part of the BLR or in a less extended emitting region than C iv. Based on observations made with the ESO-VLT Unit Telescope # 2 Kueyen (Cerro Paranal, Chile; Proposals 073.B-0243(A&B), 074.B-0270(A), 075.B-0350(A), 076.B-0197(A), 177.B-0615(A&B), PI: F. Courbin).

  4. CONSTRAINTS ON BLACK HOLE GROWTH, QUASAR LIFETIMES, AND EDDINGTON RATIO DISTRIBUTIONS FROM THE SDSS BROAD-LINE QUASAR BLACK HOLE MASS FUNCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Brandon C.; Hernquist, Lars; Siemiginowska, Aneta [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Vestergaard, Marianne; Fan Xiaohui [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Hopkins, Philip, E-mail: bckelly@cfa.harvard.ed [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-08-20

    We present an estimate of the black hole mass function of broad-line quasars (BLQSOs) that self-consistently corrects for incompleteness and the statistical uncertainty in the mass estimates, based on a sample of 9886 quasars at 1 < z < 4.5 drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We find evidence for 'cosmic downsizing' of black holes in BLQSOs, where the peak in their number density shifts to higher redshift with increasing black hole mass. The cosmic mass density for black holes seen as BLQSOs peaks at z {approx} 2. We estimate the completeness of the SDSS as a function of the black hole mass and Eddington ratio, and find that at z > 1 it is highly incomplete at M {sub BH} {approx}< 10{sup 9} M {sub sun} and L/L{sub Edd} {approx}< 0.5. We estimate a lower limit on the lifetime of a single BLQSO phase to be t {sub BL} > 150 {+-} 15 Myr for black holes at z = 1 with a mass of M {sub BH} = 10{sup 9} M{sub sun}, and we constrain the maximum mass of a black hole in a BLQSO to be {approx}3 x 10{sup 10} M{sub sun}. Our estimated distribution of BLQSO Eddington ratios peaks at L/L {sub Edd} {approx} 0.05 and has a dispersion of {approx}0.4 dex, implying that most BLQSOs are not radiating at or near the Eddington limit; however, the location of the peak is subject to considerable uncertainty. The steep increase in number density of BLQSOs toward lower Eddington ratios is expected if the BLQSO accretion rate monotonically decays with time. Furthermore, our estimated lifetime and Eddington ratio distributions imply that the majority of the most massive black holes spend a significant amount of time growing in an earlier obscured phase, a conclusion which is independent of the unknown obscured fraction. These results are consistent with models for self-regulated black hole growth, at least for massive systems at z > 1, where the BLQSO phase occurs at the end of a fueling event when black hole feedback unbinds the accreting gas, halting the accretion flow.

  5. The Properties of X-Ray--selected Active Galactic Nuclei. IV. The Local Optical Luminosity Function of Broad-Line Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    della Ceca, Roberto; Zamorani, Giovanni; Maccacaro, Tommaso; Setti, Giancarlo; Wolter, Anna

    1996-07-01

    We have selected a local (z <= 0.3) subsample of 226 broad line active galactic nuclei (BLAGNs) from the Einstein Observatory Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey. This sample represents the largest unbiased and complete sample of local BLAGNs ever assembled and has allowed us to derive their space density in regions of the m_B_ - z plane where, with the usual optical selection criteria, it is very difficult to obtain complete samples of BLAGNs. Using total integrated magnitudes (i.e., nucleus + host galaxy), we have computed the local optical luminosity function of this X-ray selected sample and compared it with those derived from local optical samples. Thanks to the large number of objects at our disposal we can set more stringent constraints on the space density of BLAGNs than has previously been possible. The luminosity function derived from our sample is in good agreement with the composite luminosity function which can be derived from optically selected samples only by using different selection criteria in different ranges of absolute magnitude. In particular, at low luminosity (M_B_ >= - 22) we confirm the flattening of the local optical luminosity function originally suggested by Meurs & Wilson (1984) while in the magnitude range from M_B_ ~ -23 to -25 we find a very good agreement with the optical spatial density derived using data from the Bright Quasars Survey. By convolving our luminosity function with the distribution of the ratio of nuclear to total flux of a sample of ~40 Seyfert 1 and 1.5 galaxies from the literature, we have also derived an estimate for the nuclear luminosity function of BLAGNs: This nuclear luminosity function is in rather good agreement with the nuclear luminosity functions previously derived, using a much smaller number of objects, from optical samples of low-luminosity BLAGNs. A reasonably good agreement is also found between our luminosity function and the extrapolation to low redshift (z = 0.15, the average redshift of our sample) of the quasar luminosity function derived from more than 1000 optically selected quasars. The integration of our nuclear luminosity function over the M_B_ - z plane shows that good agreement is obtained with the observed number counts of low luminosity (M_B_ >= - 23) BLAGNs at faint magnitudes, if the M_B_ >= -23 population evolves similarly to the QSO population.

  6. Ultraviolet/X-ray Variability and the Extended X-ray Emission of the Radio-loud Broad Absorption Line Quasar PG 1004+130

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, A. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Miller, B. P.; Luo, B.; Gallagher, S. C.

    2015-06-01

    We present the results of recent Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Hubble Space Telescope observations of the radio-loud (RL), broad absorption line (BAL) quasar PG 1004+130. We compare our new observations to archival X-ray and UV data, creating the most comprehensive, high signal-to-noise, multi-epoch, spectral monitoring campaign of a RL BAL quasar to date. We probe for variability of the X-ray absorption, the UV BAL, and the X-ray jet, on month–year timescales. The X-ray absorber has a low column density of {N}H=8× {10}20-4× {10}21 {{cm}}-2 when it is assumed to be fully covering the X-ray emitting region, and its properties do not vary significantly between the four observations. This suggests that the observed absorption is not related to the typical “shielding gas” commonly invoked in BAL quasar models, but is likely due to material further from the central black hole. In contrast, the C iv BAL shows strong variability. The equivalent width (EW) in 2014 is {EW}=11.24+/- 0.56 \\AA, showing a fractional increase of ? {EW}/< {EW}> =1.16+/- 0.11 from the 2003 observation, 3183 days earlier in the rest-frame. This places PG 1004+130 among the most highly variable BAL quasars. By combining Chandra observations we create an exposure that is 2.5 times deeper than studied previously, with which to investigate the nature of the X-ray jet and extended diffuse X-ray emission. An X-ray knot, likely with a synchrotron origin, is detected in the radio jet ? 8\\prime\\prime (30 kpc) from the central X-ray source with a spatial extent of ? 4\\prime\\prime (15 kpc). No similar X-ray counterpart to the counterjet is detected. Asymmetric, non-thermal diffuse X-ray emission, likely due to inverse Compton scattering of Cosmic Microwave Background photons, is also detected.

  7. The HST quasar absorption line key project. 4: HST faint-object spectrograph and ground-based observations of the unusual low-redshift broad absorption-line quasi-stellar object PG 0043+039

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turnshek, David A.; Espey, Brian R.; Kopko, Michael, Jr.; Rauch, Michael; Weymann, Ray J.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Boksenberg, Alec; Bergeron, Jacqueline; Hartig, George F.; Sargent, W. L. W.

    1994-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope Faint Object Spectrograph (HST FOS) observations have shown that the spectrum of the low-redshift (z(sub em) approximately equal to 0.384) QSO PG 0043+039 exhibits weak broad absorption lines (BALs). The BALs were discovered during the course of UV spectrophotometry made for the HST Quasar Absorption Line Key Project. The HST data are analyzed along with ground-based optical and IUE spectrophotometry. The object is found to have a number of atypical properties relative to normal non-BAL QSOs. The observed continuum is atypical in the sense that it is much weaker than that of a normal optically selected QSO at rest wavelengths approximately less than 2200 A. Intrinsic reddening of E(B-V) approximately equal to 0.11 mag by dust similar to that found in the SMC at the redshift of PG 0043+039 conservatively accounts for the observed continuum shape moderately well. These observed characteristics are typical of low-ionization BAL QSOs, but convincing evidence for BALs due to low-ionization transitions of Mg II, Al III, Al II, or C II does not exist. Therefore, this object may be a misaligned BAL QSO having many of the characteristics of low-ionization BAL QSOs with the sight line passing through a putative dusty region, but evidently missing clouds of high enough column density to produce observable low-ionization BALs. If the intrinsic dust-extinction model is correct, the observations suggest that the dust is not confined to the presumably higher density, low-ionization BAL clouds, but that it has drifted to nearby high-ionization BAL regions. We also consider other possible mechanisms for producing the shape of the continuous energy distribution which cannot be ruled out. We compare the Fe II emission in PG 0043+039 with that in another Key Project QSO, NGC 2841-UB 3, which has optical Fe II emission comparable in strength to that in PG 0043+039, but has anomalously weak UV Fe II emission. In addition, from an analysis of UV and optical spectrophotometric data at 5 epochs over approximately 11 yr, there is tentative evidence that PG 0043+039 has varied in brightness by as much as 1.1 mag during this time interval. Two different interpretations of PG 0043+039 and the low-ionization BAL QSOs are considered. Various model scenarios for explaining the weak narrow-line (O III) emission are considered, but there is no definitive explanation.

  8. Novel insect cell line capable of complex N-glycosylation and sialylation of recombinant proteins.

    PubMed

    Palomares, Laura A; Joosten, Christoph E; Hughes, Patrick R; Granados, Robert R; Shuler, Michael L

    2003-01-01

    Paucimannose or oligomannose structures are usually attached to glycoproteins produced by insect cells, while mammalian glycoproteins usually have complex glycans. The lack of complex glycosylation has limited the use of the insect cell baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS), despite its high productivity and versatility. The availability of cell lines capable of complex glycosylation can overcome such a problem and potentially increase the utility of BEVS. In this work the capability of two novel cell lines, one from Pseudaletia unipuncta (A7S) and one from Danaus plexippus (DpN1), to produce and glycosylate a recombinant protein (secreted human placental alkaline phosphatase, SeAP) was assessed. SeAP produced by Tn5B1-4 cells at a low passage number (<200) was utilized for comparison. The optimal conditions for the production of SeAP by DpN1 cells were defined, and the glycosylation profiles of SeAP produced by the cell lines were quantitatively determined. Both the A7S and the DpN1 cells produced lower concentrations of SeAP than the Tn5B1-4 cells. Less than 5% of the glycans attached to SeAP produced by the Tn5B1-4 cells had complex forms. Glycans attached to SeAP from A7S cells contained 4% hybrid and 8% complex forms. Galactosylated biantennary structures were identified. Glycans attached to SeAP produced by the DpN1 cell line had 6% hybrid and 26% complex forms. Of the complex forms in SeAP from DpN1, 13% were identified as sialylated glycans. The galactosyltransferase activity of the three cell lines was measured and correlated to their ability to produce complex forms. Even though neither novel cell line produced as much recombinant protein as the Tn5B1-4 cells, the glycosylation of SeAP expressed by both cell lines was more complete. These novel cell lines represent interesting alternatives for the production of complex glycosylated proteins utilizing the BEVS. PMID:12573024

  9. Holocene planform change in broad valleys in the Southern Rocky Mountains: the role of vegetation type and beaver in shaping long-term channel complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polvi-Pilgrim, L. E.; Wohl, E.

    2012-04-01

    Over the past decade, researchers have shown the importance of streambank vegetation in forming meandering channels. Recent work has also showed the importance of beaver in creating a more heterogeneous landscape, in terms of channel planform and complexity, sedimentation, and riparian vegetation. Streambank vegetation and beavers interact as ecosystem engineers to determine long-term channel planform, floodplain processes, and complexity. We use studies of Holocene beaver aggradation and effects on channel complexity, in addition to measurements of added bank strength by various riparian vegetation types, to predict Holocene planform change in broad (>200 m, disconnected from hillslopes), high-elevation (>2300 m) valleys of the Colorado Front Range in the Southern Rocky Mountains. Sediment core analyses and shallow subsurface geophysical measurements indicate that post-glacial beaver-related aggradation is significant. Additionally, historical and field evidence from the last century, when the beaver population steadily declined, shows that beaver contribute to the formation of a complex, multi-thread channel network. Streambank vegetation in the Colorado Front Range can be categorized based on its ability to provide added strength to the streambank, where riparian or rhizomatous shrubs and trees provide more strength than xeric trees or non-rhizomatous graminoids and herbs, depending on the bank texture and hydrologic conditions. Assuming a snowmelt-dominated flow regime in a gravel-bed channel system, four planform regimes are identified based on beaver populations and the abundance and presence of xeric or riparian vegetation. Following deglaciation, without beaver or bank-stabilizing vegetation, (1) a braided channel formed. The introduction of riparian vegetation and a more stable flow regime triggered a transition to (2) a meandering channel, which in turn provided habitat for beaver, allowing the formation of (3) a complex multi-thread channel system. The fourth planform regime occurs only after beaver that occupied a valley for a long period have been removed. With a stable beaver population, ponds trap large amounts of fine, cohesive sediment, which becomes incorporated into the floodplain sediment and streambanks after channel migration. A legacy effect from beaver removal, which is accompanied by higher gradient and thus stream power, and a lowered water table and thus more xeric vegetation, is (4) a narrow, incised channel. These planform regimes can be inferred over the range of Holocene climate conditions in the Colorado Front Range, and understanding of these biotic-physical interactions should be a crucial component of any management decisions for geomorphic or ecologic conditions.

  10. Radio recombination line observations of the galactic H II complex W3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelfsema, P. R.; Goss, W. M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the results of multifrequency high resolution observations of the giant H II complex in the hydrogen, helium, and carbon 76-alpha, 110-alpha, 166-alpha, and 272-alpha radio recombination lines. Locally strong helium lines are observed toward W3A and B in which the He to H line intensity ratio is found to be greater than 20 percent or more. Possible explanations for these high line ratios are local He enrichment of the ISM due to an evolved stellar object or the presence of a very hard radiation field leading to underionization of hydrogen. Carbon emission is detected toward the core region of W3. No carbon emission is observed at locations away from the strong continuum sources, which must be due to the C II cloud being located in front of these sources. Stimulated emission is the main emission mechanism for the C166-alpha and C110-alpha lines observed toward W3A.

  11. Early gene Broad complex plays a key role in regulating the immune response triggered by ecdysone in the Malpighian tubules of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Verma, Puja; Tapadia, Madhu G

    2015-08-01

    In insects, humoral response to injury is accomplished by the production of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) which are secreted in the hemolymph to eliminate the pathogen. Drosophila Malpighian tubules (MTs), however, are unique immune organs that show constitutive expression of AMPs even in unchallenged conditions and the onset of immune response is developmental stage dependent. Earlier reports have shown ecdysone positively regulates immune response after pathogenic challenge however, a robust response requires prior potentiation by the hormone. Here we provide evidence to show that MTs do not require prior potentiation with ecdysone hormone for expression of AMPs and they respond to ecdysone very fast even without immune challenge, although the different AMPs Diptericin, Cecropin, Attacin, Drosocin show differential expression in response to ecdysone. We show that early gene Broad complex (BR-C) could be regulating the IMD pathway by activating Relish and physically interacting with it to activate AMPs expression. BR-C depletion from Malpighian tubules renders the flies susceptible to infection. We also show that in MTs ecdysone signaling is transduced by EcR-B1 and B2. In the absence of ecdysone signaling the IMD pathway associated genes are down regulated and activation and translocation of transcription factor Relish is also affected. PMID:25931442

  12. Extension and error analysis of the microstrip transmission-line method for the broad-band measurement of the permeability tensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stéphane Mallégol; Patrick Quéffélec

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the theory associated with a noniterative and broad-band method for measuring the permeability tensor components ?=?'-j?'' and ?=?'-j?'' is extended in order to simultaneously determine the test sample-relative permittivity ?=?'-j?''. The error sources of the method are equally presented and quantified. Detailed theoretical and experimental studies are performed to estimate the errors in the determination of ?,

  13. Evaluation of novel trans-sulfonamide platinum complexes against tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Carlos; Díaz-García, C Vanesa; Agudo-López, Alba; del Solar, Virginia; Cabrera, Silvia; Agulló-Ortuño, M Teresa; Navarro-Ranninger, Carmen; Alemán, José; López-Martín, José A

    2014-04-01

    Platinum-based drugs, mainly cisplatin, are employed for the treatment of solid malignancies. However, cisplatin treatment often results in the development of chemoresistance, leading to therapeutic failure. Here, the antitumor activity of different trans-sulfonamide platinum complexes in a panel of human cell lines is presented. The cytotoxicity profiles and cell cycle analyses of these platinum sulfonamide complexes were different from those of cisplatin. These studies showed that complex 2b with cyclohexyldiamine and dansyl moieties had the best antitumoral activities. PMID:24589491

  14. Doxorubicin-PAMAM dendrimer complex attached to liposomes: cytotoxic studies against human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Papagiannaros, Aristarchos; Dimas, Kostas; Papaioannou, George Th; Demetzos, Costas

    2005-09-30

    Liposomes composed of HePC:EPC:SA 10:10:0.1 (molar ratio) (1) and EPC:SA 10:0.1 (molar ratio) (2) were prepared and were used for incorporating the doxorubicin-PAMAM complex (3:1 molar ratio) (3). The doxorubicin-PAMAM complex was attached to liposomes and the incorporation efficiency was 91 and 95% for 1 and 2, respectively. The incorporation efficiency for doxorubicin into PAMAM was almost 97% while doxorubicin to PAMAM molar ratio was 3.56+/-0.04. The release rate of doxorubicin as doxorubicin-PAMAM complex from liposomes 1 and 2 and from the complex 3, was studied using buffers and 50% RPMI cell culture medium at 37 and 25 degrees C. The low release rate of doxorubicin as well as the high incorporation efficiency of doxorubicin-PAMAM complex into liposomes are considered as beneficial factors concerning the activity of doxorubicin. The cytotoxic activity of the liposomal formulation 1 incorporating doxorubicin-PAMAM complex, based on doxorubicin activity, was compared to that of 2 incorporating doxorubicin-PAMAM complex and to that of 3. The results showed that complex 1 was the most active formulation against all cancer cell lines compared to that of 2 and 3. Liposomal formulations composed of lipids and of a drug-dendrimer complex could be characterized as modulatory liposomal controlled release system (MLCRS), and could provide benefits to the delivery of drugs and modulate their release. PMID:16099117

  15. Macrophage cell lines derived from major histocompatibility complex II-negative mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beharka, A. A.; Armstrong, J. W.; Chapes, S. K.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Two bone-marrow-derived macrophage cell lines, C2D and C2Dt, were isolated from major histocompatibility class II negative knock-out mice. The C2D cell line was stabilized by continuous culture in colony-stimulating factor-1 and the C2Dt cell line was transformed with SV40 virus large T antigen. These cells exhibited phenotypic properties of macrophages including morphology and expression of Mac 1 and Mac 2 cell surface molecules. These cells also had comparable growth to the bone-marrow-derived macrophage cell line B6MP102. These new cell lines were not spontaneously cytotoxic and were only capable of modest killing of F5b tumor cells when stimulated with LPS and interferon-gamma, but not when stimulated with LPS alone or with staphylococcal exotoxin. C2D and C2Dt cells phagocytosed labeled Staphylococcus aureus similarly to B6MP102 cells but less well than C2D peritoneal macrophages. These cell lines secreted interleukin-6, but not tumor necrosis factor or nitric oxide in response to LPS or staphlococcal enterotoxins A or B C2D(t) cells were tumorigenic in C2D and C57BL/6J mice but C2D cells were not. These data suggest that macrophage cell lines can be established from bone marrow cells of major histocompatibility complex II-negative mice.

  16. Steps toward Determination of the Size and Structure of the Broad-Line Region in Active Galactic Nuclei. XII. Ground-Based Monitoring of 3C 390.3

    E-print Network

    M. Dietrich; B. M. Peterson; P. Albrecht

    1998-01-29

    Results of a ground-based optical monitoring campaign on 3C 390.3 in 1994-95 are presented. The broad-band fluxes (B, V, R, and I), the spectrophotometric optical continuum flux F(5177) and the integrated emission-line fluxes of Ha, Hb, Hg, HeI, and HeII all show a nearly monotonic increase with episodes of milder short-term variations superposed. The amplitude of the continuum variations increases with decreasing wavelength (4400-9000 A). The optical continuum variations follow the variations in the ultraviolet and X-ray with time delays, measured from the centroids of the cross- correlation functions, typically around 5 days, but with uncertainties also typically around 5 days; zero time delay between the high-energy and low-energy continuum variations cannot be ruled out. The strong optical emission lines Ha, Hb, Hg, and HeI respond to the high-energy continuum variations with time delays typically about 20 days, with uncertainties of about 8 days. There is some evidence that HeII responds somewhat more rapidly, with a time delay of around 10 days, but again, the uncertainties are quite large (~8 days). The mean and rms spectra of the Ha and Hb line profiles provide indications for the existence of at least three distinct components located at +-4000 and 0 km/s relative to the line peak. The emission-line profile variations are largest near line center.

  17. 3-mm spectral line survey of two lines of sight towards two typical cloud complexes in the Galactic Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armijos-Abendaño, J.; Martín-Pintado, J.; Requena-Torres, M. A.; Martín, S.; Rodríguez-Franco, A.

    2015-02-01

    We present the results of two Mopra 3-mm spectral line surveys of the lines of sight (LOS) towards the Galactic Centre (GC) molecular complexes Sgr B2 (LOS+0.693) and Sgr A (LOS-0.11). The spectra covered the frequency ranges of ˜77-93 GHz and ˜105-113 GHz. We have detected 38 molecular species and 25 isotopologues. The isotopic ratios derived from column density ratios are consistent with the canonical values, indicating that chemical isotopic fractionation and/or selective photodissociation can be considered negligible (<10 per cent) for the GC physical conditions. The derived abundances and rotational temperatures are very similar for both LOSs, indicating very similar chemical and excitation conditions for the molecular gas in the GC. The excitation conditions are also very similar to those found for the nucleus of the starburst galaxy NGC 253. We report for the first time the detection of HCO and HOC+ emission in LOS+0.693. Our comparison of the abundance ratios between CS, HCO, HOC+ and HCO+ found in the two LOSs with those in typical Galactic photodissociation regions (PDRs) and starbursts galaxies does not show any clear trend to distinguish between ultraviolet- and X-ray-induced chemistries. We propose that the CS/HOC+ ratio could be used as a tracer of the PDR components in the molecular clouds in the nuclei of galaxies.

  18. A proteomic investigation into the human cervical cancer cell line HeLa treated with dicitratoytterbium (III) complex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liming Shen; Qiong Liu; Jiazuan Ni; Guangyan Hong

    2009-01-01

    Lanthanides have been reported to induce apoptosis in cancer cell lines. Human cervical cancer cell line HeLa was found to be more sensitive to dicitratolanthanum (III) complex ([LaCit2]3?) than other cancer cell lines. However, the effect and mechanism of dicitratoytterbium (III) complex ([YbCit2]3?) on HeLa cells is unknown. Using biochemical and comparative proteomic analyses, [YbCit2]3? was found to inhibit HeLa

  19. An on-line HPLC method for detection of radical scavenging compounds in complex mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irina I. Koleva; Harm A. G. Niederländer; Beek van T. A

    2000-01-01

    A rapid on-line method for screening of complex mixtures for radical scavenging components was developed using a methanolic solution of 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) stable free radical. The HPLC-separated analytes react postcolumn with the DPPH solution, and the induced bleaching is detected as a negative peak by an absorbance detector at 517 nm. An optimized instrumental setup is presented. The method is

  20. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus complex-specific monoclonal antibody provides broad protection, in murine models, against airborne challenge with viruses from serogroups I, II and III.

    PubMed

    Phillpotts, R J

    2006-09-01

    The alphavirus Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is highly infectious by the airborne route. It is a hazard to laboratory workers, has been developed as a biological weapon and is a potential bioterrorist agent. A suitable vaccine appears in an advanced stage of development but there remains a need for antiviral drugs, effective in prophylaxis of disease prior to or a short time after exposure to airborne virus. Using a murine model to study monoclonal antibody (MAB) a VEEV complex-specific, glycoprotein E2-binding MAB was identified, able to protect against disease induced by exposure to aerosolised VEEV from serogroups I, II and IIIA (mouse-virulent strains). There was no synergy in protection between anti-E1 and anti-E2 MAB. Assays of MAB virus neutralising activity in a homologous (mouse fibroblast) cell line suggested that neutralisation played a significant role in protection in addition to the previously reported mechanism of Fc receptor-binding [Mathews et al., 1985. J. Virol. 55, 594-600]. Development of an analogous human MAB with identical VEEV epitope specificity may be informed and monitored by reference to these properties. PMID:16621103

  1. Solid state NMR, MRI and Sir Peter Mansfield: (1) from broad lines to narrow and back again; and (2) a highly tenuous link to landmine detection.

    PubMed

    Garroway, A N

    1999-12-01

    The contributions of Sir Peter Mansfield to MRI are rooted in solid state NMR. I summarize some of the important contributions of Sir Peter to that field, provide a glimpse of the state of the art in multiple-pulse line-narrowing in the early 1970s, and indicate how the earliest MRI efforts at Nottingham flowed from solid state NMR. These line-narrowing methods, providing control over the Hamiltonian governing the dynamics of nuclear spins, continue to evolve and to find new uses. I indicate how some methods and ideas from solid state NMR of the 1970s are at present applied to the detection of explosives in landmines by nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR). PMID:10628681

  2. Testing of SNS-032 in a Panel of Human Neuroblastoma Cell Lines with Acquired Resistance to a Broad Range of Drugs12

    PubMed Central

    Löschmann, Nadine; Michaelis, Martin; Rothweiler, Florian; Zehner, Richard; Cinatl, Jaroslav; Voges, Yvonne; Sharifi, Mohsen; Riecken, Kristoffer; Meyer, Jochen; von Deimling, Andreas; Fichtner, Iduna; Ghafourian, Taravat; Westermann, Frank; Cinatl, Jindrich

    2013-01-01

    Novel treatment options are needed for the successful therapy of patients with high-risk neuroblastoma. Here, we investigated the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor SNS-032 in a panel of 109 neuroblastoma cell lines consisting of 19 parental cell lines and 90 sublines with acquired resistance to 14 different anticancer drugs. Seventy-three percent of the investigated neuroblastoma cell lines and all four investigated primary tumor samples displayed concentrations that reduce cell viability by 50% in the range of the therapeutic plasma levels reported for SNS-032 (<754 nM). Sixty-two percent of the cell lines and two of the primary samples displayed concentrations that reduce cell viability by 90% in this concentration range. SNS-032 also impaired the growth of the multidrug-resistant cisplatin-adapted UKF-NB-3 subline UKF-NB-3rCDDP1000 in mice. ABCB1 expression (but not ABCG2 expression) conferred resistance to SNS-032. The antineuroblastoma effects of SNS-032 did not depend on functional p53. The antineuroblastoma mechanism of SNS-032 included CDK7 and CDK9 inhibition-mediated suppression of RNA synthesis and subsequent depletion of antiapoptotic proteins with a fast turnover rate including X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP), myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 (Mcl-1), baculoviral IAP repeat containing 2 (BIRC2; cIAP-1), and survivin. In conclusion, CDK7 and CDK9 represent promising drug targets and SNS-032 represents a potential treatment option for neuroblastoma including therapy-refractory cases. PMID:24466371

  3. Results of Monitoring the Dramatically Variable C IV Mini-Broad Absorption Line System in the Quasar HS 1603+3820

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misawa, Toru; Eracleous, Michael; Charlton, Jane C.; Kashikawa, Nobunari

    2007-05-01

    We present six new and two previously published high-resolution spectra of the quasar HS 1603+3820 (zem=2.542) taken over an interval of 4.2 yr (1.2 yr in the quasar rest frame). The observations were made with the High Dispersion Spectrograph on the Subaru telescope and the Medium Resolution Spectrograph on the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. The purpose was to study the narrow absorption lines (NALs). We use time variability and coverage fraction analysis to separate intrinsic absorption lines, which are physically related to the quasar, from intervening absorption lines. By fitting models to the line profiles, we derive the parameters of the respective absorbers as a function of time. Only the mini-BAL system at zabs~2.43 (vshift~9500 km s-1) shows both partial coverage and time variability, although two NAL systems possibly show evidence of partial coverage. We find that all the troughs of the mini-BAL system vary in concert and its total equivalent width variations resemble those of the coverage fraction. However, no other correlations are seen between the variations of different model parameters. Thus, the observed variations cannot be reproduced by a simple change of ionization state or by motion of a homogeneous parcel of gas across the cylinder of sight. We propose that the observed variations are a result of rapid continuum fluctuations, coupled with coverage fraction fluctuations caused by a clumpy screen of variable optical depth located between the continuum source and the mini-BAL gas. An alternative explanation is that the observed partial coverage signature is the result of scattering of continuum photons around the absorber, thus the equivalent width of the mini-BAL can vary as the intensity of the scattered continuum changes. Based on data collected at the Subaru telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  4. Testing of SNS-032 in a Panel of Human Neuroblastoma Cell Lines with Acquired Resistance to a Broad Range of Drugs.

    PubMed

    Löschmann, Nadine; Michaelis, Martin; Rothweiler, Florian; Zehner, Richard; Cinatl, Jaroslav; Voges, Yvonne; Sharifi, Mohsen; Riecken, Kristoffer; Meyer, Jochen; von Deimling, Andreas; Fichtner, Iduna; Ghafourian, Taravat; Westermann, Frank; Cinatl, Jindrich

    2013-12-01

    Novel treatment options are needed for the successful therapy of patients with high-risk neuroblastoma. Here, we investigated the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor SNS-032 in a panel of 109 neuroblastoma cell lines consisting of 19 parental cell lines and 90 sublines with acquired resistance to 14 different anticancer drugs. Seventy-three percent of the investigated neuroblastoma cell lines and all four investigated primary tumor samples displayed concentrations that reduce cell viability by 50% in the range of the therapeutic plasma levels reported for SNS-032 (<754 nM). Sixty-two percent of the cell lines and two of the primary samples displayed concentrations that reduce cell viability by 90% in this concentration range. SNS-032 also impaired the growth of the multidrug-resistant cisplatin-adapted UKF-NB-3 subline UKF-NB-3(r)CDDP(1000) in mice. ABCB1 expression (but not ABCG2 expression) conferred resistance to SNS-032. The antineuroblastoma effects of SNS-032 did not depend on functional p53. The antineuroblastoma mechanism of SNS-032 included CDK7 and CDK9 inhibition-mediated suppression of RNA synthesis and subsequent depletion of antiapoptotic proteins with a fast turnover rate including X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP), myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 (Mcl-1), baculoviral IAP repeat containing 2 (BIRC2; cIAP-1), and survivin. In conclusion, CDK7 and CDK9 represent promising drug targets and SNS-032 represents a potential treatment option for neuroblastoma including therapy-refractory cases. PMID:24466371

  5. Novel human renal proximal tubular cell line for the production of complex proteins.

    PubMed

    Fliedl, Lukas; Manhart, Gabriele; Kast, Florian; Katinger, Hermann; Kunert, Renate; Grillari, Johannes; Wieser, Matthias; Grillari-Voglauer, Regina

    2014-04-20

    Human host cell lines for the production of biopharmaceutical proteins are of interest due to differences in the glycosylation patterns of human and animal cell lines. Specifically, sialylation, which has a major impact on half-life and immunogenicity of recombinant biopharmaceuticals, differs markedly. Here, we established and characterized an immortalized well documented and serum-free host cell line, RS, from primary human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTEC). In order to test its capacity to produce complex glycosylated proteins, stable recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEpo) producing clones were generated. The clone with highest productivity, RS-1C9 was further characterized and showed stable productivity. Biological activity was observed in in vitro assays and 28% of rhEpo glyco-isoforms produced by RS-1C9 were in range and distribution of the biological reference standard (BRP) isoform, as compared to 11.5% of a CHO based rhEpo. Additionally, cellular ?-2,6 sialylation, Galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-Gal) and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc) patterns compare favourably to CHO cells. While productivity of RS still needs optimization, its amenability to upscaling in bioreactors, its production of glyco-isoforms that will increase yields after down-stream processing of about 2.5 fold, presence of sialylation and lack of Neu5Gc recommend RS as alternative human host cell line for production of biopharmaceuticals. PMID:24553072

  6. The line-of-sight distribution of water in the SgrB2 complex

    E-print Network

    C. Comito; P. Schilke; M. Gerin; T. G. Phillips; J. Zmuidzinas; D. C. Lis

    2003-02-28

    We report the detection, with the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory, of the 894-GHz HDO(111-000) transition, observed in absorption against the background continuum emission of the SgrB2 cores M and N. Radiative transfer modeling of this feature, together with the published data set of mm and submm HDO and H2O-18 transitions, suggests that ground-state absorption features from deuterated and non-deuterated water trace different gas components along the line of sight. In particular, while the HDO line seems to be produced by the large column densities of gas located in the SgrB2 warm envelope, the H2O-18 ground-state transition detected by SWAS and KAO at 548 GHz (Neufeld et al. 2000; Zmuidzinas et al. 1995a) is instead a product of the hot, diffuse, thin gas layer lying in the foreground of the SgrB2 complex.

  7. Line-of-sight distribution of water towards the SgrB2 complex

    E-print Network

    C. Comito; P. Schilke; M. Gerin; T. G. Phillips; J. Zmuidzinas; D. C. Lis

    2004-02-01

    Here we report the detection, with the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory, of the 894-GHz HDO(111-000) transition, observed in absorption against the background continuum emission of the SgrB2 cores M and N. Radiative transfer modeling of this feature, together with the published data set of mm and submm HDO and H2O-18 transitions, suggests that ground-state absorption features from deuterated and non-deuterated water trace different gas components along the line of sight. In particular, while the HDO line seems to be produced by the large column densities of gas located in the SgrB2 warm envelope, the H2O-18 ground-state transition detected by SWAS and KAO at 548 GHz (Neufeld et al. 2000; Zmuidzinas et al. 1995) is instead a product of the hot, diffuse, thin gas layer lying in the foreground of the SgrB2 complex.

  8. Filling-In of Broad Far-Red Solar Lines by Terrestrial Fluorescence and Atmospheric Raman Scattering as Detected by SCIAMACHY Satellite Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joiner, J.; Yoshida, Y.; Vasilkov, A. P.; Middleton, E. M.; Campbell, P. K. E.; Yoshida, Y.; Kuze, A.; Corp, L. A.

    2011-01-01

    Global mapping of terrestrial vegetation fluorescence from space has recently been accomplished with high spectral resolution measurements from the Japanese Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT). These data are of interest because they can potentially provide global information on the functional status of vegetation including light use efficiency and global primary productivity that can be used for global carbon cycle modeling. Quantifying the impact of fluorescence on the O2-A band is important as this band is used for cloud- and aerosol-characterization for other trace-gas retrievals including CO2. Here, we demonstrate that fluorescence information can be derived from space using potentially lower-cost hyperspectral instrumentation, i.e., more than an order of magnitude less spectral resolution than GOSAT, with a relatively simple algorithm. As a demonstration, we use the filling-in of one of the few wide and deep solar Fraunhofer lines in the red and far-red chlorophylla fluorescence bands, the calcium II line near 866 nm, to retrieve fluorescence with the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) satellite instrument. Although the signal from vegetation fluorescence is extremely weak at 866 nm, our results suggest that useful information may be obtained after adjustments are made to the observed spectra to correct for instrumental artifacts. We compare fluorescence from SCIAMACHY with that retrieved at 758 and 770 nm from similarly-corrected GOSAT data as well with the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) from the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We also show that filling-in occurs at 866 nm over barren areas, possibly originating from luminescent minerals in rock and soil.

  9. Broken Rotor Bar Detection in Line-Fed Induction Machines Using Complex Wavelet Analysis of Startup Transients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando Briz; Michael W. Degner; Pablo Garcia; David Bragado

    2008-01-01

    Fault detection of line-connected induction machines using complex vector wavelets to analyze the transient stator currents during startup is proposed in this paper. When a machine is connected to the line, the startup transient is characterized by large stator (and rotor) currents as well as by large slips (i.e., the rotor speed is significantly smaller than the excitation frequency). The

  10. SUBARU HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY OF COMPLEX METAL ABSORPTION LINES OF THE QUASAR HS 1603+38201

    E-print Network

    Iye, Masanori

    they are produced by gas clouds ejected from the quasar with velocity vej = 8000­10,000 km sÀ1. On the other handÀ1 from the quasar. The number density of C iv lines with rest- frame equivalent width Wrf ! 0SUBARU HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY OF COMPLEX METAL ABSORPTION LINES OF THE QUASAR HS 1603

  11. Steps toward determination of the size and structure of the broad-line region in active galactic nuclei. IV - Intensity variations of the optical emission lines of NGC 5548

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, M.; Kollatschny, W.; Peterson, B. M.; Bechtold, J.; Bertram, R.; Bochkarev, N. G.; Boroson, T. A.; Carone, T. E.; Elvis, M.; Filippenko, A. V.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of optical emission-line flux variations based on spectra of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 5548 obtained between December 1988 and October 1989 are reported. All of the measured optical emission lines, H-alpha, H-beta, H-gamma, He I 5876, and He II 4686, exhibit the same qualitative behavior as the UV and optical continua, but with short time delays, or lags, which are different for the various lines. Cross-correlation analysis is applied to measure the lags between the various lines and the continuum. Similar lags are found with respect to the UV continuum for H-alpha and H-beta, 17 and 19 d, respectively. The lag for H-gamma is shorter (13 d), only somewhat larger than the lag measured for Ly-alpha (about 10 d). The helium lines respond to continuum variations more rapidly than the hydrogen lines, with lags of about 7 d for He II 4686 and 11 d for He I 5876.

  12. LINE-1 Retroelements Complexed and Inhibited by Activation Induced Cytidine Deaminase

    PubMed Central

    Metzner, Mirjam; Jäck, Hans-Martin; Wabl, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    LINE-1 (abbreviated L1) is a major class of retroelements in humans and mice. If unrestricted, retroelements accumulate in the cytoplasm and insert their DNA into the host genome, with the potential to cause autoimmune disease and cancer. Retroviruses and other retroelements are inhibited by proteins of the APOBEC family, of which activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is a member. Although AID is mainly known for being a DNA mutator shaping the antibody repertoire in B lymphocytes, we found that AID also restricts de novo L1 integrations in B- and non-B-cell lines. It does so by decreasing the protein level of open reading frame 1 (ORF1) of both exogenous and endogenous L1. In activated B lymphocytes, AID deficiency increased L1 mRNA 1.6-fold and murine leukemia virus (MLV) mRNA 2.7-fold. In cell lines and activated B lymphocytes, AID forms cytoplasmic high-molecular-mass complexes with L1 mRNA, which may contribute to L1 restriction. Because AID-deficient activated B lymphocytes do not express ORF1 protein, we suggest that ORF1 protein expression is inhibited by additional restriction factors in these cells. The greater increase in MLV compared to L1 mRNA in AID-deficient activated B lymphocytes may indicate less strict surveillance of retrovirus. PMID:23133680

  13. Unlocking the secrets of absorption line complexes in the intergalactic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Shea, Brian

    2013-10-01

    It is well-established that the fraction of baryons in the Universe that are observable drops from nearly 100% at z 3 to less than 50% by z 0. Simulations predict that most of the missing baryons are located in the IGM at moderate densities and at temperatures of 10^5-10^7 K - gas that is generally in the filaments of the cosmic web and in circumgalactic regions. This gas is typically detected in the low-z Lyman alpha forest by measuring UV absorption lines of highly ionized metals, such as CIV and OVI. However, significant uncertainties exist relating to the physical conditions of the gas associated with these lines {such as temperature, metallicity, and ionization state}, which severely limits our ability to understand the physical environment of these absorbers. We propose to clarify the relationship between the multi-species absorption line complexes seen in QSO spectra and the physical conditions of the corresponding absorbing gas. We will do this using synthetic observing tools and the largest, most detailed simulations of the IGM to date, which include a new sophisticated treatment of non-equilibrium gas chemistry. We will create catalogs that enable conversion between specific combinations of observed absorption lines and the equivalent physical gas distribition, will calculate the total baryon content that is traceable with each ion, and will devise tests to distinguish between the circumgalactic and truly intergalactic medium. This work will be critical to the interpretation of previous and ongoing HST studies of the IGM - particularly those using the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph - and directly addresses the HST Cycle 21 Ultraviolet Initiative.

  14. Efficacy of second line antiepileptic drugs in the treatment of patients with medically refractive complex partial seizures.

    PubMed

    Dasheiff, R M; McNamara, D; Dickinson, L

    1986-01-01

    The efficacy of second-line antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) was evaluated in the treatment of 66 patients with complex partial seizures who had previously failed first-line AEDs. Methsuximide, valproate, or clorazepate had eliminated seizures in 11% of the patients at the end of the study. However, these good results deteriorated on longer follow-up and were not expected to be permanent. It is recommended that suitable patients with partial epilepsy be referred for surgical evaluation after failing the first-line AEDs, and that second-line AEDs be reserved for nonsurgical candidates. PMID:3082621

  15. Differential effects of a complex organochlorine mixture on the proliferation of breast cancer cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Aube, Michel, E-mail: 4aubem@videotron.ca [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada)] [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada); Larochelle, Christian, E-mail: christian.larochelle@inspq.qc.ca [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada)] [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada); Ayotte, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.ayotte@inspq.qc.ca [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada) [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada); Laboratoire de Toxicologie, Institut national de sante publique du Quebec, 945 avenue Wolfe, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 5B3 (Canada)

    2011-04-15

    Organochlorine compounds (OCs) are a group of persistent chemicals that accumulate in fatty tissues with age. Although OCs has been tested individually for their capacity to induce breast cancer cell proliferation, few studies examined the effect of complex mixtures that comprise compounds frequently detected in the serum of women. We constituted such an OC mixture containing 15 different components in environmentally relevant proportions and assessed its proliferative effects in four breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47D, CAMA-1, MDAMB231) and in non-cancerous CV-1 cells. We also determined the capacity of the mixture to modulate cell cycle stage of breast cancer cells and to induce estrogenic and antiandrogenic effects using gene reporter assays. We observed that low concentrations of the mixture (100x10{sup 3} and 50x10{sup 3} dilutions) stimulated the proliferation of MCF-7 cells while higher concentrations (10x10{sup 3} and 5x10{sup 3} dilutions) had the opposite effect. In contrast, the mixture inhibited the proliferation of non-hormone-dependent cell lines. The mixture significantly increased the number of MCF-7 cells entering the S phase, an effect that was blocked by the antiestrogen ICI 182,780. Low concentrations of the mixture also caused an increase in CAMA-1 cell proliferation but only in the presence estradiol and dihydrotestosterone (p<0.05 at the 50x10{sup 3} dilution). DDT analogs and polychlorinated biphenyls all had the capacity to stimulate the proliferation of CAMA-1 cells in the presence of sex steroids. Reporter gene assays further revealed that the mixture and several of its constituents (DDT analogs, aldrin, dieldrin, {beta}-hexachlorocyclohexane, toxaphene) induced estrogenic effects, whereas the mixture and several components (DDT analogs, aldrin, dieldrin and PCBs) inhibited the androgen signaling pathway. Our results indicate that the complex OC mixture increases the proliferation of MCF-7 cells due to its estrogenic potential. The proliferative effect of the mixture on CAMA-1 cells in the presence of sex steroids appears mostly due to the antiandrogenic properties of p,p'-DDE, a major constituent of the mixture. Other mixtures of contaminants that include emerging compounds of interest such as brominated flame retardants and perfluoroalkyl compounds should be tested for their capacity to induce breast cancer cell proliferation. - Research highlights: {yields} We studied effects of a complex organochlorine mixture on breast cancer cell growth. {yields} Weak xenoestrogens in the mixture stimulated the proliferation of MCF-7 cells. {yields} Antiandrogens increased the proliferation CAMA-1 cells grown with sex steroids. {yields} High concentrations of the mixture decreased the proliferation of all cell lines.

  16. Zinc(II) complexes with dithiocarbamato derivatives: structural characterisation and biological assays on cancerous cell lines.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Eszter Márta; Sitran, Sergio; Montopoli, Monica; Favaro, Monica; Marchiò, Luciano; Caparrotta, Laura; Fregona, Dolores

    2012-12-01

    Zinc is one of the most important trace elements in the body and it is essential as a cofactor for the structure and function of a number of cellular molecules including enzymes, transcription factors, cellular signalling proteins and DNA repair enzymes. On the other hand, recent studies have shown that zinc could play a role both in the development of various cancers and in the induction of apoptosis in some cell types, however, no established common relationships of zinc with cancer development and progression have been identified. To date, in our research group different metal-dithiocarbamato complexes have been designed that were expected to resemble the main features of cisplatin together with higher activity, improved selectivity and bioavailability, and lower side-effects. On the basis of the obtained encouraging achievements with other metals (such as gold and copper) we have decided to enlarge the studies to the complexes of zinc(II) using the same ligands. Hereby, we report the results on the synthesis and characterisation of ZnL(2) complexes with five different dithiocarbamato derivatives, such as dimethyl-(DMDT), pyrrolidine-(PyDT), methyl-(MSDT), ethyl-(ESDT) and tert-butyl-(TSDT) sarcosinedithiocarbamate. All the obtained compounds have fully been characterised by means of several spectroscopic techniques. In addition, the crystal structure of [Zn(MSDT)(2)](2) dinuclear complex is also reported. In order to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic properties, some biological assays have been carried out on a panel of human tumour cell lines sensible and resistant to cisplatin. Some of the tested compounds show cytotoxicity levels comparable or even greater than the reference drug (cisplatin). PMID:23085593

  17. Polyoxomolybdate Bisphosphonate Heterometallic Complexes: Synthesis, Structure, and Activity on a Breast Cancer Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Saad, Ali; Zhu, Wei; Rousseau, Guillaume; Mialane, Pierre; Marrot, Jérôme; Haouas, Mohamed; Taulelle, Francis; Dessapt, Rémi; Serier-Brault, Hélène; Rivière, Eric; Kubo, Tadahiko; Oldfield, Eric; Dolbecq, Anne

    2015-07-13

    Six polyoxometalates containing Mn(II) , Mn(III) , or Fe(III) as the heteroelement were synthesized in water by treating Mo(VI) precursors with biologically active bisphosphonates (alendronate (Ale), zoledronate (Zol), an n-alkyl bisphosphonate (BPC9 ), an aminoalkyl bisphosphonate (BPC8 NH2 )) in the presence of additional metal ions. The Pt complex was synthesized from a polyoxomolybdate bisphosphonate precursor with Mo(VI) ions linked by the 2-pyridyl analogue of alendronate (AlePy). The complexes Mo4 Ale2 Mn, Mo4 Zol2 Mn, Mo4 Ale2 Fe, Mo4 Zol2 Fe, Mo4 (BPC8 NH2 )2 Fe, and Mo4 (BPC9 )2 Fe contain two dinuclear Mo(VI) cores bound to a central heterometallic ion. The oxidation state of manganese was determined by magnetic measurements. Complexes Mo12 (AlePy)4 and Mo12 (AlePy)4 Pt4 were studied by solid-state NMR spectroscopy and the photochromic properties were investigated in the solid state; both methods confirmed the complexation of Pt. Activity against the human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MCF-7 was determined and the most potent compound was Mn(III) -containing Mo4 Zol2 Mn (IC50 ?1.3??M). Unlike results obtained with vanadium-containing polyoxometalate bisphosphonates, cell growth inhibition was rescued by the addition of geranylgeraniol, which reverses the effects of bisphosphonates on isoprenoid biosynthesis/protein prenylation. The results indicate an important role for both the heterometallic element and the bisphosphonate ligand in the mechanism of action of the most active compounds. PMID:26076183

  18. Inter- and intraband energy transfer in LH2-antenna complexes of purple bacteria. A fluorescence line-narrowing and hole-burning study

    SciTech Connect

    De Caro, C. (Univ. of Leiden (Netherlands)); Visschers, R.W.; Grondelle, R. van (Free Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands)); Voelker, S. (Univ. of Leiden (Netherlands) Free Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1994-10-13

    High-resolution site-selection fluorescence- and hole-burning spectroscopy were used to study energy transfer in two LH2 light-harvesting complexes of purple bacteria: the B800-850 complex of isolated Rb. sphaeroides and the B800-820 complex of Rps. acidophila, at 1.2 K. Fluorescence spectra, hole widths, and hole depths were measured as a function of excitation wavelength [lambda][sub exc] within the B800 band. For [lambda][sub exc] [>=] 798 nm, fluorescence line-narrowing is observed and the energy-transfer times ([tau] = 2.5 and 2.0 ps for B800-850 and B800-820, respectively) are independent of [lambda][sub exc]. In this spectral region only interband B800 [yields] B850 (B820) energy transfer takes place. For 780 nm [<=] [lambda][sub exc] [<=] 798 nm, the fluorescence bands are broad and the transfer time, obtained from hole widths extrapolated to zero burning-fluorence density, decreases toward the blue side of B800. In this wavelength region competition occurs between B800 [yields] B850 (B820) and B800 [yields] B800 [open quotes]downhill[close quotes] energy transfer. 36 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Checking Potassium origin of new emission line at 3.5 keV with K XIX line complex at 3.7 keV

    E-print Network

    Iakubovskyi, Dmytro

    2015-01-01

    Whether the new line at ~3.5 keV, recently detected in different samples of galaxy clusters, Andromeda galaxy and central part of our Galaxy, is due to Potassium emission lines, is now unclear. By using the latest astrophysical atomic emission line database AtomDB v. 3.0.2, we show that the most prospective method to directly check its Potassium origin will be the study of K XIX emission line complex at ~3.7 keV with future X-ray imaging spectrometers such as Soft X-ray spectometer on-board Astro-H mission or microcalorimeter on-board Micro-X sounding rocket experiment. To further reduce the remaining (factor ~3-5) uncertainty of the 3.7/3.5 keV ratio one should perform more precise modeling including removal of significant spatial inhomogeneities, detailed treatment of background components, and further extension of the modeled energy range.

  20. A heterotrimetallic Ir(III), Au(III) and Pt(II) complex incorporating cyclometallating bi- and tridentate ligands: simultaneous emission from different luminescent metal centres leads to broad-band light emission.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Rodríguez, Rebeca; Buñuel, Elena; Fuentes, Noelia; Williams, J A Gareth; Cárdenas, Diego J

    2015-05-14

    Di- and tri-nuclear metal complexes incorporating gold(III), iridium(III) and platinum(II) units linked via a 1,3,5-triethynylbenzene core are reported, together with the corresponding mononuclear complexes as models. The gold(III) and platinum(II) units comprise tridentate, cyclometallating, C^N^C and N^N^C-coordinating ligands, respectively, with the Ar-C?C- directly bound to the metal at the fourth coordination site. The iridium moiety is an Ir(ppy)2(acac) unit bound to the triethynylbenzene through a phenyl substituent at the 3-position of the acac ligand. The multinuclear compounds are prepared, using a modular synthetic strategy, from the monometallic complexes. All of the compounds are luminescent in solution at room temperature, and their photophysical properties were studied. The triplet excited state energies of the mononuclear complexes lie in the order Au > Ir > Pt. Consistent with this order, energy transfer from Au to Ir and from Au to Pt is observed, leading to quenching of the Au emission in the gold-containing multinuclear complexes. Energy transfer from Ir to Pt occurs at a rate that only partially quenches the Ir-based emission. As a result, the dinuclear Ir-Pt and trinuclear Au-Ir-Pt complexes display broad emission across most of the visible region of the spectrum. PMID:25325719

  1. Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex-dependent succinylation of proteins in neurons and neuronal cell lines.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Gary E; Xu, Hui; Chen, Huan-Lian; Chen, Wei; Denton, Travis T; Zhang, Sheng

    2015-07-01

    Reversible post-translation modifications of proteins are common in all cells and appear to regulate many processes. Nevertheless, the enzyme(s) responsible for the alterations and the significance of the modification are largely unknown. Succinylation of proteins occurs and causes large changes in the structure of proteins; however, the source of the succinyl groups, the targets, and the consequences of these modifications on other proteins remain unknown. These studies focused on succinylation of mitochondrial proteins. The results demonstrate that the ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) can serve as a trans-succinylase that mediates succinylation in an ?-ketoglutarate-dependent manner. Inhibition of KGDHC reduced succinylation of both cytosolic and mitochondrial proteins in cultured neurons and in a neuronal cell line. Purified KGDHC can succinylate multiple proteins including other enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle leading to modification of their activity. Inhibition of KGDHC also modifies acetylation by modifying the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. The much greater effectiveness of KGDHC than succinyl-CoA suggests that the catalysis owing to the E2k succinyltransferase is important. Succinylation appears to be a major signaling system and it can be mediated by KGDHC. Reversible post-translation modifications of proteins are common and may regulate many processes. Succinylation of proteins occurs and causes large changes in the structure of proteins. However, the source of the succinyl groups, the targets, and the consequences of these modifications on other proteins remains unknown. The results demonstrate that the mitochondrial ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) can succinylate multiple mitochondrial proteins and alter their function. Succinylation appears to be a major signaling system and it can be mediated by KGDHC. PMID:25772995

  2. Petrogenesis of the Sabongari alkaline complex, cameroon line (central Africa): Preliminary petrological and geochemical constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Njonfang, Emmanuel; Tchoneng, Gilbert Tchuenté; Cozzupoli, Domenico; Lucci, Federico

    2013-07-01

    The petrography, mineral chemistry and geochemical features of the Sabongari alkaline complex are presented and discussed in this paper with the aim of constraining its petrogenesis and comparing it with other alkaline complexes of the Cameroon Line. The complex is mainly made up of felsic rocks: (i) granites predominate and include pyroxene-amphibole (the most abundant), amphibole-biotite, biotite and pyroxene types; (ii) syenites are subordinate and comprise amphibole-pyroxene and amphibole-biotite quartz syenites; (iii) pyroxene-amphibole-biotite trachyte and (iv) relatively abundant rhyolite. The minor basic and intermediate terms associated with felsic rocks consist of basanites, microdiorite and monzodioites. Two groups of pyroxene bearing rocks are distinguished: a basanite-trachyte-granite (Group 1) bimodal series (SiO2 gap: 44 and 63 wt.%) and a basanite-microdiorite-monzodiorite-syenite-granite (Group 2) less pronounced bimodal series (reduced SiO2 gap: 56-67 wt.%). Both are metaluminous to peralkaline whereas felsic rocks bare of pyroxene (Group 3) are metaluminous to peraluminous. The Group 1 basanite is SiO2-undersaturated (modal analcite in the groundmass and 11.04 wt.% normative nepheline); its Ni (240 ppm) and Cr (450 ppm) contents, near mantle values, indicate its most primitive character. The Group 2 basanite is rather slightly SiO2-saturated (1.56 wt.% normative hypersthene), a marker of its high crustal contamination (low Nb/Y-high Rb/Y). The La/Yb and Gd/Yb values of both basanites (1: 19.47 and 2.92; 2: 9.09 and 2.23) suggest their common parental magma composition, and their crystallization through two episodes of partial melting (2% and 3% respectively) of a lherzolite mantle source with <4% residual garnet. The effects of crustal contamination were selectively felt in the values of HFSE/LREE, LREE/LILE and LREE/HFSE ratios, known as indicators. Similar features have been recently obtained in the felsic lavas of the Cameroon Volcanic Line.

  3. Broad-band beam buncher

    DOEpatents

    Goldberg, David A. (Walnut Creek, CA); Flood, William S. (Berkeley, CA); Arthur, Allan A. (Martinez, CA); Voelker, Ferdinand (Orinda, CA)

    1986-01-01

    A broad-band beam buncher is disclosed, comprising an evacuated housing, an electron gun therein for producing an electron beam, a buncher cavity having entrance and exit openings through which the beam is directed, grids across such openings, a source providing a positive DC voltage between the cavity and the electron gun, a drift tube through which the electron beam travels in passing through such cavity, grids across the ends of such drift tube, gaps being provided between the drift tube grids and the entrance and exit grids, a modulator for supplying an ultrahigh frequency modulating signal to the drift tube for producing velocity modulation of the electrons in the beam, a drift space in the housing through which the velocity modulated electron beam travels and in which the beam is bunched, and a discharge opening from such drift tube and having a grid across such opening through which the bunched electron beam is discharged into an accelerator or the like. The buncher cavity and the drift tube may be arranged to constitute an extension of a coaxial transmission line which is employed to deliver the modulating signal from a signal source. The extended transmission line may be terminated in its characteristic impedance to afford a broad-band response and the device as a whole designed to effect broad-band beam coupling, so as to minimize variations of the output across the response band.

  4. Gas chromatography and gateway sensors for on-line-state estimation of complex fermentations (butanol-acetone fermentation)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph K. McLaughlin; Charles L. Meyer; Eleftherios T. Papoutsakis

    1985-01-01

    A fermentation system has been designed to demonstrate the use of gas chromatography (GC) for on-line monitoring of the butanol-acetone and other complex saccharolytic fermentations. Tangential flow ultrafiltration was used to sterilely and continuously obtain a cell-free filtrate from the fermentation broth for on-line GC analysis of butanol, butyrate, acetate, acetone, ethanol, and acetoin. The liquid injection system consists of

  5. The Broad Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    In the world of corporate philanthropy, there are those who give to educational causes, and this article describes one such philanthropist, Eli Broad, who shares his take on schools in America. Broad is in a category unto himself not only because of the amount of money he has given--more than $280 million since 1999--but also for his unique…

  6. The 2010 Broad Prize

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2011

    2011-01-01

    A new data analysis, based on data collected as part of The Broad Prize process, provides insights into which large urban school districts in the United States are doing the best job of educating traditionally disadvantaged groups: African-American, Hispanics, and low-income students. Since 2002, The Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation has awarded The…

  7. Gamma Line Radiation Emission from Stellar Winds in Orion Complex: A test for cosmic ray origin theory

    E-print Network

    Biman B. Nath; Peter L. Biermann

    1994-07-01

    We consider $\\gamma$-ray emission from heavy nuclei that are accelerated in the shocks of stellar winds and are excited in interactions with the ambient matter in the Orion complex. We show that the recent detection of $\\gamma$-ray lines in the Orion complex by COMPTEL telescope can be explained by such a scenario, assuming cosmic abundances. The scenario is consistent with recent models of cosmic ray acceleration in stellar winds of massive stars.

  8. Subaru High-Resolution Spectroscopy of Complex Metal Absorption Lines of the Quasar HS 1603+3820

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misawa, Toru; Yamada, Toru; Takada-Hidai, Masahide; Wang, Yiping; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Iye, Masanori; Tanaka, Ichi

    2003-03-01

    We present a high-resolution spectrum of the quasar HS 1603+3820 (zem=2.542), observed with the High Dispersion Spectrograph on the Subaru Telescope. This quasar, first discovered in the Hamburg/CfA Quasar Survey, has 11 C IV lines at 1.96lines at zabs>2.29 and resolves some of them into multiple narrow components with b<25 km s-1 because of the high spectral resolution R=45,000, while other lines show broad profiles (b>65 km s-1). We use three properties of C IV lines, specifically, time variability, covering factor, and absorption-line profile, to classify them into quasar intrinsic absorption lines (QIALs) and spatially intervening absorption lines (SIALs). The C IV lines at 2.42lines at 2.48lines at zabs~2.54 and 2.55, because their velocity shifts, 430 km s-1 blueward and 950 km s-1 redward of the quasar, are very small. The C IV line at zabs~2.48 consists of many narrow components and also has corresponding low-ionization metal lines (Al II, Si II, and Fe II). The velocity distribution of these low-ionization ions is concentrated at the center of the system compared with that of the high-ionization C IV ion. Therefore we ascribe this system of absorption lines to an intervening galaxy. Based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  9. Differential effects of a complex organochlorine mixture on the proliferation of breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Aubé, Michel; Larochelle, Christian; Ayotte, Pierre

    2011-04-01

    Organochlorine compounds (OCs) are a group of persistent chemicals that accumulate in fatty tissues with age. Although OCs has been tested individually for their capacity to induce breast cancer cell proliferation, few studies examined the effect of complex mixtures that comprise compounds frequently detected in the serum of women. We constituted such an OC mixture containing 15 different components in environmentally relevant proportions and assessed its proliferative effects in four breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47D, CAMA-1, MDAMB231) and in non-cancerous CV-1 cells. We also determined the capacity of the mixture to modulate cell cycle stage of breast cancer cells and to induce estrogenic and antiandrogenic effects using gene reporter assays. We observed that low concentrations of the mixture (100 × 10(3) and 50 × 10(3) dilutions) stimulated the proliferation of MCF-7 cells while higher concentrations (10 × 10(3) and 5 × 10(3) dilutions) had the opposite effect. In contrast, the mixture inhibited the proliferation of non-hormone-dependent cell lines. The mixture significantly increased the number of MCF-7 cells entering the S phase, an effect that was blocked by the antiestrogen ICI 182,780. Low concentrations of the mixture also caused an increase in CAMA-1 cell proliferation but only in the presence estradiol and dihydrotestosterone (p<0.05 at the 50 × 10(3) dilution). DDT analogs and polychlorinated biphenyls all had the capacity to stimulate the proliferation of CAMA-1 cells in the presence of sex steroids. Reporter gene assays further revealed that the mixture and several of its constituents (DDT analogs, aldrin, dieldrin, ?-hexachlorocyclohexane, toxaphene) induced estrogenic effects, whereas the mixture and several components (DDT analogs, aldrin, dieldrin and PCBs) inhibited the androgen signaling pathway. Our results indicate that the complex OC mixture increases the proliferation of MCF-7 cells due to its estrogenic potential. The proliferative effect of the mixture on CAMA-1 cells in the presence of sex steroids appears mostly due to the antiandrogenic properties of p,p'-DDE, a major constituent of the mixture. Other mixtures of contaminants that include emerging compounds of interest such as brominated flame retardants and perfluoroalkyl compounds should be tested for their capacity to induce breast cancer cell proliferation. PMID:21295777

  10. On the Dissipative Complex Ginzburg-Landau Equation Governing the Propagation of Solitary Pulses in Dissipative Nonlinear Transmission Lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Kengne; C. Tadmon; R. Vaillancourt

    2009-01-01

    A class of dissipative complex Ginzburg-Landau (DCGL) equations that govern the wave propagation in dissipative nonlinear transmission lines is solved exactly by means of the Hirota bilinear method. Two-soliton solutions of the DCGL equations, from which the one- soliton solutions are deduced, are obtained in analytical form. The modified Hirota method imposes some restrictions on the coefficients of the equations,

  11. Derivation of energy conservation law by complex line integral for the direct energy method of power system stability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young-Hyun Moon; Byoung-Hoon Cho; Yong-Hoon Lee; Hyun-Jong Kook

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a complex line integral approach to derive an energy conservation law which reflects the resistance, flux-decaying effects, saliency with wide adaptability to various detailed generator models including the governor and exciter control loops. Especially, the previous work has shown that an exact energy conservation law can be derived under the assumption of stator network transients being negligible.

  12. Deletion of Immunoproteasome Subunits Imprints on the Transcriptome and Has a Broad Impact on Peptides Presented by Major Histocompatibility Complex I molecules*

    PubMed Central

    de Verteuil, Danielle; Muratore-Schroeder, Tara L.; Granados, Diana P.; Fortier, Marie-Hélène; Hardy, Marie-Pierre; Bramoullé, Alexandre; Caron, Étienne; Vincent, Krystel; Mader, Sylvie; Lemieux, Sébastien; Thibault, Pierre; Perreault, Claude

    2010-01-01

    Proteasome-mediated proteolysis plays a crucial role in many basic cellular processes. In addition to constitutive proteasomes (CPs), which are found in all eukaryotes, jawed vertebrates also express immunoproteasomes (IPs). Evidence suggests that the key role of IPs may hinge on their impact on the repertoire of peptides associated to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) I molecules. Using a label-free quantitative proteomics approach, we identified 417 peptides presented by MHC I molecules on primary mouse dendritic cells (DCs). By comparing MHC I-associated peptides (MIPs) eluted from primary DCs and thymocytes, we found that the MIP repertoire concealed a cell type-specific signature correlating with cell function. Notably, mass spectrometry analyses of DCs expressing or not IP subunits MECL1 and LMP7 showed that IPs substantially increase the abundance and diversity of MIPs. Bioinformatic analyses provided evidence that proteasomes harboring LMP7 and MECL1 have specific cleavage preferences and recognize unstructured protein regions. Moreover, while differences in MIP repertoire cannot be attributed to potential effects of IPs on gene transcription, IP subunits deficiency altered mRNA levels of a set of genes controlling DC function. Regulated genes segregated in clusters that were enriched in chromosomes 4 and 8. Our peptidomic studies performed on untransfected primary cells provide a detailed account of the MHC I-associated immune self. This work uncovers the dramatic impact of IP subunits MECL1 and LMP7 on the MIP repertoire and their non-redundant influence on expression of immune-related genes. PMID:20484733

  13. Complex Domain Analysis Method Based on EM Waving for Transmission Line Transient Faults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chao Pan; Zezhong Wang; Bo Dong; Qing Zheng

    2011-01-01

    A concept named 'steady process in transient condition' is proposed for transmission line based on the transient expression of electromagnetic traveling wave. Considering the impact of distributed parameters and the characteristics of electro-magnetic wave, the transmission line model is built. Wave impedance factor is defined with line voltage fluctuation. The voltage equation is derived and the former is researched for

  14. Broad-band beam buncher

    DOEpatents

    Goldberg, D.A.; Flood, W.S.; Arthur, A.A.; Voelker, F.

    1984-03-20

    A broad-band beam bunther is disclosed, comprising an evacuated housing, an electron gun therein for producing an electron beam, a buncher cavity having entrance and exit openings through which the beam is directed, grids across such openings, a source providing a positive DC voltage between the cavity and the electron gun, a drift tube through which the electron beam travels in passing through such cavity, grids across the ends of such drift tube, gaps being provided between the drift tube grids and the entrance and exit grids, a modulator for supplying an ultrahigh frequency modulating signal to the drift tube for producing velocity modulation of the electrons in the beam, a drift space in the housing through which the velocity modulated electron beam travels and in which the beam is bunched, and a discharge opening from such drift tube and having a grid across such opening through which the bunched electron beam is discharged into an accelerator or the like. The buncher cavity and the drift tube may be arranged to constitute an extension of a coaxial transmission line which is employed to deliver the modulating signal from a signal source. The extended transmission line may be terminated in its characteristic impedance to afford a broad-

  15. Crossing the Line: Towards increasingly fruitful complex systems research for the physics community

    E-print Network

    Reginald D. Smith

    2011-09-26

    This article addresses broad trends in interdisciplinary research in physics where interactions with colleagues in fields such as computer science, ecology, or economics can often be derailed by unintentional clashes of methodologies and perspectives on the core science. Key causes of such breakdowns in interdisciplinary work are detailed and solutions offered.

  16. The broadening of Lyman-? forest absorption lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzilli, Antonella; Theuns, Tom; Schaye, Joop

    2015-06-01

    We provide an analytical description of the line broadening of H I absorbers in the Lyman-? forest resulting from Doppler broadening and Jeans smoothing. We demonstrate that our relation captures the dependence of the line width on column density for narrow lines in z ˜ 3 mock spectra remarkably well. Broad lines at a given column density arise when the underlying density structure is more complex, and such clustering is not captured by our model. Our understanding of the line broadening opens the way to a new method to characterize the thermal state of the intergalactic medium and to determine the sizes of the absorbing structures.

  17. Emission within a Damped Lyman Alpha Absorption Trough: the Complex Sight Line Towards Q2059-360

    E-print Network

    Bruno Leibundgut; J. Gordon Robertson

    1998-10-20

    We present new spectroscopic observations of the quasar Q2059-360, confirming the existence of an emission feature within the Damped Lyman Alpha (DLA) absorption trough. By observing also at slit positions offset from the quasar, we show that the emission is spatially extended by at least a few arcseconds, and hence confirm that the feature seen must be due to emission rather than unusual absorption characteristics. We find that the DLA trough is very close in redshift to the broad Lyman~$\\alpha$ emission line of the QSO, with the result that the DLA absorption removes much of the peak region of that line. Despite the similarity of the redshifts of the DLA and the QSO, the lack of high-ionization lines of the DLA system and the unresolved widths of the corresponding metal lines indicate that the DLA cloud is not an associated system. The emission feature has a large velocity offset of +490 km/s with respect to the DLA system, and is resolved in velocity, comprising two components with a separation of ~ 300 km/s. We consider three possibilities: (1) Both emission and absorption occur within an object similar to the high redshift Lyman-break galaxies; (2) The emission feature arises from an object distinct from both the DLA absorber and the QSO, perhaps a young star-forming galaxy or a proto-galactic clump. It could be associated with the DLA absorber and perhaps the QSO in a compact group or cluster; (3) The redshifts are such that the emission feature could be due to Narrow Line Region filaments of the QSO, if the DLA absorption covers a sufficiently small angular size to allow the filaments to be seen beyond the edge of the DLA cloud.

  18. Broad Bandwidth Telecommunications Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sodolski, John

    Broad bandwidth transmission systems have been around for years. They include microwave, assorted cable systems, and recently, satellites. With the exception of some privately owned systems, broadband services have been furnished by the common carriers. Recently, a new element has been added--Cable Antenna Television (CATV) distribution systems.…

  19. Evidence for Cell-Surface Association Between Fusin and the CD4-gp 120 Complex in Human Cell Lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheryl K. Lapham; Jun Ouyang; Bhaskar Chandrasekhar; Nga Y. Nguyen; Dimiter S. Dimitrov; Hana Golding

    1996-01-01

    Accessory cell-surface molecules involved in the entry of human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 into cells have recently been identified and shown to belong to the family of chemokine receptors. Treatment of human cell lines with soluble monomeric gp 120 at 37^circC induced an association between the surface CD4-gp120 complex and a 45-kilodalton protein, which can be down-modulated by the phorbol ester

  20. Wavelet analysis of broad diffuse interstellar bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nirski, Jaros?aw; Kre?owski, Jacek; Galazutdinov, Gazinur

    Broad diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) - which could originate in large gaseous molecules, notably PAHs - are investigated using the wavelet-based method. However, broad DIBs, such as ?6177, with the widths exceeding a few angstroms, pose difficulties in terms of tracing the continuum and removing narrow lines blended into them, both stellar and interstellar. In this work a non-standard approach to search a stellar spectrum for broad structures is proposed. The method, based on the à trous wavelet transform algorithm (Starck et al., 1997) and the multiscale vision model (Bijaoui & Rué, 1995), proves useful as an unbiased, semi-automated tool, selective for broad spectral features. Measurements were performed on data collected at the observatory of Torun, as well as with FEROS (Chile) and BOES (Korea) spectrographs.

  1. Data Mining of NCI’s Anticancer Screening Database Reveals Mitochondrial Complex I Inhibitors Cytotoxic to Leukemia Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Glover, Constance J.; Rabow, Alfred A.; Isgor, Yasemin G.; Shoemaker, Robert H.; Covell, David G.

    2007-01-01

    Mitochondria are principal mediators of apoptosis and thus can be considered molecular targets for new chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of cancer. Inhibitors of mitochondrial complex I of the electron transport chain have been shown to induce apoptosis and exhibit antitumor activity. In an effort to find novel complex I inhibitors which exhibited anti-cancer activity in the NCI’s tumor cell line screen, we examined organized tumor cytotoxicity screening data available as SOM (self-organized maps) (http://spheroid.ncifcrf.gov) at the Developmental Therapeutics Program (DTP) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). Our analysis focused on an SOM cluster comprised of compounds which included a number of known mitochondrial complex I (NADH:CoQ oxidoreductase) inhibitors. From these clusters ten compounds whose mechanism of action was unknown were tested for inhibition of complex I activity in bovine heart submitochondrial particles (SMP) resulting in the discovery that five of the ten compounds demonstrated significant inhibition with IC50's in the nM range for three of the five. Examination of screening profiles of the five inhibitors toward the NCI’s tumor cell lines revealed that they were cytotoxic to the leukemia subpanel (particularly K562 cells). Oxygen consumption experiments with permeabilized K562 cells revealed that the five most active compounds inhibited complex I activity in these cells in the same rank order and similar potency as determined with bovine heart SMP. Our findings thus fortify the appeal of mitochondrial Complex I as a possible anti-cancer molecular target and provide a data mining strategy for selecting candidate inhibitors for further testing. PMID:17109823

  2. CONTACT METAMORPHISM AND INTRUSIVE RELATIONS OF THE HODGES COMPLEX ALONG CAMERON'S LINE,

    E-print Network

    Merguerian, Charles

    ) and surrounding rocks indicate that the Hodges is a small mass of pyroxenite, hornblendite, gabbro, and diorite Hornblende diorite 50 Relative ages and intrusive nature of the Hodges Complex 51 Evidence for an igneous

  3. Reinforcing the LINC complex connection to actin filaments: the role of FHOD1 in TAN line formation and nuclear movement.

    PubMed

    Antoku, Susumu; Zhu, Ruijun; Kutscheidt, Stefan; Fackler, Oliver T; Gundersen, Gregg G

    2015-07-18

    Positioning the nucleus is critical for many cellular processes including cell division, migration and differentiation. The linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex spans the inner and outer nuclear membranes and has emerged as a major factor in connecting the nucleus to the cytoskeleton for movement and positioning. Recently, we discovered that the diaphanous formin family member FHOD1 interacts with the LINC complex component nesprin-2 giant (nesprin-2G) and that this interaction plays essential roles in the formation of transmembrane actin-dependent nuclear (TAN) lines and nuclear movement during cell polarization in fibroblasts. We found that FHOD1 strengthens the connection between nesprin-2G and rearward moving dorsal actin cables by providing a second site of interaction between nesprin-2G and the actin cable. These results indicate that the LINC complex connection to the actin cytoskeleton can be enhanced by cytoplasmic factors and suggest a new model for TAN line formation. We discuss how the nesprin-2G-FHOD1 interaction may be regulated and its possible functional significance for development and disease. PMID:26083340

  4. Establishment of embryonic stem cell lines from preimplantation mouse embryos homozygous for lethal mutations in the t-complex.

    PubMed

    Martin, G R; Silver, L M; Fox, H S; Joyner, A L

    1987-05-01

    We have determined the frequency at which embryonic stem cell (ESC) lines can be established from inner cell masses (ICMs) isolated from blastocysts homozygous for lethal mutations in the mouse t-complex. Approximately one-third of the expected number, 3/29, of the ESC lines established from embryos obtained by inter-se mating of +/tw18 mice are homozygous for the tw18 haplotype. These tw18/tw18 ESC lines form a variety of cell types in vitro and in vivo, including mesodermal derivatives such as cartilage and muscle. On the basis of these and data from other studies, we suggest that the normal function of the gene represented by the tw18 lethal allele is required for multiplication/survival of mesodermal precursors in the embryo rather than the specification of the mesodermal lineage, and that the lethal effects of this mutation are expressed in only the highly structured environment of the early postimplantation embryo. In studies of the lethal tw5 haplotype, we found that 2/2 ESC lines obtained are mutant homozygotes. Analysis of these data, in conjunction with the results of our earlier study (Magnuson, T., Epstein, C. J., Silver, L. M., and Martin, G. R. (1982), Nature (London) 298, 750-753), suggests that homozygosity for the genes found in the tw5 haplotype does not reduce cell viability. By contrast, 0/16 ESC lines isolated from embryos obtained from matings of +/t0 mice are mutant homozygotes. Analysis of the genotypes of ICM-derived primary stem cell colonies suggests that t0 homozygous ICM cells are unable to undergo sufficient proliferation in vitro to give rise to ESC lines. PMID:2883053

  5. Modulational instability in a purely nonlinear coupled complex Ginzburg-Landau equations through a nonlinear discrete transmission line.

    PubMed

    Ndzana, Fabien; Mohamadou, Alidou; Kofané, Timoléon C

    2008-12-01

    We study wave propagation in a nonlinear transmission line with dissipative elements. We show analytically that the telegraphers' equations of the electrical transmission line can be modeled by a pair of continuous coupled complex Ginzburg-Landau equations, coupled by purely nonlinear terms. Based on this system, we investigated both analytically and numerically the modulational instability (MI). We produce characteristics of the MI in the form of typical dependence of the instability growth rate on the wavenumbers and system parameters. Generic outcomes of the nonlinear development of the MI are investigated by dint of direct simulations of the underlying equations. We find that the initial modulated plane wave disintegrates into waves train. An apparently turbulent state takes place in the system during the propagation. PMID:19123631

  6. On-line complexation\\/cloud point preconcentration for the sensitive determination of dysprosium in urine by flow injection inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia Ortega; Soledad Cerutti; Roberto A. Olsina; María F. Silva; Luis D. Martinez

    2003-01-01

    An on-line dysprosium preconcentration and determination system based on the hyphenation of cloud point extraction (CPE) to flow injection analysis (FIA) associated with ICP-OES was studied. For the preconcentration of dysprosium, a Dy(III)-2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol complex was formed on-line at pH 9.22 in the presence of nonionic micelles of PONPE-7.5. The micellar system containing the complex was thermostated at 30 °C in

  7. Querying the public databases for sequences using complex keywords contained in the feature lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier Croce; Michaël Lamarre; Richard Christen

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High throughput technologies often require the retrieval of large data sets of sequences. Retrieval of EMBL or GenBank entries using keywords is easy using tools such as ACNUC, Entrez or SRS, but has some limitations, in particular when querying with complex keywords. RESULTS: We show that Entrez has severe limitations with respect to retrieving subsequences. SRS works well with

  8. Gas flow sputtering — An approach to coat complex geometries and Non Line of Sight areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stanley Tang; Uwe Schulz

    2009-01-01

    Most PVD techniques are limited in coating complex geometries such as turbine blades without additional substrate manipulation. A novel approach to overcome these limits is the innovative gas flow sputtering. This technique combines a hollow cathode glow discharge with an argon gas flow that supports transportation of sputtered material to the substrate. The mixture of gas and sputtered material flows

  9. Broad spectrum bioactive sunscreens.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles; Sarruf, Fernanda Daud; Salgado-Santos, Idalina Maria Nunes; Haroutiounian-Filho, Carlos Alberto; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Baby, André Rolim

    2008-11-01

    The development of sunscreens containing reduced concentration of chemical UV filters, even though, possessing broad spectrum effectiveness with the use of natural raw materials that improve and infer UV absorption is of great interest. Due to the structural similarities between polyphenolic compounds and organic UV filters, they might exert photoprotection activity. The objective of the present research work was to develop bioactive sunscreen delivery systems containing rutin, Passiflora incarnata L. and Plantago lanceolata extracts associated or not with organic and inorganic UV filters. UV transmission of the sunscreen delivery system films was performed by using diffuse transmittance measurements coupling to an integrating sphere. In vitro photoprotection efficacy was evaluated according to the following parameters: estimated sun protection factor (SPF); Boot's Star Rating category; UVA/UVB ratio; and critical wavelength (lambda(c)). Sunscreen delivery systems obtained SPF values ranging from 0.972+/-0.004 to 28.064+/-2.429 and bioactive compounds interacted with the UV filters positive and negatively. This behavior may be attributed to: the composition of the delivery system; the presence of inorganic UV filter and quantitative composition of the organic UV filters; and the phytochemical composition of the P. incarnata L. and P. lanceolata extracts. Among all associations of bioactive compounds and UV filters, we found that the broad spectrum sunscreen was accomplished when 1.68% (w/w) P. incarnata L. dry extract was in the presence of 7.0% (w/w) ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, 2.0% (w/w) benzophenone-3 and 2.0% (w/w) TiO(2). It was demonstrated that this association generated estimated SPF of 20.072+/-0.906 and it has improved the protective defense against UVA radiation accompanying augmentation of the UVA/UVB ratio from 0.49 to 0.52 and lambda(c) from 364 to 368.6nm. PMID:18662760

  10. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILES OF TWO B-COMPLEX DISPARATE, GENETICALLY INBRED FAYOUMI CHICKEN LINES THAT DIFFER IN SUSCEPTIBILITY TO EIMERIA MAXIMA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to discriminate the gene expression profiles following Eimeria maxima infection between two B complex congenic lines (lines M5.1 and M15.2) of Fayoumi chickens which display differences in disease resistance and innate immunity against avian coccidiosis. A cDNA microarray, ...

  11. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILES OF TWO B-COMPLEX DISPARATE, GENETICALLY INBRED FAYOUMI CHICKEN LINES THAT DIFFER IN SUSCEPTIBILITY TO EIMERIA MAXIMA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to compare the gene expression profiles following Eimeria maxima infection between two B-complex congenic lines (lines M5.1 and M15.2) of Fayoumi chickens which display differences in disease resistance and innate immunity against avian coccidiosis. A cDNA microarray, const...

  12. Antileukemic Efficacy of Monomeric Manganese-Based Metal Complex on KG-1A and K562 Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Sandeep Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Sourav; Ghosh, Totan; Tripathy, Satyajit; Das, Sabyasachi; Das, Debasis; Roy, Somenath

    2013-01-01

    Transitional metals and metal compounds have been used in versatile platforms for biomedical applications and therapeutic intervention. Severe side effects of anticancer drugs produce an urgent urge to develop new classes of anticancer agents with great potency as well as selectivity. In this background, recent studies demonstrate that monomeric manganese (MnII) thiocyanate complex (MMTC) holds great promise to exert effective antileukemic effects. MMTC was developed by a simple chemical reaction and characterized by elemental analyses, thermal analyses, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Anti-leukemic efficacy of the developed MMTC was estimated in KG-1A (AML) and K562 (CML) cell lines. Cell viability study, drug uptake assay, cellular redox balance (GSH and GSSG level), nitric oxide (NO) release level, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, alteration of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and DNA fragmentation revealed that MMTC was able to produce significant antiproliferative effects on both cell lines at 25??g?mL?1 without showing any toxicological impact on normal lymphocytes. These findings will enlighten the biomedical application of manganese-based metal complexes as anti-leukemic agents. PMID:24223312

  13. Basal activity of a PARP1-NuA4 complex varies dramatically across cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Krukenberg, Kristin A; Jiang, Ruomu; Steen, Judith A; Mitchison, Timothy J

    2014-09-25

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) catalyze poly(ADP-ribose) addition onto proteins, an important posttranslational modification involved in transcription, DNA damage repair, and stem cell identity. Previous studies established the activation of PARP1 in response to DNA damage, but little is known about PARP1 regulation outside of DNA repair. We developed an assay for measuring PARP activity in cell lysates and found that the basal activity of PARP1 was highly variable across breast cancer cell lines, independent of DNA damage. Sucrose gradient fractionation demonstrated that PARP1 existed in at least three biochemically distinct states in both high- and low-activity lines. A discovered complex containing the NuA4 chromatin-remodeling complex and PARP1 was responsible for high basal PARP1 activity, and NuA4 subunits were required for this activity. These findings present a pathway for PARP1 activation and a direct link between PARP1 and chromatin remodeling outside of the DNA damage response. PMID:25199834

  14. Genome-wide Introgression Lines and their Use in Genetic and Molecular Dissection of Complex Phenotypes in Rice ( Oryza sativa L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhi-Kang Li; Bin-Ying Fu; Yong-Ming Gao; Jian-Long Xu; J. Ali; H. R. Lafitte; Yun-Zhu Jiang; J. Domingo Rey; C. H. M. Vijayakumar; R. Maghirang; Tian-Qing Zheng; Ling-Hua Zhu

    2005-01-01

    Tremendous efforts have been taken worldwide to develop genome-wide genetic stocks for rice functional genomic (FG) research since the rice genome was completely sequenced. To facilitate FG research of complex polygenic phenotypes in rice, we report the development of over 20 000 introgression lines (ILs) in three elite rice genetic backgrounds for a wide range of complex traits, including resistances\\/tolerances

  15. Evaluation of the Sensititre MycoTB Plate for Susceptibility Testing of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex against First- and Second-Line Agents

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Leslie; Jude, Kurt P.; Clark, Shirley L.; Dionne, Kim; Merson, Ryan; Boyer, Ana; Parrish, Nicole M.

    2012-01-01

    The Sensititre MycoTB plate (TREK Diagnostic Systems, Cleveland, OH) uses a microtiter plate MIC format for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates against first- and second-line antituberculosis agents. Categorical agreement versus the agar proportion method for 122 M. tuberculosis complex isolates was 94% to 100%. PMID:22895034

  16. Line narrowing spectroscopic studies of DNA-carcinogen adducts and DNA-dye complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, Myungkoo

    1995-12-06

    Laser-induced fluorescence line narrowing and non-line narrowing spectroscopic methods were applied to conformational studies of stable DNA adducts of the 7{beta}, 8{alpha}-dihydoxy-9{alpha}, l0{alpha}-epoxy-7,8,9, 10-tetrahydrobenzo[{alpha}]pyrene (anti-BPDE). Stereochemically distinct (+)-trans-, ({minus})-trans-, (+)-cis- and ({minus})-cis adducts of anti-BPDE bound to exocyclic amino group of the central guanine in an 11-mer oligonucleotide, exist in a mixture of conformations in frozen aqueous buffer matrices. The (+)-trans adduct adopts primarily an external conformation with a smaller fraction ( {approximately} 25 %) exists in a partially base-stacked conformation. Both cis adducts were found to be intercalated with significant {pi}-{pi} stacking interactions between the pyrenyl residues and the bases. Conformations of the trans-adduct of (+)-anti -BPDE in 11-mer oligonucleotides were studied as a function of flanking bases. In single stranded form the adduct at G{sub 2} or G{sub 3} (5 ft-flanking, base guanine) adopts a conformation with strong, interaction with the bases. In contrast, the adduct with a 5ft-flanking, thymine exists in a primarily helixexternal conformation. Similar differences were observed in the double stranded oligonucleotides. The nature of the 3ft-flanking base has little influence on the conformational equilibrium of the (+)-trans-anti BPDE-dG adduct. The formation and repair of BPDE-N{sup 2}-dG in DNA isolated from the skin of mice treated topically with benzo[{alpha}]pyrene (BP) was studied. Low-temperature fluorescence spectroscopy of the intact DNA identified the major adduct as (+)-trans-anti-BPDE-N-dG, and the minor adduct fraction consisted mainly of (+)-cis-anti-BPDE-N{sup 2}-dG.

  17. Decoding and reprogramming complex polyketide assembly lines: prospects for synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Hertweck, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Bacterial modular type I polyketide synthases (PKSs) represent giant megasynthases that produce a vast number of complex polyketides, many of which are pharmaceutically relevant. This review highlights recent advances in elucidating the mechanism of bacterial type I PKSs and associated enzymes, and outlines the ramifications of this knowledge for synthetic biology approaches to expand structural diversity. New insights into biosynthetic codes and structures of thiotemplate systems pave the way to rational bioengineering strategies. Through advances in genome mining, DNA recombination technologies, and biochemical analyses, the toolbox of non-canonical polyketide-modifying enzymes has been greatly enlarged. In addition to various chain-branching and chain-fusing enzymes, an increasing set of scaffold modifying biocatalysts is now available for synthetically hard-to-emulate reactions. PMID:25757401

  18. Resonances and continuum states of drip-line nuclei using the complex scaling method

    E-print Network

    Takayuki Myo; Kiyoshi Kato

    2010-08-08

    Resonances and continuum states of He isotopes are investigated using the cluster orbital shell model (COSM) with the complex scaling method (CSM). We discuss the following subjects: 1) Spectroscopic factors of the unbound nucleus 7He into the 6He-n components and their relation to the one-neutron removal strengths of 7He. The importance of the 6He(2+) resonance is shown. 2) Structure of five-body 0+ resonance of 8He from the viewpoint of the two-neutron pair coupling. The monopole strengths into five-body unbound states are also investigated. It is found that the sequential breakup process of 8He \\to 7He+n \\to 6He+n+n is dominant in the monopole excitation, while the contribution of 8He(0+_2) is negligible.

  19. S-parameter broad-band measurements on-microstrip and fast extraction of the substrate intrinsic properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Hinojosa

    2001-01-01

    A broad-band technique for determining the electromagnetic properties of isotropic film-shaped materials, which uses a microstrip line, is presented. Complex permittivity and permeability are computed from analytical equations and S-parameter measurements of microstrip cells propagating the dominant mode. Measured ?r and ?r data for several materials are presented between 0.05 GHz and 40 GHz. This technique shows a good agreement

  20. Transcriptional complexity of the HSPG2 gene in the human mast cell line, HMC-1.

    PubMed

    Lord, Megan S; Jung, MoonSun; Cheng, Bill; Whitelock, John M

    2014-04-01

    The mammalian HSPG2 gene encodes the proteoglycan protein core perlecan, which has important functions in biology including cell adhesion via integrins, binding to the extracellular matrix via various protein-protein interactions and binding of growth factors via the heparan sulfate chains decorating the N-terminal domain I. Here we show that, in the human mast cell line HMC-1, the transcription of this gene results in a population of mRNA that is processed in such a way to provide a relative increase of transcripts corresponding to domain V or the C-terminus compared to transcripts from either domain III or the N-terminal domain I. This paper also presents evidence of splicing of the HSPG2 gene in HMC-1 cells at exons 2/3 and after comparing this sequence with those published in various databases, a model is postulated to explain what might be happening in these cells with regard to the transcription of the HSPG2 gene. As domain V of perlecan contains the ?2?1 integrin binding site that modulates angiogenesis, we hypothesize that the transcriptional control of the HSPG2 gene in mast cells to synthesize these transcripts supports their stimulatory and specific role in wound healing and tissue regeneration. PMID:24365408

  1. Cytotoxic salan-titanium(IV) complexes: high activity toward a range of sensitive and drug-resistant cell lines, and mechanistic insights.

    PubMed

    Manna, Cesar M; Braitbard, Ori; Weiss, Esther; Hochman, Jacob; Tshuva, Edit Y

    2012-04-01

    The cytotoxicities of highly efficient salan-Ti(IV) complexes toward a range of cell lines, including drug-resistant cells, are reported along with preliminary mechanistic insights. Five salan-Ti(IV) complexes were investigated toward eight different human and murine cancer-derived cell lines, including colon, ovarian, lung, cervical, pancreatic, leukemic, skin, and breast. The salan complexes are more active toward the cells analyzed than cisplatin and the known titanium compound (bzac)(2) Ti(OiPr)(2) , and no cell line resistant to the salan complexes was identified. Moreover, the salan-Ti(IV) complexes are highly active toward both cisplatin-sensitive (A2780) and cisplatin-resistant (A2780CisR) human ovarian cancer cell lines. Similarly, the salan complexes are cytotoxic toward multi-drug-resistant (ABCB1-expressing) mouse lymphoma cell lines HU-1 and HU-2. Importantly, minimal or no activity was observed toward primary murine cells (bone marrow, heart, liver, kidney, spleen, and lung), supporting selectivity for cancer cells. Additionally, the salan complexes maintain high cytotoxicity for up to 24 h following exposure to cell culture medium, whereas reference complexes (bzac)(2) Ti(OiPr)(2) and Cp(2) TiCl(2) rapidly lose much of their activity upon exposure to medium, within ~1 h. The upregulation of p53 followed by cell-cycle arrest in G(1) phase is likely one mechanism of action of the salan complexes. Taken together, the results indicate that these compounds are selectively toxic to cancer cells and are able to circumvent two independent mechanisms of drug resistance, thus expanding the scope of their potential medicinal utility. PMID:22262543

  2. Chlorophyll and carotenoid binding in a simple red algal light-harvesting complex crosses phylogenetic lines.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, B; Cunningham, F X; Gantt, E

    2001-02-27

    The membrane proteins of peripheral light-harvesting complexes (LHCs) bind chlorophylls and carotenoids and transfer energy to the reaction centers for photosynthesis. LHCs of chlorophytes, chromophytes, dinophytes, and rhodophytes are similar in that they have three transmembrane regions and several highly conserved Chl-binding residues. All LHCs bind Chl a, but in specific taxa certain characteristic pigments accompany Chl a: Chl b and lutein in chlorophytes, Chl c and fucoxanthin in chromophytes, Chl c and peridinin in dinophytes, and zeaxanthin in rhodophytes. The specificity of pigment binding was examined by in vitro reconstitution of various pigments with a simple light-harvesting protein (LHCaR1), from a red alga (Porphyridium cruentum), that normally has eight Chl a and four zeaxanthin molecules. The pigments typical of a chlorophyte (Spinacea oleracea), a chromophyte (Thallasiosira fluviatilis), and a dinophyte (Prorocentrum micans) were found to functionally bind to this protein as evidenced by their participation in energy transfer to Chl a, the terminal pigment. This is a demonstration of a functional relatedness of rhodophyte and higher plant LHCs. The results suggest that eight Chl-binding sites per polypeptide are an ancestral trait, and that the flexibility to bind various Chl and carotenoid pigments may have been retained throughout the evolution of LHCs. PMID:11226340

  3. A new low-complexity angular spread estimator in the presence of line-of-sight with angular distribution selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousnina, Inès; Stéphenne, Alex; Affes, Sofiène; Samet, Abdelaziz

    2011-12-01

    This article treats the problem of angular spread (AS) estimation at a base station of a macro-cellular system when a line-of-sight (LOS) is potentially present. The new low-complexity AS estimator first estimates the LOS component with a moment-based K-factor estimator. Then, it uses a look-up table (LUT) approach to estimate the mean angle of arrival (AoA) and AS. Provided that the antenna geometry allows it, the new algorithm can also benefit from a new procedure that selects the angular distribution of the received signal from a set of possible candidates. For this purpose, a nonlinear antenna configuration is required. When the angular distribution is known, any antenna structure could be used a priori; hence, we opt in this case for the simple uniform linear array (ULA). We also compare the new estimator with other low-complexity estimators, first with Spread Root-MUSIC, after we extend its applicability to nonlinear antenna array structures, then, with a recently proposed two-stage algorithm. The new AS estimator is shown, via simulations, to exhibit lower estimation error for the mean AoA and AS estimation.

  4. The Mount Manengouba, a complex volcano of the Cameroon Line: Volcanic history, petrological and geochemical features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouclet, André; Kagou Dongmo, Armand; Bardintzeff, Jacques-Marie; Wandji, Pierre; Chakam Tagheu, Pulchérie; Nkouathio, David; Bellon, Hervé; Ruffet, Gilles

    2014-09-01

    The volcanic story of Mount Manengouba is related to four chronological stages: (1) forming of the early Manengouba shield volcano between 1.55 and 0.94 Ma, (2) building of the Eboga strato-cone between 0.94 and 0.89 Ma, (3) caldera collapse and silicic extrusions of the Elengoum Complex between 0.89 and 0.70 Ma, and (4) intra-caldera and flank activity between 0.45 and 0.11 Ma. The volume of the volcano is calculated at 320 km3 ± 5%. The volcanic rocks are attributed to two magmatic outputs. The first and main magma generation produced the shield volcano, the strato-cone, and the syn- to post-caldera extrusions, displaying a complete series from basanites to trachytes (magmatic Group 1). The second magma generation is limited to the late and flank activity evolving from basanites to trachy-phonolite (magmatic Group 2). Both magmatic groups belong to the under-saturated alkaline sodic series. Petrological calculations locate the magmatic reservoir between 37 and 39 km in the upper mantle for the Group 1 lavas, and between 42 and 44 km for the Group 2 lavas. Trachytes were generated in a secondary crustal reservoir. Magmatic series evolve with medium to low pressure fractional crystallization of olivine, pyroxene, oxides, feldspar, and apatite. Significant crustal assimilation is evidenced in trachytes. The magma of Group 1 was generated with 3-6% of partial melting of a moderately enriched source containing 3-7% of garnet. Melting took place in the spinel to garnet transition zone located at 70-90 km and around 25 kb. The magma of Group 2 resulted from a slightly higher partial melting from a less garnet-rich source that indicates uprising of the melting column in the upper part of transition zone. Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope data of the Manengouba rocks and neighboring lavas are analyzed and compared with those of the mafic lavas of the CVL. Three source components are distinguished: a depleted component originated from the asthenospheric swell, a radiogenic component linked to the contaminated lithosphere of the Neoproterozoic mobile belt, and an enriched component or the lithosphere possibly related to pre-rifting magmatic processes.

  5. Broad-spectrum antiviral agents

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jun-Da; Meng, Wen; Wang, Xiao-Jia; Wang, Hwa-Chain R.

    2015-01-01

    Development of highly effective, broad-spectrum antiviral agents is the major objective shared by the fields of virology and pharmaceutics. Antiviral drug development has focused on targeting viral entry and replication, as well as modulating cellular defense system. High throughput screening of molecules, genetic engineering of peptides, and functional screening of agents have identified promising candidates for development of optimal broad-spectrum antiviral agents to intervene in viral infection and control viral epidemics. This review discusses current knowledge, prospective applications, opportunities, and challenges in the development of broad-spectrum antiviral agents.

  6. Vanadium and cancer treatment: antitumoral mechanisms of three oxidovanadium(IV) complexes on a human osteosarcoma cell line.

    PubMed

    León, I E; Butenko, N; Di Virgilio, A L; Muglia, C I; Baran, E J; Cavaco, I; Etcheverry, S B

    2014-05-01

    We report herein the antitumor actions of three oxidovanadium(IV) complexes on MG-63 human osteosarcoma cell line. The three complexes: VO(oda), VO(oda)bipy and VO(oda)phen (oda=oxodiacetate), caused a concentration dependent inhibition of cell viability. The antiproliferative action of VO(oda)phen could be observed in the whole range of concentrations (at 2.5 ?M), while VO(oda)bipy and VO(oda) showed a decrease of cell viability only at higher concentrations (at 50 and 75 ?M, respectively) (p<0.01). Moreover, VO(oda)phen caused a decrease of lysosomal and mitochondrial activities at 2.5 ?M, while VO(oda) and VO(oda)bipy affected neutral red uptake and mitochondrial metabolism at 50 ?M (p<0.01). On the other hand, no DNA damage studied by the Comet assay could be observed in MG-63 cells treated with VO(oda) at 2.5-10 ?M. Nevertheless, VO(oda)phen and VO(oda)bipy induced DNA damage at 2.5 and 10 ?M, respectively (p<0.01). The generation of reactive oxygen species increased at 10 ?M of VO(oda)phen and only at 100 ?M of VO(oda) and VO(oda)bipy (p<0.01). Besides, VO(oda)phen and VO(oda)bipy triggered apoptosis as determined by externalization of the phosphatidylserine. The determination of DNA cleavage by agarose gel electrophoresis showed that the ability of VO(oda)(bipy) is similar to that of VO(oda), while VO(oda)(phen) showed the highest nuclease activity in this series. Overall, our results showed a good relationship between the bioactivity of the complexes and their structures since VO(oda)phen presented the most potent antitumor action in human osteosarcoma cells followed by VO(oda)bipy and then by VO(oda) according to the number of intercalating heterocyclic moieties. PMID:24199985

  7. Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Therapeutics

    E-print Network

    Rider, Todd H.

    Currently there are relatively few antiviral therapeutics, and most which do exist are highly pathogen-specific or have other disadvantages. We have developed a new broad-spectrum antiviral approach, dubbed Double-stranded ...

  8. The Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Robert S. E.; Losh, Molly; Parlier, Morgan; Reznick, J. Steven; Piven, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The broad autism phenotype (BAP) is a set of personality and language characteristics that reflect the phenotypic expression of the genetic liability to autism, in non-autistic relatives of autistic individuals. These characteristics are milder but qualitatively similar to the defining features of autism. A new instrument designed to measure the…

  9. Copernicus studies of interstellar material in the Perseus II complex. III - The line of sight to Zeta Persei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, T. P., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectrophotometric data obtained with Copernicus are used to analyze the distribution, composition, density, temperature, and kinematics of the interstellar material along the line of sight to Zeta Persei. The far-UV extinction curve for the star is evaluated along with the kinematics of the interstellar gas, observations of atomic and molecular hydrogen, curves of growth for neutral and ionized species, atomic abundances and depletions, ionization equilibria, and observations of CO and OH lines. The results show that there are apparently three clouds along the line of sight to Zeta Persei: a main cloud at approximately +13 km/s which contains most of the material and forms all the neutral and molecular lines as well as most of the ionic lines, a second component at +22 km/s which must contribute to the strong UV lines of most ions, and a third component at roughly +2 km/s which gives rise to a strong Si III line at 1206 A. It is also found that the UV extinction curve has a somewhat steep far-UV rise, indicating the presence of a substantial number of small grains, and that about 30% of the hydrogen nuclei over the entire line of sight are in molecular form.

  10. DIFFERENTIAL GENE EXPRESSION PROFILES IN TWO B-COMPLEX DISPARATE FAYOUMI CHICKEN LINES FOLLOWING EIMERIA MAXIMA INFECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two inbred chicken lines, M5.1 and M15.2 which are B-haplotype disparate Fayoumi chickens, show different disease phenotypes following oral infection with Eimeria maxima. Weight loss was reduced and fecal parasite numbers were lower in M5.1 compared with M15.2 line birds. This study was conducted...

  11. Induction of apoptotic cell death in mouse lymphoma and human leukemia cell lines by a calcium-binding protein complex, calprotectin, derived from inflammatory peritoneal exudate cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoru Yui; Masaaki Mikami; Masatoshi Yamazaki

    We have previously shown that the cal- cium-binding protein complex, caiprotectin, purified from rat inflammatory peritoneal cells exerts marked cytotoxic activity against rat, mouse, and human tumor cells. We studied here whether the cytotoxicity is caused by induction of apoptosis, using mouse EL-4 lymphoma and human MOLT-4 leukemia lines as targets. The rat caiprotectin sample inhibited (3H)thymidine incorporation into these

  12. Subcellular Localization, Stability, and trans-Cleavage Competence of the Hepatitis C Virus NS3NS4A Complex Expressed in Tetracycline-Regulated Cell Lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BENNO WOLK; DOMENICO SANSONNO; HANS-GEORG KRAUSSLICH; FRANCO DAMMACCO; CHARLES M. RICE; HUBERT E. BLUM; DARIUS MORADPOUR

    2000-01-01

    A tetracycline-regulated gene expression system and a panel of novel monoclonal antibodies were used to examine the subcellular localization, stability, and trans-cleavage competence of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3-NS4A complex in inducible cell lines. The NS3 serine protease domain and the full-length NS3 protein ex- pressed in the absence of the NS4A cofactor were diffusely distributed in the cytoplasm

  13. Hydroxynaphthoquinone Metal Complexes as Antitumor Agents X: Synthesis, Structure, Spectroscopy and In Vitro Antitumor Activity of 3-Methyl-Phenylazo Lawsone Derivatives and Their Metal Complexes Against Human Breast Cancer Cell Line MCF-7

    PubMed Central

    Gokhale, Nikhil; Newton, Chris; Pritchard, Robin

    2000-01-01

    The C-3 substituted phenylazo derivatives of lawsone (2-hydroxy-l,4 p-naphthoquinone, III) were synthesized and characterized. The X-ray crystal structure was determined for the ligand 3-(3?-methyl phenylazo) lawsone. The copper complexes of these derivatives were found to possess 1:2 metal stoichiometry and square planar geometries with intermolecular stackings, resulting in antiferromagnetic exchange interactions. The in vitro activity of all the synthesized compounds was examined against human breast cancer cell-line, MCF-7, which revealed enhanced activities for the metal complexes, the highest activity being observed for the copper compound of 3-(3?-methyl phenylazo) lawsone. PMID:18475934

  14. Hydroxynaphthoquinone metal complexes as antitumor agents x: synthesis, structure, spectroscopy and in vitro antitumor activity of 3-methyl-phenylazo lawsone derivatives and their metal complexes against human breast cancer cell line mcf-7.

    PubMed

    Gokhale, N; Padhye, S; Newton, C; Pritchard, R

    2000-01-01

    The C-3 substituted phenylazo derivatives of lawsone (2-hydroxy-l,4 p-naphthoquinone, III) were synthesized and characterized. The X-ray crystal structure was determined for the ligand 3-(3'-methyl phenylazo) lawsone. The copper complexes of these derivatives were found to possess 1:2 metal stoichiometry and square planar geometries with intermolecular stackings, resulting in antiferromagnetic exchange interactions. The in vitro activity of all the synthesized compounds was examined against human breast cancer cell-line, MCF-7, which revealed enhanced activities for the metal complexes, the highest activity being observed for the copper compound of 3-(3'-methyl phenylazo) lawsone. PMID:18475934

  15. A NOVEL WIDE BAND AND BROAD BEAMWIDTH CIRCULARLY POLARIZED ANTENNA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Sun; Y.-J. Sun; Y.-H. Huang; B.-H. Sun; Q.-Z. Liu

    2011-01-01

    A novel printed crossed dipole with broad axial ratio (AR) bandwidth and enhanced beamwidth is proposed. the proposed antenna consists of two dipoles crossed through a 90° phase delay line, which produces one minimum AR point due to the sequentially rotated configuration and 4 parasitic ring loops, which generate one additional minimum AR point. By combining these two minimum AR

  16. On the importance of satellite lines to the He-like K ALPHA complex and the G ratio for calcium, iron, and nickel

    E-print Network

    J. Oelgoetz; C. J. Fontes; H. L. Zhang; S. N. Nahar; A. K. Pradhan

    2008-11-13

    New, more detailed calculations of the emission spectra of the He-like K ALPHA complex of calcium, iron and nickel have been carried out using data from both distorted-wave and R-matrix calculations. The value of the GD ratio (an extended definition of the G ratio that accounts for the effect of resolved and unresolved satellite lines) is significantly enhanced at temperatures below the temperature of He-like maximum abundance. Furthermore it is shown that satellite lines are important contributors to the GD ratio such that GD/G>1 at temperatures well above the temperature of maximum abundance. These new calculations demonstrate, with an improved treatment of the KLn (n>=3) satellite lines, that K ALPHA satellite lines need to be included in models of He like spectra even at relatively high temperatures. The excellent agreement between spectra and line ratios calculated from R-matrix and distorted-wave data also confirms the validity of models based on distorted-wave data for highly charged systems, provided the effect of resonances are taken into account as independent processes.

  17. Medicare Coverage Policies for Biologics: The Broad Gray Line

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    In October 2007, American Health & Drug Benefits asked Dr Joseph Antos to discuss the forces that have shaped Medicare's policies and their impact on the various stakeholders in US healthcare. The first part of the interview appeared in AHDB in February 2008. This second part focuses on the impact of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services drug coverage on the future of biologic products. This discussion does not reflect any new developments occurring after October, such as the recent recommendation of the US Food and Drug Administration advisory committee to narrow the indication for erythropoiesis-stimulating agents to patients with cancer. PMID:25126220

  18. Broad Street Books The Wesleyan University Bookstore

    E-print Network

    Royer, Dana

    Broad Street Books The Wesleyan University Bookstore 45 Broad Street Middletown, CT 06457 April 1 and class rings. All these items can be purchased through Broad Street Books, your local university store your regalia at the bookstore, we will be glad to have it shipped to you. Contact Broad Street Books

  19. Broad NeVIII 774 Emission From Quasars

    E-print Network

    Hamann, F W; Shields, J C; Burbidge, Eleanor Margaret; Crenshaw, V J D M; Hamann, Fred; Cohen, Ross D.; Shields, Joseph; Crenshaw, D M; Junkkarinen, Vesa

    1997-01-01

    NeVIII 774 is an important tracer of the high-ionization gas in QSOs. We examine the NeVIII emission-line properties using new HST-FOS spectra of four sources, mean spectra derived from two QSO samples in the HST archives, and new photoionization calculations. The results support our previous claim that broad NeVIIIlines are common in QSOs, with an average flux of ~42% of OVI 1034 and velocity widths that are ~2 to 5 times larger than OVI, CIV 1549 and other broad lines in the same spectra. The strongest and most reliably measured NeVIII 774 lines (in two sources) have FWHM ~ 14,500 km/s. Line profile fits in these cases show that the unusually large widths might be caused by blending with emission from NIV 765 and OIV~\\lam 789. However, standard photoionization calculations indicate that NIV, OIV and all other lines near this wavelength should be too weak, leaving (very broad) NeVIII as the only viable identification for the ~774 A feature. (This conclusion might be avoided if there are large radial velocity...

  20. Characterization of the Androgen-sensitive MDA-kb2 Cell Line for Assessing Complex Environmental Mixtures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Complex mixtures of synthetic and natural androgens and estrogens, and many other non-steroidal components are commonly released to the aquatic environment from anthropogenic sources. It is important to understand the potential interactive (i.e., additive, synergistic, antagonist...

  1. Biochemical properties and mechanism of action of a vanadyl(IV) – aspirin complex on bone cell lines in culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susana B. Etcheverry; Patricia A. M. Williams; Viviana C. Sálice; Daniel A. Barrio; Evelina G. Ferrer; Ana M. Cortizo

    2002-01-01

    A recently synthesized vanadyl(IV) complex with aspirin[VO(aspirin)ClH2O]2, has been thoroughly investigated by physicochemical techniques. In order to support the proposed structure, stoichiometry and the coordination sphere of the vanadium center, some studies such as elemental analysis, electronic (diffuse reflectance) and vibrational (infrared) spectroscopies, magnetic susceptibility, as well as the thermal behavior, were carried out. The bioactivity of the vanadium complex

  2. Investigation of effects of newly synthesized Pt(II) complex against human serum albumin and leukemia cell line of K562.

    PubMed

    Divsalar, Adeleh; Saboury, Ali A; Ahadi, Leila; Zemanatiyar, Elham; Mansouri-Torshizi, Hassan

    2010-11-01

    The biological evaluation of a new synthesized Pt(II)-complex, 2,2'-bipyridin Butylglycinato Pt(II) nitrate, an anti-tumor component, was studied at different temperatures by fluorescence and far UV circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic methods. Human serum albumin (HSA) and human tumor cell line K562 were as targets. The Pt(II)-complex has a strong ability to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of HSA. Binding and thermodynamic parameters of the interaction were calculated by fluorescence quenching method. Far-UV-CD results showed that Pt(II)-complex induced increasing in content of ? helical structure of the protein and stabilized it. The 50% cytotoxic concentration (Cc(50)) of complex was determined using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay at different incubation times. Also, fluorescence staining with DAPI (4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) revealed some typical nuclear changes, which are characteristic of apoptosis. Above results suggest that Pt (II) complex is a promising anti-proliferative agent and should execute its biological effects by inducing apoptosis. PMID:21110922

  3. Structure of a Novel Shoulder-to-Shoulder p24 Dimer in Complex with the Broad-Spectrum Antibody A10F9 and Its Implication in Capsid Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Ying; Cao, Fang; Wang, Lei; Hou, Wangheng; Zhang, Jun; Hew, Choy-leong; Li, Shaowei; Yuan, Y. Adam; Xia, Ningshao

    2013-01-01

    Mature HIV-1 viral particles assemble as a fullerene configuration comprising p24 capsid hexamers, pentamers and dimers. In this paper, we report the X-ray crystal structures of the p24 protein from natural HIV-1 strain (BMJ4) in complex with Fab A10F9, which recognizes a conserved epitope in the C-terminal domain of the BMJ4 p24 protein. Our structures reveal a novel shoulder-to-shoulder p24 dimerization mode that is mediated by an S-S bridge at C177. Consistent with these structures, the shoulder-to-shoulder dimer that was obtained from the BMJ4 strain was also observed in p24 proteins from other strains by the introduction of a cysteine residue at position 177. The potential biological significance was further validated by the introduction of a C177A mutation in the BMJ4 strain, which then displays a low infectivity. Our data suggest that this novel shoulder-to-shoulder dimer interface trapped by this unique S-S bridge could represent a physiologically relevant mode of HIV-1 capsid assembly during virus maturation, although Cys residue itself may not be critical for HIV-I replication. PMID:23620741

  4. Characterization of the Androgen-sensitive MDA-kb2 Cell Line for Assessing Complex Environmental Mixtures, Presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synthetic and natural steroidal androgens and estrogens and many other non-steroidal endocrine-active compounds commonly occur as complex mixtures in aquatic environments. It is important to understand the potential interactive effects of these mixtures to properly assess their r...

  5. Service Based Product Lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alberto Sillitti; Tullio Vernazza; Giancarlo Succi

    Product lines are sets of products designed to solve complex problems that a single tool is not able to approach because of the complexity. Moreover product lines are scalable: customers can buy only components that they need to work at present. Future enhancement could be done with little training effort due to the homogeneity of products inside a product line.

  6. Developing the Broad Process Excellence Program

    E-print Network

    Datta, Subhrangshu, 1975-

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is based on the author's experience as an intern at the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard. The Broad Institute has been working on applying and implementing traditional manufacturing process improvement tools ...

  7. Orai1-Orai2 complex is involved in store-operated calcium entry in chondrocyte cell lines.

    PubMed

    Inayama, Munenori; Suzuki, Yoshiaki; Yamada, Satoshi; Kurita, Takashi; Yamamura, Hisao; Ohya, Susumu; Giles, Wayne R; Imaizumi, Yuji

    2015-05-01

    Ca(2+) influx via store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) plays critical roles in many essential cellular functions. The Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channel complex, consisting of Orai and STIM, is one of the major components of store-operated Ca(2+) (SOC) channels. Our previous study demonstrated that histamine can cause sustained Ca(2+) entry through SOC channels in OUMS-27 cells derived from human chondrosarcoma. This SOCE was increased by low- and decreased by high-concentrations of 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR and Western blot analyses revealed abundant expressions of Orai1, Orai2 and STIM1. Introduction of dominant negative mutant of Orai1, or siOrai1 knockdown significantly attenuated SOCE. Following histamine application, single molecule imaging using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy demonstrated punctate Orai1-STIM1 complex formation in plasma membrane. In contrast, knockdown or over-expression of Orai2 resulted in an increase or a decrease in SOCE, respectively. Finally, TIRF imaging revealed direct coupling between Orai1 and Orai2, and suggested that Orai2 reduces Orai1 function by formation of a hetero-tetramer. These results provide substantial evidence that Orai1, Orai2 and STIM1 form functional CRAC channels in OUMS-27 cells and that these complexes are responsible for sustained Ca(2+) entry in response to agonist stimulation. PMID:25769459

  8. ORIGINAL PAPER The Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire

    E-print Network

    van Lambalgen, Michiel

    to the defining features of autism. A new instru- ment designed to measure the BAP in adults, the Broad AutismORIGINAL PAPER The Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire Robert S. E. Hurley Æ Molly Losh Æ Morgan+Business Media, LLC 2006 Abstract The broad autism phenotype (BAP) is a set of personality and language

  9. The 2006 Broad Prize for Urban Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broad Foundation, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The $1 million Broad Prize in Urban Education is the nation's largest award in K-12 public education. The Broad Prize is given annually by The Broad Foundation in the form of scholarships to urban school districts that demonstrate the greatest overall performance and improvement in student achievement while reducing achievement gaps among ethnic…

  10. 33 CFR 110.27 - Lynn Harbor in Broad Sound, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lynn Harbor in Broad Sound, Mass. 110.27 Section 110.27 Navigation and Navigable Waters...Special Anchorage Areas § 110.27 Lynn Harbor in Broad Sound, Mass. North of a line bearing 244° from the tower of...

  11. 33 CFR 110.27 - Lynn Harbor in Broad Sound, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lynn Harbor in Broad Sound, Mass. 110.27 Section 110.27 Navigation and Navigable Waters...Special Anchorage Areas § 110.27 Lynn Harbor in Broad Sound, Mass. North of a line bearing 244° from the tower of...

  12. 33 CFR 110.27 - Lynn Harbor in Broad Sound, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lynn Harbor in Broad Sound, Mass. 110.27 Section 110.27 Navigation and Navigable Waters...Special Anchorage Areas § 110.27 Lynn Harbor in Broad Sound, Mass. North of a line bearing 244° from the tower of...

  13. 33 CFR 110.27 - Lynn Harbor in Broad Sound, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lynn Harbor in Broad Sound, Mass. 110.27 Section 110.27 Navigation and Navigable Waters...Special Anchorage Areas § 110.27 Lynn Harbor in Broad Sound, Mass. North of a line bearing 244° from the tower of...

  14. 33 CFR 110.27 - Lynn Harbor in Broad Sound, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lynn Harbor in Broad Sound, Mass. 110.27 Section 110.27 Navigation and Navigable Waters...Special Anchorage Areas § 110.27 Lynn Harbor in Broad Sound, Mass. North of a line bearing 244° from the tower of...

  15. Evaluation of in vitro cytotoxicity of one-dimensional chain [Fe(salen)(L)](n) complexes against human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Dvo?ák, Zden?k; Starha, Pavel; Sindelá?, Zden?k; Trávní?ek, Zden?k

    2012-04-01

    The 1d-polymeric iron(III) complexes [Fe(salen)(?-L)](n) (1-6), involving a deprotonated form of the N-donor heterocyclic compounds (L) imidazole (complex 1), 1,2,4-triazole (2), benztriazole (3), 5-methyltetrazole (4), 5-aminotetrazole (5) and 5-phenyltetrazole (6), were studied for their in vitro cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines including lung carcinoma (A549), cervix epithelial carcinoma (HeLa), osteosarcoma (HOS), malignant melanoma (G361), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7), ovarian carcinoma (A2780) and cisplatin-resistant ovarian carcinoma (A2780cis). Cytotoxicity in vitro (IC50=0.39-0.48 ?M) was achieved for 2-6 against A2780 (IC50 of cisplatin equals 11.5 ?M) as well as for 5 and 6 against all the tested cells, with IC50=2.5-37.7 ?M. The Uv-Vis spectroscopic study showed that the complexes are unstable in organic solvents (e.g., dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethylformamide) containing even trace amounts of water (and thus also in the medium, i.e., 0.1% DMF, v/v, used in the MTT assay), where they partially or completely decompose to the mixtures involving, besides [Fe(salen)(?-L)](n) itself, also the starting compounds [{Fe(salen)}2(?-O)] and appropriate organic compound (HL). In efforts to find how the resulting cytotoxicity of the most active compounds 5 and 6 is influenced by this fact, the in vitro cytotoxicity testing of mixtures of reactants [{Fe(salen)}2(?-O)] and HL, as well as the respective reactants, was also performed. It has been found that the cytotoxicity of 5 and 6 against all the tested cell lines is probably caused by a combined effect of the individual components presented within the corresponding mixture in the medium used. PMID:22274660

  16. Broad-band dipole design using the method of moments.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalafus, R. M.

    1971-01-01

    Application of the method of moments to the problem of broad-band dipole design. For electrically small antennas, top-loaded geometries appear to maximize bandwidth. For dimensions of the order of a wavelength, a class of dipole shapes is given which yields a VSWR of less than 1.1 with respect to a 100-ohm transmission line over a frequency range of 1.8 to 1. The beam shape is essentially that of a dipole over the band.

  17. Jupiter's Temperatures--Broad Latitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This is one of the highest resolution images ever recorded of Jupiter's temperature field. It was obtained by NASA's Galileo mission, with its Photopolarimeter-Radiometer (PPR) experiment, during the seventh of its 10 orbits around Jupiter to date. This map, shown in the left panel, indicates the forces powering Jovian winds, and differentiates between areas of strongest upwelling and downwelling winds in the upper part of the atmosphere. A Hubble Space Telescope Planetary Camera color composite of this same region, taken within 10 hours of the PPR map, is shown in the right panel for the same region, as a reference to the visual clouds. An outline of the region mapped by the PPR is also shown.

    This atmospheric observation covered a broad latitude region, and it shows that the visually dark regions generally have warmer temperatures than the visually light ones, indicating that they are regions of downwelling, dry air which clear out cloud condensate particles. The 'little red spot' at the northernmost part of this image is colder than its surroundings, consistent with it being a region of upwelling and cooling gas. The smaller spots to its southeast (lower right) and other lighter spots in the HST image are all colder than their surroundings, consistent with regions of upwelling and cooling gas. The northern half of the brightest band in the map is brighter than the southern half, and it reveals some detailed structure, down to the 1900- kilometer (1200-mile) resolution of the PPR, which is not always readily correlated with variations of the visual cloud field.

    One surprise of this temperature map involved temperatures near the dark blue-gray feature in the map, an area like the one into which the Probe descended. While large regions of downwelling wind heat the local area elsewhere in Jupiter, this region of vigorous downwelling appears close to being thermally neutral. The drying, downwelling winds may be deeper in the atmosphere than sensed by the PPR, or this region may have enough downwelling motions so that additional downwelling has little effect on energy and temperature. Either scenario indicates these generally clear and dry regions are fundamentally different from most of Jupiter's downwelling regions.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  18. PATTERNS OF FITNESS AND FLUCTUATING ASYMMETRY ACROSS A BROAD HYBRID ZONE

    E-print Network

    Cruzan, Mitchell B.

    taxa in the Piriqueta caroliniana complex. Previous studies have indicated that this hybrid zonePATTERNS OF FITNESS AND FLUCTUATING ASYMMETRY ACROSS A BROAD HYBRID ZONE Sara M. Handy,1 Kim Mc asymmetry (i.e., random deviations from perfect bilateral symmetry), across a broad hybrid zone between two

  19. Effects of an inhibitor of the ?-secretase complex on proliferation and apoptotic parameters in a FOXL2-mutated granulosa tumor cell line (KGN).

    PubMed

    Irusta, Griselda; Pazos, Maria Camila; Maidana, Camila Pazos; Abramovich, Dalhia; De Zúñiga, Ignacio; Parborell, Fernanda; Tesone, Marta

    2013-07-01

    Ovarian granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) represent 3%-5% of all ovarian malignancies. Treatments have limited proven efficacy and biologically targeted treatment is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Notch signaling in the proliferation, steroidogenesis, apoptosis, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway in a FOXL2-mutated granulosa tumor cell line (KGN) representative of the adult form of GCTs. When Notch signaling is initiated, the receptors expose a cleavage site in the extracellular domain to the metalloproteinase TACE and, following this cleavage, Notch undergoes another cleavage mediated by the presenilin-gamma-secretase complex. To achieve our goal, DAPT, an inhibitor of the gamma-secretase complex, was used to investigate the role of the Notch system in parameters associated with cell growth and death, using a human granulosa cell tumor line (KGN) as an experimental model. We observed that JAGGED1, DLL4, NOTCH1, and NOTCH4 were highly expressed in KGN cells as compared to granulosa-lutein cells obtained from assisted reproductive techniques patients. The proliferation and viability of KGN cells, as well as progesterone and estradiol production, decreased in the presence of 20 ?M DAPT. Apoptotic parameters like PARP and caspase 8 cleavages, BAX, and BCLXs increased in KGN cells cultured with DAPT, whereas others such as BCL2, BCLXl, FAS, and FAS ligand did not change. AKT phosphorylation decreased and PTEN protein increased when Notch signaling was inhibited in KGN cells. We conclude that the Notch system acts as a survival pathway in KGN cells, and might be interacting with the PI3K/AKT pathway. PMID:23699387

  20. New {\\it Chandra} Results on Seyfert I galaxies: Fe-K lines

    E-print Network

    U. Padmanabhan; T. Yaqoob

    2002-11-17

    We present measurements of the Fe-K line for nine Seyfert I galaxies using Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS) data. The centroid energies are narrowly dispersed (6.403 +/- 0.062 keV) and indicate an origin of the line cores in cold matter. If {\\it all} the lines in this sample were the peaks of a relativistically broadened disk line, it would require unrealistically fine tuning. However, at least three of the nine AGN clearly show a complex Fe-K line with an underlying broad component, possibly from a disk. In the others, an apparently narrow Fe-K line (even if it is resolved by Chandra) may still be due to the peak of a disk line. To distinguish this scenario from an origin in distant matter requires variability information.

  1. Broad H alpha profiles of radio-loud active galactic nuclei and rapid profile variability in Seyfert and radio galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eracleous, Michael

    This thesis is a study of the shapes and variability of the broad H alpha emission lines of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN's). We present the results of a comprehensive search for double-peaked H alpha profiles among moderate redshift radio galaxies and radio-loud quasars. We find seven new double-peaked H alpha profiles which can be fitted with a simple, relativistic, Keplerian disk model, bringing the total number of such profiles known to 11. Disk-like profiles (12 percent of all the objects we have considered) have noticeably larger full widths at half maximum. This confirms, and possibly explains, the results of previous studies which concluded that radio-loud AGN's have wider and more complex profiles than optically selected objects. In the (radio-loud) objects of our collection, the broad H alpha lines are preferentially redshifted with respect to the frame defined by the narrow lines, in contrast to optically selected samples where blueshifts and redshifts are equally common. In disk-like emitters the continuum in the vicinity of H alpha is dominated by starlight, and the low-excitation, forbidden lines are unusually strong. These trends can be understood in the context of a physical model in which the lines originate in the outer parts of the accretion disk and are driven by illumination from the inner disk. Alternative models for the origin of double-peaked emission lines include supermassive binary black holes and biconical radial flow. We also present the results of a search for rapid variability (on time scales of hours to days) in the H alpha profiles of eight nearby Seyfert and radio galaxies. The purpose of the search was to look for specific evidence for reverberation from an accretion disk in response to flaring of the source of ionizing radiation. The results are largely negative in that they reveal no profile variability in the H alpha profiles of any of the target objects at the one percent level on time scales of a few days or less. We do, however, find long term variability in some Seyfert galaxies of a type which suggests that the broad H alpha lines may consist of several components that do not vary in concert.

  2. Active infrared hyperspectral imaging system using a broadly tunable optical parametric oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malcolm, G. P. A.; Maker, G. T.; Robertson, G.; Dunn, M. H.; Stothard, D. J. M.

    2009-09-01

    The in situ identification and spatial location of gases, discrete liquid droplets and residues on surfaces is a technically challenging problem. Active Infrared (IR) hyperspectral imaging is a powerful technique that combines real-time imaging and optical spectroscopy for "standoff" detection of suspected chemical substances, including chemical warfare agents, toxic industrial chemicals, explosives and narcotics. An active IR hyperspectral imaging system requires a coherent, broadly tunable IR light source of high spectral purity, in order to detect a broad range of target substances. In this paper we outline a compact and power-efficient IR illumination source with high stability, efficiency, tuning range and spectral purity based upon an optical parametric oscillator (OPO). The fusion of established OPO technology with novel diode-pumped laser technology and electro-mechanical scanning has enabled a broadly applicable imaging system. This system is capable of hyperspectral imaging at both Near-IR (1.3 - 1.9 ?m) and Mid-IR (2.3 - 4.6 ?m) wavelengths simultaneously with a line width of < 3 cm-1. System size and complexity are minimised by using a dual InGaAs/InSb single element detector, and images are acquired by raster scanning the coaxial signal and idler beams simultaneously, at ranges up to 20 m. Reflection, absorption and scatter of incident radiation by chemical targets and their surroundings provide a method for spatial location, and characteristic spectra obtained from each sample can be used to identify targets uniquely. To date, we have recognized liquids in sample sizes as small 20 ?l-and gases with sensitivity as high as 10ppm.m-at detection standoff distances > 10 m.

  3. Petrology of the Guenfalabo ring-complex: An example of a complete series along the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL), Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donald Ngonge, E.; Hollanda, Maria Helena B. M.; Nsifa, E. Nkonguin; Tchoua, Felix M.

    2014-08-01

    In the Guenfalabo ring-complex (GRC), two non-comagmatic rock suites have been identified as a result of two volcanic episodes: Suite 1 (68.8 ± 1.7 Ma by K/Ar on trachyte) of peralkaline trachytes and pantellerites cogenetic with alkaline syenites, granites and rhyolitic flows and tuffs; Suite 2 (62 ± 2 Ma by K/Ar on basalt), a bimodal and complete series of alkali olivine basalts and associated microgabbro dykes, diorites, syenites and granites, cross-cutting the former. Kaersutite in the trachytes of Suite 1 has mantle-derived signatures: TiO2 > 4%, MgO < 15%, FeO > 8%, Ti = 0.63 c.p.f.u. and Al = 2, characteristic of kaersutites of HP and HT origin: 13-23 kbar, 1100-1220 °C. The trachytes are probably products of FC of a basaltic parent that did not attain higher crustal levels. The Suite 1 rocks are enriched in Rb, K, Zr, Nb, LREE, alkalis, and (Ce/Yb)N = 7-15 probably due to some effect of metasomatism during the magma ascension. Fe-Ti enrichment is corroborated by the presence of ferropseudobrookite-ilmenite-ulvospinel in the syenites and ilmenite in the pantellerite. The Rb/Ba > 1 in the trachytes (2.44, 26.7), pantellerite (6.33), alkaline granites (0.63-1.8) and the 87Sr/86Sr in the alkaline granites (=0.74060) depict the role of AFC. The ankaramites of the Suite 2 rocks are olivine-phyric (25%), Fo85-88, have 50-52% clinopyroxene (salite), 5% plagioclase (An55-36) and 7% Fe-Ti oxides. Trace element modeling indicates an origin from a basaltic magma of about 25% PM of spinel lherzolite mixed with a magma from <1% PM of garnet lherzolite (3-4% garnet) in a proportion of 1:4. The cogenetic alkali basalts and the microgabbro-diorite-syenite-granite that constitute the Suite 2 rocks, with a Daly gap of 54% > SiO2 < 58%, result from this Early Cenozoic magmatic event. The basalts have: Zr = 225-253, Nb = 98-111, Y = 33-56, typical of FOZO, a HIMU-type OIB related magmas (Sr/Sri = 0.70202-0.7034; Nd/Nd = 0.51282-0.512545; 206Pb/204Pb = 19.13, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.59 and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.64. The (La/Yb)N ratios (9-20) indicate a high REE fractionation and garnet-lherzolite source. Elemental ratios as La/Nb = 0.49-0.81, Nb/Y = 1.00-2.04 suggest crustal contamination of minor importance. The (La/Sm)N ratios (2-3.5) and LREE enrichment corroborate the contribution of a subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM). REE spectra and minor element spidergrams are concordant for each rock suite.

  4. Broad Prize: Do the Successes Spread?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    When the Broad Prize for Urban Education was created in 2002, billionaire philanthropist Eli Broad said he hoped the awards, in addition to rewarding high-performing school districts, would foster healthy competition; boost the prestige of urban education, long viewed as dysfunctional; and showcase best practices. Over the 10 years the prize has…

  5. The 2007 Broad Prize for Urban Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broad Foundation, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The $1 million Broad Prize in Urban Education, the nation's largest K-12 public education award given annually by The Broad Foundation, is awarded to urban school districts that demonstrate the greatest overall performance and improvement in student achievement while reducing income and ethnic achievement gaps. One hundred of the largest urban…

  6. Broad Academy's Growing Reach Draws Scrutiny

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    Billionaire businessman Eli Broad, one of the country's most active philanthropists, founded the Broad Superintendents Academy in 2002 with an extraordinarily optimistic goal: Find leaders from both inside and outside education, train them, and have them occupying the superintendencies in a third of the 75 largest school districts--in just two…

  7. Broad Academy's Growing Reach Draws Scrutiny

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    Billionaire businessman Eli Broad, one of the country's most active philanthropists, founded the "Broad Superintendents Academy" in 2002 with an extraordinarily optimistic goal: Find leaders from both inside and outside education, train them, and have them occupying the superintendencies in a third of the 75 largest school districts--all in just…

  8. Influence of higher order modes on the measurements of complex permittivity and permeability of materials using a microstrip discontinuity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Queffelec; Philippe Gelin

    1996-01-01

    The accurate electromagnetic analysis of discontinuities in a microstrip device, used for the broad band measurement of complex permittivity and permeability of materials, is presented. This analysis is based on the spectral domain approach together with the mode matching method which consists in the electromagnetic field matching at the discontinuities for each mode of the microstrip line. The study of

  9. Fine mapping of complex traits in non-model species: using next generation sequencing and advanced intercross lines in Japanese quail

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background As for other non-model species, genetic analyses in quail will benefit greatly from a higher marker density, now attainable thanks to the evolution of sequencing and genotyping technologies. Our objective was to obtain the first genome wide panel of Japanese quail SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) and to use it for the fine mapping of a QTL for a fear-related behaviour, namely tonic immobility, previously localized on Coturnix japonica chromosome 1. To this aim, two reduced representations of the genome were analysed through high-throughput 454 sequencing: AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) fragments as representatives of genomic DNA, and EST (Expressed Sequence Tag) as representatives of the transcriptome. Results The sequencing runs produced 399,189 and 1,106,762 sequence reads from cDNA and genomic fragments, respectively. They covered over 434 Mb of sequence in total and allowed us to detect 17,433 putative SNP. Among them, 384 were used to genotype two Advanced Intercross Lines (AIL) obtained from three quail lines differing for duration of tonic immobility. Despite the absence of genotyping for founder individuals in the analysis, the previously identified candidate region on chromosome 1 was refined and led to the identification of a candidate gene. Conclusions These data confirm the efficiency of transcript and AFLP-sequencing for SNP discovery in a non-model species, and its application to the fine mapping of a complex trait. Our results reveal a significant association of duration of tonic immobility with a genomic region comprising the DMD (dystrophin) gene. Further characterization of this candidate gene is needed to decipher its putative role in tonic immobility in Coturnix. PMID:23066875

  10. SHAPEMOL: a 3D code for calculating CO line emission in planetary and protoplanetary nebulae. Detailed model-fitting of the complex nebula NGC 6302

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santander-García, M.; Bujarrabal, V.; Koning, N.; Steffen, W.

    2015-01-01

    Context. Modern instrumentation in radioastronomy constitutes a valuable tool for studying the Universe: ALMA has reached unprecedented sensitivities and spatial resolution, while Herschel/HIFI has opened a new window (most of the sub-mm and far-infrared ranges are only accessible from space) for probing molecular warm gas (~50-1000 K). On the other hand, the software SHAPE has emerged in the past few years as a standard tool for determining the morphology and velocity field of different kinds of gaseous emission nebulae via spatio-kinematical modelling. Standard SHAPE implements radiative transfer solving, but it is only available for atomic species and not for molecules. Aims: Being aware of the growing importance of the development of tools for simplifying the analyses of molecular data from new-era observatories, we introduce the computer code shapemol, a complement to SHAPE, with which we intend to fill the so-far under-developed molecular niche. Methods: shapemol enables user-friendly, spatio-kinematic modelling with accurate non-LTE calculations of excitation and radiative transfer in CO lines. Currently, it allows radiative transfer solving in the 12CO and 13CO J = 1-0 to J = 17-16 lines, but its implementation permits easily extending the code to different transitions and other molecular species, either by the code developers or by the user. Used along SHAPE, shapemol allows easily generating synthetic maps to test against interferometric observations, as well as synthetic line profiles to match single-dish observations. Results: We give a full description of how shapemol works, and we discuss its limitations and the sources of uncertainty to be expected in the final synthetic profiles or maps. As an example of the power and versatility of shapemol, we build a model of the molecular envelope of the planetary nebula NGC 6302 and compare it with 12CO and 13CO J = 2-1 interferometric maps from SMA and high-J transitions from Herschel/HIFI. We find the molecular envelope to have a complex, broken ring-like structure with an inner, hotter region and several "fingers" and high-velocity blobs, emerging outwards from the plane of the ring. We derive a mass of 0.11 M? for the molecular envelope. A copy of the code is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/573/A56

  11. A Broad-band Spectral and Timing Study of the X-Ray Binary System Centaurus X-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Audley, Michael Damian

    1998-01-01

    This dissertation describes a multi-mission investigation of the high mass X-ray binary pulsar Centaurus X-3. Cen X-3 was observed with the Broad Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT) in December 1990. This was the first high-resolution solid state X-ray spectrometer to cover the iron K fluorescence region. The Fe K emission feature was resolved into two components for the first time. A broad 6.7 keV feature was found to be a blend of lines from Fe XXI-Fe XXVI with energies ranging from 6.6 to 6.9 keV due to photoionization of the companion's stellar wind. A narrow line at 6.4 keV due to fluorescence of iron in relatively low ionization states was also found. The quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO) at about 40 mHz were used to estimate the surface magnetic field of Cen X-3 as approx. 2.6 x 10(exp 12) G and to predict that there should be a cyclotron scattering resonance absorption feature (CSRF) near 30 keV. In order to further resolve the iron line complex and to investigate the pulse-phase dependence of the iron line intensities, Cen X-3 was observed with the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA). Using ASCA's state-of-the-art non-dispersive X-ray spectrometers the 6.4 keV fluorescent iron line was found to be pulsing while the intensities of the 6.7 and 6.9 keV recombination lines do not vary with pulse phase. This confirms that the 6.4 keV line is due to reflection by relatively neutral matter close to the neutron star while the recombination lines originate in the extended stellar wind. The continuum spectrum was found to be modified by reflection from matter close to the neutron star. Observations with the EXOSAT GSPC were used to search for a CSRF. The EXOSAT spectra were consistent with the presence of a CSRF but an unambiguous detection was not possible because of a lack of sensitivity at energies higher than the cyclotron energy. Cen X-3 was then observed with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and evidence for a CSRF at 25.1 +/- 0.3 keV was found. This corresponds to a magnetic field of (2.16 +/- 0.03) X 10(exp 12) G and is consistent with the value obtained from the QPO analysis.

  12. Complex line bundles in relativity

    E-print Network

    Curtis, W. D.; Lerner, David E.

    1978-02-01

    at: http://scitation.aip.org/termsconditions. Downloaded to IP: 129.237.46.100 On: Tue, 16 Sep 2014 20:13:14 of (1. 3), a cross section of B(s, w) may be identified with a functionj(~O, ~t, P' , rl') =j(~A, r A') homogeneous of degree (w-s,w+s): j...

  13. Ni(II)-mediated self-assembly of artificial beta-dipeptides forming a macrocyclic tetranuclear complex with interior spaces for in-line molecular arrangement.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Ryosuke; Tashiro, Shohei; Shiro, Motoo; Tanaka, Kentaro; Shionoya, Mitsuhiko

    2008-04-30

    Metal-mediated self-assembly of bioinspired molecular building blocks shows promise as an excellent strategy to provide well-defined metal arrays and nanoscopic metallo-architectures in a programmable way. Herein, we report Ni(II)-mediated self-assembly of artificial beta-dipeptides (1) which were prepared from a newly designed beta-amino acid bearing a propanediamine ligand as the side chain. The beta-dipeptide (1) has thus two sets of ligands, that is, each building block serves as a tridentate ligand with a bidentate propanediamine unit and an amide carbonyl group. Both C- and N-terminal tridentate ligands in 1 bind to two Ni(II) ions independently, and consequently, four beta-dipeptides are circularly arranged in a head-to-tail fashion to form a macrocyclic tetranuclear Ni(II) complex, Ni414(ClO4)8(H2O)10. The cyclic structure was determined by X-ray analysis and ESI-TOF mass spectrometry. The resulting unique twisted-boat structure allows the formation of isolated spaces for in-line hydrogen-bonded arrangement of water and anion molecules within a hole and two grooves rich in hydrogen bonding groups. PMID:18396868

  14. Targeting Estrogen Receptor Sites in Human Breast Cancer Cell Line T47D With Copper Conjugates of Nonsteriodal Anti-inflammatory Drug Derivatives: Antiproliferative Activity of Ketoprofen Derivative and its Copper Complex

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Dilip Kumar; Padhye, Shreelekha

    2001-01-01

    A square planar copper complex of derivatized NSAID drug (Ketoprofen thiosemicarbazone [3-benzoyl-?-methyl benzene acetic acid thiosemicarbazone]), is characterized by elemental analysis, spectroscopy, electrochemistry and magnetic susceptibility studies which exhibits dose-dependent and enhanced antiproliferative effects on human breast cancer cell line T47D rich in progesterone receptors. PMID:18475978

  15. High Broad-Band Photoresponsivity of Mechanically Formed InSe-Graphene van der Waals Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Mudd, Garry W; Svatek, Simon A; Hague, Lee; Makarovsky, Oleg; Kudrynskyi, Zakhar R; Mellor, Christopher J; Beton, Peter H; Eaves, Laurence; Novoselov, Kostya S; Kovalyuk, Zakhar D; Vdovin, Evgeny E; Marsden, Alex J; Wilson, Neil R; Patanè, Amalia

    2015-07-01

    High broad-band photoresponsivity of mechanically formed InSe-graphene van der Waals heterostructures is achieved by exploiting the broad-band transparency of graphene, the direct bandgap of InSe, and the favorable band line up of InSe with graphene. The photoresponsivity exceeds that for other van der Waals heterostructures and the spectral response extends from the near-infrared to the visible spectrum. PMID:25981798

  16. Broad Halpha Wing Formation in the Planetary Nebula IC 4997.

    PubMed

    Lee; Hyung

    2000-02-10

    The young and compact planetary nebula IC 4997 is known to exhibit very broad wings with a width exceeding 5000 km s-1 around Halpha. We propose that the broad wings are formed through Rayleigh-Raman scattering that involves atomic hydrogen, by which Lybeta photons with a velocity width of a few 102 km s-1 are converted to optical photons and fill the Halpha broad wing region. The conversion efficiency reaches 0.6 near the line center, where the scattering optical depth is much larger than 1, and rapidly decreases in the far wings. Assuming that close to the central star there exists an unresolved inner compact core of high density, nH approximately 109-1010 cm-3, we use the photoionization code "CLOUDY" to show that sufficient Lybeta photons for scattering are produced. Using a top-hat-incident profile for the Lybeta flux and a scattering region with a H i column density NHi=2x1020 cm-2 and a substantial covering factor, we perform a profile-fitting analysis in order to obtain a satisfactory fit to the observed flux. We briefly discuss the astrophysical implications of the Rayleigh-Raman processes in planetary nebulae and other emission objects. PMID:10642203

  17. Widespread Synchronous Volcanism Reveals a Broad Galapagos Hotspot Melting Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, J. M.; Stoffers, P.; Wijbrans, J. R.; Worthington, T. J.

    2004-12-01

    The massive aseismic ridges and associated seamounts dominating the morphology of the Panama Basin, eastern Central Pacific, have long been attributed to a Galapagos hotspot melting anomaly linked to a deep-seated mantle plume. Although these structures can provide information about the origin of hotspots and existence, or otherwise, of mantle plumes very little is known about their volcanic histories due to a lack of direct age and geochemical information. We report here 74 whole rock and 2 plagioclase 40Ar/39Ar ages for rocks dredged from 53 locations during the first systematic sampling of the Cocos, Carnegie, Coiba and Malpelo aseismic ridges and associated seamounts (F.S. SONNE PAGANINI expedition). In addition we also report ages for DSDP drill sites on Cocos, Carnegie and Coiba ridges and 7 Cocos Island subaerial samples. The distribution of new, and published ages for the Galapagos Archipelago-platform and NE end of the Cocos Ridge, show a general trend of increasing age with distance from the Galapagos Archipelago. A more dominant trend however is one of aseismic ridge-seamount formation in a progression of broad zones of synchronous, often overlapping volcanism created at discrete intervals. Broad zones of coeval Cocos and Carnegie volcanism once formed much larger regions of synchronous volcanism that have been split apart by the complex history of seafloor spreading associated with the Cocos-Nazca spreading center. We link these broad regions of synchronous volcanism to a correspondingly large hotspot melting anomaly. The present day, as yet unfragmented, zone of synchronous volcanism associated with this proposed broad hotspot is marked by the extensive region of recent volcanism extending across the Nazca and Cocos plates encompassing the Galapagos Archipelago-Platform and the Cocos Ridge as far north as Cocos Island. The complex tectonic history of the Cocos-Nazca spreading-center has controlled how the broad zones of synchronous, often overlapping volcanism created by the broad Galapagos melting anomaly have been fragmented between the Cocos and Nazca plates. However, interplay between the broad Galapagos melting anomaly and the Cocos-Nazca spreading center is a second-order process compared to a fundamental underlying mantle process responsible for a broad Galapagos hotspot melting anomaly exhibiting long-lived characteristics (size, time-progression, episodicity) which, on a first-order, are independent of local tectonics and lithospheric architecture. Evidence for a broad Galapagos hotspot melting anomaly and the possibility of detecting long-lived underlying mantle processes has implications for how oceanic hotspot volcanism is sampled for purposes of rigorously testing the mantle plume paradigm. A major question posed by our results is whether individual Pacific seamount chains are in fact the product of tectonic plate drift over narrow hotspots? If not, then inferring the existence and behavior of a mantle plume on the basis of age progression of volcanism produced by a narrow seamount chain could well prove to be misleading. Thus, although great leaps are being made in the theory and numerical modeling - often on a global scale - of hypothesized deep plumes, significantly more high-quality age and geochemical data are needed for oceanic hotspot volcanism that gave birth to the mantle plume hypothesis in the first place.

  18. Precision Fe Kalpha and Fe Kbeta Line Spectroscopy of the Seyfert 1.9 Galaxy NGC 2992 with Suzaku

    E-print Network

    Tahir Yaqoob; Kendrah D. Murphy; Richard E. Griffiths; Yoshito Haba; Hajime Inoue; Takeshi Itoh; Richard Kelley; Motohide Kokubun; Alex Markowitz; Richard Mushotzky; Takashi Okajima; Andrew Ptak; James Reeves; Peter J. Serlemitsos; Tadayuki Takahashi; Yuichi Terashima

    2006-09-20

    We present detailed time-averaged X-ray spectroscopy in the 0.5--10 keV band of the Seyfert~1.9 galaxy NGC 2992 with the Suzaku X-ray Imaging Spectrometers (XIS). We model the complex continuum in detail. There is an Fe K line emission complex that we model with broad and narrow lines and we show that the intensities of the two components are decoupled at a confidence level >3sigma. The broad Fe K line has an EW of 118 (+32,-61) eV and could originate in an accretion disk (with inclination angle greater than ~30 degrees). The narrow Fe Kalpha line has an EW of 163 (+47,-26) eV and is unresolved FWHM <4090 km/s) and likely originates in distant matter. The absolute flux in the narrow line implies that the column density out of the line-of-sight could be much higher than measured in the line-of-sight, and that the mean (historically-averaged) continuum luminosity responsible for forming the line could be a factor of several higher than that measured from the data. We also detect the narrow Fe Kbeta line with a high signal-to-noise ratio and describe a new robust method to constrain the ionization state of Fe responsible for the Fe Kalpha and Fe Kbeta lines that does not require any knowledge of possible gravitational and Doppler energy shifts affecting the line energies. For the distant line-emitting matter (e.g. the putative obscuring torus) we deduce that the predominant ionization state is lower than Fe VIII (at 99% confidence), conservatively taking into account residual calibration uncertainties in the XIS energy scale and theoretical and experimental uncertainties in the Fe K fluorescent line energies. From the limits on a possible Compton-reflection continuum it is likely that the narrow Fe Kalpha and Fe Kbeta lines originate in a Compton-thin structure.

  19. Silicon micromachined broad band light source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Thomas (Inventor); Jones, Eric (Inventor); Tuma, Margaret L. (Inventor); Eastwood, Michael (Inventor); Hansler, Richard (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A micro electromechanical system (MEMS) broad band incandescent light source includes three layers: a top transmission window layer; a middle filament mount layer; and a bottom reflector layer. A tungsten filament with a spiral geometry is positioned over a hole in the middle layer. A portion of the broad band light from the heated filament is reflective off the bottom layer. Light from the filament and the reflected light of the filament are transmitted through the transmission window. The light source may operate at temperatures of 2500 K or above. The light source may be incorporated into an on board calibrator (OBC) for a spectrometer.

  20. Modelling the broad-band spectra of X-ray emitting GPS galaxies

    E-print Network

    L. Ostorero; R. Moderski; L. Stawarz; M. C. Begelman; A. Diaferio; I. Kowalska; J. Kataoka; S. J. Wagner

    2008-11-18

    The study of the broad-band emission of GHz-Peaked-Spectrum (GPS) radio galaxies is a powerful tool to investigate the physical processes taking place in the central, kpc-sized region of their active hosts, where the jets propagate and the lobes expand, interacting with the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM). We recently developed a new dynamical-radiative model to describe the evolution of the GPS phenomenon (Stawarz et al. 2008): as the relativistic jets propagate through the ISM, gradually engulfing narrow-line emitting gas clouds along their way, the electron population of the expanding lobes evolves, emitting synchrotron light, as well as inverse-Compton radiation via up-scattering of the photon fields from the host galaxy and its active nucleus. The model, which successfully reproduces the key features of the GPS radio sources as a class, provides a description of the evolution of their spectral energy distribution (SED) with the lobes' expansion, predicting significant and complex X-ray to gamma-ray emission. We apply here the model to the broad-band SED's of a sample of known, X-ray emitting GPS galaxies, and show that: (i) the free-free absorption mechanism enables us to reproduce the radio continuum at frequencies below the turnover; (ii) the lobes' non-thermal, inverse-Compton emission can account for the observed X-ray spectra, providing a viable alternative to the thermal, accretion-dominated scenario. We also show that, in our sample, the relationship between the X-ray and radio hydrogen column densitities, N_H and N_HI, is suggestive of a positive correlation, which, if confirmed, would support the scenario of high-energy emitting lobes.

  1. Broad-Enrich: functional interpretation of large sets of broad genomic regions

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcante, Raymond G.; Lee, Chee; Welch, Ryan P.; Patil, Snehal; Weymouth, Terry; Scott, Laura J.; Sartor, Maureen A.

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: Functional enrichment testing facilitates the interpretation of Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) data in terms of pathways and other biological contexts. Previous methods developed and used to test for key gene sets affected in ChIP-seq experiments treat peaks as points, and are based on the number of peaks associated with a gene or a binary score for each gene. These approaches work well for transcription factors, but histone modifications often occur over broad domains, and across multiple genes. Results: To incorporate the unique properties of broad domains into functional enrichment testing, we developed Broad-Enrich, a method that uses the proportion of each gene’s locus covered by a peak. We show that our method has a well-calibrated false-positive rate, performing well with ChIP-seq data having broad domains compared with alternative approaches. We illustrate Broad-Enrich with 55 ENCODE ChIP-seq datasets using different methods to define gene loci. Broad-Enrich can also be applied to other datasets consisting of broad genomic domains such as copy number variations. Availability and implementation: http://broad-enrich.med.umich.edu for Web version and R package. Contact: sartorma@umich.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25161225

  2. ARMY RESEARCH OFFICE BROAD AGENCY ANNOUNCEMENT

    E-print Network

    Rock, Chris

    ARMY RESEARCH OFFICE BROAD AGENCY ANNOUNCEMENT FOR BASIC AND APPLIED SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH W911NF-12-R-0012 15 May 2012 ­ 31 March 2017 ISSUED BY: U.S. Army Contracting Command-Aberdeen Proving Ground.................................................................................................... 7 1. ARMY RESEARCH OFFICE (ARO

  3. Lightweight, broad-band spectrum analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crook, G. M.

    1972-01-01

    Spectrum analyzer, utilizing techniques similar to those used to classify energy levels of nuclear particles, is incorporated into electric field detector. Primary advantage is ability to perform qualitative broad-band frequency analysis over a large dynamic amplitude range with minimum weight and electrical power requirements.

  4. Complex patterns of protease inhibitor resistance among antiretroviral treatment-experienced HIV-2 patients from Senegal: implications for second-line therapy.

    PubMed

    Raugi, Dana N; Smith, Robert A; Ba, Selly; Toure, Macoumba; Traore, Fatou; Sall, Fatima; Pan, Charlotte; Blankenship, Lindsey; Montano, Alexandra; Olson, Julia; Dia Badiane, Ndeye Mery; Mullins, James I; Kiviat, Nancy B; Hawes, Stephen E; Sow, Papa Salif; Gottlieb, Geoffrey S

    2013-06-01

    Protease inhibitor (PI)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) can effectively suppress HIV-2 plasma load and increase CD4 counts; however, not all PIs are equally active against HIV-2, and few data exist to support second-line therapy decisions. To identify therapeutic options for HIV-2 patients failing ART, we evaluated the frequency of PI resistance-associated amino acid changes in HIV-2 sequences from a cohort of 43 Senegalese individuals receiving unboosted indinavir (n = 18 subjects)-, lopinavir/ritonavir (n = 4)-, or indinavir and then lopinavir/ritonavir (n = 21)-containing ART. Common protease substitutions included V10I, V47A, I54M, V71I, I82F, I84V, L90M, and L99F, and most patients harbored viruses containing multiple changes. Based on genotypic data, we constructed a panel of 15 site-directed mutants of HIV-2ROD9 containing single- or multiple-treatment-associated amino acid changes in the protease-encoding region of pol. We then quantified the susceptibilities of the mutants to the HIV-2 "active" PIs saquinavir, lopinavir, and darunavir using a single-cycle assay. Relative to wild-type HIV-2, the V47A mutant was resistant to lopinavir (6.3-fold increase in the mean 50% effective concentration [EC50]), the I54M variant was resistant to darunavir and lopinavir (6.2- and 2.7-fold increases, respectively), and the L90M mutant was resistant to saquinavir (3.6-fold increase). In addition, the triple mutant that included I54M plus I84V plus L90M was resistant to all three PIs (31-, 10-, and 3.8-fold increases in the mean EC50 for darunavir, saquinavir, and lopinavir, respectively). Taken together, our data demonstrate that PI-treated HIV-2 patients frequently harbor viruses that exhibit complex patterns of PI cross-resistance. These findings suggest that sequential PI-based regimens for HIV-2 treatment may be ineffective. PMID:23571535

  5. Molecular cytogenetic analysis of breast cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, J M; Gorringe, K L; Chin, S-F; Orsetti, B; Besret, C; Courtay-Cahen, C; Roberts, I; Theillet, C; Caldas, C; Edwards, P A W

    2000-01-01

    The extensive chromosome rearrangements of breast carcinomas must contribute to tumour development, but have been largely intractable to classical cytogenetic banding. We report here the analysis by 24-colour karyotyping and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) of 19 breast carcinoma cell lines and one normal breast epithelial cell line, which provide model examples of karyotype patterns and translocations present in breast carcinomas. The CGH was compared with CGH of 106 primary breast cancers. The lines varied from perfectly diploid to highly aneuploid. Translocations were very varied and over 98% were unbalanced. The most frequent in the carcinomas were 8;11 in five lines; and 8;17, 1;4 and 1;10 in four lines. The most frequently involved chromosome was 8. Several lines showed complex multiply-translocated chromosomes. The very aneuploid karyotypes appeared to fall into two groups that evolved by different routes: one that steadily lost chromosomes and at one point doubled their entire karyotype; and another that steadily gained chromosomes, together with abnormalities. All karyotypes fell within the range seen in fresh material and CGH confirmed that the lines were broadly representative of fresh tumours. The karyotypes provide a resource for the cataloguing and analysis of translocations in these tumours, accessible at http://www.path.cam.ac.uk/~pawefish. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:11044355

  6. Insights into the composition and assembly of the membrane arm of plant complex I through analysis of subcomplexes in Arabidopsis mutant lines.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Etienne H; Solheim, Cory; Tanz, Sandra K; Bonnard, Géraldine; Millar, A Harvey

    2011-07-22

    NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I, EC 1.6.5.3) is the largest complex of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. In eukaryotes, it is composed of more than 40 subunits that are encoded by both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Plant Complex I differs from the enzyme described in other eukaryotes, most notably due to the large number of plant-specific subunits in the membrane arm of the complex. The elucidation of the assembly pathway of Complex I has been a long-standing research aim in cellular biochemistry. We report the study of Arabidopsis mutants in Complex I subunits using a combination of Blue-Native PAGE and immunodetection to identify stable subcomplexes containing Complex I components, along with mass spectrometry analysis of Complex I components in membrane fractions and two-dimensional diagonal Tricine SDS-PAGE to study the composition of the largest subcomplex. Four subcomplexes of the membrane arm of Complex I with apparent molecular masses of 200, 400, 450, and 650 kDa were observed. We propose a working model for the assembly of the membrane arm of Complex I in plants and assign putative roles during the assembly process for two of the subunits studied. PMID:21606486

  7. Flat field concave holographic grating with broad spectral region and moderately high resolution.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian Fen; Chen, Yong Yan; Wang, Tai Sheng

    2012-02-01

    In order to deal with the conflicts between broad spectral region and high resolution in compact spectrometers based on a flat field concave holographic grating and line array CCD, we present a simple and practical method to design a flat field concave holographic grating that is capable of imaging a broad spectral region at a moderately high resolution. First, we discuss the principle of realizing a broad spectral region and moderately high resolution. Second, we provide the practical method to realize our ideas, in which Namioka grating theory, a genetic algorithm, and ZEMAX are used to reach this purpose. Finally, a near-normal-incidence example modeled in ZEMAX is shown to verify our ideas. The results show that our work probably has a general applicability in compact spectrometers with a broad spectral region and moderately high resolution. PMID:22307123

  8. Measurement of Broad Absorption Features Using a Tunable External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Mark C.; Myers, Tanya L.; Wojcik, Michael D.; Cannon, Bret D.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Scott, David C.

    2007-09-25

    We demonstrate the use of a tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser system for measurement of broad absorption features in the mid-infrared spectral region. The thermoelectrically cooled external cavity laser was tuned over a 65 cm-1 range centered at 8.7 microns using stepper motor control. Pulsing the laser at a high duty cycle provided 3-5 mW average output power over the tuning range, and enabled phase-sensitive detection of amplitude-modulated signals. We used the laser system to measure the absorption spectra of Freon-125 using a Herriott cell. In addition, the absorption spectrum of water in the laboratory air was measured. The measurements showed excellent agreement with reference spectra, in both wavelength and amplitude. The measured scan resolution of 0.14 cm-1 is suitable for measurement of the absorption features of complex molecules as well as simple molecules with atmospherically broadened lines. We discuss the limits to the scan resolution due to effects of spectral chirp and mode-hops during pulsed operation.

  9. Broad-Band Diode Phase Shifters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. V. Garver

    1972-01-01

    Design figures are presented for four types of diode phase shifters: switched line, reflection, loaded line, and a new type using lumped-element high-pass and low-pass circuits. Comparison of their bandwidths shows that most of them can work over an octave bandwidth.

  10. Broad-spectrum antivirals against viral fusion.

    PubMed

    Vigant, Frederic; Santos, Nuno C; Lee, Benhur

    2015-07-01

    Effective antivirals have been developed against specific viruses, such as HIV, Hepatitis C virus and influenza virus. This 'one bug-one drug' approach to antiviral drug development can be successful, but it may be inadequate for responding to an increasing diversity of viruses that cause significant diseases in humans. The majority of viral pathogens that cause emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases are membrane-enveloped viruses, which require the fusion of viral and cell membranes for virus entry. Therefore, antivirals that target the membrane fusion process represent new paradigms for broad-spectrum antiviral discovery. In this Review, we discuss the mechanisms responsible for the fusion between virus and cell membranes and explore how broad-spectrum antivirals target this process to prevent virus entry. PMID:26075364

  11. THE BREEDING BIOLOGY OF BROAD-WINGED

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SCOTT T. CROGOLL; JAMES W. PARKER

    Nesting Red-shouldered (Buteo lineatus; RSH) and Broad-winged Hawks (Buteo platypterus; BWH) were studied in 1978-1980 in Chautauqua County, New York. Both species nested predominantly in upland maple-beech-hemlock associations. Six of 18 BWH nests were in larch (Larix decidua); 7 of 18 RSH nests were in American beech (Fagus grandifolia). BWH nested closer to woodland openings and lower in a tree

  12. Terminals for Broad-band Office Communications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MANFRED TASTO

    1986-01-01

    The influence of broad-band communication networks on the evolution of office communication terminals is considered. Three trends are predicted:bulletthe evolution of presently existing dedicated terminals towards higher speed and more sophisticated functionality;bulletthe push of multifunctional workstations allowing simultaneous operation in several modes of communication, such as voice, data, text, facsimile, and graphics;bulletthe occurrence of new communication services relating to video

  13. Passive Broad-Spectrum Influenza Immunoprophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Cassandra M.; Penhale, William J.; Sangster, Mark Y.

    2014-01-01

    Influenza is a perennial problem affecting millions of people annually with the everpresent threat of devastating pandemics. Active prophylaxis by vaccination against influenza virus is currently the main countermeasure supplemented with antivirals. However, disadvantages of this strategy include the impact of antigenic drift, necessitating constant updating of vaccine strain composition, and emerging antiviral drug resistance. The development of other options for influenza prophylaxis, particularly with broad acting agents able to provide protection in the period between the onset of a pandemic and the development of a strain specific vaccine, is of great interest. Exploitation of broad-spectrum mediators could provide barricade protection in the early critical phase of influenza virus outbreaks. Passive immunity has the potential to provide immediate antiviral effects, inhibiting virus replication, reducing virus shedding, and thereby protecting vulnerable populations in the event of an impending influenza pandemic. Here, we review passive broad-spectrum influenza prophylaxis options with a focus on harnessing natural host defenses, including interferons and antibodies. PMID:25328697

  14. Accretion Disk Line Emission in AGN: A Devil's Advocacy

    E-print Network

    J. W. Sulentic; P. Marziani; D. Dultzin-Hacyan

    1998-08-17

    We review the evidence for AGN optical and X-ray broad line emission from an accretion disk. We argue that there is little, if any, statistical evidence to support this assertion. The inconsistency is strongest for the rare class of Balmer profiles that show double peaks. The line profiles predicted by a simple illuminated disk model are often incompatible with the observations. We suggest that the Fe Kalpha line in Seyfert 1 galaxies, where a broad line is most often and most strongly detected, is actually a composite of two lines both with Gaussian profiles; one narrow/unshifted and the other broad/redshifted.

  15. Complex dynamics of 1.3.5-trimethylbenzene-2.4.6-D3 studied by proton spin-lattice NMR relaxation and second moment of NMR line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho?derna-Natkaniec, K.; Latanowicz, L.; Medycki, W.; ?wiergiel, J.; Natkaniec, I.

    2015-02-01

    Molecular dynamics of a solid 1.3.5-trimethylbenzene-2.4.6-D3 in phase I is studied on the basis of the proton T1 (24.7 MHz and 15 MHz) relaxation time measurements and the proton second moment of NMR line, M2. The measurements of the T1 were performed for temperatures from 20 to 167 K, while those of the second moment M2 from 23 to 220 K. The phase I was accurately prepared. The obtained second moment, M2 values were correlated with those based on T1 relaxation time measurements. The proton spin pairs of the methyl groups perform a complex motion being a resultant of two components characterized by the correlation times ?3T and ?3H, referring to the tunneling and over the barrier jumps in a triple potential. For ?3H the Arrhenius temperature dependence was assumed, while for ?3T - the Schrödinger one. The jumps over the barrier causes a minimum in T1 (24.7 MHz) at temperature about 35 K. The high temperatures slope of this minimum permits evaluation of the activation energy as EH=2.0 kJ/mol. The relaxation time T1 is temperature independent in the lowest temperature regime. This indicates that tunnelling correlation time assumes a constant value of about 1.3·10-10 s according to the Schrödinger equation (?3T ? ?03T e B?{EH } at lowest temperatures). The tunneling jumps of methyl protons reduce M2 from the rigid lattice value 22.6 G2 to the value 5.7 G2 at zero Kelvin temperature. The second reduction to the value 1.41 G2 at 4.5-7 K is due to C3 jumps over the barrier. According to the Schrödinger equation the tunnelling jumps ceases above Ttun temperature where the thermal energy is equal to the activation energy. The Ttun equals 43.8 K (from T1 data fit, EH=2.0 kJ/mol) or 35 K (from M2 data fit, EH=1.47 kJ/mol). The second moment assumes again the value 5.7 G2 above Ttun temperature. The tunneling splitting, ?T, was estimated equal 2.47 GHz as best fit parameter from the T1 fit. The symmetrical T1 minimum indicates the same value of ?T for the all methyl groups. This frequency is in good agreement with the value of ?T (??T=10.2 ?eV, tunnel splitting energy) obtained from the neutron powder scattering method. This high tunneling splitting is responsible for the long and Larmor frequency independent of T1 relaxation time. The presented results are compared to those of Köksal et al.

  16. Broad band crossed-beam Raman amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Bobbs, B.L.; Goldstone, J.A.

    1990-05-01

    This patent describes a crossed-beam Raman amplifier. It has an input pump beam and a Stokes seed beam introduced into a Raman cell at wide angles providing a crossed-beam geometry in which the pump beam has pump lines each angle-tuned at a phase matching angle relative to a Stokes seed line, whereby the ratio of amplification to cell length is maximized.

  17. Broad resonances and beta-decay

    E-print Network

    Riisager, K; Hyldegaard, S; Jensen, A S

    2015-01-01

    Beta-decay into broad resonances gives a distorted lineshape in the observed energy spectrum. Part of the distortion arises from the phase space factor, but we show that the beta-decay matrix element may also contribute. Based on a schematic model for p-wave continuum neutron states it is argued that beta-decay directly to the continuum should be considered as a possible contributing mechanism in many decays close to the driplines. The signatures in R-matrix fits for such decays directly to continuum states are discussed and illustrated through an analysis of the beta-decay of $^8$B into $2^+$ states in $^8$Be.

  18. Torque detected broad band electron spin resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Hallak, Fadi; van Slageren, Joris; Dressel, Martin

    2010-09-01

    We present a novel technique to measure high frequency electron spin resonance spectra in a broad frequency range (30-1440 GHz) with high sensitivity. We use a quasioptical setup with tunable frequency sources to induce magnetic resonance transitions. These transitions are detected by measuring the change in the magnetic torque signal by means of cantilever torque magnetometry. The setup allows tuning of the frequency, magnetic field, polarization, and the angle between the sample and the external magnetic field. We demonstrate the capabilities of this technique by showing preliminary results obtained on a single crystal of an Fe4 molecular nanomagnet.

  19. Broad-band acoustic Doppler current profiler

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cobb, E.D.

    1993-01-01

    The broad-band acoustic Doppler current profiler is an instrument that determines velocity based on the Doppler principle by reflecting acoustic signals off sediment particles in the water. The instrument is capable of measuring velocity magnitude and direction throughout a water column and of measuring water depth. It is also capable of bottom tracking and can, therefore, keep track of its own relative position as it is moved across a channel. Discharge measurements can be made quickly and, based on limited tests, accurately with this instrument. ?? 1993.

  20. Broad resonances and beta-decay

    E-print Network

    K. Riisager; H. O. U. Fynbo; S. Hyldegaard; A. S. Jensen

    2015-03-19

    Beta-decay into broad resonances gives a distorted lineshape in the observed energy spectrum. Part of the distortion arises from the phase space factor, but we show that the beta-decay matrix element may also contribute. Based on a schematic model for p-wave continuum neutron states it is argued that beta-decay directly to the continuum should be considered as a possible contributing mechanism in many decays close to the driplines. The signatures in R-matrix fits for such decays directly to continuum states are discussed and illustrated through an analysis of the beta-decay of $^8$B into $2^+$ states in $^8$Be.

  1. BroadPeak: a novel algorithm for identifying broad peaks in dif-fuse ChIP-seq datasets

    E-print Network

    Jordan, King

    1 BroadPeak: a novel algorithm for identifying broad peaks in dif- fuse ChIP-seq datasets JianrongIP-seq datasets. We show that BroadPeak is a linear time algorithm that requires only two parame- ters, and we validate its performance on real and simulated histone modification ChIP-seq datasets. BroadPeak calls

  2. Broad NE 8 lambda 774 emission from quasars in the HST-FOS snapshot survey (ABSNAP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, Fred; Zuo, Lin; Tytler, David

    1995-05-01

    We discuss the strength and frequency of broad Ne VIII lambda 774 emission from quasars measured in the Hubble Space Telescope Faint Object Spectrograph (HST-FOS) snapshot survey (Absnap). Five sources in the survey have suitable redshifts (0.86 less than or equal to Zem less than or equal to 1.31), signal-to-noise ratios and no Lyman limit absorptions. Three of the five sources have a strong broad emission line near 774 A (rest), and the remaining two sources have a less securely measured line near this wavelength. We identify these lines with Ne VIII lambda 774 based on the measured wavelengths and theoretical estimates of various line fluxes (Hamann et al. 1995a). Secure Ne VIII detections occur in both radio-loud and radio-quiet sources. We tentatively conclude that broad Ne VIII lambda 774 emission is common in quasars, with typical strengths between approximately 25% and approximately 200% of O VI lambda 1034. These Ne VIII lambda 774 measurements imply that the broad emission line regions have a much hotter and more highly ionized component than previously recognized. They also suggest that quasar continua have substantial ionizing flux out to energies greater than 207 eV (greater than 15.2 ryd, lambda less than 60 A). Photoionization calculations using standard incident spectra indicate that the Ne VIII emission requires ionization parameters U greater than or = 5, total column densities NH greater than or = 1022/sq cm and covering factors greater than or = 25%. The temperatures could be as high as approximately 105 K. If the gas is instead collisionally ionized, strong Ne VIII would imply equilibrium temperatures in the range approximately 400,000 less than or approximately = Te less than or approximately = 106 K. In either case, the highly ionized Ne VIII emission regions would appear as X-ray 'warm absorbers' if they lie along our line of sight to the X-ray continuum source.

  3. Off-line combination of reversed-phase liquid chromatography and laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry with seamless post-source decay fragment ion analysis for characterization of square-planar nickel(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Rehulka, Pavel; Popkov, Alexander; Nádvorník, Milan; Planeta, Josef; Mazanec, Karel; Chmelík, Josef

    2006-04-01

    Characterization of square-planar nickel(II) complexes of the Schiff base of (S)-N-benzylproline (2-benzoylphenyl)amide and various amino acids that are used as efficient alpha-amino acids synthons was carried out using laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LDI-TOF MS) in off-line combination with liquid chromatography. A mixture of four square-planar nickel(II) complexes was separated using reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) and the separated fractions from the chromatographic run were spotted on the metal target directly from the column outlet using a lab-made sample deposition device. The separated fractions were then analyzed by LDI-TOF MS. Seamless postsource decay (sPSD) fragment ion analysis was used for their structural characterization, which made possible the confirmation of expected chemical structures of the analyzed compounds. The off-line combination of the separation by RPLC and analysis by LDI-TOF MS allowed successful separation, sensitive detection and structure elucidation of the square-planar nickel(II) complexes. PMID:16453277

  4. Stereospecific ligands and their complexes. Part XII. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro antiproliferative activity of platinum(IV) complexes with some O,O?-dialkyl esters of (S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N?-di-2-propanoic acid against colon cancer (HCT-116) and breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojkovi?, Danijela Lj.; Jevti?, Verica V.; Radi?, Gordana P.; ?a?i?, Dragana S.; ?ur?i?, Milena G.; Markovi?, Snežana D.; Ðinovi?, Vesna M.; Petrovi?, Vladimir P.; Trifunovi?, Sre?ko R.

    2014-03-01

    Synthesis of three new platinum(IV) complexes C1-C3, with bidentate N,N?-ligand precursors, O,O?-dialkyl esters (alkyl = propyl, butyl and pentyl), of (S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N?-di-2-propanoic acid, H2-S,S-eddp were reported. The reported platinum(IV) complexes characterized by elemental analysis and their structures were discussed on the bases of their infrared, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. In vitro antiproliferative activity was determined on tumor cell lines: human colon carcinoma HCT-116 and human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231, using MTT test.

  5. Broad-spectrum resistance of Arabidopsis C24 to downy mildew is mediated by different combinations of isolate-specific loci.

    PubMed

    Lapin, Dmitry; Meyer, Rhonda C; Takahashi, Hideki; Bechtold, Ulrike; Van den Ackerveken, Guido

    2012-12-01

    Most natural Arabidopsis thaliana accessions are susceptible to one or more isolates of the downy mildew pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa). However, Arabidopsis C24 has proved resistant to all Hpa isolates tested so far. Here we describe the complex genetic basis of broad-spectrum resistance in C24. The genetics of C24 resistance to three Hpa isolates was analyzed by segregation analysis and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping on recombinant inbred and introgression lines. Resistance of C24 to downy mildew was found to be a multigenic trait with complex inheritance. Many identified resistance loci were isolate-specific and located on different chromosomes. Among the C24 resistance QTLs, we found dominant, codominant and recessive loci. Interestingly, none of the identified loci significantly contributed to resistance against all three tested Hpa isolates. Our study demonstrates that broad-spectrum resistance of Arabidopsis C24 to Hpa is based on different combinations of multiple isolate-specific loci. The identified quantitative resistance loci are particularly promising as they provide an important basis for the cloning of susceptibility- and immunity-related genes. PMID:23025493

  6. Coxsackie B and adenovirus receptor, integrin and major histocompatibility complex class I expression in human prostate cancer cell lines: implications for gene therapy strategies.

    PubMed

    Pandha, H S; Stockwin, L H; Eaton, J; Clarke, I A; Dalgleish, A G; Todryk, S M; Blair, G E

    2003-01-01

    Gene therapy strategies based on modifying tumour cells using high efficiency adenoviral vectors have shown promise in the clinic. Recently the Coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) has been shown to mediate adenoviral entry into tumour cells, although previous studies also suggested a role for MHC class I heavy chain. Detailed evaluation of the expression of both CAR and MHC class I in prostate cancer cell lines would have important implications for therapeutic strategies. We have found that, unlike cell lines derived from other malignancies, in human and murine prostate cancer loss of CAR expression appears to be relatively infrequent and does not correlate with loss of MHC class I expression. These findings, together with the demonstration of appreciable levels of cell-surface expression of integrins, suggest that cancer vaccine strategies based on modifying whole prostate cancer cells should be feasible using the current generation of recombinant adenoviral vectors, without deleterious effects on either the virus vector or the target cell. PMID:12664058

  7. Broadly neutralizing antibodies against influenza viruses

    PubMed Central

    Laursen, Nick S.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite available antivirals and vaccines, influenza infections continue to be a major cause of mortality worldwide. Vaccination generally induces an effective, but strain-specific antibody response. As the virus continually evolves, new vaccines have to be administered almost annually when a novel strain becomes dominant. Furthermore, the sporadic emerging resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors among circulating strains suggests an urgent need for new therapeutic agents. Recently, several cross-reactive antibodies have been described, which neutralize an unprecedented spectrum of influenza viruses. These broadly neutralizing antibodies generally target conserved functional regions on the major influenza surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA). The characterization of their neutralization breadth and epitopes on HA could stimulate the development of new antibody-based antivirals and broader influenza vaccines. PMID:23583287

  8. Ptychography with broad-bandwidth radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enders, B.; Dierolf, M.; Cloetens, P.; Stockmar, M.; Pfeiffer, F.; Thibault, P.

    2014-04-01

    Ptychography, a scanning Coherent Diffractive Imaging (CDI) technique, has quickly gained momentum as a robust method to deliver quantitative images of extended specimens. A current conundrum for the development of X-ray CDI is the conflict between a need for higher flux to reach higher resolutions and the requirement to strongly filter the incident beam to satisfy the tight coherence prerequisite of the technique. Latest developments in algorithmic treatment of ptychographic data indicate that the technique is more robust than initially assumed, so that some experimental limitations can be substantially relaxed. Here, we demonstrate that ptychography can be conducted in conditions that were up to now considered insufficient, using a broad-bandwidth X-ray beam and an integrating scintillator-based detector. Our work shows the wide applicability of ptychography and paves the way to high-throughput, high-flux diffractive imaging.

  9. Broad-Spectrum Transgenic Resistance against Distinct Tospovirus Species at the Genus Level

    PubMed Central

    Raja, Joseph A. J.; Yang, Ching-Fu; Chien, Wan-Chu; Lin, Chen-Hsuan; Liu, Fang-Lin; Wu, Hui-Wen; Yeh, Shyi-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Thrips-borne tospoviruses cause severe damage to crops worldwide. In this investigation, tobacco lines transgenic for individual WLm constructs containing the conserved motifs of the L RNA-encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L) gene of Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV) were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The WLm constructs included: (i) translatable WLm in a sense orientation; (ii) untranslatable WLmt with two stop codons; (iii) untranslatable WLmts with stop codons and a frame-shift; (iv) untranslatable antisense WLmA; and (v) WLmhp with an untranslatable inverted repeat of WLm containing the tospoviral S RNA 3?-terminal consensus sequence (5?-ATTGCTCT-3?) and an NcoI site as a linker to generate a double-stranded hairpin transcript. A total of 46.7–70.0% transgenic tobacco lines derived from individual constructs showed resistance to the homologous WSMoV; 35.7–100% plants of these different WSMoV-resistant lines exhibited broad-spectrum resistance against four other serologically unrelated tospoviruses Tomato spotted wilt virus, Groundnut yellow spot virus, Impatiens necrotic spot virus and Groundnut chlorotic fan-spot virus. The selected transgenic tobacco lines also exhibited broad-spectrum resistance against five additional tospoviruses from WSMoV and Iris yellow spot virus clades, but not against RNA viruses from other genera. Northern analyses indicated that the broad-spectrum resistance is mediated by RNA silencing. To validate the L conserved region resistance in vegetable crops, the constructs were also used to generate transgenic tomato lines, which also showed effective resistance against WSMoV and other tospoviruses. Thus, our approach of using the conserved motifs of tospoviral L gene as a transgene generates broad-spectrum resistance against tospoviruses at the genus level. PMID:24811071

  10. IMMUNOLOGY, HEALTH, AND DISEASE Immune Response to a Killed Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Vaccine in Inbred Chicken Lines with Different Major Histocompatibility Complex Haplotypes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. R. Juul-Madsen; T. S. Dalgaard; C. M. Røntved; K. H. Jensen; N. Bumstead

    The influence of MHC on antibody re- sponses to killed infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) vaccine was investigated in several MHC inbred chicken lines. We found a notable MHC haplotype effect on the specific antibody response against IBDV as measured by ELISA. Some MHC haplotypes were high responders (B201,B4, andBR5), whereas other MHC haplotypes were low responders (B19, B12 and

  11. Predicting spectral features in galaxy spectra from broad-band photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalla, F. B.; Mateus, A.; Santos, W. A.; Sodrè, L., Jr.; Ferreras, I.; Lahav, O.

    2008-07-01

    We explore the prospects of predicting emission-line features present in galaxy spectra given broad-band photometry alone. There is a general consent that colours, and spectral features, most notably the 4000 Å break, can predict many properties of galaxies, including star formation rates and hence they could infer some of the line properties. We argue that these techniques have great prospects in helping us understand line emission in extragalactic objects and might speed up future galaxy redshift surveys if they are to target emission-line objects only. We use two independent methods, Artificial Neural Networks (based on the ANNz code) and Locally Weighted Regression (LWR), to retrieve correlations present in the colour N-dimensional space and to predict the equivalent widths present in the corresponding spectra. We also investigate how well it is possible to separate galaxies with and without lines from broad-band photometry only. We find, unsurprisingly, that recombination lines can be well predicted by galaxy colours. However, among collisional lines some can and some cannot be predicted well from galaxy colours alone, without any further redshift information. We also use our techniques to estimate how much information contained in spectral diagnostic diagrams can be recovered from broad-band photometry alone. We find that it is possible to classify active galactic nuclei and star formation objects relatively well using colours only. We suggest that this technique could be used to considerably improve redshift surveys such as the upcoming Fibre Multi Object Spectrograph (FMOS) survey and the planned Wide Field Multi Object Spectrograph (WFMOS) survey.

  12. Modulation of keratin 1, 10 and involucrin expression as part of the complex response of the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT to ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Moravcová, Martina; Libra, Antonín; Dvo?áková, Jana; Víšková, Alena; Muthný, Tomáš; Velebný, Vladimír; Kubala, Lukáš

    2013-12-01

    Skin exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light evokes a complex stress response in keratinocytes. Keratin filament organization provides structural stability and mechanical integrity of keratinocytes. Involucrin is a transglutaminase substrate protein contributing to the formation of insoluble cornified envelopes. However, a more complex role for keratins and involucrin has been proposed, including the regulation of cell stress response. The aim was to evaluate modulations of keratin 1, 10 and involucrin expression in HaCaT in the light of the complex response of these cells to UV-B radiation, including effects on c-Jun and matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1) gene expression and production of interleukin (IL) 6 and 8. A UV-B (300±5 nm) dose of 10 mJ/cm(2) was selected since this dose resulted in a partial decrease in cell viability in contrast to higher UV-B doses, which induced complete cell death 48 h after treatment. The UV-B radiation induced significant expression of keratin 1 and 10 and decreased expression of involucrin. This was accompanied by increased expression of c-Jun and MMP-1 and IL-6 and IL-8 production. The data suggest that the expression of keratin 1, 10 and involucrin is modulated in HaCaT keratinocytes as a part of the complex stress response to UV radiation. PMID:24678259

  13. Modulation of keratin 1, 10 and involucrin expression as part of the complex response of the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT to ultraviolet radiation

    PubMed Central

    Moravcová, Martina; Libra, Antonín; Dvo?áková, Jana; Víšková, Alena; Muthný, Tomáš; Velebný, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Skin exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light evokes a complex stress response in keratinocytes. Keratin filament organization provides structural stability and mechanical integrity of keratinocytes. Involucrin is a transglutaminase substrate protein contributing to the formation of insoluble cornified envelopes. However, a more complex role for keratins and involucrin has been proposed, including the regulation of cell stress response. The aim was to evaluate modulations of keratin 1, 10 and involucrin expression in HaCaT in the light of the complex response of these cells to UV-B radiation, including effects on c-Jun and matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1) gene expression and production of interleukin (IL) 6 and 8. A UV-B (300±5 nm) dose of 10 mJ/cm2 was selected since this dose resulted in a partial decrease in cell viability in contrast to higher UV-B doses, which induced complete cell death 48 h after treatment. The UV-B radiation induced significant expression of keratin 1 and 10 and decreased expression of involucrin. This was accompanied by increased expression of c-Jun and MMP-1 and IL-6 and IL-8 production. The data suggest that the expression of keratin 1, 10 and involucrin is modulated in HaCaT keratinocytes as a part of the complex stress response to UV radiation. PMID:24678259

  14. Emission-line regions of quasars

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan, J.

    1984-01-01

    The emission spectra of quasars prominently consist of broad permitted and semiforbidden lines of full width at half-maximum. It has been suggested that the emission lines are produced by photoionization of surrounding gas by the strong central continuum. The power-law UV continuum not only provides a convenient energy source for the line emission, but also creates the wide range of observed high and low ionization species. Theoretical photoionization models have produced the observed line intensities. Two conditions make the photoionization models of the quasar emission-line clouds different from standard nebular calculations: the strong X-ray luminosity of the quasar, and the relatively high density of the quasar emission-line cloud. Among the proposed kinematic models of the broad line gas are the outflow of matter being accelerated by radiation pressure or by a hot wind, as well as ballistic outflow of matter, matter in circular orbits, and matter in parabolic orbits. 41 references.

  15. Building Details East Broad Top Railroad & Company, Water ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building Details - East Broad Top Railroad & Company, Water Tank at Coles Station, East Broad Top Railroad & Company (at Milepost 24.3), 0.5 miles east of Coles Valley Road, Saltillo, Huntingdon County, PA

  16. Details of the Water Spout Assembly East Broad Top ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Details of the Water Spout Assembly - East Broad Top Railroad & Company, Water Tank at Coles Station, East Broad Top Railroad & Company (at Milepost 24.3), 0.5 miles east of Coles Valley Road, Saltillo, Huntingdon County, PA

  17. WEST (ROADSIDE) ELEVATION OF STATION. East Broad Top Railroad, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST (ROADSIDE) ELEVATION OF STATION. - East Broad Top Railroad, Saltillo Station, Along the East Broad Top Railroad (at milepost 18.8) and PA Route 655 (South Main Street), Saltillo, Huntingdon County, PA

  18. EAST (TRACKSIDE) ELEVATION OF STATION. East Broad Top Railroad, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST (TRACKSIDE) ELEVATION OF STATION. - East Broad Top Railroad, Saltillo Station, Along the East Broad Top Railroad (at milepost 18.8) and PA Route 655 (South Main Street), Saltillo, Huntingdon County, PA

  19. Applications of broad class knowledge for noise robust speech recognition

    E-print Network

    Sainath, Tara N

    2009-01-01

    This thesis introduces a novel technique for noise robust speech recognition by first describing a speech signal through a set of broad speech units, and then conducting a more detailed analysis from these broad classes. ...

  20. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex for first and second line drugs by broth dilution in a microtiter plate format.

    PubMed

    Hall, Leslie; Jude, Kurt P; Clark, Shirley L; Wengenack, Nancy L

    2011-01-01

    The rapid detection of antimicrobial resistance is important in the effort to control the increase in resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of Mtb has traditionally been performed by the agar method of proportion or by macrobroth testing on an instrument such as the BACTEC (Becton Dickinson, Sparks, MD), VersaTREK (TREK Diagnostics, Cleveland, OH) or BacT/ALERT (bioMérieux, Hazelwood, MO). The agar proportion method, while considered the "gold" standard of AST, is labor intensive and requires calculation of resistance by performing colony counts on drug-containing agar as compared to drug-free agar. If there is ?1% growth on the drug-containing medium as compared to drug-free medium, the organism is considered resistant to that drug. The macrobroth methods require instrumentation and test break point ("critical") drug concentrations for the first line drugs (isoniazid, ethambutol, rifampin, and pyrazinamide). The method described here is commercially available in a 96 well microtiter plate format [MYCOTB (TREK Diagnostics)] and contains increasing concentrations of 12 antimicrobials used for treatment of tuberculosis including both first (isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol) and second line drugs (amikacin, cycloserine, ethionamide, kanamycin, moxifloxacin, ofloxacin, para-aminosalicylic acid, rifabutin, and streptomycin). Pyrazinamide, a first line drug, is not included in the microtiter plate due to its need for acidic test conditions. Advantages of the microtiter system include both ease of set up and faster turn around time (14 days) compared with traditional agar proportion (21 days). In addition, the plate can be set up from inoculum prepared using either broth or solid medium. Since the microtiter plate format is new and since Mtb presents unique safety challenges in the laboratory, this protocol will describe how to safely setup, incubate and read the microtiter plate. PMID:21730945

  1. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Complex for First and Second Line Drugs by Broth Dilution in a Microtiter Plate Format

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Leslie; Jude, Kurt P.; Clark, Shirley L.; Wengenack, Nancy L.

    2011-01-01

    The rapid detection of antimicrobial resistance is important in the effort to control the increase in resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of Mtb has traditionally been performed by the agar method of proportion or by macrobroth testing on an instrument such as the BACTEC (Becton Dickinson, Sparks, MD), VersaTREK (TREK Diagnostics, Cleveland, OH) or BacT/ALERT (bioMérieux, Hazelwood, MO). The agar proportion method, while considered the “gold” standard of AST, is labor intensive and requires calculation of resistance by performing colony counts on drug-containing agar as compared to drug-free agar. If there is ?1% growth on the drug-containing medium as compared to drug-free medium, the organism is considered resistant to that drug. The macrobroth methods require instrumentation and test break point ("critical") drug concentrations for the first line drugs (isoniazid, ethambutol, rifampin, and pyrazinamide). The method described here is commercially available in a 96 well microtiter plate format [MYCOTB (TREK Diagnostics)] and contains increasing concentrations of 12 antimicrobials used for treatment of tuberculosis including both first (isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol) and second line drugs (amikacin, cycloserine, ethionamide, kanamycin, moxifloxacin, ofloxacin, para-aminosalicylic acid, rifabutin, and streptomycin). Pyrazinamide, a first line drug, is not included in the microtiter plate due to its need for acidic test conditions. Advantages of the microtiter system include both ease of set up and faster turn around time (14 days) compared with traditional agar proportion (21 days). In addition, the plate can be set up from inoculum prepared using either broth or solid medium. Since the microtiter plate format is new and since Mtb presents unique safety challenges in the laboratory, this protocol will describe how to safely setup, incubate and read the microtiter plate. PMID:21730945

  2. Potentiation of a novel palladium (II) complex lethality with bee venom on the human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line (MOLT-4)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although honeybee venom (BV) has been reported to induce apoptosis in different types of cancerous cells, its synergistic effects with customary anti-cancer drugs remain largely unknown. In the present study, we evaluated the cytotoxic effect of BV alone (as a natural product) and the synergistic cytological effects of this component in combination with [Pd (bpy) (Pi-Pydtc)]NO3 – a novel palladium complex on human T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia cells. To investigate the cytotoxic effect of the BV alone and in combination with palladium complex on MOLT-4 cells MTT assay was performed. In order to determine the apoptotic effects of BV separately and in combination with Pd (II) complex on these cells and its ability to induce apoptosis, morphological examination, flowcytometric analysis and caspase-3 colorimetric assay were done. Results We found that BV induced morphological changes, namely nuclear shrinkage, and inhibited MOLT-4 cell proliferation; both effects were dose- and time-dependent. Flow cytometry by Annexin-V antibody demonstrated that BV induced apoptosis in MOLT-4 cells. Furthermore, BV induced apoptosis independently of caspase-3 in these cells. In addition, we proved a clear synergistic effect of BV on [Pd (bpy) (Pi-Pydtc)]NO3. The apoptotic pathway activated by BV in combination with Pd complex was caspase-3-dependent. Conclusions These observations provide an explanation for the anti-proliferative properties of BV, and suggest that this agent may be useful for treating lymphoblastic leukemia alone or in combination with chemotherapy drugs pending further investigations on animal models as preclinical tests. PMID:24090289

  3. Structure built for Merrimack Mill at 11 North Broad Place, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Structure built for Merrimack Mill at 11 North Broad Place, SW, originally for use at the first mill village school. It has been modified into a three-unit dwelling - 11 North Broad Place, Southwest (House), 11 North Broad Place, Southwest, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  4. Activity of a trinuclear platinum complex in human ovarian cancer cell lines sensitive and resistant to cisplatin: cytotoxicity and induction and gene-specific repair of DNA lesions

    PubMed Central

    Colella, G; Pennati, M; Bearzatto, A; Leone, R; Colangelo, D; Manzotti, C; Daidone, M G; Zaffaroni, N

    2001-01-01

    A collateral sensitivity or a very modest cross-resistance to BBR 3464 was found in 2 ovarian cancer cell lines with experimentally induced resistance to cisplatin. Loss of mismatch repair proteins (hMLH1, hPMS2) or overexpression of nucleotide excision repair proteins (ERCC1) was not detrimental for the cellular sensitivity to BBR 3464. Moreover, interesting differences in the kinetics of formation and removal of DNA lesions at the single-gene (N- ras) level were observed between BBR 3464 and CDDP. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign www.bjcancer.com PMID:11355952

  5. Toward an assembly line for U7 snRNPs: interactions of U7-specific Lsm proteins with PRMT5 and SMN complexes.

    PubMed

    Azzouz, Teldja N; Pillai, Ramesh S; Däpp, Christoph; Chari, Ashwin; Meister, Gunter; Kambach, Christian; Fischer, Utz; Schümperli, Daniel

    2005-10-14

    The survival of motor neurons (SMN) complex mediates the assembly of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) involved in splicing and histone RNA processing. A crucial step in this process is the binding of Sm proteins onto the SMN protein. For Sm B/B', D1, and D3, efficient binding to SMN depends on symmetrical dimethyl arginine (sDMA) modifications of their RG-rich tails. This methylation is achieved by another entity, the PRMT5 complex. Its pICln subunit binds Sm proteins whereas the PRMT5 subunit catalyzes the methylation reaction. Here, we provide evidence that Lsm10 and Lsm11, which replace the Sm proteins D1 and D2 in the histone RNA processing U7 snRNPs, associate with pICln in vitro and in vivo without receiving sDMA modifications. This implies that the PRMT5 complex is involved in an early stage of U7 snRNP assembly and hence may have a second snRNP assembly function unrelated to sDMA modification. We also show that the binding of Lsm10 and Lsm11 to SMN is independent of any methylation activity. Furthermore, we present evidence for two separate binding sites in SMN for Sm/Lsm proteins. One recognizes Sm domains and the second one, the sDMA-modified RG-tails, which are present only in a subset of these proteins. PMID:16087681

  6. On-line power system security analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NEAL BALU; TIMOTHY BERTRAM; A. Bose; V. Brandwajn; G. Cauley; D. Curtice; A. Fouad; L. Fink; M. G. Lauby; B. F. Wollenberg; J. N. Wrubel

    1992-01-01

    A broad overview of on-line power system security analysis is provided, with the intent of identifying areas needing additional research and development. Current approaches to state estimation are reviewed and areas needing improvement, such as external system modeling, are discussed. On-line contingency selection has become practical, particularly for static security. Additional work is necessary to identify better indices of power

  7. Multimode Broad-Band Patch Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanofsky, Robert R.

    2003-01-01

    Microstrip patch antennas of a proposed type would be tunable over broad wavelength ranges. These antennas would be attractive for use in a variety of microwave communication systems in which there are requirements for transmission and/or reception at multiple, widely separated frequencies. Prior efforts to construct tunable microstrip patch antennas have involved integration of microstrip circuitry with, variously, ferrite films with magneticfield tuning, solid-state electronic tuning devices, or piezoelectric tuning actuators. Those efforts have been somewhat successful, but have yielded tuning ranges of 20 percent and smaller much smaller than needed in typical practical cases. Like prior microstrip patch antennas (both tunable and non-tunable), the proposed antennas would have instantaneous bandwidths of about 1 percent of their nominal or resonance frequencies. However, these would be tunable over much broader frequency ranges as much as several octaves, depending on specific designs. They could be fabricated relatively simply and inexpensively by use of conventional photolithography, and without need for integration with solid-state electronic or piezoelectric control devices. An antenna as proposed (see figure) would include a microstrip patch radiating element on a thin ferroelectric film on a semiconductor substrate with a ground-plane conductor on the underside of the substrate. The ferroelectric film could be, for example, SrTiO3 with a thickness of the order of 1 or 2 micrometers.

  8. Broad Western Flows from Arsia Mons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    As we move futher away from the volcano, the western flows change in appearance. The flows are typically broad, and the surface texture is more subdued than the southern flows. At the bottom of the image a windstreak 'tail' has formed behind a crater. Other dark streaks indicate that strong westward blowing winds occur in this region.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -9.6, Longitude 227.6 East (132.4 West). 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  9. 975-nm high-power broad area diode lasers optimized for narrow spectral linewidth applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Crump; C. M. Schultz; A. Pietrzak; S. Knigge; O. Brox; A. Maaßdorf; F. Bugge; H. Wenzel; G. Erbert

    2010-01-01

    Many pumping and direct diode applications of high power diode lasers require sources that operate within a narrow (< 1nm) temperature stable spectral line. The natural linewidth of high power broad area lasers is too wide (4-5nm) and varies too quickly with temperature (0.3-0.4nm\\/K) for such applications. The spectrum can be narrowed by introducing gratings within the diode laser itself

  10. Cavity Enhanced Optical Vernier Spectroscopy, Broad Band, High Resolution, High Sensitivity

    E-print Network

    Gohle, Christoph; Schliesser, Albert; Udem, Thomas; Hänsch, Theodor W

    2007-01-01

    A femtosecond frequency comb provides a vast number of equidistantly spaced narrow band laser modes that can be simultaneously tuned and frequency calibrated with 15 digits accuracy. Our Vernier spectrometer utilizes all of theses modes in a massively parallel manner to rapidly record both absorption and dispersion spectra with a sensitivity that is provided by a high finesse broad band optical resonator and a resolution that is only limited by the frequency comb line width while keeping the required setup simple.

  11. Galactose as Broad Ligand for Multiple Tumor Imaging and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yuxiang; Chen, Haiyan; Su, Shanyuhan; Wang, Tong; Zhang, Congying; Fida, Guissi; Cui, Sisi; Zhao, Juan; Gu, Yueqing

    2015-01-01

    Galactose residues could be specifically recognized by the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) which is highly exhibited on liver tissues. However, ASGPR has not been widely investigated on different tumor cell lines except for hepatoma carcinoma cells, which motivates us to investigate the possibility of galactose serving as a board tumor ligand. In this study, a galactose (Gal)-based probe conjugated with fluorescence dye MPA (Gal-MPA) was constructed for the evaluation of tumor affinities/targeted ability on different tumor cell lines. In the vitro cell study, it was indicated that the fluorescence probe Gal-MPA displayed higher cell affinity to tumor cells (HepG2, MCF-7 and A549) than that of the normal liver cells l02. In the vivo dynamic study of Gal-MPA in tumor-bearing mice (HepG2, MCF-7, A549, HCT116, U87, MDA-MB-231 and S180), it was shown that its high tumor targeted ability with the maximal tumor/normal tissue ratio reached up to 6.8. Meanwhile, the fast tumor-targeted ability within 2 hours and long retention on tumor site up to 120 hours were observed. Our results demonstrated that galactose should be a promising broad ligand for multiple tumor imaging and targeted therapy. Subsequently, Gal was covalently conjugated to doxorubicin (DOX) to form prodrug Gal-DOX for tumor targeted therapy. The therapeutic results of Gal-DOX than DOX being better suggested that galactosylated prodrugs might have the prospective potential in tumor targeted therapy. PMID:26078797

  12. Two additive QTLs conferring broad-spectrum resistance in potato to Globodera pallida are localized on resistance gene clusters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Rouppe van der Voort; E. van der Vossen; E. Bakker; H. Overmars; P. van Zandvoort; R. Hutten; R. Klein Lankhorst; J. Bakker

    2000-01-01

    Broad-spectrum resistance in potato to the potato cyst nematode (PCN) is commonly regarded as a complex inherited trait. Yet,\\u000a in this paper we show that, by use of a selected set of PCN test populations, broad-spectrum resistance to the species Globodera pallida can be fully ascribed to the action of two loci: Gpa5 and Gpa6. These loci were readily mapped

  13. The inclusion complex of 4-hydroxynonenal with a polymeric derivative of ?-cyclodextrin enhances the antitumoral efficacy of the aldehyde in several tumor cell lines and in a three-dimensional human melanoma model.

    PubMed

    Pizzimenti, Stefania; Ciamporcero, Eric; Pettazzoni, Piergiorgio; Osella-Abate, Simona; Novelli, Mauro; Toaldo, Cristina; Husse, Miriam; Daga, Martina; Minelli, Rosalba; Bisazza, Agnese; Ferruti, Paolo; Ranucci, Elisabetta; Grazia Bernengo, Maria; Dianzani, Chiara; Biasi, Fiorella; Cavalli, Roberta; Barrera, Giuseppina

    2013-12-01

    4-Hydroxynonenal (HNE) is the most studied end product of the lipoperoxidation process, by virtue of its relevant biological activity. The antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects of HNE have been widely demonstrated in a great variety of tumor cell types in vitro. Thus, it might represent a promising new molecule in anticancer therapy strategies. However, the extreme reactivity of this aldehyde, as well as its insolubility in water, a limiting factor for drug bioavailability, and its rapid degradation by specific enzymes represent major obstacles to its possible in vivo application. Various strategies can used to overcome these problems. One of the most attractive strategies is the use of nanovehicles, because loading drugs into nanosized structures enhances their stability and solubility, thus improving their bioavailability and their antitumoral effectiveness. Several natural or synthetic polymers have been used to synthesize nanosized structures and, among them, ?-cyclodextrin (?CD) polymers are playing a very important role in drug formulation by virtue of the ability of ?CD to form inclusion compounds with a wide range of solid and liquid molecules by molecular complexation. Moreover, several ?CD derivatives have been designed to improve their physicochemical properties and inclusion capacities. Here we report that the inclusion complex of HNE with a derivative of ?CD, the ?CD-poly(4-acryloylmorpholine) conjugate (PACM-?CD), enhances the aldehyde stability. Moreover, the inclusion of HNE in PACM-?CD potentiates its antitumor effects in several tumor cell lines and in a more complex system, such as a human reconstructed skin carrying melanoma tumor cells. PMID:23811007

  14. Broad support evident for the emerging specialty of orofacial pain.

    PubMed

    Talley, R L; Fricton, J R; Okeson, J P

    2000-01-01

    The emerging field of Orofacial Pain is being considered by the American Dental Association for full status as a new dental specialty. Many recent advances in the neuroscience of orofacial pain have lead to treatments by orofacial pain dentists that provide significant relief for patients with chronic orofacial pain disorders. However, access to this care has been limited leaving many patients to continue to suffer. Subsequently, recent efforts to improve this by developing the field into a specialty have shown broad support among dentists and increased awareness of the benefits this field can provide for dentists and their patients. A recent survey of 805 individuals in the general population who reported having a persistent pain disorder revealed that more than four out of 10 people have yet to find adequate relief, saying their pain is out of control-despite having the pain for more than 5 years and switching doctors at least once. "This survey suggests that there are millions of people living with severe uncontrolled pain," says Russell Portenoy, MD, President of the American Pain Society. "This is a great tragedy. Although not everyone can be helped, it is very likely that most of these patients could benefit if provided with state-of-the-art therapies and improved access to pain specialists when needed." (1). Development of the field of Orofacial Pain into a dental specialty has been motivated primarily by this issue; patients with complex chronic orofacial pain disorders have not been historically treated well by any discipline of health care. Recent studies of chronic orofacial pain patients have found that these patients have a high number of previous clinicians and have endured many years with pain prior to seeing an orofacial pain dentist (2) (Fig. 1). Complex pain patients and the clinicians who see them are often confused about whom they should consult for relief of the painful disorder. Treatment for these patients within the existing structure of dental or medical specialties has been inadequate and millions of patients are left suffering. Insurers are also confused with regard to reimbursement and make decisions to exclude treatment for orofacial pain disorders under both dental and medical policies. However, Dentistry has taken a leading role in health care to address this national problem by developing the field of Orofacial Pain into a dental specialty. A study of dentists and dental specialists have shown that there is a recognized need and broad support for further development of this field into a new dental specialty(3). PMID:11314108

  15. Enhanced Methanol Production in Plants Provides Broad Spectrum Insect Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Sameer; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Singh, Harpal; Sidhu, Om Prakash; Verma, Praveen Chandra; K, Chandrashekar

    2013-01-01

    Plants naturally emit methanol as volatile organic compound. Methanol is toxic to insect pests; but the quantity produced by most of the plants is not enough to protect them against invading insect pests. In the present study, we demonstrated that the over-expression of pectin methylesterase, derived from Arabidopsis thaliana and Aspergillus niger, in transgenic tobacco plants enhances methanol production and resistance to polyphagous insect pests. Methanol content in the leaves of transgenic plants was measured using proton nuclear spectroscopy (1H NMR) and spectra showed up to 16 fold higher methanol as compared to control wild type (WT) plants. A maximum of 100 and 85% mortality in chewing insects Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura larvae was observed, respectively when fed on transgenic plants leaves. The surviving larvae showed less feeding, severe growth retardation and could not develop into pupae. In-planta bioassay on transgenic lines showed up to 99 and 75% reduction in the population multiplication of plant sap sucking pests Myzus persicae (aphid) and Bemisia tabaci (whitefly), respectively. Most of the phenotypic characters of transgenic plants were similar to WT plants. Confocal microscopy showed no deformities in cellular integrity, structure and density of stomata and trichomes of transgenic plants compared to WT. Pollen germination and tube formation was also not affected in transgenic plants. Cell wall enzyme transcript levels were comparable with WT. This study demonstrated for the first time that methanol emission can be utilized for imparting broad range insect resistance in plants. PMID:24223989

  16. Broadly sampled multigene trees of eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Our understanding of the eukaryotic tree of life and the tremendous diversity of microbial eukaryotes is in flux as additional genes and diverse taxa are sampled for molecular analyses. Despite instability in many analyses, there is an increasing trend to classify eukaryotic diversity into six major supergroups: the 'Amoebozoa', 'Chromalveolata', 'Excavata', 'Opisthokonta', 'Plantae', and 'Rhizaria'. Previous molecular analyses have often suffered from either a broad taxon sampling using only single-gene data or have used multigene data with a limited sample of taxa. This study has two major aims: (1) to place taxa represented by 72 sequences, 61 of which have not been characterized previously, onto a well-sampled multigene genealogy, and (2) to evaluate the support for the six putative supergroups using two taxon-rich data sets and a variety of phylogenetic approaches. Results The inferred trees reveal strong support for many clades that also have defining ultrastructural or molecular characters. In contrast, we find limited to no support for most of the putative supergroups as only the 'Opisthokonta' receive strong support in our analyses. The supergroup 'Amoebozoa' has only moderate support, whereas the 'Chromalveolata', 'Excavata', 'Plantae', and 'Rhizaria' receive very limited or no support. Conclusion Our analytical approach substantiates the power of increased taxon sampling in placing diverse eukaryotic lineages within well-supported clades. At the same time, this study indicates that the six supergroup hypothesis of higher-level eukaryotic classification is likely premature. The use of a taxon-rich data set with 105 lineages, which still includes only a small fraction of the diversity of microbial eukaryotes, fails to resolve deeper phylogenetic relationships and reveals no support for four of the six proposed supergroups. Our analyses provide a point of departure for future taxon- and gene-rich analyses of the eukaryotic tree of life, which will be critical for resolving their phylogenetic interrelationships. PMID:18205932

  17. Complexes of N-hydroxyethyl-N-benzimidazolylmethylethylenediaminediacetic acid with group 12 metals and vanadium-Synthesis, structure and bioactivity of the vanadium complex.

    PubMed

    Habala, Ladislav; Bartel, Caroline; Giester, Gerald; Jakupec, Michael A; Keppler, Bernhard K; Rompel, Annette

    2015-06-01

    Four new complexes of group 12 metals [Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II)], along with vanadyl bound to the ligand N-hydroxyethyl-N-benzimidazolylmethylethylenediaminediacetic acid, have been synthesized and characterized. The structure of the complexes with Zn(II), Hg(II) and V(IV) was determined by X-ray structural analysis. In all observed cases, the symmetry of these complexes was found to be distorted octahedral. The inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B by the vanadium(IV) complex was demonstrated. The cytotoxicity of the vanadium(IV) complex was tested in vitro against three cancer cell lines, with a comparison of the activity of the free ligand and of vanadyl acetylacetonate and sodium orthovanadate. The IC50 values of the complex were in the range of 9 to 21?M. Remarkably, cytotoxic potency in the multidrug-resistant non-small cell lung cancer cell line A549 was at least as high as in the broadly chemosensitive ovarian teratocarcinoma cell line CH1(PA-1). PMID:25920686

  18. Measure Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crissman, Sally

    2011-01-01

    One tool for enhancing students' work with data in the science classroom is the measure line. As a coteacher and curriculum developer for The Inquiry Project, the author has seen how measure lines--a number line in which the numbers refer to units of measure--help students not only represent data but also analyze it in ways that generate…

  19. Simultaneous and sensitive analysis of aliphatic carboxylic acids by ion-chromatography using on-line complexation with copper(II) ion.

    PubMed

    Kemmei, Tomoko; Kodama, Shuji; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Inoue, Yoshinori; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2015-01-01

    A new approach to ion chromatography is proposed to improve the UV detection of aliphatic carboxylic acids separated by anion-exchange chromatography. When copper(II) ion added to the mobile phase, it forms complexes with carboxylic acids that can be detected at 240 nm. The absorbance was found to increase with increasing copper(II) ion concentration. The retention times of ?-hydroxy acids were also found to depend on the copper(II) ion concentration. Addition of acetonitrile to the mobile phase improved the separation of aliphatic carboxylic acids. The detection limits of the examined carboxylic acids (formate, glycolate, acetate, lactate, propionate, 3-hydroxypropionate, n-butyrate, isobutyrate, n-valerate, isovalerate, n-caproate) calculated at S/N=3 ranged from 0.06 to 3 ?M. The detector signal was linear over three orders of magnitude of carboxylic acid concentration. The proposed method was successfully applied to analyze aliphatic carboxylic acids in rainwater and bread. PMID:25523885

  20. Broad helium emission in the galactic center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, D. N. B.; Kleinmann, S. G.; Scoville, N. Z.

    1982-01-01

    An infrared (K band) spectrum taken with a 3.8 arcsec-diameter aperture centered on the galactic center source IRS 16 exhibits weak CO band absorption and emission by hydrogen Brackett-gamma (Br gamma) and a singlet helium line near 4857/cm. The helium emission profile is much broader (FWHM about 1500 + or - 300 km/sec) than any feature seen previously at the galactic center. The broadening is probably due to Doppler motion of gas either flowing through an ionizing layer or orbiting about a massive object. The absence of hydrogen Br gamma emission with a similar profile suggests the galactic center H/He abundance ratio is reduced by a factor greater than about 500 from normal cosmic values.

  1. SIMULTANEOUS ULTRAVIOLET AND OPTICAL EMISSION-LINE PROFILES OF QUASARS: IMPLICATIONS FOR BLACK HOLE MASS DETERMINATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Luis C.; Dong Xiaobo [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Goldoni, Paolo; Ponti, Gabriele [Laboratoire Astroparticule et Cosmologie, 10 rue A. Domon et L. Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Greene, Jenny E. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Peyton Hall, Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2012-07-20

    The X-shooter instrument on the Very Large Telescope was used to obtain spectra of seven moderate-redshift quasars simultaneously covering the spectral range {approx}3000 A to 2.5 {mu}m. At z Almost-Equal-To 1.5, most of the prominent broad emission lines in the ultraviolet to optical region are captured in their rest frame. We use this unique data set, which mitigates complications from source variability, to intercompare the line profiles of C IV {lambda}1549, C III] {lambda}1909, Mg II {lambda}2800, and H{alpha} and evaluate their implications for black hole (BH) mass estimation. We confirm that Mg II and the Balmer lines share similar kinematics and that they deliver mutually consistent BH mass estimates with minimal internal scatter ({approx}<0.1 dex) using the latest virial mass estimators. Although no virial mass formalism has yet been calibrated for C III], this line does not appear promising for such an application because of the large spread of its velocity width compared to lines of both higher and lower ionization; part of the discrepancy may be due to the difficulty of deblending C III] from its neighboring lines. The situation for C IV is complex and, because of the limited statistics of our small sample, inconclusive. On the one hand, slightly more than half of our sample (4/7) have C IV line widths that correlate reasonably well with H{alpha} line widths, and their respective BH mass estimates agree to within {approx}0.15 dex. The rest, on the other hand, exhibit exceptionally broad C IV profiles that overestimate virial masses by factors of 2-5 compared to H{alpha}. As C IV is widely used to study BH demographics at high redshifts, we urgently need to revisit our analysis with a larger sample.

  2. Treating glabellar lines with botulinum toxin type A-hemagglutinin complex: A review of the science, the clinical data, and patient satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    De Boulle, Koenraad; Fagien, Steven; Sommer, Boris; Glogau, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Botulinum toxin type A treatment is the foundation of minimally invasive aesthetic facial procedures. Clinicians and their patients recognize the important role, both negative and positive, that facial expression, particularly the glabellar frown lines, plays in self-perception, emotional well-being, and perception by others. This article provides up-to-date information on fundamental properties and mechanisms of action of the major approved formulations of botulinum toxin type A, summarizes recent changes in naming conventions (nonproprietary names) mandated by the United States Food and Drug Administration, and describes the reasons for these changes. The request for these changes provides recognition that formulations of botulinum toxins (eg, onabotulinumtoxinA and abobotulinumtoxinA) are not interchangeable and that dosing recommendations cannot be based on any one single conversion ratio. The extensive safety, tolerability, and efficacy data are summarized in detail, including the patient-reported outcomes that contribute to overall patient satisfaction and probability treatment continuation. Based on this in-depth review, the authors conclude that botulinum toxin type A treatment remains a cornerstone of facial aesthetic treatments, and clinicians must realize that techniques and dosing from one formulation cannot be applied to others, that each patient should undergo a full aesthetic evaluation, and that products and procedures must be selected in the context of individual needs and goals. PMID:20458348

  3. Recognition determinants of broadly neutralizing human antibodies against dengue viruses.

    PubMed

    Rouvinski, Alexander; Guardado-Calvo, Pablo; Barba-Spaeth, Giovanna; Duquerroy, Stéphane; Vaney, Marie-Christine; Kikuti, Carlos M; Navarro Sanchez, M Erika; Dejnirattisai, Wanwisa; Wongwiwat, Wiyada; Haouz, Ahmed; Girard-Blanc, Christine; Petres, Stéphane; Shepard, William E; Desprès, Philippe; Arenzana-Seisdedos, Fernando; Dussart, Philippe; Mongkolsapaya, Juthathip; Screaton, Gavin R; Rey, Félix A

    2015-04-01

    Dengue disease is caused by four different flavivirus serotypes, which infect 390 million people yearly with 25% symptomatic cases and for which no licensed vaccine is available. Recent phase III vaccine trials showed partial protection, and in particular no protection for dengue virus serotype 2 (refs 3, 4). Structural studies so far have characterized only epitopes recognized by serotype-specific human antibodies. We recently isolated human antibodies potently neutralizing all four dengue virus serotypes. Here we describe the X-ray structures of four of these broadly neutralizing antibodies in complex with the envelope glycoprotein E from dengue virus serotype 2, revealing that the recognition determinants are at a serotype-invariant site at the E-dimer interface, including the exposed main chain of the E fusion loop and the two conserved glycan chains. This 'E-dimer-dependent epitope' is also the binding site for the viral glycoprotein prM during virus maturation in the secretory pathway of the infected cell, explaining its conservation across serotypes and highlighting an Achilles' heel of the virus with respect to antibody neutralization. These findings will be instrumental for devising novel immunogens to protect simultaneously against all four serotypes of dengue virus. PMID:25581790

  4. 11. Pitzer Ranch Complex on Padua Avenue facing southwest. Complex ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Pitzer Ranch Complex on Padua Avenue facing southwest. Complex is in foreground; vacant property and condominiums are in background. - Pitzer Ranch, Bounded by Base Line Road, Paoua & Towne Avenues, Claremont, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. A compound that inhibits the HOP-Hsp90 complex formation and has unique killing effects in breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Pimienta, Genaro; Herbert, Kristina M; Regan, Lynne

    2011-12-01

    The chaperone Hsp90 is required for the correct folding and maturation of certain "client proteins" within all cells. Hsp90-mediated folding is particularly important in cancer cells, because upregulated or mutant oncogenic proteins are often Hsp90 clients. Hsp90 inhibitors thus represent a route to anticancer agents that have the potential to be active against several different types of cancer. Currently, various Hsp90 inhibitors that bind to Hsp90 at its ATP-binding site are in preclinical and clinical trials. Some of the most promising Hsp90 ATP-binding site inhibitors are the well characterized geldanamycin derivative 17-AAG and the recently described compounds PU-H71 and NVP-AUY922. An undesirable characteristic of these compounds is the transcriptional upregulation of Hsp70 that has prosurvival effects. Here we characterize the activity of a new type of chaperone inhibitor, 1,6-dimethyl-3-propylpyrimido[5,4-e][1,2,4]triazine-5,7-dione (named C9 for simplicity). Using purified protein components in vitro, C9 prevents Hsp90 from interacting with the cochaperone HOP and is thus expected to impair the Hsp90-dependent folding pathway in vivo. We show that this compound is effective in killing various breast cancer cell lines including the highly metastatic MDA-MB-231. An important property of this compound is that it does not induce the transcriptional upregulation of Hsp70. Moreover, when cells are treated with a combination of C9 and either 17-AAG or NVP-AUY922, the overexpression of Hsp70 is counteracted considerably and C9's lethal-IC50 decreases compared to its value when added alone. PMID:21882818

  6. Elemental ratios for characterization of quantum-dots populations in complex mixtures by asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation on-line coupled to fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Menendez-Miranda, Mario; Fernandez-Arguelles, Maria T; Costa-Fernandez, Jose M; Encinar, Jorge Ruiz; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2014-08-11

    Separation and identification of nanoparticles of different composition, with similar particle diameter, coexisting in heterogeneous suspensions of polymer-coated CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) have been thoroughly assessed by asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled on-line to fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) detectors. Chemical characterization of any previously on-line separated nanosized species was achieved by the measurement of the elemental molar ratios of every element involved in the synthesis of the QDs, using inorganic standards and external calibration by flow injection analysis (FIA). Such elemental molar ratios, strongly limited so far to pure single nanoparticles suspensions, have been achieved with adequate accuracy by coupling for the first time an ICP-QQQ instrument to an AF4 system. This hyphenation turned out to be instrumental to assess the chemical composition of the different populations of nanoparticles coexisting in the relatively complex mixtures, due to its capabilities to detect the hardly detectable elements involved in the synthesis. Interestingly such information, complementary to that obtained by fluorescence, was very valuable to detect and identify unexpected nanosized species, present at significant level, produced during QDs synthesis and hardly detectable by standard approaches. PMID:25066713

  7. Power line detection system

    DOEpatents

    Latorre, Victor R. (Tracy, CA); Watwood, Donald B. (Tracy, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A short-range, radio frequency (RF) transmitting-receiving system that provides both visual and audio warnings to the pilot of a helicopter or light aircraft of an up-coming power transmission line complex. Small, milliwatt-level narrowband transmitters, powered by the transmission line itself, are installed on top of selected transmission line support towers or within existing warning balls, and provide a continuous RF signal to approaching aircraft. The on-board receiver can be either a separate unit or a portion of the existing avionics, and can also share an existing antenna with another airborne system. Upon receipt of a warning signal, the receiver will trigger a visual and an audio alarm to alert the pilot to the potential power line hazard.

  8. Simple and Excellent Selective Chemiluminescence-Based CS2 On-Line Detection System for Rapid Analysis of Sulfur-Containing Compounds in Complex Samples.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Runkun; Li, Gongke; Hu, Yufei

    2015-06-01

    To study the interesting chemical reaction phenomenon can greatly contribute to the development of an innovative analytical method. In this paper, a simple CL reaction cell was constructed to study the chemiluminescence (CL) emission from the thermal oxidation of carbon disulfide (CS2). We found that the CL detection of CS2 exhibits unique characteristics of excellent selectivity and rapid response capacity. Experimental investigations together with theoretical calculation were performed to study the mechanism behind the CL reaction. The results revealed that the main luminous intermediates generated during the thermal degradation of CS2 are SO2* and CO2*. Significantly, this CL emission phenomenon has a wide application due to many sulfur-containing compounds that can convert to CS2 under special conditions. On the basis of this scheme, a CS2-generating and detection system was developed for rapid measurement of CS2 or other compounds that can convert to CS2. The usefulness of the system was demonstrated by measuring dithiocarbamate (DTC) pesticides (selected mancozeb as a representative analyte) based on the evolution of CS2 in spiked agricultural products. Results showed that the system allows online and large volume detection of CS2 under nonequilibrium condition, which greatly reduces the analytical time. The concentrations of mancozeb in the spiked samples were well-quantified with satisfied recoveries of 76.9-97.3%. The system not only addresses the urgent need for rapid in-field screening of DTC residues in foodstuffs but also opens a new opportunity for the fast, convenient, and cost-effective detection of CS2 and some other sulfur-containing compounds in complex samples. PMID:25913203

  9. Design, spectral characterization, thermal, DFT studies and anticancer cell line activities of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes of Schiff bases derived from 4-amino-5-(pyridin-4-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagi, Prateek; Chandra, Sulekh; Saraswat, B. S.; Yadav, Deepak

    2015-06-01

    A series of two biologically active Schiff base ligands L1, L2 have been synthesized in equimolar reaction of 4-amino-5-(pyridin-4-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol with thiophene-2-carbaldehyde and furan-2-carbaldehyde. The synthesized Schiff bases were used for complexation with different metal ions like Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) by using a molar ratio of ligand: metal as 1:1 and 2:1. The characterization of Schiff bases and metal complexes was done by 1H NMR, UV-Vis, TGA, IR, mass spectrometry and molar conductivity studies. The in DFT studies the geometries of Schiff bases and metal complexes were fully optimized with respect to the energy using the 6-31+g(d,p) basis set. On the basis of the spectral studies an octahedral geometry has been assigned for Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes. The effect of these complexes on proliferation of human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line (Hep-G2) were studied and compared with those of free ligand. The anticancer cell line results reveal that all metal complexes show moderate to significant % cytotoxicity on cell line HepG2 and MCF-7.

  10. Design, spectral characterization, thermal, DFT studies and anticancer cell line activities of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes of Schiff bases derived from 4-amino-5-(pyridin-4-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Prateek; Chandra, Sulekh; Saraswat, B S; Yadav, Deepak

    2015-06-15

    A series of two biologically active Schiff base ligands L(1), L(2) have been synthesized in equimolar reaction of 4-amino-5-(pyridin-4-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol with thiophene-2-carbaldehyde and furan-2-carbaldehyde. The synthesized Schiff bases were used for complexation with different metal ions like Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) by using a molar ratio of ligand: metal as 1:1 and 2:1. The characterization of Schiff bases and metal complexes was done by (1)H NMR, UV-Vis, TGA, IR, mass spectrometry and molar conductivity studies. The in DFT studies the geometries of Schiff bases and metal complexes were fully optimized with respect to the energy using the 6-31+g(d,p) basis set. On the basis of the spectral studies an octahedral geometry has been assigned for Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes. The effect of these complexes on proliferation of human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line (Hep-G2) were studied and compared with those of free ligand. The anticancer cell line results reveal that all metal complexes show moderate to significant % cytotoxicity on cell line HepG2 and MCF-7. PMID:25770965

  11. CHEMICAL COMPLEXITY IN THE HELIX NEBULA: MULTI-LINE OBSERVATIONS OF H{sub 2}CO, HCO{sup +}, AND CO

    SciTech Connect

    Zack, L. N.; Ziurys, L. M., E-mail: lziurys@email.arizona.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Arizona, P.O. Box 210041, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-03-10

    Observations of CO, HCO{sup +}, and H{sub 2}CO have been carried out at nine positions across the Helix Nebula (NGC 7293) using the Submillimeter Telescope and the 12 m antenna of the Arizona Radio Observatory. Measurements of the J = 1 {yields} 0, 2 {yields} 1, and 3 {yields}2 transitions of CO, two transitions of HCO{sup +} (J = 1 {yields} 0 and 3 {yields}2), and five lines of H{sub 2}CO (J{sub Ka,Kc} = 1{sub 0,1} {yields} 0{sub 0,0}, 2{sub 1,2} {yields} 1{sub 1,1}, 2{sub 0,2} {yields} 1{sub 0,1}, 2{sub 1,1} {yields} 1{sub 1,0}, and 3{sub 0,3} {yields}2{sub 0,2}) were conducted in the 0.8, 1, 2, and 3 mm bands toward this highly evolved planetary nebula. HCO{sup +} and H{sub 2}CO were detected at all positions, along with three transitions of CO. From a radiative transfer analysis, the kinetic temperature was found to be T{sub K} {approx} 15-40 K across the Helix with a gas density of n(H{sub 2}) {approx} 0.1-5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} cm{sup -3}. The warmer gas appears to be closer to the central star, but high density material is distributed throughout the nebula. For CO, the column density was found to be N{sub tot} {approx} 0.25-4.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}, with a fractional abundance of f (CO/H{sub 2}) {approx} 0.3-6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}. Column densities for HCO{sup +} and H{sub 2}CO were determined to be N{sub tot} {approx} 0.2-5.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2} and 0.2-1.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2}, respectively, with fractional abundances of f (HCO{sup +}/H{sub 2}) {approx} 0.3-7.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} and f (H{sub 2}CO/H{sub 2}) {approx} 0.3-2.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7}-several orders of magnitude higher than predicted by chemical models. Polyatomic molecules in the Helix appear to be well-protected from photodissociation and may actually seed the diffuse interstellar medium.

  12. Broad NE 8 lambda 774 emission from quasars in the HST-FOS snapshot survey (ABSNAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamann, Fred; Zuo, Lin; Tytler, David

    1995-01-01

    We discuss the strength and frequency of broad Ne VIII lambda 774 emission from quasars measured in the Hubble Space Telescope Faint Object Spectrograph (HST-FOS) snapshot survey (Absnap). Five sources in the survey have suitable redshifts (0.86 less than or equal to Z(sub em) less than or equal to 1.31), signal-to-noise ratios and no Lyman limit absorptions. Three of the five sources have a strong broad emission line near 774 A (rest), and the remaining two sources have a less securely measured line near this wavelength. We identify these lines with Ne VIII lambda 774 based on the measured wavelengths and theoretical estimates of various line fluxes (Hamann et al. 1995a). Secure Ne VIII detections occur in both radio-loud and radio-quiet sources. We tentatively conclude that broad Ne VIII lambda 774 emission is common in quasars, with typical strengths between approximately 25% and approximately 200% of O VI lambda 1034. These Ne VIII lambda 774 measurements imply that the broad emission line regions have a much hotter and more highly ionized component than previously recognized. They also suggest that quasar continua have substantial ionizing flux out to energies greater than 207 eV (greater than 15.2 ryd, lambda less than 60 A). Photoionization calculations using standard incident spectra indicate that the Ne VIII emission requires ionization parameters U greater than or = 5, total column densities N(sub H) greater than or = 10(sub 22)/sq cm and covering factors greater than or = 25%. The temperatures could be as high as approximately 10(exp 5) K. If the gas is instead collisionally ionized, strong Ne VIII would imply equilibrium temperatures in the range approximately 400,000 less than or approximately = T(sub e) less than or approximately = 10(exp 6) K. In either case, the highly ionized Ne VIII emission regions would appear as X-ray 'warm absorbers' if they lie along our line of sight to the X-ray continuum source.

  13. Capillary electrokinetic fractionation mass spectrometry (CEkF/MS): technology setup and application to metabolite fractionation from complex samples coupled at-line with ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    He, Yu; Harir, Mourad; Chen, Guonan; Gougeon, Regis D; Zhang, Lan; Huang, Xiayang; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2014-07-01

    Capillary electrokinetic fractionation (CEkF) is investigated as a new, simple, and robust approach for semipreparative and analytical sample analysis based on pKa -dependant pH-driven electrophoretic mobility. CEkF was optimized with contactless conductivity detection and conducted with 10 kV reverse voltage for 10 min, then coupled on/at-line to ESI/MS. We propose a semi-empirical model with 14 representative compounds based on the correlation between sample/medium pH regulating the partial charge, the electrokinetic loading of the capillary and intensity (I) of analytes. According to the model, an empirical function (I = f (pH)) could be derived to calculate the acid dissociation constant (pKa ) of various model compounds based on their pH-dependant MS intensity profiles with the RSD < 4.05. Using the ultrahigh-resolution of ion cyclotron resonance Fourier transform MS, the pKa model was further illustrated in real samples into the structure prediction of important compounds in wine over two vintages. The established CEkF was successfully used to selectively fractionate sulfur compounds from the complex wine samples at pH 1.66. The proposed CEkF approach should allow in the future the simultaneous pKa evaluation of multiple constituents without complicated separation out of a complex mixture in metabolomics or environmental chemistry. PMID:24659053

  14. Influence of reducing agents on the cytotoxic activity of platinum(iv) complexes: induction of G2/M arrest, apoptosis and oxidative stress in A2780 and cisplatin resistant A2780cis cell lines.

    PubMed

    Pichler, Verena; Göschl, Simone; Schreiber-Brynzak, Ekaterina; Jakupec, Michael A; Galanski, Markus; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2015-07-01

    The concept of Pt(IV) prodrug design is one advanced strategy to increase the selectivity for cancer cells and to reduce systemic toxicity in comparison to established platinum-based chemotherapy. Pt(IV) complexes are thought to be activated by reduction via physiological reductants, such as ascorbic acid or glutathione. Nevertheless, only few investigations on the link between the reduction rate, which is influenced by the reductant, and the ligand sphere of the Pt(IV) metal centre have been performed so far. Herein, we investigated a set of Pt(IV) compounds with varying rates of reduction with respect to their cytotoxicity and drug accumulation in A2780 and A2780cis ovarian cancer cell lines, their influence on the cell cycle, efficiency of triggering apoptosis, and ability to interfere with plasmid DNA (pUC19). The effects caused by Pt(IV) compounds were compared without or with extracellularly added ascorbic acid and glutathione (or its precursor N-acetylcysteine) to gain understanding of the impact of increased levels of the reductant on the activity of such complexes. Our results demonstrate that reduction is required prior to plasmid interaction. Furthermore, the rate of reduction is crucial for the efficiency of this set of Pt(IV) compounds. The substances that are reduced least likely showed similar performances, whereas the fastest reducing substance was negatively affected by an increased extracellular level of reducing agents, with reduced cytotoxicity and lower efficiency in inducing apoptosis and G2/M arrest. These results confirm the connection between reduction and activity, and prove the strong impact of the reduction site on the activity of Pt(IV) complexes. PMID:26073554

  15. Echo mapping of broad H-beta emission in NGC 5548

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, Keith; Welsh, William F.; Peterson, Bradley M.

    1991-01-01

    A one-dimensional echo map of the broad H-beta emission-line region in the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548 is reconstructed by using a maximum entropy technique to model the variable optical continuum and integrated H-beta emission-line fluxes observed during the 1989-1990 monitoring campaign as reported by Peterson et al. (1991). The echo map has a strong peak at a time delay of 20 lt-days which has an unresolved full width of 20 days at half-maximum. The H-beta response at time delay zero is less than one-third of that at 20 days, implying a deficit of H-beta-emitting gas near the line of sight to the continuum source. This rules out spherically symmetric and edge-on disk geometries for isotropically emitting H-beta clouds.

  16. BeppoSAX broad-band observations of Gamma Cassiopeiae

    E-print Network

    A. Owens; T. Oosterbroek; A. N. Parmar; R. Schulz; J. A. Stuwe; F. Haberl

    1999-05-19

    We report broad-band X-ray measurements of the Be star Gamma Cassiopeiae by the BeppoSAX X-ray astronomy satellite. The observations took place on 1998 July, 18-23. The 0.1-200 keV X-ray spectrum is reasonably well fit by an optically thin thermal plasma model of temperature 12.5 +/- 0.6 keV with significant residuals around 0.3 keV and 1 keV. The former is interpreted as the variable soft component reported by ROSAT, although there is no evidence for variability at the 5 % level. For a blackbody interpretation, the fitted temperature is 100 +320 -13 eV, in agreement with the ROSAT value of 200 +/- 10 eV. However, a MEKAL interpretation gives a significantly lower temperature of (48 +/- 11 eV). The fitted abundances are about half solar values, in agreement with previous measurements. At higher energies, the spectrum does not require non-thermal components and the observation of a line at 6.8 keV supports the ASCA interpretation of the source as an accreting white dwarf. Assuming a source distance of 188 pc, the bolometric luminosity in the 2-10 keV band is 6 10^32 erg/s. Simultaneous optical measurements by the Wendelstein Observatory near Munich, indicate that the source continues to be in a late but rather normal Be phase, with no obvious signs of a transition to the Be-shell phase. The measured magnitudes at B, V and R wavelengths of 2.18 +/- 0.06, 2.23 +/- 0.02 and 2.36 + /- 0.03, respectively, confirm this.

  17. Plan/SectionAA & BB East Broad Top Railroad & Company, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plan/SectionA-A & B-B - East Broad Top Railroad & Company, Water Tank at Coles Station, East Broad Top Railroad & Company (at Milepost 24.3), 0.5 miles east of Coles Valley Road, Saltillo, Huntingdon County, PA

  18. Assessing Eli Broad's Assault on Public School System Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Fenwick W.; Crowder, Zan

    2012-01-01

    Eli Broad's approach to reforming urban public education does not recognize his own self-interest in promoting changes within such educational systems, a classic problem of misrecognition. The Broad agenda is an assault on the notion of the mission of public education as a service instead of a for-profit enterprise concerned with making money for…

  19. Zip Line

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH

    2010-01-01

    In this design challenge activity, learners build a device to carry a Ping-Pong ball from the top of a zip line to the bottom in four seconds (or less!). Learners follow the design process to build the carrier that slides quickly down a zip line string, figure out how to keep something balanced, and identify ways to reduce friction.

  20. Pipe Line Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The array of tanks, pipes and valves in the photo below is a petroleum tank farm in Georgia, part of a petrochemical pipe line system that moves refined petroleum products from Texas and Louisiana to the mid-Eastern seaboard. The same pipes handle a number of different products, such as gasoline, kerosene, jet fuel or fuel oil. The fluids are temporarily stored in tanks, pumped into the pipes in turn and routed to other way stations along the pipe line. The complex job of controlling, measuring and monitoring fuel flow is accomplished automatically by a computerized control and communications system which incorporates multiple space technologies.

  1. Line-Follower Challenge

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    GK-12 Program, Computational Neurobiology Center,

    Student groups are challenged to program robots with light sensors to follow a black line. Learning both the logic and skills behind programming robots for this challenge helps students improve their understanding of how robots "think" and widens their appreciation for the complexity involved in programming LEGO® MINDSTORMS® NXT robots to do what appears to be a simple task. They test their ideas for approaches to solve the problem and ultimately learn a (provided) working programming solution. They think of real-world applications for line-follower robots that use sensor input. A PowerPoint® presentation and pre/post quizzes are provided.

  2. A VLBI survey of compact broad absorption line quasars with balnicity index BI>0

    E-print Network

    Kunert-Bajraszewska, M; Katarzynski, K; Roskowinski, C

    2015-01-01

    We performed high resolution radio observations of a new sample of ten BAL quasars using both the VLBA and EVN at 5 GHz. All the selected sources have balnicity indices (BI) more than 0 and radio flux densities less than 80 mJy at 1.4 GHz. They are very compact with linear sizes of the order of a few tens of parsecs and radio luminosities at 1.4 GHz above the FRI-FRII luminosity threshold. Most of the observed objects have been resolved at 5 GHz showing one-sided, probably core-jet structures, typical for quasars. We discuss in detail their age and orientation based on the radio observations. We then used the largest available sample of BAL quasars to study the relationships between the radio and optical properties in these objects. We found that (1) the strongest absorption (high values of the balnicity index BI) is connected with the lower values of the radio-loudness parameter, logR_I<1.5, and thus probably with large viewing angles; (2) the large span of the BI values in each bin of the radio-loudness ...

  3. Phenylarsonic acid compounds with broad-spectrum and potent cytotoxic activity against human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Uckun, Fatih M; D'Cruz, Osmond J; Liu, Xing-Ping; Narla, Rama Krishna

    2003-01-01

    The in vitro cytotoxic activity profile of nine novel phenylarsonic acid (CAS 98-05-5, PAA) compounds against 17 human cancer cell lines including (a) ovarian cancer cell lines ES-2, PA-1, CAOV-3, OVCAR-3, (b) testicular cancer cell lines Ntera-2, Tera-2, N2NICP, 833K, and 64CP, (c) multiple myeloma cell lines ARH77, HS-Sultan, RPMI-8226, and U266, and (d) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cell lines NALM-6, MOLT-3, ALL-1, and RS4; 11, was determined by the MTT assay. The lead compounds, 2-methylthio-4-[(4'-aminophenylazo)-phenylarsonic acid] pyrimidine (PHI-370) and 2-methylthio-4-(4'-phenylarsonic acid)-aminopyrimidine (PHI-380) caused apoptotic death in all 17 cancer cell lines at low micromolar concentrations, as documented by TUNEL assays and confocal laser scanning microscopy. PHI-380 was also tested and found to be very active against primary tumor cells isolated from surgical biopsy specimens of 14 patients with therapy-refractory non-small cell lung cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer, lymphoma, hepatoblastoma, or Wilm's tumor as well. Because of their broad-spectrum and potent anticancer activity and ability to induce apoptosis in primary tumor cells from therapy-refractory cancer patients, PAA compounds such as PHI-370 and PHI-380 may provide the basis for effective salvage regimens for patients with recurrent cancer. PMID:12872614

  4. Upconverter materials and upconversion solar-cell devices: simulation and characterization with broad solar spectrum illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, S.; Fröhlich, B.; Ivaturi, A.; Herter, B.; Wolf, S.; Krämer, K. W.; Richards, B. S.; Goldschmidt, J. C.

    2014-03-01

    Upconverter materials and upconverter solar devices were recently investigated with broad-band excitation revealing the great potential of upconversion to enhance the efficiency of solar cell at comparatively low solar concentration factors. In this work first attempts are made to simulate the behavior of the upconverter ?-NaYF4 doped with Er3+ under broad-band excitation. An existing model was adapted to account for the lower absorption of broader excitation spectra. While the same trends as observed for the experiments were found in the simulation, the absolute values are fairly different. This makes an upconversion model that specifically considers the line shape function of the ground state absorption indispensable to achieve accurate simulations of upconverter materials and upconverter solar cell devices with broadband excitations, such as the solar radiation.

  5. Selective flow-injection quantification of ultra-trace amounts of Cr(VI) via on-line complexation and preconcentration with APDC followed by determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry 1 This work was presented at Flow Analysis VII, Piracicaba, Brazil, August 25–28, 1997. 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steffen Nielsen; Elo H Hansen

    1998-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive and selective time-based flow injection (FI) preconcentration procedure is described for the determination of ultra-trace amounts of Cr(VI) via on-line reaction with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) and formation of the Cr(VI)-PDC complex. The preconcentration is effected by adsorption on the inner wall of a knotted reactor made from PTFE tubing. The complex is subsequently eluted with a

  6. CO Line Emission and Absorption from the HL Tauri Disk-Where Is All the Dust?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sean D. Brittain; Terrence W. Rettig; Theodore Simon; Craig Kulesa

    2005-01-01

    We present high-resolution infrared spectra of HL Tau, a heavily embedded young star. The spectra exhibit broad emission lines of 12CO gas-phase molecules, as well as narrow absorption lines of 12CO, 13CO, and C18O. The broad emission lines of vibrationally excited 12CO are dominated by the hot (T~1500 K) inner disk. The narrow absorption lines of CO are found to

  7. Complex Variability of the H? Emission Line Profile of the T Tauri Binary System KH 15D: The Influence of Orbital Phase, Occultation by the Circumbinary Disk, and Accretion Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Catrina M.; Johns-Krull, Christopher M.; Mundt, Reinhard; Herbst, William; Winn, Joshua N.

    2012-06-01

    We have obtained 48 high-resolution echelle spectra of the pre-main-sequence eclipsing binary system KH 15D (V582 Mon, P = 48.37 days, e ~ 0.6, MA = 0.6 M ?, MB = 0.7 M ?). The eclipses are caused by a circumbinary disk (CBD) seen nearly edge on, which at the epoch of these observations completely obscured the orbit of star B and a large portion of the orbit of star A. The spectra were obtained over five contiguous observing seasons from 2001/2002 to 2005/2006 while star A was fully visible, fully occulted, and during several ingress and egress events. The H? line profile shows dramatic changes in these time series data over timescales ranging from days to years. A fraction of the variations are due to "edge effects" and depend only on the height of star A above or below the razor sharp edge of the occulting disk. Other observed variations depend on the orbital phase: the H? emission line profile changes from an inverse P-Cygni-type profile during ingress to an enhanced double-peaked profile, with both a blue and a red emission component, during egress. Each of these interpreted variations are complicated by the fact that there is also a chaotic, irregular component present in these profiles. We find that the complex data set can be largely understood in the context of accretion onto the stars from a CBD with gas flows as predicted by the models of eccentric T Tauri binaries put forward by Artymowicz & Lubow, Günther & Kley, and de Val-Borro et al. In particular, our data provide strong support for the pulsed accretion phenomenon, in which enhanced accretion occurs during and after perihelion passage.

  8. Ultraviolet Broad Absorption Features and the Spectral Energy Distribution of the QSO PG 1351+64. 3.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, W.; Kriss, G. A.; Wang, J. X.; Brotherton, M.; Oegerle, W. R.; Blair, W. P.; Davidsen, A. F.; Green, R. F.; Hutchings, J. B.; Kaiser, M. E.; Fisher, R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present a moderate-resolution (approximately 20 km s(exp -1) spectrum of the mini broad absorption line QSO PG 1351+64 between 915-1180 A, obtained with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE). Additional low-resolution spectra at longer wavelengths were also obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based telescopes. Broad absorption is present on the blue wings of C III (lambda)977, Ly(beta), O VI (lambda)(lambda)1032,1038, Ly(alpha), N V (lambda)(lambda)1238,1242, Si IV (lambda)(lambda)1393,1402, and C IV (lambda)(lambda)1548,1450. The absorption profile can be fitted with five components at velocities of approximately -780, -1049, -1629, -1833, and -3054 km s(exp -1) with respect to the emission-line redshift of z = 0.088. All the absorption components cover a large fraction of the continuum source as well as the broad-line region. The O VI emission feature is very weak, and the O VI/Ly(alpha) flux ratio is 0.08, one of the lowest among low-redshift active galaxies and QSOs. The UV (ultraviolet) continuum shows a significant change in slope near 1050 A in the restframe. The steeper continuum shortward of the Lyman limit extrapolates well to the observed weak X-ray flux level. The absorbers' properties are similar to those of high-redshift broad absorption-line QSOs. The derived total column density of the UV absorbers is on the order of 10(exp 21) cm(exp -2), unlikely to produce significant opacity above 1 keV in the X-ray. Unless there is a separate, high-ionization X-ray absorber, the QSO's weak X-ray flux may be intrinsic. The ionization level of the absorbing components is comparable to that anticipated in the broad-line region, therefore the absorbers may be related to broad-line clouds along the line of sight.

  9. Ultraviolet Broad Absorption Features and the Spectral Energy Distribution of the QSO PG 1351+641. 2.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, W.; Kriss, G. A.; Wang, J. X.; Brotherton, M.; Oegerle, W. R.; Blair, W. P.; Davidsen, A. F.; Green, R. F.; Hutchings, J. B.; Kaiser, M. E.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present a moderate-resolution (approximately 20 km/s) spectrum of the broad-absorption line QSO PG 1351+64 between 915-1180 angstroms, obtained with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE). Additional low-resolution spectra at longer wavelengths were also obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based telescopes. Broad absorption is present on the blue wings of C III lambda977, Ly-beta, O VI lambda-lambda-1032,1038, Ly-alpha, N V lambda-lambda-1238,1242, Si IV lambda-lambda-1393,1402, and C IV lambda-lambda-1548,1450. The absorption profile can be fitted with five components at velocities of approximately -780, -1049, -1629, -1833, and -3054 km/s with respect to the emission-line redshift of z = 0.088. All the absorption components cover a large fraction of the continuum source as well as the broad-line region. The O VI emission feature is very weak, and the O VI/Ly-alpha flux ratio is 0.08, one of the lowest among low-redshift active galaxies and QSOs. The ultraviolet continuum shows a significant change in slope near 1050 angstroms in the restframe. The steeper continuum shortward of the Lyman limit extrapolates well to the observed weak X-ray flux level. The absorbers' properties are similar to those of high-redshift broad absorption-line QSOs. The derived total column density of the UV absorbers is on the order of 10(exp 21)/s, unlikely to produce significant opacity above 1 keV in the X-ray. Unless there is a separate, high-ionization X-ray absorber, the QSO's weak X-ray flux may be intrinsic. The ionization level of the absorbing components is comparable to that anticipated in the broad-line region, therefore the absorbers may be related to broad-line clouds along the line of sight.

  10. Identification of Western Medicines as Adulterants in Chinese Herbal Medicines Using a Broad-Spectrum Drug Screening HPLC System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Jason Lai; Steven R. Binder; Herbert Essien; Kuo-Ching Wen

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of herbal medicines is a difficult task because of the complexity and variety of the available formulations. Identification of adulterants in herbal medicines poses an even greater challenge to the laboratories which are required to conduct a routine surveillance program. There is no single broad spectrum screening method which will be able to screen all non-herbal medicine in a

  11. Average Bit-Complexity of Euclidean Algorithms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Akhavi; Brigitte Vallée

    2000-01-01

    We obtain new results regarding the precise average bit- complexity of ve algorithms of a broad Euclidean type. We develop a general framework for analysis of algorithms, where the average-case complexity of an algorithm is seen to be related to the analytic behaviour in the complex plane of the set of elementary transformations determined by the algorithms. The methods rely

  12. Extragalactic Jets as Electrical Circuits and Transmission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronberg, Philipp

    2014-10-01

    I describe the first attempt to measure a current in an extended radio galaxy jet: ~1018A at ~50 kpc from the elliptical galaxy's ultra-compact nucleus. This class of jet is known to transport its magnetic energy ``intact'', up to supragalactic scales. I discuss plasma parameters for 3C303 and recent attempts to measure its jet axial current. I discuss analogies with both electrical circuits, - and transmission lines. Power is delivered into a ``load'', whose impedance, Z, is close to that of free space, and the jet power flow I2 Z is ~1035 erg s-1 - broadly consistent with astronomically measured total power outputs, luminosities and lifetimes of AGN-powered radio lobes.The current and power levels are also consistent with SMBH accretion disk model predictions by Stirling Colgate, H. Li, V. Pariev, J. Finn, and others, beginning with Lovelace 1976 (Nature). A further analogy with transmission lines shows how the supragalactic power flows can be disrupted by a complex impedance in the ``circuit.'' Reactive components in space, i.e. a complex Z, can disrupt, reflect or deflect the power flow. This could explain the wide variety of magneto-plasma configurations seen in these systems. Funded by NSERC Discovery Grant A5713.

  13. Number Line

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Clarity Innovations, Inc.

    2013-11-22

    This iOS app helps students to visualize number sentences and create models for addition, subtractions, multiplication, and division. The number line can be adjusted to represent multiples of numbers from one to one hundred.

  14. Oculoectodermal syndrome: report of a new case with a broad clinical spectrum.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Deniz; Akata, Rustu Fikret; Schröder, Julia; Happle, Rudolf; Moog, Ute; Bartsch, Oliver

    2014-11-01

    Oculoectodermal syndrome (OMIM 600268) is rare and characterized by aplasia cutis congenita, epibulbar dermoids, and other abnormalities. We report herein on a newly recognized patient with oculoectodermal syndrome, which is the 19th reported patient with OES. The boy aged six years demonstrated a broad clinical spectrum of this condition, including aplasia cutis congenita, epibulbar dermoids, hyperkeratotic papule, mildly enlarged cisterna magna, and an enlarged fluid space in the quadrigeminal cistern, suggesting a cyst. He also manifested anomalies not reported associated with this disorder, including systematized epidermal nevus following Blaschko's lines, hypopigmented skin lesions, and mild digital anomaly. PMID:25251940

  15. Novel, Broad Spectrum Anticancer Agents Containing the Tricyclic 5:7:5-Fused Diimidazodiazepine Ring System

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Synthesis of a series of novel, broad spectrum anticancer agents containing the tricyclic 5:7:5-fused diimidazo[4,5-d:4?,5?-f][1,3]diazepine ring system is reported. Compounds 1, 2, 8, 11, and 12 in the series show promising in vitro antitumor activity with low micromolar IC50 values against prostate, lung, breast, and ovarian cancer cell lines. Some notions about structure?activity relationships and a possible mechanism of biological activity are presented. Also presented are preliminary in vivo toxicity studies of 1 using SCID mice. PMID:21572541

  16. Broad Frequency LTCC Vertical Interconnect Transition for Multichip Modules and System on Package Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decrossas, Emmanuel; Glover, Michael D.; Porter, Kaoru; Cannon, Tom; Mantooth, H. Alan; Hamilton, M. C.

    2013-01-01

    Various stripline structures and flip chip interconnect designs for high-speed digital communication systems implemented in low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) substrates are studied in this paper. Specifically, two different transition designs from edge launch 2.4 millimeter connectors to stripline transmission lines embedded in LTCC are discussed. After characterizing the DuPont (sup trademark) 9K7 green tape, different designs are proposed to improve signal integrity for high-speed digital data. The full-wave simulations and experimental data validate the presented designs over a broad frequency band from Direct Current to 50 gigahertz and beyond.

  17. A Potent and Broad Neutralizing Antibody Recognizes and Penetrates the HIV Glycan Shield

    SciTech Connect

    Pejchal, Robert; Doores, Katie J.; Walker, Laura M.; Khayat, Reza; Huang, Po-Ssu; Wang, Sheng-Kai; Stanfield, Robyn L.; Julien, Jean-Philippe; Ramos, Alejandra; Crispin, Max; Depetris, Rafael; Katpally, Umesh; Marozsan, Andre; Cupo, Albert; Maloveste, Sebastien; Liu, Yan; McBride, Ryan; Ito, Yukishige; Sanders, Rogier W.; Ogohara, Cassandra; Paulson, James C.; Feizi, Ten; Scanlan, Christopher N.; Wong, Chi-Huey; Moore, John P.; Olson, William C.; Ward, Andrew B.; Poignard, Pascal; Schief, William R.; Burton, Dennis R.; Wilson, Ian A. (Progenics); (JSTA); (UWASH); (Scripps); (NIH); (Weill); (Oxford); (ICL)

    2011-12-05

    The HIV envelope (Env) protein gp120 is protected from antibody recognition by a dense glycan shield. However, several of the recently identified PGT broadly neutralizing antibodies appear to interact directly with the HIV glycan coat. Crystal structures of antigen-binding fragments (Fabs) PGT 127 and 128 with Man{sub 9} at 1.65 and 1.29 angstrom resolution, respectively, and glycan binding data delineate a specific high mannose-binding site. Fab PGT 128 complexed with a fully glycosylated gp120 outer domain at 3.25 angstroms reveals that the antibody penetrates the glycan shield and recognizes two conserved glycans as well as a short {beta}-strand segment of the gp120 V3 loop, accounting for its high binding affinity and broad specificify. Furthermore, our data suggest that the high neutralization potency of PGT 127 and 128 immunoglobulin Gs may be mediated by cross-linking Env trimers on the viral surface.

  18. A potent and broad neutralizing antibody recognizes and penetrates the HIV glycan shield.

    PubMed

    Pejchal, Robert; Doores, Katie J; Walker, Laura M; Khayat, Reza; Huang, Po-Ssu; Wang, Sheng-Kai; Stanfield, Robyn L; Julien, Jean-Philippe; Ramos, Alejandra; Crispin, Max; Depetris, Rafael; Katpally, Umesh; Marozsan, Andre; Cupo, Albert; Maloveste, Sebastien; Liu, Yan; McBride, Ryan; Ito, Yukishige; Sanders, Rogier W; Ogohara, Cassandra; Paulson, James C; Feizi, Ten; Scanlan, Christopher N; Wong, Chi-Huey; Moore, John P; Olson, William C; Ward, Andrew B; Poignard, Pascal; Schief, William R; Burton, Dennis R; Wilson, Ian A

    2011-11-25

    The HIV envelope (Env) protein gp120 is protected from antibody recognition by a dense glycan shield. However, several of the recently identified PGT broadly neutralizing antibodies appear to interact directly with the HIV glycan coat. Crystal structures of antigen-binding fragments (Fabs) PGT 127 and 128 with Man(9) at 1.65 and 1.29 angstrom resolution, respectively, and glycan binding data delineate a specific high mannose-binding site. Fab PGT 128 complexed with a fully glycosylated gp120 outer domain at 3.25 angstroms reveals that the antibody penetrates the glycan shield and recognizes two conserved glycans as well as a short ?-strand segment of the gp120 V3 loop, accounting for its high binding affinity and broad specificity. Furthermore, our data suggest that the high neutralization potency of PGT 127 and 128 immunoglobulin Gs may be mediated by cross-linking Env trimers on the viral surface. PMID:21998254

  19. A potent and broad neutralizing antibody recognizes and penetrates the HIV glycan shield

    PubMed Central

    Pejchal, Robert; Doores, Katie J.; Walker, Laura M.; Khayat, Reza; Huang, Po-Ssu; Wang, Sheng-Kai; Stanfield, Robyn L.; Julien, Jean-Philippe; Ramos, Alejandra; Crispin, Max; Depetris, Rafael; Katpally, Umesh; Marozsan, Andre; Cupo, Albert; Maloveste, Sebastien; Liu, Yan; McBride, Ryan; Ito, Yukishige; Sanders, Rogier W.; Ogohara, Cassandra; Paulson, James C.; Feizi, Ten; Scanlan, Christopher N.; Wong, Chi-Huey; Moore, John P.; Olson, William C.; Ward, Andrew B.; Poignard, Pascal; Schief, William R.; Burton, Dennis R.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2012-01-01

    The HIV envelope (Env) protein gp120 is protected from antibody recognition by a dense glycan shield. However, several of the recently identified PGT broadly neutralizing antibodies appear to interact directly with the HIV glycan coat. Crystal structures of Fabs PGT 127 and 128 with Man9 at 1.65 and 1.29 Å resolution, respectively, and glycan binding data delineate a specific high mannose binding site. Fab PGT 128 complexed with a fully-glycosylated gp120 outer domain at 3.25 Å reveals that the antibody penetrates the glycan shield and recognizes two conserved glycans as well as a short ?-strand segment of the gp120 V3 loop, accounting for its high binding affinity and broad specificify. Furthermore, our data suggest that the high neutralization potency of PGT 127 and 128 IgGs may be mediated by cross-linking Env trimers on the viral surface. PMID:21998254

  20. Carbon-14 labelled tribendimidine, a broad-spectrum anthelmintic drug.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Erminia; Pignatti, Alberto; Ghiglieri, Alberto; Battaglia, Rosangela; Cinato, Flavio; Wang, Chong; de Hostos, Eugenio

    2013-01-01

    The preparation of [(14) C]tribendimidine, a broad-spectrum anthelmintic agent related to amidantel, and its use during excretion and metabolism studies in the rat are described in this paper. PMID:24285523