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Sample records for complex dna repair

  1. DNA repair

    SciTech Connect

    Friedberg, E.C.; Hanawalt, P.C. )

    1988-01-01

    Topics covered in this book included: Eukaryote model systems for DNA repair study; Sensitive detection of DNA lesions and their repair; and Defined DNA sequence probes for analysis of mutagenesis and repair.

  2. Stalled transcription complexes promote DNA repair at a distance

    PubMed Central

    Haines, Nia M.; Kim, Young-In T.; Smith, Abigail J.; Savery, Nigel J.

    2014-01-01

    Transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TCR) accelerates the removal of noncoding lesions from the template strand of active genes, and hence contributes to genome-wide variations in mutation frequency. Current models for TCR suppose that a lesion must cause RNA polymerase (RNAP) to stall if it is to be a substrate for accelerated repair. We have examined the substrate requirements for TCR using a system in which transcription stalling and damage location can be uncoupled. We show that Mfd-dependent TCR in bacteria involves the formation of a damage search complex that can detect lesions downstream of a stalled RNAP, and that the strand specificity of the accelerated repair pathway is independent of the requirement for a lesion to stall RNAP. We also show that an ops (operon polarity suppressor) transcription pause site, which causes backtracking of RNAP, can promote the repair of downstream lesions when those lesions do not themselves cause the polymerase to stall. Our findings indicate that the transcription-repair coupling factor Mfd, which is an ATP-dependent superfamily 2 helicase that binds to RNAP, continues to translocate along DNA after RNAP has been displaced until a lesion in the template strand is located. The discovery that pause sites can promote the repair of nonstalling lesions suggests that TCR pathways may play a wider role in modulating mutation frequencies in different parts of the genome than has previously been suspected. PMID:24554077

  3. Cryo-EM Imaging of DNA-PK DNA Damage Repair Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Phoebe L. Stewart

    2005-06-27

    Exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation causes DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) that must be repaired for cell survival. Higher eukaryotes respond to DSBs by arresting the cell cycle, presumably to repair the DNA lesions before cell division. In mammalian cells, the nonhomologous end-joining DSB repair pathway is mediated by the 470 kDa DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) together with the DNA-binding factors Ku70 and Ku80. Mouse knock-out models of these three proteins are all exquisitely sensitive to low doses of ionizing radiation. In the presence of DNA ends, Ku binds to the DNA and then recruits DNA-PKcs. After formation of the complex, the kinase activity associated with DNA-PKcs becomes activated. This kinase activity has been shown to be essential for repairing DNA DSBs in vivo since expression of a kinase-dead form of DNA-PKcs in a mammalian cell line that lacks DNA-PKcs fails to complement the radiosensitive phenotype. The immense size of DNA-PKcs suggests that it may also serve as a docking site for other DNA repair proteins. Since the assembly of the DNA-PK complex onto DNA is a prerequisite for DSB repair, it is critical to obtain structural information on the complex. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and single particle reconstruction methods provide a powerful way to image large macromolecular assemblies at near atomic (10-15 ?) resolution. We have already used cryo-EM methods to examine the structure of the isolated DNA-PKcs protein. This structure reveals numerous cavities throughout the protein that may allow passage of single or double-stranded DNA. Pseudo two-fold symmetry was found for the monomeric protein, suggesting that DNA-PKcs may interact with two DNA ends or two Ku heterodimers simultaneously. Here we propose to study the structure of the cross-linked DNA-PKcs/Ku/DNA complex. Difference imaging with our published DNA-PKcs structure will enable us to elucidate the architecture of the complex. A second objective is to locate the kinase domain of DNA-PKcs by determining the structure of a kinase deletion mutant both as an isolated protein and as part of a DNA-PKcs/Ku/DNA complex. A third objective is to pursue higher resolution studies of DNA-PKcs and the DNA-PKcs/Ku/DNA complex. If the crystal structure determination of DNA-PKcs is completed during the project period, the atomic coordinates of DNA-PKcs will be modeled within the cryo-EM structure of the complex. In order to achieve these goals, a collaborative effort is proposed between Dr. Phoebe Stewart at UCLA, whose laboratory has expertise in cryo-EM reconstruction methods, and Dr. David Chen at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, who has a long-standing interest in DNA repair. Advantages of the cryo-EM structural method include the fact that the sample is imaged in a frozen-hydrated and unstained state, avoiding artifacts associated with drying and staining in other EM approaches. Also crystals of the sample are not needed for the single particle reconstruction method and only microgram quantities of sample are required. Cryo-EM structural information of macromolecular assemblies is complementary to both atomic structures of individual component molecules, as well as low resolution information obtained from x-ray and neutron scattering. Knowledge of the geometrical arrangement of the complex, and the position of the essential DNA-PKcs kinase domain, should lead to a greater understanding of the molecular events in DNA double-strand break repair following exposure to low doses of radiation.

  4. Long Patch Base Excision Repair Proceeds via Coordinated Stimulation of the Multienzyme DNA Repair Complex*

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Lata; Brandt, Patrick D.; Lindsey-Boltz, Laura A.; Sancar, Aziz; Bambara, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Base excision repair, a major repair pathway in mammalian cells, is responsible for correcting DNA base damage and maintaining genomic integrity. Recent reports show that the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 complex (9-1-1) stimulates enzymes proposed to perform a long patch-base excision repair sub-pathway (LP-BER), including DNA glycosylases, apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1), DNA polymerase β (pol β), flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1), and DNA ligase I (LigI). However, 9-1-1 was found to produce minimal stimulation of FEN1 and LigI in the context of a complete reconstitution of LP-BER. We show here that pol β is a robust stimulator of FEN1 and a moderate stimulator of LigI. Apparently, there is a maximum possible stimulation of these two proteins such that after responding to pol β or another protein in the repair complex, only a small additional response to 9-1-1 is allowed. The 9-1-1 sliding clamp structure must serve primarily to coordinate enzyme actions rather than enhancing rate. Significantly, stimulation by the polymerase involves interaction of primer terminus-bound pol β with FEN1 and LigI. This observation provides compelling evidence that the proposed LP-BER pathway is actually employed in cells. Moreover, this pathway has been proposed to function by sequential enzyme actions in a “hit and run” mechanism. Our results imply that this mechanism is still carried out, but in the context of a multienzyme complex that remains structurally intact during the repair process. PMID:19329425

  5. Recombinational DNA repair is regulated by compartmentalization of DNA lesions at the nuclear pore complex.

    PubMed

    Gli, Vincent; Lisby, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The nuclear pore complex (NPC) is emerging as a center for recruitment of a class of "difficult to repair" lesions such as double-strand breaks without a repair template and eroded telomeres in telomerase-deficient cells. In addition to such pathological situations, a recent study by Su and colleagues shows that also physiological threats to genome integrity such as DNA secondary structure-forming triplet repeat sequences relocalize to the NPC during DNA replication. Mutants that fail to reposition the triplet repeat locus to the NPC cause repeat instability. Here, we review the types of DNA lesions that relocalize to the NPC, the putative mechanisms of relocalization, and the types of recombinational repair that are stimulated by the NPC, and present a model for NPC-facilitated repair. PMID:26422820

  6. DNA repair.

    PubMed Central

    O'Neil, Nigel; Rose, Ann

    2006-01-01

    The integrity of the genome is essential to the health of the individual and to the reproductive success of a species. Transmission of genetic information is in a selective balance between two opposing forces, the maintenance of genetic stability versus elimination of mutational change and loss of evolutionary potential. Caenorhabditis elegans provides many advantages for the study of DNA surveillance and repair in a multicellular organism. Several genes have been identified by mutagenesis and RNA interference that affect DNA damage checkpoint and repair functions. Many of these DNA damage response genes also play essential roles in DNA replication, cell cycle control, development, meiosis and mitosis. To date, no obvious DNA damage-induced checkpoint has been described in C. elegans somatic cells. In contrast, the DNA damage response in the germ line is characterized by two spatially separate checkpoints; mitotic germ nuclei proliferation arrest and apoptosis of damaged meiotic nuclei. Both of these responses are regulated by checkpoint genes including mrt-2, hus-1, rad-5 and cep-1, the C. elegans ortholog of the human tumour suppressor p53. The germ line DNA damage checkpoints in C. elegans provide an excellent model in which to study the genes required to maintain genomic stability and to test compounds which might have tumor suppressing properties. In addition to single gene studies, integration of data from high-throughput screens has identified genes not previous implicated in the DNA damage response and elucidated novel connections between the different repair pathways. Most of the genes involved are conserved between worms and humans, and in humans, are associated with either oncogenesis or tumor-suppression. Thus, studies of the physical and functional interactions of the components of the repair pathways in C. elegans will provide information about human repair disorders and cancer predisposition. PMID:18050489

  7. Crystal Structures of DNA-Whirly Complexes and Their Role in Arabidopsis Organelle Genome Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Cappadocia, Laurent; Marchal, Alexandre; Parent, Jean-Sbastien; Lepage, tienne; Sygusch, Jurgen; Brisson, Normand

    2010-09-07

    DNA double-strand breaks are highly detrimental to all organisms and need to be quickly and accurately repaired. Although several proteins are known to maintain plastid and mitochondrial genome stability in plants, little is known about the mechanisms of DNA repair in these organelles and the roles of specific proteins. Here, using ciprofloxacin as a DNA damaging agent specific to the organelles, we show that plastids and mitochondria can repair DNA double-strand breaks through an error-prone pathway similar to the microhomology-mediated break-induced replication observed in humans, yeast, and bacteria. This pathway is negatively regulated by the single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding proteins from the Whirly family, thus indicating that these proteins could contribute to the accurate repair of plant organelle genomes. To understand the role of Whirly proteins in this process, we solved the crystal structures of several Whirly-DNA complexes. These reveal a nonsequence-specific ssDNA binding mechanism in which DNA is stabilized between domains of adjacent subunits and rendered unavailable for duplex formation and/or protein interactions. Our results suggest a model in which the binding of Whirly proteins to ssDNA would favor accurate repair of DNA double-strand breaks over an error-prone microhomology-mediated break-induced replication repair pathway.

  8. Dynamics of MutS-mismatched DNA complexes are predictive of their repair phenotypes.

    PubMed

    DeRocco, Vanessa C; Sass, Lauryn E; Qiu, Ruoyi; Weninger, Keith R; Erie, Dorothy A

    2014-04-01

    MutS recognizes base-base mismatches and base insertions/deletions (IDLs) in newly replicated DNA. Specific interactions between MutS and these errors trigger a cascade of protein-protein interactions that ultimately lead to their repair. The inability to explain why different DNA errors are repaired with widely varying efficiencies in vivo remains an outstanding example of our limited knowledge of this process. Here, we present single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer measurements of the DNA bending dynamics induced by Thermus aquaticus MutS and the E41A mutant of MutS, which is known to have error specific deficiencies in signaling repair. We compared three DNA mismatches/IDLs (T-bulge, GT, and CC) with repair efficiencies ranging from high to low. We identify three dominant DNA bending states [slightly bent/unbent (U), intermediately bent (I), and significantly bent (B)] and find that the kinetics of interconverting among states varies widely for different complexes. The increased stability of MutS-mismatch/IDL complexes is associated with stabilization of U and lowering of the B to U transition barrier. Destabilization of U is always accompanied by a destabilization of B, supporting the suggestion that B is a "required" precursor to U. Comparison of MutS and MutS-E41A dynamics on GT and the T-bulge suggests that hydrogen bonding to MutS facilitates the changes in base-base hydrogen bonding that are required to achieve the U state, which has been implicated in repair signaling. Taken together with repair propensities, our data suggest that the bending kinetics of MutS-mismatched DNA complexes may control the entry into functional pathways for downstream signaling of repair. PMID:24588663

  9. Sufficient amounts of functional HOP2/MND1 complex promote interhomolog DNA repair but are dispensable for intersister DNA repair during meiosis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Uanschou, Clemens; Ronceret, Arnaud; Von Harder, Mona; De Muyt, Arnaud; Vezon, Daniel; Pereira, Lucie; Chelysheva, Liudmila; Kobayashi, Wataru; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi; Schlögelhofer, Peter; Grelon, Mathilde

    2013-12-01

    During meiosis, homologous recombination (HR) is essential to repair programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), and a dedicated protein machinery ensures that the homologous chromosome is favored over the nearby sister chromatid as a repair template. The homologous-pairing protein2/meiotic nuclear division protein1 (HOP2/MND1) protein complex has been identified as a crucial factor of meiotic HR in Arabidopsis thaliana, since loss of either MND1 or HOP2 results in failure of DNA repair. We isolated two mutant alleles of HOP2 (hop2-2 and hop2-3) that retained the capacity to repair meiotic DSBs via the sister chromatid but failed to use the homologous chromosome. We show that in these alleles, the recombinases radiation sensitive51 (RAD51) and disrupted meiotic cDNA1 (DMC1) are loaded, but only the intersister DNA repair pathway is activated. The hop2-2 phenotype is correlated with a decrease in HOP2/MND1 complex abundance. In hop2-3, a truncated HOP2 protein is produced that retains its ability to bind to DMC1 and DNA but forms less stable complexes with MND1 and fails to efficiently stimulate DMC1-driven D-loop formation. Genetic analyses demonstrated that in the absence of DMC1, HOP2/MND1 is dispensable for RAD51-mediated intersister DNA repair, while in the presence of DMC1, a minimal amount of functional HOP2/MND1 is essential to drive intersister DNA repair. PMID:24363313

  10. Structure of the FANCI-FANCD2 Complex: Insights into the Fanconi Anemia DNA Repair Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Joo, Woo; Xu, Guozhou; Persky, Nicole S.; Smogorzewska, Agata; Rudge, Derek G.; Buzovetsky, Olga; Elledge, Stephen J.; Pavletich, Nikola P.

    2011-08-29

    Fanconi anemia is a cancer predisposition syndrome caused by defects in the repair of DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs). Central to this pathway is the Fanconi anemia I-Fanconi anemia D2 (FANCI-FANCD2) (ID) complex, which is activated by DNA damage-induced phosphorylation and monoubiquitination. The 3.4 angstrom crystal structure of the {approx}300 kilodalton ID complex reveals that monoubiquitination and regulatory phosphorylation sites map to the I-D interface, suggesting that they occur on monomeric proteins or an opened-up complex and that they may serve to stabilize I-D heterodimerization. The 7.8 angstrom electron-density map of FANCI-DNA crystals and in vitro data show that each protein has binding sites for both single- and double-stranded DNA, suggesting that the ID complex recognizes DNA structures that result from the encounter of replication forks with an ICL.

  11. Structure of the FANCI-FANCD2 Complex: Insights into the Fanconi Anemia DNA Repair Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    W Joo; G Xu; n Persky; A Smogorzewska; D Rudge; O Buzovetsky; S Elledge; N Pavletich

    2011-12-31

    Fanconi anemia is a cancer predisposition syndrome caused by defects in the repair of DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs). Central to this pathway is the Fanconi anemia I-Fanconi anemia D2 (FANCI-FANCD2) (ID) complex, which is activated by DNA damage-induced phosphorylation and monoubiquitination. The 3.4 angstrom crystal structure of the {approx}300 kilodalton ID complex reveals that monoubiquitination and regulatory phosphorylation sites map to the I-D interface, suggesting that they occur on monomeric proteins or an opened-up complex and that they may serve to stabilize I-D heterodimerization. The 7.8 angstrom electron-density map of FANCI-DNA crystals and in vitro data show that each protein has binding sites for both single- and double-stranded DNA, suggesting that the ID complex recognizes DNA structures that result from the encounter of replication forks with an ICL.

  12. hPso4/hPrp19: a critical component of DNA repair and DNA damage checkpoint complexes.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, K

    2016-05-01

    Genome integrity is vital to cellular homeostasis and its forfeiture is linked to deleterious consequences-cancer, immunodeficiency, genetic disorders and premature aging. The human ubiquitin ligase Pso4/Prp19 has emerged as a critical component of multiple DNA damage response (DDR) signaling networks. It not only senses DNA damage, binds double-stranded DNA in a sequence-independent manner, facilitates processing of damaged DNA, promotes DNA end joining, regulates replication protein A (RPA2) phosphorylation and ubiquitination at damaged DNA, but also regulates RNA splicing and mitotic spindle formation in its integral capacity as a scaffold for a multimeric core complex. Accordingly, by virtue of its regulatory and structural interactions with key proteins critical for genome integrity-DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair, DNA interstrand crosslink repair, repair of stalled replication forks and DNA end joining-it fills a unique niche in restoring genomic integrity after multiple types of DNA damage and thus has a vital role in maintaining chromatin integrity and cellular functions. These properties may underlie its ability to thwart replicative senescence and, not surprisingly, have been linked to the self-renewal and colony-forming ability of murine hematopoietic stem cells. This review highlights recent advances in hPso4 research that provides a fascinating glimpse into the pleiotropic activities of a ubiquitously expressed multifunctional E3 ubiquitin ligase. PMID:26364595

  13. Structural biology of DNA repair: spatial organisation of the multicomponent complexes of nonhomologous end joining.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Takashi; Sibanda, Bancinyane Lynn; Wu, Qian; Chirgadze, Dimitri Y; Bolanos-Garcia, Victor M; Blundell, Tom L

    2010-01-01

    Nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) plays a major role in double-strand break DNA repair, which involves a series of steps mediated by multiprotein complexes. A ring-shaped Ku70/Ku80 heterodimer forms first at broken DNA ends, DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) binds to mediate synapsis and nucleases process DNA overhangs. DNA ligase IV (LigIV) is recruited as a complex with XRCC4 for ligation, with XLF/Cernunnos, playing a role in enhancing activity of LigIV. We describe how a combination of methods-X-ray crystallography, electron microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering-can give insights into the transient multicomponent complexes that mediate NHEJ. We first consider the organisation of DNA-PKcs/Ku70/Ku80/DNA complex (DNA-PK) and then discuss emerging evidence concerning LigIV/XRCC4/XLF/DNA and higher-order complexes. We conclude by discussing roles of multiprotein systems in maintaining high signal-to-noise and the value of structural studies in developing new therapies in oncology and elsewhere. PMID:20862368

  14. Coevolution between Nuclear-Encoded DNA Replication, Recombination, and Repair Genes and Plastid Genome Complexity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Ruhlman, Tracey A; Sabir, Jamal S M; Blazier, John Chris; Weng, Mao-Lun; Park, Seongjun; Jansen, Robert K

    2016-01-01

    Disruption of DNA replication, recombination, and repair (DNA-RRR) systems has been hypothesized to cause highly elevated nucleotide substitution rates and genome rearrangements in the plastids of angiosperms, but this theory remains untested. To investigate nuclear-plastid genome (plastome) coevolution in Geraniaceae, four different measures of plastome complexity (rearrangements, repeats, nucleotide insertions/deletions, and substitution rates) were evaluated along with substitution rates of 12 nuclear-encoded, plastid-targeted DNA-RRR genes from 27 Geraniales species. Significant correlations were detected for nonsynonymous (dN) but not synonymous (dS) substitution rates for three DNA-RRR genes (uvrB/C, why1, and gyrA) supporting a role for these genes in accelerated plastid genome evolution in Geraniaceae. Furthermore, correlation between dN of uvrB/C and plastome complexity suggests the presence of nucleotide excision repair system in plastids. Significant correlations were also detected between plastome complexity and 13 of the 90 nuclear-encoded organelle-targeted genes investigated. Comparisons revealed significant acceleration of dN in plastid-targeted genes of Geraniales relative to Brassicales suggesting this correlation may be an artifact of elevated rates in this gene set in Geraniaceae. Correlation between dN of plastid-targeted DNA-RRR genes and plastome complexity supports the hypothesis that the aberrant patterns in angiosperm plastome evolution could be caused by dysfunction in DNA-RRR systems. PMID:26893456

  15. Coevolution between Nuclear-Encoded DNA Replication, Recombination, and Repair Genes and Plastid Genome Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin; Ruhlman, Tracey A.; Sabir, Jamal S. M.; Blazier, John Chris; Weng, Mao-Lun; Park, Seongjun; Jansen, Robert K.

    2016-01-01

    Disruption of DNA replication, recombination, and repair (DNA-RRR) systems has been hypothesized to cause highly elevated nucleotide substitution rates and genome rearrangements in the plastids of angiosperms, but this theory remains untested. To investigate nuclear–plastid genome (plastome) coevolution in Geraniaceae, four different measures of plastome complexity (rearrangements, repeats, nucleotide insertions/deletions, and substitution rates) were evaluated along with substitution rates of 12 nuclear-encoded, plastid-targeted DNA-RRR genes from 27 Geraniales species. Significant correlations were detected for nonsynonymous (dN) but not synonymous (dS) substitution rates for three DNA-RRR genes (uvrB/C, why1, and gyrA) supporting a role for these genes in accelerated plastid genome evolution in Geraniaceae. Furthermore, correlation between dN of uvrB/C and plastome complexity suggests the presence of nucleotide excision repair system in plastids. Significant correlations were also detected between plastome complexity and 13 of the 90 nuclear-encoded organelle-targeted genes investigated. Comparisons revealed significant acceleration of dN in plastid-targeted genes of Geraniales relative to Brassicales suggesting this correlation may be an artifact of elevated rates in this gene set in Geraniaceae. Correlation between dN of plastid-targeted DNA-RRR genes and plastome complexity supports the hypothesis that the aberrant patterns in angiosperm plastome evolution could be caused by dysfunction in DNA-RRR systems. PMID:26893456

  16. Architecture of the human XPC DNA repair and stem cell coactivator complex.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Elisa T; He, Yuan; Grob, Patricia; Fong, Yick W; Nogales, Eva; Tjian, Robert

    2015-12-01

    The Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C (XPC) complex is a versatile factor involved in both nucleotide excision repair and transcriptional coactivation as a critical component of the NANOG, OCT4, and SOX2 pluripotency gene regulatory network. Here we present the structure of the human holo-XPC complex determined by single-particle electron microscopy to reveal a flexible, ear-shaped structure that undergoes localized loss of order upon DNA binding. We also determined the structure of the complete yeast homolog Rad4 holo-complex to find a similar overall architecture to the human complex, consistent with their shared DNA repair functions. Localized differences between these structures reflect an intriguing phylogenetic divergence in transcriptional capabilities that we present here. Having positioned the constituent subunits by tagging and deletion, we propose a model of key interaction interfaces that reveals the structural basis for this difference in functional conservation. Together, our findings establish a framework for understanding the structure-function relationships of the XPC complex in the interplay between transcription and DNA repair. PMID:26627236

  17. Spermatogenesis, DNA damage and DNA repair mechanisms in male infertility.

    PubMed

    Gunes, Sezgin; Al-Sadaan, Maha; Agarwal, Ashok

    2015-09-01

    Spermatogenesis is a complex process of proliferation and differentiation during male germ cell development involving mitosis, meiosis and spermiogenesis. Endogenous and exogenous physical, chemical and biological sources modify the genome of spermatozoa. The genomic integrity and stability of the sperm is protected by DNA repair mechanisms. In the male germline cells, DNA repair mechanisms include nucleotide excision repair, base excision repair, DNA mismatch repair, double strand break repair and post-replication repair. Defects in repair mechanisms cause arrest of spermatogenesis and abnormal recombination, ultimately resulting in male infertility. This review focuses on molecular mechanisms of the DNA repair pathways, DNA repair defects and male infertility. PMID:26206278

  18. Structure of UvrA nucleotide excision repair protein in complex with modified DNA

    PubMed Central

    Jaciuk, Marcin; Nowak, Elżbieta; Skowronek, Krzysztof; Tańska, Anna; Nowotny, Marcin

    2012-01-01

    One of the primary pathways for removal of DNA damage is nucleotide excision repair (NER). In bacteria, the UvrA protein is the component of NER that locates the lesion. A notable feature of NER is its ability to act on many DNA modifications that vary in chemical structure. So far, the mechanism underlying this broad specificity has been unclear. Here, we report the first crystal structure of a UvrA protein in complex with a chemically modified oligonucleotide. The structure shows that the UvrA dimer does not contact the site of lesion directly, but rather binds the DNA regions on both sides of the modification. The DNA region harboring the modification is deformed, with the double helix bent and unwound. UvrA uses damage-induced deformations of the DNA and a less rigid structure of the modified double helix for indirect readout of the lesion. PMID:21240268

  19. Chromatin modifications in DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Ashby J; Shen, Xuetong

    2006-01-01

    A requirement of nuclear processes that use DNA as a substrate is the manipulation of chromatin in which the DNA is packaged. Chromatin modifications cause alterations of histones and DNA, and result in a permissive chromatin environment for these nuclear processes. Recent advances in the fields of DNA repair and chromatin reveal that both histone modifications and chromatin-remodeling complexes are essential for the repair of DNA lesions, such as DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). In particular, chromatin-modifying complexes, such as the INO80, SWR1, RSC, and SWI/SNF ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complexes and the NuA4 and Tip60 histone acetyltransferase complexes are implicated in DNA repair. The activity of these chromatin-modifying complexes influences the efficiency of the DNA repair process, which ultimately affects genome integrity and carcinogenesis. Thus, the process of DNA repair requires the cooperative activities of evolutionarily conserved chromatin-modifying complexes that facilitate the dynamic chromatin alterations needed during repair of DNA damage. PMID:16909893

  20. Comparative Analysis of Interaction of Human and Yeast DNA Damage Recognition Complexes with Damaged DNA in Nucleotide Excision Repair*

    PubMed Central

    Krasikova, Yuliya S.; Rechkunova, Nadejda I.; Maltseva, Ekaterina A.; Pestryakov, Pavel E.; Petruseva, Irina O.; Sugasawa, Kaoru; Chen, Xuejing; Min, Jung-Hyun; Lavrik, Olga I.

    2013-01-01

    The human XPC-RAD23B complex and its yeast ortholog, Rad4-Rad23, are the primary initiators of global genome nucleotide excision repair. The interaction of these proteins with damaged DNA was analyzed using model DNA duplexes containing a single fluorescein-substituted dUMP analog as a lesion. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed similarity between human and yeast proteins in DNA binding. Quantitative analyses of XPC/Rad4 binding to the model DNA structures were performed by fluorescent depolarization measurements. XPC-RAD23B and Rad4-Rad23 proteins demonstrate approximately equal binding affinity to the damaged DNA duplex (KD ? (0.5 0.1) and (0.6 0.3) nm, respectively). Using photoreactive DNA containing 5-iodo-dUMP in defined positions, XPC/Rad4 location on damaged DNA was shown. Under conditions of equimolar binding to DNA both proteins exhibited the highest level of cross-links to 5I-dUMP located exactly opposite the damaged nucleotide. The positioning of the XPC and Rad4 proteins on damaged DNA by photocross-linking footprinting is consistent with x-ray analysis of the Rad4-DNA crystal complex. The identity of the XPC and Rad4 location illustrates the common principles of structure organization of DNA damage-scanning proteins from different Eukarya organisms. PMID:23443653

  1. Quantitative characterization of protein–protein complexes involved in base excision DNA repair

    PubMed Central

    Moor, Nina A.; Vasil'eva, Inna A.; Anarbaev, Rashid O.; Antson, Alfred A.; Lavrik, Olga I.

    2015-01-01

    Base Excision Repair (BER) efficiently corrects the most common types of DNA damage in mammalian cells. Step-by-step coordination of BER is facilitated by multiple interactions between enzymes and accessory proteins involved. Here we characterize quantitatively a number of complexes formed by DNA polymerase β (Polβ), apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1), poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 1 (XRCC1) and tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (TDP1), using fluorescence- and light scattering-based techniques. Direct physical interactions between the APE1-Polβ, APE1-TDP1, APE1-PARP1 and Polβ-TDP1 pairs have been detected and characterized for the first time. The combined results provide strong evidence that the most stable complex is formed between XRCC1 and Polβ. Model DNA intermediates of BER are shown to induce significant rearrangement of the Polβ complexes with XRCC1 and PARP1, while having no detectable influence on the protein–protein binding affinities. The strength of APE1 interaction with Polβ, XRCC1 and PARP1 is revealed to be modulated by BER intermediates to different extents, depending on the type of DNA damage. The affinity of APE1 for Polβ is higher in the complex with abasic site-containing DNA than after the APE1-catalyzed incision. Our findings advance understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying coordination and regulation of the BER process. PMID:26013813

  2. UV-induced ubiquitylation of XPC complex, the UV-DDB-ubiquitin ligase complex, and DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Sugasawa, Kaoru

    2006-09-01

    The DNA nucleotide excision repair (NER) system is our major defense against carcinogenesis. Defects in NER are associated with several human genetic disorders including xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), which is characterized by a marked predisposition to skin cancer. For initiation of the repair reaction at the genome-wide level, a complex containing one of the gene products involved in XP, the XPC protein, must bind to the damaged DNA site. The UV-damaged DNA-binding protein (UV-DDB), which is impaired in XP group E patients, has also been implicated in damage recognition in global genomic NER, but its precise functions and its relationship to the XPC complex have not been elucidated. However, the recent discovery of the association of UV-DDB with a cullin-based ubiquitin ligase has functionally linked the two damage recognition factors and shed light on novel mechanistic and regulatory aspects of global genomic NER. This article summarizes our current knowledge of the properties of the XPC complex and UV-DDB and discusses possible roles for ubiquitylation in the molecular mechanisms that underlie the efficient recognition and repair of DNA damage, particularly that induced by ultraviolet light irradiation, in preventing damage-induced mutagenesis as well as carcinogenesis. PMID:16858626

  3. DNA Mismatch Repair

    PubMed Central

    MARINUS, M. G.

    2014-01-01

    DNA mismatch repair functions to correct replication errors in newly synthesized DNA and to prevent recombination between related, but not identical (homeologous), DNA sequences. The mechanism of mismatch repair is best understood in Escherichia coli and is the main focus of this review. The early genetic studies of mismatch repair are described as a basis for the subsequent biochemical characterization of the system. The effects of mismatch repair on homologous and homeologous recombination are described. The relationship of mismatch repair to cell toxicity induced by various drugs is included. The VSP (Very Short Patch) repair system is described in detail. PMID:26442827

  4. DNA excision repair

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Michael G.; Sancar, Aziz

    2012-01-01

    Exposure of cells to UV light from the sun causes the formation of pyrimidine dimers in DNA that have the potential to lead to mutation and cancer. In humans, pyrimidine dimers are removed from the genome in the form of ~30 nt-long oligomers by concerted dual incisions. Though nearly 50 y of excision repair research has uncovered many details of UV photoproduct damage recognition and removal, the fate of the excised oligonucleotides and, in particular, the ultimate fate of the chemically very stable pyrimidine dimers remain unknown. Physiologically relevant UV doses introduce hundreds of thousands of pyrimidine dimers in diploid human cells, which are excised from the genome within ~24 h. Once removed from the genome, “where do all the dimers go?” In a recent study we addressed this question. Although our study did not determine the fate of the dimer itself, it revealed that the excised ~30-mer is released from the duplex in a tight complex with the transcription/repair factor TFIIH. This finding combined with recent reports that base and oligonucleotide products of the base and double-strand break repair pathways also make stable complexes with the cognate repair enzymes, and that these complexes activate the MAP kinase and checkpoint signaling pathways, respectively, raises the possibility that TFIIH-30-mer excision complexes may play a role in signaling reactions in response to UV damage. PMID:22825251

  5. 53BP1 and the LINC Complex Promote Microtubule-Dependent DSB Mobility and DNA Repair.

    PubMed

    Lottersberger, Francisca; Karssemeijer, Roos Anna; Dimitrova, Nadya; de Lange, Titia

    2015-11-01

    Increased mobility of chromatin surrounding double-strand breaks (DSBs) has been noted in yeast and mammalian cells but the underlying mechanism and its contribution to DSB repair remain unclear. Here, we use a telomere-based system to track DNA damage foci with high resolution in living cells. We find that the greater mobility of damaged chromatin requires 53BP1, SUN1/2 in the linker of the nucleoskeleton, and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex and dynamic microtubules. The data further demonstrate that the excursions promote non-homologous end joining of dysfunctional telomeres and implicated Nesprin-4 and kinesins in telomere fusion. 53BP1/LINC/microtubule-dependent mobility is also evident at irradiation-induced DSBs and contributes to the mis-rejoining of drug-induced DSBs in BRCA1-deficient cells showing that DSB mobility can be detrimental in cells with numerous DSBs. In contrast, under physiological conditions where cells have only one or a few lesions, DSB mobility is proposed to prevent errors in DNA repair. PMID:26544937

  6. Advances in Understanding the Complex Mechanisms of DNA Interstrand Cross-Link Repair

    PubMed Central

    Clauson, Cheryl; Schrer, Orlando D.; Niedernhofer, Laura

    2013-01-01

    DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs) are lesions caused by a variety of endogenous metabolites, environmental exposures, and cancer chemotherapeutic agents that have two reactive groups. The common feature of these diverse lesions is that two nucleotides on opposite strands are covalently joined. ICLs prevent the separation of two DNA strands and therefore essential cellular processes including DNA replication and transcription. ICLs are mainly detected in S phase when a replication fork stalls at an ICL. Damage signaling and repair of ICLs are promoted by the Fanconi anemia pathway and numerous posttranslational modifications of DNA repair and chromatin structural proteins. ICLs are also detected and repaired in nonreplicating cells, although the mechanism is less clear. A unique feature of ICL repair is that both strands of DNA must be incised to completely remove the lesion. This is accomplished in sequential steps to prevent creating multiple double-strand breaks. Unhooking of an ICL from one strand is followed by translesion synthesis to fill the gap and create an intact duplex DNA, harboring a remnant of the ICL. Removal of the lesion from the second strand is likely accomplished by nucleotide excision repair. Inadequate repair of ICLs is particularly detrimental to rapidly dividing cells, explaining the bone marrow failure characteristic of Fanconi anemia and why cross-linking agents are efficacious in cancer therapy. Herein, recent advances in our understanding of ICLs and the biological responses they trigger are discussed. PMID:24086043

  7. DNA repair in mammalian embryos.

    PubMed

    Jaroudi, Souraya; SenGupta, Sioban

    2007-01-01

    Mammalian cells have developed complex mechanisms to identify DNA damage and activate the required response to maintain genome integrity. Those mechanisms include DNA damage detection, DNA repair, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis which operate together to protect the conceptus from DNA damage originating either in parental gametes or in the embryo's somatic cells. DNA repair in the newly fertilized preimplantation embryo is believed to rely entirely on the oocyte's machinery (mRNAs and proteins deposited and stored prior to ovulation). DNA repair genes have been shown to be expressed in the early stages of mammalian development. The survival of the embryo necessitates that the oocyte be sufficiently equipped with maternal stored products and that embryonic gene expression commences at the correct time. A Medline based literature search was performed using the keywords 'DNA repair' and 'embryo development' or 'gametogenesis' (publication dates between 1995 and 2006). Mammalian studies which investigated gene expression were selected. Further articles were acquired from the citations in the articles obtained from the preliminary Medline search. This paper reviews mammalian DNA repair from gametogenesis to preimplantation embryos to late gestational stages. PMID:17141556

  8. Sequential and ordered assembly of a large DNA repair complex on undamaged chromatin.

    PubMed

    Ziani, Salim; Nagy, Zita; Alekseev, Sergey; Soutoglou, Evi; Egly, Jean-Marc; Coin, Frédéric

    2014-09-01

    In nucleotide excision repair (NER), damage recognition by XPC-hHR23b is described as a critical step in the formation of the preincision complex (PInC) further composed of TFIIH, XPA, RPA, XPG, and ERCC1-XPF. To obtain new molecular insights into the assembly of the PInC, we analyzed its formation independently of DNA damage by using the lactose operator/repressor reporter system. We observed a sequential and ordered self-assembly of the PInC operating upon immobilization of individual NER factors on undamaged chromatin and mimicking that functioning on a bona fide NER substrate. We also revealed that the recruitment of the TFIIH subunit TTDA, involved in trichothiodystrophy group A disorder (TTD-A), was key in the completion of the PInC. TTDA recruits XPA through its first 15 amino acids, depleted in some TTD-A patients. More generally, these results show that proteins forming large nuclear complexes can be recruited sequentially on chromatin in the absence of their natural DNA target and with no reciprocity in their recruitment. PMID:25154395

  9. Identification and Dissection of a Complex DNA Repair Sensitivity Phenotype in Baker's Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Demogines, Ann; Smith, Erin; Kruglyak, Leonid; Alani, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Complex traits typically involve the contribution of multiple gene variants. In this study, we took advantage of a high-density genotyping analysis of the BY (S288c) and RM strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and of 123 derived spore progeny to identify the genetic loci that underlie a complex DNA repair sensitivity phenotype. This was accomplished by screening hybrid yeast progeny for sensitivity to a variety of DNA damaging agents. Both the BY and RM strains are resistant to the ultraviolet lightmimetic agent 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO); however, hybrid progeny from a BYRM cross displayed varying sensitivities to the drug. We mapped a major quantitative trait locus (QTL), RAD5, and identified the exact polymorphism within this locus responsible for 4-NQO sensitivity. By using a backcrossing strategy along with array-assisted bulk segregant analysis, we identified one other locus, MKT1, and a QTL on Chromosome VII that also link to the hybrid 4-NQOsensitive phenotype but confer more minor effects. This work suggests an additive model for sensitivity to 4-NQO and provides a strategy for mapping both major and minor QTL that confer background-specific phenotypes. It also provides tools for understanding the effect of genetic background on sensitivity to genotoxic agents. PMID:18617998

  10. Sequential and ordered assembly of a large DNA repair complex on undamaged chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Ziani, Salim; Nagy, Zita; Alekseev, Sergey; Soutoglou, Evi; Egly, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    In nucleotide excision repair (NER), damage recognition by XPC-hHR23b is described as a critical step in the formation of the preincision complex (PInC) further composed of TFIIH, XPA, RPA, XPG, and ERCC1-XPF. To obtain new molecular insights into the assembly of the PInC, we analyzed its formation independently of DNA damage by using the lactose operator/repressor reporter system. We observed a sequential and ordered self-assembly of the PInC operating upon immobilization of individual NER factors on undamaged chromatin and mimicking that functioning on a bona fide NER substrate. We also revealed that the recruitment of the TFIIH subunit TTDA, involved in trichothiodystrophy group A disorder (TTD-A), was key in the completion of the PInC. TTDA recruits XPA through its first 15 amino acids, depleted in some TTD-A patients. More generally, these results show that proteins forming large nuclear complexes can be recruited sequentially on chromatin in the absence of their natural DNA target and with no reciprocity in their recruitment. PMID:25154395

  11. Celebrating DNA's Repair Crew.

    PubMed

    Kunkel, Thomas A

    2015-12-01

    This year, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry has been awarded to Tomas Lindahl, Aziz Sancar, and Paul Modrich for their seminal studies of the mechanisms by which cells from bacteria to man repair DNA damage that is generated by normal cellular metabolism and stress from the environment. These studies beautifully illustrate the remarkable power of DNA repair to influence life from evolution through disease susceptibility. PMID:26638062

  12. Photoaging and DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Moriwaki, Shinichi; Takahashi, Yoshito

    2008-06-01

    The incidence of sunlight-induced skin changes (photoaged skin, skin carcinogenesis) increases with increasing age and it is thought to be associated with an accumulation of mutations in skin cells. These mutations are mainly caused by UV exposure. The reactive oxygen species produced in UV-exposed skin can cause various kinds of DNA damages e.g., 8-oxoguanine, which are primarily repaired by the base excision repair (BER) system. In addition, UV can directly cause DNA damages; cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) and pyrimidine-pyrimidone (6-4) photoproducts (6-4PP), both of which can be repaired by the nucleotide excision repair (NER) system. There have been several reports showing an age-related reduction in the DNA repair capacity in the NER, BER, and other repair systems, which contributes to the phenotypes of aging. To clarify the mechanism of skin aging, we examined the NER of skin fibroblasts from healthy donors of different ages. In a host cell reactivation assay, the cells from elderly donors exhibited a significant decline in the ability to restore transfected reporter DNA damaged by UV. In contrast, the ability to remove CPD and 6-4PP declined little with age, as assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mRNA expression of DNA repair synthesis-related genes was markedly decreased in the cells from elderly subjects as compared with those from young subjects. These results imply that the age-sensitive step took place after the damage excision in the NER, and that there is an impairment of the latter step of the NER in aging. Based on our data, as well as other reports, the reduced post-UV DNA repair capacity in aging resulting in an accumulation of UV-induced DNA damage is thus considered to be associated with the phenotypes of photoaged skin. PMID:17920816

  13. DNA damage response: three levels of DNA repair regulation.

    PubMed

    Sirbu, Bianca M; Cortez, David

    2013-08-01

    Genome integrity is challenged by DNA damage from both endogenous and environmental sources. This damage must be repaired to allow both RNA and DNA polymerases to accurately read and duplicate the information in the genome. Multiple repair enzymes scan the DNA for problems, remove the offending damage, and restore the DNA duplex. These repair mechanisms are regulated by DNA damage response kinases including DNA-PKcs, ATM, and ATR that are activated at DNA lesions. These kinases improve the efficiency of DNA repair by phosphorylating repair proteins to modify their activities, by initiating a complex series of changes in the local chromatin structure near the damage site, and by altering the overall cellular environment to make it more conducive to repair. In this review, we focus on these three levels of regulation to illustrate how the DNA damage kinases promote efficient repair to maintain genome integrity and prevent disease. PMID:23813586

  14. DNA Damage Response: Three Levels of DNA Repair Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Sirbu, Bianca M.; Cortez, David

    2013-01-01

    Genome integrity is challenged by DNA damage from both endogenous and environmental sources. This damage must be repaired to allow both RNA and DNA polymerases to accurately read and duplicate the information in the genome. Multiple repair enzymes scan the DNA for problems, remove the offending damage, and restore the DNA duplex. These repair mechanisms are regulated by DNA damage response kinases including DNA-PKcs, ATM, and ATR that are activated at DNA lesions. These kinases improve the efficiency of DNA repair by phosphorylating repair proteins to modify their activities, by initiating a complex series of changes in the local chromatin structure near the damage site, and by altering the overall cellular environment to make it more conducive to repair. In this review, we focus on these three levels of regulation to illustrate how the DNA damage kinases promote efficient repair to maintain genome integrity and prevent disease. PMID:23813586

  15. Crystal structures of catalytic complexes of the oxidative DNA/RNA repair enzyme AlkB

    SciTech Connect

    Yu,B.; Edstrom, W.; Benach, J.; Hamuro, Y.; Weber, P.; Gibney, B.; Hunt, J.

    2006-01-01

    Nucleic acid damage by environmental and endogenous alkylation reagents creates lesions that are both mutagenic and cytotoxic, with the latter effect accounting for their widespread use in clinical cancer chemotherapy. Escherichia coliAlkB and the homologous human proteins ABH2 and ABH3 (refs 5, 7) promiscuously repair DNA and RNA bases damaged by SN2 alkylation reagents, which attach hydrocarbons to endocyclic ring nitrogen atoms (N1 of adenine and guanine and N3 of thymine and cytosine). Although the role of AlkB in DNA repair has long been established based on phenotypic studies, its exact biochemical activity was only elucidated recently after sequence profile analysis revealed it to be a member of the Fe-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase superfamily. These enzymes use an Fe(ii) cofactor and 2-oxoglutarate co-substrate to oxidize organic substrates. AlkB hydroxylates an alkylated nucleotide base to produce an unstable product that releases an aldehyde to regenerate the unmodified base. Here we have determined crystal structures of substrate and product complexes of E. coli AlkB at resolutions from 1.8 to 2.3 Angstroms. Whereas the Fe-2-oxoglutarate dioxygenase core matches that in other superfamily members, a unique subdomain holds a methylated trinucleotide substrate into the active site through contacts to the polynucleotide backbone. Amide hydrogen exchange studies and crystallographic analyses suggest that this substrate-binding 'lid' is conformationally flexible, which may enable docking of diverse alkylated nucleotide substrates in optimal catalytic geometry. Different crystal structures show open and closed states of a tunnel putatively gating O2 diffusion into the active site. Exposing crystals of the anaerobic Michaelis complex to air yields slow but substantial oxidation of 2-oxoglutarate that is inefficiently coupled to nucleotide oxidation. These observations suggest that protein dynamics modulate redox chemistry and that a hypothesized migration of the reactive oxy-ferryl ligand on the catalytic Fe ion may be impeded when the protein is constrained in the crystal lattice.

  16. Cdk1-dependent regulation of the Mre11 complex couples DNA repair pathways to cell cycle progression

    PubMed Central

    Simoneau, Antoine; Robellet, Xavier; Ladouceur, Anne-Marie; D’Amours, Damien

    2014-01-01

    Homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) are the main pathways ensuring the repair of DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) in eukaryotes. It has long been known that cell cycle stage is a major determinant of the type of pathway used to repair DSBs in vivo. However, the mechanistic basis for the cell cycle regulation of the DNA damage response is still unclear. Here we show that a major DSB sensor, the Mre11–Rad50–Xrs2 (MRX) complex, is regulated by cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation specifically in mitosis. This modification depends on the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdc28/Cdk1, and abrogation of Xrs2 and Mre11 phosphorylation results in a marked preference for DSB repair through NHEJ. Importantly, we show that phosphorylation of the MRX complex after DNA damage and during mitosis are regulated independently of each other by Tel1/ATM and Cdc28/Cdk1 kinases. Collectively, our results unravel an intricate network of phosphoregulatory mechanisms that act through the MRX complex to modulate DSB repair efficiency during mitosis. PMID:24553123

  17. ATM protein is indispensable to repair complex-type DNA double strand breaks induced by high LET heavy ion irradiation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekine, Emiko; Yu, Dong; Fujimori, Akira; Anzai, Kazunori; Okayasu, Ryuichi

    ATM (ataxia telangiectasia-mutated) protein responsible for a rare genetic disease with hyperradiosensitivity, is the one of the earliest repair proteins sensing DNA double-strand breaks (DSB). ATM is known to phosphorylate DNA repair proteins such as MRN complex (Mre11, Rad50 and NBS1), 53BP1, Artemis, Brca1, gamma-H2AX, and MDC. We studied the interactions between ATM and DNA-PKcs, a crucial NHEJ repair protein, after cells exposure to high and low LET irradiation. Normal human (HFL III, MRC5VA) and AT homozygote (AT2KY, AT5BIVA, AT3BIVA) cells were irradiated with X-rays and high LET radiation (carbon ions: 290MeV/n initial energy at 70 keV/um, and iron ions: 500MeV/n initial energy at 200KeV/um), and several critical end points were examined. AT cells with high LET irradiation showed a significantly higher radiosensitivity when compared with normal cells. The behavior of DNA DSB repair was monitored by immuno-fluorescence techniques using DNA-PKcs (pThr2609, pSer2056) and ATM (pSer1981) antibodies. In normal cells, the phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs was clearly detected after high LET irradiation, though the peak of phosphorylation was delayed when compared to X-irradiation. In contrast, almost no DNA-PKcs phosphorylation foci were detected in AT cells irradiated with high LET radiation. A similar result was also observed in normal cells treated with 10 uM ATM kinase specific inhibitor (KU55933) one hour before irradiation. These data suggest that the phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs with low LET X-rays is mostly ATM-independent, and the phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs with high LET radiation seems to require ATM probably due to its complex nature of DSB induced. Our study indicates that high LET heavy ion irradiation which we can observe in the space environment would provide a useful tool to study the fundamental mechanism associated with DNA DSB repair.

  18. Twist-open mechanism of DNA damage recognition by the Rad4/XPC nucleotide excision repair complex

    PubMed Central

    Velmurugu, Yogambigai; Chen, Xuejing; Slogoff Sevilla, Phillip; Min, Jung-Hyun; Ansari, Anjum

    2016-01-01

    DNA damage repair starts with the recognition of damaged sites from predominantly normal DNA. In eukaryotes, diverse DNA lesions from environmental sources are recognized by the xeroderma pigmentosum C (XPC) nucleotide excision repair complex. Studies of Rad4 (radiation-sensitive 4; yeast XPC ortholog) showed that Rad4 “opens” up damaged DNA by inserting a β-hairpin into the duplex and flipping out two damage-containing nucleotide pairs. However, this DNA lesion “opening” is slow (˜5–10 ms) compared with typical submillisecond residence times per base pair site reported for various DNA-binding proteins during 1D diffusion on DNA. To address the mystery as to how Rad4 pauses to recognize lesions during diffusional search, we examine conformational dynamics along the lesion recognition trajectory using temperature-jump spectroscopy. Besides identifying the ˜10-ms step as the rate-limiting bottleneck towards opening specific DNA site, we uncover an earlier ˜100- to 500-μs step that we assign to nonspecific deformation (unwinding/“twisting”) of DNA by Rad4. The β-hairpin is not required to unwind or to overcome the bottleneck but is essential for full nucleotide-flipping. We propose that Rad4 recognizes lesions in a step-wise “twist-open” mechanism, in which preliminary twisting represents Rad4 interconverting between search and interrogation modes. Through such conformational switches compatible with rapid diffusion on DNA, Rad4 may stall preferentially at a lesion site, offering time to open DNA. This study represents the first direct observation, to our knowledge, of dynamical DNA distortions during search/interrogation beyond base pair breathing. Submillisecond interrogation with preferential stalling at cognate sites may be common to various DNA-binding proteins. PMID:27035942

  19. Twist-open mechanism of DNA damage recognition by the Rad4/XPC nucleotide excision repair complex.

    PubMed

    Velmurugu, Yogambigai; Chen, Xuejing; Slogoff Sevilla, Phillip; Min, Jung-Hyun; Ansari, Anjum

    2016-04-19

    DNA damage repair starts with the recognition of damaged sites from predominantly normal DNA. In eukaryotes, diverse DNA lesions from environmental sources are recognized by the xeroderma pigmentosum C (XPC) nucleotide excision repair complex. Studies of Rad4 (radiation-sensitive 4; yeast XPC ortholog) showed that Rad4 "opens" up damaged DNA by inserting a β-hairpin into the duplex and flipping out two damage-containing nucleotide pairs. However, this DNA lesion "opening" is slow (˜5-10 ms) compared with typical submillisecond residence times per base pair site reported for various DNA-binding proteins during 1D diffusion on DNA. To address the mystery as to how Rad4 pauses to recognize lesions during diffusional search, we examine conformational dynamics along the lesion recognition trajectory using temperature-jump spectroscopy. Besides identifying the ˜10-ms step as the rate-limiting bottleneck towards opening specific DNA site, we uncover an earlier ˜100- to 500-μs step that we assign to nonspecific deformation (unwinding/"twisting") of DNA by Rad4. The β-hairpin is not required to unwind or to overcome the bottleneck but is essential for full nucleotide-flipping. We propose that Rad4 recognizes lesions in a step-wise "twist-open" mechanism, in which preliminary twisting represents Rad4 interconverting between search and interrogation modes. Through such conformational switches compatible with rapid diffusion on DNA, Rad4 may stall preferentially at a lesion site, offering time to open DNA. This study represents the first direct observation, to our knowledge, of dynamical DNA distortions during search/interrogation beyond base pair breathing. Submillisecond interrogation with preferential stalling at cognate sites may be common to various DNA-binding proteins. PMID:27035942

  20. The Ino80 chromatin-remodeling complex restores chromatin structure during UV DNA damage repair

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Sovan; Kiely, Rhian

    2010-01-01

    Chromatin structure is modulated during deoxyribonucleic acid excision repair, but how this is achieved is unclear. Loss of the yeast Ino80 chromatin-remodeling complex (Ino80-C) moderately sensitizes cells to ultraviolet (UV) light. In this paper, we show that INO80 acts in the same genetic pathway as nucleotide excision repair (NER) and that the Ino80-C contributes to efficient UV photoproduct removal in a region of high nucleosome occupancy. Moreover, Ino80 interacts with the early NER damage recognition complex Rad4–Rad23 and is recruited to chromatin by Rad4 in a UV damage–dependent manner. Using a modified chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, we find that chromatin disruption during UV lesion repair is normal, whereas the restoration of nucleosome structure is defective in ino80 mutant cells. Collectively, our work suggests that Ino80 is recruited to sites of UV lesion repair through interactions with the NER apparatus and is required for the restoration of chromatin structure after repair. PMID:21135142

  1. DNA end resection is needed for the repair of complex lesions in G1-phase human cells.

    PubMed

    Averbeck, Nicole B; Ringel, Oliver; Herrlitz, Maren; Jakob, Burkhard; Durante, Marco; Taucher-Scholz, Gisela

    2014-01-01

    Repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) is influenced by the chemical complexity of the lesion. Clustered lesions (complex DSBs) are generally considered more difficult to repair and responsible for early and late cellular effects after exposure to genotoxic agents. Resection is commonly used by the cells as part of the homologous recombination (HR) pathway in S- and G2-phase. In contrast, DNA resection in G1-phase may lead to an error-prone microhomology-mediated end joining. We induced DNA lesions with a wide range of complexity by irradiation of mammalian cells with X-rays or accelerated ions of different velocity and mass. We found replication protein A (RPA) foci indicating DSB resection both in S/G2- and G1-cells, and the fraction of resection-positive cells correlates with the severity of lesion complexity throughout the cell cycle. Besides RPA, Ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) was recruited to complex DSBs both in S/G2- and G1-cells. Resection of complex DSBs is driven by meiotic recombination 11 homolog A (MRE11), CTBP-interacting protein (CtIP), and exonuclease 1 (EXO1) but seems not controlled by the Ku heterodimer or by phosphorylation of H2AX. Reduced resection capacity by CtIP depletion increased cell killing and the fraction of unrepaired DSBs after exposure to densely ionizing heavy ions, but not to X-rays. We conclude that in mammalian cells resection is essential for repair of complex DSBs in all phases of the cell-cycle and targeting this process sensitizes mammalian cells to cytotoxic agents inducing clustered breaks, such as in heavy-ion cancer therapy. PMID:25486192

  2. [A Nobel Prize for DNA repair].

    PubMed

    Jordan, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    This year's Nobel Prize for chemistry recognizes the seminal contributions of three researchers who discovered the existence and the basic mechanisms of DNA repair: base excision repair, mismatch repair, and nucleotide excision repair. They have since been joined by many scientists elucidating diverse aspects of these complex mechanisms that now constitute a thriving research field with many applications, notably for understanding oncogenesis and devising more effective therapies. PMID:26850617

  3. Dynamics of DNA Mismatch Repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coats, Julie; Lin, Yuyen; Rasnik, Ivan

    2009-11-01

    DNA mismatch repair protects the genome from spontaneous mutations by recognizing errors, excising damage, and re-synthesizing DNA in a pathway that is highly conserved. Mismatch recognition is accomplished by the MutS family of proteins which are weak ATPases that bind specifically to damaged DNA, but the specific molecular mechanisms by which these proteins recognize damage and initiate excision are not known. Previous structural investigations have implied that protein-induced conformational changes are central to mismatch recognition. Because damage detection is a highly dynamic process in which conformational changes of the protein-DNA complexes occur on a time scale of a few seconds, it is difficult to obtain meaningful kinetic information with traditional ensemble techniques. In this work, we use single molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) to study the conformational dynamics of fluorescently labeled DNA substrates in the presence of the mismatch repair protein MutS from E. coli and its human homolog MSH2/MSH6. Our studies allow us to obtain quantitative kinetic information about the rates of binding and dissociation and to determine the conformational states for each protein-DNA complex.

  4. RAG2 and XLF/Cernunnos interplay reveals a novel role for the RAG complex in DNA repair

    PubMed Central

    Lescale, Chloé; Abramowski, Vincent; Bedora-Faure, Marie; Murigneux, Valentine; Vera, Gabriella; Roth, David B.; Revy, Patrick; de Villartay, Jean-Pierre; Deriano, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    XRCC4-like factor (XLF) functions in classical non-homologous end-joining (cNHEJ) but is dispensable for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) generated during V(D)J recombination. A long-standing hypothesis proposes that, in addition to its canonical nuclease activity, the RAG1/2 proteins participate in the DNA repair phase of V(D)J recombination. Here we show that in the context of RAG2 lacking the C-terminus domain (Rag2c/c mice), XLF deficiency leads to a profound lymphopenia associated with a severe defect in V(D)J recombination and, in the absence of p53, increased genomic instability at V(D)J sites. In addition, Rag2c/c XLF−/− p53−/− mice develop aggressive pro-B cell lymphomas bearing complex chromosomal translocations and gene amplifications involving Igh and c-myc/pvt1 loci. Our results reveal an unanticipated functional interplay between the RAG complex and XLF in repairing RAG-induced DSBs and maintaining genome integrity during antigen receptor gene assembly. PMID:26833222

  5. RAG2 and XLF/Cernunnos interplay reveals a novel role for the RAG complex in DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Lescale, Chloé; Abramowski, Vincent; Bedora-Faure, Marie; Murigneux, Valentine; Vera, Gabriella; Roth, David B; Revy, Patrick; de Villartay, Jean-Pierre; Deriano, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    XRCC4-like factor (XLF) functions in classical non-homologous end-joining (cNHEJ) but is dispensable for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) generated during V(D)J recombination. A long-standing hypothesis proposes that, in addition to its canonical nuclease activity, the RAG1/2 proteins participate in the DNA repair phase of V(D)J recombination. Here we show that in the context of RAG2 lacking the C-terminus domain (Rag2(c/c) mice), XLF deficiency leads to a profound lymphopenia associated with a severe defect in V(D)J recombination and, in the absence of p53, increased genomic instability at V(D)J sites. In addition, Rag2(c/c) XLF(-/-) p53(-/-) mice develop aggressive pro-B cell lymphomas bearing complex chromosomal translocations and gene amplifications involving Igh and c-myc/pvt1 loci. Our results reveal an unanticipated functional interplay between the RAG complex and XLF in repairing RAG-induced DSBs and maintaining genome integrity during antigen receptor gene assembly. PMID:26833222

  6. GTF2E2 Mutations Destabilize the General Transcription Factor Complex TFIIE in Individuals with DNA Repair-Proficient Trichothiodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Kuschal, Christiane; Botta, Elena; Orioli, Donata; Digiovanna, John J; Seneca, Sara; Keymolen, Kathelijn; Tamura, Deborah; Heller, Elizabeth; Khan, Sikandar G; Caligiuri, Giuseppina; Lanzafame, Manuela; Nardo, Tiziana; Ricotti, Roberta; Peverali, Fiorenzo A; Stephens, Robert; Zhao, Yongmei; Lehmann, Alan R; Baranello, Laura; Levens, David; Kraemer, Kenneth H; Stefanini, Miria

    2016-04-01

    The general transcription factor IIE (TFIIE) is essential for transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II (RNA pol II) via direct interaction with the basal transcription/DNA repair factor IIH (TFIIH). TFIIH harbors mutations in two rare genetic disorders, the cancer-prone xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and the cancer-free, multisystem developmental disorder trichothiodystrophy (TTD). The phenotypic complexity resulting from mutations affecting TFIIH has been attributed to the nucleotide excision repair (NER) defect as well as to impaired transcription. Here, we report two unrelated children showing clinical features typical of TTD who harbor different homozygous missense mutations in GTF2E2 (c.448G>C [p.Ala150Pro] and c.559G>T [p.Asp187Tyr]) encoding the beta subunit of transcription factor IIE (TFIIEβ). Repair of ultraviolet-induced DNA damage was normal in the GTF2E2 mutated cells, indicating that TFIIE was not involved in NER. We found decreased protein levels of the two TFIIE subunits (TFIIEα and TFIIEβ) as well as decreased phosphorylation of TFIIEα in cells from both children. Interestingly, decreased phosphorylation of TFIIEα was also seen in TTD cells with mutations in ERCC2, which encodes the XPD subunit of TFIIH, but not in XP cells with ERCC2 mutations. Our findings support the theory that TTD is caused by transcriptional impairments that are distinct from the NER disorder XP. PMID:26996949

  7. Structural biology of disease-associated repetitive DNA sequences and protein-DNA complexes involved in DNA damage and repair

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, G.; Santhana Mariappan, S.V.; Chen, X.; Catasti, P.; Silks, L.A. III; Moyzis, R.K.; Bradbury, E.M.; Garcia, A.E.

    1997-07-01

    This project is aimed at formulating the sequence-structure-function correlations of various microsatellites in the human (and other eukaryotic) genomes. Here the authors have been able to develop and apply structure biology tools to understand the following: the molecular mechanism of length polymorphism microsatellites; the molecular mechanism by which the microsatellites in the noncoding regions alter the regulation of the associated gene; and finally, the molecular mechanism by which the expansion of these microsatellites impairs gene expression and causes the disease. Their multidisciplinary structural biology approach is quantitative and can be applied to all coding and noncoding DNA sequences associated with any gene. Both NIH and DOE are interested in developing quantitative tools for understanding the function of various human genes for prevention against diseases caused by genetic and environmental effects.

  8. Structure of p15PAF-PCNA complex and implications for clamp sliding during DNA replication and repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Biasio, Alfredo; de Opakua, Alain Ibáñez; Mortuza, Gulnahar B.; Molina, Rafael; Cordeiro, Tiago N.; Castillo, Francisco; Villate, Maider; Merino, Nekane; Delgado, Sandra; Gil-Cartón, David; Luque, Irene; Diercks, Tammo; Bernadó, Pau; Montoya, Guillermo; Blanco, Francisco J.

    2015-03-01

    The intrinsically disordered protein p15PAF regulates DNA replication and repair by binding to the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) sliding clamp. We present the structure of the human p15PAF-PCNA complex. Crystallography and NMR show the central PCNA-interacting protein motif (PIP-box) of p15PAF tightly bound to the front-face of PCNA. In contrast to other PCNA-interacting proteins, p15PAF also contacts the inside of, and passes through, the PCNA ring. The disordered p15PAF termini emerge at opposite faces of the ring, but remain protected from 20S proteasomal degradation. Both free and PCNA-bound p15PAF binds DNA mainly through its histone-like N-terminal tail, while PCNA does not, and a model of the ternary complex with DNA inside the PCNA ring is consistent with electron micrographs. We propose that p15PAF acts as a flexible drag that regulates PCNA sliding along the DNA and facilitates the switch from replicative to translesion synthesis polymerase binding.

  9. DNA repair in cultured keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, S.C.; Parsons, S.; Hanawalt, P.C.

    1983-07-01

    Most of our understanding of DNA repair mechanisms in human cells has come from the study of these processes in cultured fibroblasts. The unique properties of keratinocytes and their pattern of terminal differentiation led us to a comparative examination of their DNA repair properties. The relative repair capabilities of the basal cells and the differentiated epidermal keratinocytes as well as possible correlations of DNA repair capacity with respect to age of the donor have been examined. In addition, since portions of human skin are chronically exposed to sunlight, the repair response to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation (254 nm) when the cells are conditioned by chronic low-level UV irradiation has been assessed. The comparative studies of DNA repair in keratinocytes from infant and aged donors have revealed no significant age-related differences for repair of UV-induced damage to DNA. Sublethal UV conditioning of cells from infant skin had no appreciable effect on either the repair or normal replication response to higher, challenge doses of UVL. However, such conditioning resulted in attenuated repair in keratinocytes from adult skin after UV doses above 25 J/m2. In addition, a surprising enhancement in replication was seen in conditioned cells from adult following challenge UV doses.

  10. HSP90 regulates DNA repair via the interaction between XRCC1 and DNA polymerase β

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Qingming; Inanc, Burcu; Schamus, Sandy; Wang, Xiao-hong; Wei, Leizhen; Brown, Ashley R.; Svilar, David; Sugrue, Kelsey F.; Goellner, Eva M.; Zeng, Xuemei; Yates, Nathan A.; Lan, Li; Vens, Conchita; Sobol, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Cellular DNA repair processes are crucial to maintain genome stability and integrity. In DNA base excision repair, a tight heterodimer complex formed by DNA polymerase β (Polβ) and XRCC1 is thought to facilitate repair by recruiting Polβ to DNA damage sites. Here we show that disruption of the complex does not impact DNA damage response or DNA repair. Instead, the heterodimer formation is required to prevent ubiquitylation and degradation of Polβ. In contrast, the stability of the XRCC1 monomer is protected from CHIP-mediated ubiquitylation by interaction with the binding partner HSP90. In response to cellular proliferation and DNA damage, proteasome and HSP90-mediated regulation of Polβ and XRCC1 alters the DNA repair complex architecture. We propose that protein stability, mediated by DNA repair protein complex formation, functions as a regulatory mechanism for DNA repair pathway choice in the context of cell cycle progression and genome surveillance. PMID:25423885

  11. Medical implications of DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Yarosh, Daniel B

    2003-09-01

    When the sun damages the skin, it also impairs the DNA. The DNA repair system is needed to maintain the genetic integrity of the epidermis. Defects in DNA repair (eg, xeroderma pigmentosum) commonly result in skin cancer. Sun-screens are important for preventing sun damage, but inadequate application by consumers is common, and protection against DNA damage is incomplete. The human population varies widely in its formation and response to DNA damage. Sequencing of individuals' DNA repair genes has revealed unexpected diversity, and some polymorphisms may be related to skin cancer risk. DNA damage has been linked to immune suppression in humans, and variations in this immune response also are linked to cancer risk. PMID:14533826

  12. DNA encoding a DNA repair protein

    DOEpatents

    Petrini, John H.; Morgan, William Francis; Maser, Richard Scott; Carney, James Patrick

    2006-08-15

    An isolated and purified DNA molecule encoding a DNA repair protein, p95, is provided, as is isolated and purified p95. Also provided are methods of detecting p95 and DNA encoding p95. The invention further provides p95 knock-out mice.

  13. DNA Repair Deficiency in Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Jeppesen, Dennis Kjølhede; Bohr, Vilhelm A.; Stevnsner, Tinna

    2011-01-01

    Deficiency in repair of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage has been linked to several neurodegenerative disorders. Many recent experimental results indicate that the post-mitotic neurons are particularly prone to accumulation of unrepaired DNA lesions potentially leading to progressive neurodegeneration. Nucleotide excision repair is the cellular pathway responsible for removing helix-distorting DNA damage and deficiency in such repair is found in a number of diseases with neurodegenerative phenotypes, including Xeroderma Pigmentosum and Cockayne syndrome. The main pathway for repairing oxidative base lesions is base excision repair, and such repair is crucial for neurons given their high rates of oxygen metabolism. Mismatch repair corrects base mispairs generated during replication and evidence indicates that oxidative DNA damage can cause this pathway to expand trinucleotide repeats, thereby causing Huntington’s disease. Single-strand breaks are common DNA lesions and are associated with the neurodegenerative diseases, ataxia-oculomotor apraxia-1 and spinocerebellar ataxia with axonal neuropathy-1. DNA double-strand breaks are toxic lesions and two main pathways exist for their repair: homologous recombination and non-homologous end-joining. Ataxia telangiectasia and related disorders with defects in these pathways illustrate that such defects can lead to early childhood neurodegeneration. Aging is a risk factor for neurodegeneration and accumulation of oxidative mitochondrial DNA damage may be linked with the age-associated neurodegenerative disorders Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Mutation in the WRN protein leads to the premature aging disease Werner syndrome, a disorder that features neurodegeneration. In this article we review the evidence linking deficiencies in the DNA repair pathways with neurodegeneration. PMID:21550379

  14. DNA Repair and Chromosomal Translocations.

    PubMed

    Bohlander, Stefan K; Kakadia, Purvi M

    2015-01-01

    The balance between DNA damage, especially double strand breaks, and DNA damage repair is a critical determinant of chromosomal translocation frequency. The non-homologous end-joining repair (NHEJ) pathways seem to play the major role in the generation of chromosomal translocations. The "landscape" of chromosomal translocation identified in malignancies is largely due to selection processes which operate on the growth advantages conveyed to the cells by the functional consequences of chromosomal translocations (i.e., oncogenic fusion proteins and overexpression of oncogenes, both compromising tumor suppressor gene functions). Newer studies have shown that there is an abundance of local rearrangements in many tumors, like small deletions and inversions. A better understanding of the interplay between DNA repair mechanisms and the generation of tumorigenic translocations will, among many other things, depend on an improved understanding of DNA repair mechanisms and their interplay with chromatin and the 3D organization of the interphase nucleus. PMID:26376870

  15. Energy and Technology Review: Unlocking the mysteries of DNA repair

    SciTech Connect

    Quirk, W.A.

    1993-04-01

    DNA, the genetic blueprint, has the remarkable property of encoding its own repair following diverse types of structural damage induced by external agents or normal metabolism. We are studying the interplay of DNA damaging agents, repair genes, and their protein products to decipher the complex biochemical pathways that mediate such repair. Our research focuses on repair processes that correct DNA damage produced by chemical mutagens and radiation, both ionizing and ultraviolet. The most important type of DNA repair in human cells is called excision repair. This multistep process removes damaged or inappropriate pieces of DNA -- often as a string of 29 nucleotides containing the damage -- and replaces them with intact ones. We have isolated, cloned, and mapped several human repair genes associated with the nucleotide excision repair pathway and involved in the repair of DNA damage after exposure to ultraviolet light or mutagens in cooked food. We have shown that a defect in one of these repair genes, ERCC2, is responsible for the repair deficiency in one of the groups of patients with the recessive genetic disorder xeroderma pigmentosum (XP group D). We are exploring ways to purify sufficient quantities (milligrams) of the protein products of these and other repair genes so that we can understand their functions. Our long-term goals are to link defective repair proteins to human DNA repair disorders that predispose to cancer, and to produce DNA-repair-deficient mice that can serve as models for the human disorders.

  16. Repair pathways independent of the Fanconi anemia nuclear core complex play a predominant role in mitigating formaldehyde-induced DNA damage

    SciTech Connect

    Noda, Taichi; Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 ; Takahashi, Akihisa; Kondo, Natsuko; Mori, Eiichiro; Okamoto, Noritomo; Nakagawa, Yosuke; Ohnishi, Ken; Zdzienicka, Malgorzata Z.; Thompson, Larry H.; Helleday, Thomas; Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm ; Asada, Hideo; and others

    2011-01-07

    The role of the Fanconi anemia (FA) repair pathway for DNA damage induced by formaldehyde was examined in the work described here. The following cell types were used: mouse embryonic fibroblast cell lines FANCA{sup -/-}, FANCC{sup -/-}, FANCA{sup -/-}C{sup -/-}, FANCD2{sup -/-} and their parental cells, the Chinese hamster cell lines FANCD1 mutant (mt), FANCGmt, their revertant cells, and the corresponding wild-type (wt) cells. Cell survival rates were determined with colony formation assays after formaldehyde treatment. DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) were detected with an immunocytochemical {gamma}H2AX-staining assay. Although the sensitivity of FANCA{sup -/-}, FANCC{sup -/-} and FANCA{sup -/-}C{sup -/-} cells to formaldehyde was comparable to that of proficient cells, FANCD1mt, FANCGmt and FANCD2{sup -/-} cells were more sensitive to formaldehyde than the corresponding proficient cells. It was found that homologous recombination (HR) repair was induced by formaldehyde. In addition, {gamma}H2AX foci in FANCD1mt cells persisted for longer times than in FANCD1wt cells. These findings suggest that formaldehyde-induced DSBs are repaired by HR through the FA repair pathway which is independent of the FA nuclear core complex. -- Research highlights: {yields} We examined to clarify the repair pathways of formaldehyde-induced DNA damage. Formaldehyde induces DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). {yields} DSBs are repaired through the Fanconi anemia (FA) repair pathway. {yields} This pathway is independent of the FA nuclear core complex. {yields} We also found that homologous recombination repair was induced by formaldehyde.

  17. Recruitment Kinetics of DNA Repair Proteins Mdc1 and Rad52 but Not 53BP1 Depend on Damage Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Hable, Volker; Drexler, Guido A.; Brüning, Tino; Burgdorf, Christian; Greubel, Christoph; Derer, Anja; Seel, Judith; Strickfaden, Hilmar; Cremer, Thomas; Friedl, Anna A.; Dollinger, Günther

    2012-01-01

    The recruitment kinetics of double-strand break (DSB) signaling and repair proteins Mdc1, 53BP1 and Rad52 into radiation-induced foci was studied by live-cell fluorescence microscopy after ion microirradiation. To investigate the influence of damage density and complexity on recruitment kinetics, which cannot be done by UV laser irradiation used in former studies, we utilized 43 MeV carbon ions with high linear energy transfer per ion (LET = 370 keV/µm) to create a large fraction of clustered DSBs, thus forming complex DNA damage, and 20 MeV protons with low LET (LET  = 2.6 keV/µm) to create mainly isolated DSBs. Kinetics for all three proteins was characterized by a time lag period T0 after irradiation, during which no foci are formed. Subsequently, the proteins accumulate into foci with characteristic mean recruitment times τ1. Mdc1 accumulates faster (T0 = 17±2 s, τ1 = 98±11 s) than 53BP1 (T0 = 77±7 s, τ1 = 310±60 s) after high LET irradiation. However, recruitment of Mdc1 slows down (T0 = 73±16 s, τ1 = 1050±270 s) after low LET irradiation. The recruitment kinetics of Rad52 is slower than that of Mdc1, but exhibits the same dependence on LET. In contrast, the mean recruitment time τ1 of 53BP1 remains almost constant when varying LET. Comparison to literature data on Mdc1 recruitment after UV laser irradiation shows that this rather resembles recruitment after high than low LET ionizing radiation. So this work shows that damage quality has a large influence on repair processes and has to be considered when comparing different studies. PMID:22860035

  18. Envisioning the dynamics and flexibility of Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 complex to decipher its roles in DNA replication and repair

    PubMed Central

    Lafrance-Vanasse, Julien; Williams, Gareth J.

    2015-01-01

    The Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex is a dynamic macromolecular machine that acts in the first steps of DNA double strand break repair, and each of its components has intrinsic dynamics and flexibility properties that are directly linked with their functions. As a result, deciphering the functional structural biology of the MRN complex is driving novel and integrated technologies to define the dynamic structural biology of protein machinery interacting with DNA. Rad50 promotes dramatic long-range allostery through its coiled-coil and zinc-hook domains. Its ATPase activity drives dynamic transitions between monomeric and dimeric forms that can be modulated with mutants modifying the ATPase rate to control end joining versus resection activities. The biological functions of Mre11’s dual endo- and exonuclease activities in repair pathway choice were enigmatic until recently, when they were unveiled by the development of specific nuclease inhibitors. Mre11 dimer flexibility, which may be regulated in cells to control MRN function, suggests new inhibitor design strategies for cancer intervention. Nbs1 has FHA and BRCT domains to bind multiple interaction partners that further regulate MRN. One of them, CtIP, modulates the Mre11 excision activity for homologous recombination repair. Overall, these combined properties suggest novel therapeutic strategies. Furthermore, they collectively help to explain how MRN regulates DNA repair pathway choice with implications for improving the design and analysis of cancer clinical trials that employ DNA damaging agents or target the DNA damage response. PMID:25576492

  19. Functional and mechanistic studies of XPC DNA-repair complex as transcriptional coactivator in embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Cattoglio, Claudia; Zhang, Elisa T; Grubisic, Ivan; Chiba, Kunitoshi; Fong, Yick W; Tjian, Robert

    2015-05-01

    The embryonic stem cell (ESC) state is transcriptionally controlled by OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG with cofactors, chromatin regulators, noncoding RNAs, and other effectors of signaling pathways. Uncovering components of these regulatory circuits and their interplay provides the knowledge base to deploy ESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells. We recently identified the DNA-repair complex xeroderma pigmentosum C (XPC)-RAD23B-CETN2 as a stem cell coactivator (SCC) required for OCT4/SOX2 transcriptional activation. Here we investigate the role of SCC genome-wide in murine ESCs by mapping regions bound by RAD23B and analyzing transcriptional profiles of SCC-depleted ESCs. We establish OCT4 and SOX2 as the primary transcription factors recruiting SCC to regulatory regions of pluripotency genes and identify the XPC subunit as essential for interaction with the two proteins. The present study reveals new mechanistic and functional aspects of SCC transcriptional activity, and thus underscores the diversified functions of this regulatory complex. PMID:25901318

  20. Functional and mechanistic studies of XPC DNA-repair complex as transcriptional coactivator in embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Cattoglio, Claudia; Zhang, Elisa T.; Grubisic, Ivan; Chiba, Kunitoshi; Fong, Yick W.; Tjian, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The embryonic stem cell (ESC) state is transcriptionally controlled by OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG with cofactors, chromatin regulators, noncoding RNAs, and other effectors of signaling pathways. Uncovering components of these regulatory circuits and their interplay provides the knowledge base to deploy ESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells. We recently identified the DNA-repair complex xeroderma pigmentosum C (XPC)-RAD23B-CETN2 as a stem cell coactivator (SCC) required for OCT4/SOX2 transcriptional activation. Here we investigate the role of SCC genome-wide in murine ESCs by mapping regions bound by RAD23B and analyzing transcriptional profiles of SCC-depleted ESCs. We establish OCT4 and SOX2 as the primary transcription factors recruiting SCC to regulatory regions of pluripotency genes and identify the XPC subunit as essential for interaction with the two proteins. The present study reveals new mechanistic and functional aspects of SCC transcriptional activity, and thus underscores the diversified functions of this regulatory complex. PMID:25901318

  1. Repair complexes of FEN1 endonuclease, DNA, and Rad9-Hus1-Rad1 are distinguished from their PCNA counterparts by functionally important stability

    PubMed Central

    Querol-Audí, Jordi; Yan, Chunli; Xu, Xiaojun; Tsutakawa, Susan E.; Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; Tainer, John A.; Cooper, Priscilla K.; Nogales, Eva; Ivanov, Ivaylo

    2012-01-01

    Processivity clamps such as proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and the checkpoint sliding clamp Rad9/Rad1/Hus1 (9-1-1) act as versatile scaffolds in the coordinated recruitment of proteins involved in DNA replication, cell-cycle control, and DNA repair. Association and handoff of DNA-editing enzymes, such as flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1), with sliding clamps are key processes in biology, which are incompletely understood from a mechanistic point of view. We have used an integrative computational and experimental approach to define the assemblies of FEN1 with double-flap DNA substrates and either proliferating cell nuclear antigen or the checkpoint sliding clamp 9-1-1. Fully atomistic models of these two ternary complexes were developed and refined through extensive molecular dynamics simulations to expose their conformational dynamics. Clustering analysis revealed the most dominant conformations accessible to the complexes. The cluster centroids were subsequently used in conjunction with single-particle electron microscopy data to obtain a 3D EM reconstruction of the human 9-1-1/FEN1/DNA assembly at 18-Å resolution. Comparing the structures of the complexes revealed key differences in the orientation and interactions of FEN1 and double-flap DNA with the two clamps that are consistent with their respective functions in providing inherent flexibility for lagging strand DNA replication or inherent stability for DNA repair. PMID:22586102

  2. Scrunching During DNA Repair Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Diaz, Miguel; Bebenek, Katarzyna; Larrea, Andres A.; Havener, Jody M.; Perera, Lalith; Krahn, Joseph M.; Pedersen, Lars C.; Ramsden, Dale A.; Kunkel, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    Family X polymerases like DNA polymerase λ (pol λ) are well suited for filling short gaps during DNA repair because they simultaneously bind both the 5′ and 3′ ends of short gaps. DNA binding and gap filling are well characterized for one nucleotide gaps, but the location of yet-to-be-copied template nucleotides in longer gaps is unknown. Here we present crystal structures revealing that when bound to a two-nucleotide gap, pol λ scrunches the template strand and binds the additional uncopied template base in an extrahelical position within a binding pocket comprised of three conserved amino acids. Replacing these amino acids with alanine results in less processive gap filling and less efficient NHEJ involving two nucleotide gaps. Thus, akin to scrunching by RNA polymerase during transcription initiation, scrunching occurs during gap filling DNA synthesis associated with DNA repair. PMID:19701199

  3. Sirtuins, Metabolism, and DNA repair

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jee-Eun; Mostoslavsky, Raul

    2014-01-01

    Cells evolve to actively coordinate nutrient availability with cellular activity in order to maintain metabolic homeostasis. In addition, active pathways to repair DNA damage are crucial to avoid deleterious genomic instability. In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that availability of intermediate metabolites may play an important role in DNA repair, suggesting that these two seemingly distant cellular activities may be highly coordinated. The sirtuin family of proteins now described as deacylases (they can also remove acyl groups other than acetyl moieties), it appears to have evolved to control both metabolism and DNA repair. In this review, we discuss recent advances that lay the foundation to understanding the role of sirtuins in these two biological processes, and the potential crosstalk to coordinate them. PMID:25005742

  4. Catechols and 3-hydroxypyridones as inhibitors of the DNA repair complex ERCC1-XPF.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Timothy M; Gillen, Kevin J; Wallace, Claire; Lee, Maximillian T; Bakrania, Preeti; Khurana, Puneet; Coombs, Peter J; Stennett, Laura; Fox, Simon; Bureau, Emilie A; Brownlees, Janet; Melton, David W; Saxty, Barbara

    2015-10-01

    Catechol-based inhibitors of ERCC1-XPF endonuclease activity were identified from a high-throughput screen. Exploration of the structure-activity relationships within this series yielded compound 13, which displayed an ERCC1-XPF IC50 of 0.6 μM, high selectivity against FEN-1 and DNase I and activity in nucleotide excision repair, cisplatin enhancement and γH2AX assays in A375 melanoma cells. Screening of fragments as potential alternatives to the catechol group revealed that 3-hydroxypyridones are able to inhibit ERCC1-XPF with high ligand efficiency, and elaboration of the hit gave compounds 36 and 37 which showed promising ERCC1-XPF IC50 values of <10 μM. PMID:26318993

  5. Tyrosyl-DNA-phosphodiesterase I (TDP1) participates in the removal and repair of stabilized-Top2α cleavage complexes in human cells.

    PubMed

    Borda, Miguel Angel; Palmitelli, Micaela; Verón, Gustavo; González-Cid, Marcela; de Campos Nebel, Marcelo

    2015-11-01

    Tyrosyl-DNA-phosphodiesterase 1 (TDP1) is a DNA repair enzyme that removes irreversible protein-linked 3' DNA complexes, 3' phosphoglycolates, alkylation damage-induced DNA breaks, and 3' deoxyribose nucleosides. In addition to its extended spectrum of substrates, TDP1 interacts with several DNA damage response factors. To determine whether TDP1 participates in the repair of topoisomerase II (Top2) induced DNA lesions, we generated TDP1 depleted (TDP1kd) human tumoral cells. We found that TDP1kd cells are hypersensitive to etoposide (ETO). Moreover, we established in a chromatin context that following treatment with ETO, TDP1kd cells accumulate increased amounts of Top2α cleavage complexes, removing them with an altered kinetics. We also showed that TDP1 depleted cells accumulate increased γH2AX and pS296Chk1 signals following treatment with ETO. Similarly, cytogenetics analyses following Top2 poisoning revealed increased amounts of chromatid and chromosome breaks and exchanges on TDP1kd cells in the presence or not of the DNA-PKcs inhibitor NU7026. However, the levels of sister chromatid exchanges were similar in both TDP1kd and control non-silenced cell lines. This suggests a role of TDP1 in both canonical non-homologous end joining and alternative end joining, but not in the homologous recombination repair pathway. Finally, micronucleus analyses following ETO treatment revealed a higher frequency of micronucleus containing γH2AX signals on TDP1kd cells. Together, our results highlight an active role of TDP1 in the repair of Top2-induced DNA damage and its relevance on the genome stability maintenance in human cells. PMID:26421495

  6. [Low efficiency of DNA repair system in mitochondria].

    PubMed

    Gaziev, A I; Podlutskiĭ, A Ia

    2003-01-01

    Under the action of endogenous reactive oxygen species and exogenous chemical and physical agents, significantly more lesions occur in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) than in nuclear DNA (nDNA). However, the mechanisms of DNA repair in mitochondria are less efficient that in the nuclei. The mechanisms of nucleotide excision repair capable of removing UV-induced lesions or other complex adducts induced by chemical compounds are not operative in mitochondria at all. At the same time, mitochondria of some kinds contain a photoreactivation enzyme providing monomerization of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. Also, the enzyme system for DNA base excision repair (BER) and O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyl transferase are functional in mitochondria. However, the rate of BER-controlled repair of lesions in mtDNA is lower than that in nDNA. The literature data suggest that the controlling system for the delay of DNA replication till the repair complexion (cell cycle checkpoint) cannot be provided in mitochontria. Besides, it remains unclear whether the mismatch repair mechanisms are operable in mammalian mitochondria. On the other hand, double-strand breaks in mammalian mtDNA are possibly repaired by involving the DNA-dependent protein kinase complex, and the process of BER is affected by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of proteins. Possible consequences of induction of the increased level of damage in mtDNA and the low efficiency of repair systems in mitochondria are discussed in this review. PMID:14520872

  7. Cytosine methylation and DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Walsh, C P; Xu, G L

    2006-01-01

    Cytosine methylation is a common form of post-replicative DNA modification seen in both bacteria and eukaryotes. Modified cytosines have long been known to act as hotspots for mutations due to the high rate of spontaneous deamination of this base to thymine, resulting in a G/T mismatch. This will be fixed as a C-->T transition after replication if not repaired by the base excision repair (BER) pathway or specific repair enzymes dedicated to this purpose. This hypermutability has led to depletion of the target dinucleotide CpG outside of special CpG islands in mammals, which are normally unmethylated. We review the importance of C-->T transitions at non-island CpGs in human disease: When these occur in the germline, they are a common cause of inherited diseases such as epidermolysis bullosa and mucopolysaccharidosis, while in the soma they are frequently found in the genes for tumor suppressors such as p53 and the retinoblastoma protein, causing cancer. We also examine the specific repair enzymes involved, namely the endonuclease Vsr in Escherichia coli and two members of the uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG) superfamily in mammals, TDG and MBD4. Repair brings its own problems, since it will require remethylation of the replacement cytosine, presumably coupling repair to methylation by either the maintenance methylase Dnmt1 or a de novo enzyme such as Dnmt3a. Uncoupling of methylation from repair may be one way to remove methylation from DNA. We also look at the possible role of specific cytosine deaminases such as Aid and Apobec in accelerating deamination of methylcytosine and consequent DNA demethylation. PMID:16570853

  8. REPAIRtoire—a database of DNA repair pathways

    PubMed Central

    Milanowska, Kaja; Krwawicz, Joanna; Papaj, Grzegorz; Kosiński, Jan; Poleszak, Katarzyna; Lesiak, Justyna; Osińska, Ewelina; Rother, Kristian; Bujnicki, Janusz M.

    2011-01-01

    REPAIRtoire is the first comprehensive database resource for systems biology of DNA damage and repair. The database collects and organizes the following types of information: (i) DNA damage linked to environmental mutagenic and cytotoxic agents, (ii) pathways comprising individual processes and enzymatic reactions involved in the removal of damage, (iii) proteins participating in DNA repair and (iv) diseases correlated with mutations in genes encoding DNA repair proteins. REPAIRtoire provides also links to publications and external databases. REPAIRtoire contains information about eight main DNA damage checkpoint, repair and tolerance pathways: DNA damage signaling, direct reversal repair, base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair, homologous recombination repair, nonhomologous end-joining and translesion synthesis. The pathway/protein dataset is currently limited to three model organisms: Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Homo sapiens. The DNA repair and tolerance pathways are represented as graphs and in tabular form with descriptions of each repair step and corresponding proteins, and individual entries are cross-referenced to supporting literature and primary databases. REPAIRtoire can be queried by the name of pathway, protein, enzymatic complex, damage and disease. In addition, a tool for drawing custom DNA–protein complexes is available online. REPAIRtoire is freely available and can be accessed at http://repairtoire.genesilico.pl/. PMID:21051355

  9. DNA double-strand–break complexity levels and their possible contributions to the probability for error-prone processing and repair pathway choice

    PubMed Central

    Schipler, Agnes; Iliakis, George

    2013-01-01

    Although the DNA double-strand break (DSB) is defined as a rupture in the double-stranded DNA molecule that can occur without chemical modification in any of the constituent building blocks, it is recognized that this form is restricted to enzyme-induced DSBs. DSBs generated by physical or chemical agents can include at the break site a spectrum of base alterations (lesions). The nature and number of such chemical alterations define the complexity of the DSB and are considered putative determinants for repair pathway choice and the probability that errors will occur during this processing. As the pathways engaged in DSB processing show distinct and frequently inherent propensities for errors, pathway choice also defines the error-levels cells opt to accept. Here, we present a classification of DSBs on the basis of increasing complexity and discuss how complexity may affect processing, as well as how it may cause lethal or carcinogenic processing errors. By critically analyzing the characteristics of DSB repair pathways, we suggest that all repair pathways can in principle remove lesions clustering at the DSB but are likely to fail when they encounter clusters of DSBs that cause a local form of chromothripsis. In the same framework, we also analyze the rational of DSB repair pathway choice. PMID:23804754

  10. Final report [DNA Repair and Mutagenesis - 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Graham C.

    2001-05-30

    The meeting, titled ''DNA Repair and Mutagenesis: Mechanism, Control, and Biological Consequences'', was designed to bring together the various sub-disciplines that collectively comprise the field of DNA Repair and Mutagenesis. The keynote address was titled ''Mutability Doth Play Her Cruel Sports to Many Men's Decay: Variations on the Theme of Translesion Synthesis.'' Sessions were held on the following themes: Excision repair of DNA damage; Transcription and DNA excision repair; UmuC/DinB/Rev1/Rad30 superfamily of DNA polymerases; Cellular responses to DNA damage, checkpoints, and damage tolerance; Repair of mismatched bases, mutation; Genome-instability, and hypermutation; Repair of strand breaks; Replicational fidelity, and Late-breaking developments; Repair and mutation in challenging environments; and Defects in DNA repair: consequences for human disease and aging.

  11. Complex formation by the human Rad51B and Rad51C DNA repair proteins and their activities in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lio, Yi-Ching; Mazin, Alexander V.; Kowalczykowski, Stephen C.; Chen, David J.

    2003-01-01

    The human Rad51 protein is essential for DNA repair by homologous recombination. In addition to Rad51 protein, five paralogs have been identified: Rad51B/Rad51L1, Rad51C/Rad51L2, Rad51D/Rad51L3, XRCC2, and XRCC3. To further characterize a subset of these proteins, recombinant Rad51, Rad51B-(His)(6), and Rad51C proteins were individually expressed employing the baculovirus system, and each was purified from Sf9 insect cells. Evidence from nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid pull-down experiments demonstrates a highly stable Rad51B.Rad51C heterodimer, which interacts weakly with Rad51. Rad51B and Rad51C proteins were found to bind single- and double-stranded DNA and to preferentially bind 3'-end-tailed double-stranded DNA. The ability to bind DNA was elevated with mixed Rad51 and Rad51C, as well as with mixed Rad51B and Rad51C, compared with that of the individual protein. In addition, both Rad51B and Rad51C exhibit DNA-stimulated ATPase activity. Rad51C displays an ATP-independent apparent DNA strand exchange activity, whereas Rad51B shows no such activity; this apparent strand exchange ability results actually from a duplex DNA destabilization capability of Rad51C. By analogy to the yeast Rad55 and Rad57, our results suggest that Rad51B and Rad51C function through interactions with the human Rad51 recombinase and play a crucial role in the homologous recombinational repair pathway.

  12. Nonhomologous end joining of complex DNA double-strand breaks with proximal thymine glycol and interplay with base excision repair.

    PubMed

    Almohaini, Mohammed; Chalasani, Sri Lakshmi; Bafail, Duaa; Akopiants, Konstantin; Zhou, Tong; Yannone, Steven M; Ramsden, Dale A; Hartman, Matthew C T; Povirk, Lawrence F

    2016-05-01

    DNA double-strand breaks induced by ionizing radiation are often accompanied by ancillary oxidative base damage that may prevent or delay their repair. In order to better define the features that make some DSBs repair-resistant, XLF-dependent nonhomologous end joining of blunt-ended DSB substrates having the oxidatively modified nonplanar base thymine glycol at the first (Tg1), second (Tg2), third (Tg3) or fifth (Tg5) positions from one 3' terminus, was examined in human whole-cell extracts. Tg at the third position had little effect on end-joining even when present on both ends of the break. However, Tg as the terminal or penultimate base was a major barrier to end joining (>10-fold reduction in ligated products) and an absolute barrier when present at both ends. Dideoxy trapping of base excision repair intermediates indicated that Tg was excised from Tg1, Tg2 and Tg3 largely if not exclusively after DSB ligation. However, Tg was rapidly excised from the Tg5 substrate, resulting in a reduced level of DSB ligation, as well as slow concomitant resection of the opposite strand. Ligase reactions containing only purified Ku, XRCC4, ligase IV and XLF showed that ligation of Tg3 and Tg5 was efficient and only partially XLF-dependent, whereas ligation of Tg1 and Tg2 was inefficient and only detectable in the presence of XLF. Overall, the results suggest that promoting ligation of DSBs with proximal base damage may be an important function of XLF, but that Tg can still be a major impediment to repair, being relatively resistant to both trimming and ligation. Moreover, it appears that base excision repair of Tg can sometimes interfere with repair of DSBs that would otherwise be readily rejoined. PMID:27049455

  13. Discovery of DNA repair inhibitors by combinatorial library profiling.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Benjamin J; Sidman, Richard L; Pasqualini, Renata; Arap, Wadih

    2011-03-01

    Small molecule inhibitors of DNA repair are emerging as potent and selective anticancer therapies, but the sheer magnitude of the protein networks involved in DNA repair processes poses obstacles to discovery of effective candidate drugs. To address this challenge, we used a subtractive combinatorial selection approach to identify a panel of peptide ligands that bind DNA repair complexes. Supporting the concept that these ligands have therapeutic potential, we show that one selected peptide specifically binds and noncompetitively inactivates DNA-PKcs, a protein kinase critical in double-strand DNA break repair. In doing so, this ligand sensitizes BRCA-deficient tumor cells to genotoxic therapy. Our findings establish a platform for large-scale parallel screening for ligand-directed DNA repair inhibitors, with immediate applicability to cancer therapy. PMID:21343400

  14. DNA repair mechanisms in cancer development and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Torgovnick, Alessandro; Schumacher, Björn

    2015-01-01

    DNA damage has been long recognized as causal factor for cancer development. When erroneous DNA repair leads to mutations or chromosomal aberrations affecting oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, cells undergo malignant transformation resulting in cancerous growth. Genetic defects can predispose to cancer: mutations in distinct DNA repair systems elevate the susceptibility to various cancer types. However, DNA damage not only comprises a root cause for cancer development but also continues to provide an important avenue for chemo- and radiotherapy. Since the beginning of cancer therapy, genotoxic agents that trigger DNA damage checkpoints have been applied to halt the growth and trigger the apoptotic demise of cancer cells. We provide an overview about the involvement of DNA repair systems in cancer prevention and the classes of genotoxins that are commonly used for the treatment of cancer. A better understanding of the roles and interactions of the highly complex DNA repair machineries will lead to important improvements in cancer therapy. PMID:25954303

  15. DNA Repair Defects and Chromosomal Aberrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hada, Megumi; George, K. A.; Huff, J. L.; Pluth, J. M.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2009-01-01

    Yields of chromosome aberrations were assessed in cells deficient in DNA doublestrand break (DSB) repair, after exposure to acute or to low-dose-rate (0.018 Gy/hr) gamma rays or acute high LET iron nuclei. We studied several cell lines including fibroblasts deficient in ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated; product of the gene that is mutated in ataxia telangiectasia patients) or NBS (nibrin; product of the gene mutated in the Nijmegen breakage syndrome), and gliomablastoma cells that are proficient or lacking in DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) activity. Chromosomes were analyzed using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome painting method in cells at the first division post irradiation, and chromosome aberrations were identified as either simple exchanges (translocations and dicentrics) or complex exchanges (involving >2 breaks in 2 or more chromosomes). Gamma irradiation induced greater yields of both simple and complex exchanges in the DSB repair-defective cells than in the normal cells. The quadratic dose-response terms for both simple and complex chromosome exchanges were significantly higher for the ATM- and NBS-deficient lines than for normal fibroblasts. However, in the NBS cells the linear dose-response term was significantly higher only for simple exchanges. The large increases in the quadratic dose-response terms in these repair-defective cell lines points the importance of the functions of ATM and NBS in chromatin modifications to facilitate correct DSB repair and minimize the formation of aberrations. The differences found between ATM- and NBS-deficient cells at low doses suggest that important questions should with regard to applying observations of radiation sensitivity at high dose to low-dose exposures. For aberrations induced by iron nuclei, regression models preferred purely linear dose responses for simple exchanges and quadratic dose responses for complex exchanges. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors of all of the DNA repair-defective cell lines were smaller than those of normal cells, with the DNA-PK-deficient cells having RBEs near unity. To further investigate the sensitivity differences that were observed in ATM and NBS deficient cells, chromosomal aberrations were analyzed in normal lung fibroblast cells treated with KU-55933 (a specific ATM kinase inhibitor) or Mirin (an Mre11- Rad50-Nbs1 complex inhibitor involved in activation of ATM). We also performed siRNA knockdown of these proteins. Preliminary data indicate that chromosome exchanges increase in cells treated with the specific ATM inhibitor. Possible cytogenetic signatures of acute and low dose-rate gamma irradiation in ATM or nibrin deficient and suppressed cells will be discussed.

  16. DNA repair and the regulation of replication

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.H.; Hare, J.T.

    1989-08-31

    The goal of our research has been to try to understand what clues are used by a cell to determine which strand of the DNA duplex should be repaired when a mismatched DNA base pair is encountered. The cell can distinguish the mistaken base from the correct base. There are several ways in which a mismatched base pair may arise and each of these situations may have different features which could allow a discrimination between strands. Replication errors account for a large proportion of base pair mismatches in the cell. DNA polymerase {alpha} from HeLa cells has an in vitro error rate of 1 in 5000, but cell extracts, probably containing the entire replication complex, have an error rate thirty fold lower. Presumably exonucleolytic proofreading corrects greater than 95% of errors made by DNA polymerase in mammals. It is easy to imagine several simple ways by which the replication complex which includes the proofreading exonuclease could distinguish the nascent strand containing the error. Between the in vitro error rate for the replication complex as a whole and the estimated spontaneous mutation rate there is at least a 10{sup 5} fold difference. Assuming this estimate is correct, an efficient post-replication repair system is operating. If this repair system is engaged very quickly after the passing of the replication fork, it may take advantage of the distinctions between old and new strands. New strands have nicks or gaps and have not yet been methylated by the cytosine methyl transferases. That both of these strand differences could provide discrimination mechanisms was first proposed for bacteria. In the case of the lagging strand the ends of the Okazaki fragments may be no more than 100--200 bases from any particular mismatch while on the leading strand the ends could be as far away as half the length of a replicon which could be as large as 20 kb. 1 ref.

  17. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation to Detect DNA Replication and Repair Factors

    PubMed Central

    Gadaleta, Mariana C.; Iwasaki, Osamu; Noguchi, Chiaki; Noma, Ken-Ichi; Noguchi, Eishi

    2015-01-01

    DNA replication is tightly coupled with DNA repair processes in order to preserve genomic integrity. During DNA replication, the replication fork encounters a variety of obstacles including DNA damage/adducts, secondary structures, and programmed fork-blocking sites, which are all difficult to replicate. The replication fork also collides with the transcription machinery, which shares the template DNA with the replisome complex. Under these conditions, replication forks stall, causing replication stress and/or fork collapse, ultimately leading to genomic instability. The mechanisms to overcome these replication problems remain elusive. Therefore, it is important to investigate how DNA repair and replication factors are recruited and coordinated at chromosomal regions that are difficult to replicate. In this chapter, we describe a chromatin immunoprecipitation method to locate proteins required for DNA repair during DNA replication in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. This method can also easily be adapted to study replisome components or chromatin-associated factors. PMID:25916713

  18. Conditional DNA repair mutants enable highly precise genome engineering

    PubMed Central

    Nyerges, Ákos; Csörgő, Bálint; Nagy, István; Latinovics, Dóra; Szamecz, Béla; Pósfai, György; Pál, Csaba

    2014-01-01

    Oligonucleotide-mediated multiplex genome engineering is an important tool for bacterial genome editing. The efficient application of this technique requires the inactivation of the endogenous methyl-directed mismatch repair system that in turn leads to a drastically elevated genomic mutation rate and the consequent accumulation of undesired off-target mutations. Here, we present a novel strategy for mismatch repair evasion using temperature-sensitive DNA repair mutants and temporal inactivation of the mismatch repair protein complex in Escherichia coli. Our method relies on the transient suppression of DNA repair during mismatch carrying oligonucleotide integration. Using temperature-sensitive control of methyl-directed mismatch repair protein activity during multiplex genome engineering, we reduced the number of off-target mutations by 85%, concurrently maintaining highly efficient and unbiased allelic replacement. PMID:24500200

  19. Recognition and repair of chemically heterogeneous structures at DNA ends

    PubMed Central

    Andres, Sara N.; Schellenberg, Matthew J.; Wallace, Bret D.; Tumbale, Percy; Williams, R. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to environmental toxicants and stressors, radiation, pharmaceutical drugs, inflammation, cellular respiration, and routine DNA metabolism all lead to the production of cytotoxic DNA strand breaks. Akin to splintered wood, DNA breaks are not “clean”. Rather, DNA breaks typically lack DNA 5'-phosphate and 3'-hydroxyl moieties required for DNA synthesis and DNA ligation. Failure to resolve damage at DNA ends can lead to abnormal DNA replication and repair, and is associated with genomic instability, mutagenesis, neurological disease, ageing and carcinogenesis. An array of chemically heterogeneous DNA termini arises from spontaneously generated DNA single-strand and double-strand breaks (SSBs and DSBs), and also from normal and/or inappropriate DNA metabolism by DNA polymerases, DNA ligases and topoisomerases. As a front line of defense to these genotoxic insults, eukaryotic cells have accrued an arsenal of enzymatic first responders that bind and protect damaged DNA termini, and enzymatically tailor DNA ends for DNA repair synthesis and ligation. These nucleic acid transactions employ direct damage reversal enzymes including Aprataxin (APTX), Polynucleotide kinase phosphatase (PNK), the tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterases (TDP1 and TDP2), the Ku70/80 complex and DNA polymerase β (POLβ). Nucleolytic processing enzymes such as the MRE11/RAD50/NBS1/CtIP complex, Flap endonuclease (FEN1) and the apurinic endonucleases (APE1 and APE2) also act in the chemical "cleansing" of DNA breaks to prevent genomic instability and disease, and promote progression of DNA- and RNA-DNA damage response (DDR and RDDR) pathways. Here, we provide an overview of cellular first responders dedicated to the detection and repair of abnormal DNA termini. PMID:25111769

  20. Robustness of DNA repair through collective rate control.

    PubMed

    Verbruggen, Paul; Heinemann, Tim; Manders, Erik; von Bornstaedt, Gesa; van Driel, Roel; Höfer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    DNA repair and other chromatin-associated processes are carried out by enzymatic macromolecular complexes that assemble at specific sites on the chromatin fiber. How the rate of these molecular machineries is regulated by their constituent parts is poorly understood. Here we quantify nucleotide-excision DNA repair in mammalian cells and find that, despite the pathways' molecular complexity, repair effectively obeys slow first-order kinetics. Theoretical analysis and data-based modeling indicate that these kinetics are not due to a singular rate-limiting step. Rather, first-order kinetics emerge from the interplay of rapidly and reversibly assembling repair proteins, stochastically distributing DNA lesion repair over a broad time period. Based on this mechanism, the model predicts that the repair proteins collectively control the repair rate. Exploiting natural cell-to-cell variability, we corroborate this prediction for the lesion-recognition factor XPC and the downstream factor XPA. Our findings provide a rationale for the emergence of slow time scales in chromatin-associated processes from fast molecular steps and suggest that collective rate control might be a widespread mode of robust regulation in DNA repair and transcription. PMID:24499930

  1. Mechanism of DNA loading by the DNA repair helicase XPD

    PubMed Central

    Constantinescu-Aruxandei, Diana; Petrovic-Stojanovska, Biljana; Penedo, J. Carlos; White, Malcolm F.; Naismith, James H.

    2016-01-01

    The xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD) helicase is a component of the transcription factor IIH complex in eukaryotes and plays an essential role in DNA repair in the nucleotide excision repair pathway. XPD is a 5′ to 3′ helicase with an essential iron–sulfur cluster. Structural and biochemical studies of the monomeric archaeal XPD homologues have aided a mechanistic understanding of this important class of helicase, but several important questions remain open. In particular, the mechanism for DNA loading, which is assumed to require large protein conformational change, is not fully understood. Here, DNA binding by the archaeal XPD helicase from Thermoplasma acidophilum has been investigated using a combination of crystallography, cross-linking, modified substrates and biochemical assays. The data are consistent with an initial tight binding of ssDNA to helicase domain 2, followed by transient opening of the interface between the Arch and 4FeS domains, allowing access to a second binding site on helicase domain 1 that directs DNA through the pore. A crystal structure of XPD from Sulfolobus acidocaldiarius that lacks helicase domain 2 has an otherwise unperturbed structure, emphasizing the stability of the interface between the Arch and 4FeS domains in XPD. PMID:26896802

  2. Mechanism of DNA loading by the DNA repair helicase XPD.

    PubMed

    Constantinescu-Aruxandei, Diana; Petrovic-Stojanovska, Biljana; Penedo, J Carlos; White, Malcolm F; Naismith, James H

    2016-04-01

    The xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD) helicase is a component of the transcription factor IIH complex in eukaryotes and plays an essential role in DNA repair in the nucleotide excision repair pathway. XPD is a 5' to 3' helicase with an essential iron-sulfur cluster. Structural and biochemical studies of the monomeric archaeal XPD homologues have aided a mechanistic understanding of this important class of helicase, but several important questions remain open. In particular, the mechanism for DNA loading, which is assumed to require large protein conformational change, is not fully understood. Here, DNA binding by the archaeal XPD helicase fromThermoplasma acidophilumhas been investigated using a combination of crystallography, cross-linking, modified substrates and biochemical assays. The data are consistent with an initial tight binding of ssDNA to helicase domain 2, followed by transient opening of the interface between the Arch and 4FeS domains, allowing access to a second binding site on helicase domain 1 that directs DNA through the pore. A crystal structure of XPD fromSulfolobus acidocaldiariusthat lacks helicase domain 2 has an otherwise unperturbed structure, emphasizing the stability of the interface between the Arch and 4FeS domains in XPD. PMID:26896802

  3. Coordination and Processing of DNA Ends During Double-Strand Break Repair: The Role of the Bacteriophage T4 Mre11/Rad50 (MR) Complex

    PubMed Central

    Almond, Joshua R.; Stohr, Bradley A.; Panigrahi, Anil K.; Albrecht, Dustin W.; Nelson, Scott W.; Kreuzer, Kenneth N.

    2013-01-01

    The in vivo functions of the bacteriophage T4 Mre11/Rad50 (MR) complex (gp46/47) in double-strand-end processing, double-strand break repair, and recombination-dependent replication were investigated. The complex is essential for T4 growth, but we wanted to investigate the in vivo function during productive infections. We therefore generated a suppressed triple amber mutant in the Rad50 subunit to substantially reduce the level of complex and thereby reduce phage growth. Growth-limiting amounts of the complex caused a concordant decrease in phage genomic recombination-dependent replication. However, the efficiencies of double-strand break repair and of plasmid-based recombination-dependent replication remained relatively normal. Genetic analyses of linked markers indicated that double-strand ends were less protected from nuclease erosion in the depleted infection and also that end coordination during repair was compromised. We discuss models for why phage genomic recombination-dependent replication is more dependent on Mre11/Rad50 levels when compared to plasmid recombination-dependent replication. We also tested the importance of the conserved histidine residue in nuclease motif I of the T4 Mre11 protein. Substitution with multiple different amino acids (including serine) failed to support phage growth, completely blocked plasmid recombination-dependent replication, and led to the stabilization of double-strand ends. We also constructed and expressed an Mre11 mutant protein with the conserved histidine changed to serine. The mutant protein was found to be completely defective for nuclease activities, but retained the ability to bind the Rad50 subunit and double-stranded DNA. These results indicate that the nuclease activity of Mre11 is critical for phage growth and recombination-dependent replication during T4 infections. PMID:23979587

  4. Mechanisms of assembly of the enzyme-ssDNA complexes required for recombination-dependent DNA synthesis and repair in bacteriophage T4

    SciTech Connect

    Morrical, S.; Hempstead, K.; Morrical, M.

    1994-12-31

    During late stages of bacteriophage T4 infection in E. coli, the initiation of phage DNA replication is dependent on the homologous recombination activity of the T4 uvsX protein. In vitro, uvsX protein initiates DNA synthesis on a duplex template by inserting the 3{prime} end of a homologous ssDNA molecule into the duplex. The resulting D-loop structure serves as a primer-template junction for the assembly of the T4 replication fork. Two key steps in this initiation process are (A) the assembly of uvsX-ssDNA complexes necessary for recombination activity and for the priming of lead-strand DNA synthesis, and (B) the assembly of the T4 primosome (gp41 helicase/gp61 primase complex) onto the single-stranded template for lagging-strand synthesis. Our laboratory is focusing on the mechanisms of these two different but related enzyme-ssDNA assembly processes. In this extended abstract, we describe recent efforts in our laboratory to elucidate the mechanism by which the gp41 helicase enzyme is assembled onto gp32-covered ssDNA, a process requiring the activity of a special helicase assembly factor, the T4 gp59 protein.

  5. DNA Triplet Repeat Expansion and Mismatch Repair

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Ravi R.; Pluciennik, Anna; Napierala, Marek; Wells, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    DNA mismatch repair is a conserved antimutagenic pathway that maintains genomic stability through rectification of DNA replication errors and attenuation of chromosomal rearrangements. Paradoxically, mutagenic action of mismatch repair has been implicated as a cause of triplet repeat expansions that cause neurological diseases such as Huntington disease and myotonic dystrophy. This mutagenic process requires the mismatch recognition factor MutSβ and the MutLα (and/or possibly MutLγ) endonuclease, and is thought to be triggered by the transient formation of unusual DNA structures within the expanded triplet repeat element. This review summarizes the current knowledge of DNA mismatch repair involvement in triplet repeat expansion, which encompasses in vitro biochemical findings, cellular studies, and various in vivo transgenic animal model experiments. We present current mechanistic hypotheses regarding mismatch repair protein function in mediating triplet repeat expansions and discuss potential therapeutic approaches targeting the mismatch repair pathway. PMID:25580529

  6. Molecular mechanisms of DNA repair inhibition by caffeine

    SciTech Connect

    Selby, C.P.; Sancar, A. )

    1990-05-01

    Caffeine potentiates the mutagenic and lethal effects of genotoxic agents. It is thought that this is due, at least in some organisms, to inhibition of DNA repair. However, direct evidence for inhibition of repair enzymes has been lacking. Using purified Escherichia coli DNA photolyase and (A)BC excinuclease, we show that the drug inhibits photoreactivation and nucleotide excision repair by two different mechanisms. Caffeine inhibits photoreactivation by interfering with the specific binding of photolyase to damaged DNA, and it inhibits nucleotide excision repair by promoting nonspecific binding of the damage-recognition subunit, UvrA, of (A)BC excinuclease. A number of other intercalators, including acriflavin and ethidium bromide, appear to inhibit the excinuclease by a similar mechanism--that is, by trapping the UvrA subunit in nonproductive complexes on undamaged DNA.

  7. DNA Repair Pathways in Trypanosomatids: from DNA Repair to Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Genois, Marie-Michelle; Paquet, Eric R.; Laffitte, Marie-Claude N.; Maity, Ranjan; Rodrigue, Amélie

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY All living organisms are continuously faced with endogenous or exogenous stress conditions affecting genome stability. DNA repair pathways act as a defense mechanism, which is essential to maintain DNA integrity. There is much to learn about the regulation and functions of these mechanisms, not only in human cells but also equally in divergent organisms. In trypanosomatids, DNA repair pathways protect the genome against mutations but also act as an adaptive mechanism to promote drug resistance. In this review, we scrutinize the molecular mechanisms and DNA repair pathways which are conserved in trypanosomatids. The recent advances made by the genome consortiums reveal the complete genomic sequences of several pathogens. Therefore, using bioinformatics and genomic sequences, we analyze the conservation of DNA repair proteins and their key protein motifs in trypanosomatids. We thus present a comprehensive view of DNA repair processes in trypanosomatids at the crossroads of DNA repair and drug resistance. PMID:24600040

  8. DNA mismatch repair and the DNA damage response.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhongdao; Pearlman, Alexander H; Hsieh, Peggy

    2016-02-01

    This review discusses the role of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) in the DNA damage response (DDR) that triggers cell cycle arrest and, in some cases, apoptosis. Although the focus is on findings from mammalian cells, much has been learned from studies in other organisms including bacteria and yeast [1,2]. MMR promotes a DDR mediated by a key signaling kinase, ATM and Rad3-related (ATR), in response to various types of DNA damage including some encountered in widely used chemotherapy regimes. An introduction to the DDR mediated by ATR reveals its immense complexity and highlights the many biological and mechanistic questions that remain. Recent findings and future directions are highlighted. PMID:26704428

  9. Antibody specific for a DNA repair protein

    DOEpatents

    Petrini, John H.; Morgan, William Francis; Maser, Richard Scott; Carney, James Patrick

    2006-07-11

    An isolated and purified DNA molecule encoding a DNA repair protein, p95, is provided, as is isolated and purified p95. Also provided are methods of detecting p95 and DNA encoding p95. The invention further provides p95 knock-out mice.

  10. Oxidative DNA Damage and Nucleotide Excision Repair

    PubMed Central

    Melis, Joost P.M.; Luijten, Mirjam

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Oxidative DNA damage is repaired by multiple, overlapping DNA repair pathways. Accumulating evidence supports the hypothesis that nucleotide excision repair (NER), besides base excision repair (BER), is also involved in neutralizing oxidative DNA damage. Recent Advances: NER includes two distinct sub-pathways: transcription-coupled NER (TC-NER) and global genome repair (GG-NER). The CSA and CSB proteins initiate the onset of TC-NER. Recent findings show that not only CSB, but also CSA is involved in the repair of oxidative DNA lesions, in the nucleus as well as in mitochondria. The XPG protein is also of importance for the removal of oxidative DNA lesions, as it may enhance the initial step of BER. Substantial evidence exists that support a role for XPC in NER and BER. XPC deficiency not only results in decreased repair of oxidative lesions, but has also been linked to disturbed redox homeostasis. Critical Issues: The role of NER proteins in the regulation of the cellular response to oxidative (mitochondrial and nuclear) DNA damage may be the underlying mechanism of the pathology of accelerated aging in Cockayne syndrome patients, a driving force for internal cancer development in XP-A and XP-C patients, and a contributor to the mixed exhibited phenotypes of XP-G patients. Future Directions: Accumulating evidence indicates that DNA repair factors can be involved in multiple DNA repair pathways. However, the distinct detailed mechanism and consequences of these additional functions remain to be elucidated and can possibly shine a light on clinically related issues. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 2409–2419. PMID:23216312

  11. DNA damage checkpoint, damage repair, and genome stability.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei-Feng; Yu, Shan-Shan; Chen, Guan-Jun; Li, Yue-Zhong

    2006-05-01

    Genomic DNA is under constant attack from both endogenous and exogenous sources of DNA damaging agents. Without proper care, the ensuing DNA damages would lead to alteration of genomic structure thus affecting the faithful transmission of genetic information. During the process of evolution, organisms have acquired a series of mechanisms responding to and repairing DNA damage, thus assuring the maintenance of genome stability and faithful transmission of genetic information. DNA damage checkpoint is one such important mechanism by which, in the face of DNA damage, a cell can respond to amplified damage signals, either by actively halting the cell cycle until it ensures that critical processes such as DNA replication or mitosis are complete or by initiating apoptosis as a last resort. Over the last decade, complex hierarchical interactions between the key components like ATM/ATR in the checkpoint pathway and various other mediators, effectors including DNA damage repair proteins have begun to emerge. In the meantime, an intimate relationship between mechanisms of damage checkpoint pathway, DNA damage repair, and genome stability was also uncovered. Reviewed herein are the recent findings on both the mechanisms of activation of checkpoint pathways and their coordination with DNA damage repair machinery as well as their effect on genomic integrity. PMID:16722332

  12. International congress on DNA damage and repair: Book of abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This document contains the abstracts of 105 papers presented at the Congress. Topics covered include the Escherichia coli nucleotide excision repair system, DNA repair in malignant transformations, defective DNA repair, and gene regulation. (TEM)

  13. DNA repair variants and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Grundy, Anne; Richardson, Harriet; Schuetz, Johanna M; Burstyn, Igor; Spinelli, John J; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Aronson, Kristan J

    2016-05-01

    A functional DNA repair system has been identified as important in the prevention of tumour development. Previous studies have hypothesized that common polymorphisms in DNA repair genes could play a role in breast cancer risk and also identified the potential for interactions between these polymorphisms and established breast cancer risk factors such as physical activity. Associations with breast cancer risk for 99 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from genes in ten DNA repair pathways were examined in a case-control study including both Europeans (644 cases, 809 controls) and East Asians (299 cases, 160 controls). Odds ratios in both additive and dominant genetic models were calculated separately for participants of European and East Asian ancestry using multivariate logistic regression. The impact of multiple comparisons was assessed by correcting for the false discovery rate within each DNA repair pathway. Interactions between several breast cancer risk factors and DNA repair SNPs were also evaluated. One SNP (rs3213282) in the gene XRCC1 was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in the dominant model of inheritance following adjustment for the false discovery rate (P < 0.05), although no associations were observed for other DNA repair SNPs. Interactions of six SNPs in multiple DNA repair pathways with physical activity were evident prior to correction for FDR, following which there was support for only one of the interaction terms (P < 0.05). No consistent associations between variants in DNA repair genes and breast cancer risk or their modification by breast cancer risk factors were observed. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 57:269-281, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27060854

  14. Repair of DNA Double-Strand Breaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, Martin; Lukasova, Emilie; Kozubek, Stanislav

    The genetic information of cells continuously undergoes damage induced by intracellular processes including energy metabolism, DNA replication and transcription, and by environmental factors such as mutagenic chemicals and UV and ionizing radiation. This causes numerous DNA lesions, including double strand breaks (DSBs). Since cells cannot escape this damage or normally function with a damaged genome, several DNA repair mechanisms have evolved. Although most "single-stranded" DNA lesions are rapidly removed from DNA without permanent damage, DSBs completely break the DNA molecule, presenting a real challenge for repair mechanisms, with the highest risk among DNA lesions of incorrect repair. Hence, DSBs can have serious consequences for human health. Therefore, in this chapter, we will refer only to this type of DNA damage. In addition to the biochemical aspects of DSB repair, which have been extensively studied over a long period of time, the spatio-temporal organization of DSB induction and repair, the importance of which was recognized only recently, will be considered in terms of current knowledge and remaining questions.

  15. Molecular mechanisms of mammalian DNA repair and the DNA damage checkpoints.

    PubMed

    Sancar, Aziz; Lindsey-Boltz, Laura A; Unsal-Kaçmaz, Keziban; Linn, Stuart

    2004-01-01

    DNA damage is a relatively common event in the life of a cell and may lead to mutation, cancer, and cellular or organismic death. Damage to DNA induces several cellular responses that enable the cell either to eliminate or cope with the damage or to activate a programmed cell death process, presumably to eliminate cells with potentially catastrophic mutations. These DNA damage response reactions include: (a) removal of DNA damage and restoration of the continuity of the DNA duplex; (b) activation of a DNA damage checkpoint, which arrests cell cycle progression so as to allow for repair and prevention of the transmission of damaged or incompletely replicated chromosomes; (c) transcriptional response, which causes changes in the transcription profile that may be beneficial to the cell; and (d) apoptosis, which eliminates heavily damaged or seriously deregulated cells. DNA repair mechanisms include direct repair, base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, double-strand break repair, and cross-link repair. The DNA damage checkpoints employ damage sensor proteins, such as ATM, ATR, the Rad17-RFC complex, and the 9-1-1 complex, to detect DNA damage and to initiate signal transduction cascades that employ Chk1 and Chk2 Ser/Thr kinases and Cdc25 phosphatases. The signal transducers activate p53 and inactivate cyclin-dependent kinases to inhibit cell cycle progression from G1 to S (the G1/S checkpoint), DNA replication (the intra-S checkpoint), or G2 to mitosis (the G2/M checkpoint). In this review the molecular mechanisms of DNA repair and the DNA damage checkpoints in mammalian cells are analyzed. PMID:15189136

  16. Xeroderma pigmentosum and molecular cloning of DNA repair genes.

    PubMed

    Boulikas, T

    1996-01-01

    Human cells from patients suffering with xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) characterized by extreme sensitivity to UV light and a high incidence of skin tumors fall into seven complementation groups, XPA to XPG, and are lacking a functional helicase, endonuclease, or lesion-recognizing protein involved in the initial steps during nucleotide excision repair (NER); a number of proteins involved in DNA repair are termed XPA to XPG depending on which one is defective in a particular complementation group of XP and include: (i) proteins involved in the recognition of (6-4) photoproducts (XPE) and of a broad range of lesions such as pyrimidine dimers (XPA); (ii) proteins that are DNA helicases and integral parts of the general transcription factor TFIIH functioning in both transcription and repair (XPB, XPD); (iii) endonucleases that perform the two incisions, the XPG incising six nucleotides (nt) to the 3' side from a photodimer and the ERCC1-XPF protein complex incising 22 nt to the 5' side of the lesion; and (iv) single-strand DNA-binding proteins (XPC). The ERCC6 helicase is largely responsible for coupling transcription to repair whereas XPC seems to be responsible for the repair of the inactive parts of the genome as well as for the repair of the nontranscribed strand in active genes. p53 recognizes insertion/deletion mismatches as well as free ends of DNA produced by ionizing radiation to arrest the cell cycle. Most of the human DNA repair proteins have their counterparts in both budding and fission yeasts and some of them also in E. coli evoking an evolutionary conservation of DNA repair pathways. Accumulation of mutations within repair genes in single cells followed by their escape from the immune surveillance and in clonal expansion may greatly contribute to the appearance and development of human cancers. PMID:8687116

  17. Ribonucleotides in DNA: Origins, repair and consequences

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jessica S.; Kunkel, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    While primordial life is thought to have been RNA-based (Cech, Cold Spring Harbor Perspect. Biol. 4 (2012) a006742), all living organisms store genetic information in DNA, which is chemically more stable. Distinctions between the RNA and DNA worlds and our views of DNA synthesis continue to evolve as new details emerge on the incorporation, repair and biological effects of ribonucleotides in DNA genomes of organisms from bacteria through humans. PMID:24794402

  18. DNA glycosylases in the base excision repair of DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Krokan, H E; Standal, R; Slupphaug, G

    1997-01-01

    A wide range of cytotoxic and mutagenic DNA bases are removed by different DNA glycosylases, which initiate the base excision repair pathway. DNA glycosylases cleave the N-glycosylic bond between the target base and deoxyribose, thus releasing a free base and leaving an apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site. In addition, several DNA glycosylases are bifunctional, since they also display a lyase activity that cleaves the phosphodiester backbone 3' to the AP site generated by the glycosylase activity. Structural data and sequence comparisons have identified common features among many of the DNA glycosylases. Their active sites have a structure that can only bind extrahelical target bases, as observed in the crystal structure of human uracil-DNA glycosylase in a complex with double-stranded DNA. Nucleotide flipping is apparently actively facilitated by the enzyme. With bacteriophage T4 endonuclease V, a pyrimidine-dimer glycosylase, the enzyme gains access to the target base by flipping out an adenine opposite to the dimer. A conserved helix-hairpin-helix motif and an invariant Asp residue are found in the active sites of more than 20 monofunctional and bifunctional DNA glycosylases. In bifunctional DNA glycosylases, the conserved Asp is thought to deprotonate a conserved Lys, forming an amine nucleophile. The nucleophile forms a covalent intermediate (Schiff base) with the deoxyribose anomeric carbon and expels the base. Deoxyribose subsequently undergoes several transformations, resulting in strand cleavage and regeneration of the free enzyme. The catalytic mechanism of monofunctional glycosylases does not involve covalent intermediates. Instead the conserved Asp residue may activate a water molecule which acts as the attacking nucleophile. PMID:9224623

  19. Chromatin Remodeling, DNA Damage Repair and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Baohua; Yip, Raymond KH; Zhou, Zhongjun

    2012-01-01

    Cells are constantly exposed to a variety of environmental and endogenous conditions causing DNA damage, which is detected and repaired by conserved DNA repair pathways to maintain genomic integrity. Chromatin remodeling is critical in this process, as the organization of eukaryotic DNA into compact chromatin presents a natural barrier to all DNA-related events. Studies on human premature aging syndromes together with normal aging have suggested that accumulated damages might lead to exhaustion of resources that are required for physiological functions and thus accelerate aging. In this manuscript, combining the present understandings and latest findings, we focus mainly on discussing the role of chromatin remodeling in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and regulation of aging. PMID:23633913

  20. Human DNA repair and recombination genes

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.H.; Weber, C.A.; Jones, N.J.

    1988-09-01

    Several genes involved in mammalian DNA repair pathways were identified by complementation analysis and chromosomal mapping based on hybrid cells. Eight complementation groups of rodent mutants defective in the repair of uv radiation damage are now identified. At least seven of these genes are probably essential for repair and at least six of them control the incision step. The many genes required for repair of DNA cross-linking damage show overlap with those involved in the repair of uv damage, but some of these genes appear to be unique for cross-link repair. Two genes residing on human chromosome 19 were cloned from genomic transformants using a cosmid vector, and near full-length cDNA clones of each gene were isolated and sequenced. Gene ERCC2 efficiently corrects the defect in CHO UV5, a nucleotide excision repair mutant. Gene XRCC1 normalizes repair of strand breaks and the excessive sister chromatid exchange in CHO mutant EM9. ERCC2 shows a remarkable /approximately/52% overall homology at both the amino acid and nucleotide levels with the yeast RAD3 gene. Evidence based on mutation induction frequencies suggests that ERCC2, like RAD3, might also be an essential gene for viability. 100 refs., 4 tabs.

  1. Breast cancer risk is associated with the genes encoding the DNA double-strand break repair Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 complex.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Huan-Ming; Wang, Hui-Chun; Chen, Sou-Tong; Hsu, Giu-Cheng; Shen, Chen-Yang; Yu, Jyh-Cherng

    2007-10-01

    The evolutionarily conserved Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex, consisting of proteins encoded by the genes Mre11, Rad50, and Nbs1, was recently shown to play a crucial role in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair by recruiting the nuclear protein kinase ataxia telangiectasia mutated to DSB sites, leading to activation of this DNA repair network. Given the fact that carriers of defective mutation and polymorphic variants of ataxia telangiectasia mutated are at higher risk of developing breast cancer, we hypothesized a role of the MRN genes in determining breast cancer susceptibility. This hypothesis was examined both in a case control study of 559 breast cancer patients and 1,125 healthy women of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in Mre11, Rad50, and Nbs1 and by the in vivo detection of binding between Mre11 and BRCA1, encoded by the breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA1. We were also interested in defining whether any association between MRN genes and breast cancer was modified by reproductive risk factors reflecting the level of estrogen exposure or susceptibility to estrogen exposure, as estrogen is known to initiate breast cancer development due to its metabolites causing DSB formation. Support for the hypothesis came from the observations that (a) one single-nucleotide polymorphism in Nbs1 was significantly associated with breast cancer risk, and a trend toward an increased risk of developing breast cancer was found in women harboring a greater number of putative high-risk genotypes of MRN genes (an adjusted odds ratio of 1.25 for each additional putative high-risk genotype; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-1.44); (b) this association between risk and the number of putative high-risk genotypes was stronger and more significant in women thought to be more susceptible to estrogen, i.e., those with no history of full-term pregnancy, those older (>or=26 years of age) at first full-term pregnancy, or those having had fewer (<2) full-term pregnancies; the risk effect conferred by harboring a higher number of high-risk genotypes of MRN genes was more significant in women without a history of breast feeding; and (c) Mre11 and BRCA1 were shown to form a complex in vivo, and this interaction was increased by irradiation. This study supports the role of the MRN pathway in breast cancer development, further strengthening the suggestion that mechanisms regulating DSB repair may play a mutator role driving breast cancer pathogenesis. PMID:17932350

  2. CDK1 enhances mitochondrial bioenergetics for radiation-induced DNA repair

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Lili; Fan, Ming; Candas, Demet; Jiang, Guochun; Papadopoulos, Stelios; Tian, Lin; Woloschak, Gayle; Grdina, David J.; Li, Jian  Jian

    2015-12-06

    Nuclear DNA repair capacity is a critical determinant of cell fate under genotoxic stress conditions. DNA repair is a well-defined energy-consuming process. However, it is unclear how DNA repair is fueled and whether mitochondrial energy production contributes to nuclear DNA repair. Here, we report a dynamic enhancement of oxygen consumption and mitochondrial ATP generation in irradiated normal cells, paralleled with increased mitochondrial relocation of the cell-cycle kinase CDK1 and nuclear DNA repair. The basal and radiation-induced mitochondrial ATP generation is reduced significantly in cells harboring CDK1 phosphorylation-deficient mutant complex I subunits. Similarly, mitochondrial ATP generation and nuclear DNA repair are also compromised severely in cells harboring mitochondrially targeted, kinase-deficient CDK1. These findings demonstrate a mechanism governing the communication between mitochondria and the nucleus by which CDK1 boosts mitochondrial bioenergetics to meet the increased cellular fuel demand for DNA repair and cell survival under genotoxic stress conditions.

  3. CDK1 Enhances Mitochondrial Bioenergetics for Radiation-Induced DNA Repair

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Lili; Fan, Ming; Candas, Demet; Jiang, Guochun; Papadopoulos, Stelios; Tian, Lin; Woloschak, Gayle; Grdina, David J.; Li, Jian Jian

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Nuclear DNA repair capacity is a critical determinant of cell fate under genotoxic stress conditions. DNA repair is a well-defined energy consuming process; however, it is unclear how DNA repair is fueled and whether mitochondrial energy production contributes to nuclear DNA repair. Here, we report a dynamic enhancement of oxygen consumption and mitochondrial ATP generation in irradiated normal cells, paralleled with increased mitochondrial relocation of cell cycle kinase CDK1 and nuclear DNA repair. The basal and radiation-induced mitochondrial ATP generation is significantly reduced in cells harboring CDK1 phosphorylation deficient mutant complex I subunits. Similarly, mitochondrial ATP generation and nuclear DNA repair are also severely compromised in cells harboring mitochondrial-targeted kinase deficient CDK1. These results demonstrate a mechanism governing the communication between mitochondria and nucleus, by which CDK1 boosts mitochondrial bioenergetics to meet the increased cellular fuel demand for DNA repair and cell survival under genotoxic stress. PMID:26670043

  4. Hsp90: A New Player in DNA Repair?

    PubMed

    Pennisi, Rosa; Ascenzi, Paolo; di Masi, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is an evolutionary conserved molecular chaperone that, together with Hsp70 and co-chaperones makes up the Hsp90 chaperone machinery, stabilizing and activating more than 200 proteins, involved in protein homeostasis (i.e., proteostasis), transcriptional regulation, chromatin remodeling, and DNA repair. Cells respond to DNA damage by activating complex DNA damage response (DDR) pathways that include: (i) cell cycle arrest; (ii) transcriptional and post-translational activation of a subset of genes, including those associated with DNA repair; and (iii) triggering of programmed cell death. The efficacy of the DDR pathways is influenced by the nuclear levels of DNA repair proteins, which are regulated by balancing between protein synthesis and degradation as well as by nuclear import and export. The inability to respond properly to either DNA damage or to DNA repair leads to genetic instability, which in turn may enhance the rate of cancer development. Multiple components of the DNA double strand breaks repair machinery, including BRCA1, BRCA2, CHK1, DNA-PKcs, FANCA, and the MRE11/RAD50/NBN complex, have been described to be client proteins of Hsp90, which acts as a regulator of the diverse DDR pathways. Inhibition of Hsp90 actions leads to the altered localization and stabilization of DDR proteins after DNA damage and may represent a cell-specific and tumor-selective radiosensibilizer. Here, the role of Hsp90-dependent molecular mechanisms involved in cancer onset and in the maintenance of the genome integrity is discussed and highlighted. PMID:26501335

  5. DNA INTERSTRAND CROSSLINK REPAIR IN MAMMALIAN CELLS: STEP BY STEP

    PubMed Central

    Muniandy, Parameswary; Liu, Jia; Majumdar, Alokes; Liu, Su-ting; Seidman, Michael M.

    2009-01-01

    Interstrand DNA crosslinks (ICLs) are formed by natural products of metabolism and by chemotherapeutic reagents. Work in E. coli identified a two cycle repair scheme involving incisions on one strand on either side of the ICL (unhooking) producing a gapped intermediate with the incised oligonucleotide attached to the intact strand. The gap is filled by recombinational repair or lesion bypass synthesis. The remaining monoadduct is then removed by Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER). Despite considerable effort, our understanding of each step in mammalian cells is still quite limited. In part this reflects the variety of crosslinking compounds, each with distinct structural features, used by different investigators. Also, multiple repair pathways are involved, variably operative during the cell cycle. G1 phase repair requires functions from NER, although the mechanism of recognition has not been determined. Repair can be initiated by encounters with the transcriptional apparatus, or a replication fork. In the case of the latter, the reconstruction of a replication fork, stalled or broken by collision with an ICL, adds to the complexity of the repair process. The enzymology of unhooking, the identity of the lesion bypass polymerases required to fill the first repair gap, and the functions involved in the second repair cycle are all subjects of active inquiry. Here we will review current understanding of each step in ICL repair in mammalian cells. PMID:20039786

  6. The Awakening of DNA Repair at Yale

    PubMed Central

    Hanawalt, Philip C.

    2013-01-01

    As a graduate student with Professor Richard Setlow at Yale in the late 1950s, I studied the effects of ultraviolet and visible light on the syntheses of DNA, RNA, and protein in bacteria. I reflect upon my research in the Yale Biophysics Department, my subsequent postdoctoral experiences, and the eventual analyses in the laboratories of Setlow, Paul Howard-Flanders, and myself that constituted the discovery of the ubiquitous pathway of DNA excision repair in the early 1960s. I then offer a brief perspective on a few more recent developments in the burgeoning DNA repair field and their relationships to human disease. PMID:24348216

  7. DNA repair targeted therapy: The past or future of cancer treatment?

    PubMed

    Gavande, Navnath S; VanderVere-Carozza, Pamela S; Hinshaw, Hilary D; Jalal, Shadia I; Sears, Catherine R; Pawelczak, Katherine S; Turchi, John J

    2016-04-01

    The repair of DNA damage is a complex process that relies on particular pathways to remedy specific types of damage to DNA. The range of insults to DNA includes small, modest changes in structure including mismatched bases and simple methylation events to oxidized bases, intra- and interstrand DNA crosslinks, DNA double strand breaks and protein-DNA adducts. Pathways required for the repair of these lesions include mismatch repair, base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, and the homology directed repair/Fanconi anemia pathway. Each of these pathways contributes to genetic stability, and mutations in genes encoding proteins involved in these pathways have been demonstrated to promote genetic instability and cancer. In fact, it has been suggested that all cancers display defects in DNA repair. It has also been demonstrated that the ability of cancer cells to repair therapeutically induced DNA damage impacts therapeutic efficacy. This has led to targeting DNA repair pathways and proteins to develop anti-cancer agents that will increase sensitivity to traditional chemotherapeutics. While initial studies languished and were plagued by a lack of specificity and a defined mechanism of action, more recent approaches to exploit synthetic lethal interaction and develop high affinity chemical inhibitors have proven considerably more effective. In this review we will highlight recent advances and discuss previous failures in targeting DNA repair to pave the way for future DNA repair targeted agents and their use in cancer therapy. PMID:26896565

  8. DNA mismatch repair in Xenopus egg extracts: repair efficiency and DNA repair synthesis for all single base-pair mismatches.

    PubMed Central

    Varlet, I; Radman, M; Brooks, P

    1990-01-01

    Repair of all 12 single base-pair mismatches by Xenopus egg extracts was measured by a physical assay with a sequence containing four overlapping restriction sites. The heteroduplex substrates, derivatives of M13 phage DNA, differed in sequence at the mismatch position only and permitted measurement of repair to both strands. The efficiency of repair varied about 4-fold between the most and least effectively repaired mismatches. Repair was most active with C/A and T/C mismatches but the efficiency varied depending on the orientation of the mismatch. Mismatch-specific DNA repair synthesis was also observed but the extent of repair was not always predictive of the extent of synthesis, suggesting the presence of different repair systems or different modes of mismatch recognition. Images PMID:2236005

  9. Patching Broken DNA: Nucleosome Dynamics and the Repair of DNA Breaks.

    PubMed

    Gursoy-Yuzugullu, Ozge; House, Nealia; Price, Brendan D

    2016-05-01

    The ability of cells to detect and repair DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is dependent on reorganization of the surrounding chromatin structure by chromatin remodeling complexes. These complexes promote access to the site of DNA damage, facilitate processing of the damaged DNA and, importantly, are essential to repackage the repaired DNA. Here, we will review the chromatin remodeling steps that occur immediately after DSB production and that prepare the damaged chromatin template for processing by the DSB repair machinery. DSBs promote rapid accumulation of repressive complexes, including HP1, the NuRD complex, H2A.Z and histone methyltransferases at the DSB. This shift to a repressive chromatin organization may be important to inhibit local transcription and limit mobility of the break and to maintain the DNA ends in close contact. Subsequently, the repressive chromatin is rapidly dismantled through a mechanism involving dynamic exchange of the histone variant H2A.Z. H2A.Z removal at DSBs alters the acidic patch on the nucleosome surface, promoting acetylation of the H4 tail (by the NuA4-Tip60 complex) and shifting the chromatin to a more open structure. Further, H2A.Z removal promotes chromatin ubiquitination and recruitment of additional DSB repair proteins to the break. Modulation of the nucleosome surface and nucleosome function during DSB repair therefore plays a vital role in processing of DNA breaks. Further, the nucleosome surface may function as a central hub during DSB repair, directing specific patterns of histone modification, recruiting DNA repair proteins and modulating chromatin packing during processing of the damaged DNA template. PMID:26625977

  10. DNA repair responses in human skin cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hanawalt, P.C.; Liu, S.C.; Parsons, C.S.

    1981-07-01

    Sunlight and some environmental chemical agents produce lesions in the DNA of human skin cells that if unrepaired may interfere with normal functioning of these cells. The most serious outcome of such interactions may be malignancy. It is therefore important to develop an understanding of mechanisms by which the lesions may be repaired or tolerated without deleterious consequences. Our models for the molecular processing of damaged DNA have been derived largely from the study of bacterial systems. Some similarities but significant differences are revealed when human cell responses are tested against these models. It is also of importance to learn DNA repair responses of epidermal keratinocytes for comparison with the more extensive studies that have been carried out with dermal fibroblasts. Our experimental results thus far indicate similarities for the excision-repair of ultraviolet-induced pyrimidine dimers in human keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Both the monoadducts and the interstrand crosslinks produced in DNA by photoactivated 8-methoxypsoralen (PUVA) can be repaired in normal human fibroblasts but not in those from xeroderma pigmentosum patients. The monoadducts, like pyrimidine dimers, are probably the more mutagenic/carcinogenic lesions while the crosslinks are less easily repaired and probably result in more effective blocking of DNA function. It is suggested that a split-dose protocol that maximizes the production of crosslinks while minimizing the yield of monoadducts may be more effective and potentially less carcinogenic than the single ultraviolet exposure regimen in PUVA therapy for psoriasis.

  11. Recombination and DNA Repair in Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Dorer, Marion S.; Sessler, Tate H.; Salama, Nina R.

    2013-01-01

    All organisms have pathways that repair the genome, ensuring their survival and that of their progeny. But these pathways also serve to diversify the genome, causing changes on the level of nucleotide, whole gene, and genome structure. Sequencing of bacteria has revealed wide allelic diversity and differences in gene content within the same species, highlighting the importance of understanding pathways of recombination and DNA repair. The human stomach pathogen Helicobacter pylori is an excellent model system for studying these pathways. H. pylori harbors major recombination and repair pathways and is naturally competent, facilitating its ability to diversify its genome. Elucidation of DNA recombination, repair, and diversification programs in this pathogen will reveal connections between these pathways and their importance to infection. PMID:21682641

  12. The Interaction between Polynucleotide Kinase Phosphatase and the DNA Repair Protein XRCC1 Is Critical for Repair of DNA Alkylation Damage and Stable Association at DNA Damage Sites*

    PubMed Central

    Della-Maria, Julie; Hegde, Muralidhar L.; McNeill, Daniel R.; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; Ellenberger, Tom; Wilson, David M.; Mitra, Sankar; Tomkinson, Alan E.

    2012-01-01

    XRCC1 plays a key role in the repair of DNA base damage and single-strand breaks. Although it has no known enzymatic activity, XRCC1 interacts with multiple DNA repair proteins and is a subunit of distinct DNA repair protein complexes. Here we used the yeast two-hybrid genetic assay to identify mutant versions of XRCC1 that are selectively defective in interacting with a single protein partner. One XRCC1 mutant, A482T, that was defective in binding to polynucleotide kinase phosphatase (PNKP) not only retained the ability to interact with partner proteins that bind to different regions of XRCC1 but also with aprataxin and aprataxin-like factor whose binding sites overlap with that of PNKP. Disruption of the interaction between PNKP and XRCC1 did not impact their initial recruitment to localized DNA damage sites but dramatically reduced their retention there. Furthermore, the interaction between PNKP and the DNA ligase IIIα-XRCC1 complex significantly increased the efficiency of reconstituted repair reactions and was required for complementation of the DNA damage sensitivity to DNA alkylation agents of xrcc1 mutant cells. Together our results reveal novel roles for the interaction between PNKP and XRCC1 in the retention of XRCC1 at DNA damage sites and in DNA alkylation damage repair. PMID:22992732

  13. Evidence linking genetics, environment, and epigenetics to impaired DNA repair in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Coppedè, Fabio; Migliore, Lucia

    2010-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the repair of DNA lesions, particularly oxidative DNA lesions, might be compromised in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Studies performed in brains and peripheral tissues of both AD patients and individuals affected by mild cognitive impairment (MCI) revealed that oxidative DNA damage is one of the earliest detectable events during the progression from healthy aging to dementia. Moreover, the increase in DNA damage is paralleled by a decrease in DNA repair activities. Several hypotheses are currently tested in order to explain the decreased DNA repair activity observed in MCI and AD subjects. Some authors have suggested that mutations or polymorphisms in DNA repair genes might impair DNA repair. However, this hypothesis does not seem to be confirmed by recent genetic association studies. Others suggest that DNA repair proteins might be inactivated by oxidative induced post-translational modifications or degradation. There is also indication that different isoforms of the same repair protein might be involved in the progression from early to late stages AD. Moreover, a widespread activation of DNA repair pathways might generate death signals ending with neuronal apoptosis. A link between environmental induced epigenetic modification, oxidation, and repair of AD related genes has been also proposed. Most of these studies have been performed during the last few years, and we are still at the beginning of understanding the complex interplay between oxidative DNA damage, DNA repair, and neuronal death in the brain leading to Alzheimer's dementia, making this topic an exciting and promising field for future investigation. PMID:20182042

  14. Epigenetic reduction of DNA repair in progression to gastrointestinal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Carol; Bernstein, Harris

    2015-01-01

    Deficiencies in DNA repair due to inherited germ-line mutations in DNA repair genes cause increased risk of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. In sporadic GI cancers, mutations in DNA repair genes are relatively rare. However, epigenetic alterations that reduce expression of DNA repair genes are frequent in sporadic GI cancers. These epigenetic reductions are also found in field defects that give rise to cancers. Reduced DNA repair likely allows excessive DNA damages to accumulate in somatic cells. Then either inaccurate translesion synthesis past the un-repaired DNA damages or error-prone DNA repair can cause mutations. Erroneous DNA repair can also cause epigenetic alterations (i.e., epimutations, transmitted through multiple replication cycles). Some of these mutations and epimutations may cause progression to cancer. Thus, deficient or absent DNA repair is likely an important underlying cause of cancer. Whole genome sequencing of GI cancers show that between thousands to hundreds of thousands of mutations occur in these cancers. Epimutations that reduce DNA repair gene expression and occur early in progression to GI cancers are a likely source of this high genomic instability. Cancer cells deficient in DNA repair are more vulnerable than normal cells to inactivation by DNA damaging agents. Thus, some of the most clinically effective chemotherapeutic agents in cancer treatment are DNA damaging agents, and their effectiveness often depends on deficient DNA repair in cancer cells. Recently, at least 18 DNA repair proteins, each active in one of six DNA repair pathways, were found to be subject to epigenetic reduction of expression in GI cancers. Different DNA repair pathways repair different types of DNA damage. Evaluation of which DNA repair pathway(s) are deficient in particular types of GI cancer and/or particular patients may prove useful in guiding choice of therapeutic agents in cancer therapy. PMID:25987950

  15. Single molecule techniques in DNA repair: a primer.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Craig D; Simons, Michelle; Mackenzie, Cassidy E; Van Houten, Bennett; Kad, Neil M

    2014-08-01

    A powerful new approach has become much more widespread and offers insights into aspects of DNA repair unattainable with billions of molecules. Single molecule techniques can be used to image, manipulate or characterize the action of a single repair protein on a single strand of DNA. This allows search mechanisms to be probed, and the effects of force to be understood. These physical aspects can dominate a biochemical reaction, where at the ensemble level their nuances are obscured. In this paper we discuss some of the many technical advances that permit study at the single molecule level. We focus on DNA repair to which these techniques are actively being applied. DNA repair is also a process that encompasses so much of what single molecule studies benefit--searching for targets, complex formation, sequential biochemical reactions and substrate hand-off to name just a few. We discuss how single molecule biophysics is poised to transform our understanding of biological systems, in particular DNA repair. PMID:24819596

  16. Regulation of DNA repair by parkin

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, Shyan-Yuan

    2009-05-01

    Mutation of parkin is one of the most prevalent causes of autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). Parkin is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that acts on a variety of substrates, resulting in polyubiquitination and degradation by the proteasome or monoubiquitination and regulation of biological activity. However, the cellular functions of parkin that relate to its pathological involvement in PD are not well understood. Here we show that parkin is essential for optimal repair of DNA damage. Parkin-deficient cells exhibit reduced DNA excision repair that can be restored by transfection of wild-type parkin, but not by transfection of a pathological parkin mutant. Parkin also protects against DNA damage-induced cell death, an activity that is largely lost in the pathological mutant. Moreover, parkin interacts with the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a protein that coordinates DNA excision repair. These results suggest that parkin promotes DNA repair and protects against genotoxicity, and implicate DNA damage as a potential pathogenic mechanism in PD.

  17. Error-Prone Repair of DNA Double-Strand Breaks.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Kasey; McVey, Mitch

    2016-01-01

    Preserving the integrity of the DNA double helix is crucial for the maintenance of genomic stability. Therefore, DNA double-strand breaks represent a serious threat to cells. In this review, we describe the two major strategies used to repair double strand breaks: non-homologous end joining and homologous recombination, emphasizing the mutagenic aspects of each. We focus on emerging evidence that homologous recombination, long thought to be an error-free repair process, can in fact be highly mutagenic, particularly in contexts requiring large amounts of DNA synthesis. Recent investigations have begun to illuminate the molecular mechanisms by which error-prone double-strand break repair can create major genomic changes, such as translocations and complex chromosome rearrangements. We highlight these studies and discuss proposed models that may explain some of the more extreme genetic changes observed in human cancers and congenital disorders. PMID:26033759

  18. Isolating human DNA repair genes using rodent-cell mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.H.; Weber, C.A.; Brookman, K.W.; Salazar, E.P.; Stewart, S.A.; Mitchell, D.L.

    1987-03-23

    The DNA repair systems of rodent and human cells appear to be at least as complex genetically as those in lower eukaryotes and bacteria. The use of mutant lines of rodent cells as a means of identifying human repair genes by functional complementation offers a new approach toward studying the role of repair in mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. In each of six cases examined using hybrid cells, specific human chromosomes have been identified that correct CHO cell mutations affecting repair of damage from uv or ionizing radiations. This finding suggests that both the repair genes and proteins may be virtually interchangeable between rodent and human cells. Using cosmid vectors, human repair genes that map to chromosome 19 have cloned as functional sequences: ERCC2 and XRCC1. ERCC1 was found to have homology with the yeast excision repair gene RAD10. Transformants of repair-deficient cell lines carrying the corresponding human gene show efficient correction of repair capacity by all criteria examined. 39 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. DNA Repair Mechanisms: the Work of Aziz Sancar

    PubMed Central

    Kresge, Nicole; Simoni, Robert D.; Hill, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Action Mechanism of Escherichia coli DNA Photolyase. III. Photolysis of the Enzyme-Substrate Complex and the Absolute Action Spectrum (Sancar, G. B., Jorns, M. S., Payne, G., Fluke, D. J., Rupert, C. S., and Sancar, A. (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 492–498) Reconstitution of the Human DNA Repair Excision Nuclease in the Highly Defined System (Mu, D., Park, C.-H., Matsunaga, T., Hsu, D. S., Reardon, J. T., and Sancar, A. (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 2415–2418)

  20. DNA damage and repair after high LET radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, Peter; Cucinotta, Francis; Anderson, Jennifer

    Predictions from biophysical models of interactions of radiation tracks with cellular DNA indicate that clustered DNA damage sites, defined as two or more lesions formed within one or two helical turns of the DNA by passage of a single radiation track, are formed in mammalian cells. These complex DNA damage sites are regarded as a signature of ionizing radiation exposure particularly as the likelihood of clustered damage sites arising endogenously is low. For instance, it was predicted from biophysical modelling that 30-40% of low LET-induced double strand breaks (DSB), a form of clustered damage, are complex with the yield increasing to >90% for high LET radiation, consistent with the reduced reparability of DSB with increasing ionization density of the radiation. The question arises whether the increased biological effects such as mutagenesis, carcinogenesis and lethality is in part related to DNA damage complexity and/or spatial distribution of the damage sites, which may lead to small DNA fragments. With particle radiation it is also important to consider not only delta-rays which may cause clustered damaged sites and may be highly mutagenic but the non-random spatial distribution of DSB which may lead to deletions. In this overview I will concentrate on the molecular aspects of the variation of the complexity of DNA damage on radiation quality and the challenges this complexity presents the DNA damage repair pathways. I will draw on data from micro-irradiations which indicate that the repair of DSBs by non-homologous end joining is highly regulated with pathway choice and kinetics of repair dependent on the chemical complexity of the DSB. In summary the aim is to emphasis the link between the spatial distribution of energy deposition events related to the track, the molecular products formed and the consequence of damage complexity contributing to biological effects and to present some of the outstanding molecular challenges with particle radiation.

  1. The ups and downs of DNA repair biomarkers for PARP inhibitor therapies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, XiaoZhe; Weaver, David T

    2011-01-01

    PARP inhibitors are emerging as a valuable new drug class in the treatment of cancer. Recent discoveries make a compelling case for the complexity of DNA repair biomarker evaluation and underscore the need to examine at multiple biomarkers in a relational manner. This review updates the current trends in DNA repair biomarker strategies in use for the PARP inhibitors and describes the impact of many DNA repair biomarkers on PARP inhibitor benefit in the cancer clinic. PMID:21968427

  2. DNA repair synthesis and ligation affect the processing of excised oligonucleotides generated by human nucleotide excision repair.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Michael G; Gaddameedhi, Shobhan; Choi, Jun-Hyuk; Hu, Jinchuan; Sancar, Aziz

    2014-09-19

    Ultraviolet (UV) photoproducts are removed from genomic DNA by dual incisions in humans in the form of 24- to 32-nucleotide-long oligomers (canonical 30-mers) by the nucleotide excision repair system. How the small, excised, damage-containing DNA oligonucleotides (sedDNAs) are processed in cells following the dual incision event is not known. Here, we demonstrate that sedDNAs are localized to the nucleus in two biochemically distinct forms, which include chromatin-associated, transcription factor II H-bound complexes and more readily solubilized, RPA-bound complexes. Because the nuclear mobility and repair functions of transcription factor II H and RPA are influenced by post-incision gap-filling events, we examined how DNA repair synthesis and DNA ligation affect sedDNA processing. We found that although these gap filling activities are not essential for the dual incision/sedDNA generation event per se, the inhibition of DNA repair synthesis and ligation is associated with a decrease in UV photoproduct removal rate and an accumulation of RPA-sedDNA complexes in the cell. These findings indicate that sedDNA processing and association with repair proteins following the dual incisions may be tightly coordinated with gap filling during nucleotide excision repair in vivo. PMID:25107903

  3. DNA Repair Synthesis and Ligation Affect the Processing of Excised Oligonucleotides Generated by Human Nucleotide Excision Repair*

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Michael G.; Gaddameedhi, Shobhan; Choi, Jun-Hyuk; Hu, Jinchuan; Sancar, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) photoproducts are removed from genomic DNA by dual incisions in humans in the form of 24- to 32-nucleotide-long oligomers (canonical 30-mers) by the nucleotide excision repair system. How the small, excised, damage-containing DNA oligonucleotides (sedDNAs) are processed in cells following the dual incision event is not known. Here, we demonstrate that sedDNAs are localized to the nucleus in two biochemically distinct forms, which include chromatin-associated, transcription factor II H-bound complexes and more readily solubilized, RPA-bound complexes. Because the nuclear mobility and repair functions of transcription factor II H and RPA are influenced by post-incision gap-filling events, we examined how DNA repair synthesis and DNA ligation affect sedDNA processing. We found that although these gap filling activities are not essential for the dual incision/sedDNA generation event per se, the inhibition of DNA repair synthesis and ligation is associated with a decrease in UV photoproduct removal rate and an accumulation of RPA-sedDNA complexes in the cell. These findings indicate that sedDNA processing and association with repair proteins following the dual incisions may be tightly coordinated with gap filling during nucleotide excision repair in vivo. PMID:25107903

  4. A Quantitative Assay Reveals Ligand Specificity of the DNA Scaffold Repair Protein XRCC1 and Efficient Disassembly of Complexes of XRCC1 and the Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase 1 by Poly(ADP-ribose) Glycohydrolase*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, In-Kwon; Stegeman, Roderick A.; Brosey, Chris A.; Ellenberger, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The posttranslational modification of proteins with poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) regulates protein-protein interactions in DNA repair, gene expression, chromatin structure, and cell fate determination. The PAR polymerase PARP1 binds to damaged chromatin and synthesizes PAR chains to signal DNA damage and recruit the DNA repair scaffold, XRCC1. Pharmacological blockade of PARP1 enzymatic activity impairs XRCC1-dependent repair of DNA damage and selectively kills cancer cells lacking other DNA repair functions. As such, PARP inhibitors are promising new therapies for repair-deficient tumors such as BRCA mutated breast cancers. Although the XRCC1-PARP1 complex is relevant to the proposed therapeutic mechanism of PARP inhibitors, the physical makeup and dynamics of this complex are not well characterized at the molecular level. Here we describe a fluorescence-based, real-time assay that quantitatively monitors interactions between PARylated PARP1 and XRCC1. Using this assay, we show that the PAR posttranslational modification by itself is a high affinity ligand for XRCC1, requiring a minimum chain length of 7 ADP-ribose units in the oligo(ADP-ribose) ligand for a stable interaction with XRCC1. This discrete binding interface enables the PAR glycohydrolase (PARG) to completely disassemble the PARP1-XRCC1 complex without assistance from a mono(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase. Our quantitative, real-time assay of PAR-dependent protein-protein interactions and PAR turnover by PARG is an excellent tool for high-throughput screening to identify pharmacological modulators of PAR metabolism that may be useful therapeutic alternatives to PARP inhibitors. PMID:25477519

  5. DNA repair, immunosuppression, and skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Yarosh, Daniel B

    2004-11-01

    UV radiation (UVR) produces erythema within the first 24 hours of exposure, suppression of the immune system within the first 10 days, and, for many people, over the course of decades, skin cancer. Although UVR damages many skin targets, DNA damage in the form of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) is an important mediator of these sequelae. The action spectrum for erythema parallels the action spectrum for CPD formation in skin, and in the absence of repair, as in the genetic disease xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), skin cancer rates are dramatically increased. DNA repair in skin can be enhanced by the delivery of DNA repair enzymes encapsulated in liposomes. Used in this way, photoreactivation of CPDs greatly diminishes erythema and the suppression of contact hypersensitivity (CHS). UV endonucleases delivered by liposomes also prevent UV-induced suppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity. In a clinical study of patients with XP, T4 endonuclease V (T4N5) liposome lotion applied for one year reduced the rates of actinic keratosis (AK) and skin cancer compared with placebo. These results showed that strategies to increase sun protection should include measures to reduce DNA damage and increase the rate of DNA repair. PMID:15603216

  6. Repair of Oxidative DNA Damage and Cancer: Recent Progress in DNA Base Excision Repair

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Timothy L.; Rangaswamy, Suganya; Wicker, Christina A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated by exogenous and environmental genotoxins, but also arise from mitochondria as byproducts of respiration in the body. ROS generate DNA damage of which pathological consequence, including cancer is well established. Research efforts are intense to understand the mechanism of DNA base excision repair, the primary mechanism to protect cells from genotoxicity caused by ROS. Recent Advances: In addition to the notion that oxidative DNA damage causes transformation of cells, recent studies have revealed how the mitochondrial deficiencies and ROS generation alter cell growth during the cancer transformation. Critical Issues: The emphasis of this review is to highlight the importance of the cellular response to oxidative DNA damage during carcinogenesis. Oxidative DNA damage, including 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine, play an important role during the cellular transformation. It is also becoming apparent that the unusual activity and subcellular distribution of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1, an essential DNA repair factor/redox sensor, affect cancer malignancy by increasing cellular resistance to oxidative stress and by positively influencing cell proliferation. Future Directions: Technological advancement in cancer cell biology and genetics has enabled us to monitor the detailed DNA repair activities in the microenvironment. Precise understanding of the intracellular activities of DNA repair proteins for oxidative DNA damage should provide help in understanding how mitochondria, ROS, DNA damage, and repair influence cancer transformation. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 708–726. PMID:23901781

  7. DNA-mediated charge transport for DNA repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boon, Elizabeth M.; Livingston, Alison L.; Chmiel, Nikolas H.; David, Sheila S.; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2003-10-01

    MutY, like many DNA base excision repair enzymes, contains a [4Fe4S]2+ cluster of undetermined function. Electrochemical studies of MutY bound to a DNA-modified gold electrode demonstrate that the [4Fe4S] cluster of MutY can be accessed in a DNA-mediated redox reaction. Although not detectable without DNA, the redox potential of DNA-bound MutY is 275 mV versus NHE, which is characteristic of HiPiP iron proteins. Binding to DNA is thus associated with a change in [4Fe4S]3+/2+ potential, activating the cluster toward oxidation. Given that DNA charge transport chemistry is exquisitely sensitive to perturbations in base pair structure, such as mismatches, we propose that this redox process of MutY bound to DNA exploits DNA charge transport and provides a DNA signaling mechanism to scan for mismatches and lesions in vivo.

  8. Early Days of DNA Repair: Discovery of Nucleotide Excision Repair and Homology-Dependent Recombinational Repair

    PubMed Central

    Rupp, W. Dean

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of nucleotide excision repair in 1964 showed that DNA could be repaired by a mechanism that removed the damaged section of a strand and replaced it accurately by using the remaining intact strand as the template. This result showed that DNA could be actively metabolized in a process that had no precedent. In 1968, experiments describing postreplication repair, a process dependent on homologous recombination, were reported. The authors of these papers were either at Yale University or had prior Yale connections. Here we recount some of the events leading to these discoveries and consider the impact on further research at Yale and elsewhere. PMID:24348214

  9. Databases and Bioinformatics Tools for the Study of DNA Repair

    PubMed Central

    Milanowska, Kaja; Rother, Kristian; Bujnicki, Janusz M.

    2011-01-01

    DNA is continuously exposed to many different damaging agents such as environmental chemicals, UV light, ionizing radiation, and reactive cellular metabolites. DNA lesions can result in different phenotypical consequences ranging from a number of diseases, including cancer, to cellular malfunction, cell death, or aging. To counteract the deleterious effects of DNA damage, cells have developed various repair systems, including biochemical pathways responsible for the removal of single-strand lesions such as base excision repair (BER) and nucleotide excision repair (NER) or specialized polymerases temporarily taking over lesion-arrested DNA polymerases during the S phase in translesion synthesis (TLS). There are also other mechanisms of DNA repair such as homologous recombination repair (HRR), nonhomologous end-joining repair (NHEJ), or DNA damage response system (DDR). This paper reviews bioinformatics resources specialized in disseminating information about DNA repair pathways, proteins involved in repair mechanisms, damaging agents, and DNA lesions. PMID:22091405

  10. Direct DNA Lesion Reversal and Excision Repair in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Couvé, Sophie; Ishchenko, Alexander A; Fedorova, Olga S; Ramanculov, Erlan M; Laval, Jacques; Saparbaev, Murat

    2013-02-01

    Cellular DNA is constantly challenged by various endogenous and exogenous genotoxic factors that inevitably lead to DNA damage: structural and chemical modifications of primary DNA sequence. These DNA lesions are either cytotoxic, because they block DNA replication and transcription, or mutagenic due to the miscoding nature of the DNA modifications, or both, and are believed to contribute to cell lethality and mutagenesis. Studies on DNA repair in Escherichia coli spearheaded formulation of principal strategies to counteract DNA damage and mutagenesis, such as: direct lesion reversal, DNA excision repair, mismatch and recombinational repair and genotoxic stress signalling pathways. These DNA repair pathways are universal among cellular organisms. Mechanistic principles used for each repair strategies are fundamentally different. Direct lesion reversal removes DNA damage without need for excision and de novo DNA synthesis, whereas DNA excision repair that includes pathways such as base excision, nucleotide excision, alternative excision and mismatch repair, proceeds through phosphodiester bond breakage, de novo DNA synthesis and ligation. Cell signalling systems, such as adaptive and oxidative stress responses, although not DNA repair pathways per se, are nevertheless essential to counteract DNA damage and mutagenesis. The present review focuses on the nature of DNA damage, direct lesion reversal, DNA excision repair pathways and adaptive and oxidative stress responses in E. coli. PMID:26442931

  11. Posttranscriptional regulation of the RAD5 DNA repair gene by the Dun1 kinase and the Pan2-Pan3 poly(A)-nuclease complex contributes to survival of replication blocks.

    PubMed

    Hammet, Andrew; Pike, Brietta L; Heierhorst, Jörg

    2002-06-21

    The yeast Dun1 kinase has complex checkpoint functions including DNA damage-dependent cell cycle arrest in G(2)/M, transcriptional induction of repair genes, and regulation of postreplicative DNA repair pathways. Here we report that the Dun1 forkhead-associated domain interacts with the Pan3 subunit of the poly(A)-nuclease complex and that dun1pan2 and dun1pan3 double mutants are dramatically hypersensitive to replicational stress. This phenotype was independent of the function of Dun1 in regulating deoxyribonucleotide levels as it was also observed in strains lacking the ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor Sml1. dun1pan2 mutants initially arrested normally in response to replication blocks but died in the presence of persistent replication blocks with considerably delayed kinetics compared with mutants lacking the Rad53 kinase, indicating that the double mutation does not compromise the intra-S phase checkpoint. Interestingly, the RAD5 gene involved in error-free postreplication repair pathways was specifically up-regulated in dun1pan2 double mutants. Moreover, inducible overexpression of RAD5 mimicked the double mutant phenotype by hypersensitizing dun1 mutants to replication blocks. The data indicate that Dun1 and Pan2-Pan3 cooperate to regulate the stoichiometry and thereby the activity of postreplication repair complexes, suggesting that posttranscriptional mechanisms complement the transcriptional response in the regulation of gene expression by checkpoint signaling pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:11953437

  12. Importance of DNA repair in tumor suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brumer, Yisroel; Shakhnovich, Eugene I.

    2004-12-01

    The transition from a normal to cancerous cell requires a number of highly specific mutations that affect cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, differentiation, and many other cell functions. One hallmark of cancerous genomes is genomic instability, with mutation rates far greater than those of normal cells. In microsatellite instability (MIN tumors), these are often caused by damage to mismatch repair genes, allowing further mutation of the genome and tumor progression. These mutation rates may lie near the error catastrophe found in the quasispecies model of adaptive RNA genomes, suggesting that further increasing mutation rates will destroy cancerous genomes. However, recent results have demonstrated that DNA genomes exhibit an error threshold at mutation rates far lower than their conservative counterparts. Furthermore, while the maximum viable mutation rate in conservative systems increases indefinitely with increasing master sequence fitness, the semiconservative threshold plateaus at a relatively low value. This implies a paradox, wherein inaccessible mutation rates are found in viable tumor cells. In this paper, we address this paradox, demonstrating an isomorphism between the conservatively replicating (RNA) quasispecies model and the semiconservative (DNA) model with post-methylation DNA repair mechanisms impaired. Thus, as DNA repair becomes inactivated, the maximum viable mutation rate increases smoothly to that of a conservatively replicating system on a transformed landscape, with an upper bound that is dependent on replication rates. On a specific single fitness peak landscape, the repair-free semiconservative system is shown to mimic a conservative system exactly. We postulate that inactivation of post-methylation repair mechanisms is fundamental to the progression of a tumor cell and hence these mechanisms act as a method for the prevention and destruction of cancerous genomes.

  13. Platinum resistance: the role of DNA repair pathways.

    PubMed

    Martin, Lainie P; Hamilton, Thomas C; Schilder, Russell J

    2008-03-01

    Although platinum chemotherapeutic agents such as carboplatin, cisplatin, and oxaliplatin are used to treat a broad range of malignant diseases, their efficacy in most cancers is limited by the development of resistance. There are multiple factors that contribute to platinum resistance but alterations of DNA repair processes have been known for some time to be important in mediating resistance. Recently acquired knowledge has provided insight into the molecular mechanisms of DNA repair pathways and their effect on response to chemotherapy. This review will discuss the most important DNA repair pathways known to be involved in the platinum response, i.e., nucleotide excision repair (NER) and mismatch repair (MMR), and will briefly touch on the role of BRCA in DNA repair. The therapeutic implications of alterations in DNA repair which affect response to platinum in the treatment of patients with malignant disease, such as excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) deficiency and mismatch repair deficiency, will be reviewed. PMID:18316546

  14. Repair of nonreplicating UV-irradiated DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, S.J.; Hays, J.B.

    1986-05-01

    Repair of irradiated phage lambda DNA in E. coli has been studied by a repressed-infection system: superinfection of homoimmune lysogenic bacteria; assay for restoration of transcribility to phage-encoded lac genes; extraction of DNA and assay for infectivity in transfection of uvrB/sup -/ recA/sup -/ recB/sup -/ spheroplasts, and for removal of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CBP-dimers) by UV-endonuclease treatment and alkaline sedimentation. In uvr/sup +/ repressed infections with 254-nm irradiated phages (60 J/m/sup 2/) lac transcription was rapidly returned to undamaged levels, concomitant with restoration of infectivity and removal of CBP-dimers. In uvrD/sup -/ cells, the frequency of phage gene inactivation corresponded to the estimated frequency of CBP-dimers per gene. In uvrA/sup -/ bacteria, however, lac expression was only 1/10 to 1/3 of that predicted by the expected frequency of gene inactivation, as if damage elsewhere affected transcription; recovery of infectivity and removal of CBP-dimers was almost completely inhibited. lac/sup +/ and lacUV5 phages, expected to respond oppositely to changes in superhelical density, were constructed as probes for topological changes during DNA repair. The assays for transfection infectivity and CBP-dimer-removal have been extended to studies of repair of UV-irradiated phage DNA injected into oocytes of the frog Xenopus laevis.

  15. DNA Repair-Protein Relocalization After Heavy Ion Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metting, N. F.

    1999-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is good at making DNA double strand breaks, and high linear energy transfer (LET) radiations such as heavy ion particles are particularly efficient. For this reason, the proteins belonging to repair systems that deal with double strand breaks are of particular interest. One such protein is Ku, a component in the non-homologous recombination repair system. The Ku protein is an abundant, heterodimeric DNA end-binding complex, composed of one 70 and one 86 kDa subunit. Ku protein binds to DNA ends, nicks, gaps, and regions of transition between single and double-stranded structure. These binding properties suggest an important role in DNA repair. The Ku antigen is important in this study because it is present in relatively large copy numbers and it is part of a double-strand-break repair system. More importantly, we consistently measure an apparent upregulation in situ that is not verified by whole-cell-lysate immunoblot measurements. This apparent upregulation is triggered by very low doses of radiation, thus showing a potentially useful high sensitivity. However, elucidation of the mechanism underlying this phenomenon is still to be done.

  16. Autophagy positively regulates DNA damage recognition by nucleotide excision repair.

    PubMed

    Qiang, Lei; Zhao, Baozhong; Shah, Palak; Sample, Ashley; Yang, Seungwon; He, Yu-Ying

    2016-02-01

    Macroautophagy (hereafter autophagy) is a cellular catabolic process that is essential for maintaining tissue homeostasis and regulating various normal and pathologic processes in human diseases including cancer. One cancer-driving process is accumulation of genetic mutations due to impaired DNA damage repair, including nucleotide excision repair. Here we show that autophagy positively regulates nucleotide excision repair through enhancing DNA damage recognition by the DNA damage sensor proteins XPC and DDB2 via 2 pathways. First, autophagy deficiency downregulates the transcription of XPC through TWIST1-dependent activation of the transcription repressor complex E2F4-RBL2. Second, autophagy deficiency impairs the recruitment of DDB2 to ultraviolet radiation (UV)-induced DNA damage sites through TWIST1-mediated inhibition of EP300. In mice, the pharmacological autophagy inhibitor Spautin-1 promotes UVB-induced tumorigenesis, whereas the autophagy inducer rapamycin reduces UVB-induced tumorigenesis. These findings demonstrate the crucial role of autophagy in maintaining proper nucleotide excision repair in mammalian cells and suggest a previously unrecognized tumor-suppressive mechanism of autophagy in cancer. PMID:26565512

  17. Small Molecules, Inhibitors of DNA-PK, Targeting DNA Repair, and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, David; Amrein, Lilian; Panasci, Lawrence; Aloyz, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    Many current chemotherapies function by damaging genomic DNA in rapidly dividing cells ultimately leading to cell death. This therapeutic approach differentially targets cancer cells that generally display rapid cell division compared to normal tissue cells. However, although these treatments are initially effective in arresting tumor growth and reducing tumor burden, resistance and disease progression eventually occur. A major mechanism underlying this resistance is increased levels of cellular DNA repair. Most cells have complex mechanisms in place to repair DNA damage that occurs due to environmental exposures or normal metabolic processes. These systems, initially overwhelmed when faced with chemotherapy induced DNA damage, become more efficient under constant selective pressure and as a result chemotherapies become less effective. Thus, inhibiting DNA repair pathways using target specific small molecule inhibitors may overcome cellular resistance to DNA damaging chemotherapies. Non-homologous end joining a major mechanism for the repair of double-strand breaks (DSB) in DNA is regulated in part by the serine/threonine kinase, DNA dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK). The DNA-PK holoenzyme acts as a scaffold protein tethering broken DNA ends and recruiting other repair molecules. It also has enzymatic activity that may be involved in DNA damage signaling. Because of its’ central role in repair of DSBs, DNA-PK has been the focus of a number of small molecule studies. In these studies specific DNA-PK inhibitors have shown efficacy in synergizing chemotherapies in vitro. However, compounds currently known to specifically inhibit DNA-PK are limited by poor pharmacokinetics: these compounds have poor solubility and have high metabolic lability in vivo leading to short serum half-lives. Future improvement in DNA-PK inhibition will likely be achieved by designing new molecules based on the recently reported crystallographic structure of DNA-PK. Computer based drug design will not only assist in identifying novel functional moieties to replace the metabolically labile morpholino group but will also facilitate the design of molecules to target the DNA-PKcs/Ku80 interface or one of the autophosphorylation sites. PMID:23386830

  18. Inducible repair of alkylated DNA in microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Mielecki, Damian; Wrzesi?ski, Micha?; Grzesiuk, El?bieta

    2015-01-01

    Alkylating agents, which are widespread in the environment, also occur endogenously as primary and secondary metabolites. Such compounds have intrinsically extremely cytotoxic and frequently mutagenic effects, to which organisms have developed resistance by evolving multiple repair mechanisms to protect cellular DNA. One such defense against alkylation lesions is an inducible Adaptive (Ada) response. In Escherichia coli, the Ada response enhances cell resistance by the biosynthesis of four proteins: Ada, AlkA, AlkB, and AidB. The glycosidic bonds of the most cytotoxic lesion, N3-methyladenine (3meA), together with N3-methylguanine (3meG), O(2)-methylthymine (O(2)-meT), and O(2)-methylcytosine (O(2)-meC), are cleaved by AlkA DNA glycosylase. Lesions such as N1-methyladenine (1meA) and N3-methylcytosine (3meC) are removed from DNA and RNA by AlkB dioxygenase. Cytotoxic and mutagenic O(6)-methylguanine (O(6)meG) is repaired by Ada DNA methyltransferase, which transfers the methyl group onto its own cysteine residue from the methylated oxygen. We review (i) the individual Ada proteins Ada, AlkA, AlkB, AidB, and COG3826, with emphasis on the ubiquitous and versatile AlkB and its prokaryotic and eukaryotic homologs; (ii) the organization of the Ada regulon in several bacterial species; (iii) the mechanisms underlying activation of Ada transcription. In vivo and in silico analysis of various microorganisms shows the widespread existence and versatile organization of Ada regulon genes, including not only ada, alkA, alkB, and aidB but also COG3826, alkD, and other genes whose roles in repair of alkylated DNA remain to be elucidated. This review explores the comparative organization of Ada response and protein functions among bacterial species beyond the classical E. coli model. PMID:25795127

  19. Targeting DNA repair pathways for cancer treatment: what's new?

    PubMed

    Kelley, Mark R; Logsdon, Derek; Fishel, Melissa L

    2014-05-01

    Disruptions in DNA repair pathways predispose cells to accumulating DNA damage. A growing body of evidence indicates that tumors accumulate progressively more mutations in DNA repair proteins as cancers progress. DNA repair mechanisms greatly affect the response to cytotoxic treatments, so understanding those mechanisms and finding ways to turn dysregulated repair processes against themselves to induce tumor death is the goal of all DNA repair inhibition efforts. Inhibition may be direct or indirect. This burgeoning field of research is replete with promise and challenge, as more intricacies of each repair pathway are discovered. In an era of increasing concern about healthcare costs, use of DNA repair inhibitors can prove to be highly effective stewardship of R&D resources and patient expenses. PMID:24947262

  20. Targeting DNA repair pathways for cancer treatment: what's new?

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Mark R; Logsdon, Derek; Fishel, Melissa L

    2014-01-01

    Disruptions in DNA repair pathways predispose cells to accumulating DNA damage. A growing body of evidence indicates that tumors accumulate progressively more mutations in DNA repair proteins as cancers progress. DNA repair mechanisms greatly affect the response to cytotoxic treatments, so understanding those mechanisms and finding ways to turn dysregulated repair processes against themselves to induce tumor death is the goal of all DNA repair inhibition efforts. Inhibition may be direct or indirect. This burgeoning field of research is replete with promise and challenge, as more intricacies of each repair pathway are discovered. In an era of increasing concern about healthcare costs, use of DNA repair inhibitors can prove to be highly effective stewardship of R&D resources and patient expenses. PMID:24947262

  1. Presynaptic Filament Dynamics in Homologous Recombination and DNA Repair

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Ehmsen, Kirk T.; Heyer, Wolf-Dietrich; Morrical, Scott W.

    2014-01-01

    Homologous Recombination (HR) is an essential genome stability mechanism used for high-fidelity repair of DNA double-strand breaks and for the recovery of stalled or collapsed DNA replication forks. The crucial homology search and DNA strand exchange steps of HR are catalyzed by presynaptic filaments—helical filaments of a recombinase enzyme bound to single-stranded DNA. Presynaptic filaments are fundamentally dynamic structures, the assembly, catalytic turnover, and disassembly of which must be closely coordinated with other elements of the DNA recombination, repair, and replication machinery in order for genome maintenance functions to be effective. Here, we review the major dynamic elements controlling the assembly, activity, and disassembly of presynaptic filaments: some intrinsic such as recombinase ATP binding and hydrolytic activities, others extrinsic such as ssDNA-binding proteins, mediator proteins, and DNA motor proteins. We examine dynamic behavior on multiple levels, including atomic- and filament-level structural changes associated with ATP binding and hydrolysis as evidenced in crystal structures, as well as subunit binding and dissociation events driven by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. We examine the biochemical properties of recombination proteins from four model systems (T4 phage, E. coli, S. cerevisiae, and H. sapiens), demonstrating how their properties are tailored for the context-specific requirements in these diverse species. We propose that the presynaptic filament has evolved to rely on multiple external factors for increased multi-level regulation of HR processes in genomes with greater structural and sequence complexity. PMID:21599536

  2. The cell cycle and DNA mismatch repair

    SciTech Connect

    Schroering, Allen G.; Edelbrock, Michael A.; Richards, Timothy J.; Williams, Kandace J. . E-mail: kanwilliams@meduohio.edu

    2007-01-15

    The DNA mismatch repair (MMR) pathway contributes to the fidelity of DNA synthesis and recombination by correcting mispaired nucleotides and insertion/deletion loops (IDLs). We have investigated whether MMR protein expression, activity, and subcellular location are altered during discrete phases of the cell cycle in mammalian cells. Two distinct methods have been used to demonstrate that although physiological MMR protein expression, mismatch binding, and nick-directed MMR activity within the nucleus are at highest levels during S phase, MMR is active throughout the cell cycle. Despite equal MMR nuclear protein concentrations in S and G{sub 2} phases, mismatch binding and repair activities within G{sub 2} are significantly lower, indicating a post-translational decrease in MMR activity specific to G{sub 2}. We further demonstrate that typical co-localization of MutS{alpha} to late S phase replication foci can be disrupted by 2 {mu}M N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). This concentration of MNNG does not decrease ongoing DNA synthesis nor induce cell cycle arrest until the second cell cycle, with long-term colony survival decreased by only 24%. These results suggest that low level alkylation damage can selectively disrupt MMR proofreading activity during DNA synthesis and potentially increase mutation frequency within surviving cells.

  3. DNA repair in species with extreme lifespan differences.

    PubMed

    MacRae, Sheila L; Croken, Matthew McKnight; Calder, R B; Aliper, Alexander; Milholland, Brandon; White, Ryan R; Zhavoronkov, Alexander; Gladyshev, Vadim N; Seluanov, Andrei; Gorbunova, Vera; Zhang, Zhengdong D; Vijg, Jan

    2015-12-01

    Differences in DNA repair capacity have been hypothesized to underlie the great range of maximum lifespans among mammals. However, measurements of individual DNA repair activities in cells and animals have not substantiated such a relationship because utilization of repair pathways among animals-depending on habitats, anatomical characteristics, and life styles-varies greatly between mammalian species. Recent advances in high-throughput genomics, in combination with increased knowledge of the genetic pathways involved in genome maintenance, now enable a comprehensive comparison of DNA repair transcriptomes in animal species with extreme lifespan differences. Here we compare transcriptomes of liver, an organ with high oxidative metabolism and abundant spontaneous DNA damage, from humans, naked mole rats, and mice, with maximum lifespans of ~120, 30, and 3 years, respectively, with a focus on genes involved in DNA repair. The results show that the longer-lived species, human and naked mole rat, share higher expression of DNA repair genes, including core genes in several DNA repair pathways. A more systematic approach of signaling pathway analysis indicates statistically significant upregulation of several DNA repair signaling pathways in human and naked mole rat compared with mouse. The results of this present work indicate, for the first time, that DNA repair is upregulated in a major metabolic organ in long-lived humans and naked mole rats compared with short-lived mice. These results strongly suggest that DNA repair can be considered a genuine longevity assurance system. PMID:26729707

  4. DNA repair in species with extreme lifespan differences

    PubMed Central

    MacRae, Sheila L.; Croken, Matthew McKnight; Calder, R.B.; Aliper, Alexander; Milholland, Brandon; White, Ryan R.; Zhavoronkov, Alexander; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Seluanov, Andrei; Gorbunova, Vera; Zhang, Zhengdong D.; Vijg, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Differences in DNA repair capacity have been hypothesized to underlie the great range of maximum lifespans among mammals. However, measurements of individual DNA repair activities in cells and animals have not substantiated such a relationship because utilization of repair pathways among animals—depending on habitats, anatomical characteristics, and life styles—varies greatly between mammalian species. Recent advances in high-throughput genomics, in combination with increased knowledge of the genetic pathways involved in genome maintenance, now enable a comprehensive comparison of DNA repair transcriptomes in animal species with extreme lifespan differences. Here we compare transcriptomes of liver, an organ with high oxidative metabolism and abundant spontaneous DNA damage, from humans, naked mole rats, and mice, with maximum lifespans of ∼120, 30, and 3 years, respectively, with a focus on genes involved in DNA repair. The results show that the longer-lived species, human and naked mole rat, share higher expression of DNA repair genes, including core genes in several DNA repair pathways. A more systematic approach of signaling pathway analysis indicates statistically significant upregulation of several DNA repair signaling pathways in human and naked mole rat compared with mouse. The results of this present work indicate, for the first time, that DNA repair is upregulated in a major metabolic organ in long-lived humans and naked mole rats compared with short-lived mice. These results strongly suggest that DNA repair can be considered a genuine longevity assurance system. PMID:26729707

  5. Endonucleases involved in repair and recombination of DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Linn, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    When our DOE support began as a contract in 1970, from the AEC, it was our intent to begin to understand how several enzymes which we had detected in E. coli might be involved in DNA recombination and repair. These studies led to our characterization of the recBC DNase (exonuclease 5) as well as endonucleases 3 and 5. As research supported by that contract progressed, we expanded our interests to include mammalian enzymes involved in base excision repair, most notably AP endonucleases, DNA glycosylases and DNA purine insertase. A logical next step involved the inclusion of DNA polymerases into our studies of repair. Current progress includes research on: isolation of xeroderma pigmentosum correction factors; isolation of ultraviolet (UV) endonucleases; mitochondrial repair enzymes; alkylation damage repair; comparisons of repair in normal diploid, transformed, and non-mitotic cells; and repair reactions by DNA polymerases.

  6. RNA-directed repair of DNA double-strand breaks.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yun-Gui; Qi, Yijun

    2015-08-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are among the most deleterious DNA lesions, which if unrepaired or repaired incorrectly can cause cell death or genome instability that may lead to cancer. To counteract these adverse consequences, eukaryotes have evolved a highly orchestrated mechanism to repair DSBs, namely DNA-damage-response (DDR). DDR, as defined specifically in relation to DSBs, consists of multi-layered regulatory modes including DNA damage sensors, transducers and effectors, through which DSBs are sensed and then repaired via DNAprotein interactions. Unexpectedly, recent studies have revealed a direct role of RNA in the repair of DSBs, including DSB-induced small RNA (diRNA)-directed and RNA-templated DNA repair. Here, we summarize the recent discoveries of RNA-mediated regulation of DSB repair and discuss the potential impact of these novel RNA components of the DSB repair pathway on genomic stability and plasticity. PMID:25960340

  7. 40 CFR 798.5500 - Differential growth inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... recommendations as specified under 40 CFR part 792, subpart J the following specific information should be... repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: âBacterial DNA damage or repair tests.â 798.5500 Section... inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA damage or repair tests.”...

  8. 40 CFR 798.5500 - Differential growth inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... recommendations as specified under 40 CFR part 792, subpart J the following specific information should be... repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: âBacterial DNA damage or repair tests.â 798.5500 Section... inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA damage or repair tests.”...

  9. 40 CFR 798.5500 - Differential growth inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... recommendations as specified under 40 CFR part 792, subpart J the following specific information should be... repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: âBacterial DNA damage or repair tests.â 798.5500 Section... inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA damage or repair tests.”...

  10. 40 CFR 798.5500 - Differential growth inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... recommendations as specified under 40 CFR part 792, subpart J the following specific information should be... repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: âBacterial DNA damage or repair tests.â 798.5500 Section... inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA damage or repair tests.”...

  11. 40 CFR 798.5500 - Differential growth inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... recommendations as specified under 40 CFR part 792, subpart J the following specific information should be... repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: âBacterial DNA damage or repair tests.â 798.5500 Section... inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA damage or repair tests.”...

  12. Dynamic DNA binding licenses a repair factor to bypass roadblocks in search of DNA lesions

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Maxwell W.; Kim, Yoori; Williams, Gregory M.; Huck, John D.; Surtees, Jennifer A.; Finkelstein, Ilya J.

    2016-01-01

    DNA-binding proteins search for specific targets via facilitated diffusion along a crowded genome. However, little is known about how crowded DNA modulates facilitated diffusion and target recognition. Here we use DNA curtains and single-molecule fluorescence imaging to investigate how Msh2–Msh3, a eukaryotic mismatch repair complex, navigates on crowded DNA. Msh2–Msh3 hops over nucleosomes and other protein roadblocks, but maintains sufficient contact with DNA to recognize a single lesion. In contrast, Msh2–Msh6 slides without hopping and is largely blocked by protein roadblocks. Remarkably, the Msh3-specific mispair-binding domain (MBD) licences a chimeric Msh2–Msh6(3MBD) to bypass nucleosomes. Our studies contrast how Msh2–Msh3 and Msh2–Msh6 navigate on a crowded genome and suggest how Msh2–Msh3 locates DNA lesions outside of replication-coupled repair. These results also provide insights into how DNA repair factors search for DNA lesions in the context of chromatin. PMID:26837705

  13. Dynamic DNA binding licenses a repair factor to bypass roadblocks in search of DNA lesions.

    PubMed

    Brown, Maxwell W; Kim, Yoori; Williams, Gregory M; Huck, John D; Surtees, Jennifer A; Finkelstein, Ilya J

    2016-01-01

    DNA-binding proteins search for specific targets via facilitated diffusion along a crowded genome. However, little is known about how crowded DNA modulates facilitated diffusion and target recognition. Here we use DNA curtains and single-molecule fluorescence imaging to investigate how Msh2-Msh3, a eukaryotic mismatch repair complex, navigates on crowded DNA. Msh2-Msh3 hops over nucleosomes and other protein roadblocks, but maintains sufficient contact with DNA to recognize a single lesion. In contrast, Msh2-Msh6 slides without hopping and is largely blocked by protein roadblocks. Remarkably, the Msh3-specific mispair-binding domain (MBD) licences a chimeric Msh2-Msh6(3MBD) to bypass nucleosomes. Our studies contrast how Msh2-Msh3 and Msh2-Msh6 navigate on a crowded genome and suggest how Msh2-Msh3 locates DNA lesions outside of replication-coupled repair. These results also provide insights into how DNA repair factors search for DNA lesions in the context of chromatin. PMID:26837705

  14. Plant DNA-damage repair/toleration 100 protein repairs UV-B-induced DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Fujimori, Nozomi; Suzuki, Nana; Nakajima, Yuko; Suzuki, Shunji

    2014-09-01

    We report the characterization of VvDRT100-L, a grape DNA-damage repair/toleration 100 protein. VvDRT100-L has nine leucine-rich repeats and belongs to the plant DRT100 protein family. VvDRT100-L is expressed abundantly in green organs of grapevines, including tendrils, leaves, and green berry skins. The overexpression of VvDRT100-L in Arabidopsis plants decreased the number of abasic sites and the frequency of DNA single-strand breaks in the DNA damaged by UV-B irradiation, whereas UV-B irradiation markedly increased the number of abasic sites and the frequency of DNA single-strand breaks in T-DNA insertion mutant drt100 plants. VvDRT100-L-overexpressing plants remained viable and noticeably healthy under lethal UV doses, suggesting that VvDRT100-L may enhance UV tolerance in plant. Taken together, we concluded that VvDRT100-L might play an important role in the repair and toleration of UV-B-induced DNA damage. These findings would help us better understand how plants acquire UV stress acclimation, tolerance and DNA repair. PMID:24951183

  15. DNA repair of a single UV photoproduct in a designed nucleosome

    SciTech Connect

    Kosmoskil, Joseph V.; Ackerman, Eric J. ); Smerdon, Michael J.

    2001-08-28

    Eukaryotic DNA repair enzymes must interact with the architectural hierarchy of chromatin. The challenge of finding damaged DNA complexed with histone proteins in nucleosomes is complicated by the need to maintain local chromatin structures involved in regulating other DNA processing events. The heterogeneity of lesions induced by DNA-damaging agents has led us to design homogeneously damaged substrates to directly compare repair of naked DNA with that of nucleosomes. Here we report that nucleotide excision repair in Xenopus nuclear extracts can effectively repair a single UV radiation photoproduct located 5 bases from the dyad center of a positioned nucleosome, although the nucleosome is repaired at about half the rate at which the naked DNA fragment is. Extract repair within the nucleosome is > 50-fold more rapid than either enzymatic photoreversal or endonuclease cleavage of the lesion in vitro. Furthermore, nucleosome formation occurs (after repair) only on damaged naked DNA ( 165-bp fragments) during a 1-h incubation in these extracts, even in the presence of a large excess of undamaged DNA. This is an example of selective nucleosome assembly by Xenopus nuclear extracts on a short linear DNA fragment containing a DNA lesion.

  16. LINE retrotransposition and host DNA repair machinery

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Katsumi; Kajikawa, Masaki; Okada, Norihiro

    2015-01-01

    Long interspersed elements (LINEs), or non-long-terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons, are mobile genetic elements that exist in the genomic DNA of most eukaryotes, comprising a considerable portion of the host chromosomes. LINEs constitute endogenous mutagens that cause insertional mutations in host chromosomes and have a large impact on host genome evolution. Despite their importance, however, the molecular mechanism of LINE retrotransposition is not fully understood. Several studies suggest that host proteins that participate in the repair of DNA breaks modulate LINE retrotransposition. Recently, we provided evidence that there are 2 distinct pathways—annealing and direct—that join the 5′-end of LINEs to host chromosomal DNA. These pathways appear to be used distinctively by zebrafish LINEs and the human L1 in DT40 cells. In HeLa cells, only the annealing pathway appears to be used. This implies that different characteristics of the 2 LINEs and also host factors dictate which pathway is selected. Here, we discuss the 5′-end-joining pathways of LINE retrotransposition and propose that the pathways of LINE integration adopt certain host repair factors. PMID:26942045

  17. N-Butyrate alters chromatin accessibility to DNA repair enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.J.

    1986-03-01

    Current evidence suggests that the complex nature of mammalian chromatin can result in the concealment of DNA damage from repair enzymes and their co-factors. Recently it has been proposed that the acetylation of histone proteins in chromatin may provide a surveillance system whereby damaged regions of DNA become exposed due to changes in chromatin accessibility. This hypothesis has been tested by: (i) using n-butyrate to induce hyperacetylation in human adenocarcinoma (HT29) cells; (ii) monitoring the enzymatic accessibility of chromatin in permeabilised cells; (iii) measuring u.v. repair-associated nicking of DNA in intact cells and (iv) determining the effects of n-butyrate on cellular sensitivity to DNA damaging agents. The results indicate that the accessibility of chromatin to Micrococcus luteus u.v. endonuclease is enhanced by greater than 2-fold in n-butyrate-treated cells and that there is a corresponding increase in u.v. repair incision rates in intact cells exposed to the drug. Non-toxic levels of n-butyrate induce a block to G1 phase transit and there is a significant growth delay on removal of the drug. Resistance of HT29 cells to u.v.-radiation and adriamycin is enhanced in n-butyrate-treated cells whereas X-ray sensitivity is increased. Although changes in the responses of cells to DNA damaging agents must be considered in relation to the effects of n-butyrate on growth rate and cell-cycle distribution, the results are not inconsistent with the proposal that increased enzymatic-accessibility/repair is biologically favourable for the resistance of cells to u.v.-radiation damage. Overall the results support the suggested operation of a histone acetylation-based chromatin surveillance system in human cells.

  18. Comet assay to measure DNA repair: approach and applications

    PubMed Central

    Azqueta, Amaya; Slyskova, Jana; Langie, Sabine A. S.; O’Neill Gaivão, Isabel; Collins, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Cellular repair enzymes remove virtually all DNA damage before it is fixed; repair therefore plays a crucial role in preventing cancer. Repair studied at the level of transcription correlates poorly with enzyme activity, and so assays of phenotype are needed. In a biochemical approach, substrate nucleoids containing specific DNA lesions are incubated with cell extract; repair enzymes in the extract induce breaks at damage sites; and the breaks are measured with the comet assay. The nature of the substrate lesions defines the repair pathway to be studied. This in vitro DNA repair assay has been modified for use in animal tissues, specifically to study the effects of aging and nutritional intervention on repair. Recently, the assay was applied to different strains of Drosophila melanogaster proficient and deficient in DNA repair. Most applications of the repair assay have been in human biomonitoring. Individual DNA repair activity may be a marker of cancer susceptibility; alternatively, high repair activity may result from induction of repair enzymes by exposure to DNA-damaging agents. Studies to date have examined effects of environment, nutrition, lifestyle, and occupation, in addition to clinical investigations. PMID:25202323

  19. Metal complexes as DNA intercalators.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Ke; Sadler, Peter J

    2011-05-17

    DNA has a strong affinity for many heterocyclic aromatic dyes, such as acridine and its derivatives. Lerman in 1961 first proposed intercalation as the source of this affinity, and this mode of DNA binding has since attracted considerable research scrutiny. Organic intercalators can inhibit nucleic acid synthesis in vivo, and they are now common anticancer drugs in clinical therapy. The covalent attachment of organic intercalators to transition metal coordination complexes, yielding metallointercalators, can lead to novel DNA interactions that influence biological activity. Metal complexes with σ-bonded aromatic side arms can act as dual-function complexes: they bind to DNA both by metal coordination and through intercalation of the attached aromatic ligand. These aromatic side arms introduce new modes of DNA binding, involving mutual interactions of functional groups held in close proximity. The biological activity of both cis- and trans-diamine Pt(II) complexes is dramatically enhanced by the addition of σ-bonded intercalators. We have explored a new class of organometallic "piano-stool" Ru(II) and Os(II) arene anticancer complexes of the type [(η(6)-arene)Ru/Os(XY)Cl](+). Here XY is, for example, ethylenediamine (en), and the arene ligand can take many forms, including tetrahydroanthracene, biphenyl, or p-cymene. Arene-nucleobase stacking interactions can have a significant influence on both the kinetics and thermodynamics of DNA binding. In particular, the cytotoxic activity, conformational distortions, recognition by DNA-binding proteins, and repair mechanisms are dependent on the arene. A major difficulty in developing anticancer drugs is cross-resistance, a phenomenon whereby a cell that is resistant to one drug is also resistant to another drug in the same class. These new complexes are non-cross-resistant with cisplatin towards cancer cells: they constitute a new class of anticancer agents, with a mechanism of action that differs from the anticancer drug cisplatin and its analogs. The Ru-arene complexes with dual functions are more potent towards cancer cells than their nonintercalating analogs. In this Account, we focus on recent studies of dual-function organometallic Ru(II)- and Os(II)-arene complexes and the methods used to detect arene-DNA intercalation. We relate these interactions to the mechanism of anticancer activity and to structure-activity relationships. The interactions between these complexes and DNA show close similarities to those of covalent polycyclic aromatic carcinogens, especially to N7-alkylating intercalation compounds. However, Ru-arene complexes exhibit some new features. Classical intercalation and base extrusion next to the metallated base is observed for {(η(6)-biphenyl)Ru(ethylenediamine)}(2+) adducts of a 14-mer duplex, while penetrating arene intercalation occurs for adducts of the nonaromatic bulky intercalator {(η(6)-tetrahydroanthracene)Ru(ethylenediamine)}(2+) with a 6-mer duplex. The introduction of dual-function Ru-arene complexes introduces new mechanisms of antitumor activity, novel mechanisms for attack on DNA, and new concepts for developing structure- activity relationships. We hope this discussion will stimulate thoughtful and focused research on the design of anticancer chemotherapeutic agents using these unique approaches. PMID:21446672

  20. DNA repair and radiation sensitivity in mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D.J.C.; Stackhouse, M. ); Chen, D.S. . Dept. of Radiation Oncology)

    1993-01-01

    Ionizing radiation induces various types of damage in mammalian cells including DNA single-strand breaks, DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), DNA-protein cross links, and altered DNA bases. Although human cells can repair many of these lesions there is little detailed knowledge of the nature of the genes and the encoded enzymes that control these repair processes. We report here on the cellular and genetic analyses of DNA double-strand break repair deficient mammalian cells. It has been well established that the DNA double-strand break is one of the major lesions induced by ionizing radiation. Utilizing rodent repair-deficient mutant, we have shown that the genes responsible for DNA double-strand break repair are also responsible for the cellular expression of radiation sensitivity. The molecular genetic analysis of DSB repair in rodent/human hybrid cells indicate that at least 6 different genes in mammalian cells are responsible for the repair of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks. Mapping and the prospect of cloning of human radiation repair genes are reviewed. Understanding the molecular and genetic basis of radiation sensitivity and DNA repair in man will provide a rational foundation to predict the individual risk associated with radiation exposure and to prevent radiation-induced genetic damage in the human population.

  1. DNA repair and radiation sensitivity in mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D.J.C.; Stackhouse, M.; Chen, D.S.

    1993-02-01

    Ionizing radiation induces various types of damage in mammalian cells including DNA single-strand breaks, DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), DNA-protein cross links, and altered DNA bases. Although human cells can repair many of these lesions there is little detailed knowledge of the nature of the genes and the encoded enzymes that control these repair processes. We report here on the cellular and genetic analyses of DNA double-strand break repair deficient mammalian cells. It has been well established that the DNA double-strand break is one of the major lesions induced by ionizing radiation. Utilizing rodent repair-deficient mutant, we have shown that the genes responsible for DNA double-strand break repair are also responsible for the cellular expression of radiation sensitivity. The molecular genetic analysis of DSB repair in rodent/human hybrid cells indicate that at least 6 different genes in mammalian cells are responsible for the repair of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks. Mapping and the prospect of cloning of human radiation repair genes are reviewed. Understanding the molecular and genetic basis of radiation sensitivity and DNA repair in man will provide a rational foundation to predict the individual risk associated with radiation exposure and to prevent radiation-induced genetic damage in the human population.

  2. EVIDENCE FOR BASE EXCISION REPAIR PROCESSING OF DNA INTERSTRAND CROSSLINKS

    PubMed Central

    Kothandapani, Anbarasi; Patrick, Steve M

    2013-01-01

    Many bifunctional alkylating agents and anticancer drugs exert their cytotoxicity by producing cross links between the two complementary strands of DNA, termed interstrand crosslinks (ICLs). This blocks the strand separating processes during DNA replication and transcription, which can lead to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Cells use multiple DNA repair systems to eliminate the ICLs. Concerted action of repair proteins involved in Nucleotide Excision Repair and Homologous Recombination pathways are suggested to play a key role in the ICL repair. However, recent studies indicate a possible role for Base Excision Repair (BER) in mediating the cytotoxicity of ICL inducing agents in mammalian cells. Elucidating the mechanism of BER mediated modulation of ICL repair would help in understanding the recognition and removal of ICLs and aid in the development of potential therapeutic agents. In this review, the influence of BER proteins on ICL DNA repair and the possible mechanisms of action are discussed. PMID:23219605

  3. Chromatin structure following UV-induced DNA damage-repair or death?

    PubMed

    Farrell, Andrew W; Halliday, Gary M; Lyons, James Guy

    2011-01-01

    In eukaryotes, DNA is compacted into a complex structure known as chromatin. The unravelling of DNA is a crucial step in DNA repair, replication, transcription and recombination as this allows access to DNA for these processes. Failure to package DNA into the nucleosome, the individual unit of chromatin, can lead to genomic instability, driving a cell into apoptosis, senescence, or cellular proliferation. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation damage causes destabilisation of chromatin integrity. UV irradiation induces DNA damage such as photolesions and subjects the chromatin to substantial rearrangements, causing the arrest of transcription forks and cell cycle arrest. Highly conserved processes known as nucleotide and base excision repair (NER and BER) then begin to repair these lesions. However, if DNA repair fails, the cell may be forced into apoptosis. The modification of various histones as well as nucleosome remodelling via ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling complexes are required not only to repair these UV-induced DNA lesions, but also for apoptosis signalling. Histone modifications and nucleosome remodelling in response to UV also lead to the recruitment of various repair and pro-apoptotic proteins. Thus, the way in which a cell responds to UV irradiation via these modifications is important in determining its fate. Failure of these DNA damage response steps can lead to cellular proliferation and oncogenic development, causing skin cancer, hence these chromatin changes are critical for a proper response to UV-induced injury. PMID:22174650

  4. Participation of DNA repair in the response to 5-fluorouracil

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, Michael D.; Wilson, David M.

    2008-01-01

    The anti-metabolite 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is employed clinically to manage solid tumors including colorectal and breast cancer. Intracellular metabolites of 5-FU can exert cytotoxic effects via inhibition of thymidylate synthetase, or through incorporation into RNA and DNA, events that ultimately activate apoptosis. In this review, we cover the current data implicating DNA repair processes in cellular responsiveness to 5-FU treatment. Evidence points to roles for base excision repair (BER) and mismatch repair (MMR). However, mechanistic details remain unexplained, and other pathways have not been exhaustively interrogated. Homologous recombination is of particular interest, because it resolves unrepaired DNA intermediates not properly dealt with by BER or MMR. Furthermore, crosstalk among DNA repair pathways and S-phase checkpoint signaling has not been examined. Ongoing efforts aim to design approaches and reagents that (i) approximate repair capacity and (ii) mediate strategic regulation of DNA repair in order to improve the efficacy of current anti-cancer treatments. PMID:18979208

  5. SIRT6 stabilizes DNA-dependent protein kinase at chromatin for DNA double-strand break repair.

    PubMed

    McCord, Ronald A; Michishita, Eriko; Hong, Tao; Berber, Elisabeth; Boxer, Lisa D; Kusumoto, Rika; Guan, Shenheng; Shi, Xiaobing; Gozani, Or; Burlingame, Alma L; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Chua, Katrin F

    2009-01-01

    The Sir2 chromatin regulatory factor links maintenance of genomic stability to life span extension in yeast. The mammalian Sir2 family member SIRT6 has been proposed to have analogous functions, because SIRT6-deficiency leads to shortened life span and an aging-like degenerative phenotype in mice, and SIRT6 knockout cells exhibit genomic instability and DNA damage hypersensitivity. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these defects are not fully understood. Here, we show that SIRT6 forms a macromolecular complex with the DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair factor DNA-PK (DNA-dependent protein kinase) and promotes DNA DSB repair. In response to DSBs, SIRT6 associates dynamically with chromatin and is necessary for an acute decrease in global cellular acetylation levels on histone H3 Lysine 9. Moreover, SIRT6 is required for mobilization of the DNA-PK catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) to chromatin in response to DNA damage and stabilizes DNA-PKcs at chromatin adjacent to an induced site-specific DSB. Abrogation of these SIRT6 activities leads to impaired resolution of DSBs. Together, these findings elucidate a mechanism whereby regulation of dynamic interaction of a DNA repair factor with chromatin impacts on the efficiency of repair, and establish a link between chromatin regulation, DNA repair, and a mammalian Sir2 factor. PMID:20157594

  6. SIRT6 stabilizes DNA-dependent Protein Kinase at chromatin for DNA double-strand break repair

    PubMed Central

    McCord, Ronald A.; Michishita, Eriko; Hong, Tao; Berber, Elisabeth; Boxer, Lisa D.; Kusumoto, Rika; Guan, Shenheng; Shi, Xiaobing; Gozani, Or; Burlingame, Alma L.; Bohr, Vilhelm A.; Chua, Katrin F.

    2009-01-01

    The Sir2 chromatin regulatory factor links maintenance of genomic stability to life span extension in yeast. The mammalian Sir2 family member SIRT6 has been proposed to have analogous functions, because SIRT6-deficiency leads to shortened life span and an aging-like degenerative phenotype in mice, and SIRT6 knockout cells exhibit genomic instability and DNA damage hypersensitivity. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these defects are not fully understood. Here, we show that SIRT6 forms a macromolecular complex with the DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair factor DNA-PK (DNA-dependent protein kinase) and promotes DNA DSB repair. In response to DSBs, SIRT6 associates dynamically with chromatin and is necessary for an acute decrease in global cellular acetylation levels on histone H3 Lysine 9. Moreover, SIRT6 is required for mobilization of the DNA-PK catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) to chromatin in response to DNA damage and stabilizes DNA-PKcs at chromatin adjacent to an induced site-specific DSB. Abrogation of these SIRT6 activities leads to impaired resolution of DSBs. Together, these findings elucidate a mechanism whereby regulation of dynamic interaction of a DNA repair factor with chromatin impacts on the efficiency of repair, and establish a link between chromatin regulation, DNA repair, and a mammalian Sir2 factor. PMID:20157594

  7. A central role of TRAX in the ATM-mediated DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Wang, J-Y; Chen, S-Y; Sun, C-N; Chien, T; Chern, Y

    2016-03-31

    DNA repair is critical for the maintenance of genome stability. Upon genotoxic stress, dysregulated DNA repair may induce apoptosis. Translin-associated factor X (TRAX), which was initially identified as a binding partner of Translin, has been implicated in genome stability. However, the exact role of TRAX in DNA repair remains largely unknown. Here, we showed that TRAX participates in the ATM/H2AX-mediated DNA repair machinery by interacting with ATM and stabilizing the MRN complex at double-strand breaks. The exogenous expression of wild-type (WT) TRAX, but not a TRAX variant lacking the nuclear localization signal (NLS), rescued the vulnerability of TRAX-null mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs). This finding confirms the importance of the nuclear localization of TRAX in the repair of DNA damage. Compared with WT MEFs, TRAX-null MEFs exhibited impaired DNA repair (for example, reduced phosphorylation of ATM and H2AX) after treatment with ultra violet-C or γ-ray irradiation and a higher incidence of p53-mediated apoptosis. Our findings demonstrate that TRAX is required for MRN complex-ATM-H2AX signaling, which optimizes DNA repair by interacting with the activated ATM and protects cells from genotoxic stress-induced apoptosis. PMID:26096928

  8. Structural basis for bacterial transcription-coupled DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Deaconescu, Alexandra M; Chambers, Anna L; Smith, Abigail J; Nickels, Bryce E; Hochschild, Ann; Savery, Nigel J; Darst, Seth A

    2006-02-10

    Coupling of transcription and DNA repair in bacteria is mediated by transcription-repair coupling factor (TRCF, the product of the mfd gene), which removes transcription elongation complexes stalled at DNA lesions and recruits the nucleotide excision repair machinery to the site. Here we describe the 3.2 A-resolution X-ray crystal structure of Escherichia coli TRCF. The structure consists of a compact arrangement of eight domains, including a translocation module similar to the SF2 ATPase RecG, and a region of structural similarity to UvrB. Biochemical and genetic experiments establish that another domain with structural similarity to the Tudor-like domain of the transcription elongation factor NusG plays a critical role in TRCF/RNA polymerase interactions. Comparison with the translocation module of RecG as well as other structural features indicate that TRCF function involves large-scale conformational changes. These data, along with a structural model for the interaction of TRCF with the transcription elongation complex, provide mechanistic insights into TRCF function. PMID:16469698

  9. Hijacked DNA repair proteins and unchained DNA polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Saribasak, Huseyin; Rajagopal, Deepa; Maul, Robert W.; Gearhart, Patricia J.

    2008-01-01

    Somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin (Ig) genes occurs at a frequency that is a million times greater than the mutation in other genes. Mutations occur in variable genes to increase antibody affinity, and in switch regions before constant genes to cause switching from IgM to IgG. Hypermutation is initiated in activated B cells when the activation-induced deaminase protein deaminates cytosine in DNA to uracil. Uracils can be processed by either a mutagenic pathway to produce mutations or a non-mutagenic pathway to remove mutations. In the mutagenic pathway, we first studied the role of mismatch repair proteins, MSH2, MSH3, MSH6, PMS2 and MLH1, since they would recognize mismatches. The MSH2–MSH6 heterodimer is involved in hypermutation by binding to U:G and other mismatches generated during repair synthesis, but the other proteins are not necessary. Second, we analysed the role of low-fidelity DNA polymerases η, ι and θ in synthesizing mutations, and conclude that polymerase η is the dominant participant by generating mutations at A:T base pairs. In the non-mutagenic pathway, we examined the role of the Cockayne syndrome B protein that interacts with other repair proteins. Mice deficient in this protein had normal hypermutation and class switch recombination, showing that it is not involved. PMID:19008198

  10. Assessment of the role of DNA repair in damaged forensic samples.

    PubMed

    Ambers, Angie; Turnbough, Meredith; Benjamin, Robert; King, Jonathan; Budowle, Bruce

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies on DNA damage and repair have involved in vitro laboratory procedures that induce a single type of lesion in naked templates. Although repair of singular, sequestered types of DNA damage has shown some success, forensic and ancient specimens likely contain a number of different types of lesions. This study sought to (1) develop protocols to damage DNA in its native state, (2) generate a pool of candidate samples for repair that more likely emulate authentic forensic samples, and (3) assess the ability of the PreCR(TM) Repair Mix to repair the resultant lesions. Complexed, native DNA is more difficult to damage than naked DNA. Modified procedures included the use of higher concentrations and longer exposure times. Three types of samples, those that demonstrated damage based on short tandem repeat (STR) profile signals, were selected for repair experiments: environmentally damaged bloodstains, bleach-damaged whole blood, and human skeletal remains. Results showed trends of improved performance of STR profiling of bleach-damaged DNA. However, the repair assay did not improve DNA profiles from environmentally damaged bloodstains or bone, and in some cases resulted in lower RFU values for STR alleles. The extensive spectrum of DNA damage and myriad combinations of lesions that can be present in forensic samples appears to pose a challenge for the in vitro PreCR(TM) assay. The data suggest that the use of PreCR in casework should be considered with caution due to the assay's varied results. PMID:24792635

  11. The contribution of CMP kinase to the efficiency of DNA repair

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Ning; Lee, Ming-Hsiang; Zhang, Wei; Cheng, Yung-Chi; Chang, Zee-Fen

    2015-01-01

    Cellular supply of deoxynucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) is crucial for DNA replication and repair. In this study, we investigated the role of CMP/UMP kinase (CMPK), an enzyme catalyzes CDP formation, in DNA repair. Knockdown of CMPK delays DNA repair during recovery from UV damage in serum-deprived cells but not in the cells without serum deprivation. Exogenous supply of cytidine or deoxycytidine facilitates DNA repair dependent on CMPK in serum-deprived cells, suggesting that the synthesis of dCDP or CDP determines the rate of repair. However, CMPK knockdown does not affect the steady state level of dCTP in serum-deprived cells. We then found the localization of CMPK at DNA damage sites and its complex formation with Tip60 and ribonucleotide reductase. Our analysis demonstrated that the N-terminal 32-amino-acid of CMPK is required for its recruitment to DNA damage sites in a Tip60-dependent manner. Re-expression of wild-type but not N-terminus deleted CMPK restores the efficiency of DNA repair in CMPK knockdown cells. We proposed that site-specific dCDP formation via CMPK provides a means to facilitate DNA repair in serum-deprived cells. PMID:25659034

  12. DNA Repair and Genome Maintenance in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Lenhart, Justin S.; Schroeder, Jeremy W.; Walsh, Brian W.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: From microbes to multicellular eukaryotic organisms, all cells contain pathways responsible for genome maintenance. DNA replication allows for the faithful duplication of the genome, whereas DNA repair pathways preserve DNA integrity in response to damage originating from endogenous and exogenous sources. The basic pathways important for DNA replication and repair are often conserved throughout biology. In bacteria, high-fidelity repair is balanced with low-fidelity repair and mutagenesis. Such a balance is important for maintaining viability while providing an opportunity for the advantageous selection of mutations when faced with a changing environment. Over the last decade, studies of DNA repair pathways in bacteria have demonstrated considerable differences between Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. Here we review and discuss the DNA repair, genome maintenance, and DNA damage checkpoint pathways of the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. We present their molecular mechanisms and compare the functions and regulation of several pathways with known information on other organisms. We also discuss DNA repair during different growth phases and the developmental program of sporulation. In summary, we present a review of the function, regulation, and molecular mechanisms of DNA repair and mutagenesis in Gram-positive bacteria, with a strong emphasis on B. subtilis. PMID:22933559

  13. DNA repair and genome maintenance in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Lenhart, Justin S; Schroeder, Jeremy W; Walsh, Brian W; Simmons, Lyle A

    2012-09-01

    From microbes to multicellular eukaryotic organisms, all cells contain pathways responsible for genome maintenance. DNA replication allows for the faithful duplication of the genome, whereas DNA repair pathways preserve DNA integrity in response to damage originating from endogenous and exogenous sources. The basic pathways important for DNA replication and repair are often conserved throughout biology. In bacteria, high-fidelity repair is balanced with low-fidelity repair and mutagenesis. Such a balance is important for maintaining viability while providing an opportunity for the advantageous selection of mutations when faced with a changing environment. Over the last decade, studies of DNA repair pathways in bacteria have demonstrated considerable differences between Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. Here we review and discuss the DNA repair, genome maintenance, and DNA damage checkpoint pathways of the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. We present their molecular mechanisms and compare the functions and regulation of several pathways with known information on other organisms. We also discuss DNA repair during different growth phases and the developmental program of sporulation. In summary, we present a review of the function, regulation, and molecular mechanisms of DNA repair and mutagenesis in Gram-positive bacteria, with a strong emphasis on B. subtilis. PMID:22933559

  14. Human DNA polymerase θ grasps the primer terminus to mediate DNA repair

    PubMed Central

    Zahn, Karl E.; Averill, April M.; Aller, Pierre; Wood, Richard D.; Doublié, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    DNA polymerase θ protects against genomic instability via an alternative end-joining repair pathway for DNA double-strand breaks. Breast, lung and oral cancers over-express polymerase θ, and reduction of its activity in mammalian cells increases sensitivity to double-strand break inducing agents, including ionizing radiation. Reported here are crystal structures of the C-terminal polymerase domain from human polymerase θ, illustrating two potential modes of dimerization. One structure depicts insertion of ddATP opposite an abasic site analog during translesion DNA synthesis. The second structure describes a cognate ddGTP complex. Polymerase θ employs a specialized thumb subdomain to establish unique upstream contacts to the primer DNA strand, including an interaction to the 3’-terminal phosphate from one of five distinctive insertion loops. These observations demonstrate how polymerase θ grasps the primer to bypass DNA lesions, or extend poorly annealed DNA termini to mediate end-joining. PMID:25775267

  15. Transcriptional regulation of human DNA repair genes following genotoxic stress: trigger mechanisms, inducible responses and genotoxic adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Kaina, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    DNA repair is the first barrier in the defense against genotoxic stress. In recent years, mechanisms that recognize DNA damage and activate DNA repair functions through transcriptional upregulation and post-translational modification were the focus of intensive research. Most DNA repair pathways are complex, involving many proteins working in discrete consecutive steps. Therefore, their balanced expression is important for avoiding erroneous repair that might result from excessive base removal and DNA cleavage. Amelioration of DNA repair requires both a fine-tuned system of lesion recognition and transcription factors that regulate repair genes in a balanced way. Transcriptional upregulation of DNA repair genes by genotoxic stress is counteracted by DNA damage that blocks transcription. Therefore, induction of DNA repair resulting in an adaptive response is only visible through a narrow window of dose. Here, we review transcriptional regulation of DNA repair genes in normal and cancer cells and describe mechanisms of promoter activation following genotoxic exposures through environmental carcinogens and anticancer drugs. The data available to date indicate that 25 DNA repair genes are subject to regulation following genotoxic stress in rodent and human cells, but for only a few of them, the data are solid as to the mechanism, homeostatic regulation and involvement in an adaptive response to genotoxic stress. PMID:23892398

  16. UV-induced DNA damage and repair: a review.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Rajeshwar P; Häder, Donat P

    2002-04-01

    Increases in ultraviolet radiation at the Earth's surface due to the depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer have recently fuelled interest in the mechanisms of various effects it might have on organisms. DNA is certainly one of the key targets for UV-induced damage in a variety of organisms ranging from bacteria to humans. UV radiation induces two of the most abundant mutagenic and cytotoxic DNA lesions such as cyclobutane-pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and 6-4 photoproducts (6-4PPs) and their Dewar valence Isomers. However, cells have developed a number of repair or tolerance mechanism to counteract the DNA damage caused by UV or any other stressors. Photoreactivation with the help of the enzyme photolyase is one of the most important and frequently occurring repair mechanisms in a variety of organisms. Excision repair, which can be distinguished into base excision repair (BER) and nucleotide excision repair (NER), also plays an important role in DNA repair in several organisms with the help of a number of glycosylases and polymerases, respectively. In addition, mechanisms such as mutagenic repair or dimer bypass, recombinational repair, cell-cycle checkpoints, apoptosis and certain alternative repair pathways are also operative in various organisms. This review deals with UV-induced DNA damage and the associated repair mechanisms as well as methods of detecting DNA damage and its future perspectives. PMID:12661961

  17. DNA Mismatch Repair and Oxidative DNA Damage: Implications for Cancer Biology and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bridge, Gemma; Rashid, Sukaina; Martin, Sarah A.

    2014-01-01

    Many components of the cell, including lipids, proteins and both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, are vulnerable to deleterious modifications caused by reactive oxygen species. If not repaired, oxidative DNA damage can lead to disease-causing mutations, such as in cancer. Base excision repair and nucleotide excision repair are the two DNA repair pathways believed to orchestrate the removal of oxidative lesions. However, recent findings suggest that the mismatch repair pathway may also be important for the response to oxidative DNA damage. This is particularly relevant in cancer where mismatch repair genes are frequently mutated or epigenetically silenced. In this review we explore how the regulation of oxidative DNA damage by mismatch repair proteins may impact on carcinogenesis. We discuss recent studies that identify potential new treatments for mismatch repair deficient tumours, which exploit this non-canonical role of mismatch repair using synthetic lethal targeting. PMID:25099886

  18. DNA-PK: a dynamic enzyme in a versatile DSB repair pathway

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Anthony J.; Chen, Benjamin P.C.; Chen, David J.

    2014-01-01

    DNA double stranded breaks (DSBs) are the most cytoxic DNA lesion as the inability to properly repair them can lead to genomic instability and tumorigenesis. The prominent DSB repair pathway in humans is non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). In the simplest sense, NHEJ mediates the direct re-ligation of the broken DNA molecule. However, NHEJ is a complex and versatile process that can repair DSBs with a variety of damages and ends via the utilization of a significant number of proteins. In this review we will describe the important factors and mechanisms modulating NHEJ with emphasis given to the versatility of this repair process and the DNA-PK complex. PMID:24680878

  19. DNA repair systems as targets of cadmium toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Giaginis, Constantinos; Gatzidou, Elisavet; Theocharis, Stamatios . E-mail: theocharis@ath.forthnet.gr

    2006-06-15

    Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal and a potent carcinogen implicated in tumor development through occupational and environmental exposure. Recent evidence suggests that proteins participating in the DNA repair systems, especially in excision and mismatch repair, are sensitive targets of Cd toxicity. Cd by interfering and inhibiting these DNA repair processes might contribute to increased risk for tumor formation in humans. In the present review, the information available on the interference of Cd with DNA repair systems and their inhibition is summarized. These actions could possibly explain the indirect contribution of Cd to mutagenic effects and/or carcinogenicity.

  20. Role of LrpC from Bacillus subtilis in DNA transactions during DNA repair and recombination

    PubMed Central

    López-Torrejón, Gema; Martínez-Jiménez, María I.; Ayora, Silvia

    2006-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis LrpC is a sequence-independent DNA-binding and DNA-bending protein, which binds both single-stranded (ss) and double-stranded (ds) DNA and facilitates the formation of higher order protein–DNA complexes in vitro. LrpC binds at different sites within the same DNA molecule promoting intramolecular ligation. When bound to separate molecules, it promotes intermolecular ligation, and joint molecule formation between a circular ssDNA and a homologous ssDNA-tailed linear dsDNA. LrpC binding showed a higher affinity for 4-way (Holliday) junctions in their open conformation, when compared with curved dsDNA. Consistent with these biochemical activities, an lrpC null mutant strain rendered cells sensitive to DNA damaging agents such as methyl methanesulfonate and 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide, and showed a segregation defect. These findings collectively suggest that LrpC may be involved in DNA transactions during DNA repair and recombination. PMID:16407330

  1. CDK1 enhances mitochondrial bioenergetics for radiation-induced DNA repair

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Qin, Lili; Fan, Ming; Candas, Demet; Jiang, Guochun; Papadopoulos, Stelios; Tian, Lin; Woloschak, Gayle; Grdina, David J.; Li, Jian  Jian

    2015-12-06

    Nuclear DNA repair capacity is a critical determinant of cell fate under genotoxic stress conditions. DNA repair is a well-defined energy-consuming process. However, it is unclear how DNA repair is fueled and whether mitochondrial energy production contributes to nuclear DNA repair. Here, we report a dynamic enhancement of oxygen consumption and mitochondrial ATP generation in irradiated normal cells, paralleled with increased mitochondrial relocation of the cell-cycle kinase CDK1 and nuclear DNA repair. The basal and radiation-induced mitochondrial ATP generation is reduced significantly in cells harboring CDK1 phosphorylation-deficient mutant complex I subunits. Similarly, mitochondrial ATP generation and nuclear DNA repair aremore »also compromised severely in cells harboring mitochondrially targeted, kinase-deficient CDK1. These findings demonstrate a mechanism governing the communication between mitochondria and the nucleus by which CDK1 boosts mitochondrial bioenergetics to meet the increased cellular fuel demand for DNA repair and cell survival under genotoxic stress conditions.« less

  2. CDK1 Enhances Mitochondrial Bioenergetics for Radiation-Induced DNA Repair.

    PubMed

    Qin, Lili; Fan, Ming; Candas, Demet; Jiang, Guochun; Papadopoulos, Stelios; Tian, Lin; Woloschak, Gayle; Grdina, David J; Li, Jian Jian

    2015-12-15

    Nuclear DNA repair capacity is a critical determinant of cell fate under genotoxic stress conditions. DNA repair is a well-defined energy-consuming process. However, it is unclear how DNA repair is fueled and whether mitochondrial energy production contributes to nuclear DNA repair. Here, we report a dynamic enhancement of oxygen consumption and mitochondrial ATP generation in irradiated normal cells, paralleled with increased mitochondrial relocation of the cell-cycle kinase CDK1 and nuclear DNA repair. The basal and radiation-induced mitochondrial ATP generation is reduced significantly in cells harboring CDK1 phosphorylation-deficient mutant complex I subunits. Similarly, mitochondrial ATP generation and nuclear DNA repair are also compromised severely in cells harboring mitochondrially targeted, kinase-deficient CDK1. These results demonstrate a mechanism governing the communication between mitochondria and the nucleus by which CDK1 boosts mitochondrial bioenergetics to meet the increased cellular fuel demand for DNA repair and cell survival under genotoxic stress conditions. PMID:26670043

  3. DNA Damage Repair in the Context of Plant Chromatin.

    PubMed

    Donà, Mattia; Mittelsten Scheid, Ortrun

    2015-08-01

    The integrity of DNA molecules is constantly challenged. All organisms have developed mechanisms to detect and repair multiple types of DNA lesions. The basic principles of DNA damage repair (DDR) in prokaryotes and unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes are similar, but the association of DNA with nucleosomes in eukaryotic chromatin requires mechanisms that allow access of repair enzymes to the lesions. This is achieved by chromatin-remodeling factors, and their necessity for efficient DDR has recently been demonstrated for several organisms and repair pathways. Plants share many features of chromatin organization and DNA repair with fungi and animals, but they differ in other, important details, which are both interesting and relevant for our understanding of genome stability and genetic diversity. In this Update, we compare the knowledge of the role of chromatin and chromatin-modifying factors during DDR in plants with equivalent systems in yeast and humans. We emphasize plant-specific elements and discuss possible implications. PMID:26089404

  4. Formation and Repair of Tobacco Carcinogen-Derived Bulky DNA Adducts

    PubMed Central

    Hang, Bo

    2010-01-01

    DNA adducts play a central role in chemical carcinogenesis. The analysis of formation and repair of smoking-related DNA adducts remains particularly challenging as both smokers and nonsmokers exposed to smoke are repetitively under attack from complex mixtures of carcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and N-nitrosamines. The bulky DNA adducts, which usually have complex structure, are particularly important because of their biological relevance. Several known cellular DNA repair pathways have been known to operate in human cells on specific types of bulky DNA adducts, for example, nucleotide excision repair, base excision repair, and direct reversal involving O6-alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase or AlkB homologs. Understanding the mechanisms of adduct formation and repair processes is critical for the assessment of cancer risk resulting from exposure to cigarette smoke, and ultimately for developing strategies of cancer prevention. This paper highlights the recent progress made in the areas concerning formation and repair of bulky DNA adducts in the context of tobacco carcinogen-associated genotoxic and carcinogenic effects. PMID:21234336

  5. ZRF1 mediates remodeling of E3 ligases at DNA lesion sites during nucleotide excision repair.

    PubMed

    Gracheva, Ekaterina; Chitale, Shalaka; Wilhelm, Thomas; Rapp, Alexander; Byrne, Jonathan; Stadler, Jens; Medina, Rebeca; Cardoso, M Cristina; Richly, Holger

    2016-04-25

    Faithful DNA repair is essential to maintain genome integrity. Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation elicits both the recruitment of DNA repair factors and the deposition of histone marks such as monoubiquitylation of histone H2A at lesion sites. Here, we report how a ubiquitin E3 ligase complex specific to DNA repair is remodeled at lesion sites in the global genome nucleotide excision repair (GG-NER) pathway. Monoubiquitylation of histone H2A (H2A-ubiquitin) is catalyzed predominantly by a novel E3 ligase complex consisting of DDB2, DDB1, CUL4B, and RING1B (UV-RING1B complex) that acts early during lesion recognition. The H2A-ubiquitin binding protein ZRF1 mediates remodeling of this E3 ligase complex directly at the DNA lesion site, causing the assembly of the UV-DDB-CUL4A E3 ligase complex (DDB1-DDB2-CUL4A-RBX1). ZRF1 is an essential factor in GG-NER, and its function at damaged chromatin sites is linked to damage recognition factor XPC. Overall, the results shed light on the interplay between epigenetic and DNA repair recognition factors at DNA lesion sites. PMID:27091446

  6. DNA repair and the evolution of transformation in Bacillus subtilis. II. Role of inducible repair

    SciTech Connect

    Wojciechowski, M.F.; Hoelzer, M.A.; Michod, R.E.

    1989-03-01

    In Bacillus subtilis, DNA repair and recombination are intimately associated with competence, the physiological state in which the bacterium can bind, take up and recombine exogenous DNA. Previously, we have shown that the homologous DNA transformation rate (ratio of transformants to total cells) increases with increasing UV dosage if cells are transformed after exposure to UV radiation (UV-DNA), whereas the transformation rate decreases if cells are transformed before exposure to UV (DNA-UV). In this report, by using different DNA repair-deficient mutants, we show that the greater increase in transformation rate in UV-DNA experiments than in DNA-UV experiments does not depend upon excision repair or inducible SOS-like repair, although certain quantitative aspects of the response do depend upon these repair systems. We also show that there is no increase in the transformation rate in a UV-DNA experiment when repair and recombination proficient cells are transformed with nonhomologous plasmid DNA, although the results in a DNA-UV experiment are essentially unchanged by using plasmid DNA. We have used din operon fusions as a sensitive means of assaying for the expression of genes under the control of the SOS-like regulon in both competent and noncompetent cell subpopulations as a consequence of competence development and our subsequent experimental treatments. Results indicate that the SOS-like system is induced in both competent and noncompetent subpopulations in our treatments and so should not be a major factor in the differential response in transformation rate observed in UV-DNA and DNA-UV treatments. These results provide further support to the hypothesis that the evolutionary function of competence is to bring DNA into the cell for use as template in the repair of DNA damage.

  7. Reconstitution of uracil DNA glycosylase-initiated base excision repair in herpes simplex virus-1.

    PubMed

    Bogani, Federica; Chua, Chian New; Boehmer, Paul E

    2009-06-19

    Herpes simplex virus-1 is a large double-stranded DNA virus that is self-sufficient in a number of genome transactions. Hence, the virus encodes its own DNA replication apparatus and is capable of mediating recombination reactions. We recently reported that the catalytic subunit of the HSV-1 DNA polymerase (UL30) exhibits apurinic/apyrimidinic and 5'-deoxyribose phosphate lyase activities that are integral to base excision repair. Base excision repair is required to maintain genome stability as a means to counter the accumulation of unusual bases and to protect from the loss of DNA bases. Here we have reconstituted a system with purified HSV-1 and human proteins that perform all the steps of uracil DNA glycosylase-initiated base excision repair. In this system nucleotide incorporation is dependent on the HSV-1 uracil DNA glycosylase (UL2), human AP endonuclease, and the HSV-1 DNA polymerase. Completion of base excision repair can be mediated by T4 DNA ligase as well as human DNA ligase I or ligase IIIalpha-XRCC1 complex. Of these, ligase IIIalpha-XRCC1 is the most efficient. Moreover, ligase IIIalpha-XRCC1 confers specificity onto the reaction in as much as it allows ligation to occur in the presence of the HSV-1 DNA polymerase processivity factor (UL42) and prevents base excision repair from occurring with heterologous DNA polymerases. Completion of base excision repair in this system is also dependent on the incorporation of the correct nucleotide. These findings demonstrate that the HSV-1 proteins in combination with cellular factors that are not encoded by the virus are capable of performing base excision repair. These results have implications on the role of base excision repair in viral genome maintenance during lytic replication and reactivation from latency. PMID:19411250

  8. DNA repair in cancer: emerging targets for personalized therapy

    PubMed Central

    Abbotts, Rachel; Thompson, Nicola; Madhusudan, Srinivasan

    2014-01-01

    Genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is under constant threat from endogenous and exogenous DNA damaging agents. Mammalian cells have evolved highly conserved DNA repair machinery to process DNA damage and maintain genomic integrity. Impaired DNA repair is a major driver for carcinogenesis and could promote aggressive cancer biology. Interestingly, in established tumors, DNA repair activity is required to counteract oxidative DNA damage that is prevalent in the tumor microenvironment. Emerging clinical data provide compelling evidence that overexpression of DNA repair factors may have prognostic and predictive significance in patients. More recently, DNA repair inhibition has emerged as a promising target for anticancer therapy. Synthetic lethality exploits intergene relationships where the loss of function of either of two related genes is nonlethal, but loss of both causes cell death. Exploiting this approach by targeting DNA repair has emerged as a promising strategy for personalized cancer therapy. In the current review, we focus on recent advances with a particular focus on synthetic lethality targeting in cancer. PMID:24600246

  9. DNA repair: Dynamic defenders against cancer and aging

    SciTech Connect

    Fuss, Jill O.; Cooper, Priscilla K.

    2006-04-01

    You probably weren't thinking about your body's cellular DNA repair systems the last time you sat on the beach in the bright sunshine. Fortunately, however, while you were subjecting your DNA to the harmful effects of ultraviolet light, your cells were busy repairing the damage. The idea that our genetic material could be damaged by the sun was not appreciated in the early days of molecular biology. When Watson and Crick discovered the structure of DNA in 1953 [1], it was assumed that DNA is fundamentally stable since it carries the blueprint of life. However, over 50 years of research have revealed that our DNA is under constant assault by sunlight, oxygen, radiation, various chemicals, and even our own cellular processes. Cleverly, evolution has provided our cells with a diverse set of tools to repair the damage that Mother Nature causes. DNA repair processes restore the normal nucleotide sequence and DNA structure of the genome after damage [2]. These responses are highly varied and exquisitely regulated. DNA repair mechanisms are traditionally characterized by the type of damage repaired. A large variety of chemical modifications can alter normal DNA bases and either lead to mutations or block transcription if not repaired, and three distinct pathways exist to remove base damage. Base excision repair (BER) corrects DNA base alterations that do not distort the overall structure of the DNA helix such as bases damaged by oxidation resulting from normal cellular metabolism. While BER removes single damaged bases, nucleotide excision repair (NER) removes short segments of nucleotides (called oligonucleotides) containing damaged bases. NER responds to any alteration that distorts the DNA helix and is the mechanism responsible for repairing bulky base damage caused by carcinogenic chemicals such as benzo [a]pyrene (found in cigarette smoke and automobile exhaust) as well as covalent linkages between adjacent pyrimidine bases resulting from the ultraviolet (UV) component of sunlight. NER can be divided into two classes based on where the repair occurs. NER occurring in DNA that is not undergoing transcription (i.e., most of the genome) is called global genome repair (GGR or GGNER), while NER taking place in the transcribed strand of active genes is called transcription-coupled repair (TCR or TC-NER). We will explore NER in more detail below. Mismatch repair (MMR) is another type of excision repair that specifically removes mispaired bases resulting from replication errors. DNA damage can also result in breaks in the DNA backbone, in one or both strands. Single-strand breaks (SSBs) are efficiently repaired by a mechanism that shares common features with the later steps in BER. Double-strand breaks (DSBs) are especially devastating since by definition there is no intact complementary strand to serve as a template for repair, and even one unrepaired DSB can be lethal [3]. In cells that have replicated their DNA prior to cell division, the missing information can be supplied by the duplicate copy, or sister chromatid, and DSBs in these cells are faithfully repaired by homologous recombination involving the exchange of strands of DNA between the two copies. However, most cells in the body are non-dividing, and in these cells the major mechanism for repairing DSBs is by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), which as the name implies involves joining two broken DNA ends together without a requirement for homologous sequence and which therefore has a high potential for loss of genetic information.

  10. Spatiotemporal dynamics of DNA repair proteins following laser microbeam induced DNA damage When is a DSB not a DSB??

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Pamela; Botchway, Stanley W.; Parker, Anthony W.; ONeill, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The formation of DNA lesions poses a constant threat to cellular stability. Repair of endogenously and exogenously produced lesions has therefore been extensively studied, although the spatiotemporal dynamics of the repair processes has yet to be fully understood. One of the most recent advances to study the kinetics of DNA repair has been the development of laser microbeams to induce and visualize recruitment and loss of repair proteins to base damage in live mammalian cells. However, a number of studies have produced contradictory results that are likely caused by the different laser systems used reflecting in part the wavelength dependence of the damage induced. Additionally, the repair kinetics of laser microbeam induced DNA lesions have generally lacked consideration of the structural and chemical complexity of the DNA damage sites, which are known to greatly influence their reparability. In this review, we highlight the key considerations when embarking on laser microbeam experiments and interpreting the real time data from laser microbeam irradiations. We compare the repair kinetics from live cell imaging with biochemical and direct quantitative cellular measurements for DNA repair. PMID:23688615

  11. Structure of formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase covalently complexed to DNA.

    PubMed

    Gilboa, Rotem; Zharkov, Dmitry O; Golan, Gali; Fernandes, Andrea S; Gerchman, Sue Ellen; Matz, Eileen; Kycia, Jadwiga H; Grollman, Arthur P; Shoham, Gil

    2002-05-31

    Formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg) is a DNA repair enzyme that excises oxidized purines from damaged DNA. The Schiff base intermediate formed during this reaction between Escherichia coli Fpg and DNA was trapped by reduction with sodium borohydride, and the structure of the resulting covalently cross-linked complex was determined at a 2.1-A resolution. Fpg is a bilobal protein with a wide, positively charged DNA-binding groove. It possesses a conserved zinc finger and a helix-two turn-helix motif that participate in DNA binding. The absolutely conserved residues Lys-56, His-70, Asn-168, and Arg-258 form hydrogen bonds to the phosphodiester backbone of DNA, which is sharply kinked at the lesion site. Residues Met-73, Arg-109, and Phe-110 are inserted into the DNA helix, filling the void created by nucleotide eversion. A deep hydrophobic pocket in the active site is positioned to accommodate an everted base. Structural analysis of the Fpg-DNA complex reveals essential features of damage recognition and the catalytic mechanism of Fpg. PMID:11912217

  12. The Role of the COP9 Signalosome and Neddylation in DNA Damage Signaling and Repair

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Dudley; Dellaire, Graham

    2015-01-01

    The maintenance of genomic integrity is an important process in organisms as failure to sense and repair damaged DNA can result in a variety of diseases. Eukaryotic cells have developed complex DNA repair response (DDR) mechanisms to accurately sense and repair damaged DNA. Post-translational modifications by ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins, such as SUMO and NEDD8, have roles in coordinating the progression of DDR. Proteins in the neddylation pathway have also been linked to regulating DDR. Of interest is the COP9 signalosome (CSN), a multi-subunit metalloprotease present in eukaryotes that removes NEDD8 from cullins and regulates the activity of cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases (CRLs). This in turn regulates the stability and turnover of a host of CRL-targeted proteins, some of which have established roles in DDR. This review will summarize the current knowledge on the role of the CSN and neddylation in DNA repair. PMID:26437438

  13. Repair of DNA-polypeptide crosslinks by human excision nuclease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reardon, Joyce T.; Sancar, Aziz

    2006-03-01

    DNA-protein crosslinks are relatively common DNA lesions that form during the physiological processing of DNA by replication and recombination proteins, by side reactions of base excision repair enzymes, and by cellular exposure to bifunctional DNA-damaging agents such as platinum compounds. The mechanism by which pathological DNA-protein crosslinks are repaired in humans is not known. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of recognition and repair of protein-DNA and oligopeptide-DNA crosslinks by the human excision nuclease. Under our assay conditions, the human nucleotide excision repair system did not remove a 16-kDa protein crosslinked to DNA at a detectable level. However, 4- and 12-aa-long oligopeptides crosslinked to the DNA backbone were recognized by some of the damage recognition factors of the human excision nuclease with moderate selectivity and were excised from DNA at relatively efficient rates. Our data suggest that, if coupled with proteolytic degradation of the crosslinked protein, the human excision nuclease may be the major enzyme system for eliminating protein-DNA crosslinks from the genome. damage recognition | nucleotide excision repair

  14. An interaction between the mammalian DNA repair protein XRCC1 and DNA ligase III.

    PubMed Central

    Caldecott, K W; McKeown, C K; Tucker, J D; Ljungquist, S; Thompson, L H

    1994-01-01

    XRCC1, the human gene that fully corrects the Chinese hamster ovary DNA repair mutant EM9, encodes a protein involved in the rejoining of DNA single-strand breaks that arise following treatment with alkylating agents or ionizing radiation. In this study, a cDNA minigene encoding oligohistidine-tagged XRCC1 was constructed to facilitate affinity purification of the recombinant protein. This construct, designated pcD2EHX, fully corrected the EM9 phenotype of high sister chromatid exchange, indicating that the histidine tag was not detrimental to XRCC1 activity. Affinity chromatography of extract from EM9 cells transfected with pcD2EHX resulted in the copurification of histidine-tagged XRCC1 and DNA ligase III activity. Neither XRCC1 or DNA ligase III activity was purified during affinity chromatography of extract from EM9 cells transfected with pcD2EX, a cDNA minigene that encodes untagged XRCC1, or extract from wild-type AA8 or untransfected EM9 cells. The copurification of DNA ligase III activity with histidine-tagged XRCC1 suggests that the two proteins are present in the cell as a complex. Furthermore, DNA ligase III activity was present at lower levels in EM9 cells than in AA8 cells and was returned to normal levels in EM9 cells transfected with pcD2EHX or pcD2EX. These findings indicate that XRCC1 is required for normal levels of DNA ligase III activity, and they implicate a major role for this DNA ligase in DNA base excision repair in mammalian cells. Images PMID:8264637

  15. Connecting the Dots: From DNA Damage and Repair to Aging

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Mei-Ren; Li, Kaiyi; Lin, Shiaw-Yih; Hung, Wen-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian cells evolve a delicate system, the DNA damage response (DDR) pathway, to monitor genomic integrity and to prevent the damage from both endogenous end exogenous insults. Emerging evidence suggests that aberrant DDR and deficient DNA repair are strongly associated with cancer and aging. Our understanding of the core program of DDR has made tremendous progress in the past two decades. However, the long list of the molecules involved in the DDR and DNA repair continues to grow and the roles of the new “dots” are under intensive investigation. Here, we review the connection between DDR and DNA repair and aging and discuss the potential mechanisms by which deficient DNA repair triggers systemic effects to promote physiological or pathological aging. PMID:27164092

  16. Effect of aging and dietary restriction on DNA repair

    SciTech Connect

    Weraarchakul, N.; Strong, R.; Wood, W.G.; Richardson, A.

    1989-03-01

    DNA repair was studied as a function of age in cells isolated from both the liver and the kidney of male Fischer F344 rats. DNA repair was measured by quantifying unscheduled DNA synthesis induced by UV irradiation. Unscheduled DNA synthesis decreased approximately 50% between the ages of 5 and 30 months in both hepatocytes and kidney cells. The age-related decline in unscheduled DNA synthesis in cells isolated from the liver and kidney was compared in rats fed ad libitum and rats fed a calorie-restricted diet; calorie restriction has been shown to increase the survival of rodents. The level of unscheduled DNA synthesis was significantly higher in hepatocytes and kidney cells isolated from the rats fed the restricted diet. Thus, calorie restriction appears to retard the age-related decline in DNA repair.

  17. Structural and Functional Interaction Between the Human DNA Repair Proteins DNA ligase IV and XRCC4

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, P.; Meesala, S; Dauvillier, S; Modesti, M; Andres, S; Huang, Y; Sekiguchi, J; Calsou, P; Salles, B; Junop, M

    2009-01-01

    Nonhomologous end-joining represents the major pathway used by human cells to repair DNA double-strand breaks. It relies on the XRCC4/DNA ligase IV complex to reseal DNA strands. Here we report the high-resolution crystal structure of human XRCC4 bound to the carboxy-terminal tandem BRCT repeat of DNA ligase IV. The structure differs from the homologous Saccharomyces cerevisiae complex and reveals an extensive DNA ligase IV binding interface formed by a helix-loop-helix structure within the inter-BRCT linker region, as well as significant interactions involving the second BRCT domain, which induces a kink in the tail region of XRCC4. We further demonstrate that interaction with the second BRCT domain of DNA ligase IV is necessary for stable binding to XRCC4 in cells, as well as to achieve efficient dominant-negative effects resulting in radiosensitization after ectopic overexpression of DNA ligase IV fragments in human fibroblasts. Together our findings provide unanticipated insight for understanding the physical and functional architecture of the nonhomologous end-joining ligation complex.

  18. A review of DNA repair and possible DNA-repair adjuvants and selected natural anti-oxidants.

    PubMed

    Emanuel, Patrick; Scheinfeld, Noah

    2007-01-01

    Few other organs have the environmental exposure-neoplasia relationship that has been observed between epithelial cutaneous malignancy and UVB exposure. A significant DNA type of defective linking of DNA nucleotides involves pyrimidine dimers. Important insight into the molecular processes that affect the response of cells to UVB have been provided by the study of rare inherited diseases characterized by DNA repair defects. Nucleotide excision repair is the best characterized of these and its importance is illustrated by the disease, xeroderma pigmentosum. This heterogenous disorder clinically characterized by malignant tumor development and molecularly by distinct alterations in the nucleotide excision repair apparatus. More recently, other DNA mechanisms have been shown to have some role in skin cancer, such as DNA-mismatch repair and double-stranded DNA breaks. Herein, we discuss the DNA-repair adjuvants a aqueous extract of Urcaria tomentosa (AC-11, Optigenex, Inc.), and T4 endonuclease V that is prepared in a liposome lotion (Dimericine, Applied Genetics Inc. Dermatics). The positive effects on the integrity DNA of other substances (from nature, heat shock proteins and cytokines) including IL-12, Polypodium leucotomos, and ubiquitin are also reviewed. Understanding DNA repair mechanisms is far from complete; further understanding will provide insight into the pathogenesis of cancer and pave the way for efficacious therapeutic agents. PMID:18328204

  19. Methods to alter levels of a DNA repair protein

    DOEpatents

    Petrini, John H.; Morgan, William Francis; Maser, Richard Scott; Carney, James Patrick

    2006-10-17

    An isolated and purified DNA molecule encoding a DNA repair protein, p95, is provided, as is isolated and purified p95. Also provided are methods of detecting p95 and DNA encoding p95. The invention further provides p95 knock-out mice.

  20. Nuclear GIT2 Is an ATM Substrate and Promotes DNA Repair

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Daoyuan; Cai, Huan; Park, Sung-Soo; Siddiqui, Sana; Premont, Richard T.; Schmalzigaug, Robert; Paramasivam, Manikandan; Seidman, Michael; Bodogai, Ionoa; Biragyn, Arya; Daimon, Caitlin M.; Martin, Bronwen

    2015-01-01

    Insults to nuclear DNA induce multiple response pathways to mitigate the deleterious effects of damage and mediate effective DNA repair. G-protein-coupled receptor kinase-interacting protein 2 (GIT2) regulates receptor internalization, focal adhesion dynamics, cell migration, and responses to oxidative stress. Here we demonstrate that GIT2 coordinates the levels of proteins in the DNA damage response (DDR). Cellular sensitivity to irradiation-induced DNA damage was highly associated with GIT2 expression levels. GIT2 is phosphorylated by ATM kinase and forms complexes with multiple DDR-associated factors in response to DNA damage. The targeting of GIT2 to DNA double-strand breaks was rapid and, in part, dependent upon the presence of H2AX, ATM, and MRE11 but was independent of MDC1 and RNF8. GIT2 likely promotes DNA repair through multiple mechanisms, including stabilization of BRCA1 in repair complexes; upregulation of repair proteins, including HMGN1 and RFC1; and regulation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity. Furthermore, GIT2-knockout mice demonstrated a greater susceptibility to DNA damage than their wild-type littermates. These results suggest that GIT2 plays an important role in MRE11/ATM/H2AX-mediated DNA damage responses. PMID:25605334

  1. The Rad9 protein enhances survival and promotes DNA repair following exposure to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, Patrick D.; Helt, Christopher E.; Keng, Peter C.; Bambara, Robert A. . E-mail: robert_bambara@urmc.rochester.edu

    2006-08-18

    Following DNA damage cells initiate cell cycle checkpoints to allow time to repair sustained lesions. Rad9, Rad1, and Hus1 proteins form a toroidal complex, termed the 9-1-1 complex, that is involved in checkpoint signaling. 9-1-1 shares high structural similarity to the DNA replication protein proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and 9-1-1 has been shown in vitro to stimulate steps of the repair process known as long patch base excision repair. Using a system that allows conditional repression of the Rad9 protein in human cell culture, we show that Rad9, and by extension, the 9-1-1 complex, enhances cell survival, is required for efficient exit from G2-phase arrest, and stimulates the repair of damaged DNA following ionizing radiation. These data provide in vivo evidence that the human 9-1-1 complex participates in DNA repair in addition to its previously described role in DNA damage sensing.

  2. Functional characterization of excision repair and RecA-dependent recombinational DNA repair in Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Gaasbeek, Esther J; van der Wal, Fimme J; van Putten, Jos P M; de Boer, Paulo; van der Graaf-van Bloois, Linda; de Boer, Albert G; Vermaning, Bart J; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2009-06-01

    The presence and functionality of DNA repair mechanisms in Campylobacter jejuni are largely unknown. In silico analysis of the complete translated genome of C. jejuni NCTC 11168 suggests the presence of genes involved in methyl-directed mismatch repair (MMR), nucleotide excision repair, base excision repair (BER), and recombinational repair. To assess the functionality of these putative repair mechanisms in C. jejuni, mutS, uvrB, ung, and recA knockout mutants were constructed and analyzed for their ability to repair spontaneous point mutations, UV irradiation-induced DNA damage, and nicked DNA. Inactivation of the different putative DNA repair genes did not alter the spontaneous mutation frequency. Disruption of the UvrB and RecA orthologues, but not the putative MutS or Ung proteins, resulted in a significant reduction in viability after exposure to UV irradiation. Assays performed with uracil-containing plasmid DNA showed that the putative uracil-DNA glycosylase (Ung) protein, important for initiation of the BER pathway, is also functional in C. jejuni. Inactivation of recA also resulted in a loss of natural transformation. Overall, the data indicate that C. jejuni has multiple functional DNA repair systems that may protect against DNA damage and limit the generation of genetic diversity. On the other hand, the apparent absence of a functional MMR pathway may enhance the frequency of on-and-off switching of phase variable genes typical for C. jejuni and may contribute to the genetic heterogeneity of the C. jejuni population. PMID:19376866

  3. Induced DNA repair pathway in mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Overberg, R.

    1985-01-01

    The survival of cultured rat kangaroo cells (PtK-2) and human xeroderma pigmentosum cells incubated with 5 ..mu..M cycloheximide subsequent to ultraviolet irradiation is lower than that of cells incubated without cycloheximide. The drop in survival is considerably larger than that produced by incubation of unirradiated cells with cycloheximide. The phenomenon was also observed when PtK-2 cells were incubated with emetine, another protein synthesis inhibitor, or with 5,6-dichloro-1-..beta..-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole, a RNA synthesis inhibitor. PtK cells which received a preliminary UV treatment followed by an incubation period without cycloheximide and then a second irradiation and 24 hour incubation with cycloheximide, survived the effects of the second irradiation better than cells which were incubated in the presence of cycloheximide after the first and second UV irradiation. The application of cycloheximide for 24 hours after UV irradiation of PtK cells resulted in one-half as many 6-thioguanine resistant cells as compared to the number of 6-thioguanine resistant cells found when cycloheximide was not used. These experiments indicate that a UV-inducible cycloheximide-sensitive DNA repair pathway is present in PtK and xeroderma pigmentosum cells, which is error-prone in PtK cells.

  4. The C-terminal domain of Cernunnos/XLF is dispensable for DNA repair in vivo.

    PubMed

    Malivert, Laurent; Callebaut, Isabelle; Rivera-Munoz, Paola; Fischer, Alain; Mornon, Jean-Paul; Revy, Patrick; de Villartay, Jean-Pierre

    2009-03-01

    The core nonhomologous end-joining DNA repair pathway is composed of seven factors: Ku70, Ku80, DNA-PKcs, Artemis, XRCC4 (X4), DNA ligase IV (L4), and Cernunnos/XLF (Cernunnos). Although Cernunnos and X4 are structurally related and participate in the same complex together with L4, they have distinct functions during DNA repair. L4 relies on X4 but not on Cernunnos for its stability, and L4 is required for optimal interaction of Cernunnos with X4. We demonstrate here, using in vitro-generated Cernunnos mutants and a series of functional assays in vivo, that the C-terminal region of Cernunnos is dispensable for its activity during DNA repair. PMID:19103754

  5. Mre11-Rad50 promotes rapid repair of DNA damage in the polyploid archaeon Haloferax volcanii by restraining homologous recombination.

    PubMed

    Delmas, Stphane; Shunburne, Lee; Ngo, Hien-Ping; Allers, Thorsten

    2009-07-01

    Polyploidy is frequent in nature and is a hallmark of cancer cells, but little is known about the strategy of DNA repair in polyploid organisms. We have studied DNA repair in the polyploid archaeon Haloferax volcanii, which contains up to 20 genome copies. We have focused on the role of Mre11 and Rad50 proteins, which are found in all domains of life and which form a complex that binds to and coordinates the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Surprisingly, mre11 rad50 mutants are more resistant to DNA damage than the wild-type. However, wild-type cells recover faster from DNA damage, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis shows that DNA double-strand breaks are repaired more slowly in mre11 rad50 mutants. Using a plasmid repair assay, we show that wild-type and mre11 rad50 cells use different strategies of DSB repair. In the wild-type, Mre11-Rad50 appears to prevent the repair of DSBs by homologous recombination (HR), allowing microhomology-mediated end-joining to act as the primary repair pathway. However, genetic analysis of recombination-defective radA mutants suggests that DNA repair in wild-type cells ultimately requires HR, therefore Mre11-Rad50 merely delays this mode of repair. In polyploid organisms, DSB repair by HR is potentially hazardous, since each DNA end will have multiple partners. We show that in the polyploid archaeon H. volcanii the repair of DSBs by HR is restrained by Mre11-Rad50. The unrestrained use of HR in mre11 rad50 mutants enhances cell survival but leads to slow recovery from DNA damage, presumably due to difficulties in the resolution of DNA repair intermediates. Our results suggest that recombination might be similarly repressed in other polyploid organisms and at repetitive sequences in haploid and diploid species. PMID:19593371

  6. Radiation-Induced Survivin Nuclear Accumulation is Linked to DNA Damage Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Capalbo, Gianni; Weiss, Christian; Reichert, Sebastian; Roedel, Claus

    2010-05-01

    Purpose: Increased expression of survivin has been identified as a negative prognostic marker in a variety of human cancers. We have previously shown that survivin is a radiation-resistance factor and that the therapeutic effect of survivin knock-down might result from an impaired DNA repair capacity. In this study, we aimed to elucidate an interrelationship between survivin's cellular localization and DNA double-strand break repair. Methods and Materials: Survivin's cellular distribution and nuclear complex formation were assayed by Western blotting of subcellular fractions, by immunofluorescence staining, and co-immunoprecipitation in SW480 colorectal cancer cells. DNA repair capacity was analyzed by kinetics of gamma-H2AX foci formation, and by DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) assays in the presence of survivin-specific or nonspecific control siRNA. Results: Following irradiation, we observed a rapid nuclear accumulation of survivin and subsequent phosphorylation of the protein in the nucleus. Co-immunoprecipitation analyses from nuclear extracts revealed an interaction among survivin, Ku70, gamma-H2AX, MDC1, and DNA-PKcs that was confirmed by immunofluorescence co-localization in nuclear foci. Survivin knock down by siRNA resulted in an impaired DNA double strand break repair, as demonstrated by an increased detection of gamma-H2AX foci/nucleus at 60 min and a higher amount of residual gamma-H2AX foci at 24 hr postirradiation. Furthermore, we detected in survivin-depleted cells a hampered S2056 autophosphorylation of DNA-PKcs and a significantly decreased DNA-PKcs kinase activity. Conclusion: These data indicate that nuclear survivin is linked to DNA double-strand break repair by interaction with members of the DNA double-strand breaks repair machinery, thus regulating DNA-PKcs activity.

  7. The molecular origin of high DNA-repair efficiency by photolyase.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chuang; Liu, Zheyun; Li, Jiang; Guo, Xunmin; Wang, Lijuan; Sancar, Aziz; Zhong, Dongping

    2015-01-01

    The primary dynamics in photomachinery such as charge separation in photosynthesis and bond isomerization in sensory photoreceptor are typically ultrafast to accelerate functional dynamics and avoid energy dissipation. The same is also true for the DNA repair enzyme, photolyase. However, it is not known how the photoinduced step is optimized in photolyase to attain maximum efficiency. Here, we analyse the primary reaction steps of repair of ultraviolet-damaged DNA by photolyase using femtosecond spectroscopy. With systematic mutations of the amino acids involved in binding of the flavin cofactor and the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer substrate, we report our direct deconvolution of the catalytic dynamics with three electron-transfer and two bond-breaking elementary steps and thus the fine tuning of the biological repair function for optimal efficiency. We found that the maximum repair efficiency is not enhanced by the ultrafast photoinduced process but achieved by the synergistic optimization of all steps in the complex repair reaction. PMID:26065359

  8. The molecular origin of high DNA-repair efficiency by photolyase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Chuang; Liu, Zheyun; Li, Jiang; Guo, Xunmin; Wang, Lijuan; Sancar, Aziz; Zhong, Dongping

    2015-06-01

    The primary dynamics in photomachinery such as charge separation in photosynthesis and bond isomerization in sensory photoreceptor are typically ultrafast to accelerate functional dynamics and avoid energy dissipation. The same is also true for the DNA repair enzyme, photolyase. However, it is not known how the photoinduced step is optimized in photolyase to attain maximum efficiency. Here, we analyse the primary reaction steps of repair of ultraviolet-damaged DNA by photolyase using femtosecond spectroscopy. With systematic mutations of the amino acids involved in binding of the flavin cofactor and the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer substrate, we report our direct deconvolution of the catalytic dynamics with three electron-transfer and two bond-breaking elementary steps and thus the fine tuning of the biological repair function for optimal efficiency. We found that the maximum repair efficiency is not enhanced by the ultrafast photoinduced process but achieved by the synergistic optimization of all steps in the complex repair reaction.

  9. ATP-Dependent Chromatin Remodeling Factors and DNA Damage Repair

    PubMed Central

    Osley, Mary Ann; Tsukuda, Toyoko; Nickoloff, Jac A.

    2007-01-01

    The organization of eukaryotic DNA into chromatin poses a barrier to all processes that require access of enzymes and regulatory factors to their sites of action. While the majority of studies in this area have concentrated on the role of chromatin in the regulation of transcription, there has been a recent emphasis on the relationship of chromatin to DNA damage repair. In this review, we focus on the role of chromatin in nucleotide excision repair (NER) and double-strand break (DSB) repair. NER and DSB repair use very different enzymatic machineries, and these two modes of DNA damage repair are also differentially affected by chromatin. Only a small number of nucleosomes are likely to be involved in NER, while a more extensive region of chromatin is involved in DSB repair. However, a key feature of both NER and DSB repair pathways is the participation of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factors at various points in the repair process. We discuss recent data that have identified roles for SWI/SNF-related chromatin remodeling factors in the two repair pathways. PMID:17291544

  10. Molecular Regulation of UV-Induced DNA Repair

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Palak; He, Yu-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sunlight is a major etiologic factor for skin cancer, the most prevalent cancer in the U.S., as well as premature skin aging. In particular, UVB radiation causes formation of specific DNA damage photoproducts between pyrimidine bases. These DNA damage photoproducts are repaired by a process called nucleotide excision repair, also known as UV-induced DNA repair. When left unrepaired, UVB-induced DNA damage leads to accumulation of mutations, predisposing people to carcinogenesis as well as to premature aging. Genetic loss of nucleotide excision repair leads to severe disorders, namely, xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), trichothiodystrophy (TTD) and Cockayne syndrome (CS), which are associated with predisposition to skin carcinogenesis at a young age as well as developmental and neurological conditions. Regulation of nucleotide excision repair is an attractive avenue to preventing or reversing these detrimental consequences of impaired nucleotide excision repair. Here we review recent studies on molecular mechanisms regulating nucleotide excision repair by extracellular cues and intracellular signaling pathways, with a special focus on the molecular regulation of individual repair factors. PMID:25534312

  11. Preferential DNA repair of an active gene in human cells.

    PubMed Central

    Mellon, I; Bohr, V A; Smith, C A; Hanawalt, P C

    1986-01-01

    Removal of pyrimidine dimers was measured in defined sequences in human cells amplified for the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) gene. We quantitated repair in specific restriction fragments by using the dimer-specific bacteriophage T4 endonuclease V and analysis by Southern blotting. Within 4 hr after 5- or 10-J/m2 UV irradiation, more than 60% of the dimers had been removed from a 20-kilobase fragment that lies entirely within the transcription unit of the DHFR gene and from a 25-kilobase fragment located in the 5' flanking region of the gene. Repair in the overall genome was measured by analyzing cellular DNA treated with T4 endonuclease V in alkaline sucrose gradients. Sixty-nine percent of the dimers were removed from the genome overall within 24 hr after irradiation, but only 25% were removed within 4 hr and 38% were removed within 8 hr. These results demonstrate a strong preferential rate of removal of dimers from the 50-kilobase region that includes the transcriptionally active DHFR gene compared to that in total cellular DNA. We confirmed that DHFR-containing DNA is repaired more rapidly than bulk DNA by using an approach that provides a direct comparison between repair in specific sequences and repair in total cellular DNA. We also show that the DHFR-containing sequences are repaired more rapidly than the nontranscribed repetitive alpha DNA sequences. Our finding of preferential early repair in a transcriptionally active region in overall repair-proficient cells suggests that selective dimer removal from active sequences may be a general characteristic of mammalian DNA repair. Images PMID:3466163

  12. p53 in the DNA-Damage-Repair Process.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ashley B; Schumacher, Björn

    2016-01-01

    The cells in the human body are continuously challenged by a variety of genotoxic attacks. Erroneous repair of the DNA can lead to mutations and chromosomal aberrations that can alter the functions of tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes, thus causing cancer development. As a central tumor suppressor, p53 guards the genome by orchestrating a variety of DNA-damage-response (DDR) mechanisms. Already early in metazoan evolution, p53 started controlling the apoptotic demise of genomically compromised cells. p53 plays a prominent role as a facilitator of DNA repair by halting the cell cycle to allow time for the repair machineries to restore genome stability. In addition, p53 took on diverse roles to also directly impact the activity of various DNA-repair systems. It thus appears as if p53 is multitasking in providing protection from cancer development by maintaining genome stability. PMID:27048304

  13. After sun reversal of DNA damage: enhancing skin repair.

    PubMed

    Yarosh, Daniel B; Canning, Matthew T; Teicher, Danielle; Brown, David A

    2005-04-01

    UV-induced DNA damage has been directly linked to skin cancer, and DNA repair is an important protection against this neoplasm. This is illustrated by the genetic disease xeroderma pigmentosum wherein a serious defect in DNA repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers dramatically increases the rate of skin cancer. In other instances in which skin cancer rates are elevated, deficits in DNA repair may also be one of the causal factors. For example, solid organ transplant patients have elevated rates of skin cancer that are correlated with the dose and length of exposure to immunosuppressive drugs (predominantly cyclosporine A (CsA) and ascomycin (FK506)-related tacrolimus). We have found that treatment of cultured epidermal cells with CsA or ascomycin inhibits their removal of DNA damage by about 20% at 24 h. In a further example, people with a polymorphism in the DNA repair gene 8-oxo-guanine glycosylase (OGG1) have an increased risk of skin cancer. We have found that the cells with this variant polymorphism have an increased sensitivity of about 20% to a broad range of cytotoxic agents. The DNA deficits caused by immunosuppressive drugs or the OGG1 polymorphism can be overcome by the delivery of DNA repair enzymes in liposomes. The data suggests that deficits in DNA repair, even if they are not as severe as in the case of XP, may contribute to increased rates of cancer, and that topical therapy with DNA repair enzymes may be a promising avenue for after-sun protection. PMID:15748638

  14. 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase-1 driven DNA base excision repair: role in asthma pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ba, Xueqing; Aguilera Aguirre, Leopoldo; Sur, Sanjiv; Boldogh, Istvan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To provide both an overview and evidence of the potential etiology of oxidative DNA base damage and repair-signaling in chronic inflammation and histological changes associated with asthma. Recent findings Asthma is initiated/maintained by immunological, genetic/epigenetic and environmental factors. It is a world-wide health problem, as current therapies suppress symptoms rather than prevent/reverse the disease, largely due to gaps in understanding its molecular mechanisms. Inflammation, oxidative stress and DNA damage are inseparable phenomena, but their molecular roles in asthma pathogenesis are unclear. It was found that among oxidatively modified DNA bases, 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) is one of the most abundant, and its levels in DNA and body fluids are considered a biomarker of ongoing asthmatic processes. Free 8-oxoG forms a complex with 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase-1 (OGG1) and activates RAS-family GTPases that induce gene expression to mobilize innate and adaptive immune systems, along with genes regulating airway hyperplasia, hyper-responsiveness and lung remodeling in atopic and non-atopic asthma. Summary DNA’s integrity must be maintained to prevent mutation, so its continuous repair and downstream signaling “fuels” chronic inflammatory processes in asthma, and forms the basic mechanism whose elucidation will allow the development of new drug targets for the prevention/reversal of lung diseases. PMID:25486379

  15. Modeling Damage Complexity-Dependent Non-Homologous End-Joining Repair Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongfeng; Reynolds, Pamela; O'Neill, Peter; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2014-01-01

    Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is the dominant DNA double strand break (DSB) repair pathway and involves several repair proteins such as Ku, DNA-PKcs, and XRCC4. It has been experimentally shown that the choice of NHEJ proteins is determined by the complexity of DSB. In this paper, we built a mathematical model, based on published data, to study how NHEJ depends on the damage complexity. Under an appropriate set of parameters obtained by minimization technique, we can simulate the kinetics of foci track formation in fluorescently tagged mammalian cells, Ku80-EGFP and DNA-PKcs-YFP for simple and complex DSB repair, respectively, in good agreement with the published experimental data, supporting the notion that simple DSB undergo fast repair in a Ku-dependent, DNA-PKcs-independent manner, while complex DSB repair requires additional DNA-PKcs for end processing, resulting in its slow repair, additionally resulting in slower release rate of Ku and the joining rate of complex DNA ends. Based on the numerous experimental descriptions, we investigated several models to describe the kinetics for complex DSB repair. An important prediction of our model is that the rejoining of complex DSBs is through a process of synapsis formation, similar to a second order reaction between ends, rather than first order break filling/joining. The synapsis formation (SF) model allows for diffusion of ends before the synapsis formation, which is precluded in the first order model by the rapid coupling of ends. Therefore, the SF model also predicts the higher number of chromosomal aberrations observed with high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation due to the higher proportion of complex DSBs compared to low LET radiation, and an increased probability of misrejoin following diffusion before the synapsis is formed, while the first order model does not provide a mechanism for the increased effectiveness in chromosomal aberrations observed. PMID:24520318

  16. Heavy Metal Exposure Influences Double Strand Break DNA Repair Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Maria E.; Derbes, Rebecca S.; Ade, Catherine M.; Ortego, Jonathan C.; Stark, Jeremy; Deininger, Prescott L.; Roy-Engel, Astrid M.

    2016-01-01

    Heavy metals such as cadmium, arsenic and nickel are classified as carcinogens. Although the precise mechanism of carcinogenesis is undefined, heavy metal exposure can contribute to genetic damage by inducing double strand breaks (DSBs) as well as inhibiting critical proteins from different DNA repair pathways. Here we take advantage of two previously published culture assay systems developed to address mechanistic aspects of DNA repair to evaluate the effects of heavy metal exposures on competing DNA repair outcomes. Our results demonstrate that exposure to heavy metals significantly alters how cells repair double strand breaks. The effects observed are both specific to the particular metal and dose dependent. Low doses of NiCl2 favored resolution of DSBs through homologous recombination (HR) and single strand annealing (SSA), which were inhibited by higher NiCl2 doses. In contrast, cells exposed to arsenic trioxide preferentially repaired using the “error prone” non-homologous end joining (alt-NHEJ) while inhibiting repair by HR. In addition, we determined that low doses of nickel and cadmium contributed to an increase in mutagenic recombination-mediated by Alu elements, the most numerous family of repetitive elements in humans. Sequence verification confirmed that the majority of the genetic deletions were the result of Alu-mediated non-allelic recombination events that predominantly arose from repair by SSA. All heavy metals showed a shift in the outcomes of alt-NHEJ repair with a significant increase of non-templated sequence insertions at the DSB repair site. Our data suggest that exposure to heavy metals will alter the choice of DNA repair pathway changing the genetic outcome of DSBs repair. PMID:26966913

  17. Overexpression of DNA ligase III in mitochondria protects cells against oxidative stress and improves mitochondrial DNA base excision repair.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Mansour; Keijzers, Guido; Maynard, Scott; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Desler, Claus; Hickson, Ian D; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2014-04-01

    Base excision repair (BER) is the most prominent DNA repair pathway in human mitochondria. BER also results in a temporary generation of AP-sites, single-strand breaks and nucleotide gaps. Thus, incomplete BER can result in the generation of DNA repair intermediates that can disrupt mitochondrial DNA replication and transcription and generate mutations. We carried out BER analysis in highly purified mitochondrial extracts from human cell lines U2OS and HeLa, and mouse brain using a circular DNA substrate containing a lesion at a specific position. We found that DNA ligation is significantly slower than the preceding mitochondrial BER steps. Overexpression of DNA ligase III in mitochondria improved the rate of overall BER, increased cell survival after menadione induced oxidative stress and reduced autophagy following the inhibition of the mitochondrial electron transport chain complex I by rotenone. Our results suggest that the amount of DNA ligase III in mitochondria may be critical for cell survival following prolonged oxidative stress, and demonstrate a functional link between mitochondrial DNA damage and repair, cell survival upon oxidative stress, and removal of dysfunctional mitochondria by autophagy. PMID:24674627

  18. New approaches to biochemical radioprotection: antioxidants and DNA repair enhancement.

    PubMed

    Riklis, E; Emerit, I; Setlow, R B

    1996-01-01

    Chemical repair may be provided by radioprotective compounds present during exposure to ionizing radiation. Considering DNA as the most sensitive target it is feasible to biochemically improve protection by enhancing DNA repair mechanisms. Protection of DNA by reducing the amount of damage (by radical scavenging and chemical repair) followed by enhanced repair of DNA will provide much improved protection and recovery. Furthermore, in cases of prolonged exposure, such as is possible in prolonged space missions, or of unexpected variations in the intensity of radiation, as is possible when encountering solar flares, it is important to provide long-acting protection, and this may be provided by antioxidants and well functioning DNA repair systems. It has also become important to provide protection from the potentially damaging action of long-lived clastogenic factors which have been found in plasma of exposed persons from Hiroshima & Nagasaki, radiation accidents, radiotherapy patients and recently in "liquidators"--persons involved in salvage operations at the Chernobyl reactor. The clastogenic factor, which causes chromatid breaks in non-exposed plasma, might account for late effects and is posing a potential carcinogenic hazard. The enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) has been shown to eliminate the breakage factor from cultured plasma of exposed persons. Several compounds have been shown to enhance DNA repair: WR-2721, nicotinamide, glutathione monoester (Riklis et al., unpublished) and others. The right combination of such compounds may prove effective in providing protection from a wide range of radiation exposures over a long period of time. PMID:11538987

  19. New approaches to biochemical radioprotection: antioxidants and DNA repair enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riklis, E.; Emerit, I.; Setlow, R. B.

    Chemical repair may be provided by radioprotective compounds present during exposure to ionizing radiation. Considering DNA as the most sensitive target it is feasible to biochemically improve protection by enhancing DNA repair mechanisms. Protection of DNA by reducing the amount of damage (by radical scavenging and chemical repair) followed by enhanced repair of DNA will provide much improved protection and recovery. Furthermore, in cases of prolonged exposure, such as is possible in prolonged space missions, or of unexpected variations in the intensity of radiation, as is possible when encountering solar flares, it is important to provide long-acting protection, and this may be provided by antioxidants and well functioning DNA repair systems. It has also become important to provide protection from the potentially damaging action of long-lived clastogenic factors which have been found in plasma of exposed persons from Hiroshima & Nagasaki, radiation accidents, radiotherapy patients and recently in ``liquidators'' - persons involved in salvage operations at the Chernobyl reactor. The clastogenic factor, which causes chromatid breaks in non-exposed plasma, might account for late effects and is posing a potential carcinogenic hazard /1/. The enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) has been shown to eliminate the breakage factor from cultured plasma of exposed persons /2/. Several compounds have been shown to enhance DNA repair: WR-2721 /3/, nicotinamide /4/, glutathione monoester (Riklis et al., unpublished) and others. The right combination of such compounds may prove effective in providing protection from a wide range of radiation exposures over a long period of time.

  20. DNA repair proficiency: A potential susceptibility factor for breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Helzlsouer, K.J.; Perry, H.; Harris, E.L. |

    1994-09-01

    A family study and a case-control study were conducted to examine the association between sub-optimal repair of ionizing radiation induced DNA damage and the development of breast cancer. A familial cluster of breast cancer was investigated in which breast cancer occurred in 4 of 6 sisters, some of whom were exposed to ionizing radiation from repeated chest fluoroscopic examinations during adolescence and early adulthood. DNA repair proficiency was measured among available family members and correlated with their history of radiation exposure. DNA repair proficiency was also measured among 16 breast cancer cases, 5 women with a family history of breast cancer and 12 controls. The results of the family study suggest an association between poor DNA repair proficiency and increased sensitivity to the carcinogenic effects of early radiation exposure on breast tissue. The case-control study showed that a significantly higher percentage of women with breast cancer (63%) and women with a family history of breast cancer (80%) had poor repair of ionizing radiation induced DNA damage than control women (17%) (P-value=0.02). Sub-optimal repair of DNA damage may be a host susceptibility factor predisposing individuals to breast cancer through increased sensitivity to carcinogenic damage from environmental exposures such as ionizing radiation.

  1. Hepatoma-derived growth factor-related protein 2 promotes DNA repair by homologous recombination.

    PubMed

    Baude, Annika; Aaes, Tania Løve; Zhai, Beibei; Al-Nakouzi, Nader; Oo, Htoo Zarni; Daugaard, Mads; Rohde, Mikkel; Jäättelä, Marja

    2016-03-18

    We have recently identified lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75, also known as PSIP1) as a component of the homologous recombination DNA repair machinery. Through its Pro-Trp-Trp-Pro (PWWP) domain, LEDGF/p75 binds to histone marks associated with active transcription and promotes DNA end resection by recruiting DNA endonuclease retinoblastoma-binding protein 8 (RBBP8/CtIP) to broken DNA ends. Here we show that the structurally related PWWP domain-containing protein, hepatoma-derived growth factor-related protein 2 (HDGFRP2), serves a similar function in homologous recombination repair. Its depletion compromises the survival of human U2OS osteosarcoma and HeLa cervix carcinoma cells and impairs the DNA damage-induced phosphorylation of replication protein A2 (RPA2) and the recruitment of DNA endonuclease RBBP8/CtIP to DNA double strand breaks. In contrast to LEDGF/p75, HDGFRP2 binds preferentially to histone marks characteristic for transcriptionally silent chromatin. Accordingly, HDGFRP2 is found in complex with the heterochromatin-binding chromobox homologue 1 (CBX1) and Pogo transposable element with ZNF domain (POGZ). Supporting the functionality of this complex, POGZ-depleted cells show a similar defect in DNA damage-induced RPA2 phosphorylation as HDGFRP2-depleted cells. These data suggest that HDGFRP2, possibly in complex with POGZ, recruits homologous recombination repair machinery to damaged silent genes or to active genes silenced upon DNA damage. PMID:26721387

  2. Hepatoma-derived growth factor-related protein 2 promotes DNA repair by homologous recombination

    PubMed Central

    Baude, Annika; Aaes, Tania Løve; Zhai, Beibei; Al-Nakouzi, Nader; Oo, Htoo Zarni; Daugaard, Mads; Rohde, Mikkel; Jäättelä, Marja

    2016-01-01

    We have recently identified lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75, also known as PSIP1) as a component of the homologous recombination DNA repair machinery. Through its Pro-Trp-Trp-Pro (PWWP) domain, LEDGF/p75 binds to histone marks associated with active transcription and promotes DNA end resection by recruiting DNA endonuclease retinoblastoma-binding protein 8 (RBBP8/CtIP) to broken DNA ends. Here we show that the structurally related PWWP domain-containing protein, hepatoma-derived growth factor-related protein 2 (HDGFRP2), serves a similar function in homologous recombination repair. Its depletion compromises the survival of human U2OS osteosarcoma and HeLa cervix carcinoma cells and impairs the DNA damage-induced phosphorylation of replication protein A2 (RPA2) and the recruitment of DNA endonuclease RBBP8/CtIP to DNA double strand breaks. In contrast to LEDGF/p75, HDGFRP2 binds preferentially to histone marks characteristic for transcriptionally silent chromatin. Accordingly, HDGFRP2 is found in complex with the heterochromatin-binding chromobox homologue 1 (CBX1) and Pogo transposable element with ZNF domain (POGZ). Supporting the functionality of this complex, POGZ-depleted cells show a similar defect in DNA damage-induced RPA2 phosphorylation as HDGFRP2-depleted cells. These data suggest that HDGFRP2, possibly in complex with POGZ, recruits homologous recombination repair machinery to damaged silent genes or to active genes silenced upon DNA damage. PMID:26721387

  3. Human Rad50 is physically associated with human Mre11: identification of a conserved multiprotein complex implicated in recombinational DNA repair.

    PubMed Central

    Dolganov, G M; Maser, R S; Novikov, A; Tosto, L; Chong, S; Bressan, D A; Petrini, J H

    1996-01-01

    In this report, we describe the identification and molecular characterization of a human RAD50 homolog, hRAD50. hRAD50 was included in a collection of cDNAs which were isolated by a direct cDNA selection strategy focused on the chromosomal interval spanning 5q23 to 5q31. Alterations of the 5q23-q31 interval are frequently observed in myelodysplasia and myeloid leukemia. This strategy was thus undertaken to create a detailed genetic map of that region. Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD50 (ScRAD50) is one of three yeast RAD52 epistasis group members (ScRAD50, ScMRE11, and ScXRS2) in which mutations eliminate meiotic recombination but confer a hyperrecombinational phenotype in mitotic cells. The yeast Rad50, Mre11, and Xrs2 proteins appear to act in a multiprotein complex, consistent with the observation that the corresponding mutants confer essentially identical phenotypes. In this report, we demonstrate that the human Rad50 and Mre11 proteins are stably associated in a protein complex which may include three other proteins. hRAD50 is expressed in all tissues examined, but mRNA levels are significantly higher in the testis. Other human RAD52 epistasis group homologs exhibit this expression pattern, suggesting the involvement of human RAD52 epistasis group proteins in meiotic recombination. Human RAD52 epistasis group proteins are highly conserved and act in protein complexes that are analogous to those of their yeast counterparts. These findings indicate that the function of the RAD52 epistasis group is conserved in human cells. PMID:8756642

  4. The cutting edges in DNA repair, licensing, and fidelity: DNA and RNA repair nucleases sculpt DNA to measure twice, cut once.

    PubMed

    Tsutakawa, Susan E; Lafrance-Vanasse, Julien; Tainer, John A

    2014-07-01

    To avoid genome instability, DNA repair nucleases must precisely target the correct damaged substrate before they are licensed to incise. Damage identification is a challenge for all DNA damage response proteins, but especially for nucleases that cut the DNA and necessarily create a cleaved DNA repair intermediate, likely more toxic than the initial damage. How do these enzymes achieve exquisite specificity without specific sequence recognition or, in some cases, without a non-canonical DNA nucleotide? Combined structural, biochemical, and biological analyses of repair nucleases are revealing their molecular tools for damage verification and safeguarding against inadvertent incision. Surprisingly, these enzymes also often act on RNA, which deserves more attention. Here, we review protein-DNA structures for nucleases involved in replication, base excision repair, mismatch repair, double strand break repair (DSBR), and telomere maintenance: apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1), Endonuclease IV (Nfo), tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase (TDP2), UV Damage endonuclease (UVDE), very short patch repair endonuclease (Vsr), Endonuclease V (Nfi), Flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1), exonuclease 1 (Exo1), RNase T and Meiotic recombination 11 (Mre11). DNA and RNA structure-sensing nucleases are essential to life with roles in DNA replication, repair, and transcription. Increasingly these enzymes are employed as advanced tools for synthetic biology and as targets for cancer prognosis and interventions. Currently their structural biology is most fully illuminated for DNA repair, which is also essential to life. How DNA repair enzymes maintain genome fidelity is one of the DNA double helix secrets missed by James Watson and Francis Crick, that is only now being illuminated though structural biology and mutational analyses. Structures reveal motifs for repair nucleases and mechanisms whereby these enzymes follow the old carpenter adage: measure twice, cut once. Furthermore, to measure twice these nucleases act as molecular level transformers that typically reshape the DNA and sometimes themselves to achieve extraordinary specificity and efficiency. PMID:24754999

  5. The cutting edges in DNA repair, licensing, and fidelity: DNA and RNA repair nucleases sculpt DNA to measure twice, cut once

    PubMed Central

    Lafrance-Vanasse, Julien

    2014-01-01

    To avoid genome instability, DNA repair nucleases must precisely target the correct damaged substrate before they are licensed to incise. Damage identification is a challenge for all DNA damage response proteins, but especially for nucleases that cut the DNA and necessarily create a cleaved DNA repair intermediate, likely more toxic than the initial damage. How do these enzymes achieve exquisite specificity without specific sequence recognition or, in some cases, without a non-canonical DNA nucleotide? Combined structural, biochemical, and biological analyses of repair nucleases are revealing their molecular tools for damage verification and safeguarding against inadvertent incision. Surprisingly, these enzymes also often act on RNA, which deserves more attention. Here, we review protein-DNA structures for nucleases involved in replication, base excision repair, mismatch repair, double strand break repair (DSBR), and telomere maintenance: apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1), Endonuclease IV (Nfo), tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase (TDP2), UV Damage endonuclease (UVDE), very short patch repair endonuclease (Vsr), Endonuclease V (Nfi), Flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1), exonuclease 1 (Exo1), RNase T and Meiotic recombination 11 (Mre11). DNA and RNA structure-sensing nucleases are essential to life with roles in DNA replication, repair, and transcription. Increasingly these enzymes are employed as advanced tools for synthetic biology and as targets for cancer prognosis and interventions. Currently their structural biology is most fully illuminated for DNA repair, which is also essential to life. How DNA repair enzymes maintain genome fidelity is one of the DNA double helix secrets missed by Watson-Crick, that is only now being illuminated though structural biology and mutational analyses. Structures reveal motifs for repair nucleases and mechanisms whereby these enzymes follow the old carpenter adage: measure twice, cut once. Furthermore, to measure twice these nucleases act as molecular level transformers that typically reshape the DNA and sometimes themselves to achieve extraordinary specificity and efficiency. PMID:24754999

  6. MicroRNAs in the DNA Damage/Repair Network and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tessitore, Alessandra; Cicciarelli, Germana; Del Vecchio, Filippo; Gaggiano, Agata; Verzella, Daniela; Fischietti, Mariafausta; Vecchiotti, Davide; Capece, Daria; Zazzeroni, Francesca; Alesse, Edoardo

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a multistep process characterized by various and different genetic lesions which cause the transformation of normal cells into tumor cells. To preserve the genomic integrity, eukaryotic cells need a complex DNA damage/repair response network of signaling pathways, involving many proteins, able to induce cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, or DNA repair. Chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy are the most commonly used therapeutic approaches to manage cancer and act mainly through the induction of DNA damage. Impairment in the DNA repair proteins, which physiologically protect cells from persistent DNA injury, can affect the efficacy of cancer therapies. Recently, increasing evidence has suggested that microRNAs take actively part in the regulation of the DNA damage/repair network. MicroRNAs are endogenous short noncoding molecules able to regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Due to their activity, microRNAs play a role in many fundamental physiological and pathological processes. In this review we report and discuss the role of microRNAs in the DNA damage/repair and cancer. PMID:24616890

  7. Missing piece of first-responder DNA repair machine revealed

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    Scientists from the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Scripps Research Institute have revealed the role played by the least-understood part of a first-responder molecule that rushes in to bind and repair breaks in DNA strands, a process that helps people avoid cancer. With this final piece of the puzzle in place, scientists can better understand how the repair mechanism fends off cancer in healthy people, and conversely, how it helps cancer cells resist chemotherapy. This could enable researchers to develop more effective therapies with fewer side effects. http://newscenter.lbl.gov/press-releases/2009/10/01/dna-repair-uncovered/

  8. DNA repair mechanisms in dividing and non-dividing cells

    PubMed Central

    Iyama, Teruaki; Wilson, David M.

    2013-01-01

    DNA damage created by endogenous or exogenous genotoxic agents can exist in multiple forms, and if allowed to persist, can promote genome instability and directly lead to various human diseases, particularly cancer, neurological abnormalities, immunodeficiency and premature aging. To avoid such deleterious outcomes, cells have evolved an array of DNA repair pathways, which carry out what is typically a multiple-step process to resolve specific DNA lesions and maintain genome integrity. To fully appreciate the biological contributions of the different DNA repair systems, one must keep in mind the cellular context within they operate. For example, the human body is composed of non-dividing and dividing cell types, including, in the brain, neurons and glial cells. We describe herein the molecular mechanisms of the different DNA repair pathways, and review their roles in non-dividing and dividing cells, with an eye towards how these pathways may regulate the development of neurological disease. PMID:23684800

  9. DNA repair mechanisms in dividing and non-dividing cells.

    PubMed

    Iyama, Teruaki; Wilson, David M

    2013-08-01

    DNA damage created by endogenous or exogenous genotoxic agents can exist in multiple forms, and if allowed to persist, can promote genome instability and directly lead to various human diseases, particularly cancer, neurological abnormalities, immunodeficiency and premature aging. To avoid such deleterious outcomes, cells have evolved an array of DNA repair pathways, which carry out what is typically a multiple-step process to resolve specific DNA lesions and maintain genome integrity. To fully appreciate the biological contributions of the different DNA repair systems, one must keep in mind the cellular context within which they operate. For example, the human body is composed of non-dividing and dividing cell types, including, in the brain, neurons and glial cells. We describe herein the molecular mechanisms of the different DNA repair pathways, and review their roles in non-dividing and dividing cells, with an eye toward how these pathways may regulate the development of neurological disease. PMID:23684800

  10. Differential DNA lesion formation and repair in heterochromatin and euchromatin.

    PubMed

    Han, Chunhua; Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Cui, Tiantian; Wang, Qi-En; Wani, Altaf A

    2016-02-01

    Discretely orchestrated chromatin condensation is important for chromosome protection from DNA damage. However, it is still unclear how different chromatin states affect the formation and repair of nucleotide excision repair (NER) substrates, e.g. ultraviolet (UV)-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) and the pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone photoproducts (6-4PP), as well as cisplatin-induced intrastrand crosslinks (Pt-GG). Here, by using immunofluorescence and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we have demonstrated that CPD, which cause minor distortion of DNA double helix, can be detected in both euchromatic and heterochromatic regions, while 6-4PP and Pt-GG, which cause major distortion of DNA helix, can exclusively be detected in euchromatin, indicating that the condensed chromatin environment specifically interferes with the formation of these DNA lesions. Mechanistic investigation revealed that the class III histone deacetylase SIRT1 is responsible for restricting the formation of 6-4PP and Pt-GG in cells, probably by facilitating the maintenance of highly condensed heterochromatin. In addition, we also showed that the repair of CPD in heterochromatin is slower than that in euchromatin, and DNA damage binding protein 2 (DDB2) can promote the removal of CPD from heterochromatic region. In summary, our data provide evidence for differential formation and repair of DNA lesions that are substrates of NER. Both the sensitivity of DNA to damage and the kinetics of repair can be affected by the underlying level of chromatin compaction. PMID:26717995

  11. DNA damage and repair in human skin in situ

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, B.M.; Gange, R.W.; Freeman, S.E.; Sutherland, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    Understanding the molecular and cellular origins of sunlight-induced skin cancers in man requires knowledge of the damages inflicted on human skin during sunlight exposure, as well as the ability of cells in skin to repair or circumvent such damage. Although repair has been studied extensively in procaryotic and eucaryotic cells - including human cells in culture - there are important differences between repair by human skin cells in culture and human skin in situ: quantitative differences in rates of repair, as well as qualitative differences, including the presence or absence of repair mechanisms. Quantitation of DNA damage and repair in human skin required the development of new approaches for measuring damage at low levels in nanogram quantities of non-radioactive DNA. The method allows for analysis of multiple samples and the resulting data should be related to behavior of the DNA molecules by analytic expressions. Furthermore, it should be possible to assay a variety of lesions using the same methodology. The development of new analysis methods, new technology, and new biochemical probes for the study of DNA damage and repair are described. 28 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Genotoxicity and DNA repair processes of zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Demir, Eşref; Creus, Amadeu; Marcos, Ricard

    2014-01-01

    Two different sizes of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NP, ≤ 35 nm and 50-80 nm) were tested in the human lymphoblastoid cell line TK6 to increase our knowledge on their genotoxic potential. The comet assay was the system used, and the results obtained showed that the highest concentration tested (100 μg/ml) for the two selected compounds was genotoxic. The percent DNA in tail obtained after treatment with ZnO NP (≤ 35 nm) was significantly higher than that of ZnO NP (50-80 nm) at all concentrations tested. To investigate the nature of the induced genotoxic damage, specific enzymes recognizing oxidized DNA bases were used. Treatments with endonuclease III (Endo III) and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) demonstrated that only ZnO NP (50-80 nm) were able to induce significant levels of net oxidative DNA damage. Further DNA repair kinetics studies revealed that DNA damage initially induced was removed in approximately 5 h. DNA damage induced by ZnO NP was repaired more slowly than damage following microparticulated ZnO exposure. No marked differences in repair kinetics of both forms of ZnO NP were observed. Evidence indicates that a high proportion of DNA damage induced by ZnO NP (50-80 nm) correlated with induction of oxidative damage, and that both forms of ZnO NP interfere with mechanisms involved in DNA damage repair. PMID:25268556

  13. Physical and functional interactions between Drosophila homologue of Swc6/p18Hamlet subunit of the SWR1/SRCAP chromatin-remodeling complex with the DNA repair/transcription factor TFIIH.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Cruz, Mariana; Cruz, Grisel; Valadez-Graham, Viviana; Fregoso-Lomas, Mariana; Villicaña, Claudia; Vázquez, Martha; Reynaud, Enrique; Zurita, Mario

    2012-09-28

    The multisubunit DNA repair and transcription factor TFIIH maintains an intricate cross-talk with different factors to achieve its functions. The p8 subunit of TFIIH maintains the basal levels of the complex by interacting with the p52 subunit. Here, we report that in Drosophila, the homolog of the p8 subunit (Dmp8) is encoded in a bicistronic transcript with the homolog of the Swc6/p18(Hamlet) subunit (Dmp18) of the SWR1/SRCAP chromatin remodeling complex. The SWR1 and SRCAP complexes catalyze the exchange of the canonical histone H2A with the H2AZ histone variant. In eukaryotic cells, bicistronic transcripts are not common, and in some cases, the two encoded proteins are functionally related. We found that Dmp18 physically interacts with the Dmp52 subunit of TFIIH and co-localizes with TFIIH in the chromatin. We also demonstrated that Dmp18 genetically interacts with Dmp8, suggesting that a cross-talk might exist between TFIIH and a component of a chromatin remodeler complex involved in histone exchange. Interestingly, our results also show that when the level of one of the two proteins is decreased and the other maintained, a specific defect in the fly is observed, suggesting that the organization of these two genes in a bicistronic locus has been selected during evolution to allow co-regulation of both genes. PMID:22865882

  14. [Ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage and its repair in human cells]. Progress report, [April 1, 1993--February 28, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The excision of radiation-induced lesions in DNA by a DNA repair enzyme complex, namely the UvrABC nuclease complex, has been investigated. Irradiated DNA was treated with the enzyme complex. DNA fractions were analyzed by gas chromatography/isotope-dilution mass spectrometry. The results showed that a number pyrimidine- and purine-derived lesions in DNA were excised by the UvrABC nuclease complex and that the enzyme complex does not act on radiation-induced DNA lesions as a glycosylase. This means that it does not excise individual base products, but it excises oligomers containing these lesions. A number of pyrimidine-derived lesions that were no substrates for other DNA repair enzymes investigated in our laboratory were substrates for the UvrABC nuclease complex.

  15. The chromatin remodeler p400 ATPase facilitates Rad51-mediated repair of DNA double-strand breaks

    PubMed Central

    Courilleau, Cline; Chailleux, Catherine; Jauneau, Alain; Grimal, Fanny; Briois, Sbastien; Boutet-Robinet, Elisa; Boudsocq, Franois; Trouche, Didier

    2012-01-01

    DNA damage signaling and repair take place in a chromatin context. Consequently, chromatin-modifying enzymes, including adenosine triphosphatedependent chromatin remodeling enzymes, play an important role in the management of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Here, we show that the p400 ATPase is required for DNA repair by homologous recombination (HR). Indeed, although p400 is not required for DNA damage signaling, DNA DSB repair is defective in the absence of p400. We demonstrate that p400 is important for HR-dependent processes, such as recruitment of Rad51 to DSB (a key component of HR), homology-directed repair, and survival after DNA damage. Strikingly, p400 and Rad51 are present in the same complex and both favor chromatin remodeling around DSBs. Altogether, our data provide a direct molecular link between Rad51 and a chromatin remodeling enzyme involved in chromatin decompaction around DNA DSBs. PMID:23266955

  16. An Overview of the Molecular Mechanisms of Recombinational DNA Repair.

    PubMed

    Kowalczykowski, Stephen C

    2015-11-01

    Recombinational DNA repair is a universal aspect of DNA metabolism and is essential for genomic integrity. It is a template-directed process that uses a second chromosomal copy (sister, daughter, or homolog) to ensure proper repair of broken chromosomes. The key steps of recombination are conserved from phage through human, and an overview of those steps is provided in this review. The first step is resection by helicases and nucleases to produce single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) that defines the homologous locus. The ssDNA is a scaffold for assembly of the RecA/RAD51 filament, which promotes the homology search. On finding homology, the nucleoprotein filament catalyzes exchange of DNA strands to form a joint molecule. Recombination is controlled by regulating the fate of both RecA/RAD51 filaments and DNA pairing intermediates. Finally, intermediates that mature into Holliday structures are disjoined by either nucleolytic resolution or topological dissolution. PMID:26525148

  17. DNA repair: a changing geography? (1964-2008).

    PubMed

    Maisonobe, Marion; Giglia-Mari, Giuseppina; Eckert, Denis

    2013-07-01

    This article aims to explain the current state of DNA Repair studies' global geography by focusing on the genesis of the community. Bibliometric data is used to localize scientific activities related to DNA Repair at the city level. The keyword "DNA Repair" was introduced first by American scientists. It started to spread after 1964 that is to say, after P. Howard-Flanders (Yale University), P. Hanawalt (Stanford University) and R. Setlow (Oak Ridge Laboratories) found evidence for Excision Repair mechanisms. It was the first stage in the emergence of an autonomous scientific community. In this article, we will try to assess to what extent the geo-history of this scientific field is determinant in understanding its current geography. In order to do so, we will localize the places where the first "DNA Repair" publications were signed fifty years ago and the following spatial diffusion process, which led to the current geography of the field. Then, we will focus on the evolution of the research activity of "early entrants" in relation to the activity of "latecomers". This article is an opportunity to share with DNA Repair scientists some research results of a dynamic field in Science studies: spatial scientometrics. PMID:23669398

  18. Insights into the DNA repair process by the formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase investigated by molecular dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Amara, Patricia; Serre, Laurence; Castaing, Bertrand; Thomas, Aline

    2004-01-01

    Formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg) identifies and removes 8-oxoguanine from DNA. All of the X-ray structures of Fpg complexed to an abasic site containing DNA exhibit a common disordered region present in the C-terminal domain of the enzyme. However, this region is believed to be involved in the damaged base binding site when the initial protein/DNA complex is formed. The dynamic behavior of the disordered polypeptide (named Loop) in relation to the supposed scenario for the DNA repair mechanism was investigated by molecular dynamics on different models, derived from the X-ray structure of Lactococcus lactis Fpg bound to an abasic site analog-containing DNA and of Bacillus stearothermophilus Fpg bound to 8-oxoG. This study shows that the presence of the damaged base influences the dynamics of the whole enzyme and that the Loop location is dependent on the presence and on the conformation of the 8-oxoG in its binding site. In addition, from our results, the conformation of the 8-oxoG seems to be favored in syn in the L. lactis models, in agreement with the available X-ray structure from B. stearothermophilus Fpg and with a possible catalytic role of the flexibility of the Loop region. PMID:15273302

  19. DNA Binding Properties of the Actin-Related Protein Arp8 and Its Role in DNA Repair

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Hirokazu; Otawa, Kenji; Tachiwana, Hiroaki; Oma, Yukako; Nishijima, Hitoshi; Shibahara, Kei-ich; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi; Harata, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    Actin and actin-related proteins (Arps), which are members of the actin family, are essential components of many of these remodeling complexes. Actin, Arp4, Arp5, and Arp8 are found to be evolutionarily conserved components of the INO80 chromatin remodeling complex, which is involved in transcriptional regulation, DNA replication, and DNA repair. A recent report showed that Arp8 forms a module in the INO80 complex and this module can directly capture a nucleosome. In the present study, we showed that recombinant human Arp8 binds to DNAs, and preferentially binds to single-stranded DNA. Analysis of the binding of adenine nucleotides to Arp8 mutants suggested that the ATP-binding pocket, located in the evolutionarily conserved actin fold, plays a regulatory role in the binding of Arp8 to DNA. To determine the cellular function of Arp8, we derived tetracycline-inducible Arp8 knockout cells from a cultured human cell line. Analysis of results obtained after treating these cells with aphidicolin and camptothecin revealed that Arp8 is involved in DNA repair. Together with the previous observation that Arp8, but not ?-H2AX, is indispensable for recruiting INO80 complex to DSB in human, results of our study suggest an individual role for Arp8 in DNA repair. PMID:25299602

  20. Heat Shock Protein 90α (Hsp90α) Is Phosphorylated in Response to DNA Damage and Accumulates in Repair Foci*

    PubMed Central

    Quanz, Maria; Herbette, Aurélie; Sayarath, Mano; de Koning, Leanne; Dubois, Thierry; Sun, Jian-Sheng; Dutreix, Marie

    2012-01-01

    DNA damage triggers a complex signaling cascade involving a multitude of phosphorylation events. We found that the threonine 7 (Thr-7) residue of heat shock protein 90α (Hsp90α) was phosphorylated immediately after DNA damage. The phosphorylated Hsp90α then accumulated at sites of DNA double strand breaks and formed repair foci with slow kinetics, matching the repair kinetics of complex DNA damage. The phosphorylation of Hsp90α was dependent on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-like kinases, including the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) in particular. DNA-PK plays an essential role in the repair of DNA double strand breaks by nonhomologous end-joining and in the signaling of DNA damage. It is also present in the cytoplasm of the cell and has been suggested to play a role in cytoplasmic signaling pathways. Using stabilized double-stranded DNA molecules to activate DNA-PK, we showed that an active DNA-PK complex could be assembled in the cytoplasm, resulting in phosphorylation of the cytoplasmic pool of Hsp90α. In vivo, reverse phase protein array data for tumors revealed that basal levels of Thr-7-phosphorylated Hsp90α were correlated with phosphorylated histone H2AX levels. The Thr-7 phosphorylation of the ubiquitously produced and secreted Hsp90α may therefore serve as a surrogate biomarker of DNA damage. These findings shed light on the interplay between central DNA repair enzymes and an essential molecular chaperone. PMID:22270370

  1. Identification of Tyrosyl-DNA Phosphodiesterase as a Novel DNA Damage Repair Enzyme in Arabidopsis1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Lee, So-Young; Kim, Hoyeun; Hwang, Hyun-Ju; Jeong, Young-Min; Na, Sang Hyeon; Woo, Je-Chang; Kim, Sang-Gu

    2010-01-01

    Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (Tdp1) is a key enzyme that hydrolyzes the phosphodiester bond between tyrosine of topoisomerase and 3′-phosphate of DNA and repairs topoisomerase-mediated DNA damage during chromosome metabolism. However, functional Tdp1 has only been described in yeast and human to date. In human, mutations of the Tdp1 gene are involved in the disease spinocerebellar ataxia with axonal neuropathy. In plants, we have identified the functional nuclear protein AtTDP, homolog to human Tdp1 from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The recombinant AtTDP protein certainly hydrolyzes the 3′-phosphotyrosyl DNA substrates related to repairing in vivo topoisomerase I-DNA-induced damage. The loss-of-function AtTDP mutation displays developmental defects and dwarf phenotype in Arabidopsis. This phenotype is substantially caused by decreased cell numbers without any change of individual cell sizes. The tdp plants exhibit hypersensitivities to camptothecin, a potent topoisomerase I inhibitor, and show rigorous cell death in cotyledons and rosette leaves, suggesting the failure of DNA damage repair in tdp mutants. These results indicate that AtTDP plays a clear role in the repair of topoisomerase I-DNA complexes in Arabidopsis. PMID:20876339

  2. DNA-PK, ATM and ATR collaboratively regulate p53-RPA interaction to facilitate homologous recombination DNA repair

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Moises A.; Li, Zhengke; Dangeti, Mohan; Musich, Phillip R.; Patrick, Steve; Roginskaya, Marina; Cartwright, Brian; Zou, Yue

    2012-01-01

    Homologous recombination (HR) and nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) are two distinct DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathways. Here we report that DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), the core component of NHEJ, partnering with DNA-damage checkpoint kinases ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ATM- and Rad3-related (ATR), regulates HR repair of DSBs. The regulation was accomplished through modulation of the p53 and replication protein A (RPA) interaction. We show that upon DNA damage, p53 and RPA were freed from a p53-RPA complex by simultaneous phosphorylations of RPA at the N-terminus of RPA32 subunit by DNA-PK and of p53 at Ser37 and Ser46 in a Chk1/Chk2-independent manner by ATR and ATM, respectively. Neither the phosphorylation of RPA nor of p53 alone could dissociate p53 and RPA. Furthermore, disruption of the release significantly compromised HR repair of DSBs. Our results reveal a mechanism for the crosstalk between HR repair and NHEJ through the co-regulation of p53-RPA interaction by DNA-PK, ATM and ATR. PMID:22797063

  3. DNA Repair Protein Rad55 Is a Terminal Substrate of the DNA Damage Checkpoints

    PubMed Central

    Bashkirov, Vladimir I.; King, Jeff S.; Bashkirova, Elena V.; Schmuckli-Maurer, Jacqueline; Heyer, Wolf-Dietrich

    2000-01-01

    Checkpoints, which are integral to the cellular response to DNA damage, coordinate transient cell cycle arrest and the induced expression of DNA repair genes after genotoxic stress. DNA repair ensures cellular survival and genomic stability, utilizing a multipathway network. Here we report evidence that the two systems, DNA damage checkpoint control and DNA repair, are directly connected by demonstrating that the Rad55 double-strand break repair protein of the recombinational repair pathway is a terminal substrate of DNA damage and replication block checkpoints. Rad55p was specifically phosphorylated in response to DNA damage induced by the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate, dependent on an active DNA damage checkpoint. Rad55p modification was also observed after gamma ray and UV radiation. The rapid time course of phosphorylation and the recombination defects identified in checkpoint-deficient cells are consistent with a role of the DNA damage checkpoint in activating recombinational repair. Rad55p phosphorylation possibly affects the balance between different competing DNA repair pathways. PMID:10825202

  4. Repair of Alkylation Damage in Eukaryotic Chromatin Depends on Searching Ability of Alkyladenine DNA Glycosylase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaru; O'Brien, Patrick J

    2015-11-20

    Human alkyladenine DNA glycosylase (AAG) initiates the base excision repair pathway by excising alkylated and deaminated purine lesions. In vitro biochemical experiments demonstrate that AAG uses facilitated diffusion to efficiently search DNA to find rare sites of damage and suggest that electrostatic interactions are critical to the searching process. However, it remains an open question whether DNA searching limits the rate of DNA repair in vivo. We constructed AAG mutants with altered searching ability and measured their ability to protect yeast from alkylation damage in order to address this question. Each of the conserved arginine and lysine residues that are near the DNA binding interface were mutated, and the functional impacts were evaluated using kinetic and thermodynamic analysis. These mutations do not perturb catalysis of N-glycosidic bond cleavage, but they decrease the ability to capture rare lesion sites. Nonspecific and specific DNA binding properties are closely correlated, suggesting that the electrostatic interactions observed in the specific recognition complex are similarly important for DNA searching complexes. The ability of the mutant proteins to complement repair-deficient yeast cells is positively correlated with the ability of the proteins to search DNA in vitro, suggesting that cellular resistance to DNA alkylation is governed by the ability to find and efficiently capture cytotoxic lesions. It appears that chromosomal access is not restricted and toxic sites of alkylation damage are readily accessible to a searching protein. PMID:26317160

  5. ABH2 couples regulation of ribosomal DNA transcription with DNA alkylation repair.

    PubMed

    Li, Pishun; Gao, Shuman; Wang, Lina; Yu, Fang; Li, Jialun; Wang, Chuangui; Li, Jiwen; Wong, Jiemin

    2013-08-29

    Transcription has been linked to DNA damage. How the most highly transcribed mammalian ribosomal (rDNA) genes maintain genome integrity in the absence of transcription-coupled DNA damage repair is poorly understood. Here, we report that ABH2/ALKBH2, a DNA alkylation repair enzyme, is highly enriched in the nucleolus. ABH2 interacts with DNA repair proteins Ku70 and Ku80 as well as nucleolar proteins nucleolin, nucleophosmin 1, and upstream binding factor (UBF). ABH2 associates with and promotes rDNA transcription through its DNA repair activity. ABH2 knockdown impairs rDNA transcription and leads to increased single-stranded and double-stranded DNA breaks that are more pronounced in the rDNA genes, whereas ABH2 overexpression protects cells from methyl-methanesulfonate-induced DNA damage and inhibition of rDNA transcription. In response to massive alkylation damage, ABH2 rapidly redistributes from the nucleolus to nucleoplasm. Our study thus reveals a critical role of ABH2 in maintaining rDNA gene integrity and transcription and provides insight into the ABH2 DNA repair function. PMID:23972994

  6. DNA-repair reactions by purified HeLa DNA polymerases and exonucleases

    SciTech Connect

    Randahl, H.; Elliott, G.C.; Linn, S.

    1988-09-05

    PM2 duplex DNA substrates containing small gaps were utilized to study DNA repair reactions of extensively purified HeLa DNase V (a bidirectional double strand DNA exonuclease) and DNA polymerases beta, gamma (mitochondrial and extramitochondrial), and alpha holoenzyme, and delta as a function of ionic strength. At 50 mM NaCl, DNase V carried out extensive exonucleolytic degradation, and beta-polymerase exhibited strand displacement synthesis. However, at 150 mM NaCl, the DNase appeared only to remove damaged nucleotides from DNA termini while beta-polymerase catalyzed only gap-filling synthesis. When present in equimolar amounts, beta-polymerase and DNase V (which can be isolated as a 1:1 complex) catalyzed more degradation than synthesis at 50 mM NaCl; however, at 150 mM NaCl a coupled very limited nick translation reaction ensued. At physiological ionic strength DNA polymerase alpha holoenzyme was not active upon these substrates. In 15 mM KCl it could fill small gaps and carry out limited nick translation with undamaged DNA, but it could not create a ligatable substrate from UV-irradiated DNA incised with T4 UV endonuclease. Mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma was more active at 150 mM NaCl than at lower ionic strengths. It readily filled small gaps but was only marginally capable of strand-displacement synthesis. The extramitochondrial form of gamma-polymerase, conversely, was less sensitive to ionic strength; it too easily filled small gaps but was not effective in catalyzing strand displacement synthesis. Finally, DNA polymerase delta was able to fill gaps of several to 20 nucleotides in 0.05 M NaCl, but at higher NaCl concentrations there was little activity. DNA polymerases delta did not demonstrate strand displacement synthesis.

  7. Genomic survey and expression analysis of DNA repair genes in the genus Leptospira.

    PubMed

    Martins-Pinheiro, Marinalva; Schons-Fonseca, Luciane; da Silva, Josefa B; Domingos, Renan H; Momo, Leonardo Hiroyuki Santos; Simões, Ana Carolina Quirino; Ho, Paulo Lee; da Costa, Renata M A

    2016-04-01

    Leptospirosis is an emerging zoonosis with important economic and public health consequences and is caused by pathogenic leptospires. The genus Leptospira belongs to the order Spirochaetales and comprises saprophytic (L. biflexa), pathogenic (L. interrogans) and host-dependent (L. borgpetersenii) members. Here, we present an in silico search for DNA repair pathways in Leptospira spp. The relevance of such DNA repair pathways was assessed through the identification of mRNA levels of some genes during infection in animal model and after exposition to spleen cells. The search was performed by comparison of available Leptospira spp. genomes in public databases with known DNA repair-related genes. Leptospires exhibit some distinct and unexpected characteristics, for instance the existence of a redundant mechanism for repairing a chemically diverse spectrum of alkylated nucleobases, a new mutS-like gene and a new shorter version of uvrD. Leptospira spp. shares some characteristics from Gram-positive, as the presence of PcrA, two RecQ paralogs and two SSB proteins; the latter is considered a feature shared by naturally competent bacteria. We did not find a significant reduction in the number of DNA repair-related genes in both pathogenic and host-dependent species. Pathogenic leptospires were enriched for genes dedicated to base excision repair and non-homologous end joining. Their evolutionary history reveals a remarkable importance of lateral gene transfer events for the evolution of the genus. Up-regulation of specific DNA repair genes, including components of SOS regulon, during infection in animal model validates the critical role of DNA repair mechanisms for the complex interplay between host/pathogen. PMID:26527082

  8. Molecular basis for DNA strand displacement by NHEJ repair polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, Edward J.; Brissett, Nigel C.; Plocinski, Przemyslaw; Carlberg, Tom; Doherty, Aidan J.

    2016-01-01

    The non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway repairs DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in all domains of life. Archaea and bacteria utilize a conserved set of multifunctional proteins in a pathway termed Archaeo-Prokaryotic (AP) NHEJ that facilitates DSB repair. Archaeal NHEJ polymerases (Pol) are capable of strand displacement synthesis, whilst filling DNA gaps or partially annealed DNA ends, which can give rise to unligatable intermediates. However, an associated NHEJ phosphoesterase (PE) resects these products to ensure that efficient ligation occurs. Here, we describe the crystal structures of these archaeal (Methanocella paludicola) NHEJ nuclease and polymerase enzymes, demonstrating their strict structural conservation with their bacterial NHEJ counterparts. Structural analysis, in conjunction with biochemical studies, has uncovered the molecular basis for DNA strand displacement synthesis in AP-NHEJ, revealing the mechanisms that enable Pol and PE to displace annealed bases to facilitate their respective roles in DSB repair. PMID:26405198

  9. Molecular basis for DNA strand displacement by NHEJ repair polymerases.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Edward J; Brissett, Nigel C; Plocinski, Przemyslaw; Carlberg, Tom; Doherty, Aidan J

    2016-03-18

    The non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway repairs DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in all domains of life. Archaea and bacteria utilize a conserved set of multifunctional proteins in a pathway termed Archaeo-Prokaryotic (AP) NHEJ that facilitates DSB repair. Archaeal NHEJ polymerases (Pol) are capable of strand displacement synthesis, whilst filling DNA gaps or partially annealed DNA ends, which can give rise to unligatable intermediates. However, an associated NHEJ phosphoesterase (PE) resects these products to ensure that efficient ligation occurs. Here, we describe the crystal structures of these archaeal (Methanocella paludicola) NHEJ nuclease and polymerase enzymes, demonstrating their strict structural conservation with their bacterial NHEJ counterparts. Structural analysis, in conjunction with biochemical studies, has uncovered the molecular basis for DNA strand displacement synthesis in AP-NHEJ, revealing the mechanisms that enable Pol and PE to displace annealed bases to facilitate their respective roles in DSB repair. PMID:26405198

  10. DNA repair in murine embryonic stem cells and differentiated cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tichy, Elisia D. Stambrook, Peter J.

    2008-06-10

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are rapidly proliferating, self-renewing cells that have the capacity to differentiate into all three germ layers to form the embryo proper. Since these cells are critical for embryo formation, they must have robust prophylactic mechanisms to ensure that their genomic integrity is preserved. Indeed, several studies have suggested that ES cells are hypersensitive to DNA damaging agents and readily undergo apoptosis to eliminate damaged cells from the population. Other evidence suggests that DNA damage can cause premature differentiation in these cells. Several laboratories have also begun to investigate the role of DNA repair in the maintenance of ES cell genomic integrity. It does appear that ES cells differ in their capacity to repair damaged DNA compared to differentiated cells. This minireview focuses on repair mechanisms ES cells may use to help preserve genomic integrity and compares available data regarding these mechanisms with those utilized by differentiated cells.

  11. Telomeric allelic imbalance indicates defective DNA repair and sensitivity to DNA damaging agents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Young; Eklund, Aron C.; Li, Qiyuan; Tian, Ruiyang; Bowman-Colin, Christian; Li, Yang; Greene-Colozzi, April; Iglehart, J. Dirk; Tung, Nadine; Ryan, Paula D.; Garber, Judy E.

    2013-01-01

    DNA repair competency is one determinant of sensitivity to certain chemotherapy drugs, such as cisplatin. Cancer cells with intact DNA repair can avoid the accumulation of genome damage during growth and also can repair platinum-induced DNA damage. We sought genomic signatures indicative of defective DNA repair in cell lines and tumors, and correlated these signatures to platinum sensitivity. The number of sub-chromosomal regions with allelic imbalance extending to the telomere (NtAI) predicted cisplatin sensitivity in-vitro, and pathologic response to preoperative cisplatin treatment in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). In serous ovarian cancer treated with platinum-based chemotherapy, higher NtAI forecast better initial response. We found an inverse relationship between BRCA1 expression and NtAI in sporadic TNBC and serous ovarian cancers without BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. Thus, accumulation of tAI is a marker of platinum sensitivity and suggests impaired DNA repair. PMID:22576213

  12. Dynamics and mechanisms of DNA repair by photolyase

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zheyun; Wang, Lijuan; Zhong, Dongping

    2015-01-01

    Photolyase, a class of flavoproteins, uses blue light to repair two types of ultraviolet-induced DNA damage, cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) and pyrimidine-pyrimidone (6–4) photoproduct (6–4PP). In this perspective, we review the recent progress on the repair dynamics and mechanisms of both types of DNA restoration by photolyases. We first report the spectroscopic characterization of flavin in various redox states and the active-site solvation dynamics in photolyases. We then systematically summarize the detailed repair dynamics of damaged DNA by photolyases and a biomimetic system through resolving all elementary steps on the ultrafast timescales, including multiple intermolecular electron- and proton-transfer reactions and bond-breaking and -making processes. We determined the unique electron tunneling pathways, identified the key functional residues and revealed the molecular origin of high repair efficiency, and thus elucidate the molecular mechanisms and repair photocycles at the most fundamental level. We finally conclude that the active sites of photolyases, unlike aqueous solution for the biomimetic system, provide a unique electrostatic environment and local flexibility and thus a dedicated synergy for all elementary dynamics to maximize the repair efficiency. This repair photomachine is the first enzyme that the entire functional evolution is completely mapped out in real time. PMID:25870862

  13. Relationship of DNA lesions and their repair to chromosomal aberration production.

    PubMed

    Bender, M A

    1980-01-01

    Though the roles of some specific DNA lesions in the production of chromosomal aberrations is clearly established, those of others remain unclear. While the study of aberration production in human genetic DNA repair deficiency diseases has been extremely rewarding already, eukaryotic repair systems are obviously complex, and one is tempted to feel that such studies may have raised as many questions as they have provided answers. For example, the "standard" sort of xeroderma pigmentosum is chromosomally sensitive to ultraviolet light and to those chemical agents inducing ultraviolet-type DNA repair. But both it and the variant form have been reported to also be sensitive to the crosslinking agent mitomycin C in one study [18], implying a common step or steps in the repair of pyrimidine cyclobutane dimers and DNA crosslinks. However, just to complicate matters, another study of chromosomal aberration production in xeroderma pigmentosum cells had found them no more sensitive to mitomycin C than normal cells [50]. Similarly, Fanconi's anemia cells, which are chromosomally sensitive to crosslinking agents, and appear to be defective in the "unhooking" of linked polynucleotide strands [15, 16, 49, 51], are reported to be chromosomally sensitive to ethyl methanesulfonate as well [29], and to be sensitive to ionizing radiation [7, 19, ]0], again implying overlapping repair systems. It seems certain that further study of chromosomal aberration production in repair deficient cells by agents inducing various DNA lesions will reveal even greater complexity in eukaryotic DNA repair systems and their role in chromosomal aberration production. Nevertheless, there seems hope, at least, that such studies may also ultimately lead to a complete understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved. PMID:7011307

  14. Electron Transfer Mechanisms of DNA Repair by Photolyase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Dongping

    2015-04-01

    Photolyase is a flavin photoenzyme that repairs two DNA base damage products induced by ultraviolet (UV) light: cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and 6-4 photoproducts. With femtosecond spectroscopy and site-directed mutagenesis, investigators have recently made significant advances in our understanding of UV-damaged DNA repair, and the entire enzymatic dynamics can now be mapped out in real time. For dimer repair, six elementary steps have been characterized, including three electron transfer reactions and two bond-breaking processes, and their reaction times have been determined. A unique electron-tunneling pathway was identified, and the critical residues in modulating the repair function at the active site were determined. The dynamic synergy between the elementary reactions for maintaining high repair efficiency was elucidated, and the biological nature of the flavin active state was uncovered. For 6-4 photoproduct repair, a proton-coupled electron transfer repair mechanism has been revealed. The elucidation of electron transfer mechanisms and two repair photocycles is significant and provides a molecular basis for future practical applications, such as in rational drug design for curing skin cancer.

  15. Electron transfer mechanisms of DNA repair by photolyase.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Dongping

    2015-04-01

    Photolyase is a flavin photoenzyme that repairs two DNA base damage products induced by ultraviolet (UV) light: cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and 6-4 photoproducts. With femtosecond spectroscopy and site-directed mutagenesis, investigators have recently made significant advances in our understanding of UV-damaged DNA repair, and the entire enzymatic dynamics can now be mapped out in real time. For dimer repair, six elementary steps have been characterized, including three electron transfer reactions and two bond-breaking processes, and their reaction times have been determined. A unique electron-tunneling pathway was identified, and the critical residues in modulating the repair function at the active site were determined. The dynamic synergy between the elementary reactions for maintaining high repair efficiency was elucidated, and the biological nature of the flavin active state was uncovered. For 6-4 photoproduct repair, a proton-coupled electron transfer repair mechanism has been revealed. The elucidation of electron transfer mechanisms and two repair photocycles is significant and provides a molecular basis for future practical applications, such as in rational drug design for curing skin cancer. PMID:25830375

  16. Analysis of DNA-protein complexes induced by chemical carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, M. )

    1990-11-01

    DNA-protein complexes induced in intact cells by chromate have been isolated and compared with those formed by other agents such as cis-platinum. Actin has been identified as one of the major proteins that is complexed to the DNA by chromate based upon a number of criteria including, a molecular weight and isoelectric point identical to actin, positive reaction with actin polyclonal antibody, and proteolytic mapping. Chromate and cis-platinum both complex proteins of very similar molecular weight and isoelectric points and these complexes can be disrupted by exposure to chelating or reducing agents. These results suggest that the metal itself is participating in rather than catalyzing the formation of a DNA-protein complex. An antiserum which was raised to chromate-induced DNA-protein complexes reacted primarily with a 97,000 protein that could not be detected by silver staining. Western blots and slot blots were utilized to detect p97 DNA-protein complexes formed by cis-platinum, UV, formaldehyde, and chromate. Other work in this area, involving studying whether DNA-protein complexes are formed in actively transcribed DNA compared with genetically inactive DNA, is discussed. Methods to detect DNA-protein complexes, the stability and repair of these lesions, and characterization of DNA-protein complexes are reviewed. Nuclear matrix proteins have been identified as a major substrate for the formation of DNA-protein complexes and these findings are also reviewed.

  17. Interactions of DNA repair gene variants modulate chromosomal aberrations in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Vodicka, Pavel; Musak, Ludovit; Frank, Christoph; Kazimirova, Alena; Vymetalkova, Veronika; Barancokova, Magdalena; Smolkova, Bozena; Dzupinkova, Zuzana; Jiraskova, Katerina; Vodenkova, Sona; Kroupa, Michal; Osina, Oto; Naccarati, Alessio; Palitti, Fabrizio; Försti, Asta; Dusinska, Maria; Vodickova, Ludmila; Hemminki, Kari

    2015-11-01

    Human cancers are often associated with numerical and structural chromosomal instability. Structural chromosomal aberrations (CAs) in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) arise as consequences of direct DNA damage or due to replication on a damaged DNA template. In both cases, DNA repair is critical and inter-individual differences in its capacity are probably due to corresponding genetic variations. We investigated functional variants in DNA repair genes (base and nucleotide excision repair, double-strand break repair) in relation to CAs, chromatid-type aberrations (CTAs) and chromosome-type aberrations (CSAs) in healthy individuals. Chromosomal damage was determined by conventional cytogenetic analysis. The genotyping was performed by both restriction fragment length polymorphism and TaqMan allelic discrimination assays. Multivariate logistic regression was applied for testing individual factors on CAs, CTAs and CSAs. Pair-wise genotype interactions of 11 genes were constructed for all possible pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Analysed individually, we observed significantly lower CTA frequencies in association with XPD Lys751Gln homozygous variant genotype [odds ratio (OR) 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.48-0.85, P = 0.004; n = 1777]. A significant association of heterozygous variant genotype in RAD54L with increased CSA frequency (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.01-4.02, P = 0.03) was determined in 282 subjects with available genotype. By addressing gene-gene interactions, we discovered 14 interactions significantly modulating CAs, 9 CTAs and 12 CSAs frequencies. Highly significant interactions included always pairs from two different pathways. Although individual variants in genes encoding DNA repair proteins modulate CAs only modestly, several gene-gene interactions in DNA repair genes evinced either enhanced or decreased CA frequencies suggesting that CAs accumulation requires complex interplay between different DNA repair pathways. PMID:26354780

  18. In Vitro Repair of Apurinic Sites in DNA

    PubMed Central

    Verly, W. G.; Gossard, F.; Crine, P.

    1974-01-01

    Apurinic sites disappear from DNA during an incubation of the DNA with the Escherichia coli endonuclease specific for apurinic sites, DNA polymerase I (EC 2.7.7.7.), and T4 ligase (EC 6.5.1.1). Omission of any one of these three enzymes and, in particular, omission of the endonuclease specific for apurinic sites prevents this in vitro repair. PMID:4601584

  19. The current state of eukaryotic DNA base damage and repair.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Nicholas C; Corbett, Anita H; Doetsch, Paul W

    2015-12-01

    DNA damage is a natural hazard of life. The most common DNA lesions are base, sugar, and single-strand break damage resulting from oxidation, alkylation, deamination, and spontaneous hydrolysis. If left unrepaired, such lesions can become fixed in the genome as permanent mutations. Thus, evolution has led to the creation of several highly conserved, partially redundant pathways to repair or mitigate the effects of DNA base damage. The biochemical mechanisms of these pathways have been well characterized and the impact of this work was recently highlighted by the selection of Tomas Lindahl, Aziz Sancar and Paul Modrich as the recipients of the 2015 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their seminal work in defining DNA repair pathways. However, how these repair pathways are regulated and interconnected is still being elucidated. This review focuses on the classical base excision repair and strand incision pathways in eukaryotes, considering both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and humans, and extends to some important questions and challenges facing the field of DNA base damage repair. PMID:26519467

  20. The current state of eukaryotic DNA base damage and repair

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Nicholas C.; Corbett, Anita H.; Doetsch, Paul W.

    2015-01-01

    DNA damage is a natural hazard of life. The most common DNA lesions are base, sugar, and single-strand break damage resulting from oxidation, alkylation, deamination, and spontaneous hydrolysis. If left unrepaired, such lesions can become fixed in the genome as permanent mutations. Thus, evolution has led to the creation of several highly conserved, partially redundant pathways to repair or mitigate the effects of DNA base damage. The biochemical mechanisms of these pathways have been well characterized and the impact of this work was recently highlighted by the selection of Tomas Lindahl, Aziz Sancar and Paul Modrich as the recipients of the 2015 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their seminal work in defining DNA repair pathways. However, how these repair pathways are regulated and interconnected is still being elucidated. This review focuses on the classical base excision repair and strand incision pathways in eukaryotes, considering both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and humans, and extends to some important questions and challenges facing the field of DNA base damage repair. PMID:26519467

  1. Repair and biochemical effects of DNA-protein crosslinks.

    PubMed

    Ide, Hiroshi; Shoulkamy, Mahmoud I; Nakano, Toshiaki; Miyamoto-Matsubara, Mayumi; Salem, Amir M H

    2011-06-01

    Genomic DNA is associated with various structural, regulatory, and transaction proteins. The dynamic and reversible association between proteins and DNA ensures the accurate expression and propagation of genetic information. However, various endogenous, environmental, and chemotherapeutic agents induce DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs), and hence covalently trap proteins on DNA. Since DPCs are extremely large compared to conventional DNA lesions, they probably impair many aspects of DNA transactions such as replication, transcription, and repair due to steric hindrance. Recent genetic and biochemical studies have shed light on the elaborate molecular mechanism by which cells repair or tolerate DPCs. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the repair and biochemical effects of the most ubiquitous form of DPCs, which are associated with no flanked DNA strand breaks. In bacteria small DPCs are eliminated by nucleotide excision repair (NER), whereas oversized DPCs are processed by RecBCD-dependent homologous recombination (HR). NER does not participate in the repair of DPCs in mammalian cells, since the upper size limit of DPCs amenable to mammalian NER is smaller than that of bacterial NER. Thus, DPCs are processed exclusively by HR. The reactivation of the stalled replication fork at DPCs by HR seems to involve fork breakage in mammalian cells but not in bacterial cells. In addition, recent proteomic studies have identified the numbers of proteins in DPCs induced by environmental and chemotherapeutic agents. However, it remains largely elusive how DPCs affect replication and transcription at the molecular level. Considering the extremely large nature of DPCs, it is possible that they impede the progression of replication and transcription machineries by mechanisms different from those for conventional DNA lesions. This might also be true for the DNA damage response and signaling mechanism. PMID:21185846

  2. DNA ligase III is critical for mtDNA integrity but not Xrcc1-mediated nuclear DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yankun; Katyal, Sachin; Lee, Youngsoo; Zhao, Jingfeng; Rehg, Jerold E; Russell, Helen R; McKinnon, Peter J

    2011-03-10

    DNA replication and repair in mammalian cells involves three distinct DNA ligases: ligase I (Lig1), ligase III (Lig3) and ligase IV (Lig4). Lig3 is considered a key ligase during base excision repair because its stability depends upon its nuclear binding partner Xrcc1, a critical factor for this DNA repair pathway. Lig3 is also present in the mitochondria, where its role in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) maintenance is independent of Xrcc1 (ref. 4). However, the biological role of Lig3 is unclear as inactivation of murine Lig3 results in early embryonic lethality. Here we report that Lig3 is essential for mtDNA integrity but dispensable for nuclear DNA repair. Inactivation of Lig3 in the mouse nervous system resulted in mtDNA loss leading to profound mitochondrial dysfunction, disruption of cellular homeostasis and incapacitating ataxia. Similarly, inactivation of Lig3 in cardiac muscle resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction and defective heart-pump function leading to heart failure. However, Lig3 inactivation did not result in nuclear DNA repair deficiency, indicating essential DNA repair functions of Xrcc1 can occur in the absence of Lig3. Instead, we found that Lig1 was critical for DNA repair, but acted in a cooperative manner with Lig3. Additionally, Lig3 deficiency did not recapitulate the hallmark features of neural Xrcc1 inactivation such as DNA damage-induced cerebellar interneuron loss, further underscoring functional separation of these DNA repair factors. Therefore, our data reveal that the critical biological role of Lig3 is to maintain mtDNA integrity and not Xrcc1-dependent DNA repair. PMID:21390131

  3. Thermodynamics of the DNA Damage Repair Steps of Human 8-Oxoguanine DNA Glycosylase

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsov, Nikita A.; Kuznetsova, Alexandra A.; Vorobjev, Yuri N.; Krasnoperov, Lev N.; Fedorova, Olga S.

    2014-01-01

    Human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (hOGG1) is a key enzyme responsible for initiating the base excision repair of 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanosine (oxoG). In this study a thermodynamic analysis of the interaction of hOGG1 with specific and non-specific DNA-substrates is performed based on stopped-flow kinetic data. The standard Gibbs energies, enthalpies and entropies of specific stages of the repair process were determined via kinetic measurements over a temperature range using the van’t Hoff approach. The three steps which are accompanied with changes in the DNA conformations were detected via 2-aminopurine fluorescence in the process of binding and recognition of damaged oxoG base by hOGG1. The thermodynamic analysis has demonstrated that the initial step of the DNA substrates binding is mainly governed by energy due to favorable interactions in the process of formation of the recognition contacts, which results in negative enthalpy change, as well as due to partial desolvation of the surface between the DNA and enzyme, which results in positive entropy change. Discrimination of non-specific G base versus specific oxoG base is occurring in the second step of the oxoG-substrate binding. This step requires energy consumption which is compensated by the positive entropy contribution. The third binding step is the final adjustment of the enzyme/substrate complex to achieve the catalytically competent state which is characterized by large endothermicity compensated by a significant increase of entropy originated from the dehydration of the DNA grooves. PMID:24911585

  4. Finite element analysis to model complex mitral valve repair.

    PubMed

    Labrosse, Michel; Mesana, Thierry; Baxter, Ian; Chan, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Although finite element analysis has been used to model simple mitral repair, it has not been used to model complex repair. A virtual mitral valve model was successful in simulating normal and abnormal valve function. Models were then developed to simulate an edge-to-edge repair and repair employing quadrangular resection. Stress contour plots demonstrated increased stresses along the mitral annulus, corresponding to the annuloplasty. The role of finite element analysis in guiding clinical practice remains undetermined. PMID:24904177

  5. The ancient and evolving roles of cohesin in DNA repair and gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Dorsett, Dale; Ström, Lena

    2012-01-01

    The cohesin complex, named for its key role in sister chromatid cohesion, also plays critical roles in DNA repair and gene regulation. It performs all three functions in single cell eukaryotes such as yeasts, and in higher organisms such as man. Minor disruption of cohesin function has significant consequences for human development, even in the absence of measurable effects on chromatid cohesion or chromosome segregation. Here we survey the roles of cohesin in DNA repair and gene regulation, and how these functions vary from yeast to man. PMID:22497943

  6. The ancient and evolving roles of cohesin in gene expression and DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Dorsett, Dale; Ström, Lena

    2012-04-10

    The cohesin complex, named for its key role in sister chromatid cohesion, also plays critical roles in gene regulation and DNA repair. It performs all three functions in single cell eukaryotes such as yeasts, and in higher organisms such as man. Minor disruption of cohesin function has significant consequences for human development, even in the absence of measurable effects on chromatid cohesion or chromosome segregation. Here we survey the roles of cohesin in gene regulation and DNA repair, and how these functions vary from yeast to man. PMID:22497943

  7. Fluoroquinolone-Gyrase-DNA Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Mustaev, Arkady; Malik, Muhammad; Zhao, Xilin; Kurepina, Natalia; Luan, Gan; Oppegard, Lisa M.; Hiasa, Hiroshi; Marks, Kevin R.; Kerns, Robert J.; Berger, James M.; Drlica, Karl

    2014-01-01

    DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV control bacterial DNA topology by breaking DNA, passing duplex DNA through the break, and then resealing the break. This process is subject to reversible corruption by fluoroquinolones, antibacterials that form drug-enzyme-DNA complexes in which the DNA is broken. The complexes, called cleaved complexes because of the presence of DNA breaks, have been crystallized and found to have the fluoroquinolone C-7 ring system facing the GyrB/ParE subunits. As expected from x-ray crystallography, a thiol-reactive, C-7-modified chloroacetyl derivative of ciprofloxacin (Cip-AcCl) formed cross-linked cleaved complexes with mutant GyrB-Cys466 gyrase as evidenced by resistance to reversal by both EDTA and thermal treatments. Surprisingly, cross-linking was also readily seen with complexes formed by mutant GyrA-G81C gyrase, thereby revealing a novel drug-gyrase interaction not observed in crystal structures. The cross-link between fluoroquinolone and GyrA-G81C gyrase correlated with exceptional bacteriostatic activity for Cip-AcCl with a quinolone-resistant GyrA-G81C variant of Escherichia coli and its Mycobacterium smegmatis equivalent (GyrA-G89C). Cip-AcCl-mediated, irreversible inhibition of DNA replication provided further evidence for a GyrA-drug cross-link. Collectively these data establish the existence of interactions between the fluoroquinolone C-7 ring and both GyrA and GyrB. Because the GyrA-Gly81 and GyrB-Glu466 residues are far apart (17 Å) in the crystal structure of cleaved complexes, two modes of quinolone binding must exist. The presence of two binding modes raises the possibility that multiple quinolone-enzyme-DNA complexes can form, a discovery that opens new avenues for exploring and exploiting relationships between drug structure and activity with type II DNA topoisomerases. PMID:24497635

  8. A Chemical and Kinetic Perspective on Base Excision Repair of DNA

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Conspectus Our cellular genome is continuously exposed to a wide spectrum of exogenous and endogenous DNA damaging agents. These agents can lead to formation of an extensive array of DNA lesions including single- and double-stranded breaks, inter- and intrastrand cross-links, abasic sites, and modification of DNA nucleobases. Persistence of these DNA lesions can be both mutagenic and cytotoxic, and can cause altered gene expression and cellular apoptosis leading to aging, cancer, and various neurological disorders. To combat the deleterious effects of DNA lesions, cells have a variety of DNA repair pathways responsible for restoring damaged DNA to its canonical form. Here we examine one of those repair pathways, the base excision repair (BER) pathway, a highly regulated network of enzymes responsible for repair of modified nucleobase and abasic site lesions. The enzymes required to reconstitute BER in vitro have been identified, and the repair event can be considered to occur in two parts: (1) excision of the modified nucleobase by a DNA glycosylase, and (2) filling the resulting “hole” with an undamaged nucleobase by a series of downstream enzymes. DNA glycosylases, which initiate a BER event, recognize and remove specific modified nucleobases and yield an abasic site as the product. The abasic site, a highly reactive BER intermediate, is further processed by AP endonuclease 1 (APE1), which cleaves the DNA backbone 5′ to the abasic site, generating a nick in the DNA backbone. After action of APE1, BER can follow one of two subpathways, the short-patch (SP) or long-patch (LP) version, which differ based on the number of nucleotides a polymerase incorporates at the nick site. DNA ligase is responsible for sealing the nick in the backbone and regenerating undamaged duplex. Not surprisingly, and consistent with the idea that BER maintains genetic stability, deficiency and/or inactivity of BER enzymes can be detrimental and result in cancer. Intriguingly, this DNA repair pathway has also been implicated in causing genetic instability by contributing to the trinucleotide repeat expansion associated with several neurological disorders. Within this Account, we outline the chemistry of the human BER pathway with a mechanistic focus on the DNA glycosylases that initiate the repair event. Furthermore, we describe kinetic studies of many BER enzymes as a means to understand the complex coordination that occurs during this highly regulated event. Finally, we examine the pitfalls associated with deficiency in BER activity, as well as instances when BER goes awry. PMID:24646203

  9. Heterochromatin formation via recruitment of DNA repair proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kirkland, Jacob G.; Peterson, Misty R.; Still, Christopher D.; Brueggeman, Leo; Dhillon, Namrita; Kamakaka, Rohinton T.

    2015-01-01

    Heterochromatin formation and nuclear organization are important in gene regulation and genome fidelity. Proteins involved in gene silencing localize to sites of damage and some DNA repair proteins localize to heterochromatin, but the biological importance of these correlations remains unclear. In this study, we examined the role of double-strand-break repair proteins in gene silencing and nuclear organization. We find that the ATM kinase Tel1 and the proteins Mre11 and Esc2 can silence a reporter gene dependent on the Sir, as well as on other repair proteins. Furthermore, these proteins aid in the localization of silenced domains to specific compartments in the nucleus. We identify two distinct mechanisms for repair protein–mediated silencing—via direct and indirect interactions with Sir proteins, as well as by tethering loci to the nuclear periphery. This study reveals previously unknown interactions between repair proteins and silencing proteins and suggests insights into the mechanism underlying genome integrity. PMID:25631822

  10. Fungal cryptochrome with DNA repair activity reveals an early stage in cryptochrome evolution.

    PubMed

    Tagua, Victor G; Pausch, Marcell; Eckel, Maike; Gutiérrez, Gabriel; Miralles-Durán, Alejandro; Sanz, Catalina; Eslava, Arturo P; Pokorny, Richard; Corrochano, Luis M; Batschauer, Alfred

    2015-12-01

    DASH (Drosophila, Arabidopsis, Synechocystis, Human)-type cryptochromes (cry-DASH) belong to a family of flavoproteins acting as repair enzymes for UV-B-induced DNA lesions (photolyases) or as UV-A/blue light photoreceptors (cryptochromes). They are present in plants, bacteria, various vertebrates, and fungi and were originally considered as sensory photoreceptors because of their incapability to repair cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) lesions in duplex DNA. However, cry-DASH can repair CPDs in single-stranded DNA, but their role in DNA repair in vivo remains to be clarified. The genome of the fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus contains a single gene for a protein of the cryptochrome/photolyase family (CPF) encoding a cry-DASH, cryA, despite its ability to photoreactivate. Here, we show that cryA expression is induced by blue light in a Mad complex-dependent manner. Moreover, we demonstrate that CryA is capable of binding flavin (FAD) and methenyltetrahydrofolate (MTHF), fully complements the Escherichia coli photolyase mutant and repairs in vitro CPD lesions in single-stranded and double-stranded DNA with the same efficiency. These results support a role for Phycomyces cry-DASH as a photolyase and suggest a similar role for cry-DASH in mucoromycotina fungi. PMID:26578805

  11. DNA Double-Strand Break Repair at −15°C

    PubMed Central

    Dieser, Markus; Battista, John R.

    2013-01-01

    The survival of microorganisms in ancient glacial ice and permafrost has been ascribed to their ability to persist in a dormant, metabolically inert state. An alternative possibility, supported by experimental data, is that microorganisms in frozen matrices are able to sustain a level of metabolic function that is sufficient for cellular repair and maintenance. To examine this experimentally, frozen populations of Psychrobacter arcticus 273-4 were exposed to ionizing radiation (IR) to simulate the damage incurred from natural background IR sources in the permafrost environment from over ∼225 kiloyears (ky). High-molecular-weight DNA was fragmented by exposure to 450 Gy of IR, which introduced an average of 16 double-strand breaks (DSBs) per chromosome. During incubation at −15°C for 505 days, P. arcticus repaired DNA DSBs in the absence of net growth. Based on the time frame for the assembly of genomic fragments by P. arcticus, the rate of DNA DSB repair was estimated at 7 to 10 DSBs year−1 under the conditions tested. Our results provide direct evidence for the repair of DNA lesions, extending the range of complex biochemical reactions known to occur in bacteria at frozen temperatures. Provided that sufficient energy and nutrient sources are available, a functional DNA repair mechanism would allow cells to maintain genome integrity and augment microbial survival in icy terrestrial or extraterrestrial environments. PMID:24077718

  12. Metabolism, genomics, and DNA repair in the mouse aging liver.

    PubMed

    Lebel, Michel; de Souza-Pinto, Nadja C; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2011-01-01

    The liver plays a pivotal role in the metabolism of nutrients, drugs, hormones, and metabolic waste products, thereby maintaining body homeostasis. The liver undergoes substantial changes in structure and function within old age. Such changes are associated with significant impairment of many hepatic metabolic and detoxification activities, with implications for systemic aging and age-related disease. It has become clear, using rodent models as biological tools, that genetic instability in the form of gross DNA rearrangements or point mutations accumulate in the liver with age. DNA lesions, such as oxidized bases or persistent breaks, increase with age and correlate well with the presence of senescent hepatocytes. The level of DNA damage and/or mutation can be affected by changes in carcinogen activation, decreased ability to repair DNA, or a combination of these factors. This paper covers some of the DNA repair pathways affecting liver homeostasis with age using rodents as model systems. PMID:21559242

  13. Stress and DNA repair biology of the Fanconi anemia pathway

    PubMed Central

    Longerich, Simonne; Li, Jian; Xiong, Yong; Sung, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) represents a paradigm of rare genetic diseases, where the quest for cause and cure has led to seminal discoveries in cancer biology. Although a total of 16 FA genes have been identified thus far, the biochemical function of many of the FA proteins remains to be elucidated. FA is rare, yet the fact that 5 FA genes are in fact familial breast cancer genes and FA gene mutations are found frequently in sporadic cancers suggest wider applicability in hematopoiesis and oncology. Establishing the interaction network involving the FA proteins and their associated partners has revealed an intersection of FA with several DNA repair pathways, including homologous recombination, DNA mismatch repair, nucleotide excision repair, and translesion DNA synthesis. Importantly, recent studies have shown a major involvement of the FA pathway in the tolerance of reactive aldehydes. Moreover, despite improved outcomes in stem cell transplantation in the treatment of FA, many challenges remain in patient care. PMID:25237197

  14. Metal Complexes for DNA-Mediated Charge Transport

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Jacqueline K.; Olmon, Eric D.; Sontz, Pamela A.

    2010-01-01

    In all organisms, oxidation threatens the integrity of the genome. DNA-mediated charge transport (CT) may play an important role in the generation and repair of this oxidative damage. In studies involving long-range CT from intercalating Ru and Rh complexes to 5′-GG-3′ sites, we have examined the efficiency of CT as a function of distance, temperature, and the electronic coupling of metal oxidants bound to the base stack. Most striking is the shallow distance dependence and the sensitivity of DNA CT to how the metal complexes are stacked in the helix. Experiments with cyclopropylamine-modified bases have revealed that charge occupation occurs at all sites along the bridge. Using Ir complexes, we have seen that the process of DNA-mediated reduction is very similar to that of DNA-mediated oxidation. Studies involving metalloproteins have, furthermore, shown that their redox activity is DNA-dependent and can be DNA-mediated. Long range DNA-mediated CT can facilitate the oxidation of DNA-bound base excision repair proteins to initiate a redox-active search for DNA lesions. DNA CT can also activate the transcription factor SoxR, triggering a cellular response to oxidative stress. Indeed, these studies show that within the cell, redox-active proteins may utilize the same chemistry as that of synthetic metal complexes in vitro, and these proteins may harness DNA-mediated CT to reduce damage to the genome and regulate cellular processes. PMID:21643528

  15. Clustered DNA lesion repair in eukaryotes: relevance to mutagenesis and cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Sage, Evelyne; Harrison, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    A clustered DNA lesion, also known as a multiply damaged site, is defined as ≥ 2 damages in the DNA within 1–2 helical turns. Only ionizing radiation and certain chemicals introduce DNA damage in the genome in this non-random way. What is now clear is that the lethality of a damaging agent is not just related to the types of DNA lesions introduced, but also to how the damage is distributed in the DNA. Clustered DNA lesions were first hypothesized to exist in the 1990’s, and work has progressed where these complex lesions have been characterized and measured in irradiated as well as in non-irradiated cells. A clustered lesion can consist of single as well as double strand breaks, base damage and abasic sites, and the damages can be situated on the same strand or opposing strands. They include tandem lesions, double strand break (DSB) clusters and non-DSB clusters, and base excision repair as well as the DSB repair pathways can be required to remove these complex lesions. Due to the plethora of oxidative damage induced by ionizing radiation, and the repair proteins involved in their removal from the DNA, it has been necessary to study how repair systems handle these lesions using synthetic DNA damage. This review focuses on the repair process and mutagenic consequences of clustered lesions in yeast and mammalian cells. By examining the studies on synthetic clustered lesions, and the effects of low vs high LET radiation on mammalian cells or tissues, it is possible to extrapolate the potential biological relevance of these clustered lesions to the killing of tumor cells by radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and to the risk of cancer in non-tumor cells, and this will be discussed. PMID:21185841

  16. Curcumin Triggers DNA Damage and Inhibits Expression of DNA Repair Proteins in Human Lung Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Ting, Chien-Yi; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Yu, Chien-Chih; Liu, Hsin-Chung; Liu, Yu-Chang; Chiang, I-Tsang

    2015-07-01

    The study goal was to evaluate the effects of curcumin on DNA damage and expression of DNA-repair proteins in human lung cancer. Thus, NCI-H460 cells were used to study the effects of curcumin on DNA damage and repair in vitro. We investigated curcumin induces DNA damage by comet the assay and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining. The DNA damage/repair-related protein levels were examined and monitored by western blotting and confocal microscopy. Curcumin significantly increased the length of comet tails and DNA condensation in NCI-H460 cells. Curcumin reduced expression of DNA-repair proteins such as 14-3-3 protein sigma (14-3-3?), O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1), and mediator of DNA damage checkpoint 1 (MDC1). Curcumin also increased phosphorylation of p53 and Histone H2A.X (S140) in the nuclei of NCI-H460 cells. Taken together, our findings indicated that curcumin triggered DNA damage and inhibited expression of DNA-repair-associated proteins in NCI-H460 cells. PMID:26124332

  17. An interplay of the base excision repair and mismatch repair pathways in active DNA demethylation

    PubMed Central

    Grin, Inga; Ishchenko, Alexander A.

    2016-01-01

    Active DNA demethylation (ADDM) in mammals occurs via hydroxylation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) by TET and/or deamination by AID/APOBEC family enzymes. The resulting 5mC derivatives are removed through the base excision repair (BER) pathway. At present, it is unclear how the cell manages to eliminate closely spaced 5mC residues whilst avoiding generation of toxic BER intermediates and whether alternative DNA repair pathways participate in ADDM. It has been shown that non-canonical DNA mismatch repair (ncMMR) can remove both alkylated and oxidized nucleotides from DNA. Here, a phagemid DNA containing oxidative base lesions and methylated sites are used to examine the involvement of various DNA repair pathways in ADDM in murine and human cell-free extracts. We demonstrate that, in addition to short-patch BER, 5-hydroxymethyluracil and uracil mispaired with guanine can be processed by ncMMR and long-patch BER with concomitant removal of distant 5mC residues. Furthermore, the presence of multiple mispairs in the same MMR nick/mismatch recognition region together with BER-mediated nick formation promotes proficient ncMMR resulting in the reactivation of an epigenetically silenced reporter gene in murine cells. These findings suggest cooperation between BER and ncMMR in the removal of multiple mismatches that might occur in mammalian cells during ADDM. PMID:26843430

  18. An interplay of the base excision repair and mismatch repair pathways in active DNA demethylation.

    PubMed

    Grin, Inga; Ishchenko, Alexander A

    2016-05-01

    Active DNA demethylation (ADDM) in mammals occurs via hydroxylation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) by TET and/or deamination by AID/APOBEC family enzymes. The resulting 5mC derivatives are removed through the base excision repair (BER) pathway. At present, it is unclear how the cell manages to eliminate closely spaced 5mC residues whilst avoiding generation of toxic BER intermediates and whether alternative DNA repair pathways participate in ADDM. It has been shown that non-canonical DNA mismatch repair (ncMMR) can remove both alkylated and oxidized nucleotides from DNA. Here, a phagemid DNA containing oxidative base lesions and methylated sites are used to examine the involvement of various DNA repair pathways in ADDM in murine and human cell-free extracts. We demonstrate that, in addition to short-patch BER, 5-hydroxymethyluracil and uracil mispaired with guanine can be processed by ncMMR and long-patch BER with concomitant removal of distant 5mC residues. Furthermore, the presence of multiple mispairs in the same MMR nick/mismatch recognition region together with BER-mediated nick formation promotes proficient ncMMR resulting in the reactivation of an epigenetically silenced reporter gene in murine cells. These findings suggest cooperation between BER and ncMMR in the removal of multiple mismatches that might occur in mammalian cells during ADDM. PMID:26843430

  19. DNA/chitosan electrostatic complex.

    PubMed

    Bravo-Anaya, Lourdes Mónica; Soltero, J F Armando; Rinaudo, Marguerite

    2016-07-01

    Up to now, chitosan and DNA have been investigated for gene delivery due to chitosan advantages. It is recognized that chitosan is a biocompatible and biodegradable non-viral vector that does not produce immunological reactions, contrary to viral vectors. Chitosan has also been used and studied for its ability to protect DNA against nuclease degradation and to transfect DNA into several kinds of cells. In this work, high molecular weight DNA is compacted with chitosan. DNA-chitosan complex stoichiometry, net charge, dimensions, conformation and thermal stability are determined and discussed. The influence of external salt and chitosan molecular weight on the stoichiometry is also discussed. The isoelectric point of the complexes was found to be directly related to the protonation degree of chitosan. It is clearly demonstrated that the net charge of DNA-chitosan complex can be expressed in terms of the ratio [NH3(+)]/[P(-)], showing that the electrostatic interactions between DNA and chitosan are the main phenomena taking place in the solution. Compaction of DNA long chain complexed with low molar mass chitosan gives nanoparticles with an average radius around 150nm. Stable nanoparticles are obtained for a partial neutralization of phosphate ionic sites (i.e.: [NH3(+)]/[P(-)] fraction between 0.35 and 0.80). PMID:27050113

  20. Early Steps in the DNA Base Excision/Single-Strand Interruption Repair Pathway in Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Muralidhar L.; Hazra, Tapas K.; Mitra, Sankar

    2009-01-01

    Base excision repair (BER) is an evolutionarily conserved process for maintaining genomic integrity by eliminating several dozen damaged (oxidized or alkylated) or inappropriate bases that are generated endogenously or induced by genotoxicants, predominantly, reactive oxygen species (ROS). BER involves 4–5 steps starting with base excision by a DNA glycosylase, followed by a common pathway usually involving an AP-endonuclease (APE) to generate 3′ OH terminus at the damage site, followed by repair synthesis with a DNA polymerase and nick sealing by a DNA ligase. This pathway is also responsible for repairing DNA single-strand breaks with blocked termini directly generated by ROS. Nearly all glycosylases, far fewer than their substrate lesions particularly for oxidized bases, have broad and overlapping substrate range, and could serve as back-up enzymes in vivo. In contrast, mammalian cells encode only one APE, APE1, unlike two APEs in lower organisms. In spite of overall similarity, BER with distinct subpathways in the mammals is more complex than in E. coli. The glycosylases form complexes with downstream proteins to carry out efficient repair via distinct subpathways one of which, responsible for repair of strand breaks with 3′ phosphate termini generated by the NEIL family glycosylases or by ROS, requires the phosphatase activity of polynucleotide kinase instead of APE1. Different complexes may utilize distinct DNA polymerases and ligases. Mammalian glycosylases have nonconserved extensions at one of the termini, dispensable for enzymatic activity but needed for interaction with other BER and non BER proteins for complex formation and organelle targeting. The mammalian enzymes are sometimes covalently modified that may affect activity and complex formation. The focus of this review are the early steps in mammalian BER for oxidized damage. PMID:18166975

  1. Dynamic control of strand excision during human DNA mismatch repair.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Yongmoon; Kim, Daehyung; Martín-López, Juana V; Lee, Ryanggeun; Oh, Jungsic; Hanne, Jeungphill; Fishel, Richard; Lee, Jong-Bong

    2016-03-22

    Mismatch repair (MMR) is activated by evolutionarily conserved MutS homologs (MSH) and MutL homologs (MLH/PMS). MSH recognizes mismatched nucleotides and form extremely stable sliding clamps that may be bound by MLH/PMS to ultimately authorize strand-specific excision starting at a distant 3'- or 5'-DNA scission. The mechanical processes associated with a complete MMR reaction remain enigmatic. The purified human (Homo sapienor Hs) 5'-MMR excision reaction requires the HsMSH2-HsMSH6 heterodimer, the 5' → 3' exonuclease HsEXOI, and the single-stranded binding heterotrimer HsRPA. The HsMLH1-HsPMS2 heterodimer substantially influences 5'-MMR excision in cell extracts but is not required in the purified system. Using real-time single-molecule imaging, we show that HsRPA orEscherichia coliEcSSB restricts HsEXOI excision activity on nicked or gapped DNA. HsMSH2-HsMSH6 activates HsEXOI by overcoming HsRPA/EcSSB inhibition and exploits multiple dynamic sliding clamps to increase tract length. Conversely, HsMLH1-HsPMS2 regulates tract length by controlling the number of excision complexes, providing a link to 5' MMR. PMID:26951673

  2. Dynamic control of strand excision during human DNA mismatch repair

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Yongmoon; Kim, Daehyung; Martín-López, Juana V.; Lee, Ryanggeun; Oh, Jungsic; Hanne, Jeungphill; Fishel, Richard; Lee, Jong-Bong

    2016-01-01

    Mismatch repair (MMR) is activated by evolutionarily conserved MutS homologs (MSH) and MutL homologs (MLH/PMS). MSH recognizes mismatched nucleotides and form extremely stable sliding clamps that may be bound by MLH/PMS to ultimately authorize strand-specific excision starting at a distant 3′- or 5′-DNA scission. The mechanical processes associated with a complete MMR reaction remain enigmatic. The purified human (Homo sapien or Hs) 5′-MMR excision reaction requires the HsMSH2–HsMSH6 heterodimer, the 5′ → 3′ exonuclease HsEXOI, and the single-stranded binding heterotrimer HsRPA. The HsMLH1–HsPMS2 heterodimer substantially influences 5′-MMR excision in cell extracts but is not required in the purified system. Using real-time single-molecule imaging, we show that HsRPA or Escherichia coli EcSSB restricts HsEXOI excision activity on nicked or gapped DNA. HsMSH2–HsMSH6 activates HsEXOI by overcoming HsRPA/EcSSB inhibition and exploits multiple dynamic sliding clamps to increase tract length. Conversely, HsMLH1–HsPMS2 regulates tract length by controlling the number of excision complexes, providing a link to 5′ MMR. PMID:26951673

  3. Modeling DNA Repair: Approaching In Vivo Techniques in the Hyperthermophile Sulfolobus Solfataricus

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, J.; Fuss, J.; Yannone, S.M.; Tainer, J.A.; Cooper, P.K.

    2005-01-01

    Archaea are found in some of the most extreme environments on earth and represent a third domain of life distinct from Eukarya and Eubacteria. The hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus, isolated from acidic hot springs (80oC, pH 3) in Yellowstone National Park, has emerged as a potential model system for studying human DNA repair processes. Archaea are more closely related to Eukarya than to Eubacteria, suggesting that archaeal DNA repair machinery may model the complex human system much more closely than that of other prokaryotes. DNA repair requires coordinated protein-protein interactions that are frequently transient. Protein complexes that are transient at extreme temperatures where archaea thrive may be more stable at room temperature, allowing for the characterization of otherwise short-lived complexes. However, characterization of these systems in archaea has been limited by the absence of a stable in vivo transformation and expression system. The work presented here is a pilot study in gene cloning and recombinant protein expression in S. solfataricus. Three genes associated with DNA repair were selected for expression: MRE11, PCNA1, and a putative CSB homologue. Though preparation of these recombinant genes followed standard methods, preparation of a suitable vector proved more challenging. The shuttle vector pSSV64, derived from the SSV1 virus and the E. coli vector pBSSK+, was most successfully isolated from the DH5α E. coli strain. Currently, alternative vectors are being designed for more efficient genetic manipulations in S. solfataricus.

  4. The direct interaction of NME3 with Tip60 in DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Ning; Yang, Ya-Chi; Deng, Yu-Jyun; Chang, Zee-Fen

    2016-05-01

    Cellular supply of dNTPs via RNR (ribonucleotide reductase) is crucial for DNA replication and repair. It has been shown that DNA-damage-site-specific recruitment of RNR is critical for DNA repair efficiency in quiescent cells. The catalytic function of RNR produces dNDPs. The subsequent step of dNTP formation requires the function of NDP kinase. There are ten isoforms of NDP kinase in human cells. In the present study, we identified NME3 as one specific NDP kinase that interacts directly with Tip60, a histone acetyltransferase, to form a complex with RNR. Our data reveal that NME3 recruitment to DNA damage sites depends on this interaction. Disruption of interaction of NME3 with Tip60 suppressed DNA repair in serum-deprived cells. Thus Tip60 interacts with RNR and NME3 to provide site-specific synthesis of dNTP for facilitating DNA repair in serum-deprived cells which contain low levels of dNTPs. PMID:26945015

  5. Chromosome Synapsis Alleviates Mek1-Dependent Suppression of Meiotic DNA Repair

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Vijayalakshmi V.; MacQueen, Amy J.; Vader, Gerben; Shinohara, Miki; Sanchez, Aurore; Borde, Valérie; Shinohara, Akira; Hochwagen, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Faithful meiotic chromosome segregation and fertility require meiotic recombination between homologous chromosomes rather than the equally available sister chromatid, a bias that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae depends on the meiotic kinase, Mek1. Mek1 is thought to mediate repair template bias by specifically suppressing sister-directed repair. Instead, we found that when Mek1 persists on closely paired (synapsed) homologues, DNA repair is severely delayed, suggesting that Mek1 suppresses any proximal repair template. Accordingly, Mek1 is excluded from synapsed homologues in wild-type cells. Exclusion requires the AAA+-ATPase Pch2 and is directly coupled to synaptonemal complex assembly. Stage-specific depletion experiments further demonstrate that DNA repair in the context of synapsed homologues requires Rad54, a repair factor inhibited by Mek1. These data indicate that the sister template is distinguished from the homologue primarily by its closer proximity to inhibitory Mek1 activity. We propose that once pairing or synapsis juxtaposes homologues, exclusion of Mek1 is necessary to avoid suppression of all templates and accelerate repair progression. PMID:26870961

  6. Chromosome Synapsis Alleviates Mek1-Dependent Suppression of Meiotic DNA Repair.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Vijayalakshmi V; MacQueen, Amy J; Vader, Gerben; Shinohara, Miki; Sanchez, Aurore; Borde, Valérie; Shinohara, Akira; Hochwagen, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    Faithful meiotic chromosome segregation and fertility require meiotic recombination between homologous chromosomes rather than the equally available sister chromatid, a bias that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae depends on the meiotic kinase, Mek1. Mek1 is thought to mediate repair template bias by specifically suppressing sister-directed repair. Instead, we found that when Mek1 persists on closely paired (synapsed) homologues, DNA repair is severely delayed, suggesting that Mek1 suppresses any proximal repair template. Accordingly, Mek1 is excluded from synapsed homologues in wild-type cells. Exclusion requires the AAA+-ATPase Pch2 and is directly coupled to synaptonemal complex assembly. Stage-specific depletion experiments further demonstrate that DNA repair in the context of synapsed homologues requires Rad54, a repair factor inhibited by Mek1. These data indicate that the sister template is distinguished from the homologue primarily by its closer proximity to inhibitory Mek1 activity. We propose that once pairing or synapsis juxtaposes homologues, exclusion of Mek1 is necessary to avoid suppression of all templates and accelerate repair progression. PMID:26870961

  7. MED1, a novel human methyl-CpG-binding endonuclease, interacts with DNA mismatch repair protein MLH1

    PubMed Central

    Bellacosa, Alfonso; Cicchillitti, Lucia; Schepis, Filippo; Riccio, Antonio; Yeung, Anthony T.; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Golemis, Erica A.; Genuardi, Maurizio; Neri, Giovanni

    1999-01-01

    The DNA mismatch repair (MMR) is a specialized system, highly conserved throughout evolution, involved in the maintenance of genomic integrity. To identify novel human genes that may function in MMR, we employed the yeast interaction trap. Using the MMR protein MLH1 as bait, we cloned MED1. The MED1 protein forms a complex with MLH1, binds to methyl-CpG-containing DNA, has homology to bacterial DNA repair glycosylases/lyases, and displays endonuclease activity. Transfection of a MED1 mutant lacking the methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD) is associated with microsatellite instability (MSI). These findings suggest that MED1 is a novel human DNA repair protein that may be involved in MMR and, as such, may be a candidate eukaryotic homologue of the bacterial MMR endonuclease, MutH. In addition, these results suggest that cytosine methylation may play a role in human DNA repair. PMID:10097147

  8. Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes and associations with cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Goode, Ellen L; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Potter, John D

    2002-12-01

    Common polymorphisms in DNA repair genes may alter protein function and an individual's capacity to repair damaged DNA; deficits in repair capacity may lead to genetic instability and carcinogenesis. To establish our overall understanding of possible in vivo relationships between DNA repair polymorphisms and the development of cancer, we performed a literature review of epidemiological studies that assessed associations between such polymorphisms and risk of cancer. Thirty studies of polymorphisms in OGG1, XRCC1, ERCC1, XPC, XPD, XPF, BRCA2, and XRCC3 were identified in the April 30, 2002 MEDLINE database (National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubMed Database: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez). These studies focused on adult glioma, bladder cancer, breast cancer, esophageal cancer, lung cancer, prostate cancer, skin cancer (melanoma and nonmelanoma), squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, and stomach cancer. We found that a small proportion of the published studies were large and population-based. Nonetheless, published data were consistent with associations between: (a) the OGG1 S326C variant and increased risk of various types of cancer; (b) the XRCC1 R194W variant and reduced risk of various types of cancer; and (c) the BRCA2 N372H variant and increased risk of breast cancer. Suggestive results were seen for polymorphisms in other genes; however, small sample sizes may have contributed to false-positive or false-negative findings. We conclude that large, well-designed studies of common polymorphisms in DNA repair genes are needed. Such studies may benefit from analysis of multiple genes or polymorphisms and from the consideration of relevant exposures that may influence the likelihood of cancer in the presence of reduced DNA repair capacity. PMID:12496039

  9. Breaking bad: The mutagenic effect of DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia; Furano, Anthony V

    2015-08-01

    Species survival depends on the faithful replication of genetic information, which is continually monitored and maintained by DNA repair pathways that correct replication errors and the thousands of lesions that arise daily from the inherent chemical lability of DNA and the effects of genotoxic agents. Nonetheless, neutrally evolving DNA (not under purifying selection) accumulates base substitutions with time (the neutral mutation rate). Thus, repair processes are not 100% efficient. The neutral mutation rate varies both between and within chromosomes. For example it is 10-50 fold higher at CpGs than at non-CpG positions. Interestingly, the neutral mutation rate at non-CpG sites is positively correlated with CpG content. Although the basis of this correlation was not immediately apparent, some bioinformatic results were consistent with the induction of non-CpG mutations by DNA repair at flanking CpG sites. Recent studies with a model system showed that in vivo repair of preformed lesions (mismatches, abasic sites, single stranded nicks) can in fact induce mutations in flanking DNA. Mismatch repair (MMR) is an essential component for repair-induced mutations, which can occur as distant as 5 kb from the introduced lesions. Most, but not all, mutations involved the C of TpCpN (G of NpGpA) which is the target sequence of the C-preferring single-stranded DNA specific APOBEC deaminases. APOBEC-mediated mutations are not limited to our model system: Recent studies by others showed that some tumors harbor mutations with the same signature, as can intermediates in RNA-guided endonuclease-mediated genome editing. APOBEC deaminases participate in normal physiological functions such as generating mutations that inactivate viruses or endogenous retrotransposons, or that enhance immunoglobulin diversity in B cells. The recruitment of normally physiological error-prone processes during DNA repair would have important implications for disease, aging and evolution. This perspective briefly reviews both the bioinformatic and biochemical literature relevant to repair-induced mutagenesis and discusses future directions required to understand the mechanistic basis of this process. PMID:26073774

  10. RecA-mediated excision repair: a novel mechanism for repairing DNA lesions at sites of arrested DNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Bichara, Marc; Pinet, Isabelle; Lambert, Iain B; Fuchs, Robert P P

    2007-07-01

    In Escherichia coli, bulky DNA lesions are repaired primarily by nucleotide excision repair (NER). Unrepaired lesions encountered by DNA polymerase at the replication fork create a blockage which may be relieved through RecF-dependent recombination. We have designed an assay to monitor the different mechanisms through which a DNA polymerase blocked by a single AAF lesion may be rescued by homologous double-stranded DNA sequences. Monomodified single-stranded plasmids exhibit low survival in non-SOS induced E. coli cells; we show here that the presence of a homologous sequence enhances the survival of the damaged plasmid more than 10-fold in a RecA-dependent way. Remarkably, in an NER proficient strain, 80% of the surviving colonies result from the UvrA-dependent repair of the AAF lesion in a mechanism absolutely requiring RecA and RecF activity, while the remaining 20% of the surviving colonies result from homologous recombination mechanisms. These results uncover a novel mechanism - RecA-mediated excision repair - in which RecA-dependent pairing of the mono-modified single-stranded template with a complementary sequence allows its repair by the UvrABC excinuclease. PMID:17581130

  11. DNA damage and repair in Stylonychia lemnae (Ciliata, Protozoa)

    SciTech Connect

    Ammermann, D.

    1988-05-01

    Irradiation with X rays, UV irradiation after incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BU) into the DNA, and cis-platinum (cis-Pt) treatment each cause the loss of micronuclei of Stylonychia lemnae while the macronuclei are not severely affected. The abilities of both nuclei to repair DNA were investigated. Unscheduled DNA synthesis could not be demonstrated after X-ray irradiation, but it was found after treatment with BU/UV and cis-Pt in macro- and micronuclei. The extent of the repair process in the micro- and macronuclei was alike, as indicated by grain counts of (6-/sup 3/H)thymidine-treated cells. One reason for the different sensitivity of both nuclei to DNA-damaging treatment may be the different number of gene copies in the macro- and micronuclei.

  12. DNA Repair at Telomeres: Keeping the Ends Intact

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Christopher J.; Wu, Yun; Zakian, Virginia A.

    2013-01-01

    The molecular era of telomere biology began with the discovery that telomeres usually consist of G-rich simple repeats and end with 3′ single-stranded tails. Enormous progress has been made in identifying the mechanisms that maintain and replenish telomeric DNA and the proteins that protect them from degradation, fusions, and checkpoint activation. Although telomeres in different organisms (or even in the same organism under different conditions) are maintained by different mechanisms, the disparate processes have the common goals of repairing defects caused by semiconservative replication through G-rich DNA, countering the shortening caused by incomplete replication, and postreplication regeneration of G tails. In addition, standard DNA repair mechanisms must be suppressed or modified at telomeres to prevent their being recognized and processed as DNA double-strand breaks. Here, we discuss the players and processes that maintain and regenerate telomere structure. PMID:23732473

  13. WHERE MULTIFUNCTIONAL DNA REPAIR PROTEINS MEET: MAPPING THE INTERACTION DOMAINS BETWEEN XPG AND WRN

    SciTech Connect

    Rangaraj, K.; Cooper, P.K.; Trego, K.S.

    2009-01-01

    The rapid recognition and repair of DNA damage is essential for the maintenance of genomic integrity and cellular survival. Multiple complex and interconnected DNA damage responses exist within cells to preserve the human genome, and these repair pathways are carried out by a specifi c interplay of protein-protein interactions. Thus a failure in the coordination of these processes, perhaps brought about by a breakdown in any one multifunctional repair protein, can lead to genomic instability, developmental and immunological abnormalities, cancer and premature aging. This study demonstrates a novel interaction between two such repair proteins, Xeroderma pigmentosum group G protein (XPG) and Werner syndrome helicase (WRN), that are both highly pleiotropic and associated with inherited genetic disorders when mutated. XPG is a structure-specifi c endonuclease required for the repair of UV-damaged DNA by nucleotide excision repair (NER), and mutations in XPG result in the diseases Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and Cockayne syndrome (CS). A loss of XPG incision activity results in XP, whereas a loss of non-enzymatic function(s) of XPG causes CS. WRN is a multifunctional protein involved in double-strand break repair (DSBR), and consists of 3’–5’ DNA-dependent helicase, 3’–5’ exonuclease, and single-strand DNA annealing activities. Nonfunctional WRN protein leads to Werner syndrome, a premature aging disorder with increased cancer incidence. Far Western analysis was used to map the interacting domains between XPG and WRN by denaturing gel electrophoresis, which separated purifi ed full length and recombinant XPG and WRN deletion constructs, based primarily upon the length of each polypeptide. Specifi c interacting domains were visualized when probed with the secondary protein of interest which was then detected by traditional Western analysis using the antibody of the secondary protein. The interaction between XPG and WRN was mapped to the C-terminal region of XPG as well as the C-terminal region of WRN. The physical interaction between XPG and WRN links NER, (made evident by the disease XP) with DSBR, which imparts additional knowledge of the overlapping nature of these two proteins and the previously distinct DNA repair pathways they are associated with. Since genomic integrity is constantly threatened by both endogenous and exogenous (internal and external) damage, understanding the roles of these proteins in coordinating DNA repair processes with replication will signifi cantly further understanding how defects instigate physiological consequences in response to various DNA damaging sources. This ultimately contributes to our understanding of cancer and premature aging.

  14. Nucleotide Excision Repair and Transcription-coupled DNA Repair Abrogate the Impact of DNA Damage on Transcription.

    PubMed

    Nadkarni, Aditi; Burns, John A; Gandolfi, Alberto; Chowdhury, Moinuddin A; Cartularo, Laura; Berens, Christian; Geacintov, Nicholas E; Scicchitano, David A

    2016-01-01

    DNA adducts derived from carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons like benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and benzo[c]phenanthrene (B[c]Ph) impede replication and transcription, resulting in aberrant cell division and gene expression. Global nucleotide excision repair (NER) and transcription-coupled DNA repair (TCR) are among the DNA repair pathways that evolved to maintain genome integrity by removing DNA damage. The interplay between global NER and TCR in repairing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-derived DNA adducts (+)-trans-anti-B[a]P-N(6)-dA, which is subject to NER and blocks transcription in vitro, and (+)-trans-anti-B[c]Ph-N(6)-dA, which is a poor substrate for NER but also blocks transcription in vitro, was tested. The results show that both adducts inhibit transcription in human cells that lack both NER and TCR. The (+)-trans-anti-B[a]P-N(6)-dA lesion exhibited no detectable effect on transcription in cells proficient in NER but lacking TCR, indicating that NER can remove the lesion in the absence of TCR, which is consistent with in vitro data. In primary human cells lacking NER, (+)-trans-anti-B[a]P-N(6)-dA exhibited a deleterious effect on transcription that was less severe than in cells lacking both pathways, suggesting that TCR can repair the adduct but not as effectively as global NER. In contrast, (+)-trans-anti-B[c]Ph-N(6)-dA dramatically reduces transcript production in cells proficient in global NER but lacking TCR, indicating that TCR is necessary for the removal of this adduct, which is consistent with in vitro data showing that it is a poor substrate for NER. Hence, both global NER and TCR enhance the recovery of gene expression following DNA damage, and TCR plays an important role in removing DNA damage that is refractory to NER. PMID:26559971

  15. Nucleotide Excision Repair and Transcription-coupled DNA Repair Abrogate the Impact of DNA Damage on Transcription*

    PubMed Central

    Nadkarni, Aditi; Burns, John A.; Gandolfi, Alberto; Chowdhury, Moinuddin A.; Cartularo, Laura; Berens, Christian; Geacintov, Nicholas E.; Scicchitano, David A.

    2016-01-01

    DNA adducts derived from carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons like benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and benzo[c]phenanthrene (B[c]Ph) impede replication and transcription, resulting in aberrant cell division and gene expression. Global nucleotide excision repair (NER) and transcription-coupled DNA repair (TCR) are among the DNA repair pathways that evolved to maintain genome integrity by removing DNA damage. The interplay between global NER and TCR in repairing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-derived DNA adducts (+)-trans-anti-B[a]P-N6-dA, which is subject to NER and blocks transcription in vitro, and (+)-trans-anti-B[c]Ph-N6-dA, which is a poor substrate for NER but also blocks transcription in vitro, was tested. The results show that both adducts inhibit transcription in human cells that lack both NER and TCR. The (+)-trans-anti-B[a]P-N6-dA lesion exhibited no detectable effect on transcription in cells proficient in NER but lacking TCR, indicating that NER can remove the lesion in the absence of TCR, which is consistent with in vitro data. In primary human cells lacking NER, (+)-trans-anti-B[a]P-N6-dA exhibited a deleterious effect on transcription that was less severe than in cells lacking both pathways, suggesting that TCR can repair the adduct but not as effectively as global NER. In contrast, (+)-trans-anti-B[c]Ph-N6-dA dramatically reduces transcript production in cells proficient in global NER but lacking TCR, indicating that TCR is necessary for the removal of this adduct, which is consistent with in vitro data showing that it is a poor substrate for NER. Hence, both global NER and TCR enhance the recovery of gene expression following DNA damage, and TCR plays an important role in removing DNA damage that is refractory to NER. PMID:26559971

  16. UV Radiation Damage and Bacterial DNA Repair Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zion, Michal; Guy, Daniel; Yarom, Ruth; Slesak, Michaela

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a simple hands-on laboratory procedure for high school students in studying both radiation damage and DNA repair systems in bacteria. The sensitivity to ultra-violet (UV) radiation of both "Escherichia coli" and "Serratia marcescens" is tested by radiating them for varying time periods. Two growth temperatures are used in…

  17. p53 downregulates the Fanconi anaemia DNA repair pathway.

    PubMed

    Jaber, Sara; Toufektchan, Eléonore; Lejour, Vincent; Bardot, Boris; Toledo, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Germline mutations affecting telomere maintenance or DNA repair may, respectively, cause dyskeratosis congenita or Fanconi anaemia, two clinically related bone marrow failure syndromes. Mice expressing p53(Δ31), a mutant p53 lacking the C terminus, model dyskeratosis congenita. Accordingly, the increased p53 activity in p53(Δ31/Δ31) fibroblasts correlated with a decreased expression of 4 genes implicated in telomere syndromes. Here we show that these cells exhibit decreased mRNA levels for additional genes contributing to telomere metabolism, but also, surprisingly, for 12 genes mutated in Fanconi anaemia. Furthermore, p53(Δ31/Δ31) fibroblasts exhibit a reduced capacity to repair DNA interstrand crosslinks, a typical feature of Fanconi anaemia cells. Importantly, the p53-dependent downregulation of Fanc genes is largely conserved in human cells. Defective DNA repair is known to activate p53, but our results indicate that, conversely, an increased p53 activity may attenuate the Fanconi anaemia DNA repair pathway, defining a positive regulatory feedback loop. PMID:27033104

  18. UV Radiation Damage and Bacterial DNA Repair Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zion, Michal; Guy, Daniel; Yarom, Ruth; Slesak, Michaela

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a simple hands-on laboratory procedure for high school students in studying both radiation damage and DNA repair systems in bacteria. The sensitivity to ultra-violet (UV) radiation of both "Escherichia coli" and "Serratia marcescens" is tested by radiating them for varying time periods. Two growth temperatures are used in

  19. p53 downregulates the Fanconi anaemia DNA repair pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jaber, Sara; Toufektchan, Eléonore; Lejour, Vincent; Bardot, Boris; Toledo, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Germline mutations affecting telomere maintenance or DNA repair may, respectively, cause dyskeratosis congenita or Fanconi anaemia, two clinically related bone marrow failure syndromes. Mice expressing p53Δ31, a mutant p53 lacking the C terminus, model dyskeratosis congenita. Accordingly, the increased p53 activity in p53Δ31/Δ31 fibroblasts correlated with a decreased expression of 4 genes implicated in telomere syndromes. Here we show that these cells exhibit decreased mRNA levels for additional genes contributing to telomere metabolism, but also, surprisingly, for 12 genes mutated in Fanconi anaemia. Furthermore, p53Δ31/Δ31 fibroblasts exhibit a reduced capacity to repair DNA interstrand crosslinks, a typical feature of Fanconi anaemia cells. Importantly, the p53-dependent downregulation of Fanc genes is largely conserved in human cells. Defective DNA repair is known to activate p53, but our results indicate that, conversely, an increased p53 activity may attenuate the Fanconi anaemia DNA repair pathway, defining a positive regulatory feedback loop. PMID:27033104

  20. DNA repair variants, indoor tanning, and risk of melanoma.

    PubMed

    Torres, Salina M; Luo, Li; Lilyquist, Jenna; Stidley, Christine A; Flores, Kristina; White, Kirsten A M; Erdei, Esther; Gonzales, Melissa; Paine, Susan; Vogel, Rachel I; Lazovich, Deann; Berwick, Marianne

    2013-09-01

    Although ultraviolet radiation (UV) exposure from indoor tanning has been linked to an increased risk of melanoma, the role of DNA repair genes in this process is unknown. We evaluated the association of 92 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 20 DNA repair genes with the risk of melanoma and indoor tanning among 929 patients with melanoma and 817 controls from the Minnesota Skin Health Study. Significant associations with melanoma risk were identified for SNPs in ERCC4, ERCC6, RFC1, XPC, MGMT, and FBRSL1 genes; with a cutoff of P < 0.05. ERCC6 and FBRSL1 gene variants and haplotypes interacted with indoor tanning. However, none of the 92 SNPs tested met the correction criteria for multiple comparisons. This study, based on an a priori interest in investigating the role of DNA repair capacity using variants in base excision and nucleotide excision repair, identified several genes that may play a role in resolving UV-induced DNA damage. PMID:23659246

  1. DNA Repair Variants, Indoor Tanning and Risk of Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Salina M.; Luo, Li; Lilyquist, Jenna; Stidley, Christine A; Flores, Kristina; White, Kirsten A. M.; Erdei, Esther; Gonzales, Melissa; Paine, Susan; Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Lazovich, DeAnn; Berwick, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Summary Although ultraviolet radiation (UV) exposure from indoor tanning has been linked to an increased risk of melanoma, the role of DNA repair genes in this process is unknown. We evaluated the association of 92 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 20 DNA repair genes with the risk of melanoma and indoor tanning among 929 melanoma patients and 817 controls from the Minnesota Skin Health Study. Significant associations with melanoma risk were identified for SNPs in ERCC4, ERCC6, RFC1, XPC, MGMT, and FBRSL1 genes; with a cut-off of p<0.05. ERCC6 and FBRSL1 gene variants and haplotypes interacted with indoor tanning. However, none of the 92 SNPs tested met the correction criteria for multiple comparisons. This study, based on an a priori interest in investigating the role of DNA repair capacity using variants in base excision and nucleotide excision repair, identified several genes that may play a role in resolving UV-induced DNA damage. PMID:23659246

  2. Prognostic value of DNA repair based stratification of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhuo; Xu, Shi-Hao; Wang, Hai-Qing; Cai, Yi-Jing; Ying, Li; Song, Mei; Wang, Yu-Qun; Du, Shan-Jie; Shi, Ke-Qing; Zhou, Meng-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant activation of DNA repair is frequently associated with tumor progression and response to therapy in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Bioinformatics analyses of HCC data in the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were performed to define DNA repair based molecular classification that could predict the prognosis of patients with HCC. Furthermore, we tested its predictive performance in 120 independent cases. Four molecular subgroups were identified on the basis of coordinate DNA repair cluster (CDRC) comprising 15 genes in TCGA dataset. Increasing expression of CDRC genes were significantly associated with TP53 mutation. High CDRC was significantly correlated with advanced tumor grades, advanced pathological stage and increased vascular invasion rate. Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that the molecular subgrouping was an independent prognostic parameter for both overall survival (p = 0.004, hazard ratio (HR): 2.989) and tumor-free survival (p = 0.049, HR: 3.366) in TCGA dataset. Similar results were also obtained by analyzing the independent cohort. These data suggest that distinct dysregulation of DNA repair constituents based molecular classes in HCC would be useful for predicting prognosis and designing clinical trials for targeted therapy. PMID:27174663

  3. Prognostic value of DNA repair based stratification of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhuo; Xu, Shi-Hao; Wang, Hai-Qing; Cai, Yi-Jing; Ying, Li; Song, Mei; Wang, Yu-Qun; Du, Shan-Jie; Shi, Ke-Qing; Zhou, Meng-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant activation of DNA repair is frequently associated with tumor progression and response to therapy in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Bioinformatics analyses of HCC data in the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were performed to define DNA repair based molecular classification that could predict the prognosis of patients with HCC. Furthermore, we tested its predictive performance in 120 independent cases. Four molecular subgroups were identified on the basis of coordinate DNA repair cluster (CDRC) comprising 15 genes in TCGA dataset. Increasing expression of CDRC genes were significantly associated with TP53 mutation. High CDRC was significantly correlated with advanced tumor grades, advanced pathological stage and increased vascular invasion rate. Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that the molecular subgrouping was an independent prognostic parameter for both overall survival (p = 0.004, hazard ratio (HR): 2.989) and tumor-free survival (p = 0.049, HR: 3.366) in TCGA dataset. Similar results were also obtained by analyzing the independent cohort. These data suggest that distinct dysregulation of DNA repair constituents based molecular classes in HCC would be useful for predicting prognosis and designing clinical trials for targeted therapy. PMID:27174663

  4. An Alternative Form of Replication Protein A Expressed in Normal Human Tissues Supports DNA Repair*

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Michael G.; Mason, Aaron C.; Carreira, Aura; Reardon, Joyce T.; Haring, Stuart J.; Borgstahl, Gloria E. O.; Kowalczykowski, Stephen C.; Sancar, Aziz; Wold, Marc S.

    2010-01-01

    Replication protein A (RPA) is a heterotrimeric protein complex required for a large number of DNA metabolic processes, including DNA replication and repair. An alternative form of RPA (aRPA) has been described in which the RPA2 subunit (the 32-kDa subunit of RPA and product of the RPA2 gene) of canonical RPA is replaced by a homologous subunit, RPA4. The normal function of aRPA is not known; however, previous studies have shown that it does not support DNA replication in vitro or S-phase progression in vivo. In this work, we show that the RPA4 gene is expressed in normal human tissues and that its expression is decreased in cancerous tissues. To determine whether aRPA plays a role in cellular physiology, we investigated its role in DNA repair. aRPA interacted with both Rad52 and Rad51 and stimulated Rad51 strand exchange. We also showed that, by using a reconstituted reaction, aRPA can support the dual incision/excision reaction of nucleotide excision repair. aRPA is less efficient in nucleotide excision repair than canonical RPA, showing reduced interactions with the repair factor XPA and no stimulation of XPF-ERCC1 endonuclease activity. In contrast, aRPA exhibits higher affinity for damaged DNA than canonical RPA, which may explain its ability to substitute for RPA in the excision step of nucleotide excision repair. Our findings provide the first direct evidence for the function of aRPA in human DNA metabolism and support a model for aRPA functioning in chromosome maintenance functions in nonproliferating cells. PMID:19996105

  5. A clickable psoralen to directly quantify DNA interstrand crosslinking and repair.

    PubMed

    Evison, Benjamin J; Actis, Marcelo L; Fujii, Naoaki

    2016-03-01

    DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) represent physical obstacles to advancing replication forks and transcription complexes. A range of ICL-inducing agents have successfully been incorporated into cancer therapeutics. While studies have adopted UVA-activated psoralens as model ICL-inducing agents for investigating ICL repair, direct detection of the lesion has often been tempered by tagging the psoralen scaffold with a relatively large reporter group that may perturb the biological activity of the parent psoralen. Here a minimally-modified psoralen probe was prepared featuring a small alkyne handle suitable for click chemistry. The psoralen probe, designated 8-propargyloxypsoralen (8-POP), can be activated by UVA in vitro to generate ICLs that are susceptible to post-labeling with an azide-tagged fluorescent reporter via a copper-catalyzed reaction. A modified alkaline comet assay demonstrated that UVA-activated 8-POP proficiently generated ICLs in cells. Cellular 8-POP-DNA lesions were amenable to click-mediated ligation to fluorescent reporters in situ, which permitted their detection and quantitation by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Small molecule DNA repair inhibitors to 8-POP-treated cells attenuated the removal of 8-POP-DNA lesions, validating 8-POP as an appropriate probe for investigating cellular ICL repair. The post-labeling strategy applied in this study is inexpensive, rapid and highly modular in nature with the potential for multiple applications in DNA repair studies. PMID:26833244

  6. GADD45α inhibition of DNMT1 dependent DNA methylation during homology directed DNA repair

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bongyong; Morano, Annalisa; Porcellini, Antonio; Muller, Mark T.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we examine regulation of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) by the DNA damage inducible protein, GADD45α. We used a system to induce homologous recombination (HR) at a unique double-strand DNA break in a GFP reporter in mammalian cells. After HR, the repaired DNA is hypermethylated in recombinant clones showing low GFP expression (HR-L expressor class), while in high expressor recombinants (HR-H clones) previous methylation patterns are erased. GADD45α, which is transiently induced by double-strand breaks, binds to chromatin undergoing HR repair. Ectopic overexpression of GADD45α during repair increases the HR-H fraction of cells (hypomethylated repaired DNA), without altering the recombination frequency. Conversely, silencing of GADD45α increases methylation of the recombined segment and amplifies the HR-L expressor (hypermethylated) population. GADD45α specifically interacts with the catalytic site of DNMT1 and inhibits methylation activity in vitro. We propose that double-strand DNA damage and the resulting HR process involves precise, strand selected DNA methylation by DNMT1 that is regulated by GADD45α. Since GADD45α binds with high avidity to hemimethylated DNA intermediates, it may also provide a barrier to spreading of methylation during or after HR repair. PMID:22135303

  7. Base excision repair: NMR backbone assignments of Escherichia coli formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase

    SciTech Connect

    Buchko, Garry W.; Wallace, Susan S.; Kennedy, Michael A.

    2002-03-01

    Oxidative damage is emerging as one of the most important mechanisms responsible for mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, aging, and various diseases (Farr and Kogma, 1991). One of the potential targets for oxidation is cellular DNA. While exposure to exogenous agents, such as ionizing radiation and chemicals, contributes to damaging DNA, the most important oxidative agents are endogenous, such as the reactive free radicals produced during normal oxidative metabolism (Adelman et., 1988). To mitigate the potentially deleterious effects of oxidative DNA damage virtually all aerobic organisms have developed complex repair mechanisms (Petit and Sancar, 1999). One repair mechanism, base excision repair (BER), appears to be responsible for replacing most oxidative DNA damage (David and Williams, 1998). Formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg), a 269-residue metalloprotein with a molecular weight of 30.2 kDa, is a key BER enzyme in prokaryotes (Boiteaux et al., 1987). Substrates recognized and released by Fpg include 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG), 2,6 diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamido pyrimidine (Fapy-G), the adenine equivalents 8-oxoA and Fapy-A, 5-hydroxycytosine, 5-hydroxyuracil, B ureidoisobutiric acid, and a-R-hydroxy-B-ureidoisobutiric acid (Freidberg et al., 1995). In vitro Fpg bind double-stranded DNA and performs three catalytic activities: (i) DNA glycosylase, (ii) AP lyase, and (iii) deoxyribophosphodiesterase.

  8. Spatiotemporal analysis of DNA repair using charged particle radiation.

    PubMed

    Tobias, F; Durante, M; Taucher-Scholz, G; Jakob, B

    2010-01-01

    Approaches to visualise the dynamics of the DNA lesion processing substantially contributes to the understanding of the hierarchical organisation of the DNA damage response pathways. Charged particle irradiation has recently emerged as a tool to generate discrete sites of subnuclear damage by its means of extremely localised dose deposition at low energies, thus facilitating the spatiotemporal analysis of repair events. In addition, they are of high interest for risk estimations of human space exploration (e.g. mars mission) in the high energy regime (HZE). In this short review we will give examples for the application of charged particle irradiation to study spatiotemporal aspects of DNA damage recognition and repair in the context of recent achievements in this field. Beamline microscopy allows determining the exact kinetics of repair-related proteins after irradiation with different charged particles that induce different lesion densities. The classification into fast recruited proteins like DNA-PK or XRCC1 or slower recruited ones like 53BP1 or MDC1 helps to establish the hierarchical organisation of damage recognition and subsequent repair events. Additionally, motional analysis of DNA lesions induced by traversing particles proved information about the mobility of DSBs. Increased mobility or the absence of large scale motion has direct consequences on the formation of chromosomal translocations and, thus, on mechanisms of cancer formation. Charged particle microbeams offer the interesting perspective of precise nuclear or subnuclear targeting with a defined number of ions, avoiding the Poisson distribution of traversals inherent to broad beam experiments. With the help of the microbeam, geometrical patterns of traversing ions can be applied facilitating the analysis of spatial organisation of repair. PMID:19944777

  9. DNA repair in spermatocytes and spermatids of the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Sega, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    When male mice are exposed to chemical agents that reach the germ cells several outcomes are possible in terms of the germ cell unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) response and removal of DNA adducts. It is possible that: the chemical binds to the DNA and induces a UDS response with concomittant removal of DNA adducts; the chemical binds to the DNA but no UDS response is induced; or the chemical does not bind to DNA and no UDS is induced. Many mutagens have been shown to induce a UDS response in postgonial germ cell stages of the male mouse up through midspermatids, but the relationship between this UDS and the repair of genetic damage within the germ cells is still unknown. While some mutagens appear to have an effect only in germ-cell stages where no UDS occurs, others are able to induce genetic damage in stages where UDS has been induced.

  10. Assays for DNA double-strand break repair by microhomology-based end-joining repair mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Kostyrko, Kaja; Mermod, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    DNA double stranded breaks (DSBs) are one of the most deleterious types of DNA lesions. The main pathways responsible for repairing these breaks in eukaryotic cells are homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). However, a third group of still poorly characterized DSB repair pathways, collectively termed microhomology-mediated end-joining (MMEJ), relies on short homologies for the end-joining process. Here, we constructed GFP reporter assays to characterize and distinguish MMEJ variant pathways, namely the simple MMEJ and the DNA synthesis-dependent (SD)-MMEJ mechanisms. Transfection of these assay vectors in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and characterization of the repaired DNA sequences indicated that while simple MMEJ is able to mediate relatively efficient DSB repair if longer microhomologies are present, the majority of DSBs were repaired using the highly error-prone SD-MMEJ pathway. To validate the involvement of DNA synthesis in the repair process, siRNA knock-down of different genes proposed to play a role in MMEJ were performed, revealing that the knock-down of DNA polymerase θ inhibited DNA end resection and repair through simple MMEJ, thus favoring the other repair pathway. Overall, we conclude that this approach provides a convenient assay to study MMEJ-related DNA repair pathways. PMID:26657630

  11. Involvement of DNA-PK(sub cs) in DSB Repair Following Fe-56 Ion Irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neill, Peter; Harper, Jane; Anderson, Jennifer a.; Cucinnota, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    When cells are exposed to radiation, cellular lesions are induced in the DNA including double strand breaks (DSBs), single strand breaks and clustered DNA damage, which if not repaired with high fidelity may lead to detrimental biological consequences. Complex DSBs are induced by ionizing radiation and characterized by the presence of base lesions close to the break termini. They are believed to be one of the major causes of the biological effects of IR. The complexity of DSBs increases with the ionization density of the radiation and these complex DSBs are distinct from the damage induced by sparsely ionizing gamma-radiation. It has been hypothesized that complex DSBs produced by heavy ions in space pose problems to the DNA repair machinery. We have used imm uno-cyto-chemical staining of phosphorylated histone H2AX (gamma-H2AX) foci, as a marker of DSBs. We have investigated the formation and loss of gamma-H2AX foci and RAD51 foci (a protein involved in the homologous recombination pathway) in mammalian cells induced by low fluences of low-LET gamma-radiation and high-LET Fe-56 ions (1GeV/n, 151 keV/micron LET). M059J and M059K cells, which are deficient and proficient in DNA-PK(sub cs) activity respectively, were used to examine the role of DNA-PK(sub cs), a key protein in the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway of DSB repair, along with HF19 human fibroblasts. Followi ng irradiation with Fe-56 ions the rate of repair was slower in M059J cells compared with that in M059K, indicating a role for DNA-PK(sub cs) in the repair of DSB induced by Fe-56 ions. However a small percentage of DSBs induced are rejoined within 5 h although many DSBs still persist up to 24 h. When RAD51 was examined in M059J/K cells, RAD51 foci are visible 24 hours after irradiation in approximately 40% of M059J cells compared with <5% of M059K cells indicating that persistent DSBs or those formed at stalled replication forks recruit RAD51 in DNA-PK(sub cs) deficient cells. Following 1 Gy gamma-radiation the induction of gamma-H2AX foci is similar in M059J and M059K cells. However, the repair rate of DSBs is slower in M059J cells than in M059K as shown previously but faster than seen with DSB induced by 56Fe ions. Vanillin, an inhibitor of DNA-PK(sub cs), reduces significantly the rate of DSB repair in HF19 cells following 1 Gy gamma-radiation but at 0.25 Gy gamma-irradiation the rate of DSB repair is similar in the presence or absence vanillin, thus suggesting the repair of a sub-set of DSBs induced by low dose, low-LET radiation does not require DNA-PK(sub cs). This sub-set of DSBs is formed in lower yield with high LET radiation. T he complexity of DNA DSBs induced by HZE radiation will be discussed in terms of reduced repair efficiency and provide scope to model different sub-classes of DSBs as precursors that may lead to the detrimental health effects of HZE radiation.

  12. Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes, recreational physical activity and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Lauren E; Santella, Regina M; Cleveland, Rebecca J; Millikan, Robert C; Olshan, Andrew F; North, Kari E; Bradshaw, Patrick T; Eng, Sybil M; Terry, Mary Beth; Shen, Jing; Crew, Katherine D; Rossner, Pavel; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Neugut, Alfred I; Gammon, Marilie D

    2014-02-01

    The mechanisms driving the inverse association between recreational physical activity (RPA) and breast cancer risk are complex. While exercise is associated with increased reactive oxygen species production it may also improve damage repair systems, particularly those that operate on single-strand breaks including base excision repair (BER), nucleotide excision repair (NER) and mismatch repair (MMR). Of these repair pathways, the role of MMR in breast carcinogenesis is least investigated. Polymorphisms in MMR or other DNA repair gene variants may modify the association between RPA and breast cancer incidence. We investigated the individual and joint effects of variants in three MMR pathway genes (MSH3, MLH1 and MSH2) on breast cancer occurrence using resources from the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project. We additionally characterized interactions between RPA and genetic polymorphisms in MMR, BER and NER pathways. We found statistically significant multiplicative interactions (p < 0.05) between MSH2 and MLH1, as well as between postmenopausal RPA and four variants in DNA repair (XPC-Ala499Val, XPF-Arg415Gln, XPG-Asp1104His and MLH1-lle219Val). Significant risk reductions were observed among highly active women with the common genotype for XPC (OR = 0.54; 95% CI, 0.36-0.81) and XPF (OR = 0.62; 95% CI, 0.44-0.87), as well as among active women who carried at least one variant allele in XPG (OR = 0.46; 95% CI, 0.29-0.77) and MLH1 (OR = 0.46; 95% CI, 0.30-0.71). Our data show that women with minor alleles in both MSH2 and MLH1 could be at increased breast cancer risk. RPA may be modified by genes in the DNA repair pathway, and merit further investigation. PMID:23852586

  13. Functional interplay between ATM/ATR-mediated DNA damage response and DNA repair pathways in oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Sorrell, Melanie; Berman, Zachary

    2014-01-01

    To maintain genome stability, cells have evolved various DNA repair pathways to deal with oxidative DNA damage. DNA damage response (DDR) pathways, including ATM-Chk2 and ATR-Chk1 checkpoints, are also activated in oxidative stress to coordinate DNA repair, cell cycle progression, transcription, apoptosis, and senescence. Several studies demonstrate that DDR pathways can regulate DNA repair pathways. On the other hand, accumulating evidence suggests that DNA repair pathways may modulate DDR pathway activation as well. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of how various DNA repair and DDR pathways are activated in response to oxidative DNA damage primarily from studies in eukaryotes. In particular, we analyze the functional interplay between DNA repair and DDR pathways in oxidative stress. A better understanding of cellular response to oxidative stress may provide novel avenues of treating human diseases, such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:24947324

  14. Cycling with BRCA2 from DNA repair to mitosis

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyunsook

    2014-11-15

    Genetic integrity in proliferating cells is guaranteed by the harmony of DNA replication, appropriate DNA repair, and segregation of the duplicated genome. Breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA2 is a unique tumor suppressor that is involved in all three processes. Hence, it is critical in genome maintenance. The functions of BRCA2 in DNA repair and homology-directed recombination (HDR) have been reviewed numerous times. Here, I will briefly go through the functions of BRCA2 in HDR and focus on the emerging roles of BRCA2 in telomere homeostasis and mitosis, then discuss how BRCA2 exerts distinct functions in a cell-cycle specific manner in the maintenance of genomic integrity. - Highlights: • BRCA2 is a multifaceted tumor suppressor and is crucial in genetic integrity. • BRCA2 exerts distinct functions in cell cycle-specific manner. • Mitotic kinases regulate diverse functions of BRCA2 in mitosis and cytokinesis.

  15. Density functional theory study of the reaction mechanism of the DNA repairing enzyme alkylguanine alkyltransferase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgieva, Polina; Himo, Fahmi

    2008-09-01

    The reaction mechanism of human O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) is studied using density functional theory. AGT repairs alkylated DNA by directly removing the alkyl group from the O6 position of the guanine. A quantum chemical model of the active site was devised based on the recent crystal structure of the AGT-DNA complex. The potential energy curve is calculated and the stationary points are characterized. It is concluded that the previously proposed reaction mechanism is energetically plausible. In this mechanism, His146 first acts as a water-mediated general base to activate Cys145, which then performs a nucleophilic attack to dealkylate the guanine base.

  16. Hybrid Approaches for Complex Parastomal Hernia Repair.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Heng; Xie, Jia-Ming; Miao, Jian-Qing; Wu, Hao-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Parastomal hernia is one of the major complications of colostomy with high occurrence. From October 2011 to November 2014, a retrospective study was conducted by analyzing and following up data of 16 patients suffering from parastomal hernia who underwent a hybrid technique repair. The safety and efficacy of the hybrid technique for parastomal hernia repair was investigated in terms of complications. All cases were operated successfully and had no major immediate postoperative complications other than mild abdominal pain in 5 cases. No long-term postoperative complications were reported in the follow-up. The authors found hybrid technique to be safe and effective for parastomal hernia repair with fewer complications. PMID:26787038

  17. Concepts and models for DNA repair: From Escherichia coli to mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hanawalt, P.C. )

    1989-01-01

    Much of our early understanding of the mechanisms of excision-repair and its roles in maintaining genome integrity and cellular viability was derived from studies with bacteria. In fact, the discoveries of damage excision and repair replication were made in ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated Escherichia coli. Recent advances in recombinant DNA technology have helped to further our understanding of the manner in which mammalian cells deal with damage in their complex genomes. These include the discovery that expressed genes may be preferentially repaired and, furthermore, that the transcribed DNA strand, for some types of damage, is selectively repaired within an active gene. The latter finding has now been documented in E. coli as well, so it is likely that it is of widespread importance as a mechanism to ensure the expression of active genes in otherwise damaged cells. It is certain that studies with bacterial systems as models will continue to have an important impact on the development of the field of mammalian DNA repair.

  18. Single-molecule fluorescence microscopy on nucleotide excision repair complexes using GFP fusion proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segers-Nolten, Ine; Rademakers, Suzanne; Vermeulen, Wim; Lenferink, Aufried; Otto, Cees; Hoeijmakers, Jan; Greve, Jan

    2000-12-01

    Scanning Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy is used for single molecule studies on DNA-protein complexes that occur in Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER). During DNA-damage elimination by the NER-pathway, complex protein structures assemble over DNA. It is our aim to resolve the architecture of these DNA-protein complexes and to study dynamic changes that occur in these structures. For this purpose NER- complexes are partly reconstituted onto DNA-substrates using NER-proteins fused to different Green Fluorescent Protein mutants. Here we describe the recombinant production of NER- GFP fusion proteins. Characterization of GFP fluorescence is shown together with results of GFP single molecule imaging. First results with NER-GFP fusion proteins are presented as well.

  19. Impact of DNA3'pp5'G capping on repair reactions at DNA 3' ends.

    PubMed

    Das, Ushati; Chauleau, Mathieu; Ordonez, Heather; Shuman, Stewart

    2014-08-01

    Many biological scenarios generate "dirty" DNA 3'-PO4 ends that cannot be sealed by classic DNA ligases or extended by DNA polymerases. The noncanonical ligase RtcB can "cap" these ends via a unique chemical mechanism entailing transfer of GMP from a covalent RtcB-GMP intermediate to a DNA 3'-PO4 to form DNA3'pp5'G. Here, we show that capping protects DNA 3' ends from resection by Escherichia coli exonucleases I and III and from end-healing by T4 polynucleotide 3' phosphatase. By contrast, the cap is an effective primer for DNA synthesis. E. coli DNA polymerase I and Mycobacterium DinB1 extend the DNAppG primer to form an alkali-labile DNApp(rG)pDNA product. The addition of dNTP depends on pairing of the cap guanine with an opposing cytosine in the template strand. Aprataxin, an enzyme implicated in repair of A5'pp5'DNA ends formed during abortive ligation by classic ligases, is highly effective as a DNA 3' decapping enzyme, converting DNAppG to DNA3'p and GMP. We conclude that the biochemical impact of DNA capping is to prevent resection and healing of a 3'-PO4 end, while permitting DNA synthesis, at the price of embedding a ribonucleotide and a pyrophosphate linkage in the repaired strand. Aprataxin affords a means to counter the impact of DNA capping. PMID:25049385

  20. Chromosomal directionality of DNA mismatch repair in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Hasan, A M Mahedi; Leach, David R F

    2015-07-28

    Defects in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) result in elevated mutagenesis and in cancer predisposition. This disease burden arises because MMR is required to correct errors made in the copying of DNA. MMR is bidirectional at the level of DNA strand polarity as it operates equally well in the 5' to 3' and the 3' to 5' directions. However, the directionality of MMR with respect to the chromosome, which comprises parental DNA strands of opposite polarity, has been unknown. Here, we show that MMR in Escherichia coli is unidirectional with respect to the chromosome. Our data demonstrate that, following the recognition of a 3-bp insertion-deletion loop mismatch, the MMR machinery searches for the first hemimethylated GATC site located on its origin-distal side, toward the replication fork, and that resection then proceeds back toward the mismatch and away from the replication fork. This study provides support for a tight coupling between MMR and DNA replication. PMID:26170312

  1. Oxidative DNA damage background estimated by a system model of base excision repair

    SciTech Connect

    Sokhansanj, B A; Wilson, III, D M

    2004-05-13

    Human DNA can be damaged by natural metabolism through free radical production. It has been suggested that the equilibrium between innate damage and cellular DNA repair results in an oxidative DNA damage background that potentially contributes to disease and aging. Efforts to quantitatively characterize the human oxidative DNA damage background level based on measuring 8-oxoguanine lesions as a biomarker have led to estimates varying over 3-4 orders of magnitude, depending on the method of measurement. We applied a previously developed and validated quantitative pathway model of human DNA base excision repair, integrating experimentally determined endogenous damage rates and model parameters from multiple sources. Our estimates of at most 100 8-oxoguanine lesions per cell are consistent with the low end of data from biochemical and cell biology experiments, a result robust to model limitations and parameter variation. Our results show the power of quantitative system modeling to interpret composite experimental data and make biologically and physiologically relevant predictions for complex human DNA repair pathway mechanisms and capacity.

  2. BRCA Mutations, DNA Repair Deficiency, and Ovarian Aging.

    PubMed

    Oktay, Kutluk; Turan, Volkan; Titus, Shiny; Stobezki, Robert; Liu, Lin

    2015-09-01

    Oocyte aging has a significant impact on reproductive outcomes both quantitatively and qualitatively. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the age-related decline in reproductive success have not been fully addressed. BRCA is known to be involved in homologous DNA recombination and plays an essential role in double-strand DNA break repair. Given the growing body of laboratory and clinical evidence, we performed a systematic review on the current understanding of the role of DNA repair in human reproduction. We find that BRCA mutations negatively affect ovarian reserve based on convincing evidence from in vitro and in vivo results and prospective studies. Because decline in the function of the intact gene occurs at an earlier age, women with BRCA1 mutations exhibit accelerated ovarian aging, unlike those with BRCA2 mutations. However, because of the still robust function of the intact allele in younger women and because of the masking of most severe cases by prophylactic oophorectomy or cancer, it is less likely one would see an effect of BRCA mutations on fertility until later in reproductive age. The impact of BRCA2 mutations on reproductive function may be less visible because of the delayed decline in the function of normal BRCA2 allele. BRCA1 function and ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM)-mediated DNA repair may also be important in the pathogenesis of age-induced increase in aneuploidy. BRCA1 is required for meiotic spindle assembly, and cohesion function between sister chromatids is also regulated by ATM family member proteins. Taken together, these findings strongly suggest the implication of BRCA and DNA repair malfunction in ovarian aging. PMID:26224004

  3. Classifying DNA repair genes by kernel-based support vector machines.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hao; Ching, Wai-Ki

    2011-01-01

    Human longevity is a complex phenotype that has a significant genetic predisposition. Like other biological processes, ageing process is governed through the regulation of signaling pathways and transcription factors. The DNA damage theory of ageing suggests that ageing is a consequence of un-repaired DNA damage accumulation. Intensive research has been carried out to elucidate the role of DNA repair systems in the ageing process. Decision Trees and Naive Bayesian Algorithm are two data-mining based classification methods for systematically analyzing data about human DNA repair genes. In this paper we develop a linearly combined kernel with Support Vector Machine (SVM) to analyze the ageing related data. The popular supervised learning algorithm enables better discrimination between ageing-related and non-ageing-related DNA repair genes. The linear combination of linear kernel and polynomial kernel of degree 3 in conjunction with SVM allows better classification accuracy in DNA repair gene data set. Compared to Decision Trees and Naive Bayesian Algorithm, SVM with the proposed kernel can achieve 65% AUC (Area Under ROC Curve) values, in contrast to 51.1% and 52.1% respectively. More importantly, we obtain 5 significant ageingrelated genes selected through the training on the whole data set and they are PCNA, PARP, APEX1, MLH1 and XRCC6. Different from the two methods, we can identify another important gene PCNA in the pathways the two methods targeted, while they failed to. And two novel genes PARP, MLH1 are selected as well. The two genes might provide potential insights for biologists in ageing research. SVM is a powerful and robust classification algorithm that can yield higher predictive accuracies. The selection of proper kernel plays a more important role in fulfilling the classification task. The important genes identified not only can target critical pathways related to ageing but also detected genes that may reveal possible related ageing biomarkers. PMID:22125395

  4. Low-Dose Formaldehyde Delays DNA Damage Recognition and DNA Excision Repair in Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Luch, Andreas; Frey, Flurina C. Clement; Meier, Regula; Fei, Jia; Naegeli, Hanspeter

    2014-01-01

    Objective Formaldehyde is still widely employed as a universal crosslinking agent, preservative and disinfectant, despite its proven carcinogenicity in occupationally exposed workers. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to understand the possible impact of low-dose formaldehyde exposures in the general population. Due to the concomitant occurrence of multiple indoor and outdoor toxicants, we tested how formaldehyde, at micromolar concentrations, interferes with general DNA damage recognition and excision processes that remove some of the most frequently inflicted DNA lesions. Methodology/Principal Findings The overall mobility of the DNA damage sensors UV-DDB (ultraviolet-damaged DNA-binding) and XPC (xeroderma pigmentosum group C) was analyzed by assessing real-time protein dynamics in the nucleus of cultured human cells exposed to non-cytotoxic (<100 μM) formaldehyde concentrations. The DNA lesion-specific recruitment of these damage sensors was tested by monitoring their accumulation at local irradiation spots. DNA repair activity was determined in host-cell reactivation assays and, more directly, by measuring the excision of DNA lesions from chromosomes. Taken together, these assays demonstrated that formaldehyde obstructs the rapid nuclear trafficking of DNA damage sensors and, consequently, slows down their relocation to DNA damage sites thus delaying the excision repair of target lesions. A concentration-dependent effect relationship established a threshold concentration of as low as 25 micromolar for the inhibition of DNA excision repair. Conclusions/Significance A main implication of the retarded repair activity is that low-dose formaldehyde may exert an adjuvant role in carcinogenesis by impeding the excision of multiple mutagenic base lesions. In view of this generally disruptive effect on DNA repair, we propose that formaldehyde exposures in the general population should be further decreased to help reducing cancer risks. PMID:24722772

  5. Diversity of Endonuclease V: From DNA Repair to RNA Editing

    PubMed Central

    Kuraoka, Isao

    2015-01-01

    Deamination of adenine occurs in DNA, RNA, and their precursors via a hydrolytic reaction and a nitrosative reaction. The generated deaminated products are potentially mutagenic because of their structural similarity to natural bases, which in turn leads to erroneous nucleotide pairing and subsequent disruption of cellular metabolism. Incorporation of deaminated precursors into the nucleic acid strand occurs during nucleotide synthesis by DNA and RNA polymerases or base modification by DNA- and/or RNA-editing enzymes during cellular functions. In such cases, removal of deaminated products from DNA and RNA by a nuclease might be required depending on the cellular function. One such enzyme, endonuclease V, recognizes deoxyinosine and cleaves 3' end of the damaged base in double-stranded DNA through an alternative excision repair mechanism in Escherichia coli, whereas in Homo sapiens, it recognizes and cleaves inosine in single-stranded RNA. However, to explore the role of endonuclease V in vivo, a detailed analysis of cell biology is required. Based on recent reports and developments on endonuclease V, we discuss the potential functions of endonuclease V in DNA repair and RNA metabolism. PMID:26404388

  6. A Genome-Scale DNA Repair RNAi Screen Identifies SPG48 as a Novel Gene Associated with Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia

    PubMed Central

    Słabicki, Mikołaj; Theis, Mirko; Krastev, Dragomir B.; Samsonov, Sergey; Mundwiller, Emeline; Junqueira, Magno; Paszkowski-Rogacz, Maciej; Teyra, Joan; Heninger, Anne-Kristin; Poser, Ina; Prieur, Fabienne; Truchetto, Jérémy; Confavreux, Christian; Marelli, Cécilia; Durr, Alexandra; Camdessanche, Jean Philippe; Brice, Alexis; Shevchenko, Andrej; Pisabarro, M. Teresa; Stevanin, Giovanni; Buchholz, Frank

    2010-01-01

    DNA repair is essential to maintain genome integrity, and genes with roles in DNA repair are frequently mutated in a variety of human diseases. Repair via homologous recombination typically restores the original DNA sequence without introducing mutations, and a number of genes that are required for homologous recombination DNA double-strand break repair (HR-DSBR) have been identified. However, a systematic analysis of this important DNA repair pathway in mammalian cells has not been reported. Here, we describe a genome-scale endoribonuclease-prepared short interfering RNA (esiRNA) screen for genes involved in DNA double strand break repair. We report 61 genes that influenced the frequency of HR-DSBR and characterize in detail one of the genes that decreased the frequency of HR-DSBR. We show that the gene KIAA0415 encodes a putative helicase that interacts with SPG11 and SPG15, two proteins mutated in hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP). We identify mutations in HSP patients, discovering KIAA0415/SPG48 as a novel HSP-associated gene, and show that a KIAA0415/SPG48 mutant cell line is more sensitive to DNA damaging drugs. We present the first genome-scale survey of HR-DSBR in mammalian cells providing a dataset that should accelerate the discovery of novel genes with roles in DNA repair and associated medical conditions. The discovery that proteins forming a novel protein complex are required for efficient HR-DSBR and are mutated in patients suffering from HSP suggests a link between HSP and DNA repair. PMID:20613862

  7. ESCRT III repairs nuclear envelope ruptures during cell migration to limit DNA damage and cell death.

    PubMed

    Raab, M; Gentili, M; de Belly, H; Thiam, H R; Vargas, P; Jimenez, A J; Lautenschlaeger, F; Voituriez, Raphaël; Lennon-Duménil, A M; Manel, N; Piel, M

    2016-04-15

    In eukaryotic cells, the nuclear envelope separates the genomic DNA from the cytoplasmic space and regulates protein trafficking between the two compartments. This barrier is only transiently dissolved during mitosis. Here, we found that it also opened at high frequency in migrating mammalian cells during interphase, which allowed nuclear proteins to leak out and cytoplasmic proteins to leak in. This transient opening was caused by nuclear deformation and was rapidly repaired in an ESCRT (endosomal sorting complexes required for transport)-dependent manner. DNA double-strand breaks coincided with nuclear envelope opening events. As a consequence, survival of cells migrating through confining environments depended on efficient nuclear envelope and DNA repair machineries. Nuclear envelope opening in migrating leukocytes could have potentially important consequences for normal and pathological immune responses. PMID:27013426

  8. DNA damage induction and repair inhibition among building construction workers in South India.

    PubMed

    Sellappa, Sudha; Prathyumnan, Shibily; Balachandar, Vellingiri

    2010-01-01

    Construction industry workers are exposed to many known carcinogens in their complex occupational environment. Since there are no past studies on genotoxicity among this group in the Indian subcontinent, workers engaged in different construction sites at Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India, were assessed here. We enrolled 96 workers and 68 control subjects with similar mean age, smoking, tobacco chewing prevalence and alcohol consumption, for analysis of DNA damage in blood leucocytes by micronucleus (MN) and comet assays. DNA repair inhibition was also analyzed by assessing the XPD gene. Construction workers showed a significant increase in MN and comet tail length compared to controls with adjustment for smoking habits, tobacco chewing, alcohol consumption and years of exposure (P<0.05). The results indicated that chronic occupational exposure to cement during construction work could lead to increased levels of DNA damage and repair inhibition. PMID:21133594

  9. p53 promotes repair of heterochromatin DNA by regulating JMJD2b and SUV39H1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hong; Chen, Lihong; Pledger, W. Jack; Fang, Jia; Chen, Jiandong

    2014-01-01

    Constitutive heterochromatin is important for maintaining chromosome stability but also delays the repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSB). DSB repair in complex mammalian genomes involves a fast phase (2–6 hrs) where most of the breaks are rapidly repaired, and a slow phase (up to 24 hrs) where the remaining damages in heterochromatin are repaired. We found that p53 deficiency delays the slow phase DNA repair after ionizing irradiation. P53 deficiency prevents down regulation of histone H3K9 trimethylation at pericentric heterochromatin after DNA damage. Moreover, p53 directly induces expression of the H3 K9 demethylase JMJD2b through promoter binding. P53 activation also indirectly down regulates expression of the H3 K9 methytransferase SUV39H1. Depletion of JMJD2b or sustained expression of SUV39H1 delays the repair of heterochromatin DNA and reduces clonogenic survival after ionizing irradiation. The results suggest that by regulating JMJD2b and SUV39H1 expression, p53 not only controls transcription but also promotes heterochromatin relaxation to accelerate a rate-limiting step in the repair of complex genomes. PMID:23376847

  10. A DNA-dependent protease involved in DNA-protein crosslink repair.

    PubMed

    Stingele, Julian; Schwarz, Michael S; Bloemeke, Nicolas; Wolf, Peter G; Jentsch, Stefan

    2014-07-17

    Toxic DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs) arise by ionizing irradiation and UV light, are particularly caused by endogenously produced reactive compounds such as formaldehyde, and also occur during compromised topoisomerase action. Although nucleotide excision repair and homologous recombination contribute to cell survival upon DPCs, hardly anything is known about mechanisms that target the protein component of DPCs directly. Here, we identify the metalloprotease Wss1 as being crucial for cell survival upon exposure to formaldehyde and topoisomerase 1-dependent DNA damage. Yeast mutants lacking Wss1 accumulate DPCs and exhibit gross chromosomal rearrangements. Notably, in vitro assays indicate that substrates such as topoisomerase 1 are processed by the metalloprotease directly and in a DNA-dependent manner. Thus, our data suggest that Wss1 contributes to survival of DPC-harboring cells by acting on DPCs proteolytically. We propose that DPC proteolysis enables repair of these unique lesions via downstream canonical DNA repair pathways. PMID:24998930

  11. DNA damage by reactive species: Mechanisms, mutation and repair.

    PubMed

    Jena, N R

    2012-07-01

    DNA is continuously attacked by reactive species that can affect its structure and function severely. Structural modifications to DNA mainly arise from modifications in its bases that primarily occur due to their exposure to different reactive species. Apart from this, DNA strand break, inter- and intra-strand crosslinks and DNA-protein crosslinks can also affect the structure of DNA significantly. These structural modifications are involved in mutation, cancer and many other diseases. As it has the least oxidation potential among all the DNA bases, guanine is frequently attacked by reactive species, producing a plethora of lethal lesions. Fortunately, living cells are evolved with intelligent enzymes that continuously protect DNA from such damages. This review provides an overview of different guanine lesions formed due to reactions of guanine with different reactive species. Involvement of these lesions in inter- and intra-strand crosslinks, DNA-protein crosslinks and mutagenesis are discussed. How certain enzymes recognize and repair different guanine lesions in DNA are also presented. PMID:22750987

  12. Targeting abnormal DNA repair in therapy-resistant breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, Lisa A.; Robert, Carine; Nagaria, Pratik; Chumsri, Saranya; Twaddell, William; Ioffe, Olga B.; Greco, George E.; Brodie, Angela H.; Tomkinson, Alan E.; Rassool, Feyruz V.

    2012-01-01

    Although hereditary breast cancers have defects in the DNA damage response that result in genomic instability, DNA repair abnormalities in sporadic breast cancers have not been extensively characterized. Recently we showed that, relative to non-tumorigenic breast epithelial MCF10A cells, estrogen receptor- and progesterone receptor-positive (ER/PR+) MCF7 breast cancer cells have reduced steady state levels of DNA ligase IV, a component of the major DNA-PK dependent non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway, whereas the steady state level of DNA ligase IIIα, a component of the highly error-prone alternative NHEJ (ALT NHEJ) pathway, is increased. Here we show that tamoxifen- and aromatase-resistant derivatives of MCF7 cells and ER/PR- cells have even higher steady state levels of DNA ligase IIIα and increased levels of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP1), another ALT NHEJ component. This results in increased dependence upon microhomology-mediated ALT NHEJ to repair DNA double strand breaks (DSB)s and the accumulation of chromosomal deletions. Notably, therapy-resistant derivatives of MCF7 cells and ER/PR- cells exhibited significantly increased sensitivity to a combination of PARP and DNA ligase III inhibitors that increased the number of DSBs. Biopsies from ER/PR- tumors had elevated levels of ALT NHEJ and reduced levels of DNA-PK-dependent NHEJ factors. Thus, our results show that ALT NHEJ is a novel therapeutic target in breast cancers that are resistant to frontline therapies and suggest that changes in NHEJ protein levels may serve as biomarkers to identify tumors that are candidates for this therapeutic approach. PMID:22112941

  13. Crystal Structure of the Human Hsmar1-Derived Transposase Domain in the DNA Repair Enzyme Metnase

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, Kristie D.; He, Hongzhen; Imasaki, Tsuyoshi; Lee, Suk-Hee; Georgiadis, Millie M.

    2010-08-12

    Although the human genome is littered with sequences derived from the Hsmar1 transposon, the only intact Hsmar1 transposase gene exists within a chimeric SET-transposase fusion protein referred to as Metnase or SETMAR. Metnase retains many of the transposase activities including terminal inverted repeat (TIR) specific DNA-binding activity, DNA cleavage activity, albeit uncoupled from TIR-specific binding, and the ability to form a synaptic complex. However, Metnase has evolved as a DNA repair protein that is specifically involved in nonhomologous end joining. Here, we present two crystal structures of the transposase catalytic domain of Metnase revealing a dimeric enzyme with unusual active site plasticity that may be involved in modulating metal binding. We show through characterization of a dimerization mutant, F460K, that the dimeric form of the enzyme is required for its DNA cleavage, DNA-binding, and nonhomologous end joining activities. Of significance is the conservation of F460 along with residues that we propose may be involved in the modulation of metal binding in both the predicted ancestral Hsmar1 transposase sequence as well as in the modern enzyme. The Metnase transposase has been remarkably conserved through evolution; however, there is a clustering of substitutions located in alpha helices 4 and 5 within the putative DNA-binding site, consistent with loss of transposition specific DNA cleavage activity and acquisition of DNA repair specific cleavage activity.

  14. DNA repair activity in fish and interest in ecotoxicology: a review.

    PubMed

    Kienzler, Aude; Bony, Sylvie; Devaux, Alain

    2013-06-15

    The knowledge of DNA repair in a target species is of first importance as it is the primary line of defense against genotoxicants, and a better knowledge of DNA repair capacity in fish could help to interpret genotoxicity data and/or assist in the choice of target species, developmental stage and tissues to focus on, both for environmental biomonitoring studies and DNA repair testing. This review focuses in a first part on what is presently known on a mechanistic basis, about the various DNA repair systems in fish, in vivo and in established cell lines. Data on base excision repair (BER), direct reversal with O⁶-alkylguanine transferase and double strand breaks repair, although rather scarce, are being reviewed, as well as nucleotide excision repair (NER) and photoreactivation repair (PER), which are by far the most studied repair mechanisms in fish. Most of these repair mechanisms seem to be strongly species and tissue dependent; they also depend on the developmental stage of the organisms. BER is efficient in vivo, although no data has been found on in vitro models. NER activity is quite low or even inexistent depending on the studies; however this lack is partly compensated by a strong PER activity, especially in early developmental stage. In a second part, a survey of the ecotoxicological studies integrating DNA repair as a parameter responding to single or mixture of contaminant is realized. Three main approaches are being used: the measurement of DNA repair gene expression after exposure, although it has not yet been clearly established whether gene expression is indicative of repair capacity; the monitoring of DNA damage removal by following DNA repair kinetics; and the modulation of DNA repair activity following exposure in situ, in order to assess the impact of exposure history on DNA repair capacity. Since all DNA repair processes are possible targets for environmental pollutants, we can also wonder at which extent such a modulation of repair capacities in fish could be the base for the development of new biomarkers of genotoxicity. Knowing the importance of the germ cell DNA integrity in the reproductive success of aquatic organisms, the DNA repair capacity of such cells deserve to be more studied, as well as DNA repair capacities of established fish cell lines. The limited amount of available data, which shows low/slow DNA repair capacities of fish cell lines compared with mammalian cell lines, concerned mainly the NER system; thus this point merits to be explored more deeply. Additionally, since some of the DNA repair systems appear more efficient in embryo larval stages, it would be of interest to consider embryonic cell lineages more closely. PMID:23571068

  15. DNA conformations in mismatch repair probed in solution by X-ray scattering from gold nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    Hura, Greg L.; Tsai, Chi-Lin; Claridge, Shelley A.; Mendillo, Marc L.; Smith, Jessica M.; Williams, Gareth J.; Mastroianni, Alexander J.; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Putnam, Christopher D.; Kolodner, Richard D.; Tainer, John A.

    2013-01-01

    DNA metabolism and processing frequently require transient or metastable DNA conformations that are biologically important but challenging to characterize. We use gold nanocrystal labels combined with small angle X-ray scattering to develop, test, and apply a method to follow DNA conformations acting in the Escherichia coli mismatch repair (MMR) system in solution. We developed a neutral PEG linker that allowed gold-labeled DNAs to be flash-cooled and stored without degradation in sample quality. The 1,000-fold increased gold nanocrystal scattering vs. DNA enabled investigations at much lower concentrations than otherwise possible to avoid concentration-dependent tetramerization of the MMR initiation enzyme MutS. We analyzed the correlation scattering functions for the nanocrystals to provide higher resolution interparticle distributions not convoluted by the intraparticle distribution. We determined that mispair-containing DNAs were bent more by MutS than complementary sequence DNA (csDNA), did not promote tetramer formation, and allowed MutS conversion to a sliding clamp conformation that eliminated the DNA bends. Addition of second protein responder MutL did not stabilize the MutS-bent forms of DNA. Thus, DNA distortion is only involved at the earliest mispair recognition steps of MMR: MutL does not trap bent DNA conformations, suggesting migrating MutL or MutS/MutL complexes as a conserved feature of MMR. The results promote a mechanism of mismatch DNA bending followed by straightening in initial MutS and MutL responses in MMR. We demonstrate that small angle X-ray scattering with gold labels is an enabling method to examine protein-induced DNA distortions key to the DNA repair, replication, transcription, and packaging. PMID:24101514

  16. DNA Repair and the Accumulation of Oxidatively Damaged DNA Are Affected by Fruit Intake in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Croteau, Deborah L.; de Souza-Pinto, Nadja C.; Harboe, Charlotte; Keijzers, Guido; Zhang, Yongqing; Becker, Kevin; Sheng, Shan

    2010-01-01

    AGING is associated with elevated oxidative stress and DNA damage. To achieve healthy aging, we must begin to understand how diet affects cellular processes. We postulated that fruit-enriched diets might initiate a program of enhanced DNA repair and thereby improve genome integrity. C57Bl/6 J mice were fed for 14 weeks a control diet or a diet with 8% peach or nectarine extract. The activities of DNA repair enzymes, the level of DNA damage, and gene expression changes were measured. Our study showed that repair of various oxidative DNA lesions was more efficient in liver extracts derived from mice fed fruit-enriched diets. In support of these findings, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis revealed that there was a decrease in the levels of formamidopyrimidines in peach-fed mice compared with the controls. Additionally, microarray analysis revealed that NTH1 was upregulated in peach-fed mice. Taken together, these results suggest that an increased intake of fruits might modulate the efficiency of DNA repair, resulting in altered levels of DNA damage. PMID:20847039

  17. DNA repair decline during mouse spermiogenesis results in the accumulation of heritable DNA damage

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, Francesco; Marchetti, Francesco; Wryobek, Andrew J

    2008-02-21

    The post-meiotic phase of mouse spermatogenesis (spermiogenesis) is very sensitive to the genomic effects of environmental mutagens because as male germ cells form mature sperm they progressively lose the ability to repair DNA damage. We hypothesized that repeated exposures to mutagens during this repair-deficient phase result in the accumulation of heritable genomic damage in mouse sperm that leads to chromosomal aberrations in zygotes after fertilization. We used a combination of single or fractionated exposures to diepoxybutane (DEB), a component of tobacco smoke, to investigate how differential DNA repair efficiencies during the three weeks of spermiogenesis affected the accumulation of DEB-induced heritable damage in early spermatids (21-15 days before fertilization, dbf), late spermatids (14-8 dbf) and sperm (7- 1 dbf). Analysis of chromosomalaberrations in zygotic metaphases using PAINT/DAPI showed that late spermatids and sperm are unable to repair DEB-induced DNA damage as demonstrated by significant increases (P<0.001) in the frequencies of zygotes with chromosomal aberrations. Comparisons between single and fractionated exposures suggested that the DNA repair-deficient window during late spermiogenesis may be less than two weeks in the mouse and that during this repair-deficient window there is accumulation of DNA damage in sperm. Finally, the dose-response study in sperm indicated a linear response for both single and repeated exposures. These findings show that the differential DNA repair capacity of post-meioitic male germ cells has a major impact on the risk of paternally transmitted heritable damage and suggest that chronic exposures that may occur in the weeks prior to fertilization because of occupational or lifestyle factors (i.e, smoking) can lead to an accumulation of genetic damage in sperm and result in heritable chromosomal aberrations of paternal origin.

  18. DNA Repair Decline During Mouse Spermiogenesis Results in the Accumulation of Heritable DNA Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, Francesco; Marchetti, Francesco; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

    2007-12-01

    The post-meiotic phase of mouse spermatogenesis (spermiogenesis) is very sensitive to the genomic effects of environmental mutagens because as male germ cells form mature sperm they progressively lose the ability to repair DNA damage. We hypothesized that repeated exposures to mutagens during this repair-deficient phase result in the accumulation of heritable genomic damage in mouse sperm that leads to chromosomal aberrations in zygotes after fertilization. We used a combination of single or fractionated exposures to diepoxybutane (DEB), a component of tobacco smoke, to investigate how differential DNA repair efficiencies during the three weeks of spermiogenesis affected the accumulation of DEB-induced heritable damage in early spermatids (21-15 days before fertilization, dbf), late spermatids (14-8 dbf) and sperm (7-1 dbf). Analysis of chromosomal aberrations in zygotic metaphases using PAINT/DAPI showed that late spermatids and sperm are unable to repair DEB-induced DNA damage as demonstrated by significant increases (P<0.001) in the frequencies of zygotes with chromosomal aberrations. Comparisons between single and fractionated exposures suggested that the DNA repair-deficient window during late spermiogenesis may be less than two weeks in the mouse and that during this repair-deficient window there is accumulation of DNA damage in sperm. Finally, the dose-response study in sperm indicated a linear response for both single and repeated exposures. These findings show that the differential DNA repair capacity of post-meioitic male germ cells has a major impact on the risk of paternally transmitted heritable damage and suggest that chronic exposures that may occur in the weeks prior to fertilization because of occupational or lifestyle factors (i.e, smoking) can lead to an accumulation of genetic damage in sperm and result in heritable chromosomal aberrations of paternal origin.

  19. Beyond DNA Repair: Additional Functions of PARP-1 in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Alice N.; Yang, Eddy S.

    2013-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) are DNA-dependent nuclear enzymes that transfer negatively charged ADP-ribose moieties from cellular nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide (NAD+) to a variety of protein substrates, altering protein–protein and protein-DNA interactions. The most studied of these enzymes is poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), which is an excellent therapeutic target in cancer due to its pivotal role in the DNA damage response. Clinical studies have shown susceptibility to PARP inhibitors in DNA repair defective cancers with only mild adverse side effects. Interestingly, additional studies are emerging which demonstrate a role for this therapy in DNA repair proficient tumors through a variety of mechanisms. In this review, we will discuss additional functions of PARP-1 – including regulation of inflammatory mediators, cellular energetics and death pathways, gene transcription, sex hormone- and ERK-mediated signaling, and mitosis – and the role these PARP-1-mediated processes play in oncogenesis, cancer progression, and the development of therapeutic resistance. As PARP-1 can act in both a pro- and anti-tumor manner depending on the context, it is important to consider the global effects of this protein in determining when, and how, to best use PARP inhibitors in anticancer therapy. PMID:24350055

  20. Mechanistic simulation of radiation damage to DNA and its repair: on the track towards systems radiation biology modelling.

    PubMed

    Friedland, W; Jacob, P; Kundrát, P

    2011-02-01

    The biophysical simulation code PARTRAC enables, by combining track structure calculations with DNA models on diverse genomic scales, prediction of DNA damage yields and patterns for various radiation qualities. To extend its applicability to later endpoints such as mutagenesis or cell killing, a continuative model for repair of radiation-induced double-strand break (DSB) via non-homologous end-joining has complemented the PARTRAC code by about 12 orders of magnitude on a temporal scale. The repair model describes step-by-step by the Monte Carlo method the attachment and dissociation of involved repair enzymes and diffusion motion of DNA ends. The complexity of initial DNA lesion patterns influences the repair kinetics and outcome via additional cleaning steps required for dirty DNA ends. Model parameters have been taken from measured attachment kinetics of repair enzymes and adaptation to DSB rejoining kinetics after gamma irradiation. Application of the DNA repair model to damage patterns following nitrogen ion irradiation and comparison with experimental results reveal the need for further model refinements. Nevertheless, already the present model represents a promising step towards systems modelling of cellular response to radiation. PMID:21131661

  1. Clinical Radiation Sensitivity with DNA Repair Disorders: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Julianne M.; Gatti, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    Adverse reactions to radiation therapy represent a confounding phenomenon in Radiation Oncology. These reactions are rare, and many have been associated with individuals with DNA repair disorders such as Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) and Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome (NBS). There is a paucity of literature detailing such circumstances. This overview describes four exemplary situations, a comprehensive list of 32 additional cases, and some insights gleaned from this overall experience. Fanconi Anemia was associated with over half of the reports. The lowest dose given to a patient that resulted in a reaction was 3 Gy, given to an A-T patient. Most patients died within months of exposure. It is clear that the patients discussed in this paper had complicated illnesses in addition to cancer, and the radiation therapy that administered was most likely their best option. However, the underlying DNA repair defects make conventional radiation therapy doses dangerous. Our review supports prior wisdom that radiation therapy should either be avoided, or doses should be selected with great care in the case of these radiosensitive genotypes which must be recognized with their characteristic phenotypes, until more rapid, reliable and functional assays of DNA repair become available. PMID:19616740

  2. Mitochondrial DNA repairs double-strand breaks in yeast chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Ricchetti, M; Fairhead, C; Dujon, B

    1999-11-01

    The endosymbiotic theory for the origin of eukaryotic cells proposes that genetic information can be transferred from mitochondria to the nucleus of a cell, and genes that are probably of mitochondrial origin have been found in nuclear chromosomes. Occasionally, short or rearranged sequences homologous to mitochondrial DNA are seen in the chromosomes of different organisms including yeast, plants and humans. Here we report a mechanism by which fragments of mitochondrial DNA, in single or tandem array, are transferred to yeast chromosomes under natural conditions during the repair of double-strand breaks in haploid mitotic cells. These repair insertions originate from noncontiguous regions of the mitochondrial genome. Our analysis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial genome indicates that the yeast nuclear genome does indeed contain several short sequences of mitochondrial origin which are similar in size and composition to those that repair double-strand breaks. These sequences are located predominantly in non-coding regions of the chromosomes, frequently in the vicinity of retrotransposon long terminal repeats, and appear as recent integration events. Thus, colonization of the yeast genome by mitochondrial DNA is an ongoing process. PMID:10573425

  3. Clinical Radiation Sensitivity With DNA Repair Disorders: An Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Pollard, Julianne M.; Gatti, Richard A.

    2009-08-01

    Adverse reactions to radiotherapy represent a confounding phenomenon in radiation oncology. These reactions are rare, and many have been associated with individuals with DNA repair disorders such as ataxia-telangiectasia and Nijmegen Breakage syndrome. A paucity of published data is available detailing such circumstances. This overview describes four exemplary situations, a comprehensive list of 32 additional cases, and some insights gleaned from this overall experience. Fanconi anemia was associated with more than one-half of the reports. The lowest dose given to a patient that resulted in a reaction was 3 Gy, given to an ataxia-telangiectasia patient. Most patients died within months of exposure. It is clear that the patients discussed in this report had complicated illnesses, in addition to cancer, and the radiotherapy administered was most likely their best option. However, the underlying DNA repair defects make conventional radiation doses dangerous. Our findings support previous wisdom that radiotherapy should either be avoided or the doses should be selected with great care in the case of these radiosensitive genotypes, which must be recognized by their characteristic phenotypes, until more rapid, reliable, and functional assays of DNA repair become available.

  4. DNA repair inhibition by UVA photoactivated fluoroquinolones and vemurafenib.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Matthew; Brem, Reto; Macpherson, Peter; Karran, Peter

    2014-12-16

    Cutaneous photosensitization is a common side effect of drug treatment and can be associated with an increased skin cancer risk. The immunosuppressant azathioprine, the fluoroquinolone antibiotics and vemurafenib-a BRAF inhibitor used to treat metastatic melanoma-are all recognized clinical photosensitizers. We have compared the effects of UVA radiation on cultured human cells treated with 6-thioguanine (6-TG, a DNA-embedded azathioprine surrogate), the fluoroquinolones ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin and vemurafenib. Despite widely different structures and modes of action, each of these drugs potentiated UVA cytotoxicity. UVA photoactivation of 6-TG, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin was associated with the generation of singlet oxygen that caused extensive protein oxidation. In particular, these treatments were associated with damage to DNA repair proteins that reduced the efficiency of nucleotide excision repair. Although vemurafenib was also highly phototoxic to cultured cells, its effects were less dependent on singlet oxygen. Highly toxic combinations of vemurafenib and UVA caused little protein carbonylation but were nevertheless inhibitory to nucleotide excision repair. Thus, for three different classes of drugs, photosensitization by at least two distinct mechanisms is associated with reduced protection against potentially mutagenic and carcinogenic DNA damage. PMID:25414333

  5. Akt-mediated phosphorylation of XLF impairs non-homologous end-joining DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pengda; Gan, Wenjian; Guo, Chunguang; Xie, Anyong; Gao, Daming; Guo, Jianping; Zhang, Jinfang; Willis, Nicholas; Su, Arthur; Asara, John M; Scully, Ralph; Wei, Wenyi

    2015-02-19

    Deficiency in repair of damaged DNA leads to genomic instability and is closely associated with tumorigenesis. Most DNA double-strand-breaks (DSBs) are repaired by two major mechanisms, homologous-recombination (HR) and non-homologous-end-joining (NHEJ). Although Akt has been reported to suppress HR, its role in NHEJ remains elusive. Here, we report that Akt phosphorylates XLF at Thr181 to trigger its dissociation from the DNA ligase IV/XRCC4 complex, and promotes its interaction with 14-3-3β leading to XLF cytoplasmic retention, where cytosolic XLF is subsequently degraded by SCF(β-TRCP) in a CKI-dependent manner. Physiologically, upon DNA damage, XLF-T181E expressing cells display impaired NHEJ and elevated cell death. Whereas a cancer-patient-derived XLF-R178Q mutant, deficient in XLF-T181 phosphorylation, exhibits an elevated tolerance of DNA damage. Together, our results reveal a pivotal role for Akt in suppressing NHEJ and highlight the tight connection between aberrant Akt hyper-activation and deficiency in timely DSB repair, leading to genomic instability and tumorigenesis. PMID:25661488

  6. Sp1 facilitates DNA double-strand break repair through a nontranscriptional mechanism.

    PubMed

    Beishline, Kate; Kelly, Crystal M; Olofsson, Beatrix A; Koduri, Sravanthi; Emrich, Jacqueline; Greenberg, Roger A; Azizkhan-Clifford, Jane

    2012-09-01

    Sp1 is a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor that is phosphorylated by ataxia telangiectasia mutated kinase (ATM) in response to ionizing radiation and H(2)O(2). Here, we show by indirect immunofluorescence that Sp1 phosphorylated on serine 101 (pSp1) localizes to ionizing radiation-induced foci with phosphorylated histone variant γH2Ax and members of the MRN (Mre11, Rad50, and Nbs1) complex. More precise analysis of occupancy of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) shows that Sp1, like Nbs1, resides within 200 bp of DSBs. Using laser microirradiation of cells, we demonstrate that pSp1 is present at DNA DSBs by 7.5 min after induction of damage and remains at the break site for at least 8 h. Depletion of Sp1 inhibits repair of site-specific DNA breaks, and the N-terminal 182-amino-acid peptide, which contains targets of ATM kinase but lacks the zinc finger DNA binding domain, is phosphorylated, localizes to DSBs, and rescues the repair defect resulting from Sp1 depletion. Together, these data demonstrate that Sp1 is rapidly recruited to the region immediately adjacent to sites of DNA DSBs and is required for DSB repair, through a mechanism independent of its sequence-directed transcriptional effects. PMID:22826432

  7. Akt-mediated Phosphorylation of XLF Impairs Non-homologous End Joining DNA Repair

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pengda; Gan, Wenjian; Guo, Chunguang; Xie, Anyong; Gao, Daming; Guo, Jianping; Zhang, Jinfang; Willis, Nicholas; Su, Arthur; Asara, John M.; Scully, Ralph; Wei, Wenyi

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Deficiency in repair of damaged DNA leads to genomic instability and is closely associated with tumorigenesis. Most DNA double-strand-breaks (DSBs) are repaired by two major mechanisms, homologous-recombination (HR) and non-homologous-end-joining (NHEJ). Although Akt has been reported to suppress HR, its role in NHEJ remains elusive. Here, we report that Akt phosphorylates XLF at Thr181 to trigger its dissociation from the DNA ligase IV/XRCC4 complex, and promotes its interaction with 14-3-3β leading to XLF cytoplasmic retention, where cytosolic XLF is subsequently degraded by SCFβ-TRCP in a CKI-dependent manner. Physiologically, upon DNA damage, XLF-T181E expressing cells display impaired NHEJ and elevated cell death. Whereas a cancer-patient-derived XLF-R178Q mutant, deficient in XLF-T181 phosphorylation, exhibits an elevated tolerance of DNA damage. Together, our results reveal a pivotal role for Akt in suppressing NHEJ and highlight the tight connection between aberrant Akt hyper-activation and deficiency in timely DSB repair, leading to genomic instability and tumorigenesis. PMID:25661488

  8. 8-Oxoguanine DNA glycosylase-1-mediated DNA repair is associated with Rho GTPase activation and ?-smooth muscle actin polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jixian; Hosoki, Koa; Bacsi, Attila; Radak, Zsolt; Hegde, Muralidhar L.; Sur, Sanjiv; Hazra, Tapas K.; Brasier, Allan R.; Ba, Xueqing; Boldogh, Istvan

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are activators of cell signaling and modify cellular molecules, including DNA. 8-Oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG) is one of the prominent lesions in oxidatively damaged DNA, whose accumulation is causally linked to various diseases and aging processes, whereas its etiological relevance is unclear. 8-OxoG is repaired by the 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase-1 (OGG1)-initiated DNA base excision repair (BER) pathway. OGG1 binds free 8-oxoG and this complex functions as an activator of Ras family GTPases. Here we examined whether OGG1-initiated BER is associated with the activation of Rho GTPase and mediates changes in the cytoskeleton. To test this possibility, we induced OGG1-initiated BER in cultured cells and mouse lungs and used molecular approaches such as active Rho pull-down assays, siRNA ablation of gene expression, immune blotting, and microscopic imaging. We found that OGG1 physically interacts with Rho GTPase and, in the presence of 8-oxoG base, increases RhoGTP levels in cultured cells and lungs, which mediates ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) polymerization into stress fibers and increases the level of ?-SMA in insoluble cellular/tissue fractions. These changes were absent in cells lacking OGG1. These unexpected data and those showing that 8-oxoG repair is a lifetime process suggest that, via Rho GTPase, OGG1 could be involved in the cytoskeletal changes and organ remodeling observed in various chronic diseases. PMID:24681335

  9. Detection of the early stage of recombinational DNA repair by silicon nanowire transistors.

    PubMed

    Chiesa, Marco; Cardenas, Paula P; Otón, Francisco; Martinez, Javier; Mas-Torrent, Marta; Garcia, Fernando; Alonso, Juan C; Rovira, Concepció; Garcia, Ricardo

    2012-03-14

    A silicon nanowire-based biosensor has been designed and applied for label-free and ultrasensitive detection of the early stage of recombinational DNA repair by RecA protein. Silicon nanowires transistors were fabricated by atomic force microscopy nanolithography and integrated into a microfluidic environment. The sensor operates by measuring the changes in the resistance of the nanowire as the biomolecular reactions proceed. We show that the nanoelectronic sensor can detect and differentiate several steps in the binding of RecA to a single-stranded DNA filament taking place on the nanowire-aqueous interface. We report relative changes in the resistance of 3.5% which are related to the interaction of 250 RecA·single-stranded DNA complexes. Spectroscopy data confirm the presence of the protein-DNA complexes on the functionalized silicon surfaces. PMID:22364265

  10. A cell cycle-associated pathway for repair of DNA-protein crosslinks in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Gantt, R

    1987-01-01

    Bulky adducts to DNA including DNA-protein crosslinks formed with trans-platinum(II)diammine-dichloride are repaired largely by the nucleotide excision pathway in mammalian cells. The discovery in this laboratory that cells deficient in nucleotide excision repair, i.e., SV40-virus transformed SV-XP20S cells, can efficiently repair DNA-protein crosslinks implicates a second pathway. In this report, details concerning this pathway are presented. DNA-protein crosslinks induced with 20 microM trans-platinum were assayed by the membrane alkaline elution procedure of Kohn. DNA replication was measured by CsCl gradient separation of newly synthesized DNA that had incorporated 5-bromodeoxyuridine. The following results indicate that this new repair pathway is associated with cell cycling: Whereas rapidly proliferating human cells deficient in excision repair (SV40 transformed XP20S, group A) are proficient in repair of DNA-protein crosslinks, the more slowly growing untransformed parent line is deficient but can complete repair after prolonged periods of 4-6 days, the approximate doubling time of the cell population. Either "used" culture medium or cycloheximide (1 microgram/ml) inhibits cell proliferation, protein synthesis, DNA replication and crosslink repair. In the presence of increasing concentrations of cycloheximide (0.01-5 micrograms/ml) the percent of DNA replication decreases and is essentially equivalent to the percent of crosslink repair. The following results indicate that this new repair pathway, though associated with cell cycling, is independent of DNA replication per se. The rates of DNA-protein crosslink repair and DNA replication are essentially the same in mouse L1210 cells rapidly proliferating in 20% serum supplement; however, to slower proliferation rates in 1% serum rate of crosslink repair is slower but differs from that of DNA replication. In the presence of aphidicolin (10 micrograms/ml) cells can repair DNA-protein crosslinks in virtually the complete absence of DNA replication, though the rate is slower in both nucleotide excision-proficient and -deficient cells. Thus, DNA replication is not essential for repair of DNA-protein crosslinks. Comparison of the kinetics of replication and DNA-protein crosslink repair of pulse-labeled indicates that, in the absence of metabolic inhibitors, repair of the crosslinks is independent of replication per se and, therefore, DNA recombination events are not involved in this repair process. We conclude, therefore, that the new repair pathway is not coupled with DNA replication but is with cell cycling. PMID:3025724

  11. Deficiency of the DNA repair protein nibrin increases the basal but not the radiation induced mutation frequency in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wessendorf, Petra; Vijg, Jan; Nussenzweig, André; Digweed, Martin

    2014-11-01

    Nibrin (NBN) is a member of a DNA repair complex together with MRE11 and RAD50. The complex is associated particularly with the repair of DNA double strand breaks and with the regulation of cell cycle check points. Hypomorphic mutation of components of the complex leads to human disorders characterised by radiosensitivity and increased tumour occurrence, particularly of the lymphatic system. We have examined here the relationship between DNA damage, mutation frequency and mutation spectrum in vitro and in vivo in mouse models carrying NBN mutations and a lacZ reporter plasmid. We find that NBN mutation leads to increased spontaneous DNA damage in fibroblasts in vitro and high basal mutation rates in lymphatic tissue of mice in vivo. The characteristic mutation spectrum is dominated by single base transitions rather than the deletions and complex rearrangements expected after abortive repair of DNA double strand breaks. We conclude that in the absence of wild type nibrin, the repair of spontaneous errors, presumably arising during DNA replication, makes a major contribution to the basal mutation rate. This applies also to cells heterozygous for an NBN null mutation. Mutation frequencies after irradiation in vivo were not increased in mice with nibrin mutations as might have been expected considering the radiosensitivity of NBS patient cells in vitro. Evidently apoptosis is efficient, even in the absence of wild type nibrin. PMID:25771721

  12. Structural insights into recognition and repair of UV-DNA damage by Spore Photoproduct Lyase, a radical SAM enzyme.

    PubMed

    Benjdia, Alhosna; Heil, Korbinian; Barends, Thomas R M; Carell, Thomas; Schlichting, Ilme

    2012-10-01

    Bacterial spores possess an enormous resistance to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. This is largely due to a unique DNA repair enzyme, Spore Photoproduct Lyase (SP lyase) that repairs a specific UV-induced DNA lesion, the spore photoproduct (SP), through an unprecedented radical-based mechanism. Unlike DNA photolyases, SP lyase belongs to the emerging superfamily of radical S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) enzymes and uses a [4Fe-4S](1+) cluster and SAM to initiate the repair reaction. We report here the first crystal structure of this enigmatic enzyme in complex with its [4Fe-4S] cluster and its SAM cofactor, in the absence and presence of a DNA lesion, the dinucleoside SP. The high resolution structures provide fundamental insights into the active site, the DNA lesion recognition and binding which involve a β-hairpin structure. We show that SAM and a conserved cysteine residue are perfectly positioned in the active site for hydrogen atom abstraction from the dihydrothymine residue of the lesion and donation to the α-thyminyl radical moiety, respectively. Based on structural and biochemical characterizations of mutant proteins, we substantiate the role of this cysteine in the enzymatic mechanism. Our structure reveals how SP lyase combines specific features of radical SAM and DNA repair enzymes to enable a complex radical-based repair reaction to take place. PMID:22761404

  13. Repairing of N-mustard derivative BO-1055 induced DNA damage requires NER, HR, and MGMT-dependent DNA repair mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ching-Ying; Chou, Wen-Cheng; Wu, Chin-Chung; Wong, Teng-Song; Kakadiya, Rajesh; Lee, Te-Chang; Su, Tsann-Long; Wang, Hui-Chun

    2015-09-22

    Alkylating agents are frequently used as first-line chemotherapeutics for various newly diagnosed cancers. Disruption of genome integrity by such agents can lead to cell lethality if DNA lesions are not removed. Several DNA repair mechanisms participate in the recovery of mono- or bi-functional DNA alkylation. Thus, DNA repair capacity is correlated with the therapeutic response. Here, we assessed the function of novel water-soluble N-mustard BO-1055 (ureidomustin) in DNA damage response and repair mechanisms. As expected, BO-1055 induces ATM and ATR-mediated DNA damage response cascades, including downstream Chk1/Chk2 phosphorylation, S/G2 cell-cycle arrest, and cell death. Further investigation revealed that cell survival sensitivity to BO-1055 is comparable to that of mitomycin C. Both compounds require nucleotide excision repair and homologous recombination, but not non-homologous end-joining, to repair conventional cross-linking DNA damage. Interestingly and unlike mitomycin C and melphalan, MGMT activity was also observed in BO-1055 damage repair systems, which reflects the occurrence of O-alkyl DNA lesions. Combined treatment with ATM/ATR kinase inhibitors significantly increases BO-1055 sensitivity. Our study pinpoints that BO-1055 can be used for treating tumors that with deficient NER, HR, and MGMT DNA repair genes, or for synergistic therapy in tumors that DNA damage response have been suppressed. PMID:26208482

  14. Repairing of N-mustard derivative BO-1055 induced DNA damage requires NER, HR, and MGMT-dependent DNA repair mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chin-Chung; Wong, Teng-Song; Kakadiya, Rajesh; Lee, Te-Chang; Su, Tsann-Long; Wang, Hui-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Alkylating agents are frequently used as first-line chemotherapeutics for various newly diagnosed cancers. Disruption of genome integrity by such agents can lead to cell lethality if DNA lesions are not removed. Several DNA repair mechanisms participate in the recovery of mono- or bi-functional DNA alkylation. Thus, DNA repair capacity is correlated with the therapeutic response. Here, we assessed the function of novel water-soluble N-mustard BO-1055 (ureidomustin) in DNA damage response and repair mechanisms. As expected, BO-1055 induces ATM and ATR-mediated DNA damage response cascades, including downstream Chk1/Chk2 phosphorylation, S/G2 cell-cycle arrest, and cell death. Further investigation revealed that cell survival sensitivity to BO-1055 is comparable to that of mitomycin C. Both compounds require nucleotide excision repair and homologous recombination, but not non-homologous end-joining, to repair conventional cross-linking DNA damage. Interestingly and unlike mitomycin C and melphalan, MGMT activity was also observed in BO-1055 damage repair systems, which reflects the occurrence of O-alkyl DNA lesions. Combined treatment with ATM/ATR kinase inhibitors significantly increases BO-1055 sensitivity. Our study pinpoints that BO-1055 can be used for treating tumors that with deficient NER, HR, and MGMT DNA repair genes, or for synergistic therapy in tumors that DNA damage response have been suppressed. PMID:26208482

  15. Structural Complexity of DNA Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Liou, Cheng-Yuan; Cheng, Wei-Chen; Tsai, Huai-Ying

    2013-01-01

    In modern bioinformatics, finding an efficient way to allocate sequence fragments with biological functions is an important issue. This paper presents a structural approach based on context-free grammars extracted from original DNA or protein sequences. This approach is radically different from all those statistical methods. Furthermore, this approach is compared with a topological entropy-based method for consistency and difference of the complexity results. PMID:23662161

  16. Ago2 facilitates Rad51 recruitment and DNA double-strand break repair by homologous recombination.

    PubMed

    Gao, Min; Wei, Wei; Li, Ming-Ming; Wu, Yong-Sheng; Ba, Zhaoqing; Jin, Kang-Xuan; Li, Miao-Miao; Liao, You-Qi; Adhikari, Samir; Chong, Zechen; Zhang, Ting; Guo, Cai-Xia; Tang, Tie-Shan; Zhu, Bing-Tao; Xu, Xing-Zhi; Mailand, Niels; Yang, Yun-Gui; Qi, Yijun; Rendtlew Danielsen, Jannie M

    2014-05-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are highly cytotoxic lesions and pose a major threat to genome stability if not properly repaired. We and others have previously shown that a class of DSB-induced small RNAs (diRNAs) is produced from sequences around DSB sites. DiRNAs are associated with Argonaute (Ago) proteins and play an important role in DSB repair, though the mechanism through which they act remains unclear. Here, we report that the role of diRNAs in DSB repair is restricted to repair by homologous recombination (HR) and that it specifically relies on the effector protein Ago2 in mammalian cells. Interestingly, we show that Ago2 forms a complex with Rad51 and that the interaction is enhanced in cells treated with ionizing radiation. We demonstrate that Rad51 accumulation at DSB sites and HR repair depend on catalytic activity and small RNA-binding capability of Ago2. In contrast, DSB resection as well as RPA and Mre11 loading is unaffected by Ago2 or Dicer depletion, suggesting that Ago2 very likely functions directly in mediating Rad51 accumulation at DSBs. Taken together, our findings suggest that guided by diRNAs, Ago2 can promote Rad51 recruitment and/or retention at DSBs to facilitate repair by HR. PMID:24662483

  17. Electron trap for DNA-bound repair enzymes: a strategy for DNA-mediated signaling.

    PubMed

    Yavin, Eylon; Stemp, Eric D A; O'shea, Valerie L; David, Sheila S; Barton, Jacqueline K

    2006-03-01

    Despite a low copy number within the cell, base excision repair (BER) enzymes readily detect DNA base lesions and mismatches. These enzymes also contain [Fe4S4] clusters, yet a redox role for these iron cofactors had been unclear. Here, we provide evidence that BER proteins may use DNA-mediated redox chemistry as part of a signaling mechanism to detect base lesions. By using chemically modified bases, we show electron trapping on DNA in solution with bound BER enzymes by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. We demonstrate electron transfer from two BER proteins, Endonuclease III (EndoIII) and MutY, to modified bases in DNA containing oxidized nitroxyl radical EPR probes. Electron trapping requires that the modified base is coupled to the DNA pi-stack, and trapping efficiency is increased when a noncleavable MutY substrate analogue is located distally to the trap. These results are consistent with DNA binding leading to the activation of the repair proteins toward oxidation. Significantly, these results support a mechanism for DNA repair that involves DNA-mediated charge transport. PMID:16505354

  18. The COP9 signalosome is vital for timely repair of DNA double-strand breaks

    PubMed Central

    Meir, Michal; Galanty, Yaron; Kashani, Lior; Blank, Michael; Khosravi, Rami; Fernández-Ávila, María Jesús; Cruz-García, Andrés; Star, Ayelet; Shochot, Lea; Thomas, Yann; Garrett, Lisa J.; Chamovitz, Daniel A.; Bodine, David M.; Kurz, Thimo; Huertas, Pablo; Ziv, Yael; Shiloh, Yosef

    2015-01-01

    The DNA damage response is vigorously activated by DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The chief mobilizer of the DSB response is the ATM protein kinase. We discovered that the COP9 signalosome (CSN) is a crucial player in the DSB response and an ATM target. CSN is a protein complex that regulates the activity of cullin ring ubiquitin ligase (CRL) complexes by removing the ubiquitin-like protein, NEDD8, from their cullin scaffold. We find that the CSN is physically recruited to DSB sites in a neddylation-dependent manner, and is required for timely repair of DSBs, affecting the balance between the two major DSB repair pathways—nonhomologous end-joining and homologous recombination repair (HRR). The CSN is essential for the processivity of deep end-resection—the initial step in HRR. Cullin 4a (CUL4A) is recruited to DSB sites in a CSN- and neddylation-dependent manner, suggesting that CSN partners with CRL4 in this pathway. Furthermore, we found that ATM-mediated phosphorylation of CSN subunit 3 on S410 is critical for proper DSB repair, and that loss of this phosphorylation site alone is sufficient to cause a DDR deficiency phenotype in the mouse. This novel branch of the DSB response thus significantly affects genome stability. PMID:25855810

  19. Inter-individual variation in DNA repair capacity: a need for multi-pathway functional assays to promote translational DNA repair research.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Zachary D; Chaim, Isaac A; Samson, Leona D

    2014-07-01

    Why does a constant barrage of DNA damage lead to disease in some individuals, while others remain healthy? This article surveys current work addressing the implications of inter-individual variation in DNA repair capacity for human health, and discusses the status of DNA repair assays as potential clinical tools for personalized prevention or treatment of disease. In particular, we highlight research showing that there are significant inter-individual variations in DNA repair capacity (DRC), and that measuring these differences provides important biological insight regarding disease susceptibility and cancer treatment efficacy. We emphasize work showing that it is important to measure repair capacity in multiple pathways, and that functional assays are required to fill a gap left by genome wide association studies, global gene expression and proteomics. Finally, we discuss research that will be needed to overcome barriers that currently limit the use of DNA repair assays in the clinic. PMID:24780560

  20. Inter-individual variation in DNA repair capacity: a need for multi-pathway functional assays to promote translational DNA repair research.

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Zachary D.; Chaim, Isaac. A.; Samson, Leona D.

    2014-01-01

    Why does a constant barrage of DNA damage lead to disease in some individuals, while others remain healthy? This article surveys current work addressing the implications of inter-individual variation in DNA repair capacity for human health, and discusses the status of DNA repair assays as potential clinical tools for personalized prevention or treatment of disease. In particular, we highlight research showing that there are significant inter-individual variations in DNA Repair Capacity (DRC), and that measuring these differences provides important biological insight regarding disease susceptibility and cancer treatment efficacy. We emphasize work showing that it is important to measure repair capacity in multiple pathways, and that functional assays are required to fill a gap left by genome wide association studies, global gene expression and proteomics. Finally, we discuss research that will be needed to overcome barriers that currently limit the use of DNA repair assays in the clinic. PMID:24780560

  1. Resection is a major repair pathway of heavy ion-induced DNA lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durante, Marco; Averbeck, Nicole; Taucher-Scholz, Gisela

    Space radiation include densely ionizing heavy ions, which can produce clustered DNA damage with high frequency in human cells. Repair of these complex lesions is generally assumed to be more difficult than for simple double-strand breaks. We show here that human cells use break resection with increasing frequency after exposure to heavy ions. Resection can lead to misrepair of the DNA lesion, via microhomology mediated end-joining. Resection can therefore be responsible for the increased effectiveness of heavy ions in the induction of mutations and genetic late effects.

  2. DNA-mediated transfer of a human DNA repair gene that controls sister chromatid exchange.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, L H; Brookman, K W; Minkler, J L; Fuscoe, J C; Henning, K A; Carrano, A V

    1985-01-01

    The Chinese hamster cell line mutant EM9, which has a reduced ability to repair DNA strand breaks, is noted for its highly elevated frequency of sister chromatid exchange, a property shared with cells from individuals with Bloom's syndrome. The defect in EM9 cells was corrected by fusion hybridization with normal human fibroblasts and by transfection with DNA from hybrid cells. The transformants showed normalization of sister chromatid exchange frequency but incomplete correction of the repair defect in terms of chromosomal aberrations produced by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine. Images PMID:3990694

  3. Structure determination of uracil-DNA N-glycosylase from Deinococcus radiodurans in complex with DNA.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Hege Lynum; Johnson, Kenneth A; McVey, Colin E; Leiros, Ingar; Moe, Elin

    2015-10-01

    Uracil-DNA N-glycosylase (UNG) is a DNA-repair enzyme in the base-excision repair (BER) pathway which removes uracil from DNA. Here, the crystal structure of UNG from the extremophilic bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans (DrUNG) in complex with DNA is reported at a resolution of 1.35 Å. Prior to the crystallization experiments, the affinity between DrUNG and different DNA oligonucleotides was tested by electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs). As a result of this analysis, two 16 nt double-stranded DNAs were chosen for the co-crystallization experiments, one of which (16 nt AU) resulted in well diffracting crystals. The DNA in the co-crystal structure contained an abasic site (substrate product) flipped into the active site of the enzyme, with no uracil in the active-site pocket. Despite the high resolution, it was not possible to fit all of the terminal nucleotides of the DNA complex into electron density owing to disorder caused by a lack of stabilizing interactions. However, the DNA which was in contact with the enzyme, close to the active site, was well ordered and allowed detailed analysis of the enzyme-DNA interaction. The complex revealed that the interaction between DrUNG and DNA is similar to that in the previously determined crystal structure of human UNG (hUNG) in complex with DNA [Slupphaug et al. (1996). Nature (London), 384, 87-92]. Substitutions in a (here defined) variable part of the leucine loop result in a shorter loop (eight residues instead of nine) in DrUNG compared with hUNG; regardless of this, it seems to fulfil its role and generate a stabilizing force with the minor groove upon flipping out of the damaged base into the active site. The structure also provides a rationale for the previously observed high catalytic efficiency of DrUNG caused by high substrate affinity by demonstrating an increased number of long-range electrostatic interactions between the enzyme and the DNA. Interestingly, specific interactions between residues in the N-terminus of a symmetry-related molecule and the complementary DNA strand facing away from the active site were also observed which seem to stabilize the enzyme-DNA complex. However, the significance of this observation remains to be investigated. The results provide new insights into the current knowledge about DNA damage recognition and repair by uracil-DNA glycosylases. PMID:26457437

  4. SUMO-mediated regulation of DNA damage repair and responses

    PubMed Central

    Sarangi, Prabha; Zhao, Xiaolan

    2015-01-01

    Sumoylation plays important roles during DNA damage repair and responses. Recent broad-scope and substrate-based studies have shed light on the regulation and significance of sumoylation during these processes. An emerging paradigm is that sumoylation of many DNA metabolism proteins is controlled by DNA engagement. Such “on-site modification” can explain low substrate modification levels and has important implications in sumoylation mechanisms and effects. New studies also suggest that sumoylation can regulate a process through an ensemble effect or via major substrates. Additionally, we describe new trends in the functional effects of sumoylation, such as bi-directional changes in biomolecule binding and multi-level coordination with other modifications. These emerging themes and models will stimulate our thinking and research in sumoylation and genome maintenance. PMID:25778614

  5. Disruption of Maternal DNA Repair Increases Sperm-DerivedChromosomal Aberrations

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, Francesco; Essers, Jeroun; Kanaar, Roland; Wyrobek,Andrew J.

    2007-02-07

    The final weeks of male germ cell differentiation occur in aDNA repair-deficient environment and normal development depends on theability of the egg to repair DNA damage in the fertilizing sperm. Geneticdisruption of maternal DNA double-strand break repair pathways in micesignificantly increased the frequency of zygotes with chromosomalstructural aberrations after paternal exposure to ionizing radiation.These findings demonstrate that radiation-induced DNA sperm lesions arerepaired after fertilization by maternal factors and suggest that geneticvariation in maternal DNA repair can modulate the risk of early pregnancylosses and of children with chromosomal aberrations of paternalorigin.

  6. High mobility group (HMG) proteins: Modulators of chromatin structure and DNA repair in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Raymond

    2015-12-01

    It has been almost a decade since the last review appeared comparing and contrasting the influences that the different families of High Mobility Group proteins (HMGA, HMGB and HMGN) have on the various DNA repair pathways in mammalian cells. During that time considerable progress has been made in our understanding of how these non-histone proteins modulate the efficiency of DNA repair by all of the major cellular pathways: nucleotide excision repair, base excision repair, double-stand break repair and mismatch repair. Although there are often similar and over-lapping biological activities shared by all HMG proteins, members of each of the different families appear to have a somewhat 'individualistic' impact on various DNA repair pathways. This review will focus on what is currently known about the roles that different HMG proteins play in DNA repair processes and discuss possible future research areas in this rapidly evolving field. PMID:26411874

  7. Interplay between DNA repair and inflammation, and the link to cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kidane, Dawit; Chae, Wook Jin; Czochor, Jennifer; Eckert, Kristin A.; Glazer, Peter M.; Bothwell, Alfred L. M.; Sweasy, Joann B.

    2015-01-01

    DNA damage and repair are linked to cancer. DNA damage that is induced endogenously or from exogenous sources has the potential to result in mutations and genomic instability if not properly repaired, eventually leading to cancer. Inflammation is also linked to cancer. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONs) produced by inflammatory cells at sites of infection can induce DNA damage. RONs can also amplify inflammatory responses, leading to increased DNA damage. Here, we focus on the links between DNA damage, repair, and inflammation, as they relate to cancer. We examine the interplay between chronic inflammation, DNA damage and repair and review recent findings in this rapidly emerging field, including the links between DNA damage and the innate immune system, and the roles of inflammation in altering the microbiome, which subsequently leads to the induction of DNA damage in the colon. Mouse models of defective DNA repair and inflammatory control are extensively reviewed, including treatment of mouse models with pathogens, which leads to DNA damage. The roles of microRNAs in regulating inflammation and DNA repair are discussed. Importantly, DNA repair and inflammation are linked in many important ways, and in some cases balance each other to maintain homeostasis. The failure to repair DNA damage or to control inflammatory responses has the potential to lead to cancer. PMID:24410153

  8. Ultraviolet radiation-induced non-melanoma skin cancer: Regulation of DNA damage repair and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young; He, Yu-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is associated with approximately 65% of melanoma cases, and 90% of non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC), including basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). While the incidence of most other malignancies has either stabilized or declined, that of NMSC has increased and is developing even in younger age groups. NMSCs account for nearly 15,000 deaths, 3.5 million new cases, and more than 3 billion dollars a year in medical costs in the United States alone, representing a major public health concern. As sun protection efforts have not been proven effective, targeted chemoprevention strategies are much needed. Skin carcinogenesis by DNA damage is considered a predominant paradigm for UV toxicity. Exposure to UV radiation can activate various oncogenes while inactivating tumor suppressor genes, resulting in inappropriate survival and proliferation of keratinocytes that harbor these damages. Moreover, increasing evidence demonstrate that inflammatory responses by the immune cells within the tumor microenvironment also contribute significantly to skin tumorigenesis. Initiation and progression of skin carcinogenesis mediated by UV radiation involve complex pathways, including those of apoptosis, proliferation, autophagy, DNA repair, checkpoint signaling, metabolism, and inflammation. In this review, we highlight the recent advances in two of these key molecular processes that result in UV-mediated skin carcinogenesis. In particular, we discuss 1) pathways that regulate DNA damage repair and 2) the regulation of the inflammatory process its crosstalk with DNA repair potentially leading to non-melanoma skin carcinogenesis. PMID:25642450

  9. A moonlighting metabolic protein influences repair at DNA double-stranded breaks

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Machorro, Ana Lilia; Aris, John P.; Pillus, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    Catalytically active proteins with divergent dual functions are often described as ‘moonlighting’. In this work we characterize a new, chromatin-based function of Lys20, a moonlighting protein that is well known for its role in metabolism. Lys20 was initially described as homocitrate synthase (HCS), the first enzyme in the lysine biosynthetic pathway in yeast. Its nuclear localization led to the discovery of a key role for Lys20 in DNA damage repair through its interaction with the MYST family histone acetyltransferase Esa1. Overexpression of Lys20 promotes suppression of DNA damage sensitivity of esa1 mutants. In this work, by taking advantage of LYS20 mutants that are active in repair but not in lysine biosynthesis, the mechanism of suppression of esa1 was characterized. First we analyzed the chromatin landscape of esa1 cells, finding impaired histone acetylation and eviction. Lys20 was recruited to sites of DNA damage, and its overexpression promoted enhanced recruitment of the INO80 remodeling complex to restore normal histone eviction at the damage sites. This study improves understanding of the evolutionary, structural and biological relevance of independent activities in a moonlighting protein and links metabolism to DNA damage repair. PMID:25628362

  10. A moonlighting metabolic protein influences repair at DNA double-stranded breaks.

    PubMed

    Torres-Machorro, Ana Lilia; Aris, John P; Pillus, Lorraine

    2015-02-18

    Catalytically active proteins with divergent dual functions are often described as 'moonlighting'. In this work we characterize a new, chromatin-based function of Lys20, a moonlighting protein that is well known for its role in metabolism. Lys20 was initially described as homocitrate synthase (HCS), the first enzyme in the lysine biosynthetic pathway in yeast. Its nuclear localization led to the discovery of a key role for Lys20 in DNA damage repair through its interaction with the MYST family histone acetyltransferase Esa1. Overexpression of Lys20 promotes suppression of DNA damage sensitivity of esa1 mutants. In this work, by taking advantage of LYS20 mutants that are active in repair but not in lysine biosynthesis, the mechanism of suppression of esa1 was characterized. First we analyzed the chromatin landscape of esa1 cells, finding impaired histone acetylation and eviction. Lys20 was recruited to sites of DNA damage, and its overexpression promoted enhanced recruitment of the INO80 remodeling complex to restore normal histone eviction at the damage sites. This study improves understanding of the evolutionary, structural and biological relevance of independent activities in a moonlighting protein and links metabolism to DNA damage repair. PMID:25628362

  11. Pol β associated complex and base excision repair factors in mouse fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Rajendra; Williams, Jason G; Hou, Esther W; Wilson, Samuel H

    2012-12-01

    During mammalian base excision repair (BER) of lesion-containing DNA, it is proposed that toxic strand-break intermediates generated throughout the pathway are sequestered and passed from one step to the next until repair is complete. This stepwise process is termed substrate channeling. A working model evaluated here is that a complex of BER factors may facilitate the BER process. FLAG-tagged DNA polymerase (pol) β was expressed in mouse fibroblasts carrying a deletion in the endogenous pol β gene, and the cell extract was subjected to an 'affinity-capture' procedure using anti-FLAG antibody. The pol β affinity-capture fraction (ACF) was found to contain several BER factors including polymerase-1, X-ray cross-complementing factor1-DNA ligase III and enzymes involved in processing 3'-blocked ends of BER intermediates, e.g. polynucleotide kinase and tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1. In contrast, DNA glycosylases, apurinic/aprymidinic endonuclease 1 and flap endonuclease 1 and several other factors involved in BER were not present. Some of the BER factors in the pol β ACF were in a multi-protein complex as observed by sucrose gradient centrifugation. The pol β ACF was capable of substrate channeling for steps in vitro BER and was proficient in in vitro repair of substrates mimicking a 3'-blocked topoisomerase I covalent intermediate or an oxidative stress-induced 3'-blocked intermediate. PMID:23042675

  12. Repair of DNA Interstrand Cross-links During S Phase of the Mammalian Cell Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Legerski, Randy J.

    2010-01-01

    DNA interstrand cross-linking (ICL) agents are widely used in anticancer chemotherapy regimens, yet our understanding of the DNA repair mechanisms by which these lesions are removed from the genome remains incomplete. This is at least in part due to the enormously complicated nature and variety of the biochemical pathways that operate on these complex lesions. In this review we have focused specifically on the S phase pathway of ICL repair in mammalian cells, which appears to be the major mechanism by which these lesions are removed in cycling cells. The various stages and components of this pathway are discussed and a putative molecular model is presented. In addition, we propose an explanation as to how this pathway can lead to the observed high levels of sister chromatid exchanges known to be induced by ICLs. PMID:20658646

  13. 6-Carboxyfluorescein And Structurally-Similar Molecules Inhibit DNA Binding And Repair By O6-Alkylguanine DNA Alkyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Melikishvili, Manana; Rodgers, David W.; Fried, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Human O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) repairs mutagenic O6-alkylguanine and O4-alkylthymine adducts in single-stranded and duplex DNAs. These activities protect normal cells and tumor cells against drugs that alkylate DNA; drugs that inactivate AGT are under test as chemotherapeutic enhancers. In studies using 6-carboxyfluorescein (FAM)-labeled DNAs, AGT reduced the fluorescence intensity by ~40% at binding saturation, whether the FAM was located at the 5′ or the 3′ end of the DNA. AGT protected residual fluorescence from quenching, indicating a solute-inaccessible binding site for FAM. Sedimentation equilibrium analyses showed that saturating AGT-stoichiometries were higher with FAM-labeled DNAs than with unlabeled DNAs, suggesting that the FAM provides a protein binding site that is not present in unlabeled DNAs. Additional fluorescence and sedimentation measurements showed that AGT forms a 1:1 complex with free FAM. Active site benzylation experiments and docking calculations support models in which the primary binding site is located in or near the active site of the enzyme. Electrophoretic analyses show that FAM inhibits DNA binding (IC50 ~ 76μM) and repair of DNA containing an O6-methylguanine residue (IC50 ~ 63μM). Similar results were obtained with other polycyclic aromatic compounds. These observations demonstrate the existence of a new class of non-covalent AGT-inhibitors. After optimization for binding-affinity, members of this class might be useful in cancer chemotherapy. PMID:21982443

  14. Impact of DNA polymorphisms in key DNA base excision repair proteins on cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Karahalil, B; Bohr, VA; Wilson, DM

    2015-01-01

    Genetic variation in DNA repair genes can modulate DNA repair capacity and may be related to cancer risk. However, study findings have been inconsistent. Inheritance of variant DNA repair genes is believed to influence individual susceptibility to the development of environmental cancer. Reliable knowledge on which the base excision repair (BER) sequence variants are associated with cancer risk would help elucidate the mechanism of cancer. Given that most of the previous studies had inadequate statistical power, we have conducted a systematic review on sequence variants in three important BER proteins. Here, we review published studies on the association between polymorphism in candidate BER genes and cancer risk. We focused on three key BER genes: 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1), apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1/APEX1) and x-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1). These specific DNA repair genes were selected because of their critical role in maintaining genome integrity and, based on previous studies, suggesting that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these genes have protective or deleterious effects on cancer risk. A total of 136 articles in the December 13, 2010 MEDLINE database (National Center for Biotechnology Information, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/) reporting polymorphism in OGG1, XRCC1 or APE1 genes were analyzed. Many of the reported SNPs had diverse association with specific human cancers. For example, there was a positive association between the OGG1 Ser326Cys variant and gastric and lung cancer, while the XRCC1 Arg399Gln variant was associated with reduced cancer risk. Gene–environment interactions have been noted and may be important for colorectal and lung cancer risk and possibly other human cancers. PMID:23023028

  15. Rif1: A Conserved Regulator of DNA Replication and Repair Hijacked by Telomeres in Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Mattarocci, Stefano; Hafner, Lukas; Lezaja, Aleksandra; Shyian, Maksym; Shore, David

    2016-01-01

    Rap1-interacting factor 1 (Rif1) was originally identified in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a telomere-binding protein that negatively regulates telomerase-mediated telomere elongation. Although this function is conserved in the distantly related fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, recent studies, both in yeasts and in metazoans, reveal that Rif1 also functions more globally, both in the temporal control of DNA replication and in DNA repair. Rif1 proteins are large and characterized by N-terminal HEAT repeats, predicted to form an elongated alpha-helical structure. In addition, all Rif1 homologs contain two short motifs, abbreviated RVxF/SILK, that are implicated in recruitment of the PP1 (yeast Glc7) phosphatase. In yeasts the RVxF/SILK domains have been shown to play a role in control of DNA replication initiation, at least in part through targeted de-phosphorylation of proteins in the pre-Replication Complex. In human cells Rif1 is recruited to DNA double-strand breaks through an interaction with 53BP1 where it counteracts DNA resection, thus promoting repair by non-homologous end-joining. This function requires the N-terminal HEAT repeat-containing domain. Interestingly, this domain is also implicated in DNA end protection at un-capped telomeres in yeast. We conclude by discussing the deployment of Rif1 at telomeres in yeasts from both an evolutionary perspective and in light of its recently discovered global functions. PMID:27066066

  16. DNA DSB repair pathway choice: an orchestrated handover mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Kakarougkas, A

    2014-01-01

    DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are potential lethal lesions but can also lead to chromosome rearrangements, a step promoting carcinogenesis. DNA non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) is the major DSB rejoining process and occurs in all cell cycle stages. Homologous recombination (HR) can additionally function to repair irradiation-induced two-ended DSBs in G2 phase. In mammalian cells, HR predominantly uses a sister chromatid as a template for DSB repair; thus HR functions only in late S/G2 phase. Here, we review current insight into the interplay between HR and NHEJ in G2 phase. We argue that NHEJ represents the first choice pathway, repairing approximately 80% of X-ray-induced DSBs with rapid kinetics. However, a subset of DSBs undergoes end resection and repair by HR. 53BP1 restricts resection, thereby promoting NHEJ. During the switch from NHEJ to HR, 53BP1 is repositioned to the periphery of enlarged irradiation-induced foci (IRIF) via a BRCA1-dependent process. K63-linked ubiquitin chains, which also form at IRIF, are also repositioned as well as receptor-associated protein 80 (RAP80), a ubiquitin binding protein. RAP80 repositioning requires POH1, a proteasome component. Thus, the interfacing barriers to HR, 53BP1 and RAP80 are relieved by POH1 and BRCA1, respectively. Removal of RAP80 from the IRIF core is required for loss of the ubiquitin chains and 53BP1, and for efficient replication protein A foci formation. We propose that NHEJ is used preferentially to HR because it is a compact process that does not necessitate extensive chromatin changes in the DSB vicinity. PMID:24363387

  17. Unscheduled DNA Synthesis: The Clinical and Functional Assay for Global Genomic DNA Nucleotide Excision Repair

    PubMed Central

    Latimer, Jean J.; Kelly, Crystal M.

    2016-01-01

    The unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay measures the ability of a cell to perform global genomic nucleotide excision repair (NER). This chapter provides instructions for the application of this technique by creating 6-4 photoproducts and pyrimidine dimers using UV-C irradiation. This procedure is designed specifically for quantification of the 6-4 photoproducts. Repair is quantified by the amount of radioactive thymidine incorporated during repair synthesis after this insult, and radioactivity is evaluated by grain counting after autoradiography. The results are used to clinically diagnose human DNA repair deficiency disorders and provide a basis for investigation of repair deficiency in human tissues or tumors. No other functional assay is available that directly measures the capacity to perform NER on the entire genome without the use of specific antibodies. Since live cells are required for this assay, explant culture techniques must be previously established. Host cell reactivation (HCR), as discussed in Chapter 37, is not an equivalent technique, as it measures only transcription-coupled repair (TCR) at active genes, a small subset of total NER. PMID:24623250

  18. Targeted DNA methylation by homology-directed repair in mammalian cells. Transcription reshapes methylation on the repaired gene.

    PubMed

    Morano, Annalisa; Angrisano, Tiziana; Russo, Giusi; Landi, Rosaria; Pezone, Antonio; Bartollino, Silvia; Zuchegna, Candida; Babbio, Federica; Bonapace, Ian Marc; Allen, Brittany; Muller, Mark T; Chiariotti, Lorenzo; Gottesman, Max E; Porcellini, Antonio; Avvedimento, Enrico V

    2014-01-01

    We report that homology-directed repair of a DNA double-strand break within a single copy Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) gene in HeLa cells alters the methylation pattern at the site of recombination. DNA methyl transferase (DNMT)1, DNMT3a and two proteins that regulate methylation, Np95 and GADD45A, are recruited to the site of repair and are responsible for selective methylation of the promoter-distal segment of the repaired DNA. The initial methylation pattern of the locus is modified in a transcription-dependent fashion during the 15-20 days following repair, at which time no further changes in the methylation pattern occur. The variation in DNA modification generates stable clones with wide ranges of GFP expression. Collectively, our data indicate that somatic DNA methylation follows homologous repair and is subjected to remodeling by local transcription in a discrete time window during and after the damage. We propose that DNA methylation of repaired genes represents a DNA damage code and is source of variation of gene expression. PMID:24137009

  19. Adjacent Sequences Influence DNA Repair Accompanying Transposon Excision in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Scott, L.; LaFoe, D.; Weil, C. F.

    1996-01-01

    Mobile elements transposing via DNA intermediates often leave small rearrangements, or ``transposon footprints,'' at sites where they excise. Each excision event leaves its own footprint and, at any given site, these vary in size and sequence. Footprint formation involves DNA repair of sequences flanking the element. We have analyzed the footprints formed by a 2-kb Ds element excising from six different sites in exons of the maize waxy (Wx) gene. We find that groups of footprints left at individual sites are surprisingly nonrandom; different excision products predominate consistently at each site. Less frequent footprints left by each insertion appear related to the predominant type. The data suggest that flanking sequences affect the DNA repair processes associated with element excision. Two models have been proposed to explain footprint formation, one featuring a 5' exonuclease and the other featuring hairpin loop formation and an endonuclease. Our data have interesting implications for both these models. Evidence is also presented to support the presence of a separate excision mechanism that can remove Ac/Ds elements without leaving any footprint and that operates in parallel with the footprint-forming mechanism. PMID:8770601

  20. RPA Antagonizes Microhomology-Mediated Repair of DNA Double-Strand Breaks

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Sarah K; Gibb, Bryan; de Almeida, Mariana Justino; Greene, Eric C; Symington, Lorraine S

    2014-01-01

    Microhomology-mediated end joining (MMEJ) is a Ku and Ligase IV independent mechanism for repair of DNA double-strand breaks, which contributes to chromosome rearrangements. Here we used a chromosomal end-joining assay to determine the genetic requirements for MMEJ in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that end resection influences the ability to expose microhomologies; however, it is not rate limiting for MMEJ in wild-type cells. The frequency of MMEJ increased by up to 350-fold in rfa1 hypomorphic mutants, suggesting that replication protein A (RPA) bound to the ssDNA overhangs formed by resection prevents spontaneous annealing between microhomologies. In vitro, the mutant RPA complexes were unable to fully extend ssDNA and were compromised in their ability to prevent spontaneous annealing. We propose the helix-destabilizing activity of RPA channels ssDNA intermediates from mutagenic MMEJ to error-free homologous recombination, thus preserving genome integrity. PMID:24608368

  1. Solar UVB-induced DNA damage and photoenzymatic DNA repair in antarctic zooplankton

    PubMed Central

    Malloy, Kirk D.; Holman, Molly A.; Mitchell, David; Detrich, H. William

    1997-01-01

    The detrimental effects of elevated intensities of mid-UV radiation (UVB), a result of stratospheric ozone depletion during the austral spring, on the primary producers of the Antarctic marine ecosystem have been well documented. Here we report that natural populations of Antarctic zooplankton also sustain significant DNA damage [measured as cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs)] during periods of increased UVB flux. This is the first direct evidence that increased solar UVB may result in damage to marine organisms other than primary producers in Antarctica. The extent of DNA damage in pelagic icefish eggs correlated with daily incident UVB irradiance, reflecting the difference between acquisition and repair of CPDs. Patterns of DNA damage in fish larvae did not correlate with daily UVB flux, possibly due to different depth distributions and/or different capacities for DNA repair. Clearance of CPDs by Antarctic fish and krill was mediated primarily by the photoenzymatic repair system. Although repair rates were large for all species evaluated, they were apparently inadequate to prevent the transient accumulation of substantial CPD burdens. The capacity for DNA repair in Antarctic organisms was highest in those species whose early life history stages occupy the water column during periods of ozone depletion (austral spring) and lowest in fish species whose eggs and larvae are abundant during winter. Although the potential reduction in fitness of Antarctic zooplankton resulting from DNA damage is unknown, we suggest that increased solar UV may reduce recruitment and adversely affect trophic transfer of productivity by affecting heterotrophic species as well as primary producers. PMID:9037040

  2. Solar UVB-induced DNA damage and photoenzymatic DNA repair in antarctic zooplankton

    SciTech Connect

    Malloy, K.D.; Holman, M.A.; Mitchell, D.

    1997-02-18

    The detrimental effects of elevated intensities of mid-UV radiation (UVB), a result of stratospheric ozone depletion during the austral spring, on the primary producers of the Antarctic marine ecosystem have been well documented. Here we report that natural populations of Antarctic zooplankton also sustain significant DNA damage [measured as cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs)] during periods of increased UVB flux. This is the first direct evidence that increased solar UVB may result in damage to marine organisms other than primary producers in Antarctica. The extent of DNA damage in pelagic icefish eggs correlated with daily incident UVB irradiance, reflecting the difference between acquisition and repair of CPDs. Patterns of DNA damage in fish larvae did not correlated with daily UVB flux, possibly due to different depth distributions and/or different capacities for DNA repair. Clearance of CPDs by Antarctic fish and krill was mediated primarily by the photoenzymatic repair system. Although repair rates were large for all species evaluated, they were apparently inadequate to prevent the transient accumulation of substantial CPD burdens. The capacity for DNA repair in Antarctic organisms was highest in those species whose early life history stages occupy the water column during periods of ozone depletion (austral spring) and lowest in fish species whose eggs and larvae are abundant during winter. Although the potential reduction in fitness of Antarctic zooplankton resulting from DNA damage is unknown, we suggest that increased solar UV may reduce recruitment and adversely affect trophic transfer of productivity by affecting heterotrophic species as well as primary producers. 54 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Nicotinamide enhances repair of ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage in primary melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Benjamin C; Surjana, Devita; Halliday, Gary M; Damian, Diona L

    2014-07-01

    Cutaneous melanoma is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Nicotinamide is a safe, widely available vitamin that reduces the immune suppressive effects of UV, enhances DNA repair in keratinocytes and has shown promise in the chemoprevention of non-melanoma skin cancer. Here, we report the effect of nicotinamide on DNA damage and repair in primary human melanocytes. Nicotinamide significantly enhanced the repair of oxidative DNA damage (8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine) and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers induced by UV exposure. It also enhanced the repair of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine induced by the culture conditions in unirradiated melanocytes. A significant increase in the percentage of melanocytes undergoing unscheduled but not scheduled DNA synthesis was observed, confirming that nicotinamide enhances DNA repair in human melanocytes. In summary, nicotinamide, by enhancing DNA repair in melanocytes, is a potential agent for the chemoprevention of cutaneous melanoma. PMID:24798949

  4. DNA-PK is Involved in Repairing a Transient Surge of DNA BreaksInduced by Deceleration of DNA Replication.

    SciTech Connect

    Shimura, Tsutomu; Martin, Melvenia M.; Torres, Michael J.; Gu,Cory; Pluth, Janice M.; DiBernardi, Maria A.; McDonald, Jeffrey S.; Aladjem, Mirit I.

    2006-09-25

    ells that suffer substantial inhibition of DNA replication halt their cell cycle via a checkpoint response mediated by the PI3 kinases ATM and ATR. It is unclear how cells cope with milder replication insults, which are under the threshold for ATM and ATR activation. A third PI3 kinase, DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), is also activated following replication inhibition, but the role DNA-PK might play in response to perturbed replication is unclear, since this kinase does not activate the signaling cascades involved in the S-phase checkpoint. Here we report that mild, transient drug-induced perturbation of DNA replication rapidly induced DNA breaks that promptly disappeared in cells that contained a functional DNA-PK whereas such breaks persisted in cells that were deficient in DNA-PK activity. After the initial transient burst of DNA breaks, cells with a functional DNA-PK did not halt replication and continued to synthesize DNA at a slow pace in the presence of replication inhibitors. In contrast, DNA-PK deficient cells subject to low levels of replication inhibition halted cell cycle progression via an ATR-mediated S-phase checkpoint. The ATM kinase was dispensable for the induction of the initial DNA breaks. These observations suggest that DNA-PK is involved in setting a high threshold for the ATR-Chkl-mediated S-phase checkpoint by promptly repairing DNA breaks that appear immediately following inhibition of DNA replication.

  5. Complex kinetics of DNA condensation revealed through DNA twist tracing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Wong, Wei Juan; Lim, Ci Ji; Ju, Hai-Peng; Li, Ming; Yan, Jie; Wang, Peng-Ye

    2015-08-01

    Toroid formation is an important mechanism for DNA condensation in cells. The length change during DNA condensation was investigated in previous single-molecule experiments. However, DNA twist is key to understanding the topological kinetics of DNA condensation. In this study, DNA twist as well as DNA length was traced during the DNA condensation by the freely orbiting magnetic tweezers and the tilted magnetic tweezers combined with Brownian dynamics simulations. The experimental results disclose the complex relationship between DNA extension and backbone rotation. Brownian dynamics simulations show that the toroid formation follows a wiggling pathway which leads to the complex DNA backbone rotation as revealed in our experiments. These findings provide the complete description of multivalent cation-dependent DNA toroid formation under tension.

  6. O{sup 6}-methylguanine in DNA inhibits DNA replication and stimulates DNA repair synthesis in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Cecotti, S.; Macpherson, P.; Karran, P.

    1994-12-31

    O{sup 6}-methylguanine (O{sup 6}-meGua) in DNA does not block replication if purified DNA polymerases are used ina template/primer system, although some slowing of incorporation is apparent. In the SV40 system, we have observed that O{sup 6}-meGua can block replication and at the same time elicit a type of non-semiconservative synthesis that tends to be associated with incompletely repaired, nicked plasmids. It is possible that replication is impaired by the simultaneous occurrence of these {open_quotes}repair{close_quotes} events and that the stimulation of ineffective excision repair at O{sup 6}-meGua in DNA contributes to the cytotoxicity of this methylated base.

  7. Inhibition of Topoisomerase (DNA) I (TOP1): DNA Damage Repair and Anticancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yang; Her, Chengtao

    2015-01-01

    Most chemotherapy regimens contain at least one DNA-damaging agent that preferentially affects the growth of cancer cells. This strategy takes advantage of the differences in cell proliferation between normal and cancer cells. Chemotherapeutic drugs are usually designed to target rapid-dividing cells because sustained proliferation is a common feature of cancer [1,2]. Rapid DNA replication is essential for highly proliferative cells, thus blocking of DNA replication will create numerous mutations and/or chromosome rearrangements-ultimately triggering cell death [3]. Along these lines, DNA topoisomerase inhibitors are of great interest because they help to maintain strand breaks generated by topoisomerases during replication. In this article, we discuss the characteristics of topoisomerase (DNA) I (TOP1) and its inhibitors, as well as the underlying DNA repair pathways and the use of TOP1 inhibitors in cancer therapy. PMID:26287259

  8. Inhibition of Topoisomerase (DNA) I (TOP1): DNA Damage Repair and Anticancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yang; Her, Chengtao

    2015-01-01

    Most chemotherapy regimens contain at least one DNA-damaging agent that preferentially affects the growth of cancer cells. This strategy takes advantage of the differences in cell proliferation between normal and cancer cells. Chemotherapeutic drugs are usually designed to target rapid-dividing cells because sustained proliferation is a common feature of cancer [1,2]. Rapid DNA replication is essential for highly proliferative cells, thus blocking of DNA replication will create numerous mutations and/or chromosome rearrangements—ultimately triggering cell death [3]. Along these lines, DNA topoisomerase inhibitors are of great interest because they help to maintain strand breaks generated by topoisomerases during replication. In this article, we discuss the characteristics of topoisomerase (DNA) I (TOP1) and its inhibitors, as well as the underlying DNA repair pathways and the use of TOP1 inhibitors in cancer therapy. PMID:26287259

  9. SUMOylation of xeroderma pigmentosum group C protein regulates DNA damage recognition during nucleotide excision repair.

    PubMed

    Akita, Masaki; Tak, Yon-Soo; Shimura, Tsutomu; Matsumoto, Syota; Okuda-Shimizu, Yuki; Shimizu, Yuichiro; Nishi, Ryotaro; Saitoh, Hisato; Iwai, Shigenori; Mori, Toshio; Ikura, Tsuyoshi; Sakai, Wataru; Hanaoka, Fumio; Sugasawa, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    The xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XPC) protein complex is a key factor that detects DNA damage and initiates nucleotide excision repair (NER) in mammalian cells. Although biochemical and structural studies have elucidated the interaction of XPC with damaged DNA, the mechanism of its regulation in vivo remains to be understood in more details. Here, we show that the XPC protein undergoes modification by small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) proteins and the lack of this modification compromises the repair of UV-induced DNA photolesions. In the absence of SUMOylation, XPC is normally recruited to the sites with photolesions, but then immobilized profoundly by the UV-damaged DNA-binding protein (UV-DDB) complex. Since the absence of UV-DDB alleviates the NER defect caused by impaired SUMOylation of XPC, we propose that this modification is critical for functional interactions of XPC with UV-DDB, which facilitate the efficient damage handover between the two damage recognition factors and subsequent initiation of NER. PMID:26042670

  10. Reptin regulates DNA double strand breaks repair in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Anne-Aurélie; Benhamouche, Samira; Neaud, Véronique; Di Martino, Julie; Javary, Joaquim; Rosenbaum, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Reptin/RUVBL2 is overexpressed in most hepatocellular carcinomas and is required for the growth and viability of HCC cells. Reptin is involved in several chromatin remodeling complexes, some of which are involved in the detection and repair of DNA damage, but data on Reptin involvement in the repair of DNA damage are scarce and contradictory. Our objective was to study the effects of Reptin silencing on the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) in HCC cells. Treatment of HuH7 cells with etoposide (25 μM, 30 min) or γ irradiation (4 Gy) increased the phosphorylation of H2AX by 1.94 ± 0.13 and 2.0 ± 0.02 fold, respectively. These values were significantly reduced by 35 and 65 % after Reptin silencing with inducible shRNA. Irradiation increased the number of BRCA1 (3-fold) and 53BP1 foci (7.5 fold). Depletion of Reptin reduced these values by 62 and 48%, respectively. These defects in activation and/or recruitment of repair proteins were not due to a decreased number of DSBs as measured by the COMET assay. All these results were confirmed in the Hep3B cell line. Protein expression of ATM and DNA-PKcs, the major H2AX kinases, was significantly reduced by 52 and 61 % after Reptin depletion whereas their mRNA level remained unchanged. Phosphorylation of Chk2, another ATM target, was not significantly altered. Using co-immunoprecipitation, we showed an interaction between Reptin and DNA-PKcs. The half-life of newly-synthesized DNA-PKcs was reduced when Reptin was silenced. Finally, depletion of Reptin was synergistic with etoposide or γ irradiation to reduce cell growth and colony formation. In conclusion, Reptin is an important cofactor for the repair of DSBs. Our data, combined with those of the literature suggests that it operates at least in part by regulating the expression of DNA-PKcs by a stabilization mechanism. Overexpression of Reptin in HCC could be a factor of resistance to treatment, consistent with the observed overexpression of Reptin in subgroups of chemo-resistant breast and ovarian cancers. PMID:25875766

  11. Kub5-Hera, the human Rtt103 homolog, plays dual functional roles in transcription termination and DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Morales, Julio C; Richard, Patricia; Rommel, Amy; Fattah, Farjana J; Motea, Edward A; Patidar, Praveen L; Xiao, Ling; Leskov, Konstantin; Wu, Shwu-Yuan; Hittelman, Walter N; Chiang, Cheng-Ming; Manley, James L; Boothman, David A

    2014-04-01

    Functions of Kub5-Hera (In Greek Mythology Hera controlled Artemis) (K-H), the human homolog of the yeast transcription termination factor Rtt103, remain undefined. Here, we show that K-H has functions in both transcription termination and DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. K-H forms distinct protein complexes with factors that repair DSBs (e.g. Ku70, Ku86, Artemis) and terminate transcription (e.g. RNA polymerase II). K-H loss resulted in increased basal R-loop levels, DSBs, activated DNA-damage responses and enhanced genomic instability. Significantly lowered Artemis protein levels were detected in K-H knockdown cells, which were restored with specific K-H cDNA re-expression. K-H deficient cells were hypersensitive to cytotoxic agents that induce DSBs, unable to reseal complex DSB ends, and showed significantly delayed γ-H2AX and 53BP1 repair-related foci regression. Artemis re-expression in K-H-deficient cells restored DNA-repair function and resistance to DSB-inducing agents. However, R loops persisted consistent with dual roles of K-H in transcription termination and DSB repair. PMID:24589584

  12. Estrogen Receptor Expression Is Associated with DNA Repair Capacity in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Matta, Jaime; Morales, Luisa; Ortiz, Carmen; Adams, Damian; Vargas, Wanda; Casbas, Patricia; Dutil, Julie; Echenique, Miguel; Suárez, Erick

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen-receptor-positive (ER+) tumors employ complex signaling that engages in crosstalk with multiple pathways through genomic and non-genomic regulation. A greater understanding of these pathways is important for developing improved biomarkers that can better determine treatment choices, risk of recurrence and cancer progression. Deficiencies in DNA repair capacity (DRC) is a hallmark of breast cancer (BC); therefore, in this work we tested whether ER signaling influences DRC. We analyzed the association between ER positivity (% receptor activation) and DRC in 270 BC patients, then further stratified our analysis by HER2 receptor status. Our results show that among HER2 negative, the likelihood of having low DRC values among ER- women is 1.92 (95% CI: 1.03, 3.57) times the likelihood of having low DRC values among ER+ women, even adjusting for different potential confounders (p<0.05); however, a contrary pattern was observed among HER2 positives women. In conclusion, there is an association between DRC levels and ER status, and this association is modified by HER2 receptor status. Adding a DNA repair capacity test to hormone receptor testing may provide new information on defective DNA repair phenotypes, which could better stratify BC patients who have ER+ tumors. ER+/HER2- tumors are heterogeneous, incompletely defined, and clinically challenging to treat; the addition of a DRC test could better characterize and classify these patients as well as help clinicians select optimal therapies, which could improve outcomes and reduce recurrences. PMID:27032101

  13. C. elegans whole-genome sequencing reveals mutational signatures related to carcinogens and DNA repair deficiency.

    PubMed

    Meier, Bettina; Cooke, Susanna L; Weiss, Joerg; Bailly, Aymeric P; Alexandrov, Ludmil B; Marshall, John; Raine, Keiran; Maddison, Mark; Anderson, Elizabeth; Stratton, Michael R; Gartner, Anton; Campbell, Peter J

    2014-10-01

    Mutation is associated with developmental and hereditary disorders, aging, and cancer. While we understand some mutational processes operative in human disease, most remain mysterious. We used Caenorhabditis elegans whole-genome sequencing to model mutational signatures, analyzing 183 worm populations across 17 DNA repair-deficient backgrounds propagated for 20 generations or exposed to carcinogens. The baseline mutation rate in C. elegans was approximately one per genome per generation, not overtly altered across several DNA repair deficiencies over 20 generations. Telomere erosion led to complex chromosomal rearrangements initiated by breakage-fusion-bridge cycles and completed by simultaneously acquired, localized clusters of breakpoints. Aflatoxin B1 induced substitutions of guanines in a GpC context, as observed in aflatoxin-induced liver cancers. Mutational burden increased with impaired nucleotide excision repair. Cisplatin and mechlorethamine, DNA crosslinking agents, caused dose- and genotype-dependent signatures among indels, substitutions, and rearrangements. Strikingly, both agents induced clustered rearrangements resembling "chromoanasynthesis," a replication-based mutational signature seen in constitutional genomic disorders, suggesting that interstrand crosslinks may play a pathogenic role in such events. Cisplatin mutagenicity was most pronounced in xpf-1 mutants, suggesting that this gene critically protects cells against platinum chemotherapy. Thus, experimental model systems combined with genome sequencing can recapture and mechanistically explain mutational signatures associated with human disease. PMID:25030888

  14. C. elegans whole-genome sequencing reveals mutational signatures related to carcinogens and DNA repair deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Bettina; Cooke, Susanna L.; Weiss, Joerg; Bailly, Aymeric P.; Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Marshall, John; Raine, Keiran; Maddison, Mark; Anderson, Elizabeth; Stratton, Michael R.; Campbell, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Mutation is associated with developmental and hereditary disorders, aging, and cancer. While we understand some mutational processes operative in human disease, most remain mysterious. We used Caenorhabditis elegans whole-genome sequencing to model mutational signatures, analyzing 183 worm populations across 17 DNA repair-deficient backgrounds propagated for 20 generations or exposed to carcinogens. The baseline mutation rate in C. elegans was approximately one per genome per generation, not overtly altered across several DNA repair deficiencies over 20 generations. Telomere erosion led to complex chromosomal rearrangements initiated by breakage–fusion–bridge cycles and completed by simultaneously acquired, localized clusters of breakpoints. Aflatoxin B1 induced substitutions of guanines in a GpC context, as observed in aflatoxin-induced liver cancers. Mutational burden increased with impaired nucleotide excision repair. Cisplatin and mechlorethamine, DNA crosslinking agents, caused dose- and genotype-dependent signatures among indels, substitutions, and rearrangements. Strikingly, both agents induced clustered rearrangements resembling “chromoanasynthesis,” a replication-based mutational signature seen in constitutional genomic disorders, suggesting that interstrand crosslinks may play a pathogenic role in such events. Cisplatin mutagenicity was most pronounced in xpf-1 mutants, suggesting that this gene critically protects cells against platinum chemotherapy. Thus, experimental model systems combined with genome sequencing can recapture and mechanistically explain mutational signatures associated with human disease. PMID:25030888

  15. Estrogen Receptor Expression Is Associated with DNA Repair Capacity in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Matta, Jaime; Morales, Luisa; Ortiz, Carmen; Adams, Damian; Vargas, Wanda; Casbas, Patricia; Dutil, Julie; Echenique, Miguel; Suárez, Erick

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen-receptor-positive (ER+) tumors employ complex signaling that engages in crosstalk with multiple pathways through genomic and non-genomic regulation. A greater understanding of these pathways is important for developing improved biomarkers that can better determine treatment choices, risk of recurrence and cancer progression. Deficiencies in DNA repair capacity (DRC) is a hallmark of breast cancer (BC); therefore, in this work we tested whether ER signaling influences DRC. We analyzed the association between ER positivity (% receptor activation) and DRC in 270 BC patients, then further stratified our analysis by HER2 receptor status. Our results show that among HER2 negative, the likelihood of having low DRC values among ER- women is 1.92 (95% CI: 1.03, 3.57) times the likelihood of having low DRC values among ER+ women, even adjusting for different potential confounders (p<0.05); however, a contrary pattern was observed among HER2 positives women. In conclusion, there is an association between DRC levels and ER status, and this association is modified by HER2 receptor status. Adding a DNA repair capacity test to hormone receptor testing may provide new information on defective DNA repair phenotypes, which could better stratify BC patients who have ER+ tumors. ER+/HER2- tumors are heterogeneous, incompletely defined, and clinically challenging to treat; the addition of a DRC test could better characterize and classify these patients as well as help clinicians select optimal therapies, which could improve outcomes and reduce recurrences. PMID:27032101

  16. Tetrameric Ctp1 coordinates DNA binding and bridging in DNA double strand break repair

    PubMed Central

    Andres, Sara N.; Appel, C. Denise; Westmoreland, Jim; Williams, Jessica S.; Nguyen, Yvonne; Robertson, Patrick D.; Resnick, Michael A.; Williams, R. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Ctp1 (aka CtIP or Sae2) collaborates with Mre11Rad50Nbs1 to initiate repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), but its function(s) remain enigmatic. We report that tetrameric Schizosaccharomyces pombe Ctp1 harbors multivalent DNA-binding and bridging activities. Through structural and biophysical analyses of the Ctp1 tetramer we define the salient features of Ctp1 architecture: an N-terminal interlocking tetrameric helical dimer-of-dimers (THDD) domain and a central intrinsically disordered region (IDR) linked to C-terminal RHR DNA interaction motifs. The THDD, IDR and RHR are required for Ctp1 DNA bridging activity in vitro and both the THDD and RHR are required for efficient DSB repair in S. pombe. Our results establish non-nucleolytic roles for Ctp1 in binding and coordination of DSB repair intermediates and suggest that ablation of human CtIP DNA binding by truncating mutations underlie the CTIP-linked Seckel and Jawad syndromes. PMID:25580577

  17. Immunoglobulin variable region hypermutation is associated with a DNA repair deficit

    SciTech Connect

    Valles-Ayoub, Y.; Govan, H.L. III; Braun, J. )

    1991-03-11

    The molecular mechanism of Ig variable region hypermutation is unknown, but has been hypothesized to involve an error-prone DNA repair process. In this study, the authors used a novel PCR-based assay to compare repair of UV-induced DNA damage in mantle zone versus germinal center B lymphocytes. They observed that DNA repair activity within rearranged VDJ loci was sluggish in germinal center B lymphocytes compared to repair activity monitored in mantle zone B lymphocytes. In contrast, DNA repair times within the germline V{sub H}5 gene family, the variable region J{sub H}{endash}C{sub H} intron, and the N-ras gene was rapid and similar in both germinal center and mantle zone B cells. These results reflect a DNA repair deficit which, as expected for hypermutation, is selective for rearranged Ig VDG in germinal center cells. To directly measure the fidelity of DNA repair, the repaired PCR-amplified gene segments were analyzed for sequence changes by restriction enzyme digestion. In experiments thus far, repair of germline V{sub H}5 was error-free in both germinal center and mantle zone B cells. However, while rearranged V{sub H}5 segments were also error-free in mantle zone cells, they were highly mutated in germinal center cells. These findings provide direct biochemical evidence for the role of a sequence- and stage-specific error-prone DNA repair pathway in Ig V gene hypermutation.

  18. Enhanced DNA repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers changes the biological response to UV-B radiation.

    PubMed

    Yarosh, Daniel B

    2002-11-30

    The goal of DNA repair enzyme therapy is the same as that for gene therapy: to rescue a defective proteome/genome by introducing a substitute protein/DNA. The danger of inadequate DNA repair is highlighted in the genetic disease xeroderma pigmentosum. These patients are hypersensitive to sunlight and develop multiple cutaneous neoplasms very early in life. The bacterial DNA repair enzyme T4 endonuclease V was shown over 25 years ago to be capable of reversing the defective repair in xeroderma pigmentosum cells. This enzyme, packaged in an engineered delivery vehicle, has been shown to traverse the stratum corneum, reach the nuclei of living cells of the skin, and enhance the repair of UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD). In such a system, changes in DNA repair, mutagenesis, and cell signaling can be studied without manipulation of the genome. PMID:12427541

  19. In TFIIH, XPD Helicase Is Exclusively Devoted to DNA Repair

    PubMed Central

    Kuper, Jochen; Braun, Cathy; Elias, Agnes; Michels, Gudrun; Sauer, Florian; Schmitt, Dominik R.; Poterszman, Arnaud; Egly, Jean-Marc; Kisker, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    The eukaryotic XPD helicase is an essential subunit of TFIIH involved in both transcription and nucleotide excision repair (NER). Mutations in human XPD are associated with several inherited diseases such as xeroderma pigmentosum, Cockayne syndrome, and trichothiodystrophy. We performed a comparative analysis of XPD from Homo sapiens and Chaetomium thermophilum (a closely related thermostable fungal orthologue) to decipher the different molecular prerequisites necessary for either transcription or DNA repair. In vitro and in vivo assays demonstrate that mutations in the 4Fe4S cluster domain of XPD abrogate the NER function of TFIIH and do not affect its transcriptional activity. We show that the p44-dependent activation of XPD is promoted by the stimulation of its ATPase activity. Furthermore, we clearly demonstrate that XPD requires DNA binding, ATPase, and helicase activity to function in NER. In contrast, these enzymatic properties are dispensable for transcription initiation. XPD helicase is thus exclusively devoted to NER and merely acts as a structural scaffold to maintain TFIIH integrity during transcription. PMID:25268380

  20. Transcriptional coupling of DNA repair in sporulating Bacillus subtilis cells.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Guadiana, Fernando H; Del Carmen Barajas-Ornelas, Rocío; Ayala-García, Víctor M; Yasbin, Ronald E; Robleto, Eduardo; Pedraza-Reyes, Mario

    2013-12-01

    In conditions of halted or limited genome replication, like those experienced in sporulating cells of Bacillus subtilis, a more immediate detriment caused by DNA damage is altering the transcriptional programme that drives this developmental process. Here, we report that mfd, which encodes a conserved bacterial protein that mediates transcription-coupled DNA repair (TCR), is expressed together with uvrA in both compartments of B. subtilis sporangia. The function of Mfd was found to be important for processing the genetic damage during B. subtilis sporulation. Disruption of mfd sensitized developing spores to mitomycin-C (M-C) treatment and UV-C irradiation. Interestingly, in non-growing sporulating cells, Mfd played an anti-mutagenic role as its absence promoted UV-induced mutagenesis through a pathway involving YqjH/YqjW-mediated translesion synthesis (TLS). Two observations supported the participation of Mfd-dependent TCR in spore morphogenesis: (i) disruption of mfd notoriously affected the efficiency of B. subtilis sporulation and (ii) in comparison with the wild-type strain, a significant proportion of Mfd-deficient sporangia that survived UV-C treatment developed an asporogenous phenotype. We propose that the Mfd-dependent repair pathway operates during B. subtilis sporulation and that its function is required to eliminate genetic damage from transcriptionally active genes. PMID:24118570

  1. New insights into tumor dormancy: Targeting DNA repair pathways

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Elizabeth B; Lin, Shiaw-Yih

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, major strides have advanced the techniques for early detection and treatment of cancer. However, metastatic tumor growth still accounts for the majority of cancer-related deaths worldwide. In fact, breast cancers are notorious for relapsing years or decades after the initial clinical treatment, and this relapse can vary according to the type of breast cancer. In estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers, late tumor relapses frequently occur whereas relapses in estrogen receptor-negative cancers or triple negative tumors arise early resulting in a higher mortality risk. One of the main causes of metastasis is tumor dormancy in which cancer cells remain concealed, asymptomatic, and untraceable over a prolonged period of time. Under certain conditions, dormant cells can re-enter into the cell cycle and resume proliferation leading to recurrence. However, the molecular and cellular regulators underlying this transition remain poorly understood. To date, three mechanisms have been identified to trigger tumor dormancy including cellular, angiogenic, and immunologic dormancies. In addition, recent studies have suggested that DNA repair mechanisms may contribute to the survival of dormant cancer cells. In this article, we summarize the recent experimental and clinical evidence governing cancer dormancy. In addition, we will discuss the role of DNA repair mechanisms in promoting the survival of dormant cells. This information provides mechanistic insight to explain why recurrence occurs, and strategies that may enhance therapeutic approaches to prevent disease recurrence. PMID:26468441

  2. DNA Repair and Cell Cycle Biomarkers of Radiation Exposure and Inflammation Stress in Human Blood

    PubMed Central

    Marchetti, Francesco; Mannion, Brandon; Bhatnagar, Sandhya; Kwoh, Ely; Tan, Yuande; Wang, Shan X.; Blakely, William F.; Coleman, Matthew; Peterson, Leif; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    DNA damage and repair are hallmarks of cellular responses to ionizing radiation. We hypothesized that monitoring the expression of DNA repair-associated genes would enhance the detection of individuals exposed to radiation versus other forms of physiological stress. We employed the human blood ex vivo radiation model to investigate the expression responses of DNA repair genes in repeated blood samples from healthy, non-smoking men and women exposed to 2 Gy of X-rays in the context of inflammation stress mimicked by the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Radiation exposure significantly modulated the transcript expression of 12 genes of 40 tested (2.2E-06DNA repair gene expression may be helpful to identify biodosimeters of exposure to radiation, especially within high-complexity exposure scenarios. PMID:23144912

  3. In vivo dynamics of chromatin-associated complex formation in mammalian nucleotide excision repair

    PubMed Central

    Moné, Martijn J.; Bernas, Tytus; Dinant, Christoffel; Goedvree, Feliks A.; Manders, Erik M. M.; Volker, Marcel; Houtsmuller, Adriaan B.; Hoeijmakers, Jan H. J.; Vermeulen, Wim; van Driel, Roel

    2004-01-01

    Chromatin is the substrate for many processes in the cell nucleus, including transcription, replication, and various DNA repair systems, all of which require the formation of multiprotein machineries on the chromatin fiber. We have analyzed the kinetics of in vivo assembly of the protein complex that is responsible for nucleotide excision repair (NER) in mammalian cells. Assembly is initiated by UV irradiation of a small area of the cell nucleus, after which the accumulation of GFP-tagged NER proteins in the DNA-damaged area is measured, reflecting the establishment of the dual-incision complex. The dynamic behavior of two NER proteins, ERCC1-XPF and TFIIH, was studied in detail. Results show that the repair complex is assembled with a rate of ≈30 complexes per second and is not diffusion limited. Furthermore, we provide in vivo evidence that not only binding of TFIIH, but also its helicase activity, is required for the recruitment of ERCC1-XPF. These studies give quantitative insight into the de novo assembly of a chromatin-associated protein complex in living cells. PMID:15520397

  4. Calculation of complex DNA damage induced by ions

    SciTech Connect

    Surdutovich, Eugene; Gallagher, David C.; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2011-11-15

    This paper is devoted to the analysis of the complex damage of DNA irradiated by ions. The assessment of complex damage is important because cells in which it occurs are less likely to survive because the DNA repair mechanisms may not be sufficiently effective. We study the flux of secondary electrons through the surface of nucleosomes and calculate the radial dose and the distribution of clustered damage around the ion's path. The calculated radial dose distribution is compared to simulations. The radial distribution of the complex damage is found to be different from that of the dose. A comparison with experiments may solve the question of what is more lethal for the cell, damage complexity or absorbed energy. We suggest a way to calculate the probability of cell death based on the complexity of the damage. This work is done within the framework of the phenomenon-based multiscale approach to radiation damage by ions.

  5. DNA-PK Target Identification Reveals Novel Links between DNA Repair Signaling and Cytoskeletal Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Kotula, Ewa; Faigle, Wolfgang; Berthault, Nathalie; Dingli, Florent; Loew, Damarys; Sun, Jian-Sheng; Dutreix, Marie; Quanz, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) may function as a key signaling kinase in various cellular pathways other than DNA repair. Using a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis approach and stable DNA double-strand break-mimicking molecules (Dbait32Hc) to activate DNA-PK in the nucleus and cytoplasm, we identified 26 proteins that were highly phosphorylated following DNA-PK activation. Most of these proteins are involved in protein stability and degradation, cell signaling and the cytoskeleton. We investigated the relationship between DNA-PK and the cytoskeleton and found that the intermediate filament (IF) vimentin was a target of DNA-PK in vitro and in cells. Vimentin was phosphorylated at Ser459, by DNA-PK, in cells transfected with Dbait32Hc. We produced specific antibodies and showed that Ser459-P-vimentin was mostly located at cell protrusions. In migratory cells, the vimentin phosphorylation induced by Dbait32Hc was associated with a lower cellular adhesion and migration capacity. Thus, this approach led to the identification of downstream cytoplasmic targets of DNA-PK and revealed a connection between DNA damage signaling and the cytoskeleton. PMID:24282534

  6. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Early DNA Damage Response Proteins on Complex DNA Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Tobias, Frank; Löb, Daniel; Lengert, Nicor; Durante, Marco; Drossel, Barbara; Taucher-Scholz, Gisela; Jakob, Burkhard

    2013-01-01

    The response of cells to ionizing radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) is determined by the activation of multiple pathways aimed at repairing the injury and maintaining genomic integrity. Densely ionizing radiation induces complex damage consisting of different types of DNA lesions in close proximity that are difficult to repair and may promote carcinogenesis. Little is known about the dynamic behavior of repair proteins on complex lesions. In this study we use live-cell imaging for the spatio-temporal characterization of early protein interactions at damage sites of increasing complexity. Beamline microscopy was used to image living cells expressing fluorescently-tagged proteins during and immediately after charged particle irradiation to reveal protein accumulation at damaged sites in real time. Information on the mobility and binding rates of the recruited proteins was obtained from fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). Recruitment of the DNA damage sensor protein NBS1 accelerates with increasing lesion density and saturates at very high damage levels. FRAP measurements revealed two different binding modalities of NBS1 to damage sites and a direct impact of lesion complexity on the binding. Faster recruitment with increasing lesion complexity was also observed for the mediator MDC1, but mobility was limited at very high damage densities due to nuclear-wide binding. We constructed a minimal computer model of the initial response to DSB based on known protein interactions only. By fitting all measured data using the same set of parameters, we can reproduce the experimentally characterized steps of the DNA damage response over a wide range of damage densities. The model suggests that the influence of increasing lesion density accelerating NBS1 recruitment is only dependent on the different binding modes of NBS1, directly to DSB and to the surrounding chromatin via MDC1. This elucidates an impact of damage clustering on repair without the need of invoking extra processing steps. PMID:23469115

  7. Rotational dynamics of DNA on the nucleosome surface markedly impact accessibility to a DNA repair enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Hinz, John M.; Rodriguez, Yesenia; Smerdon, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Histones play a crucial role in the organization of DNA in the nucleus, but their presence can prevent interactions with DNA binding proteins responsible for repair of DNA damage. Uracil is an abundant mutagenic lesion recognized by uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG) in the first step of base excision repair (BER). In nucleosome core particles (NCPs), we find substantial differences in UDG-directed cleavage at uracils rotationally positioned toward (U-In) or away from (U-Out) the histone core, or midway between these orientations (U-Mid). Whereas U-Out NCPs show a cleavage rate just below that of naked DNA, U-In and U-Mid NCPs have markedly slower rates of cleavage. Crosslinking of U-In DNA to histones in NCPs yields a greater reduction in cleavage rate but, surprisingly, yields a higher rate of cleavage in U-Out NCPs compared with uncrosslinked NCPs. Moreover, the next enzyme in BER, APE1, stimulates the activity of human UDG in U-Out NCPs, suggesting these enzymes interact on the surface of histones in orientations accessible to UDG. These data indicate that the activity of UDG likely requires “trapping” transiently exposed states arising from the rotational dynamics of DNA on histones. PMID:20176960

  8. Catalysis of DNA cleavage and nucleoside triphosphate synthesis by NM23-H2/NDP kinase share an active site that implies a DNA repair function.

    PubMed

    Postel, E H; Abramczyk, B M; Levit, M N; Kyin, S

    2000-12-19

    NM23/NDP kinases play an important role in development and cancer but their biological function is unknown, despite an intriguing collection of biochemical properties including nucleoside-diphosphate kinase (NDP kinase), DNA binding and transcription, a mutator function, and cleavage of unusually structured DNA by means of a covalent enzyme-DNA complex. To assess the role of the nuclease in human NM23-H2, we sought to identify the amino acid responsible for covalent catalysis. By sequencing a DNA-linked peptide and by site-directed mutagenesis, we identified lysine-12, a phylogenetically conserved residue, as the amino acid forming the covalent complex with DNA. In particular, the epsilon-amino group acts as the critical nucleophile, because substitution with glutamine but not arginine completely abrogated covalent adduct formation and DNA cleavage, whereas the DNA-binding properties remained intact. These findings and chemical modification data suggest that phosphodiester-bond cleavage occurs by a DNA glycosylase/lyase-like mechanism known as the signature of base excision DNA repair nucleases. Involvement of NM23/NDP kinase in a DNA repair pathway would be consistent with its role in normal and tumor cell development. Additionally, lysine-12, which is known in the x-ray crystallographic structure to lie in the catalytic pocket involved in the NDP kinase phosphorylation reaction, was found essential also for the NDP kinase activity of NM23-H2, suggesting that the two catalytic activities of NM23-H2 are fundamentally connected. PMID:11121025

  9. ATM-mediated phosphorylation of the chromatin remodeling enzyme BRG1 modulates DNA double-strand break repair.

    PubMed

    Kwon, S-J; Park, J-H; Park, E-J; Lee, S-A; Lee, H-S; Kang, S W; Kwon, J

    2015-01-15

    ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes such as SWI/SNF (SWItch/Sucrose NonFermentable) have been implicated in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair and damage responses. However, the regulatory mechanisms that control the function of chromatin remodelers in DNA damage response are largely unknown. Here, we show that ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) mediates the phosphorylation of BRG1, the catalytic ATPase of the SWI/SNF complex that contributes to DSB repair by binding γ-H2AX-containing nucleosomes via interaction with acetylated histone H3 and stimulating γ-H2AX formation, at Ser-721 in response to DNA damage. ATM-mediated phosphorylation of BRG1 occurs rapidly and transiently after DNA damage. Phosphorylated BRG1 binds γ-H2AX-containing nucleosomes to form the repair foci. The Ser-721 phosphorylation of BRG1 is critical for binding γ-H2AX-containing nucleosomes and stimulating γ-H2AX formation and DSB repair. BRG1 binds to acetylated H3 peptides much better after phosphorylation at Ser-721 by DNA damage. However, the phosphorylation of Ser-721 does not significantly affect the ATPase and transcriptional activities of BRG1. These results, establishing BRG1 as a novel and functional ATM substrate, suggest that the ATM-mediated phosphorylation of BRG1 facilitates DSB repair by stimulating the association of this remodeler with γ-H2AX nucleosomes via enhancing the affinity to acetylated H3. Our work also suggests that the mechanism of BRG1 stimulation of DNA repair is independent of the remodeler's enzymatic or transcriptional activities. PMID:24413084

  10. Influence of calorie reduction on DNA repair capacity of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Matt, Katja; Burger, Katharina; Gebhard, Daniel; Bergemann, Jörg

    2016-03-01

    Caloric restrictive feeding prolongs the lifespan of a variety of model organisms like rodents and invertebrates. It has been shown that caloric restriction reduces age-related as well as overall-mortality, reduces oxidative stress and influences DNA repair ability positively. There are numerous studies underlining this, but fewer studies involving humans exist. To contribute to a better understanding of the correlation of calorie reduction and DNA repair in humans, we adapted the host cell reactivation assay to an application with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Furthermore, we used this reliable and reproducible assay to research the influence of a special kind of calorie reduction, namely F. X. Mayr therapy, on DNA repair capacity. We found a positive effect in all persons with low pre-existing DNA repair capacity. In individuals with normal pre-existing DNA repair capacity, no effect on DNA repair capacity was detectable. Decline of DNA repair, accumulation of oxidative DNA damages, mitochondrial dysfunction, telomere shortening as well as caloric intake are widely thought to contribute to aging. With regard to that, our results can be considered as a strong indication that calorie reduction may support DNA repair processes and thus contribute to a healthier aging. PMID:26879629

  11. Repair of uv damaged DNA: Genes and proteins of yeast and human

    SciTech Connect

    Prakash, L.

    1992-04-01

    Our objectives are to determine the molecular mechanism of the incision step of excision repair of ultraviolet (UV) light damaged DNA in eukaryotic organisms, using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system, and to study the human homologs of yeast excision repair and postreplication repair proteins progress is described.

  12. The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor modulates DNA repair and radioresponsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Thangavel, Chellappagounder; Liu, Yi; O’Neill, Raymond; Sharma, Ankur; McMahon, Steve B.; Mellert, Hestia; Addya, Sankar; Ertel, Adam; Birbe, Ruth; Fortina, Paolo; Dicker, Adam P; Knudsen, Karen E; Den, Robert B

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Perturbations in the RB pathway are overrepresented in advanced prostate cancer; RB loss promotes bypass of first line hormone therapy. Conversely, preliminary studies suggested that RB-deficient tumors may become sensitized to a subset of DNA damaging agents. Here, the molecular and in vivo consequence of RB status was analyzed in models of clinical relevance. Experimental Design Experimental work was performed with multiple isogenic prostate cancer cell lines (hormone sensitive: LNCaP and LAPC4 cells and hormone resistant C42, 22Rv1 cells; stable knockdown of RB using shRNA). Multiple mechanisms were interrogated including cell cycle, apoptosis, and DNA damage repair. Transcriptome analysis was performed, validated, and mechanisms discerned. Cell survival was measured using clonogenic cell survival assay and in vivo analysis was performed in nude mice with human derived tumor xenografts. Results Loss of RB enhanced the radioresponsiveness of both hormone sensitive and castrate resistant prostate cancer. Hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation was not mediated by cell cycle or p53. RB loss led to alteration in DNA damage repair and activation of the NFκB pathway and subsequent cellular apoptosis through PLK3. In vivo xenografts of RB deficient tumors exhibited diminished tumor mass, lower PSA kinetics and decreased tumor growth after treatment with ionizing radiation (p<0.05). Conclusions Loss of RB confers increased radiosensitivity in prostate cancer. This hypersensitization was mediated by alterations in apoptotic signaling. Combined, these not only provide insight into the molecular consequence of RB loss, but also credential RB status as a putative biomarker for predicting response to radiation therapy. PMID:25165096

  13. Exonuclease 1 preferentially repairs mismatches generated by DNA polymerase α.

    PubMed

    Liberti, Sascha E; Larrea, Andres A; Kunkel, Thomas A

    2013-02-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae EXO1 gene encodes a 5' exonuclease that participates in mismatch repair (MMR) of DNA replication errors. Deleting EXO1 was previously shown to increase mutation rates to a greater extent when combined with a mutator variant (pol3-L612M) of the lagging strand replicase, DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ), than when combined with a mutator variant (pol2-M644G) of the leading strand replicase, DNA polymerase ɛ (Pol ɛ). Here we confirm that result, and extend the approach to examine the effect of deleting EXO1 in a mutator variant (pol1-L868M) of Pol α, the proofreading-deficient and least accurate of the three nuclear replicases that is responsible for initiating Okazaki fragment synthesis. We find that deleting EXO1 increases the mutation rate in the Pol α mutator strain to a significantly greater extent than in the Pol δ or Pol ɛ mutator strains, thereby preferentially reducing the efficiency of MMR of replication errors generated by Pol α. Because these mismatches are closer to the 5' ends of Okazaki fragments than are mismatches made by Pol δ or Pol ɛ, the results not only support the previous suggestion that Exo1 preferentially excises lagging strand replication errors during mismatch repair, they further imply that the 5' ends serve as entry points for 5' excision of replication errors made by Pol α, and possibly as strand discrimination signals for MMR. Nonetheless, mutation rates in the Pol α mutator strain are 5- to 25-fold lower in an exo1Δ strain as compared to an msh2Δ strain completely lacking MMR, indicating that in the absence of Exo1, most replication errors made by Pol α can still be removed in an Msh2-dependent manner by other nucleases and/or by strand displacement. PMID:23245696

  14. The Impact of Hedgehog Signaling Pathway on DNA Repair Mechanisms in Human Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Erhong; Hanna, Ann; Samant, Rajeev S.; Shevde, Lalita A.

    2015-01-01

    Defined cellular mechanisms have evolved that recognize and repair DNA to protect the integrity of its structure and sequence when encountering assaults from endogenous and exogenous sources. There are five major DNA repair pathways: mismatch repair, nucleotide excision repair, direct repair, base excision repair and DNA double strand break repair (including non-homologous end joining and homologous recombination repair). Aberrant activation of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is a feature of many cancer types. The Hh pathway has been documented to be indispensable for epithelial-mesenchymal transition, invasion and metastasis, cancer stemness, and chemoresistance. The functional transcription activators of the Hh pathway include the GLI proteins. Inhibition of the activity of GLI can interfere with almost all DNA repair types in human cancer, indicating that Hh/GLI functions may play an important role in enabling tumor cells to survive lethal types of DNA damage induced by chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Thus, Hh signaling presents an important therapeutic target to overcome DNA repair-enabled multi-drug resistance and consequently increase chemotherapeutic response in the treatment of cancer. PMID:26197339

  15. Repair of DNA strand breaks in a minichromosome in vivo: kinetics, modeling, and effects of inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kumala, Slawomir; Fujarewicz, Krzysztof; Jayaraju, Dheekollu; Rzeszowska-Wolny, Joanna; Hancock, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    To obtain an overall picture of the repair of DNA single and double strand breaks in a defined region of chromatin in vivo, we studied their repair in a ~170 kb circular minichromosome whose length and topology are analogous to those of the closed loops in genomic chromatin. The rate of repair of single strand breaks in cells irradiated with ? photons was quantitated by determining the sensitivity of the minichromosome DNA to nuclease S1, and that of double strand breaks by assaying the reformation of supercoiled DNA using pulsed field electrophoresis. Reformation of supercoiled DNA, which requires that all single strand breaks have been repaired, was not slowed detectably by the inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 NU1025 or 1,5-IQD. Repair of double strand breaks was slowed by 20-30% when homologous recombination was supressed by KU55933, caffeine, or siRNA-mediated depletion of Rad51 but was completely arrested by the inhibitors of nonhomologous end-joining wortmannin or NU7441, responses interpreted as reflecting competition between these repair pathways similar to that seen in genomic DNA. The reformation of supercoiled DNA was unaffected when topoisomerases I or II, whose participation in repair of strand breaks has been controversial, were inhibited by the catalytic inhibitors ICRF-193 or F11782. Modeling of the kinetics of repair provided rate constants and showed that repair of single strand breaks in minichromosome DNA proceeded independently of repair of double strand breaks. The simplicity of quantitating strand breaks in this minichromosome provides a usefull system for testing the efficiency of new inhibitors of their repair, and since the sequence and structural features of its DNA and its transcription pattern have been studied extensively it offers a good model for examining other aspects of DNA breakage and repair. PMID:23382828

  16. Distinct kinetics of human DNA ligases I, IIIalpha, IIIbeta, and IV reveal direct DNA sensing ability and differential physiological functions in DNA repair

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xi; Ballin, Jeff D.; Della-Maria, Julie; Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; White, Elizabeth J.; Tomkinson, Alan E.; Wilson, Gerald M.

    2009-05-11

    The three human LIG genes encode polypeptides that catalyze phosphodiester bond formation during DNA replication, recombination and repair. While numerous studies have identified protein partners of the human DNA ligases (hLigs), there has been little characterization of the catalytic properties of these enzymes. In this study, we developed and optimized a fluorescence-based DNA ligation assay to characterize the activities of purified hLigs. Although hLigI joins DNA nicks, it has no detectable activity on linear duplex DNA substrates with short, cohesive single-strand ends. By contrast, hLigIII{beta} and the hLigIII{alpha}/XRCC1 and hLigIV/XRCC4 complexes are active on both nicked and linear duplex DNA substrates. Surprisingly, hLigIV/XRCC4, which is a key component of the major non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway, is significantly less active than hLigIII on a linear duplex DNA substrate. Notably, hLigIV/XRCC4 molecules only catalyze a single ligation event in the absence or presence of ATP. The failure to catalyze subsequent ligation events reflects a defect in the enzyme-adenylation step of the next ligation reaction and suggests that, unless there is an in vivo mechanism to reactivate DNA ligase IV/XRCC4 following phosphodiester bond formation, the cellular NHEJ capacity will be determined by the number of adenylated DNA ligaseIV/XRCC4 molecules.

  17. Atomic force microscopy captures MutS tetramers initiating DNA mismatch repair.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yong; Marszalek, Piotr E

    2011-07-20

    In spite of extensive research, the mechanism by which MutS initiates DNA mismatch repair (MMR) remains controversial. We use atomic force microscopy (AFM) to capture how MutS orchestrates the first step of E. coli MMR. AFM images captured two types of MutS/DNA complexes: single-site binding and loop binding. In most of the DNA loops imaged, two closely associated MutS dimers formed a tetrameric complex in which one of the MutS dimers was located at or near the mismatch. Surprisingly, in the presence of ATP, one MutS dimer remained at or near the mismatch site and the other, while maintaining contact with the first dimer, relocated on the DNA by reeling in DNA, thereby producing expanding DNA loops. Our results indicate that MutS tetramers composed of two non-equivalent MutS dimers drive E. coli MMR, and these new observations now reconcile the apparent contradictions of previous 'sliding' and 'bending/looping' models of interaction between mismatch and strand signal. PMID:21666597

  18. Roles of DNA adenine methylation in host-pathogen interactions: mismatch repair, transcriptional regulation, and more

    PubMed Central

    Marinus, Martin G.; Casadesus, Josep

    2010-01-01

    The Dam methylase of gamma-proteobacteria and the CcrM methylase of alpha-proteobacteria catalyze an identical reaction (methylation of adenosine moieties using S-adenosyl-methionine as methyl donor) at similar DNA targets (GATC and GANTC, respectively). Dam and CcrM are of independent evolutionary origin. Each may have evolved from an ancestral restriction-modification system that lost its restriction component, leaving an “orphan” methylase devoted solely to epigenetic genome modification. Formation of 6-methyladenine lowers the thermodynamic stability of DNA and changes DNA curvature. As a consequence, the methylation state of specific adenosine moieties can affect DNA-protein interactions. Well known examples include binding of the replication initiation complex to the methylated oriC, recognition of hemimethylated GATCs in newly replicated DNA by the MutHLS mismatch repair complex, and discrimination of methylation states in promoters and regulatory DNA motifs by RNA polymerase and transcription factors. In recent years, Dam and CcrM have been shown to play roles in host-pathogen interactions. These roles are diverse and only partially understood. Especially intriguing is the evidence that Dam methylation regulates virulence genes in E. coli, Salmonella, and Yersinia at the postranscriptional level. PMID:19175412

  19. Encounter and extrusion of an intrahelical lesion by a DNA repair enzyme

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, Yan; Spong, Marie C.; Nam, Kwangho; Banerjee, Anirban; Jiralerspong, Sao; Karplus, Martin; Verdine, Gregory L.; Harvard-Med; Harvard

    2010-01-12

    How living systems detect the presence of genotoxic damage embedded in a million-fold excess of undamaged DNA is an unresolved question in biology. Here we have captured and structurally elucidated a base-excision DNA repair enzyme, MutM, at the stage of initial encounter with a damaged nucleobase, 8-oxoguanine (oxoG), nested within a DNA duplex. Three structures of intrahelical oxoG-encounter complexes are compared with sequence-matched structures containing a normal G base in place of an oxoG lesion. Although the protein-DNA interfaces in the matched complexes differ by only two atoms - those that distinguish oxoG from G - their pronounced structural differences indicate that MutM can detect a lesion in DNA even at the earliest stages of encounter. All-atom computer simulations show the pathway by which encounter of the enzyme with the lesion causes extrusion from the DNA duplex, and they elucidate the critical free energy difference between oxoG and G along the extrusion pathway.

  20. Mechanism of Cluster DNA Damage Repair in Response to High-Atomic Number and Energy Particles Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Asaithamby, Aroumougame; Chen, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Low-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation (i.e., γ- and X-rays) induces DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) that are rapidly repaired (rejoined). In contrast, DNA damage induced by the dense ionizing track of high-atomic number and energy (HZE) particles are slowly repaired or are irreparable. These unrepaired and/or misrepaired DNA lesions may contribute to the observed higher relative biological effectiveness for cell killing, chromosomal aberrations, mutagenesis, and carcinogenesis in HZE particle irradiated cells compared to those treated with low-LET radiation. The types of DNA lesions induced by HZE particles have been characterized in vitro and usually consist of two or more closely spaced strand breaks, abasic sites, or oxidized bases on opposing strands. It is unclear why these lesions are difficult to repair. In this review, we highlight the potential of a new technology allowing direct visualization of different types of DNA lesions in human cells and document the emerging significance of live-cell imaging for elucidation of the spatio-temporal characterization of complex DNA damage. We focus on the recent insights into the molecular pathways that participate in the repair of HZE particle-induced DSBs. We also discuss recent advances in our understanding of how different end-processing nucleases aid in repair of DSBs with complicated ends generated by HZE particles. Understanding the mechanism underlying the repair of DNA damage induced by HZE particles will have important implications for estimating the risks to human health associated with HZE particle exposure. PMID:21126526

  1. Targeting of AKT1 enhances radiation toxicity of human tumor cells by inhibiting DNA-PKcs-dependent DNA double-strand break repair.

    PubMed

    Toulany, Mahmoud; Kehlbach, Rainer; Florczak, Urszula; Sak, Ali; Wang, Shaomeng; Chen, Jianyong; Lobrich, Markus; Rodemann, H Peter

    2008-07-01

    We have already reported that epidermal growth factor receptor/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT signaling is an important pathway in regulating radiation sensitivity and DNA double-strand break (DNA-dsb) repair of human tumor cells. In the present study, we investigated the effect of AKT1 on DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) activity and DNA-dsb repair in irradiated non-small cell lung cancer cell lines A549 and H460. Treatment of cells with the specific AKT pathway inhibitor API-59 CJ-OH (API; 1-5 micromol/L) reduced clonogenic survival between 40% and 85% and enhanced radiation sensitivity of both cell lines significantly. As indicated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis (sub-G(1) cells) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, API treatment or transfection with AKT1-small interfering RNA (siRNA) induced apoptosis of H460 but not of A549 cells. However, in either apoptosis-resistant A549 or apoptosis-sensitive H460 cells, API and/or AKT1-siRNA did not enhance poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage and apoptosis following irradiation. Pretreatment of cells with API or transfection with AKT1-siRNA strongly inhibited radiation-induced phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs at T2609 and S2056 as well as repair of DNA-dsb as measured by the gamma-H2AX foci assay. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments showed a complex formation of activated AKT and DNA-PKcs, supporting the assumption that AKT plays an important regulatory role in the activation of DNA-PKcs in irradiated cells. Thus, targeting of AKT enhances radiation sensitivity of lung cancer cell lines A549 and H460 most likely through specific inhibition of DNA-PKcs-dependent DNA-dsb repair but not through enhancement of radiation-induced apoptosis. PMID:18644989

  2. The RNF138 E3 ligase displaces Ku to promote DNA end resection and regulate DNA repair pathway choice.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Ismail Hassan; Gagné, Jean-Philippe; Genois, Marie-Michelle; Strickfaden, Hilmar; McDonald, Darin; Xu, Zhizhong; Poirier, Guy G; Masson, Jean-Yves; Hendzel, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are repaired mainly by non-homologous end joining or homologous recombination (HR). Cell cycle stage and DNA end resection are believed to regulate the commitment to HR repair. Here we identify RNF138 as a ubiquitin E3 ligase that regulates the HR pathway. RNF138 is recruited to DNA damage sites through zinc fingers that have a strong preference for DNA with 5'- or 3'-single-stranded overhangs. RNF138 stimulates DNA end resection and promotes ATR-dependent signalling and DSB repair by HR, thereby contributing to cell survival on exposure to DSB-inducing agents. Finally, we establish that RNF138-dependent Ku removal from DNA breaks is one mechanism whereby RNF138 can promote HR. These results establish RNF138 as an important regulator of DSB repair pathway choice. PMID:26502055

  3. Human XPA and RPA DNA repair proteins participate in specific recognition of triplex-induced helical distortions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasquez, Karen M.; Christensen, Jesper; Li, Lei; Finch, Rick A.; Glazer, Peter M.

    2002-04-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) plays a central role in maintaining genomic integrity by detecting and repairing a wide variety of DNA lesions. Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A protein (XPA) is an essential component of the repair machinery, and it is thought to be involved in the initial step as a DNA damage recognition and/or confirmation factor. Human replication protein A (RPA) and XPA have been reported to interact to form a DNA damage recognition complex with greater specificity for damaged DNA than XPA alone. The mechanism by which these two proteins recognize such a wide array of structures resulting from different types of DNA damage is not known. One possibility is that they recognize a common feature of the lesions, such as distortions of the helical backbone. We have tested this idea by determining whether human XPA and RPA proteins can recognize the helical distortions induced by a DNA triple helix, a noncanonical DNA structure that has been shown to induce DNA repair, mutagenesis, and recombination. We measured binding of XPA and RPA, together or separately, to substrates containing triplexes with three, two, or no strands covalently linked by psoralen conjugation and photoaddition. We found that RPA alone recognizes all covalent triplex structures, but also forms multivalent nonspecific DNA aggregates at higher concentrations. XPA by itself does not recognize the substrates, but it binds them in the presence of RPA. Addition of XPA decreases the nonspecific DNA aggregate formation. These results support the hypothesis that the NER machinery is targeted to helical distortions and demonstrate that RPA can recognize damaged DNA even without XPA.

  4. Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 and DNA repair by uranium.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Karen L; Dashner, Erica J; Tsosie, Ranalda; Cho, Young Mi; Lewis, Johnnye; Hudson, Laurie G

    2016-01-15

    Uranium has radiological and non-radiological effects within biological systems and there is increasing evidence for genotoxic and carcinogenic properties attributable to uranium through its heavy metal properties. In this study, we report that low concentrations of uranium (as uranyl acetate; <10μM) is not cytotoxic to human embryonic kidney cells or normal human keratinocytes; however, uranium exacerbates DNA damage and cytotoxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide, suggesting that uranium may inhibit DNA repair processes. Concentrations of uranyl acetate in the low micromolar range inhibited the zinc finger DNA repair protein poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 and caused zinc loss from PARP-1 protein. Uranyl acetate exposure also led to zinc loss from the zinc finger DNA repair proteins Xeroderma Pigmentosum, Complementation Group A (XPA) and aprataxin (APTX). In keeping with the observed inhibition of zinc finger function of DNA repair proteins, exposure to uranyl acetate enhanced retention of induced DNA damage. Co-incubation of uranyl acetate with zinc largely overcame the impact of uranium on PARP-1 activity and DNA damage. These findings present evidence that low concentrations of uranium can inhibit DNA repair through disruption of zinc finger domains of specific target DNA repair proteins. This may provide a mechanistic basis to account for the published observations that uranium exposure is associated with DNA repair deficiency in exposed human populations. PMID:26627003

  5. Emergence of rationally designed therapeutic strategies for breast cancer targeting DNA repair mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that many cancers, including BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated breast cancers, are deficient in DNA repair processes. Both hereditary and sporadic breast cancers have been found to have significant downregulation of repair factors. This has provided opportunities to exploit DNA repair deficiencies, whether acquired or inherited. Here, we review efforts to exploit DNA repair deficiencies in tumors, with a focus on breast cancer. A variety of agents, including PARP (poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase) inhibitors, are currently under investigation in clinical trials and available results will be reviewed. PMID:20459590

  6. How SUMOylation Fine-Tunes the Fanconi Anemia DNA Repair Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Kate E.; Huang, Tony T.

    2016-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare human genetic disorder characterized by developmental defects, bone marrow failure and cancer predisposition, primarily due to a deficiency in the repair of DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs). ICL repair through the FA DNA repair pathway is a complicated multi-step process, involving at least 19 FANC proteins and coordination of multiple DNA repair activities, including homologous recombination, nucleotide excision repair and translesion synthesis (TLS). SUMOylation is a critical regulator of several DNA repair pathways, however, the role of this modification in controlling the FA pathway is poorly understood. Here, we summarize recent advances in the fine-tuning of the FA pathway by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-targeted ubiquitin ligases (STUbLs) and other SUMO-related interactions, and discuss the implications of these findings in the design of novel therapeutics for alleviating FA-associated condition, including cancer. PMID:27148358

  7. Chromosomal Aberrations in DNA Repair Defective Cell Lines: Comparisons of Dose Rate and Radiation Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, K. A.; Hada, M.; Patel, Z.; Huff, J.; Pluth, J. M.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2009-01-01

    Chromosome aberration yields were assessed in DNA double-strand break repair (DSB) deficient cells after acute doses of gamma-rays or high-LET iron nuclei, or low dose-rate (0.018 Gy/hr) gamma-rays. We studied several cell lines including fibroblasts deficient in ATM (product of the gene that is mutated in ataxia telangiectasia patients) or NBS (product of the gene mutated in the Nijmegen breakage syndrome), and gliomablastoma cells that are proficient or lacking in DNA-dependent protein kinase, DNA-PK activity. Chromosomes were analyzed using the fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome painting method in cells at the first division post-irradiation and chromosome aberrations were identified as either simple exchanges (translocations and dicentrics) or complex exchanges (involving >2 breaks in 2 or more chromosomes). Gamma radiation induced higher yields of both simple and complex exchanges in the DSB repair defective cells than in the normal cells. The quadratic dose-response terms for both chromosome exchange types were significantly higher for the ATM and NBS defective lines than for normal fibroblasts. However, the linear dose-response term was significantly higher only for simple exchanges in the NBS cells. Large increases in the quadratic dose response terms indicate the important roles of ATM and NBS in chromatin modifications that facilitate correct DSB repair and minimize aberration formation. Differences in the response of AT and NBS deficient cells at lower doses suggests important questions about the applicability of observations of radiation sensitivity at high dose to low dose exposures. For all iron nuclei irradiated cells, regression models preferred purely linear and quadratic dose responses for simple and complex exchanges, respectively. All the DNA repair defective cell lines had lower Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values than normal cells, the lowest being for the DNA-PK-deficient cells, which was near unity. To further investigate the sensitivity differences for low and low high doses, we performed chronic low dose-rate irradiation, and have begun studies with ATM and Nibrin inhibitors and siRNA knockout of these proteins. Results support the conclusion that for the endpoint of simple chromosomal aberrations (translocation or dicentrics), the increased radiation sensitivity of AT cells found at high doses (>1 Gy) does not carry over to low doses or doserates, while NBS cells show increased sensitivity for both high and low dose exposures.

  8. Comparison of rat and hamster hepatocyte primary culture/DNA repair assays

    SciTech Connect

    Kornbrust, D.J.; Barfknect, T.R.

    1984-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated marked differences in the capacity of hepatocytes from rats or hamsters to mediate the metabolic activation of chemical carcinogens to genotoxic (i.e., mutagenic) products. Thus far, very few investigations of species differences in DNA repair have been performed. Therefore, a comparison of the relative extent of DNA repair elicited by various genotoxic chemicals in rat and hamster hepatocyes was conducted, using the hepatocyte primary culture/DNA repair (HPC/DR) assay. Of the ll chemicals tested, eight were more potent in inducing DNA repair in hamster hepatocytes than in rat hepatocytes. Dimethylnitrosamine, diethylnitrosamine, 2-acetylaminofluorene, 9-aminoacridine, pararosaniline hydrochloride, 1-naphthylamine, benzidine and 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane were all active in hamster hepatocytes at a concentration at least ten times less than the lowest effective concentration in rat hepatocytes. The direct-acting alkylating agent, methylmethane sulfonate, was equipotent inducing DNA repair in both rat and hamster hepatocytes, indicating that the differences in DNA repair observed for the other chemicals were probably not a result of species differences in DNA repair capacities. In contrast, 1-nitropyrene produced a greater DNA repair response in rat hepatocyes than hamster hepatocytes, while the bacterial mutagen 3-(chloromethyl)pyridine hydrochloride was inactive in both hepatocyte systems. These studies demonstrate the feasibility of using hamster hepatocytes in the HPC/DR assay and illustrate the utility of performing the assay with hepatocytes from more than one species.

  9. Lifespan and Stress Resistance in Drosophila with Overexpressed DNA Repair Genes.

    PubMed

    Shaposhnikov, Mikhail; Proshkina, Ekaterina; Shilova, Lyubov; Zhavoronkov, Alex; Moskalev, Alexey

    2015-01-01

    DNA repair declines with age and correlates with longevity in many animal species. In this study, we investigated the effects of GAL4-induced overexpression of genes implicated in DNA repair on lifespan and resistance to stress factors in Drosophila melanogaster. Stress factors included hyperthermia, oxidative stress, and starvation. Overexpression was either constitutive or conditional and either ubiquitous or tissue-specific (nervous system). Overexpressed genes included those involved in recognition of DNA damage (homologs of HUS1, CHK2), nucleotide and base excision repair (homologs of XPF, XPC and AP-endonuclease-1), and repair of double-stranded DNA breaks (homologs of BRCA2, XRCC3, KU80 and WRNexo). The overexpression of different DNA repair genes led to both positive and negative effects on lifespan and stress resistance. Effects were dependent on GAL4 driver, stage of induction, sex, and role of the gene in the DNA repair process. While the constitutive/neuron-specific and conditional/ubiquitous overexpression of DNA repair genes negatively impacted lifespan and stress resistance, the constitutive/ubiquitous and conditional/neuron-specific overexpression of Hus1, mnk, mei-9, mus210, and WRNexo had beneficial effects. This study demonstrates for the first time the effects of overexpression of these DNA repair genes on both lifespan and stress resistance in D. melanogaster. PMID:26477511

  10. Rapid and Progressive Pulmonary Fibrosis in 2 Families with DNA Repair Deficiencies of Undetermined Etiology

    PubMed Central

    Vece, Timothy J.; Schecter, Marc G.; Gatti, Richard A.; Tunuguntla, Rashmi; Garcia, Christine Kim; Langston, Claire; Dishop, Megan K.; Moore, Robert H.; Fan, Leland L.

    2016-01-01

    Known genetic causes of pediatric interstitial lung disease include disorders of surfactant metabolism, telomerase, and DNA repair. We report 4 children from 2 families with rapidly progressive and fatal pulmonary fibrosis. A novel DNA repair defect unrelated to the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated gene was found in 1 child from each family. PMID:22240110

  11. Lifespan and Stress Resistance in Drosophila with Overexpressed DNA Repair Genes

    PubMed Central

    Shaposhnikov, Mikhail; Proshkina, Ekaterina; Shilova, Lyubov; Zhavoronkov, Alex; Moskalev, Alexey

    2015-01-01

    DNA repair declines with age and correlates with longevity in many animal species. In this study, we investigated the effects of GAL4-induced overexpression of genes implicated in DNA repair on lifespan and resistance to stress factors in Drosophila melanogaster. Stress factors included hyperthermia, oxidative stress, and starvation. Overexpression was either constitutive or conditional and either ubiquitous or tissue-specific (nervous system). Overexpressed genes included those involved in recognition of DNA damage (homologs of HUS1, CHK2), nucleotide and base excision repair (homologs of XPF, XPC and AP-endonuclease-1), and repair of double-stranded DNA breaks (homologs of BRCA2, XRCC3, KU80 and WRNexo). The overexpression of different DNA repair genes led to both positive and negative effects on lifespan and stress resistance. Effects were dependent on GAL4 driver, stage of induction, sex, and role of the gene in the DNA repair process. While the constitutive/neuron-specific and conditional/ubiquitous overexpression of DNA repair genes negatively impacted lifespan and stress resistance, the constitutive/ubiquitous and conditional/neuron-specific overexpression of Hus1, mnk, mei-9, mus210, and WRNexo had beneficial effects. This study demonstrates for the first time the effects of overexpression of these DNA repair genes on both lifespan and stress resistance in D. melanogaster. PMID:26477511

  12. Targeting the DNA Repair Pathway in Ewing Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Elizabeth; Goshorn, Ross; Bradley, Cori; Griffiths, Lyra M.; Benavente, Claudia; Twarog, Nathaniel R.; Miller, Gregory M.; Caufield, William; Freeman, Burgess B.; Bahrami, Armita; Pappo, Alberto; Wu, Jianrong; Loh, Amos; Karlstrm, sa; Calabrese, Chris; Gordon, Brittney; Tsurkan, Lyudmila; Hatfield, M. Jason; Potter, Philip M.; Snyder, Scott; Thiagarajan, Suresh; Shirinifard, Abbas; Sablauer, Andras; Shelat, Anang A.; Dyer, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma (EWS) is a tumor of the bone and soft-tissue that primarily affects adolescents and young adults. With current therapies, 70% of patients with localized disease survive, but patients with metastatic or recurrent disease have a poor outcome. We found that EWS cell lines are defective in DNA break repair and are sensitive to PARP inhibitors (PARPis). PARPi-induced cytotoxicity in EWS cells was 10- to 1,000-fold higher after administration of the DNA-damaging agents irinotecan or temozolomide. We developed an orthotopic EWS mouse model and performed pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies using 3 different PARPis that are in clinical development for pediatric cancer. Irinotecan administered on a low-dose, protracted schedule previously optimized for pediatric patients was an effective DNA-damaging agent when combined with PARPis; it was also better tolerated than combinations with temozolomide. Combining PARPis with irinotecan and temozolomide gave complete and durable responses in more than 80% of the mice. PMID:25437539

  13. Targeting the DNA repair pathway in Ewing sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Elizabeth; Goshorn, Ross; Bradley, Cori; Griffiths, Lyra M; Benavente, Claudia; Twarog, Nathaniel R; Miller, Gregory M; Caufield, William; Freeman, Burgess B; Bahrami, Armita; Pappo, Alberto; Wu, Jianrong; Loh, Amos; Karlström, Åsa; Calabrese, Chris; Gordon, Brittney; Tsurkan, Lyudmila; Hatfield, M Jason; Potter, Philip M; Snyder, Scott E; Thiagarajan, Suresh; Shirinifard, Abbas; Sablauer, Andras; Shelat, Anang A; Dyer, Michael A

    2014-11-01

    Ewing sarcoma (EWS) is a tumor of the bone and soft tissue that primarily affects adolescents and young adults. With current therapies, 70% of patients with localized disease survive, but patients with metastatic or recurrent disease have a poor outcome. We found that EWS cell lines are defective in DNA break repair and are sensitive to PARP inhibitors (PARPis). PARPi-induced cytotoxicity in EWS cells was 10- to 1,000-fold higher after administration of the DNA-damaging agents irinotecan or temozolomide. We developed an orthotopic EWS mouse model and performed pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies using three different PARPis that are in clinical development for pediatric cancer. Irinotecan administered on a low-dose, protracted schedule previously optimized for pediatric patients was an effective DNA-damaging agent when combined with PARPis; it was also better tolerated than combinations with temozolomide. Combining PARPis with irinotecan and temozolomide gave complete and durable responses in more than 80% of the mice. PMID:25437539

  14. Insights into protein -- DNA interactions, stability and allosteric communications: A computational study of MutS-DNA recognition complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negureanu, Lacramioara; Salsbury, Freddie

    2012-02-01

    DNA mismatch repair proteins (MMR) maintain genetic stability by recognizing and repairing mismatched bases and insertion/deletion loops mistakenly incorporated during DNA replication, and initiate cellular response to certain types of DNA damage. The most abundant MMR mismatch-binding factor in eukaryotes, MutS, recognizes and initiates the repair of base-base mismatches and small insertion/deletions. We performed molecular dynamics simulations on mismatched and damaged MutS-DNA complexes. A comprehensive DNA binding site analysis of relevant conformations shows that MutS proteins recognize the mismatched and platinum cross-linked DNA substrates in significantly different modes. Distinctive conformational changes associated with MutS binding to mismatched and damaged DNA have been identified and they provide insight into the involvement of MMR proteins in DNA-repair and DNA-damage pathways. Stability and allosteric interactions at the heterodimer interface associated with the mismatch and damage recognition step allow for prediction of key residues in MMR cancer-causing mutations. A rigorous hydrogen bonding analysis for ADP molecules at the ATPase binding sites is also presented. A large number of known MMR cancer causing mutations among the residues were found.

  15. DNA-Damage Foci to Detect and Characterize DNA Repair Alterations in Children Treated for Pediatric Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Mareike; Betten, Dominik; Furtwängler, Rhoikos; Rübe, Christian; Graf, Norbert; Rübe, Claudia E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In children diagnosed with cancer, we evaluated the DNA damage foci approach to identify patients with double-strand break (DSB) repair deficiencies, who may overreact to DNA-damaging radio- and chemotherapy. In one patient with Fanconi anemia (FA) suffering relapsing squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity we also characterized the repair defect in biopsies of skin, mucosa and tumor. Methods and Materials In children with histologically confirmed tumors or leukemias and healthy control-children DSB repair was investigated by counting γH2AX-, 53BP1- and pATM-foci in blood lymphocytes at defined time points after ex-vivo irradiation. This DSB repair capacity was correlated with treatment-related normal-tissue responses. For the FA patient the defective repair was also characterized in tissue biopsies by analyzing DNA damage response proteins by light and electron microscopy. Results Between tumor-children and healthy control-children we observed significant differences in mean DSB repair capacity, suggesting that childhood cancer is based on genetic alterations affecting DNA repair. Only 1 out of 4 patients with grade-4 normal-tissue toxicities revealed an impaired DSB repair capacity. The defective DNA repair in FA patient was verified in irradiated blood lymphocytes as well as in non-irradiated mucosa and skin biopsies leading to an excessive accumulation of heterochromatin-associated DSBs in rapidly cycling cells. Conclusions Analyzing human tissues we show that DSB repair alterations predispose to cancer formation at younger ages and affect the susceptibility to normal-tissue toxicities. DNA damage foci analysis of blood and tissue samples allows one to detect and characterize DSB repair deficiencies and enables identification of patients at risk for high-grade toxicities. However, not all treatment-associated normal-tissue toxicities can be explained by DSB repair deficiencies. PMID:24637877

  16. Local generation of fumarate promotes DNA repair through inhibition of histone H3 demethylation

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuhui; Qian, Xu; Shen, Jianfeng; Wang, Yugang; Li, Xinjian; Liu, Rui; Xia, Yan; Chen, Qianming; Peng, Guang; Lin, Shiaw-Yih; Lu, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    Histone methylation regulates DNA repair. However, the mechanisms that underlie the regulation of histone methylation during this repair remain to be further defined. Here, we show that ionizing radiation (IR) induces DNA-PK-dependent phosphorylation of nuclear fumarase at T236, which leads to an interaction between fumarase and the histone variant H2A.Z at DNA double-strand break (DSB) regions. Locally generated fumarate inhibits KDM2B histone demethylase activity, resulting in enhanced dimethylation of histone H3 K36; in turn, this increases the accumulation of the Ku70-containing DNA-PK at DSB regions for non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) DNA repair and cell survival. These findings reveal a feedback mechanism that underlies DNA-PK regulation by chromatin-associated fumarase and an instrumental function of fumarase in regulating histone H3 methylation and DNA repair. PMID:26237645

  17. Reduced local mutation density in regulatory DNA of cancer genomes is linked to DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Polak, Paz; Lawrence, Michael S; Haugen, Eric; Stoletzki, Nina; Stojanov, Petar; Thurman, Robert E; Garraway, Levi A; Mirkin, Sergei; Getz, Gad; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A; Sunyaev, Shamil R

    2014-01-01

    Carcinogenesis and neoplastic progression are mediated by the accumulation of somatic mutations. Here we report that the local density of somatic mutations in cancer genomes is highly reduced specifically in accessible regulatory DNA defined by DNase I hypersensitive sites. This reduction is independent of any known factors influencing somatic mutation density and is observed in diverse cancer types, suggesting a general mechanism. By analyzing individual cancer genomes, we show that the reduced local mutation density within regulatory DNA is linked to intact global genome repair machinery, with nearly complete abrogation of the hypomutation phenomenon in individual cancers that possess mutations in components of the nucleotide excision repair system. Together, our results connect chromatin structure, gene regulation and cancer-associated somatic mutation. PMID:24336318

  18. A Matter of Life or Death: Modeling DNA Damage and Repair in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Karschau, Jens; de Almeida, Camila; Richard, Morgiane C.; Miller, Samantha; Booth, Ian R.; Grebogi, Celso; de Moura, Alessandro P.S.

    2011-01-01

    DNA damage is a hazard all cells must face, and evolution has created a number of mechanisms to repair damaged bases in the chromosome. Paradoxically, many of these repair mechanisms can create double-strand breaks in the DNA molecule which are fatal to the cell. This indicates that the connection between DNA repair and death is far from straightforward, and suggests that the repair mechanisms can be a double-edged sword. In this report, we formulate a mathematical model of the dynamics of DNA damage and repair, and we obtain analytical expressions for the death rate. We predict a counterintuitive relationship between survival and repair. We can discriminate between two phases: below a critical threshold in the number of repair enzymes, the half-life decreases with the number of repair enzymes, but becomes independent of the number of repair enzymes above the threshold. We are able to predict quantitatively the dependence of the death rate on the damage rate and other relevant parameters. We verify our analytical results by simulating the stochastic dynamics of DNA damage and repair. Finally, we also perform an experiment with Escherichia coli cells to test one of the predictions of our model. PMID:21320424

  19. UV-Induced Charge Transfer States in DNA Promote Sequence Selective Self-Repair.

    PubMed

    Bucher, Dominik Benjamin; Kufner, Corinna Lucia; Schlueter, Alexander; Carell, Thomas; Zinth, Wolfgang

    2016-01-13

    Absorption of UV-radiation in nucleotides initiates a number of photophysical and photochemical processes, which may finally cause DNA damage. One major decay channel of photoexcited DNA leads to reactive charge transfer states. This study shows that these states trigger self-repair of DNA photolesions. The experiments were performed by UV spectroscopy and HPLC on different single and double stranded oligonucleotides containing a cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) lesion. In a first experiment we show that photoexcitation of adenine adjacent to a CPD has no influence on this lesion. However, excitation of a guanine (G) adenine (A) sequence leads to reformation of the intact thymine (T) bases. The involvement of two bases for the repair points to a long-living charge transfer state between G and A to be responsible for the repair. The negatively charged A radical anion donates an electron to the CPD, inducing ring splitting and repair. In contrast, a TA sequence, having an inverted charge distribution (T radical anion, A radical cation), is not able to repair the CPD lesion. The investigations show that the presence of an adjacent radical ion is not sufficient for repair. More likely it is the driving power represented by the oxidation potential of the radical ion, which controls the repair. Thus, repair capacities are strongly sequence-dependent, creating DNA regions with different tendencies of self-repair. This self-healing activity represents the simplest sequence-dependent DNA repair system. PMID:26651219

  20. Requirement for DNA mismatch repair proteins in the transcription-coupled repair of thymine glycols in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Leadon, S A; Avrutskaya, A V

    1998-03-01

    Defects in DNA mismatch repair have been shown to lead to increased genomic instability and mutability. We recently found that human cells defective in the DNA mismatch repair gene, hMSH2, were deficient in the transcription-coupled repair (TCR) of both oxidative DNA damage, including thymine glycols, and UV-induced DNA damage. However, in a hMLH1 mutant, only a reduction in the TCR of UV damage was observed. In this study, we examined whether TCR of thymine glycols in Saccharomyces cerecisiae also requires the genes involved in DNA mismatch repair. We found that yeast cells containing mutations in MSH2 were deficient in the removal of thymine glycols from the transcribed strand of the RPB2 gene, while cells with mutations in either MLH1 or PMS1 alone showed near normal levels of TCR of thymine glycols. Interestingly, double mutants in the MLH1 and PMS1 genes were deficient in TCR of thymine glycols. Taken together, these results suggest that these two MutL homologues can act independently of each other, but that they have overlapping roles in TCR. Overall levels of thymine glycol removal were not reduced in the mismatch repair mutants. In contrast to the results with thymine glycols, no defects in TCR of pyrimidine dimers were found in cells with mutations in MSH2, MLH1, PMS1, and MLH1/PMS1. PMID:9637246

  1. Dynamics and pathway of electron tunneling in repair of damaged DNA by photolyase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zheyun; Guo, Xunmin; Tan, Chuang; Li, Jiang; Kao, Ya-Ting; Wang, Lijuan; Sancar, Aziz; Zhong, Dongping

    2013-03-01

    Through electron tunneling, photolyase, a photoenzyme, restores damaged DNA into normal bases. Here, we report our systematic characterization and analyses of three electron transfer processes in thymine dimer restoration by following the entire dynamical evolution during enzymatic repair with femtosecond resolution. Using (deoxy)uracil and thymine as dimer substrates, we unambiguously determined the electron tunneling pathways for the forward electron transfer to initiate repairing and for the final electron return to restore the active cofactor and complete the repair photocycle. Significantly, we found that the adenine moiety of the unusual bent cofactor is essential to mediating all electron-transfer dynamics through a super-exchange mechanism, leading to a delicate balance of time scales. The active-site structural integrity, unique electron tunneling pathways and the critical role of adenine assure these elementary dynamics in synergy in this complex photorepair machinery to achieve the maximum repair efficiency close to unity. The authors thank Drs. Chaitanya Sexana, Yi Yang, and Chen Zang for the initial help with experiment, and Prof. Sherwin Singer and Dr. Ali Hassanali for discussion.

  2. PARP-1 and Ku compete for repair of DNA double strand breaks by distinct NHEJ pathways.

    PubMed

    Wang, Minli; Wu, Weizhong; Wu, Wenqi; Rosidi, Bustanur; Zhang, Lihua; Wang, Huichen; Iliakis, George

    2006-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase 1 (PARP-1) recognizes DNA strand interruptions in vivo and triggers its own modification as well as that of other proteins by the sequential addition of ADP-ribose to form polymers. This modification causes a release of PARP-1 from DNA ends and initiates a variety of responses including DNA repair. While PARP-1 has been firmly implicated in base excision and single strand break repair, its role in the repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) remains unclear. Here, we show that PARP-1, probably together with DNA ligase III, operates in an alternative pathway of non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) that functions as backup to the classical pathway of NHEJ that utilizes DNA-PKcs, Ku, DNA ligase IV, XRCC4, XLF/Cernunnos and Artemis. PARP-1 binds to DNA ends in direct competition with Ku. However, in irradiated cells the higher affinity of Ku for DSBs and an excessive number of other forms of competing DNA lesions limit its contribution to DSB repair. When essential components of the classical pathway of NHEJ are absent, PARP-1 is recruited for DSB repair, particularly in the absence of Ku and non-DSB lesions. This form of DSB repair is sensitive to PARP-1 inhibitors. The results define the function of PARP-1 in DSB repair and characterize a candidate pathway responsible for joining errors causing genomic instability and cancer. PMID:17088286

  3. DNA repair and the evolution of transformation in Bacillus subtilis. 3. Sex with damaged DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Hoelzer, M.A.; Michod, R.E. )

    1991-06-01

    Natural genetic transformation in the bacterium Bacillus subtilis provides an experimental system for studying the evolutionary function of sexual recombination. The repair hypothesis proposes that during transformation the exogenous DNA taken up by cells is used as template for recombinational repair of damages in the recipient cell's genome. Earlier results demonstrated that the population density of transformed cells (i.e., sexual cells) increases, relative to nontransformed cells (primarily asexual cells), with increasing dosage of ultraviolet irradiation, provided that the cells are transformed with undamaged homologous DNA after they have become damaged. In nature, however, donor DNA for transformation is likely to come from cells that are as damaged as the recipient cells. In order to better simulate the effects of transformation in natural populations we conducted similar experiments as those just described using damaged donor DNA. The authors document in this report that transformants continue to increase in relative density even if they are transformed with damaged donor DNA. These results suggest that sites of transformation are often damaged sites in the recipient cell's genome.

  4. DNA repair and the evolution of transformation in the bacterium Bacillus subtilis

    SciTech Connect

    Michod, R.E.; Wojciechowski, M.F.; Hoelzer, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the work reported here is to test the hypothesis that natural genetic transformation in the bacterium Bacillus subtilis has evolved as a DNA repair system. Specifically, tests were made to determine whether transformation functions to provide DNA template for the bacterial cell to use in recombinational repair. The survivorship and the homologous transformation rate as a function of dose of ultraviolet irradiation (UV) was studied in two experimental treatments, in which cells were either transformed before (DNA-UV), or after (UV-DNA), treatment with UV. The results show that there is a qualitative difference in the relationship between the survival of transformed cells (sexual cells) and total cells (primarily asexual cells) in the two treatments. As predicted by the repair hypothesis, in the UV-DNA treatment, transformed cells had greater average survivorship than total cells, while in the DNA-UV treatment this relationship was reversed. There was also a consistent and qualitative difference between the UV-DNA and DNA-UV treatments in the relationship between the homologous transformation rate (transformed cells/total cells) and UV dosage. As predicted by the repair hypothesis, the homologous transformation rate increases with UV dose in the UV-DNA experiments but decreases with UV dose in the DNA-UV treatments. However, the transformation rate for plasmid DNA does not increase in a UV-DNA treatment. These results support the DNA repair hypothesis for the evolution of transformation in particular, and sex generally.

  5. Temperature effects on survival and DNA repair in four freshwater cladoceran Daphnia species exposed to UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Connelly, Sandra J; Moeller, Robert E; Sanchez, Guillermo; Mitchell, David L

    2009-01-01

    The biological responses of four freshwater daphniid species, Daphnia middendorffiana, D. pulicaria, D. pulex and D. parvula, to a single acute dose of ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) were compared. In addition to survival, we compared the induction of DNA damage (i.e. cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers) between species as well as the ability to repair this damage in the presence or absence of photoreactivating light. All four species showed high levels of shielding against DNA damage when compared to damage induced in purified DNA dosimeters at the same time and dose. Significant variation in survival was observed between species depending on temperature and light conditions. Contrary to our expectations, all species showed significantly higher survival and light-dependent DNA damage removal rates at 10 degrees C compared to 20 degrees C, suggesting that the enhanced rate of photoenzymatic repair (PER) at the lower temperature contributed significantly to the recovery of these organisms from UVB. PER was highly effective in promoting survival of three of the four species at 10 degrees C, but at 20 degrees C it was only partially effective in two species, and ineffective in two others. None of the species showed significant dark repair at 20 degrees C and only D. pulicaria showed a significant capacity at 10 degrees C. Two species, D. middendorffiana and D. pulex, showed some short-term survival at 10 degrees C in absence of PER despite their inability to repair any appreciable amount of DNA damage in the dark. All species died rapidly at 20 degrees C in absence of PER, as predicted from complete or near-absence of nucleotide excision repair (NER). Overall, the protective effects of tissue structure and pigmentation were similar in all Daphnia species tested and greatly mitigated the absorption of UVB by DNA and its damaging effects. Surprisingly, the visibly melanotic D. middendorffiana was not better shielded from DNA damage than the three non-melanotic species, and in fact suffered the highest damage rates. Melanin content in this species was not temperature dependent under the experimental growth conditions, and so did not contribute to temperature-dependent responses. It is evident that different species within the same genus have developed diverse biological responses to UVB. Our data strongly suggest that DNA damage is lethal to Daphnia and that photoenzymatic repair is the primary mechanism for removing these lesions. In the absence of light, few species are capable of removing any DNA damage. Surprisingly, the single species in which significant excision repair was detected did so only at reduced temperature. This temperature-dependence of excision repair is striking and may reflect adaptations of certain organisms to stress in a complex and changing environment. PMID:18700864