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1

UC Davis researchers discover complexities of DNA repair:  

Cancer.gov

An international team of scientists led by UC Davis researchers has discovered that DNA repair in cancer cells is not a one-way street as previously believed. Their findings show instead that recombination, an important DNA repair process, has a self-correcting mechanism that allows DNA to make a virtual u-turn and start over.

2

Long patch base excision repair proceeds via coordinated stimulation of the multienzyme DNA repair complex.  

PubMed

Base excision repair, a major repair pathway in mammalian cells, is responsible for correcting DNA base damage and maintaining genomic integrity. Recent reports show that the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 complex (9-1-1) stimulates enzymes proposed to perform a long patch-base excision repair sub-pathway (LP-BER), including DNA glycosylases, apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1), DNA polymerase beta (pol beta), flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1), and DNA ligase I (LigI). However, 9-1-1 was found to produce minimal stimulation of FEN1 and LigI in the context of a complete reconstitution of LP-BER. We show here that pol beta is a robust stimulator of FEN1 and a moderate stimulator of LigI. Apparently, there is a maximum possible stimulation of these two proteins such that after responding to pol beta or another protein in the repair complex, only a small additional response to 9-1-1 is allowed. The 9-1-1 sliding clamp structure must serve primarily to coordinate enzyme actions rather than enhancing rate. Significantly, stimulation by the polymerase involves interaction of primer terminus-bound pol beta with FEN1 and LigI. This observation provides compelling evidence that the proposed LP-BER pathway is actually employed in cells. Moreover, this pathway has been proposed to function by sequential enzyme actions in a "hit and run" mechanism. Our results imply that this mechanism is still carried out, but in the context of a multienzyme complex that remains structurally intact during the repair process. PMID:19329425

Balakrishnan, Lata; Brandt, Patrick D; Lindsey-Boltz, Laura A; Sancar, Aziz; Bambara, Robert A

2009-05-29

3

FANCM of the Fanconi anemia core complex is required for both monoubiquitination and DNA repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In response to DNA damage, the Fanconi anemia (FA) core complex functions as a signaling machine for monoubiquitination of FANCD2 and FANCI. It remains unclear whether this complex can also participate insubsequent DNA repair. We have previously shown that the FANCM constituent of the complex contains a highly conserved helicase domain and an associated ATP-dependent DNA translocase activity. Here

Yutong Xue; Yongjiang Li; Rong Guo; Chen Ling; Weidong Wang

2008-01-01

4

MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 Complex Dictates DNA Repair Independent of H2AX*  

PubMed Central

DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) represent one of the most serious forms of DNA damage that can occur in the genome. Here, we show that the DSB-induced signaling cascade and homologous recombination (HR)-mediated DSB repair pathway can be genetically separated. We demonstrate that the MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex acts to promote DNA end resection and the generation of single-stranded DNA, which is critically important for HR repair. These functions of the MRN complex can occur independently of the H2AX-mediated DNA damage signaling cascade, which promotes stable accumulation of other signaling and repair proteins such as 53BP1 and BRCA1 to sites of DNA damage. Nevertheless, mild defects in HR repair are observed in H2AX-deficient cells, suggesting that the H2AX-dependent DNA damage-signaling cascade assists DNA repair. We propose that the MRN complex is responsible for the initial recognition of DSBs and works together with both CtIP and the H2AX-dependent DNA damage-signaling cascade to facilitate repair by HR and regulate DNA damage checkpoints.

Yuan, Jingsong; Chen, Junjie

2010-01-01

5

The NF90/NF45 Complex Participates in DNA Break Repair via Nonhomologous End Joining ? †  

PubMed Central

Nuclear factor 90 (NF90), an RNA-binding protein implicated in the regulation of gene expression, exists as a heterodimeric complex with NF45. We previously reported that depletion of the NF90/NF45 complex results in a multinucleated phenotype. Time-lapse microscopy revealed that binucleated cells arise by incomplete abscission of progeny cells followed by fusion. Multinucleate cells arose through aberrant division of binucleated cells and displayed abnormal metaphase plates and anaphase chromatin bridges suggestive of DNA repair defects. NF90 and NF45 are known to interact with the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), which is involved in telomere maintenance and DNA repair by nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ). We hypothesized that NF90 modulates the activity of DNA-PK. In an in vitro NHEJ assay system, DNA end joining was reduced by NF90/NF45 immunodepletion or by RNA digestion to an extent similar to that for catalytic subunit DNA-PKcs immunodepletion. In vivo, NF90/NF45-depleted cells displayed increased ?-histone 2A.X foci, indicative of an accumulation of double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs), and increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation consistent with decreased DSB repair. Further, NF90/NF45 knockdown reduced end-joining activity in vivo. These results identify the NF90/NF45 complex as a regulator of DNA damage repair mediated by DNA-PK and suggest that structured RNA may modulate this process.

Shamanna, Raghavendra A.; Hoque, Mainul; Lewis-Antes, Anita; Azzam, Edouard I.; Lagunoff, David; Pe'ery, Tsafi; Mathews, Michael B.

2011-01-01

6

How to Relate Complex DNA Repair Genotypes to Pathway Function and, Ultimately, Health Risk  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to ionizing radiation increases the incidence of cancer. However, predicting which individuals are at most risk from radiation exposure is a distant goal. Predictive ability is needed to guide policies that regulate radiation exposure and ensure that medical treatments have maximum benefit and minimum risk. Differences between people in susceptibility to radiation are largely based on their genotype, the genes inherited from their parents. Among the important genes are those that produce proteins that repair DNA damaged by radiation. Base Excision Repair (BER) proteins repair single strand breaks and oxidized bases in DNA. Double Strand Break Repair proteins repair broken chromosomes. Using technologies and information from the Human Genome Project, we have previously determined that the DNA sequence of DNA repair genes varies within the human population. An average of 3-4 different variants were found that affect the protein for each of 37 genes studied. The average frequency of these variants is 5%. Given the many genes in each DNA repair pathway and their many variants, technical ability to determine an individual's repair genotype greatly exceeds ability to interpret the information. A long-term goal is to relate DNA repair genotypes to health risk from radiation. This study focused on the BER pathway. The BER genes are known, variants of the genes have been identified at LLNL, and LLNL had recently developed an assay for BER function using white blood cells. The goal of this initial effort was to begin developing data that could be used to test the hypothesis that many different genotypes have similar DNA repair capacity phenotypes (function). Relationships between genotype and phenotype could then be used to group genotypes with similar function and ultimately test the association of groups of genotypes with health risk from radiation. Genotypes with reduced repair function are expected to increase risk of radiation-induced health effects. The goal of this pilot project was to obtain preliminary data on genetic variation in DNA repair function in human cells that might encourage our efforts to establish a research program to relate DNA repair function to complex DNA repair genotype and ultimately to cancer risk of radiation exposure.

Jones, IM

2002-01-09

7

Processing of a complex multiply damaged DNA site by human cell extracts and purified repair proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clustered DNA lesions, possibly induced by ionizing radiation, constitute a trial for repair processes. Indeed, recent studies suggest that repair of such lesions may be compromised, potentially leading to the formation of lethal double-strand breaks (DSBs). A complex multiply damaged site (MDS) composed of 8-oxoguanine and 8-oxoadenine on one strand, 5-hydroxyuracil, 5-formyluracil and a 1 nt gap on the other

Gregory Eot-Houllier; Severine Eon-Marchais; Didier Gasparutto; Evelyne Sage

2005-01-01

8

Dynamics of the HP1?-PCNA-containing complexes in DNA replication and repair  

PubMed Central

Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1), a small non-histone chromosomal protein, was recently shown to form a complex in vivo with Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA), a key factor in DNA replication. The complex, which requires HP1? in a form of a dimer, is engaged in DNA repair and replication. We now provide further evidence based on FRET-FLIM live cell studies confirming the association and close proximity between HP1? and PCNA in the complex. We also demonstrate using FRAP, that although HP1?-PCNA complexes are highly mobile in nonreplicating nuclei, when engaged in DNA replication, they become bound and do not exchange with the mobile pool. These observations are in agreement with a notion that a subpopulation of HP1 molecules interact with PCNA in vivo during DNA replication. Similarly, HP1? which is associated with PCNA in regions of DNA repair, is bound and does not exchange with the mobile pool, suggesting that HP1? in association with PCNA may be a component of a DNA repair complex.

Trembecka-Lucas, Dominika O.; Trembecka-Lucas, Dominika O.; Szczurek, Aleksander T.; Szczurek, Aleksander T.; Dobrucki, Jurek W.; Dobrucki, Jurek W.

2013-01-01

9

The Fanconi anemia DNA repair pathway: structural and functional insights into a complex disorder.  

PubMed

Mutations in any of at least sixteen FANC genes (FANCA-Q) cause Fanconi anemia, a disorder characterized by sensitivity to DNA interstrand crosslinking agents. The clinical features of cytopenia, developmental defects, and tumor predisposition are similar in each group, suggesting that the gene products participate in a common pathway. The Fanconi anemia DNA repair pathway consists of an anchor complex that recognizes damage caused by interstrand crosslinks, a multisubunit ubiquitin ligase that monoubiquitinates two substrates, and several downstream repair proteins including nucleases and homologous recombination enzymes. We review progress in the use of structural and biochemical approaches to understanding how each FANC protein functions in this pathway. PMID:24773018

Walden, Helen; Deans, Andrew J

2014-01-01

10

Structure of the FANCI-FANCD2 Complex: Insights into the Fanconi Anemia DNA Repair Pathway  

SciTech Connect

Fanconi anemia is a cancer predisposition syndrome caused by defects in the repair of DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs). Central to this pathway is the Fanconi anemia I-Fanconi anemia D2 (FANCI-FANCD2) (ID) complex, which is activated by DNA damage-induced phosphorylation and monoubiquitination. The 3.4 angstrom crystal structure of the {approx}300 kilodalton ID complex reveals that monoubiquitination and regulatory phosphorylation sites map to the I-D interface, suggesting that they occur on monomeric proteins or an opened-up complex and that they may serve to stabilize I-D heterodimerization. The 7.8 angstrom electron-density map of FANCI-DNA crystals and in vitro data show that each protein has binding sites for both single- and double-stranded DNA, suggesting that the ID complex recognizes DNA structures that result from the encounter of replication forks with an ICL.

W Joo; G Xu; n Persky; A Smogorzewska; D Rudge; O Buzovetsky; S Elledge; N Pavletich

2011-12-31

11

Complex DNA repair pathways as possible therapeutic targets to overcome temozolomide resistance in glioblastoma  

PubMed Central

Many conventional chemotherapeutic drugs exert their cytotoxic function by inducing DNA damage in the tumor cell. Therefore, a cell-inherent DNA repair pathway, which reverses the DNA-damaging effect of the cytotoxic drugs, can mediate therapeutic resistance to chemotherapy. The monofunctional DNA-alkylating agent temozolomide (TMZ) is a commonly used chemotherapeutic drug and the gold standard treatment for glioblastoma (GBM). Although the activity of DNA repair protein O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) has been described as the main modulator to determine the sensitivity of GBM to TMZ, a subset of GBM does not respond despite MGMT inactivation, suggesting that another DNA repair mechanism may also modulate the tolerance to TMZ. Considerable interest has focused on MGMT, mismatch repair (MMR), and the base excision repair (BER) pathway in the mechanism of mediating TMZ resistance, but emerging roles for the DNA strand-break repair pathway have been demonstrated. In the first part of this review article, we briefly review the significant role of MGMT, MMR, and the BER pathway in the tolerance to TMZ; in the last part, we review the recent publications that demonstrate possible roles of DNA strand-break repair pathways, such as single-strand break repair and double-strand break repair, as well as the Fanconi anemia pathway in the repair process after alkylating agent-based therapy. It is possible that all of these repair pathways have a potential to modulate the sensitivity to TMZ and aid in overcoming the therapeutic resistance in the clinic.

Yoshimoto, Koji; Mizoguchi, Masahiro; Hata, Nobuhiro; Murata, Hideki; Hatae, Ryusuke; Amano, Toshiyuki; Nakamizo, Akira; Sasaki, Tomio

2012-01-01

12

The Arabidopsis SWR1 Chromatin-Remodeling Complex Is Important for DNA Repair, Somatic Recombination, and Meiosis[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

All processes requiring interaction with DNA are attuned to occur within the context of the complex chromatin structure. As it does for programmed transcription and replication, this also holds true for unscheduled events, such as repair of DNA damage. Lesions such as double-strand breaks occur randomly; their repair requires that enzyme complexes access DNA at potentially any genomic site. This is achieved by chromatin remodeling factors that can locally slide, evict, or change nucleosomes. Here, we show that the Swi2/Snf2-related (SWR1 complex), known to deposit histone H2A.Z, is also important for DNA repair in Arabidopsis thaliana. Mutations in genes for Arabidopsis SWR1 complex subunits PHOTOPERIOD-INDEPENDENT EARLY FLOWERING1, ACTIN-RELATED PROTEIN6, and SWR1 COMPLEX6 cause hypersensitivity to various DNA damaging agents. Even without additional genotoxic stress, these mutants show symptoms of DNA damage accumulation. The reduced DNA repair capacity is connected with impaired somatic homologous recombination, in contrast with the hyper-recombinogenic phenotype of yeast SWR1 mutants. This suggests functional diversification between lower and higher eukaryotes. Finally, reduced fertility and irregular gametogenesis in the Arabidopsis SWR1 mutants indicate an additional role for the chromatin-remodeling complex during meiosis. These results provide evidence for the importance of Arabidopsis SWR1 in somatic DNA repair and during meiosis.

Rosa, Marisa; Von Harder, Mona; Aiese Cigliano, Riccardo; Schlogelhofer, Peter; Mittelsten Scheid, Ortrun

2013-01-01

13

The Arabidopsis SWR1 chromatin-remodeling complex is important for DNA repair, somatic recombination, and meiosis.  

PubMed

All processes requiring interaction with DNA are attuned to occur within the context of the complex chromatin structure. As it does for programmed transcription and replication, this also holds true for unscheduled events, such as repair of DNA damage. Lesions such as double-strand breaks occur randomly; their repair requires that enzyme complexes access DNA at potentially any genomic site. This is achieved by chromatin remodeling factors that can locally slide, evict, or change nucleosomes. Here, we show that the Swi2/Snf2-related (SWR1 complex), known to deposit histone H2A.Z, is also important for DNA repair in Arabidopsis thaliana. Mutations in genes for Arabidopsis SWR1 complex subunits photoperiod-independent Early Flowering1, actin-related protein6, and SWR1 complex6 cause hypersensitivity to various DNA damaging agents. Even without additional genotoxic stress, these mutants show symptoms of DNA damage accumulation. The reduced DNA repair capacity is connected with impaired somatic homologous recombination, in contrast with the hyper-recombinogenic phenotype of yeast SWR1 mutants. This suggests functional diversification between lower and higher eukaryotes. Finally, reduced fertility and irregular gametogenesis in the Arabidopsis SWR1 mutants indicate an additional role for the chromatin-remodeling complex during meiosis. These results provide evidence for the importance of Arabidopsis SWR1 in somatic DNA repair and during meiosis. PMID:23780875

Rosa, Marisa; Von Harder, Mona; Cigliano, Riccardo Aiese; Schlögelhofer, Peter; Mittelsten Scheid, Ortrun

2013-06-01

14

Structural insights into the functions of the FANCM-FAAP24 complex in DNA repair  

PubMed Central

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder associated with deficiencies in the FA complementation group network. FA complementation group M (FANCM) and FA-associated protein 24 kDa (FAAP24) form a stable complex to anchor the FA core complex to chromatin in repairing DNA interstrand crosslinks. Here, we report the first crystal structure of the C-terminal segment of FANCM in complex with FAAP24. The C-terminal segment of FANCM and FAAP24 both consist of a nuclease domain at the N-terminus and a tandem helix-hairpin-helix (HhH)2 domain at the C-terminus. The FANCM-FAAP24 complex exhibits a similar architecture as that of ApXPF. However, the variations of several key residues and the electrostatic property at the active-site region render a catalytically inactive nuclease domain of FANCM, accounting for the lack of nuclease activity. We also show that the first HhH motif of FAAP24 is a potential binding site for DNA, which plays a critical role in targeting FANCM-FAAP24 to chromatin. These results reveal the mechanistic insights into the functions of FANCM-FAAP24 in DNA repair.

Yang, Hui; Zhang, Tianlong; Tao, Ye; Wang, Fang; Tong, Liang; Ding, Jianping

2013-01-01

15

The DNA repair complex Ku70/86 modulates Apaf1 expression upon DNA damage  

PubMed Central

Apaf1 is a key regulator of the mitochondrial intrinsic pathway of apoptosis, as it activates executioner caspases by forming the apoptotic machinery apoptosome. Its genetic regulation and its post-translational modification are crucial under the various conditions where apoptosis occurs. Here we describe Ku70/86, a mediator of non-homologous end-joining pathway of DNA repair, as a novel regulator of Apaf1 transcription. Through analysing different Apaf1 promoter mutants, we identified an element repressing the Apaf1 promoter. We demonstrated that Ku70/86 is a nuclear factor able to bind this repressing element and downregulating Apaf1 transcription. We also found that Ku70/86 interaction with Apaf1 promoter is dynamically modulated upon DNA damage. The effect of this binding is a downregulation of Apaf1 expression immediately following the damage to DNA; conversely, we observed Apaf1 upregulation and apoptosis activation when Ku70/86 unleashes the Apaf1-repressing element. Therefore, besides regulating DNA repair, our results suggest that Ku70/86 binds to the Apaf1 promoter and represses its activity. This may help to inhibit the apoptosome pathway of cell death and contribute to regulate cell survival.

De Zio, D; Bordi, M; Tino, E; Lanzuolo, C; Ferraro, E; Mora, E; Ciccosanti, F; Fimia, G M; Orlando, V; Cecconi, F

2011-01-01

16

Regulation of DNA Repair through De-SUMOylation and SUMOylation of Replication Protein A Complex  

PubMed Central

The replication protein A complex (RPA) plays a crucial role in DNA replication and damage response. However, it is not known whether this complex is regulated by the SUMOylation pathway. Here we show that the 70kd subunit of RPA (RPA70) associates with a Sentrin/SUMO-specific protease, SENP6, in the nucleus to maintain RPA70 in a hypo-SUMOylated state during S phase. Campothecin (CPT), an inducer of replication stress, dissociates SENP6 from RPA70 allowing RPA70 to be modified by a small ubiquitin-like modifier 2/3 (SUMO-2/3). RPA70 SUMOylation facilitates recruitment of Rad51 to the DNA damage foci to initiate DNA repair through homologous recombination (HR). Cell lines that expressed a RPA70 mutant that cannot be SUMOylated are defective in HR and have a marked increase in sensitivity to CPT. These results demonstrate that SUMOylation status of RPA70 plays a critical role in the regulation of DNA repair through homologous recombination.

Dou, Hong; Huang, Chao; Singh, Melissa; Carpenter, Phillip B; Yeh, Edward T. H.

2010-01-01

17

DNA Damage Signaling in Hematopoietic Cells: A Role for Mre11 Complex Repair of Topoisomerase Lesions  

PubMed Central

The Mre11 complex promotes DNA double-strand break repair and regulates DNA damage signaling via activation of the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase. The hypermorphic Rad50S allele encodes a variant of Rad50, a member of the Mre11 complex. Cells expressing Rad50S experience constitutive ATM activation, which leads to precipitous apoptotic attrition in hematopoietic cells. In this study, we show that ATM activation by the Rad50S-containing Mre11 complex enhances the proliferation of LSK cells, a population consisting of hematopoietic stem cells and multipotent progenitor cells. In Rad50S/S mice, enhanced LSK proliferation triggers apoptotic attrition. This phenotype is mitigated when Rad50S/S is combined with mutations that alter either LSK cell quiescence (myeloid elf-1–like factor/ELF4–deficient mice) or hematopoietic differentiation (p21- and p27-deficient mice), indicating that the LSK population is a primary target of Rad50S pathology. We show that cells from Rad50S/S mice are hypersensitive to camptothecin, a topoisomerase I inhibitor that causes DNA damage primarily during DNA replication. On this basis, we propose that apoptotic attrition of Rad50S/S hematopoietic cells results from enhanced proliferation in the context of topoisomerase-associated DNA damage. Impairment of apoptosis in Rad50S/S mice promotes hematopoietic malignancy, suggesting that primitive hematopoietic cells serve as a reservoir of potentially oncogenic lesions in Rad50S/S mice. These data provide compelling evidence that the Mre11 complex plays a role in the metabolism of topoisomerase lesions in mammals, and further suggest that such lesions can accumulate in primitive hematopoietic cells and confer significant oncogenic potential.

Morales, Monica; Liu, Yan; Laiakis, Evagelia C.; Morgan, William F.; Nimer, Stephen D.; Petrini, John H.J.

2010-01-01

18

Identification of a BRCA1-mRNA splicing complex required for efficient DNA repair and maintenance of genomic stability.  

PubMed

Mutations within BRCA1 predispose carriers to a high risk of breast and ovarian cancers. BRCA1 functions to maintain genomic stability through the assembly of multiple protein complexes involved in DNA repair, cell-cycle arrest, and transcriptional regulation. Here, we report the identification of a DNA damage-induced BRCA1 protein complex containing BCLAF1 and other key components of the mRNA-splicing machinery. In response to DNA damage, this complex regulates pre-mRNA splicing of a number of genes involved in DNA damage signaling and repair, thereby promoting the stability of these transcripts/proteins. Further, we show that abrogation of this complex results in sensitivity to DNA damage, defective DNA repair, and genomic instability. Interestingly, mutations in a number of proteins found within this complex have been identified in numerous cancer types. These data suggest that regulation of splicing by the BRCA1-mRNA splicing complex plays an important role in the cellular response to DNA damage. PMID:24746700

Savage, Kienan I; Gorski, Julia J; Barros, Eliana M; Irwin, Gareth W; Manti, Lorenzo; Powell, Alexander J; Pellagatti, Andrea; Lukashchuk, Natalia; McCance, Dennis J; McCluggage, W Glenn; Schettino, Giuseppe; Salto-Tellez, Manuel; Boultwood, Jacqueline; Richard, Derek J; McDade, Simon S; Harkin, D Paul

2014-05-01

19

Identification of a BRCA1-mRNA Splicing Complex Required for Efficient DNA Repair and Maintenance of Genomic Stability  

PubMed Central

Summary Mutations within BRCA1 predispose carriers to a high risk of breast and ovarian cancers. BRCA1 functions to maintain genomic stability through the assembly of multiple protein complexes involved in DNA repair, cell-cycle arrest, and transcriptional regulation. Here, we report the identification of a DNA damage-induced BRCA1 protein complex containing BCLAF1 and other key components of the mRNA-splicing machinery. In response to DNA damage, this complex regulates pre-mRNA splicing of a number of genes involved in DNA damage signaling and repair, thereby promoting the stability of these transcripts/proteins. Further, we show that abrogation of this complex results in sensitivity to DNA damage, defective DNA repair, and genomic instability. Interestingly, mutations in a number of proteins found within this complex have been identified in numerous cancer types. These data suggest that regulation of splicing by the BRCA1-mRNA splicing complex plays an important role in the cellular response to DNA damage.

Savage, Kienan I.; Gorski, Julia J.; Barros, Eliana M.; Irwin, Gareth W.; Manti, Lorenzo; Powell, Alexander J.; Pellagatti, Andrea; Lukashchuk, Natalia; McCance, Dennis J.; McCluggage, W. Glenn; Schettino, Giuseppe; Salto-Tellez, Manuel; Boultwood, Jacqueline; Richard, Derek J.; McDade, Simon S.; Harkin, D. Paul

2014-01-01

20

Chromatin Modifications in DNA Repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

A requirement of nuclear processes that use DNA as a substrate is the manipulation\\u000a of chromatin in which the DNA is packaged. Chromatin modifications cause alterations of histones\\u000a and DNA, and result in a permissive chromatin environment for these nuclear processes. Recent\\u000a advances in the fields of DNA repair and chromatin reveal that both histone modifications and chromatin-remodeling\\u000a complexes are essential for the

Ashby J. Morrison; Xuetong Shen

21

Optimality in DNA repair  

PubMed Central

DNA within cells is subject to damage from various sources. Organisms have evolved a number of mechanisms to repair DNA damage. The activity of repair enzymes carries its own risk, however, because the repair of two nearby lesions may lead to the breakup of DNA and result in cell death. We propose a mathematical theory of the damage and repair process in the important scenario where lesions are caused in bursts. We use this model to show that there is an optimum level of repair enzymes within cells which optimises the cell's response to damage. This optimal level is explained as the best trade-off between fast repair and a low probability of causing double-stranded breaks. We derive our results analytically and test them using stochastic simulations, and compare our predictions with current biological knowledge.

Richard, Morgiane; Fryett, Matthew; Miller, Samantha; Booth, Ian; Grebogi, Celso; Moura, Alessandro

2012-01-01

22

Identification and Characterization of a Human DNA Double-Strand Break Repair Complex  

SciTech Connect

The authors have used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to characterize the assembly and structure of the macromolecular assemblies involved in DNA repair. They have demonstrated using AFM that the DNA-dependent protein kinase can play a structural role in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by physically holding DNA ends together. They have extended these studies to include other DNA damage response proteins, these efforts have resulted in important and novel findings regarding the ATM protein. Specifically, the work has demonstrated, for the first time, that the ATM protein binds with specificity to a DNA end. This finding is the first to implicate the ATM protein in the detection of DNA damage by direct physical interaction with DSBs.

Chen, D.J.; Cary, R.B.

1999-07-12

23

Identification and Dissection of a Complex DNA Repair Sensitivity Phenotype in Baker's Yeast  

PubMed Central

Complex traits typically involve the contribution of multiple gene variants. In this study, we took advantage of a high-density genotyping analysis of the BY (S288c) and RM strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and of 123 derived spore progeny to identify the genetic loci that underlie a complex DNA repair sensitivity phenotype. This was accomplished by screening hybrid yeast progeny for sensitivity to a variety of DNA damaging agents. Both the BY and RM strains are resistant to the ultraviolet light–mimetic agent 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO); however, hybrid progeny from a BY×RM cross displayed varying sensitivities to the drug. We mapped a major quantitative trait locus (QTL), RAD5, and identified the exact polymorphism within this locus responsible for 4-NQO sensitivity. By using a backcrossing strategy along with array-assisted bulk segregant analysis, we identified one other locus, MKT1, and a QTL on Chromosome VII that also link to the hybrid 4-NQO–sensitive phenotype but confer more minor effects. This work suggests an additive model for sensitivity to 4-NQO and provides a strategy for mapping both major and minor QTL that confer background-specific phenotypes. It also provides tools for understanding the effect of genetic background on sensitivity to genotoxic agents.

Demogines, Ann; Smith, Erin; Kruglyak, Leonid; Alani, Eric

2008-01-01

24

The Transcriptional Histone Acetyltransferase Cofactor TRRAP Associates with the MRN Repair Complex and Plays a Role in DNA Double-Strand Break Repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transactivation-transformation domain-associated protein (TRRAP) is a component of several multiprotein histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complexes implicated in transcriptional regulation. TRRAP was shown to be required for the mitotic checkpoint and normal cell cycle progression. MRE11, RAD50, and NBS1 (product of the Nijmegan breakage syndrome gene) form the MRN complex that is involved in the detection, signaling, and repair of DNA double-strand

Flavie Robert; Sara Hardy; Zita Nagy; Celine Baldeyron; Rabih Murr; Ugo Dery; Jean-Yves Masson; Dora Papadopoulo; Zdenko Herceg; L. Tora

2006-01-01

25

DNA Damage Response: Three Levels of DNA Repair Regulation  

PubMed Central

Genome integrity is challenged by DNA damage from both endogenous and environmental sources. This damage must be repaired to allow both RNA and DNA polymerases to accurately read and duplicate the information in the genome. Multiple repair enzymes scan the DNA for problems, remove the offending damage, and restore the DNA duplex. These repair mechanisms are regulated by DNA damage response kinases including DNA-PKcs, ATM, and ATR that are activated at DNA lesions. These kinases improve the efficiency of DNA repair by directly phosphorylating repair proteins to modify their activities, by initiating a complex series of changes in the local chromatin structure near the damage site, and by altering the overall cellular environment to make it more conducive to repair. In this review, we focus on these three levels of regulation to illustrate how the DNA damage kinases promote efficient repair to maintain genome integrity and prevent disease.

Sirbu, Bianca M.; Cortez, David

2013-01-01

26

BRCA2 is an Essential Component of the Rad51-Dependent DNA Repair Complex.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The BRCA2 gene is associated with hereditary tendency to breast cancer. Mutations in BRCA2 cause a dominantly inherited predisposition to breast cancer. Recent evidence has indicated that BRCA2 protein plays a role in genome stability and in DNA repair me...

D. J. Chen

2002-01-01

27

Cdk1-dependent regulation of the Mre11 complex couples DNA repair pathways to cell cycle progression.  

PubMed

Homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) are the main pathways ensuring the repair of DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) in eukaryotes. It has long been known that cell cycle stage is a major determinant of the type of pathway used to repair DSBs in vivo. However, the mechanistic basis for the cell cycle regulation of the DNA damage response is still unclear. Here we show that a major DSB sensor, the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 (MRX) complex, is regulated by cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation specifically in mitosis. This modification depends on the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdc28/Cdk1, and abrogation of Xrs2 and Mre11 phosphorylation results in a marked preference for DSB repair through NHEJ. Importantly, we show that phosphorylation of the MRX complex after DNA damage and during mitosis are regulated independently of each other by Tel1/ATM and Cdc28/Cdk1 kinases. Collectively, our results unravel an intricate network of phosphoregulatory mechanisms that act through the MRX complex to modulate DSB repair efficiency during mitosis. PMID:24553123

Simoneau, Antoine; Robellet, Xavier; Ladouceur, Anne-Marie; D'Amours, Damien

2014-04-01

28

Structure of the DNA repair enzyme endonuclease IV and its DNA complex: double-nucleotide flipping at abasic sites and three-metal-ion catalysis.  

PubMed

Endonuclease IV is the archetype for a conserved apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease family that primes DNA repair synthesis by cleaving the DNA backbone 5' of AP sites. The crystal structures of Endonuclease IV and its AP-DNA complex at 1.02 and 1.55 A resolution reveal how an alpha8beta8 TIM barrel fold can bind dsDNA. Enzyme loops intercalate side chains at the abasic site, compress the DNA backbone, bend the DNA approximately 90 degrees, and promote double-nucleotide flipping to sequester the extrahelical AP site in an enzyme pocket that excludes undamaged nucleotides. These structures suggest three Zn2+ ions directly participate in phosphodiester bond cleavage and prompt hypotheses that double-nucleotide flipping and sharp bending by AP endonucleases provide exquisite damage specificity while aiding subsequent base excision repair pathway progression. PMID:10458614

Hosfield, D J; Guan, Y; Haas, B J; Cunningham, R P; Tainer, J A

1999-08-01

29

The Ino80 chromatin-remodeling complex restores chromatin structure during UV DNA damage repair  

PubMed Central

Chromatin structure is modulated during deoxyribonucleic acid excision repair, but how this is achieved is unclear. Loss of the yeast Ino80 chromatin-remodeling complex (Ino80-C) moderately sensitizes cells to ultraviolet (UV) light. In this paper, we show that INO80 acts in the same genetic pathway as nucleotide excision repair (NER) and that the Ino80-C contributes to efficient UV photoproduct removal in a region of high nucleosome occupancy. Moreover, Ino80 interacts with the early NER damage recognition complex Rad4–Rad23 and is recruited to chromatin by Rad4 in a UV damage–dependent manner. Using a modified chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, we find that chromatin disruption during UV lesion repair is normal, whereas the restoration of nucleosome structure is defective in ino80 mutant cells. Collectively, our work suggests that Ino80 is recruited to sites of UV lesion repair through interactions with the NER apparatus and is required for the restoration of chromatin structure after repair.

Sarkar, Sovan; Kiely, Rhian

2010-01-01

30

Mcm8 and Mcm9 form a complex that functions in homologous recombination repair induced by DNA interstrand crosslinks.  

PubMed

DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) are highly toxic lesions that stall the replication fork to initiate the repair process during the S phase of vertebrates. Proteins involved in Fanconi anemia (FA), nucleotide excision repair (NER), and translesion synthesis (TS) collaboratively lead to homologous recombination (HR) repair. However, it is not understood how ICL-induced HR repair is carried out and completed. Here, we showed that the replicative helicase-related Mcm family of proteins, Mcm8 and Mcm9, forms a complex required for HR repair induced by ICLs. Chicken DT40 cells lacking MCM8 or MCM9 are viable but highly sensitive to ICL-inducing agents, and exhibit more chromosome aberrations in the presence of mitomycin C compared with wild-type cells. During ICL repair, Mcm8 and Mcm9 form nuclear foci that partly colocalize with Rad51. Mcm8-9 works downstream of the FA and BRCA2/Rad51 pathways, and is required for HR that promotes sister chromatid exchanges, probably as a hexameric ATPase/helicase. PMID:22771115

Nishimura, Kohei; Ishiai, Masamichi; Horikawa, Kazuki; Fukagawa, Tatsuo; Takata, Minoru; Takisawa, Haruhiko; Kanemaki, Masato T

2012-08-24

31

Eukaryotic DNA mismatch repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eukaryotic mismatch repair (MMR) has been shown to require two different heterodimeric complexes of MutS-related proteins: MSH2–MSH3 and MSH2–MSH6. These two complexes have different mispair recognition properties and different abilities to support MMR. Alternative models have been proposed for how these MSH complexes function in MMR. Two different heterodimeric complexes of MutL-related proteins, MLH1–PMS1 (human PMS2) and MLH1–MLH3 (human PMS1)

Richard D Kolodner; Gerald T Marsischky

1999-01-01

32

A novel ruthenium(II)-polypyridyl complex inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell apoptosis by impairing DNA damage repair.  

PubMed

Ruthenium complexes are widely recognized as one of the most promising DNA damaging chemotherapeutic drugs. The main goal of this study was to explore the anticancer activity and underlying mechanisms of [Ru(phen)2(p-BrPIP)](ClO4)2, a novel chemically synthesized ruthenium (Ru) complex. To this end, we employed MTT assays to determine the anticancer activity of the complex, and performed single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) and Western blotting to evaluate DNA damage. Our results showed that the Ru(II)-poly complex caused severe DNA damage, possibly by downregulating key factors involved in DNA repair pathways, such as proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and ring finger protein 8 (RNF8). In addition, this complex induced cell apoptosis by upregulating both p21 and p53. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the Ru(II)-poly complex exhibits antitumour activity by inducing cell apoptosis, which results from the accumulation of large amounts of unrepaired DNA damage. PMID:24070188

Yang, Qingyuan; Zhang, Zhao; Mei, Wenjie; Sun, Fenyong

2014-08-01

33

Dynamics of DNA Mismatch Repair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DNA mismatch repair protects the genome from spontaneous mutations by recognizing errors, excising damage, and re-synthesizing DNA in a pathway that is highly conserved. Mismatch recognition is accomplished by the MutS family of proteins which are weak ATPases that bind specifically to damaged DNA, but the specific molecular mechanisms by which these proteins recognize damage and initiate excision are not known. Previous structural investigations have implied that protein-induced conformational changes are central to mismatch recognition. Because damage detection is a highly dynamic process in which conformational changes of the protein-DNA complexes occur on a time scale of a few seconds, it is difficult to obtain meaningful kinetic information with traditional ensemble techniques. In this work, we use single molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) to study the conformational dynamics of fluorescently labeled DNA substrates in the presence of the mismatch repair protein MutS from E. coli and its human homolog MSH2/MSH6. Our studies allow us to obtain quantitative kinetic information about the rates of binding and dissociation and to determine the conformational states for each protein-DNA complex.

Coats, Julie; Lin, Yuyen; Rasnik, Ivan

2009-11-01

34

Both hMutS? and hMutSss DNA Mismatch Repair Complexes Participate in 5-Fluorouracil Cytotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with advanced microsatellite unstable colorectal cancers do not show a survival benefit from 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. We and others have shown that the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) complex hMutS? binds 5-FU incorporated into DNA. Although hMutSß is known to interact with interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) induced by drugs such as cisplatin and psoralen, it has not been demonstrated to interact with 5-FU incorporated into DNA. Our aim was to examine if hMutSß plays a role in 5-FU recognition. Methods We compared the normalized growth of 5-FU treated cells containing either or both mismatch repair complexes using MTT and clonogenic assays. We utilized oligonucleotides containing 5-FU and purified baculovirus-synthesized hMutS? and hMutSß in electromobility shift assays (EMSA) and further analyzed binding using surface plasmon resonance. Results MTT and clonogenic assays after 5-FU treatment demonstrated the most cytotoxicity in cells with both hMutS? and hMutSß, intermediate cytotoxicity in cells with hMutS? alone, and the least cytotoxicity in cells with hMutSß alone, hMutSß binds 5-FU-modified DNA, but its relative binding is less than the binding of 5-FU-modified DNA by hMutS?. Conclusion Cytotoxicity induced by 5-FU is dependent on intact DNA MMR, with relative cell death correlating directly with hMutS? and/or hMutSß 5-FU binding ability (hMutS?>hMutSß). The MMR complexes provide a hierarchical chemosensitivity for 5-FU cell death, and may have implications for treatment of patients with certain MMR-deficient tumors.

Tseng-Rogenski, Stephanie; Cabrera, Betty L.; Carethers, John M.

2011-01-01

35

Bioenvironmental Hazards and DNA Repair.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information is needed on mechanisms by which humans respond to exposure of their cellular genes to toxic chemicals in the environment. The principal DNA repair mechanism in organisms is excision repair and evidence has accumulated that these mechanisms ar...

P. D. Smith

1993-01-01

36

Role of intercalation and redox potential in DNA photosensitization by ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes: assessment using DNA repair protein tests.  

PubMed

Here we report that the photoreactivity of ruthenium(II) complexes with nucleobases may not only be modulated by their photoredox properties but also by their DNA binding mode. The damage resulting from photolysis of synthetic oligonucleotides and plasmid DNA by [Ru(bpz)3](2+), [Ru(bipy)3](2+) and the two DNA intercalating agents [Ru(bpz)2dppz](2+) and [Ru(bipy)2dppz](2+) has been monitored by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and by tests using proteins involved in DNA repair processes (DNA-PKCs, Ku80, Ku70, and PARP-1). The data show that intercalation controls the nature of the DNA damage photo-induced by ruthenium(II) complexes reacting with DNA via an electron transfer process. The intercalating agent [Ru(bpz)2dppz](2+) is a powerful DNA breaker inducing the formation of both single and double (DSBs) strand breaks which are recognized by the PARP-1 and DNA-PKCs proteins respectively. [Ru(bpz)2dppz](2+) is the first ruthenium(II) complex described in the literature that is able to induce DSBs by an electron transfer process. In contrast, its non-intercalating parent compound, [Ru(bpz)3](2+), is mostly an efficient DNA alkylating agent. Photoadducts are recognized by the proteins Ku70 and Ku80 as with cisplatin adducts. This result suggests that photoaddition of [Ru(bpz)2dppz](2+) is strongly affected by its DNA intercalation whereas its photonuclease activity is exalted. The data clearly show that DNA intercalation decreases drastically the photonuclease activity of ruthenium(II) complexes oxidizing guanine via the production of singlet oxygen. Interestingly, the DNA sequencing data revealed that the ligand dipyridophenazine exhibits on single-stranded oligonucleotides a preference for the 5'-TGCGT-3' sequence. Moreover the use of proteins involved in DNA repair processes to detect DNA damage was a powerful tool to examine the photoreactivity of ruthenium(II) complexes with nucleic acids. PMID:23835850

Gicquel, Etienne; Souchard, Jean-Pierre; Magnusson, Fay; Chemaly, Jad; Calsou, Patrick; Vicendo, Patricia

2013-08-01

37

Structure of the DNA-SspC Complex: Implications for DNA Packaging, Protection, and Repair in Bacterial Spores  

PubMed Central

Bacterial spores have long been recognized as the sturdiest known life forms on earth, revealing extraordinary resistance to a broad range of environmental assaults. A family of highly conserved spore-specific DNA-binding proteins, termed ?/?-type small, acid-soluble spore proteins (SASP), plays a major role in mediating spore resistance. The mechanism by which these proteins exert their protective activity remains poorly understood, in part due to the lack of structural data on the DNA-SASP complex. By using cryoelectron microscopy, we have determined the structure of the helical complex formed between DNA and SspC, a characteristic member of the ?/?-type SASP family. The protein is found to fully coat the DNA, forming distinct protruding domains, and to modify DNA structure such that it adopts a 3.2-nm pitch. The protruding SspC motifs allow for interdigitation of adjacent DNA-SspC filaments into a tightly packed assembly of nucleoprotein helices. By effectively sequestering DNA molecules, this dense assembly of filaments is proposed to enhance and complement DNA protection obtained by DNA saturation with the ?/?-type SASP.

Frenkiel-Krispin, Daphna; Sack, Rinat; Englander, Joseph; Shimoni, Eyal; Eisenstein, Miriam; Bullitt, Esther; Horowitz-Scherer, Rachel; Hayes, Christopher S.; Setlow, Peter; Minsky, Abraham; Wolf, Sharon Grayer

2004-01-01

38

The Yeast Chromatin Remodeler RSC Complex Facilitates End Joining Repair of DNA Double-Strand Breaks†  

PubMed Central

Repair of chromosome double-strand breaks (DSBs) is central to cell survival and genome integrity. Nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) is the major cellular repair pathway that eliminates chromosome DSBs. Here we report our genetic screen that identified Rsc8 and Rsc30, subunits of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromatin remodeling complex RSC, as novel NHEJ factors. Deletion of RSC30 gene or the C-terminal truncation of RSC8 impairs NHEJ of a chromosome DSB created by HO endonuclease in vivo. rsc30? maintains a robust level of homologous recombination and the damage-induced cell cycle checkpoints. By chromatin immunoprecipitation, we show recruitment of RSC to a chromosome DSB with kinetics congruent with its involvement in NHEJ. Recruitment of RSC to a DSB depends on Mre11, Rsc30, and yKu70 proteins. Rsc1p and Rsc2p, two other RSC subunits, physically interact with yKu80p and Mre11p. The interaction of Rsc1p with Mre11p appears to be vital for survival from genotoxic stress. These results suggest that chromatin remodeling by RSC is important for NHEJ.

Shim, Eun Yong; Ma, Jia-Lin; Oum, Ji-Hyun; Yanez, Yvonne; Lee, Sang Eun

2005-01-01

39

A novel interplay between the Fanconi anemia core complex and ATR-ATRIP kinase during DNA cross-link repair  

PubMed Central

When DNA replication is stalled at sites of DNA damage, a cascade of responses is activated in the cell to halt cell cycle progression and promote DNA repair. A pathway initiated by the kinase Ataxia teleangiectasia and Rad3 related (ATR) and its partner ATR interacting protein (ATRIP) plays an important role in this response. The Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway is also activated following genomic stress, and defects in this pathway cause a cancer-prone hematologic disorder in humans. Little is known about how these two pathways are coordinated. We report here that following cellular exposure to DNA cross-linking damage, the FA core complex enhances binding and localization of ATRIP within damaged chromatin. In cells lacking the core complex, ATR-mediated phosphorylation of two functional response targets, ATRIP and FANCI, is defective. We also provide evidence that the canonical ATR activation pathway involving RAD17 and TOPBP1 is largely dispensable for the FA pathway activation. Indeed DT40 mutant cells lacking both RAD17 and FANCD2 were synergistically more sensitive to cisplatin compared with either single mutant. Collectively, these data reveal new aspects of the interplay between regulation of ATR-ATRIP kinase and activation of the FA pathway.

Tomida, Junya; Itaya, Akiko; Shigechi, Tomoko; Unno, Junya; Uchida, Emi; Ikura, Masae; Masuda, Yuji; Matsuda, Shun; Adachi, Jun; Kobayashi, Masahiko; Meetei, Amom Ruhikanta; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Yamamoto, Ken-ichi; Kamiya, Kenji; Matsuura, Akira; Matsuda, Tomonari; Ikura, Tsuyoshi; Ishiai, Masamichi; Takata, Minoru

2013-01-01

40

A novel interplay between the Fanconi anemia core complex and ATR-ATRIP kinase during DNA cross-link repair.  

PubMed

When DNA replication is stalled at sites of DNA damage, a cascade of responses is activated in the cell to halt cell cycle progression and promote DNA repair. A pathway initiated by the kinase Ataxia teleangiectasia and Rad3 related (ATR) and its partner ATR interacting protein (ATRIP) plays an important role in this response. The Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway is also activated following genomic stress, and defects in this pathway cause a cancer-prone hematologic disorder in humans. Little is known about how these two pathways are coordinated. We report here that following cellular exposure to DNA cross-linking damage, the FA core complex enhances binding and localization of ATRIP within damaged chromatin. In cells lacking the core complex, ATR-mediated phosphorylation of two functional response targets, ATRIP and FANCI, is defective. We also provide evidence that the canonical ATR activation pathway involving RAD17 and TOPBP1 is largely dispensable for the FA pathway activation. Indeed DT40 mutant cells lacking both RAD17 and FANCD2 were synergistically more sensitive to cisplatin compared with either single mutant. Collectively, these data reveal new aspects of the interplay between regulation of ATR-ATRIP kinase and activation of the FA pathway. PMID:23723247

Tomida, Junya; Itaya, Akiko; Shigechi, Tomoko; Unno, Junya; Uchida, Emi; Ikura, Masae; Masuda, Yuji; Matsuda, Shun; Adachi, Jun; Kobayashi, Masahiko; Meetei, Amom Ruhikanta; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Yamamoto, Ken-Ichi; Kamiya, Kenji; Matsuura, Akira; Matsuda, Tomonari; Ikura, Tsuyoshi; Ishiai, Masamichi; Takata, Minoru

2013-08-01

41

DNA Damage and Repair in Eukaryotic Cells  

PubMed Central

Damage in DNA after irradiation can be classified into five kinds: base damage, single-strand breaks, double-strand breaks, DNA–DNA cross-linking, and DNA-protein cross-linking. Of these, repair of base damage is the best understood. In eukaryotes, at least three repair systems are known that can deal with base damage: photoreactivation, excision repair, and post-replication repair. Photoreactivation is specific for UV-induced damage and occurs widely throughout the biosphere, although it seems to be absent from placental mammals. Excision repair is present in prokaryotes and in animals but does not seem to be present in plants. Post-replication repair is poorly understood. Recent reports indicate that growing points in mammalian DNA simply skip past UV-induced lesions, leaving gaps in newly made DNA that are subsequently filled in by de novo synthesis. Evidence that this concept is oversimplified or incorrect is presented.—Single-strand breaks are induced by ionizing radiation but most cells can rapidly repair most or all of them, even after supralethal doses. The chemistry of the fragments formed when breaks are induced by ionizing radiation is complex and poorly understood. Therefore, the intermediate steps in the repair of single-strand breaks are unknown. Double-strand breaks and the two kinds of cross-linking have been studied very little and almost nothing is known about their mechanisms for repair.—The role of mammalian DNA repair in mutations is not known. Although there is evidence that defective repair can lead to cancer and/or premature aging in humans, the relationship between the molecular defects and the diseased state remains obscure.

Painter, R. B.

1974-01-01

42

Mutagenic DNA repair in enterobacteria  

SciTech Connect

Sixteen species of enterobacteria have been screened for mutagenic DNA repair activity. In Escherichia coli, mutagenic DNA repair is encoded by the umuDC operon. Synthesis of UmuD and UmuC proteins is induced as part of the SOS response to DNA damage, and after induction, the UmuD protein undergoes an autocatalytic cleavage to produce the carboxy-terminal UmuD{prime} fragment needed for induced mutagenesis. The presence of a similar system in other species was examined by using a combined approach of inducible-mutagenesis assays, cross-reactivity to E. coli UmuD and UmuD{prime} antibodies to test for induction and cleavage of UmuD-like proteins, and hybridization with E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium u mu DNA probes to map umu-like genes. The results indicate a more widespread distribution of mutagenic DNA repair in other species than was previously thought. They also show that umu loci can be more complex in other species than in E. coli. Differences in UV-induced mutability of more than 200-fold were seen between different species of enteric bacteria and even between multiple natural isolates of E. coli, and yet some of the species which display a poorly mutable phenotype still have umu-like genes and proteins. It is suggested that umuDC genes can be curtailed in their mutagenic activities but that they may still participate in some other, unknown process which provides the continued stimulus for their retention.

Sedgwick, S.G. (National Inst. for Medical Research, London (England)); Chao Ho; Woodgate, R. (National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD (United States))

1991-09-01

43

DNA repair in Mycoplasma gallisepticum  

PubMed Central

Background DNA repair is essential for the maintenance of genome stability in all living beings. Genome size as well as the repertoire and abundance of DNA repair components may vary among prokaryotic species. The bacteria of the Mollicutes class feature a small genome size, absence of a cell wall, and a parasitic lifestyle. A small number of genes make Mollicutes a good model for a “minimal cell” concept. Results In this work we studied the DNA repair system of Mycoplasma gallisepticum on genomic, transcriptional, and proteomic levels. We detected 18 out of 22 members of the DNA repair system on a protein level. We found that abundance of the respective mRNAs is less than one per cell. We studied transcriptional response of DNA repair genes of M. gallisepticum at stress conditions including heat, osmotic, peroxide stresses, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin treatment, stationary phase and heat stress in stationary phase. Conclusions Based on comparative genomic study, we determined that the DNA repair system M. gallisepticum includes a sufficient set of proteins to provide a cell with functional nucleotide and base excision repair and mismatch repair. We identified SOS-response in M. gallisepticum on ciprofloxacin, which is a known SOS-inducer, tetracycline and heat stress in the absence of established regulators. Heat stress was found to be the strongest SOS-inducer. We found that upon transition to stationary phase of culture growth transcription of DNA repair genes decreases dramatically. Heat stress does not induce SOS-response in a stationary phase.

2013-01-01

44

A DNA Repair Complex Functions as an Oct4/Sox2 Coactivator in Embryonic Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The transcriptional activators Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog cooperate with a wide array of cofactors to orchestrate an embryonic stem (ES) cell-specific gene expression program that forms the molecular basis of pluripotency. Here we report using an unbiased in vitro transcription-biochemical complementation assay to discover a multi-subunit stem cell coactivator complex (SCC) that is selectively required for the synergistic activation of the Nanog gene by Oct4 and Sox2. Purification, identification and reconstitution of SCC revealed this coactivator to be the trimeric XPC-nucleotide excision repair complex. SCC interacts directly with Oct4 and Sox2 and is recruited to the Nanog and Oct4 promoters as well as a majority of genomic regions that are occupied by Oct4 and Sox2. Depletion of SCC/XPC compromised both pluripotency in ES cells and somatic cell reprogramming of fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. This study identifies a transcriptional coactivator with diversified functions in maintaining ES cell pluripotency and safeguarding genome integrity.

Fong, Yick W.; Inouye, Carla; Yamaguchi, Teppei; Cattoglio, Claudia; Grubisic, Ivan; Tjian, Robert

2011-01-01

45

A DNA repair complex functions as an Oct4/Sox2 coactivator in embryonic stem cells.  

PubMed

The transcriptional activators Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog cooperate with a wide array of cofactors to orchestrate an embryonic stem (ES) cell-specific gene expression program that forms the molecular basis of pluripotency. Here, we report using an unbiased in vitro transcription-biochemical complementation assay to discover a multisubunit stem cell coactivator complex (SCC) that is selectively required for the synergistic activation of the Nanog gene by Oct4 and Sox2. Purification, identification, and reconstitution of SCC revealed this coactivator to be the trimeric XPC-nucleotide excision repair complex. SCC interacts directly with Oct4 and Sox2 and is recruited to the Nanog and Oct4 promoters as well as a majority of genomic regions that are occupied by Oct4 and Sox2. Depletion of SCC/XPC compromised both pluripotency in ES cells and somatic cell reprogramming of fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. This study identifies a transcriptional coactivator with diversified functions in maintaining ES cell pluripotency and safeguarding genome integrity. PMID:21962512

Fong, Yick W; Inouye, Carla; Yamaguchi, Teppei; Cattoglio, Claudia; Grubisic, Ivan; Tjian, Robert

2011-09-30

46

Noncoding RNAs in DNA damage and Repair  

PubMed Central

Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are increasingly recognized as central players in diverse biological processes. DNA damage response (DDR) elicits a complex signaling cascade, which includes the induction of several ncRNA species. Recent studies indicate that ncRNAs are major regulators of the DDR. DNA-damage induced ncRNAs contribute to regulation of cell cycle, apoptosis and DNA repair, and thus play a key role in maintaining genome stability. This review summarizes the role of ncRNAs in DNA damage and repair.

Sharma, Vivek; Misteli, Tom

2013-01-01

47

DNA repair in cultured keratinocytes  

SciTech Connect

Most of our understanding of DNA repair mechanisms in human cells has come from the study of these processes in cultured fibroblasts. The unique properties of keratinocytes and their pattern of terminal differentiation led us to a comparative examination of their DNA repair properties. The relative repair capabilities of the basal cells and the differentiated epidermal keratinocytes as well as possible correlations of DNA repair capacity with respect to age of the donor have been examined. In addition, since portions of human skin are chronically exposed to sunlight, the repair response to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation (254 nm) when the cells are conditioned by chronic low-level UV irradiation has been assessed. The comparative studies of DNA repair in keratinocytes from infant and aged donors have revealed no significant age-related differences for repair of UV-induced damage to DNA. Sublethal UV conditioning of cells from infant skin had no appreciable effect on either the repair or normal replication response to higher, challenge doses of UVL. However, such conditioning resulted in attenuated repair in keratinocytes from adult skin after UV doses above 25 J/m2. In addition, a surprising enhancement in replication was seen in conditioned cells from adult following challenge UV doses.

Liu, S.C.; Parsons, S.; Hanawalt, P.C.

1983-07-01

48

Structure and function of nucleases in DNA repair: shape, grip and blade of the DNA scissors.  

PubMed

DNA nucleases catalyze the cleavage of phosphodiester bonds. These enzymes play crucial roles in various DNA repair processes, which involve DNA replication, base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair, and double strand break repair. In recent years, new nucleases involved in various DNA repair processes have been reported, including the Mus81 : Mms4 (Eme1) complex, which functions during the meiotic phase and the Artemis : DNA-PK complex, which processes a V(D)J recombination intermediate. Defects of these nucleases cause genetic instability or severe immunodeficiency. Thus, structural biology on various nuclease actions is essential for the elucidation of the molecular mechanism of complex DNA repair machinery. Three-dimensional structural information of nucleases is also rapidly accumulating, thus providing important insights into the molecular architectures, as well as the DNA recognition and cleavage mechanisms. This review focuses on the three-dimensional structure-function relationships of nucleases crucial for DNA repair processes. PMID:12483517

Nishino, Tatsuya; Morikawa, Kosuke

2002-12-16

49

Chromatin Recruitment of DNA repair proteins: Lessons from the Fanconi Anemia and Double Strand Break Repair Pathways  

PubMed Central

Summary In response to DNA damage, eukaryotic cells must rapidly load DNA repair proteins onto damaged chromatin. Chromatin recruitment often entails ubiquitination of a damage-specific DNA repair protein, interaction with a ubiquitin binding factor, assembly of a multisubunit DNA repair complex, and eventually a deubiquitination event once the DNA repair reaction has been completed. This review focuses on the recent discoveries in the Fanconi Anemia (FA) and DNA double strand break (DSB) repair pathways which underscore the importance of regulated chromatin loading in the DNA damage response. Interestingly, these two pathways share several features, suggesting a more general mechanism for DNA repair regulation.

Cohn, Martin A.; D'Andrea, Alan D.

2013-01-01

50

Repair complexes of FEN1 endonuclease, DNA, and Rad9-Hus1-Rad1 are distinguished from their PCNA counterparts by functionally important stability.  

PubMed

Processivity clamps such as proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and the checkpoint sliding clamp Rad9/Rad1/Hus1 (9-1-1) act as versatile scaffolds in the coordinated recruitment of proteins involved in DNA replication, cell-cycle control, and DNA repair. Association and handoff of DNA-editing enzymes, such as flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1), with sliding clamps are key processes in biology, which are incompletely understood from a mechanistic point of view. We have used an integrative computational and experimental approach to define the assemblies of FEN1 with double-flap DNA substrates and either proliferating cell nuclear antigen or the checkpoint sliding clamp 9-1-1. Fully atomistic models of these two ternary complexes were developed and refined through extensive molecular dynamics simulations to expose their conformational dynamics. Clustering analysis revealed the most dominant conformations accessible to the complexes. The cluster centroids were subsequently used in conjunction with single-particle electron microscopy data to obtain a 3D EM reconstruction of the human 9-1-1/FEN1/DNA assembly at 18-Å resolution. Comparing the structures of the complexes revealed key differences in the orientation and interactions of FEN1 and double-flap DNA with the two clamps that are consistent with their respective functions in providing inherent flexibility for lagging strand DNA replication or inherent stability for DNA repair. PMID:22586102

Querol-Audí, Jordi; Yan, Chunli; Xu, Xiaojun; Tsutakawa, Susan E; Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; Tainer, John A; Cooper, Priscilla K; Nogales, Eva; Ivanov, Ivaylo

2012-05-29

51

Repair complexes of FEN1 endonuclease, DNA, and Rad9-Hus1-Rad1 are distinguished from their PCNA counterparts by functionally important stability  

PubMed Central

Processivity clamps such as proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and the checkpoint sliding clamp Rad9/Rad1/Hus1 (9-1-1) act as versatile scaffolds in the coordinated recruitment of proteins involved in DNA replication, cell-cycle control, and DNA repair. Association and handoff of DNA-editing enzymes, such as flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1), with sliding clamps are key processes in biology, which are incompletely understood from a mechanistic point of view. We have used an integrative computational and experimental approach to define the assemblies of FEN1 with double-flap DNA substrates and either proliferating cell nuclear antigen or the checkpoint sliding clamp 9-1-1. Fully atomistic models of these two ternary complexes were developed and refined through extensive molecular dynamics simulations to expose their conformational dynamics. Clustering analysis revealed the most dominant conformations accessible to the complexes. The cluster centroids were subsequently used in conjunction with single-particle electron microscopy data to obtain a 3D EM reconstruction of the human 9-1-1/FEN1/DNA assembly at 18-Å resolution. Comparing the structures of the complexes revealed key differences in the orientation and interactions of FEN1 and double-flap DNA with the two clamps that are consistent with their respective functions in providing inherent flexibility for lagging strand DNA replication or inherent stability for DNA repair.

Querol-Audi, Jordi; Yan, Chunli; Xu, Xiaojun; Tsutakawa, Susan E.; Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; Tainer, John A.; Cooper, Priscilla K.; Nogales, Eva; Ivanov, Ivaylo

2012-01-01

52

Photoenzymatic Repair of Ultraviolet Damage in DNA  

PubMed Central

The photoenzyme from bakers' yeast which repairs ultraviolet-inactivated transforming DNA is mechanically bound to ultraviolet-irradiated DNA in the dark, but not to unirradiated DNA. In the bound condition it is stabilized against inactivation by heat and heavy metals. Both the mechanical binding and stabilization are eliminated by illumination. These observations are consistent with the reaction scheme suggested by kinetic studies, in which the enzyme combines with the ultraviolet lesions in DNA and the complex absorbs light, producing repair and subsequent liberation of the enzyme. The approximately exponential decrease of heat stabilization during illumination gives the first order rate constant for the light-dependent step at the corresponding light intensity. This quantity in turn sets limits on the possible magnitude of the molar absorption coefficient of the enzyme-substrate complex and on the quantum yield of the process.

Rupert, Claud S.

1962-01-01

53

The SbcCD complex of Deinococcus radiodurans contributes to radioresistance and DNA strand break repair in vivo and exhibits Mre11-Rad50 type activity in vitro.  

PubMed

Deinococcus radiodurans lacks a homologue of the recB and recC genes, and the sbcA/B genes, of Escherichia coli. Thus, DNA strand break repair in Deinococcus proceeds by pathways that do not utilize these proteins. Unlike E. coli, the absence of recBC and sbcA/sbcB, and presence of only sbcC and sbcD in Deinococcus, indicates an enigmatic role of SbcCD in this bacterium. Studies on sbcCD mutation in Deinococcus showed nearly a 100-fold increase in gamma radiation sensitivity as compared to wild type. The mutant showed a higher rate of in vivo DNA degradation during the post-irradiation recovery period that corresponds to the RecA-dependent DSB repair phase. These cells showed a typical NotI pattern of DNA reassembly during the early phase of DSB repair, but were defective for the subsequent RecA-dependent phase II of DSB repair. Hydrogen peroxide had no effect on cell survival of the mutant. While its tolerance to higher doses of UVC and mitomycin C was significantly decreased as compared to wild type. Purified recombinant SbcCD proteins showed single-stranded endonuclease and 3'-->5' double-stranded DNA exonuclease activities similar to that of the Mre11-Rad50 complex, which is required for DNA strand break repair in higher organisms. These results suggested that the Mre11-Rad50 type nuclease activity of SbcCD proteins contributes to the radiation resistance of D. radiodurans perhaps by promoting the RecA-dependent DSB repair required for polyploid genome maturation. PMID:20144564

Kamble, Vidya A; Misra, Hari S

2010-05-01

54

The carboxyl terminus of FANCE recruits FANCD2 to the Fanconi Anemia (FA) E3 ligase complex to promote the FA DNA repair pathway.  

PubMed

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genome instability syndrome characterized by bone marrow failure and cellular hypersensitivity to DNA cross-linking agents. In response to DNA damage, the FA pathway is activated through the cooperation of 16 FA proteins. A central player in the pathway is a multisubunit E3 ubiquitin ligase complex or the FA core complex, which monoubiquitinates its substrates FANCD2 and FANCI. FANCE, a subunit of the FA core complex, plays an essential role by promoting the integrity of the complex and by directly recognizing FANCD2. To delineate its role in substrate ubiquitination from the core complex assembly, we analyzed a series of mutations within FANCE. We report that a phenylalanine located at the highly conserved extreme C terminus, referred to as Phe-522, is a critical residue for mediating the monoubiquitination of the FANCD2-FANCI complex. Using the FANCE mutant that specifically disrupts the FANCE-FANCD2 interaction as a tool, we found that the interaction-deficient mutant conferred cellular sensitivity in reconstituted FANCE-deficient cells to a similar degree as FANCE null cells, suggesting the significance of the FANCE-FANCD2 interaction in promoting cisplatin resistance. Intriguingly, ectopic expression of the FANCE C terminus fragment alone in FA normal cells disrupts DNA repair, consolidating the importance of the FANCE-FANCD2 interaction in the DNA cross-link repair. PMID:24451376

Polito, David; Cukras, Scott; Wang, Xiaozhe; Spence, Paige; Moreau, Lisa; D'Andrea, Alan D; Kee, Younghoon

2014-03-01

55

The Cockayne syndrome B protein, involved in transcription-coupled DNA repair, resides in an RNA polymerase II-containing complex.  

PubMed Central

Transcription-coupled repair (TCR), a subpathway of nucleotide excision repair (NER) defective in Cockayne syndrome A and B (CSA and CSB), is responsible for the preferential removal of DNA lesions from the transcribed strand of active genes, permitting rapid resumption of blocked transcription. Here we demonstrate by microinjection of antibodies against CSB and CSA gene products into living primary fibroblasts, that both proteins are required for TCR and for recovery of RNA synthesis after UV damage in vivo but not for basal transcription itself. Furthermore, immunodepletion showed that CSB is not required for in vitro NER or transcription. Its central role in TCR suggests that CSB interacts with other repair and transcription proteins. Gel filtration of repair- and transcription-competent whole cell extracts provided evidence that CSB and CSA are part of large complexes of different sizes. Unexpectedly, there was no detectable association of CSB with several candidate NER and transcription proteins. However, a minor but significant portion (10-15%) of RNA polymerase II was found to be tightly associated with CSB. We conclude that within cell-free extracts, CSB is not stably associated with the majority of core NER or transcription components, but is part of a distinct complex involving RNA polymerase II. These findings suggest that CSB is implicated in, but not essential for, transcription, and support the idea that Cockayne syndrome is due to a combined repair and transcription deficiency.

van Gool, A J; Citterio, E; Rademakers, S; van Os, R; Vermeulen, W; Constantinou, A; Egly, J M; Bootsma, D; Hoeijmakers, J H

1997-01-01

56

Complex formation by the human Rad51B and Rad51C DNA repair proteins and their activities in vitro  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The human Rad51 protein is essential for DNA repair by homologous recombination. In addition to Rad51 protein, five paralogs have been identified: Rad51B/Rad51L1, Rad51C/Rad51L2, Rad51D/Rad51L3, XRCC2, and XRCC3. To further characterize a subset of these proteins, recombinant Rad51, Rad51B-(His)(6), and Rad51C proteins were individually expressed employing the baculovirus system, and each was purified from Sf9 insect cells. Evidence from nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid pull-down experiments demonstrates a highly stable Rad51B.Rad51C heterodimer, which interacts weakly with Rad51. Rad51B and Rad51C proteins were found to bind single- and double-stranded DNA and to preferentially bind 3'-end-tailed double-stranded DNA. The ability to bind DNA was elevated with mixed Rad51 and Rad51C, as well as with mixed Rad51B and Rad51C, compared with that of the individual protein. In addition, both Rad51B and Rad51C exhibit DNA-stimulated ATPase activity. Rad51C displays an ATP-independent apparent DNA strand exchange activity, whereas Rad51B shows no such activity; this apparent strand exchange ability results actually from a duplex DNA destabilization capability of Rad51C. By analogy to the yeast Rad55 and Rad57, our results suggest that Rad51B and Rad51C function through interactions with the human Rad51 recombinase and play a crucial role in the homologous recombinational repair pathway.

Lio, Yi-Ching; Mazin, Alexander V.; Kowalczykowski, Stephen C.; Chen, David J.

2003-01-01

57

DNA Repair Defects and Chromosomal Aberrations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Yields of chromosome aberrations were assessed in cells deficient in DNA doublestrand break (DSB) repair, after exposure to acute or to low-dose-rate (0.018 Gy/hr) gamma rays or acute high LET iron nuclei. We studied several cell lines including fibroblasts deficient in ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated; product of the gene that is mutated in ataxia telangiectasia patients) or NBS (nibrin; product of the gene mutated in the Nijmegen breakage syndrome), and gliomablastoma cells that are proficient or lacking in DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) activity. Chromosomes were analyzed using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome painting method in cells at the first division post irradiation, and chromosome aberrations were identified as either simple exchanges (translocations and dicentrics) or complex exchanges (involving >2 breaks in 2 or more chromosomes). Gamma irradiation induced greater yields of both simple and complex exchanges in the DSB repair-defective cells than in the normal cells. The quadratic dose-response terms for both simple and complex chromosome exchanges were significantly higher for the ATM- and NBS-deficient lines than for normal fibroblasts. However, in the NBS cells the linear dose-response term was significantly higher only for simple exchanges. The large increases in the quadratic dose-response terms in these repair-defective cell lines points the importance of the functions of ATM and NBS in chromatin modifications to facilitate correct DSB repair and minimize the formation of aberrations. The differences found between ATM- and NBS-deficient cells at low doses suggest that important questions should with regard to applying observations of radiation sensitivity at high dose to low-dose exposures. For aberrations induced by iron nuclei, regression models preferred purely linear dose responses for simple exchanges and quadratic dose responses for complex exchanges. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors of all of the DNA repair-defective cell lines were smaller than those of normal cells, with the DNA-PK-deficient cells having RBEs near unity. To further investigate the sensitivity differences that were observed in ATM and NBS deficient cells, chromosomal aberrations were analyzed in normal lung fibroblast cells treated with KU-55933 (a specific ATM kinase inhibitor) or Mirin (an Mre11- Rad50-Nbs1 complex inhibitor involved in activation of ATM). We also performed siRNA knockdown of these proteins. Preliminary data indicate that chromosome exchanges increase in cells treated with the specific ATM inhibitor. Possible cytogenetic signatures of acute and low dose-rate gamma irradiation in ATM or nibrin deficient and suppressed cells will be discussed.

Hada, Megumi; George, K. A.; Huff, J. L.; Pluth, J. M.; Cucinotta, F. A.

2009-01-01

58

Human DNA Repair and Recombination Genes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several genes involved in mammalian DNA repair pathways were identified by complementation analysis and chromosomal mapping based on hybrid cells. Eight complementation groups of rodent mutants defective in the repair of uv radiation damage are now identi...

L. H. Thompson C. A. Weber N. J. Jones

1988-01-01

59

The hMre11/hRad50 protein complex and Nijmegen breakage syndrome:Linkage of double strand break repair to the cellular DNA damageresponse  

SciTech Connect

Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) is an autosomal recessivedisorder characterized by increased cancer incidence, cell cyclecheckpoint defects, and ionizing radiation sensitivity. We have isolatedthe gene encoding p95, a member of the hMre11/hRad50 double-strand breakrepair complex. The p95 gene mapped to 8q21.3, the region that containsthe NBS locus, and p95 was absent from NBS cells established from NBSpatients, p95 deficiency in these cells completely abrogates theformation of hMre11/hRad50 ionizing radiation-induced foci. Comparison ofthe p95 cDNA to the NBS1 cDNA indicated that the p95 gene and NBS1 areidentical. The implication of hMre11/hRad50/p95 protein complex in NBSreveals a direct molecular link between DSB repair and cell cyclecheckpoint functions.

Carney, James P.; Maser, Richard S.; Olivares, Heidi; Davis,Elizabeth M.; Le Beau, Michelle; Yates III, John R.; Hays, Lara; Morgan,William F.; Petrini, John H.J.

1998-04-01

60

Cisplatin and DNA repair in cancer chemotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cisplatin, a DNA-damaging agent, is one of the most widely used anticancer drugs. As with all members of this class of chemotherapeutic compounds, the clinical success of cisplatin is compromised if tumor cells become resistant by various mechanisms, including enhanced DNA repair. In addition to its role in resistance, DNA repair has been linked to the cytotoxic mechanism of cisplatin.

Deborah B. Zamble; Stephen J. Lippard

1995-01-01

61

DNA MISMATCH REPAIR AND GENETIC INSTABILITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Mismatch repair (MMR) systems play a central role in promoting genetic stability by repairing DNA replication errors, inhibiting recombination be- tween non-identical DNA sequences and participating in responses to DNA damage. The discovery of a link between human cancer and MMR defects has led to an explosion of research on eukaryotic MMR. The key proteins in MMR are

Brian D Harfe; Sue Jinks-Robertson

2000-01-01

62

Role for the Mammalian Swi5-Sfr1 Complex in DNA Strand Break Repair through Homologous Recombination  

Microsoft Academic Search

In fission yeast, the Swi5-Sfr1 complex plays an important role in homologous recombination (HR), a pathway crucial for the maintenance of genomic integrity. Here we identify and characterize mammalian Swi5 and Sfr1 homologues. Mouse Swi5 and Sfr1 are nuclear proteins that form a complex in vivo and in vitro. Swi5 interacts in vitro with Rad51, the DNA strand-exchange protein which

Yufuko Akamatsu; Maria Jasin

2010-01-01

63

Base Excision Repair and Lesion-Dependent Subpathways for Repair of Oxidative DNA Damage  

PubMed Central

Abstract Nuclear and mitochondrial genomes are under continuous assault by a combination of environmentally and endogenously derived reactive oxygen species, inducing the formation and accumulation of mutagenic, toxic, and/or genome-destabilizing DNA lesions. Failure to resolve these lesions through one or more DNA-repair processes is associated with genome instability, mitochondrial dysfunction, neurodegeneration, inflammation, aging, and cancer, emphasizing the importance of characterizing the pathways and proteins involved in the repair of oxidative DNA damage. This review focuses on the repair of oxidative damage–induced lesions in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA mediated by the base excision repair (BER) pathway in mammalian cells. We discuss the multiple BER subpathways that are initiated by one of 11 different DNA glycosylases of three subtypes: (a) bifunctional with an associated ?-lyase activity; (b) monofunctional; and (c) bifunctional with an associated ?,?-lyase activity. These three subtypes of DNA glycosylases all initiate BER but yield different chemical intermediates and hence different BER complexes to complete repair. Additionally, we briefly summarize alternate repair events mediated by BER proteins and the role of BER in the repair of mitochondrial DNA damage induced by ROS. Finally, we discuss the relation of BER and oxidative DNA damage in the onset of human disease. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 14, 2491–2507.

Svilar, David; Goellner, Eva M.; Almeida, Karen H.

2011-01-01

64

SUMO ligase activity of vertebrate Mms21/Nse2 is required for efficient DNA repair but not for Smc5/6 complex stability.  

PubMed

Nse2/Mms21 is an E3 SUMO ligase component of the Smc5/6 complex, which plays multiple roles in maintaining genome stability. To study the functions of the vertebrate Nse2 orthologue, we generated Nse2-deficient chicken DT40 cells. Nse2 was dispensable for DT40 cell viability and required for efficient repair of bulky DNA lesions, although Nse2-deficient cells showed normal sensitivity to ionising radiation-induced DNA damage. Homologous recombination activities were reduced in Nse2(-/-/-) cells. Nse2 deficiency destabilised Smc5, but not Smc6. In rescue experiments, we found that the SUMO ligase activity of Nse2 was required for an efficient response to MMS- or cis-platin-induced DNA damage, and for homologous recombination, but not for Smc5 stability. Gel filtration analysis indicated that Smc5 and Nse2 remain associated during the cell cycle and after DNA damage and Smc5/Smc6 association is independent of Nse2. Analysis of Nse2(-/-/-)Smc5(-) clones, which were viable although slow-growing, showed no significant increase in DNA damage sensitivity. We propose that Nse2 determines the activity, but not the assembly, of the Smc5/6 complex in vertebrate cells, and this activity requires the Nse2 SUMO ligase function. PMID:22921571

Kliszczak, Maciej; Stephan, Anna K; Flanagan, Anne-Marie; Morrison, Ciaran G

2012-10-01

65

DNA repair pathways as targets for cancer therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA repair pathways can enable tumour cells to survive DNA damage that is induced by chemotherapeutic treatments; therefore, inhibitors of specific DNA repair pathways might prove efficacious when used in combination with DNA-damaging chemotherapeutic drugs. In addition, alterations in DNA repair pathways that arise during tumour development can make some cancer cells reliant on a reduced set of DNA repair

Eva Petermann; Cecilia Lundin; Ben Hodgson; Ricky A. Sharma; Thomas Helleday

2008-01-01

66

Conditional DNA repair mutants enable highly precise genome engineering  

PubMed Central

Oligonucleotide-mediated multiplex genome engineering is an important tool for bacterial genome editing. The efficient application of this technique requires the inactivation of the endogenous methyl-directed mismatch repair system that in turn leads to a drastically elevated genomic mutation rate and the consequent accumulation of undesired off-target mutations. Here, we present a novel strategy for mismatch repair evasion using temperature-sensitive DNA repair mutants and temporal inactivation of the mismatch repair protein complex in Escherichia coli. Our method relies on the transient suppression of DNA repair during mismatch carrying oligonucleotide integration. Using temperature-sensitive control of methyl-directed mismatch repair protein activity during multiplex genome engineering, we reduced the number of off-target mutations by 85%, concurrently maintaining highly efficient and unbiased allelic replacement.

Nyerges, Akos; Csorgo, Balint; Nagy, Istvan; Latinovics, Dora; Szamecz, Bela; Posfai, Gyorgy; Pal, Csaba

2014-01-01

67

Structure of the Catalytic Region of DNA Ligase IV in Complex with an Artemis Fragment Sheds Light on Double-Strand Break Repair  

PubMed Central

Summary Nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) is central to the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks throughout the cell cycle and plays roles in the development of the immune system. Although three-dimensional structures of most components of NHEJ have been defined, those of the catalytic region of DNA ligase IV (LigIV), a specialized DNA ligase known to work in NHEJ, and of Artemis have remained unresolved. Here, we report the crystal structure at 2.4 Å resolution of the catalytic region of LigIV (residues 1–609) in complex with an Artemis peptide. We describe interactions of the DNA-binding domain of LigIV with the continuous epitope of Artemis, which, together, form a three-helix bundle. A kink in the first helix of LigIV introduced by a conserved VPF motif gives rise to a hydrophobic pocket, which accommodates a conserved tryptophan from Artemis. We provide structural insights into features of LigIV among human DNA ligases.

Ochi, Takashi; Gu, Xiaolong; Blundell, Tom L.

2013-01-01

68

Coordination and processing of DNA ends during double-strand break repair: the role of the bacteriophage T4 Mre11/Rad50 (MR) complex.  

PubMed

The in vivo functions of the bacteriophage T4 Mre11/Rad50 (MR) complex (gp46/47) in double-strand-end processing, double-strand break repair, and recombination-dependent replication were investigated. The complex is essential for T4 growth, but we wanted to investigate the in vivo function during productive infections. We therefore generated a suppressed triple amber mutant in the Rad50 subunit to substantially reduce the level of complex and thereby reduce phage growth. Growth-limiting amounts of the complex caused a concordant decrease in phage genomic recombination-dependent replication. However, the efficiencies of double-strand break repair and of plasmid-based recombination-dependent replication remained relatively normal. Genetic analyses of linked markers indicated that double-strand ends were less protected from nuclease erosion in the depleted infection and also that end coordination during repair was compromised. We discuss models for why phage genomic recombination-dependent replication is more dependent on Mre11/Rad50 levels when compared to plasmid recombination-dependent replication. We also tested the importance of the conserved histidine residue in nuclease motif I of the T4 Mre11 protein. Substitution with multiple different amino acids (including serine) failed to support phage growth, completely blocked plasmid recombination-dependent replication, and led to the stabilization of double-strand ends. We also constructed and expressed an Mre11 mutant protein with the conserved histidine changed to serine. The mutant protein was found to be completely defective for nuclease activities, but retained the ability to bind the Rad50 subunit and double-stranded DNA. These results indicate that the nuclease activity of Mre11 is critical for phage growth and recombination-dependent replication during T4 infections. PMID:23979587

Almond, Joshua R; Stohr, Bradley A; Panigrahi, Anil K; Albrecht, Dustin W; Nelson, Scott W; Kreuzer, Kenneth N

2013-11-01

69

Mismatch repair and DNA damage signalling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postreplicative mismatch repair (MMR) increases the fidelity of DNA replication by up to three orders of magnitude, through correcting DNA polymerase errors that escaped proofreading. MMR also controls homologous recombination (HR) by aborting strand exchange between divergent DNA sequences. In recent years, MMR has also been implicated in the response of mammalian cells to DNA damaging agents. Thus, MMR-deficient cells

Lovorka Stojic; Richard Brun; Josef Jiricny

2004-01-01

70

Importance of ligand structure in DNA/protein binding, mutagenicity, excision repair and nutritional aspects of chromium(III) complexes.  

PubMed

Chromium is extensively used in leather, chrome plating and refining industries. On one hand the occupational exposure to chromium leads to cancer, whereas on the contrary certain Cr(III) compounds have been proposed as nutritional supplements for Type II diabetes and as muscle building agents. Despite the positive outlook of chromium as a bio-essential element, there is increasing concern over the therapeutic application of Cr(III) based supplements, its bioavailability and toxicity profile. In this perspective, we discuss the role of ligand structure in mediating the interaction of chromium(III) complexes with DNA/protein, their mutagenic outcomes, adduct reparability and as nutritional supplements. PMID:23247426

Vaidyanathan, V G; Asthana, Yamini; Nair, Balachandran Unni

2013-02-21

71

p73 protein regulates DNA damage repair  

PubMed Central

Although the p53 tumor suppressor is relatively well characterized, much less is known about the functions of other members of the p53 family, p73 and p63. Here, we present evidence that in specific pathological conditions caused by exposure of normal cells to bile acids in acidic conditions, p73 protein plays the predominant role in the DNA damage response. These pathological conditions frequently occur during gastric reflux in the human esophagus and are associated with progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma. We found that despite strong DNA damage induced by bile acid exposure, only p73 (but not p53 and p63) is selectively activated in a c-Abl kinase-dependent manner. The activated p73 protein induces DNA damage repair. Using a human DNA repair PCR array, we identified multiple DNA repair genes affected by p73. Two glycosylases involved in base excision repair, SMUG1 and MUTYH, were characterized and found to be transcriptionally regulated by p73 in DNA damage conditions. Using a surgical procedure in mice, which recapitulates bile acid exposure, we found that p73 deficiency is associated with increased DNA damage. These findings were further investigated with organotypic and traditional cell cultures. Collectively our studies demonstrate that p73 plays an important role in the regulation of DNA damage repair.—Zaika, E., Wei, J., Yin, D., Andl, C., Moll, U., El-Rifai, W., Zaika, A. I. p73 protein regulates DNA damage repair.

Zaika, Elena; Wei, Jinxiong; Yin, Dengping; Andl, Claudia; Moll, Ute; El-Rifai, Wael; Zaika, Alexander I.

2011-01-01

72

Enzymes of Direct, Excision, and Mismatch DNA Repair in Pro and Eukaryotes and Their Biological Role  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA repair is of paramount importance to protect the integrity of the cell genome. Over the last decade, DNA repair enzymes have been intensely studied owing to their role in mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, and aging. This led to discoveries of novel enzymes, protein factors as well as their intermolecular complexes involved in the repair process. Alternative pathways of cell response to

N. L. Vasilenko; G. A. Nevinsky

2003-01-01

73

Structural and Functional Interaction Between the Human DNA Repair Proteins DNA ligase IV and XRCC4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonhomologous end-joining represents the major pathway used by human cells to repair DNA double-strand breaks. It relies on the XRCC4\\/DNA ligase IV complex to reseal DNA strands. Here we report the high-resolution crystal structure of human XRCC4 bound to the carboxy-terminal tandem BRCT repeat of DNA ligase IV. The structure differs from the homologous Saccharomyces cerevisiae complex and reveals an

Peï-Yu Wu; S Meesala; S Dauvillier; M Modesti; S Andres; Y Huang; J Sekiguchi; P Calsou; B Salles; M Junop

2009-01-01

74

Oxidative DNA Damage and Nucleotide Excision Repair  

PubMed Central

Abstract Significance: Oxidative DNA damage is repaired by multiple, overlapping DNA repair pathways. Accumulating evidence supports the hypothesis that nucleotide excision repair (NER), besides base excision repair (BER), is also involved in neutralizing oxidative DNA damage. Recent Advances: NER includes two distinct sub-pathways: transcription-coupled NER (TC-NER) and global genome repair (GG-NER). The CSA and CSB proteins initiate the onset of TC-NER. Recent findings show that not only CSB, but also CSA is involved in the repair of oxidative DNA lesions, in the nucleus as well as in mitochondria. The XPG protein is also of importance for the removal of oxidative DNA lesions, as it may enhance the initial step of BER. Substantial evidence exists that support a role for XPC in NER and BER. XPC deficiency not only results in decreased repair of oxidative lesions, but has also been linked to disturbed redox homeostasis. Critical Issues: The role of NER proteins in the regulation of the cellular response to oxidative (mitochondrial and nuclear) DNA damage may be the underlying mechanism of the pathology of accelerated aging in Cockayne syndrome patients, a driving force for internal cancer development in XP-A and XP-C patients, and a contributor to the mixed exhibited phenotypes of XP-G patients. Future Directions: Accumulating evidence indicates that DNA repair factors can be involved in multiple DNA repair pathways. However, the distinct detailed mechanism and consequences of these additional functions remain to be elucidated and can possibly shine a light on clinically related issues. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 2409–2419.

Melis, Joost P.M.; Luijten, Mirjam

2013-01-01

75

Repair of Topoisomerase I-Mediated DNA Damage  

PubMed Central

Topoisomerase I (Top1) is an abundant and essential enzyme. Top1 is the selective target of camptothecins, which are effective anticancer agents. Top1-DNA cleavage complexes can also be trapped by various endogenous and exogenous DNA lesions including mismatches, abasic sites and carcinogenic adducts. Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase (Tdp1) is one of the repair enzymes for Top1-DNA covalent complexes. Tdp1 forms a multiprotein complex that includes poly(ADP) ribose polymerase (PARP). PARP-deficient cells are hypersensitive to camptothecins and functionally deficient for Tdp1. We will review recent developments in several pathways involved in the repair of Top1 cleavage complexes and the role of Chk1 and Chk2 checkpoint kinases in the cellular responses to Top1 inhibitors. The genes conferring camptothecin hypersensitivity are compiled for humans, budding yeast and fission yeast.

Pommier, Yves; Barcelo, Juana; Rao, V. Ashutosh; Sordet, Olivier; Jobson, Andrew G.; Thibaut, Laurent; Miao, Zheyong; Seiler, Jennifer; Zhang, Hongliang; Marchand, Christophe; Agama, Keli; Redon, Christophe

2008-01-01

76

International congress on DNA damage and repair: Book of abstracts  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the abstracts of 105 papers presented at the Congress. Topics covered include the Escherichia coli nucleotide excision repair system, DNA repair in malignant transformations, defective DNA repair, and gene regulation. (TEM)

Not Available

1987-01-01

77

DNA repair in human bronchial epithelial cells  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this investigation was to compare the response of human cell types (bronchial epithelial cells and fibroblasts and skin fibroblasts) to various DNA damaging agents. Repair of DNA single strand breaks (SSB) induced by 5 krads of X-ray was similar for all cell types; approximately 90% of the DNA SSB were rejoined within one hour. During excision repair of DNA damage from u.v.-radiation, the frequencies of DNA SSB as estimated by the alkaline elution technique, were similar in all cell types. Repair replication as measured by BND cellulose chromatography was also similar in epithelial and fibroblastic cells after u.v.-irradiation. Similar levels of SSB were also observed in epithelial and fibroblastic cells after exposure to chemical carcinogens: 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene; benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE); or N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Significant repair replication of BPDE-induced DNA damage was detected in both bronchial epithelial and fibroblastic cells, although the level in fibroblasts was approximately 40% of that in epithelial cells. The pulmonary carcinogen asbestos did not damage DNA. DNA-protein crosslinks induced by formaldehyde were rapidly removed in bronchial cells. Further, epithelial and fibroblastic cells, which were incubated with formaldehyde and the polymerase inhibitor combination of cytosine arabinoside and hydroxyurea, accumulated DNA SSB at approximately equal frequencies. These results should provide a useful background for further investigations of the response of human bronchial cells to various DNA damaging agents.

Fornace, A.J. Jr.; Lechner, J.F.; Grafstrom, R.C.; Harris, C.C.

1982-01-01

78

Simultaneous In Vitro Characterisation of DNA Deaminase Function and Associated DNA Repair Pathways  

PubMed Central

During immunoglobulin (Ig) diversification, activation-induced deaminase (AID) initiates somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination by catalysing the conversion of cytosine to uracil. The synergy between AID and DNA repair pathways is fundamental for the introduction of mutations, however the molecular and biochemical mechanisms underlying this process are not fully elucidated. We describe a novel method to efficiently decipher the composition and activity of DNA repair pathways that are activated by AID-induced lesions. The in vitro resolution (IVR) assay combines AID based deamination and DNA repair activities from a cellular milieu in a single assay, thus avoiding synthetically created DNA-lesions or genetic-based readouts. Recombinant GAL4-AID fusion protein is targeted to a plasmid containing GAL4 binding sites, allowing for controlled cytosine deamination within a substrate plasmid. Subsequently, the Xenopus laevis egg extract provides a source of DNA repair proteins and functional repair pathways. Our results demonstrated that DNA repair pathways which are in vitro activated by AID-induced lesions are reminiscent of those found during AID-induced in vivo Ig diversification. The comparative ease of manipulation of this in vitro systems provides a new approach to dissect the complex DNA repair pathways acting on defined physiologically lesions, can be adapted to use with other DNA damaging proteins (e.g. APOBECs), and provide a means to develop and characterise pharmacological agents to inhibit these potentially oncogenic processes.

Franchini, Don-Marc; Incorvaia, Elisabetta; Rangam, Gopinath; Coker, Heather A.; Petersen-Mahrt, Svend K.

2013-01-01

79

Part 1: Mechanisms of DNA Repair  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The most deleterious form of DNA damage is a double-strand break (DSB), which can arise from errors in DNA replication, from the failure of topoisomerases to complete their cycles of DNA cutting and rejoining, from mechanical stress and from the action of endonucleases that cleave DNA. Here we review how DSBs can be repaired either by nonhomologous end-joining mechanisms or by several homologous recombination pathways including single-strand annealing, gene conversion and break-induced replication.

Jim Haber (Brandeis University;Department of Biology and Rosenstiel Basic Medical Sciences Research Center)

2009-12-01

80

Ribonucleotides in DNA: Origins, repair and consequences.  

PubMed

While primordial life is thought to have been RNA-based (Cech, Cold Spring Harbor Perspect. Biol. 4 (2012) a006742), all living organisms store genetic information in DNA, which is chemically more stable. Distinctions between the RNA and DNA worlds and our views of "DNA" synthesis continue to evolve as new details emerge on the incorporation, repair and biological effects of ribonucleotides in DNA genomes of organisms from bacteria through humans. PMID:24794402

Williams, Jessica S; Kunkel, Thomas A

2014-07-01

81

Human DNA repair and recombination genes  

SciTech Connect

Several genes involved in mammalian DNA repair pathways were identified by complementation analysis and chromosomal mapping based on hybrid cells. Eight complementation groups of rodent mutants defective in the repair of uv radiation damage are now identified. At least seven of these genes are probably essential for repair and at least six of them control the incision step. The many genes required for repair of DNA cross-linking damage show overlap with those involved in the repair of uv damage, but some of these genes appear to be unique for cross-link repair. Two genes residing on human chromosome 19 were cloned from genomic transformants using a cosmid vector, and near full-length cDNA clones of each gene were isolated and sequenced. Gene ERCC2 efficiently corrects the defect in CHO UV5, a nucleotide excision repair mutant. Gene XRCC1 normalizes repair of strand breaks and the excessive sister chromatid exchange in CHO mutant EM9. ERCC2 shows a remarkable /approximately/52% overall homology at both the amino acid and nucleotide levels with the yeast RAD3 gene. Evidence based on mutation induction frequencies suggests that ERCC2, like RAD3, might also be an essential gene for viability. 100 refs., 4 tabs.

Thompson, L.H.; Weber, C.A.; Jones, N.J.

1988-09-01

82

Chromatin Remodeling, DNA Damage Repair and Aging  

PubMed Central

Cells are constantly exposed to a variety of environmental and endogenous conditions causing DNA damage, which is detected and repaired by conserved DNA repair pathways to maintain genomic integrity. Chromatin remodeling is critical in this process, as the organization of eukaryotic DNA into compact chromatin presents a natural barrier to all DNA-related events. Studies on human premature aging syndromes together with normal aging have suggested that accumulated damages might lead to exhaustion of resources that are required for physiological functions and thus accelerate aging. In this manuscript, combining the present understandings and latest findings, we focus mainly on discussing the role of chromatin remodeling in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and regulation of aging.

Liu, Baohua; Yip, Raymond KH; Zhou, Zhongjun

2012-01-01

83

DNA INTERSTRAND CROSSLINK REPAIR IN MAMMALIAN CELLS: STEP BY STEP  

PubMed Central

Interstrand DNA crosslinks (ICLs) are formed by natural products of metabolism and by chemotherapeutic reagents. Work in E. coli identified a two cycle repair scheme involving incisions on one strand on either side of the ICL (unhooking) producing a gapped intermediate with the incised oligonucleotide attached to the intact strand. The gap is filled by recombinational repair or lesion bypass synthesis. The remaining monoadduct is then removed by Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER). Despite considerable effort, our understanding of each step in mammalian cells is still quite limited. In part this reflects the variety of crosslinking compounds, each with distinct structural features, used by different investigators. Also, multiple repair pathways are involved, variably operative during the cell cycle. G1 phase repair requires functions from NER, although the mechanism of recognition has not been determined. Repair can be initiated by encounters with the transcriptional apparatus, or a replication fork. In the case of the latter, the reconstruction of a replication fork, stalled or broken by collision with an ICL, adds to the complexity of the repair process. The enzymology of unhooking, the identity of the lesion bypass polymerases required to fill the first repair gap, and the functions involved in the second repair cycle are all subjects of active inquiry. Here we will review current understanding of each step in ICL repair in mammalian cells.

Muniandy, Parameswary; Liu, Jia; Majumdar, Alokes; Liu, Su-ting; Seidman, Michael M.

2009-01-01

84

Berberine: Complex with Dna.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A complex of calf-thymus DNA with berberine sediments in the analytical ultracentrifuge. The DNA produced systematic changes in the absorption spectrum of berberine which suggest that single alkaloid molecules bind to DNA. Flow dichroism of purines and py...

A. E. Krey F. E. Hahn

1969-01-01

85

DNA glycosylases in the base excision repair of DNA.  

PubMed Central

A wide range of cytotoxic and mutagenic DNA bases are removed by different DNA glycosylases, which initiate the base excision repair pathway. DNA glycosylases cleave the N-glycosylic bond between the target base and deoxyribose, thus releasing a free base and leaving an apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site. In addition, several DNA glycosylases are bifunctional, since they also display a lyase activity that cleaves the phosphodiester backbone 3' to the AP site generated by the glycosylase activity. Structural data and sequence comparisons have identified common features among many of the DNA glycosylases. Their active sites have a structure that can only bind extrahelical target bases, as observed in the crystal structure of human uracil-DNA glycosylase in a complex with double-stranded DNA. Nucleotide flipping is apparently actively facilitated by the enzyme. With bacteriophage T4 endonuclease V, a pyrimidine-dimer glycosylase, the enzyme gains access to the target base by flipping out an adenine opposite to the dimer. A conserved helix-hairpin-helix motif and an invariant Asp residue are found in the active sites of more than 20 monofunctional and bifunctional DNA glycosylases. In bifunctional DNA glycosylases, the conserved Asp is thought to deprotonate a conserved Lys, forming an amine nucleophile. The nucleophile forms a covalent intermediate (Schiff base) with the deoxyribose anomeric carbon and expels the base. Deoxyribose subsequently undergoes several transformations, resulting in strand cleavage and regeneration of the free enzyme. The catalytic mechanism of monofunctional glycosylases does not involve covalent intermediates. Instead the conserved Asp residue may activate a water molecule which acts as the attacking nucleophile.

Krokan, H E; Standal, R; Slupphaug, G

1997-01-01

86

DNA-PK: a dynamic enzyme in a versatile DSB repair pathway  

PubMed Central

DNA double stranded breaks (DSBs) are the most cytoxic DNA lesion as the inability to properly repair them can lead to genomic instability and tumorigenesis. The prominent DSB repair pathway in humans is non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). In the simplest sense, NHEJ mediates the direct re-ligation of the broken DNA molecule. However, NHEJ is a complex and versatile process that can repair DSBs with a variety of damages and ends via the utilization of a significant number of proteins. In this review we will describe the important factors and mechanisms modulating NHEJ with emphasis given to the versatility of this repair process and the DNA-PK complex.

Davis, Anthony J.; Chen, Benjamin P.C.; Chen, David J.

2014-01-01

87

The awakening of DNA repair at Yale.  

PubMed

As a graduate student with Professor Richard Setlow at Yale in the late 1950s, I studied the effects of ultraviolet and visible light on the syntheses of DNA, RNA, and protein in bacteria. I reflect upon my research in the Yale Biophysics Department, my subsequent postdoctoral experiences, and the eventual analyses in the laboratories of Setlow, Paul Howard-Flanders, and myself that constituted the discovery of the ubiquitous pathway of DNA excision repair in the early 1960s. I then offer a brief perspective on a few more recent developments in the burgeoning DNA repair field and their relationships to human disease. PMID:24348216

Hanawalt, Philip C

2013-12-01

88

The Awakening of DNA Repair at Yale  

PubMed Central

As a graduate student with Professor Richard Setlow at Yale in the late 1950s, I studied the effects of ultraviolet and visible light on the syntheses of DNA, RNA, and protein in bacteria. I reflect upon my research in the Yale Biophysics Department, my subsequent postdoctoral experiences, and the eventual analyses in the laboratories of Setlow, Paul Howard-Flanders, and myself that constituted the discovery of the ubiquitous pathway of DNA excision repair in the early 1960s. I then offer a brief perspective on a few more recent developments in the burgeoning DNA repair field and their relationships to human disease.

Hanawalt, Philip C.

2013-01-01

89

Hypoxia and metabolismHypoxia, DNA repair and genetic instability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Areas of hypoxic tumour tissue are known to be resistant to treatment and are associated with a poor clinical prognosis. There are several reasons why this might be, including the capacity of hypoxia to drive genomic instability and alter DNA damage repair pathways. Significantly, current models fail to distinguish between the complexities of the hypoxic microenvironment and the biological effects

Richard P. Hill; Robert G. Bristow

2008-01-01

90

Electrically monitoring DNA repair by photolyase  

PubMed Central

Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers are the major DNA photoproducts produced upon exposure to UV radiation. If left unrepaired, these lesions can lead to replication errors, mutation, and cell death. Photolyase is a light-activated flavoenzyme that binds to pyrimidine dimers in DNA and repairs them in a reaction triggered by electron transfer from the photoexcited flavin cofactor to the dimer. Using gold electrodes modified with DNA duplexes containing a cyclobutane thymine dimer (T<>T), here we probe the electrochemistry of the flavin cofactor in Escherichia coli photolyase. Cyclic and square-wave voltammograms of photolyase deposited on these electrodes show a redox signal at 40 mV versus normal hydrogen electrode, consistent with electron transfer to and from the flavin in the DNA-bound protein. This signal is dramatically attenuated on surfaces where the ?-stacking of the DNA bases is perturbed by the presence of an abasic site below the T<>T, an indication that the redox pathway is DNA-mediated. DNA repair can, moreover, be monitored electrically. Exposure of photolyase on T<>T-damaged DNA films to near-UV/blue light leads to changes in the flavin signal consistent with repair, as confirmed by parallel HPLC experiments. These results demonstrate the exquisite sensitivity of DNA electrochemistry to perturbations in base pair stacking and the applicability of this chemistry to probe reactions of proteins with DNA.

DeRosa, Maria C.; Sancar, Aziz; Barton, Jacqueline K.

2005-01-01

91

DNA Double-Strand Break Repair at -15?C  

PubMed Central

The survival of microorganisms in ancient glacial ice and permafrost has been ascribed to their ability to persist in a dormant, metabolically inert state. An alternative possibility, supported by experimental data, is that microorganisms in frozen matrices are able to sustain a level of metabolic function that is sufficient for cellular repair and maintenance. To examine this experimentally, frozen populations of Psychrobacter arcticus 273-4 were exposed to ionizing radiation (IR) to simulate the damage incurred from natural background IR sources in the permafrost environment from over ?225 kiloyears (ky). High-molecular-weight DNA was fragmented by exposure to 450 Gy of IR, which introduced an average of 16 double-strand breaks (DSBs) per chromosome. During incubation at ?15°C for 505 days, P. arcticus repaired DNA DSBs in the absence of net growth. Based on the time frame for the assembly of genomic fragments by P. arcticus, the rate of DNA DSB repair was estimated at 7 to 10 DSBs year?1 under the conditions tested. Our results provide direct evidence for the repair of DNA lesions, extending the range of complex biochemical reactions known to occur in bacteria at frozen temperatures. Provided that sufficient energy and nutrient sources are available, a functional DNA repair mechanism would allow cells to maintain genome integrity and augment microbial survival in icy terrestrial or extraterrestrial environments.

Dieser, Markus; Battista, John R.

2013-01-01

92

Recruitment of DNA repair synthesis machinery to sites of DNA damage/repair in living human cells  

PubMed Central

The eukaryotic sliding DNA clamp, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), is essential for DNA replication and repair synthesis. In order to load the ring-shaped, homotrimeric PCNA onto the DNA double helix, the ATPase activity of the replication factor C (RFC) clamp loader complex is required. Although the recruitment of PCNA by RFC to DNA replication sites has well been documented, our understanding of its recruitment during DNA repair synthesis is limited. In this study, we analyzed the accumulation of endogenous and fluorescent-tagged proteins for DNA repair synthesis at the sites of DNA damage produced locally by UVA-laser micro-irradiation in HeLa cells. Accumulation kinetics and in vitro pull-down assays of the large subunit of RFC (RFC140) revealed that there are two distinct modes of recruitment of RFC to DNA damage, a simultaneous accumulation of RFC140 and PCNA caused by interaction between PCNA and the extreme N-terminus of RFC140 and a much faster accumulation of RFC140 than PCNA at the damaged site. Furthermore, RFC140 knock-down experiments showed that PCNA can accumulate at DNA damage independently of RFC. These results suggest that immediate accumulation of RFC and PCNA at DNA damage is only partly interdependent.

Hashiguchi, Kazunari; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Yasui, Akira

2007-01-01

93

DNA Repair and Personalized Breast Cancer Therapy  

PubMed Central

Personalized cancer therapy is likely to be one of the next big advances in our search for a cure for cancer. To be able to treat people in an individualized manner, researchers need to know a great deal about their genetic constitution and the DNA repair status of their tumors. Specific knowledge is required regarding the polymorphisms individuals carry and how these polymorphisms influence responses to therapy. Researchers are actively engaged in biomarker discovery and validation for this purpose. In addition, the design of clinical trials must be reassessed to include new information on biomarkers and drug responses. In this review, we focus on personalized breast cancer therapy. The hypothesis we focus upon in this review is that there is connection between the DNA repair profile of individuals, their breast tumor subtypes, and their responses to cancer therapy. We first briefly review cellular DNA repair pathways that are likely to be impacted by breast cancer therapies. Next, we review the phenotypes of breast tumor subtypes with an emphasis on how a DNA repair deficiency might result in tumorigenesis itself and lead to the chemotherapeutic responses that are observed. Specific examples of breast tumor subtypes and their responses to cancer therapy are given, and we discuss possible DNA repair mechanisms that underlie the responses of tumors to various chemotherapeutic agents. Much is known about breast cancer subtypes and the way each of these subtypes responds to chemotherapy. In addition, we discuss novel design of clinical trials that incorporates rapidly emerging information on biomarkers.

Li, Shu-Xia; Sjolund, Ashley; Harris, Lyndsay; Sweasy, Joann B.

2010-01-01

94

DNA repair responses in human skin cells  

SciTech Connect

Sunlight and some environmental chemical agents produce lesions in the DNA of human skin cells that if unrepaired may interfere with normal functioning of these cells. The most serious outcome of such interactions may be malignancy. It is therefore important to develop an understanding of mechanisms by which the lesions may be repaired or tolerated without deleterious consequences. Our models for the molecular processing of damaged DNA have been derived largely from the study of bacterial systems. Some similarities but significant differences are revealed when human cell responses are tested against these models. It is also of importance to learn DNA repair responses of epidermal keratinocytes for comparison with the more extensive studies that have been carried out with dermal fibroblasts. Our experimental results thus far indicate similarities for the excision-repair of ultraviolet-induced pyrimidine dimers in human keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Both the monoadducts and the interstrand crosslinks produced in DNA by photoactivated 8-methoxypsoralen (PUVA) can be repaired in normal human fibroblasts but not in those from xeroderma pigmentosum patients. The monoadducts, like pyrimidine dimers, are probably the more mutagenic/carcinogenic lesions while the crosslinks are less easily repaired and probably result in more effective blocking of DNA function. It is suggested that a split-dose protocol that maximizes the production of crosslinks while minimizing the yield of monoadducts may be more effective and potentially less carcinogenic than the single ultraviolet exposure regimen in PUVA therapy for psoriasis.

Hanawalt, P.C.; Liu, S.C.; Parsons, C.S.

1981-07-01

95

Regulation of DNA repair by parkin  

SciTech Connect

Mutation of parkin is one of the most prevalent causes of autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). Parkin is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that acts on a variety of substrates, resulting in polyubiquitination and degradation by the proteasome or monoubiquitination and regulation of biological activity. However, the cellular functions of parkin that relate to its pathological involvement in PD are not well understood. Here we show that parkin is essential for optimal repair of DNA damage. Parkin-deficient cells exhibit reduced DNA excision repair that can be restored by transfection of wild-type parkin, but not by transfection of a pathological parkin mutant. Parkin also protects against DNA damage-induced cell death, an activity that is largely lost in the pathological mutant. Moreover, parkin interacts with the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a protein that coordinates DNA excision repair. These results suggest that parkin promotes DNA repair and protects against genotoxicity, and implicate DNA damage as a potential pathogenic mechanism in PD.

Kao, Shyan-Yuan, E-mail: shyan-yuan_kao@meei.harvard.edu [Eaton Peabody Laboratory, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, 243 Charles Street, Boston, MA 02114 (United States)] [Eaton Peabody Laboratory, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, 243 Charles Street, Boston, MA 02114 (United States)

2009-05-01

96

DNA repair gene status in oesophageal cancer.  

PubMed

DNA repair genes and microsatellite instability (MSI) are relatively recently described molecular events that have been associated particularly with colorectal cancers in the setting of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer or the Lynch syndromes. Several other gastrointestinal (and other) malignancies have been analysed for abnormalities in DNA repair genes and MSI. Dietary and environmental factors have been implicated strongly in the aetiology of oesophageal cancer. However, the effect of this on the genetic profile, especially the DNA repair system and resultant MSI, is largely unknown. The purpose of this review is to provide a brief background of the dietary and environmental factors in oesophageal carcinogenesis and to discuss the role of the repair genes and MSI in the molecular pathogenesis of this malignancy. Several studies indicate that MSI (range, 3-40%) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) (range, 3-64%) in the DNA repair genes are uncommon in carcinogenesis of the oesophagus. Most data are at the lower end of the ranges and this, together with the lack of uniform criteria for the assessment of MSI, accounts for the higher figures obtained in some studies. The rates of detection of MSI do not approach that of other gastrointestinal malignancies, such as gastric (up to 23%) and colorectal (up to 31%) carcinomas. PMID:10621832

Naidoo, R; Chetty, R

1999-06-01

97

Sumoylation of the Rad1 nuclease promotes DNA repair and regulates its DNA association  

PubMed Central

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad1-Rad10 complex is a conserved, structure-specific endonuclease important for repairing multiple types of DNA lesions. Upon recruitment to lesion sites, Rad1-Rad10 removes damaged sequences, enabling subsequent gap filling and ligation. Acting at mid-steps of repair, the association and dissociation of Rad1-Rad10 with DNA can influence repair efficiency. We show that genotoxin-enhanced Rad1 sumoylation occurs after the nuclease is recruited to lesion sites. A single lysine outside Rad1's nuclease and Rad10-binding domains is sumoylated in vivo and in vitro. Mutation of this site to arginine abolishes Rad1 sumoylation and impairs Rad1-mediated repair at high doses of DNA damage, but sustains the repair of a single double-stranded break. The timing of Rad1 sumoylation and the phenotype bias toward high lesion loads point to a post-incision role for sumoylation, possibly affecting Rad1 dissociation from DNA. Indeed, biochemical examination shows that sumoylation of Rad1 decreases the complex's affinity for DNA without affecting other protein properties. These findings suggest a model whereby sumoylation of Rad1 promotes its disengagement from DNA after nuclease cleavage, allowing it to efficiently attend to large numbers of DNA lesions.

Sarangi, Prabha; Bartosova, Zdenka; Altmannova, Veronika; Holland, Cory; Chavdarova, Melita; Lee, Sang Eun; Krejci, Lumir; Zhao, Xiaolan

2014-01-01

98

Early Days of DNA Repair: Discovery of Nucleotide Excision Repair and Homology-Dependent Recombinational Repair  

PubMed Central

The discovery of nucleotide excision repair in 1964 showed that DNA could be repaired by a mechanism that removed the damaged section of a strand and replaced it accurately by using the remaining intact strand as the template. This result showed that DNA could be actively metabolized in a process that had no precedent. In 1968, experiments describing postreplication repair, a process dependent on homologous recombination, were reported. The authors of these papers were either at Yale University or had prior Yale connections. Here we recount some of the events leading to these discoveries and consider the impact on further research at Yale and elsewhere.

Rupp, W. Dean

2013-01-01

99

Posttranscriptional regulation of the RAD5 DNA repair gene by the Dun1 kinase and the Pan2-Pan3 poly(A)-nuclease complex contributes to survival of replication blocks.  

PubMed

The yeast Dun1 kinase has complex checkpoint functions including DNA damage-dependent cell cycle arrest in G(2)/M, transcriptional induction of repair genes, and regulation of postreplicative DNA repair pathways. Here we report that the Dun1 forkhead-associated domain interacts with the Pan3 subunit of the poly(A)-nuclease complex and that dun1pan2 and dun1pan3 double mutants are dramatically hypersensitive to replicational stress. This phenotype was independent of the function of Dun1 in regulating deoxyribonucleotide levels as it was also observed in strains lacking the ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor Sml1. dun1pan2 mutants initially arrested normally in response to replication blocks but died in the presence of persistent replication blocks with considerably delayed kinetics compared with mutants lacking the Rad53 kinase, indicating that the double mutation does not compromise the intra-S phase checkpoint. Interestingly, the RAD5 gene involved in error-free postreplication repair pathways was specifically up-regulated in dun1pan2 double mutants. Moreover, inducible overexpression of RAD5 mimicked the double mutant phenotype by hypersensitizing dun1 mutants to replication blocks. The data indicate that Dun1 and Pan2-Pan3 cooperate to regulate the stoichiometry and thereby the activity of postreplication repair complexes, suggesting that posttranscriptional mechanisms complement the transcriptional response in the regulation of gene expression by checkpoint signaling pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:11953437

Hammet, Andrew; Pike, Brietta L; Heierhorst, Jörg

2002-06-21

100

The RecQ DNA helicases in DNA Repair  

PubMed Central

The RecQ helicases are conserved from bacteria to humans and play a critical role in genome stability. In humans, loss of RecQ gene function is associated with cancer predisposition and/or premature aging. Recent data have shown that the RecQ helicases function during two distinct steps during DNA repair; DNA end resection and resolution of double Holliday junctions (dHJs). RecQ functions in these different processing steps has important implications for its role in repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs) that occur during DNA replication, meiosis and at specific genomic loci such as telomeres.

Bernstein, Kara A.; Gangloff, Serge; Rothstein, Rodney

2014-01-01

101

Clinical importance of DNA repair inhibitors in cancer therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The efficacy of cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy relies on generation of DNA damage. Since intrinsic DNA repair pathways\\u000a enable cancer cells to survive by repairing these damaged lesions, inactivation of DNA repair coupled with chemotherapy and\\u000a radiotherapy has a potential to enhance the effect of these therapies. Small molecule compounds that inhibit specific DNA\\u000a repair proteins have been developed, and

N. Hosoya; K. Miyagawa

2009-01-01

102

DNA Repair Responses in Human Skin Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sunlight and some environmental chemical agents produce lesions in the DNA of human skin cells that if unrepaired may interfere with normal functioning of these cells. The most serious outcome of such interactions may be malignancy. It is therefore important to develop an understanding of mechanisms by which the lesions may be repaired or tolerated without deleterious consequences. Our models

Philip C. Hanawalt; Su-Chin Liu; C. Sherry Parsons

1981-01-01

103

DNA Repair, DNA Replication, and UV Mutagenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cells that have been irradiated with ultraviolet light (UV) suffer damage to their DNA, primarily in the form of covalent linkage between adjacent pyrimidines. Such photoproducts represent blocks to RNA and DNA polymerases and are potentially mutagenic. Blockage of RNA polymerase II by a photoproduct in the transcribed strand of an active gene leads to induction of the p53 protein,

W Glenn McGregor

1999-01-01

104

Oxidatively induced DNA damage: mechanisms, repair and disease.  

PubMed

Endogenous and exogenous sources cause oxidatively induced DNA damage in living organisms by a variety of mechanisms. The resulting DNA lesions are mutagenic and, unless repaired, lead to a variety of mutations and consequently to genetic instability, which is a hallmark of cancer. Oxidatively induced DNA damage is repaired in living cells by different pathways that involve a large number of proteins. Unrepaired and accumulated DNA lesions may lead to disease processes including carcinogenesis. Mutations also occur in DNA repair genes, destabilizing the DNA repair system. A majority of cancer cell lines have somatic mutations in their DNA repair genes. In addition, polymorphisms in these genes constitute a risk factor for cancer. In general, defects in DNA repair are associated with cancer. Numerous DNA repair enzymes exist that possess different, but sometimes overlapping substrate specificities for removal of oxidatively induced DNA lesions. In addition to the role of DNA repair in carcinogenesis, recent evidence suggests that some types of tumors possess increased DNA repair capacity that may lead to therapy resistance. DNA repair pathways are drug targets to develop DNA repair inhibitors to increase the efficacy of cancer therapy. Oxidatively induced DNA lesions and DNA repair proteins may serve as potential biomarkers for early detection, cancer risk assessment, prognosis and for monitoring therapy. Taken together, a large body of accumulated evidence suggests that oxidatively induced DNA damage and its repair are important factors in the development of human cancers. Thus this field deserves more research to contribute to the development of cancer biomarkers, DNA repair inhibitors and treatment approaches to better understand and fight cancer. PMID:22293091

Dizdaroglu, Miral

2012-12-31

105

Homologous recombination in DNA repair and DNA damage tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homologous recombination (HR) comprises a series of interrelated pathways that function in the repair of DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) and interstrand crosslinks (ICLs). In addition, recombination provides critical support for DNA replication in the recovery of stalled or broken replication forks, contributing to tolerance of DNA damage. A central core of proteins, most critically the RecA homolog Rad51, catalyzes the

Xuan Li; Wolf-Dietrich Heyer

2008-01-01

106

40 CFR 798.5500 - Differential growth inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: âBacterial DNA...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and repair deficient bacteria: âBacterial DNA damage or repair tests.â 798.5500 ...and repair deficient bacteria: âBacterial DNA damage or repair tests.â (a) Purpose. Bacterial DNA damage or repair tests measure DNA...

2009-07-01

107

Acrolein induced DNA damage, mutagenicity and effect on DNA repair.  

PubMed

Acrolein (Acr) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant; it also can be generated endogenously by lipid peroxidation. Acr contains a carbonyl group and an olefinic double bond; it can react with many cellular molecules including amino acids, proteins and nucleic acids. In this review article we focus on updating information regarding: (i) Acr-induced DNA damage and methods of detection, (ii) repair of Acr-DNA damage, (iii) mutagenicity of Acr-DNA adducts, (iv) sequence specificity and methylation effect on Acr-DNA adduct formation and (v) the role of Acr in human cancer. We have found that Acr can inhibit DNA repair and induces mutagenic Acr-dG adducts and that the binding spectrum of Acr in the p53 gene in normal human bronchial epithelial cells is similar to the p53 mutational spectrum in lung cancer. Since Acr-DNA adduct has been identified in human lung tissue and Acr causes bladder cancer in human and rat models, we conclude that Acr is a major lung and bladder carcinogen, and its carcinogenicity arises via induction of DNA damage and inhibition of DNA repair. PMID:21714128

Tang, Moon-shong; Wang, Hsiang-tsui; Hu, Yu; Chen, Wei-Sheng; Akao, Makoto; Feng, Zhaohui; Hu, Wenwei

2011-09-01

108

XRCC1 Stimulates Human Polynucleotide Kinase Activity at Damaged DNA Termini and Accelerates DNA Single-Strand Break Repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

XRCC1 protein is required for DNA single-strand break repair and genetic stability but its biochemical role is unknown. Here, we report that XRCC1 interacts with human polynucleotide kinase in addition to its established interactions with DNA polymerase-? and DNA ligase III. Moreover, these four proteins are coassociated in multiprotein complexes in human cell extract and together they repair single-strand breaks

Claire J Whitehouse; Richard M Taylor; Angela Thistlethwaite; Hong Zhang; Feridoun Karimi-Busheri; Dana D Lasko; Michael Weinfeld; Keith W Caldecott

2001-01-01

109

Isolation of human complexes proficient in nucleotide excision repair.  

PubMed Central

More than 20 polypeptides are required for the process of nucleotide excision repair (NER) in both human and yeast cells. This pathway of excision repair has most often been viewed as an ordered multi-step process involving steps of damage recognition, incision/excision and finally repair DNA synthesis. Here we present evidence for the existence of a complex of human NER proteins pre-assembled in the absence of damaged DNA. This multi-protein complex was initially isolated from HeLa cell extracts by affinity chromatography on a matrix containing the damage recognition protein XPA. Subsequent co-immunoprecipitation and gel filtration experiments demonstrated that a significant portion of the human NER proteins was present in the form of a high molecular weight complex and that these complexes, or repairosomes, were capable of performing all steps of NER in vitro . Consistent with studies indicating that DNA polymerasesdeltaandstraightepsiloncan both function in NER, these two polymerases are found in these repairosome complexes.

He, Z; Ingles, C J

1997-01-01

110

After sun reversal of DNA damage: enhancing skin repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

UV-induced DNA damage has been directly linked to skin cancer, and DNA repair is an important protection against this neoplasm. This is illustrated by the genetic disease xeroderma pigmentosum wherein a serious defect in DNA repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers dramatically increases the rate of skin cancer. In other instances in which skin cancer rates are elevated, deficits in DNA

Daniel B. Yarosh; Matthew T. Canning; Danielle Teicher; David A. Brown

2005-01-01

111

Aging processes, DNA damage, and repair.  

PubMed

The second triennial FASEB Summer Research Conference on "Clonal Senescence and Differentiation" (August 17-22, 1996) focused on the interrelationships between aging processes and DNA damage and repair. The attendees represented a cross section of senior and junior investigators working in fields ranging from classic cellular gerontology to yeast and nematode models of aging to basic mechanisms of DNA damage and repair. The meeting opened with a keynote address by Dr. Bruce Ames that emphasized the documented relationships between oxidative damage, cancer, and aging. This was followed by eight platform sessions, one poster discussion, one featured presentation, and an after-dinner address. The following sections highlight the key points discussed. PMID:9141498

Gilchrest, B A; Bohr, V A

1997-04-01

112

Identification of novel DNA repair proteins via primary sequence, secondary structure, and homology  

PubMed Central

Background DNA repair is the general term for the collection of critical mechanisms which repair many forms of DNA damage such as methylation or ionizing radiation. DNA repair has mainly been studied in experimental and clinical situations, and relatively few information-based approaches to new extracting DNA repair knowledge exist. As a first step, automatic detection of DNA repair proteins in genomes via informatics techniques is desirable; however, there are many forms of DNA repair and it is not a straightforward process to identify and classify repair proteins with a single optimal method. We perform a study of the ability of homology and machine learning-based methods to identify and classify DNA repair proteins, as well as scan vertebrate genomes for the presence of novel repair proteins. Combinations of primary sequence polypeptide frequency, secondary structure, and homology information are used as feature information for input to a Support Vector Machine (SVM). Results We identify that SVM techniques are capable of identifying portions of DNA repair protein datasets without admitting false positives; at low levels of false positive tolerance, homology can also identify and classify proteins with good performance. Secondary structure information provides improved performance compared to using primary structure alone. Furthermore, we observe that machine learning methods incorporating homology information perform best when data is filtered by some clustering technique. Analysis by applying these methodologies to the scanning of multiple vertebrate genomes confirms a positive correlation between the size of a genome and the number of DNA repair protein transcripts it is likely to contain, and simultaneously suggests that all organisms have a non-zero minimum number of repair genes. In addition, the scan result clusters several organisms' repair abilities in an evolutionarily consistent fashion. Analysis also identifies several functionally unconfirmed proteins that are highly likely to be involved in the repair process. A new web service, INTREPED, has been made available for the immediate search and annotation of DNA repair proteins in newly sequenced genomes. Conclusion Despite complexity due to a multitude of repair pathways, combinations of sequence, structure, and homology with Support Vector Machines offer good methods in addition to existing homology searches for DNA repair protein identification and functional annotation. Most importantly, this study has uncovered relationships between the size of a genome and a genome's available repair repetoire, and offers a number of new predictions as well as a prediction service, both which reduce the search time and cost for novel repair genes and proteins.

Brown, JB; Akutsu, Tatsuya

2009-01-01

113

The hMre11\\/hRad50 Protein Complex and Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome: Linkage of Double-Strand Break Repair to the Cellular DNA Damage Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by increased cancer incidence, cell cycle checkpoint defects, and ionizing radiation sensitivity. We have isolated the gene encoding p95, a member of the hMre11\\/hRad50 double-strand break repair complex. The p95 gene mapped to 8q21.3, the region that contains the NBS locus, and p95 was absent from NBS cells established from

James P. Carney; Richard S. Maser; Heidi Olivares; Elizabeth M. Davis; Michelle Le Beau; John R. Yates; Lara Hays; William F. Morgan; John H. J. Petrini

1998-01-01

114

Involvement of Brca2 in DNA Repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormalities precipitated by a targeted truncation in the murine gene Brca2 define its involvement in DNA repair. In culture, cells harboring truncated Brca2 exhibit a proliferative impediment that worsens with successive passages. Arrest in the G1 and G2\\/M phases is accompanied by elevated p53 and p21 expression. Increased sensitivity to genotoxic agents, particularly ultraviolet light and methylmethanesulfonate, shows that Brca2

Ketan J Patel; Veronica P. C. C Yu; Hyunsook Lee; Anne Corcoran; Fiona C Thistlethwaite; Martin J Evans; William H Colledge; Lori S Friedman; Bruce A. J Ponder; Ashok R Venkitaraman

1998-01-01

115

DNA Damage and Repair in Human Cancer: Molecular Mechanisms and Contribution to Therapy-Related Leukemias  

PubMed Central

Most antitumour therapies damage tumour cell DNA either directly or indirectly. Without repair, damage can result in genetic instability and eventually cancer. The strong association between the lack of DNA damage repair, mutations and cancer is dramatically demonstrated by a number of cancer-prone human syndromes, such as xeroderma pigmentosum, ataxia-telangiectasia and Fanconi anemia. Notably, DNA damage responses, and particularly DNA repair, influence the outcome of therapy. Because DNA repair normally excises lethal DNA lesions, it is intuitive that efficient repair will contribute to intrinsic drug resistance. Unexpectedly, a paradoxical relationship between DNA mismatch repair and drug sensitivity has been revealed by model studies in cell lines. This suggests that connections between DNA repair mechanism efficiency and tumour therapy might be more complex. Here, we review the evidence for the contribution of carcinogenic properties of several drugs as well as of alterations in specific mechanisms involved in drug-induced DNA damage response and repair in the pathogenesis of therapy-related cancers.

Casorelli, Ida; Bossa, Cecilia; Bignami, Margherita

2012-01-01

116

Presynaptic Filament Dynamics in Homologous Recombination and DNA Repair  

PubMed Central

Homologous Recombination (HR) is an essential genome stability mechanism used for high-fidelity repair of DNA double-strand breaks and for the recovery of stalled or collapsed DNA replication forks. The crucial homology search and DNA strand exchange steps of HR are catalyzed by presynaptic filaments—helical filaments of a recombinase enzyme bound to single-stranded DNA. Presynaptic filaments are fundamentally dynamic structures, the assembly, catalytic turnover, and disassembly of which must be closely coordinated with other elements of the DNA recombination, repair, and replication machinery in order for genome maintenance functions to be effective. Here, we review the major dynamic elements controlling the assembly, activity, and disassembly of presynaptic filaments: some intrinsic such as recombinase ATP binding and hydrolytic activities, others extrinsic such as ssDNA-binding proteins, mediator proteins, and DNA motor proteins. We examine dynamic behavior on multiple levels, including atomic- and filament-level structural changes associated with ATP binding and hydrolysis as evidenced in crystal structures, as well as subunit binding and dissociation events driven by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. We examine the biochemical properties of recombination proteins from four model systems (T4 phage, E. coli, S. cerevisiae, and H. sapiens), demonstrating how their properties are tailored for the context-specific requirements in these diverse species. We propose that the presynaptic filament has evolved to rely on multiple external factors for increased multi-level regulation of HR processes in genomes with greater structural and sequence complexity.

Liu, Jie; Ehmsen, Kirk T.; Heyer, Wolf-Dietrich; Morrical, Scott W.

2014-01-01

117

Tilting at windmills? The nucleotide excision repair of chromosomal DNA.  

PubMed

A typical view of how DNA repair functions in chromatin usually depicts a struggle in which the DNA repair machinery battles to overcome the inhibitory effect of chromatin on the repair process. It may be that in this current interpretation the repair mechanisms are 'tilting at windmills', fighting an imaginary foe. An emerging picture suggests that we should not consider chromatin as an inhibitory force to be overcome like some quixotic giant by the DNA repair processes. Instead we should now recognize that DNA repair and chromatin metabolism are inextricably and mechanistically linked. Here we discuss the latest findings which are beginning to reveal how changes in chromatin dynamics integrate with the DNA repair process in response to UV induced DNA damage, with an emphasis on events in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:19041427

Waters, Raymond; Teng, Yumin; Yu, Yachuan; Yu, Shirong; Reed, Simon H

2009-02-01

118

Regulation of DNA repair throughout the cell cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The repair of DNA lesions that occur endogenously or in response to diverse genotoxic stresses is indispensable for genome integrity. DNA lesions activate checkpoint pathways that regulate specific DNA-repair mechanisms in the different phases of the cell cycle. Checkpoint-arrested cells resume cell-cycle progression once damage has been repaired, whereas cells with unrepairable DNA lesions undergo permanent cell-cycle arrest or apoptosis.

Dana Branzei; Marco Foiani

2008-01-01

119

Transcription-coupled DNA Double-Strand Breaks Are Mediated via the Nucleotide Excision Repair and the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 Complex  

PubMed Central

The cellular activity of Yondelis (trabectedin, Ecteinascidin 743, Et743) is known to depend on transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TCR). However, the subsequent cellular effects of Et743 are not fully understood. Here we show that Et743 induces both transcription- and replication-coupled DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) that are detectible by neutral COMET assay and as ?-H2AX foci that colocalize with 53BP1, Mre11, Ser1981-pATM, and Thr68-pChk2. The transcription coupled-DSBs (TC-DSBs) induced by Et743 depended both on TCR and Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) and were associated with DNA-PK–dependent ?-H2AX foci. In contrast to DNA-PK, ATM phosphorylated H2AX both in NER-proficient and -deficient cells, but its full activation was dependent on H2AX as well as DNA-PK, suggesting a positive feedback loop: DNA-PK-?-H2AX-ATM. Knocking-out H2AX or inactivating DNA-PK reduced Et743's antiproliferative activity, whereas ATM and MRN tended to act as survival factors. Our results highlight the interplays between ATM and DNA-PK and their impacts on H2AX phosphorylation and cell survival. They also suggest that ?-H2AX may serve as a biomarker in patients treated with Et743 and that molecular profiling of tumors for TCR, MRN, ATM, and DNA-PK might be useful to anticipate tumor response to Et743 treatment.

Guirouilh-Barbat, Josee; Redon, Christophe

2008-01-01

120

Nuclear Dynamics of PCNA in DNA Replication and Repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DNA polymerase processivity factor proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is central to both DNA replication and repair. The ring-shaped homotrimeric PCNA encircles and slides along double-stranded DNA, acting as a \\

Jeroen Essers; Arjan F. Theil; Celine Baldeyron; Wiggert A. van Cappellen; Adriaan B. Houtsmuller; Roland Kanaar; Wim Vermeulen

2005-01-01

121

DNA repair of a single UV photoproduct in a designed nucleosome  

SciTech Connect

Eukaryotic DNA repair enzymes must interact with the architectural hierarchy of chromatin. The challenge of finding damaged DNA complexed with histone proteins in nucleosomes is complicated by the need to maintain local chromatin structures involved in regulating other DNA processing events. The heterogeneity of lesions induced by DNA-damaging agents has led us to design homogeneously damaged substrates to directly compare repair of naked DNA with that of nucleosomes. Here we report that nucleotide excision repair in Xenopus nuclear extracts can effectively repair a single UV radiation photoproduct located 5 bases from the dyad center of a positioned nucleosome, although the nucleosome is repaired at about half the rate at which the naked DNA fragment is. Extract repair within the nucleosome is > 50-fold more rapid than either enzymatic photoreversal or endonuclease cleavage of the lesion in vitro. Furthermore, nucleosome formation occurs (after repair) only on damaged naked DNA ( 165-bp fragments) during a 1-h incubation in these extracts, even in the presence of a large excess of undamaged DNA. This is an example of selective nucleosome assembly by Xenopus nuclear extracts on a short linear DNA fragment containing a DNA lesion.

Kosmoskil, Joseph V. (Washington State University); Ackerman, Eric J. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Smerdon, Michael J. (Washington State University)

2001-08-28

122

Architecture of the Pol III-clamp-exonuclease complex reveals key roles of the exonuclease subunit in processive DNA synthesis and repair  

PubMed Central

DNA polymerase III (Pol III) is the catalytic ? subunit of the bacterial DNA Polymerase III holoenzyme. To reach maximum activity, Pol III binds to the DNA sliding clamp ? and the exonuclease ? that provide processivity and proofreading, respectively. Here, we characterize the architecture of the Pol III–clamp–exonuclease complex by chemical crosslinking combined with mass spectrometry and biochemical methods, providing the first structural view of the trimeric complex. Our analysis reveals that the exonuclease is sandwiched between the polymerase and clamp and enhances the binding between the two proteins by providing a second, indirect, interaction between the polymerase and clamp. In addition, we show that the exonuclease binds the clamp via the canonical binding pocket and thus prevents binding of the translesion DNA polymerase IV to the clamp, providing a novel insight into the mechanism by which the replication machinery can switch between replication, proofreading, and translesion synthesis.

Toste Rego, Ana; Holding, Andrew N; Kent, Helen; Lamers, Meindert H

2013-01-01

123

Architecture of the Pol III-clamp-exonuclease complex reveals key roles of the exonuclease subunit in processive DNA synthesis and repair.  

PubMed

DNA polymerase III (Pol III) is the catalytic ? subunit of the bacterial DNA Polymerase III holoenzyme. To reach maximum activity, Pol III binds to the DNA sliding clamp ? and the exonuclease ? that provide processivity and proofreading, respectively. Here, we characterize the architecture of the Pol III-clamp-exonuclease complex by chemical crosslinking combined with mass spectrometry and biochemical methods, providing the first structural view of the trimeric complex. Our analysis reveals that the exonuclease is sandwiched between the polymerase and clamp and enhances the binding between the two proteins by providing a second, indirect, interaction between the polymerase and clamp. In addition, we show that the exonuclease binds the clamp via the canonical binding pocket and thus prevents binding of the translesion DNA polymerase IV to the clamp, providing a novel insight into the mechanism by which the replication machinery can switch between replication, proofreading, and translesion synthesis. PMID:23549287

Toste Rêgo, Ana; Holding, Andrew N; Kent, Helen; Lamers, Meindert H

2013-05-01

124

Formation and repair of psoralen-DNA adducts and pyrimidine dimers in human DNA and chromatin.  

PubMed Central

DNA damage and repair in human cells exposed to ultraviolet light (254 nm) or to psoralen derivatives plus 360 nm light were compared by means of a variety of analytic techniques. The two kinds of damage show considerable structural similarity; both involve cyclobutyl bonds to 5,6 positions of pyrimidines as major products and have various minor products. In purified DNA, pyrimidine dimers, but not psoralen adducts, cause structural distortions that are substances for digestion with single-strand-specific nucleases. Whereas pyrimidine dimers are randomly produced in chromatin, psoralen adducts, are concentrated approximately 2- to 4-fold in linker regions of chromatin at doses that are not highly lethal. Chromatin shows considerable mobility; assignment of DNA to linker or core regions is not permanent, and psoralen adducts initially concentrated in linker regions become randomized after 10 hr. Pyrimidine dimers and psoralen adducts are excised by normal cells but not by repair-deficient xeroderma pigmentosum cells. This repair process requires DNA polymerase alpha, but its rate in ultraviolet-damaged cells is twice that in psoralen-damaged cells. Conversion of monoadducts to DNA-DNA crosslinks reduces the rate of repair because of the increased complexity of the damaged site.

Cleaver, J E; Killpack, S; Gruenert, D C

1985-01-01

125

N-Butyrate alters chromatin accessibility to DNA repair enzymes  

SciTech Connect

Current evidence suggests that the complex nature of mammalian chromatin can result in the concealment of DNA damage from repair enzymes and their co-factors. Recently it has been proposed that the acetylation of histone proteins in chromatin may provide a surveillance system whereby damaged regions of DNA become exposed due to changes in chromatin accessibility. This hypothesis has been tested by: (i) using n-butyrate to induce hyperacetylation in human adenocarcinoma (HT29) cells; (ii) monitoring the enzymatic accessibility of chromatin in permeabilised cells; (iii) measuring u.v. repair-associated nicking of DNA in intact cells and (iv) determining the effects of n-butyrate on cellular sensitivity to DNA damaging agents. The results indicate that the accessibility of chromatin to Micrococcus luteus u.v. endonuclease is enhanced by greater than 2-fold in n-butyrate-treated cells and that there is a corresponding increase in u.v. repair incision rates in intact cells exposed to the drug. Non-toxic levels of n-butyrate induce a block to G1 phase transit and there is a significant growth delay on removal of the drug. Resistance of HT29 cells to u.v.-radiation and adriamycin is enhanced in n-butyrate-treated cells whereas X-ray sensitivity is increased. Although changes in the responses of cells to DNA damaging agents must be considered in relation to the effects of n-butyrate on growth rate and cell-cycle distribution, the results are not inconsistent with the proposal that increased enzymatic-accessibility/repair is biologically favourable for the resistance of cells to u.v.-radiation damage. Overall the results support the suggested operation of a histone acetylation-based chromatin surveillance system in human cells.

Smith, P.J.

1986-03-01

126

Chromatin remodeling and repair of DNA double-strand breaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eukaryotic cells have developed conserved mechanisms to efficiently sense and repair DNA damage that results from constant chromosomal lesions. DNA repair has to proceed in the context of chromatin, and both histone-modifiers and ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers have been implicated in this process. Here, we review the current understanding and new hypotheses on how different chromatin-modifying activities function in DNA repair

Lai-Yee Wong; Judith Recht; Brehon C. Laurent

2006-01-01

127

DNA repair and radiation sensitivity in mammalian cells  

SciTech Connect

Ionizing radiation induces various types of damage in mammalian cells including DNA single-strand breaks, DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), DNA-protein cross links, and altered DNA bases. Although human cells can repair many of these lesions there is little detailed knowledge of the nature of the genes and the encoded enzymes that control these repair processes. We report here on the cellular and genetic analyses of DNA double-strand break repair deficient mammalian cells. It has been well established that the DNA double-strand break is one of the major lesions induced by ionizing radiation. Utilizing rodent repair-deficient mutant, we have shown that the genes responsible for DNA double-strand break repair are also responsible for the cellular expression of radiation sensitivity. The molecular genetic analysis of DSB repair in rodent/human hybrid cells indicate that at least 6 different genes in mammalian cells are responsible for the repair of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks. Mapping and the prospect of cloning of human radiation repair genes are reviewed. Understanding the molecular and genetic basis of radiation sensitivity and DNA repair in man will provide a rational foundation to predict the individual risk associated with radiation exposure and to prevent radiation-induced genetic damage in the human population.

Chen, D.J.C.; Stackhouse, M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Chen, D.S. (Rochester Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology)

1993-01-01

128

DNA repair and radiation sensitivity in mammalian cells  

SciTech Connect

Ionizing radiation induces various types of damage in mammalian cells including DNA single-strand breaks, DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), DNA-protein cross links, and altered DNA bases. Although human cells can repair many of these lesions there is little detailed knowledge of the nature of the genes and the encoded enzymes that control these repair processes. We report here on the cellular and genetic analyses of DNA double-strand break repair deficient mammalian cells. It has been well established that the DNA double-strand break is one of the major lesions induced by ionizing radiation. Utilizing rodent repair-deficient mutant, we have shown that the genes responsible for DNA double-strand break repair are also responsible for the cellular expression of radiation sensitivity. The molecular genetic analysis of DSB repair in rodent/human hybrid cells indicate that at least 6 different genes in mammalian cells are responsible for the repair of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks. Mapping and the prospect of cloning of human radiation repair genes are reviewed. Understanding the molecular and genetic basis of radiation sensitivity and DNA repair in man will provide a rational foundation to predict the individual risk associated with radiation exposure and to prevent radiation-induced genetic damage in the human population.

Chen, D.J.C.; Stackhouse, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Chen, D.S. [Rochester Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

1993-02-01

129

Androgen receptor signaling regulates DNA repair in prostate cancers  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate that the androgen receptor (AR) regulates a transcriptional program of DNA repair genes that promotes prostate cancer radioresistance, providing a potential mechanism by which androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) synergizes with ionizing radiation (IR). Using a model of castration-resistant prostate cancer, we show that second-generation antiandrogen therapy results in downregulation of DNA repair genes. Next, we demonstrate that primary prostate cancers display a significant spectrum of AR transcriptional output which correlates with expression of a set of DNA repair genes. Employing RNA-seq and ChIP-seq, we define which of these DNA repair genes are both induced by androgen and represent direct AR targets. We establish that prostate cancer cells treated with IR plus androgen demonstrate enhanced DNA repair and decreased DNA damage and furthermore that antiandrogen treatment causes increased DNA damage and decreased clonogenic survival. Finally, we demonstrate that antiandrogen treatment results in decreased classical non-homologous end joining.

Polkinghorn, William R.; Parker, Joel S.; Lee, Man X.; Kass, Elizabeth M.; Spratt, Daniel E.; Iaquinta, Phillip J.; Arora, Vivek K.; Yen, Wei-Feng; Cai, Ling; Zheng, Deyou; Carver, Brett S.; Chen, Yu; Watson, Philip A.; Shah, Neel P.; Fujisawa, Sho; Goglia, Alexander G.; Gopalan, Anuradha; Hieronymus, Haley; Wongvipat, John; Scardino, Peter T.; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Jasin, Maria; Chaudhuri, Jayanta; Powell, Simon N.; Sawyers, Charles L.

2013-01-01

130

DNA Repair Factor MRE11/RAD50 Cleaves 3?-Phosphotyrosyl Bonds and Resects DNA to Repair Damage Caused by Topoisomerase 1 Poisons*  

PubMed Central

MRE11-RAD50 is a highly conserved multifunctional DNA repair factor. Here, we show that MRE11-RAD50 cleaves the covalent 3?-phosphotyrosyl-DNA bonds that join topoisomerase 1 (Top1) to the DNA backbone and that are the hallmark of damage caused by Top1 poisons such as camptothecin. Cleavage generates a 3?-phosphate DNA end that MRE11-RAD50 can resect in an ATP-regulated reaction, to produce a 3?-hydroxyl that can prime repair synthesis. The 3?-phosphotyrosyl cleavage activity maps to the MRE11 active site. These results define a new activity of MRE11 and distinguish MRE11-RAD50 functions in repair of Top1-DNA complexes and double-strand breaks.

Sacho, Elizabeth J.; Maizels, Nancy

2011-01-01

131

DNA repair factor MRE11/RAD50 cleaves 3'-phosphotyrosyl bonds and resects DNA to repair damage caused by topoisomerase 1 poisons.  

PubMed

MRE11-RAD50 is a highly conserved multifunctional DNA repair factor. Here, we show that MRE11-RAD50 cleaves the covalent 3'-phosphotyrosyl-DNA bonds that join topoisomerase 1 (Top1) to the DNA backbone and that are the hallmark of damage caused by Top1 poisons such as camptothecin. Cleavage generates a 3'-phosphate DNA end that MRE11-RAD50 can resect in an ATP-regulated reaction, to produce a 3'-hydroxyl that can prime repair synthesis. The 3'-phosphotyrosyl cleavage activity maps to the MRE11 active site. These results define a new activity of MRE11 and distinguish MRE11-RAD50 functions in repair of Top1-DNA complexes and double-strand breaks. PMID:22039049

Sacho, Elizabeth J; Maizels, Nancy

2011-12-30

132

DNA-PK: A dynamic enzyme in a versatile DSB repair pathway.  

PubMed

DNA double stranded breaks (DSBs) are the most cytoxic DNA lesion as the inability to properly repair them can lead to genomic instability and tumorigenesis. The prominent DSB repair pathway in humans is non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). In the simplest sense, NHEJ mediates the direct re-ligation of the broken DNA molecule. However, NHEJ is a complex and versatile process that can repair DSBs with a variety of damages and ends via the utilization of a significant number of proteins. In this review we will describe the important factors and mechanisms modulating NHEJ with emphasis given to the versatility of this repair process and the DNA-PK complex. PMID:24680878

Davis, Anthony J; Chen, Benjamin P C; Chen, David J

2014-05-01

133

Structure of the DNA repair helicase XPD  

PubMed Central

Summary The XPD helicase (Rad3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is a component of transcription factor IIH (TFIIH), which functions in transcription initiation and Nucleotide Excision Repair in eukaryotes, catalysing DNA duplex opening localised to the transcription start site or site of DNA damage, respectively. XPD has a 5? to 3? polarity and the helicase activity is dependent on an iron-sulfur cluster binding domain, a feature that is conserved in related helicases such as FancJ. The xpd gene is the target of mutation in patients with xeroderma pigentosum, trichothiodystrophy and Cockayne’s syndrome, characterised by a wide spectrum of symptoms ranging from cancer susceptibility to neurological and developmental defects. The 2.25 Å crystal structure of XPD from the crenarchaeon Sulfolobus tokodaii, presented here together with detailed biochemical analyses, allows a molecular understanding of the structural basis for helicase activity and explains the phenotypes of xpd mutations in humans.

Liu, Huanting; Rudolf, Jana; Johnson, Kenneth A; McMahon, Stephen A; Oke, Muse; Carter, Lester; McRobbie, Anne-Marie; Brown, Sara E; Naismith, James H; White, Malcolm F

2012-01-01

134

A cell cycle-regulated Slx4-Dpb11 complex promotes the resolution of DNA repair intermediates linked to stalled replication.  

PubMed

A key function of the cellular DNA damage response is to facilitate the bypass of replication fork-stalling DNA lesions. Template switch reactions allow such a bypass and involve the formation of DNA joint molecules (JMs) between sister chromatids. These JMs need to be resolved before cell division; however, the regulation of this process is only poorly understood. Here, we identify a regulatory mechanism in yeast that critically controls JM resolution by the Mus81-Mms4 endonuclease. Central to this regulation is a conserved complex comprising the scaffold proteins Dpb11 and Slx4 that is under stringent control. Cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation of Slx4 by Cdk1 promotes the Dpb11-Slx4 interaction, while in mitosis, phosphorylation of Mms4 by Polo-like kinase Cdc5 promotes the additional association of Mus81-Mms4 with the complex, thereby promoting JM resolution. Finally, the DNA damage checkpoint counteracts Mus81-Mms4 binding to the Dpb11-Slx4 complex. Thus, Dpb11-Slx4 integrates several cellular inputs and participates in the temporal program for activation of the JM-resolving nuclease Mus81. PMID:25030699

Gritenaite, Dalia; Princz, Lissa N; Szakal, Barnabas; Bantele, Susanne C S; Wendeler, Lina; Schilbach, Sandra; Habermann, Bianca H; Matos, Joao; Lisby, Michael; Branzei, Dana; Pfander, Boris

2014-07-15

135

The distribution of DNA damage is defined by region-specific susceptibility to DNA damage formation rather than repair differences.  

PubMed

The cellular genomes are continuously damaged by reactive oxygen species (ROS) from aerobic processes. The impact of DNA damage depends on the specific site as well as the cellular state. The steady-state level of DNA damage is the net result of continuous formation and subsequent repair, but it is unknown to what extent heterogeneous damage distribution is caused by variations in formation or repair of DNA damage. Here, we used a restriction enzyme/qPCR based method to analyze DNA damage in promoter and coding regions of four nuclear genes: the two house-keeping genes Gadph and Tbp, and the Ndufa9 and Ndufs2 genes encoding mitochondrial complex I subunits, as well as mt-Rnr1 encoded by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The distribution of steady-state levels of damage varied in a site-specific manner. Oxidative stress induced damage in nDNA to a similar extent in promoter and coding regions, and more so in mtDNA. The subsequent removal of damage from nDNA was efficient and comparable with recovery times depending on the initial damage load, while repair of mtDNA was delayed with subsequently slower repair rate. The repair was furthermore found to be independent of transcription or the transcription-coupled repair factor CSB, but dependent on cellular ATP. Our results demonstrate that the capacity to repair DNA is sufficient to remove exogenously induced damage. Thus, we conclude that the heterogeneous steady-state level of DNA damage in promoters and coding regions is caused by site-specific DNA damage/modifications that take place under normal metabolism. PMID:24685126

Strand, Janne M; Scheffler, Katja; Bjørås, Magnar; Eide, Lars

2014-06-01

136

Viral manipulation of DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoints  

PubMed Central

Recognition and repair of DNA damage is critical for maintaining genomic integrity and suppressing tumorigenesis. In eukaryotic cells, the sensing and repair of DNA damage are exquisitely coordinated with cell cycle progression and checkpoints, in order to prevent the propagation of damaged DNA. The carefully maintained cellular response to DNA damage is challenged by viruses, which produce a large amount of exogenous DNA during infection. Viruses also express proteins that perturb cellular DNA repair and cell cycle pathways, promoting tumorigenesis in their quest for cellular domination. This review presents an overview of strategies employed by viruses to manipulate DNA damage responses and cell cycle checkpoints as they commandeer the cell to maximize their own viral replication. Studies of viruses have identified key cellular regulators and revealed insights into molecular mechanisms governing DNA repair, cell cycle checkpoints, and transformation.

Chaurushiya, Mira S.; Weitzman, Matthew D.

2009-01-01

137

DNA Repair and Genome Maintenance in Bacillus subtilis  

PubMed Central

Summary: From microbes to multicellular eukaryotic organisms, all cells contain pathways responsible for genome maintenance. DNA replication allows for the faithful duplication of the genome, whereas DNA repair pathways preserve DNA integrity in response to damage originating from endogenous and exogenous sources. The basic pathways important for DNA replication and repair are often conserved throughout biology. In bacteria, high-fidelity repair is balanced with low-fidelity repair and mutagenesis. Such a balance is important for maintaining viability while providing an opportunity for the advantageous selection of mutations when faced with a changing environment. Over the last decade, studies of DNA repair pathways in bacteria have demonstrated considerable differences between Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. Here we review and discuss the DNA repair, genome maintenance, and DNA damage checkpoint pathways of the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. We present their molecular mechanisms and compare the functions and regulation of several pathways with known information on other organisms. We also discuss DNA repair during different growth phases and the developmental program of sporulation. In summary, we present a review of the function, regulation, and molecular mechanisms of DNA repair and mutagenesis in Gram-positive bacteria, with a strong emphasis on B. subtilis.

Lenhart, Justin S.; Schroeder, Jeremy W.; Walsh, Brian W.

2012-01-01

138

DNA repair systems as targets of cadmium toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal and a potent carcinogen implicated in tumor development through occupational and environmental exposure. Recent evidence suggests that proteins participating in the DNA repair systems, especially in excision and mismatch repair, are sensitive targets of Cd toxicity. Cd by interfering and inhibiting these DNA repair processes might contribute to increased risk for tumor formation in humans. In the present review, the information available on the interference of Cd with DNA repair systems and their inhibition is summarized. These actions could possibly explain the indirect contribution of Cd to mutagenic effects and/or carcinogenicity.

Giaginis, Constantinos [Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, University of Athens, Medical School, 75 M. Asias str., Goudi, GR11527 Athens (Greece); Gatzidou, Elisavet [Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, University of Athens, Medical School, 75 M. Asias str., Goudi, GR11527 Athens (Greece); Theocharis, Stamatios [Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, University of Athens, Medical School, 75 M. Asias str., Goudi, GR11527 Athens (Greece)]. E-mail: theocharis@ath.forthnet.gr

2006-06-15

139

Preventing nonhomologous end joining suppresses DNA repair defects of Fanconi anemia.  

PubMed

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a complex cancer susceptibility disorder associated with DNA repair defects and infertility, yet the precise function of the FA proteins in genome maintenance remains unclear. Here we report that C. elegans FANCD2 (fcd-2) is dispensable for normal meiotic recombination but is required in crossover defective mutants to prevent illegitimate repair of meiotic breaks by nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ). In mitotic cells, we show that DNA repair defects of C. elegans fcd-2 mutants and FA-deficient human cells are significantly suppressed by eliminating NHEJ. Moreover, NHEJ factors are inappropriately recruited to sites of replication stress in the absence of FANCD2. Our findings are consistent with the interpretation that FA results from the promiscuous action of NHEJ during DNA repair. We propose that a critical function of the FA pathway is to channel lesions into accurate, as opposed to error-prone, repair pathways. PMID:20598602

Adamo, Adele; Collis, Spencer J; Adelman, Carrie A; Silva, Nicola; Horejsi, Zuzana; Ward, Jordan D; Martinez-Perez, Enrique; Boulton, Simon J; La Volpe, Adriana

2010-07-01

140

Polymorphisms of DNA Repair Genes and Risk of Glioma  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA repair genes play a major role in maintaining genomic stability through different repair pathways that are mediated by cell cycle control genes such as p53. We found previously that glioma patients were suscep- tible to -ray-induced chromosomal breaks, which may be influenced by genetic variation in genes involved in DNA strand breaks, such as XRCC1 in single-strand break repair,

Li-E Wang; Melissa L. Bondy; Hongbing Shen; Randa El-Zein; Kenneth Aldape; Yumei Cao; Vinay Pudavalli; Victor A. Levin; W. K. Alfred Yung; Qingyi Wei

2004-01-01

141

Polymorphisms in DNA Repair Genes, Smoking, and Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Base excision repair and nucleotide excision repair are vital responses to multiple types of DNA damage, including damage from tobacco exposure. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP)in these pathways may affect DNA repair capacity and therefore influence risk for cancer development. We per- formed a clinic-based, case-control study comprising 481 consecutive patients with confirmed pancreatic adenocarci- noma and 625 healthy controls. Allele and

Robert R. McWilliams; William R. Bamlet; Julie M. Cunningham; Ellen L. Goode; Mariza de Andrade; Lisa A. Boardman; Gloria M. Petersen

2008-01-01

142

Polymorphisms of DNA repair genes are associated with renal cell carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA repair gene alterations have been shown to cause a reduction in DNA repair capacity and may influence an individual’s susceptibility to carcinogenesis. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of DNA repair genes have been shown to cause a reduction in repair activity. We hypothesized that SNPs of DNA repair genes may be a risk factor for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). To

Hiroshi Hirata; Yuji Hinoda; Hideyasu Matsuyama; Yuichiro Tanaka; Naoko Okayama; Yutaka Suehiro; Hong Zhao; Shinji Urakami; Ken Kawamoto; Toshifumi Kawakami; Mikio Igawa; Katsusuke Naito; Rajvir Dahiya

2006-01-01

143

Chronodisruption, cell cycle checkpoints and DNA repair.  

PubMed

Chronodisruption, a disturbance in "natural" daily light/dark regulation, is possibly linked to disturbances in cell cycle homeostasis. The association and the synchronization between circadian rhythms and mitosis are not yet clear. The circadian oscillator is involved in the major cellular pathways of cell division. A molecular link between the circadian clock and the mammalian DNA damage checkpoints has been outlined. Analyses suggest an association between light disruption and obstruction of the cell cycle homeostasis. Disruption in the homeostatic control of the cell cycle has been associated with cancer and acceleration of malignant growth, possibly as a result of the interruption of DNA damage check-points. Studies further indicate that light signal during the dark phase affects the transcription level of a substantial number of genes that are associated with cell cycle progression, cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. Indeed, the International Agency for Research in Cancer categorized "shift work that involves circadian disruption" as possibly carcinogenic. In this review the current finding on light pollution and its potential influence on cell cycle check-points and DNA repair is presented. PMID:24851401

Ben-Shlomo, Rachel

2014-05-01

144

DNA double-strand break repair and development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normal development of an organism requires the ability to respond to DNA damage. A particularly deleterious lesion is a DNA double-strand break (DSB). The cellular response to DNA DSBs occurs via an integrated sensing and signaling network that maintains genomic stability. The outcomes of defective DNA DSB repair are related to the developmental stage of an organism, and often show

E R Phillips; P J McKinnon

2007-01-01

145

Spatiotemporal dynamics of DNA repair proteins following laser microbeam induced DNA damage - When is a DSB not a DSB??  

PubMed Central

The formation of DNA lesions poses a constant threat to cellular stability. Repair of endogenously and exogenously produced lesions has therefore been extensively studied, although the spatiotemporal dynamics of the repair processes has yet to be fully understood. One of the most recent advances to study the kinetics of DNA repair has been the development of laser microbeams to induce and visualize recruitment and loss of repair proteins to base damage in live mammalian cells. However, a number of studies have produced contradictory results that are likely caused by the different laser systems used reflecting in part the wavelength dependence of the damage induced. Additionally, the repair kinetics of laser microbeam induced DNA lesions have generally lacked consideration of the structural and chemical complexity of the DNA damage sites, which are known to greatly influence their reparability. In this review, we highlight the key considerations when embarking on laser microbeam experiments and interpreting the real time data from laser microbeam irradiations. We compare the repair kinetics from live cell imaging with biochemical and direct quantitative cellular measurements for DNA repair.

Reynolds, Pamela; Botchway, Stanley W.; Parker, Anthony W.; O'Neill, Peter

2013-01-01

146

DNA repair in cancer: emerging targets for personalized therapy.  

PubMed

Genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is under constant threat from endogenous and exogenous DNA damaging agents. Mammalian cells have evolved highly conserved DNA repair machinery to process DNA damage and maintain genomic integrity. Impaired DNA repair is a major driver for carcinogenesis and could promote aggressive cancer biology. Interestingly, in established tumors, DNA repair activity is required to counteract oxidative DNA damage that is prevalent in the tumor microenvironment. Emerging clinical data provide compelling evidence that overexpression of DNA repair factors may have prognostic and predictive significance in patients. More recently, DNA repair inhibition has emerged as a promising target for anticancer therapy. Synthetic lethality exploits intergene relationships where the loss of function of either of two related genes is nonlethal, but loss of both causes cell death. Exploiting this approach by targeting DNA repair has emerged as a promising strategy for personalized cancer therapy. In the current review, we focus on recent advances with a particular focus on synthetic lethality targeting in cancer. PMID:24600246

Abbotts, Rachel; Thompson, Nicola; Madhusudan, Srinivasan

2014-01-01

147

The MRN complex in double-strand break repair and telomere maintenance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genomes are subject to constant threat by damaging agents that generate DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The ends of linear chromosomes need to be protected from DNA damage recognition and end-joining, and this is achieved through protein–DNA complexes known as telomeres. The Mre11–Rad50–Nbs1 (MRN) complex plays important roles in detection and signaling of DSBs, as well as the repair pathways of

Brandon J. Lamarche; Nicole I. Orazio; Matthew D. Weitzman

2010-01-01

148

Polymorphisms of DNA repair genes are risk factors for prostate cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA repair gene alterations have been shown to cause a reduction in DNA repair capacity. We hypothesised that DNA repair gene polymorphisms may be risk factors for prostate cancer (PC). To test this hypothesis, DNA samples from 165 cases of prostate cancer and healthy controls were analyzed by PCR-RFLP to determine the genotypic frequency of three DNA repair genes (XRCC1,

Hiroshi Hirata; Yuji Hinoda; Yuichiro Tanaka; Naoko Okayama; Yutaka Suehiro; Ken Kawamoto; Nobuyuki Kikuno; Shahana Majid; Kaveh Vejdani; Rajvir Dahiya

2007-01-01

149

Situation-dependent repair of DNA damage in yeast  

SciTech Connect

The concept of channelling of lesions in DNA into defined repair systems has been used to explain many aspects of induced and spontaneous mutation. The channelling hypothesis states that lesions excluded from one repair process will be taken up by another repair process. This is a simplification. The three known modes of repair of damage induced by radiation are not equivalent modes of repair; they are, instead, different solutions to the problem of replacement of damaged molecules with new molecules which have the same informational content as those that were damaged. The mode of repair that is used is the result of the response to the situation in which the damage takes place. Thus, when the most likely mode of repair does not take place, then the situation changes with respect to the repair of the lesion; the lesion may enter the replication fork and be reparable by another route.

von Borstel, R.C.; Hastings, P.J.

1985-01-01

150

Electron microscopy visualization of DNA-protein complexes formed by Ku and DNA ligase IV  

PubMed Central

The repair of DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) is essential for cell viability and genome stability. Aberrant repair of DSBs has been linked with cancer predisposition and aging. During the repair of DSBs by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), DNA ends are brought together, processed and then joined. In eukaryotes, this repair pathway is initiated by the binding of the ring-shaped Ku heterodimer and completed by DNA ligase IV. The DNA ligase IV complex, DNA ligase IV/XRRC4 in humans and Dnl4/Lif1 in yeast, is recruited to DNA ends in vitro and in vivo by an interaction with Ku and, in yeast, Dnl4/Lif1 stabilizes the binding of yKu to in vivo DSBs. Here we have analyzed the interactions of these functionally conserved eukaryotic NHEJ factors with DNA by electron microscopy. As expected, the ring-shaped Ku complex bound stably and specifically to DNA ends at physiological salt concentrations. At a ratio of 1 Ku molecule per DNA end, the majority of DNA ends were occupied by a single Ku complex with no significant formation of linear DNA multimers or circular loops. Both Dnl4/Lif1 and DNA ligase IV/XRCC4 formed complexes with Ku-bound DNA ends, resulting in intra- and intermolecular DNA end bridging even with non-ligatable DNA ends. Together these studies, which provide the first visualization of the conserved complex formed by Ku and DNA ligase IV at juxtaposed DNA ends by electron microscopy, suggest that the DNA ligase IV complex mediates end-bridging by engaging two Ku-bound DNA ends.

Grob, Patricia; Zhang, Teri T.; Hannah, Ryan; Yang, Hui; Hefferin, Melissa L; Tomkinson, Alan E.; Nogales, Eva

2011-01-01

151

DNA repair endonuclease ERCC1-XPF as a novel therapeutic target to overcome chemoresistance in cancer therapy  

PubMed Central

The ERCC1–XPF complex is a structure-specific endonuclease essential for the repair of DNA damage by the nucleotide excision repair pathway. It is also involved in other key cellular processes, including DNA interstrand crosslink (ICL) repair and DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. New evidence has recently emerged, increasing our understanding of its requirement in these additional roles. In this review, we focus on the protein–protein and protein–DNA interactions made by the ERCC1 and XPF proteins and discuss how these coordinate ERCC1–XPF in its various roles. In a number of different cancers, high expression of ERCC1 has been linked to a poor response to platinum-based chemotherapy. We discuss prospects for the development of DNA repair inhibitors that target the activity, stability or protein interactions of the ERCC1–XPF complex as a novel therapeutic strategy to overcome chemoresistance.

McNeil, Ewan M.; Melton, David W.

2012-01-01

152

The Rad9 protein enhances survival and promotes DNA repair following exposure to ionizing radiation  

SciTech Connect

Following DNA damage cells initiate cell cycle checkpoints to allow time to repair sustained lesions. Rad9, Rad1, and Hus1 proteins form a toroidal complex, termed the 9-1-1 complex, that is involved in checkpoint signaling. 9-1-1 shares high structural similarity to the DNA replication protein proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and 9-1-1 has been shown in vitro to stimulate steps of the repair process known as long patch base excision repair. Using a system that allows conditional repression of the Rad9 protein in human cell culture, we show that Rad9, and by extension, the 9-1-1 complex, enhances cell survival, is required for efficient exit from G2-phase arrest, and stimulates the repair of damaged DNA following ionizing radiation. These data provide in vivo evidence that the human 9-1-1 complex participates in DNA repair in addition to its previously described role in DNA damage sensing.

Brandt, Patrick D. [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Helt, Christopher E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Keng, Peter C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Bambara, Robert A. [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States)]. E-mail: robert_bambara@urmc.rochester.edu

2006-08-18

153

An interaction between the mammalian DNA repair protein XRCC1 and DNA ligase III.  

PubMed Central

XRCC1, the human gene that fully corrects the Chinese hamster ovary DNA repair mutant EM9, encodes a protein involved in the rejoining of DNA single-strand breaks that arise following treatment with alkylating agents or ionizing radiation. In this study, a cDNA minigene encoding oligohistidine-tagged XRCC1 was constructed to facilitate affinity purification of the recombinant protein. This construct, designated pcD2EHX, fully corrected the EM9 phenotype of high sister chromatid exchange, indicating that the histidine tag was not detrimental to XRCC1 activity. Affinity chromatography of extract from EM9 cells transfected with pcD2EHX resulted in the copurification of histidine-tagged XRCC1 and DNA ligase III activity. Neither XRCC1 or DNA ligase III activity was purified during affinity chromatography of extract from EM9 cells transfected with pcD2EX, a cDNA minigene that encodes untagged XRCC1, or extract from wild-type AA8 or untransfected EM9 cells. The copurification of DNA ligase III activity with histidine-tagged XRCC1 suggests that the two proteins are present in the cell as a complex. Furthermore, DNA ligase III activity was present at lower levels in EM9 cells than in AA8 cells and was returned to normal levels in EM9 cells transfected with pcD2EHX or pcD2EX. These findings indicate that XRCC1 is required for normal levels of DNA ligase III activity, and they implicate a major role for this DNA ligase in DNA base excision repair in mammalian cells. Images

Caldecott, K W; McKeown, C K; Tucker, J D; Ljungquist, S; Thompson, L H

1994-01-01

154

Mre11-Rad50 Promotes Rapid Repair of DNA Damage in the Polyploid Archaeon Haloferax volcanii by Restraining Homologous Recombination  

PubMed Central

Polyploidy is frequent in nature and is a hallmark of cancer cells, but little is known about the strategy of DNA repair in polyploid organisms. We have studied DNA repair in the polyploid archaeon Haloferax volcanii, which contains up to 20 genome copies. We have focused on the role of Mre11 and Rad50 proteins, which are found in all domains of life and which form a complex that binds to and coordinates the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Surprisingly, mre11 rad50 mutants are more resistant to DNA damage than the wild-type. However, wild-type cells recover faster from DNA damage, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis shows that DNA double-strand breaks are repaired more slowly in mre11 rad50 mutants. Using a plasmid repair assay, we show that wild-type and mre11 rad50 cells use different strategies of DSB repair. In the wild-type, Mre11-Rad50 appears to prevent the repair of DSBs by homologous recombination (HR), allowing microhomology-mediated end-joining to act as the primary repair pathway. However, genetic analysis of recombination-defective radA mutants suggests that DNA repair in wild-type cells ultimately requires HR, therefore Mre11-Rad50 merely delays this mode of repair. In polyploid organisms, DSB repair by HR is potentially hazardous, since each DNA end will have multiple partners. We show that in the polyploid archaeon H. volcanii the repair of DSBs by HR is restrained by Mre11-Rad50. The unrestrained use of HR in mre11 rad50 mutants enhances cell survival but leads to slow recovery from DNA damage, presumably due to difficulties in the resolution of DNA repair intermediates. Our results suggest that recombination might be similarly repressed in other polyploid organisms and at repetitive sequences in haploid and diploid species.

Delmas, Stephane; Shunburne, Lee; Ngo, Hien-Ping; Allers, Thorsten

2009-01-01

155

Relationship between DNA Mismatch Repair Deficiency and Endometrial Cancer  

PubMed Central

Some cases of endometrial cancer are associated with a familial tumor and are referred to as hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC or Lynch syndrome). Lynch syndrome is thought to be induced by germline mutation of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) gene. An aberration in the MMR gene prevents accurate repair of base mismatches produced during DNA replication. This phenomenon can lead to an increased frequency of errors in target genes involved in carcinogenesis, resulting in cancerization of the cell. On the other hand, aberrant DNA methylation is thought to play a key role in sporadic endometrial carcinogenesis. Hypermethylation of unmethylated CpG islands in the promoter regions of cancer-related genes associated with DNA repair leads to the cell becoming cancerous. Thus, both genetic and epigenetic changes are intricately involved in the process through which cells become cancerous. In this review, we introduce the latest findings on the DNA mismatch repair pathway in endometrial cancer.

Masuda, Kenta; Banno, Kouji; Yanokura, Megumi; Kobayashi, Yusuke; Kisu, Iori; Ueki, Arisa; Ono, Asuka; Asahara, Nana; Nomura, Hiroyuki; Hirasawa, Akira; Susumu, Nobuyuki; Aoki, Daisuke

2011-01-01

156

Mismatch Repair Processing of Carcinogen-DNA Adducts Triggers Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

The DNA mismatch repair pathway is well known for its role in correcting biosynthetic errors of DNA replication. We report here a novel role for mismatch repair in signaling programmed cell death in response to DNA damage induced by chemical carcinogens. Cells proficient in mismatch repair were highly sensitive to the cytotoxic effects of chemical carcinogens, while cells defective in either human MutS or MutL homologs were relatively insensitive. Since wild-type cells but not mutant cells underwent apoptosis upon treatment with chemical carcinogens, the apoptotic response is dependent on a functional mismatch repair system. By analyzing p53 expression in several pairs of cell lines, we found that the mismatch repair-dependent apoptotic response was mediated through both p53-dependent and p53-independent pathways. In vitro biochemical studies demonstrated that the human mismatch recognition proteins hMutS? and hMutS? efficiently recognized DNA damage induced by chemical carcinogens, suggesting a direct participation of mismatch repair proteins in mediating the apoptotic response. Taken together, these studies further elucidate the mechanism by which mismatch repair deficiency predisposes to cancer, i.e., the deficiency not only causes a failure to repair mismatches generated during DNA metabolism but also fails to direct damaged and mutation-prone cells to commit suicide.

Wu, Jianxin; Gu, Liya; Wang, Huixian; Geacintov, Nicholas E.; Li, Guo-Min

1999-01-01

157

Effect of aging and dietary restriction on DNA repair  

SciTech Connect

DNA repair was studied as a function of age in cells isolated from both the liver and the kidney of male Fischer F344 rats. DNA repair was measured by quantifying unscheduled DNA synthesis induced by UV irradiation. Unscheduled DNA synthesis decreased approximately 50% between the ages of 5 and 30 months in both hepatocytes and kidney cells. The age-related decline in unscheduled DNA synthesis in cells isolated from the liver and kidney was compared in rats fed ad libitum and rats fed a calorie-restricted diet; calorie restriction has been shown to increase the survival of rodents. The level of unscheduled DNA synthesis was significantly higher in hepatocytes and kidney cells isolated from the rats fed the restricted diet. Thus, calorie restriction appears to retard the age-related decline in DNA repair.

Weraarchakul, N.; Strong, R.; Wood, W.G.; Richardson, A.

1989-03-01

158

Functional Aspects of PARP1 in DNA Repair and Transcription  

PubMed Central

Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) is an ADP-ribosylating enzyme essential for initiating various forms of DNA repair. Inhibiting its enzyme activity with small molecules thus achieves synthetic lethality by preventing unwanted DNA repair in the treatment of cancers. Through enzyme-dependent chromatin remodeling and enzyme-independent motif recognition, PARP1 also plays important roles in regulating gene expression. Besides presenting current findings on how each process is individually controlled by PARP1, we shall discuss how transcription and DNA repair are so intricately linked that disturbance by PARP1 enzymatic inhibition, enzyme hyperactivation in diseases, and viral replication can favor one function while suppressing the other.

Ko, Hui Ling; Ren, Ee Chee

2012-01-01

159

Recombinational Repair of DNA Damage in Escherichia coli and Bacteriophage ?  

PubMed Central

Although homologous recombination and DNA repair phenomena in bacteria were initially extensively studied without regard to any relationship between the two, it is now appreciated that DNA repair and homologous recombination are related through DNA replication. In Escherichia coli, two-strand DNA damage, generated mostly during replication on a template DNA containing one-strand damage, is repaired by recombination with a homologous intact duplex, usually the sister chromosome. The two major types of two-strand DNA lesions are channeled into two distinct pathways of recombinational repair: daughter-strand gaps are closed by the RecF pathway, while disintegrated replication forks are reestablished by the RecBCD pathway. The phage ? recombination system is simpler in that its major reaction is to link two double-stranded DNA ends by using overlapping homologous sequences. The remarkable progress in understanding the mechanisms of recombinational repair in E. coli over the last decade is due to the in vitro characterization of the activities of individual recombination proteins. Putting our knowledge about recombinational repair in the broader context of DNA replication will guide future experimentation.

Kuzminov, Andrei

1999-01-01

160

DNA Damage and Repair: Relevance to Mechanisms of Neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

DNA damage is a form of cell stress and injury that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many neurologic disorders, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer disease, Down syndrome, Parkinson disease, cerebral ischemia, and head trauma. However, most data reveal only associations, and the role for DNA damage in direct mechanisms of neurodegeneration is vague with respect to being a definitive upstream cause of neuron cell death, rather than a consequence of the degeneration. Although neurons seem inclined to develop DNA damage during oxidative stress, most of the existing work on DNA damage and repair mechanisms has been done in the context of cancer biology using cycling non-neuronal cells but not nondividing (i.e. postmitotic) neurons. Nevertheless, the identification of mutations in genes that encode proteins that function in DNA repair and DNA damage response in human hereditary DNA repair deficiency syndromes and ataxic disorders is establishing a mechanistic precedent that clearly links DNA damage and DNA repair abnormalities with progressive neurodegeneration. This review summarizes DNA damage and repair mechanisms and their potential relevance to the evolution of degeneration in postmitotic neurons.

Martin, Lee J.

2008-01-01

161

Structural and Functional Interaction between the Human DNA Repair Proteins DNA Ligase IV and XRCC4? †  

PubMed Central

Nonhomologous end-joining represents the major pathway used by human cells to repair DNA double-strand breaks. It relies on the XRCC4/DNA ligase IV complex to reseal DNA strands. Here we report the high-resolution crystal structure of human XRCC4 bound to the carboxy-terminal tandem BRCT repeat of DNA ligase IV. The structure differs from the homologous Saccharomyces cerevisiae complex and reveals an extensive DNA ligase IV binding interface formed by a helix-loop-helix structure within the inter-BRCT linker region, as well as significant interactions involving the second BRCT domain, which induces a kink in the tail region of XRCC4. We further demonstrate that interaction with the second BRCT domain of DNA ligase IV is necessary for stable binding to XRCC4 in cells, as well as to achieve efficient dominant-negative effects resulting in radiosensitization after ectopic overexpression of DNA ligase IV fragments in human fibroblasts. Together our findings provide unanticipated insight for understanding the physical and functional architecture of the nonhomologous end-joining ligation complex.

Wu, Pei-Yu; Frit, Philippe; Meesala, SriLakshmi; Dauvillier, Stephanie; Modesti, Mauro; Andres, Sara N.; Huang, Ying; Sekiguchi, JoAnn; Calsou, Patrick; Salles, Bernard; Junop, Murray S.

2009-01-01

162

DNA double-strand break repair pathway choice and cancer.  

PubMed

Since DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) contribute to the genomic instability that drives cancer development, DSB repair pathways serve as important mechanisms for tumor suppression. Thus, genetic lesions, such as BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations, that disrupt DSB repair are often associated with cancer susceptibility. In addition, recent evidence suggests that DSB "mis-repair", in which DSBs are resolved by an inappropriate repair pathway, can also promote genomic instability and presumably tumorigenesis. This notion has gained currency from recent cancer genome sequencing studies which have uncovered numerous chromosomal rearrangements harboring pathological DNA repair signatures. In this perspective, we discuss the factors that regulate DSB repair pathway choice and their consequences for genome stability and cancer. PMID:24746645

Aparicio, Tomas; Baer, Richard; Gautier, Jean

2014-07-01

163

Oxidative Stress, DNA Repair, and Prostate Cancer Risk.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Oxidative stress, which results from an imbalance between ROS and antioxidant capacities, can cause a wide range of direct or indirect DNA damage. There are extensive DNA repair systems that can correct DNA damage caused by ROS before cell replication and...

H. Zhao

2011-01-01

164

A p53 Oscillator Model of DNA Break Repair Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transcription factor p53 is an important regulator of cell fate. Mutations in p53 gene are associated with many cancers. In response to signals such as DNA damage, p53 controls the transcription of a series of genes that cause cell cycle arrest during which DNA damage is repaired, or triggers programmed cell death that eliminates possibly cancerous cells wherein DNA

Vijay Chickarmane; Ali Nadim; Animesh Ray; Herbert M. Sauro

2005-01-01

165

Mechanism of RAD51dependent DNA interstrand crosslink repair  

PubMed Central

DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs) are toxic DNA lesions whose repair in S phase of eukaryotic cells is incompletely understood. In Xenopus egg extracts, ICL repair is initiated when two replication forks converge on the lesion. Dual incisions then create a DNA double-strand break (DSB) in one sister chromatid while lesion bypass restores the other sister. We report that the broken sister chromatid is repaired via RAD51-dependent strand invasion into the regenerated sister. Recombination acts downstream of FANCI-FANCD2, yet RAD51 binds ICL-stalled replication forks independently of FANCI-FANCD2 and prior to DSB formation. Our results elucidate the functional relationship between the Fanconi anemia pathway and the recombination machinery during ICL repair. In addition, they demonstrate the complete repair of a DSB via homologous recombination in vitro.

Long, David T.; Raschle, Markus; Joukov, Vladimir; Walter, Johannes C.

2014-01-01

166

A human XRCC4-XLF complex bridges DNA  

PubMed Central

DNA double-strand breaks pose a significant threat to cell survival and must be repaired. In higher eukaryotes, such damage is repaired efficiently by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Within this pathway, XRCC4 and XLF fulfill key roles required for end joining. Using DNA-binding and -bridging assays, combined with direct visualization, we present evidence for how XRCC4–XLF complexes robustly bridge DNA molecules. This unanticipated, DNA Ligase IV-independent bridging activity by XRCC4–XLF suggests an early role for this complex during end joining, in addition to its more well-established later functions. Mutational analysis of the XRCC4–XLF C-terminal tail regions further identifies specialized functions in complex formation and interaction with DNA and DNA Ligase IV. Based on these data and the crystal structure of an extended protein filament of XRCC4–XLF at 3.94?Å, a model for XRCC4–XLF complex function in NHEJ is presented.

Andres, Sara N.; Ristic, Dejan; Wyman, Claire; Modesti, Mauro; Junop, Murray

2012-01-01

167

Repair Machinery for Radiation-Induced DNA Damage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Understanding the repair mechanisms for ionizing radiation (IR) - induced DNA damage and having prior knowledge of a patient' 5 1K-specific repair capacity will help determine which patients will be most responsive to radiation therapy and design more aff...

D. Wilson

2001-01-01

168

Symposium Overview: Genetic Polymorphisms in DNA Repair and Cancer Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

A symposium, Genetic Polymorphisms in DNA Repair and Cancer Risk, was presented at the 40th Annual Meeting of the Society of Toxicology, held in San Francisco, California, in March 2001. A brief report of the symposium was published (Kaiser, Science 292, 837–838, 2001). Molecular epidemiological studies have shown that polymorphic variants of genes involved in the metabolism and repair of

J. J. Hu; H. W. Mohrenweiser; D. A. Bell; S. A. Leadon; M. S. Miller

2002-01-01

169

Polymorphism in DNA repair genes and oral squamous cell carcinoma in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA repair capacity is essential in maintaining cellular functions and homeostasis. However, the repair capacity can be altered based on DNA sequence variations in DNA repair genes and thus may cause cancer susceptibility. We investigated associations between polymorphisms in DNA repair genes and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in a Thai population. Nine known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in five

Suparp Kietthubthew; Hutcha Sriplung; William W. Au; Takafumi Ishida

2006-01-01

170

Repair of DNA-polypeptide crosslinks by human excision nuclease  

PubMed Central

DNA–protein crosslinks are relatively common DNA lesions that form during the physiological processing of DNA by replication and recombination proteins, by side reactions of base excision repair enzymes, and by cellular exposure to bifunctional DNA-damaging agents such as platinum compounds. The mechanism by which pathological DNA–protein crosslinks are repaired in humans is not known. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of recognition and repair of protein–DNA and oligopeptide–DNA crosslinks by the human excision nuclease. Under our assay conditions, the human nucleotide excision repair system did not remove a 16-kDa protein crosslinked to DNA at a detectable level. However, 4- and 12-aa-long oligopeptides crosslinked to the DNA backbone were recognized by some of the damage recognition factors of the human excision nuclease with moderate selectivity and were excised from DNA at relatively efficient rates. Our data suggest that, if coupled with proteolytic degradation of the crosslinked protein, the human excision nuclease may be the major enzyme system for eliminating protein–DNA crosslinks from the genome.

Reardon, Joyce T.; Sancar, Aziz

2006-01-01

171

D-ribose inhibits DNA repair synthesis in human lymphocytes  

SciTech Connect

D-ribose is cytotoxic for quiescent human lymphocytes and severely inhibits their PHA-induced proliferation at concentrations (25-50 mM) at which other simple sugars are ineffective. In order to explain these effects, DNA repair synthesis was evaluated in PHA-stimulated human lymphocytes treated with hydroxyurea and irradiated. D-ribose, in contrast to other reducing sugars, did not induce repair synthesis and therefore did not apparently damage DNA in a direct way, although it markedly inhibited gamma ray-induced repair. Taking into account that lymphocytes must rejoin physiologically-formed DNA strand breaks in order to enter the cell cycle, we suggest that D-ribose exerts its cytotoxic activity by interfering with metabolic pathways critical for the repair of DNA breaks.

Zunica, G.; Marini, M.; Brunelli, M.A.; Chiricolo, M.; Franceschi, C.

1986-07-31

172

Interaction of APE1 and other repair proteins with DNA duplexes imitating intermediates of DNA repair and replication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interactions of APE1 (human apurinic\\/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1) and DNA polymerase ? with various DNA structures imitating\\u000a intermediates of DNA repair and replication were investigated by gel retardation and photoaffinity labeling. Photoaffinity\\u000a labeling of APE1 and DNA polymerase ? was accomplished by DNA containing photoreactive group at the 3?-end in mouse embryonic\\u000a fibroblast (MEF) cell extract or for purified proteins. On

N. S. Dyrkheeva; S. N. Khodyreva; O. I. Lavrik

2008-01-01

173

Monitoring regulation of DNA repair activities of cultured cells in-gel using the comet assay  

PubMed Central

Base excision repair (BER) is the predominant cellular mechanism by which human cells repair DNA base damage, sites of base loss, and DNA single strand breaks of various complexity, that are generated in their thousands in every human cell per day as a consequence of cellular metabolism and exogenous agents, including ionizing radiation. Over the last three decades the comet assay has been employed in scientific research to examine the cellular response to these types of DNA damage in cultured cells, therefore revealing the efficiency and capacity of BER. We have recently pioneered new research demonstrating an important role for post-translational modifications (particularly ubiquitylation) in the regulation of cellular levels of BER proteins, and that subtle changes (?20–50%) in protein levels following siRNA knockdown of E3 ubiquitin ligases or deubiquitylation enzymes can manifest in significant changes in DNA repair capacity monitored using the comet assay. For example, we have shown that the E3 ubiquitin ligase Mule, the tumor suppressor protein ARF, and the deubiquitylation enzyme USP47 modulate DNA repair by controlling cellular levels of DNA polymerase ?, and also that polynucleotide kinase phosphatase levels are controlled by ATM-dependant phosphorylation and Cul4A–DDB1–STRAP-dependent ubiquitylation. In these studies we employed a modification of the comet assay whereby cultured cells, following DNA damage treatment, are embedded in agarose and allowed to repair in-gel prior to lysis and electrophoresis. Whilst this method does have its limitations, it avoids the extensive cell culture-based processing associated with the traditional approach using attached cells and also allows for the examination of much more precise DNA repair kinetics. In this review we will describe, using this modified comet assay, our accumulating evidence that ubiquitylation-dependant regulation of BER proteins has important consequences for overall cellular DNA repair capacity.

Nickson, Catherine M.; Parsons, Jason L.

2014-01-01

174

Induced DNA repair pathway in mammalian cells  

SciTech Connect

The survival of cultured rat kangaroo cells (PtK-2) and human xeroderma pigmentosum cells incubated with 5 ..mu..M cycloheximide subsequent to ultraviolet irradiation is lower than that of cells incubated without cycloheximide. The drop in survival is considerably larger than that produced by incubation of unirradiated cells with cycloheximide. The phenomenon was also observed when PtK-2 cells were incubated with emetine, another protein synthesis inhibitor, or with 5,6-dichloro-1-..beta..-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole, a RNA synthesis inhibitor. PtK cells which received a preliminary UV treatment followed by an incubation period without cycloheximide and then a second irradiation and 24 hour incubation with cycloheximide, survived the effects of the second irradiation better than cells which were incubated in the presence of cycloheximide after the first and second UV irradiation. The application of cycloheximide for 24 hours after UV irradiation of PtK cells resulted in one-half as many 6-thioguanine resistant cells as compared to the number of 6-thioguanine resistant cells found when cycloheximide was not used. These experiments indicate that a UV-inducible cycloheximide-sensitive DNA repair pathway is present in PtK and xeroderma pigmentosum cells, which is error-prone in PtK cells.

Overberg, R.

1985-01-01

175

Clinical implications of DNA repair genetic alterations in cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The overall prognosis of advanced cancer remains poor. Whilst accumulation of genetic mutations drives the cancerous phenotype,\\u000a it is well known that DNA damaging lesions that lead to such mutations are predominantly monitored and repaired by the highly\\u000a conserved DNA repair machinery in cells. Though chemotherapy as well as radiotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment, it\\u000a is clear that the

L. Gossage; M. Mohammed; S. Madhusudan

2009-01-01

176

Effects of hexavalent chromium on the survival and cell cycle distribution of DNA repair-deficient S. cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

A broad spectrum of genetic damage results from exposure to hexavalent chromium. These lesions can result in DNA and RNA polymerase arrest, chromosomal aberrations, point mutations and deletions. Because of the complexity of Cr genotoxicity, the repair of Cr(VI)-induced DNA damage is poorly understood. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the sensitivities of DNA repair-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains to Cr(VI)-induced

Travis J O’Brien; Jamie L Fornsaglio; Susan Ceryak; Steven R Patierno

2002-01-01

177

Physical and Functional Interactions between Drosophila Homologue of Swc6/p18Hamlet Subunit of the SWR1/SRCAP Chromatin-remodeling Complex with the DNA Repair/Transcription Factor TFIIH*  

PubMed Central

The multisubunit DNA repair and transcription factor TFIIH maintains an intricate cross-talk with different factors to achieve its functions. The p8 subunit of TFIIH maintains the basal levels of the complex by interacting with the p52 subunit. Here, we report that in Drosophila, the homolog of the p8 subunit (Dmp8) is encoded in a bicistronic transcript with the homolog of the Swc6/p18Hamlet subunit (Dmp18) of the SWR1/SRCAP chromatin remodeling complex. The SWR1 and SRCAP complexes catalyze the exchange of the canonical histone H2A with the H2AZ histone variant. In eukaryotic cells, bicistronic transcripts are not common, and in some cases, the two encoded proteins are functionally related. We found that Dmp18 physically interacts with the Dmp52 subunit of TFIIH and co-localizes with TFIIH in the chromatin. We also demonstrated that Dmp18 genetically interacts with Dmp8, suggesting that a cross-talk might exist between TFIIH and a component of a chromatin remodeler complex involved in histone exchange. Interestingly, our results also show that when the level of one of the two proteins is decreased and the other maintained, a specific defect in the fly is observed, suggesting that the organization of these two genes in a bicistronic locus has been selected during evolution to allow co-regulation of both genes.

Herrera-Cruz, Mariana; Cruz, Grisel; Valadez-Graham, Viviana; Fregoso-Lomas, Mariana; Villicana, Claudia; Vazquez, Martha; Reynaud, Enrique; Zurita, Mario

2012-01-01

178

Overexpression of DNA ligase III in mitochondria protects cells against oxidative stress and improves mitochondrial DNA base excision repair.  

PubMed

Base excision repair (BER) is the most prominent DNA repair pathway in human mitochondria. BER also results in a temporary generation of AP-sites, single-strand breaks and nucleotide gaps. Thus, incomplete BER can result in the generation of DNA repair intermediates that can disrupt mitochondrial DNA replication and transcription and generate mutations. We carried out BER analysis in highly purified mitochondrial extracts from human cell lines U2OS and HeLa, and mouse brain using a circular DNA substrate containing a lesion at a specific position. We found that DNA ligation is significantly slower than the preceding mitochondrial BER steps. Overexpression of DNA ligase III in mitochondria improved the rate of overall BER, increased cell survival after menadione induced oxidative stress and reduced autophagy following the inhibition of the mitochondrial electron transport chain complex I by rotenone. Our results suggest that the amount of DNA ligase III in mitochondria may be critical for cell survival following prolonged oxidative stress, and demonstrate a functional link between mitochondrial DNA damage and repair, cell survival upon oxidative stress, and removal of dysfunctional mitochondria by autophagy. PMID:24674627

Akbari, Mansour; Keijzers, Guido; Maynard, Scott; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Desler, Claus; Hickson, Ian D; Bohr, Vilhelm A

2014-04-01

179

DNA repair proficiency: A potential susceptibility factor for breast cancer  

SciTech Connect

A family study and a case-control study were conducted to examine the association between sub-optimal repair of ionizing radiation induced DNA damage and the development of breast cancer. A familial cluster of breast cancer was investigated in which breast cancer occurred in 4 of 6 sisters, some of whom were exposed to ionizing radiation from repeated chest fluoroscopic examinations during adolescence and early adulthood. DNA repair proficiency was measured among available family members and correlated with their history of radiation exposure. DNA repair proficiency was also measured among 16 breast cancer cases, 5 women with a family history of breast cancer and 12 controls. The results of the family study suggest an association between poor DNA repair proficiency and increased sensitivity to the carcinogenic effects of early radiation exposure on breast tissue. The case-control study showed that a significantly higher percentage of women with breast cancer (63%) and women with a family history of breast cancer (80%) had poor repair of ionizing radiation induced DNA damage than control women (17%) (P-value=0.02). Sub-optimal repair of DNA damage may be a host susceptibility factor predisposing individuals to breast cancer through increased sensitivity to carcinogenic damage from environmental exposures such as ionizing radiation.

Helzlsouer, K.J.; Perry, H. [Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Harris, E.L. [Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States)]|[Howard Univ., Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

180

New approaches to biochemical radioprotection: antioxidants and DNA repair enhancement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical repair may be provided by radioprotective compounds present during exposure to ionizing radiation. Considering DNA as the most sensitive target it is feasible to biochemically improve protection by enhancing DNA repair mechanisms. Protection of DNA by reducing the amount of damage (by radical scavenging and chemical repair) followed by enhanced repair of DNA will provide much improved protection and recovery. Furthermore, in cases of prolonged exposure, such as is possible in prolonged space missions, or of unexpected variations in the intensity of radiation, as is possible when encountering solar flares, it is important to provide long-acting protection, and this may be provided by antioxidants and well functioning DNA repair systems. It has also become important to provide protection from the potentially damaging action of long-lived clastogenic factors which have been found in plasma of exposed persons from Hiroshima & Nagasaki, radiation accidents, radiotherapy patients and recently in ``liquidators'' - persons involved in salvage operations at the Chernobyl reactor. The clastogenic factor, which causes chromatid breaks in non-exposed plasma, might account for late effects and is posing a potential carcinogenic hazard /1/. The enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) has been shown to eliminate the breakage factor from cultured plasma of exposed persons /2/. Several compounds have been shown to enhance DNA repair: WR-2721 /3/, nicotinamide /4/, glutathione monoester (Riklis et al., unpublished) and others. The right combination of such compounds may prove effective in providing protection from a wide range of radiation exposures over a long period of time.

Riklis, E.; Emerit, I.; Setlow, R. B.

181

Heat Shock Protein 90? (Hsp90?) Is Phosphorylated in Response to DNA Damage and Accumulates in Repair Foci*  

PubMed Central

DNA damage triggers a complex signaling cascade involving a multitude of phosphorylation events. We found that the threonine 7 (Thr-7) residue of heat shock protein 90? (Hsp90?) was phosphorylated immediately after DNA damage. The phosphorylated Hsp90? then accumulated at sites of DNA double strand breaks and formed repair foci with slow kinetics, matching the repair kinetics of complex DNA damage. The phosphorylation of Hsp90? was dependent on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-like kinases, including the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) in particular. DNA-PK plays an essential role in the repair of DNA double strand breaks by nonhomologous end-joining and in the signaling of DNA damage. It is also present in the cytoplasm of the cell and has been suggested to play a role in cytoplasmic signaling pathways. Using stabilized double-stranded DNA molecules to activate DNA-PK, we showed that an active DNA-PK complex could be assembled in the cytoplasm, resulting in phosphorylation of the cytoplasmic pool of Hsp90?. In vivo, reverse phase protein array data for tumors revealed that basal levels of Thr-7-phosphorylated Hsp90? were correlated with phosphorylated histone H2AX levels. The Thr-7 phosphorylation of the ubiquitously produced and secreted Hsp90? may therefore serve as a surrogate biomarker of DNA damage. These findings shed light on the interplay between central DNA repair enzymes and an essential molecular chaperone.

Quanz, Maria; Herbette, Aurelie; Sayarath, Mano; de Koning, Leanne; Dubois, Thierry; Sun, Jian-Sheng; Dutreix, Marie

2012-01-01

182

The cutting edges in DNA repair, licensing, and fidelity: DNA and RNA repair nucleases sculpt DNA to measure twice, cut once.  

PubMed

To avoid genome instability, DNA repair nucleases must precisely target the correct damaged substrate before they are licensed to incise. Damage identification is a challenge for all DNA damage response proteins, but especially for nucleases that cut the DNA and necessarily create a cleaved DNA repair intermediate, likely more toxic than the initial damage. How do these enzymes achieve exquisite specificity without specific sequence recognition or, in some cases, without a non-canonical DNA nucleotide? Combined structural, biochemical, and biological analyses of repair nucleases are revealing their molecular tools for damage verification and safeguarding against inadvertent incision. Surprisingly, these enzymes also often act on RNA, which deserves more attention. Here, we review protein-DNA structures for nucleases involved in replication, base excision repair, mismatch repair, double strand break repair (DSBR), and telomere maintenance: apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1), Endonuclease IV (Nfo), tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase (TDP2), UV Damage endonuclease (UVDE), very short patch repair endonuclease (Vsr), Endonuclease V (Nfi), Flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1), exonuclease 1 (Exo1), RNase T and Meiotic recombination 11 (Mre11). DNA and RNA structure-sensing nucleases are essential to life with roles in DNA replication, repair, and transcription. Increasingly these enzymes are employed as advanced tools for synthetic biology and as targets for cancer prognosis and interventions. Currently their structural biology is most fully illuminated for DNA repair, which is also essential to life. How DNA repair enzymes maintain genome fidelity is one of the DNA double helix secrets missed by James Watson and Francis Crick, that is only now being illuminated though structural biology and mutational analyses. Structures reveal motifs for repair nucleases and mechanisms whereby these enzymes follow the old carpenter adage: measure twice, cut once. Furthermore, to measure twice these nucleases act as molecular level transformers that typically reshape the DNA and sometimes themselves to achieve extraordinary specificity and efficiency. PMID:24754999

Tsutakawa, Susan E; Lafrance-Vanasse, Julien; Tainer, John A

2014-07-01

183

Missing piece of first-responder DNA repair machine revealed  

SciTech Connect

Scientists from the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Scripps Research Institute have revealed the role played by the least-understood part of a first-responder molecule that rushes in to bind and repair breaks in DNA strands, a process that helps people avoid cancer. With this final piece of the puzzle in place, scientists can better understand how the repair mechanism fends off cancer in healthy people, and conversely, how it helps cancer cells resist chemotherapy. This could enable researchers to develop more effective therapies with fewer side effects. http://newscenter.lbl.gov/press-releases/2009/10/01/dna-repair-uncovered/

None

2009-01-01

184

Missing piece of first-responder DNA repair machine revealed  

ScienceCinema

Scientists from the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Scripps Research Institute have revealed the role played by the least-understood part of a first-responder molecule that rushes in to bind and repair breaks in DNA strands, a process that helps people avoid cancer. With this final piece of the puzzle in place, scientists can better understand how the repair mechanism fends off cancer in healthy people, and conversely, how it helps cancer cells resist chemotherapy. This could enable researchers to develop more effective therapies with fewer side effects. http://newscenter.lbl.gov/press-releases/2009/10/01/dna-repair-uncovered/

185

Impact of alternative DNA structures on DNA damage, DNA repair, and genetic instability.  

PubMed

Repetitive genomic sequences can adopt a number of alternative DNA structures that differ from the canonical B-form duplex (i.e. non-B DNA). These non-B DNA-forming sequences have been shown to have many important biological functions related to DNA metabolic processes; for example, they may have regulatory roles in DNA transcription and replication. In addition to these regulatory functions, non-B DNA can stimulate genetic instability in the presence or absence of DNA damage, via replication-dependent and/or replication-independent pathways. This review focuses on the interactions of non-B DNA conformations with DNA repair proteins and how these interactions impact genetic instability. PMID:24767258

Wang, Guliang; Vasquez, Karen M

2014-07-01

186

Inhibition of DNA damage repair by artificial activation of PARP with siDNA  

PubMed Central

One of the major early steps of repair is the recruitment of repair proteins at the damage site, and this is coordinated by a cascade of modifications controlled by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinases and/or poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). We used short interfering DNA molecules mimicking double-strand breaks (called Dbait) or single-strand breaks (called Pbait) to promote DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) and PARP activation. Dbait bound and induced both PARP and DNA-PK activities, whereas Pbait acts only on PARP. Therefore, comparative study of the two molecules allows analysis of the respective roles of the two signaling pathways: both recruit proteins involved in single-strand break repair (PARP, XRCC1 and PCNA) and prevent their recruitment at chromosomal damage. Dbait, but not Pbait, also inhibits recruitment of proteins involved in double-strand break repair (53BP1, NBS1, RAD51 and DNA-PK). By these ways, Pbait and Dbait disorganize DNA repair, thereby sensitizing cells to various treatments. Single-strand breaks repair inhibition depends on direct trapping of the main proteins on both molecules. Double-strand breaks repair inhibition may be indirect, resulting from the phosphorylation of double-strand breaks repair proteins and chromatin targets by activated DNA-PK. The DNA repair inhibition by both molecules is confirmed by their synthetic lethality with BRCA mutations.

Croset, Amelie; Cordelieres, Fabrice P.; Berthault, Nathalie; Buhler, Cyril; Sun, Jian-Sheng; Quanz, Maria; Dutreix, Marie

2013-01-01

187

Targeting the DNA double strand breaks repair for cancer therapy.  

PubMed

Among several types of DNA lesions, the DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are one of the most deleterious and harmful. Mammalian cells mount a coordinated response to DSBs with the aim of appropriately repair the DNA damage. Indeed, failure of the DNA damage response (DDR) can lead to the development of cancer-prone genetic diseases. The identification and development of drugs targeting proteins involved in the DDR is even more investigated, as it gives the possibility to specifically target cancer cells. Indeed, the administration of DNA repair inhibitors could be combined with chemo- and radiotherapy, thus improving the eradication of tumor cells. Here, we provide an overview about DSBs damage response, focusing on the role of the DSBs repair mechanisms, of chromatin modifications, and of the cancer susceptibility gene BRCA1 which plays a multifunctional role in controlling genome integrity. Moreover, the most investigated DSBs enzyme inhibitors tested as potential therapeutic agents for anti-cancer therapy are reported. PMID:20423312

Gullotta, Francesca; De Marinis, Elisabetta; Ascenzi, Paolo; di Masi, Alessandra

2010-01-01

188

DNA damage and repair in human skin in situ  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the molecular and cellular origins of sunlight-induced skin cancers in man requires knowledge of the damages inflicted on human skin during sunlight exposure, as well as the ability of cells in skin to repair or circumvent such damage. Although repair has been studied extensively in procaryotic and eucaryotic cells - including human cells in culture - there are important differences between repair by human skin cells in culture and human skin in situ: quantitative differences in rates of repair, as well as qualitative differences, including the presence or absence of repair mechanisms. Quantitation of DNA damage and repair in human skin required the development of new approaches for measuring damage at low levels in nanogram quantities of non-radioactive DNA. The method allows for analysis of multiple samples and the resulting data should be related to behavior of the DNA molecules by analytic expressions. Furthermore, it should be possible to assay a variety of lesions using the same methodology. The development of new analysis methods, new technology, and new biochemical probes for the study of DNA damage and repair are described. 28 refs., 4 figs.

Sutherland, B.M.; Gange, R.W.; Freeman, S.E.; Sutherland, J.C.

1987-01-01

189

UV protective effects of DNA repair enzymes and RNA lotion.  

PubMed

Solar UV radiation is known to cause immune suppression, believed to be a critical factor in cutaneous carcinogenesis. Although the mechanism is not entirely understood, DNA damage is clearly involved. Sunscreens function by attenuating the UV radiation that reaches the epidermis. However, once DNA damage ensues, repair mechanisms become essential for prevention of malignant transformation. DNA repair enzymes have shown efficacy in reducing cutaneous neoplasms among xeroderma pigmentosum patients. In vitro studies suggest that RNA fragments increase the resistance of human keratinocytes to UVB damage and enhance DNA repair but in vivo data are lacking. This study aimed to determine the effect of topical formulations containing either DNA repair enzymes (Micrococcus luteus) or RNA fragments (UVC-irradiated rabbit globin mRNA) on UV-induced local contact hypersensitivity (CHS) suppression in humans as measured in vivo using the contact allergen dinitrochlorobenzene. Immunohistochemistry was also employed in skin biopsies to evaluate the level of thymine dimers after UV. Eighty volunteers completed the CHS portion. A single 0.75 minimum erythema dose (MED) simulated solar radiation exposure resulted in 64% CHS suppression in unprotected subjects compared with unirradiated sensitized controls. In contrast, UV-induced CHS suppression was reduced to 19% with DNA repair enzymes, and 7% with RNA fragments. Sun protection factor (SPF) testing revealed an SPF of 1 for both formulations, indicating that the observed immune protection cannot be attributed to sunscreen effects. Biopsies from an additional nine volunteers showed an 18% decrease in thymine dimers by both DNA repair enzymes and RNA fragments, relative to unprotected UV-irradiated skin. These results suggest that RNA fragments may be useful as a photoprotective agent with in vivo effects comparable to DNA repair enzymes. PMID:18173718

Ke, Malcolm S; Camouse, Melissa M; Swain, Freddie R; Oshtory, Shaheen; Matsui, Mary; Mammone, Thomas; Maes, Daniel; Cooper, Kevin D; Stevens, Seth R; Baron, Elma D

2008-01-01

190

53BP1: pro choice in DNA repair.  

PubMed

The DNA damage response factor 53BP1 functions at the intersection of two major double strand break (DSB) repair pathways--promoting nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) and inhibiting homology-directed repair (HDR)--and integrates cellular inputs to ensure their timely execution in the proper cellular contexts. Recent work has revealed that 53BP1 controls 5' end resection at DNA ends, mediates synapsis of DNA ends, promotes the mobility of damaged chromatin, improves DSB repair in heterochromatic regions, and contributes to lethal mis-repair of DSBs in BRCA1-deficient cells. Here we review these aspects of 53BP1 and discuss new data revealing how 53BP1 is loaded onto chromatin and uses its interacting factors Rif1 and PTIP to promote NHEJ and inhibit HDR. PMID:24094932

Zimmermann, Michal; de Lange, Titia

2014-02-01

191

Genetic Variability in DNA Repair Proteins in Age-Related Macular Degeneration  

PubMed Central

The pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is complex and involves interactions between environmental and genetic factors, with oxidative stress playing an important role inducing damage in biomolecules, including DNA. Therefore, genetic variability in the components of DNA repair systems may influence the ability of the cell to cope with oxidative stress and in this way contribute to the pathogenesis of AMD. However, few reports have been published on this subject so far. We demonstrated that the c.977C>G polymorphism (rs1052133) in the hOGG1 gene and the c.972G>C polymorphism (rs3219489) in the MUTYH gene, the products of which play important roles in the repair of oxidatively damaged DNA, might be associated with the risk of AMD. Oxidative stress may promote misincorporation of uracil into DNA, where it is targeted by several DNA glycosylases. We observed that the g.4235T>C (rs2337395) and c.–32A>G (rs3087404) polymorphisms in two genes encoding such glycosylases, UNG and SMUG1, respectively, could be associated with the occurrence of AMD. Polymorphisms in some other DNA repair genes, including XPD (ERCC2), XRCC1 and ERCC6 (CSB) have also been reported to be associated with AMD. These data confirm the importance of the cellular reaction to DNA damage, and this may be influenced by variability in DNA repair genes, in AMD pathogenesis.

Blasiak, Janusz; Synowiec, Ewelina; Salminen, Antero; Kaarniranta, Kai

2012-01-01

192

DNA repair: a changing geography? (1964-2008).  

PubMed

This article aims to explain the current state of DNA Repair studies' global geography by focusing on the genesis of the community. Bibliometric data is used to localize scientific activities related to DNA Repair at the city level. The keyword "DNA Repair" was introduced first by American scientists. It started to spread after 1964 that is to say, after P. Howard-Flanders (Yale University), P. Hanawalt (Stanford University) and R. Setlow (Oak Ridge Laboratories) found evidence for Excision Repair mechanisms. It was the first stage in the emergence of an autonomous scientific community. In this article, we will try to assess to what extent the geo-history of this scientific field is determinant in understanding its current geography. In order to do so, we will localize the places where the first "DNA Repair" publications were signed fifty years ago and the following spatial diffusion process, which led to the current geography of the field. Then, we will focus on the evolution of the research activity of "early entrants" in relation to the activity of "latecomers". This article is an opportunity to share with DNA Repair scientists some research results of a dynamic field in Science studies: spatial scientometrics. PMID:23669398

Maisonobe, Marion; Giglia-Mari, Giuseppina; Eckert, Denis

2013-07-01

193

Ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage, response, and repair.  

PubMed

Abstract Significance: Ionizing radiation (IR) is an effective and commonly employed treatment in the management of more than half of human malignancies. Because IR's ability to control tumors mainly relies on DNA damage, the cell's DNA damage response and repair (DRR) processes may hold the key to determining tumor responses. IR-induced DNA damage activates a number of DRR signaling cascades that control cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, and the cell's fate. DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) generated by IR are the most lethal form of damage, and are mainly repaired via either homologous recombination (HR) or nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathways. Recent Advances: In recent years, immense effort to understand and exploit the differences in the use of these repair pathways between tumors and normal cells will allow for an increase in tumor cell killing and a decrease in normal tissue injury. Critical Issues: Regulation of the two major DSB repair mechanisms (HR and NHEJ) and new strategies, which may improve the therapeutic ratio of radiation by differentially targeting HR and NHEJ function in tumor and normal tissues, is of intense interest currently, and is the focus of this article. Future Directions: By utilizing the strategies outlined above, it may be possible to exploit differences between tumor and somatic cell DRR pathways, specifically their DSB repair mechanisms, to improve the therapeutic ratio of IR. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 251-259. PMID:24180216

Santivasi, Wil L; Xia, Fen

2014-07-10

194

DNA-PK, ATM and ATR collaboratively regulate p53-RPA interaction to facilitate homologous recombination DNA repair  

PubMed Central

Homologous recombination (HR) and nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) are two distinct DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathways. Here we report that DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), the core component of NHEJ, partnering with DNA-damage checkpoint kinases ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ATM- and Rad3-related (ATR), regulates HR repair of DSBs. The regulation was accomplished through modulation of the p53 and replication protein A (RPA) interaction. We show that upon DNA damage, p53 and RPA were freed from a p53-RPA complex by simultaneous phosphorylations of RPA at the N-terminus of RPA32 subunit by DNA-PK and of p53 at Ser37 and Ser46 in a Chk1/Chk2-independent manner by ATR and ATM, respectively. Neither the phosphorylation of RPA nor of p53 alone could dissociate p53 and RPA. Furthermore, disruption of the release significantly compromised HR repair of DSBs. Our results reveal a mechanism for the crosstalk between HR repair and NHEJ through the co-regulation of p53-RPA interaction by DNA-PK, ATM and ATR.

Serrano, Moises A.; Li, Zhengke; Dangeti, Mohan; Musich, Phillip R.; Patrick, Steve; Roginskaya, Marina; Cartwright, Brian; Zou, Yue

2012-01-01

195

DNA-PK, ATM and ATR collaboratively regulate p53-RPA interaction to facilitate homologous recombination DNA repair.  

PubMed

Homologous recombination (HR) and nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) are two distinct DNA double-stranded break (DSB) repair pathways. Here, we report that DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), the core component of NHEJ, partnering with DNA-damage checkpoint kinases ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ATM- and Rad3-related (ATR), regulates HR repair of DSBs. The regulation was accomplished through modulation of the p53 and replication protein A (RPA) interaction. We show that upon DNA damage, p53 and RPA were freed from a p53-RPA complex by simultaneous phosphorylations of RPA at the N-terminus of RPA32 subunit by DNA-PK and of p53 at Ser37 and Ser46 in a Chk1/Chk2-independent manner by ATR and ATM, respectively. Neither the phosphorylation of RPA nor of p53 alone could dissociate p53 and RPA. Furthermore, disruption of the release significantly compromised HR repair of DSBs. Our results reveal a mechanism for the crosstalk between HR repair and NHEJ through the co-regulation of p53-RPA interaction by DNA-PK, ATM and ATR. PMID:22797063

Serrano, M A; Li, Z; Dangeti, M; Musich, P R; Patrick, S; Roginskaya, M; Cartwright, B; Zou, Y

2013-05-01

196

How heterologously expressed Escherichia coli genes contribute to understanding DNA repair processes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA-damaging agents constantly challenge cellular DNA; and efficient DNA repair is therefore essential to maintain genome stability and cell viability. Several DNA repair mechanisms have evolved and these have been shown to be highly conserved from bacteria to man. DNA repair studies were originally initiated in very simple organisms such as Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, bacteria being the best

Jela Brozmanová; Viera Vl?ková; Miroslav Chovanec

2004-01-01

197

Evidence for DNA-PK-Dependent and Independent DNA Double-Strand Break Repair Pathways in Mammalian Cells as a Function of the Cell Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mice homozygous for thescid(severe combined immune deficiency) mutation are defective in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and are consequently very X-ray sensitive and defective in the lymphoid V(D)Jrecombinationprocess.Recently,astrongcandidateforthescidgenehasbeenidentifiedasthecatalytic subunit of the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) complex. Here, we show that the activity of the DNA-PK complex is regulated in a cell cycle-dependent manner, with peaks of activity found

SANG EUN LEE; RACHEL A. MITCHELL; ANTHONY CHENG; ANDERIC A. HENDRICKSON

1997-01-01

198

DNA repair pathways and hereditary cancer susceptibility syndromes.  

PubMed

Every living organism is exposed to numerous genomic insults on a daily basis as a consequence of cellular metabolism and exposure to environmental agents capable of interacting with the genome (e.g. chemicals, toxins, pollutants, UV and ionizing radiation) (1). Maintenance of the integrity of the genome is paramount to the survival and propagation of a species and involves the continuous activity of a variety of DNA repair pathways. Inherited mutations in genes involved in DNA damage recognition and repair lead to disease by destabilization of the genome and increased mutagenesis. In fact, it is common for cancer cells to exhibit loss of genomic stability presumably as a result of clonally acquired mutations in DNA repair genes (2). Currently, roughly 150 DNA repair genes have been identified in humans (3) and a variety of familial cancer predisposition and/or premature aging syndromes are now linked to various loss-of-function mutations in these genes (4). Genetic interaction between DNA repair pathways and global cell differentiation pathways is supported by phenotypic similarities between inactivating mutations in a DNA repair, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis proteins. Though there is clearly some degree of functional redundancy between DNA repair pathways for correction of specific DNA lesions, the particular clinical characteristics of a repair defect can be predicted by the specific repair pathway affected (5). Patients with cancer predisposition syndromes often have multiple family members affected by cancer, develop cancer at an early age, and are at risk for developing multiple primary tumors over time (6, 7). Though patients with identifiable cancer predisposition syndromes are rare, defining their molecular defects has led to widespread applicability by uncovering relevant molecular pathways that are perturbed via somatic (non-inherited) mutations in the majority of sporadic cancers. In this review, we describe general molecular mechanisms of major forms of DNA repair and illustrate clinical consequences of deficiencies in these pathways. For more in depth detail, the reader is referred to several recent reviews and texts (2, 8-13). PMID:17485367

Spry, Malinda; Scott, Tim; Pierce, Heather; D'Orazio, John A

2007-01-01

199

Hepatitis B Virus X Protein Interferes with Cellular DNA Repair  

PubMed Central

The hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) is a broadly acting transactivator implicated in the development of liver cancer. Recently, HBx has been reported to interact with several different cellular proteins, including our report of its binding to XAP-1, the human homolog of the simian repair protein UVDDB. In the present study, several HBx mutants were used to localize the minimal domain of HBx required for binding to XAP-1/UVDDB to amino acids 55 to 101. The normal function of XAP-1/UVDDB is thought to involve binding to damaged DNA, the first step in nucleotide excision repair (NER); therefore, we hypothesized that this interaction may affect the cell’s capacity to correct lesions in the genome. When tested in two independent assays that measure NER (unscheduled DNA synthesis and host cell reactivation), the expression of HBx significantly inhibited the ability of cells to repair damaged DNA. Under the assay conditions, HBx was expressed at a level similar to that previously observed during natural viral infection and was able to transactivate several target reporter genes. These results are consistent with a model in which HBx acts as a cofactor in hepatocarcinogenesis by preventing the cell from efficiently repairing damaged DNA, thus leading to an accumulation of DNA mutations and, eventually, cancer. An adverse effect on cellular DNA repair processes suggests a new mechanism by which a tumor-associated virus might contribute to carcinogenesis.

Becker, Sherry A.; Lee, Teh-Hsiu; Butel, Janet S.; Slagle, Betty L.

1998-01-01

200

Enhanced phosphorylation of Nbs1, a member of DNA repair/checkpoint complex Mre11-RAD50-Nbs1, can be targeted to increase the efficacy of imatinib mesylate against BCR/ABL-positive leukemia cells  

PubMed Central

Nbs1, a member of the Mre11-RAD50-Nbs1 complex, is phosphorylated by ATM, the product of the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated gene and a member of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase–related family of serine-threonine kinases, in response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) to regulate DNA damage checkpoints. Here we show that BCR/ABL stimulated Nbs1 expression by induction of c-Myc–dependent transactivation and protection from caspase-dependent degradation. BCR/ABL-related fusion tyrosine kinases (FTKs) such as TEL/JAK2, TEL/PDGF?R, TEL/ABL, TEL/TRKC, BCR/FGFR1, and NPM/ALK as well as interleukin 3 (IL-3), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and stem cell factor (SCF) also stimulated Nbs1 expression. Enhanced ATM kinase–dependent phosphorylation of Nbs1 on serine 343 (S343) in response to genotoxic treatment was detected in leukemia cells expressing BCR/ABL and other FTKs in comparison to normal counterparts stimulated with IL-3, GM-CSF, and SCF. Expression of Nbs1-S343A mutant disrupted the intra–S-phase checkpoint, decreased homologous recombinational repair (HRR) activity, down-regulated XIAP expression, and sensitized BCR/ABL-positive cells to cytotoxic drugs. Interestingly, inhibition of Nbs1 phosphorylation by S343A mutant enhanced the antileukemia effect of the combination of imatinib and genotoxic agent.

Rink, Lori; Slupianek, Artur; Stoklosa, Tomasz; Nieborowska-Skorska, Margaret; Urbanska, Katarzyna; Seferynska, Ilona; Reiss, Krzysztof

2007-01-01

201

Role of polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase in mitochondrial DNA repair  

PubMed Central

Mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are implicated in a broad range of human diseases and in aging. Compared to nuclear DNA, mtDNA is more highly exposed to oxidative damage due to its proximity to the respiratory chain and the lack of protection afforded by chromatin-associated proteins. While repair of oxidative damage to the bases in mtDNA through the base excision repair pathway has been well studied, the repair of oxidatively induced strand breaks in mtDNA has been less thoroughly examined. Polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase (PNKP) processes strand-break termini to render them chemically compatible for the subsequent action of DNA polymerases and ligases. Here, we demonstrate that functionally active full-length PNKP is present in mitochondria as well as nuclei. Downregulation of PNKP results in an accumulation of strand breaks in mtDNA of hydrogen peroxide-treated cells. Full restoration of repair of the H2O2-induced strand breaks in mitochondria requires both the kinase and phosphatase activities of PNKP. We also demonstrate that PNKP contains a mitochondrial-targeting signal close to the C-terminus of the protein. We further show that PNKP associates with the mitochondrial protein mitofilin. Interaction with mitofilin may serve to translocate PNKP into mitochondria.

Tahbaz, Nasser; Subedi, Sudip; Weinfeld, Michael

2012-01-01

202

Role of polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase in mitochondrial DNA repair.  

PubMed

Mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are implicated in a broad range of human diseases and in aging. Compared to nuclear DNA, mtDNA is more highly exposed to oxidative damage due to its proximity to the respiratory chain and the lack of protection afforded by chromatin-associated proteins. While repair of oxidative damage to the bases in mtDNA through the base excision repair pathway has been well studied, the repair of oxidatively induced strand breaks in mtDNA has been less thoroughly examined. Polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase (PNKP) processes strand-break termini to render them chemically compatible for the subsequent action of DNA polymerases and ligases. Here, we demonstrate that functionally active full-length PNKP is present in mitochondria as well as nuclei. Downregulation of PNKP results in an accumulation of strand breaks in mtDNA of hydrogen peroxide-treated cells. Full restoration of repair of the H(2)O(2)-induced strand breaks in mitochondria requires both the kinase and phosphatase activities of PNKP. We also demonstrate that PNKP contains a mitochondrial-targeting signal close to the C-terminus of the protein. We further show that PNKP associates with the mitochondrial protein mitofilin. Interaction with mitofilin may serve to translocate PNKP into mitochondria. PMID:22210862

Tahbaz, Nasser; Subedi, Sudip; Weinfeld, Michael

2012-04-01

203

Loss of Urokinase Receptor Sensitizes Cells to DNA Damage and Delays DNA Repair  

PubMed Central

DNA damage induced by numerous exogenous or endogenous factors may have irreversible consequences on the cell leading to cell cycle arrest, senescence and cell death. The DNA damage response (DDR) is powerful signaling machinery triggered in response to DNA damage, to provide DNA damage recognition, signaling and repair. Most anticancer drugs induce DNA damage, and DNA repair in turn attenuates therapeutic efficiency of those drugs. Approaches delaying DNA repair are often used to increase efficiency of treatment. Recent data show that ubiquitin-proteasome system is essential for signaling and repair of DNA damage. However, mechanisms providing regulation of proteasome intracellular localization, activity, and recruitment to DNA damage sites are elusive. Even less investigated are the roles of extranuclear signaling proteins in these processes. In this study, we report the involvement of the serine protease urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) in DDR-associated regulation of proteasome. We show that in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) uPAR activates DNA single strand break repair signaling pathway. We provide evidence that uPAR is essential for functional assembly of the 26S proteasome. We further demonstrate that uPAR mediates DNA damage-induced phosphorylation, nuclear import, and recruitment of the regulatory subunit PSMD6 to proteasome. We found that deficiency of uPAR and PSMD6 delays DNA repair and leads to decreased cell survival. These data may offer new therapeutic approaches for diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders.

Narayanaswamy, Pavan B.; Hodjat, Mahshid; Haller, Hermann; Dumler, Inna; Kiyan, Yulia

2014-01-01

204

Interplay of DNA repair with transcription: from structures to mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Many DNA transactions are crucial for maintaining genomic integrity and faithful transfer of genetic information but remain poorly understood. An example is the interplay between nucleotide excision repair (NER) and transcription, also known as transcription-coupled DNA repair (TCR). Discovered decades ago, the mechanisms for TCR have remained elusive, not in small part due to the scarcity of structural studies of key players. Here we summarize recent structural information on NER/TCR factors, focusing on bacterial systems, and integrate it with existing genetic, biochemical, and biophysical data to delineate the mechanisms at play. We also review emerging, alternative modalities for recruitment of NER proteins to DNA lesions.

Deaconescu, Alexandra M.; Artsimovitch, Irina; Grigorieff, Nikolaus

2013-01-01

205

Analysis of DNA-protein complexes induced by chemical carcinogens  

SciTech Connect

DNA-protein complexes induced in intact cells by chromate have been isolated and compared with those formed by other agents such as cis-platinum. Actin has been identified as one of the major proteins that is complexed to the DNA by chromate based upon a number of criteria including, a molecular weight and isoelectric point identical to actin, positive reaction with actin polyclonal antibody, and proteolytic mapping. Chromate and cis-platinum both complex proteins of very similar molecular weight and isoelectric points and these complexes can be disrupted by exposure to chelating or reducing agents. These results suggest that the metal itself is participating in rather than catalyzing the formation of a DNA-protein complex. An antiserum which was raised to chromate-induced DNA-protein complexes reacted primarily with a 97,000 protein that could not be detected by silver staining. Western blots and slot blots were utilized to detect p97 DNA-protein complexes formed by cis-platinum, UV, formaldehyde, and chromate. Other work in this area, involving studying whether DNA-protein complexes are formed in actively transcribed DNA compared with genetically inactive DNA, is discussed. Methods to detect DNA-protein complexes, the stability and repair of these lesions, and characterization of DNA-protein complexes are reviewed. Nuclear matrix proteins have been identified as a major substrate for the formation of DNA-protein complexes and these findings are also reviewed.

Costa, M. (New York Univ. Medical Center, NY (USA))

1990-11-01

206

Somatic cell genetics approach to dissecting mammalian DNA repair  

SciTech Connect

This review article examines the application of the methods and concepts of somatic cell genetics to the study of DNA repair. The first steps of this approach involve classical procedures of mutant isolation, complementation analysis, and mapping of genes using hybrid cells. Subsequent steps utilize the techniques of DNA-mediated gene transfer and methodologies of the recombinant DNA field. Several human repair genes have been cloned, but they have not been used to overproduce proteins thus far. This article highlights the more important developments and attempts to review in detail all of the isolated mutant cell lines that may be altered in the repair processes. Faster methods of gene cloning are greatly needed because the procedures for making secondary transformants from total genomic DNA are tedious.

Thompson, L.H. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

1989-01-01

207

Recombination repair pathway in the maintenance of chromosomal integrity against DNA interstrand crosslinks  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICL) present a major threat to cell viability and genome integrity. In eukaryotic cells, the ICLs have been suggested to be repaired by a complex process involving Xpf\\/Ercc1-mediated endonucleolytic incision and homologous recombination (HR). However, the entire feature of the ICL tolerating mechanism is still poorly understood. Here we studied chromosome aberrations (CA) and sister chromatid exchanges

M. S. Sasaki; M. Takata; E. Sonoda; A. Tachibana; S. Takeda

2004-01-01

208

Kinetic analysis of DNA double-strand break repair pathways in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Double-strand breaks in genomic DNA (DSB) are potentially lethal lesions which separate parts of chromosome arms from their centromeres. Repair of DSB by recombination can generate mutations and further chromosomal rearrangements, making the regulation of recombination and the choice of recombination pathways of the highest importance. Although knowledge of recombination mechanisms has considerably advanced, the complex interrelationships and regulation of

Cyril Charbonnel; Elisabeth Allain; Maria Eugenia Gallego; Charles I. White

2011-01-01

209

Telomeric allelic imbalance indicates defective DNA repair and sensitivity to DNA damaging agents  

PubMed Central

DNA repair competency is one determinant of sensitivity to certain chemotherapy drugs, such as cisplatin. Cancer cells with intact DNA repair can avoid the accumulation of genome damage during growth and also can repair platinum-induced DNA damage. We sought genomic signatures indicative of defective DNA repair in cell lines and tumors, and correlated these signatures to platinum sensitivity. The number of sub-chromosomal regions with allelic imbalance extending to the telomere (NtAI) predicted cisplatin sensitivity in-vitro, and pathologic response to preoperative cisplatin treatment in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). In serous ovarian cancer treated with platinum-based chemotherapy, higher NtAI forecast better initial response. We found an inverse relationship between BRCA1 expression and NtAI in sporadic TNBC and serous ovarian cancers without BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. Thus, accumulation of tAI is a marker of platinum sensitivity and suggests impaired DNA repair.

Kim, Ji-Young; Eklund, Aron C.; Li, Qiyuan; Tian, Ruiyang; Bowman-Colin, Christian; Li, Yang; Greene-Colozzi, April; Iglehart, J. Dirk; Tung, Nadine; Ryan, Paula D.; Garber, Judy E.

2013-01-01

210

Alkyltransferase-like proteins: molecular switches between DNA repair pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkyltransferase-like proteins (ATLs) play a role in the protection of cells from the biological effects of DNA alkylation\\u000a damage. Although ATLs share functional motifs with the DNA repair protein and cancer chemotherapy target O\\u000a 6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase, they lack the reactive cysteine residue required for alkyltransferase activity, so its\\u000a mechanism for cell protection was previously unknown. Here we review recent advances

Julie L. TubbsJohn; John A. Tainer

2010-01-01

211

Mismatch-repair protein MSH6 is associated with Ku70 and regulates DNA double-strand break repair  

PubMed Central

MSH6, a key component of the MSH2–MSH6 complex, plays a fundamental role in the repair of mismatched DNA bases. Herein, we report that MSH6 is a novel Ku70-interacting protein identified by yeast two-hybrid screening. Ku70 and Ku86 are two key regulatory subunits of the DNA-dependent protein kinase, which plays an essential role in repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) through the non-homologous end-joining (NEHJ) pathway. We found that association of Ku70 with MSH6 is enhanced in response to treatment with the radiomimetic drug neocarzinostatin (NCS) or ionizing radiation (IR), a potent inducer of DSBs. Furthermore, MSH6 exhibited diffuse nuclear staining in the majority of untreated cells and forms discrete nuclear foci after NCS or IR treatment. MSH6 colocalizes with ?-H2AX at sites of DNA damage after NCS or IR treatment. Cells depleted of MSH6 accumulate high levels of persistent DSBs, as detected by formation of ?-H2AX foci and by the comet assay. Moreover, MSH6-deficient cells were also shown to exhibit impaired NHEJ, which could be rescued by MSH6 overexpression. MSH6-deficient cells were hypersensitive to NCS- or IR-induced cell death, as revealed by a clonogenic cell-survival assay. These results suggest a potential role for MSH6 in DSB repair through upregulation of NHEJ by association with Ku70.

Shahi, Ankita; Lee, Jung-Hee; Kang, Yoonsung; Lee, Sung Haeng; Hyun, Jin-Won; Chang, In-Youb; Jun, Jae-Yeoul; You, Ho Jin

2011-01-01

212

Clustered DNA lesion repair in eukaryotes: relevance to mutagenesis and cell survival  

PubMed Central

A clustered DNA lesion, also known as a multiply damaged site, is defined as ? 2 damages in the DNA within 1–2 helical turns. Only ionizing radiation and certain chemicals introduce DNA damage in the genome in this non-random way. What is now clear is that the lethality of a damaging agent is not just related to the types of DNA lesions introduced, but also to how the damage is distributed in the DNA. Clustered DNA lesions were first hypothesized to exist in the 1990’s, and work has progressed where these complex lesions have been characterized and measured in irradiated as well as in non-irradiated cells. A clustered lesion can consist of single as well as double strand breaks, base damage and abasic sites, and the damages can be situated on the same strand or opposing strands. They include tandem lesions, double strand break (DSB) clusters and non-DSB clusters, and base excision repair as well as the DSB repair pathways can be required to remove these complex lesions. Due to the plethora of oxidative damage induced by ionizing radiation, and the repair proteins involved in their removal from the DNA, it has been necessary to study how repair systems handle these lesions using synthetic DNA damage. This review focuses on the repair process and mutagenic consequences of clustered lesions in yeast and mammalian cells. By examining the studies on synthetic clustered lesions, and the effects of low vs high LET radiation on mammalian cells or tissues, it is possible to extrapolate the potential biological relevance of these clustered lesions to the killing of tumor cells by radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and to the risk of cancer in non-tumor cells, and this will be discussed.

Sage, Evelyne; Harrison, Lynn

2011-01-01

213

Electronic Pathways in Photoactivated Repair of UV Mutated DNA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation of the physics, underlying the damage caused to DNA by UV radiation and its subsequent repair via a photoreactivation mechanism, is presented in this study. Electronic pathways, starting from the initial damage to the final repair process, are presented. UV radiation is absorbed to create a hole-excited thymine or other pyrimidine that subsequently is responsible for the formation of a dimer. The negative-ion of the cofactor riboflavin, FADH-, formed by the exposure of the photolyase protein to visible light, interacts with the hole-excited electronic orbital of the thymine dimer inducing a photon-less Auger transition, which restores the two thymines to the ground state, thereby detaching the lesion and repairing the DNA. Density functional theoretical calculations supporting the theory are presented. The mechanism involves the least amount of energy dissipation and is charge neutral. It also avoids radiation damage in the repair process. Recent experimental data are compatible with this theory.

Bohr, Henrik; Jalkanen, K. J.; Bary Malik, F.

214

Bacterial DNA repair by non-homologous end joining  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capacity to rectify DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is crucial for the survival of all species. DSBs can be repaired either by homologous recombination (HR) or non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). The long-standing notion that bacteria rely solely on HR for DSB repair has been overturned by evidence that mycobacteria and other genera have an NHEJ system that depends on a

Michael S. Glickman; Stewart Shuman

2007-01-01

215

Thermodynamics of the DNA Damage Repair Steps of Human 8-Oxoguanine DNA Glycosylase  

PubMed Central

Human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (hOGG1) is a key enzyme responsible for initiating the base excision repair of 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanosine (oxoG). In this study a thermodynamic analysis of the interaction of hOGG1 with specific and non-specific DNA-substrates is performed based on stopped-flow kinetic data. The standard Gibbs energies, enthalpies and entropies of specific stages of the repair process were determined via kinetic measurements over a temperature range using the van’t Hoff approach. The three steps which are accompanied with changes in the DNA conformations were detected via 2-aminopurine fluorescence in the process of binding and recognition of damaged oxoG base by hOGG1. The thermodynamic analysis has demonstrated that the initial step of the DNA substrates binding is mainly governed by energy due to favorable interactions in the process of formation of the recognition contacts, which results in negative enthalpy change, as well as due to partial desolvation of the surface between the DNA and enzyme, which results in positive entropy change. Discrimination of non-specific G base versus specific oxoG base is occurring in the second step of the oxoG-substrate binding. This step requires energy consumption which is compensated by the positive entropy contribution. The third binding step is the final adjustment of the enzyme/substrate complex to achieve the catalytically competent state which is characterized by large endothermicity compensated by a significant increase of entropy originated from the dehydration of the DNA grooves.

Kuznetsov, Nikita A.; Kuznetsova, Alexandra A.; Vorobjev, Yuri N.; Krasnoperov, Lev N.; Fedorova, Olga S.

2014-01-01

216

Repairing split ends: SIRT6, mono-ADP ribosylation and DNA repair  

PubMed Central

The sirtuin gene family comprises an evolutionarily ancient set of NAD+ dependent protein deacetylase and mono-ADP ribosyltransferase enzymes. Found in all domains of life, sirtuins regulate a diverse array of biological processes, including DNA repair, gene silencing, apoptosis and metabolism. Studies in multiple model organisms have indicated that sirtuins may also function to extend lifespan and attenuate age-related pathologies. To date, most of these studies have focused on the deacetylase activity of sirtuins, and relatively little is known about the other biochemical activity of sirtuins, mono-ADP ribosylation. We recently reported that the mammalian sirtuin, SIRT6, mono-ADP ribosylates PARP1 to promote DNA repair in response to oxidative stress. In this research perspective we review the role of SIRT6 in DNA repair and discuss the emerging implications for sirtuin directed mono-ADP ribosylation in aging and age-related diseases.

Van Meter, Michael; Mao, Zhiyong; Gorbunova, Vera; Seluanov, Andrei

2011-01-01

217

Modeling DNA Repair: Approaching In Vivo Techniques in the Hyperthermophile Sulfolobus Solfataricus  

SciTech Connect

Archaea are found in some of the most extreme environments on earth and represent a third domain of life distinct from Eukarya and Eubacteria. The hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus, isolated from acidic hot springs (80oC, pH 3) in Yellowstone National Park, has emerged as a potential model system for studying human DNA repair processes. Archaea are more closely related to Eukarya than to Eubacteria, suggesting that archaeal DNA repair machinery may model the complex human system much more closely than that of other prokaryotes. DNA repair requires coordinated protein-protein interactions that are frequently transient. Protein complexes that are transient at extreme temperatures where archaea thrive may be more stable at room temperature, allowing for the characterization of otherwise short-lived complexes. However, characterization of these systems in archaea has been limited by the absence of a stable in vivo transformation and expression system. The work presented here is a pilot study in gene cloning and recombinant protein expression in S. solfataricus. Three genes associated with DNA repair were selected for expression: MRE11, PCNA1, and a putative CSB homologue. Though preparation of these recombinant genes followed standard methods, preparation of a suitable vector proved more challenging. The shuttle vector pSSV64, derived from the SSV1 virus and the E. coli vector pBSSK+, was most successfully isolated from the DH5? E. coli strain. Currently, alternative vectors are being designed for more efficient genetic manipulations in S. solfataricus.

Blanton, J.; Fuss, J.; Yannone, S.M.; Tainer, J.A.; Cooper, P.K.

2005-01-01

218

Charge-transport-mediated recruitment of DNA repair enzymes  

PubMed Central

Damaged or mismatched bases in DNA can be repaired by base excision repair enzymes (BER) that replace the defective base. Although the detailed molecular structures of many BER enzymes are known, how they colocalize to lesions remains unclear. One hypothesis involves charge transport (CT) along DNA [Yavin et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 3546 (2005)]. In this CT mechanism, electrons are released by recently adsorbed BER enzymes and travel along the DNA. The electrons can scatter (by heterogeneities along the DNA) back to the enzyme, destabilizing and knocking it off the DNA, or they can be absorbed by nearby lesions and guanine radicals. We develop a stochastic model to describe the electron dynamics and compute probabilities of electron capture by guanine radicals and repair enzymes. We also calculate first passage times of electron return and ensemble average these results over guanine radical distributions. Our statistical results provide the rules that enable us to perform implicit-electron Monte Carlo simulations of repair enzyme binding and redistribution near lesions. When lesions are electron absorbing, we show that the CT mechanism suppresses wasteful buildup of enzymes along intact portions of the DNA, maximizing enzyme concentration near lesions.

Fok, Pak-Wing; Guo, Chin-Lin; Chou, Tom

2008-01-01

219

The DNA repair component Metnase regulates Chk1 stability  

PubMed Central

Chk1 both arrests replication forks and enhances repair of DNA damage by phosphorylation of downstream effectors. Metnase (also termed SETMAR) is a SET histone methylase and transposase nuclease protein that promotes both DNA double strand break (DSB) repair and re-start of stalled replication forks. We previously found that Chk1 phosphorylation of Metnase on S495 enhanced its DNA DSB repair activity but decreased its ability to re-start stalled replication forks. Here we show that phosphorylated Metnase feeds back to increase the half-life of Chk1. Chk1 half-life is regulated by DDB1 targeting it to Cul4A for ubiquitination and destruction. Metnase decreases Chk1 interaction with DDB1, and decreases Chk1 ubiquitination. These data define a novel pathway for Chk1 regulation, whereby a target of Chk1, Metnase, feeds back to amplify Chk1 stability, and therefore enhance replication fork arrest.

2014-01-01

220

Microhomology Directs Diverse DNA Break Repair Pathways and Chromosomal Translocations  

PubMed Central

Chromosomal structural change triggers carcinogenesis and the formation of other genetic diseases. The breakpoint junctions of these rearrangements often contain small overlapping sequences called “microhomology,” yet the genetic pathway(s) responsible have yet to be defined. We report a simple genetic system to detect microhomology-mediated repair (MHMR) events after a DNA double-strand break (DSB) in budding yeast cells. MHMR using >15 bp operates as a single-strand annealing variant, requiring the non-essential DNA polymerase subunit Pol32. MHMR is inhibited by sequence mismatches, but independent of extensive DNA synthesis like break-induced replication. However, MHMR using less than 14 bp is genetically distinct from that using longer microhomology and far less efficient for the repair of distant DSBs. MHMR catalyzes chromosomal translocation almost as efficiently as intra-chromosomal repair. The results suggest that the intrinsic annealing propensity between microhomology sequences efficiently leads to chromosomal rearrangements.

Villarreal, Diana D.; Lee, Kihoon; Deem, Angela; Shim, Eun Yong; Malkova, Anna; Lee, Sang Eun

2012-01-01

221

DNA excision repair proteins and Gadd45 as molecular players for active DNA demethylation  

PubMed Central

DNA cytosine methylation represents an intrinsic modification signal of the genome that plays important roles in heritable gene silencing, heterochromatin formation and certain transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. In contrast to the process of DNA methylation that is catalyzed by specific classes of methyltransferases, molecular players underlying active DNA demethylation have long been elusive. Emerging biochemical and functional evidence suggests that active DNA demethylation in vertebrates can be mediated through DNA excision repair enzymes, similar to the well-known repair-based DNA demethylation mechanism in Arabidopsis. As key regulators, non-enzymatic Gadd45 proteins function to recruit enzymatic machineries and promote coupling of deamination, base and nucleotide-excision repair in the process of DNA demethylation. In this article, we review recent findings and discuss functional and evolutionary implications of such mechanisms underlying active DNA demethylation.

Ma, Dengke K.; Guo, Junjie U.; Ming, Guo-li; Song, Hongjun

2009-01-01

222

The USP1/UAF1 Complex Promotes Double-Strand Break Repair through Homologous Recombination ? †  

PubMed Central

Protein ubiquitination plays a key role in the regulation of a variety of DNA repair mechanisms. Protein ubiquitination is controlled by the coordinate activity of ubiquitin ligases and deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs). The deubiquitinating enzyme USP1 regulates DNA repair and the Fanconi anemia pathway through its association with its WD40 binding partner, UAF1, and through its deubiquitination of two critical DNA repair proteins, FANCD2-Ub and PCNA-Ub. To investigate the function of USP1 and UAF1, we generated USP1?/?, UAF1?/?/?, and USP1?/? UAF1?/?/? chicken DT40 cell clones. These three clones showed similar sensitivities to chemical cross-linking agents, to a topoisomerase poison, camptothecin, and to an inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), indicating that the USP1/UAF1 complex is a regulator of the cellular response to DNA damage. The hypersensitivity to both camptothecin and a PARP inhibitor suggests that the USP1/UAF1 complex promotes homologous recombination (HR)-mediated double-strand break (DSB) repair. To gain insight into the mechanism of the USP1/UAF1 complex in HR, we inactivated the nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway in UAF1-deficient cells. Disruption of NHEJ in UAF1-deficient cells restored cellular resistance to camptothecin and the PARP inhibitor. Our results indicate that the USP1/UAF1 complex promotes HR, at least in part by suppressing NHEJ.

Murai, Junko; Yang, Kailin; Dejsuphong, Donniphat; Hirota, Kouji; Takeda, Shunichi; D'Andrea, Alan D.

2011-01-01

223

Chromatin structure and DNA damage repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integrity of the genome is continuously challenged by both endogenous and exogenous DNA damaging agents. These damaging agents can induce a wide variety of lesions in the DNA, such as double strand breaks, single strand breaks, oxidative lesions and pyrimidine dimers. The cell has evolved intricate DNA damage response mechanisms to counteract the genotoxic effects of these lesions. The

Christoffel Dinant; Adriaan B Houtsmuller; Wim Vermeulen

2008-01-01

224

Evidence for DNA-PK-dependent and -independent DNA double-strand break repair pathways in mammalian cells as a function of the cell cycle.  

PubMed Central

Mice homozygous for the scid (severe combined immune deficiency) mutation are defective in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and are consequently very X-ray sensitive and defective in the lymphoid V(D)J recombination process. Recently, a strong candidate for the scid gene has been identified as the catalytic subunit of the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) complex. Here, we show that the activity of the DNA-PK complex is regulated in a cell cycle-dependent manner, with peaks of activity found at the G1/early S phase and again at the G2 phase in wild-type cells. Interestingly, only the deficit of the G1/early S phase DNA-PK activity correlated with an increased hypersensitivity to X-irradiation and a DNA DSB repair deficit in synchronized scid pre-B cells. Finally, we demonstrate that the DNA-PK activity found at the G2 phase may be required for exit from a DNA damage-induced G2 checkpoint arrest. These observations suggest the presence of two pathways (DNA-PK-dependent and -independent) of illegitimate mammalian DNA DSB repair and two distinct roles (DNA DSB repair and G2 checkpoint traversal) for DNA-PK in the cellular response to ionizing radiation.

Lee, S E; Mitchell, R A; Cheng, A; Hendrickson, E A

1997-01-01

225

DNA repair in microgravity: studies on bacteria and mammalian cells in the experiments REPAIR and KINETICS.  

PubMed

The impact of microgravity on cellular repair processes was tested in the space experiments REPAIR and KINETICS, which were performed during the IML-2 mission in the Biorack of ESA: (a) survival of spores of Bacillus subtilis HA101 after UV-irradiation (up to 340 J m-2) in the experiment REPAIR; (b) in the experiment KINETICS the kinetics of DNA repair in three different test systems: rejoining of X-ray-induced DNA strand breaks (B1) in cells of Escherichia coli B/r (120 Gy) and (B2) in human fibroblasts (5 and 10 Gy) as well as (B3) induction of the SOS response after gamma-irradiation (300 Gy) of cells of Escherichia coli PQ37. Cells were irradiated prior to the space mission and were kept in a non-metabolic state (metabolically inactive spores of B. subtilis on membrane filters, frozen cells of E. coli and human fibroblasts) until incubation in orbit. Germination and growth of B. subtilis were initiated by humidification, E. coli and fibroblasts were thawed up and incubated at 37 degrees C for defined repair periods (up to 4.5 h), thereafter they were frozen again for laboratory analysis. Relevant controls were performed in-flight (1 x g reference centrifuge) and on ground (1 x g and 1.4 x g) The results show no significant differences between the microgravity samples and the corresponding controls neither in the survival curves nor in the kinetics of DNA strand break rejoining and induction of the SOS response (proven by Student's t-test, 2 P = 0.05). These observations provide evidence that in the microgravity environment cells are able to repair radiation-induced DNA damage close to normality. The results suggest that a disturbance of cellular repair processes in the microgravity environment might not be the explanation for the reported synergism of radiation and microgravity. PMID:8987564

Horneck, G; Rettberg, P; Baumstark-Khan, C; Rink, H; Kozubek, S; Schäfer, M; Schmitz, C

1996-06-27

226

PARP1-TDP1 coupling for the repair of topoisomerase I-induced DNA damage  

PubMed Central

Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARP) attach poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) chains to various proteins including themselves and chromatin. Topoisomerase I (Top1) regulates DNA supercoiling and is the target of camptothecin and indenoisoquinoline anticancer drugs, as it forms Top1 cleavage complexes (Top1cc) that are trapped by the drugs. Endogenous and carcinogenic DNA lesions can also trap Top1cc. Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (TDP1), a key repair enzyme for trapped Top1cc, hydrolyzes the phosphodiester bond between the DNA 3?-end and the Top1 tyrosyl moiety. Alternative repair pathways for Top1cc involve endonuclease cleavage. However, it is unknown what determines the choice between TDP1 and the endonuclease repair pathways. Here we show that PARP1 plays a critical role in this process. By generating TDP1 and PARP1 double-knockout lymphoma chicken DT40 cells, we demonstrate that TDP1 and PARP1 are epistatic for the repair of Top1cc. The N-terminal domain of TDP1 directly binds the C-terminal domain of PARP1, and TDP1 is PARylated by PARP1. PARylation stabilizes TDP1 together with SUMOylation of TDP1. TDP1 PARylation enhances its recruitment to DNA damage sites without interfering with TDP1 catalytic activity. TDP1–PARP1 complexes, in turn recruit X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 1 (XRCC1). This work identifies PARP1 as a key component driving the repair of trapped Top1cc by TDP1.

Das, Benu Brata; Huang, Shar-yin N.; Murai, Junko; Rehman, Ishita; Ame, Jean-Christophe; Sengupta, Souvik; Das, Subhendu K.; Majumdar, Papiya; Zhang, Hongliang; Biard, Denis; Majumder, Hemanta K.; Schreiber, Valerie; Pommier, Yves

2014-01-01

227

Kinetic analysis of DNA double-strand break repair pathways in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Double-strand breaks in genomic DNA (DSB) are potentially lethal lesions which separate parts of chromosome arms from their centromeres. Repair of DSB by recombination can generate mutations and further chromosomal rearrangements, making the regulation of recombination and the choice of recombination pathways of the highest importance. Although knowledge of recombination mechanisms has considerably advanced, the complex interrelationships and regulation of pathways are far from being fully understood. We analyse the different pathways of DSB repair acting in G2/M phase nuclei of irradiated plants, through quantitation of the kinetics of appearance and loss of ?-H2AX foci in Arabidopsis mutants. These analyses show the roles for the four major recombination pathways in post-S-phase DSB repair and that non-homologous recombination pathways constitute the major response. The data suggest a hierarchical organisation of DSB repair in these cells: C-NHEJ acts prior to B-NHEJ which can also inhibit MMEJ. Surprisingly the quadruple ku80 xrcc1 xrcc2 xpf mutant can repair DSB, although with severely altered kinetics. This repair leads to massive genetic instability with more than 50% of mitoses showing anaphase bridges following irradiation. This study thus clarifies the relationships between the different pathways of DSB repair in the living plant and points to the existence of novel DSB repair processes. PMID:21530420

Charbonnel, Cyril; Allain, Elisabeth; Gallego, Maria Eugenia; White, Charles I

2011-06-10

228

Both genetic and dietary factors underlie individual differences in DNA damage levels and DNA repair capacity.  

PubMed

The interplay between dietary habits and individual genetic make-up is assumed to influence risk of cancer, via modulation of DNA integrity. Our aim was to characterize internal and external factors that underlie inter-individual variability in DNA damage and repair and to identify dietary habits beneficial for maintaining DNA integrity. Habitual diet was estimated in 340 healthy individuals using a food frequency questionnaire and biomarkers of antioxidant status were quantified in fasting blood samples. Markers of DNA integrity were represented by DNA strand breaks, oxidized purines, oxidized pyrimidines and a sum of all three as total DNA damage. DNA repair was characterized by genetic variants and functional activities of base and nucleotide excision repair pathways. Sex, fruit-based food consumption and XPG genotype were factors significantly associated with the level of DNA damage. DNA damage was higher in women (p=0.035). Fruit consumption was negatively associated with the number of all measured DNA lesions, and this effect was mediated mostly by ?-cryptoxanthin and ?-tocopherol (p<0.05). XPG 1104His homozygotes appeared more vulnerable to DNA damage accumulation (p=0.001). Sex and individual antioxidants were also associated with DNA repair capacity; both the base and nucleotide excision repairs were lower in women and the latter increased with higher plasma levels of ascorbic acid and ?-carotene (p<0.05). We have determined genetic and dietary factors that modulate DNA integrity. We propose that the positive health effect of fruit intake is partially mediated via DNA damage suppression and a simultaneous increase in DNA repair capacity. PMID:24674629

Slyskova, Jana; Lorenzo, Yolanda; Karlsen, Anette; Carlsen, Monica H; Novosadova, Vendula; Blomhoff, Rune; Vodicka, Pavel; Collins, Andrew R

2014-04-01

229

The MRN complex in Double-Strand Break Repair and Telomere Maintenance  

PubMed Central

Genomes are subject to constant threat by damaging agents that generate DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The ends of linear chromosomes need to be protected from DNA damage recognition and end-joining, and this is achieved through protein-DNA complexes known as telomeres. The Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex plays important roles in detection and signaling of DSBs, as well as the repair pathways of homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). In addition, MRN associates with telomeres and contributes to their maintenance. Here we provide an overview of MRN functions at DSBs, and examine its roles in telomere maintenance and dysfunction.

Lamarche, Brandon J; Orazio, Nicole I; Weitzman, Matthew D

2010-01-01

230

Methylating agents and DNA repair responses: methylated bases and sources of strand breaks  

PubMed Central

The chemical methylating agents methylmethane sulfonate (MMS) and N-methyl-N?-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) have been used for decades as classical DNA damaging agents. These agents have been utilized to uncover and explore pathways of DNA repair, DNA damage response, and mutagenesis. MMS and MNNG modify DNA by adding methyl groups to a number of nucleophilic sites on the DNA bases, although MNNG produces a greater percentage of O-methyl adducts. There has been substantial progress elucidating direct reversal proteins that remove methyl groups and base excision repair (BER), which removes and replaces methylated bases. Direct reversal proteins and BER thus counteract the toxic, mutagenic and clastogenic effects of methylating agents. Despite recent progress, the complexity of DNA damage responses to methylating agents is still being discovered. In particular, there is growing understanding of pathways such as homologous recombination, lesion bypass, and mismatch repair that react when the response of direct reversal proteins and BER is insufficient. Furthermore, the importance of proper balance within the steps in BER has been uncovered with the knowledge that DNA structural intermediates during BER are deleterious. A number of issues complicate elucidating the downstream responses when direct reversal is insufficient or BER is imbalanced. These include inter-species differences, cell-type specific differences within mammals and between cancer cell lines, and the type of methyl damage or BER intermediate encountered. MMS also carries a misleading reputation of being a ‘radiomimetic,’ i.e., capable of directly producing strand breaks. This review focuses on the DNA methyl damage caused by MMS and MNNG for each site of potential methylation to summarize what is known about the repair of such damage and the downstream responses and consequences if not repaired.

Wyatt, Michael D.; Pittman, Douglas L.

2008-01-01

231

Visualization of Eukaryotic DNA Mismatch Repair Reveals Distinct Recognition and Repair Intermediates  

PubMed Central

Summary DNA Mismatch Repair (MMR) increases replication fidelity by eliminating mispaired bases resulting from replication errors. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae mispairs are primarily detected by the Msh2-Msh6 complex and corrected following subsequent recruitment of the Mlh1-Pms1 complex. Here, we visualized functional fluorescent versions of Msh2-Msh6 and Mlh1-Pms1 in living cells. Msh2-Msh6 formed foci in S-phase that colocalized with replication factories; this localized pool accounted for 10–15% of MMR in wild-type cells but was essential for MMR in the absence of the exonuclease Exo1. Mlh1-Pms1 also formed foci that, while requiring Msh2-Msh6 for their formation, rarely colocalized with Msh2-Msh6. Mlh1-Pms1 foci increased when the number of mispaired bases was increased; in contrast, Msh2-Msh6 foci were unaffected. These results suggest that (I) mispair recognition can occur via either a replication factory-targeted or a second distinct pool of Msh2-Msh6, and (II) superstoichiometric Mlh1-Pms1 assembly triggered by mispair-bound Msh2-Msh6 defines sites of active MMR.

Hombauer, Hans; Campbell, Christopher S.; Smith, Catherine E.; Desai, Arshad; Kolodner, Richard D.

2011-01-01

232

The role of the Fanconi anemia pathway in DNA repair and maintenance of genome stability.  

PubMed

The Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway is one of the DNA repair systems involved in removal of DNA crosslinks. Proteins which belong to this pathway are crucial to the protection of genetic information, whereas disturbances in their function have serious implications for the whole organism. Biallelic mutations in FA genes are the cause of Fanconi anemia - a genetic disease which manifests itself through numerous congenital abnormalities, chromosomal instability and increased predisposition to cancer. The FA pathway is composed of fifteen proteins. Eight of them, in the presence of DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs), form a nuclear core complex responsible for monoubiquitination of FANCD2 and FANCI, which is a key step of ICL repair. FA proteins which are not involved in the monoubiquitination step participate in repair of DNA double strand breaks via homologous recombination. Some of the FA proteins, besides having a direct role in the repair of DNA damage, are engaged in replication, cell cycle control and mitosis. The unperturbed course of those processes determines the maintenance of genome stability. PMID:24864098

Koczorowska, Aleksandra M; Bia?kowska, Aneta; Kluzek, Katarzyna; Zdzienicka, Ma?gorzata Z

2014-01-01

233

Dynamics and pathway of electron tunneling in repair of damaged DNA by photolyase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through electron tunneling, photolyase, a photoenzyme, restores damaged DNA into normal bases. Here, we report our systematic characterization and analyses of three electron transfer processes in thymine dimer restoration by following the entire dynamical evolution during enzymatic repair with femtosecond resolution. Using (deoxy)uracil and thymine as dimer substrates, we unambiguously determined the electron tunneling pathways for the forward electron transfer to initiate repairing and for the final electron return to restore the active cofactor and complete the repair photocycle. Significantly, we found that the adenine moiety of the unusual bent cofactor is essential to mediating all electron-transfer dynamics through a super-exchange mechanism, leading to a delicate balance of time scales. The active-site structural integrity, unique electron tunneling pathways and the critical role of adenine assure these elementary dynamics in synergy in this complex photorepair machinery to achieve the maximum repair efficiency close to unity.

Liu, Zheyun; Guo, Xunmin; Tan, Chuang; Li, Jiang; Kao, Ya-Ting; Wang, Lijuan; Sancar, Aziz; Zhong, Dongping

2013-03-01

234

Damage and repair of ancient DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under certain conditions small amounts of DNA can survive for long periods of time and can be used as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) substrates for the study of phylogenetic relationships and population genetics of extinct plants and animals, including hominids. Because of extensive DNA degradation, these studies are limited to species that lived within the past 104–105 years (Late Pleistocene),

David Mitchell; Eske Willerslev; Anders Hansen

2005-01-01

235

Human DNA2 Is a Mitochondrial Nuclease\\/Helicase for Efficient Processing of DNA Replication and Repair Intermediates  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY DNA2, a helicase\\/nuclease family member, plays versatile roles in processing DNA intermediates during DNA replication and repair. Yeast Dna2 (yDna2) is essential in RNA primer removal during nuclear DNA replication and is important in repairing UV damage, base damage, and double-strand breaks. Our data demonstrate that, surprisingly, human DNA2 (hDNA2) does not localize to nuclei, as it lacks a

Li Zheng; Mian Zhou; Zhigang Guo; Huiming Lu; Limin Qian; Huifang Dai; Junzhuan Qiu; Elena Yakubovskaya; Daniel F. Bogenhagen; Bruce Demple; Binghui Shen

2008-01-01

236

At the intersection of non-coding transcription, DNA repair, chromatin structure, and cellular senescence  

PubMed Central

It is well accepted that non-coding RNAs play a critical role in regulating gene expression. Recent paradigm-setting studies are now revealing that non-coding RNAs, other than microRNAs, also play intriguing roles in the maintenance of chromatin structure, in the DNA damage response, and in adult human stem cell aging. In this review, we will discuss the complex inter-dependent relationships among non-coding RNA transcription, maintenance of genomic stability, chromatin structure, and adult stem cell senescence. DNA damage-induced non-coding RNAs transcribed in the vicinity of the DNA break regulate recruitment of the DNA damage machinery and DNA repair efficiency. We will discuss the correlation between non-coding RNAs and DNA damage repair efficiency and the potential role of changing chromatin structures around double-strand break sites. On the other hand, induction of non-coding RNA transcription from the repetitive Alu elements occurs during human stem cell aging and hinders efficient DNA repair causing entry into senescence. We will discuss how this fine balance between transcription and genomic instability may be regulated by the dramatic changes to chromatin structure that accompany cellular senescence.

Ohsawa, Ryosuke; Seol, Ja-Hwan; Tyler, Jessica K.

2013-01-01

237

At the intersection of non-coding transcription, DNA repair, chromatin structure, and cellular senescence.  

PubMed

It is well accepted that non-coding RNAs play a critical role in regulating gene expression. Recent paradigm-setting studies are now revealing that non-coding RNAs, other than microRNAs, also play intriguing roles in the maintenance of chromatin structure, in the DNA damage response, and in adult human stem cell aging. In this review, we will discuss the complex inter-dependent relationships among non-coding RNA transcription, maintenance of genomic stability, chromatin structure, and adult stem cell senescence. DNA damage-induced non-coding RNAs transcribed in the vicinity of the DNA break regulate recruitment of the DNA damage machinery and DNA repair efficiency. We will discuss the correlation between non-coding RNAs and DNA damage repair efficiency and the potential role of changing chromatin structures around double-strand break sites. On the other hand, induction of non-coding RNA transcription from the repetitive Alu elements occurs during human stem cell aging and hinders efficient DNA repair causing entry into senescence. We will discuss how this fine balance between transcription and genomic instability may be regulated by the dramatic changes to chromatin structure that accompany cellular senescence. PMID:23967007

Ohsawa, Ryosuke; Seol, Ja-Hwan; Tyler, Jessica K

2013-01-01

238

Interactions of RecF protein with RecO, RecR, and single-stranded DNA binding proteins reveal roles for the RecF-RecO-RecR complex in DNA repair and recombination  

PubMed Central

The products of the recF, recO, and recR genes are thought to interact and assist RecA in the utilization of single-stranded DNA precomplexed with single-stranded DNA binding protein (Ssb) during synapsis. Using immunoprecipitation, size-exclusion chromatography, and Ssb protein affinity chromatography in the absence of any nucleotide cofactors, we have obtained the following results: (i) RecF interacts with RecO, (ii) RecF interacts with RecR in the presence of RecO to form a complex consisting of RecF, RecO, and RecR (RecF–RecO–RecR); (iii) RecF interacts with Ssb protein in the presence of RecO. These data suggested that RecO mediates the interactions of RecF protein with RecR and with Ssb proteins. Incubation of RecF, RecO, RecR, and Ssb proteins resulted in the formation of RecF–RecO–Ssb complexes; i.e., RecR was excluded. Preincubation of RecF, RecO, and RecR proteins prior to addition of Ssb protein resulted in the formation of complexes consisting of RecF, RecO, RecR, and Ssb proteins. These data suggest that one role of RecF is to stabilize the interaction of RecR with RecO in the presence of Ssb protein. Finally, we found that interactions of RecF with RecO are lost in the presence of ATP. We discuss these results to explain how the RecF–RecO–RecR complex functions as an anti-Ssb factor.

Hegde, Shrikanth P.; Qin, Ming-hui; Li, Xin-hui; Atkinson, Mark A. L.; Clark, Alvin J.; Rajagopalan, Malini; Madiraju, Murty V. V. S.

1996-01-01

239

Interactions of RecF protein with RecO, RecR, and single-stranded DNA binding proteins reveal roles for the RecF-RecO-RecR complex in DNA repair and recombination.  

PubMed

The products of the recF, recO, and recR genes are thought to interact and assist RecA in the utilization of single-stranded DNA precomplexed with single-stranded DNA binding protein (Ssb) during synapsis. Using immunoprecipitation, size-exclusion chromatography, and Ssb protein affinity chromatography in the absence of any nucleotide cofactors, we have obtained the following results: (i) RecF interacts with RecO, (ii) RecF interacts with RecR in the presence of RecO to form a complex consisting of RecF, RecO, and RecR (RecF-RecO-RecR); (iii) RecF interacts with Ssb protein in the presence of RecO. These data suggested that RecO mediates the interactions of RecF protein with RecR and with Ssb proteins. Incubation of RecF, RecO, RecR, and Ssb proteins resulted in the formation of RecF-RecO-Ssb complexes; i.e., RecR was excluded. Preincubation of RecF, RecO, and RecR proteins prior to addition of Ssb protein resulted in the formation of complexes consisting of RecF, RecO, RecR, and Ssb proteins. These data suggest that one role of RecF is to stabilize the interaction of RecR with RecO in the presence of Ssb protein. Finally, we found that interactions of RecF with RecO are lost in the presence of ATP. We discuss these results to explain how the RecF-RecO-RecR complex functions as an anti-Ssb factor. PMID:8962075

Hegde, S P; Qin, M H; Li, X H; Atkinson, M A; Clark, A J; Rajagopalan, M; Madiraju, M V

1996-12-10

240

Involvement of DNA-PK(sub cs) in DSB Repair Following Fe-56 Ion Irradiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When cells are exposed to radiation, cellular lesions are induced in the DNA including double strand breaks (DSBs), single strand breaks and clustered DNA damage, which if not repaired with high fidelity may lead to detrimental biological consequences. Complex DSBs are induced by ionizing radiation and characterized by the presence of base lesions close to the break termini. They are believed to be one of the major causes of the biological effects of IR. The complexity of DSBs increases with the ionization density of the radiation and these complex DSBs are distinct from the damage induced by sparsely ionizing gamma-radiation. It has been hypothesized that complex DSBs produced by heavy ions in space pose problems to the DNA repair machinery. We have used imm uno-cyto-chemical staining of phosphorylated histone H2AX (gamma-H2AX) foci, as a marker of DSBs. We have investigated the formation and loss of gamma-H2AX foci and RAD51 foci (a protein involved in the homologous recombination pathway) in mammalian cells induced by low fluences of low-LET gamma-radiation and high-LET Fe-56 ions (1GeV/n, 151 keV/micron LET). M059J and M059K cells, which are deficient and proficient in DNA-PK(sub cs) activity respectively, were used to examine the role of DNA-PK(sub cs), a key protein in the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway of DSB repair, along with HF19 human fibroblasts. Followi ng irradiation with Fe-56 ions the rate of repair was slower in M059J cells compared with that in M059K, indicating a role for DNA-PK(sub cs) in the repair of DSB induced by Fe-56 ions. However a small percentage of DSBs induced are rejoined within 5 h although many DSBs still persist up to 24 h. When RAD51 was examined in M059J/K cells, RAD51 foci are visible 24 hours after irradiation in approximately 40% of M059J cells compared with <5% of M059K cells indicating that persistent DSBs or those formed at stalled replication forks recruit RAD51 in DNA-PK(sub cs) deficient cells. Following 1 Gy gamma-radiation the induction of gamma-H2AX foci is similar in M059J and M059K cells. However, the repair rate of DSBs is slower in M059J cells than in M059K as shown previously but faster than seen with DSB induced by 56Fe ions. Vanillin, an inhibitor of DNA-PK(sub cs), reduces significantly the rate of DSB repair in HF19 cells following 1 Gy gamma-radiation but at 0.25 Gy gamma-irradiation the rate of DSB repair is similar in the presence or absence vanillin, thus suggesting the repair of a sub-set of DSBs induced by low dose, low-LET radiation does not require DNA-PK(sub cs). This sub-set of DSBs is formed in lower yield with high LET radiation. T he complexity of DNA DSBs induced by HZE radiation will be discussed in terms of reduced repair efficiency and provide scope to model different sub-classes of DSBs as precursors that may lead to the detrimental health effects of HZE radiation.

O'Neill, Peter; Harper, Jane; Anderson, Jennifer a.; Cucinnota, Francis A.

2007-01-01

241

Monitoring repair of UV-induced 6-4-photoproducts with a purified DDB2 protein complex.  

PubMed

Because cells are constantly subjected to DNA damaging insults, DNA repair pathways are critical for genome integrity [1]. DNA damage recognition protein complexes (DRCs) recognize DNA damage and initiate DNA repair. The DNA-Damage Binding protein 2 (DDB2) complex is a DRC that initiates nucleotide excision repair (NER) of DNA damage caused by ultraviolet light (UV) [2]-[4]. Using a purified DDB2 DRC, we created a probe ("DDB2 proteo-probe") that hybridizes to nuclei of cells irradiated with UV and not to cells exposed to other genotoxins. The DDB2 proteo-probe recognized UV-irradiated DNA in classical laboratory assays, including cyto- and histo-chemistry, flow cytometry, and slot-blotting. When immobilized, the proteo-probe also bound soluble UV-irradiated DNA in ELISA-like and DNA pull-down assays. In vitro, the DDB2 proteo-probe preferentially bound 6-4-photoproducts [(6-4)PPs] rather than cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs). We followed UV-damage repair by cyto-chemistry in cells fixed at different time after UV irradiation, using either the DDB2 proteo-probe or antibodies against CPDs, or (6-4)PPs. The signals obtained with the DDB2 proteo-probe and with the antibody against (6-4)PPs decreased in a nearly identical manner. Since (6-4)PPs are repaired only by nucleotide excision repair (NER), our results strongly suggest the DDB2 proteo-probe hybridizes to DNA containing (6-4)PPs and allows monitoring of their removal during NER. We discuss the general use of purified DRCs as probes, in lieu of antibodies, to recognize and monitor DNA damage and repair. PMID:24489677

Dreze, Matija; Calkins, Anne S; Gálicza, Judit; Echelman, Daniel J; Schnorenberg, Mathew R; Fell, Gillian L; Iwai, Shigenori; Fisher, David E; Szüts, David; Iglehart, J Dirk; Lazaro, Jean-Bernard

2014-01-01

242

DNA repair variants, indoor tanning, and risk of melanoma.  

PubMed

Although ultraviolet radiation (UV) exposure from indoor tanning has been linked to an increased risk of melanoma, the role of DNA repair genes in this process is unknown. We evaluated the association of 92 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 20 DNA repair genes with the risk of melanoma and indoor tanning among 929 patients with melanoma and 817 controls from the Minnesota Skin Health Study. Significant associations with melanoma risk were identified for SNPs in ERCC4, ERCC6, RFC1, XPC, MGMT, and FBRSL1 genes; with a cutoff of P < 0.05. ERCC6 and FBRSL1 gene variants and haplotypes interacted with indoor tanning. However, none of the 92 SNPs tested met the correction criteria for multiple comparisons. This study, based on an a priori interest in investigating the role of DNA repair capacity using variants in base excision and nucleotide excision repair, identified several genes that may play a role in resolving UV-induced DNA damage. PMID:23659246

Torres, Salina M; Luo, Li; Lilyquist, Jenna; Stidley, Christine A; Flores, Kristina; White, Kirsten A M; Erdei, Esther; Gonzales, Melissa; Paine, Susan; Vogel, Rachel I; Lazovich, Deann; Berwick, Marianne

2013-09-01

243

DNA repair factor APLF is a histone chaperone  

PubMed Central

Summary Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation plays a major role in DNA repair, where it regulates chromatin relaxation as one of the critical events in the repair process. However, the molecular mechanism by which poly(ADP-ribose) modulates chromatin remains poorly understood. Here we identify the poly(ADP-ribose)-regulated protein APLF as a DNA damage-specific histone chaperone. APLF preferentially binds to the histone H3/H4 tetramer via its C-terminal acidic motif, which is homologous to the motif conserved in the histone chaperones of the NAP1L family (NAP1L motif). We further demonstrate that APLF exhibits histone chaperone activities in a manner that is dependent on its acidic domain and that the NAP1L motif is critical for the repair capacity of APLF in vivo. Finally, we identify structural analogues of APLF in lower eukaryotes with the ability to bind histones and localize to the sites of DNA-damage-induced poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. Collectively, these findings define the involvement of histone chaperones in poly(ADP-ribose)-regulated DNA repair reactions.

Mehrotra, Pawan Vinod; Ahel, Dragana; Ryan, Daniel P.; Weston, Ria; Wiechens, Nicola; Kraehenbuehl, Rolf; Owen-Hughes, Tom; Ahel, Ivan

2012-01-01

244

Relationship between Helicobacter pylori and DNA mismatch repair system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helicobacter pylori infection causes the defect of mismatch repair (MMR) in eucaryotes, and mi- crosatellite instability (MSI) in gastric epithelial cells, which increases the spontaneous muta- tion of relative genes, and finally results in the susceptibility to tumors in human bodies. DNA MMR can prevent the excessive proliferation of mutant cells and development of tumors by cor- recting mismatched bases,

Ying Wu; Zheng Jiang

245

Effect of cyclosporin A on DNA repair and cancer incidence in kidney transplant recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancer incidence is enhanced in transplant recipients. Decreased DNA repair ability is associated with increased cancer incidence. Transplanted patients with cancer were found to have reduced DNA repair. We hypothesized that immunosuppressive therapy may impair DNA repair and thus contribute to the increased cancer incidence in transplanted patients. The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate the effect of

Michal Herman; Talia Weinstein; Asher Korzets; Avry Chagnac; Yaacov Ori; Dina Zevin; Tsipora Malachi; Uzi Gafter

2001-01-01

246

A YY1–INO80 complex regulates genomic stability through homologous recombination–based repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA damage repair is crucial for the maintenance of genome integrity and cancer suppression. We found that loss of the mouse transcription factor YY1 resulted in polyploidy and chromatid aberrations, which are signatures of defects in homologous recombination. Further biochemical analyses identified a YY1 complex comprising components of the evolutionarily conserved INO80 chromatin-remodeling complex. Notably, RNA interference–mediated knockdown of YY1

Su Wu; Yujiang Shi; Peter Mulligan; Frédérique Gay; Joseph Landry; Huifei Liu; Ju Lu; Hank H Qi; Weijia Wang; Jac A Nickoloff; Carl Wu; Yang Shi

2007-01-01

247

Genome analysis of DNA repair genes in the alpha proteobacterium Caulobacter crescentus  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The integrity of DNA molecules is fundamental for maintaining life. The DNA repair proteins protect organisms against genetic damage, by removal of DNA lesions or helping to tolerate them. DNA repair genes are best known from the gamma-proteobacterium Escherichia coli, which is the most understood bacterial model. However, genome sequencing raises questions regarding uniformity and ubiquity of these DNA

Marinalva Martins-Pinheiro; Carlos FM Menck

2007-01-01

248

The Caenorhabditis elegans Homolog of Gen1/Yen1 Resolvases Links DNA Damage Signaling to DNA Double-Strand Break Repair  

PubMed Central

DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) can be repaired by homologous recombination (HR), which can involve Holliday junction (HJ) intermediates that are ultimately resolved by nucleolytic enzymes. An N-terminal fragment of human GEN1 has recently been shown to act as a Holliday junction resolvase, but little is known about the role of GEN-1 in vivo. Holliday junction resolution signifies the completion of DNA repair, a step that may be coupled to signaling proteins that regulate cell cycle progression in response to DNA damage. Using forward genetic approaches, we identified a Caenorhabditis elegans dual function DNA double-strand break repair and DNA damage signaling protein orthologous to the human GEN1 Holliday junction resolving enzyme. GEN-1 has biochemical activities related to the human enzyme and facilitates repair of DNA double-strand breaks, but is not essential for DNA double-strand break repair during meiotic recombination. Mutational analysis reveals that the DNA damage-signaling function of GEN-1 is separable from its role in DNA repair. GEN-1 promotes germ cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via a pathway that acts in parallel to the canonical DNA damage response pathway mediated by RPA loading, CHK1 activation, and CEP-1/p53–mediated apoptosis induction. Furthermore, GEN-1 acts redundantly with the 9-1-1 complex to ensure genome stability. Our study suggests that GEN-1 might act as a dual function Holliday junction resolvase that may coordinate DNA damage signaling with a late step in DNA double-strand break repair.

Bailly, Aymeric P.; Alpi, Arno; Lilley, David M. J.; Ahmed, Shawn; Gartner, Anton

2010-01-01

249

The Caenorhabditis elegans homolog of Gen1/Yen1 resolvases links DNA damage signaling to DNA double-strand break repair.  

PubMed

DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) can be repaired by homologous recombination (HR), which can involve Holliday junction (HJ) intermediates that are ultimately resolved by nucleolytic enzymes. An N-terminal fragment of human GEN1 has recently been shown to act as a Holliday junction resolvase, but little is known about the role of GEN-1 in vivo. Holliday junction resolution signifies the completion of DNA repair, a step that may be coupled to signaling proteins that regulate cell cycle progression in response to DNA damage. Using forward genetic approaches, we identified a Caenorhabditis elegans dual function DNA double-strand break repair and DNA damage signaling protein orthologous to the human GEN1 Holliday junction resolving enzyme. GEN-1 has biochemical activities related to the human enzyme and facilitates repair of DNA double-strand breaks, but is not essential for DNA double-strand break repair during meiotic recombination. Mutational analysis reveals that the DNA damage-signaling function of GEN-1 is separable from its role in DNA repair. GEN-1 promotes germ cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via a pathway that acts in parallel to the canonical DNA damage response pathway mediated by RPA loading, CHK1 activation, and CEP-1/p53-mediated apoptosis induction. Furthermore, GEN-1 acts redundantly with the 9-1-1 complex to ensure genome stability. Our study suggests that GEN-1 might act as a dual function Holliday junction resolvase that may coordinate DNA damage signaling with a late step in DNA double-strand break repair. PMID:20661466

Bailly, Aymeric P; Freeman, Alasdair; Hall, Julie; Déclais, Anne-Cécile; Alpi, Arno; Lilley, David M J; Ahmed, Shawn; Gartner, Anton

2010-07-01

250

Spatiotemporal analysis of DNA repair using charged particle radiation.  

PubMed

Approaches to visualise the dynamics of the DNA lesion processing substantially contributes to the understanding of the hierarchical organisation of the DNA damage response pathways. Charged particle irradiation has recently emerged as a tool to generate discrete sites of subnuclear damage by its means of extremely localised dose deposition at low energies, thus facilitating the spatiotemporal analysis of repair events. In addition, they are of high interest for risk estimations of human space exploration (e.g. mars mission) in the high energy regime (HZE). In this short review we will give examples for the application of charged particle irradiation to study spatiotemporal aspects of DNA damage recognition and repair in the context of recent achievements in this field. Beamline microscopy allows determining the exact kinetics of repair-related proteins after irradiation with different charged particles that induce different lesion densities. The classification into fast recruited proteins like DNA-PK or XRCC1 or slower recruited ones like 53BP1 or MDC1 helps to establish the hierarchical organisation of damage recognition and subsequent repair events. Additionally, motional analysis of DNA lesions induced by traversing particles proved information about the mobility of DSBs. Increased mobility or the absence of large scale motion has direct consequences on the formation of chromosomal translocations and, thus, on mechanisms of cancer formation. Charged particle microbeams offer the interesting perspective of precise nuclear or subnuclear targeting with a defined number of ions, avoiding the Poisson distribution of traversals inherent to broad beam experiments. With the help of the microbeam, geometrical patterns of traversing ions can be applied facilitating the analysis of spatial organisation of repair. PMID:19944777

Tobias, F; Durante, M; Taucher-Scholz, G; Jakob, B

2010-01-01

251

Polymorphisms of DNA repair genes in endometrial cancer.  

PubMed

Endometrial cancer belongs to the commonest malignancy in females. Its development may be associated with the high exposure of endometrium to exo- and endogenous estrogens. Estrogens produce DNA bulky adducts and oxidative base damages which are removed in nucleotide excision repair (NER) and base excision repair (BER) pathways. The reaction of endometrial cells to DNA damage may be crucial for their susceptibility to cancer transformation. This reaction is executed mainly by DNA repair, which can be modulated by the variability in the genes encoding DNA repair proteins. In this report we genotyped 4 polymorphisms of 3 DNA repair genes in 94 endometrial cancer patients and 114 age-matched cancer-free women using RFLP-PCR. The following polymorphisms were studied: p.Arg194Trp, p.Arg399Gln of the XRCC1 gene, p.Ser326Cys of the hOGG1 gene and p.Lys751Gln of the ERCC2 gene. We found an association between the ERCC2 751Gln variant and endometrial cancer occurrence (OR 3.95; 95 % CI 1.88-8.31). Gene-gene interaction between the ERCC2 751Gln and XRCC1 194Trp variants also increased the risk of endometrial cancer (OR 4.41; 95 % CI 2.01-9.67). The risk in the carriers of the ERCC2 751Gln variant was increased by a positive cancer history in first degree relatives (OR 4.97; 95 % CI 1.98-12.48). The risk of endometrial cancer was not alter by polymorphism p.Ser326Cys of the hOGG1 gene. The 751 Lys/Gln polymorphism of the ERCC2 gene may be linked with endometrial cancer occurrence and its effect can be potentiated by variants of the XRCC1 gene or first degree relatives positive cancer history. PMID:22544315

Sobczuk, Anna; Poplawski, Tomasz; Blasiak, Janusz

2012-10-01

252

DNA repair in spermatocytes and spermatids of the mouse  

SciTech Connect

When male mice are exposed to chemical agents that reach the germ cells several outcomes are possible in terms of the germ cell unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) response and removal of DNA adducts. It is possible that: the chemical binds to the DNA and induces a UDS response with concomittant removal of DNA adducts; the chemical binds to the DNA but no UDS response is induced; or the chemical does not bind to DNA and no UDS is induced. Many mutagens have been shown to induce a UDS response in postgonial germ cell stages of the male mouse up through midspermatids, but the relationship between this UDS and the repair of genetic damage within the germ cells is still unknown. While some mutagens appear to have an effect only in germ-cell stages where no UDS occurs, others are able to induce genetic damage in stages where UDS has been induced.

Sega, G.A.

1982-01-01

253

Mechanism of Cluster DNA Damage Repair in Response to High-Atomic Number and Energy Particles Radiation  

PubMed Central

Low-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation (i.e., ?- and X-rays) induces DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) that are rapidly repaired (rejoined). In contrast, DNA damage induced by the dense ionizing track of high-atomic number and energy (HZE) particles are slowly repaired or are irreparable. These unrepaired and/or misrepaired DNA lesions may contribute to the observed higher relative biological effectiveness for cell killing, chromosomal aberrations, mutagenesis, and carcinogenesis in HZE particle irradiated cells compared to those treated with low-LET radiation. The types of DNA lesions induced by HZE particles have been characterized in vitro and usually consist of two or more closely spaced strand breaks, abasic sites, or oxidized bases on opposing strands. It is unclear why these lesions are difficult to repair. In this review, we highlight the potential of a new technology allowing direct visualization of different types of DNA lesions in human cells and document the emerging significance of live-cell imaging for elucidation of the spatio-temporal characterization of complex DNA damage. We focus on the recent insights into the molecular pathways that participate in the repair of HZE particle-induced DSBs. We also discuss recent advances in our understanding of how different end-processing nucleases aid in repair of DSBs with complicated ends generated by HZE particles. Understanding the mechanism underlying the repair of DNA damage induced by HZE particles will have important implications for estimating the risks to human health associated with HZE particle exposure.

Asaithamby, Aroumougame; Chen, David J.

2012-01-01

254

Mre11 Dimers Coordinate DNA End Bridging and Nuclease Processing in Double-Strand-Break Repair  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Mre11 forms the core of the multifunctional Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex that detects DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), activates the ATM checkpoint kinase, and initiates homologous recombination (HR) repair of DSBs. To de?ne the roles of Mre11 in both DNA bridging and nucleolytic processing during initiation of DSB repair, we combined small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and crystal structures of Pyrococcus furiosus Mre11 dimers bound to DNA with mutational analyses of ?ssion yeast Mre11. The Mre11 dimer adopts a four-lobed U-shaped structure that is critical for proper MRN complex assembly and for binding and aligning DNA ends. Further, mutations blocking Mre11 endonuclease activity impair cell survival after DSB induction without compromising MRN complex assembly or Mre11-dependant recruitment of Ctp1, an HR factor, to DSBs. These results show how Mre11 dimerization and nuclease activities initiate repair of DSBs and collapsed replication forks, as well as provide a molecular foundation for understanding cancer-causing Mre11 mutations in ataxia telangiectasia-like disorder (ATLD).

Williams, R. Scott; Moncalian, Gabriel; Williams, Jessica S.; Yamada, Yoshiki; Limbo, Oliver; Shin, David S.; Groocock, Lynda M.; Cahill, Dana; Hitomi, Chiharu; Guenther, Grant; Moiani, Davide; Carney, James P.; Russell, Paul; Tainer, John A.

2008-01-01

255

GADD45? inhibition of DNMT1 dependent DNA methylation during homology directed DNA repair  

PubMed Central

In this work, we examine regulation of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) by the DNA damage inducible protein, GADD45?. We used a system to induce homologous recombination (HR) at a unique double-strand DNA break in a GFP reporter in mammalian cells. After HR, the repaired DNA is hypermethylated in recombinant clones showing low GFP expression (HR-L expressor class), while in high expressor recombinants (HR-H clones) previous methylation patterns are erased. GADD45?, which is transiently induced by double-strand breaks, binds to chromatin undergoing HR repair. Ectopic overexpression of GADD45? during repair increases the HR-H fraction of cells (hypomethylated repaired DNA), without altering the recombination frequency. Conversely, silencing of GADD45? increases methylation of the recombined segment and amplifies the HR-L expressor (hypermethylated) population. GADD45? specifically interacts with the catalytic site of DNMT1 and inhibits methylation activity in vitro. We propose that double-strand DNA damage and the resulting HR process involves precise, strand selected DNA methylation by DNMT1 that is regulated by GADD45?. Since GADD45? binds with high avidity to hemimethylated DNA intermediates, it may also provide a barrier to spreading of methylation during or after HR repair.

Lee, Bongyong; Morano, Annalisa; Porcellini, Antonio; Muller, Mark T.

2012-01-01

256

Hypomorphic PCNA mutation underlies a human DNA repair disorder.  

PubMed

Numerous human disorders, including Cockayne syndrome, UV-sensitive syndrome, xeroderma pigmentosum, and trichothiodystrophy, result from the mutation of genes encoding molecules important for nucleotide excision repair. Here, we describe a syndrome in which the cardinal clinical features include short stature, hearing loss, premature aging, telangiectasia, neurodegeneration, and photosensitivity, resulting from a homozygous missense (p.Ser228Ile) sequence alteration of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). PCNA is a highly conserved sliding clamp protein essential for DNA replication and repair. Due to this fundamental role, mutations in PCNA that profoundly impair protein function would be incompatible with life. Interestingly, while the p.Ser228Ile alteration appeared to have no effect on protein levels or DNA replication, patient cells exhibited marked abnormalities in response to UV irradiation, displaying substantial reductions in both UV survival and RNA synthesis recovery. The p.Ser228Ile change also profoundly altered PCNA's interaction with Flap endonuclease 1 and DNA Ligase 1, DNA metabolism enzymes. Together, our findings detail a mutation of PCNA in humans associated with a neurodegenerative phenotype, displaying clinical and molecular features common to other DNA repair disorders, which we showed to be attributable to a hypomorphic amino acid alteration. PMID:24911150

Baple, Emma L; Chambers, Helen; Cross, Harold E; Fawcett, Heather; Nakazawa, Yuka; Chioza, Barry A; Harlalka, Gaurav V; Mansour, Sahar; Sreekantan-Nair, Ajith; Patton, Michael A; Muggenthaler, Martina; Rich, Phillip; Wagner, Karin; Coblentz, Roselyn; Stein, Constance K; Last, James I; Taylor, A Malcolm R; Jackson, Andrew P; Ogi, Tomoo; Lehmann, Alan R; Green, Catherine M; Crosby, Andrew H

2014-07-01

257

Hypomorphic PCNA mutation underlies a human DNA repair disorder  

PubMed Central

Numerous human disorders, including Cockayne syndrome, UV-sensitive syndrome, xeroderma pigmentosum, and trichothiodystrophy, result from the mutation of genes encoding molecules important for nucleotide excision repair. Here, we describe a syndrome in which the cardinal clinical features include short stature, hearing loss, premature aging, telangiectasia, neurodegeneration, and photosensitivity, resulting from a homozygous missense (p.Ser228Ile) sequence alteration of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). PCNA is a highly conserved sliding clamp protein essential for DNA replication and repair. Due to this fundamental role, mutations in PCNA that profoundly impair protein function would be incompatible with life. Interestingly, while the p.Ser228Ile alteration appeared to have no effect on protein levels or DNA replication, patient cells exhibited marked abnormalities in response to UV irradiation, displaying substantial reductions in both UV survival and RNA synthesis recovery. The p.Ser228Ile change also profoundly altered PCNA’s interaction with Flap endonuclease 1 and DNA Ligase 1, DNA metabolism enzymes. Together, our findings detail a mutation of PCNA in humans associated with a neurodegenerative phenotype, displaying clinical and molecular features common to other DNA repair disorders, which we showed to be attributable to a hypomorphic amino acid alteration.

Baple, Emma L.; Chambers, Helen; Cross, Harold E.; Fawcett, Heather; Nakazawa, Yuka; Chioza, Barry A.; Harlalka, Gaurav V.; Mansour, Sahar; Sreekantan-Nair, Ajith; Patton, Michael A.; Muggenthaler, Martina; Rich, Phillip; Wagner, Karin; Coblentz, Roselyn; Stein, Constance K.; Last, James I.; Taylor, A. Malcolm R.; Jackson, Andrew P.; Ogi, Tomoo; Lehmann, Alan R.; Green, Catherine M.; Crosby, Andrew H.

2014-01-01

258

Molecular Understanding of Efficient DNA Repair Machinery of Photolyase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photolyases repair the UV-induced pyrimidine dimers in damage DNA with high efficiency, through a cylic light-driven electron transfer radical mechanism. We report here our systematic studies of the repair dynamics in E. coli photolyase with mutation of five active-site residues. The significant loss of repair efficiency by the mutation indicates that those active-site residues play an important role in the DNA repair by photolyase. To understand how the active-site residues modulate the efficiency, we mapped out the entire evolution of each elementary step during the repair in those photolyase mutants with femtosecond resolution. We completely analyzed the electron transfer dynamics using the Sumi-Marcus model. The results suggest that photolyase controls the critical electron transfer and the ring-splitting of pyrimidine dimer through modulation of the redox potentials and reorganization energies, and stabilization of the anionic intermediates, maintaining the dedicated balance of all the reaction steps and achieving the maximum function activity.

Tan, Chuang; Liu, Zheyun; Li, Jiang; Guo, Xunmin; Wang, Lijuan; Zhong, Dongping

2012-06-01

259

Involvement of the yeast DNA polymerase delta in DNA repair in vivo.  

PubMed

The POL3 encoded catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase delta possesses a highly conserved C-terminal cysteine-rich domain in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mutations in some of its cysteine codons display a lethal phenotype, which demonstrates an essential function of this domain. The thermosensitive mutant pol3-13, in which a serine replaces a cysteine of this domain, exhibits a range of defects in DNA repair, such as hypersensitivity to different DNA-damaging agents and deficiency for induced mutagenesis and for recombination. These phenotypes are observed at 24 degrees, a temperature at which DNA replication is almost normal; this differentiates the functions of POL3 in DNA repair and DNA replication. Since spontaneous mutagenesis and spontaneous recombination are efficient in pol3-13, we propose that POL3 plays an important role in DNA repair after irradiation, particularly in the error-prone and recombinational pathways. Extragenic suppressors of pol3-13 are allelic to sdp5-1, previously identified as an extragenic suppressor of pol3-11. SDP5, which is identical to HYS2, encodes a protein homologous to the p50 subunit of bovine and human DNA polymerase delta. SDP5 is most probably the p55 subunit of Pol delta of S. cerevisiae and seems to be associated with the catalytic subunit for both DNA replication and DNA repair. PMID:9258670

Giot, L; Chanet, R; Simon, M; Facca, C; Faye, G

1997-08-01

260

Involvement of the Yeast DNA Polymerase ? in DNA Repair in Vivo  

PubMed Central

The POL3 encoded catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase ? possesses a highly conserved C-terminal cysteine-rich domain in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mutations in some of its cysteine codons display a lethal phenotype, which demonstrates an essential function of this domain. The thermosensitive mutant pol3-13, in which a serine replaces a cysteine of this domain, exhibits a range of defects in DNA repair, such as hypersensitivity to different DNA-damaging agents and deficiency for induced mutagenesis and for recombination. These phenotypes are observed at 24°, a temperature at which DNA replication is almost normal; this differentiates the functions of POL3 in DNA repair and DNA replication. Since spontaneous mutagenesis and spontaneous recombination are efficient in pol3-13, we propose that POL3 plays an important role in DNA repair after irradiation, particularly in the error-prone and recombinational pathways. Extragenic suppressors of pol3-13 are allelic to sdp5-1, previously identified as an extragenic suppressor of pol3-11. SDP5, which is identical to HYS2, encodes a protein homologous to the p50 subunit of bovine and human DNA polymerase ?. SDP5 is most probably the p55 subunit of Pol? of S. cerevisiae and seems to be associated with the catalytic subunit for both DNA replication and DNA repair.

Giot, L.; Chanet, R.; Simon, M.; Facca, C.; Faye, G.

1997-01-01

261

A newly identified DNA ligase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae involved in RAD52-independent repair of DNA double-strand breaks  

PubMed Central

Eukaryotic DNA ligases are ATP-dependent DNA strand-joining enzymes that participate in DNA replication, repair, and recombination. Whereas mammalian cells contain several different DNA ligases, encoded by at least three distinct genes, only one DNA ligase has been detected previously in either budding yeast or fission yeast. Here, we describe a newly identified nonessential Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene that encodes a DNA ligase distinct from the CDC9 gene product. This DNA ligase shares significant amino acid sequence homology with human DNA ligase IV; accordingly, we designate the yeast gene LIG4. Recombinant LIG4 protein forms a covalent enzyme-AMP complex and can join a DNA single-strand break in a DNA/RNA hybrid duplex, the preferred substrate in vitro. Disruption of the LIG4 gene causes only marginally increased cellular sensitivity to several DNA damaging agents, and does not further sensitize cdc9 or rad52 mutant cells. In contrast, lig4 mutant cells have a 1000-fold reduced capacity for correct recircularization of linearized plasmids by illegitimate end-joining after transformation. Moreover, homozygous lig4 mutant diploids sporulate less efficiently than isogenic wild-type cells, and show retarded progression through meiotic prophase I. Spore viability is normal, but lig4 mutants appear to produce a higher proportion of tetrads with only three viable spores. The mutant phenotypes are consistent with functions of LIG4 in an illegitimate DNA end-joining pathway and ensuring efficient meiosis.

Schar, Primo; Herrmann, Gernot; Daly, Graham; Lindahl, Tomas

1997-01-01

262

Large conformational changes in MutS during DNA scanning, mismatch recognition and repair signalling  

PubMed Central

MutS protein recognizes mispaired bases in DNA and targets them for mismatch repair. Little is known about the transient conformations of MutS as it signals initiation of repair. We have used single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements to report the conformational dynamics of MutS during this process. We find that the DNA-binding domains of MutS dynamically interconvert among multiple conformations when the protein is free and while it scans homoduplex DNA. Mismatch recognition restricts MutS conformation to a single state. Steady-state measurements in the presence of nucleotides suggest that both ATP and ADP must be bound to MutS during its conversion to a sliding clamp form that signals repair. The transition from mismatch recognition to the sliding clamp occurs via two sequential conformational changes. These intermediate conformations of the MutS:DNA complex persist for seconds, providing ample opportunity for interaction with downstream proteins required for repair.

Qiu, Ruoyi; DeRocco, Vanessa C; Harris, Credle; Sharma, Anushi; Hingorani, Manju M; Erie, Dorothy A; Weninger, Keith R

2012-01-01

263

BLM-DNA2-RPA-MRN and EXO1-BLM-RPA-MRN constitute two DNA end resection machineries for human DNA break repair  

PubMed Central

Repair of dsDNA breaks requires processing to produce 3?-terminated ssDNA. We biochemically reconstituted DNA end resection using purified human proteins: Bloom helicase (BLM); DNA2 helicase/nuclease; Exonuclease 1 (EXO1); the complex comprising MRE11, RAD50, and NBS1 (MRN); and Replication protein A (RPA). Resection occurs via two routes. In one, BLM and DNA2 physically and specifically interact to resect DNA in a process that is ATP-dependent and requires BLM helicase and DNA2 nuclease functions. RPA is essential for both DNA unwinding by BLM and enforcing 5? ? 3? resection polarity by DNA2. MRN accelerates processing by recruiting BLM to the end. In the other, EXO1 resects the DNA and is stimulated by BLM, MRN, and RPA. BLM increases the affinity of EXO1 for ends, and MRN recruits and enhances the processivity of EXO1. Our results establish two of the core machineries that initiate recombinational DNA repair in human cells.

Nimonkar, Amitabh V.; Genschel, Jochen; Kinoshita, Eri; Polaczek, Piotr; Campbell, Judith L.; Wyman, Claire; Modrich, Paul; Kowalczykowski, Stephen C.

2011-01-01

264

BLM-DNA2-RPA-MRN and EXO1-BLM-RPA-MRN constitute two DNA end resection machineries for human DNA break repair.  

PubMed

Repair of dsDNA breaks requires processing to produce 3'-terminated ssDNA. We biochemically reconstituted DNA end resection using purified human proteins: Bloom helicase (BLM); DNA2 helicase/nuclease; Exonuclease 1 (EXO1); the complex comprising MRE11, RAD50, and NBS1 (MRN); and Replication protein A (RPA). Resection occurs via two routes. In one, BLM and DNA2 physically and specifically interact to resect DNA in a process that is ATP-dependent and requires BLM helicase and DNA2 nuclease functions. RPA is essential for both DNA unwinding by BLM and enforcing 5' ? 3' resection polarity by DNA2. MRN accelerates processing by recruiting BLM to the end. In the other, EXO1 resects the DNA and is stimulated by BLM, MRN, and RPA. BLM increases the affinity of EXO1 for ends, and MRN recruits and enhances the processivity of EXO1. Our results establish two of the core machineries that initiate recombinational DNA repair in human cells. PMID:21325134

Nimonkar, Amitabh V; Genschel, Jochen; Kinoshita, Eri; Polaczek, Piotr; Campbell, Judith L; Wyman, Claire; Modrich, Paul; Kowalczykowski, Stephen C

2011-02-15

265

Molecular Matchmakers. [Formation of stable DNA-protein complexes  

SciTech Connect

Molecular matchmakers are a class of proteins that use the energy released from the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate to cause a conformational change in one or both components of a DNA binding protein pair to promote formation of a metastable DNA-protein complex. After matchmaking the matchmaker dissociates from the complex, permitting the matched protein to engage in other protein-protein interactions to bring about the effector function. Matchmaking is most commonly used under circumstances that require targeted, high-avidity DNA binding without relying solely on sequence specificity. Molecular matchmaking is an extensively used mechanism in repair, replication, and transcription and most likely in recombination and transposition reactions, too.

Sancar, A. (Univ. of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill (United States)); Hearst, J.E. (Lawrence Berkely Lab., CA (United States))

1993-03-05

266

Age-related changes of DNA repair and mitochondrial DNA synthesis in the mouse brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using quantitative autoradiography, both nuclear DNA repair – measured as nuclear unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) – and mitochondrial\\u000a (mt) DNA synthesis were evaluated in situ for several types of cells in the brains of untreated mice of various age. It was\\u000a found that distinct types of neuronal cells showed a decline of both UDS and mtDNA synthesis with age, whereas

Christoph Schmitz; Birgit Axmacher; Ulrike Zunker; Hubert Korr

1999-01-01

267

Cell specificity in DNA binding and repair of chemical carcinogens.  

PubMed Central

Many animal models for organ specific neoplasia have been developed and used to study the pathogenesis of cancer. Morphologic studies have usually concentrated on the response of target cells, whereas biochemical investigations have usually employed whole organ homogenates. Since hepatocytes comprise nearly 90% of the liver's mass and 70-80% of its DNA, alterations in DNA replication, covalent binding and DNA repair of nonparenchymal cells are usually obscured when whole organ homogenates are used. By utilizing cell separation methods, we have been able to demonstrate differences between hepatocyte and nonparenchymal cell replication. DNA damage and repair following exposure to a variety of hepatocarcinogen. Differences in removal of simple O6-alkylguanine and DNA replication correlate with cell specific carcinogenesis of simply alkylating agents. For several other procarcinogens, including 2-acetylaminofluorene and dinitroluene, cell specificity appears to reside primarily in the differential metabolic competence of hepatocytes and nonparenchymal cells. This results in greater covalent binding of the carcinogen to hepatocyte DNA, although the DNA adducts are removed at a similar rate in both cell types. Images FIGURE 1.

Swenberg, J A; Rickert, D E; Baranyi, B L; Goodman, J I

1983-01-01

268

The chemopreventive agent oltipraz stimulates repair of damaged DNA.  

PubMed

Carcinogens may damage DNA either through the production of radicals that cause base modification in situ or through the formation of bulky adducts at relatively nucleophilic sites. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that administration of the dithiolethione oltipraz protects laboratory animals from the development of tumors following subsequent exposure to a variety of carcinogens. This may occur through a mechanism involving the induction of detoxicating gene expression. In some models, oltipraz treatment following carcinogen exposure may also confer protection. To investigate a possible mechanism for this observation, we studied the effects of oltipraz on base excision repair and platinum-DNA damage formation and removal. No effect of oltipraz was observed on base excision repair as determined by an in vitro assay measuring the repair of apurinic/apyrimidinic sites by untreated and oltipraz-treated HT-29 whole-cell extracts. Treatment of HT-29 cells with cisplatin in the absence or presence of 30 and 100 microM oltipraz decreased the accumulation of platinum in DNA. A dose-dependent reduction in DNA platination was also observed in purified DNA treated concurrently with cisplatin and increasing concentrations of oltipraz. When DNA was first platinated and subsequently incubated with oltipraz, no decrease in platinum content in DNA was found. Preincubation of HT-29 cells with oltipraz enhanced the rate of removal of total platinum-DNA adducts and interstrand cross-links. These data support a novel mechanism through which dithiolethiones may protect carcinogen-exposed animals from tumor formation and may expand their potential role in the clinic. PMID:9067269

O'Dwyer, P J; Johnson, S W; Khater, C; Krueger, A; Matsumoto, Y; Hamilton, T C; Yao, K S

1997-03-15

269

DNA repair mechanisms in eukaryotes: Special focus in Entamoeba histolytica and related protozoan parasites.  

PubMed

Eukaryotic cell viability highly relies on genome stability and DNA integrity maintenance. The cellular response to DNA damage mainly consists of six biological conserved pathways known as homologous recombination repair (HRR), non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), base excision repair (BER), mismatch repair (MMR), nucleotide excision repair (NER), and methyltransferase repair that operate in a concerted way to minimize genetic information loss due to a DNA lesion. Particularly, protozoan parasites survival depends on DNA repair mechanisms that constantly supervise chromosomes to correct damaged nucleotides generated by cytotoxic agents, host immune pressure or cellular processes. Here we reviewed the current knowledge about DNA repair mechanisms in the most relevant human protozoan pathogens. Additionally, we described the recent advances to understand DNA repair mechanisms in Entamoeba histolytica with special emphasis in the use of genomic approaches based on bioinformatic analysis of parasite genome sequence and microarrays technology. PMID:19591963

López-Camarillo, César; Lopez-Casamichana, Mavil; Weber, Christian; Guillen, Nancy; Orozco, Esther; Marchat, Laurence A

2009-12-01

270

Identification of human genes involved in repair and tolerance of DNA damage.  

PubMed

An overview is presented on strategies of cloning mammalian DNA repair genes. Complementation of human and rodent repair defects and mutagen hypersensitivities by chromosome and DNA mediated gene transfer and mRNA microinjection is described, and the features of the cloned human DNA repair genes are summarized. It is shown that transfection of repair deficient cell lines with cloned bacterial and human genes may give rise to protection from the genotoxic effects of mutagens. PMID:2000442

Kaina, B; Fritz, G; Coquerelle, T

1991-01-01

271

A-Type Lamins Maintain the Positional Stability of DNA Damage Repair Foci in Mammalian Nuclei  

PubMed Central

A-type lamins encoded by LMNA form a structural fibrillar meshwork within the mammalian nucleus. How this nuclear organization may influence the execution of biological processes involving DNA transactions remains unclear. Here, we characterize changes in the dynamics and biochemical interactions of lamin A/C after DNA damage. We find that DNA breakage reduces the mobility of nucleoplasmic GFP-lamin A throughout the nucleus as measured by dynamic fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy in living cells, suggestive of incorporation into stable macromolecular complexes, but does not induce the focal accumulation of GFP-lamin A at damage sites. Using a proximity ligation assay and biochemical analyses, we show that lamin A engages chromatin via histone H2AX and its phosphorylated form (?H2AX) induced by DNA damage, and that these interactions are enhanced after DNA damage. Finally, we use three-dimensional time-lapse imaging to show that LMNA inactivation significantly reduces the positional stability of DNA repair foci in living cells. This defect is partially rescued by the stable expression of GFP-lamin A. Thus collectively, our findings suggest that the dynamic structural meshwork formed by A-type lamins anchors sites of DNA repair in mammalian nuclei, providing fresh insight into the control of DNA transactions by nuclear structural organization.

Mahen, Robert; Hattori, Hiroyoshi; Lee, Miyoung; Sharma, Pooja; Jeyasekharan, Anand D.; Venkitaraman, Ashok R.

2013-01-01

272

A Glycine-Arginine Domain in Control of the Human MRE11 DNA Repair Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human MRE11 is a key enzyme in DNA double-strand break repair and genome stability. Human MRE11 bears a glycine-arginine-rich (GAR) motif that is conserved among multicellular eukaryotic species. We investigated how this motif influences MRE11 function. Human MRE11 alone or a complex of MRE11, RAD50, and NBS1 (MRN) was methylated in insect cells, suggesting that this modification is conserved during

Ugo Dery; Yan Coulombe; Amelie Rodrigue; Andrzej Stasiak; Stephane Richard; Jean-Yves Masson

2008-01-01

273

DNA conformations in mismatch repair probed in solution by X-ray scattering from gold nanocrystals.  

PubMed

DNA metabolism and processing frequently require transient or metastable DNA conformations that are biologically important but challenging to characterize. We use gold nanocrystal labels combined with small angle X-ray scattering to develop, test, and apply a method to follow DNA conformations acting in the Escherichia coli mismatch repair (MMR) system in solution. We developed a neutral PEG linker that allowed gold-labeled DNAs to be flash-cooled and stored without degradation in sample quality. The 1,000-fold increased gold nanocrystal scattering vs. DNA enabled investigations at much lower concentrations than otherwise possible to avoid concentration-dependent tetramerization of the MMR initiation enzyme MutS. We analyzed the correlation scattering functions for the nanocrystals to provide higher resolution interparticle distributions not convoluted by the intraparticle distribution. We determined that mispair-containing DNAs were bent more by MutS than complementary sequence DNA (csDNA), did not promote tetramer formation, and allowed MutS conversion to a sliding clamp conformation that eliminated the DNA bends. Addition of second protein responder MutL did not stabilize the MutS-bent forms of DNA. Thus, DNA distortion is only involved at the earliest mispair recognition steps of MMR: MutL does not trap bent DNA conformations, suggesting migrating MutL or MutS/MutL complexes as a conserved feature of MMR. The results promote a mechanism of mismatch DNA bending followed by straightening in initial MutS and MutL responses in MMR. We demonstrate that small angle X-ray scattering with gold labels is an enabling method to examine protein-induced DNA distortions key to the DNA repair, replication, transcription, and packaging. PMID:24101514

Hura, Greg L; Tsai, Chi-Lin; Claridge, Shelley A; Mendillo, Marc L; Smith, Jessica M; Williams, Gareth J; Mastroianni, Alexander J; Alivisatos, A Paul; Putnam, Christopher D; Kolodner, Richard D; Tainer, John A

2013-10-22

274

Positive Regulation of DNA Double Strand Break Repair Activity during Differentiation of Long Life Span Cells: The Example of Adipogenesis  

PubMed Central

Little information is available on the ability of terminally differentiated cells to efficiently repair DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), and one might reasonably speculate that efficient DNA repair of these threatening DNA lesions, is needed in cells of long life span with no or limited regeneration from precursor. Few tissues are available besides neurons that allow the study of DNA DSBs repair activity in very long-lived cells. Adipocytes represent a suitable model since it is generally admitted that there is a very slow turnover of adipocytes in adult. Using both Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and the disappearance of the phosphorylated form of the histone variant H2AX, we demonstrated that the ability to repair DSBs is increased during adipocyte differentiation using the murine pre-adipocyte cell line, 3T3F442A. In mammalian cells, DSBs are mainly repaired by the non-homologous end-joining pathway (NHEJ) that relies on the DNA dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) activity. During the first 24 h following the commitment into adipogenesis, we show an increase in the expression and activity of the catalytic sub-unit of the DNA-PK complex, DNA-PKcs. The increased in DNA DSBs repair activity observed in adipocytes was due to the increase in DNA-PK activity as shown by the use of DNA-PK inhibitor or sub-clones of 3T3F442A deficient in DNA-PKcs using long term RNA interference. Interestingly, the up-regulation of DNA-PK does not regulate the differentiation program itself. Finally, similar positive regulation of DNA-PKcs expression and activity was observed during differentiation of primary culture of pre-adipocytes isolated from human sub-cutaneous adipose tissue. Our results show that DNA DSBs repair activity is up regulated during the early commitment into adipogenesis due to an up-regulation of DNA-PK expression and activity. In opposition to the general view that DNA DSBs repair is decreased during differentiation, our results demonstrate that an up-regulation of this process might be observed in post-mitotic long-lived cells.

Meulle, Aline; Salles, Bernard; Daviaud, Daniele; Valet, Philippe; Muller, Catherine

2008-01-01

275

Visualization of a DNA-PK/PARP1 complex  

PubMed Central

The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) and Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) are critical enzymes that reduce genomic damage caused by DNA lesions. They are both activated by DNA strand breaks generated by physiological and environmental factors, and they have been shown to interact. Here, we report in vivo evidence that DNA-PK and PARP1 are equally necessary for rapid repair. We purified a DNA-PK/PARP1 complex loaded on DNA and performed electron microscopy and single particle analysis on its tetrameric and dimer-of-tetramers forms. By comparison with the DNA-PK holoenzyme and fitting crystallographic structures, we see that the PARP1 density is in close contact with the Ku subunit. Crucially, PARP1 binding elicits substantial conformational changes in the DNA-PK synaptic dimer assembly. Taken together, our data support a functional, in-pathway role for DNA-PK and PARP1 in double-strand break (DSB) repair. We also propose a NHEJ model where protein–protein interactions alter substantially the architecture of DNA-PK dimers at DSBs, to trigger subsequent interactions or enzymatic reactions.

Spagnolo, Laura; Barbeau, Jody; Curtin, Nicola J.; Morris, Edward P.; Pearl, Laurence H.

2012-01-01

276

Sp1 facilitates DNA double-strand break repair through a nontranscriptional mechanism.  

PubMed

Sp1 is a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor that is phosphorylated by ataxia telangiectasia mutated kinase (ATM) in response to ionizing radiation and H(2)O(2). Here, we show by indirect immunofluorescence that Sp1 phosphorylated on serine 101 (pSp1) localizes to ionizing radiation-induced foci with phosphorylated histone variant ?H2Ax and members of the MRN (Mre11, Rad50, and Nbs1) complex. More precise analysis of occupancy of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) shows that Sp1, like Nbs1, resides within 200 bp of DSBs. Using laser microirradiation of cells, we demonstrate that pSp1 is present at DNA DSBs by 7.5 min after induction of damage and remains at the break site for at least 8 h. Depletion of Sp1 inhibits repair of site-specific DNA breaks, and the N-terminal 182-amino-acid peptide, which contains targets of ATM kinase but lacks the zinc finger DNA binding domain, is phosphorylated, localizes to DSBs, and rescues the repair defect resulting from Sp1 depletion. Together, these data demonstrate that Sp1 is rapidly recruited to the region immediately adjacent to sites of DNA DSBs and is required for DSB repair, through a mechanism independent of its sequence-directed transcriptional effects. PMID:22826432

Beishline, Kate; Kelly, Crystal M; Olofsson, Beatrix A; Koduri, Sravanthi; Emrich, Jacqueline; Greenberg, Roger A; Azizkhan-Clifford, Jane

2012-09-01

277

DNA double-strand break repair pathway choice is directed by distinct MRE11 nuclease activities.  

PubMed

MRE11 within the MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex acts in DNA double-strand break repair (DSBR), detection, and signaling; yet, how its endo- and exonuclease activities regulate DSBR by nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) versus homologous recombination (HR) remains enigmatic. Here, we employed structure-based design with a focused chemical library to discover specific MRE11 endo- or exonuclease inhibitors. With these inhibitors, we examined repair pathway choice at DSBs generated in G2 following radiation exposure. While nuclease inhibition impairs radiation-induced replication protein A (RPA) chromatin binding, suggesting diminished resection, the inhibitors surprisingly direct different repair outcomes. Endonuclease inhibition promotes NHEJ in lieu of HR, while exonuclease inhibition confers a repair defect. Collectively, the results describe nuclease-specific MRE11 inhibitors, define distinct nuclease roles in DSB repair, and support a mechanism whereby MRE11 endonuclease initiates resection, thereby licensing HR followed by MRE11 exonuclease and EXO1/BLM bidirectional resection toward and away from the DNA end, which commits to HR. PMID:24316220

Shibata, Atsushi; Moiani, Davide; Arvai, Andrew S; Perry, Jefferson; Harding, Shane M; Genois, Marie-Michelle; Maity, Ranjan; van Rossum-Fikkert, Sari; Kertokalio, Aryandi; Romoli, Filippo; Ismail, Amani; Ismalaj, Ermal; Petricci, Elena; Neale, Matthew J; Bristow, Robert G; Masson, Jean-Yves; Wyman, Claire; Jeggo, Penny A; Tainer, John A

2014-01-01

278

DNA-dependent protein kinase and DNA repair: relevance to Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

The pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the leading cause of senile dementia, involves region-specific neuronal death and an accumulation of neuronal and extracellular lesions termed neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques, respectively. One of the biochemical abnormalities observed in AD is reduced DNA end-joining activity. The reduced capacity of post-mitotic neurons for some types of DNA repair is further compromised by aging. The predominant mechanism to repair double-strand DNA (dsDNA) breaks (DSB) is non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), which requires DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) activity. DNA-PK is a holoenzyme comprising the p460 kDa DNA-PK catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) and the Ku heterodimer consisting of p86 (Ku 80) and p70 (Ku 70) subunits. Ku binds to DNA ends first and then recruits DNA-PKcs during NHEJ. However, in AD brains, reduced NHEJ activity has been reported along with reduced levels of DNA-PKcs and the Ku proteins, indicating a potential link between AD and dsDNA damage. Since age-matched control brains also show a reduction in these protein levels, whether there is a direct link between NHEJ ability and AD remains unknown. Possible mechanisms involving the role of DNA-PK in neurodegeneration, a benchmark of AD, are the focus of this review.

2013-01-01

279

DNA double-strand break repair and V(D)J recombination: involvement of DNA-PK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two processes involving DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are the repair of DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation, and V(D)J recombination, the genomic rearrangement that creates antigen-receptor diversity in vertebrates. Recent evidence indicates that DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), which is activated by DNA ends, is a central component of both the DNA DSB repair and V(D)J recombination machineries.

Stephen P. Jackson; Penny A. Jeggo

1995-01-01

280

Crystallization of the DdrB-DNA complex from Deinococcus radiodurans  

PubMed Central

The remarkable ability of members of the Deinococcus family to recover from extreme DNA damage is in part owing to their robust DNA-repair mechanisms. Of particular interest is their ability to repair hundreds of double-strand DNA breakages through a rapid and efficient mechanism involving novel proteins that are uniquely found in Deinococcus spp. One such protein, DdrB, which is thought to play a role early in DSB repair, has been crystallized in complex with ssDNA and data have been collected to 2.3?Å resolution.

Sugiman-Marangos, Seiji; Junop, Murray

2012-01-01

281

Crystallization of the DdrB-DNA complex from Deinococcus radiodurans.  

PubMed

The remarkable ability of members of the Deinococcus family to recover from extreme DNA damage is in part owing to their robust DNA-repair mechanisms. Of particular interest is their ability to repair hundreds of double-strand DNA breakages through a rapid and efficient mechanism involving novel proteins that are uniquely found in Deinococcus spp. One such protein, DdrB, which is thought to play a role early in DSB repair, has been crystallized in complex with ssDNA and data have been collected to 2.3?Å resolution. PMID:23192041

Sugiman-Marangos, Seiji; Junop, Murray

2012-12-01

282

Genome-wide Transcriptome Profiling of Homologous Recombination DNA Repair  

PubMed Central

Homologous recombination (HR) repair deficiency predisposes to cancer development, but also sensitizes cancer cells to DNA-damage-inducing therapeutics. Here we identify an HR-defect (HRD) gene signature, which can be used to functionally assess HR repair status without interrogating individual genetic alterations in cells. By using this HRD gene signature as a functional network analysis tool, we discover that simultaneous loss of two major tumor suppressors BRCA1 and PTEN extensively rewire the HR repair-deficient phenotype, which is found in cells with defects in either BRCA1 or PTEN alone. Moreover, the HRD gene signature serves as an effective drug discovery platform to identify agents targeting HR repair as potential chemo/radio-sensitizers. More importantly, this HRD gene signature is able to predict clinical outcomes across multiple cancer lineages. Our findings, therefore, provide a molecular profile of HR repair to assess its status at a functional network level, which can provide both biological insights and have clinical implications in cancer.

Peng, Guang; Lin, Curtis Chun-Jen; Mo, Wei; Dai, Hui; Park, Yun-Yong; Kim, Soo-Mi; Peng, Yang; Mo, Qianxing; Siwko, Stefan; Hu, Ruozhen; Lee, Ju-Seog; Hennessy, Bryan; Hanash, Samir; Mills, Gordon B.; Lin, Shiaw-Yih

2014-01-01

283

c-Myc Suppression of DNA Double-strand Break Repair12  

PubMed Central

c-Myc is a transcriptional factor that functions as a central regulator of cell growth, proliferation, and apoptosis. Overexpression of c-Myc also enhances DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), genetic instability, and tumorigenesis. However, the mechanism(s) involved remains elusive. Here, we discovered that ?-ray ionizing radiation-induced DSBs promote c-Myc to form foci and to co-localize with ?-H2AX. Conditional expression of c-Myc in HO15.19 c-Myc null cells using the Tet-Off/Tet-On inducible system results in down-regulation of Ku DNA binding and suppressed activities of DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) and DNA end-joining, leading to inhibition of DSB repair and enhanced chromosomal and chromatid breaks. Expression of c-Myc reduces both signal and coding joins with decreased fidelity during V(D)J recombination. Mechanistically, c-Myc directly interacts with Ku70 protein through its Myc box II (MBII) domain. Removal of the MBII domain from c-Myc abrogates its inhibitory effects on Ku DNA binding, DNA-PKcs, and DNA end-joining activities, which results in loss of c-Myc's ability to block DSB repair and V(D)J recombination. Interestingly, c-Myc directly disrupts the Ku/DNA-PKcs complex in vitro and in vivo. Thus, c-Myc suppression of DSB repair and V(D)J recombination may occur through inhibition of the nonhomologous end-joining pathway, which provides insight into the mechanism of c-Myc in the development of tumors through promotion of genomic instability.

Li, Zhaozhong; Owonikoko, Taofeek K; Sun, Shi-Yong; Ramalingam, Suresh S; Doetsch, Paul W; Xiao, Zhi-Qiang; Khuri, Fadlo R; Curran, Walter J; Deng, Xingming

2012-01-01

284

Decreased repair of gamma damaged DNA in progeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitive host-cell reactivation technique was used to examine the DNA repair ability of fibroblasts from two patients with classical progeria. Fibroblasts were infected with either non-irradiated or gamma-irradiated adenovirus type 2 and at 48 hrs after infection cells were examined for the presence of viral structural antigens using immunofluorescent staining. The production of viral structural antigens was considerably reduced

A. J. Rainbow; M. Howes

1977-01-01

285

DNA mismatch repair and adjuvant chemotherapy in sporadic colon cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defective DNA mismatch repair (MMR) occurs in approximately 15% of sporadic colorectal cancers (CRCs). Multiple retrospective studies have shown that patients with MMR-deficient CRCs have a more favorable stage-adjusted prognosis compared with those who have MMR-proficient tumors. Evidence also indicates that patients with MMR-deficient colon cancers do not benefit from treatment with adjuvant 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy. Furthermore, recent studies, including a

Frank A. Sinicrope

2010-01-01

286

ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN POLYMORPHISMS IN DNA REPAIR GENES AND GLIOBLASTOMA  

PubMed Central

A pooled analysis was conducted to examine the association between select variants in DNA repair genes and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common and deadliest form of adult brain tumors. Genetic data for approximately 1,000 GBM cases and 2,000 controls were combined from four centers in the United States that have conducted case-control studies of adult GBM including the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, and the University of California at San Francisco. Twelve DNA repair SNPs were selected for investigation in the pilot collaborative project. The C allele of the PARP1 rs1136410 variant was associated with a 20% reduction in risk of GBM (ORCT or CC =0.80; 95%CI 0.67–0.95). A 44% increase in risk of GBM was found for individuals homozygous for the G allele of the PRKDC rs7003908 variant (ORGG 1.44; 95%CI 1.13–1.84); there was a statistically significant trend (p=0.009) with increasing number of G alleles. A significant, protective effect was found when 3 SNPs (ERCC2 rs13181, ERCC1 rs3212986, and GLTSCR1 rs1035938) located near each other on chromosome 19 were modeled as a haplotype. The most common haplotype (AGC) was associated with a 23% reduction in risk (p=0.03) compared to all other haplotypes combined. Few studies have reported on the associations between variants in DNA repair genes and brain tumors, and few specifically have examined their impact on GBMs. Our results suggest that common variation in DNA repair genes may be associated with risk of GBMs.

McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill; Inskip, Peter; Ruder, Avima; Butler, MaryAnn; Rajaraman, Preetha; Razavi, Pedram; Patoka, Joe; Wiencke, John; Bondy, Melissa; Wrensch, Margaret

2009-01-01

287

Differential Temperature Dependent Multimeric Assemblies of Replication and Repair Polymerases on DNA Increase Processivity  

PubMed Central

Differentiation of binding accurate DNA replication polymerases over error prone DNA lesion bypass polymerases is essential for the proper maintenance of the genome. The hyperthermophilic archaeal organism, Sulfolobus solfataricus (Sso), contains both a B-family replication (Dpo1) and a Y-family repair (Dpo4) polymerase and serves as a model system for understanding molecular mechanisms and assemblies for DNA replication and repair protein complexes. Protein crosslinking, isothermal titration calorimetry, and analytical ultracentrifugation have confirmed a previously unrecognized dimeric Dpo4 complex bound to DNA. Binding discrimination between these polymerases on model DNA templates is complicated by the fact that multiple oligomeric species are influenced by concentration and temperature. Temperature dependent fluorescence anisotropy equilibrium binding experiments were used to separate discrete binding events for formation of trimeric Dpo1 and dimeric Dpo4 complexes on DNA. The associated equilibria are found to be temperature dependent, generally leading to improved binding at higher temperatures for both polymerases. At high temperatures, DNA binding by Dpo1 monomer is favored over Dpo4 monomer, but binding of Dpo1 trimer is even more strongly favored over Dpo4 dimer, thus providing thermodynamic selection. Greater processivities of nucleotide incorporation for trimeric Dpo1 and dimeric Dpo4 are also observed at higher temperatures, providing biochemical validation for the influence of tightly bound oligomeric polymerases. These results separate, quantify, and confirm individual and sequential processes leading to formation of oligomeric Dpo1 and Dpo4 assemblies on DNA and provide for a concentration and temperature dependent discrimination of binding undamaged DNA templates at physiological temperatures.

Lin, Hsiang-Kai; Chase, Susan F.; Laue, Thomas M.; Jen-Jacobson, Linda; Trakselis, Michael A.

2012-01-01

288

A novel function for the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 complex in base excision repair  

PubMed Central

The Mre11/Rad50/Xrs2 (MRX) complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has well-characterized functions in DNA double-strand break processing, checkpoint activation, telomere length maintenance and meiosis. In this study, we demonstrate an involvement of the complex in the base excision repair (BER) pathway. We studied the repair of methyl-methanesulfonate-induced heat-labile sites in chromosomal DNA in vivo and the in vitro BER capacity for the repair of uracil- and 8-oxoG-containing oligonucleotides in MRX-deficient cells. Both approaches show a clear BER deficiency for the xrs2 mutant as compared to wildtype cells. The in vitro analyses revealed that both subpathways, long-patch and short-patch BER, are affected and that all components of the MRX complex are similarly important for the new function in BER. The investigation of the epistatic relationship of XRS2 to other BER genes suggests a role of the MRX complex downstream of the AP-lyases Ntg1 and Ntg2. Analysis of individual steps in BER showed that base recognition and strand incision are not affected by the MRX complex. Reduced gap-filling activity and the missing effect of aphidicoline treatment, an inhibitor for polymerases, on the BER efficiency indicate an involvement of the MRX complex in providing efficient polymerase activity.

Steininger, Sylvia; Ahne, Fred; Winkler, Klaudia; Kleinschmidt, Anja; Eckardt-Schupp, Friederike; Moertl, Simone

2010-01-01

289

The Role of Inducible DNA Repair in W-Reactivation and Related Phenomena.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Most of the UV-induced photoproducts in the DNA of bacteria and their viruses are repaired by 'error-proof' repair mechanisms such as photoreactivation, ('short-patch' excision repair, and recombinational repair. Single-strand gaps resulting from replicat...

G. B. Knudson

1981-01-01

290

Ago2 facilitates Rad51 recruitment and DNA double-strand break repair by homologous recombination.  

PubMed

DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are highly cytotoxic lesions and pose a major threat to genome stability if not properly repaired. We and others have previously shown that a class of DSB-induced small RNAs (diRNAs) is produced from sequences around DSB sites. DiRNAs are associated with Argonaute (Ago) proteins and play an important role in DSB repair, though the mechanism through which they act remains unclear. Here, we report that the role of diRNAs in DSB repair is restricted to repair by homologous recombination (HR) and that it specifically relies on the effector protein Ago2 in mammalian cells. Interestingly, we show that Ago2 forms a complex with Rad51 and that the interaction is enhanced in cells treated with ionizing radiation. We demonstrate that Rad51 accumulation at DSB sites and HR repair depend on catalytic activity and small RNA-binding capability of Ago2. In contrast, DSB resection as well as RPA and Mre11 loading is unaffected by Ago2 or Dicer depletion, suggesting that Ago2 very likely functions directly in mediating Rad51 accumulation at DSBs. Taken together, our findings suggest that guided by diRNAs, Ago2 can promote Rad51 recruitment and/or retention at DSBs to facilitate repair by HR. PMID:24662483

Gao, Min; Wei, Wei; Li, Ming-Ming; Wu, Yong-Sheng; Ba, Zhaoqing; Jin, Kang-Xuan; Li, Miao-Miao; Liao, You-Qi; Adhikari, Samir; Chong, Zechen; Zhang, Ting; Guo, Cai-Xia; Tang, Tie-Shan; Zhu, Bing-Tao; Xu, Xing-Zhi; Mailand, Niels; Yang, Yun-Gui; Qi, Yijun; Rendtlew Danielsen, Jannie M

2014-05-01

291

Ago2 facilitates Rad51 recruitment and DNA double-strand break repair by homologous recombination  

PubMed Central

DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are highly cytotoxic lesions and pose a major threat to genome stability if not properly repaired. We and others have previously shown that a class of DSB-induced small RNAs (diRNAs) is produced from sequences around DSB sites. DiRNAs are associated with Argonaute (Ago) proteins and play an important role in DSB repair, though the mechanism through which they act remains unclear. Here, we report that the role of diRNAs in DSB repair is restricted to repair by homologous recombination (HR) and that it specifically relies on the effector protein Ago2 in mammalian cells. Interestingly, we show that Ago2 forms a complex with Rad51 and that the interaction is enhanced in cells treated with ionizing radiation. We demonstrate that Rad51 accumulation at DSB sites and HR repair depend on catalytic activity and small RNA-binding capability of Ago2. In contrast, DSB resection as well as RPA and Mre11 loading is unaffected by Ago2 or Dicer depletion, suggesting that Ago2 very likely functions directly in mediating Rad51 accumulation at DSBs. Taken together, our findings suggest that guided by diRNAs, Ago2 can promote Rad51 recruitment and/or retention at DSBs to facilitate repair by HR.

Gao, Min; Wei, Wei; Li, Ming-Ming; Wu, Yong-Sheng; Ba, Zhaoqing; Jin, Kang-Xuan; Li, Miao-Miao; Liao, You-Qi; Adhikari, Samir; Chong, Zechen; Zhang, Ting; Guo, Cai-Xia; Tang, Tie-shan; Zhu, Bing-Tao; Xu, Xing-Zhi; Mailand, Niels; Yang, Yun-Gui; Qi, Yijun; Danielsen, Jannie M Rendtlew

2014-01-01

292

The Dynamics of DNA Damage Repair and Transcription  

PubMed Central

Recent advances have led to several systems to study transcription from defined loci in living cells. It has now become possible to address long-standing questions regarding the interplay between the processes of DNA damage repair and transcription—two disparate processes that can occur on the same stretch of chromatin and which both lead to extensive chromatin change. Here we describe the development of a system to create enzymatically induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) at a site of inducible transcription and methods to study the interplay between these processes.

Shanbhag, Niraj M.; Greenberg, Roger A.

2013-01-01

293

Structural Basis of UV DNA-Damage Recognition by the DDB1ÂDDB2 Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultraviolet (UV) light-induced pyrimidine photodimers are repaired by the nucleotide excision repair pathway. Photolesions have biophysical parameters closely resembling undamaged DNA, impeding discovery through damage surveillance proteins. The DDB1DDB2 complex serves in the initial detection of UV lesions in vivo. Here we present the structures of the DDB1DDB2 complex alone and bound to DNA containing either a 6-4 pyrimidine-pyrimidone photodimer

Andrea Scrima; Bryan K. Czyzewski; Yusuke Kawasaki; Philip D. Jeffrey; Regina Groisman; Yoshihiro Nakatani; Shigenori Iwai; Nikola P. Pavletich

2009-01-01

294

Clinical Radiation Sensitivity With DNA Repair Disorders: An Overview  

SciTech Connect

Adverse reactions to radiotherapy represent a confounding phenomenon in radiation oncology. These reactions are rare, and many have been associated with individuals with DNA repair disorders such as ataxia-telangiectasia and Nijmegen Breakage syndrome. A paucity of published data is available detailing such circumstances. This overview describes four exemplary situations, a comprehensive list of 32 additional cases, and some insights gleaned from this overall experience. Fanconi anemia was associated with more than one-half of the reports. The lowest dose given to a patient that resulted in a reaction was 3 Gy, given to an ataxia-telangiectasia patient. Most patients died within months of exposure. It is clear that the patients discussed in this report had complicated illnesses, in addition to cancer, and the radiotherapy administered was most likely their best option. However, the underlying DNA repair defects make conventional radiation doses dangerous. Our findings support previous wisdom that radiotherapy should either be avoided or the doses should be selected with great care in the case of these radiosensitive genotypes, which must be recognized by their characteristic phenotypes, until more rapid, reliable, and functional assays of DNA repair become available.

Pollard, Julianne M. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Biomedical Physics Interdepartmental Graduate Program, University of California, Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Gatti, Richard A. [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Department of Human Genetics, University of California, Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)], E-mail: rgatti@mednet.ucla.edu

2009-08-01

295

Clinical Radiation Sensitivity with DNA Repair Disorders: An Overview  

PubMed Central

Adverse reactions to radiation therapy represent a confounding phenomenon in Radiation Oncology. These reactions are rare, and many have been associated with individuals with DNA repair disorders such as Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) and Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome (NBS). There is a paucity of literature detailing such circumstances. This overview describes four exemplary situations, a comprehensive list of 32 additional cases, and some insights gleaned from this overall experience. Fanconi Anemia was associated with over half of the reports. The lowest dose given to a patient that resulted in a reaction was 3 Gy, given to an A-T patient. Most patients died within months of exposure. It is clear that the patients discussed in this paper had complicated illnesses in addition to cancer, and the radiation therapy that administered was most likely their best option. However, the underlying DNA repair defects make conventional radiation therapy doses dangerous. Our review supports prior wisdom that radiation therapy should either be avoided, or doses should be selected with great care in the case of these radiosensitive genotypes which must be recognized with their characteristic phenotypes, until more rapid, reliable and functional assays of DNA repair become available.

Pollard, Julianne M.; Gatti, Richard A.

2009-01-01

296

Mechanisms of DNA double strand break repair and chromosome aberration formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely accepted that unrepaired or misrepaired DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) lead to the formation of chromosome aberrations. DSBs induced in the DNA of higher eukaryotes by endogenous processes or exogenous agents can in principle be repaired either by non-homologous endjoining (NHEJ), or homology directed repair (HDR). The basis on which the selection of the DSB repair pathway

G. Iliakis; H. Wang; A. R. Perrault; W. Boecker; B. Rosidi; F. Windhofer; W. Wu; J. Guan; G. Terzoudi; G. Pantelias

2004-01-01

297

Chromosome territories reposition during DNA damage-repair response  

PubMed Central

Background Local higher-order chromatin structure, dynamics and composition of the DNA are known to determine double-strand break frequencies and the efficiency of repair. However, how DNA damage response affects the spatial organization of chromosome territories is still unexplored. Results Our report investigates the effect of DNA damage on the spatial organization of chromosome territories within interphase nuclei of human cells. We show that DNA damage induces a large-scale spatial repositioning of chromosome territories that are relatively gene dense. This response is dose dependent, and involves territories moving from the nuclear interior to the periphery and vice versa. Furthermore, we have found that chromosome territory repositioning is contingent upon double-strand break recognition and damage sensing. Importantly, our results suggest that this is a reversible process where, following repair, chromosome territories re-occupy positions similar to those in undamaged control cells. Conclusions Thus, our report for the first time highlights DNA damage-dependent spatial reorganization of whole chromosomes, which might be an integral aspect of cellular damage response.

2013-01-01

298

DNA-repair capacity and lipid peroxidation in chronic alcoholics.  

PubMed

The possible impact of long-term overexposure to ethanol was studied in a group of chronic alcoholics in the psychiatric hospital. The level of DNA methylation and unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) in lymphocytes and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in plasma were used as markers of injury caused by alcohol abuse. The data were correlated with plasma levels of some natural antioxidants (vitamins A, C and E) and vitamin B12. The following results were obtained. The degree of DNA methylation by MNU in lymphocytes was the same in the exposed and control groups under our experimental conditions. The DNA excision-repair capacity of lymphocytes measured as UDS was decreased in alcoholics (p less than 0.01) and LPO in plasma was significantly higher (p less than 0.01) as a consequence of alcohol overconsumption. By the simple regression method, a correlation was found between LPO and vitamin C levels (LPO = -0.078 x vit. C + 1.9; p less than 0.05) and between UDS and LPO values (UDS = -0.384 x LPO + 4.1; p less than 0.05). These results support the hypothesis of a connection of cell membrane status and DNA damage and repair and the possible role of active oxygen species in cell damage caused by ethanol. PMID:2067553

Topinka, J; Binková, B; Srám, R J; Fojtíková, I

1991-07-01

299

Beyond DNA Repair: Additional Functions of PARP-1 in Cancer  

PubMed Central

Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) are DNA-dependent nuclear enzymes that transfer negatively charged ADP-ribose moieties from cellular nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide (NAD+) to a variety of protein substrates, altering protein–protein and protein-DNA interactions. The most studied of these enzymes is poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), which is an excellent therapeutic target in cancer due to its pivotal role in the DNA damage response. Clinical studies have shown susceptibility to PARP inhibitors in DNA repair defective cancers with only mild adverse side effects. Interestingly, additional studies are emerging which demonstrate a role for this therapy in DNA repair proficient tumors through a variety of mechanisms. In this review, we will discuss additional functions of PARP-1 – including regulation of inflammatory mediators, cellular energetics and death pathways, gene transcription, sex hormone- and ERK-mediated signaling, and mitosis – and the role these PARP-1-mediated processes play in oncogenesis, cancer progression, and the development of therapeutic resistance. As PARP-1 can act in both a pro- and anti-tumor manner depending on the context, it is important to consider the global effects of this protein in determining when, and how, to best use PARP inhibitors in anticancer therapy.

Weaver, Alice N.; Yang, Eddy S.

2013-01-01

300

Studying the organization of DNA repair by single-cell and single-molecule imaging.  

PubMed

DNA repair safeguards the genome against a diversity of DNA damaging agents. Although the mechanisms of many repair proteins have been examined separately in vitro, far less is known about the coordinated function of the whole repair machinery in vivo. Furthermore, single-cell studies indicate that DNA damage responses generate substantial variation in repair activities across cells. This review focuses on fluorescence imaging methods that offer a quantitative description of DNA repair in single cells by measuring protein concentrations, diffusion characteristics, localizations, interactions, and enzymatic rates. Emerging single-molecule and super-resolution microscopy methods now permit direct visualization of individual proteins and DNA repair events in vivo. We expect much can be learned about the organization of DNA repair by linking cell heterogeneity to mechanistic observations at the molecular level. PMID:24629485

Uphoff, Stephan; Kapanidis, Achillefs N

2014-08-01

301

DNA polymerase III requirement for repair of DNA damage caused by methyl methanesulfonate and hydrogen peroxide  

SciTech Connect

The pcbA1 mutation allows DNA replication dependent on DNA polymerase I at the restrictive temperature in polC(Ts) strains. Cells which carry pcbA1, a functional DNA polymerase I, and a temperature-sensitive DNA polymerase III gene were used to study the role of DNA polymerase III in DNA repair. At the restrictive temperature for DNA polymerase III, these strains were more sensitive to the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and hydrogen peroxide than normal cells. The same strains showed no increase in sensitivity to bleomycin, UV light, or psoralen at the restrictive temperature. The sensitivity of these strains to MMS and hydrogen peroxide was not due to the pcbAl allele, and normal sensitivity was restored by the introduction of a chromosomal or cloned DNA polymerase III gene, verifying that the sensitivity was due to loss of DNA polymerase III alpha-subunit activity. A functional DNA polymerase III is required for the reformation of high-molecular-weight DNA after treatment of cells with MMS or hydrogen peroxide, as demonstrated by alkaline sucrose sedimentation results. Thus, it appears that a functional DNA polymerase III is required for the optimal repair of DNA damage by MMS or hydrogen peroxide.

Hagensee, M.E.; Bryan, S.K.; Moses, R.E.

1987-10-01

302

Replacement of a thiourea with an amidine group in a monofunctional platinum-acridine antitumor agent. Effect on DNA interactions, DNA adduct recognition and repair.  

PubMed

A combination of biophysical, biochemical, and computational techniques was used to delineate mechanistic differences between the platinum-acridine hybrid agent [PtCl(en)(L)](NO(3))(2) (complex 1, en = ethane-1,2-diamine, L = 1-[2-(acridin-9-ylamino)ethyl]-1,3-dimethylthiourea) and a considerably more potent second-generation analogue containing L' = N-[2-(acridin-9-ylamino)ethyl]-N-methylpropionamidine (complex 2). Calculations at the density functional theory level provide a rationale for the binding preference of both complexes for guanine-N7 and the relatively high level of adenine adducts observed for compound 1. A significant rate enhancement is observed for binding of the amidine-based complex 2 with DNA compared with the thiourea-based prototype 1. Studies conducted with chemical probes and on the bending and unwinding of model duplex DNA suggest that adducts of complex 2 perturb B-form DNA more severely than complex 1, however, without denaturing the double strand and significantly less than cisplatin. Circular and linear dichroism spectroscopies and viscosity measurements suggest that subtle differences exist between the intercalation modes and adduct geometries of the two complexes. The adducts formed by complex 2 most efficiently inhibit transcription of the damaged DNA by RNA polymerase II. Not only do complexes 1 and 2 cause less distortion to DNA than cisplatin, they also do not compromise the thermodynamic stability of the modified duplex. This leads to a decreased or negligible affinity of HMG domain proteins for the adducts formed by either Pt-acridine complex. In a DNA repair synthesis assay the lesions formed by complex 2 were repaired less efficiently than those formed by complex 1. These significant differences in DNA adduct formation, structure, and recognition between the two acridine complexes and cisplatin help to elucidate why compound 2 is highly active in cisplatin-resistant, repair proficient cancer cell lines. PMID:21806015

Kostrhunova, Hana; Malina, Jaroslav; Pickard, Amanda J; Stepankova, Jana; Vojtiskova, Marie; Kasparkova, Jana; Muchova, Tereza; Rohlfing, Matthew L; Bierbach, Ulrich; Brabec, Viktor

2011-10-01

303

Mre11 Nuclease Activity has Essential Roles in DNA Repair and Genomic Stability Distinct from ATM Activation  

PubMed Central

Summary The Mre11/Rad50/NBS1 complex (MRN) maintains genomic stability by bridging DNA ends and initiating DNA damage signaling through activation of the ATM kinase. Mre11 possesses DNA nuclease activities that are highly conserved in evolution, but play unknown roles in mammals. To define functions of Mre11 we engineered targeted mouse alleles which either abrogate nuclease activities or inactivate the entire MRN complex. Mre11 nuclease deficiency causes a striking array of phenotypes indistinguishable from absence of MRN, including early embryonic lethality and dramatic genomic instability. We identify a crucial role for the nuclease activities in homology directed double strand break repair, and a contributing role in activating the ATR kinase. However, nuclease activities are not required to activate ATM after DNA damage or telomere deprotection. Therefore, nucleolytic processing by Mre11 is an essential function of fundamental importance in DNA repair distinct from MRN control of ATM signaling.

Buis, Jeffrey; Wu, Yipin; Deng, Yibin; Leddon, Jennifer; Westfield, Gerwin; Eckersdorff, Mark; Sekiguchi, JoAnn M.; Chang, Sandy; Ferguson, David O.

2008-01-01

304

[DNA polymerases beta and lambda, and their roles in the DNA replication and repair].  

PubMed

One of the key stages of life of a cell is genome duplication. The main enzymes which lead this process are DNA-dependent DNA polymerases. At the moment, 19 DNA polymerases with striking properties are listed in the eukaryotic cells. Mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma from A family and most of the nuclear enzymes from B family are high fidelity DNA polymerases which are participate in genome DNA replication process as well as in DNA repair. Among the other 1 5 proteins, the D N A polymerases belonging to the X and Y families have a special place. They participate in a different repair processes such as base excision repair and non-homologous end joining. Moreover, some of them play a specific role in the replication of the damaged DNA templates. This process is referred as translesion synthesis or TLS. The DNA polymerases beta and lambda members of X family are enclosed in polyfunctional enzymes, and their properties and functions will be discussed in this review. PMID:21290819

Belousova, E A; Lavrik, O I

2010-01-01

305

Accessibility of DNA polymerases to repair synthesis during nucleotide excision repair in yeast cell-free extracts  

PubMed Central

Nucleotide excision repair (NER) removes a variety of DNA lesions. Using a yeast cell-free repair system, we have analyzed the repair synthesis step of NER. NER was proficient in yeast mutant cell-free extracts lacking DNA polymerases (Pol) ?, ? or ?. Base excision repair was also proficient without Pol?. Repair synthesis of NER was not affected by thermal inactivation of the temperature-sensitive mutant Pol? (pol1-17), but was reduced after thermal inactivation of the temperature-sensitive mutant Pol? (pol3-1) or Pol? (pol2-18). Residual repair synthesis was observed in pol3-1 and pol2-18 mutant extracts, suggesting a repair deficiency rather than a complete repair defect. Deficient NER in pol3-1 and pol2-18 mutant extracts was specifically complemented by purified yeast Pol? and Pol?, respectively. Deleting the polymerase catalytic domain of Pol? (pol2-16) also led to a deficient repair synthesis during NER, which was complemented by purified yeast Pol?, but not by purified yeast Pol?. These results suggest that efficient repair synthesis of yeast NER requires both Pol? and Pol? in vitro, and that the low fidelity Pol? is not accessible to repair synthesis during NER.

Wu, Xiaohua; Guo, Dongyu; Yuan, Fenghua; Wang, Zhigang

2001-01-01

306

Reading, writing, and repair: the role of ubiquitin and the ubiquitin-like proteins in DNA damage signaling and repair  

PubMed Central

Genomic instability is both a hallmark of cancer and a major contributing factor to tumor development. Central to the maintenance of genome stability is the repair of DNA damage, and the most toxic form of DNA damage is the DNA double-strand break. As a consequence the eukaryotic cell harbors an impressive array of protein machinery to detect and repair DNA breaks through the initiation of a multi-branched, highly coordinated signaling cascade. This signaling cascade, known as the DNA damage response (DDR), functions to integrate DNA repair with a host of cellular processes including cell cycle checkpoint activation, transcriptional regulation, and programmed cell death. In eukaryotes, DNA is packaged in chromatin, which provides a mechanism to regulate DNA transactions including DNA repair through an equally impressive array of post-translational modifications to proteins within chromatin, and the DDR machinery itself. Histones, as the major protein component of chromatin, are subject to a host of post-translational modifications including phosphorylation, methylation, and acetylation. More recently, modification of both the histones and DDR machinery by ubiquitin and other ubiquitin-like proteins, such as the small ubiquitin-like modifiers, has been shown to play a central role in coordinating the DDR. In this review, we explore how ubiquitination and sumoylation contribute to the “writing” of key post-translational modifications within chromatin that are in turn “read” by the DDR machinery and chromatin-remodeling factors, which act together to facilitate the efficient detection and repair of DNA damage.

Pinder, Jordan B.; Attwood, Kathleen M.; Dellaire, Graham

2013-01-01

307

Differential and common DNA repair pathways for topoisomerase I- and II-targeted drugs in a genetic DT40 repair cell screen panel.  

PubMed

Clinical topoisomerase I (Top1) and II (Top2) inhibitors trap topoisomerases on DNA, thereby inducing protein-linked DNA breaks. Cancer cells resist the drugs by removing topoisomerase-DNA complexes, and repairing the drug-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) by homologous recombination and nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ). Because numerous enzymes and cofactors are involved in the removal of the topoisomerase-DNA complexes and DSB repair, it has been challenging to comprehensively analyze the relative contribution of multiple genetic pathways in vertebrate cells. Comprehending the relative contribution of individual repair factors would give insights into the lesions induced by the inhibitors and genetic determinants of response. Ultimately, this information would be useful to target specific pathways to augment the therapeutic activity of topoisomerase inhibitors. To this end, we put together 48 isogenic DT40 mutant cells deficient in DNA repair and generated one cell line deficient in autophagy (ATG5). Sensitivity profiles were established for three clinically relevant Top1 inhibitors (camptothecin and the indenoisoquinolines LMP400 and LMP776) and three Top2 inhibitors (etoposide, doxorubicin, and ICRF-193). Highly significant correlations were found among Top1 inhibitors as well as Top2 inhibitors, whereas the profiles of Top1 inhibitors were different from those of Top2 inhibitors. Most distinct repair pathways between Top1 and Top2 inhibitors include NHEJ, TDP1, TDP2, PARP1, and Fanconi Anemia genes, whereas homologous recombination seems relevant especially for Top1 and, to a lesser extent, for Top2 inhibitors. We also found and discuss differential pathways among Top1 inhibitors and Top2 inhibitors. PMID:24130054

Maede, Yuko; Shimizu, Hiroyasu; Fukushima, Toru; Kogame, Toshiaki; Nakamura, Terukazu; Miki, Tsuneharu; Takeda, Shunichi; Pommier, Yves; Murai, Junko

2014-01-01

308

Inter-individual variation in DNA repair capacity: A need for multi-pathway functional assays to promote translational DNA repair research.  

PubMed

Why does a constant barrage of DNA damage lead to disease in some individuals, while others remain healthy? This article surveys current work addressing the implications of inter-individual variation in DNA repair capacity for human health, and discusses the status of DNA repair assays as potential clinical tools for personalized prevention or treatment of disease. In particular, we highlight research showing that there are significant inter-individual variations in DNA repair capacity (DRC), and that measuring these differences provides important biological insight regarding disease susceptibility and cancer treatment efficacy. We emphasize work showing that it is important to measure repair capacity in multiple pathways, and that functional assays are required to fill a gap left by genome wide association studies, global gene expression and proteomics. Finally, we discuss research that will be needed to overcome barriers that currently limit the use of DNA repair assays in the clinic. PMID:24780560

Nagel, Zachary D; Chaim, Isaac A; Samson, Leona D

2014-07-01

309

A DNA repair pathway score predicts survival in human multiple myeloma: the potential for therapeutic strategy.  

PubMed

DNA repair is critical to resolve extrinsic or intrinsic DNA damage to ensure regulated gene transcription and DNA replication. These pathways control repair of double strand breaks, interstrand crosslinks, and nucleotide lesions occurring on single strands. Distinct DNA repair pathways are highly inter-linked for the fast and optimal DNA repair. A deregulation of DNA repair pathways may maintain and promote genetic instability and drug resistance to genotoxic agents in tumor cells by specific mechanisms that tolerate or rapidly bypass lesions to drive proliferation and abrogate cell death. Multiple Myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell disorder characterized by genetic instability and poor outcome for some patients, in which the compendium of DNA repair pathways has as yet not been assessed for a disease-specific prognostic relevance. We design a DNA repair risk score based on the expression of genes coding for proteins involved in DNA repair in MM cells. From a consensus list of 84 DNA repair genes, 17 had a bad prognostic value and 5 a good prognostic value for both event-free and overall survival of previously-untreated MM patients. The prognostic information provided by these 22 prognostic genes was summed within a global DNA repair score (DRScore) to take into account the tight linkage of repair pathways. DRscore was strongly predictive for both patients' event free and overall survivals. Also, DRscore has the potential to identify MM patients whose tumor cells are dependent on specific DNA repair pathways to design treatments that induce synthetic lethality by exploiting addiction to deregulated DNA repair pathways. PMID:24809299

Kassambara, Alboukadel; Gourzones-Dmitriev, Claire; Sahota, Surinder; Rème, Thierry; Moreaux, Jérôme; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Constantinou, Angelos; Pasero, Philippe; Hose, Dirk; Klein, Bernard

2014-05-15

310

A DNA repair pathway score predicts survival in human multiple myeloma: the potential for therapeutic strategy  

PubMed Central

DNA repair is critical to resolve extrinsic or intrinsic DNA damage to ensure regulated gene transcription and DNA replication. These pathways control repair of double strand breaks, interstrand crosslinks, and nucleotide lesions occurring on single strands. Distinct DNA repair pathways are highly inter-linked for the fast and optimal DNA repair. A deregulation of DNA repair pathways may maintain and promote genetic instability and drug resistance to genotoxic agents in tumor cells by specific mechanisms that tolerate or rapidly bypass lesions to drive proliferation and abrogate cell death. Multiple Myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell disorder characterized by genetic instability and poor outcome for some patients, in which the compendium of DNA repair pathways has as yet not been assessed for a disease-specific prognostic relevance. We design a DNA repair risk score based on the expression of genes coding for proteins involved in DNA repair in MM cells. From a consensus list of 84 DNA repair genes, 17 had a bad prognostic value and 5 a good prognostic value for both event-free and overall survival of previously-untreated MM patients. The prognostic information provided by these 22 prognostic genes was summed within a global DNA repair score (DRScore) to take into account the tight linkage of repair pathways. DRscore was strongly predictive for both patients' event free and overall survivals. Also, DRscore has the potential to identify MM patients whose tumor cells are dependent on specific DNA repair pathways to design treatments that induce synthetic lethality by exploiting addiction to deregulated DNA repair pathways.

Kassambara, Alboukadel; Gourzones-Dmitriev, Claire; Sahota, Surinder; Reme, Thierry; Moreaux, Jerome; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Constantinou, Angelos; Pasero, Philippe; Hose, Dirk; Klein, Bernard

2014-01-01

311

Mediator links transcription and DNA repair by facilitating Rad2/XPG recruitment  

PubMed Central

Mediator is a large multiprotein complex conserved in all eukaryotes. The crucial function of Mediator in transcription is now largely established. However, we found that this complex also plays an important role by connecting transcription with DNA repair. We identified a functional contact between the Med17 Mediator subunit and Rad2/XPG, the 3? endonuclease involved in nucleotide excision DNA repair. Genome-wide location analyses revealed that Rad2 is associated with RNA polymerase II (Pol II)- and Pol III-transcribed genes and telomeric regions in the absence of exogenous genotoxic stress. Rad2 occupancy of Pol II-transcribed genes is transcription-dependent. Genome-wide Rad2 occupancy of class II gene promoters is well correlated with that of Mediator. Furthermore, UV sensitivity of med17 mutants is correlated with reduced Rad2 occupancy of class II genes and concomitant decrease of Mediator interaction with Rad2 protein. Our results suggest that Mediator is involved in DNA repair by facilitating Rad2 recruitment to transcribed genes.

Eyboulet, Fanny; Cibot, Camille; Eychenne, Thomas; Neil, Helen; Alibert, Olivier; Werner, Michel; Soutourina, Julie

2013-01-01

312

Processing of anthracycline-DNA adducts via DNA replication and interstrand crosslink repair pathways.  

PubMed

Anthracycline chemotherapeutics are well characterised as poisons of topoisomerase II, however many anthracyclines, including doxorubicin, are also capable of forming drug-DNA adducts. Anthracycline-DNA adducts present an unusual obstacle for cells as they are covalently attached to one DNA strand and stabilised by hydrogen bonding to the other strand. We now show that in cycling cells processing of anthracycline adducts through DNA replication appears dominant compared to processing via transcription-coupled pathways, and that the processing of these adducts into DNA breaks is independent of topoisomerase II. It has previously been shown that cells deficient in homologous recombination (HR) are hypersensitive to adduct forming treatments. Given that anthracycline-DNA adducts, whilst not true crosslinks, are associated with both DNA strands, the role of ICL repair pathways was investigated. Mus81 is a structure specific nuclease implicated in Holliday junction resolution and the resolution of branched DNA formed by stalled replication forks. We now show that ICL repair deficient cells (Mus81(-/-)) are hypersensitive to anthracycline-DNA adducts and ET-743, a compound which causes a chemically similar type of DNA damage. Further analysis of this mechanism showed that Mus81 does not appear to cause DNA breaks resulting from either anthracycline- or ET743-DNA adducts. This suggests Mus81 processes these novel forms of DNA damage in a fundamentally different way compared to the processing of classical covalent crosslinks. Improved understanding of the role of DNA repair in response to such adducts may lead to more effective chemotherapy for patients with BRCA1/2 mutations and other HR deficiencies. PMID:22326903

Bilardi, R A; Kimura, K-I; Phillips, D R; Cutts, S M

2012-05-01

313

The fission yeast MRN complex tethers dysfunctional telomeres for NHEJ repair.  

PubMed

Telomeres protect the natural ends of chromosomes from being repaired as deleterious DNA breaks. In fission yeast, absence of Taz1 (homologue of human TRF1 and TRF2) renders telomeres vulnerable to DNA repair. During the G1 phase, when non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is upregulated, taz1? cells undergo telomere fusions with consequent loss of viability. Here, we show that disruption of the fission yeast MRN (Rad23(MRE11)-Rad50-Nbs1) complex prevents NHEJ at telomeres and, as a result, rescues taz1? lethality in G1. Neither Tel1(ATM) activation nor 5'-end resection was required for telomere fusion. Nuclease activity of Rad32(MRE11) was also dispensable for NHEJ. Mutants unable to coordinate metal ions required for nuclease activity were proficient in NHEJ repair. In contrast, Rad32(MRE11) mutations that affect binding and/or positioning of DNA ends leaving the nuclease function largely unaffected also impaired NHEJ at telomeres and restored the viability of taz1? in G1. Consistently, MRN structural integrity but not nuclease function is also required for NHEJ of independent DNA ends in a novel split-molecule plasmid assay. Thus, MRN acts to tether unlinked DNA ends, allowing for efficient NHEJ. PMID:23188080

Reis, Clara Correia; Batista, Sílvia; Ferreira, Miguel Godinho

2012-12-12

314

Anti-tumour compounds illudin S and Irofulven induce DNA lesions ignored by global repair and exclusively processed by transcription- and replication-coupled repair pathways.  

PubMed

Illudin S is a natural sesquiterpene drug with strong anti-tumour activity. Inside cells, unstable active metabolites of illudin cause the formation of as yet poorly characterised DNA lesions. In order to identify factors involved in their repair, we have performed a detailed genetic survey of repair-defective mutants for responses to the drug. We show that 90% of illudin's lethal effects in human fibroblasts can be prevented by an active nucleotide excision repair (NER) system. Core NER enzymes XPA, XPF, XPG, and TFIIH are essential for recovery. However, the presence of global NER initiators XPC, HR23A/HR23B and XPE is not required, whereas survival, repair and recovery from transcription inhibition critically depend on CSA, CSB and UVS, the factors specific for transcription-coupled NER. Base excision repair and non-homologous end-joining of DNA breaks do not play a major role in the processing of illudin lesions. However, active RAD18 is required for optimal cell survival, indicating that the lesions also block replication forks, eliciting post-replication-repair-like responses. However, the translesion-polymerase DNA pol eta is not involved. We conclude that illudin-induced lesions are exceptional in that they appear to be ignored by all of the known global repair systems, and can only be repaired when trapped in stalled replication or transcription complexes. We show that the semisynthetic illudin derivative hydroxymethylacylfulvene (HMAF, Irofulven), currently under clinical trial for anti-tumour therapy, acts via the same mechanism. PMID:12531012

Jaspers, Nicolaas G J; Raams, Anja; Kelner, Michael J; Ng, Jessica M Y; Yamashita, Yukiko M; Takeda, Shiunichi; McMorris, Trevor C; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J

2002-12-01

315

Influence on DNA Repair Inhibitors on Dominant Lethal Factors after gamma Irradiation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experiments were performed in order to test the hypothesis of a correlation between ionizing radiation and DNA repair inhibition under in vivo conditions. In a biometrically planned dominant lethal test on mice, the repair inhibition on the male gametes b...

D. Engl

1978-01-01

316

DNA repair as a biomarker in human biomonitoring studies; further applications of the comet assay.  

PubMed

DNA repair plays a major role in maintaining genetic stability, and so measurement of individual DNA repair capacity should be a valued tool in molecular epidemiology studies. The comet assay (single cell gel electrophoresis), in different versions, is commonly used to measure the repair pathways represented by strand break rejoining, removal of 8-oxoguanine, and repair of bulky adducts or UV-induced damage. Repair enzyme activity generally does not reflect the level of gene expression; but there is evidence - albeit piecemeal - that it is affected by polymorphisms in repair genes. There are mixed reports concerning the regulation of repair by environmental factors; several nutritional supplementation trials with phytochemical-rich foods have demonstrated increases in base excision repair of oxidation damage, while others have shown no effect. Exposure to genotoxic agents has in general not been found to stimulate repair. Crucial questions concerning the factors regulating repair and the causes of individual variation are as yet unanswered. PMID:21459100

Collins, Andrew R; Azqueta, Amaya

2012-08-01

317

Formation and repair of furocoumarin-DNA photoadducts in mammalian chromatin  

SciTech Connect

DNA damage and repair in response to ultraviolet light (UV) or furocoumarin photoadducts were studied in cultured primate cells. First, the sensitivity to digestion by the enzyme staphylococcal nuclease (SN) of repair patches synthesized in response to damage by UV or the angular furocoumarin angelicin was examined in human cells. Second, excision repair was examined in the 172 base pair highly repeated alpha DNA sequence in African green monkey cells. Excision repair after treatment of cells with UV was the same in alpha DNA as in the bulk of the genome. However repair of furocoumarin photoadducts was only about 30% as great in alpha DNA as in the bulk of the genome, even through the initial amount of damage, the time course of excision repair, and the excision repair patch size were all indistinguishable for the two DNA species.

Zolan, M.E.

1983-01-01

318

Green tea and skin cancer: photoimmunology, angiogenesis and DNA repair.  

PubMed

Human skin is constantly exposed to numerous noxious physical, chemical and environmental agents. Some of these agents directly or indirectly adversely affect the skin. Cutaneous overexposure to environmental solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation (290-400 nm) has a variety of adverse effects on human health, including the development of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Therefore, there is a need to develop measures or strategies, and nutritional components are increasingly being explored for this purpose. The polyphenols present in green tea (Camellia sinensis) have been shown to have numerous health benefits, including protection from UV carcinogenesis. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the major and most photoprotective polyphenolic component of green tea. In this review article, we have discussed the most recent investigations and mechanistic studies that define and support the photoprotective efficacy of green tea polyphenols (GTPs) against UV carcinogenesis. The oral administration of GTPs in drinking water or the topical application of EGCG prevents UVB-induced skin tumor development in mice, and this prevention is mediated through: (a) the induction of immunoregulatory cytokine interleukin (IL) 12; (b) IL-12-dependent DNA repair following nucleotide excision repair mechanism; (c) the inhibition of UV-induced immunosuppression through IL-12-dependent DNA repair; (d) the inhibition of angiogenic factors; and (e) the stimulation of cytotoxic T cells in a tumor microenvironment. New mechanistic information strongly supports and explains the chemopreventive activity of GTPs against photocarcinogenesis. PMID:17049833

Katiyar, Suchitra; Elmets, Craig A; Katiyar, Santosh K

2007-05-01

319

Insights into Protein - DNA Interactions, Stability and Allosteric Communications: A Computational Study of Muts?-DNA Recognition Complexes  

PubMed Central

DNA mismatch repair proteins (MMR) maintain genetic stability by recognizing and repairing mismatched bases and insertion/deletion loops mistakenly incorporated during DNA replication, and initiate cellular response to certain types of DNA damage. Loss of MMR in mammalian cells has been linked to resistance to certain DNA damaging chemotherapeutic agents, as well as to increase risk of cancer. Mismatch repair pathway is considered to involve the concerted action of at least 20 proteins. The most abundant MMR mismatch-binding factor in eukaryotes, MutS?, recognizes and initiates the repair of base-base mismatches and small insertion/deletion. We performed molecular dynamics simulations on mismatched and damaged MutS?-DNA complexes. A comprehensive DNA binding site analysis of relevant conformations shows that MutS? proteins recognize the mismatched and platinum cross-linked DNA substrates in significantly different modes. Distinctive conformational changes associated with MutS? binding to mismatched and damaged DNA have been identified and they provide insight into the involvement of MMR proteins in DNA-repair and DNA-damage pathways. Stability and allosteric interactions at the heterodimer interface associated with the mismatch and damage recognition step allow for prediction of key residues in MMR cancer-causing mutations. A rigorous hydrogen bonding analysis for ADP molecules at the ATPase binding sites is also presented. Due to extended number of known MMR cancer causing mutations among the residues proved to make specific contacts with ADP molecules, recommendations for further studies on similar mutagenic effects were made.

Negureanu, Lacramioara; Salsbury, Freddie R.

2013-01-01

320

Unraveling a connection between DNA demethylation repair and cancer.  

PubMed

In this issue of Molecular Cell, Dango and Mosammaparast discover that the human oxidative demethylase ALKBH3 functions in complex with a DNA helicase to eliminate N3-methylcytosine lesions from ssDNA and that specific cancer cell lines are dependent on this activity for proliferation (Dango et al., 2011). PMID:22055180

Camps, Manel; Eichman, Brandt F

2011-11-01

321

Preparation of covalently linked complexes between DNA and O(6)-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase using interstrand cross-linked DNA.  

PubMed

O(6)-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferases (AGT) are responsible for the removal of alkylation at both the O(6) atom of guanine and O(4) atom of thymine. AGT homologues show vast substrate differences with respect to the size of the adduct and which alkylated atoms they can restore. The human AGT (hAGT) has poor capabilities for removal of methylation at the O(4) atom of thymidine, which is not the case in most homologues. No structural data are available to explain this poor hAGT repair. We prepared and characterized O(6)G-butylene-O(4)T (XLGT4) and O(6)G-heptylene-O(4)T (XLGT7) interstrand cross-linked (ICL) DNA as probes for hAGT and the Escherichia coli homologues, OGT and Ada-C, for the formation of DNA-AGT covalent complexes. XLGT7 reacted only with hAGT and did so with a cross-linking efficiency of 25%, while XLGT4 was inert to all AGT tested. The hAGT mediated repair of XLGT7 occurred slowly, on the order of hours as opposed to the repair of O(6)-methyl-2'-deoxyguanosine which requires seconds. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis of the repair reaction revealed the formation of a covalent complex with an observed migration in accordance with a DNA-AGT complex. The identity of this covalent complex, as determined by mass spectrometry, was composed of a heptamethylene bridge between the O(4) atom of thymidine (in an 11-mer DNA strand) to residue Cys145 of hAGT. This procedure can be applied to produce well-defined covalent complexes between AGT with DNA. PMID:23347328

McManus, Francis P; Khaira, Amardeep; Noronha, Anne M; Wilds, Christopher J

2013-02-20

322

6-Carboxyfluorescein and structurally similar molecules inhibit DNA binding and repair by O?-alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase.  

PubMed

Human O?-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) repairs mutagenic O?-alkylguanine and O?-alkylthymine adducts in single-stranded and duplex DNAs. These activities protect normal cells and tumor cells against drugs that alkylate DNA; drugs that inactivate AGT are under test as chemotherapeutic enhancers. In studies using 6-carboxyfluorescein (FAM)-labeled DNAs, AGT reduced the fluorescence intensity by ?40% at binding saturation, whether the FAM was located at the 5' or the 3' end of the DNA. AGT protected residual fluorescence from quenching, indicating a solute-inaccessible binding site for FAM. Sedimentation equilibrium analyses showed that saturating AGT-stoichiometries were higher with FAM-labeled DNAs than with unlabeled DNAs, suggesting that the FAM provides a protein binding site that is not present in unlabeled DNAs. Additional fluorescence and sedimentation measurements showed that AGT forms a 1:1 complex with free FAM. Active site benzylation experiments and docking calculations support models in which the primary binding site is located in or near the active site of the enzyme. Electrophoretic analyses show that FAM inhibits DNA binding (IC???76?M) and repair of DNA containing an O?-methylguanine residue (IC???63?M). Similar results were obtained with other polycyclic aromatic compounds. These observations demonstrate the existence of a new class of non-covalent AGT-inhibitors. After optimization for binding-affinity, members of this class might be useful in cancer chemotherapy. PMID:21982443

Melikishvili, Manana; Rodgers, David W; Fried, Michael G

2011-12-10

323

Structural Complexity of DNA Sequence  

PubMed Central

In modern bioinformatics, finding an efficient way to allocate sequence fragments with biological functions is an important issue. This paper presents a structural approach based on context-free grammars extracted from original DNA or protein sequences. This approach is radically different from all those statistical methods. Furthermore, this approach is compared with a topological entropy-based method for consistency and difference of the complexity results.

Liou, Cheng-Yuan; Cheng, Wei-Chen; Tsai, Huai-Ying

2013-01-01

324

Rational Design of Human DNA Ligase Inhibitors that Target Cellular DNA Replication and Repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the crystal structure of human DNA ligase I complexed with nicked DNA, computer-aided drug design was used to identify compounds in a database of 1.5 million commercially available low molecular weight chemicals that were predicted to bind to a DNA-binding pocket within the DNA-binding domain of DNA ligase I, thereby inhibiting DNA joining. Ten of 192 candidates specifically

Xi Chen; Shijun Zhong; Xiao Zhu; Barbara Dziegielewska; Tom Ellenberger; Gerald M. Wilson; Alexander D. MacKerell; Alan E. Tomkinson

2008-01-01

325

DNA DSB repair pathway choice: an orchestrated handover mechanism.  

PubMed

DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are potential lethal lesions but can also lead to chromosome rearrangements, a step promoting carcinogenesis. DNA non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) is the major DSB rejoining process and occurs in all cell cycle stages. Homologous recombination (HR) can additionally function to repair irradiation-induced two-ended DSBs in G2 phase. In mammalian cells, HR predominantly uses a sister chromatid as a template for DSB repair; thus HR functions only in late S/G2 phase. Here, we review current insight into the interplay between HR and NHEJ in G2 phase. We argue that NHEJ represents the first choice pathway, repairing approximately 80% of X-ray-induced DSBs with rapid kinetics. However, a subset of DSBs undergoes end resection and repair by HR. 53BP1 restricts resection, thereby promoting NHEJ. During the switch from NHEJ to HR, 53BP1 is repositioned to the periphery of enlarged irradiation-induced foci (IRIF) via a BRCA1-dependent process. K63-linked ubiquitin chains, which also form at IRIF, are also repositioned as well as receptor-associated protein 80 (RAP80), a ubiquitin binding protein. RAP80 repositioning requires POH1, a proteasome component. Thus, the interfacing barriers to HR, 53BP1 and RAP80 are relieved by POH1 and BRCA1, respectively. Removal of RAP80 from the IRIF core is required for loss of the ubiquitin chains and 53BP1, and for efficient replication protein A foci formation. We propose that NHEJ is used preferentially to HR because it is a compact process that does not necessitate extensive chromatin changes in the DSB vicinity. PMID:24363387

Kakarougkas, A; Jeggo, P A

2014-03-01

326

Interactions between branched DNAs and peptide inhibitors of DNA repair  

PubMed Central

The RecG helicase of Escherichia coli unwinds both Holliday junction (HJ) and replication fork DNA substrates. Our lab previously identified and characterized peptides (WRWYCR and KWWCRW) that block the activity of RecG on these substrates. We determined that the peptides bind HJ DNA and prevent the binding of RecG. Herein, we present further evidence that the peptides are competitive inhibitors of RecG binding to its substrates. We have generated structural models of interactions between WRWYCR and a junction substrate. Using the fluorescent probe 2-aminopurine, we show that inhibitors interact with highest affinity with HJs (Kd = 14 nM) and ?4- to 9-fold more weakly with replication fork substrates. The fluorescence assay results agree with the structural model, and predict the molecular basis for interactions between HJ-trapping peptides and branched DNA molecules. Specifically, aromatic amino acids in the peptides stack with bases at the center of the DNA substrates. These interactions are stabilized by hydrogen bonds to the DNA and by intrapeptide interactions. These peptides inhibit several proteins involved in DNA repair in addition to RecG, have been useful as tools to dissect recombination, and possess antibiotic activity. Greater understanding of the peptides’ mechanism of action will further increase their utility.

Kepple, Kevin V.; Patel, Namita; Salamon, Peter; Segall, Anca M.

2008-01-01

327

Selected polymorphisms of DNA repair genes and risk of pancreatic cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Genetic variants of DNA repair genes may contribute to pancreatic carcinogenesis. O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is the major protein that removes alkylating DNA adducts, and apurinic\\/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) and X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) play important roles in the base excision repair pathway. Methods: We investigated the association between polymorphisms of MGMT (Leu84Phe and Ile143Val), APE1 (Asp148Glu), and

Li Jiao; Melissa L. Bondy; Manal M. Hassan; Robert A. Wolff; Douglas B. Evans; James L. Abbruzzese; Donghui Li

2006-01-01

328

The emerging role of nuclear architecture in DNA repair and genome maintenance  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA repair and maintenance of genome stability are crucial to cellular and organismal function, and defects in these processes have been implicated in cancer and ageing. Detailed molecular, biochemical and genetic analyses have outlined the molecular framework involved in cellular DNA-repair pathways, but recent cell-biological approaches have revealed important roles for the spatial and temporal organization of the DNA-repair machinery

Tom Misteli; Evi Soutoglou

2009-01-01

329

Kub5-Hera, the human Rtt103 homolog, plays dual functional roles in transcription termination and DNA repair.  

PubMed

Functions of Kub5-Hera (In Greek Mythology Hera controlled Artemis) (K-H), the human homolog of the yeast transcription termination factor Rtt103, remain undefined. Here, we show that K-H has functions in both transcription termination and DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. K-H forms distinct protein complexes with factors that repair DSBs (e.g. Ku70, Ku86, Artemis) and terminate transcription (e.g. RNA polymerase II). K-H loss resulted in increased basal R-loop levels, DSBs, activated DNA-damage responses and enhanced genomic instability. Significantly lowered Artemis protein levels were detected in K-H knockdown cells, which were restored with specific K-H cDNA re-expression. K-H deficient cells were hypersensitive to cytotoxic agents that induce DSBs, unable to reseal complex DSB ends, and showed significantly delayed ?-H2AX and 53BP1 repair-related foci regression. Artemis re-expression in K-H-deficient cells restored DNA-repair function and resistance to DSB-inducing agents. However, R loops persisted consistent with dual roles of K-H in transcription termination and DSB repair. PMID:24589584

Morales, Julio C; Richard, Patricia; Rommel, Amy; Fattah, Farjana J; Motea, Edward A; Patidar, Praveen L; Xiao, Ling; Leskov, Konstantin; Wu, Shwu-Yuan; Hittelman, Walter N; Chiang, Cheng-Ming; Manley, James L; Boothman, David A

2014-04-01

330

Kub5-Hera, the human Rtt103 homolog, plays dual functional roles in transcription termination and DNA repair  

PubMed Central

Functions of Kub5-Hera (In Greek Mythology Hera controlled Artemis) (K-H), the human homolog of the yeast transcription termination factor Rtt103, remain undefined. Here, we show that K-H has functions in both transcription termination and DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. K-H forms distinct protein complexes with factors that repair DSBs (e.g. Ku70, Ku86, Artemis) and terminate transcription (e.g. RNA polymerase II). K-H loss resulted in increased basal R-loop levels, DSBs, activated DNA-damage responses and enhanced genomic instability. Significantly lowered Artemis protein levels were detected in K-H knockdown cells, which were restored with specific K-H cDNA re-expression. K-H deficient cells were hypersensitive to cytotoxic agents that induce DSBs, unable to reseal complex DSB ends, and showed significantly delayed ?-H2AX and 53BP1 repair-related foci regression. Artemis re-expression in K-H-deficient cells restored DNA-repair function and resistance to DSB-inducing agents. However, R loops persisted consistent with dual roles of K-H in transcription termination and DSB repair.

Morales, Julio C.; Richard, Patricia; Rommel, Amy; Fattah, Farjana J.; Motea, Edward A.; Patidar, Praveen L.; Xiao, Ling; Leskov, Konstantin; Wu, Shwu-Yuan; Hittelman, Walter N.; Chiang, Cheng-Ming; Manley, James L.; Boothman, David A.

2014-01-01

331

DNA Repair Genes and Genomic Instability in Severe Male Factor Infertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maintenance of genomic integrity is of key importance for gametogenesis. Nevertheless, the processes of DNA replication,\\u000a mitosis, and meiosis are surprisingly error-prone and subject to damage. Accordingly, a series of DNA repair mechanisms have\\u000a evolved that recognize and repair DNA damage and DNA replication errors to maintain the fidelity of the DNA sequence. Gradually\\u000a translating findings from targeted gene

Francesca K. E. Gordon; Dolores J. Lamb

332

Chromatin remodelling complex RSC promotes base excision repair in chromatin of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

The base excision repair (BER) pathway is a conserved DNA repair system required to maintain genomic integrity and prevent mutagenesis in all eukaryotic cells. Nevertheless, how BER operates in vivo (i.e. in the context of chromatin) is poorly understood. We have investigated the role of an essential ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling (ACR) complex RSC (Remodels the Structure of Chromatin) in BER of intact yeast cells. We show that depletion of STH1, the ATPase subunit of RSC, causes enhanced sensitivity to the DNA alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and results in a substantial inhibition of BER, at the GAL1 locus and in the genome overall. Consistent with this observation, the DNA in chromatin is less accessible to micrococcal nuclease digestion in the absence of RSC. Quantitative PCR results indicate that repair deficiency in STH1 depleted cells is not due to changes in the expression of BER genes. Collectively, our data indicates the RSC complex promotes efficient BER in chromatin. These results provide, for the first time, a link between ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling and BER in living cells. PMID:24674626

Czaja, Wioletta; Mao, Peng; Smerdon, Michael J

2014-04-01

333

Tidying up loose ends: the role of polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase in DNA strand break repair  

PubMed Central

The termini of DNA strand breaks induced by internal and external factors often require processing before missing nucleotides can be replaced by DNA polymerases and the strands rejoined by DNA ligases. Polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase (PNKP) serves a critical role in the repair of DNA strand breaks by catalyzing the restoration of 5'-phosphate and 3'-hydroxyl termini. It participates in several DNA repair pathways through interactions with other DNA repair proteins, notably XRCC1 and XRCC4. Recent studies have highlighted the physiological importance of PNKP in maintaining the genomic stability of normal tissues, particularly developing neural cells, as well as enhancing the resistance of cancer cells to genotoxic therapeutic agents.

Weinfeld, Michael; Mani, Rajam S.; Abdou, Ismail; Acetuno, R. Daniel; Glover, J.N. Mark

2011-01-01

334

Evidence that DNA polymerases. cap alpha. and. beta. participate differentially in DNA repair synthesis induced by different agents  

SciTech Connect

The roles of DNA polymerases ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. in DNA replication and repair synthesis were studied in permeable animal cells, using different agents to induce repair synthesis. DNA polymerase inhibitors were used to investigate which polymerases were involved in repair synthesis and in replication. Polymerase ..cap alpha.. was responsible for replication. On the other hand, both polymerases ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. were involved in DNA synthesis; the extent to which each polymerase participated depended primarily on the agent used to damage DNA. Polymerase ..beta.. was primarily responsible for repair synthesis induced by bleomycin or neocarcinostatin, whereas polymerase ..cap alpha.. played a more prominent role in repair synthesis induced by N-methylN' -nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine or N-nitrosomethyl urea. More DNA damage was induced by the alkylating agents than by bleomycin or neocarcinostrain, suggesting that the extent of involvement of polymerase ..cap alpha.. or ..beta.. in DNA repair synthesis is related to the amount or type of DNA damage. In addition, salt cocentration was found to have little or no effect on the results obtained with the DNA polymerase inhibitors. Our findings provide an explanation for conflicting reports in the literature concerning the roles of DNA polymerases ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. in DNA repair.

Miller, M.R.; Chinault, D.N.

1982-01-01

335

The FEN-1 family of structure-specific nucleases in eukaryotic DNA replication, recombination and repair.  

PubMed

Unlike the most well-characterized prokaryotic polymerase, E. coli DNA pol l, none of the eukaryotic polymerases have their own 5' to 3' exonuclease domain for nick translation and Okazaki fragment processing. In eukaryotes, FEN-1 is an endo- and exonuclease that carries out this function independently of the polymerase molecules. Only seven nucleases have been cloned from multicellular eukaryotic cells. Among these, FEN-1 is intriguing because it has complex structural preferences; specifically, it cleaves at branched DNA structures. The cloning of FEN-1 permitted establishment of the first eukaryotic nuclease family, predicting that S. cerevisiae RAD2 (S. pombe Rad13) and its mammalian homolog, XPG, would have similar structural specificity. The FEN-1 nuclease family includes several similar enzymes encoded by bacteriophages. The crystal structures of two enzymes in the FEN-1 nuclease family have been solved and they provide a structural basis for the interesting steric requirements of FEN-1 substrates. Because of their unique structural specificities, FEN-1 and its family members have important roles in DNA replication, repair and, potentially, recombination. Recently, FEN-1 was found to specifically associate with PCNA, explaining some aspects of FEN-1 function during DNA replication and potentially in DNA repair. PMID:9080773

Lieber, M R

1997-03-01

336

The MutSalpha-proliferating cell nuclear antigen interaction in human DNA mismatch repair.  

PubMed

We have examined the interaction parameters, conformation, and functional significance of the human MutSalpha(.) proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) complex in mismatch repair. The two proteins associate with a 1:1 stoichiometry and a K(D) of 0.7 microm in the absence or presence of heteroduplex DNA. PCNA does not influence the affinity of MutSalpha for a mismatch, and mismatch-bound MutSalpha binds PCNA. Small angle x-ray scattering studies have established the molecular parameters of the complex, which are consistent with an elongated conformation in which the two proteins associate in an end-to-end fashion in a manner that does not involve an extended unstructured tether, as has been proposed for yeast MutSalpha and PCNA ( Shell, S. S., Putnam, C. D., and Kolodner, R. D. (2007) Mol. Cell 26, 565-578 ). MutSalpha variants lacking the PCNA interaction motif are functional in 3'- or 5'-directed mismatch-provoked excision, but display a partial defect in 5'-directed mismatch repair. This finding is consistent with the modest mutability conferred by inactivation of the MutSalpha PCNA interaction motif and suggests that interaction of the replication clamp with other repair protein(s) accounts for the essential role of PCNA in MutSalpha-dependent mismatch repair. PMID:18326858

Iyer, Ravi R; Pohlhaus, Timothy J; Chen, Sihong; Hura, Gregory L; Dzantiev, Leonid; Beese, Lorena S; Modrich, Paul

2008-05-01

337

RAD50, an SMC family member with multiple roles in DNA break repair: how does ATP affect function?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protein complex including Mre11, Rad50, and Nbs1 (MRN) functions in DNA double-strand break repair to recognize and process\\u000a DNA ends as well as signal for cell cycle arrest. Amino acid sequence similarity and overall architecture make Rad50 a member\\u000a of the structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) protein family. Like SMC proteins, Rad50 function depends on ATP binding\\u000a and hydrolysis.

Eri Kinoshita; Eddy van der Linden; Humberto Sanchez; Claire Wyman

2009-01-01

338

Release of Ku and MRN from DNA Ends by Mre11 Nuclease Activity and Ctp1 Is Required for Homologous Recombination Repair of Double-Strand Breaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multifunctional Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) protein complex recruits ATM\\/Tel1 checkpoint kinase and CtIP\\/Ctp1 homologous recombination (HR) repair factor to double-strand breaks (DSBs). HR repair commences with the 5?-to-3? resection of DNA ends, generating 3? single-strand DNA (ssDNA) overhangs that bind Replication Protein A (RPA) complex, followed by Rad51 recombinase. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 (MRX) complex is critical for DSB resection,

Petra Langerak; Eva Mejia-Ramirez; Oliver Limbo; Paul Russell

2011-01-01

339

DNA Repair and Cell Cycle Biomarkers of Radiation Exposure and Inflammation Stress in Human Blood  

PubMed Central

DNA damage and repair are hallmarks of cellular responses to ionizing radiation. We hypothesized that monitoring the expression of DNA repair-associated genes would enhance the detection of individuals exposed to radiation versus other forms of physiological stress. We employed the human blood ex vivo radiation model to investigate the expression responses of DNA repair genes in repeated blood samples from healthy, non-smoking men and women exposed to 2 Gy of X-rays in the context of inflammation stress mimicked by the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Radiation exposure significantly modulated the transcript expression of 12 genes of 40 tested (2.2E-06DNA repair gene expression may be helpful to identify biodosimeters of exposure to radiation, especially within high-complexity exposure scenarios.

Marchetti, Francesco; Mannion, Brandon; Bhatnagar, Sandhya; Kwoh, Ely; Tan, Yuande; Wang, Shan X.; Blakely, William F.; Coleman, Matthew; Peterson, Leif; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

2012-01-01

340

Alterations of DNA repair in melanoma cell lines resistant to cisplatin, fotemustine, or etoposide.  

PubMed

Resistance to chemotherapy is a common phenomenon in malignant melanoma. In order to assess the role of altered DNA repair in chemoresistant melanoma, we investigated different DNA repair pathways in one parental human melanoma line (MeWo) and in sublines of MeWo selected in vitro for drug resistance against four commonly used drugs (cisplatin, fotemustine, etoposide, and vindesine). Host cell reactivation assays with the plasmid pRSVcat were used to assess processing of different DNA lesions. With ultraviolet-irradiated plasmids, no significant differences were found, indicating a normal (nucleotide excision) repair of DNA photoproducts. With singlet oxygen-treated plasmid, the fotemustine- and cisplatin-resistant lines exhibited a significantly increased (base excision) repair of oxidative DNA damage. With fotemustine-treated plasmid, the fotemustine-resistant subline did not exhibit an increased repair of directly fotemustine-induced DNA damage. Similar results were obtained with cisplatin-induced DNA crosslinks in the cisplatin-resistant line. The fotemustine- and etoposide-resistant sublines have been shown to exhibit a reduced expression of genes involved in DNA mismatch repair. We used a "host cell microsatellite stability assay" with the plasmid pZCA29 and found a 2.0-fold to 2.5-fold increase of microsatellite frameshift mutations (p < or = 0.002) in the two resistant sublines. This indicates microsatellite instability, the hallmark of an impaired DNA mismatch repair. The increased repair of oxidative DNA damage might mediate an increased chemoresistance through an improved repair of drug-induced DNA damage. In contrast, a reduced DNA mismatch repair might confer resistance by preventing futile degradation of newly synthesized DNA opposite alkylation damage, or by an inability to detect such damage and subsequent inability to undergo DNA-damage-induced apoptosis. PMID:10620112

Rünger, T M; Emmert, S; Schadendorf, D; Diem, C; Epe, B; Hellfritsch, D

2000-01-01

341

Redox Regulation of DNA Repair: Implications for Human Health and Cancer Therapeutic Development  

PubMed Central

Abstract Redox reactions are known to regulate many important cellular processes. In this review, we focus on the role of redox regulation in DNA repair both in direct regulation of specific DNA repair proteins as well as indirect transcriptional regulation. A key player in the redox regulation of DNA repair is the base excision repair enzyme apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) in its role as a redox factor. APE1 is reduced by the general redox factor thioredoxin, and in turn reduces several important transcription factors that regulate expression of DNA repair proteins. Finally, we consider the potential for chemotherapeutic development through the modulation of APE1's redox activity and its impact on DNA repair. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 12, 1247–1269.

Luo, Meihua; He, Hongzhen; Kelley, Mark R.

2010-01-01

342

The production and repair of aflatoxin B sub 1 -induced DNA damage  

SciTech Connect

To investigate the influence of function or activity of a DNA sequence on its repair, we have studied excision repair of aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1})-induced damage in the nontranscribed, heterochromatic alpha DNA of monkey cells and in the metallothionein genes of human cells. In confluent cells, AFB{sub 1} adducts are produced in similar frequencies in alpha and in the rest of the DNA, but removal from alpha DNA is severely deficient, however, removal of AFB{sub 1} adducts from alpha DNA is enhanced by small doses of UV. The repair deficiencies are not observed in actively growing cells. We have also shown that there is preferential repair of AFB{sub 1} damage in active genes. AFB{sub 1} damage is efficiently repaired in the active human metallothionein (hMT) genes, but deficiently repaired in inactive hMT genes. 51 refs., 3 tabs.

Leadon, S.A.

1990-05-01

343

Sister chromatid exchange, DNA repair, and single-gene mutation  

SciTech Connect

Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) has been studied in cultured mammalian cells with regard to the nature of the inducing lesion, mutation induction, and factors that modify the observed frequency following mutagen exposure, SCEs can be induced by a wide spectrum of DNA lesions and, for nine agents examined, the frequency of induced SCE is linearly related to induced single-gene mutation. Further, a deficiency in DNA repair may alter the expression of both SCE and mutation in a qualitatively similar manner. The frequency of SCE induced by mitomycin-C is suppressed in heterochromatic relative to euchromatin and, in nondividing lymphocytes, the lesions leading to the formation of SCEs may persist for several months.

Carrano, A.V.; Thompson, L.H.

1982-01-01

344

Calculation of complex DNA damage induced by ions  

SciTech Connect

This paper is devoted to the analysis of the complex damage of DNA irradiated by ions. The assessment of complex damage is important because cells in which it occurs are less likely to survive because the DNA repair mechanisms may not be sufficiently effective. We study the flux of secondary electrons through the surface of nucleosomes and calculate the radial dose and the distribution of clustered damage around the ion's path. The calculated radial dose distribution is compared to simulations. The radial distribution of the complex damage is found to be different from that of the dose. A comparison with experiments may solve the question of what is more lethal for the cell, damage complexity or absorbed energy. We suggest a way to calculate the probability of cell death based on the complexity of the damage. This work is done within the framework of the phenomenon-based multiscale approach to radiation damage by ions.

Surdutovich, Eugene [Department of Physics, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan 48309 (United States); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Strasse 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Gallagher, David C. [Department of Physics, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan 48309 (United States); Solov'yov, Andrey V. [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Strasse 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

2011-11-15

345

DNA damage response and DNA repair - dog as a model?  

PubMed Central

Background Companion animals like dogs frequently develop tumors with age and similarly to human malignancies, display interpatient tumoral heterogeneity. Tumors are frequently characterized with regard to their mutation spectra, changes in gene expression or protein levels. Among others, these changes affect proteins involved in the DNA damage response (DDR), which served as a basis for the development of numerous clinically relevant cancer therapies. Even though the effects of different DNA damaging agents, as well as DDR kinetics, have been well characterized in mammalian cells in vitro, very little is so far known about the kinetics of DDR in tumor and normal tissues in vivo. Discussion Due to (i) the similarities between human and canine genomes, (ii) the course of spontaneous tumor development, as well as (iii) common exposure to environmental agents, canine tumors are potentially an excellent model to study DDR in vivo. This is further supported by the fact that dogs show approximately the same rate of tumor development with age as humans. Though similarities between human and dog osteosarcoma, as well as mammary tumors have been well established, only few studies using canine tumor samples addressed the importance of affected DDR pathways in tumor progression, thus leaving many questions unanswered. Summary Studies in humans showed that misregulated DDR pathways play an important role during tumor development, as well as in treatment response. Since dogs are proposed to be a good tumor model in many aspects of cancer research, we herein critically investigate the current knowledge of canine DDR and discuss (i) its future potential for studies on the in vivo level, as well as (ii) its possible translation to veterinary and human medicine.

2014-01-01

346

Biochemical Characterization of DNA Damage Checkpoint Complexes: Clamp Loader and Clamp Complexes with Specificity for 5? Recessed DNA  

PubMed Central

The cellular pathways involved in maintaining genome stability halt cell cycle progression in the presence of DNA damage or incomplete replication. Proteins required for this pathway include Rad17, Rad9, Hus1, Rad1, and Rfc-2, Rfc-3, Rfc-4, and Rfc-5. The heteropentamer replication factor C (RFC) loads during DNA replication the homotrimer proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) polymerase clamp onto DNA. Sequence similarities suggest the biochemical functions of an RSR (Rad17–Rfc2–Rfc3–Rfc4–Rfc5) complex and an RHR heterotrimer (Rad1–Hus1–Rad9) may be similar to that of RFC and PCNA, respectively. RSR purified from human cells loads RHR onto DNA in an ATP-, replication protein A-, and DNA structure-dependent manner. Interestingly, RSR and RFC differed in their ATPase activities and displayed distinct DNA substrate specificities. RSR preferred DNA substrates possessing 5? recessed ends whereas RFC preferred 3? recessed end DNA substrates. Characterization of the biochemical loading reaction executed by the checkpoint clamp loader RSR suggests new insights into the mechanisms underlying recognition of damage-induced DNA structures and signaling to cell cycle controls. The observation that RSR loads its clamp onto a 5? recessed end supports a potential role for RHR and RSR in diverse DNA metabolism, such as stalled DNA replication forks, recombination-linked DNA repair, and telomere maintenance, among other processes.

2003-01-01

347

DNA repair in baboon alveolar macrophages: A system for assessing biohazardous materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The repair of DNA in the alveolar macrophages of the baboon has been investigated after treatment of the cells in vitro with ultraviolet light and with the alkylating agent, methyl methanesulfonate. Repair replication has been observed to occur after ultraviolet-light irradiation of macrophages attached to plastic dishes. The two different techniques used for measuring repair replication were a standard density-gradient

M. Meltz

1976-01-01

348

DNA repair and gene targeting in plant end-joining mutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) can be repaired by homologous recombination (HR) or by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). The latter mechanism is the major route for DSB repair in the somatic cells of higher eukaryotes, including plants. If we could manipulate the balance of the DSB repair pathways towards HR on purpose, it would be possible to improve gene targeting (GT).

Qi Jia

2011-01-01

349

Transcriptional coupling of DNA repair in sporulating Bacillus subtilis cells.  

PubMed

In conditions of halted or limited genome replication, like those experienced in sporulating cells of Bacillus subtilis, a more immediate detriment caused by DNA damage is altering the transcriptional programme that drives this developmental process. Here, we report that mfd, which encodes a conserved bacterial protein that mediates transcription-coupled DNA repair (TCR), is expressed together with uvrA in both compartments of B. subtilis sporangia. The function of Mfd was found to be important for processing the genetic damage during B. subtilis sporulation. Disruption of mfd sensitized developing spores to mitomycin-C (M-C) treatment and UV-C irradiation. Interestingly, in non-growing sporulating cells, Mfd played an anti-mutagenic role as its absence promoted UV-induced mutagenesis through a pathway involving YqjH/YqjW-mediated translesion synthesis (TLS). Two observations supported the participation of Mfd-dependent TCR in spore morphogenesis: (i) disruption of mfd notoriously affected the efficiency of B. subtilis sporulation and (ii) in comparison with the wild-type strain, a significant proportion of Mfd-deficient sporangia that survived UV-C treatment developed an asporogenous phenotype. We propose that the Mfd-dependent repair pathway operates during B. subtilis sporulation and that its function is required to eliminate genetic damage from transcriptionally active genes. PMID:24118570

Ramírez-Guadiana, Fernando H; Del Carmen Barajas-Ornelas, Rocío; Ayala-García, Víctor M; Yasbin, Ronald E; Robleto, Eduardo; Pedraza-Reyes, Mario

2013-12-01

350

DNA Mismatch Repair-Induced Double-Strand Breaks  

PubMed Central

Escherichia coli dam mutants are sensitized to the cytotoxic action of base analogs, cisplatin and N-methyl-N’-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), while their mismatch repair (MMR)-deficient derivatives are tolerant to these agents. We showed previously, using pulse field gel electrophoresis, that MMR-mediated double-strand breaks (DSBs) are produced by cisplatin in dam recB (Ts) cells at the non-permissive temperature. We demonstrate here that the majority of these DSBs require DNA replication for their formation, consistent with a model in which replication forks collapse at nicks or gaps formed during MMR. DSBs were also detected in dam recB(Ts) ada ogt cells exposed to MNNG in a dose- and MMR-dependent manner. In contrast to cisplatin, the formation of these DSBs was not affected by DNA replication and it is proposed that two separate mechanisms result in DSB formation. Replication-independent DSBs arise from overlapping base excision and MMR repair tracts on complementary strands and constitute the majority of detectable DSBs in dam recB(Ts) ada ogt cells exposed to MNNG. Replication-dependent DSBs result from replication fork collapse at O6-meG base pairs undergoing MMR futile cycling and are more likely to contribute to cytotoxicity. This model is consistent with the observation that fast-growing dam recB (Ts) ada ogt cells, which have more chromosome replication origins, are more sensitive to the cytotoxic effect of MNNG than the same cells growing slowly.

Nowosielska, Anetta; Marinus, M. G.

2007-01-01

351

Catalysis of DNA cleavage and nucleoside triphosphate synthesis by NM23-H2/NDP kinase share an active site that implies a DNA repair function  

PubMed Central

NM23/NDP kinases play an important role in development and cancer but their biological function is unknown, despite an intriguing collection of biochemical properties including nucleoside-diphosphate kinase (NDP kinase), DNA binding and transcription, a mutator function, and cleavage of unusually structured DNA by means of a covalent enzyme–DNA complex. To assess the role of the nuclease in human NM23-H2, we sought to identify the amino acid responsible for covalent catalysis. By sequencing a DNA-linked peptide and by site-directed mutagenesis, we identified lysine-12, a phylogenetically conserved residue, as the amino acid forming the covalent complex with DNA. In particular, the ?-amino group acts as the critical nucleophile, because substitution with glutamine but not arginine completely abrogated covalent adduct formation and DNA cleavage, whereas the DNA-binding properties remained intact. These findings and chemical modification data suggest that phosphodiester-bond cleavage occurs by a DNA glycosylase/lyase-like mechanism known as the signature of base excision DNA repair nucleases. Involvement of NM23/NDP kinase in a DNA repair pathway would be consistent with its role in normal and tumor cell development. Additionally, lysine-12, which is known in the x-ray crystallographic structure to lie in the catalytic pocket involved in the NDP kinase phosphorylation reaction, was found essential also for the NDP kinase activity of NM23-H2, suggesting that the two catalytic activities of NM23-H2 are fundamentally connected.

Postel, Edith H.; Abramczyk, Bozena M.; Levit, Mikhail N.; Kyin, Saw

2000-01-01

352

The role of TDP1 and APTX in mitochondrial DNA repair.  

PubMed

In recent years, our knowledge surrounding mammalian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and repair has increased significantly. Greater insights into the factors that govern mtDNA repair are being elucidated, thus contributing to an increase in our understanding year on year. In this short review two enzymes, tyrosyl-DNA-phosphodiesterase 1 (TDP1) and aprataxin (APTX), involved in mitochondrial single strand break repair (SSBR) are discussed. The background into the identification of these enzymes in mtDNA repair is communicated with further deliberation into some of the specifics relating to the import of these enzymes into the mitochondrion. With the discovery of these enzymes in mitochondria comes the probability that other mechanisms underlying mtDNA repair are yet to be fully understood, suggesting there is much left to discover when shaping our understanding of this relatively undefined subject. PMID:24161509

Meagher, Martin; Lightowlers, Robert N

2014-05-01

353

Resveratrol induces downregulation of DNA repair genes in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

To gain insights into the antitumor mechanisms of resveratrol (RES), we carried out a DNA microarray analysis in the breast cancer cell line MCF-7 to study the global gene expression profile induced by RES treatment. The mRNA expression level of 19 734 well-characterized human genes from MCF-7 cells was determined using Affymetrix microarrays under two different RES treatments: 150 ?mol/l (IC(50)) and 250 ?mol/l during 48 h. A total of 1211 genes were found to have altered mRNA expression levels of two-fold or more in the 150 ?mol/l RES-treated group (518 upregulated and 693 downregulated genes). However, 2412 genes were found to have altered expression levels of two-fold or more in the 250 ?mol/l RES-treated group (651 genes upregulated and 1761 downregulated). Under both conditions of RES treatment, several genes of mismatch repair, DNA replication, homologous recombination (HR), and cell cycle were strongly inhibited. Consistently, we found decreased protein levels of the MRN complex (MRE11-NBS1-RAD50), an important complex of the HR DNA repair pathway. The ability to inhibit the expression of DNA repair genes by RES could help to overcome drug resistance commonly shown by transformed cells and to provide a solid basis for carrying out clinical trials with RES, alone or in combination with other agents, to enhance treatment efficacy, reduce toxicity, and overcome chemoresistance. Remarkably, after RES treatment, we found a decrease in NBS1 and MRE11 protein levels, two major proteins involved in HR, which suggests that RES could be used to sensitize cancer cells to cell death in combination with anticancer drugs. PMID:22644231

Leon-Galicia, Ismael; Diaz-Chavez, Jose; Garcia-Villa, Enrique; Uribe-Figueroa, Laura; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Herrera, Luis A; Alvarez-Rios, Elizabeth; Garcia-Mena, Jaime; Gariglio, Patricio

2013-01-01

354

Mouse DNA Polymerase Kappa Has A Functional Role In the Repair of DNA Strand Breaks  

PubMed Central

The Y-family of DNA polymerases support of translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) associated with stalled DNA replication by DNA damage. Recently, a number of studies suggest that some specialized TLS polymerases also support other aspects of DNA metabolism beyond TLS in vivo. Here we show that mouse polymerase kappa (Pol?) could accumulate at laser-induced sites of damage in vivo resembling polymerases eta and iota. The recruitment was mediated through Pol? C-terminus which contains the PCNA-interacting peptide, ubiquitin zinc finger motif 2 and nuclear localization signal. Interestingly, this recruitment was significantly reduced in MSH2-deficient LoVo cells and Rad18-depleted cells. We further observed that Pol?-deficient mouse embryo fibroblasts were abnormally sensitive to H2O2 treatment and displayed defects in both single-strand break repair and double-strand break repair. We speculate that Pol? may have an important role in strand break repair following oxidative stress in vivo.

Zhang, Xiuli; Lv, Lingna; Chen, Qian; Yuan, Fenghua; Zhang, Ting; Yang, Yeran; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Yun; Jia, Yan; Qian, Liangyue; Chen, Benjamin; Zhang, Yanbin; Friedberg, Errol C.; Tang, Tie-Shan; Guo, Caixia

2013-01-01

355

Mouse DNA polymerase kappa has a functional role in the repair of DNA strand breaks.  

PubMed

The Y-family of DNA polymerases support of translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) associated with stalled DNA replication by DNA damage. Recently, a number of studies suggest that some specialized TLS polymerases also support other aspects of DNA metabolism beyond TLS in vivo. Here we show that mouse polymerase kappa (Pol?) could accumulate at laser-induced sites of damage in vivo resembling polymerases eta and iota. The recruitment was mediated through Pol? C-terminus which contains the PCNA-interacting peptide, ubiquitin zinc finger motif 2 and nuclear localization signal. Interestingly, this recruitment was significantly reduced in MSH2-deficient LoVo cells and Rad18-depleted cells. We further observed that Pol?-deficient mouse embryo fibroblasts were abnormally sensitive to H2O2 treatment and displayed defects in both single-strand break repair and double-strand break repair. We speculate that Pol? may have an important role in strand break repair following oxidative stress in vivo. PMID:23522793

Zhang, Xiuli; Lv, Lingna; Chen, Qian; Yuan, Fenghua; Zhang, Ting; Yang, Yeran; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Yun; Jia, Yan; Qian, Liangyue; Chen, Benjamin; Zhang, Yanbin; Friedberg, Errol C; Tang, Tie-Shan; Guo, Caixia

2013-05-01

356

Use of hydroxyurea in the measurement of DNA repair by the BND cellulose method  

SciTech Connect

Hydroxyurea inhibition is a convenient method of suppressing replicative DNA synthesis for DNA excision-repair measurement by the BND cellulose technique. Nonetheless, hydroxyurea can introduce artefacts by direct reaction with repair-inducing compounds and by long-term inhibition of the overall repair process. A simple technique of overcoming these problems is described. Cells are reacted with repair-inducing compounds in the absence of hydroxyurea, the cells are washed free of inducer, hydroxyurea is added to 2 mM, and after a short period to establish replication inhibition, /sup 3/H dThd is added and repair measured over a one-hour incubation period.

Irwin, J.; Strauss, B.

1980-01-01

357

Encounter and extrusion of an intrahelical lesion by a DNA repair enzyme  

SciTech Connect

How living systems detect the presence of genotoxic damage embedded in a million-fold excess of undamaged DNA is an unresolved question in biology. Here we have captured and structurally elucidated a base-excision DNA repair enzyme, MutM, at the stage of initial encounter with a damaged nucleobase, 8-oxoguanine (oxoG), nested within a DNA duplex. Three structures of intrahelical oxoG-encounter complexes are compared with sequence-matched structures containing a normal G base in place of an oxoG lesion. Although the protein-DNA interfaces in the matched complexes differ by only two atoms - those that distinguish oxoG from G - their pronounced structural differences indicate that MutM can detect a lesion in DNA even at the earliest stages of encounter. All-atom computer simulations show the pathway by which encounter of the enzyme with the lesion causes extrusion from the DNA duplex, and they elucidate the critical free energy difference between oxoG and G along the extrusion pathway.

Qi, Yan; Spong, Marie C.; Nam, Kwangho; Banerjee, Anirban; Jiralerspong, Sao; Karplus, Martin; Verdine, Gregory L.; Harvard-Med; Harvard

2010-01-12

358

Interplay of Mre11 Nuclease with Dna2 plus Sgs1 in Rad51-Dependent Recombinational Repair  

PubMed Central

The Mre11/Rad50/Xrs2 complex initiates IR repair by binding to the end of a double-strand break, resulting in 5? to 3? exonuclease degradation creating a single-stranded 3? overhang competent for strand invasion into the unbroken chromosome. The nuclease(s) involved are not well understood. Mre11 encodes a nuclease, but it has 3? to 5?, rather than 5? to 3? activity. Furthermore, mutations that inactivate only the nuclease activity of Mre11 but not its other repair functions, mre11-D56N and mre11-H125N, are resistant to IR. This suggests that another nuclease can catalyze 5? to 3? degradation. One candidate nuclease that has not been tested to date because it is encoded by an essential gene is the Dna2 helicase/nuclease. We recently reported the ability to suppress the lethality of a dna2? with a pif1?. The dna2? pif1? mutant is IR-resistant. We have determined that dna2? pif1? mre11-D56N and dna2? pif1? mre11-H125N strains are equally as sensitive to IR as mre11? strains, suggesting that in the absence of Dna2, Mre11 nuclease carries out repair. The dna2? pif1? mre11-D56N triple mutant is complemented by plasmids expressing Mre11, Dna2 or dna2K1080E, a mutant with defective helicase and functional nuclease, demonstrating that the nuclease of Dna2 compensates for the absence of Mre11 nuclease in IR repair, presumably in 5? to 3? degradation at DSB ends. We further show that sgs1? mre11-H125N, but not sgs1?, is very sensitive to IR, implicating the Sgs1 helicase in the Dna2-mediated pathway.

Budd, Martin E.; Campbell, Judith L.

2009-01-01

359

Interplay of Mre11 nuclease with Dna2 plus Sgs1 in Rad51-dependent recombinational repair.  

PubMed

The Mre11/Rad50/Xrs2 complex initiates IR repair by binding to the end of a double-strand break, resulting in 5' to 3' exonuclease degradation creating a single-stranded 3' overhang competent for strand invasion into the unbroken chromosome. The nuclease(s) involved are not well understood. Mre11 encodes a nuclease, but it has 3' to 5', rather than 5' to 3' activity. Furthermore, mutations that inactivate only the nuclease activity of Mre11 but not its other repair functions, mre11-D56N and mre11-H125N, are resistant to IR. This suggests that another nuclease can catalyze 5' to 3' degradation. One candidate nuclease that has not been tested to date because it is encoded by an essential gene is the Dna2 helicase/nuclease. We recently reported the ability to suppress the lethality of a dna2Delta with a pif1Delta. The dna2Delta pif1Delta mutant is IR-resistant. We have determined that dna2Delta pif1Delta mre11-D56N and dna2Delta pif1Delta mre11-H125N strains are equally as sensitive to IR as mre11Delta strains, suggesting that in the absence of Dna2, Mre11 nuclease carries out repair. The dna2Delta pif1Delta mre11-D56N triple mutant is complemented by plasmids expressing Mre11, Dna2 or dna2K1080E, a mutant with defective helicase and functional nuclease, demonstrating that the nuclease of Dna2 compensates for the absence of Mre11 nuclease in IR repair, presumably in 5' to 3' degradation at DSB ends. We further show that sgs1Delta mre11-H125N, but not sgs1Delta, is very sensitive to IR, implicating the Sgs1 helicase in the Dna2-mediated pathway. PMID:19165339

Budd, Martin E; Campbell, Judith L

2009-01-01

360

Cell cycle control, DNA repair and initiation of carcinogenesis.  

PubMed

We hypothesize that degradation of controls that normally act to inhibit cell proliferation is an early step in carcinogenesis. This alteration gives rise to initiated clones that display a selective growth advantage over normal cells when subjected to appropriate growth-promoting influences. In cell culture, such initiated cells also may display a selective growth advantage that lets them proliferate under conditions in which normal cell growth ceases. Cells with these properties have been designated enhanced-growth variants (EGVs)2 (1) or extended life span variants (ELVs) (2). We propose that the EGV/ELV phenotypes in vitro and initiation of carcinogenesis in vivo are consequences of genetic changes in pathways that regulate the passage of cells through the cell cycle. These regulatory pathways normally delay or arrest cell cycle progression in response to homeostatic regulators and DNA damage. DNA damage induced by a variety of genotoxic agents triggers delays in cycle progression at three steps of the cell cycle. Two of these involve delays in progression from G1 into S phase and G2 into mitosis. The third occurs within S phase cells and involves reduction in the rate of initiation of DNA synthesis in replicon clusters. If these cycle delay responses fail, damaged DNA may be replicated before it is adequately repaired. This would enhance production of additional genetic alterations. Thus, mutations in genes that normally exert a negative control over cell cycle progression may give cells a growth advantage and make the cells more genetically unstable. PMID:8375618

Kaufmann, W K; Kaufman, D G

1993-09-01

361

A genetic screen identifies FAN1, a Fanconi anemia-associated nuclease necessary for DNA interstrand crosslink repair.  

PubMed

The Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway is responsible for interstrand crosslink repair. At the heart of this pathway is the FANCI-FAND2 (ID) complex, which, upon ubiquitination by the FA core complex, travels to sites of damage to coordinate repair that includes nucleolytic modification of the DNA surrounding the lesion and translesion synthesis. How the ID complex regulates these events is unknown. Here we describe a shRNA screen that led to the identification of two nucleases necessary for crosslink repair, FAN1 (KIAA1018) and EXDL2. FAN1 colocalizes at sites of DNA damage with the ID complex in a manner dependent on FAN1's ubiquitin-binding domain (UBZ), the ID complex, and monoubiquitination of FANCD2. FAN1 possesses intrinsic 5'-3' exonuclease activity and endonuclease activity that cleaves nicked and branched structures. We propose that FAN1 is a repair nuclease that is recruited to sites of crosslink damage in part through binding the ubiquitinated ID complex through its UBZ domain. PMID:20603073

Smogorzewska, Agata; Desetty, Rohini; Saito, Takamune T; Schlabach, Michael; Lach, Francis P; Sowa, Mathew E; Clark, Alan B; Kunkel, Thomas A; Harper, J Wade; Colaiácovo, Monica P; Elledge, Stephen J

2010-07-01

362

Repair of DNA treated with. gamma. -irradiation and chemical carcinogens. Progress report, 1980-1983  

SciTech Connect

We have studied in vitro DNA repair with the isolation and characterization of DNA glycosylases active in the removable of 3-methyladenine and the problem of repair of DNA in chromatin. The second area of focus has been on transposable elements and carcinogen action. The work on DNA adducts with ..beta..-propiolactone was done to define potential new substrates useful in a search for new glycosylases.

Goldthwait, D.A.

1984-02-01

363

Polymorphisms in XPC, XPD, XRCC1, and XRCC3 DNA repair genes and lung cancer risk in a population of Northern Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes have been associated to repair DNA lesions, and might contribute to the individual susceptibility to develop different types of cancer. Nucleotide excision repair (NER), base excision repair (BER), and double-strand break repair (DSBR) are the main DNA repair pathways. We investigated the relationship between polymorphisms in two NER genes, XPC (poly (AT) insertion\\/deletion: PAT-\\/+)

M Felicitas López-Cima; Patricia González-Arriaga; Laura García-Castro; Teresa Pascual; Manuel G Marrón; Xose S Puente; Adonina Tardón

2007-01-01

364

Chromosomal Aberrations in DNA Repair Defective Cell Lines: Comparisons of Dose Rate and Radiation Quality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chromosome aberration yields were assessed in DNA double-strand break repair (DSB) deficient cells after acute doses of gamma-rays or high-LET iron nuclei, or low dose-rate (0.018 Gy/hr) gamma-rays. We studied several cell lines including fibroblasts deficient in ATM (product of the gene that is mutated in ataxia telangiectasia patients) or NBS (product of the gene mutated in the Nijmegen breakage syndrome), and gliomablastoma cells that are proficient or lacking in DNA-dependent protein kinase, DNA-PK activity. Chromosomes were analyzed using the fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome painting method in cells at the first division post-irradiation and chromosome aberrations were identified as either simple exchanges (translocations and dicentrics) or complex exchanges (involving >2 breaks in 2 or more chromosomes). Gamma radiation induced higher yields of both simple and complex exchanges in the DSB repair defective cells than in the normal cells. The quadratic dose-response terms for both chromosome exchange types were significantly higher for the ATM and NBS defective lines than for normal fibroblasts. However, the linear dose-response term was significantly higher only for simple exchanges in the NBS cells. Large increases in the quadratic dose response terms indicate the important roles of ATM and NBS in chromatin modifications that facilitate correct DSB repair and minimize aberration formation. Differences in the response of AT and NBS deficient cells at lower doses suggests important questions about the applicability of observations of radiation sensitivity at high dose to low dose exposures. For all iron nuclei irradiated cells, regression models preferred purely linear and quadratic dose responses for simple and complex exchanges, respectively. All the DNA repair defective cell lines had lower Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values than normal cells, the lowest being for the DNA-PK-deficient cells, which was near unity. To further investigate the sensitivity differences for low and low high doses, we performed chronic low dose-rate irradiation, and have begun studies with ATM and Nibrin inhibitors and siRNA knockout of these proteins. Results support the conclusion that for the endpoint of simple chromosomal aberrations (translocation or dicentrics), the increased radiation sensitivity of AT cells found at high doses (>1 Gy) does not carry over to low doses or doserates, while NBS cells show increased sensitivity for both high and low dose exposures.

George, K. A.; Hada, M.; Patel, Z.; Huff, J.; Pluth, J. M.; Cucinotta, F. A.

2009-01-01

365

Replication-coupled DNA Interstrand Crosslink repair in Xenopus egg extracts  

PubMed Central

Summary Interstrand crosslinks (ICL) are one of the most hazardous types of DNA damage as they form a roadblock to all processes that involve strand separation. Repair of these lesions involves several different DNA repair pathways but the molecular mechanism is unclear. Here we describe a system that allows the examination of ICL repair, via a physiological mechanism, in vitro. This system, which uses Xenopus egg extracts in combination with a DNA template that contains a site-specific ICL, represents a unique tool to study the molecular mechanism of ICL repair.

Knipscheer, Puck; Raschle, Markus; Scharer, Orlando D.; Walter, Johannes C.

2014-01-01

366

LIG4 and RAD52 DNA repair genes polymorphisms and systemic lupus erythematosus.  

PubMed

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disorder with a strong genetic background. Nevertheless, SLE might also be triggered due to environmental factors, such as UV light exposure. DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) may be induced secondarily by UV radiation, increasing DNA immunogenicity and in SLE patients DNA repair is diminished, allowing the accumulation of DSBs and genomic instability. LIG4 and RAD52 genes play important roles in DNA repair mechanisms and a recent microarray analysis showed their differential expression in active SLE patients. In this study we investigated a potential association between LIG4 and RAD52 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and SLE predisposition in a Southeast Brazilian population. We assessed four Tag SNPs in LIG4 and three in RAD52 gene region, encompassing most of the gene sequence, in 158 SLE patients and 212 healthy controls. We also performed SNPs analysis considering clinical manifestation, gender and ethnicity in SLE patients. Our data did not show association between LIG4 and RAD52 SNPs and SLE, its clinical manifestations or ethnicity in the tested population. The analysis regarding ethnicity and SLE clinical manifestations indicated Caucasian-derived patients as more susceptible to cutaneous and hematological alterations than the African-derived. To our knowledge, this is the first association study involving LIG4 and RAD52 genes and SLE predisposition. PMID:24415301

De Azevêdo Silva, Jaqueline; Pancotto, João Alexandre Trés; Donadi, Eduardo Antônio; Crovella, Sergio; Sandrin-Garcia, Paula

2014-04-01

367

DNA-PK Target Identification Reveals Novel Links between DNA Repair Signaling and Cytoskeletal Regulation  

PubMed Central

The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) may function as a key signaling kinase in various cellular pathways other than DNA repair. Using a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis approach and stable DNA double-strand break-mimicking molecules (Dbait32Hc) to activate DNA-PK in the nucleus and cytoplasm, we identified 26 proteins that were highly phosphorylated following DNA-PK activation. Most of these proteins are involved in protein stability and degradation, cell signaling and the cytoskeleton. We investigated the relationship between DNA-PK and the cytoskeleton and found that the intermediate filament (IF) vimentin was a target of DNA-PK in vitro and in cells. Vimentin was phosphorylated at Ser459, by DNA-PK, in cells transfected with Dbait32Hc. We produced specific antibodies and showed that Ser459-P-vimentin was mostly located at cell protrusions. In migratory cells, the vimentin phosphorylation induced by Dbait32Hc was associated with a lower cellular adhesion and migration capacity. Thus, this approach led to the identification of downstream cytoplasmic targets of DNA-PK and revealed a connection between DNA damage signaling and the cytoskeleton.

Kotula, Ewa; Faigle, Wolfgang; Berthault, Nathalie; Dingli, Florent; Loew, Damarys; Sun, Jian-Sheng; Dutreix, Marie; Quanz, Maria

2013-01-01

368

DNA polymerases required for repair of UV-induced damage in saccharomyces cerevisiae  

SciTech Connect

The ability of yeast DNA polymerase mutant strains to carry out repair synthesis after UV irradiation was studied by analysis of postirradiation molecular weight changes in cellular DNA. Neither DNA polymerase {alpha} {delta}, {epsilon}, nor Rev3 single mutants evidenced a defect in repair. A mutant defective in all four of these DNA polymerases, however, showed accumulation of single-strand breaks, indicating defective repair. Pairwise combination of polymerase mutations revealed a repair defect only in DNA polymerase {delta} and {epsilon} double mutants. The extent of repair in the double mutant was no greater than that in the quadruple mutant, suggesting that DNA polymerases {alpha} and Rev3p play very minor, if any, roles. Taken together, the data suggest the DNA polymerases {delta} and {epsilon} are both potentially able to perform repair synthesis and that in the absence of one, the other can efficiently substitute. Thus, two of the DNA polymerases involved in DNA replication are also involved in DNA repair, adding to the accumulating evidence that the two processes are coupled. 33 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Budd, M.E.; Campbell, J.L. [Braun Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States)

1995-04-01

369

Orchestration of cooperative events in DNA synthesis and repair mechanism unraveled by transition path sampling of DNA polymerase 's closing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our application of transition path sampling to a complex biomolecular system in explicit solvent, the closing transition of DNA polymerase , unravels atomic and energetic details of the conformational change that precedes the chemical reaction of nucleotide incorporation. The computed reaction profile offers detailed mechanistic insights into, as well as kinetic information on, the complex process essential for DNA synthesis and repair. The five identified transition states extend available experimental and modeling data by revealing highly cooperative dynamics and critical roles of key residues (Arg-258, Phe-272, Asp-192, and Tyr-271) in the enzyme's function. The collective cascade of these sequential conformational changes brings the DNA/DNA polymerase system to a state nearly competent for the chemical reaction and suggests how subtle residue motions and conformational rate-limiting steps affect reaction efficiency and fidelity; this complex system of checks and balances directs the system to the chemical reaction and likely helps the enzyme discriminate the correct from the incorrect incoming nucleotide. Together with the chemical reaction, these conformational features may be central to the dual nature of polymerases, requiring specificity (for correct nucleotide selection) as well as versatility (to accommodate different templates at every step) to maintain overall fidelity. Besides leading to these biological findings, our developed protocols open the door to other applications of transition path sampling to long-time, large-scale biomolecular reactions.

Radhakrishnan, Ravi; Schlick, Tamar

2004-04-01

370

Homologous recombination rescues ssDNA gaps generated by nucleotide excision repair and reduced translesion DNA synthesis in yeast G2 cells.  

PubMed

Repair of DNA bulky lesions often involves multiple repair pathways such as nucleotide-excision repair, translesion DNA synthesis (TLS), and homologous recombination (HR). Although there is considerable information about individual pathways, little is known about the complex interactions or extent to which damage in single strands, such as the damage generated by UV, can result in double-strand breaks (DSBs) and/or generate HR. We investigated the consequences of UV-induced lesions in nonreplicating G2 cells of budding yeast. In contrast to WT cells, there was a dramatic increase in ssDNA gaps for cells deficient in the TLS polymerases ? (Rad30) and ? (Rev3). Surprisingly, repair in TLS-deficient G2 cells required HR repair genes RAD51 and RAD52, directly revealing a redundancy of TLS and HR functions in repair of ssDNAs. Using a physical assay that detects recombination between circular sister chromatids within a few hours after UV, we show an approximate three-fold increase in recombinants in the TLS mutants over that in WT cells. The recombination, which required RAD51 and RAD52, does not appear to be caused by DSBs, because a dose of ionizing radiation producing 20 times more DSBs was much less efficient than UV in producing recombinants. Thus, in addition to revealing TLS and HR functional redundancy, we establish that UV-induced recombination in TLS mutants is not attributable to DSBs. These findings suggest that ssDNA that might originate during the repair of closely opposed lesions or of ssDNA-containing lesions or from uncoupled replication may drive recombination directly in various species, including humans. PMID:23858457

Ma, Wenjian; Westmoreland, James W; Resnick, Michael A

2013-07-30

371

DNA excision repair in cell extracts from human cell lines exhibiting hypersensitivity to DNA-damaging agents  

SciTech Connect

Whole cell extracts from human lymphoid cell lines can perform in vitro DNA repair synthesis in plasmids damaged by agents including UV or cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (cis-DDP). Extracts from xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) cells are defective in repair synthesis. We have now studied in vitro DNA repair synthesis using extracts from lymphoblastoid cell lines representing four human hereditary syndromes with increased sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents. Extracts of cell lines from individuals with the sunlight-sensitive disorders dysplastic nevus syndrome or Cockayne's syndrome (complementation groups A and B) showed normal DNA repair synthesis in plasmids with UV photoproducts. This is consistent with in vivo measurements of the overall DNA repair capacity in such cell lines. A number of extracts were prepared from two cell lines representing the variant form of XP (XP-V). Half of the extracts prepared showed normal levels of in vitro DNA repair synthesis in plasmids containing UV lesions, but the remainder of the extracts from the same cell lines showed deficient repair synthesis, suggesting the possibility of an unusually labile excision repair protein in XP-V. Fanconi's anemia (FA) cells show cellular hypersensitivity to cross-linking agents including cis-DDP. Extracts from cell lines belonging to two different complementation groups of FA showed normal DNA repair synthesis in plasmids containing cis-DDP or UV adducts. Thus, there does not appear to be an overall excision repair defect in FA, but the data do not exclude a defect in the repair of interstrand DNA cross-links.

Hansson, J.; Keyse, S.M.; Lindahl, T.; Wood, R.D. (Imperial Cancer Research Fund, South Mimms, (United Kingdom))

1991-07-01

372

DNA repair gets physical: mapping a XPA binding site on ERCC1  

PubMed Central

Two recent reports provide new physical information on how the XPA protein recruits the ERCC1-XPF heterodimer to the site of damage during the process of mammalian nucleotide excision repair (NER). Using chemical shift perturbation NMR experiments, the contact sites between a central fragment of ERCC1 and a XPA fragment have been mapped. While both studies agree with regard to the XPA binding site, they differ on whether the ERCC1-XPA complex can simultaneously bind DNA. These studies have important implications for both the molecular process and the design of potential inhibitors of NER.

Croteau, Deborah L.; Peng, Ye; Van Houten, Bennett

2008-01-01

373

Low-fidelity compensatory backup alternative DNA repair pathways may unify current carcinogenesis theories.  

PubMed

The somatic mutation carcinogenesis theory has dominated for decades. The alternative theory, tissue organization field theory, argues that the development of cancer is determined by the surrounding microenvironment. However, neither theory can explain all features of cancer. As cancers share the features of uncontrolled proliferation and genomic instability, they are likely to have the same pathogenesis. It has been found that various DNA repair pathways within a cell crosstalk with one another, forming a DNA repair network. When one DNA repair pathways is defective, the others may work as compensatory backups. The latter pathways are explored for synthetic lethal anticancer therapy. In this article, we extend the concept of compensatory alternative DNA repair to unify the theories. We propose that the microenvironmental stress can activate low-fidelity compensatory alternative DNA repair, causing mutations. If the mutation occurs to a DNA repair gene, this secondarily mutated gene can lead to even more mutated genes, including those related to other DNA repair pathways, eventually destabilizing the genome. Therefore, the low-fidelity compensatory alternative DNA repair may mediate microenvironment-dependent carcinogenesis. The proposal seems consistent with the view of evolution: the environmental stress causes mutations to adapt to the changing environment. PMID:24947263

Wu, Jiaxi; Starr, Shane

2014-05-01

374

Trifluoperazine stimulates ionizing radiation induced cell killing through inhibition of DNA repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of trifluoperazine (TFP), a phenothiazine derivative antipsychotic drug, on ionizing radiation (IR) induced cell killing through inhibition of DNA repair was investigated in human cell lines. In clonogenic survival assay, TFP augmented IR induced cell killing. Also, TFP enhanced micronucleus formation in irradiated human lymphocytes. The effect of TFP and other known DNA repair inhibitors like wortmannin and

Sudeshna Gangopadhyay; Parimal Karmakar; Uma Dasgupta; Anindita Chakraborty

2007-01-01

375

Balancing repair and tolerance of DNA damage caused by alkylating agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkylating agents constitute a major class of frontline chemotherapeutic drugs that inflict cytotoxic DNA damage as their main mode of action, in addition to collateral mutagenic damage. Numerous cellular pathways, including direct DNA damage reversal, base excision repair (BER) and mismatch repair (MMR), respond to alkylation damage to defend against alkylation-induced cell death or mutation. However, maintaining a proper balance

Dragony Fu; Jennifer A. Calvo; Leona D. Samson

2012-01-01

376

Mutagenic DNA repair genes on plasmids from the ‘pre-antibiotic era’  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resistance transfer factors are natural conjugative plasmids encoding antibiotic resistance. Some also encode mutagenic DNA repair genes giving resistance to DNA damage and induced mutagenesis. It has been shown that antibiotic resistance has been acquired by recent transposition events; however, we show here that mutagenic repair genes existed much earlier on these types of plasmids. Conjugative plasmids from eight incompatibility

Steven G. Sedgwick; Susan M. Thomas; Victoria M. Hughes; David Lodwick; Peter Strike

1989-01-01

377

Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes in the molecular pathogenesis of esophageal (Barrett) adenocarcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the hypothesis that aberrations of DNA repair contribute to susceptibility for the progression of gastro- esophageal reflux disease (GERD) into Barrett esophagus (BE) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EADC), we studied the frequency of polymorphisms of selected DNA repair genes in patients with GERD (n ¼ 126), BE (n ¼ 125) and EADC (n ¼ 56) enrolled in a 2-year

Alan G. Casson; Zuoyu Zheng; Susan C. Evans; Paul J. Veugelers; Geoffrey A. Porter; Duane L. Guernsey

378

Polymorphisms of the XRCC1 DNA Repair Gene in Head and Neck Cance r  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inherited polymorphisms in the genes controlling the cell cycle or functioning in the DNA repai r mechanisms may impair their function and con - tribute to genetic susceptibility. Abnormalities in the DNA repair have been reported in head and neck cancer. The XRCC1 gene functions in single - strand break and base excision repair processes. In this study, two polymorphisms

Semra DEMOKAN; Deniz DEMIR; Yusufhan SUOGLU; Erkan KIYAK; Ugur AKAR; Nejat DALAY

2005-01-01

379

Comparison of rat and hamster hepatocyte primary culture/DNA repair assays  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies have demonstrated marked differences in the capacity of hepatocytes from rats or hamsters to mediate the metabolic activation of chemical carcinogens to genotoxic (i.e., mutagenic) products. Thus far, very few investigations of species differences in DNA repair have been performed. Therefore, a comparison of the relative extent of DNA repair elicited by various genotoxic chemicals in rat and hamster hepatocyes was conducted, using the hepatocyte primary culture/DNA repair (HPC/DR) assay. Of the ll chemicals tested, eight were more potent in inducing DNA repair in hamster hepatocytes than in rat hepatocytes. Dimethylnitrosamine, diethylnitrosamine, 2-acetylaminofluorene, 9-aminoacridine, pararosaniline hydrochloride, 1-naphthylamine, benzidine and 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane were all active in hamster hepatocytes at a concentration at least ten times less than the lowest effective concentration in rat hepatocytes. The direct-acting alkylating agent, methylmethane sulfonate, was equipotent inducing DNA repair in both rat and hamster hepatocytes, indicating that the differences in DNA repair observed for the other chemicals were probably not a result of species differences in DNA repair capacities. In contrast, 1-nitropyrene produced a greater DNA repair response in rat hepatocyes than hamster hepatocytes, while the bacterial mutagen 3-(chloromethyl)pyridine hydrochloride was inactive in both hepatocyte systems. These studies demonstrate the feasibility of using hamster hepatocytes in the HPC/DR assay and illustrate the utility of performing the assay with hepatocytes from more than one species.

Kornbrust, D.J.; Barfknect, T.R.

1984-01-01

380

Role of SUMO\\/Ubc9 in DNA Damage Repair and Tumorigenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA damage repair is an important cell function for genome integrity and its deregulation can lead to genomic instability and development of malignancies. Sumoylation is an increasingly important ubiquitin-like modification of proteins affecting protein stability, enzymatic activity, nucleocytoplasmic trafficking, and protein-protein interactions. In particular, several important DNA repair enzymes are subject to sumoylation, which appears to play a role in

Stergios J. Moschos; Yin-Yuan Mo

2006-01-01