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1

Redox reactions and complex formation of transplutonium elements in solutions  

SciTech Connect

This paper gives a brief analysis of the kinetics and mechanism of a number of redox processes and the complex formation of transplutonium elements in unusual oxidation states. The composition and strength of complexes of TPE with various addends have been determined. The new experimental data on the oxidation potentials of americium and berkelium ions in solutions are cited in abbreviated form. It follows from the data that in phosphoric acid solutions, when the H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ concentration is increased from 10 to 15 M, the oxidation potential of the couple Am(IV)-Am(III) decreases. The oxidation potentials of the couples Am(VI)-Am(V), Cm(V)-Cm(IV), and Bk(IV)Bk(III) are also presented.

Krot, N.N.; Myasoedov, B.F.

1986-01-01

2

Formation of titanium(IV) transferrin by reaction of human serum apotransferrin with titanium complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reaction of human serum apotransferrin with titanium(IV) citrate under physiological conditions results in the formation of a specific bis-titanium(IV) transferrin adduct (Ti2Tf hereafter) with two titanium(IV) ions loaded at the iron binding sites. The same specific Ti2Tf complex is formed by reacting apotransferrin with titanium(III) chloride and exposing the sample to air. The derivative thus obtained was characterized by

Luigi Messori; Pierluigi Orioli; Vivien Banholzer; Istvan Pais; Paolo Zatta

1999-01-01

3

Reaction time dependent formation of Pd(II) and Pt(II) complexes of bis(methyl)thiasalen podand.  

PubMed

Thiasalen podand 9 having S2N2 donor set has been synthesized by the condensation of 2-methylthiobenzaldehyde with ethylenediamine. The reaction of the thiasalen podand ligand with Pd(II) afforded two complexes depending on the reaction time. Shorter reaction time (5 min) afforded thioether complex 10; whereas with increase in reaction time (4 h) thioether-thiolate complex 11 was obtained via cleavage of one of the two S-C(Me) bonds of bis(methyl)thiasalen podand upon complexation. The reaction of 9 with Pt(II) afforded only thiolate-thioether complex 12 independent of the reaction time. The cleavage of both the S-C(Me) bonds of bis(methyl)thiasalen to afford bisthiolate complexes has never been observed. The structures of thiasalen podands and all three complexes have been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. All three complexes possess a square planar geometry around the metal centres. Weak van der Waals interactions through C-H···F interactions are present in all three complexes leading to the formation of supramolecular synthons and the supramolecular structures are stabilized by aromatic ?···? interactions, which leads to the formation of 3D pseudo-double helical network packing. Under similar conditions bis(methyl)salen did not form any complexes with Pd(II) and Pt(II). PMID:23073301

Dutta, Pradip Kr; Panda, Snigdha; Krishna, G Rama; Reddy, C Malla; Zade, Sanjio S

2013-01-14

4

Complex formation, rearrangement, and reaction in PhOH Vibrational mode effects, recoil velocities, and ab initio studies  

E-print Network

Complex formation, rearrangement, and reaction in PhOH¿ ¿ND3: Vibrational mode effects, recoil that a combina- tion of measuring the effects of reactant vibrational excita- tion and collision energy, together,2 Vibrational effects tend to probe events early along the reaction coordinate, provid- ing insight

Anderson, Scott L.

5

Role of homogeneous formate complexes in the water gas shift reaction catalyzed by the group 6 metal carbonyls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of the homogeneous water gas shift reaction catalyzed by the group 6 metal carbonyls involves the intermediacy of a formate complex. Catalytic pressure reactions as well as stoichiometric photolysis and pyrolysis experiments provide support for this mechanism. 10 references, 1 table.

William A. R. Slegeir; Richard S. Sapienza; Richard Rayford; Lillian Lam

1982-01-01

6

Formation of ammonia in the reactions of a tungsten dinitrogen with ruthenium dihydrogen complexes under mild reaction conditions.  

PubMed

Treatment of cis-[W(N2)2(PMe2Ph)4] (5) with an equilibrium mixture of trans-[RuCl(eta 2-H2)(dppp)2]X (3) with pKa = 4.4 and [RuCl(dppp)2]X (4) [X = PF6, BF4, or OTf; dppp = 1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane] containing 10 equiv of the Ru atom based on tungsten in benzene-dichloroethane at 55 degrees C for 24 h under 1 atm of H2 gave NH3 in 45-55% total yields based on tungsten, together with the formation of trans-[RuHCl(dppp)2] (6). Free NH3 in 9-16% yields was observed in the reaction mixture, and further NH3 in 36-45% yields was released after base distillation. Detailed studies on the reaction of 5 with numerous Ru(eta 2-H2) complexes showed that the yield of NH3 produced critically depended upon the pKa value of the employed Ru(eta 2-H2) complexes. When 5 was treated with 10 equiv of trans-[RuCl(eta 2-H2)(dppe)2]X (8) with pKa = 6.0 [X = PF6, BF4, or OTf; dppe = 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane] under 1 atm of H2, NH3 was formed in higher yields (up to 79% total yield) compared with the reaction with an equilibrium mixture of 3 and 4. If the pKa value of a Ru(eta 2-H2) complex was increased up to about 10, the yield of NH3 was remarkably decreased. In these reactions, heterolytic cleavage of H2 seems to occur at the Ru center via nucleophilic attack of the coordinated N2 on the coordinated H2 where a proton (H+) is used for the protonation of the coordinated N2 and a hydride (H-) remains at the Ru atom. Treatment of 5, trans-[W(N2)2(PMePh2)4] (14), or trans-[M(N2)2(dppe)2] [M = Mo (1), W (2)] with Ru(eta 2-H2) complexes at room temperature led to isolation of intermediate hydrazido(2-) complexes such as trans-[W(OTf)(NNH2)(PMe2Ph)4]OTf (19), trans-[W(OTf)(NNH2)(PMePh2)4]OTf (20), and trans-[WX(NNH2)(dppe)2]+ [X = OTf (15), F (16)]. The molecular structure of 19 was determined by X-ray analysis. Further ruthenium-assisted protonation of hydrazido(2-) intermediates such as 19 with H2 at 55 degrees C was considered to result in the formation of NH3, concurrent with the generation of W(VI) species. All of the electrons required for the reduction of N2 are provided by the zerovalent tungsten. PMID:11151496

Nishibayashi, Y; Takemoto, S; Iwai, S; Hidai, M

2000-12-25

7

Formation of Complex Organics by Gas Phase and Intracluster Ion-Molecule Reactions Involving Acetylene and Hydrogen Cyanide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many complex organics including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are present in flames and combustion processes as well as in interstellar clouds and solar nebulae. Here, we present evidence for the formation of complex covalent organics by gas phase and intracluster reactions of the benzene, phenylium, pyridine, pyrimidine, phenylacetylene and benzonitrile cations with acetylene and hydrogen cyanide molecules. These reactions are studied using mass-selected ion mobility, chemical reactivity, collisional dissociation, and ab initio calculations. Measurements of collision cross sections in helium provide structural information on the adducts and allow probing structural changes at different temperatures (isomerization). We observed multiple additions of five acetylene molecules on the pyridine cation at room temperature. This is a remarkable result considering that only two acetylene molecules were added to the phenyl cation and no addition was observed on the benzene cation at room temperature. The experimental results are in full agreement with the ab initio calculations which predict that the first and second acetylenes add to the pyridine ion in barrierless, highly exothermic reactions. Similar reactions have been observed for the pyrimidine radical cation although the extent of the addition reactions is limited to only two acetylene molecules at room temperature. The results provide the first evidence for the incorporation of nitrogen in the formation cyclic hydrocarbons via the gas phase reactions of pyridine and pyrimidine ions with acetylene molecules. In addition, the formation of covalent adducts in the ionized acetylene/HCN system will be reported for the first time. Sequential reactions leading to the formation of pyridine and pyrimidine radical cations and higher adducts are observed over a wide range of temperature and pressure. The formation of these covalent adducts may represent a general class of addition reactions that can form complex heterocyclic species in ionizing environments.

El-Shall, S.; Hamed, A.; Soliman, A. R.; Momoh, P. O.

2011-05-01

8

Thermodynamics of formation reaction and hydrometallurgical application of metal-ammonia complexes in aqueous solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Critically selected activity coefficients of individual ions stepwise stability constants, and enthalpy and entropy changes during formation of metal-ammonia complexes in aqueous salt solutions are summarised and analysed. Special attention is paid to the specifics of ammonia complexation in solutions with high ammonia concentrations (>=1 mol dm-3), which are of interest in hydrometallurgy. Certain problems and prospects for use of metal-ammonia complexation in hydrometallurgy are discussed. The bibliography includes 154 references.

Mironov, V. E.; Pashkov, G. L.; Stupko, T. V.

1992-09-01

9

Mass-dependent and -independent fractionation of isotopes in Ni and Pb chelate complex formation reactions  

SciTech Connect

Mass independent fractionation (MIF) has been a very interesting topic in the field of inorganic isotope chemistry, in particular, geo- and cosmo- chemistry. In the present work, we studied the isotope fractionation of Ni(II) and Pb(II) ions in complex formation with chelating reagent EDTA. To obtain clear results on the mass dependence of the isotope fractionation, we have conducted long-distance ion exchange chromatography of Ni(II) and Pb(II), using chelate complex reagent EDTA. The results apparently show that the isotope fractionation in Ni complex formation system is governed by the mass dependent rule. On the other hand the isotope fractionation in the Pb complex system is governed by the mass independent rule or the nuclear volume effect.

Nomura, Masao; Kudo, Takashi; Adachi, Atsuhiko; Aida, Masao; Fujii, Yasuhiko [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, O-okayama Meguroku, Tokyo, 152-8550 (Japan)] [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, O-okayama Meguroku, Tokyo, 152-8550 (Japan)

2013-11-13

10

Electronic structure and formation of simple ferryloxo complexes: mechanism of the Fenton reaction.  

PubMed

The Fenton reaction is a famous reaction in inorganic chemistry, with relevance to topics such as bioinorganic oxidation and fundamental redox chemistry of water and oxygen. It is also a reaction concerning which there has been very extensive mechanistic debate, with experimental and computational work leading to extensive evidence concerning its mechanism-not all of which is consistent. Here, we use this reaction as a challenge to modern electronic structure theory methods and show that density functional theory, when validated by accurate ab initio methods, can yield a picture of this reaction that is consistent with experiment. The article also highlights some of the challenges in accurate studies of reaction mechanisms of ionic species in water solution. PMID:24785907

Petit, Alban S; Pennifold, Robert C R; Harvey, Jeremy N

2014-07-01

11

Reaction of aromatic diazonium salts with carrier-free radioiodine and astatine, evidence for complex formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systematic studies of the astatodiazoniation reaction and a comparison with iododediazoniation under comparable conditions are reported. The yields for all astatohalobenzenes and -toluenes were nearly constant and unaffected by the nature of the diazonium compound, its isomeric form, and the number of isomers used at the same time. Only astatofluorobenzenes were obtained at higher yields. An electron-transfer mechanism is proposed

G. J. Meyer; K. Roessler; G. Stoecklin

1979-01-01

12

Dinitrosyl Iron Complexes with Cysteine. Kinetics Studies of the Formation and Reactions of DNICs in Aqueous Solution.  

PubMed

Kinetics studies provide mechanistic insight regarding the formation of dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNICs) now viewed as playing important roles in the mammalian chemical biology of the ubiquitous bioregulator nitric oxide (NO). Reactions in deaerated aqueous solutions containing FeSO4, cysteine (CysSH), and NO demonstrate that both the rates and the outcomes are markedly pH dependent. The dinuclear DNIC Fe2(?-CysS)2(NO)4, a Roussin's red salt ester (Cys-RSE), is formed at pH 5.0 as well as at lower concentrations of cysteine in neutral pH solutions. The mononuclear DNIC Fe(NO)2(CysS)2(-) (Cys-DNIC) is produced from the same three components at pH 10.0 and at higher cysteine concentrations at neutral pH. The kinetics studies suggest that both Cys-RSE and Cys-DNIC are formed via a common intermediate Fe(NO)(CysS)2(-). Cys-DNIC and Cys-RSE interconvert, and the rates of this process depend on the cysteine concentration and on the pH. Flash photolysis of the Cys-RSE formed from Fe(II)/NO/cysteine mixtures in anaerobic pH 5.0 solution led to reversible NO dissociation and a rapid, second-order back reaction with a rate constant kNO = 6.9 × 10(7) M(-1) s(-1). In contrast, photolysis of the mononuclear-DNIC species Cys-DNIC formed from Fe(II)/NO/cysteine mixtures in anaerobic pH 10.0 solution did not labilize NO but instead apparently led to release of the CysS(•) radical. These studies illustrate the complicated reaction dynamics interconnecting the DNIC species and offer a mechanistic model for the key steps leading to these non-heme iron nitrosyl complexes. PMID:25479566

Pereira, José Clayston Melo; Iretskii, Alexei V; Han, Rui-Min; Ford, Peter C

2015-01-14

13

Efficient in situ three-component formation of chiral oxazoline-Schiff base copper(II) complexes: towards combinatorial library of chiral catalysts for asymmetric Henry reaction.  

PubMed

A combinatorial in situ three-component chiral oxazoline-Schiff base copper(II) complex catalyst formation method was developed. This simple combinatorial chiral catalyst approach provided a modular library of chiral oxazoline-Schiff base copper(II) complex catalysts. The catalytic activity of these in situ generated catalysts can be rapidly and conveniently evaluated in the asymmetric Henry reaction. Moderate to good yields and enantioselectivities (up to 92% ee) were obtained under the optimized condition. The combination of modular three-component catalyst formation and in situ asymmetric reaction provides a new technology in asymmetric catalysis. PMID:20458398

Yang, Wen; Liu, Han; Du, Da-Ming

2010-06-28

14

Superoxide dismutase and Fenton chemistry. Reaction of ferric-EDTA complex and ferric-bipyridyl complex with hydrogen peroxide without the apparent formation of iron(II).  

PubMed

A ferric-EDTA complex, prepared directly from FeCl3 or from an oxidized ferrous salt, reacts with H2O2 to form hydroxyl radicals (.OH), which degrade deoxyribose and benzoate with the release of thiobarbituric acid-reactive material, hydroxylate benzoate to form fluorescent dihydroxy products and react with 5,5-dimethylpyrrolidine N-oxide (DMPO) to form a DMPO-OH adduct. Degradation of deoxyribose and benzoate and the hydroxylation of benzoate are substantially inhibited by superoxide dismutase and .OH-radical scavengers such as formate, thiourea and mannitol. Inhibition by the enzyme superoxide dismutase implies that the reduction of the ferric-EDTA complex for participation in the Fenton reaction is superoxide-(O2.-)-dependent, and not H2O2-dependent as frequently implied. When ferric-bipyridyl complex at a molar ratio of 1:4 is substituted for ferric-EDTA complex (molar ratio 1:1) and the same experiments are conducted, oxidant damage is low and deoxyribose and benzoate degradation were poorly if at all inhibited by superoxide dismutase and .OH-radical scavengers. Benzoate hydroxylation, although weak, was, however, more effectively inhibited by superoxide dismutase and .OH-radical scavengers, implicating some role for .OH. The iron-bipyridyl complex had available iron-binding capacity and therefore would not allow iron to remain bound to buffer or detector molecules. Most .OH radicals produced by the iron-bipyridyl complex and H2O2 are likely to damage the bipyridyl molecules first, with few reacting in free solution with the detector molecules. Deoxyribose and benzoate degradation appeared to be mediated by an oxidant species not typical of .OH, and species such as the ferryl ion-bipyridyl complex may have contributed to the damage observed. PMID:2165392

Gutteridge, J M; Maidt, L; Poyer, L

1990-07-01

15

Hydride-Meisenheimer Complex Formation and Protonation as Key Reactions of 2,4,6Trinitrophenol Biodegradation by Rhodococcus erythropolis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodegradation of 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (picric acid) by Rhodococcus erythropolis HLPM-1 proceeds via initial hydrogenation of the aromatic ring system. Here we present evidence for the formation of a hydride-Meisen- heimer complex (anionic s-complex) of picric acid and its protonated form under physiological conditions. These complexes are key intermediates of denitration and productive microbial degradation of picric acid. For comparative spectroscopic identification

PAUL-GERHARD RIEGER; VOLKER SINNWELL; ANDREA PREUß; WITTKO FRANCKE; HANS-JOACHIM KNACKMUSS

1999-01-01

16

Mechanistic information from volume profiles for water exchange and complex-formation reactions of aquated Ni(II). pH, buffer and medium effects.  

PubMed

Rate and activation parameters for the complex-formation reaction of Ni(2+) with 4-(2-pyridylazo)-N,N-dimethyl aniline (PADA) were studied as a function of pH in different buffers in both aqueous and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelle solutions. In aqueous Tris buffer solution, the forward and backward rate constants increased with increasing pH, while the complex-formation constant decreased due to a larger increase in the backward rate constant. The activation entropy, DeltaS(#), and activation volume, DeltaV(#), changed with increasing pH from positive to negative values, suggesting an apparent changeover from a dissociative to a more associative mechanism. Complex-formation reactions with 2,2'-bipyridine in Tris buffer showed almost no increase in the forward and backward rate constants on increasing the pH, but the DeltaS(#) and DeltaV(#) values became more negative. N-ethylmorpholine buffer showed no pH effect on the rate constants and activation parameters. Water exchange reactions of aquated Ni(2+) were also studied as a function of pH under the same conditions. The reported rate and activation parameters for water exchange in Tris and N-ethylmorpholine buffers are consistent with those found for the complex-formation reactions of Ni(2+) with PADA. The observed pH and buffer effects for both the complex-formation and water exchange reactions of aquated Ni(2+) can be accounted for in terms of the formation of a Ni(2+)-Tris complex in Tris buffer and general base catalysis by the buffer components. In SDS micelle solution, the complex-formation reaction with PADA was much faster than in aqueous solution, but the increase in rate constant with increasing pH was less significant, while DeltaS(#) and DeltaV(#) became more positive, pointing to a more dissociative mechanism. For SDS micelle solutions there was no effect on the water exchange rate constant or activation volume. Mechanistic interpretations are offered for all observed pH, buffer and medium effects. PMID:19859604

Gazzaz, Hanaa Asaad; Ember, Erika; Zahl, Achim; van Eldik, Rudi

2009-11-21

17

Bacterial formate hydrogenlyase complex.  

PubMed

Under anaerobic conditions, Escherichia coli can carry out a mixed-acid fermentation that ultimately produces molecular hydrogen. The enzyme directly responsible for hydrogen production is the membrane-bound formate hydrogenlyase (FHL) complex, which links formate oxidation to proton reduction and has evolutionary links to Complex I, the NADH:quinone oxidoreductase. Although the genetics, maturation, and some biochemistry of FHL are understood, the protein complex has never been isolated in an intact form to allow biochemical analysis. In this work, genetic tools are reported that allow the facile isolation of FHL in a single chromatographic step. The core complex is shown to comprise HycE (a [NiFe] hydrogenase component termed Hyd-3), FdhF (the molybdenum-dependent formate dehydrogenase-H), and three iron-sulfur proteins: HycB, HycF, and HycG. A proportion of this core complex remains associated with HycC and HycD, which are polytopic integral membrane proteins believed to anchor the core complex to the cytoplasmic side of the membrane. As isolated, the FHL complex retains formate hydrogenlyase activity in vitro. Protein film electrochemistry experiments on Hyd-3 demonstrate that it has a unique ability among [NiFe] hydrogenases to catalyze production of H2 even at high partial pressures of H2. Understanding and harnessing the activity of the FHL complex is critical to advancing future biohydrogen research efforts. PMID:25157147

McDowall, Jennifer S; Murphy, Bonnie J; Haumann, Michael; Palmer, Tracy; Armstrong, Fraser A; Sargent, Frank

2014-09-23

18

Simple, sensitive and selective spectrophotometric methods for the determination of atenolol in pharmaceuticals through charge transfer complex formation reaction.  

PubMed

Three rapid, selective and sensitive spectrophotometric methods have been proposed for the quantitative determination of atenolol (ATN) in pure form as well as in its pharmaceutical formulation. The methods are based on charge transfer complexation reaction of ATN as n-electron donor with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ), 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) and 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (picric acid; PA) as pi-acceptors to give highly colored radical anion species. The colored products were quantified spectrophotometrically at 590 nm with DDQ (method A) and at 420 nm with both DNP (method B) and PA (method C). Under the optimized experimental conditions, Beer's law is obeyed over the concentration ranges of 3-48, 2-24 and 1.5-18 ?g/mL ATN for method A, method B and method C, respectively. The molar absorptivity, Sandell sensitivity, limits of detection and quantification are also reported. The effects of reaction medium, reaction time and reagent concentration on the sensitivity and stability of the complexes formed have been examined. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the determination of ATN in pure form and commercial tablets with good accuracy and precision. Statistical comparison of the results was performed using Student's t-test and F-ratio at 95% confidence level and the results showed no significant difference between the reference and proposed methods with regard to accuracy and precision. Further, the accuracy and reliability of the methods were confirmed by recovery studies via standard addition technique. PMID:22568035

Prashanth, Kudige Nagaraju; Basavaiah, Kanakapura

2012-01-01

19

Some Complexation Reactions of Cellulosic Ethers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellulose ethers were prepared by the reaction of sodium cellulosate with 1-chloromethylnaphthalene, 2-bromomethyl-pyridine, 2-chloropyridine, crotyl bromide, propargyl chloride, and 1-naphthyl glycidyl ether and their complexation ability was investigated. No ?-complex formation with picric acid or 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene took place. Results were attributed to steric hindrance from the cellulosic backbone. Complexation of some metal salts by the crotyl and propargyl ethers was

Yair Avny; Ron Rahman; Albert Zilkha

1972-01-01

20

Complex formation reactions of uranyl(VI) with neutral N-donors in dimethyl sulfoxide. Influence of small amounts of water  

SciTech Connect

Quantitative information about the existence and thermodynamic stability of uranyl(VI) ion complexes based solely upon nitrogen coordination has been obtained in the solvent dimethyl sulfoxide. Calorimetric, potentiometric, and FT-IR investigations, under controlled anhydrous conditions, show that the uranyl(VI) ion can form both mono and bis chelates with the ethylenediamine ligand and only a mono chelate of rather low stability with propylenediamine. With the monodentate ligand n-butylamine only a very weak metal-ligand interaction has been detected. The stability constants and the enthalpy and entropy changes have been calculated for the identified coordinated species. All data refer to 25.0{degree}C and a tetraethylammonium perchlorate medium of ionic strength 0.1 M. All the complexes are enthalpy stabilized whereas the entropy contributions oppose the complex formation. Calorimetric and FT-IR measurements carried out to investigate the effects of small amounts of water present show that a very low water concentration, comparable to that of the coordinating metal ion, can give rise to hydrolysis reactions that may compete with complex formation. This is due to the combined action of different factors that are discussed. 39 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Cassol, A.; Di Bernardo, P.; Zanonato, P. (Universita di Padova (Italy)); Portanova, R.; Tolazzi, M. (Universita di Udine (Italy) CNR, Padova (Italy))

1990-03-07

21

Novel stable five-coordinate diorgano cobalt(III) complexes: Formation, structure, and reaction with carbon monoxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of new five-coordinate acyl vinyl cobalt(III) complexes Co{?1-C(CCPh)CHPh}[C(O)CCO] L2(L=PMe3) (6–10) were prepared via formal insertion of diphenylbutadiyne into Co–H function of mer-octahedral hydrido-acyl(phenolato)-cobalt(III) complexes. The complexes are diamagnetic. One square pyramidal structure of complex 6 was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. These complexes are stable in solid state. In solution, six-coordinate acyl vinyl carbonyl cobalt(III) complex 11 is

Xiaoyan Li; Fengli Yu; Hongjian Sun; Haoqing Hou

2006-01-01

22

Synthesis, characterization, and reaction pathways for the formation of a GMP adduct of a cytotoxic thiocyanato ruthenium arene complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organoruthenium complex [(?6-hmb)Ru(en)(Cl)][PF6] (hmb is hexamethylbenzene, en is ethylenediamine) undergoes facile aquation and then reacts with KSCN in unbuffered solution\\u000a to give the S-coordinated thiocyanato product [(?6-hmb)Ru(en)(S-SCN)]+ which slowly converts to the thermodynamically favored N-bound complex [(?6-hmb)Ru(en)(N-NCS)]+ (1\\u000a +). Complex 1 was synthesized and characterized by X-ray crystallography and mass spectrometry. Despite its lack of hydrolysis over 24 h,\\u000a complex

Fuyi Wang; Abraha Habtemariam; Erwin P. L. van der Geer; Robert J. Deeth; Robert Gould; Simon Parsons; Peter J. Sadler

2009-01-01

23

Unusual Complex Formation and Chemical Reaction of Haloacetate Anion on the Exterior Surface of Cucurbit[6]uril in the Gas Phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noncovalent interactions of cucurbit[6]uril (CB[6]) with haloacetate and halide anions are investigated in the gas phase using electrospray ionization ion mobility mass spectrometry. Strong noncovalent interactions of monoiodoacetate, monobromoacetate, monochloroacetate, dichloroacetate, and trichloroacetate on the exterior surface of CB[6] are observed in the negative mode electrospray ionization mass spectra. The strong binding energy of the complex allows intramolecular SN2 reaction of haloacetate, which yields externally bound CB[6]-halide complex, by collisional activation. Utilizing ion mobility technique, structures of exteriorly bound CB[6] complexes of haloacetate and halide anions are confirmed. Theoretically determined low energy structures using density functional theory (DFT) further support results from ion mobility studies. The DFT calculation reveals that the binding energy and conformation of haloacetate on the CB[6] surface affect the efficiency of the intramolecular SN2 reaction of haloacetate, which correlate well with the experimental observation.

Choi, Tae Su; Ko, Jae Yoon; Heo, Sung Woo; Ko, Young Ho; Kim, Kimoon; Kim, Hugh I.

2012-10-01

24

Formation of Phenylene Oligomers Using Platinum-Phosphine Complexes  

E-print Network

Formation of Phenylene Oligomers Using Platinum-Phosphine Complexes Nira Simhai, Carl N. Iverson, New York 14627 Received February 12, 2001 The reaction of biphenylene with a series of platinum bis by a variety of metal complexes.4 In addition, such a reaction is thermodynamically favored due

Jones, William D.

25

Selective formation of cis-diacyl, cis-PPh(2)R rhodium(III) complexes by the reaction of rhodium(III) cis-diacyl, trans-PPh(2)R complexes with aliphatic diamines.  

PubMed

The cis-diacyl, trans-PPh(2)R complex [RhCl(PPh(2)(o-C(6)H(4)CO))(2)(pyridine)] () reacts with substituted aliphatic diamines to afford selectively cationic cis-diacyl, cis-PPh(2)R, diamine derivatives [Rh(PPh(2)(o-C(6)H(4)CO))(2)(NN')](+) (NN' = 1,2-diphenylethylenediamine, 2; 1,2-propanediamine, 3; N-methylethylenediamine, 4; N,N-dimethylethylenediamine, 5; N,N'-dimethylethylenediamine, 6; N,N,N'-trimethylethylenediamine, 7) with high stereoselectivity depending on the N-donor ligand employed. Complexes 2 and 3 contain a single isomer, while 4 is a mixture of two isomers, 4a and 4b. Formation of 4a occurs first and is followed by isomerisation to 4b until the equilibrium 4a:4b = 1:4 ratio is attained. In contrast, 5 and 6 contain a single isomer. More basic amino groups prefer positions trans to an acyl group while less basic amino groups are trans to a phosphine group. The preferred intramolecular N-H...O hydrogen bond formation between an amino and an acyl coordinated ligands, trans to the phosphorus atoms, appears to be relevant to the selectivity observed. 7 is a mixture of two isomers 7a and 7b in a 7a:7b = 5.7:1 ratio. N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine or N,N'-diphenylethylenediamine led to the elimination of the N-donor ligands and the formation of a mixture of isomers of [Rh(2)(mu-Cl)(mu-PPh(2)(o-C(6)H(4)CO))(2)(PPh(2)(o-C(6)H(4)CO))(2)](+) (), where the Rh atoms are triply bridged by two acyl groups in a head-to-tail arrangement and by a chloride. The reaction of [Rh(PPh(2)(o-C(6)H(4)CO))(2)(ndmeen)]ClO(4) (5) with acids led to the displacement of the diamine and the formation of a [8a](+):[8b](+):[8c](+) = 1:1:3 mixture. 8c, containing the weakest sigma-donor oxygen atoms trans to the strongest sigma-donor acyl groups, represents the most electronically favourable geometry for . All the complexes were fully characterized spectroscopically. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis was performed on 5, 6, 8a and 8b. PMID:19885535

Garralda, María A; Hernández, Ricardo; Pinilla, Elena; Torres, M Rosario; Zarandona, Malkoa

2009-11-28

26

Oxide formation: reaction details studied,  

E-print Network

-nitrosohydroxylamines undergo an alternative decomposition under very similar reaction conditions to liberate nitrous oxide, N2O to human health. Investigation of the molecular basis of these alternative reactions of N recent work at Newcastle on the mechanisms of decomposition of N-nitrosohydroxylamines in which we

Johnson, Edward A.

27

Reverse hydrotropy by complex formation.  

PubMed

Self-aggregation of three di-N-alkylated diaza-18-crown-6 ethers (ACEs) was studied in non-polar solvents. The three ACEs differed by the length of the alkyl chain: n-decyl (ACE-10), n-hexadecyl (ACE-16) and n-tetracosane (ACE-24). From the previously reported interfacial tension isotherms, the formation of reverse micelles was expected above ACE concentrations of ?10(-3) M. However, the water content analysis in conjunction with Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) and (1)H NMR Diffusion Ordered Spectroscopy (DOSY) do not provide any clear proof of the existence of aggregates. Only the Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) of concentrated toluene ACE solutions reveals the existence of small reverse micelles (probably ACE dimers forming small cages hosting 1-2 water molecules). On the other hand, spectrophotometric and fluorescence dye dissolution studies using eosin Y, tropaeolin OO and methyl orange suggest that ACEs can dissolve these dyes without requiring the formation of aggregates. This discrepancy was interpreted assuming the dye-ACE complexation as the driving force for dye solubilisation, providing a possible mechanism of reverse hydrotropy ("lipotropy") in non-polar solvents. This example shows that special care should be taken when dye solubilisation is used to probe self-aggregation of an amphiphile in non-polar solvents. The amphiphile-dye complex formation might be responsible for false positive results and the aggregate formation should always be confirmed with other methods. PMID:25415596

Wojciechowski, Kamil; Gutberlet, Thomas; Raghuwanshi, Vikram Singh; Terry, Ann

2014-12-10

28

Photoinduced reaction of methylpolyynes H(C?C)nCH3 (n = 5-7) and polyyne H(C?C)5H with I2 molecules. Formation of molecular complex vs. degradation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methylpolyynes, H(C?C) n CH3 ( n = 5-7), were photo-irradiated under the presence of iodine molecules in hexane to confirm the formation of a series of molecular complexes, H(C?C) n CH3(I6) ( n = 5-7), by systematic changes in their UV absorption spectra. In order to investigate the reaction mechanism, solutions of hydrogen-capped polyyne, H(C?C)5H, and I2 molecules in hexane were irradiated with a cw-laser beam at 532 nm, then their UV absorption spectra were recorded to obtain temporal decay profiles for the polyyne C10H2. At C10H2 concentrations of about 7 ?mol L-1, the rate of reaction in the decay profile for C10H2 increased with increasing I2 concentration (8.2-126 ?mol L-1) as well as with increasing laser power (0.34-6.2 mW). Based on a kinetic model, the degradation of C10H2 was shown to compete with the formation of the polyyne-iodine molecular complex, H(C?C)5H(I6). The formation of the complex was found to be efficient under the condition that the I2 concentration is orders of magnitude higher than the C10H2 concentration as this suppresses the degradation process.

Wada, Y.; Koma, K.; Ohnishi, Y.; Sasaki, Y.; Wakabayashi, T.

2012-12-01

29

Pattern Formation and Complexity Emergence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Success of nonlinear modelling of pattern formation and self-organization encourages speculations on informational and number theoretical foundations of complexity emergence. Pythagorean "unreasonable effectiveness of integers" in natural processes is perhaps extrapolatable even to universal emergence "out-of-nothing" (Leibniz, Wheeler). Because rational numbers (R = M/N) are everywhere dense on real axis, any digital string (hence any "book" from "Library of Babel" of J.L.Borges) is "recorded" infinitely many times in arbitrary many rationals. Furthermore, within any arbitrary small interval there are infinitely many Rs for which (either or both) integers (Ms and Ns) "carry" any given string of any given length. Because any iterational process (such as generation of fractal features of Mandelbrot Set) is arbitrary closely approximatable with rational numbers, the infinite pattern of integers expresses itself in generation of complexity of the world, as well as in emergence of the world itself. This "tunnelling" from Platonic World ("Platonia" of J.Barbour) to a real (physical) world is modern recast of Leibniz's motto ("for deriving all from nothing there suffices a single principle").

Berezin, Alexander A.

2001-03-01

30

Reaction front formation in contaminant plumes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of successive fronts in contaminated groundwater plumes by subsoil bacterial action is a commonly accepted feature of their propagation, but it is not obviously clear from a mathematical standpoint quite how such fronts are formed or propagate. In this paper we show that these can be explained by combining classical reaction-diffusion theory involving just two reactants (oxidant and reductant), and a secondary reaction in which a reactant on one side of such a front is (re-)formed on the other side of the front via diffusion of its product across the front. We give approximate asymptotic solutions for the reactant profiles, and the propagation rate of the front.

Cribbin, Laura B.; Winstanley, Henry F.; Mitchell, Sarah L.; Fowler, Andrew C.; Sander, Graham C.

2014-12-01

31

Photosynthetic reaction center complexes from heliobacteria  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this project is to understand the early evolutionary development of photosynthesis by examining the properties of reaction centers isolated from certain contemporary organisms that appear to contain the simplest photosynthetic reaction centers. The major focus of this project is the family of newly discovered strictly anaerobic photosynthetic organisms known as Heliobacteria. These organisms are the only known photosynthetic organisms that are grouped with the gram-positive phylum of bacteria. The properties of these reaction centers suggest that they might be the decendants of an ancestor that also gave rise to Photosystem 1 found in oxygen-evolving photosynthetic organisms. Photoactive reaction center-core antenna complexes have been isolated from the photosynthetic bacteria Heliobacillus mobilis and Heliobacterium gestii. The absorption and fluorescence properties of membranes and reaction centers are almost identical, suggesting that a single pigment-protein complex serves as both antenna and reaction center. Experiments in progress include sequence determination of the 48,000 Mr reaction center protein, and evolutionary comparisons with other reaction center proteins.

Trost, J. T.; Vermaas, W. F. J.; Blankenship, R. E.

1991-01-01

32

Pattern Formation in Complex Fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Classical fluid instabilities -- such as the Saffman-Taylor instability in a Hele-Shaw cell -- are dramatically modified by using complex fluids. For example, polymeric liquids driven in a Hele-Shaw cell yield "dendritic" patterns with an apparent directional anisotropy. The dynamics of complex liquids can also lead to new instabilities and patterns, such as space-filling patterns formed by successive bucklings of growing "elastica" seen in the phase transition of a liquid crystalline material. Understanding such problems requires an interplay between physical modeling, mathematical analysis, and sophisticated nonlinear simulation. For the first problem, I will discuss a non-Newtonian version of Darcy's law for Hele-Shaw flow. This yields a free-boundary problem for the pattern formation, and requires the solution of a nonlinear elliptic equation in a time-dependent domain. This is pushing the development of adaptive grid methods that represent the geometry accurately and efficiently. Our simulations yield insight into how shear-thinning, as is evinced by polymeric liquids, can produce patterns reminiscent of experiment, with "dendritic fingers", side-branching, and reduced tip-splitting. In the second problem, a long filament in a smectic-A phase grows within an isotropic fluid. The splay deformation of the material gives this filament an elastic response. The macroscopic model describes the dynamics of a growing, elastic filament immersed in a Stokesian fluid. The model marries filament elasticity and tensile forces with a numerically tractable nonlocal slender-body theory. Analysis shows that growth of the filament, despite fluid drag, produces a buckling instability. When coupled to a nonlocal hydrodynamic self-interaction, our fully nonlinear simulations show that such instabilities iterate along the filament, and give "space-filling" patterns.

Shelley, Michael

2000-03-01

33

Simulation of biomolecular diffusion and complex formation.  

PubMed Central

Diffusion is a phenomenon of very widespread importance in molecular biophysics. Diffusion can determine the rates and character of the assembly of multisubunit structures, the binding of ligands to receptors, and the internal motions of molecules and assemblies that involve solvent surface displacements. Current computer simulation techniques provide much more detailed descriptions of diffusional processes than have been available in the past. Models can be constructed to include such realistic features as structural subunits at the submolecular level (domains, monomers, or atoms); detailed electrostatic charge distributions and corresponding solvent-screened inter- and intramolecular interactions; and hydrodynamic interactions. The trajectories can be analyzed either to provide direct information on biomolecular function (e.g., the bimolecular rate constant for formation of an electron-transfer complex between two proteins), or to provide or test models for the interpretation of experimental data (e.g., the time dependence of fluorescence depolarization for segments of DNA). Here, we first review the theory of diffusional simulations, with special emphasis on new techniques such as those for obtaining transport properties of flexible assemblies and rate constants of diffusion-controlled reactions. Then we survey a variety of recent applications, including studies of large-scale motion in DNA segments and substrate "steering" in enzyme-substrate binding. We conclude with a discussion of current work (e.g., formation of protein complexes) and possible areas for future work. PMID:3955168

Allison, S A; Northrup, S H; McCammon, J A

1986-01-01

34

Reactions of Ph3Sb=S with Copper(I) Complexes Supported by N-Donor Ligands: Formation of Stable Adducts and S-Transfer Reactivity  

PubMed Central

In the exploration of sulfur-delivery reagents useful for synthesizing models of the tetracopper-sulfide cluster of nitrous oxide reductase, reactions of Ph3Sb=S with Cu(I) complexes of N,N,N’,N’-tetramethyl-2R,3R-cyclohexanediamine (TMCHD) and 1,4,7-trialkyltriazacyclononanes (R3tacn; R = Me, Et, iPr) were studied. Treatment of [(R3tacn)Cu(NCCH3)]SbF6 (R = Me, Et, or iPr) with one equivalent of S=SbPh3 in CH2Cl2 yielded adducts [(R3tacn)Cu(S=SbPh3)]SbF6 (1–3), which were fully characterized, including by X-ray crystallography. The adducts slowly decayed to [(R3tacn)2Cu2(µ-?2: ?2-S2)]2+ species (4–6) and SbPh3, or more quickly in the presence of additional [(R3tacn)Cu(NCCH3)]SbF6 to 4–6 and [(R3tacn)Cu(SbPh3)]SbF6 (7–9). The results of mechanistic studies of the latter process were consistent with rapid intermolecular exchange of S=SbPh3 between 1–3 and added [(R3tacn)Cu(NCCH3)]SbF6, followed by conversion to product via a dicopper intermediate formed in a rapid pre-equilibrium step. Key evidence supporting this step came from the observation of saturation behavior in a plot of the initial rate of loss of 1 versus the initial concentration of [(Me3tacn)Cu(NCCH3)]SbF6. Also, treatment of [(TMCHD)Cu(CH3CN)]PF6 with S=SbPh3 led to the known tricopper cluster [(TMCHD)3Cu3(µ3-S)2](PF6)3 in good yield (79%), a synthetic procedure superior to that previously reported (Brown, E. C.; York, J. T.; Antholine, W. E.; Ruiz, E.; Alvarez, S.; Tolman, W. B. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 13752–13753). PMID:21338053

Yang, Lei; Tehranchi, Jacqui; Tolman, William B.

2011-01-01

35

New Pathways for the Formation of Complex Organics and Prebiotic Synthesis in the Gas Phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the formation mechanisms of complex organics that are present in interstellar clouds. The reaction of acetylene ion with water produces vinyl alcohol while the reaction of benzene ion with acetylene produces naphthalene-type ion.

El-Shall, M. S.

2010-04-01

36

Dehydriding reactions of mixed complex hydrides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dehydriding reactions of the mixtures LiBH 4 + 2LiNH 2 and LiAlH 4 + 2LiNH 2 were investigated. The new pathways confirmed for the dehydriding reactions were LiBH 4 + 2LiNH 2 ? Li 3BN 2 + 4H 2 and LiAlH 4 + 2LiNH 2 ? Li 3AlN 2 + 4H 2 in which 11.9 and 9.6 mass% of hydrogen can be desorbed theoretically. The quantities of desorbed hydrogen were deduced experimentally to be approximately 7.9-9.5 and 4.1 mass% for the mixtures of LiBH 4 + 2LiNH 2 and LiAlH 4 + 2LiNH 2, respectively. The dehydriding temperature of LiBH 4 reduces by 150 K by mixing 2 M LiNH 2. An exothermic peak was observed at a slightly higher temperature of the dehydriding reaction; however, this peak might be due to the solidification of the product after the dehydriding reaction and not due to the exothermic dehydriding reaction. Although the first-step dehydriding reaction of LiAlH 4 is exothermic, the mixture of LiAlH 4 + 2LiNH 2 exhibits an endothermic dehydriding reaction. These results suggest that the stability of the dehydriding reactions of complex hydrides can be controlled by introducing new pathways that are produced by mixing. Two criteria for selecting complex hydrides that are mixed together for producing new pathways were proposed from the viewpoints of both the melting/dehydriding temperatures and the products of the dehydriding reactions.

Nakamori, Y.; Ninomiya, A.; Kitahara, G.; Aoki, M.; Noritake, T.; Miwa, K.; Kojima, Y.; Orimo, S.

37

Reaction front formation in contaminant plumes.  

PubMed

The formation of successive fronts in contaminated groundwater plumes by subsoil bacterial action is a commonly accepted feature of their propagation, but it is not obviously clear from a mathematical standpoint quite how such fronts are formed or propagate. In this paper we show that these can be explained by combining classical reaction-diffusion theory involving just two reactants (oxidant and reductant), and a secondary reaction in which a reactant on one side of such a front is (re-)formed on the other side of the front via diffusion of its product across the front. We give approximate asymptotic solutions for the reactant profiles, and the propagation rate of the front. PMID:25461883

Cribbin, Laura B; Winstanley, Henry F; Mitchell, Sarah L; Fowler, Andrew C; Sander, Graham C

2014-10-25

38

Photosynthetic reaction center complexes from heliobacteria  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photosynthetic reaction centers are pigment-protein complexes that are responsible for the transduction of light energy into chemical energy. Considerable evidence indicates that photosynthetic organisms were present very early in the evolution of life on Earth. The goal of this project is to understand the early evolutionary development of photosynthesis by examining the properties of reaction centers isolated from certain contemporary organisms that appear to contain the simplest photosynthetic reaction centers. The major focus is on the family of newly discovered strictly anaerobic photosynthetic organisms that are grouped with the gram-positive phylum of bacteria. The properties of these reactions centers suggest that they may be the descendants of an ancestor that also gave rise to Photosystem 1 found in oxygen-evolving photosynthetic organisms. Photoactive reaction center-core antenna complexes were isolated from the photosynthetic bacteria, Heliobacillus mobilis and Heliobacterium gestii, by extraction of membranes with Deriphat 160C followed by differential centrifugation and sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Other aspects of this investigation are briefly discussed.

Trost, J. T.; Vermaas, W. F. J.; Blankenship, R. E.

1991-01-01

39

Synthesis, DNA binding and complex formation reactions of 3-amino-5,6-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazine with Pd(II) and some selected biorelevant ligands.  

PubMed

With the purpose of studying the binding behavior of Pd(II) complexes with DNA as the main biological target, and their ability to penetrate reasonably into tumour cells and destroy their replication ability, Pd(ADT)Cl2 complex was synthesized and characterized, where ADT is 3-amino-5,6-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazine. Stoichiometry and stability constants of the complexes formed between various biologically relevant ligands (amino acids, amides, DNA constituents, and dicarboxylic acids) and [Pd(ADT)(H2O)2](2+) were investigated at 25°C and at constant 0.1moldm(-3) ionic strength. The concentration distribution diagrams of the various species formed are evaluated. Further investigation of the binding properties of the diaqua complex [Pd(ADT)(H2O)2](2+) with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was investigated by UV-vis spectroscopy. The intrinsic binding constants (Kb) calculated from UV-vis absorption studies was calculated to be 2.00×10(3)moldm(-3). The calculated (Kb) value was found to be of lower magnitude than that of the classical intercalator EB (Ethidium bromide) (Kb=1.23(±0.07)×10(5)moldm(-3)) suggesting an electrostatic and/or groove binding mode for the interaction with CT-DNA. Thermal denaturation has been systematically studied by spectrophotometric method and the calculated ?Tm was nearly 5°C, supporting the electrostatic and/or groove binding mode for the interaction between the complex and CT-DNA. PMID:25459605

Shoukry, Azza A; Alghanmi, Reem M

2015-03-01

40

REACTIONS OF TRANSITION METAL THIOLATO UNITS IV. FORMATION OF PHOSPHINE-CONTAINING COBALT OR NICKEL COMPLEXES WITH iso-MALEONITRILE-DITHIOLATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reaction of M (M=Co or Ni) with K2(i-mnt) and phosphine forms chelated ternary coordination compounds (1)-(4). The crystal structures of Ni(i-mnt)(dppmSe) (1) (in the presence of Se) and (“Bu4N”)[Co(i-mnt)2(PBu 2] (2) were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses; (1) crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21\\/n with a = 12.002(3), b = 19.568(11), c = 12.456(5) Å, ? =

Bei-Sheng Kang; Zhong-Ning Chen; Zhang Lin; Hua-Xin Zhang; Han-Qin Liu; Xiao-Ying Huang

1999-01-01

41

Visualization of chemical reaction dynamics: Toward understanding complex polyatomic reactions  

PubMed Central

Polyatomic molecules have several electronic states that have similar energies. Consequently, their chemical dynamics often involve nonadiabatic transitions between multiple potential energy surfaces. Elucidating the complex reactions of polyatomic molecules is one of the most important tasks of theoretical and experimental studies of chemical dynamics. This paper describes our recent experimental studies of the multidimensional multisurface dynamics of polyatomic molecules based on two-dimensional ion/electron imaging. It also discusses ultrafast photoelectron spectroscopy of liquids for elucidating nonadiabatic electronic dynamics in aqueous solutions. PMID:23318678

SUZUKI, Toshinori

2013-01-01

42

Solvent-dependent mixed complex formation-NMR studies and asymmetric addition reactions of lithioacetonitrile to benzaldehyde mediated by chiral lithium amides.  

PubMed

Lithioacetonitrile and a chiral lithium amide with an internally coordinating methoxy group form mixed dimers in diethyl ether (DEE) and in tetrahydrofuran (THF) according to NMR studies. Based on the observed (6)Li,(1)H heteronuclear Overhauser effects, in THF lithioacetonitrile is present in a mixed complex with the chiral lithium amide, and this complex has a central N-Li-N-Li core. In DEE, on the other hand, the acetonitrile anion bridges two lithiums of the dimer to form a central six-membered Li-N-C-C-Li-N ring. Gauge individual atomic orbital DFT calculations of the (13)C NMR chemical shifts of the DEE- and THF-solvated mixed dimers show good agreement with those obtained experimentally. Lithioacetonitrile complexed to the chiral lithium amide has been employed in asymmetric addition to benzaldehyde in both DEE and THF. In THF the product, (S)-3-phenyl-3-hydroxy propionitrile, is formed in 55 % ee and in DEE the R enantiomer is formed in 45 % ee. This change in stereoselectivity between solutions in DEE and THF was found to be general among a number of different chiral lithium amides, all with an internal chelating methoxy group. PMID:11981893

Sott, Richard; Granander, Johan; Hilmersson, Göran

2002-05-01

43

Thermodynamic and kinetic data for adduct formation, cis-trans isomerization and redox reactions of ML4 complexes: a case study with rhodium- and iridium-tropp complexes in d8, d9 and d10 valence electron configurations (tropp=dibenzotropylidene phosphanes).  

PubMed

The formation of adducts of the square-planar 16-electron complexes trans-[M(tropp(ph))(2)](+) and cis-[M(tropp(ph))(2)](+) (M=Rh, Ir; tropp(Ph)=5-diphenylphosphanyldibenzo[a,d]cycloheptene) with acetonitrile (acn) and Cl(-), and the redox chemistry of these complexes was investigated by various physical methods (NMR and UV-visible spectroscopy, square-wave voltammetry), in order to obtain some fundamental thermodynamic and kinetic data for these systems. A trans/cis isomerization cannot be detected for [M(tropp(ph))(2)](+) in non-coordinating solvents. However, both isomers are connected through equilibria of the type trans-[M(tropp(ph))(2)](+)+L<==>[ML(tropp(ph))(2)](n)<==>cis-[M(tropp(ph))(2)](+)+L, involving five-coordinate intermediates [ML(tropp(ph))(2)](n) (L=acn, n=+1; L=Cl(-), n=0). Values for K(d) (K(f)), that is, the dissociation (formation) equilibrium constant, and k(d) (k(f)), that is, the dissociation (formation) rate constant, were obtained. The formation reactions are fast, especially with the trans isomers (k(f)>1x10(5) m(-1) s(-1)). The reaction with the sterically more hindered cis isomers is at least one order of magnitude slower. The stability of the five-coordinate complexes [ML(tropp(ph))(2)](n) increases with Ir>Rh and Cl(-)>acn. The dissociation reaction has a pronounced influence on the square-wave (SW) voltammograms of trans/cis-[Ir(tropp(ph))(2)](+). With the help of the thermodynamic and kinetic data independently determined by other physical means, these reactions could be simulated and allowed the setting up of a reaction sequence. Examination of the data obtained showed that the trans/cis isomerization is a process with a low activation barrier for the four-coordinate 17-electron complexes [M(tropp(ph))(2)](0) and especially that a disproportionation reaction 2 trans/cis-[M(tropp(ph))(2)](0)-->[M(tropp(ph))(2)](+)+[M(tropp(ph))(2)](-) may be sufficiently fast to mask the true reactivity of the paramagnetic species, which are probably less reactive than their diamagnetic equilibrium partners. PMID:14767928

Breher, Frank; Rüegger, Heinz; Mlakar, Marina; Rudolph, Manfred; Deblon, Stephan; Schönberg, Hartmut; Boulmaâz, Souad; Thomaier, Jörg; Grützmacher, Hansjörg

2004-02-01

44

Activation of C-O and C-C bonds and formation of novel HAlOH-ether complexes: an EPR study of the reaction of ground-state Al atoms with methylethyl ether and diethyl ether.  

PubMed

Reaction mixtures, containing Al atoms and methylethyl ether (MEE) or diethyl ether (DEE) in an adamantane matrix, were prepared with the aid of a metal-atom reactor known as a rotating cryostat. The EPR spectra of the resulting products were recorded from 77-260 K, at 10 K intervals. Al atoms were found to insert into methyl-O, ethyl-O, and C-C bonds to form CH(3)AlOCH(2)CH(3), CH(3)OAlCH(2)CH(3), and CH(3)OCH(2)AlCH(3), respectively, in the case of MEE while DEE produced CH(3)CH(2)AlOCH(2)CH(3) and CH(3)AlCH(2)OCH(2)CH(3), respectively. From the intensity of the transition lines attributed to the Al atom C-O insertion products of MEE, insertion into the methyl-O bond is preferred. The Al hyperfine interaction (hfi) extracted from the EPR spectra of the C-O insertion products was greater than that of the C-C insertion products, that is, 5.4% greater for the DEE system and 7% greater for the MEE system. The increase in Al hfi is thought to arise from the increased electron-withdrawing ability of the substituents bonded to Al. Besides HAlOH, resulting from the reaction of Al atoms with adventitious water, novel mixed HAlOH:MEE and HAlOH:DEE complexes were identified with the aid of isotopic studies involving H(2)(17)O and D(2)O. The Al and H hfi of HAlOH were found to decrease upon complex formation. These findings are consistent with the nuclear hfi calculated using a density functional theory (DFT) method with close agreement between theory and experiment occurring at the B3LYP level using a 6-311+G(2df,p) basis set. PMID:22299675

Brunet, François D; Feola, Julie C; Joly, Helen A

2012-03-15

45

Quantum-chemical approach to serine formation in the interstellar medium: A possible reaction pathway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radical-radical and radical-neutral interaction schemes are very important for the formation of comparatively complex molecules in low-temperature chemistry. The formation of amino acids, such as serine, in the interstellar medium is quite difficult. We explored the possibility of serine formation in the interstellar medium through detected interstellar molecules such as CH, CO, and OH by radical-radical and radical-neutral interactions in the gaseous phase using rigorous quantum-chemical calculations. The reaction energies, the low potential barrier and the structures of all the geometries involved in the reaction path show that serine formation is possible in interstellar space via the reaction paths.

Shivani; Singh, Amresh; Gupta, Vineet; Misra, Alka; Tandon, Poonam

2014-03-01

46

The platinum hydrido-methyl complex: A frozen reaction intermediate?  

SciTech Connect

Methane activation by transition metals has been a topic of growing interest during the past decade, due to economic interest in methane conversion and chemistry. Reactions of platinum-argon complexes Pt{sup +}Ar{sub m}, m = 1--6, with methane (CH{sub 4}) and methane-d{sub 4} (CD{sub 4}) were investigated by means of FT-ICR mass spectrometry and DFT calculations. Ligand exchange reactions are observed for Pt{sup +}Ar{sub m}, m = 2--6, in which up to four argon ligands are replaced by methane. In contrast, the bare platinum ion and platinum solvated with one argon ligand lead to the formation of a platinum-carbene complex. Gibbs free enthalpies from ligand exchange reactions of Pt{sup +}CH{sub 4} with CD{sub 4} and H{sub 2}O provide evidence for the inserted hydrido-methyl complex HPt{sup +}CH{sub 4} with CD{sub 4} (and the reverse reaction). This is attributed to the inability of the platinum cation to form more than three covalent bonds.

Achatz, U.; Beyer, M.; Joos, S.; Fox, B.S.; Niedner-Schatteburg, G.; Bondybey, V.E.

1999-10-14

47

Formation of DEG5 and DEG8 complexes and their involvement in the degradation of photodamaged photosystem II reaction center D1 protein in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

The widely distributed DEGP proteases play important roles in the degradation of damaged and misfolded proteins. Arabidopsis thaliana contains 16 DEGP-like proteases, four of which are located in the chloroplast. Here, we show that DEG5 and DEG8 form a hexamer in the thylakoid lumen and that recombinant DEG8 is proteolytically active toward both a model substrate (beta-casein) and photodamaged D1 protein of photosystem II (PSII), producing 16-kD N-terminal and 18-kD C-terminal fragments. Inactivation of DEG5 and DEG8 resulted in increased sensitivity to photoinhibition. Turnover of newly synthesized D1 protein in the deg5 deg8 double mutant was impaired, and the degradation of D1 in the presence of the chloroplast protein synthesis inhibitor lincomycin under high-light treatment was slowed in the mutants. Thus, DEG5 and DEG8 are important for efficient turnover of the D1 protein and for protection against photoinhibition in vivo. The deg5 deg8 double mutant showed increased photosensitivity and reduced rates of D1 degradation compared with single mutants of deg5 and deg8. A 16-kD N-terminal degradation fragment of the D1 protein was detected in wild-type plants but not in the deg5 deg8 mutant following in vivo photoinhibition. Therefore, our results suggest that DEG5 and DEG8 have a synergistic function in the primary cleavage of the CD loop of the PSII reaction center protein D1. PMID:17449806

Sun, Xuwu; Peng, Lianwei; Guo, Jinkui; Chi, Wei; Ma, Jinfang; Lu, Congming; Zhang, Lixin

2007-04-01

48

Coke formation and minimisation during steam reforming reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of coke during the steam reforming of light hydrocarbons results mainly from catalytic reactions. It is believed that the process is endemic to steam reforming in that the same intermediates are involved in the main reaction as are involved in coking. As a result, control of coking depends on the control of the kinetics of intermediate reactions. On

D. L. Trimm

1997-01-01

49

Reaction-bonded silicon nitride: its formation and properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theme of the review is the construction of a model embracing the mechanism of formation of reaction-bonded silicon nitride, the development of microstructure and mechanical properties. Possible nitridation reactions are discussed, with emphasis on kinetics and on phase composition and microstructure of the reaction product. The influence of Fe, a common impurity in silicon powders, and of H2, as

A. J. Moulson

1979-01-01

50

Complex organic molecules and star formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Star forming regions are characterised by the presence of a wealth of chemical species. For the past two to three decades, ever more complex organic species have been detected in the hot cores of protostars. The evolution of these molecules in the course of the star forming process is still uncertain, but it is likely that they are partially incorporated into protoplanetary disks and then into planetesimals and the small bodies of planetary systems. The complex organic molecules seen in star forming regions are particularly interesting since they probably make up building blocks for prebiotic chemistry. Recently we showed that these species were also present in the cold gas in prestellar cores, which represent the very first stages of star formation. These detections question the models which were until now accepted to account for the presence of complex organic molecules in star forming regions. In this article, we shortly review our current understanding of complex organic molecule formation in the early stages of star formation, in hot and cold cores alike and present new results on the formation of their likely precursor radicals.

Bacmann, A.; Faure, A.

2014-12-01

51

Nitrene transfer reactions by late transition metal complexes  

E-print Network

This thesis presents nitrene transfer reactions that are catalyzed or mediated by late transition metal complexes. Sterically large, fluorinated supporting ligands are used to minimize potential side reactions. A new ...

Hamilton, Charles W., Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2007-01-01

52

Reactions of Pd and Pt complexes with molecular oxygen.  

PubMed

Knowledge of exactly how metal complexes react with molecular oxygen is still limited and this has hampered efforts to develop catalysts for oxidation reactions using O2 as the oxidant and/or oxygen-atom source. A better understanding of the reactions of different types of metal complexes with O2 will be of great utility in rational catalyst development. Reactions between molecular oxygen and Pd(0-II) and Pt(0-IV) complexes are reviewed here. PMID:25303084

Scheuermann, Margaret L; Goldberg, Karen I

2014-11-01

53

Reactions and mass spectra of complex particles using Aerosol CIMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosol chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) is used both on- and off-line for the analysis of complex laboratory-generated and ambient particles. One of the primary advantages of Aerosol CIMS is the low degree of ion fragmentation, making this technique well suited for investigating the reactivity of complex particles. To demonstrate the usefulness of this "soft" ionization, particles generated from meat cooking were reacted with ozone and the composition was monitored as a function of reaction time. Two distinct kinetic regimes were observed with most of the oleic acid in these particles reacting quickly but with 30% appearing to be trapped in the complex mixture. Additionally, detection limits are measured to be sufficiently low (100-200 ng/m3) to detect some of the more abundant constituents in ambient particles, including sulfate, which is measured in real-time at 1.2 [mu]g/m3. To better characterize complex aerosols from a variety of sources, a novel off-line collection method was also developed in which non-volatile and semi-volatile organics are desorbed from particles and concentrated in a cold U-tube. Desorption from the U-tube followed by analysis with Aerosol CIMS revealed significant amounts of nicotine in cigarette smoke and levoglucosan in oak and pine smoke, suggesting that this may be a useful technique for monitoring particle tracer species. Additionally, secondary organic aerosol formed from the reaction of ozone with R-limonene and volatile organics from orange peel were analyzed off-line showing large molecular weight products (m/z > 300 amu) that may indicate the formation of oligomers. Finally, mass spectra of ambient aerosol collected offline reveal a complex mixture of what appears to be highly processed organics, some of which may contain nitrogen.

Hearn, John D.; Smith, Geoffrey D.

2006-12-01

54

Assessing Child and Adolescent Complex Traumatic Stress Reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children and adolescents exposed to traumatic stressors may develop severe and persistent complex traumatic stress reactions. A framework for conceptualizing and assessing children's and adolescents' complex traumatic stress reactions as forms of impaired self-regulation is described. Psychometric measures for the assessment of posttraumatic dysregulation of emotion, cognition, behavior, and bodily functioning are also described. The question of whether children and

Julian D. Ford

2011-01-01

55

Carbon-Carbon Bond Formation Promoted by Organoruthenium Complexes. The First Unsubstituted  

E-print Network

Carbon-Carbon Bond Formation Promoted by Organoruthenium Complexes. The First Unsubstituted in toluene gives several products resulting from carbon-carbon bond coupling reactions; these include of [Cp*RuCl2]2 with propadiene also leads to a carbon- carbon bond coupling reaction, and the product

Girolami, Gregory S.

56

Star Formation in the Rosette Complex  

E-print Network

The Rosette Complex in the constellation of Monoceros is a magnificent laboratory for the study of star formation. The region presents an interesting scenario, in which an expanding HII region generated by the large OB association NGC 2244 is interacting with a giant molecular cloud. Inside the cloud a number of stellar clusters have formed recently. In this chapter we present a review of past and present research on the region, and discuss investigations relevant to the physics of the nebula and the molecular cloud. We also review recent work on the younger embedded clusters and individual nebulous objects located across this important star forming region.

Carlos G. Román-Zúñiga; Elizabeth A. Lada

2008-10-06

57

Formation of categories for complex novel auditory stimuli  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Categorization of complex sounds with multiple, imperfectly valid cues is fundamental to phonetic perception. To study the general perceptual and cognitive processes that support complex sound categories, a novel stimulus set was created that allows tight control of category structure and input distributions. Stimuli were created from 300-ms noise bursts by applying bandstop filters at varying center frequencies and manipulating rise/fall time of stimulus onset and offset. Stimuli were assigned to one of two categories and presented to participants in a category identification and an AX discrimination task. Feedback was provided during identification trials, but not during discrimination tasks. Participants quickly learned to apply the category labels with high accuracy. Identification reaction times followed a pattern typical of speech stimuli with an apex in reaction time at category boundary. These results are consistent with formation of new auditory categories. Preliminary results indicate that discrimination performance is not tightly coupled with development of sharp identification functions and response-time peaks at category boundaries. Implications for mechanisms of speech categorization and category formation will be discussed. [Work supported by CNBC, NIH, and NSF.

Mirman, Daniel; Holt, Lori L.; McClelland, James L.

2002-05-01

58

Interactive formation control in complex environments.  

PubMed

The degrees of freedom of a crowd is much higher than that provided by a standard user input device. Typically, crowd-control systems require multiple passes to design crowd movements by specifying waypoints, and then defining character trajectories and crowd formation. Such multi-pass control would spoil the responsiveness and excitement of real-time control systems. In this paper, we propose a single-pass algorithm to control a crowd in complex environments. We observe that low-level details in crowd movement are related to interactions between characters and the environment, such as diverging/merging at cross points, or climbing over obstacles. Therefore, we simplify the problem by representing the crowd with a deformable mesh, and allow the user, via multitouch input, to specify high-level movements and formations that are important for context delivery. To help prevent congestion, our system dynamically reassigns characters in the formation by employing a mass transport solver to minimize their overall movement. The solver uses a cost function to evaluate the impact from the environment, including obstacles and areas affecting movement speed. Experimental results show realistic crowd movement created with minimal high-level user inputs. Our algorithm is particularly useful for real-time applications including strategy games and interactive animation creation. PMID:24356364

Henry, Joseph; Shum, Hubert P H; Komura, Taku

2014-02-01

59

Vortex formation in a complex plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complex plasma experiments in ground-based laboratories as well as in microgravity conditions have shown the formation of vortex structures in various conditions (e.g., 1,2,3,4). The vortex structures formed in a complex plasma are visible by naked eyes with the help of irradiating laser and the individual dust particles in the structure give us the opportunity to study detailed physics of the commonly observed natural phenomena known such as tornadoes, typhoons, hurricanes and dust devils. Based on the Navier-Stokes equation with proper complex plasma conditions we analyze as much as possible in a universal way the vortex structure and clarifies the role of the controlling parameters like flow velocity and external magnetic field. 1. G. E. Morfill,H. M. Thomas, U. Konopka,H. Rothermel, M. Zuzic, A. Ivlev, and J. Goree, Phys,. Rev. Lett. 83, 1598 (1999). 2. E. Nebbat and R. Annou, Phys. Plasmas 17, 093702 (2010). 3. Y. Saitou and O. Ishihara, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 185003 (2013). 4. V. N. Tsytovich and N. G. Gusein-zade, Plasma Phys. Rep. 39, 515 (2013).

Ishihara, Osamu

60

EXFOR SYSTEMS MANUAL NUCLEAR REACTION DATA EXCHANGE FORMAT.  

SciTech Connect

EXFOR is an exchange format designed to allow transmission of nuclear reaction data between the members of the Nuclear Data Centers Network. This document has been written for use by the members of the Network and includes matters of procedure and protocol, as well as detailed rules for the compilation of data. Users may prefer to consult EXFOR Basics' for a brief description of the format.

MCLANE,V.; NUCLEAR DATA CENTER NETWORK

2000-05-19

61

A complex reaction time study (Sternberg) in space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simple and complex (Sternberg) reaction time studies were flown on three and seven day Shuttle flights in 1985. Three subjects did selftesting with an onboard handheld calculator without difficulty. There was little change in simple reaction time. One subject demonstrated a decrease in the processing rate during space motion sickness while a second exhibited an increase in complex reaction time without a change in processing rate during a period of high work load. The population was too small to demonstrate significant changes. This study demonstrates the ease and practicality of such measurements and indicates the potential value of such studies in space.

Thornton, W.; Uri, John; Moore, Tom

1993-01-01

62

Spectroscopic Characterization of Complexes Obtained by Mechanochemical Reactions of Hemin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solid state reactions of hemin with potassium acetate, KSCN, and Ag2SO4 were monitored using IR, Mössbauer and XRD techniques. These salts do not react at the peripheral propionic acid groups of hemin but form high spin complexes with hemin at the iron site. These complexes can be considered as ionic where the anions are coordinated to the metal through

Armando Paneque; Edilso Reguera

2003-01-01

63

Lamellar reaction phenomena: from intercalation to nanomaterials formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lamellar reaction processes govern the formation and properties of a wide range of materials of fundamental and technological interest, offering the potential to control the structure, composition and dimension of materials down to the nanoscale. Environmental transmission electron microscopy, complementary investigations, and atomistic modeling have been combined to explore the mechanisms that control these processes. Model transition metal disulfide (e.g.

Michael J. McKelvy; Renu Sharma; Andrew V. G. Chizmeshya

2006-01-01

64

Metal-phosphido and -phosphinidene complexes in P-E bond-forming reactions.  

PubMed

Metal complexes bearing terminal phosphido or phosphinidene ligands have become versatile tools in the stoichiometric and catalytic preparation of phosphorus-element bonds. This Perspective describes a selection of recent advances in this field, and certain emphasis has been placed on reactions that vary from what has been previously observed. Some of the general reactivity trends and mechanistic understanding in these metal-mediated reactions that has emerged are also described. Much of what is chronicled herein comes from a flux of reports over the last decade describing unique metal-mediated phosphorus-element bond formation reactions that are likely to stimulate further discoveries. PMID:19081965

Waterman, Rory

2009-01-01

65

The Enthalpy and Entropy of Reaction for Formation of P+ Excited Reaction Centers of Rhodobacter sphaeroides  

E-print Network

The Enthalpy and Entropy of Reaction for Formation of P+ QA - from Excited Reaction CentersVised Manuscript ReceiVed NoVember 9, 1999 Abstract: The enthalpy and volume changes for the chargeV, the determination of the enthalpy, -0.44 eV, fixes the entropy at 25 °C as about one-half (TS ) +0.42 e

Gunner, Marilyn

66

EXFOR systems manual: Nuclear reaction data exchange format  

SciTech Connect

This document describes EXFOR, the exchange format designed to allow transmission of nuclear reaction data between the members of the Nuclear Data Centers Network. In addition to storing the data and its bibliographic information, experimental information, including source of uncertainties, is also compiled. The status and history of the data set is also included, e.g., the source of the data, any updates which have been made, and correlations to other data sets. The exchange format, as outlined, is designed to allow a large variety of numerical data tables with explanatory and bibliographic information to be transmitted in an easily machine-readable format (for checking and indicating possible errors) and a format that can be read by personnel (for passing judgment on and correcting any errors indicated by the machine).

McLane, V. [ed.

1996-07-01

67

Oxygen evolving reactions catalysed by manganese-oxo-complexes adsorbed on clays.  

PubMed

A series of dinuclear manganese-oxo-complexes was prepared and adsorbed on kaolinite and montmorillonite clays. As indicated by UV-Vis spectroscopy, immobilization of the manganese compounds greatly altered the electronic properties due to strong interactions with the clay surfaces. When studied for their ability to catalyze oxygen formation upon reactions with the strong oxygen-transferring oxidants H(2)O(2) and oxone, it was found that surface adsorption yielded catalysts of improved performance for oxygen formation in aqueous media. Both the rates of oxygen evolution and catalyst stabilities were significantly increased for the clay hybrids of most complexes in comparison to homogeneous solutions of the compounds. Additionally, four heterogeneous systems were also found to catalyze the evolution of O(2) in reactions with the non-oxygen transferring, single- electron oxidation agent Ce(IV)--a reaction not observed for any dinuclear manganese complex in homogeneous reaction. Implications of these observations concerning the mechanism of oxygen formation and the development of manganese-based water oxidation catalysts are discussed. PMID:20449104

Kurz, Philipp

2009-08-21

68

Reaction network governing diphosphine-protected gold nanocluster formation from nascent cationic platforms.  

PubMed

We identify the reaction network governing gold monolayer protected cluster (MPC) formation during the reduction of Au(PPh(3))Cl and L(5) (L(5) = 1,5-bis(diphenylphosphino)pentane) in solutions. UV-vis spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) monitored the formation of ligated Au(x): 6 ? x ? 12 clusters, which comprise the reaction intermediates and final products. Initially, predominantly [Au(2)L(5)(2)](2+) complexes form through dissolution of Au(PPh(3))Cl. These complexes control the reduction and nucleation reactions that form nascent phosphine-ligated Au(8) and Au(10) ionic clusters. [Au(10)L(5)(4)](2+) is an observed growth platform for ligated Au(11) and Au(12) clusters. The data for syntheses of Au : L(5) systems evidence that the nascent reaction products (t < 3 days) are less dependent on the chosen reducing agent (borane tert-butylamine complex or NaBH(4)); instead, after reduction ceases, subsequent solution phase processing provides greater control for tuning cluster nuclearity. PMID:22337143

Pettibone, John M; Hudgens, Jeffrey W

2012-03-28

69

Microkinetics of oxygenate formation in the Fischer-Tropsch reaction.  

PubMed

Microkinetics simulations are presented on the intrinsic activity and selectivity of the Fischer-Tropsch reaction with respect to the formation of long chain oxygenated hydrocarbons. Two different chain growth mechanisms are compared: the carbide chain growth mechanism and the CO insertion chain growth mechanism. The microkinetics simulations are based on quantum-chemical data on reaction rate parameters of the elementary reaction steps of the Fischer-Tropsch reaction available in the literature. Because the overall rate constant of chain growth remains too low the CO insertion chain growth mechanism is not found to produce higher hydrocarbons, except for ethylene and acetaldehyde or the corresponding hydrogenated products. According to the carbide mechanism available quantum-chemical data are consistent with high selectivity to long chain oxygenated hydrocarbon production at low temperature. The anomalous initial increase with temperature of the chain growth parameter observed under such conditions is reproduced. It arises from the competition between the apparent rate of C-O bond activation to produce "CHx" monomers to be inserted into the growing hydrocarbon chain and the rate of chain growth termination. The microkinetics simulations data enable analysis of selectivity changes as a function of critical elementary reaction rates such as the rate of activation of the C-O bond of CO, the insertion rate of CO into the growing hydrocarbon chain or the rate constant of methane formation. Simulations show that changes in catalyst site reactivity affect elementary reaction steps differently. This has opposing consequences for oxygenate production selectivity, so an optimizing compromise has to be found. The simulation results are found to be consistent with most experimental data available today. It is concluded that Fischer-Tropsch type catalysis has limited scope to produce long chain oxygenates with high yield, but there is an opportunity to improve the yield of C2 oxygenates. PMID:24509610

van Santen, Rutger A; Ghouri, Minhaj; Hensen, Emiel M J

2014-06-01

70

Effect of reaction time on the formation of disinfection byproducts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effect of reaction time on the trihalomethane and nonpurgeable total organic-halide formation potentials was determined by chlorinating water samples from the Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio Rivers. Samples were collected for three seasons at 12 locations on the Mississippi from Minneapolis, Minnesota, to New Orleans, Louisiana, and on the Missouri and Ohio 1.6 kilometers above their confluences with the Mississippi. Both types of compounds formed rapidly during the initial stages of the reaction-time period, with formation rates decreasing with time. The ratio of the nonpurgeable total organic-halide and trihalomethane concentrations decreased with time, with the nonpurgeable total organic-halide compounds forming faster during the first stages of the time period and the trihalomethane compounds forming faster during the latter stages of the time period. Variation with distance along the Mississippi River of the formation rates approximately paralleled the variation of the dissolved organic carbon concentration, indicating that the rates of formation, as well as the concentrations of the compounds formed, depended on the dissolved organic carbon concentration.

Rathbun, R.E.

1997-01-01

71

Guest Exchange in an Encapsulation Complex: A Supramolecular Substitution Reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Encapsulation complexes are reversibly formed assemblies in which small molecule guests are completely surrounded by large molecule hosts. The assemblies are held together by weak intermolecular forces and are dynamic: they form and dissipate on time scales ranging from milliseconds to days--long enough for many interactions, even reactions, to take place within them. Little information is available on the exchange

Javier Santamaria; Tomas Martin; Goran Hilmersson; Stephen L. Craig; Julius Rebek Jr.

1999-01-01

72

First stage of CoSi2 formation during a solid-state reaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The kinetics of CoSi2 formation via a solid-state reaction between CoSi and single crystal Si has been the object of many studies in the past. Because of the importance of nucleation, complex kinetics has been reported. In this work, we investigate CoSi2 formation kinetics with in-situ diffraction during isothermal annealing of CoSi films on Si (100). In-situ measurements allow capturing the initial stage of CoSi2 formation. An initial t3/2 time-dependent evolution is observed and attributed to 3D growth of individual nuclei. This first regime is followed after the coalescence of the nuclei by a classical parabolic t1/2 one-dimensional film growth. We evidence a marked influence of the initial Co thickness (50 nm vs 10 nm) on the growth kinetics. A significant slowdown of the CoSi2 formation kinetics is observed for the thinnest film, whereas the activation energy remains the same. These results shine a new light on the complex formation kinetics of CoSi2 during solid-state reaction between CoSi and single crystal silicon and bring new knowledge about what occurs in the ultra-thin film regime, which is important for nanotechnologies.

Delattre, R.; Thomas, O.; Perrin-Pellegrino, C.; Rivero, C.; Simola, R.

2014-12-01

73

The effect of complex-formation with polyanions on the redox properties of cytochrome c.  

PubMed Central

1. The stable complex formed between mammalian cytochrome c and phosvitin at low ionic strength was studied by partition in an aqueous two-phase system. Oxidized cytochrome c binds to phosvitin with a higher affinity than reduced cytochrome c. The difference was equivalent to a decrease of the redox potential by 22 mV on binding. 2. Complex-formation with phosvitin strongly inhibited the reaction of cytochrome c with reagents that react as negatively charged species, such as ascorbate, dithionite, ferricyanide and tetrachlorobenzoquinol. Reaction with uncharged reagents such as NNN'N'-tetramethylphenylenediamine and the reduced form of the N-methylphenazonium ion (present as the methylsulphate) was little affected by complex-formation, whereas oxidation of the reduced cytochrome by the positively charged tris-(phenanthroline)cobalt(III) ion was greatly stimulated. 3. A similar pattern of inhibition and stimulation of reaction rates was observed when phosvitin was replaced by other macromolecular polyanions such as dextran sulphate and heparin, indicating that the results were a general property of complex-formation with polyanions. A weaker but qualitatively similar effect was observed on addition of inositol hexaphosphate and ATP. 4. It is suggested that the effects of complex-formation with polyanions on the reactivity of cytochrome c with redox reagents are mainly the result of replacing the positive charge on the free cytochrome by a net negative charge. Any steric effects on polyanion binding are small in comparison with such electrostatic effects. PMID:6165356

Petersen, L C; Cox, R P

1980-01-01

74

On the Formation of "Hypercoordinated" Uranyl Complexes  

SciTech Connect

Recent gas phase experimental studies suggest the presence of hypercoordinated uranyl complexes. Coordination of acetone (Ace) to uranyl to form hypercoordinated species is examined using density functional theory (DFT) with a range of functionals and second order perturbation theory (MP2). Complexes with up to eight acetones were studied. It is shown that no more than six acetones can bind directly to uranium and that the observed uranyl complexes are not hypercoordinated.

Schoendorff, George E.; De Jong, Wibe A.; van Stipdonk, Michael J.; Gibson, John K.; Rios, Daniel; Gordon, Mark S.; Windus, Theresa L.

2011-09-05

75

Equilibrium and kinetic investigations of the interaction of model platinum(II) complex with DNA constituents in reference to the antitumour activity: complex-formation reactions of [Pd(N,N-diethylethylenediamine)(H2O)2]2+ with ligands of biological significance and displacement reactions of DNA constituents.  

PubMed

The [Pd(DEEN)Cl(2)] and [Pt(DEEN)Cl(2)] complexes were synthesized and characterized where DEEN = N,N-diethylethylenediamine. The stoichiometry and stability of the complexes formed between various biologically relevant ligands (amino acids, peptides, DNA constituents and dicarboxylic acids) and [Pd(DEEN)(H(2)O)(2)](2+) were investigated at 37 degrees C and 0.16 M ionic strength. The stability constant of the complexes formed in solution were determined and the binding centres of the ligands were assigned. The concentration distribution diagrams of the complexes were evaluated The equilibrium constants for the displacement of representative coordinated ligands such as inosine, glycine or methionine by cysteine were calculated and the concentration distribution diagrams of the various species were evaluated. The kinetics of base hydrolysis of free and coordinated S-methylcysteine methyl ester was investigated. The mechanism of hydrolysis was discussed. PMID:19696935

Shoukry, Eman Mohamed

2009-01-01

76

DNA Branch Migration Reactions Through Photocontrollable Toehold Formation  

PubMed Central

Strand displacement cascades are commonly used to make dynamically assembled structures. Particularly, the concept of “toehold-mediated DNA branch migration reactions” has attracted considerable attention in relation to dynamic DNA nanostructures. However, it is a challenge to obtain and control the formation of pure 1:1 ratio DNA duplexes with toehold structures. Here, for the first time, we report a photocontrolled toehold formation method, which is based on the photocleavage of 2-nitrobenzyl linker-embedded DNA hairpin precursor structures. UV light irradiation (??365 nm) of solutions containing these DNA hairpin structures causes the complete cleavage of the nitrobenzyl linker, and pure 1:1 DNA duplexes with toehold structures are easily formed. Our experimental results indicate that the amount of toehold can be controlled by simply changing the dose of UV irradiation and that the resulting toehold structures can be used for subsequent toehold-mediated DNA branch migration reactions, e.g., DNA hybridization chain reactions. This newly established method will find broad application in the construction of light-powered, controllable and dynamic DNA nanostructures or large-scale DNA circuits. PMID:23642046

Huang, Fujian; You, Mingxu; Han, Da; Xiong, Xiangling

2013-01-01

77

Pattern formation in a class of homogeneous photochemical reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on earlier observations of Avnir et al. [D. Avnir, M.L. Kagan, W. Ross, Chem. Phys. Lett. 135 (1987) 177; D. Avnir, M.L. Kagan, Chaos 5 (1995) 589] we investigated the kinetics of the spatial structures of the precipitate, Turnbull-blue, formed in aqueous mixtures of potassium ferrioxalate plus potassium ferricyanide under continuous laser illumination. Similar structures were observed when ferricyanide was replaced by some other Fe 2+ ions reagent. Spatio-temporal and thermochemical analyses led us to the conclusion that the formation of the dissipative structures is due to convection which, in turn, is greatly affected by the heat of reaction.

Schiller, Robert; Hámori, András

1999-03-01

78

Guest exchange in an encapsulation complex: A supramolecular substitution reaction  

PubMed Central

Encapsulation complexes are reversibly formed assemblies in which small molecule guests are completely surrounded by large molecule hosts. The assemblies are held together by weak intermolecular forces and are dynamic: they form and dissipate on time scales ranging from milliseconds to days—long enough for many interactions, even reactions, to take place within them. Little information is available on the exchange process, how guests get in and out of these complexes. Here we report that these events can be slow enough for conventional kinetic studies, and reactive intermediates can be detected. Guest exchange has much in common with familiar chemical substitution reactions, but differs in some respects: no covalent bonds are made or broken, the substrate is an assembly rather than a single molecule, and at least four molecules are involved in multiple rate-determining steps. PMID:10411877

Santamaría, Javier; Martín, Tomás; Hilmersson, Göran; Craig, Stephen L.; Rebek, Julius

1999-01-01

79

Guest exchange in an encapsulation complex: a supramolecular substitution reaction.  

PubMed

Encapsulation complexes are reversibly formed assemblies in which small molecule guests are completely surrounded by large molecule hosts. The assemblies are held together by weak intermolecular forces and are dynamic: they form and dissipate on time scales ranging from milliseconds to days-long enough for many interactions, even reactions, to take place within them. Little information is available on the exchange process, how guests get in and out of these complexes. Here we report that these events can be slow enough for conventional kinetic studies, and reactive intermediates can be detected. Guest exchange has much in common with familiar chemical substitution reactions, but differs in some respects: no covalent bonds are made or broken, the substrate is an assembly rather than a single molecule, and at least four molecules are involved in multiple rate-determining steps. PMID:10411877

Santamaría, J; Martín, T; Hilmersson, G; Craig, S L; Rebek, J

1999-07-20

80

Complex signal amplitude analysis for complete fusion nuclear reaction products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A complex analysis has been performed on the energy amplitude signals corresponding to events of Z = 117 element measured in the 249Bk + 48Ca complete fusion nuclear reaction. These signals were detected with PIPS position sensitive detector. The significant values of pulse height defect both for recoils (ER) and for fission fragments2 were measured. Comparison with the computer simulations and empirical formulae has been performed both for ER and FF signals.

Tsyganov, Yu.

2011-01-01

81

Complex signal amplitude analysis for complete fusion nuclear reaction products  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complex analysis has been performed on the energy amplitude signals corresponding to events of Z = 117 element measured in the 249Bk + 48Ca complete fusion nuclear reaction. These signals were detected with PIPS position sensitive detector. The significant values\\u000a of pulse height defect both for recoils (ER) and for fission fragments2 were measured. Comparison with the computer simulations

Yu. Tsyganov

2011-01-01

82

Formation of molecular oxygen in ultracold O + OH reaction  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the formation of molecular oxygen in ultracold collisions between hydroxyl radicals and atomic oxygen. A time-independent quantum formalism based on hyperspherical coordinates is employed for the calculations. Elastic, inelastic and reactive cross sections as well as the vibrational and rotational populations of the product O{sub 2} molecules are reported. A J-shifting approximation is used to compute the rate coefficients. At temperatures T = 10--100 mK for which the OH molecules have been cooled and trapped experimentally, the elastic and reactive rate coefficients are of comparable magnitude, while at colder temperatures, T < 1 mK, the formation of molecular oxygen becomes the dominant pathway. The validity of a classical capture model to describe cold collisions of OH and O is also discussed. While very good agreement is found between classical and quantum results at T = 0.3 K, at higher temperatures, the quantum calculations predict a higher rate coefficient than the classical model, in agreement with experimental data for the O + OH reaction. The zero-temperature limiting value of the rate coefficient is predicted to be about 6 x 10{sup -12} cm{sup 3} s{sup 01}, a value comparable to that of barrierless alkali metal atom-dimer systems and about a factor of five larger than that of the tunneling dominated F + H{sub 2} reaction.

Kendrick, Brian Kent [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Quemener, Goulven [UNLV; Balakrishman, Naduvalath [UNLV

2008-01-01

83

Radionuclide reactions with groundwater and basalts from Columbia River basalt formations  

SciTech Connect

Chemical reactions of radionuclides with geologic materials found in Columbia River basalt formations were studied. The objective was to determine the ability of these formations to retard radionuclide migration from a radioactive waste repository located in deep basalt. Reactions that can influence migration are precipitation, ion-exchange, complexation, and oxidation-reduction. These reactions were studied by measuring the effects of groundwater composition and redox potential (Eh) on radionuclide sorption on fresh basalt surfaces, a naturally altered basalt, and a sample of secondary minerals associated with a Columbia River basalt flow. In addition, radionuclide sorption isotherms were measured for these materials and reaction kinetics were determined. The radionuclides studied were /sup 137/Cs, /sup 85/Sr, /sup 75/Se, /sup 95m/Tc, /sup 237/Np, /sup 241/Am, /sup 226/Ra and /sup 237/Pu. The Freundlich equation accurately describes the isotherms when precipitation of radionuclides does not occur. In general, sorption increased in the order: basalt < altered basalt < secondary minerals. This increase in sorption corresponds to increasing surface area and cation exchange capacity. The Eh of the system had a large effect on technetium, plutonium, and neptunium sorption. Technetium(VII), Pu(VI), and Np(V) are reduced to Tc(IV), Pu(IV), and Np(IV), respectively, under Eh conditions expected in deep basalt formations. The kinetics of radionuclide sorption and basalt-groundwater reactions were observed over a period of 18 weeks. Most sorption reactions stabilized after about four weeks. Groundwater composition changed the least in contact with altered basalt. Contact with secondary minerals greatly increased Ca, K, and Mg concentrations in the groundwater.

Barney, G.S.

1981-06-01

84

Evolution of heliobacteria: implications for photosynthetic reaction center complexes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evolutionary position of the heliobacteria, a group of green photosynthetic bacteria with a photosynthetic apparatus functionally resembling Photosystem I of plants and cyanobacteria, has been investigated with respect to the evolutionary relationship to Gram-positive bacteria and cyanobacteria. On the basis of 16S rRNA sequence analysis, the heliobacteria appear to be most closely related to Gram-positive bacteria, but also an evolutionary link to cyanobacteria is evident. Interestingly, a 46-residue domain including the putative sixth membrane-spanning region of the heliobacterial reaction center protein show rather strong similarity (33% identity and 72% similarity) to a region including the sixth membrane-spanning region of the CP47 protein, a chlorophyll-binding core antenna polypeptide of Photosystem II. The N-terminal half of the heliobacterial reaction center polypeptide shows a moderate sequence similarity (22% identity over 232 residues) with the CP47 protein, which is significantly more than the similarity with the Photosystem I core polypeptides in this region. An evolutionary model for photosynthetic reaction center complexes is discussed, in which an ancestral homodimeric reaction center protein (possibly resembling the heliobacterial reaction center protein) with 11 membrane-spanning regions per polypeptide has diverged to give rise to the core of Photosystem I, Photosystem II, and of the photosynthetic apparatus in green, purple, and heliobacteria.

Vermaas, W. F.; Blankenship, R. E. (Principal Investigator)

1994-01-01

85

Dynamics of Lane Formation in Driven Binary Complex Plasmas  

SciTech Connect

The dynamical onset of lane formation is studied in experiments with binary complex plasmas under microgravity conditions. Small microparticles are driven and penetrate into a cloud of big particles, revealing a strong tendency towards lane formation. The observed time-resolved lane-formation process is in good agreement with computer simulations of a binary Yukawa model with Langevin dynamics. The laning is quantified in terms of the anisotropic scaling index, leading to a universal order parameter for driven systems.

Suetterlin, K. R.; Ivlev, A. V.; Raeth, C.; Thomas, H. M.; Rubin-Zuzic, M.; Morfill, G. E. [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, 85741 Garching (Germany); Wysocki, A.; Loewen, H. [Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet Duesseldorf, 40225 Duesseldorf (Germany); Goedheer, W. J. [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Fortov, V. E.; Lipaev, A. M.; Molotkov, V. I.; Petrov, O. F. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, 125412 Moscow (Russian Federation)

2009-02-27

86

Reaction of carbonyl complexes of rhodium with carbon disulfide  

SciTech Connect

The phosphoniodithiocarboxylato complexes (RhCOA(PPh/sub 3/)(S/sub 2/CPPh/sub 3/))/sup +/ have been obtained by reacting (RhCOA(PPh/sub 3/)/sub 2/)Y (Y = ClO/sub 4//sup -/, NO/sub 3//sup -/) and (Rh(CO)/sub 2/ACl) with CS/sub 2/ in the presence of PPh/sub 3/. In solution they readily eliminate CS/sub 2/ and are converted into (RhCOA(PPh/sub 3/)/sub 2/)/sup +/ (A = py, ..gamma..-pic). Analogous reactions also take place in the case of the bridged complexes with A = 4,4'bipy, the bridged structure of the complexes formed being maintained.

Danilina, L.I.; Iretskii, A.V.; Kukushkin, Yu.N.

1986-07-01

87

Surface complexation reaction for phase transfer of hydrophobic quantum dot from nonpolar to polar medium.  

PubMed

Chemical reaction between oleate-capped Zn(x)Cd(1-x)S quantum dots (Qdots) and 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQ) led to formation of a surface complex, which was accompanied by transfer of hydrophobic Qdots from nonpolar (hexane) to polar (water) medium with high efficiency. The stability of the complex on the surface was achieved via involvement of dangling sulfide bonds. Moreover, the transferred hydrophilic Qdots--herein called as quantum dot complex (QDC)--exhibited new and superior optical properties in comparison to bare inorganic complexes with retention of the dimension and core structure of the Qdots. Finally, the new and superior optical properties of water-soluble QDC make them potentially useful for biological--in addition to light emitting device (LED)--applications. PMID:25133937

Bhandari, Satyapriya; Roy, Shilaj; Pramanik, Sabyasachi; Chattopadhyay, Arun

2014-09-01

88

Critical evaluation of thermodynamics of complex formation of metal ions in aqueous solutions I. A description of evaluation methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important step for the reliable evaluation of the thermodynamics of aqueous complex species is the appropriate choice of a model for interpolation and extrapolation of experimental values of log K and ?rH of complex formation reactions in different ionic media. Several models proposed for the representation of activity coefficients in aqueous solutions are briefly discussed. It has been shown

Mingsheng Wang; Yu Zhang; Mamoun Muhammed

1997-01-01

89

Thermodynamics of the formation of copper(II) complexes with L-histidine in aqueous solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heat effects from the reaction between L-histidine solutions and Cu(NO3)2 solutions at 298.15 K in the 0.2 to 1.0 (KNO3) range of ionic strength are measured by means of direct calorimetry. The experimental data is treated with allowance for the simultaneous proceeding of several processes. The heat effects of the formation of complexes Cu(His)+, Cu(His)2, CuHHis2+, CuH(His){2/+} and CuH2(His){2/2+} are calculated from calorimetric measurements. The standard enthalpies of formation for complexes of L-histidine with Cu2+ ions are obtained via extrapolation to zero ionic strength. The relationship between the thermodynamic characteristics of the formation of complexes of copper(II) with L-histidine and their structure is determined.

Gorboletova, G. G.; Metlin, A. A.

2015-02-01

90

Reaction Path Reaction path potential for complex biomolecular systems derived from mixed QM/MM methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reaction path potential (RPP) follows the ideas from the reaction path Hamiltonian of Miller, Handy and Adams for gas phase reactions but is designed specifically for large systems described with QM/MM methods. RPP is an analytical energy expression of the combined QM/MM potential energy along the minimum energy path (J. Chem. Phys. 121, 89, 2004). An expansion around the minimum energy path is made in both the nuclear and the electronic degrees of freedom for the QM subsystem, while the interaction between the QM and MM subsystems is described as the interaction of the MM charges with polarizable QM charges. The input data for constructing the reaction path potential are energies, frequencies and electron density response properties of the QM subsystem. RPP provides a potential energy surface for rigorous statistical mechanics and mixed quantum/classical reaction dynamics calculations of complex systems, as will be shown for several enzymes. Recent further development in determining QM/MM free energy reaction paths will also be presented.

Yang, Weitao

2006-03-01

91

Lead(II) Complex Formation with Glutathione  

PubMed Central

A structural investigation of complexes formed between the Pb2+ ion and glutathione (GSH, denoted AH3 in its triprotonated form) the most abundant non2protein thiol in biological systems, was carried out for a series of aqueous solutions at pH 8.5 and CPb2+ = 10 mM, and in the solid state. The Pb LIII-edge EXAFS oscillation for a solid compound with the empirical formula [Pb(AH2)]ClO4 was modeled with one Pb-S and two short Pb-O bond distances at 2.64 ± 0.04 Å and 2.28 ± 0.04 Å, respectively. In addition Pb···Pb interactions at 4.15 ± 0.05 Å indicate dimeric species in a network where the thiolate group forms an asymmetrical bridge between two Pb2+ ions. In aqueous solution at the mole ratio GSH / Pb(II) = 2.0 (CPb2+ = 10 mM, pH 8.5), lead(II) complexes with two thiolate ligands form, characterized by a ligand-to-metal charge transfer band (LMCT) S- ? Pb2+ at 317 nm in the UV-vis spectrum and mean Pb-S and Pb-(N/O) bond distances of 2.65 ± 0.04 Å and 2.51 ± 0.04 Å, respectively, from a Pb LIII-edge EXAFS spectrum. For solutions with higher mole ratios, GSH / Pb(II) ? 3.0, ESI-MS spectra identified a trisglutathionyl lead(II) complex, for which Pb LIII-edge EXAFS spectroscopy shows a mean Pb-S distance of 2.65 ± 0.04 Å in PbS3 coordination, 207Pb NMR spectroscopy displays a chemical shift of 2793 ppm, and in the UV-vis spectrum an S- ? Pb2+ LMCT band appears at 335 nm. The complex persists at high excess of glutathione, and also at ~25 K in frozen glycerol (33%) / water glasses for GSH / Pb(II) mole ratios from 4.0 to 10 (CPb2+ = 10 mM) measured by Pb LIII-edge EXAFS spectroscopy. PMID:22594853

Mah, Vicky

2012-01-01

92

Complex I Function and Supercomplex Formation Are Preserved in Liver Mitochondria Despite Progressive Complex III Deficiency  

PubMed Central

Functional oxidative phosphorylation requires appropriately assembled mitochondrial respiratory complexes and their supercomplexes formed mainly of complexes I, III and IV. BCS1L is the chaperone needed to incorporate the catalytic subunit, Rieske iron-sulfur protein, into complex III at the final stage of its assembly. In cell culture studies, this subunit has been considered necessary for supercomplex formation and for maintaining the stability of complex I. Our aim was to assess the importance of fully assembled complex III for supercomplex formation in intact liver tissue. We used our transgenic mouse model with a homozygous c.232A>G mutation in Bcs1l leading to decreased expression of BCS1L and progressive decrease of Rieske iron-sulfur protein in complex III, resulting in hepatopathy. We studied supercomplex formation at different ages using blue native gel electrophoresis and complex activity using high-resolution respirometry. In isolated liver mitochondria of young and healthy homozygous mutant mice, we found similar supercomplexes as in wild type. In homozygotes aged 27–29 days with liver disorder, complex III was predominantly a pre-complex lacking Rieske iron-sulfur protein. However, the main supercomplex was clearly detected and contained complex III mainly in the pre-complex form. Oxygen consumption of complex IV was similar and that of complex I was twofold compared with controls. These complexes in free form were more abundant in homozygotes than in controls, and the mRNA of complex I subunits were upregulated. In conclusion, when complex III assembly is deficient, the pre-complex without Rieske iron-sulfur protein can participate with available fully assembled complex III in supercomplex formation, complex I function is preserved, and respiratory chain stability is maintained. PMID:24466228

Davoudi, Mina; Kotarsky, Heike; Hansson, Eva; Fellman, Vineta

2014-01-01

93

The SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex regulates germinal center formation by repressing Blimp-1 expression.  

PubMed

Germinal center (GC) reaction is crucial in adaptive immune responses. The formation of GC is coordinated by the expression of specific genes including Blimp-1 and Bcl-6. Although gene expression is critically influenced by the status of chromatin structure, little is known about the role of chromatin remodeling factors for regulation of GC formation. Here, we show that the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex is required for GC reactions. Mice lacking Srg3/mBaf155, a core component of the SWI/SNF complex, showed impaired differentiation of GC B and follicular helper T cells in response to T cell-dependent antigen challenge. The SWI/SNF complex regulates chromatin structure at the Blimp-1 locus and represses its expression by interacting cooperatively with Bcl-6 and corepressors. The defect in GC reactions in mice lacking Srg3 was due to the derepression of Blimp-1 as supported by genetic studies with Blimp-1-ablated mice. Hence, our study identifies the SWI/SNF complex as a key mediator in GC reactions by modulating Bcl-6-dependent Blimp-1 repression. PMID:25646472

Choi, Jinwook; Jeon, Shin; Choi, Seungjin; Park, Kyungsoo; Seong, Rho Hyun

2015-02-17

94

Studies of complex fragment emission in heavy ion reactions  

SciTech Connect

Our work involves the study of intermediate energy heavy-ion nuclear reactions. This work has two foci. On the one hand, we desire to learn about the properties of nuclear matter under abnormal conditions, in this energy domain, predominately low densities. This purpose runs abreast of the second, which is the study of the relevant reaction mechanisms. The two objectives are inexorably linked because our experimental laboratory for studying nuclear matter properties is a dynamic one. We are forced to ask how nuclear matter properties, such as phase transitions, are reflected in the dynamics of the reactions. It may be that irrefutable information about nuclear matter will not be extracted from the reaction work. Nevertheless, we are compelled to undertake this effort not only because it is the only game in town and as yet we do not know that information cannot be extracted, but also because of our second objective. The process leads to an understanding of the reaction mechanism themselves and therefore to the response characteristics of finite, perhaps non-equilibrium, strongly interacting systems. Our program has been: To study energy, mass, and angular momentum deposition by studying incomplete fusion reactions. To gain confidence that we understand how highly excited systems decompose by studying all emissions from the highly excited systems. To push these kinds of studies into the intermediate energy domain, with excitation function studies. And attempt to learn about the dynamics of the decays using particle-particle correlations. In the last effort, we have decided to focus on simple systems, where we believe, definitive statements are possible. These avenues of research share a common theme, large complex fragment production.

Charity, R.J.; Sobotka, L.G.

1992-01-01

95

Experimental Astrochemistry: Molecular Formation via Grain-Surface Reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central to this thesis is the chemistry occurring on dust grain surfaces leading to the formation of molecules in the ISM, and, in particular, the laboratory simulation of formation mechanisms and formation rates. Surface chemistry plays a crucial role in the ISM because it produces key species that are not formed in gas-phase reactions at an efficient rate. Among them, molecular hydrogen (H_2) is by far the most important. In this work (Chapter 3), I shall address the experimental investigation of H_2 formation on diverse samples of amorphous silicates. The experimental work was conducted in the Physics Department laboratories at Syracuse University, New York, as part of the most successful programme of experiments so far to study the processes involved in the formation of molecular hydrogen on a variety of dust analogue materials, also including poly-crystalline olivine, amorphous carbon, and ices. The experiments were carried out through mass spectrometry and TPD techniques and under conditions that come as close as technically feasible to the ones in the most relevant ISM environments, namely, under ultra high vacuum pressures (low 10e-10 torr) and at surface temperatures between 6 and 30 K. Experimental studies of H_2 formation on amorphous olivines are of major concern in grain-surface chemistry because amorphous silicates are believed, together with carbonaceous materials, to be the most realistic analogues of bare cosmic dust surfaces in diffuse clouds. In my doctorate work I carried out numerous experiments on a set of several samples of amorphous olivines of the type (Mg_x,Fe_1-x)_2SiO_4, namely, samples made up of diverse amounts of Mg and Fe. Besides, in Chapter 4, I shall address the project and the construction of a FT-RAIRS facility that is to integrate the existent research apparatus in the laboratory at Syracuse University. I shall first discuss the FT-IR spectroscopy, then I shall focus on a particular technique used in surface science called RAIRS. Its physical principle will be discussed as well. Finally, I shall describe ''piece by piece'', the design and the construction of the FT-RAIRS arrangement.

Congiu, E.

2007-03-01

96

Time scales for molecule formation by ion-molecule reactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analytical solutions are obtained for nonlinear differential equations governing the time-dependence of molecular abundances in interstellar clouds. Three gas-phase reaction schemes are considered separately for the regions where each dominates. The particular case of CO, and closely related members of the Oh and CH families of molecules, is studied for given values of temperature, density, and the radiation field. Nonlinear effects and couplings with particular ions are found to be important. The time scales for CO formation range from 100,000 to a few million years, depending on the chemistry and regime. The time required for essentially complete conversion of C(+) to CO in the region where the H3(+) chemistry dominates is several million years. Because this time is longer than or comparable to dynamical time scales for dense interstellar clouds, steady-state abundances may not be observed in such clouds.

Langer, W. D.; Glassgold, A. E.

1976-01-01

97

Complex polycyclic lactams from pericyclic cascade reactions of Zincke aldehydes.  

PubMed

In the course of a simple mechanistic study on the rearrangement of Zincke aldehydes to Z-alpha,beta,gamma,delta-unsaturated amides, a thermally induced pericyclic cascade rearrangement that converts Zincke aldehydes derived from allylic and homoallylic amines into polycyclic lactams was discovered. The key reaction involves an E-Z alkene isomerization, a 6pi electrocyclic ring closure, a [1,5]-sigmatropic shift of hydrogen, a 6pi electrocyclic ring-opening, and a Diels-Alder cycloaddition, and proceeds with excellent stereoselectivity. The unusual observation that furans and an indole serve as dienophiles in this cascade reaction permitted the synthesis of complex, functional group-rich tri- and tetracyclic lactams. In all cases, the rigid polycyclic products are available in only two steps from pyridinium salts and the allylic or homoallylic secondary amines. PMID:19449870

Steinhardt, Sarah E; Vanderwal, Christopher D

2009-06-10

98

Snapshot of a reaction intermediate: analysis of benzoylformate decarboxylase in complex with a benzoylphosphonate inhibitor  

PubMed Central

Benzoylformate decarboxylase (BFDC) is a thiamin diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent enzyme acting on aromatic substrates. In addition to its metabolic role in the mandelate pathway, BFDC shows broad substrate specificity coupled with tight stereocontrol in the carbon-carbon bond-forming reverse reaction, making it a useful biocatalyst for the production of chiral ?-hydroxyketones. The reaction of methyl benzoylphosphonate (MBP), an analogue of the natural substrate benzoylformate, with BFDC results in the formation of a stable analogue (C2?-phosphonomandelylThDP) of the covalent ThDP-substrate adduct C2?-mandelylThDP. Formation of the stable adduct is confirmed both by formation of a circular dichroism band characteristic of the 1’,4’-iminopyrimidine tautomeric form of ThDP (commonly observed when ThDP forms tetrahedral complexes with its substrates), and by high resolution mass spectrometry of the reaction mixture. In addition, the structure of BFDC with the MBP inhibitor was solved by X-ray crystallography, to a spatial resolution of 1.37 Å. The electron density clearly shows formation of a tetrahedral adduct between the C2 atom of ThDP and the carbonyl carbon atom of the MBP. This adduct resembles the intermediate from the penultimate step of the carboligation reaction between benzaldehyde and acetaldehyde. The combination of real-time kinetic information via stopped-flow circular dichroism with steady-state data from equilibrium circular dichroism measurements and X-ray crystallography reveals details of the first step of the reaction catalyzed by BFDC. The MBP-ThDP adduct on BFDC is compared to the recently solved structure of the same adduct on benzaldehyde lyase, another ThDP-dependent enzyme capable of catalyzing aldehyde condensation with high stereospecificity. PMID:19320438

Brandt, Gabriel S.; Kneen, Malea M.; Chakraborty, Sumit; Baykal, Ahmet T.; Nemeria, Natalia; Yep, Alejandra; Ruby, David I.; Petsko, Gregory A.; Kenyon, George L.; McLeish, Michael J.; Jordan, Frank; Ringe, Dagmar

2009-01-01

99

Excitation energy transfer and carotenoid radical cation formation in light harvesting complexes — A theoretical perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Light harvesting complexes have been identified in all chlorophyll-based photosynthetic organisms. Their major function is the absorption of light and its transport to the reaction centers, however, they are also involved in excess energy quenching, the so-called non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). In particular, electron transfer and the resulting formation of carotenoid radical cations have recently been discovered to play an important

Michael Wormit; Philipp H. P. Harbach; Jan M. Mewes; Sergiu Amarie; Josef Wachtveitl; Andreas Dreuw

2009-01-01

100

A new method for recycling asymmetric catalysts via formation of charge transfer complexes.  

PubMed

[reaction: see text]. A new concept for recycling asymmetric bis(oxazoline)-type catalysts is reported. The formation of charge-transfer complexes between the chiral ligand and trinitrofluorenone and their subsequent precipitation and reuse by addition of new substrate solutions is described. The efficiency of this procedure is demonstrated in a Diels-Alder reaction to reach the expected endo product as major isomer (up to 97% de and 94% ee): the catalyst was used up to 12 times without loss of either activity or selectivity. PMID:16435879

Chollet, Guillaume; Rodriguez, Fernand; Schulz, Emmanuelle

2006-02-01

101

Oxygen atom transfer reactions from Mimoun complexes to sulfides and sulfoxides. A bonding evolution theory analysis.  

PubMed

In this research, a comprehensive theoretical investigation has been conducted on oxygen atom transfer (OAT) reactions from Mimoun complexes to sulfides and sulfoxides. The joint use of the electron localization function (ELF) and Thom's catastrophe theory (CT) provides a powerful tool to analyze the evolution of chemical events along a reaction pathway. The progress of the reaction has been monitored by structural stability domains from ELF topology while the changes between them are controlled by turning points derived from CT which reveal that the reaction mechanism can be separated in several steps: first, a rupture of the peroxo O1-O2 bond, then a rearrangement of lone pairs of the sulfur atom occurs and subsequently the formation of S-O1 bond. The OAT process involving the oxidation of sulfides and sulfoxides is found to be an asynchronous process where O1-O2 bond breaking and S-O1 bond formation processes do not occur simultaneously. Nucleophilic/electrophilic characters of both dimethyl sulfide and dimethyl sulfoxide, respectively, are sufficiently described by our results, which hold the key to unprecedented insight into the mapping of electrons that compose the bonds while the bonds change. PMID:25010751

González-Navarrete, Patricio; Sensato, Fabricio R; Andrés, Juan; Longo, Elson

2014-08-01

102

Mössbauer study of peroxynitrito complex formation with FeIII-chelates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reaction of the ?-oxo-diiron(III)-L complex (L = EDTA, ethylene diamine tetraacetate, HEDTA, hydroxyethyl ethylene diamine triacetate, and CyDTA, cyclohexane diamine tetraacetate) with peroxynitrite in alkaline solution was studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy using rapid-freezing technique. These complexes yield an (L)FeIII( ? 2-O2)^{3-} complex ion when they react with hydrogen peroxide and the formation of the peroxide adduct results in a deep purple coloration of the solution. The same color appears when the reaction occurs with peroxinitrite. Although spectrophotometry indicated some difference between the molar extinction coefficients of the peroxo and the peroxinitrito adducts, the Mössbauer parameters proved to be the same within experimental error. It is concluded that the peroxynitrite ion decomposes when reacting with FeIII(L) and the peroxo adduct forms.

Homonnay, Zoltan; Buszlai, Peter; Nádor, Judit; Sharma, Virender K.; Kuzmann, Erno; Vértes, Attila

2012-03-01

103

Thermodynamics of formation for the 18-crown-6-triglycine molecular complex in water-dimethylsulfoxide solvents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of a water-dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) solvent on the formation of a molecular complex of 18-crown-6 (18C6) with triglycine (diglycylglycine, 3Gly) is studied via calorimetric titration. It is found that switching from water to an H2O-DMSO mixture with DMSO mole fraction of 0.30 is accompanied by a monotonic increase in the stability of [3Gly18C6] complex, from log K ? = 1.10 to log K ? = 2.44, and an increase in the exothermicity of the reaction of its formation, from -5.9 to -16.9 kJ/mol. It is shown that the [3Gly18C6] complex exhibits enthalpy stabilization with negative values of enthalpy and entropy over the investigated range of H2O-DMSO solvents. Analysis of the reagents' solvation characteristics reveals that the increase in the reaction's exothermicity of transfer is due to differences in the solvation of [3Gly18C6] and 18C6 with a small solvation contribution from 3Gly. It is concluded that the change in the Gibbs energy of the reaction 3Glysolv + 18C6solv ? [3Gly18C6]solv is due to differences in the change in the solvation state of the complex and the peptide (?tr G ?([3Gly18C6])-?tr G ?(3Gly)).

Usacheva, T. R.; Lan, Pham Thi; Sharnin, V. A.

2014-06-01

104

Carbon–heteroatom bond formation catalysed by organometallic complexes  

PubMed Central

At one time the synthetic chemist’s last resort, reactions catalysed by transition metals are now the preferred method for synthesizing many types of organic molecule. A recent success in this type of catalysis is the discovery of reactions that form bonds between carbon and heteroatoms (such as nitrogen, oxygen, sulphur, silicon and boron) via complexes of transition metals with amides, alkoxides, thiolates, silyl groups or boryl groups. The development of these catalytic processes has been supported by the discovery of new elementary reactions that occur at metal–heteroatom bonds and by the identification of factors that control these reactions. Together, these findings have led to new synthetic processes that are in daily use and have formed a foundation for the development of processes that are likely to be central to synthetic chemistry in the future. PMID:18800130

Hartwig, John F.

2010-01-01

105

New insights into formation of trivalent actinides complexes with DTPA.  

PubMed

Complexation of trivalent actinides with DTPA (diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid) was studied as a function of pcH and temperature in (Na,H)Cl medium of 0.1 M ionic strength. Formation constants of both complexes AnHDTPA(-) and AnDTPA(2-) (where An stands for Am, Cm, and Cf) were determined by TRLFS, CE-ICP-MS, spectrophotometry, and solvent extraction. The values of formation constants obtained from the different techniques are coherent and consistent with reinterpreted literature data, showing a higher stability of Cf complexes than Am and Cm complexes. The effect of temperature indicates that formation constants of protonated and nonprotonated complexes are exothermic with a high positive entropic contribution. DFT calculations were also performed on the An/DTPA system. Geometry optimizations were conducted on AnDTPA(2-) and AnHDTPA(-) considering all possible protonation sites. For both complexes, one and two water molecules in the first coordination sphere of curium were also considered. DFT calculations indicate that the lowest energy structures correspond to protonation on oxygen that is not involved in An-DTPA bonds and that the structures with two water molecules are not stable. PMID:23152978

Leguay, Sébastien; Vercouter, Thomas; Topin, Sylvain; Aupiais, Jean; Guillaumont, Dominique; Miguirditchian, Manuel; Moisy, Philippe; Le Naour, Claire

2012-12-01

106

Influence of soluble aluminosilicate complex formation on imogolite solubility determination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a earlier paper (Su and Harsh, 1994), we presented a free energy of formation for imogolite based on solubility studies and including a formation constant for a monomeric, soluble aluminosilicate complex (Browne and Driscoll, 1992). Farmer and Lumsdon (1994) have argued that the aluminosilicate formation constant is too high, calling into question solubility determinations utilizing this value. We have recalculated the log K value for imogolite dissolution using the new value for the aluminosilicate species. The result is a slight, but insignificant, increase in the log K for imogolite dissolution, supporting our earlier contention that the free energy of imogolite is larger than found in previous studies.

Su, Chunming; Harsh, James B.

1996-11-01

107

Chemistry of transition metal carbene complexes: nucleophilic substitution reactions of cyanamide anion to Fischer carbene complexes.  

PubMed

Rate constants for the reactions of cyanamide anion N?C-NH(-) with Fischer carbene complexes of the type (CO)(5)M=C(XR)C(6)H(4)Z with M = Cr and W, XR = SMe and OMe, Z = NMe(2), OMe, Me, H, F, Cl and CF(3) in 50% MeCN-50% water (v/v) at 25 °C are reported. N?C-NH(-) shows a much higher reactivity towards these carbene complexes than OH(-), primary aliphatic amines (e.g. n-butylamine) or secondary alicyclic amines (e.g. piperidine) but is slightly less reactive than thiolate ions (e.g. HOCH(2)CH(2)S(-)). The alkoxy carbene complexes were found to react faster than the thiomethyl derivatives, consistent with previous findings for alkoxide ion, CH(CN)(2)(-), OH(-), amine and thiolate ion nucleophiles. Hammett ? values are 3.00 ± 0.08 (k(1)) and 2.98 ± 0.08 (k(2)) for Cr-OMe-Z-N?C-NH(-) reactions and 0.94 ± 0.05 (k(1)) for Cr-SMe-Z-N?C-NH(-) reactions. The ? values for the reaction of Cr-OMe-Z and Cr-SMe-Z with CH(CN)(2)(-) and DABCO (1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane) (in 50% MeCN-50% H(2)O (v/v) are comparable to the present reactions. The much higher reactivity and hence much higher ? value for methoxy carbene complexes over the corresponding thiomethyl derivatives is best explained by considering the substituent effects not only on the transition state (TS) but also on the reactant, and consistent with the previously observed pattern. Higher k(1)(W)/k(1)(Cr) ratios for (thiomethyl)carbene complexes as well as methoxy and ethoxycarbene complexes are related to the intrinsic rate constant which is higher for tungsten-carbene complexes than the corresponding Cr ones resulting in an enhanced ratio. This can also be explained by considering the electronegativity of Cr and W, which is higher for the latter; as a result the negative charge on the central metal atom is more localized in case of W causing destabilization of the TS and hence higher reactivity. PMID:23076623

Gangopadhyay, Sumana; Mistri, Tarun; Dolai, Malay; Alam, Rabiul; Ali, Mahammad

2013-01-14

108

Reactions in 1,1,1-trifluoroacetone triggered by low energy electrons (0-10 eV): from simple bond cleavages to complex unimolecular reactions.  

PubMed

The impact of low energy electrons (0-10 eV) to 1,1,1-trifluoroacetone yields a variety of fragment anions which are formed via dissociative electron attachment (DEA) through three pronounced resonances located at 0.8 eV, near 4 eV, and in the energy range 8-9 eV. The fragment ions arise from different reactions ranging from the direct cleavage of one single or double bond (formation of F(-), CF3(-), O(-), (M-H)(-), and M-F)(-)) to remarkably complex unimolecular reactions associated with substantial geometric and electronic rearrangement in the transitory intermediate (formation of OH(-), FHF(-), (M-HF)(-), CCH(-), and HCCO(-). The ion CCH(-), for example, is formed by an excision of unit from the target molecule through the concerted cleavage of four bonds and recombination to H2O within the neutral component of the reaction. PMID:24828451

Illenberger, Eugen; Meinke, Martina C

2014-08-21

109

Iridium complex catalyzed germylative coupling reaction between alkynes and iodogermanes--a new route to alkynylgermanium and alkynylgermasilicon compounds.  

PubMed

The new reaction of terminal alkynes with iodogermanes proceeding in the presence of an Ir(I)-complex [{Ir(?-Cl)(CO)2}2] (I) and NEt((i)Pr)2, as a hydrogen iodide acceptor, leads to the formation of functionalized alkynylgermanes. This reaction occurs via direct activation of the C(sp)-H bond in the starting alkyne. Detailed stoichiometric experiments using [Ir(cod)(CCPh)(PCy3)] (IVa) and iodogermane were performed and resulted in a proposal of a reasonable mechanism for the germylative coupling reaction between alkynes and iodogermanes. PMID:25286331

Rzonsowska, Monika; Kownacki, Ireneusz; Dudziec, Beata; Marciniec, Bogdan

2014-11-28

110

Effect of ternary complex formation on chromatographic selectivity using in situ complexation chromatography  

SciTech Connect

In situ complexation chromatography is a relatively novel form of reversed-phase chromatography. A method for controlling selectivity via ternary complex formation is discussed. This method is potentially useful, not only for controlling separations but also for enhancing detection of metal species. Limitations of the methods are discussed. 30 references, 5 figures, 4 tables.

O'Riordan, K.P.; Heneghan, G.; Wallace, G.G.

1985-06-01

111

Critical evaluation of thermodynamics of complex formation of metal ions in aqueous solutions II. Hydrolysis and hydroxo-complexes of Cu 2+ at 298.15 K  

Microsoft Academic Search

The standard thermodynamic properties of the Cu2+ hydrolysis reactions and the Cu2+ hydroxo-complexes formation were evaluated on the basis of published experimental studies and the Specific Interaction Theory (SIT) for activity coefficients modelling. A set of thermodynamic data and interaction coefficients were obtained.

Natalia V. Plyasunova; Mingsheng Wang; Yu Zhang; Mamoun Muhammed

1997-01-01

112

Topology and Complexity of Formations Abubakr Muhammad1  

E-print Network

of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA. Abstract Biological multi-agent systems such as animal herds, insect no intelligence themselves, but interact using simple physical laws, and give rise to complex adaptive systems, animal herds, bacterial colonies, schools of fish, formations of flying birds, and so on. These group

Egerstedt, Magnus

113

Geology of the Biwabik Iron Formation and Duluth Complex  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Biwabik Iron Formation is a ???1.9 billion year-old sequence of iron-rich sedimentary rocks that was metamorphosed at its eastern-most extent by ???1.1 billion year-old intrusions of the Duluth Complex. The metamorphic recrystallization of iron-formation locally produced iron-rich amphiboles and other fibrous iron-silicate minerals. The presence of these minerals in iron-formation along the eastern part of what is known as the Mesabi Iron Range, and their potential liberation by iron mining has raised environmental health concerns. We describe here the geologic setting and mineralogic composition of the Biwabik Iron Formation in and adjacent to the contact metamorphic aureole of the Duluth Complex. The effects of metamorphism are most pronounced within a few kilometers of the contact, and decrease progressively away from it. The contact aureole has been divided into four metamorphic zones-each characterized by the composition and crystal structure of the metamorphic minerals it contains. The recrystallization of iron-formation to iron-rich amphibole minerals (grunerite and cummingtonite) and iron-pyroxene minerals (hedenbergite and ferrohypersthene) is best developed in zones that are most proximal to the Duluth Complex contact. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Jirsa, M.A.; Miller, J.D., Jr.; Morey, G.B.

2008-01-01

114

Geology of the Biwabik Iron Formation and Duluth Complex.  

PubMed

The Biwabik Iron Formation is a approximately 1.9 billion year-old sequence of iron-rich sedimentary rocks that was metamorphosed at its eastern-most extent by approximately 1.1 billion year-old intrusions of the Duluth Complex. The metamorphic recrystallization of iron-formation locally produced iron-rich amphiboles and other fibrous iron-silicate minerals. The presence of these minerals in iron-formation along the eastern part of what is known as the Mesabi Iron Range, and their potential liberation by iron mining has raised environmental health concerns. We describe here the geologic setting and mineralogic composition of the Biwabik Iron Formation in and adjacent to the contact metamorphic aureole of the Duluth Complex. The effects of metamorphism are most pronounced within a few kilometers of the contact, and decrease progressively away from it. The contact aureole has been divided into four metamorphic zones-each characterized by the composition and crystal structure of the metamorphic minerals it contains. The recrystallization of iron-formation to iron-rich amphibole minerals (grunerite and cummingtonite) and iron-pyroxene minerals (hedenbergite and ferrohypersthene) is best developed in zones that are most proximal to the Duluth Complex contact. PMID:17997209

Jirsa, Mark A; Miller, James D; Morey, G B

2008-10-01

115

Syntheses, reactions, and structures of dioxycarbene complexes of rhenium  

SciTech Connect

The cyclic dioxycarbene complex Re(CO)4Br(COCH2CH2O) (I) reacts with PPh3 to give initially fac-Re(CO)3(PPh3)Br(COCH2CH2O) (II) and upon further reaction Re(CO)2(PPh3)2Br(COCH2CH2O) (II). The reaction of I with the diphosphines Ph2P(CH2)/sub n/PPh2 (n = 1,2) gives the diphosphine-bridged complexes (Re(CO)3Br(COCH2CH2O))2(Ph2P(CH2)/sub n/PPh2) (IV, n = 1; V, n = 2). The structures of I and V were established by X-ray diffraction studies. The crystals of I are orthorhombic, space group Pbca, with a = 11.764 (2) A, b = 17.579 (4) A, c = 10.658 (2) A, and Z = 8, while those of V are triclinic, space group P anti I, with a = 11.160 (2) A, b = 11.369 (3) A, c = 10.090 (3) A, = 111.58 (3), US = 95.40 (2), el = 92.78 (2), Z = 1, and two acetones ((CH3)2CO) of crystallization. The dimethyldithiocarbamate ion, S2CN(CH3)2, reacts with I to remove in effect ethylene oxide form the carbene ligand, giving Gr(CO)5Br and HOCH2CH2SC(=S)N(CH3)2.

Miessler, G.L.; Kim, S.; Jacobson, R.A.; Angelici, R.J.

1987-06-03

116

Intrinsic Barriers for Electron and Hydrogen Atom Transfer Reactions of Biomimetic Iron Complexes  

E-print Network

Intrinsic Barriers for Electron and Hydrogen Atom Transfer Reactions of Biomimetic Iron Complexes: Self-exchange reactions between high-spin iron complexes of 2,2-bi-imidazoline (H2bim) have been.3 ( 0.3 at 324 K, whereas no such effect is detected in the electron exchange reaction. Proton self

Roth, Justine P.

117

Reversible Dissociation and Ligand-Glutathione Exchange Reaction in Binuclear Cationic Tetranitrosyl Iron Complex with Penicillamine  

PubMed Central

This paper describes a comparative study of the decomposition of two nitrosyl iron complexes (NICs) with penicillamine thiolic ligands [Fe2(SC5H11NO2)2(NO)4]SO4·5H2O (I) and glutathione- (GSH-) ligands [Fe2(SC10H17N3O6)2(NO)4]SO4·2H2O (II), which spontaneously evolve to NO in aqueous medium. NO formation was measured by a sensor electrode and by spectrophotometric methods by measuring the formation of a hemoglobin- (Hb-) NO complex. The NO evolution reaction rate from (I)??k1 = (4.6 ± 0.1)·10?3?s?1 and the elimination rate constant of the penicillamine ligand k2 = (1.8 ± 0.2)·10?3?s?1 at 25°C in 0.05?M phosphate buffer, ?pH 7.0, was calculated using kinetic modeling based on the experimental data. Both reactions are reversible. Spectrophotometry and mass-spectrometry methods have firmly shown that the penicillamine ligand is exchanged for GS? during decomposition of 1.5·10?4?M (I) in the presence of 10?3?M GSH, with 76% yield in 24?h. As has been established, such behaviour is caused by the resistance of (II) to decomposition due to the higher affinity of iron to GSH in the complex. The discovered reaction may impede S-glutathionylation of the essential enzyme systems in the presence of (I) and is important for metabolism of NIC, connected with its antitumor activity. PMID:24790592

Syrtsova, Lidia; Sanina, Natalia; Lyssenko, Konstantin; Kabachkov, Evgeniy; Psikha, Boris; Shkondina, Natal'ja; Pokidova, Olesia; Kotelnikov, Alexander; Aldoshin, Sergey

2014-01-01

118

Three-Coordinate Terminal Imidoiron(III) Complexes: Structure, Spectroscopy, and Mechanism of Formation  

PubMed Central

Reaction of 1-adamantyl azide with iron(I) diketiminate precursors gives metastable but isolable imidoiron(III) complexes LFe=NAd (L = bulky ?-diketiminate ligand; Ad = 1-adamantyl). This paper addresses: (1) the spectroscopic and structural characterization of the Fe=N multiple bond in these interesting three-coordinate iron imido complexes, and (2) the mechanism through which the imido complexes form. The iron(III) imido complexes have been examined by 1H NMR and EPR spectroscopies and temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility (SQUID), and structurally characterized by crystallography and/or X-ray absorption (EXAFS) measurements. These data show that the imido complexes have quartet ground states and short (1.68 ± 0.01 Å) iron-nitrogen bonds. The formation of the imido complexes proceeds through unobserved iron–RN3 intermediates, which are indicated by QM/MM computations to be best described as iron(II) with an RN3 radical anion. The radical character on the organoazide bends its NNN linkage to enable easy N2 loss and imido complex formation. The product distribution between imidoiron(III) products and hexazene-bridged diiron(II) products is solvent-dependent, and the solvent dependence can be explained by coordination of certain solvents to the iron(I) precursor prior to interaction with the organoazide. PMID:20524625

Cowley, Ryan E.; DeYonker, Nathan J.; Eckert, Nathan A.; Cundari, Thomas R.; DeBeer, Serena; Bill, Eckhard; Ottenwaelder, Xavier; Flaschenriem, Christine; Holland, Patrick L.

2010-01-01

119

Fiber-dependent amyloid formation as catalysis of an existing reaction pathway  

E-print Network

Fiber-dependent amyloid formation as catalysis of an existing reaction pathway Amy M. Ruschak. Intriguingly, we determine that both the reaction order and the enthalpy of activation of the two nucleation processes for amyloid formation. Rather, they are alternative manifestations of the same, surface- catalyzed

Miranker, Andrew

120

Redox interaction of Mn–bicarbonate complexes with reaction centres of purple bacteria  

PubMed Central

It is found that dark reduction of photooxidized primary electron donor P870+ in reaction centres from purple anoxygenic bacteria (two non-sulphur Fe-oxidizing Rhodovulum iodosum and Rhodovulum robiginosum, Rhodobacter sphaeroides R-26 and sulphur alkaliphilic Thiorhodospira sibirica) is accelerated upon the addition of Mn2+ jointly with bicarbonate (30–75?mM). The effect is not observed if Mn2+ and HCO3? have been replaced by Mg2+ and HCO2?, respectively. The dependence of the effect on bicarbonate concentration suggests that formation of Mn2+–bicarbonate complexes, Mn(HCO3)+ and/or Mn(HCO3)2, is required for re-reduction of P870+ with Mn2+. The results are considered as experimental evidence for a hypothesis on possible participation of Mn–bicarbonate complexes in the evolutionary origin of oxygenic photosynthesis in the Archean era. PMID:17971330

Khorobrykh, A.A; Terentyev, V.V; Zharmukhamedov, S.K; Klimov, V.V

2007-01-01

121

Photochemical Reactions of Fluorinated Pyridines at Half-Sandwich Rhodium Complexes: Competing Pathways of Reaction  

PubMed Central

Irradiation of CpRh(PMe3)(C2H4) (1; Cp = ?5-C5H5) in the presence of pentafluoropyridine in hexane solution at low temperature yields an isolable ?2-C,C-coordinated pentafluoropyridine complex, CpRh(PMe3)(?2-C,C-C5NF4) (2). The molecular structure of 2 was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, showing coordination by C3–C4, unlike previous structures of pentafluoropyridine complexes that show N-coordination. Corresponding experiments with 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoropyridine yield the C–H oxidative addition product CpRh(PMe3)(C5NF4)H (3). In contrast, UV irradiation of 1 in hexane, in the presence of 4-substituted tetrafluoropyridines C5NF4X, where X = NMe2, OMe, results in elimination of C2H4 and HF to form the metallacycles CpRh(PMe3)(?2-C,C-CH2N(CH3)C5NF3) (4) and CpRh(PMe3)(?2-C,C-CH2OC5NF3) (5), respectively. The X-ray structure of 4 shows a planar RhCCNC-five-membered ring. Complexes 2–5 may also be formed by thermal reaction of CpRh(PMe3)(Ph)H with the respective pyridines at 50 °C. PMID:24563575

2013-01-01

122

Long-lived excited States of zwitterionic copper(i) complexes for photoinduced cross-dehydrogenative coupling reactions.  

PubMed

Four heteroleptic copper(I) complexes containing phenanthroline and monoanionic nido-carborane-diphosphine ligands have been prepared and structurally characterized by various spectroscopic techniques and X-ray diffraction. These complexes exhibit intense absorptions in the visible range and excited-state lifetimes on the microsecond scale. Their application in visible-light-induced cross-dehydrogenative coupling reactions was investigated. Preliminary studies showed that one of the four copper(I) complexes is an efficient catalyst for photoinduced oxidative C?H functionalization using oxygen as oxidant. Furthermore, ?-functionalized tertiary amines were obtained in good-to-excellent yields by light irradiation (?>420?nm) of a mixture of our Cu(I) complex, tertiary amines, and a variety of nucleophiles (nitroalkane, acetone, or indoles) under aerobic conditions. Electron paramagnetic resonance measurements provided evidence for the formation of superoxide radical anions (O2 (-?) ) rather than singlet oxygen ((1) O2 ) during these photocatalytic reactions. PMID:25413572

Wang, Bin; Shelar, Deepak Prakash; Han, Xian-Zhu; Li, Ting-Ting; Guan, Xiangguo; Lu, Wei; Liu, Kun; Chen, Yong; Fu, Wen-Fu; Che, Chi-Ming

2015-01-12

123

Mauritania Slide Complex: morphology, seismic characterisation and processes of formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently acquired Parasound and high resolution multi-channel seismic reflection data have afforded a more detailed investigation\\u000a of the Mauritania Slide Complex. The slide is more complex than previously reported, and has affected an area in the order\\u000a of 34,000 km2 between ? 600 and > 3,500 m water depths. The ovate-shaped slide displays a long run-out distance > 300 km. Slide formation\\u000a was pre-conditioned mainly by

Andrew A. Antobreh; Sebastian Krastel

2007-01-01

124

New fluorescence reactions in DNA cytochemistry. 2. Microscopic and spectroscopic studies on fluorescent aluminum complexes  

SciTech Connect

Metal-dye complexes are widely applied in light microscopic techniques for chromatin staining (e.g., hematoxylin and carmine), but fluorescent complexes between phosphate-binding cations and suitable ligands have been little used. Preformed and postformed Al complexes with different anionic dyes induced strong and selective fluorescence reactions in nuclei from chicken blood smears, frozen sections, paraffin-embedded sections and Epon-embedded sections of mouse and rat tissues, mitotic chromosomes, meiotic chromosomes and kinetoplasts of Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes. The DNA-dependent fluorescence of these structures showed a very low fading rate. The emission colors were related to the ligand. The most suitable compounds for forming fluorescent Al chelates were 8-hydroxyquinoline, morin, nuclear fast red and purpurin. Staining with diluted carmine solutions and InCl3 mordanting, followed by 8-hydroxyquinoline, also induced chromatin fluorescence. After treating isolated mouse chromosomes with the preformed complex Al-nuclear fast red, x-ray microanalysis indicated a P:Al:dye binding ratio of about 40:15:1. The selectivity, stability and easy formation of these fluorescent Al complexes are obvious advantages for their use as new cytochemical probes in cytologic studies.

Del Castillo, P.; Llorente, A.R.; Gomez, A.; Gosalvez, J.; Goyanes, V.J.; Stockert, J.C. (Autonomous Univ., Madrid (Spain))

1990-02-01

125

Exposing the hidden complexity of stoichiometric and catalytic metathesis reactions by elucidation of Mg-Zn hybrids.  

PubMed

Studying seemingly simple metathesis reactions between ZnCl(2) and (t)BuMgCl has, surprisingly, revealed a much more complex chemistry involving mixed magnesium-zinc compounds that could be regarded as Mg-Zn hybrids. Thus, the reaction of equimolar amounts of ZnCl(2) and (t)BuMgCl reveals the formation of the unprecedented mixed Mg-Zn complex [(THF)(4)Mg(mu-Cl)(2)Zn((t)Bu)(Cl)] (1), as a result of the co-complexation of the two anticipated exchange products of the metathesis. This magnesium zincate adopts a contacted ion-pair structure, closely related to Knochel's pioneering "Turbo" Grignard reagents. Furthermore, a second coproduct identified in this reaction is the solvent-separated mixed magnesium-zinc chloride complex [{Mg(THF)(6)}(2+){Zn(2)Cl(6)}(2-)] (3) that critically diminishes the amount of ZnCl(2) available for the intended metathesis reaction to take place. In another surprising result, when the reaction is carried out by using an excess of 3 M equivalents of the Grignard reagent (closer to the catalytic conditions employed by synthetic chemists), solvent-separated magnesium trialkyl zincate [{Mg(2)Cl(3)(THF)(6)}(+){Zn((t)Bu)(3)}(-)] (4) is obtained that can be viewed as a model for the active species involved in the increasingly important organic transformations of Grignard reagents catalysed by ZnCl(2). Furthermore, preliminary reactivity studies reveal that complex 4 can be used as an effective new reagent for direct Zn-I exchange reactions that allow the preparation and structural identification of the magnesium tris(aryl) zincate [{Mg(2)Cl(3)(THF)(6)}(+){Zn(p-Tol)(3)}(-)] (5) that represents the first example of complete 3-fold activation of a zincate in a Zn-I exchange reaction which, in turn, can efficiently be used as a precursor for Negishi cross-coupling reactions. PMID:20212145

Hevia, Eva; Chua, Jonathan Z; García-Alvarez, Pablo; Kennedy, Alan R; McCall, Matthew D

2010-03-23

126

Exposing the hidden complexity of stoichiometric and catalytic metathesis reactions by elucidation of Mg-Zn hybrids  

PubMed Central

Studying seemingly simple metathesis reactions between ZnCl2 and tBuMgCl has, surprisingly, revealed a much more complex chemistry involving mixed magnesium-zinc compounds that could be regarded as Mg-Zn hybrids. Thus, the reaction of equimolar amounts of ZnCl2 and tBuMgCl reveals the formation of the unprecedented mixed Mg-Zn complex [(THF)4Mg(?-Cl)2Zn(tBu)(Cl)] (1), as a result of the co-complexation of the two anticipated exchange products of the metathesis. This magnesium zincate adopts a contacted ion-pair structure, closely related to Knochel’s pioneering “Turbo” Grignard reagents. Furthermore, a second coproduct identified in this reaction is the solvent-separated mixed magnesium-zinc chloride complex [{Mg(THF)6}2+{Zn2Cl6}2-] (3) that critically diminishes the amount of ZnCl2 available for the intended metathesis reaction to take place. In another surprising result, when the reaction is carried out by using an excess of 3 M equivalents of the Grignard reagent (closer to the catalytic conditions employed by synthetic chemists), solvent-separated magnesium trialkyl zincate [{Mg2Cl3(THF)6}+{Zn(tBu)3}-] (4) is obtained that can be viewed as a model for the active species involved in the increasingly important organic transformations of Grignard reagents catalysed by ZnCl2. Furthermore, preliminary reactivity studies reveal that complex 4 can be used as an effective new reagent for direct Zn-I exchange reactions that allow the preparation and structural identification of the magnesium tris(aryl) zincate [{Mg2Cl3(THF)6}+{Zn(p-Tol)3}-] (5) that represents the first example of complete 3-fold activation of a zincate in a Zn-I exchange reaction which, in turn, can efficiently be used as a precursor for Negishi cross-coupling reactions. PMID:20212145

Hevia, Eva; Chua, Jonathan Z.; García-Álvarez, Pablo; Kennedy, Alan R.; McCall, Matthew D.

2010-01-01

127

Insulin-incorporated chitosan nanoparticles based on polyelectrolyte complex formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insulin-incorporated nanoparticles were prepared by polyelectrolyte complex formation using low-molecular weight water soluble\\u000a chitosan (LMWSC). Insulin-incorporated nanoparticles showed spherical shapes with a particle size of approximately 200 nm.\\u000a The average particle size, drug content and loading efficiency increased with increasing insulin feed. The zeta potential\\u000a decreased with increasing insulin feed, indicating that the electrostatic interaction increased with increasing insulin feed.

Joung-Pyo Nam; Changyong Choi; Mi-Kyeong Jang; Young-Il Jeong; Jae-Woon Nah; Sung-Hyun Kim

2010-01-01

128

Correlations between Community Structure and Link Formation in Complex Networks  

PubMed Central

Background Links in complex networks commonly represent specific ties between pairs of nodes, such as protein-protein interactions in biological networks or friendships in social networks. However, understanding the mechanism of link formation in complex networks is a long standing challenge for network analysis and data mining. Methodology/Principal Findings Links in complex networks have a tendency to cluster locally and form so-called communities. This widely existed phenomenon reflects some underlying mechanism of link formation. To study the correlations between community structure and link formation, we present a general computational framework including a theory for network partitioning and link probability estimation. Our approach enables us to accurately identify missing links in partially observed networks in an efficient way. The links having high connection likelihoods in the communities reveal that links are formed preferentially to create cliques and accordingly promote the clustering level of the communities. The experimental results verify that such a mechanism can be well captured by our approach. Conclusions/Significance Our findings provide a new insight into understanding how links are created in the communities. The computational framework opens a wide range of possibilities to develop new approaches and applications, such as community detection and missing link prediction. PMID:24039818

Liu, Zhen; He, Jia-Lin; Kapoor, Komal; Srivastava, Jaideep

2013-01-01

129

The Effect of Multiple Formats on Understanding Complex Visual Displays  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students in introductory science courses frequently have difficulty comprehending complex graphics such as contour maps. Computer-assisted instruction (CAI), because of its ability to convey the same information in different formats, may help students gain necessary graphic interpretation skills. This article describes a research project in which students practiced reading two temperature maps in either a standard black and white contour or a color-enhanced contour format. They were then divided into groups and tested using only standard contour maps. The tests examined comprehension of the distribution of sea surface temperature, oceanographic phosphate concentration, and brain activation. Results suggest that having students practice with differently formatted maps of the same information improves later comprehension of standard contour maps.

Holly Taylor

2004-03-01

130

Demixing-stimulated lane formation in binary complex plasma  

SciTech Connect

Recently lane formation and phase separation have been reported for experiments with binary complex plasmas in the PK3-Plus laboratory onboard the International Space Station (ISS). Positive non-additivity of particle interactions is known to stimulate phase separation (demixing), but its effect on lane formation is unknown. In this work, we used Langevin dynamics (LD) simulation to probe the role of non-additivity interactions on lane formation. The competition between laning and demixing leads to thicker lanes. Analysis based on anisotropic scaling indices reveals a crossover from normal laning mode to a demixing-stimulated laning mode. Extensive numerical simulations enabled us to identify a critical value of the non-additivity parameter {Delta} for the crossover.

Du, C.-R.; Jiang, K.; Suetterlin, K. R.; Ivlev, A. V.; Morfill, G. E. [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, 85748, Garching (Germany)

2011-11-29

131

Redox Reactions of the ?-Synuclein-Cu2+ Complex and Their Effects on Neuronal Cell Viability  

PubMed Central

?-Synuclein (?-syn), a presynaptic protein believed to play an important role in neuropathology in Parkinson’s disease (PD), is known to bind Cu2+. Cu2+ has been shown to accelerate the aggregation of ?-syn to form various toxic aggregates in vitro. Copper is also a redox active metal whose complexes with amyloidogenic proteins/peptides have been linked to oxidative stress in major neurodegenerative diseases. In this work, the formation of Cu2+ complex with ?-syn or with an N-terminus peptide, ?-syn(1–19), was confirmed with electrospray-mass spectrometry (ES–MS). The redox potentials of Cu2+ complex with ?-syn (?-syn-Cu2+) and ?-syn(1–19) were determined to be 0.018 and 0.053 V, respectively. Furthermore, the Cu2+ center(s) can be readily reduced to Cu+ and possible reactions of ?-syn-Cu2+ with cellular species (e.g., O2, ascorbic acid, and dopamine) were investigated. The occurrence of a redox reaction can be rationalized by comparing the redox potential of the ?-syn-Cu2+ complex to that of the specific cellular species. For example, ascorbic acid can directly reduce ?-syn-Cu2+ to ?-syn-Cu+, setting up a redox cycle in which O2 is reduced to H2O2 and cellular redox species is continuously exhausted. In addition, the H2O2 generated was demonstrated to reduce viability of the neuroblastoma SY-HY5Y cells. Although our results ruled out the direct oxidation of dopamine by ?-syn-Cu2+, the H2O2 generated in the presence of ?-syn-Cu2+ can oxidize dopamine. Our results suggest that oxidative stress is at least partially responsible for the loss of dopaminergic cells in PD brain and reveal the multifaceted role of the ?-syn-Cu2+ complex in oxidative stress associated with PD symptoms. PMID:20701279

Wang, Chengshan; Liu, Lin; Zhang, Lin; Peng, Yong; Zhou, Feimeng

2010-01-01

132

Noble reactions for the actinides: safe gold-based access to organouranium and azide complexes  

SciTech Connect

Gold has had a profound impact on organic chemistry; its compounds are spectacular catalysts for many organic transformations involving the formation of C-C, C-O, C-N and CoS bonds, and have enabled unprecedented pathways for the functionalization of C-H and C-C bonds. In general, gold complexes have not been exploited as reagents in organometallic or inorganic chemistry, although a few gold(l) aryl and alkynyl compounds have been reported to undergo transmetalation with transition metal complexes. We have been developing methods for functionalizing uranium complexes and have shown that Cu(l)-X reagents effect the oxidation of uranium with formation of U-X bonds, providing easy chemical control over uranium in oxidation states ranging from U{sup III}{yields}U{sup VI}. Although a logical approach for the direct generation of U-carbon and U-azide bonds, this Cu-based platform is limited in scope as it only works for pure and isolable copper compounds. This is problematic given the instability of organocuprates and copper azides, which can detonate violently as isolated solids. As such, this route has been confined to the synthesis of select uranium phenylacetylide complexes. Over the past few years, a variety of stable gold(l) alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, alkynyl, and azide complexes have been reported, propelling us to investigate their potential as reagents within the oxidative functionalization platform. Unlike the related CU{sup I} systems, Au{sup I} reagents are easily derivatized, and are safe to handle and isolate. Herein, we report that gold(l)-phosphine compounds can undergo a new class of reaction, and are excellent reagents for the oxidative functionalization of uranium with azide and carbon anions.

Thomson, Robert K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Graves, Christopher R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scott, Brian L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kiplinger, Jaqueline L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

133

Computational Analyses of Complex Flows with Chemical Reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heat and mass transfer phenomena in micro-scale for the mass transfer phenomena on drug in cylindrical matrix system, the simulation of oxygen/drug diffusion in a three dimensional capillary network, and a reduced chemical kinetic modeling of gas turbine combustion for Jet propellant-10 have been studied numerically. For the numerical analysis of the mass transfer phenomena on drug in cylindrical matrix system, the governing equations are derived from the cylindrical matrix systems, Krogh cylinder model, which modeling system is comprised of a capillary to a surrounding cylinder tissue along with the arterial distance to veins. ADI (Alternative Direction Implicit) scheme and Thomas algorithm are applied to solve the nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs). This study shows that the important factors which have an effect on the drug penetration depth to the tissue are the mass diffusivity and the consumption of relevant species during the time allowed for diffusion to the brain tissue. Also, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been developed to simulate the blood flow and oxygen/drug diffusion in a three dimensional capillary network, which are satisfied in the physiological range of a typical capillary. A three dimensional geometry has been constructed to replicate the one studied by Secomb et al. (2000), and the computational framework features a non-Newtonian viscosity model for blood, the oxygen transport model including in oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation and wall flux due to tissue absorption, as well as an ability to study the diffusion of drugs and other materials in the capillary streams. Finally, a chemical kinetic mechanism of JP-10 has been compiled and validated for a wide range of combustion regimes, covering pressures of 1atm to 40atm with temperature ranges of 1,200 K--1,700 K, which is being studied as a possible Jet propellant for the Pulse Detonation Engine (PDE) and other high-speed flight applications such as hypersonic missiles. The comprehensive skeletal mechanism consists of 58 species and 315 reactions including in CPD, Benzene formation process by the theory for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and soot formation process on the constant volume combustor, premixed flame characteristics.

Bae, Kang-Sik

134

Fission and quasifission modes in heavy-ion-induced reactions leading to the formation of Hs*  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mass and energy distributions of binary reaction products obtained in the reactions Ne22+Cf249,Mg26+Cm248, S36+U238, and Fe58+Pb208 have been measured. All reactions lead to Hs isotopes. At energies below the Coulomb barrier the bimodal fission of Hs*, formed in the reaction Mg26+Cm248, is observed. In the reaction S36+U238, leading to the formation of a similar compound nucleus, the main part of the symmetric fragments arises from the quasifission process. At energies above the Coulomb barrier fusion-fission is the main process leading to the formation of symmetric fragments for both reactions with Mg and S ions. In the case of the Fe58+Pb208 reaction the quasifission process dominates at all measured energies.

Itkis, I. M.; Kozulin, E. M.; Itkis, M. G.; Knyazheva, G. N.; Bogachev, A. A.; Chernysheva, E. V.; Krupa, L.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Zagrebaev, V. I.; Rusanov, A. Ya.; Goennenwein, F.; Dorvaux, O.; Stuttgé, L.; Hanappe, F.; Vardaci, E.; de Goés Brennand, E.

2011-06-01

135

Titanium complex formation of organic ligands in titania gels.  

PubMed

Thin films of organic ligand-dispersing titania gels were prepared from titanium alkoxide sols containing ligand molecules by steam treatment without heating. The formation of the ligand-titanium complex and the photoinduced electron transfer process in the systems were investigated by photoelectrochemical measurements. The complex was formed between the 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQ) and titanium species, such as the titanium ion, on the titania nanoparticle surface through the oxygen and nitrogen atoms of the quinolate. A photocurrent was observed in the electrodes containing the complex due to the electron injection from the LUMO of the complex into the titania conduction band. A bidentate ligand, 2,3-dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN), formed the complex on the titania surface through dehydration between its two hydroxyl groups of DHN and two TiOH groups of the titania. The electron injection from the HOMO of DHN to the titania conduction band was observed during light irradiation. This direct electron injection was more effective than the two-step electron injection. PMID:25535798

Nishikiori, Hiromasa; Todoroki, Kenta; Setiawan, Rudi Agus; Teshima, Katsuya; Fujii, Tsuneo; Satozono, Hiroshi

2015-01-27

136

Synthesis and reactions of U(III) complexes with tripodal nitrogen and oxygen donor ligands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reaction of UI3(THF)4 (where THF is tetrahydrofuran) with sodium or potassium hydrotris(3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl)borate ligand ((HBpz 3*)(-) in 1:1 and 1:2 ratios gives the corresponding U(HBpz 3*)I2(THF)2(1) and U(HBpz 3*)2I(2) complexes in excellent yields. Iodide abstraction from (2) with TlBPh4 results in the formation of the cationic complex (U(HBpz 3*)2(THF)) BPh4(3). The solid state structures of 1, 2 and 3 have been determined. Similar reactions with the anionic tripodal oxygen donor ligand ((eta (sub 5) - (5H5) Co(P(O)(OC2H5)2)3)(-) (L(sub OEt)) proceeded via oxidation of U(3+) to U(4+) and fragmentation of the ligand. The structures of some key compounds were established by X-ray crystallography. U(HBpz 3*)I2(THF)2 readily reacts with two equivalents of KH2Bpz (pz equivalent to pyrazolyl) to give U(HBpz3*)(H2Bpz2)2, but attempted substitution with other ligands led to mixtures or, in one case, displacement of the (HBpz 3*)(-) ligand.

McDonald, Robert; Sun, Yimin; Takats, Josef; Day, Victor W.; Eberspracher, Todd A.

1994-10-01

137

Photochemical redox reactions of copper(II)-alanine complexes in aqueous solutions.  

PubMed

The photochemical redox reactions of Cu(II)/alanine complexes have been studied in deaerated solutions over an extensive range of pH, Cu(II) concentration, and alanine concentration. Under irradiation, the ligand-to-metal charge transfer results in the reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(I) and the concomitant oxidation of alanine, which produces ammonia and acetaldehyde. Molar absorptivities and quantum yields of photoproducts for Cu(II)/alanine complexes at 313 nm are characterized mainly with the equilibrium Cu(II) speciation where the presence of simultaneously existing Cu(II) species is taken into account. By applying regression analysis, individual Cu(I) quantum yields are determined to be 0.094 ± 0.014 for the 1:1 complex (CuL) and 0.064 ± 0.012 for the 1:2 complex (CuL2). Individual quantum yields of ammonia are 0.055 ± 0.007 for CuL and 0.036 ± 0.005 for CuL2. Individual quantum yields of acetaldehyde are 0.030 ± 0.007 for CuL and 0.024 ± 0.007 for CuL2. CuL always has larger quantum yields than CuL2, which can be attributed to the Cu(II) stabilizing effect of the second ligand. For both CuL and CuL2, the individual quantum yields of Cu(I), ammonia, and acetaldehyde are in the ratio of 1.8:1:0.7. A reaction mechanism for the formation of the observed photoproducts is proposed. PMID:24811712

Lin, Chen-Jui; Hsu, Chao-Sheng; Wang, Po-Yen; Lin, Yi-Liang; Lo, Yu-Shiu; Wu, Chien-Hou

2014-05-19

138

Functional LH1 antenna complexes influence electron transfer in bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the light harvesting 1 (LH1) antenna complex on the driving force for light-driven electron transfer in the Rhodobacter sphaeroides reaction center has been examined. Equilibrium redox titrations show that the presence of the LH1 antenna complex influences the free energy change for the primary electron transfer reaction through an effect on the reduction potential of the primary

Ronald W. Visschers; Simone I. E. Vulto; Michael R. Jones; Rienk van Grondelle; Ruud Kraayenhof

1999-01-01

139

Catalytic asymmetric carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction utilizing rare earth metal complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel optically active rare earth complexes have made possible a catalytic asymmetric nitroaldol reaction for the first time. Structural elucidation reveals that the complexes consist of one rare earth metal, three lithium atoms, and three BINOL units. Applications of the catalytic asymmetric nitroaldol reaction to syntheses of several p-blockers and erythro-AYA have been also achieved. Although the lithium containing rare

Masakatsu Shibasaki; Hiroaki Sasai

1996-01-01

140

Mixed amido-/imido-/guanidinato niobium complexes: synthesis and the effect of ligands on insertion reactions.  

PubMed

The new monoguanidinato complexes [Nb(NMe2)2{N(2,6-(i)Pr2C6H3)}{(NR)(NR')C(NMe2)}] (R = R' = (i)Pr, 2; R = (t)Bu, R' = Et, 3) were obtained by the insertion reaction of either diisopropylcarbodiimide or 1-tert-butyl-3-ethylcarbodiimide with the triamido precursor [Nb(NMe2)3(N-2,6-(i)Pr2C6H3)] (1) bearing a bulky imido moiety. The ?-oxo derivative [{N(2,6-(i)Pr2C6H3)}{(N(i)Pr)2C(NMe2)}(NMe2)Nb]2(?-O) (2a) was formed by an unexpected hydrolysis reaction of the amido niobium compound 2. Alternatively, monoguanidinato complexes [Nb(NMe2)2{N(2,6-(i)Pr2C6H3)}{(N(i)Pr)2C(NHR)}] (R = (i)Pr, 4, (n)Bu, 5) can be obtained by protonolysis of 1 with N,N',N''-alkylguanidines [(NH(i)Pr)2C(NR)] (R = (i)Pr, (n)Bu). Compound also reacts with either tert-butylisocyanide or 2,6-xylylisocyanide to give, by a migratory insertion reaction, the corresponding iminocarbamoyl compounds [Nb(NMe2)2{(NMe2)C=NR}{N(2,6-(i)Pr2C6H3)}] (R = (t)Bu, 6, Xy, 7). Addition of the neutral alkylguanidines to complex 6 results in a facile C-N bond cleavage at room temperature in a process directed by the formation of the stable chelate complex 4 or 5. Complex reacts with heterocumulenic CS2 to produce new imido dithiocarbamato complexes [Nb(NMe2){S2C(NMe2)}2{N(2,6-(i)Pr2C6H3)}] (8) and [Nb{S2C(NMe2)}3{N(2,6-(i)Pr2C6H3)}] (9). These complexes do not react with alkylguanines, although new mixed guanidinato dithiocarbamato complexes [Nb(NMe2){S2C(NMe2)}{(N(i)Pr)2C(NHiPr)}{N(2,6-(i)Pr2C6H3)}] (10) and [Nb{(S2C(NMe2)}2{(N(i)Pr)2C(NH(i)Pr)}{N(2,6-(i)Pr2C6H3)}] (11) can be obtained by reaction of complex 4 with one or two equivalents of CS2, respectively. All of the complexes were characterized spectroscopically and the dynamic behaviour of some of them was studied by variable-temperature NMR. The molecular structures of 2a, 3, 6 and 10 were also established by X-ray diffraction studies. PMID:25338231

Elorriaga, David; Carrillo-Hermosilla, Fernando; Antiñolo, Antonio; López-Solera, Isabel; Fernández-Galán, Rafael; Villaseñor, Elena

2014-12-14

141

GABAergic complex basket formations in the human neocortex.  

PubMed

Certain GABAergic interneurons in the cerebral cortex, basket cells, establish multiple connections with cell bodies that typically outline the somata and proximal dendrites of pyramidal cells. During studies into the distribution of the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) in the human cerebral cortex, we were struck by the presence of a very dense, pericellular arrangement of multiple VGAT-immunoreactive (-ir) terminals in certain cortical areas. We called these terminals "Complex basket formations" (Cbk-formations) to distinguish them from the simpler and more typical pericellular GABAergic innervations of most cortical neurons. Here we examined the distribution of these VGAT-ir Cbk-formations in various cortical areas, including the somatosensory (area 3b), visual (areas 17 and 18), motor (area 4), associative frontal (dorsolateral areas 9, 10, 45, 46, and orbital areas 11, 12, 13, 14, 47), associative temporal (areas 20, 21, 22, and 38), and limbic cingulate areas (areas 24, 32). Furthermore, we used dual or triple staining techniques to study the chemical nature of the innervated cells. We found that VGAT-ir Cbk-formations were most frequently found in area 4 followed by areas 3b, 13, and 18. In addition, they were mostly observed in layer III, except in area 17, where they were most dense in layer IV. We also found that 70% of the innervated neurons were pyramidal cells, while the remaining 30% were multipolar cells. Most of these multipolar cells expressed the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin and the lectin Vicia villosa agglutinin. PMID:21031559

Blazquez-Llorca, Lidia; García-Marín, Virginia; DeFelipe, Javier

2010-12-15

142

2-Halogenoimidazolium Salt Catalyzed Aza-Diels-Alder Reaction through Halogen-Bond Formation.  

PubMed

2-Halogenoimidazolium salts are found to catalyze aza-Diels-Alder reaction of aldimines with Danishefsky diene in an efficient manner. Comparative studies and titration experiments support the formation of halogen bonding between imines and catalysts. PMID:25551775

Takeda, Youhei; Hisakuni, Daichi; Lin, Chun-Hsuan; Minakata, Satoshi

2015-01-16

143

Fission and quasi-fission: insights into heavy element formation reactions  

SciTech Connect

Mass-angle distributions carry detailed information on the characteristics of quasi-fission, and thus of the dynamics of heavy element formation reactions. Recent experimental results are presented and discussed.

Hinde, D. J.; Rietz, R. du; Rafiei, R.; Dasgupta, M.; Diaz-Torres, A. [Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Thomas, R. G. [Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); B.A.R.C., Mumbai (India)

2009-03-04

144

In vitro study of magnetite-amyloid ? complex formation.  

PubMed

Biogenic magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) has been identified in human brain tissue. However, abnormal concentration of magnetite nanoparticles in the brain has been observed in different neurodegenerative pathologies. In the case of Alzheimer's disease (AD), these magnetic nanoparticles have been identified attached to the characteristic brain plaques, which are mainly formed by fibrils of amyloid ? peptide (A?). However, few clues about the formation of the magnetite-A? complex have been reported. We have investigated the interaction between these important players in AD with superconducting quantum interference, scanning electron microscope, surface plasmon resonance, and magnetic force microscopy. The results support the notion that the magnetite-A? complex is created before the synthesis of the magnetic nanoparticles, bringing a highly stable interaction of this couple. . PMID:22115601

Mir, Mònica; Tahirbegi, Islam Bogachan; Valle-Delgado, Juan José; Fernàndez-Busquets, Xavier; Samitier, Josep

2012-08-01

145

Investigation of the Effect of Inclusion of Eriochrome Black T with ?-Cyclodextrin on Its Complexation Reaction with Ca and Mg Using Rank Annihilation Factor Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rank annihilation factor analysis (RAFA) was used to investigate the effects of inclusion of eriochrome black T (EBT) on its complexation reaction with Ca and Mg at different pH values. Addition of ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) to Ca-EBT or Mg-EBT caused decomposition of the 1:1 metal complex and increase in EBT concentration in solution due to the formation of EBT-?-CD inclusion complex.

A. Afkhami; L. Khalafi

2008-01-01

146

Scope and Mechanism of Formal SN2? Substitution Reactions of a Monomeric Imidozirconium Complex with Allylic Electrophiles  

PubMed Central

The zirconium imido complex Cp2(THF)Zr = NSi(t-Bu)Me2 (1) reacts with allylic ethers, chlorides, and bromides to give exclusively the products of the SN2? reaction; i.e., attack at the allylic position remote from the leaving group with migration of the double bond. The primary amine products can be isolated in excellent yields, after in situ Cbz protection, in the presence of variety of functional groups. Good diastereoselectivity and complete stereoselectivity allowed the formation of enantioenriched allylic amines from enantioenriched allylic ethers. Regiospecific substitution with 1 has also been achieved with allylic fluorides, which are notoriously poor substrates in other substitution reactions. On the basis of rate and kinetic isotope effect studies, we propose a general mechanism for the allylic substitution reactions with 1 which involves dissociation of THF and binding of the substrate, followed by the substitution step. In a DFT study of the substitution reaction, we identified a six-membered closed transition state for the substitution step and other relevant stationary points along the reaction coordinate. This study shows that the substitution reaction can be described as a concerted asynchronous [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement. This detailed knowledge of the reaction mechanism provides a rationale for the origins of the observed regio-, diastereo-, and stereoselectivity and of the unusual reactivity profile observed in the reaction. PMID:18327942

Lalic, Gojko; Krinsky, Jamin L.; Bergman, Robert G.

2008-01-01

147

Molecular determinants of orexin receptor-arrestinubiquitin complex formation  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose:?The orexin system regulates a multitude of key physiological processes, particularly involving maintenance of metabolic homeostasis. Consequently, there is considerable potential for pharmaceutical development for the treatment of disorders from narcolepsy to metabolic syndrome. It acts through the hormonal activity of two endogenous peptides, orexin A binding to orexin receptors 1 and 2 (OX1 and OX2) with similar affinity, and orexin B binding to OX2 with higher affinity than OX1 receptors. We have previously revealed data differentiating orexin receptor subtypes with respect to their relative stability in forming orexin receptor-arrestin-ubiquitin complexes measured by BRET. Recycling and cellular signalling distinctions were also observed. Here, we have investigated, using BRET, the molecular determinants involved in providing OX2 receptors with greater ?-arrestin-ubiquitin complex stability. Experimental Approach:?The contribution of the C-terminal tail of the OX receptors was investigated by bulk substitution and site-specific mutagenesis using BRET and inositol phosphate assays. Key Results:?Replacement of the OX1 receptor C-terminus with that of the OX2 receptor did not result in the expected gain of function, indicating a role for intracellular domain configuration in addition to primary structure. Furthermore, two out of the three putative serine/threonine clusters in the C-terminus were found to be involved in OX2 receptor-?-arrestin-ubiquitin complex formation. Conclusions and Implications:?This study provides fundamental insights into the molecular elements that influence receptor-arrestin-ubiquitin complex formation. Understanding how and why the orexin receptors can be functionally differentiated brings us closer to exploiting these receptors as drug targets. Linked Articles:?This article is part of a themed section on Orexin Receptors. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-2 PMID:24206104

Jaeger, Werner C; Seeber, Ruth M; Eidne, Karin A; Pfleger, Kevin DG

2014-01-01

148

Direct detection of key reaction intermediates in photochemical CO2 reduction sensitized by a rhenium bipyridine complex.  

PubMed

Photochemical CO2 reduction sensitized by rhenium-bipyridyl complexes has been studied through multiple approaches during the past several decades. However, a key reaction intermediate, the CO2-coordinated Re-bipyridyl complex, which should govern the activity of CO2 reduction in the photocatalytic cycle, has never been detected in a direct way. In this study on photoreduction of CO2 catalyzed by the 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine (dmbpy) complex, [Re(dmbpy)(CO)3Cl] (1), we successfully detect the solvent-coordinated Re complex [Re(dmbpy)(CO)3DMF] (2) as the light-absorbing species to drive photoreduction of CO2. The key intermediate, the CO2-coordinated Re-bipyridyl complex, [Re(dmbpy)(CO)3(COOH)], is also successfully detected for the first time by means of cold-spray ionization spectrometry (CSI-MS). Mass spectra for a reaction mixture with isotopically labeled (13)CO2 provide clear evidence for the incorporation of CO2 into the Re-bipyridyl complex. It is revealed that the starting chloride complex 1 was rapidly transformed into the DMF-coordinated Re complex 2 through the initial cycle of photoreduction of CO2. The observed induction period in the time profile of the CSI-MS signals can well explain the subsequent formation of the CO2-coordinated intermediate from the solvent-coordinated Re-bipyridyl complex. An FTIR study of the reaction mixture in dimethyl sulfoxide clearly shows the appearance of a signal at 1682 cm(-1), which shifts to 1647 cm(-1) for the (13)CO2-labeled counterpart; this is assigned as the CO2-coordinated intermediate, Re(II)-COOH. Thus, a detailed understanding has now been obtained for the mechanism of the archetypical photochemical CO2 reduction sensitized by a Re-bipyridyl complex. PMID:24689747

Kou, Youki; Nabetani, Yu; Masui, Dai; Shimada, Tetsuya; Takagi, Shinsuke; Tachibana, Hiroshi; Inoue, Haruo

2014-04-23

149

Proton exchange in acid-base complexes induced by reaction coordinates with heavy atom motions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We extend previous work on nitric acid-ammonia and nitric acid-alkylamine complexes to illustrate that proton exchange reaction coordinates involve the rocking motion of the base moiety in many double hydrogen-bonded gas phase strong acid-strong base complexes. The complexes studied involve the biologically and atmospherically relevant glycine, formic, acetic, propionic, and sulfuric acids with ammonia/alkylamine bases. In these complexes, the magnitude of the imaginary frequencies associated with the proton exchange transition states are <400 cm-1. This contrasts with widely studied proton exchange reactions between symmetric carboxylic acid dimers or asymmetric DNA base pair and their analogs where the reaction coordinate is localized in proton motions and the magnitude of the imaginary frequencies for the transition states are >1100 cm-1. Calculations on complexes of these acids with water are performed for comparison. Variations of normal vibration modes along the reaction coordinate in the complexes are described.

Alavi, Saman; Taghikhani, Mahdi

2012-06-01

150

Thermally induced oxidative decarboxylation of copper complexes of amino acids and formation of strecker aldehyde.  

PubMed

In the Maillard reaction, independent degradations of amino acids play an important role in the generation of amino-acid-specific products, such as Strecker aldehydes or their Schiff bases. Such oxidative decarboxylation reactions are expected to be enhanced in the presence of metals. Preliminary studies performed through heating of alanine and various metal salts (Cu, Fe, Zn, and Ca) under pyrolytic conditions indicated that copper(II) and iron(III) because of their high oxidation potentials were the only metals able to induce oxidative decarboxylation of amino acids and formation of Strecker aldehyde or its derivatives as detected by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Furthermore, studies performed with synthetic alanine and glycine copper complexes indicated that they constituted the critical intermediates undergoing free-radical oxidative degradation, followed by the loss of carbon dioxide and the generation of Strecker aldehydes, which were detected either as stable Schiff base adducts or incorporated in moieties, such as pyrazine or pyridine derivatives. PMID:25078730

Nashalian, Ossanna; Yaylayan, Varoujan A

2014-08-20

151

An ultrasonic absorption study of the complex formation of zinc(II) thiocyanate in aqueous solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method of analysis for the ultrasonic absorption of systems involving multiple coupled equilibria is described. The method consists of calculating the relaxation frequencies and amplitudes under a postulated reaction mechanism using trial values of the rate constants and volume changes and of comparing the computed absorption ?/f2 (absorption coefficient over frequency squared) directly with the experimental one. Application of this method to the ultrasonic absorption study of aqueous zinc(II)-thiocyanate solutions reveals that the relaxation absorption is ascribed to the successive complex formation equilibria Zn(SCN)3-nn-1 +SCN-(kn?k-n)Zn(SCN)2-nn, n=1-4. The rate constants and volume changes of the above reactions are determined. The method proves to be especially effective when the absorption spectra are associated with multiple coupled equilibria and accordingly too broad to be separated to discrete relaxation processes by the usual method of analysis.

Tamura, Kiyoshi

1985-11-01

152

Diffusion and reaction of pollutants in stratus clouds: application to nocturnal acid formation in plumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model is presented that describes the transport, turbulent diffusion, and chemical reactions of air pollutants in stratus clouds. The chemical kinetic mechanism treats 97 gaseous, heterogeneous, and aqueous reactions between 54 species. The dispersion and night-time chemistry of a power plant plume in a stratus cloud is simulated. The contributions of various chemical pathways to the formation of

Christian Seigneur; Pradeep Saxena; Vince A. Mirabella

1985-01-01

153

Clay surface catalysis of formation of humic substances: potential role of maillard reactions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The mechanisms of the formation of humic substances are poorly understood, especially the condensation of amino acids and reducing sugars products (Maillard reaction) in soil environments. Clay minerals behave as Lewis and Brönsted acids and catalyze several reactions and likely to catalyze the Mai...

154

Selective formation and unusual reactivity of tetraarsabicyclo[1.1.0]butane complexes.  

PubMed

The selective formation of the dinuclear butterfly complexes [{Cp'''Fe(CO)2}2(?,?(1:1)-E4)] (E = P (1?a), As (1?b)) and [{Cp*Cr(CO)3}2(?,?(1:1)-E4)] (E = P (2?a), As (2?b)) as new representatives of this rare class of compounds was found by reaction of E4 with the corresponding dimeric carbonyl complexes. Complexes 1?b and 2?b are the first As4 butterfly compounds with a bridging coordination mode. Moreover, first studies regarding the reactivity of 1?b and 2?b are presented, revealing the formation of the unprecedented As8 cuneane complexes [{Cp'''Fe(CO)2}2{Cp'''Fe(CO)}2(?4,?(1:1:2:2)-As8)] (3?b) and [{Cp*Cr(CO)3}4(?4,?(1:1:1:1)-As8)] (4). The compounds are fully characterized by NMR and IR spectroscopy as well as by X-ray structure analysis. In addition, DFT calculations give insight into the transformation pathway from the E4 butterfly to the corresponding cuneane structural motif. PMID:25123699

Schwarzmaier, Christoph; Timoshkin, Alexey Y; Balázs, Gábor; Scheer, Manfred

2014-08-18

155

Incipient species formation in salamanders of the Ensatina?complex  

PubMed Central

The Ensatina eschscholtzii complex of plethodontid salamanders, a well-known “ring species,” is thought to illustrate stages in the speciation process. Early research, based on morphology and coloration, has been extended by the incorporation of studies of protein variation and mitochondrial DNA sequences. The new data show that the complex includes a number of geographically and genetically distinct components that are at or near the species level. The complex is old and apparently has undergone instances of range contraction, isolation, differentiation, and then expansion and secondary contact. While the hypothesis that speciation is retarded by gene flow around the ring is not supported by molecular data, the general biogeographical hypothesis is supported. There is evidence of a north to south range expansion along two axes, with secondary contact and completion of the ring in southern California. Current research targets regions once thought to show primary intergradation, but which molecular markers reveal to be zones of secondary contact. Here emphasis is on the subspecies E. e. xanthoptica, which is involved in four distinct secondary contacts in central California. There is evidence of renewed genetic interactions upon recontact, with greater genetic differentiation within xanthoptica than between it and some of the interacting populations. The complex presents a full array of intermediate conditions between well-marked species and geographically variable populations. Geographically differentiated segments represent a diversity of depths of time of isolation and admixture, reflecting the complicated geomorphological history of California. Ensatina illustrates the continuing difficulty in making taxonomic assignments in complexes studied during species formation. PMID:9223261

Wake, David B.

1997-01-01

156

C–C bond formation through olefin–thiocarbyne coupling in diiron complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bridging diiron thiocarbyne complex [Fe2{?-CS(Me)}(?-CO)(CO)2(Cp)2][SO3CF3] (1) reacts with activated olefins (methyl acrylate, acrylonitrile, styrene, diethyl maleate), in the presence of Me3NO and NaH, to give the corresponding ?-allylidene complexes [Fe2{?-?1:?3-C?(SMe)C?(R?)C?(H)(R?)} (?-CO)(CO)(Cp)2] (R?=CO2Me, R?=H, 3a; R? = CN, R?=H, 3b; R?=C6H5, R?=H, 3c; R?=R?=CO2Et, 3d). The coupling reaction of olefin with thiocarbyne is regio- and stereospecific, leading to the formation

Luigi Busetto; Fabio Marchetti; Mauro Salmi; Stefano Zacchini; Valerio Zanotti

2007-01-01

157

A reaction diffusion model of pattern formation in clustering of adatoms on silicon surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a reaction diffusion model which describes the formation of patterns on surfaces having defects. Through this model, the primary goal is to study the growth process of Ge on Si surface. We consider a two species reaction diffusion process where the reacting species are assumed to diffuse on the two dimensional surface with first order interconversion reaction occuring at various defect sites which we call reaction centers. Two models of defects, namely a ring defect and a point defect are considered separately. As reaction centers are assumed to be strongly localized in space, the proposed reaction-diffusion model is found to be exactly solvable. We use Green's function method to study the dynamics of reaction diffusion processes. Further we explore this model through Monte Carlo (MC) simulations to study the growth processes in the presence of a large number of defects. The first passage time statistics has been studied numerically.

Bagarti, Trilochan; Roy, Anupam; Kundu, K.; Dev, B. N.

2012-12-01

158

Molybdenum alkylidene complexes : syntheses and applications to olefin metathesis reactions  

E-print Network

Chapter 1. Alkylimido Molybdenum Complexes: Synthesis, Characterization and Activity as Chiral Olefin Metathesis Catalysts. Molybdenum olefin metathesis catalysts that contain previously unexplored aliphatic 1- ...

Pilyugina, Tatiana

2007-01-01

159

Structure of Soybean Serine Acetyltransferase and Formation of the Cysteine Regulatory Complex as a Molecular Chaperone*  

PubMed Central

Serine acetyltransferase (SAT) catalyzes the limiting reaction in plant and microbial biosynthesis of cysteine. In addition to its enzymatic function, SAT forms a macromolecular complex with O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase. Formation of the cysteine regulatory complex (CRC) is a critical biochemical control feature in plant sulfur metabolism. Here we present the 1.75–3.0 ? resolution x-ray crystal structures of soybean (Glycine max) SAT (GmSAT) in apoenzyme, serine-bound, and CoA-bound forms. The GmSAT-serine and GmSAT-CoA structures provide new details on substrate interactions in the active site. The crystal structures and analysis of site-directed mutants suggest that His169 and Asp154 form a catalytic dyad for general base catalysis and that His189 may stabilize the oxyanion reaction intermediate. Glu177 helps to position Arg203 and His204 and the ?1c-?2c loop for serine binding. A similar role for ionic interactions formed by Lys230 is required for CoA binding. The GmSAT structures also identify Arg253 as important for the enhanced catalytic efficiency of SAT in the CRC and suggest that movement of the residue may stabilize CoA binding in the macromolecular complex. Differences in the effect of cold on GmSAT activity in the isolated enzyme versus the enzyme in the CRC were also observed. A role for CRC formation as a molecular chaperone to maintain SAT activity in response to an environmental stress is proposed for this multienzyme complex in plants. PMID:24225955

Yi, Hankuil; Dey, Sanghamitra; Kumaran, Sangaralingam; Lee, Soon Goo; Krishnan, Hari B.; Jez, Joseph M.

2013-01-01

160

Human mitochondrial holocytochrome c synthase's heme binding, maturation determinants, and complex formation with cytochrome c.  

PubMed

Proper functioning of the mitochondrion requires the orchestrated assembly of respiratory complexes with their cofactors. Cytochrome c, an essential electron carrier in mitochondria and a critical component of the apoptotic pathway, contains a heme cofactor covalently attached to the protein at a conserved CXXCH motif. Although it has been known for more than two decades that heme attachment requires the mitochondrial protein holocytochrome c synthase (HCCS), the mechanism remained unknown. We purified membrane-bound human HCCS with endogenous heme and in complex with its cognate human apocytochrome c. Spectroscopic analyses of HCCS alone and complexes of HCCS with site-directed variants of cytochrome c revealed the fundamental steps of heme attachment and maturation. A conserved histidine in HCCS (His154) provided the key ligand to the heme iron. Formation of the HCCS:heme complex served as the platform for interaction with apocytochrome c. Heme was the central molecule mediating contact between HCCS and apocytochrome c. A conserved histidine in apocytochrome c (His19 of CXXCH) supplied the second axial ligand to heme in the trapped HCCS:heme:cytochrome c complex. We also examined the substrate specificity of human HCCS and converted a bacterial cytochrome c into a robust substrate for the HCCS. The results allow us to describe the molecular mechanisms underlying the HCCS reaction. PMID:23150584

San Francisco, Brian; Bretsnyder, Eric C; Kranz, Robert G

2013-02-26

161

Physical volcanology of the Gubisa Formation, Kone Volcanic Complex, Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite their significance for understanding the potential environmental factors involved in hominin evolution in Ethiopia, very few modern volcanologic studies have been carried out on the Quaternary calderas and associated silicic tephra deposits of the Ethiopian Rift. We present here the second of a set of papers reporting the findings of fieldwork and laboratory analyses of one of the largest of these structures, Kone Caldera, located within the Kone Volcanic Complex in the northern Main Ethiopian Rift. The most recent major episode of explosive eruptive activity at Kone Caldera was apparently associated with formation of part of the overall 8-km-diameter collapse area, and deposited a widely-dispersed alkali rhyolite tephra that reaches a thickness of up to 60 m in vent-proximal deposits. We report here the physical characteristics of this unit in order to constrain eruptive conditions. The pumice fall deposit suggests that an abrupt decrease in magma discharge rate occurred part way through the eruption.

Rampey, Michael L.; Oppenheimer, Clive; Pyle, David M.; Yirgu, Gezahegn

2014-08-01

162

The colorants, antioxidants, and toxicants from nonenzymatic browning reactions and the impacts of dietary polyphenols on their thermal formation.  

PubMed

Nonenzymatic browning reactions proceed with the starting reactants of sugar and/or protein during thermal processing and storage of food. In addition to food color formation, the process also contributes to the loss of essential nutrients, generation of beneficial antioxidants, and production of toxicants, including 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), reactive carbonyl species, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and heterocyclic amines (HAs). Recent research has demonstrated that dietary polyphenols can actively participate in nonenzymatic browning reactions, contributing to the generation of new colorants and antioxidants. More importantly, polyphenol addition has been found to be an effective approach to mitigate heat-induced formation of toxicants, mainly through inhibiting oxidative pathways and trapping reactive intermediates. In the matrix of polyphenol-fortified foods, a complex array of chemical interactions happen among polyphenols, traditional nutritional components, and neo-formed compounds they are thermally converted to. These reactions play a significant role in the colorants, antioxidants as well as toxicants production. Our findings support the potential of dietary polyphenols for increasing the antioxidant content and for reducing the level of toxicants when they participate in nonenzymatic browning reactions in fortified food products. PMID:25468403

Zhang, Xinchen; Tao, Ningping; Wang, Xichang; Chen, Feng; Wang, Mingfu

2015-02-11

163

Fluorimetric determination of sulphathiazole in honey by means the formation of CDs inclusion complexes.  

PubMed

The inclusion complex of sulphathiazole in ?-cyclodextrin has been investigated. A 1:2 stoichiometry of the complex was established and formation constants K2 (42.83 ± 3.27 M(-1)) and K1 (4.98 ± 0.36 M(-1)) were calculated by using the changes produced on the native fluorescence of the drug, when included on the hydrophobic cyclodextrin cavity. An enhancement in the fluorescence emission of sulphathiazole and protection of the drug against photochemical reactions has been attained upon inclusion. In solutions of ?-CD dual emission (458 nm) was noticed in STZ. Formation of the inclusion complex of STZ should result in dual emission, which is due to a twisted intramolecular charge transfer band (TICT). A fluorimetric method for the determination of sulphathiazole has been proposed and applied in honey without sample treatment. The optimized fluorimetric method showed detection and quantitation limits of 9.74 ng/g and 32.48 ng/g, respectively. Selectivity is high, showing no cross-reactivity to other chemically related antibiotics. The results obtained for blind honey samples (mean recovery 97%), were in good agreement with those obtained by liquid chromatography separation and mass spectrometry detection (LC-MS) (mean recovery 102%), showing that the proposed method might be used for the determination of sulphathiazole residues without expensive equipment. PMID:24528704

Lucas-Abellán, C; Guillén, I; Mercader-Ros, M T; Serrano-Martínez, A; Núñez-Delicado, E; Gabaldón, J A

2014-03-15

164

Formation of HCN+ in Heterogeneous Reactions of N2+ and N+ with Surface Hydrocarbons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A significant increase of the ion yield at m/z 27 in collisions of low-energy ions of N2+ and N+ with hydrocarbon-covered room-temperature or heated surfaces of tungsten, carbon-fiber composite, and beryllium, not observed in analogous collisions of Ar+, is ascribed to the formation of HCN+ in heterogeneous reactions between N2+ or N+ and surface hydrocarbons. The formation of HCN+ in the reaction with N+ indicated an exothermic reaction with no activation barrier, likely to occur even at very low collision energies. In the reaction with N2+, the formation of HCN+ was observed to a different degree on these room-temperature and heated (150 and 300 °C) surfaces at incident energies above about 50 eV. This finding suggested an activation barrier or reaction endothermicity of the heterogeneous reaction of about 3-3.5 eV. The main process in N2+ or N+ interaction with the surfaces is ion neutralization; the probability of forming the reaction product HCN+ was very roughly estimated for both N2+ and N+ ions to about one in 104 collisions with the surfaces.

Harnisch, Martina; Keim, Alan; Scheier, Paul; Herman, Zdenek

2013-10-01

165

Formation of HCN+ in Heterogeneous Reactions of N2+ and N+ with Surface Hydrocarbons  

PubMed Central

A significant increase of the ion yield at m/z 27 in collisions of low-energy ions of N2+ and N+ with hydrocarbon-covered room-temperature or heated surfaces of tungsten, carbon-fiber composite, and beryllium, not observed in analogous collisions of Ar+, is ascribed to the formation of HCN+ in heterogeneous reactions between N2+ or N+ and surface hydrocarbons. The formation of HCN+ in the reaction with N+ indicated an exothermic reaction with no activation barrier, likely to occur even at very low collision energies. In the reaction with N2+, the formation of HCN+ was observed to a different degree on these room-temperature and heated (150 and 300 °C) surfaces at incident energies above about 50 eV. This finding suggested an activation barrier or reaction endothermicity of the heterogeneous reaction of about 3–3.5 eV. The main process in N2+ or N+ interaction with the surfaces is ion neutralization; the probability of forming the reaction product HCN+ was very roughly estimated for both N2+ and N+ ions to about one in 104 collisions with the surfaces. PMID:23614645

2013-01-01

166

Reaction layer formation at the graphite/copper-chromium alloy interface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sessile drop tests were used to obtain information about copper chromium alloys that suitably wet graphite. Characterization of graphite/copper-chromium alloy interfaces subjected to elevated temperatures were conducted using scanning electron micrography, energy dispersive spectroscopy, auger electron spectroscopy, and x ray diffraction analyses. These analyses indicate that during sessile drop tests conducted at 1130 C for one hour, copper alloys containing greater than 0.98 percent chromium form continuous reaction layers of approximately 10 micron thickness. The reaction layers adhere to the graphite surface. The copper wets the reaction layer to form a contact angle of 60 degrees or less. X ray diffraction results indicate that the reaction layer is chromium carbide. The kinetics of reaction layer formation were modelled in terms of bulk diffusion mechanisms. Reaction layer thickness is controlled initially by the diffusion of Cr out of Cu alloy and later by the diffusion of C through chromium carbide.

Devincent, Sandra M.; Michal, Gary M.

1992-01-01

167

Reaction layer formation at the graphite/copper-chromium alloy interface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sessile drop tests were used to obtain information about copper chromium alloys that suitably wet graphite. Characterization of graphite/copper-chromium alloy interfaces subjected to elevated temperatures were conducted using scanning electron micrography, energy dispersive spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction analyses. These analyses indicate that during sessile drop tests conducted at 1130 C for one hour, copper alloys containing greater than 0.98 percent chromium form continuous reaction layers of approximately 10 micron thickness. The reaction layers adhere to the graphite surface. The copper wets the reaction layer to form a contact angle of 60 degrees or less. X-ray diffraction results indicate that the reaction layer is chromium carbide. The kinetics of reaction layer formation were modelled in terms of bulk diffusion mechanisms. Reaction layer thickness is controlled initially by the diffusion of Cr out of Cu alloy and later by the diffusion of C through chromium carbide.

Devincent, Sandra M.; Michal, Gary M.

1993-01-01

168

Calibration of Complex Subsurface Reaction Models Using a Surrogate-Model Approach  

EPA Science Inventory

Application of model assessment techniques to complex subsurface reaction models involves numerous difficulties, including non-trivial model selection, parameter non-uniqueness, and excessive computational burden. To overcome these difficulties, this study introduces SAMM (Simult...

169

Short-term memory demands of reaction-time tasks that differ in complexity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conducted 4 experiments to determine whether the increased reaction time produced by loading memory with a set of irrelevant items depended on the complexity of (a) the stage structure or of (b) the stimulus–response (S\\/R) mapping rules underlying the task (T). Reaction-time Ts varying in complexity were performed alone and in the retention interval of a short-term memory task requiring

Gordon D. Logan

1980-01-01

170

Density Functional Theory Study of Redox Pairs. 1. Dinuclear Iron Complexes That Undergo Multielectron Redox Reactions  

E-print Network

Multielectron Redox Reactions Accompanied by a Reversible Structural Change Mu-Hyun Baik, Tom ZieglerDensity Functional Theory Study of Redox Pairs. 1. Dinuclear Iron Complexes That Undergo. The different theoretical models are evaluated by calculating the energy of the disproportionation reaction 2A

Baik, Mu-Hyun

171

Ubiquinol oxidation in the cytochrome bc1 complex: Reaction mechanism and prevention of short-circuiting  

E-print Network

Review Ubiquinol oxidation in the cytochrome bc1 complex: Reaction mechanism and prevention oxidizes a ubiquinol molecule to ubiquinone by a unique ``bifurcated'' reaction where the two released electrons go to different acceptors: one is accepted by the mobile redox active domain of the [2Fe­2S] iron

Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen

172

Cyanogen bromide formation from the reactions of monobromamine and dibromamine with cyanide ion.  

PubMed

Cyanide ion (CN-) was found to reactwith monobromamine (NH2Br) and dibromamine (NHBr2) according to the reactions NH2Br + CN- + H20 --> NH3 + BrCN + OH- and NHBr2 + CN- + H20 --> NH2Br + BrCN + OH- with respective reaction rate constants of 2.63 x 10(4) M9-10 s(-1) and 1.31 x 10(8) M(-1) s(-1). These values were found to be 10(5)-10(6) times greater than those for the corresponding reactions between chloramine species and CN-. As a result, bromamines, even if present at relatively low concentrations, would tend to outcompete chloramines in reacting with CN-, and thus, the formation of BrCN would predominate that of ClCN through these reaction mechanisms. The NH2Br reaction was found to be general-acid-catalyzed. The third-order catalysis rate constants for H+, H2PO4-, HPO4(2-), H3BO3, and NH4+ correlated linearly with their corresponding acid dissociation constants, consistent with the Brønsted-Pedersen relationship. The NHBr2 reaction did not undergo catalysis. A model was developed to predict the concentrations of bromamines over time on the basis ofthe above two reactions with CN- and bromamine formation/decomposition reactions previously reported. PMID:16683592

Lei, Hongxia; Minear, Roger A; Mariñas, Benito J

2006-04-15

173

Spectroscopic Properties of Reaction Center Pigments in Photosystem II Core Complexes: Revision of the Multimer Model  

PubMed Central

Absorbance difference spectra associated with the light-induced formation of functional states in photosystem II core complexes from Thermosynechococcus elongatus and Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (e.g., \\documentclass[10pt]{article} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\usepackage{pmc} \\usepackage[Euler]{upgreek} \\pagestyle{empty} \\oddsidemargin -1.0in \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{\\mathrm{P}}^{+}{\\mathrm{Pheo}}^{-},{\\mathrm{P}}^{+}{\\mathrm{Q}}_{{\\mathrm{A}}}^{-},^{3}{\\mathrm{P}}\\end{equation*}\\end{document}) are described quantitatively in the framework of exciton theory. In addition, effects are analyzed of site-directed mutations of D1-His198, the axial ligand of the special-pair chlorophyll PD1, and D1-Thr179, an amino-acid residue nearest to the accessory chlorophyll ChlD1, on the spectral properties of the reaction center pigments. Using pigment transition energies (site energies) determined previously from independent experiments on D1-D2-cytb559 complexes, good agreement between calculated and experimental spectra is obtained. The only difference in site energies of the reaction center pigments in D1-D2-cytb559 and photosystem II core complexes concerns ChlD1. Compared to isolated reaction centers, the site energy of ChlD1 is red-shifted by 4 nm and less inhomogeneously distributed in core complexes. The site energies cause primary electron transfer at cryogenic temperatures to be initiated by an excited state that is strongly localized on ChlD1 rather than from a delocalized state as assumed in the previously described multimer model. This result is consistent with earlier experimental data on special-pair mutants and with our previous calculations on D1-D2-cytb559 complexes. The calculations show that at 5 K the lowest excited state of the reaction center is lower by ?10 nm than the low-energy exciton state of the two special-pair chlorophylls PD1 and PD2 which form an excitonic dimer. The experimental temperature dependence of the wild-type difference spectra can only be understood in this model if temperature-dependent site energies are assumed for ChlD1 and PD1, reducing the above energy gap from 10 to 6 nm upon increasing the temperature from 5 to 300 K. At physiological temperature, there are considerable contributions from all pigments to the equilibrated excited state P*. The contribution of ChlD1 is twice that of PD1 at ambient temperature, making it likely that the primary charge separation will be initiated by ChlD1 under these conditions. The calculations of absorbance difference spectra provide independent evidence that after primary electron transfer the hole stabilizes at PD1, and that the physiologically dangerous charge recombination triplets, which may form under light stress, equilibrate between ChlD1 and PD1. PMID:18339736

Raszewski, Grzegorz; Diner, Bruce A.; Schlodder, Eberhard; Renger, Thomas

2008-01-01

174

Electrochemical detection of protein based on hybridization chain reaction-assisted formation of copper nanoparticles.  

PubMed

In this paper, we report an electrochemical method for highly sensitive and specific detection of protein based on hybridization chain reaction (HCR)-assisted formation of copper nanoparticles by using small molecule such as folate-linked DNA as probe. In the presence of target protein, taking folate receptor (FR) as the model protein in this study, its binding with folate can protect the probe DNA from exonuclease I-catalyzed degradation, thus the probe DNA can be immobilized onto the electrode surface through the hybridization with capture DNA, triggering HCR on the electrode surface. Subsequently, copper nanoparticles can be formed on the electrode surface by using long duplex DNA oligomers from HCR as templates. Furthermore, copper ions released from acid-dissolution of copper nanoparticles can catalyze the oxidation of ?-phenylenediamine by dissolved oxygen, leading to significant electrochemical responses. As a result, our method can sensitively detect FR in the linear range from 0.01ng/mL to 100ng/mL with a detection limit of 3pg/mL. It can also specifically distinguish the target protein in both buffer and complex serum samples. Since many other proteins can be assayed by changing the corresponding small molecule, this method may be promising for the development of the technique for protein detections. PMID:25437371

Zhao, Jing; Hu, Suisui; Cao, Ya; Zhang, Bin; Li, Genxi

2015-04-15

175

Imaging pattern formation in surface reactions from ultra-high vacuum up to atmospheric pressures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new optical imaging methods with submonolayer surface sensitivity are applied together to investigate pattern formation of adsorbate concentrations on surfaces during heterogeneously catalyzed reactions. Ellipso-microscopy for surface imaging (EMSI) is based on an ellipsometric effect, reflection anisotropy microscopy (RAM) on the different reflectivity properties of non-isotropic surfaces.During the CO oxidation reaction on a Pt(110) surface, features such as front

Harm Hinrich Rotermund

1997-01-01

176

Recent advances in cinchona alkaloid catalysis for enantioselective carbon-nitrogen bond formation reactions.  

PubMed

Organocatalysis and cooperative catalysis are fast growing research areas. In these fields, cinchona alkaloids and their derivatives play a major role. The ready availability of both pseudo-enantiomeric pairs from natural sources makes them outstanding catalysts for reactions including oxidation, alkylation, cycloaddition, and carbene insertion. This short review focuses on recent achievements in the field of asymmetric carbon-nitrogen atom bond formation reactions using cinchona alkaloids and their derivatives. PMID:24359199

Saito, Hiroaki; Miyairi, Shinichi

2014-01-01

177

Numerical study on the impacts of heterogeneous reactions on ozone formation in the Beijing urban area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The air quality model CMAQ-MADRID (Community Multiscale Air Quality-Model of Aerosol Dynamics, Reaction, Ionization and Dissolution) was employed to simulate summer O3 formation in Beijing China, in order to explore the impacts of four heterogeneous reactions on O3 formation in an urban area. The results showed that the impacts were obvious and exhibited the characteristics of a typical response of a VOC-limited regime in the urban area. For the four heterogeneous reactions considered, the NO2 and HO2 heterogeneous reactions have the most severe impacts on O3 formation. During the O3 formation period, the NO2 heterogeneous reaction increased new radical creation by 30%, raising the atmospheric activity as more NO?NO2 conversion occurred, thus causing the O3 to rise. The increase of O3 peak concentration reached a maximum value of 67 ppb in the urban area. In the morning hours, high NO titration reduced the effect of the photolysis of HONO, which was produced heterogeneously at night in the surface layer. The NO2 heterogeneous reaction in the daytime is likely one of the major reasons causing the O3 increase in the Beijing urban area. The HO2 heterogeneous reaction accelerated radical termination, resulting in a decrease of the radical concentration by 44% at the most. O3 peak concentration decreased by a maximum amount of 24 ppb in the urban area. The simulation results were improved when the heterogeneous reactions were included, with the O3 and HONO model results close to the observations.

Xu, Jun; Zhang, Yuanhang; Wang, Wei

2006-12-01

178

Substitution effects on the formation of T-shaped palladium carbene and thioketone complexes from Li/Cl carbenoids.  

PubMed

The preparation of palladium thioketone and T-shaped carbene complexes by treatment of thiophosphoryl substituted Li/Cl carbenoids with a Pd(0) precursor is reported. Depending on the steric demand, the anion-stabilizing ability of the silyl moiety (by negative hyperconjugation effects) and the remaining negative charge at the carbenic carbon atom, isolation of a three-coordinate, T-shaped palladium carbene complex is possible. In contrast, insufficient charge stabilization results in the transfer of the sulfur of the thiophosphoryl moiety and thus in the formation of a thioketone complex. While the thioketones are stable compounds the carbene complexes are revealed to be highly reactive and decompose under elimination of Pd metal. Computational studies revealed that both complexes are formed by a substitution mechanism. While the ketone turned out to be the thermodynamically favored product, the carbene is kinetically favored and thus preferentially formed at low reaction temperatures. PMID:24664573

Molitor, Sebastian; Feichtner, Kai-Stephan; Kupper, Claudia; Gessner, Viktoria H

2014-08-18

179

Formation of degradation compounds from lignocellulosic biomass in the biorefinery: sugar reaction mechanisms.  

PubMed

The degradation compounds formed during pretreatment when lignocellulosic biomass is processed to ethanol or other biorefinery products include furans, phenolics, organic acids, as well as mono- and oligomeric pentoses and hexoses. Depending on the reaction conditions glucose can be converted to 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde (HMF) and/or levulinic acid, formic acid and different phenolics at elevated temperatures. Correspondingly, xylose can follow different reaction mechanisms resulting in the formation of furan-2-carbaldehyde (furfural) and/or various C-1 and C-4 compounds. At least four routes for the formation of HMF from glucose and three routes for furfural formation from xylose are possible. In addition, new findings show that biomass monosaccharides themselves can react further to form pseudo-lignin and humins as well as a wide array of other compounds when exposed to high temperatures. Hence, several aldehydes and ketones and many different organic acids and aromatic compounds may be generated during hydrothermal treatment of lignocellulosic biomass. The reaction mechanisms are of interest because the very same compounds that are possible inhibitors for biomass processing enzymes and microorganisms may be valuable biobased chemicals. Hence a new potential for industrial scale synthesis of chemicals has emerged. A better understanding of the reaction mechanisms and the impact of the reaction conditions on the product formation is thus a prerequisite for designing better biomass processing strategies and forms an important basis for the development of new biorefinery products from lignocellulosic biomass as well. PMID:24412507

Rasmussen, Helena; Sørensen, Hanne R; Meyer, Anne S

2014-02-19

180

Photoinduced Electron Transfer Reactions of Ruthenium(II) Phenanthroline Complexes with Dimethylaniline in Aqueous and Micellar Media.  

PubMed

Four [Ru(NN)3](2+) complexes (NN?=?polypyridine) with ligands of varying hydrophobicity with different charges +2, 0 and -4 were synthesized. The photophysics and photoinduced electron transfer reactions of these Ru(II)-complexes with dimethylaniline (DMA) as the quencher have been studied in aqueous medium and ionic and non-ionic micellar medium. The extent of binding of the complexes with the surfactant interface is evident from the calculated binding constant values (K). Dimethylaniline (DMA) being a neutral quencher, the hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions competing with one another and their combined effect with the surfactants were reported by observing the quenching rate constant (kq) values. The formation of anilinium cation radical in transient absorption spectrum confirms the excited state electron transfer reactions of ruthenium(II) complexes with dimethylaniline. The calculated rate constant values (kq) are in good agreement with the experimental kq values giving quantitative evidence for the bimolecular reductive quenching rate constant for the complexes with DMA. Pseudophase ion exchange model is successfully applied to analyse the quenching data. PMID:25524086

Sangiliapillai, Ramanathan; Arumugam, Ramdass; Eswaran, Rajkumar; Seenivasan, Rajagopal

2015-01-01

181

Experimental and computational investigation on the gas phase reaction of ethyl formate with Cl atoms.  

PubMed

The rate coefficient for the gas-phase reaction of Cl atoms with ethyl formate was measured over the temperature range of 268-343 K using relative rate methods, with ethyl chloride as a reference compound. The temperature dependent relative rate coefficients for the ethyl formate + Cl reaction were measured, and the modified Arrhenius expression kethyl formate(268-343) = (2.54 ± 0.57) × 10(-23) T(4.1) exp {-(981 ± 102)/T} cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) was obtained with 2? error limits. The room temperature rate coefficient for the title reaction is (9.84 ± 0.79) × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), which is in good agreement with reported values. To complement the experimental measurement, computational methods were used to calculate the rate coefficient for the ethyl formate + Cl reaction atoms using canonical variational transition state theory (CVT) with small curvature tunneling (SCT) and the CCSD (T)/cc-pVDZ//M062X/6-31+g(d,p) level of theory. The temperature dependent Arrhenius expression was obtained to be 2.97 × 10(-18) T(2.4) exp[-(390/T)] cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) over the temperature range of 200-400 K. The thermodynamic parameters and branching ratio were calculated. Also, the atmospheric lifetime and global warming potentials (GWPs) were calculated for ethyl formate. PMID:24945822

Balaganesh, M; Dash, Manas Ranjan; Rajakumar, B

2014-07-17

182

The CO formation reaction pathway in steam methane reforming by rhodium.  

PubMed

Three different pathways toward CO formation from adsorbed CH and O are compared by quantum-chemical density functional theory (DFT) calculations for planar and stepped Rh surfaces. The conventional pathway competes with the pathway involving a formyl (CHO) species. This holds for both types of surfaces. The barrier for carbon-oxygen bond formation for the planar surface (180 kJ/mol) is substantially higher than that for the stepped surface (90 kJ/mol). The reaction path through intermediate formyl formation competes with direct formation of CO from recombination via adsorbed C and O atoms. Calculations are used as a basis for the analysis of the overall kinetics of the methane steam reforming reaction as a function of the particle size and the metal. PMID:20919687

van Grootel, Pieter W; Hensen, Emiel J M; van Santen, Rutger A

2010-11-01

183

Terminal Vanadium-Neopentylidyne Complexes and Intramolecular Cross-Metathesis Reactions to Generate Azametalacyclohexatrienes  

E-print Network

Terminal Vanadium-Neopentylidyne Complexes and Intramolecular Cross-Metathesis Reactions-carbon multiple bonds5 triggered the pursuit for the thus far unknown vanadium- alkylidyne functionality. Herein by this observation and realizing that vanadium- alkylidyne complexes are unknown, we alkylated (Nacnac)Vd CHt

Baik, Mu-Hyun

184

Synthesis and Reactions of Tungsten Alkylidene Complexes That Contain the 2,6-Dichlorophenylimido Ligand  

E-print Network

Synthesis and Reactions of Tungsten Alkylidene Complexes That Contain the 2,6-Dichlorophenylimido Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 ReceiVed October 30, 2006 Tungsten alkylidene alkylidene bisalkoxide complexes of molybdenum or tungsten of the type M(NR)(CHR)(OR)2 are now established

Müller, Peter

185

Functional LH1 antenna complexes influence electron transfer in bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the light harvesting 1 (LH1) antenna complex on the driving force for light-driven electron transfer in the Rhodobacter sphaeroidesreaction center has been examined. Equilibrium redox titrations show that the presence of the LH1 antenna complex influences the free energy change for the primary electron transfer reaction through an effect on the reduction potential of the primary donor.

Ronald W. Visschers; Simone I. E. Vulto; Michael R. Jones; Rienk van Grondelle; Ruud Kraayenhof

1999-01-01

186

Study of the dynamic complex formation of pentanoic acid with ?-cyclodextrin by using an ultrasonic relaxation method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined the effects of pentanoic acid as a guest molecule on the inclusion complex formation with ?-cyclodextrin ( ?-CD). Ultrasonic absorption measurements were carried out for ?-CD solutions with pentanoic acid over the frequency range from 0.2 to 45 MHz. A single relaxational absorption resulting from the perturbation of chemical equilibrium was observed for the inclusion of pentanoic acid into the ?-CD cavity. The undissociated form of pentanoic acid produced a more stable complex with ?-CD than its dissociated form. An ultrasonic relaxation associated with a protontransfer reaction was also observed when no additive was present in the solution.

Bae, Jong-Rim

2013-07-01

187

EXFOR systems manual: Nuclear reaction data exchange format. Revision 97/1  

SciTech Connect

This document describes EXFOR, the exchange format designed to allow transmission of nuclear reaction data between the members of the Nuclear Data Center Network. In addition to storing the data and its` bibliographic information, experimental information, including source of uncertainties, is also compiled. The status and history of the data set is also included, e.g., the source of the data, any updates which have been made, and correlations to other data sets. EXFOR is designed for flexibility rather than optimization of data processing in order to meet the diverse needs of the nuclear reaction data centers. The exchange format should not be confused with a center-to-user format. Although users may obtain data from the centers in the EXFOR format, other center-to-user formats have been developed to meet the needs of the users within each center`s own sphere of responsibility. The exchange format, as outlined, is designed to allow a large variety of numerical data tables with explanatory and bibliographic information to be transmitted in an easily machine-readable format (for checking and indicating possible errors) and a format that can be read by personnel (for passing judgment on and correcting any errors indicated by the machine).

McLane, V. [ed.] [comp.

1997-07-01

188

Selenium-ligated palladium(II) complexes as highly active catalysts for carbon-carbon coupling reactions: the Heck reaction.  

PubMed

Three selenium-ligated Pd(II) complexes were readily synthesized and shown to be extremely active catalysts for the Heck reaction of various aryl bromides, including deactivated and heterocyclic ones. The catalytic activity of the selenide-based Pd(II) complexes not only rivals but vastly outperforms that of the corresponding phosphorus and sulfur analogues. Practical advantages of the selenium-based catalysts include their straightforward synthesis and high activity in the absence of any additives as well as the enhanced stability of the selenide ligands toward air oxidation. PMID:15330667

Yao, Qingwei; Kinney, Elizabeth P; Zheng, Chong

2004-08-19

189

Formation of core-shell structured composite microparticles via cyclic gas-solid reactions.  

PubMed

This work reports a novel low-cost and environmental-friendly preparation strategy for core-shell structured composite microparticles and discusses its formation mechanism. Different from most conventional strategies, which involve coating or coating-like processes, this reported strategy uses irreversible solid-phase ionic diffusion in a gas-solid reaction cycle (e.g., reduction and oxidation of Fe) to gradually move the shell material from a core-and-shell material mixture microparticle to the surface. Without the need for solvent as do many conventional processes, this novel process only involves gas-solid reactions, which reduces environmental impact. To substantiate this conceived strategy, a micrometer-sized microparticle made up of a mixture of Fe2O3 and Al2O3 powders is first reduced by H2 and then oxidized by O2 over 50 cycles at 900 °C. These reactions are known to proceed mainly through the diffusion of solid-phase Fe cations. SEM and EDX analyses verify the formation of an Al2O3 core-Fe2O3 shell structure at the end of the 50 reaction cycles. If the cyclic reactions of a microparticle proceed mainly through the diffusion of gaseous-reactant-derived O anions such as the mixture of Fe2O3 and TiO2 instead of solid-phase Fe cation diffusion, no formation of the core-shell structure is observed in the resulting microparticle. These two opposing results underscore the dominating role of solid-phase ionic diffusion in the formation of the core-shell structure. A 2-D continuum diffusion model is applied to account for the inter-Fe-particle bridging and directional product layer growth phenomena during an oxidation reaction. The simulation further verifies the conceived core-shell formation strategy. PMID:24044419

Sun, Zhenchao; Zhou, Qiang; Fan, Liang-Shih

2013-10-01

190

Integrin activation and focal complex formation in cardiac hypertrophy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cardiac hypertrophy is characterized by both remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and hypertrophic growth of the cardiocytes. Here we show increased expression and cytoskeletal association of the ECM proteins fibronectin and vitronectin in pressure-overloaded feline myocardium. These changes are accompanied by cytoskeletal binding and phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) at Tyr-397 and Tyr-925, c-Src at Tyr-416, recruitment of the adapter proteins p130(Cas), Shc, and Nck, and activation of the extracellular-regulated kinases ERK1/2. A synthetic peptide containing the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif of fibronectin and vitronectin was used to stimulate adult feline cardiomyocytes cultured on laminin or within a type-I collagen matrix. Whereas cardiocytes under both conditions showed RGD-stimulated ERK1/2 activation, only collagen-embedded cells exhibited cytoskeletal assembly of FAK, c-Src, Nck, and Shc. In RGD-stimulated collagen-embedded cells, FAK was phosphorylated only at Tyr-397 and c-Src association occurred without Tyr-416 phosphorylation and p130(Cas) association. Therefore, c-Src activation is not required for its cytoskeletal binding but may be important for additional phosphorylation of FAK. Overall, our study suggests that multiple signaling pathways originate in pressure-overloaded heart following integrin engagement with ECM proteins, including focal complex formation and ERK1/2 activation, and many of these pathways can be activated in cardiomyocytes via RGD-stimulated integrin activation.

Laser, M.; Willey, C. D.; Jiang, W.; Cooper, G. 4th; Menick, D. R.; Zile, M. R.; Kuppuswamy, D.

2000-01-01

191

Adhesion and formation of microbial biofilms in complex microfluidic devices  

SciTech Connect

Shewanella oneidensis is a metal reducing bacterium, which is of interest for bioremediation and clean energy applications. S. oneidensis biofilms play a critical role in several situations such as in microbial energy harvesting devices. Here, we use a microfluidic device to quantify the effects of hydrodynamics on the biofilm morphology of S. oneidensis. For different rates of fluid flow through a complex microfluidic device, we studied the spatiotemporal dynamics of biofilms, and we quantified several morphological features such as spatial distribution, cluster formation and surface coverage. We found that hydrodynamics resulted in significant differences in biofilm dynamics. The baffles in the device created regions of low and high flow in the same device. At higher flow rates, a nonuniform biofilm develops, due to unequal advection in different regions of the microchannel. However, at lower flow rates, a more uniform biofilm evolved. This depicts competition between adhesion events, growth and fluid advection. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed that higher production of extra-cellular polymeric substances (EPS) occurred at higher flow velocities.

Kumar, Aloke [ORNL; Karig, David K [ORNL; Neethirajan, Suresh [University of Guelph; Suresh, Anil K [ORNL; Srijanto, Bernadeta R [ORNL; Mukherjee, Partha P [ORNL; Retterer, Scott T [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL

2012-01-01

192

Formation of impeller-like helical DNA–silica complexes by polyamines induced chiral packing  

PubMed Central

The helicity of DNA and its long-range chiral packing are widespread phenomena; however, the packing mechanism remains poorly understood both in vivo and in vitro. Here, we report the extraordinary DNA chiral self-assembly by silica mineralization, together with circular dichroism measurements and electron microscopy studies on the structure and morphology of the products. Mg2+ ion and diethylenetriamine were found to induce right- and left-handed chiral DNA packing with two-dimensional-square p4mm mesostructures, respectively, to give corresponding enantiomeric impeller-like helical DNA–silica complexes. Moreover, formation of macroscopic impeller-like helical architectures depends on the types of polyamines and co-structure-directing agents and pH values of reaction solution. It has been suggested that interaction strength between negatively charged DNA phosphate strands and positively charged counterions may be the key factor for the induction of DNA packing handedness. PMID:24098845

Liu, Ben; Han, Lu; Che, Shunai

2012-01-01

193

[Analysis of the fragment D-fibrin monomer complex formation by salting-out fractionation].  

PubMed

The fragment D-fibrin monomer complex formation was studied by ammonium sulfate fractionation of the reaction mixtures initially consisting of 0.15-4.00 mg/ml of fragment D and 1.00 mg/ml of fibrin monomer, It was shown that in these mixtures the equilibrium was reached in not more than 15 sec. Fragment D binding to fibrin dependent on the fragment concentration. The Scatchard analysis of this dependence revealed a maximum of fragment D binding to one fibrin molecule of 2.95 +/- 0.28 with a Ka value of (9.04 +/- 1.08) x 10(-5) M-1 (n = 6), thus indicating a strong fragment--fibrin affinity. PMID:7115809

Pozdniakova, T M; Rybachuk, V N; Vovk, E v

1982-06-01

194

Calculated formation and reaction energies of 3d transition metal oxides using a hierachy of exchange-correlation functionals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation and oxidation reaction energies of 16 transition metal oxides (TMOs) are benchmarked against experiments with an increasing complexity of the exchange-correlation (xc) functionals: PBE, PBE + U with a single U for each transition metal element, PBE0 (25% exact exchange included), EXX (100% exact exchange), and EXX + RPA (random phase approximation for the correlation energy). Although rather challenging on standard CPU computing facilities, the RPA calculations were performed efficiently on graphic processing units (GPUs). For the formation energies, the PBE + U, PBE0, EXX + RPA improves significantly over PBE with mean absolute errors (MAE) of 0.83 (PBE), 0.39 (PBE + U), 0.34 (PBE0), and 0.39 (EXX + RPA) eV per oxygen. In addition, EXX + RPA improves over the other xc functionals on the oxidation reaction energies, with MAE of 0.27 (PBE), 0.28 (PBE + U), 0.30 (PBE0), to 0.13 (EXX + RPA) eV per oxygen. The distinct trend observed for the calculated oxidation reaction energies compared to the formation energies is due to that the errors in formation energies for PBE and EXX + RPA are systematic; while for PBE + U and PBE0 the deviations have both signs, so that the error cancellations between different valence states work better for PBE and EXX + RPA. Finally, we compared the performance of the EXX + RPA for total energies and G0W0, which uses the random phase approximation in constructing the W kernel, for band gaps, and discuss a few challenges for the EXX + RPA method on TMOs.

Yan, Jun; Nørskov, Jens K.

2013-12-01

195

Reactivity of the uranium(IV) carbene complex [U(BIPM(TMS))(Cl)(?-Cl)?Li(THF)?] (BIPM(TMS) = {C(PPh?NSiMe?)?}) towards carbonyl and heteroallene substrates: metallo-Wittig, adduct formation, C-F bond activation, and [2 + 2]-cycloaddition reactions.  

PubMed

The reactivity of the uranium(IV) carbene complex [U(BIPM(TMS))(Cl)(?-Cl)2Li(THF)2] (1, BIPM(TMS) = {C(PPh2NSiMe3)2}) towards carbonyl and heteroallene substrates is reported. Reaction of 1 with benzophenone proceeds to give the metallo-Wittig terminal alkene product Ph2C=C(PPh2NSiMe3)2 (2); the likely "UOCl2" byproduct could not be isolated. Addition of the bulky ketone PhCOBu(t) to 1 resulted in loss of LiCl, coordination of the ketone, and dimerisation to give [U(BIPM(TMS))(Cl)(?-Cl){OC(Ph)(Bu(t))}]2 (3). The reaction of 1 with coumarin resulted in ring opening of the cyclic ester and a metallo-Wittig-type reaction to afford [U{BIPM(TMS)[C(O)(CHCHC6H4O-2)]-?(3)-N,O,O'}(Cl)2(THF)] (4) where the enolate product remains coordinated to uranium. The reaction of PhCOF with 1 resulted in C-F bond activation and oxidation resulting in isolation of [U(O)2(Cl)2(?-Cl)2{(?-LiDME)OC(Ph)=C(PPh2NSiMe3)(PPh2NHSiMe3)}2] (5) along with [U(Cl)2(F)2(py)4] (6). The reactions of 1 with tert-butylisocyanate or dicyclohexylcarbodiimide resulted in the isolation of the [2 + 2]-cycloaddition products [U{BIPM(TMS)[C(NBu(t)){OLi(THF)2(?-Cl)Li(THF)3}]-?(4)-C,N,N',N''}(Cl)3] (7) and [U{BIPM(TMS)[C(NCy)2]-?(4)-C,N,N',N''}(Cl)(?-Cl)2Li(THF)2] (8). Complexes 2-8 have been variously characterised by single crystal X-ray diffraction, multi-nuclear NMR and FTIR spectroscopies, Evans method solution magnetic moments, variable temperature SQUID magnetometry, and elemental analyses. PMID:24798878

Cooper, Oliver J; Mills, David P; Lewis, William; Blake, Alexander J; Liddle, Stephen T

2014-10-14

196

Formation of Secondary Particulate Matter by Reactions of Gas Phase Hexanal with Sulfate Aerosol Particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of secondary particulate matter from the atmospheric oxidation of organic compounds can significantly contribute to the particulate burden, but the formation of organic secondary particulate matter is poorly understood. One way of producing organic secondary particulate matter is the oxidation of hydrocarbons with seven or more carbon atoms to get products with low vapor pressure. However, several recent reports suggest that relatively low molecular weight carbonyls can enter the particle phase by undergoing heterogeneous reactions. This may be a very important mechanism for the formation of organic secondary particulate matter. Atmospheric aldehydes are important carbonyls in the gas phase, which form via the oxidation of hydrocarbons emitted from anthropogenic and biogenic sources. In this poster, we report the results on particle growth by the heterogeneous reactions of hexanal. A 5 L Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) is set up to conduct the reactions in the presence of seed aerosol particles of deliquesced ammonia bisulfate. Hexanal is added into CSTR by syringe pump, meanwhile the concentrations of hexanal are monitored with High Pressure Liquid Chromatograph (HPLC 1050). A differential Mobility Analyzer (TSI 3071) set to an appropriate voltage is employed to obtain monodisperse aerosols, and another DMA associated with a Condensation Nuclear Counter (TSI 7610) is used to measure the secondary particle size distribution by the reaction in CSTR. This permits the sensitive determination of particle growth due to the heterogeneous reaction, very little growth occurs when hexanal added alone. Results for the simultaneous addition of hexanal and alcohols will also be presented.

Zhang, J.

2003-12-01

197

THE OZONE REACTION WITH BUTADIENE: FORMATION OF TOXIC PRODUCTS. (R826236)  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract The formation yields of acrolein, 1,2-epoxy-3-butene and OH radicals have been measured from reaction of ozone with 1,3-butadiene at room temperature and atmosphere pressure. 1,3,5-Trimethyl benzene was added to scavenge OH radicals in measurements of product ...

198

IN VIVO FORMATION OF HALOGENATED REACTION PRODUCTS FOLLOWING PERORAL SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE  

EPA Science Inventory

To date the principal concern of the disinfection of potable water has centered on the formation of halogenated organic reaction products and the adverse health effects that these products may have. However, an additional area for concern relating to water disinfection is the pot...

199

Aza-crown ether complex cation ionic liquids: preparation and applications in organic reactions.  

PubMed

Aza-crown ether complex cation ionic liquids (aCECILs) were devised, fabricated, and characterized by using NMR spectroscopy, MS, thermogravimetric differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), elemental analysis and physical properties. These new and room-temperature ILs were utilized as catalysts in various organic reactions, such as the cycloaddition reaction of CO2 to epoxides, esterification of acetic acid and alcohols, the condensation reaction of aniline and propylene carbonate, and Friedel-Crafts alkylation of indole with aldehydes were investigated carefully. In these reactions, the ionic liquid exhibited cooperative catalytic activity between the anion and cation. In addition, the aza-[18-C-6HK][HSO4]2 was the best acidic catalyst in the reactions of esterification and Friedel-Crafts alkylation under mild reaction conditions. PMID:25154312

Song, Yingying; Cheng, Chen; Jing, Huanwang

2014-09-26

200

Cycloaddition reactivity studies of first-row transition metal-azide complexes and alkynes: an inorganic click reaction for metalloenzyme inhibitor synthesis.  

PubMed

The studies described herein focus on the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction between first-row transition metal-azide complexes and alkyne reagents, i.e. an inorganic variant of the extensively used "click reaction". The reaction between the azide complexes of biologically-relevant metals (e.g., Fe, Co and Ni) found in metalloenzyme active sites and alkyne reagents has been investigated as a proof-of-principle for a novel method of developing metalloenzyme triazole-based inhibitors. Six Fe, Co and Ni mono-azide complexes employing salen- and cyclam-type ligands have been synthesized and characterized. The scope of the targeted inorganic azide-alkyne click reaction was investigated using the electron-deficient alkyne dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate. Of the six metal-azide complexes tested, the Co and Ni complexes of the 1,4,8,11-tetrametyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane (Me(4)cyclam) ligand showed a successful cycloaddition reaction and formation of the corresponding metal-triazolate products, which were crystallographically characterized. Moreover, use of less electron deficient alkynes resulted in a loss of cycloaddition reactivity. Analysis of the structural parameters of the investigated metal-azide complexes suggests that a more symmetric structure and charge distribution within the azide moiety is needed for the formation of a metal-triazolate product. Overall, these results suggest that a successful cycloaddition reaction between a metal-azide complex and an alkyne substrate is dependent both on the ligand and metal oxidation state, that determine the electronic properties of the bound azide, as well as the electron deficient nature of the alkyne employed. PMID:22517535

Evangelio, Emi; Rath, Nigam P; Mirica, Liviu M

2012-07-14

201

Formation of unsaturated vicinal Zr(+)/P frustrated Lewis pairs by the unique 1,1-carbozirconation reactions.  

PubMed

Treatment of the metallocene cation complexes [Cp*2MCH3](+)[B(C6F5)4](-) (M = Zr or Hf) with trimethylsilyl(diarylphosphino)acetylenes Ar2P-C?C-SiMe3 (Ar = Ph or p-tolyl) resulted in the formation of internal phosphane stabilized cations [Cp*2M-C(CH3)?C(SiMe3)PAr2](+) 4 through the unique 1,1-carbometalation reaction under mild conditions. In contrast, when the low Lewis basicity phosphane containing alkyne (C6F5)2P-C?C-SiMe3 was used, normal 1,2-carbometalation occurred to produce complexes 5, which show agostic coordination of a Me-Si group to the metal center. Complex 4a reacts with n-butyl isocyanide to give the coordination product 6, which has the Zr-P bond retained. Treatment of 4a with N2O gave the five-membered metallaheterocycle 7 by oxidation of the phosphane. The vicinal M(+)/P complexes 4 also show some typical FLP reactivity. They add to cinnamaldehyde or paraformaldehyde, for example, to produce carbonyl addition products 8 and 9, respectively. Complex 4a adds to the N?O functionality of nitrosobenzene with formation of 10. The vicinal M(+)/P systems 4 behave as reactive frustrated Lewis pairs toward hetercumulenes, undergoing 1,2-addition to the C?O bond of CO2 and the S?O bond of SO2 to form the respective adducts 11 and 12. The Zr(+)/P FLP 4a reacts with PhN?S?O to give the addition product 13, in which the phosphane Lewis base has added to the nitrogen atom and the Zr(+) Lewis acid to both atoms of the S?O unit. The reaction of complex 4a with the metal complex [Ir(COD)Cl]2 affords a heterobimetallic Zr/Ir product 14. The vicinal M(+)/P complexes 4 can be also used as efficient catalysts for the regioselective dimerization of phenyl acetylene. PMID:25089591

Xu, Xin; Kehr, Gerald; Daniliuc, Constantin G; Erker, Gerhard

2014-09-01

202

Lattice Boltzmann study of pattern formation in reaction-diffusion systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pattern formation in reaction-diffusion systems is of great importance in surface micropatterning [Grzybowski , Soft Matter1744-683X10.1039/B501769F 1, 114 (2005)], self-organization of cellular micro-organisms [Schulz , Annu. Rev. Microbiol.ARMIAZ0066-422710.1146/annurev.micro.55.1.105 55, 105 (2001)], and in developmental biology [Barkai , FEBS Journal1742-464X10.1111/j.1742-4658.2008.06854.x 276, 1196 (2009)]. In this work, we apply the lattice Boltzmann method to study pattern formation in reaction-diffusion systems. As a first methodological step, we consider the case of a single species undergoing transformation reaction and diffusion. In this case, we perform a third-order Chapman-Enskog multiscale expansion and study the dependence of the lattice Boltzmann truncation error on the diffusion coefficient and the reaction rate. These findings are in good agreement with numerical simulations. Furthermore, taking the Gray-Scott model as a prominent example, we provide evidence for the maturity of the lattice Boltzmann method in studying pattern formation in nonlinear reaction-diffusion systems. For this purpose, we perform linear stability analysis of the Gray-Scott model and determine the relevant parameter range for pattern formation. Lattice Boltzmann simulations allow us not only to test the validity of the linear stability phase diagram including Turing and Hopf instabilities, but also permit going beyond the linear stability regime, where large perturbations give rise to interesting dynamical behavior such as the so-called self-replicating spots. We also show that the length scale of the patterns may be tuned by rescaling all relevant diffusion coefficients in the system with the same factor while leaving all the reaction constants unchanged.

Ayodele, S. G.; Varnik, F.; Raabe, D.

2011-01-01

203

Comprehensive computational study of decamethyldizincocene formation. 2. Reaction of KH/ZnCl2 with decamethylzincocene.  

PubMed

Computational methods were used to study the experimental finding that forming decamethyldizincocene is more efficient when using a reducing agent (e.g., KH) and ZnCl2 as opposed to a sole ZnR2 reagant. The results show that the methyl groups of decamethylzincocene have an indirect effect on the reaction. When zincocene is used as a reactant, the reaction with KH favors the route that results in the formation of the zincate, K(+)[Zn(?(1)-C5H5)3](-). However, the path of formation for the zincate K(+)[Zn(?(1)-C5Me5)3](-) is simply not favorable kinetically or thermodynamically, so the formation of decamethyldizincocene is the only option when decamethylzincocene is used. PMID:24274097

Hepperle, Steven S; Wang, Yan Alexander

2013-12-12

204

Mononuclear Phenolate Diamine Zinc Hydride Complexes and Their Reactions With CO2  

PubMed Central

The synthesis, characterization, and zinc coordination chemistry of the three proligands 2-tert-butyl-4-[tert-butyl (1)/methoxy (2)/nitro (3)]-6-{[(2?-dimethylaminoethyl)methylamino]methyl}phenol are described. Each of the ligands was reacted with diethylzinc to yield zinc ethyl complexes 4–6; these complexes were subsequently reacted with phenylsilanol to yield zinc siloxide complexes 7–9. Finally, the zinc siloxide complexes were reacted with phenylsilane to produce the three new zinc hydride complexes 10–12. The new complexes 4–12 have been fully characterized by NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and elemental analyses. The structures of the zinc hydride complexes have been probed using VT-NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction experiments. These data indicate that the complexes exhibit mononuclear structures at 298 K, both in the solid state and in solution (d8-toluene). At 203 K, the NMR signals broaden, consistent with an equilibrium between the mononuclear and dinuclear bis(?-hydrido) complexes. All three zinc hydride complexes react rapidly and quantitatively with carbon dioxide, at 298 K and 1 bar of pressure over 20 min, to form the new zinc formate complexes 13–15. The zinc formate complexes have been analyzed by NMR spectroscopy and VT-NMR studies, which reveal a temperature-dependent monomer–dimer equilibrium that is dominated by the mononuclear species at 298 K. PMID:24882918

2014-01-01

205

Reactions of Group?4 Metallocenes with Monosubstituted Acetonitriles: Keteniminate Formation versus C?C Coupling.  

PubMed

The reactions of the Group?4 metallocene dichlorides [Cp'2 MCl2 ] (1?a: M=Ti, Cp'=Cp*=?(5) -pentamethylcyclopentadienyl, 1?b: M=Zr, Cp'=Cp=?(5) -cyclopentadienyl) with lithiated MesCH2 ?C?N gave [Cp*2 TiCl(N=C=C(HMes))] (3; Mes=mesityl) in the case of 1?a. For compound 1?b, a nitrile-nitrile coupling resulted in a five-membered bridge in 4. The reaction of the metallocene alkyne complex [Cp*2 Zr(?(2) -Me3 SiC2 SiMe3 )] (2) with PhCH2 ?C?N led in the first step to the unstable product [Cp*2 Zr(?(2) -Me3 SiC2 SiMe3 )(NC?CH2 Ph)] (5). After the elimination of the alkyne, a mixture of products was formed. By variation of the solvent and the reaction temperature, three compounds were isolated: a diazadiene complex 6, a bis(keteniminate) complex 7, and 8 with a keteniminate ligand and a five-membered metallacycle. Subsequent variation of the Cp ligand and the metal center by using [Cp2 Zr] and [Cp*2 Ti] with Me3 SiC2 SiMe3 in the reactions with PhCH2 ?C?N gave complex mixtures. PMID:25641093

Becker, Lisanne; Haehnel, Martin; Spannenberg, Anke; Arndt, Perdita; Rosenthal, Uwe

2015-02-16

206

Caffeic acid inhibits the formation of 1-hydroxyethyl radical in the reaction mixture of rat liver microsomes with ethanol partly through its metal chelating activity  

PubMed Central

Effect of caffeic acid on the formation of 1-hydroxyethyl radicals via the microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system pathway was examined. The electron spin resonance spin trapping showed that 1-hydroxyethyl radicals form in the control reaction mixture which contained 0.17 M ethanol, 1 mg protein/ml rat river microsomes, 0.1 M ?-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-tert-butylnitrone, 5 mM nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate and 30 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). When the electron spin resonance spectra of the control reaction mixtures with caffeic acid were measured, caffeic acid inhibited the formation of 1-hydroxyethyl radicals in a concentration dependent manner. Gallic acid, dopamine, l-dopa, chlorogenic acid and catechin also inhibited the formation of 1-hydroxyethyl radicals. Above results indicated that the catechol moiety is essential to the inhibitory effect. Caffeic acid seems to chelate of iron ion at the catechol moiety. Indeed, the inhibitory effect by caffeic acid was greatly diminished in the presence of desferrioxamine, a potent iron chelator which removes iron ion in the Fe (III)-caffeic acid complex. Since Fe (III)-desferrioxamine complex is active for the 1-hydroxyethyl radicals formation, caffeic acid inhibits the formation of 1-hydroxyethyl radicals in the reaction mixture partly through its metal chelating activity. PMID:21562637

Ikeda, Hideyuki; Kimura, Yuka; Masaki, Miho; Iwahashi, Hideo

2011-01-01

207

Relation between State-Selected or State-Averaged Cross Sections of Endothermic Reactions and Rate Constants of Exothermic Reactions. Application of Bimolecular Microcanonical Activated Complex Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

An expression is derived relating state-selected or state-averaged molecular beam reaction cross sections of endothermic reactions to observed rate constants for the inverse (exothermic) reactions. An approximation of Anlauf, Maylotte, Polanyi, and Bernstein is used, together with bimolecular microcanonical activated complex theory [R. A. Marcus, J. Chem. Phys. 45, 2138 (1966)].

R. A. Marcus

1970-01-01

208

IR spectroscopic study of the complex formation between ammonia and water molecules in a KBr matrix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of complexes of ammonia and water molecules in a potassium bromide matrix is studied by means of IR spectroscopy. Ammonia and water complexes of variable composition are stabilized in a solid matrix using different approaches to saturating KBr powder with the initial components. Proton transfer can occur, leading to the formation of ammonium salts.

Vorotyntsev, I. V.; Grinvald, I. I.; Kagalaev, I. Yu.; Petukhov, A. N.; Sutyagina, E. A.; Vorotyntsev, A. V.; Derbisher, E. V.; Petukhova, N. A.; Vorotyntsev, V. M.

2014-04-01

209

Kinetics of OCN- formation from the HNCO + NH3 solid-state thermal reaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Solid-state features in infrared astronomical spectra can provide useful information on interstellar ices within different astrophysical environments. Solid OCN- has an absorption feature at 4.62 ?m, which is observed in star formation regions only with a large source-to-source abundance variation. Aims: We aim to investigate the thermal formation mechanism of solid OCN- from HNCO on the basis of kinetic arguments. Methods: We experimentally studied the kinetics of the low-temperature OCN- formation from the purely thermal reaction between HNCO and NH3 in interstellar ice analogs using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. We used a rate equation approach, a kinetic Monte Carlo approach and a gamma probability distribution approach to derive kinetic parameters from experimental data. Results: The kinetics can de divided into two-processes, a fast process corresponding to the chemical reaction, and a slow process that we interpret as the spatial orientation of the two reactants within the ice. The three approaches give the same results. The HNCO + NH3 ? OCN- + NH4+ reaction rate follows an Arrhenius law with an activation energy of 0.4 ± 0.1 kJ mol-1 (48 ± 12 K) and a pre-exponential factor of 0.0035 ± 0.0015 s-1. Conclusions: The present experiment has the important implication that the HNCO + NH3 reaction can account for the observed abundances of solid OCN- and the HNCO non detection in young stellar objects.

Mispelaer, F.; Theule, P.; Duvernay, F.; Roubin, P.; Chiavassa, T.

2012-04-01

210

Aluminium coordination complexes in copolymerization reactions of carbon dioxide and epoxides.  

PubMed

Al complexes are widely used in a range of polymerization reactions (ROP of cyclic esters and cationic polymerization of alkenes). Since the discovery in 1978 that an Al porphyrin complex could copolymerize propylene oxide with carbon dioxide, Al coordination compounds have been studied extensively as catalysts for epoxide-carbon dioxide copolymerizations. The most widely studied catalysts are Al porphyrin and Al salen derivatives. This is partially due to their ability to act as mechanistic models for more reactive, paramagnetic Cr catalysts. However, this in depth mechanistic understanding could be employed to design more active Al catalysts themselves, which would be beneficial given the wide availability of this metal. Polymerization data (% CO3 linkages, M(n), M(w)/M(n) and TON) for these complexes are presented and mechanisms discussed. In most cases, especially those employing square-based pyramidal Al complexes, co-catalysts are required to obtain high levels of carbon dioxide incorporation. However, in some cases, the use of co-catalysts inhibits the copolymerization reaction. Lewis acidic Al phenolate complexes have been used as activators in CHO-carbon dioxide copolymerizations to increase TOF and this has recently led to the development of asymmetric copolymerization reactions. Given the ready availability of Al, the robustness of many complexes (e.g. use in immortal polymerizations) and opportunity to prepare block copolymers and other designer materials, Al complexes for copolymerization of carbon dioxide are surely worth a second look. PMID:23450228

Ikpo, Nduka; Flogeras, Jenna C; Kerton, Francesca M

2013-07-01

211

Stoichiometric Reactions of Acylnickel(II) Complexes with Electrophiles and the Catalytic Synthesis of Ketones.  

PubMed

Acylnickel(II) complexes feature prominently in cross-electrophile coupling (XEC) reactions that form ketones, yet their reactivity has not been systematically investigated. We present here our studies on the reactivity of acylnickel(II) complexes with a series of carbon electrophiles. Bromobenzene, ?-chloroethylbenzene, bromooctane, and iodooctane were reacted with (dtbbpy)Ni(II)(C(O)C5H11)(Br) (1b) and (dtbbpy)Ni(II)(C(O)tolyl)(Br) (1c) to form a variety of organic products. While reactions with bromobenzene formed complex mixtures of ketones, reactions with ?-chloroethylbenzene were highly selective for the cross-ketone product. Reactions with iodooctane and bromooctane also produced the cross-ketone product, but in intermediate yield and selectivity. In most cases the presence or absence of a chemical reductant (zinc) had only a small effect on the selectivity of the reaction. The coupling of 1c with iodooctane (60% yield) was translated into a catalytic reaction, the carbonylative coupling of bromoarenes with primary bromoalkanes (six examples, 60% average yield). PMID:25364092

Wotal, Alexander C; Ribson, Ryan D; Weix, Daniel J

2014-10-27

212

Quantifying the ionic reaction channels in the Secondary Organic Aerosol formation from glyoxal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glyoxal, a common organic gas in the atmosphere, has been identified in recent years as an important Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) precursor (Volkamer et al., 2007). But, unlike with other precursors, the SOA is largely produced by particle-phase reactions (Volkamer et al., 2009) and equilibria (Kampf et al. 2013) that are still not entirely characterized. Since 2009 series of smog chamber experiments have been performed within the Eurochamp program at the Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland, to investigate SOA formation from glyoxal. In these experiments, glyoxal was produced by the gas-phase oxidation of acetylene in the presence of seeds, the seed composition and other conditions being varied. The 2011 campaign resulted in the identification of salting processes controlling the glyoxal partitioning in the seeds (Kampf et al. 2013). This presentation will report results of the 2013 campaign focusing on the identification of the various reactions (ionic or photo-induced) contributing to the SOA mass. In particular, the contribution of the ionic reactions, i.e. mediated by NH4+, were investigated by quantifying the formation of imidazoles (imidazole, imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde, 2,2'-biimidazole) from the small condensation channel of glyoxal with ammonia. For this, the SOA produced were collected on quartz filters and analyzed by Orbitrap LC/MS (Q-Exactive Thermo Fisher). The formation of other products such as organic acids was also investigated to determine potential competing reactions. Time-resolved MOUDI sampling coupled with nano-DESY/ESI-MS/MS analysis was also used to identify nitrogen- and sulphur-containing products from all the reactions. The results obtained for a range of conditions will be presented and compared with recent mechanistic information on the ionic reaction channels (Nozière et al., in preparation, 2013). The implementation of all this new information into a glyoxal-SOA model will be discussed.

Maxut, Aurelia; Nozière, Barbara; Rossignol, Stéphanie; George, Christian; Waxman, Eleanor Marie; Laskin, Alexander; Slowik, Jay; Dommen, Josef; Prévôt, André; Baltensperger, Urs; Volkamer, Rainer

2014-05-01

213

Towards a density functional treatment of chemical reactions in complex media  

SciTech Connect

We discuss two techniques involving density functional theory (i.e., ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and frozen density functional theory) which show promise for applications directed towards understanding reactions in complex media. Preliminary results for the simulation of the conformational dynamics of an isolated analogue of alanine dipeptide and for the interaction between F{sup -} and H{sub 2}O are included. These results represent the first steps towards a combined theoretical approach of reactions in complex media. 23 refs., 4 figs.

Berard, D.R.; Wei, D. [Centre de Recherche en Calcul Applique, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Salahub, D.R. [Universite de Montreal, Quebec (Canada); [Centre de Recherche en Calcul Applique, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

1996-12-31

214

The formation of the dolomite-analogue norsethite: Reaction pathway and cation ordering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reaction pathways and cation ordering mechanisms involved in the formation of the mineral dolomite in nature still remain poorly understood. This is mainly due to the experimental problems posed by the synthesis of dolomite at ambient conditions, which preclude monitoring its formation in reasonable time scales. However, processes leading to the crystallization of fully-ordered dolomite-like structures can be studied by conducting experiments with mineral analogues, which are more readily precipitated. In this paper we present a study of the formation of the dolomite-analogue norsethite [BaMg(CO3)2] from a slurry which was aged at room temperature during 14 days. We found that norsethite forms by two dissolution-crystallization reactions from an initial amorphous nano-sized precipitate. The first reaction produces a mineral assemblage composed by witherite [BaCO3], northupite [Na3Mg(CO3)2Cl] and norsethite. The second dissolution-crystallization process leads to the almost complete depletion of witherite and northupite in favor of norsethite. While the composition of norsethite crystals rapidly reaches a Ba/Mg = 1 ratio, X-ray diffraction peaks indicate an increase in the crystallinity of those crystals during the first 48 h of reaction. Simultaneously, Ba-Mg cation ordering increases, as shown by the evolution of intensity ratios of certain superstructure and structure reflections. Altogether, these results demonstrate that the formation of fully-ordered norsethite occurs by a sequence of solvent-mediated processes which involve a number of precursors. Our study also suggests that similar processes might lead to the formation of dolomite in natural environments.

Pimentel, Carlos; Pina, Carlos M.

2014-10-01

215

Formations of Bacteria-like Textures by dynamic reactions in Meteorite and Syntheses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. Introduction Spherule texture can be formed in dynamic reaction during meteoritic impact in air. However, there are no reports on nano-bacteria-like (i.e. spherule-chained) textures with iron (and Nickel) oxides (with chlorine) in composition and micro-texture with 100nm order [1] in meteorite and synthetic experiment. The purpose of the present study is to elucidate spherule-chained texture with micro-texture of 100nm in order found in the Kuga iron meteorite, Iwakuni, Yamaguchi, Japan, and its first artificial synthesis in laboratory. 2. Two textures in the Kuga meteorite: The Kuga iron meteorite found in Kuga, Iwakuni, Yamaguchi, Japan reveals spherule-chained texture with Fe, Ni-rich composition with 10?m in size, where each spherule contained "long micro-texture in 100nm in size"[1,2]. The complex texture of flow and chained shapes can be found only in the fusion crust of the meteorite formed by quenched and random processes with vapor-melting process in air of the Earth. The FE-ASEM with EDX analyses by an in-situ observation indicate that the matrix of the spherule-chained texture with Fe, Ni, O-rich (with minor Cl) composition is carbon-rich composition formed by impact reactions in air. 3. Comparison with Martian meteorite Remnant of life in ocean can be found by mineralized fossil, which can be found in the Martian meteorite ALH84001 as bacteria-like chained texture of magnetite in composition (in 100nm order) around carbonate spherules [3]. Similarity of bacteria-like texture of the ALH84001 compared with the Kuga meteorites in this study are composition of Fe-rich, C-bearing, and chained texture of small size replaced by Fe and O-rich composition in air. Major difference of these textures is no carbonates minerals in the Kuga meteorite at dynamic reaction in air [1, 2, 3]. 4. First synthesis of bacteria- like akaganeite: A bacteria-like texture with Fe oxides (with minor chlorine as akaganeite-like compositions) is synthesized by chlorine and water fixings on iron plates at author's laboratory [4]. 5. Summary 1) Spherule- chained texture with Fe, Ni and Cl has been obtained at the fusion crust of the Kuga iron meteorite found in Japan. 2) As the Kuga iron meteorite is different with the Martian meteorite ALH84001 with composition and formation steps, bacteria-like texture of the Kuga meteorite is first significant example to form fossil-like texture by dynamic reaction of materials in the Solar System. Acknowledgements Author thanks to Dr. T. Kato, Yamaguchi University, for interpretation on bacteria-like texture. References: [1] Miura Y.(2008) 5th AOGS (Asia- Oceania Geosciences Society) Annual Meet. (Busan, Korea), CD#PS07- ST31-A22. [2] Miura Y.(2008). Meteoritics & Planetary Science (USA), 43-7, #5203. [3] McKay D.S. et al. (1996): Science, 273, 924-930. [4]Miura Y. (2009): 6th AGOS (submitted )

Miura, Y.

2009-05-01

216

Diffusion and reaction of pollutants in stratus clouds: application to nocturnal acid formation in plumes  

SciTech Connect

A mathematical model is presented that describes the transport, turbulent diffusion, and chemical reactions of air pollutants in stratus clouds. The chemical kinetic mechanism treats 97 gaseous, heterogeneous, and aqueous reactions between 54 species. The dispersion and night-time chemistry of a power plant plume in a stratus cloud is simulated. The contributions of various chemical pathways to the formation of sulfate and nitrate, the differences between plume and background concentrations, and the effect of reduced primary emissions on secondary pollutants are discussed. Calculated sulfate and nitrate concentrations are commensurate with measured atmospheric concentrations.

Seigneur, C.; Saxena, P.; Mirabella, V.A.

1985-09-01

217

Eley-Rideal Reactions with N Atoms at Ru(0001): Formation of NO and N2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forward-directed NO molecules with large translational energies are formed upon exposure of an O-covered Ru(0001) surface to a nitrogen (N +N2) beam. This is an unequivocal experimental demonstration of the Eley-Rideal reaction for a "heavy" (i.e., nonhydrogenated) neutral system. The time dependence of prompt NO formation exhibits an exceptionally fast decay as a consequence of shifting reaction pathways and probabilities over the course of the exposure. Prompt production shuts down as the O coverage decreases due to competition from more favorable Eley-Rideal production of N2.

Zaharia, Teodor; Kleyn, Aart W.; Gleeson, Michael A.

2014-08-01

218

Shock-induced hotspot formation and chemical reaction initiation in PETN containing a spherical void  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of reactive molecular dynamics simulations of hotspot formation and chemical reaction initiation in shock-induced compression of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) with the ReaxFF reactive force field. A supported shockwave is driven through a PETN crystal containing a 20 nm spherical void at a sub-threshold impact velocity of 2 km/s. Formation of a hotspot due to shock-induced void collapse is observed. During void collapse, NO2 is the dominant species ejected from the upstream void surface. Once the ejecta collide with the downstream void surface and the hotspot develops, formation of final products such as N2 and H2O is observed. The simulation provides a detailed picture of how void collapse and hotspot formation leads to initiation at sub-threshold impact velocities.

Shan, Tzu-Ray; Thompson, Aidan P.

2014-05-01

219

Spectroscopic investigation on the inclusion complex formation between amisulpride and ?-cyclodextrin.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research was to investigate inclusion complex formation between poorly soluble drug amisulpride (AMI) and ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD). The solubility of AMI was enhanced by formation of inclusion complex of AMI with nano-hydrophobic cavity of ?-CD. The stoichiometry of inclusion complex was studied by continuous variation Job's plot method and found 1:1. The binding constant was found 1166.65 M(-1) by Benesi-Hildebrand plot. The molecular docking of AMI and ?-CD was done to investigate complexation. The inclusion complex formation was further confirmed by (1)H NMR and FT-IR, DSC and XRD analysis. The solubility of AMI was increased 3.74 times after inclusion complex formation with ?-CD. PMID:23399226

Negi, Jeetendra Singh; Singh, Shivpal

2013-02-15

220

Dependence of the enthalpies of formation of glycylglycinate complexes of nickel(II) on the composition of a mixed water-dimethylsulfoxide solvent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heat effects of the complexation reactions of nickel(II) with a glycylglycinate ion in a water-dimethylsulfoxide solvent in a range of compositions of 0.00-0.60 molar parts of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) (an ionic strength of 0.1 was maintained using sodium perchlorate) were determined by means of calorimetry at 298.15 K. It is established that the exothermicity of complexation reactions rises by the first two steps and falls upon the addition of a third glycylglycinate anion with an increase in the concentration of DMSO. It is shown that the formation of mono- and bis-glycylglycinate complexes of nickel(II) in a water-DMSO solvent is determined mostly by the enthalpic contribution. It is concluded that the formation of tris-ligand complexes is more associated with the entropic contribution.

Naumov, V. V.; Kovaleva, Yu. A.; Isaeva, V. A.; Usacheva, T. R.; Sharnin, V. A.

2014-06-01

221

Mechanism of production of light complex particles in nucleon-induced reactions  

E-print Network

The Improved Quantum Molecular Dynamics (ImQMD) model incorporated with the statistical decay model is successful in describing emission of nucleons in the intermediate energy spallation reactions, but not good enough in describing productions of light complex particles, i.e. $d$, $t$, $^3$He and $^4$He. To improve the description on emission of light complex particles, a phenomenological mechanism called surface coalescence and emission is introduced into ImQMD model: nucleon ready to escape from the compound nuclei can coalesce with the other nucleon(s) to form light complex particle and be emitted. With updated ImQMD model, the description on the experimental data of light complex particles produced in nucleon-induced reactions are great improved.

Dexian Wei; Ning Wang; Li Ou

2014-02-10

222

The Combination of Salt Induced Peptide Formation Reaction and Clay Catalysis: A Way to Higher Peptides under Primitive Earth Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two reactions with suggested prebiotic relevance for peptide evolution, the saltinduced peptide formation reaction and the peptide chain elongation/stabilization on clay minerals have been combined in experimental series starting from dipeptides and dipeptide/amino acid mixtures. The results show that both reactions can take place simultaneously in the same reaction environment and that the presence of mineral catalysts favours the formation of higher oligopeptides. These findings lend further support to the relevance of these reactions for peptide evolution on the primitive earth. The detailed effects of the specific clay mineral depend both on the nature of the mineral and the reactants in solution.

Rode, Bernd M.; Son, Hoang L.; Suwannachot, Yuttana; Bujdak, Juraj

1999-05-01

223

OBSERVATION OF LOW ENERGY NUCLEAR REACTIONS INDUCED BY D2 GAS PERMEATION THROUGH PD COMPLEXES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observation of low energy nuclear reactions induced by D2 gas permeation through Pd complexes, which consist of a thin Pd layer, alternating CaO and Pd layers and bulk Pd, is described. The Pd complex was located in a vacuum chamber and the elemental analysis was performed using an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) apparatus mounted on the chamber. When Cs was

Yasuhiro IWAMURA; Takehiko ITOH; Mitsuru SAKANO; Satoshi SAKAI

224

Light saturation curves show competence of the water splitting complex in inactive Photosystem II reaction centers.  

PubMed

Photosystem II complexes of higher plants are structurally and functionally heterogeneous. While the only clearly defined structural difference is that Photosystem II reaction centers are served by two distinct antenna sizes, several types of functional heterogeneity have been demonstrated. Among these is the observation that in dark-adapted leaves of spinach and pea, over 30% of the Photosystem II reaction centers are unable to reduce plastoquinone to plastoquinol at physiologically meaningful rates. Several lines of evidence show that the impaired reaction centers are effectively inactive, because the rate of oxidation of the primary quinone acceptor, QA, is 1000 times slower than in normally active reaction centers. However, there are conflicting opinions and data over whether inactive Photosystem II complexes are capable of oxidizing water in the presence of certain artificial electron acceptors. In the present study we investigated whether inactive Photosystem II complexes have a functional water oxidizing system in spinach thylakoid membranes by measuring the flash yield of water oxidation products as a function of flash intensity. At low flash energies (less that 10% saturation), selected to minimize double turnovers of reaction centers, we found that in the presence of the artificial quinone acceptor, dichlorobenzoquinone (DCBQ), the yield of proton release was enhanced 20±2% over that observed in the presence of dimethylbenzoquinone (DMBQ). We argue that the extra proton release is from the normally inactive Photosystem II reaction centers that have been activated in the presence of DCBQ, demonstrating their capacity to oxidize water in repetitive flashes, as concluded by Graan and Ort (Biochim Biophys Acta (1986) 852: 320-330). The light saturation curves indicate that the effective antenna size of inactive reaction centers is 55±12% the size of active Photosystem II centers. Comparison of the light saturation dependence of steady state oxygen evolution in the presence of DCBQ or DMBQ support the conclusion that inactive Photosystem II complexes have a functional water oxidation system. PMID:24415257

Nedbal, L; Gibas, C; Whitmarsh, J

1991-12-01

225

Formation of Kaonic Atoms and Kaonic Nuclei by In-flight ($K^-,p$) reactions  

E-print Network

We study the kaonic atom and kaonic nucleus formation by the in-flight ($K^-, p$) reactions for C, O, Si and Ca target cases theoretically. Deeply bound kaonic atoms were predicted to exist as quasi-stable states and were expected to be observed in some proper experimental methods. Kaonic nuclear states are also expected to exist with large decay widths. We evaluate the formation cross sections of the kaonic atoms and kaonic nuclei using an effective number approach. We show that the indications of the kaonic bound states can be observed in the outgoing proton energy spectra.

Junko Yamagata; Hideko Nagahiro; Yuko Okumura; Satoru Hirenzaki

2005-03-14

226

Scale-dependent rates of uranyl surface complexation reaction in sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scale-dependency of uranyl[U(VI)] surface complexation rates was investigated in stirred flow-cell and column systems using a U(VI)-contaminated sediment from the US Department of Energy, Hanford site, WA. The experimental results were used to estimate the apparent rate of U(VI) surface complexation at the grain-scale and in porous media. Numerical simulations using molecular, pore-scale, and continuum models were performed to provide insights into and to estimate the rate constants of U(VI) surface complexation at the different scales. The results show that the grain-scale rate constant of U(VI) surface complexation was over 3-10 orders of magnitude smaller than the rate constant calculated using the molecular simulations. The largest rate constant at the grain-scale decreased additional 2 orders of magnitude when the rate was scaled to the porous media in the column. The scaling effect from the grain-scale to the porous media became less important for the slower sorption sites. Pore-scale simulations revealed the importance of coupled mass transport and reactions in both intragranular and inter-granular domains, which caused both spatial and temporal dependence of U(VI) surface complexation rates in the sediment. Pore-scale simulations also revealed that the rate of coupled diffusion and molecular surface complexation reaction in the intragranular porous domains was slower than either individual process alone. The results provide important implications for developing models to scale geochemical/biogeochemical reactions.

Liu, Chongxuan; Shang, Jianying; Kerisit, Sebastien; Zachara, John M.; Zhu, Weihuang

2013-03-01

227

Reaction layer formation at the graphite/copper-chromium alloy interface  

SciTech Connect

Sessile drop tests were used to obtain information about copper-chromium alloys that suitably wet graphite. Characterization of graphite/copper-chromium alloy interfaces subjected to elevated temperatures were conducted using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and X-ray diffraction analyses. These analyses indicate that during sessile drop tests conducted at 1130 C for 1 hour, copper alloys containing greater than 0.98 at. pct chromium form continuous reaction layers of approximately 10-Am thickness. The reaction layers adhere to the graphite surface. The copper wets the reaction layer to form a contact angle of 60 deg or less. X-ray diffraction results indicate that the reaction layer is chromium carbide. The kinetics of reaction layer formation were modeled in ten-ns of bulk diffusion mechanisms. Reaction layer thickness is controlled initially by the diffusion of Cr out of the Cu alloy and later by the diffusion of C through chromium carbide.

Devincent, S.M.; Michal, G.M. (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States))

1993-01-01

228

Formaldehyde Reactions with Amines and Ammonia: Particle Formation and Product Identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aqueous phase reactions between carbonyls and amines or ammonium salts have recently been implicated in secondary organic aerosol and brown carbon formation processes. Formaldehyde is ubiquitous in the atmosphere, and is present in both the gas and aqueous phases. However, the reactions of formaldehyde in the aqueous phase have not been completely characterized. This study aims to determine the interactions between formaldehyde and amines or ammonium salts present in atmospheric droplets. Bulk phase reactions of formaldehyde with these reactive nitrogen-containing compounds were monitored with ESI-MS and NMR to determine reaction kinetics and for product characterization, while UV-Vis spectroscopy was used to monitor changes in light absorption over time. Hexamethylenetetramine was found to be a major product of the formaldehyde/ammonium sulfate reaction, appearing within minutes of mixing. No products were formed that absorbed light beyond 225 nm. Mono-disperse particles containing mixtures of formaldehyde and ammonium sulfate or an amine were dried and analyzed via SMPS to determine the non-volatile fraction of the reaction products. Similarly, aqueous droplets were dried in a humid atmosphere to determine residual aerosol sizes over time as a function of formaldehyde concentration. This work indicates that formaldehyde plays a key role in aqueous-phase organic processing, as it has been observed to contribute to both an increase and reduction in the diameter and volume of residual aerosol particles.

Galloway, M. M.; Millage, K. D.; Rodriguez, A.; Sedehi, N.; Powelson, M. H.; De Haan, D. O.

2012-12-01

229

Synthesis, Characterization, and Reactions of Isolable (?-Diketiminato)Nb(III) Imido Complexes*  

PubMed Central

We have investigated both the chemical reduction of (BDI)Nb(V) imido complexes (BDI = HC[C(Me)NAr]2; Ar = 2,6-iPr2-C6H3) to the formal Nb(III) oxidation state and the ability of these Nb(III) complexes to behave as two-electron reductants. The reduction of the Nb(V) species was found to depend heavily on the nature of available supporting ligands, but the chemistry of the reduced compounds proceeded cleanly with a number of unsaturated organic reagents. Accordingly, the novel Nb(V) bis(imido) complexes supported by the monoazabutadiene (mad) ligand (mad)Nb(NtBu)(NAr)(L?) (L? = py, thf) were formed by either KC8 reduction of (BDI)Nb(NtBu)Cl2(py) in the absence of strong ?-acids or by H2 reduction of the Nb(V) dimethyl complex (BDI)Nb(NtBu)Me2 in THF. These products are likely formed though an intramolecular, 2 e? reductive C–N bond cleavage, as has been observed previously for related Group 4 systems, suggesting that transient Nb(III) intermediates were present in both cases. In the presence of 1,2-bis(dimethylphosphino)ethane (dmpe), KC8 reduction of (BDI)Nb(NtBu)Cl2(py) was arrested at the Nb(IV) oxidation state to give (BDI)Nb(NtBu)Cl(dmpe), which was characterized by solution-state EPR spectroscopy as a Nb-centered paramagnet with strong coupling to the two equivalent phosphorus nuclei (Aiso{93Nb} = 120.5×10?4 cm?1, Aiso{31P} = 31.0×10?4 cm?1, giso = 1.9815). When strong ?-acids were used to intercept the thermally unstable Nb(III) complex (BDI)Nb(NtBu)(py) prior to reductive cleavage of the ligand C–N bond, the thermally stable Nb(III) species (BDI)Nb(NtBu)(CX)2(L?) (X = O, L? = py; X = NXyl, L? = CNXyl; Xyl = 2,6-Me2-C6H3) were obtained in good yields. The Nb(III) complexes (BDI)Nb(NtBu)py, (BDI)Nb(NtBu)(CO)2(py) and (BDI)Nb(NtBu)(CO)2 were subsequently investigated for their ability to serve as two-electron reducing reagents for both metal-ligand multiple bond formation and for the reduction of organic ?-systems. The reduction of mesityl azide by (BDI)Nb(NtBu)(py) and diphenylsulfoxide by (BDI)Nb(NtBu)(CO)2 led to the monomeric bis(imido) and dimeric oxo complexes (BDI)Nb(NtBu)(NMes)(py) and [(BDI)Nb(NtBu)]2(?2-O)2, respectively. MeLi addition to (BDI)Nb(NtBu)(CO)2(py) resulted in the formation of a Nb-acylate via methide addition to one of the carbonyl carbons. The acylate product was revealed to have a short Nb–Cacylate bond distance (2.059(4) Å), consistent with multiple Nb–C bond character resulting from Nb(III) back-bonding into the acylate carbon. The interaction of (BDI)Nb(NtBu)(CO)2 with two equivalents of 4,4?-dichlorobenzophenone resulted in the clean, quantitative formation of the corresponding pinacol coupling product, but introduction of the ketone in 1: 1 molar ratios resulted in mixtures of the pinacol product and the starting material, suggesting that ketone coordination to the Nb(III) complex may be reversible. Relatedly, addition of 1-phenyl-1-propyne to (BDI)Nb(NtBu)(CO)2 formed a thermally unstable 1: 1 Nb/alkyne complex, as characterized by NMR and IR spectroscopies; reaction of this species with HCl/MeOH yielded a 2: 1 mixture of 1-phenyl-1-propene and the free alkyne, suggesting a high degree of covalency in the Nb–C bonds. PMID:21116450

Tomson, Neil C.; Arnold, John; Bergman, Robert G.

2010-01-01

230

From snowflake formation to growth of bacterial colonies II: Cooperative formation of complex colonial patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In nature, bacterial colonies must often cope with hostile environmental conditions. To do so they have developed sophisticated cooperative behaviour and intricate communication capabilities, such as direct cell- cell physical interactions via extra-membrane polymers, collective production of extracellular 'wetting' fluid for movement on hard surfaces, longrange chemical signalling such as quorum sensing and chemotactic (bias of movement according to gradient of chemical agent) signalling, collective activation and deactivation of genes and even exchange of genetic material. Utilizing these capabilities, the bacterial colonies develop complex spatio-temporal patterns in response to adverse growth conditions. We present a wealth of beautiful patterns formed during colonial development of various bacterial strains and for different environmental conditions. Invoking ideas from pattern formation in non-living systems and using generic modelling we are able to reveal novel bacterial strategies which account for the salient features of the evolved patterns. Using the models, we demonstrate how bacterial communication leads to colonial self-organization that can only be achieved via cooperative behaviour of the cells. It can be viewed as the action of a singular feedback between the microscopic level (the individual cells) and the macroscopic level (the colony) in the determination of the emerging patterns.

Ben-Jacob, Eshel

1997-03-01

231

Theoretical Insights into the Formation, Structure, and Energetics of Some Cyclodextrin Complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the physicochemical aspects relevant for the formation of various cyclodextrin inclusion complexes and to search for corresponding general structure–complex-stability relationships, stability data of 1 : 1 complexes for 179, 310, and 51 guest molecules with unsubstituted a-, ß-, and ?-cyclodextrin were collected. Statistical analysis using structure-based parameters such as molecular size, hydrophobicity, rotatable bonds, electronic properties, and the

Nicholas Bodor; Peter Buchwald

2002-01-01

232

Formation of metamorphic core complex in inherited wedges: A thermomechanical modelling study  

E-print Network

Formation of metamorphic core complex in inherited wedges: A thermomechanical modelling study B Férollerie, 45071 Orléans cedex 02, France Abstract Metamorphic Core Complexes (MCCs) form when a thickened in a nappe stack involving continental basement. 1. Introduction A metamorphic core complex (MCC) corresponds

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

233

Charge-transfer inclusion complex formation of tropylium cation with pillar[6]arenes.  

PubMed

The complexation behavior of pillar[6]arene hosts towards a carbonium ion, tropylium tetrafluoroborate (T·BF4), and the formation of novel charge-transfer (CT) inclusion complexes are described. In contrast, smaller pillar[5]arenes and larger pillar[7]arenes cannot form such complexes due to the unsuitable cavity dimensions. PMID:23749258

Fan, Jiazeng; Deng, Hongmei; Li, Jian; Jia, Xueshun; Li, Chunju

2013-07-18

234

A calorimetric study of the hydrolysis and peroxide complex formation of the uranyl(VI) ion.  

PubMed

The enthalpies of reaction for the formation of uranyl(vi) hydroxide {[(UO2)2(OH)2](2+), [(UO2)3(OH)4](2+), [(UO2)3(OH)5](+), [(UO2)3(OH)6](aq), [(UO2)3(OH)7](-), [(UO2)3(OH)8](2-), [(UO2)(OH)3](-), [(UO2)(OH)4](2-)} and peroxide complexes {[UO2(O2)(OH)](-) and [(UO2)2(O2)2(OH)](-)} have been determined from calorimetric titrations at 25 °C in a 0.100 M tetramethyl ammonium nitrate ionic medium. The hydroxide data have been used to test the consistency of the extensive thermodynamic database published by the Nuclear Energy Agency (I. Grenthe, J. Fuger, R. J. M. Konings, R. J. Lemire, A. B. Mueller, C. Nguyen-Trung and H. Wanner, Chemical Thermodynamics of Uranium, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1992 and R. Guillaumont, T. Fanghänel, J. Fuger, I. Grenthe, V. Neck, D. J. Palmer and M. R. Rand, Update on the Chemical Thermodynamics of Uranium, Neptunium, Plutonium, Americium and Technetium, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2003). A brief discussion is given about a possible structural relationship between the trinuclear complexes [(UO2)3(OH)n](6-n), n = 4-8. PMID:24301256

Zanonato, Pier Luigi; Di Bernardo, Plinio; Grenthe, Ingmar

2014-02-14

235

Catalytic C-N and C-F bond formation by organometallic group 11 complexes  

E-print Network

This thesis presents a study of the reaction between an (NHC)gold(I) fluoride complex (NHC = N-heterocyclic carbene) and alkynes (Chapter 1). Gold(I) and fluoride add trans across the triple bond of 3-hexyne and ...

Akana, Jennifer Anne

2007-01-01

236

Loading antifungal drugs onto silica particles grafted with cyclodextrins by means of inclusion complex formation at the solid surface.  

PubMed

Immobilization of antifungal drugs to solid particles has been addressed in order to limit the skin penetration to the skin surface during topical administration. Antifungal drug griseofulvin has been immobilized at the surface of silica particles by formation of its inclusion complex with ?-cyclodextrins grafted to silica. A simple and fast process for loading griseofulvin into the hydrophobic cavity of cyclodextrins at the surface of the solid particles in aqueous suspension has been designed. It allowed the formation of the griseofulvin:cyclodextrin inclusion complex of 1:1 stoichiometry to completion. Grafting ?-cyclodextrins to silica surface has been performed in a two-step procedure. The coupling agent 3-amino-propylmethyldiethoxysilane was reacted onto fumed silica particles as a first step. The second step was the reaction of grafted primary amino groups with tosylated ?-cyclodextrin that led to ?-cyclodextrin grafted silica. Loading griseofulvin onto grafted silica particles have been investigated by IR spectroscopy and by tracking possible crystals of griseofulvin in aqueous suspension by optical and scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Successful formation of the inclusion complex at the surface of grafted silica suggested a strong adsorption of griseofulvin by means of heterogeneous nucleation of crystals, followed by inclusion complexation taking place between the partners being in close proximity at the surface of silica particles. The high adsorption capacity of CD-grafted silica for griseofulvin compared to bare silica and amino-grafted silica supports this interpretation. PMID:23018113

Hbaieb, Souhaira; Kalfat, Rafik; Chevalier, Yves

2012-12-15

237

Chemical reaction and Schottky-barrier formation at V\\/Si interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavior of the V\\/Si interface has been studied under atomically clean interface conditions for a variety of Si surfaces [Si(111)-(7×7), Si(111)-(2×1), and Si(100)-c(4×2)] as a function of annealing used to promote the silicide formation reaction. Interface chemistry (composition, reactivity, and electronic structure) was revealed by angle-integrated ultraviolet (UPS) and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy and by Auger-electron spectroscopy (AES); transmission electron

J. G. Clabes; G. W. Rubloff; T. Y. Tan

1984-01-01

238

Chemical reactions and Schottky barrier formation at Cr\\/n-CdTe interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of Schottky barriers at Cr\\/n-CdTe interfaces has been investigated in detail using angle-resolved ultraviolet photo-emission, soft X-ray photo-emission and current-voltage techniques. The CdTe surfaces studied were prepared by cleaving in ultra-high vacuum, cleaving in air, and by chemical etching. The results indicate strong chemical reactions between both CdTe and its native oxide (TeO2) with evaporated Cr layers. A

I. M. Dharmadasa; M. H. Patterson; R. H. Williams

1988-01-01

239

Thermochemistry and Reaction Barriers for the Formation of Levoglucosenone from Cellobiose  

SciTech Connect

Cellobiose jumps the barrier: High-level quantum mechanical studies show that the ether bond cleavage in cellobiose occurs through internal hydrogen transfer in the gas phase and that the activation energy required is similar to that required for activating cellulose. The reaction barriers are computed for various pathways for the formation of levoglucosenone from levoglucosan, and the most likely pathway requires a relatively low activation barrier compared to that for the activation of cellobiose.

Assary, Rajeev S.; Curtiss, Larry A.

2012-02-06

240

Thermochemistry and reaction barriers for the formation of levoglucosenone from cellobiose.  

SciTech Connect

Cellobiose jumps the barrier: High-level quantum mechanical studies show that the ether bond cleavage in cellobiose occurs through internal hydrogen transfer in the gas phase and that the activation energy required is similar to that required for activating cellulose. The reaction barriers are computed for various pathways for the formation of levoglucosenone from levoglucosan, and the most likely pathway requires a relatively low activation barrier compared to that for the activation of cellobiose.

Assary, R. S.; Curtiss, L. A. (Center for Nanoscale Materials); ( MSD); (Northwestern Univ.)

2012-02-06

241

Double layer formation at the interface of complex plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Necessary conditions are formulated for the generation of a double layer at the interface of a complex plasma and a particle-free electron-ion plasma in a weakly collisional discharge. Examples are calculated for realistic observed complex plasmas, and it is shown that situations of both ''smooth'' transitions and 'sharp' transitions can exist. The model can explain the abrupt boundaries observed.

Yaroshenko, V. V.; Thoma, M. H.; Thomas, H. M.; Morfill, G. E. [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, 85741 Garching (Germany)

2008-08-15

242

>Cognitive complexity and impression formation in informal social interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

While awaiting the arrival of the experimenter, pairs of subjects participated in ten minutes of spontaneous casual interaction. The impression which each formed of the other was assessed. Analyses of these impressions compared subjects differing in initial level of cognitive complexity. High complexity subjects, in comparison with noncomplex subjects, formed more differentiated, more abstract, more highly organized, and less evaluatively

Jesse G. Delia; Ruth Anne Clark; David E. Switzer

1974-01-01

243

Reliable Protein Folding on Complex Energy Landscapes: The Free Energy Reaction Path  

E-print Network

Reliable Protein Folding on Complex Energy Landscapes: The Free Energy Reaction Path Gregg Lois the dynamics of protein folding. The key insight is that the search for the native protein conformation. In the ``new view'' of protein folding (3,7), statistical fluctuations on an energy landscape give rise

Gelfond, Michael

244

Enantioselective pinacol coupling reaction of aromatic aldehydes catalyzed by chiral vanadium complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The asymmetric pinacol coupling of aromatic aldehydes by chiral salan–vanadium complexes as effective catalysts is reported. Chiral 1,2-diols were obtained with high diastereoselectivities (up to 90\\/10) and moderate to high enantioselectivities (up to 82% ee). The possible mechanism of the pinacol coupling reaction is also discussed.

Jiangtao Sun; Zhenya Dai; Changsi Li; Xu Pan; Chengjian Zhu

2009-01-01

245

Photocatalytic CO2 reduction with high turnover frequency and selectivity of formic acid formation using Ru(II) multinuclear complexes.  

PubMed

Previously undescribed supramolecules constructed with various ratios of two kinds of Ru(II) complexes-a photosensitizer and a catalyst-were synthesized. These complexes can photocatalyze the reduction of CO(2) to formic acid with high selectivity and durability using a wide range of wavelengths of visible light and NADH model compounds as electron donors in a mixed solution of dimethylformamide-triethanolamine. Using a higher ratio of the photosensitizer unit to the catalyst unit led to a higher yield of formic acid. In particular, of the reported photocatalysts, a trinuclear complex with two photosensitizer units and one catalyst unit photocatalyzed CO(2) reduction (?(HCOOH) = 0.061, TON(HCOOH) = 671) with the fastest reaction rate (TOF(HCOOH) = 11.6 min(-1)). On the other hand, photocatalyses of a mixed system containing two kinds of model mononuclear Ru(II) complexes, and supramolecules with a higher ratio of the catalyst unit were much less efficient, and black oligomers and polymers were produced from the Ru complexes during photocatalytic reactions, which reduced the yield of formic acid. The photocatalytic formation of formic acid using the supramolecules described herein proceeds via two sequential processes: the photochemical reduction of the photosensitizer unit by NADH model compounds and intramolecular electron transfer to the catalyst unit. PMID:22908243

Tamaki, Yusuke; Morimoto, Tatsuki; Koike, Kazuhide; Ishitani, Osamu

2012-09-25

246

Dynamics, transition states, and timing of bond formation in Diels–Alder reactions  

PubMed Central

The time-resolved mechanisms for eight Diels–Alder reactions have been studied by quasiclassical trajectories at 298 K, with energies and derivatives computed by UB3LYP/6-31G(d). Three of these reactions were also simulated at high temperature to compare with experimental results. The reaction trajectories require 50–150 fs on average to transverse the region near the saddle point where bonding changes occur. Even with symmetrical reactants, the trajectories invariably involve unequal bond formation in the transition state. Nevertheless, the time gap between formation of the two new bonds is shorter than a C?C vibrational period. At 298 K, most Diels–Alder reactions are concerted and stereospecific, but at high temperatures (approximately 1,000 K) a small fraction of trajectories lead to diradicals. The simulations illustrate and affirm the bottleneck property of the transition state and the close connection between dynamics and the conventional analysis based on saddle point structure. PMID:22753502

Black, Kersey; Liu, Peng; Xu, Lai; Doubleday, Charles; Houk, Kendall N.

2012-01-01

247

Dynamics, transition states, and timing of bond formation in Diels-Alder reactions.  

PubMed

The time-resolved mechanisms for eight Diels-Alder reactions have been studied by quasiclassical trajectories at 298 K, with energies and derivatives computed by UB3LYP/6-31G(d). Three of these reactions were also simulated at high temperature to compare with experimental results. The reaction trajectories require 50-150 fs on average to transverse the region near the saddle point where bonding changes occur. Even with symmetrical reactants, the trajectories invariably involve unequal bond formation in the transition state. Nevertheless, the time gap between formation of the two new bonds is shorter than a C ? C vibrational period. At 298 K, most Diels-Alder reactions are concerted and stereospecific, but at high temperatures (approximately 1,000 K) a small fraction of trajectories lead to diradicals. The simulations illustrate and affirm the bottleneck property of the transition state and the close connection between dynamics and the conventional analysis based on saddle point structure. PMID:22753502

Black, Kersey; Liu, Peng; Xu, Lai; Doubleday, Charles; Houk, Kendall N

2012-08-01

248

Computational insights into carbon-carbon homocoupling reactions mediated by organolanthanide(III) complexes.  

PubMed

Homocoupling of terminal alkynes into trienediyl complexes by alkyl samarocenes is known experimentally. By means of computational techniques, we investigated the mechanism of this reaction in detail. The overall reaction sequence is: ?-bond metathesis, dimerisation of metallocenes, and homocoupling of two acetylides into trienediyl. We show that the rate-determining step corresponds to the homocoupling of two anionic acetylides. This coupling takes place at a bis-samarocene dimer complex in which the bridging mode of the two acetylide moieties is critical for the reaction to proceed. The limited energy barrier for the homocoupling of the carbanions originates from a synergistic effect of the two samarium centres within the dimer. Variation of the steric demand of both substrates and lanthanocenes allowed rationalising all the experimental data available for these systems. PMID:24429590

Kefalidis, Christos E; Perrin, Lionel; Maron, Laurent

2014-03-21

249

[Use of Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex from patient materials].  

PubMed

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct culture were applied for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in samples obtained from patients with suspicion of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. In the reaction of amplification IS6110 was applied as a target region, and PCR reaction products were of the size of 123 bp and 317 bp. A total of 278 samples (158 sputum, 36 urine, 25 pleural effusion, 23 bronchial washings, 8 blood, 4 stomach washings, 3 cerebrospinal fluid, 2 fragments of skin, 2 pleural effusion, and 17 others samples) from 181 patients were tested. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex was detected by PCR in 144 out of 278 samples and by culture in 68 of 278 samples. The PCR test enabled a rapid and sensitive diagnosis particularly in a number of samples which were negative on culture. PMID:9658879

Wolska-Goszka, L; Nowak, A; Gali?ski, J; S?omi?ski, J M

1998-01-01

250

Recent aspects of the proton transfer reaction in H-bonded complexes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proton transfer processes cover a very wide range of situations and time scales and they are of great interest from the viewpoint of chemical reactions in solution. These processes can occur via thermally activated crossing or tunneling. This review considers various aspects of this many-faceted field. Spectroscopic, dielectric, colligative and energetic properties and structures of various species with H-bonds are examined. Proton transfer reactions in water and organic solvents, and the contribution of various H-bonded species and ions to these processes are discussed. Among other topics, this survey includes the effects of solvent, acid-base stoichiometry, concentration, temperature and impurity on proton transfer reactions in complexes of phenols and carboxylic acids with amines, pyridines and pyridine N-oxides. The contribution of the nonstoichiometric acid-base complexes and ionic species to the reversible proton transfer mechanism is discussed.

Szafran, Miros?aw

1996-07-01

251

Further study on mechanism of production of light complex particles in nucleon-induced reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Improved Quantum Molecular Dynamics model incorporated with the statistical decay model is used to investigate the intermediate energy nucleon-induced reactions. In our last work, by introducing a phenomenological mechanism called surface coalescence and emission into ImQMD model, the description on the light complex particle emission has been great improved. In this work, taking account of different specific binding energies and separation energies for various light complex particles, the phase space parameters in surface coalescence model are readjusted. By using the new phase space parameters set with better physical fundament, the double differential cross sections of light complex particles are found to be in better agreement with experimental data.

Wei, Dexian; Mao, Lihua; Wang, Ning; Liu, Min; Ou, Li

2015-01-01

252

Dinuclear gold(I) dithiophosphonate complexes: formation, structure and reactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

2,4-Diaryl- and 2,4-diferrocenyl-1,3-dithiaphosphetane disulfide dimers (1a–1c) react with a variety of alcohols, silanols and trialkylsilylalcohols to form dithiophosphonic acids in a facile manner. Their corresponding salts react with chlorogold(I) complexes to produce the first dinuclear gold(I) dithiophosphonate complexes of the type [AuS2PR(OR?)]2 (R=Ph, R?=Et (2); R=p-C6H4OMe, R?=SiPh3) (3)) in high yield (>70%). The dinuclear gold(I) complexes react with dppm (Ph2PCH2PPh2)

Werner E. van Zyl; Richard J. Staples

1998-01-01

253

Reactions Between Water Soluble Organic Acids and Nitrates in Atmospheric Aerosols: Recycling of Nitric Acid and Formation of Organic Salts  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric particles often include a complex mixture of nitrate and secondary organic materials accumulated within the same individual particles. Nitrate as an important inorganic component can be chemically formed in the atmosphere. For instance, formation of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) and calcium nitrate Ca(NO3)2 when nitrogen oxide and nitric acid (HNO3) species react with sea salt and calcite, respectively. Organic acids contribute a significant fraction of photochemically formed secondary organics that can condense on the preexisting nitrate-containing particles. Here, we present a systematic microanalysis study on chemical composition of laboratory generated particles composed of water soluble organic acids and nitrates (i.e. NaNO3 and Ca(NO3)2) investigated using computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX) and Fourier transform infrared micro-spectroscopy (micro-FTIR). The results show that water-soluble organic acids can react with nitrates releasing gaseous HNO3 during dehydration process. These reactions are attributed to acid displacement of nitrate with weak organic acids driven by the evaporation of HNO3 into gas phase due to its relatively high volatility. The reactions result in significant nitrate depletion and formation of organic salts in mixed organic acids/nitrate particles that in turn may affect their physical and chemical properties relevant to atmospheric environment and climate. Airborne nitrate concentrations are estimated by thermodynamic calculations corresponding to various nitrate depletions in selected organic acids of atmospheric relevance. The results indicate a potential mechanism of HNO3 recycling, which may further affect concentrations of gas- and aerosol-phase species in the atmosphere and the heterogeneous reaction chemistry between them.

Wang, Bingbing; Laskin, Alexander

2014-03-25

254

Reaction of benzophenone UV filters in the presence of aqueous chlorine: kinetics and chloroform formation.  

PubMed

The transformation of two benzophenone UV filters (Oxybenzone and Dioxybenzone) was examined over the pH range 6-11 in the presence of excess aqueous chlorine. Under these conditions, both UV filters were rapidly transformed by aqueous chlorine just above circumneutral pH while transformation rates were significantly lower near the extremes of the pH range investigated. Observed first-order rate coefficients (k(obs)) were obtained at each pH for aqueous chlorine concentrations ranging from 10 to 75 ?M. The k(obs) were used to determine the apparent second-order rate coefficient (k(app)) at each pH investigated as well as determine the reaction order of aqueous chlorine with each UV filter. The reaction of aqueous chlorine with either UV filter was found to be an overall second-order reaction, first-order with respect to each reactant. Assuming elemental stoichiometry described the reaction between aqueous chlorine and each UV filter, models were developed to determine intrinsic rate coefficients (k(int)) from the k(app) as a function of pH for both UV filters. The rate coefficients for the reaction of HOCl with 3-methoxyphenol moieties of oxybenzone (OXY) and dioxybenzone (DiOXY) were k(1,OxY) = 306 ± 81 M?¹s?¹ and k(1,DiOxY) = 154 ± 76 M?¹s?¹, respectively. The k(int) for the reaction of aqueous chlorine with the 3-methoxyphenolate forms were orders of magnitude greater than the un-ionized species, k(2,OxY) = 1.03(±0.52) × 10? M?¹s?¹ and k(2_1,DiOxY) = 4.14(±0.68) × 10? M?¹s?¹. Also, k(int) for the reaction of aqueous chlorine with the DiOXY ortho-substituted phenolate moiety was k(2_2,DiOxY) = 2.17(±0.30) × 10³ M?¹s?¹. Finally, chloroform formation potential for OXY and DiOXY was assessed over the pH range 6-10. While chloroform formation decreased as pH increased for OXY, chloroform formation increased as pH increased from 6 to 10 for DiOXY. Ultimate molar yields of chloroform per mole of UV filter were pH dependent; however, chloroform to UV filter molar yields at pH 8 were 0.221 CHCl?/OXY and 0.212 CHCl?/DiOXY. PMID:23168312

Duirk, Stephen E; Bridenstine, David R; Leslie, Daniel C

2013-02-01

255

Amide coupling reaction for the synthesis of bispyridine-based ligands and their complexation to platinum as dinuclear anticancer agents.  

PubMed

Amide coupling reactions can be used to synthesize bispyridine-based ligands for use as bridging linkers in multinuclear platinum anticancer drugs. Isonicotinic acid, or its derivatives, are coupled to variable length diaminoalkane chains under an inert atmosphere in anhydrous DMF or DMSO with the use of a weak base, triethylamine, and a coupling agent, 1-propylphosphonic anhydride. The products precipitate from solution upon formation or can be precipitated by the addition of water. If desired, the ligands can be further purified by recrystallization from hot water. Dinuclear platinum complex synthesis using the bispyridine ligands is done in hot water using transplatin. The most informative of the chemical characterization techniques to determine the structure and gross purity of both the bispyridine ligands and the final platinum complexes is (1)H NMR with particular analysis of the aromatic region of the spectra (7-9 ppm). The platinum complexes have potential application as anticancer agents and the synthesis method can be modified to produce trinuclear and other multinuclear complexes with different hydrogen bonding functionality in the bridging ligand. PMID:24893964

Apps, Michael G; Johnson, Ben W; Sutcliffe, Oliver B; Brown, Sarah D; Wheate, Nial J

2014-01-01

256

Formation of hydrogen peroxide and water from the reaction of cold hydrogen atoms with solid oxygen at 10K  

E-print Network

The reactions of cold H atoms with solid O2 molecules were investigated at 10 K. The formation of H2O2 and H2O has been confirmed by in-situ infrared spectroscopy. We found that the reaction proceeds very efficiently and obtained the effective reaction rates. This is the first clear experimental evidence of the formation of water molecules under conditions mimicking those found in cold interstellar molecular clouds. Based on the experimental results, we discuss the reaction mechanism and astrophysical implications.

Miyauchi, N; Chigai, T; Nagaoka, A; Watanabe, N; Kouchi, A

2008-01-01

257

Formation of hydrogen peroxide and water from the reaction of cold hydrogen atoms with solid oxygen at 10K  

E-print Network

The reactions of cold H atoms with solid O2 molecules were investigated at 10 K. The formation of H2O2 and H2O has been confirmed by in-situ infrared spectroscopy. We found that the reaction proceeds very efficiently and obtained the effective reaction rates. This is the first clear experimental evidence of the formation of water molecules under conditions mimicking those found in cold interstellar molecular clouds. Based on the experimental results, we discuss the reaction mechanism and astrophysical implications.

N. Miyauchi; H. Hidaka; T. Chigai; A. Nagaoka; N. Watanabe; A. Kouchi

2008-05-01

258

Fission and quasifission modes in heavy-ion-induced reactions leading to the formation of Hs{sup *}  

SciTech Connect

Mass and energy distributions of binary reaction products obtained in the reactions {sup 22}Ne+{sup 249}Cf,{sup 26}Mg+{sup 248}Cm, {sup 36}S+{sup 238}U, and {sup 58}Fe+{sup 208}Pb have been measured. All reactions lead to Hs isotopes. At energies below the Coulomb barrier the bimodal fission of Hs{sup *}, formed in the reaction {sup 26}Mg+{sup 248}Cm, is observed. In the reaction {sup 36}S+{sup 238}U, leading to the formation of a similar compound nucleus, the main part of the symmetric fragments arises from the quasifission process. At energies above the Coulomb barrier fusion-fission is the main process leading to the formation of symmetric fragments for both reactions with Mg and S ions. In the case of the {sup 58}Fe+{sup 208}Pb reaction the quasifission process dominates at all measured energies.

Itkis, I. M.; Kozulin, E. M.; Itkis, M. G.; Knyazheva, G. N.; Bogachev, A. A.; Chernysheva, E. V.; Krupa, L.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Zagrebaev, V. I.; Rusanov, A. Ya.; Goennenwein, F.; Dorvaux, O.; Stuttge, L.; Hanappe, F.; Vardaci, E.; Goes Brennand, E. de [Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Institute of Nuclear Physics of the National Nuclear Center of Kazakhstan, 050032 Almaty (Kazakhstan); Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Tuebingen, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien and Universite de Strasbourg, F-67037 Strasbourg (France); Universite Libre de Bruxelles, CP229, B-1050 Bruxelles, Belgique (Belgium); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche dell'Universita di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Estadual da Paraiba, 58109-753 Campina Grande (Brazil)

2011-06-15

259

Ligand substitution reactions of a phenolic quinolyl hydrazone; oxidovanadium (IV) complexes  

PubMed Central

Background Quinoline ring has therapeutic and biological activities. Quinolyl hydrazones constitute a class of excellent chelating agents. Recently, the physiological and biological activities of quinolyl hydrazones arise from their tendency to form metal chelates with transition metal ions. In this context, we have aimed to study the competency effect of a phenolic quinolyl hydrazone (H2L; primary ligand) with some auxiliary ligands (Tmen, Phen or Oxine; secondary ligands) towards oxidovanadium (IV) ions. Results Mono- and binuclear oxidovanadium (IV) - complexes were obtained from the reaction of a phenolic quinolyl hydrazone with oxidovanadium (IV)- ion in absence and presence of N,N,N',N'- tetramethylethylenediamine (Tmen), 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) or 8-hydroxyquinoline (Oxine). The phenolic quinolyl hydrazone ligand behaves as monobasic bidentate (NO- donor with O- bridging). All the obtained complexes have the preferable octahedral geometry except the oxinato complex (2) which has a square pyramid geometry with no axial interaction; the only homoleptic complex in this study. Conclusion The ligand exchange (substitution/replacement) reactions reflect the strong competency power of the auxiliary aromatic ligands (Phen/Oxine) compared to the phenolic quinolyl hydrazone (H2L) towards oxidovanadium (IV) ion; (complexes 2 and 3). By contrast, in case of the more flexible aliphatic competitor (Tmen), an adduct was obtained (4). The obtained complexes reflect the strength of the ligand field towards the oxidovanadium (IV)- ion; Oxine or Phen >> phenolic hydrazone (H2L) > Tmen. PMID:21846387

2011-01-01

260

Calculation of Standard Transformed Formation Properties of Biochemical Reactants and Standard Apparent Reduction Potentials of Half Reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The standard Gibbs energies of formation and standard enthalpies of formation of species involved in biochemical reactions are used to calculate standard transformed Gibbs energies of formation and standard transformed enthalpies of formation of 62 biochemical reactants (sums of species) at 298.15 K, pH 7, and ionic strengths of 0, 0.10, and 0.25 M. It has been possible to put

Robert A. Alberty

1998-01-01

261

On Lexicalized Valency and the Valency of (New) Complex Verbal Formations in Slovenian  

E-print Network

The paper considers the matter of so-called lexicalized valency within the framework of new complex verbal formations in Slovenian, and in consequence, the increasingly dominant accusative valency in the language, which can also indicate...

Žele, Andreja

2013-01-01

262

Phase-Transfer-Catalyzed Asymmetric SN Ar Reaction of ?-Amino Acid Derivatives with Arene Chromium Complexes.  

PubMed

Although phase-transfer-catalyzed asymmetric SN Ar reactions provide unique contribution to the catalytic asymmetric ?-arylations of carbonyl compounds to produce biologically active ?-aryl carbonyl compounds, the electrophiles were limited to arenes bearing strong electron-withdrawing groups, such as a nitro group. To overcome this limitation, we examined the asymmetric SN Ar reactions of ?-amino acid derivatives with arene chromium complexes derived from fluoroarenes, including those containing electron-donating substituents. The arylation was efficiently promoted by binaphthyl-modified chiral phase-transfer catalysts to give the corresponding ?,?-disubstituted ?-amino acids containing various aromatic substituents with high enantioselectivities. PMID:25413360

Shirakawa, Seiji; Yamamoto, Kenichiro; Maruoka, Keiji

2015-01-12

263

Monitoring benzene formation from benzoate in model systems by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of benzene in food and in particular in soft drinks has been reported in several studies and should be considered in fundamental investigations about formation of this carcinogen compound as well as in quality control. Proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) has been used here for rapid, direct quantification of benzene and to monitor its formation in model systems related to the use of benzoate, a common preservative, in presence of ascorbic acid: a widespread situation that yields benzene in, e.g., soft drinks and fruit juices. Firstly, we demonstrate here that PTR-MS allows a rapid determination of benzene that is in quantitative agreement with independent solid phase micro-extraction/gas chromatography (SPME/GC) analysis. Secondly, as a case study, the effect of different sugars (sucrose, fructose and glucose) on benzene formation is investigated indicating that they inhibit its formation and that this effect is enhanced for reducing sugars. The sugar-induced inhibition of benzene formation depends on several parameters (type and concentration of sugar, temperature, time) but can be more than 80% in situations that can be expected in the storage of commercial soft drinks. This is consistent with the reported observations of higher benzene concentrations in sugar-free soft drinks.

Aprea, Eugenio; Biasioli, Franco; Carlin, Silvia; Märk, Tilmann D.; Gasperi, Flavia

2008-08-01

264

PVA-Iodine complexes: Formation, structure, and properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The PVA-Iodine complexes formed in PVA films soaked in iodine-KI aqueous solutions without boric acid are studied from the structural point of view. First, iodine soaking at comparatively low iodine concentrations is studied where iodine sorption takes place mostly in the amorphous phase. There, our interest is concentrated on the following problems: What happens in PVA films during iodine soaking?

Keizo Miyasaka

265

Modelling formation of complex topography by the seagrass Posidonia oceanica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Posidonia oceanica is a slow growing seagrass species that extends via growing rhizomes that grow only centimetres both horizontally and vertically each year. Posidonia oceanica forms topographically complex biogenic reefs of dead rhizome and sediments that are up to 4m in height that are called “matte”. This study investigates the role of slow horizontal and vertical growth of rhizomes in

Gary A. Kendrick; Núria Marbà; Carlos M. Duarte

2005-01-01

266

Thermodynamics of Formation of Molecular Complexes of Aromatic Nitro Derivatives with Lincomycin and ?-Glycyrrhizic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was found that lincomycin and ß-glycyrrhizic acid form 1:2 molecular complexes with aromatic nitro derivatives. Quantum-chemical calculations of lincomycin and ß-glycyrrhizic acid were performed. These compounds form a cavity and, like podands, are capable of accommodating guest molecules. The formation constants and the thermodynamic characteristics of the complexes were calculated. A linear correlation was found between the formation constants

V. N. Gusakov; V. N. Maistrenko; P. P. Safiullin

2001-01-01

267

Characterization of self-propagating formation reactions in Ni/Zr multilayered foils using reaction heats, velocities, and temperature-time profiles  

SciTech Connect

We report on intermetallic formation reactions in vapor-deposited multilayered foils of Ni/Zr with 70 nm bilayers and overall atomic ratios of Ni:Zr, 2 Ni:Zr, and 7 Ni:2 Zr. The sequence of alloy phase formation and the stored energy is evaluated at slow heating rates ({approx}1 K/s) using differential scanning calorimetry traces to 725 deg. C. All three chemistries initially form a Ni-Zr amorphous phase which crystallizes first to the intermetallic NiZr. The heat of reaction to the final phase is 34-36 kJ/mol atom for all chemistries. Intermetallic formation reactions are also studied at rapid heating rates (greater than 10{sup 5} K/s) in high temperature, self-propagating reactions which can be ignited in these foils by an electric spark. We find that reaction velocities and maximum reaction temperatures (T{sub max}) are largely independent of foil chemistry at 0.6{+-}0.1 m/s and 1220{+-}50 K, respectively, and that the measured T{sub max} is more than 200 K lower than predicted adiabatic temperatures (T{sub ad}). The difference between T{sub max} and T{sub ad} is explained by the prediction that transformation to the final intermetallic phases occurs after T{sub max} and results in the release of 20%-30% of the total heat of reaction and a delay in rapid cooling.

Barron, S. C.; Knepper, R.; Walker, N.; Weihs, T. P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)

2011-01-01

268

Oxidative double dehalogenation of tetrachlorocatechol by a bio-inspired CuII complex: formation of chloranilic acid.  

PubMed

Copper(II) complexes of the potentially tripodal N,N,O ligand 3,3-bis(1-methylimidazol-2-yl)propionate (L1) and its conjugate acid HL1 have been synthesised and structurally and spectroscopically characterised. The reaction of equimolar amounts of ligand and CuII resulted in the complexes [Cu(L1)]n(X)n (X=OTf-, PF6(-); n=1,2), for which a new bridging coordination mode of L1 is inferred. Although these complexes showed moderate catecholase activity in the oxidation of 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol, surprising reactivity with the pseudo-substrate tetrachlorocatechol was observed. A chloranilato-bridged dinuclear CuII complex was isolated from the reaction of [Cu(L1)]n(PF6)n with tetrachlorocatechol. This stoichiometric oxidative double dehalogenation of tetrachlorocatechol to chloranilic acid by a biomimetic copper(II) complex is unprecedented. The crystal structure of the product, [Cu2(ca)Cl2(HL1)2], shows a bridging bis-bidentate chloranilato (ca) ligand and ligand L1 coordinated as its conjugate acid (HL1) in a tridentate fashion. Magnetic susceptibility studies revealed weak antiferromagnetic coupling (J= -35 cm(-1)) between the two copper centres in the dinuclear complex. Dissolution of the green complex [Cu2(ca)Cl2(HL1)2] resulted in the formation of new pink-purple mononuclear compound [Cu(ca)(HL1)(H2O)], the crystal structure of which was determined. It showed a terminal bidentate chloranilato ligand and N,N-bidentate coordination of ligand HL1, which illustrates the flexible coordination chemistry of ligand L1. PMID:18449873

Bruijnincx, Pieter C A; Viciano-Chumillas, Marta; Lutz, Martin; Spek, Anthony L; Reedijk, Jan; van Koten, Gerard; Klein Gebbink, Robertus J M

2008-01-01

269

The reaction of an iridium PNP complex with parahydrogen facilitates polarisation transfer without chemical change† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Sample preparation, signal enhancements and raw data. CCDC 1026865. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c4dt03088e Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.  

PubMed Central

The short lived pincer complex [(C5H3N(CH2P(tBu)2)2)Ir(H)2(py)]BF4 is shown to be active for signal amplification by reversible exchange. This catalyst formulation enables the efficient transfer of polarization from parahydrogen to be placed into just a single molecule of the hyperpolarisation target, pyridine. When the catalysts 1H nuclei are replaced by 2H, increased levels of substrate hyperpolarization result and when the reverse situation is examined the catalyst itself is clearly visible through hyperpolarised signals. The ligand exchange pathways of [(C5H3N(CH2P(tBu)2)2)Ir(H)2(py)]BF4 that are associated with this process are shown to involve the formation of 16-electron [(C5H3N(CH2P(tBu)2)2)Ir(H)2]BF4 and the 18-electron H2 addition product [(C5H3N(CH2P(tBu)2)2)Ir(H)2(H2)]BF4. PMID:25410259

Holmes, Arthur J.; Rayner, Peter J.; Cowley, Michael J.; Green, Gary G. R.; Whitwood, Adrian C.

2015-01-01

270

Density functional theory calculations on the complexation of p-arsanilic acid with hydrated iron oxide clusters: structures, reaction energies, and transition states.  

PubMed

Aromatic organoarsenicals, such as p-arsanilic acid (pAsA), are still used today as feed additives in the poultry and swine industries in developing countries. Through the application of contaminated litter as a fertilizer, these compounds enter the environment and interact with reactive soil components such as iron and aluminum oxides. Little is known about these surface interactions at the molecular level. We report density functional theory (DFT) calculations on the energies, optimal geometries, and vibrational frequencies for hydrated pAsA/iron oxide complexes, as well as changes in Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy for various types of ligand exchange reactions leading to both inner- and outer-sphere complexes. Similar calculations using arsenate are also shown for comparison, along with activation barriers and transition state geometries between inner-sphere complexes. Minimum energy calculations show that the formation of inner- and outer-sphere pAsA/iron oxide complexes is thermodynamically favorable, with the monodentate mononuclear complexes being the most favorable. Interatomic As-Fe distances are calculated to be between 3.3 and 3.5 Å for inner-sphere complexes and between 5.2 and 5.6 Å for outer-sphere complexes. In addition, transition state calculations show that activation energies greater than 23 kJ/mol are required to form the bidentate binuclear pAsA/iron oxide complexes, and that formation of arsenate bidentate binuclear complexes is thermodynamically -rather than kinetically- driven. Desorption thermodynamics using phosphate ions show that reactions are most favorable using HPO4(2-) species. The significance of our results for the overall surface complexation mechanism of pAsA and arsenate is discussed. PMID:25007345

Adamescu, Adrian; Hamilton, Ian P; Al-Abadleh, Hind A

2014-07-31

271

Spectrophotometric determination of carvedilol in pharmaceutical formulations through charge-transfer and ion-pair complexation reactions.  

PubMed

Simple extraction-free spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the determination of carvedilol (CAR). The methods were based either on charge-transfer reaction of the drug with the sigma-acceptor iodine, in acetonitrile, or on ion-pair formation with the acidic sulphophthalein dyes bromothymol blue (BTB) and bromocresol green (BCG), in chloroform. The obtained complexes showed absorbance maxima at 363, 411 and 414 nm, respectively for iodine, BTB and BCG. Beer's law validation, accuracy, precision, and other aspects of analytical merit are presented in the text. The proposed methods were applied for the determination of CAR in tablets and compounded capsules. The results were in good agreement with those obtained by an established UV spectrophotometric method. PMID:17294810

Cardoso, S G; Ieggli, C V S; Pomblum, S C G

2007-01-01

272

Formation of flavor components by the reaction of amino acid and carbonyl compounds in mild conditions.  

PubMed

This work describe products of reactions between four alpha-dicarbonyl compounds (diacetyl, pentan-2,3-dione, glyoxal, and methylglyoxal) or two alpha-hydroxy ketones, (acetoine and acetol) and amino acids present in wines. The results shows the formation of odorous products or strong-smelling additives resulting from the Maillard and Strecker reaction in a primarily aqueous medium, at low temperature and low pH ( approximately pH 3.5) of the wine. GC/FID, GC/FPD, GC/NPD and GC/MS techniques were used. The olfactive characteristics of the products are described. In the presence of sulfur amino acids and in particular cysteine, many products were formed with a heterocycle production such as pyrazines and methylpyrazines, methylthiazoles, acetylthiazoles, acetylthiazolines, acetylthiazolidines, trimethyloxazole, and dimethylethyloxazoles. These various compounds present odors of sulfur, cornlike, pungent, nut, popcorn, roasted hazelnut, toasted, roasted, and ripe fruits. The chemical conditions of the model reactions are specified. The influence of temperature and pH on the reactions in the presence of cysteine were also studied. PMID:10995267

Pripis-Nicolau, L; de Revel, G; Bertrand, A; Maujean, A

2000-09-01

273

Ab initio study of the formation and degradation reactions of chlorinated phenols  

PubMed Central

The formation, stability, and reactivity of chlorinated phenoxyl radicials was studied using ab initio methods. All 19 congeners from mono- to penta-chlorinated species were considered. The radical species are formed in combustion reactions via unimolecular scission of the phenoxyl-hydrogen bond or hydrogen atom abstraction by hydrogen atom or hydroxyl radical. The resulting radicals are stable with respect to unimolecular decomposition and reaction with molecular oxygen is relatively slow. Activation energies are similar to those of the phenoxyl radical for both the decomposition pathway and the reaction with molecular oxygen at the more reactive para-position. Calculations were performed with the model chemistries B3LYP/6-31G(d,p), BHandHLYP/6-31G(d,p), BHandHLYP/aug-cc-pVDZ and QCISD(T)/6-31G(d,p)//BHandHLYP/6-31G(d,p) (for selected reactions.) The results suggest the radicals are sufficiently stable and unreactive to be moderately persistent in the atmosphere, especially when associated with some types of particulate matter. An additivity analysis is made to decompose the relative energetics of the congeners into contributions from hydrogen bonding, resonance stabilization, and repulsive interactions. The results of this analysis correlate well with the results of the calculations.

McFerrin, Cheri A.; Hall, Randall W.; Dellinger, Barry

2014-01-01

274

Substrate Binding Promotes Formation of the Skp1-Cul1-Fbxl3 (SCFFbxl3) Protein Complex*  

PubMed Central

The Skp1–Cul1–F-box protein (SCF) complex is one of the most well characterized types of ubiquitin ligase (E3), with the E3 activity of the complex being regulated in part at the level of complex formation. Fbxl3 is an F-box protein that is responsible for the ubiquitylation and consequent degradation of cryptochromes (Crys) and thus regulates oscillation of the circadian clock. Here we show that formation of the SCFFbxl3 complex is regulated by substrate binding in vivo. Fbxl3 did not associate with Skp1 and Cul1 to a substantial extent in transfected mammalian cells. Unexpectedly, however, formation of the SCFFbxl3 complex was markedly promoted by forced expression of its substrate Cry1 in these cells. A mutant form of Fbxl3 that does not bind to Cry1 was unable to form an SCF complex, suggesting that interaction of Cry1 with Fbxl3 is essential for formation of SCFFbxl3. In contrast, recombinant Fbxl3 associated with recombinant Skp1 and Cul1 in vitro even in the absence of recombinant Cry1. Domain-swap analysis revealed that the COOH-terminal leucine-rich repeat domain of Fbxl3 attenuates the interaction of Skp1, suggesting that a yet unknown protein associated with the COOH-terminal domain of Fbxl3 and inhibited SCF complex formation. Our results thus provide important insight into the regulation of both SCF ubiquitin ligase activity and circadian rhythmicity. PMID:24085301

Yumimoto, Kanae; Muneoka, Tetsuya; Tsuboi, Tomohiro; Nakayama, Keiichi I.

2013-01-01

275

FORMATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND THEIR GROWTH TO SOOT -A REVIEW OF CHEMICAL REACTION PATHWAYS. (R824970)  

EPA Science Inventory

The generation by combustion processes of airborne species of current health concern such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and soot particles necessitates a detailed understanding of chemical reaction pathways responsible for their formation. The present review discus...

276

Dichotomous-noise-induced pattern formation in a reaction-diffusion system.  

PubMed

We consider a generic reaction-diffusion system in which one of the parameters is subjected to dichotomous noise by controlling the flow of one of the reacting species in a continuous-flow-stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) -membrane reactor. The linear stability analysis in an extended phase space is carried out by invoking Furutzu-Novikov procedure for exponentially correlated multiplicative noise to derive the instability condition in the plane of the noise parameters (correlation time and strength of the noise). We demonstrate that depending on the correlation time an optimal strength of noise governs the self-organization. Our theoretical analysis is corroborated by numerical simulations on pattern formation in a chlorine-dioxide-iodine-malonic acid reaction-diffusion system. PMID:23848765

Das, Debojyoti; Ray, Deb Shankar

2013-06-01

277

Evaluation of the atmospheric significance of multiphase reactions in atmospheric secondary organic aerosol formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a simple conceptual cloud-aerosol model the mass of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) that may be formed in multiphase reaction in an idealized scenario involving two cloud cycles separated with a cloud-free period is evaluated. The conditions are set to those typical of continental clouds, and each parameter used in the model calculations is selected as a mean of available observational data of individual species for which the multiphase SOA formation route has been established. In the idealized setting gas and aqueous-phase reactions are both considered, but only the latter is expected to yield products of sufficiently low volatility to be retained by aerosol particles after the cloud dissipates. The key variable of the model is the Henry-constant which primarily determines how important multiphase reactions are relative to gas-phase photooxidation processes. The precursor considered in the model is assumed to already have some affinity to water, i.e. it is a compound having oxygen-containing functional group(s). As a principal model output an aerosol yield parameter is calculated for the multiphase SOA formation route as a function of the Henry-constant, and has been found to be significant already above H~103 M atm-1. Among the potential precursors that may be eligible for this mechanism based on their Henry constants, there are a suite of oxygenated compounds such as primary oxidation products of biogenic and anthropogenic hydrocarbons, including, for example, pinonaldehyde. Finally, the analogy of multiphase SOA formation to in-cloud sulfate production is exploited.

Gelencsér, A.; Varga, Z.

2005-07-01

278

Evaluation of the atmospheric significance of multiphase reactions in atmospheric secondary organic aerosol formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a simple conceptual cloud-aerosol model the mass of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) that may be formed in multiphase reaction in an idealized scenario involving two cloud cycles separated with a cloud-free period is evaluated. The conditions are set to those typical of continental clouds, and each parameter used in the model calculations is selected as a mean of available observational data of individual species for which the multiphase SOA formation route has been established. In the idealized setting gas and aqueous-phase reactions are both considered, but only the latter is expected to yield products of sufficiently low volatility to be retained by aerosol particles after the cloud dissipates. The key variable of the model is the Henry-constant which primarily determines how important multiphase reactions are relative to gas-phase photooxidation processes. The precursor considered in the model is assumed to already have some affinity to water, i.e. it is a compound having oxygen-containing functional group(s). As a principal model output an aerosol yield parameter is calculated for the multiphase SOA formation route as a function of the Henry-constant, and has been found to be significant already above H~103 M atm-1. Among the potential precursors that may be eligible for this mechanism based on their Henry constants, there are a suite of oxygenated compounds such as primary oxidation products of biogenic and anthropogenic hydrocarbons, including, for example, pinonaldehyde. Finally, the analogy of multiphase SOA formation to in-cloud sulfate production is exploited.

Gelencsér; Varga

2005-10-01

279

Cu(II) complex formation by ACES buffer.  

PubMed

ACES (N-(2-Acetamido)-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid), a popular Good's buffer, binds Cu(II) ions with a moderate affinity. Although this interaction was the subject of previous studies, no consensus in the literature was found. We used potentiometry to establish binding constants, and controlled the potentiometric model selection and binding constant calculations by UV-vis spectroscopy. As a result, we obtained a consistent set of complex stoichiometries and binding constants in this system, which contains Cu(2+), CuL(+), CuL2, CuH-1L2(-1) and CuH(-)2L2(-2) complexes. The negative indexes at H atoms in these formulae denote the Cu(II) assisted deprotonation of the amide nitrogen present in the ACES molecule. The affinity of ACES for Cu(II) strongly depends on the concentration and ACES:Cu(II) ratio, reaching submicromolar apparent affinities at ratios higher than 100. These results will enable more accurate determinations of biologically relevant stability constants of Cu(II) complexes using ACES buffer. PMID:24077022

Zawisza, Izabela; Rózga, Ma?gorzata; Pozna?ski, Jaros?aw; Bal, Wojciech

2013-12-01

280

Structural basis for cooperativity of CRM1 export complex formation  

PubMed Central

In eukaryotes, the nucleocytoplasmic transport of macromolecules is mainly mediated by soluble nuclear transport receptors of the karyopherin-? superfamily termed importins and exportins. The highly versatile exportin chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1) is essential for nuclear depletion of numerous structurally and functionally unrelated protein and ribonucleoprotein cargoes. CRM1 has been shown to adopt a toroidal structure in several functional transport complexes and was thought to maintain this conformation throughout the entire nucleocytoplasmic transport cycle. We solved crystal structures of free CRM1 from the thermophilic eukaryote Chaetomium thermophilum. Surprisingly, unbound CRM1 exhibits an overall extended and pitched superhelical conformation. The two regulatory regions, namely the acidic loop and the C-terminal ?-helix, are dramatically repositioned in free CRM1 in comparison with the ternary CRM1–Ran–Snurportin1 export complex. Single-particle EM analysis demonstrates that, in a noncrystalline environment, free CRM1 exists in equilibrium between extended, superhelical and compact, ring-like conformations. Molecular dynamics simulations show that the C-terminal helix plays an important role in regulating the transition from an extended to a compact conformation and reveal how the binding site for nuclear export signals of cargoes is modulated by different CRM1 conformations. Combining these results, we propose a model for the cooperativity of CRM1 export complex assembly involving the long-range allosteric communication between the distant binding sites of GTP-bound Ran and cargo. PMID:23277578

Monecke, Thomas; Haselbach, David; Voß, Béla; Russek, Andreas; Neumann, Piotr; Thomson, Emma; Hurt, Ed; Zachariae, Ulrich; Stark, Holger; Grubmüller, Helmut; Dickmanns, Achim; Ficner, Ralf

2013-01-01

281

Metal-assisted oxazolidine/oxazine ring formation in dinuclear zinc(II) complexes: synthesis, structural aspects, and bioactivity.  

PubMed

Three novel dinuclear Zn(II) complexes of phenol-based compartmental macrocyclic ligands have been synthesized and characterized by routine physicochemical techniques as well as by X-ray single-crystal structure analysis. The dinuclear macrocyclic complexes 1, 2, and 3 were obtained through a 1:2 condensation reaction of 2,6-diformyl-4-methylphenol and N-(hydroxyalkyl) ethylenediamine (L(1), L(2), and L(3), respectively) in the presence of zinc(II) acetate, followed by the addition of thiocyanate anion [L(1) = N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine, L(2) = N-(3-hydroxypropyl)ethylenediamine, and L(3) = N-(2-hydroxypropyl)ethylenediamine]. The synthesized 18-membered macrocycles are noted to be structurally unique, and their formation proceeds with the generation of two oxazolidine side rings in complexes 1 and 3 and two oxazine side rings in 2, along with the creation of four new chiral centers in each case. Complexes 1 and 2 are characterized by a butterfly-like arrangement with the SCN ligands situated on the same side with respect to the Zn(2)O(2) moiety, whereas the centrosymmetric complex 3 exhibits a stepped arrangement with parallel methyl-phenoxy fragments (spaced at ca. 1.5 A) and trans located SCN ligands with respect to the Zn(2)O(2) core. The formation of these unusual macrocycles is considered to be zinc-mediated. Preliminary studies with the complexes show that all of them exhibit an inhibitory effect, on the cell proliferation of human stomach cancer cell line AGS, though with different degrees, where complex 3 shows the highest efficiency. PMID:19708676

Banerjee, Arpita; Ganguly, Subhalakshmi; Chattopadhyay, Tanmay; Banu, Kazi Sabnam; Patra, Amarendra; Bhattacharya, Santanu; Zangrando, Ennio; Das, Debasis

2009-09-21

282

Assessment of the potential for ammonium nitrate formation and reaction in Tank 241-SY-101  

SciTech Connect

Two principal scenarios by which ammonium nitrate may be formed were considered: (a) precipitation of ammonium nitrate in the waste, and (b) ammonium nitrate formation via the gas phase reaction of ammonia and nitrogen dioxide. The first of these can be dismissed because ammonium ions, which are necessary for ammonium nitrate precipitation, can exist only in negligibly small concentrations in strongly alkaline solutions. Gas phase reactions between ammonia, nitrogen dioxide, and water vapor in the gas phase represent the most likely means by which ammonium nitrate aerosols could be formed in Tank 241-SY-101. Predicted ammonium nitrate formation rates are largely controlled by the concentration of nitrogen dioxide. This gas has not been detected among those gases vented from the wastes using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR) or mass spectrometry. While detection limits for nitrogen dioxide have not been established experimentally, the maximum concentration of nitrogen dioxide in the gas phase in Tank 241-SY-101 was estimated at 0.1 ppm based on calculations using the HITRAN data base and on FTIR spectra of gases vented from the wastes. At 50 C and with 100 ppm ammonia also present, less than one gram of ammonium nitrate per year is estimated to be formed in the tank. To date, ammonium nitrate has not been detected on HEPA filters in the ventilation system, so any quantity that has been formed in the tank must be quite small, in good agreement with rate calculations. The potential for runaway exothermic reactions involving ammonium nitrate in Tank 241-SY-101 is minimal. Dilution by non-reacting waste components, particularly water, would prevent hazardous exothermic reactions from occurring within the waste slurry, even if ammonium nitrate were present. 41 refs.

Pederson, L.R.; Bryan, S.A.

1994-08-01

283

Roles of Acetone and Diacetone Alcohol in Coordination and Dissociation Reactions of Uranyl Complexes  

SciTech Connect

Combined collision-induced dissociation mass-spectrometry experiments and DFT calculations were employed to elucidate the molecular structure of "hypercoordinated" species and the energetics of water-elimination reactions of uranyl acetone complexes observed in earlier work (Rios, D.; Rutkowski, P. X.; Van Stipdonk, M. J.; Gibson, J. K. Inorg. Chem. 2011, 50, 4781). It is shown that the "hypercoordinated" species contain diacetone alcohol ligands bonded in either bidentate or monodentate fashion, which are indistinguishable from (acetone)2 in mass spectrometry. Calculations confirm that four diacetone ligands can form stable complexes, but that the effective number of atoms coordinating with uranium in the equatorial plane does not exceed five. Diacetone alcohol ligands are shown to form mesityl oxide ligands and alkoxide species through the elimination of water, providing an explanation for the observed water-elimination reactions.

Rios, Daniel; Schoendorff, George E.; Van Stipdonk, Michael J.; Gordon, Mark S.; Windus, Theresa L.; Gibson, John K.; De Jong, Wibe A.

2012-12-03

284

Formation of a stratified lanthanum silicate dielectric by reaction with Si(001)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have characterized the structure and electrical properties of lanthanum silicate layers formed on Si(001) by reaction of lanthanum oxide with the substrate. Postoxidation of the deposited films results in the formation of a stacked dielectric with a lanthanum silicate layer atop an interfacial layer of SiO2. This structure combines the interfacial properties of SiO2 with the large permittivity of lanthanum silicate. Although the resulting film has leakage properties far superior to an equivalent thickness of SiO2, there is evidence of significant quantities of ionic charge that must be eliminated before use in electronic applications.

Copel, M.; Cartier, E.; Ross, F. M.

2001-03-01

285

Complex formation between hydroxypropylcellulose and hexadecyltrimethylamonium bromide as studied by light scattering and viscometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex formation between a semiflexible nonionic polymer, hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC), and a cationic surfactant, hexadecyltrimethylamonium bromide (HTAB), is investigated by static and dynamic light scattering (DLS) and by viscometry. Upon addition of surfactant, at a fixed polymer concentration, the solution specific viscosity increases initially to a maximum value, and then decreases, in parallel with the hydrodynamic radius of the polymer–surfactant complex

P. Hormnirun; A. Sirivat; A. M. Jamieson

2000-01-01

286

Dynamics of Nanoparticle-Protein Corona Complex Formation: Analytical Results from Population Balance Equations  

PubMed Central

Background Nanoparticle-protein corona complex formation involves absorption of protein molecules onto nanoparticle surfaces in a physiological environment. Understanding the corona formation process is crucial in predicting nanoparticle behavior in biological systems, including applications of nanotoxicology and development of nano drug delivery platforms. Method This paper extends the modeling work in to derive a mathematical model describing the dynamics of nanoparticle corona complex formation from population balance equations. We apply nonlinear dynamics techniques to derive analytical results for the composition of nanoparticle-protein corona complex, and validate our results through numerical simulations. Results The model presented in this paper exhibits two phases of corona complex dynamics. In the first phase, proteins rapidly bind to the free surface of nanoparticles, leading to a metastable composition. During the second phase, continuous association and dissociation of protein molecules with nanoparticles slowly changes the composition of the corona complex. Given sufficient time, composition of the corona complex reaches an equilibrium state of stable composition. We find analytical approximate formulae for metastable and stable compositions of corona complex. Our formulae are very well-structured to clearly identify important parameters determining corona composition. Conclusion The dynamics of biocorona formation constitute vital aspect of interactions between nanoparticles and living organisms. Our results further understanding of these dynamics through quantitation of experimental conditions, modeling results for in vitro systems to better predict behavior for in vivo systems. One potential application would involve a single cell culture medium related to a complex protein medium, such as blood or tissue fluid. PMID:23741371

Darabi Sahneh, Faryad; Scoglio, Caterina; Riviere, Jim

2013-01-01

287

Complex Formation between Chromatium vinosum Ferric Cytochrome c? and Bromophenol Blue  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unusual complex has been observed between the common electrophoresis tracer bromophenol blue (BPB) and the cytochrome c? from Chromatium vinosum during polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Complex formation results in a shift and increase in the intensity of the visible absorption band of BPB. Differential spectrophotometric titration of BPB with cytochrome c? indicates that one BPB binds to each of the

Anatoly L Mayburd; Yejun Tan; Richard J Kassner

2000-01-01

288

Sources and characteristics of complex fragments in La-induced reactions  

SciTech Connect

Complex fragment emission has been studied for a variety of reactions at intermediate energies. Multifragment events are shown to be associated with specific sources characterized by their mass and excitation energy through the incomplete fusion model. Excitation functions for the different multifragment decay channels are found to be almost independent of the system and the incident energy. Preliminary comparisons of the data with dynamical calculations followed by statistical decay calculations are discussed. 11 refs., 7 figs.

Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Charity, R.; Colonna, M.; Colonna, N.; Libby, B.; Hanold, K.; Moretto, L.; Peaslee, G.; Wozniak, G.

1991-01-01

289

Reaction Between CH2 and HCCN: A Theoretical Approach to Acrylonitrile Formation in the Interstellar Medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acrylonitrile (CH2CHCN) was first detected in dense molecular cloud SgrB2. The synthesis of this interstellar molecule is reported to be quite difficult. Therefore, in the present work an attempt has been made to explore the possibility of formation of acrylonitrile from some simple molecules and radicals detected in interstellar space by radical-radical interaction scheme, both in the gas phase and in the icy grains. All calculations are performed using quantum chemical methods with density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-311G (d,p) level and Møller-Plesset perturbation theory at the MP2/6-311G (d,p) level. In the discussed chemical pathway, the reaction is found to be totally exothermic and barrier less giving rise to a high probability of acrylonitrile formation in Interstellar space.

Shivani; Misra, Alka; Tandon, Poonam

2014-04-01

290

Peptide Bond Formation through Gas-phase Reactions in the Interstellar Medium: Formamide and Acetamide as Prototypes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical study of the reactions of NH_4^+ with formaldehyde and CH_5^+ with formamide is carried out. The viability of these gas-phase ion-molecule reactions as possible sources of formamide and acetamide under the conditions of interstellar medium is evaluated. We report a theoretical estimation of the reaction enthalpies and an analysis of their potential energy surfaces. Formation of protonated formamide from the reaction between ammonium cation and formaldehyde is an exothermic process, but all the channels located on the potential energy surface leading to this product present net activation energies. For the reaction between methanium and formamide, different products are possible from a thermodynamic point of view. An analysis of its potential energy surface showed that formation of protonated acetamide and amino acetaldehyde takes place through barrier-free paths. Therefore, this reaction could be a feasible source of acetamide and amino acetaldehyde in space.

Redondo, Pilar; Barrientos, Carmen; Largo, Antonio

2014-09-01

291

Electron transfer reactions of tris(polypyridine)ruthenium(III) complexes with organic sulfides: importance of hydrophobic interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ruthenium(III)–polypyridyl complexes, generated from the photochemical oxidation of Ru(II) complexes with molecular oxygen, undergo facile electron transfer reaction with dialkyl and aryl methyl sulfides. The rate controlling electron transfer process is confirmed from the absorption spectrum of the transient sulfide radical cation. The spectrophotometric kinetic study shows that the reaction is of total second order, first order in Ru(III) complex

Muniyandi Ganesan; Veluchamy K. Sivasubramanian; Thangamuthu Rajendran; Kalaiyar Swarnalatha; Seenivasan Rajagopal; Ramasamy Ramaraj

2005-01-01

292

Search for reaction conditions and catalyst for selective prebiotic formation of Aldopentoses from Glycolaldehyde and Formaldehyde  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Formation of organic compounds from simple precursors appears to have been one of the first steps from geochemistry towards modern biochemistry. The Earth lagoons, hydrothermal springs, cosmic dust, meteorites, protoplanetary disk, etc. has been considered as the possible ``reactors'' in which the prebiotic synthesis could have taken place. The finding of reactions and reaction conditions which allow to produce the high yields of the biologically relevant substances from simple compounds could help us to verify different hypothesis of plausible prebotic conditions. In this work we have studied the formation of vitally important sugars, namely aldopentoses (ribose, xylose, lyxose and arabinose), from glycolaldehyde and formaldehyde over catalysts. Aldopentoses nowadays play the important roles as the components of polysaccharides, glycosides, nucleic acids and ATP. Glycolaldehyde is the simplest monosaccharide, which was found in the interstellar space [1], where it could be generated as a result of several processes, for instance, condensation of formaldehyde under UV-radiation [2]. In this work the peculiarities of interaction between glycolaldehyde and formaldehyde in the presence of soluble (phosphate and borate buffers) and solid (minerals apatite and montmorillonites) catalysts were studied. The dependences of composition of the reaction products on the catalyst nature, molar ratio of substrates, pH value of reaction mixture were revealed. The yields of aldopentoses amount to ca. 60-65% in the presence of borate catalyst under optimized reaction conditions. Borate acts not only as a catalyst, but also as the stabilizer of active intermediates and aldopentoses from side reactions [3]. Borates are present in some mineral and clays (serpentine, montmorillonite etc.) and in water of Cityhot springs (Geyser valley, placeKamchatka) in rather high concentrations. Therefore catalysis by borates could be considered as plausible prebotic condition. Acknowledgements. We thank Dr. S. Yashnik for providing the montmorillonite clays. The financial support of Program RAS (program ``Origin of biosphere and evolution biogeology systems'') is gratefully acknowledged. Hollis, J., Jewell, P., Lovas, F., et al., The Astrophysical Journal. 613, L45--L48, 2004 Pestunova, O., Simonov, A., Snytnikov, V., et al., Adv. Space Res. 36/2, 214-219, 2005. Ricardo, A., Carrigan, M.A., Olcott, A.N., Benner, S.A. Science. 303, 5655, 196, 2004.

Delidovich, Irina; Taran, Oxana; Parmon, Valentin; Gromov, Nikolay

2012-07-01

293

COPPER-CATALYZED CROSS-COUPLING REACTIONS: THE FORMATION OF CARBON-CARBON AND CARBON-SULFUR BONDS  

E-print Network

COPPER-CATALYZED CROSS-COUPLING REACTIONS: THE FORMATION OF CARBON-CARBON AND CARBON-SULFUR BONDS Chemistry #12;© Copyright by Craig G. Bates 2005 All Rights Reserved #12;COPPER-CATALYZED CROSS without her. Thank You January 24, 2005 #12;vi ABSTRACT COPPER-CATALYZED CROSS-COUPLING REACTIONS

Venkataraman, Dhandapani "DV"

294

Stable complex formation of thylakoidal processing peptidase and PGRL1.  

PubMed

The thylakoid-transfer signal is required for energy-dependent translocation of preproteins into the thylakoid lumen and is removed by the thylakoidal processing peptidase (TPP). PGRL1 is an essential component of antimycin A-sensitive photosynthetic cyclic electron flow in chloroplasts. Here we report that one of the TPP isoforms, Plsp1, forms a stable complex with PGRL1. Genetic data demonstrate that PGRL1 is not essential for Plsp1 activity in vivo, leading to a possibility that PGRL1 may act as a regulator of TPP. PMID:23727204

Endow, Joshua K; Inoue, Kentaro

2013-07-11

295

Secondary Reaction Zone Formations in coated Ni-base Single Crystal Superalloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ruthenium (Ru) has been added to the latest 4th Generation Ni-base superalloys to improve phase stability and modify creep life. Various coatings are routinely applied to these advanced alloys to protect the turbine blade at elevated temperature, however, this creates several problems such as the precipitation of brittle Topologically Close-Packed (TCP) phases and the formation of Secondary Reaction Zones (SRZ). The SRZ forms under the plat-aluminized coating of turbine blades and consists of ?, ? and TCP phases growing into substrate by the migration of high-angle grain boundaries. Surface residual stress and chemical super-saturation of alloying elements are associated to SRZ formation. In the thin sections of high-pressure turbine blades this is critical in determining blade performance and longevity. It is essential to know how Ru additions affect coating and SRZ morphologies during exposure. In this study, we focus on the effects of three variables on the SRZ formation: Ru concentration, alloy composition in Ru-containing alloys and surface finish. A series of Platinum-Aluminised superalloys containing 2-5wt% Ru and having various surface finishes was studied after isothermal exposure at 1100°C for up to 500h. The alloys were classified into two groups by their distinctive SRZ morphology. At the lowest Ru levels sporadic formation of SRZ was observed, whilst a continuous SRZ was formed in the higher Ru alloys. EBSD analysis revealed that the latter group have a higher nucleation rate of individual SRZ grains and also showed more rapid SRZ growth. The precipitation of TCPs in the substrate also inhibited the growth of the SRZ towards the end of the exposure further reducing the penetration of the SRZ into the substrate. It is concluded that Ru-additions to Ni-base superalloys are effective in impeding TCP phase formation in the substrate, but increase both the extent and the rate of SRZ formation beneath coating.

Suzuki, A.; Rae, C. M. F.

2009-05-01

296

Stark effect spectroscopy of carotenoids in photosynthetic antenna and reaction center complexes.  

PubMed

The effects of electric fields on the absorption spectra of the carotenoids spheroidene and spheroidenone in photosynthetic antenna and reaction center complexes (wild-type and several mutants) from purple non-sulfur bacteria are compared with those for the isolated pigments in organic glasses. In general, the field effects are substantially larger for the carotenoid in the protein complexes than for the extracted pigments and larger for spheroidenone than spheroidene. Furthermore, the electrochromic effects for carotenoids in all complexes are much larger than those for the Qx transitions of the bacteriochlorophyll and bacteriopheophytin pigments which absorb in the 450-700 nm spectral region. The underlying mechanism responsible for the Stark effect spectra in the complexes is found to be dominated by a change in permanent dipole moment of the carotenoid upon excitation. The magnitude of this dipole moment change is found to be considerably larger in the B800-850 complex compared to the reaction center for spheroidene; it is approximately equivalent in the two complexes for spheroidenone. These results are discussed in terms of the effects of differences in the carotenoid functional groups, isomers and perturbations on the electronic structure from interactions with the organized environment in the proteins. these data provide a quantitative basis for the analysis of carotenoid bandshifts which are used to measure transmembrane potential, and they highlight some of the pitfalls in making such measurements on complex membranes containing multiple populations of carotenoids. The results for spheroidenone should be useful for studies of mutant proteins, since mutant strains are often grown semi-aerobically to minimize reversion. PMID:1873299

Gottfried, D S; Steffen, M A; Boxer, S G

1991-08-01

297

Computational assessment of non-heteroatom-stabilized carbene complexes reactivity: formation of oxazine derivatives.  

PubMed

A complete DFT-level mechanism elucidation of the two-step reaction of non-heteroatom-stabilized carbenes with imines, followed by addition of alkynes to yield oxazine derivatives, is presented. These compounds show different reactivity than the equivalent Fischer carbene complexes. A rationale of the experimental outcome is presented together with some suggestion for increasing the scope of the reaction, with special attention to the solvent effects in the regioselectivity. PMID:25389797

Funes-Ardoiz, Ignacio; Sampedro, Diego

2014-12-01

298

Characterization of self-propagating formation reactions in Ni\\/Zr multilayered foils using reaction heats, velocities, and temperature-time profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on intermetallic formation reactions in vapor-deposited multilayered foils of Ni\\/Zr with 70 nm bilayers and overall atomic ratios of Ni:Zr, 2 Ni:Zr, and 7 Ni:2 Zr. The sequence of alloy phase formation and the stored energy is evaluated at slow heating rates (~1 K\\/s) using differential scanning calorimetry traces to 725 °C. All three chemistries initially form a

S. C. Barron; R. Knepper; N. Walker; T. P. Weihs

2011-01-01

299

Reactions between vanadium ions and biogenic reductants of tunicates: Spectroscopic probing for complexation and redox products in vitro  

SciTech Connect

Several species of marine tunicates store oxygen-sensitive V{sup III} in blood cells. A sensitive colorimetric V{sup III} assay was used t survey the leading candidates for the native reducing agent of vanadate in tunicates (i.e., An-type tunichromes, glutathione, NADPH, and H{sub 2}S) in reactions with V{sup V} or V{sup IV} ions under anaerobic, aqueous conditions at acidic or neutral pH. Except for the case of An-1 and V{sup V} ions in pH 7 buffer, the assay results for the biogenic reducing agents clearly showed that appreciable quantities of V{sup III} products were not generated under the conditions tested. Therefore, the assay results place new limits on hypothetical mechanisms of V{sup III} formation in vivo. For reactions between An-1 and V{sup V} ions in pH 7 buffer, low levels of V{sup III} products could not be ruled out because of an interfering peak in the colorimetric assays. For similar reactions between V{sup V} ions and An-1, or an An-1,2 mixture, in mildly to moderately basic media, the product mixtures precipitated as greenish black solids. Analyses of the precipitated V/An mixtures using vanadium K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) showed that the major products were tris(catecholate)-type V{sup IV} complexes (65 {plus_minus} 6%) and bis(catecholate)-type V{sup IV}O complexes (20 {plus_minus} 4%). XAS analysis of the V/An-1 product mixture also provided evidence of a minor V{sup III} component (9 {plus_minus} 5% of total V), notable for possible relevance to tunicate biochemistry. The combined results of XAS studies, spectrophotometric studies, and EPR studies consistently establish that reactions between tunichromes (Mm-1 or An-1) and V{sup V} ions generate predominantly V{sup IV}-tunichrome complexes in neutral to moderately basic aqueous media. 53 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Ryan, D.E.; Grant, K.B.; Nakanishi, K. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)] [and others] [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); and others

1996-07-02

300

Removal of boron from wastewater by the hydroxyapatite formation reaction using acceleration effect of ammonia.  

PubMed

The mechanism was discussed for the removal of boron by the hydroxyapatite (HAp) formation reaction using Ca(OH)(2) and (NH(4))(2)HPO(4) in room temperature. Time required to remove boron was 20 min by adding Ca(OH)(2) and (NH(4))(2)HPO(4) for the remaining boron to below 1mg/L. The removal rate of boron was controlled by the HAp precipitate formation and the presence of ammonia. From the XRD patterns and SEM images, HAp could be confirmed in the precipitate product. The reaction between borate ions and calcium hydroxide was accelerated by dehydration with ammonia; the borate-calcium hydroxide compound coprecipitated with resulting HAp. Although the removal of boron decreased in the presence of sulfate, phosphate, and aluminum, these effects could be prevented by adding excess Ca(OH)(2). Interference of fluoride ions was eliminated by adding Al(3+). Sodium alpha-olefin sulfonate was the most effective coagulant for HAp precipitation. The proposed boron removal method has several advantages about treating time and ability of boron removal. The method was successfully applied to the real hot spring wastewater. PMID:22981286

Yoshikawa, Eishi; Sasaki, Atsushi; Endo, Masatoshi

2012-10-30

301

Formation of Molecular Bromine from the Reaction of Ozone with Deliquesced NaBr Aerosol: Evidence for Interface Chemistry  

E-print Network

Formation of Molecular Bromine from the Reaction of Ozone with Deliquesced NaBr Aerosol: Evidence modeling, and molecular dynamics simulations. The molecular bromine production in the chamber experiments on bromine formation in the marine boundary layer shows that several ppt of bromine could potentially

Dabdub, Donald

302

Formation of octahedral iridium(III) dihydrides from the reaction of ortho-chelated aryliridium(I) compounds with dihydrogen  

SciTech Connect

The reaction of Ir/sup I/(CH/sub 2/NMe/sub 2/)-2-R/sup 1/-4-R/sup 2/-6)(COD) (COD = cyclooacta-1,5-diene) with dihydrogen in CD/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/ was monitored by /sup 1/H NMR. At -20/sup 0/C quantitative formation of the novel dihydride complexes Ir/sup III/H/sub 2/(C/sub 6/H/sub 2/(CH/sub 2/NMe/sub 2/)-2-R/sup 1/-4-R/sup 2/-6)(COD) (R/sup 1/ = H, R/sup 2/ = CH/sub 2/NMe/sub 2/ (10), Me (11); R/sup 2/ = H, R/sup 1/ = H (12), Me (13), CH/sub 2/NMe/sub 2/ (14); R/sup 1/ = R/sup 2/ = CH/sub 2/NMe/sub 2/ (15)) occurs. Further reactions, the type of which depends on the bulkiness of the R/sup 1/ and R/sup 2/ groups, occur when these solutions are warmed to 0/sup 0/C. Complexes 12-14 (R/sup 2/ = H) lose H/sub 2/ to re-form Ir/sup I/(C/sub 6/H/sub 3/(CH/sub 2/NMe/sub 2/)-2-R/sup 1/-4)(COD). In contrast, complexes 10, 11, and 15 (R/sup 2/ = alkyl) react further by means of C(aryl)-H reductive elimination. For complex 15 (R/sup 1/ = CH/sub 2/NMe/sub 2/) this results in quantitative formation of 1,3,5-(Me/sub 2/NCH/sub 2/)/sub 3/C/sub 6/H/sub 3/ and IrH(COD). In Ir/sup III/H/sub 2/(C/sub 6/H/sub 3/(CH/sub 2/NMe/sub 2/)-2-R-6)(COD) (R = alkyl (10 and 11)), C(aryl)-H reductive elimination is followed by re-addition of another C(aryl)-H bond, which upon subsequent reductive elimination of H/sub 2/, yields the rearranged iridium(I) complexes Ir/sup I/(C/sub 6/H/sub 3/(CH/sub 2/NMe/sub 2/)-2-R-4)(COD). Since the rearrangement of Ir/sup I/(C/sub 6/H/sub 3/-(CH/sub 2/NMe/sub 2/)-2-R-6)(COD) to Ir/sup I/(C/sub 6/H/sub 3/(CH/sub 2/NMe/sub 2/)-2-R-4)(COD) can also be induced thermally at 60/sup 0/C, it is therefore being catalyzed by dihydrogen at 0/sup 0/C. None of these reactions with dihydrogen is attended by hydrogenation of the COD ligand.

van der Zeijden, A.A.H.; van Koten, G.; Lujik, R.; Grove, D.M.

1988-07-01

303

Aerobic oxidation reactions catalyzed by vanadium complexes of bis(phenolate) ligands.  

PubMed

Vanadium(V) complexes of the tridentate bis(phenolate)pyridine ligand H(2)BPP (H(2)BPP = 2,6-(HOC(6)H(2)-2,4-(t)Bu(2))(2)NC(5)H(3)) and the bis(phenolate)amine ligand H(2)BPA (H(2)BPA = N,N-bis(2-hydroxy-4,5-dimethylbenzyl)propylamine) have been synthesized and characterized. The ability of the complexes to mediate the oxidative C-C bond cleavage of pinacol was tested. Reaction of the complex (BPP)V(V)(O)(O(i)Pr) (4) with pinacol afforded the monomeric vanadium(IV) product (BPP)V(IV)(O)(HO(i)Pr) (6) and acetone. Vanadium(IV) complex 6 was oxidized rapidly by air at room temperature in the presence of NEt(3), yielding the vanadium(V) cis-dioxo complex [(BPP)V(V)(O)(2)]HNEt(3). Complex (BPA)V(V)(O)(O(i)Pr) (5) reacted with pinacol at room temperature, to afford acetone and the vanadium(IV) dimer [(BPA)V(IV)(O)(HO(i)Pr)](2). Complexes 4 and 5 were evaluated as catalysts for the aerobic oxidation of 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol and arylglycerol ?-aryl ether lignin model compounds. Although both 4 and 5 catalyzed the aerobic oxidation of 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol, complex 4 was found to be a more active and robust catalyst for oxidation of the lignin model compounds. The catalytic activities and selectivities of the bis(phenolate) complexes are compared to previously reported catalysts. PMID:22708725

Zhang, Guoqi; Scott, Brian L; Wu, Ruilian; Silks, L A Pete; Hanson, Susan K

2012-07-01

304

DHA- Rich Fish Oil Improves Complex Reaction Time in Female Elite Soccer Players.  

PubMed

Omega-3 fatty acids (n-3) has shown to improve neuromotor function. This study examined the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on complex reaction time, precision and efficiency, in female elite soccer players. 24 players from two Spanish female soccer Super League teams were randomly selected and assigned to two experimental groups, then administered, in a double-blind manner, 3.5 g·day(-1) of either DHA-rich fish oil (FO =12) or olive oil (OO = 12) over 4 weeks of training. Two measurements (pre- and post-treatment) of complex reaction time and precision were taken. Participants had to press different buttons and pedals with left and right hands and feet, or stop responding, according to visual and auditory stimuli. Multivariate analysis of variance displayed an interaction between supplement administration (pre/post) and experimental group (FO/OO) on complex reaction time (FO pre = 0.713 ± 0.142 ms, FO post = 0.623 ± 0.109 ms, OO pre = 0.682 ± 1.132 ms, OO post = 0.715 ± 0.159 ms; p = 0.004) and efficiency (FO pre = 40.88 ± 17.41, FO post = 57.12 ± 11.05, OO pre = 49.52 ± 14.63, OO post = 49. 50 ± 11.01; p = 0.003). It was concluded that after 4 weeks of supplementation with FO, there was a significant improvement in the neuromotor function of female elite soccer players. Key pointsThe results obtained from the study suggest that supplementation with DHA produced perceptual-motor benefits in female elite athletes.DHA could be a beneficial supplement in sports where decision making and reaction time efficiency are of importance. PMID:24149875

Guzmán, José F; Esteve, Hector; Pablos, Carlos; Pablos, Ana; Blasco, Cristina; Villegas, José A

2011-01-01

305

Impacts of diffusive transport on carbonate mineral formation from magnesium silicate-CO2-water reactions.  

PubMed

Reactions of CO2 with magnesium silicate minerals to precipitate magnesium carbonates can result in stable carbon sequestration. This process can be employed in ex situ reactors or during geologic carbon sequestration in magnesium-rich formations. The reaction of aqueous CO2 with the magnesium silicate mineral forsterite was studied in systems with transport controlled by diffusion. The approach integrated bench-scale experiments, an in situ spectroscopic technique, and reactive transport modeling. Experiments were performed using a tube packed with forsterite and open at one end to a CO2-rich solution. The location and amounts of carbonate minerals that formed were determined by postexperiment characterization of the solids. Complementing this ex situ characterization, (13)C NMR spectroscopy tracked the inorganic carbon transport and speciation in situ. The data were compared with the output of reactive transport simulations that accounted for diffusive transport processes, aqueous speciation, and the forsterite dissolution rate. All three approaches found that the onset of magnesium carbonate precipitation was spatially localized about 1 cm from the opening of the forsterite bed. Magnesite was the dominant reaction product. Geochemical gradients that developed in the diffusion-limited zones led to locally supersaturated conditions at specific locations even while the volume-averaged properties of the system remained undersaturated. PMID:25420634

Giammar, Daniel E; Wang, Fei; Guo, Bin; Surface, J Andrew; Peters, Catherine A; Conradi, Mark S; Hayes, Sophia E

2014-12-16

306

Chemically Activated Formation of Organic Acids in Reactions of the Criegee Intermediate with Aldehydes and Ketones  

SciTech Connect

Reactions of the Criegee intermediate (CI, .CH2OO.) are important in atmospheric ozonolysis models. In this work, we compute the rates for reactions between .CH2OO. and HCHO, CH3CHO and CH3COCH3 leading to the formation of secondary ozonides (SOZ) and organic acids. Relative to infinitely separated reactants, the SOZ in all three cases is found to be 48–51 kcal mol-1 lower in energy, formed via 1,3- cycloaddition of .CH2OO. across the CQO bond. The lowest energy pathway found for SOZ decomposition is intramolecular disproportionation of the singlet biradical intermediate formed from cleavage of the O–O bond to form hydroxyalkyl esters. These hydroxyalkyl esters undergo concerted decomposition providing a low energy pathway from SOZ to acids. Geometries and frequencies of all stationary points were obtained using the B3LYP/MG3S DFT model chemistry, and energies were refined using RCCSD(T)-F12a/cc-pVTZ-F12 single-point calculations. RRKM calculations were used to obtain microcanonical rate coefficients (k(E)) and the reservoir state method was used to obtain temperature and pressure dependent rate coefficients (k(T, P)) and product branching ratios. At atmospheric pressure, the yield of collisionally stabilized SOZ was found to increase in the order HCHO o CH3CHO o CH3COCH3 (the highest yield being 10-4 times lower than the initial .CH2OO. concentration). At low pressures, chemically activated formation of organic acids (formic acid in the case of HCHO and CH3COCH3, formic and acetic acid in the case of CH3CHO) was found to be the major product channel in agreement with recent direct measurements. Collisional energy transfer parameters and the barrier heights for SOZ reactions were found to be the most sensitive parameters determining SOZ and organic acid yield.

Jalan, Amrit; Allen, Joshua W.; Green, William H.

2013-08-08

307

Direct observation of R-loop formation by single RNA-guided Cas9 and Cascade effector complexes  

PubMed Central

Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) systems protect bacteria and archaea from infection by viruses and plasmids. Central to this defense is a ribonucleoprotein complex that produces RNA-guided cleavage of foreign nucleic acids. In DNA-targeting CRISPR-Cas systems, the RNA component of the complex encodes target recognition by forming a site-specific hybrid (R-loop) with its complement (protospacer) on an invading DNA while displacing the noncomplementary strand. Subsequently, the R-loop structure triggers DNA degradation. Although these reactions have been reconstituted, the exact mechanism of R-loop formation has not been fully resolved. Here, we use single-molecule DNA supercoiling to directly observe and quantify the dynamics of torque-dependent R-loop formation and dissociation for both Cascade- and Cas9-based CRISPR-Cas systems. We find that the protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) affects primarily the R-loop association rates, whereas protospacer elements distal to the PAM affect primarily R-loop stability. Furthermore, Cascade has higher torque stability than Cas9 by using a conformational locking step. Our data provide direct evidence for directional R-loop formation, starting from PAM recognition and expanding toward the distal protospacer end. Moreover, we introduce DNA supercoiling as a quantitative tool to explore the sequence requirements and promiscuities of orthogonal CRISPR-Cas systems in rapidly emerging gene-targeting applications. PMID:24912165

Szczelkun, Mark D.; Tikhomirova, Maria S.; Sinkunas, Tomas; Gasiunas, Giedrius; Karvelis, Tautvydas; Pschera, Patrizia; Siksnys, Virginijus; Seidel, Ralf

2014-01-01

308

The heterogeneous nature of polyethylenimine-DNA complex formation affects transient gene expression.  

PubMed

Polyethylenimine has been used widely in transient gene expression with mammalian cells. To further understand its mediation of gene transfer, the transfection of HEK 293-F cells with dynamically prepared PEI/DNA complexes was studied with the help of fluorescent labeling. The efficiency of complex endocytosis/phagocytosis was found to correlate with the average sizes of complexes applied and complexes greater than 1 mum in diameter were likely excluded by the cells. Coupled with complex growth in size, the degree of association between PEI and DNA increased with the time of complex formation in the presence of competing ions. The blocking of transcription by complex formation necessitated complex dissociation in the nuclear environment for transcription to happen. Intracellularly, the fates of PEI complexed DNA therefore may be mostly determined by the degree of association. Results also suggested that the uptake of PEI/DNA complexes and subsequent protein expression were independent of the cell cycle stages of HEK 293-F cells. PMID:19649718

Han, Xiangzong; Fang, Qiangyi; Yao, Feng; Wang, Xiaoning; Wang, Jufang; Yang, Shengli; Shen, Bing Q

2009-08-01

309

A common intermediate for N2 formation in enzymes and zeolites: side-on Cu-nitrosyl complexes  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the mechanisms of catalytic processes requires the identification of reaction centers and key intermediates, both of which are often achieved by the use of spectroscopic characterization tools. Due to the heterogeneity of active centers in heterogeneous catalysts, it is frequently difficult to identify the specific sites that are responsible for the overall activity. Furthermore, the simultaneous presence of a large number of surface species on the catalyst surface often poses a great challenge for the unambiguous determination of the relevant species in the reaction mechanism. In contrast, enzymes possess catalytically active centers with precisely defined coordination environments that are only able to accommodate intermediates relevant to the specific catalytic process. Here we show that side-on Cu+-NO+ complexes characterized by high magnetic field solid state magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies are the key intermediates in the selective catalytic reduction of NO over Cu-SSZ-13 zeolite catalysts. Analogous intermediates have been observed and characterized in nitrite reductase enzymes, and shown to be the critical intermediates in the formation of N2 for anaerobic ammonium oxidation reactions.[1] The identification of this key reaction intermediate, combined with the results of our prior kinetic studies, allows us to propose a new reaction mechanism for the selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH3 under oxygen-rich environments over Cu-SSZ-13 zeolites, a key reaction in automotive emission control. The authors acknowledge the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy/Vehicle Technologies Program for the support of this work. The research described in this paper was performed at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated for the US DOE by Battelle Memorial Institute.

Kwak, Ja Hun; Lee, Jong H.; Burton, Sarah D.; Lipton, Andrew S.; Peden, Charles HF; Szanyi, Janos

2013-09-16

310

Factors leading to the formation of arc cloud complexes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A total of 12 mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) were investigated. The duration of the gust front, produced by each MCS, was used to classify the MCSs. Category 1 MCSs were defined as ones that produced a gust front and the gust front lasted for more than 6 h. There were 7 category 1 MCSs in the sample. Category 2 MCSs were defined as ones that produced a gust front and the gust front lasted for 6 h or less. There were 4 category 2 MCSs. The MCS of Case 12 was not categorized because the precipitation characteristics were similar to a squall line, rather than an MCS. All of the category 1 MCSs produced arc cloud complexes (ACCs), while only one of the category 2 MCSs produced an ACC. To determine if there were any differences in the characteristics between the MCSs of the two categories, composite analyses were accomplished. The analyses showed that there were significant differences in the characteristics of category 1 and 2 MCSs. Category 1 MCSs, on average, had higher thunderstorm heights, greater precipitation intensities, colder cloud top temperatures and produced larger magnitudes of surface divergence than category 2 MCSs.

Welshinger, Mark John; Brundidge, Kenneth C.

1987-01-01

311

The adenylate cyclase receptor complex and aqueous humor formation.  

PubMed

The secretory tissue of the eye, the ciliary processes, contains an enzyme receptor complex, composed of membrane proteins, the catalytic moiety of the enzyme adenylate cyclase, a guanyl nucleotide regulatory protein (or N protein), and other features. The enzyme can be activated by well-known neurohumoral or humoral agents, catecholamines, glycoprotein hormones produced by the hypothalamic pituitary axis, and other related compounds, including placental gonadotropin, organic fluorides, and forskolin, a diterpene. These compounds cause the ciliary epithelia to produce cyclic AMP at an accelerated rate. Cyclic AMP, as a second messenger, causes, either directly or indirectly, a decrease in the net rate of aqueous humor inflow that may be modulated by cofactors. Clinical syndromes fit the experimental data so that an integrated explanation can be given for the reduced intraocular pressure witnessed under certain central nervous system and adrenergic influences. The molecular biology of this concept provides important leads for future investigations that bear directly both upon the regulation of intraocular pressure and upon glaucoma. PMID:6093393

Caprioli, J; Sears, M

1984-01-01

312

Interferogram formation in the presence of complex and large deformation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sierra Negra volcano in Isabela island, Gala??pagos, erupted from October 22 to October 30 in 2005. During the 8 days of eruption, the center of Sierra Negra's caldera subsided about 5.4 meters. Three hours prior to the onset of the eruption, an earthquake (Mw 5.4) occurred, near the caldera. Because of the large and complex phase gradient due to the huge subsidence and the earthquake, it is difficult to form an interferogram inside the caldera that spans the eruption. The deformation is so large and spatially variable that the approximations used in existing InSAR software (ROI, ROI_PAC, DORIS, GAMMA) cannot properly coregister SAR image pairs spanning the eruption. We have developed here a two-step algorithm that can form intra-caldera interferograms from these data. The first step involves a "rubber-sheeting" SAR image coregistration. In the second step we use range offset estimates to mitigate the steep phase gradient. Using this new algorithm, we retrieve an interferogram with the best coverage to date inside the caldera of Sierra Negra. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

Yun, S.-H.; Zebker, H.; Segall, P.; Hooper, A.; Poland, M.

2007-01-01

313

Oxidative peptide /and amide/ formation from Schiff base complexes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One hypothesis of the origin of pre-modern forms of life is that the original replicating molecules were specific polypeptides which acted as templates for the assembly of poly-Schiff bases complementary to the template, and that these polymers were then oxidized to peptide linkages, probably by photo-produced oxidants. A double cycle of such anti-parallel complementary replication would yield the original peptide polymer. If this model were valid, the Schiff base between an N-acyl alpha mino aldehyde and an amino acid should yield a dipeptide in aqueous solution in the presence of an appropriate oxidant. In the present study it is shown that the substituted dipeptide, N-acetyl-tyrosyl-tyrosine, is produced in high yield in aqueous solution at pH 9 through the action of H2O2 on the Schiff-base complex between N-acetyl-tyrosinal and tyrosine and that a great variety of N-acyl amino acids are formed from amino acids and aliphatic aldehydes under similar conditions.

Strehler, B. L.; Li, M. P.; Martin, K.; Fliss, H.; Schmid, P.

1982-01-01

314

SEPALLATA3: the 'glue' for MADS box transcription factor complex formation  

PubMed Central

Background Plant MADS box proteins play important roles in a plethora of developmental processes. In order to regulate specific sets of target genes, MADS box proteins dimerize and are thought to assemble into multimeric complexes. In this study a large-scale yeast three-hybrid screen is utilized to provide insight into the higher-order complex formation capacity of the Arabidopsis MADS box family. SEPALLATA3 (SEP3) has been shown to mediate complex formation and, therefore, special attention is paid to this factor in this study. Results In total, 106 multimeric complexes were identified; in more than half of these at least one SEP protein was present. Besides the known complexes involved in determining floral organ identity, various complexes consisting of combinations of proteins known to play a role in floral organ identity specification, and flowering time determination were discovered. The capacity to form this latter type of complex suggests that homeotic factors play essential roles in down-regulation of the MADS box genes involved in floral timing in the flower via negative auto-regulatory loops. Furthermore, various novel complexes were identified that may be important for the direct regulation of the floral transition process. A subsequent detailed analysis of the APETALA3, PISTILLATA, and SEP3 proteins in living plant cells suggests the formation of a multimeric complex in vivo. Conclusions Overall, these results provide strong indications that higher-order complex formation is a general and essential molecular mechanism for plant MADS box protein functioning and attribute a pivotal role to the SEP3 'glue' protein in mediating multimerization. PMID:19243611

Immink, Richard GH; Tonaco, Isabella AN; de Folter, Stefan; Shchennikova, Anna; van Dijk, Aalt DJ; Busscher-Lange, Jacqueline; Borst, Jan W; Angenent, Gerco C

2009-01-01

315

[Mechanism of interaction between risperidone and tea catechin(1)complex formation of risperidone with epigallocatechin gallate].  

PubMed

The mechanism of complexation between risperidone (RISP) and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) was clarified by ¹H-NMR and molecular modeling studies. RISP and EGCg formed an insoluble complex with a 1 : 1 stoichiometry in aqueous solution. In the ¹H-NMR spectra of RISP in DMSO-d?, the chemical shifts of protons neighboring the N atom on the piperizine ring clearly moved downfield upon formation of the complex. In the molecular modeling study, the ¹H-chemical shifts for nine optimized structures of the complex were calculated to compare them with those of the experimental results. Only one conformer with the second minimum energy for the complex supported the downfield shifts of RISP protons. It was found from the structure of the complex that the two hydrogen bonds between hydroxyl groups of the galloyl ring in EGCg and N atoms in RISP, one of which was on the piperizine ring, were formed to stabilize the complex. PMID:21048420

Ikeda, Hirohito; Moriwaki, Hanae; Yukawa, Miho; Iwase, Yukiko; Aki, Hatsumi

2010-11-01

316

Kinetics and Thermochemistry of ClCO Formation from the Cl + CO Association Reaction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laser flash photolysis of Cl2/CO/M mixtures (M = N2, CO, Ar, CO2) has been employed in conjunction with Cl((sup 2)P(sub J)) detection by time-resolved resonance fluorescence spectroscopy to investigate equilibration kinetics in the reactions Cl((sup 2)P(sub J)) + CO ClCO as a function of temperature (185-260 K) and pressure (14-200 Torr). The association and dissociation reactions are found to be in the low-pressure limit over the range of experimental conditions investigated. In N2 and/or CO buffer gases, the temperature dependences of the ClCO formation and dissociation reaction rate constants are described by the Arrhenius expressions k(sub 1) = (1.05 +/- 0.36) x 10(exp -34) exp[(810 +/- 70)/T] cm(exp 6)/molecules(exp 2).s and k(sub -1) = (4.1 +/- 3.1) x 10(exp -10) exp[(-2960 +/- 60)/T]cu cm/(molecule.s) (errors are 2 sigma). Second- and third-law analyses of the temperature dependence of the equilbrium constant (k/k-1) lead to the following thermodynamic parameters for the association reaction: Delta-H(sub 298) = -7.7 +/- 0.6 kcal/mol, Delta-H(sub 0) = -6.9 +/- 0.7 kcal/mol, Delta-S(sub 298) = -23.8 +/- 2.0 cal/mole.K, Delta-H(sub f,298)(ClCO) = 5.2 +/- 0.6 kcal/mol (errors are 2 sigma). The results repported in this study significantly reduce the uncertainties in all reported kinetic and thermodynamic parameters.

Nicovich, J. M.; Kreutter, K. D.; Wine, P. H.

1997-01-01

317

Inhibitory mechanism of pancreatic amyloid fibril formation: formation of the complex between tea catechins and the fragment of residues 22-27.  

PubMed

Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) is a major component of pancreatic amyloid deposits associated with type 2 diabetes. Polyphenols contained in plant foods have been found to inhibit amyloid fibril formation of proteins and/or peptides. However, the inhibition mechanism is not clear for a variety of systems. Here the inhibition mechanism of green tea polyphenols, catechins, on amyloid fibril formation of the IAPP fragment (IAPP22-27), which is of sufficient length for formation of ?-sheet-containing amyloid fibrils, was investigated by means of kinetic analysis. A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) determined that the association constants of gallate-type catechins [epicatechin 3-gallate (ECg) and epigallocatechin 3-gallate] for binding to IAPP22-27 immobilized on the gold plate in QCM were 1 order of magnitude larger than those of the free IAPP22-27 peptide, and also those of epicatechin and epigallocatechin. Kinetic analysis using a two-step autocatalytic reaction mechanism revealed that ECg significantly reduced the rate constants of the first nucleation step of amyloid fibril formation, while the rate of autocatalytic growth was less retarded. (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance studies clarified that a IAPP22-27/ECg complex clearly forms as viewed from the (1)H chemical shift changes and line broadening. Our study suggests that tea catechins specifically inhibit the early stages of amyloid fibril formation to form amyloid nuclei by interacting with the unstructured peptide and that this inhibition mechanism is of great therapeutic value because stabilization of the native state could delay the pathogenesis of amyloid diseases and also the toxicity of the small oligomer (protofibril) is reported to be greater than that of the mature fibril. PMID:23205879

Kamihira-Ishijima, Miya; Nakazawa, Hiromi; Kira, Atsushi; Naito, Akira; Nakayama, Tsutomu

2012-12-21

318

Formation of porous surface layers in reaction bonded silicon nitride during processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An effort was undertaken to determine if the formation of the generally observed layer of large porosity adjacent to the as-nitride surfaces of reaction bonded silicon nitrides could be prevented during processing. Isostatically pressed test bars were prepared from wet vibratory milled Si powder. Sintering and nitriding were each done under three different conditions:(1) bars directly exposed to the furnance atmosphere; (2) bars packed in Si powder; (3) bars packed in Si3N4 powder. Packing the bars in either Si of Si3N4 powder during sintering retarded formation of the layer of large porosity. Only packing the bars in Si prevented formation of the layer during nitridation. The strongest bars (316 MPa) were those sintered in Si and nitrided in Si3N4 despite their having a layer of large surface porosity; failure initiated at very large pores and inclusions. The alpha/beta ratio was found to be directly proportional to the oxygen content; a possible explanation for this relationship is discussed.

Shaw, N. J.; Glasgow, T. K.

1979-01-01

319

Cleavage and formation of molecular dinitrogen in a single system assisted by molybdenum complexes bearing ferrocenyldiphosphine.  

PubMed

The N?N bond of molecular dinitrogen bridging two molybdenum atoms in the pentamethylcyclopentadienyl molybdenum complexes that bear ferrocenyldiphosphine as an auxiliary ligand is homolytically cleaved under visible light irradiation at room temperature to afford two molar molybdenum nitride complexes. Conversely, the bridging molecular dinitrogen is reformed by the oxidation of the molybdenum nitride complex at room temperature. This result provides a successful example of the cleavage and formation of molecular dinitrogen induced by a pair of two different external stimuli using a single system assisted by molybdenum complexes bearing ferrocenyldiphosphine under ambient conditions. PMID:25214300

Miyazaki, Takamasa; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Tanabe, Yoshiaki; Yuki, Masahiro; Nakajima, Kazunari; Yoshizawa, Kazunari; Nishibayashi, Yoshiaki

2014-10-20

320

Complexity of Central Processing in Simple and Choice Multilimb Reaction-Time Tasks  

PubMed Central

The default mode of the motor system is a coupling between limbs. However, in some movements, a decoupling is required and thus calls for selection and facilitation/inhibition processes. Here, we investigate the relative contribution of recruitment versus selection processes to the overall processing complexity. To this aim we proposed a new multilimb reaction-time task (MUL-RT). Simple, choice and normalized (choice minus simple) RT were analysed together with error rates in thirty-six young adults for 15 coordination modes including all possible configuration of limb recruitment. Simple and normalized RTs were respectively assumed to be indicative of the recruitment and selection processes. Results supported a model of coupling/decoupling interactions respectively reporting weak, intermediate and strong interaction for selecting diagonal, ipsilateral and homologous limbs. Movement laterality (left vs. right) had no effect on selection complexity, whereas selecting upper limbs was less challenging than selecting lower limbs. Results in the different coordination modes suggested that recruitment complexity decreased as follows: 3 limbs?=?4 limbs>2 limbs (homologous, ipsilateral and diagonal)>1 limb, and selection complexity as follows: 2 diagonal limbs>3 limbs>2 ipsilateral limbs>1 limb?=?2 homologous limbs>4 limbs. Based on these ordinal scales of recruitment and selection complexity, we extrapolated the overall processing complexity of the simple and choice MUL-RT. This method was efficient in reproducing the absolute results we obtained on a ratio scale (ms) and demonstrated that processing complexity in simple RT was mainly governed by the ‘recruitment principle’ (the more limbs recruited the lower the performance), whereas contributions of recruitment and ‘selection principle’ (nature of the coordination determines performance) to overall processing complexity were similar in choice RT. PMID:24587371

Boisgontier, Matthieu P.; Wittenberg, George F.; Fujiyama, Hakuei; Levin, Oron; Swinnen, Stephan P.

2014-01-01

321

Phosphonato complexes of platinum(II): kinetics of formation and phosphorus-31 NMR characterization studies.  

PubMed

Reactions of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) with phosphonoformic acid (PFA), phosphonoacetic acid (PAA), and methylenediphosphonic acid (MDP) yield various phosphonatoplatinum(II) chelates which were characterized by phosphorus-31 NMR spectroscopy. The P-31 resonances for the chelates appear at 6-12 ppm downfield as compared to the uncomplexed ligands. All complexes exhibit monoprotic acidic behavior in the pH range 2-10. The chemical shift-pH profiles yielded acidity constants, 1.0 x 10(-4), 1.5 x 10(-4), and 1.3 x 10(-6) M-1, for the PFA, PAA, and MDP chelates. In addition to the monomeric chelate, MDP formed a bridged diplatinum(II,II) complex when it reacted with cis-Pt (NH3)2(H2O)2(2)+. The P-31 resonance for this binuclear complex appears at 22 ppm downfield from the unreacted ligand. Rate data for the complexation reactions of the phosphonate ligands with the dichloroplatinum complex are consistent with a mechanism in which a monodentate complex is formed initially through rate-limiting aquation process of the platinum complex, followed by a rapid chelation. For the PFA and PAA complexes, initial binding sites are the carboxylato oxygens. Implications of the various binding modes of the phosphonates in relationship to their antiviral activities are discussed. PMID:2150856

Slavin, L L; Bose, R N

1990-12-01

322

Phosphonato complexes of platinum(II): kinetics of formation and phosphorus-31 NMR characterization studies  

SciTech Connect

Reactions of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) with phosphonoformic acid (PFA), phosphonoacetic acid (PAA), and methylenediphosphonic acid (MDP) yield various phosphonatoplatinum(II) chelates which were characterized by phosphorus-31 NMR spectroscopy. The P-31 resonances for the chelates appear at 6-12 ppm downfield as compared to the uncomplexed ligands. All complexes exhibit monoprotic acidic behavior in the pH range 2-10. The chemical shift-pH profiles yielded acidity constants, 1.0 x 10(-4), 1.5 x 10(-4), and 1.3 x 10(-6) M-1, for the PFA, PAA, and MDP chelates. In addition to the monomeric chelate, MDP formed a bridged diplatinum(II,II) complex when it reacted with cis-Pt (NH3)2(H2O)2(2)+. The P-31 resonance for this binuclear complex appears at 22 ppm downfield from the unreacted ligand. Rate data for the complexation reactions of the phosphonate ligands with the dichloroplatinum complex are consistent with a mechanism in which a monodentate complex is formed initially through rate-limiting aquation process of the platinum complex, followed by a rapid chelation. For the PFA and PAA complexes, initial binding sites are the carboxylato oxygens. Implications of the various binding modes of the phosphonates in relationship to their antiviral activities are discussed.

Slavin, L.L.; Bose, R.N. (Chemistry Department, Kent State University, OH (USA))

1990-12-01

323

Effect of reaction pH and CuSO4 addition on the formation of catechinone due to oxidation of (+)-catechin.  

PubMed

A novel hair dyeing technique being milder and safer for a human body is desired. The oxidation product of (+)-catechin, catechinone, was invented as a safer dyestuff for hair colouring under such the situation. The preparation of catechinone by a chemical oxidation is a practical way and the objective of the study is clarify the effect of the solution pH and in the presence or absence of Cu(2+) on the formation rate and yield of catechinone in order to improve the efficiency of the dye formation. The catechinone formation was monitored by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Catechinone was prepared chemically from (+)-catechin in aqueous solution with O2 gas introduced over a pH range of 7.1-11.7. The rate and amount of the dye formation increase with increasing pH. Dissociation of the hydroxyl group of the catechol part of (+)-catechin is significant for the oxidation of (+)-catechin and promotes the dye production. This is because the deprotonated (+)-catechin has a higher reactivity with O2 . The production of catechinone is accelerated by the addition of CuSO4 and the production rate reaches the maximum at pH = 8.8. (+)-Catechin - Cu(2+) complexes are formed and the formation promotes the oxidation of the catechol part of (+)-catechin at pH ? 8.8. On the other hand, the complex becomes too stable to proceed for the oxidation reaction at pH > 8.8. PMID:23574395

Matsubara, T; Wataoka, I; Urakawa, H; Yasunaga, H

2013-08-01

324

Ligand exchange and complex formation kinetics studied by NMR exemplified on fac-[(CO) 3M(H 2O)] + (M = Mn, Tc, Re)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review ligand exchange and complex formation reactions on fac-[(CO)3M(H2O)3]+ (M=Mn, Tc, Re) and on fac-[(CO)2(NO)Re(H2O)3]2+ are presented. A variety of experimental NMR techniques are described and it is shown that sometimes combinations of techniques applied at variable temperature or variable pressure allowed to measure exchange rate constants and their activation parameters as well as thermodynamic parameters. Furthermore, the

Lothar Helm

2008-01-01

325

Conversion of Pd(0) complexes with mixed organometallic ligands in reactions with oxygen  

SciTech Connect

This paper studies the interaction of Pd(0) complexes with the formulas Pd(Ph/sub 2/PC/sub 6/H/sub 4/F)/sub 2/ (PPh/sub 3/) (I), Pd(Ph/sub 2/PC/sub 6/H/sub 4/F)/sub 2/ (AsPh/sub 3/) (II), and Pd(Ph/sub 2/PC/sub 6/H/sub 4/F)/sub 2/ (SbPh/sub 3/) (III) with oxygen. The typical ESR signal is presented which appears when the complexes are oxidized by oxygen. On the basis of the ESR and XPS data it has been shown that the formation of the paramagnetic compounds occurs as a result of the oxidation of the Pd(0) complexes and the appearance of Pd(I)-O/sub 2//sup -/ adducts, in which the paramagnetic electron is localized predominantly in the oxygen pi orbitals. The interaction of Pd(0) complexes of the type PdL/sub 2//sup 2/L/sup 1/ with oxygen in the solid phase results in the formation of the corresponding phosphine oxides and dimeric palladium compounds.

Adamov, N.I.; Leont'ev, A.Y.; Polovnyak, V.K.

1986-01-10

326

Stereoselective Synthesis of Highly Functionalized Indanes and Dibenzocycloheptadienes through Complex Radical Cascade Reactions.  

PubMed

Two highly stereoselective radical-mediated syntheses of densely functionalized indanes and dibenzocycloheptadienes from ortho-vinyl- and ortho-vinylaryl-substituted N-(arylsulfonyl)-acrylamides, respectively, are presented here. The chemoselective addition of in?situ generated radicals (X(.) ) onto the styrene moieties triggers an unprecedented reaction cascade, resulting in the formation of one new C?X bond and two new C?C bonds, a formal 1,4-aryl migration, and the extrusion of SO2 to generate an amidyl radical intermediate. This intermediate, upon H?abstraction, leads to the observed 5- and 7-membered ring carbocyclic products, respectively, in a highly efficient manner. PMID:25597296

Kong, Wangqing; Fuentes, Noelia; García-Domínguez, Andres; Merino, Estíbaliz; Nevado, Cristina

2015-02-16

327

Accelerating the Computation of Detailed Chemical Reaction Kinetics for Simulating Combustion of Complex Fuels  

SciTech Connect

Combustion of hydrocarbon fuels has been a very challenging scientific and engineering problem due to the complexity of turbulent flows and hydrocarbon reaction kinetics. There is an urgent need to develop an efficient modeling capability to accurately predict the combustion of complex fuels. Detailed chemical kinetic models for the surrogates of fuels such as gasoline, diesel and JP-8 consist of thousands of chemical species and Arrhenius reaction steps. Oxygenated fuels such as bio-fuels and heavier hydrocarbons, such as from newer fossil fuel sources, are expected to have a much more complex chemistry requiring increasingly larger chemical kinetic models. Such models are beyond current computational capability, except for homogeneous or partially stirred reactor type calculations. The advent of highly parallel multi-core processors and graphical processing units (GPUs) promises a steep increase in computational performance in the coming years. This paper will present a software framework that translates the detailed chemical kinetic models to high- performance code targeted for GPU accelerators.

Grout, Ray W [ORNL

2012-01-01

328

Accelerating the Computation of Detailed Chemical Reaction Kinetics for Simulating Combustion of Complex Fuels  

SciTech Connect

Combustion of hydrocarbon fuels has been a very challenging scientific and engineering problem due to the complexity of turbulent flows and hydrocarbon reaction kinetics. There is an urgent need to develop an efficient modeling capability to accurately predict the combustion of complex fuels. Detailed chemical kinetic models for the surrogates of fuels such as gasoline, diesel and JP-8 consist of thousands of chemical species and Arrhenius reaction steps. Oxygenated fuels such as bio-fuels and heavier hydrocarbons, such as from newer fossil fuel sources, are expected to have a much more complex chemistry requiring increasingly larger chemical kinetic models. Such models are beyond current computational capability, except for homogeneous or partially stirred reactor type calculations. The advent of highly parallel multi-core processors and graphical processing units (GPUs) promises a steep increase in computational performance in the coming years. This paper will present a software framework that translates the detailed chemical kinetic models to high-performance code targeted for GPU accelerators.

Sankaran, R.; Grout, R.

2012-01-01

329

In vitro formation of pyromorphite via reaction of Pb sources with soft-drink phosphoric acid.  

PubMed

Pyromorphite (Pb(5)(PO(4))(3)Cl) is a Pb mineral whose rapid kinetic formation and thermodynamic stability (Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 37 (1973) 367, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 38 (1974) 887) has gained much attention in recent years as a mechanism to diminish Pb toxicity. Our research examined the in vitro formation of pyromorphite (K(sp) = 10(-25)) to significantly reduce Pb bioavailability via the reaction of PbCl(2) and Pb paint with cola soft drinks (regular, caffeine-free, and diet) that contain phosphoric acid. X-ray diffraction spectroscopy was employed to identify and quantify the crystal phases. The experiments consisted of a two-phase experimental design to simulate stomach and gastrointestinal (GI) conditions comprised of an initial reaction system (stomach) at pH 2.0 for 1 h at 37 degrees C and second-phase conditions (GI tract) at pH 7.0 for 5 h at 37 degrees C. The results showed that available Pb in solution was quickly transformed to pyromorphite by a precipitation mechanism. The PbCl(2) experiments observed over 90% Pb removal from solution within 30 s and nearly all (> 93-100%) of the Pb was converted to pyromorphite within 6 h. Similar results were observed in the Pb-paint system in which all of the available Pb initially available in solution was stabilized as pyromorphite within a short reaction period. While approximately 69% of the total Pb in the paint was converted to pyromorphite, there were minimal amounts of Pb in solution. It appeared that the dissolution mechanism allowing Pb in the paint to be released into the cola solution was repressed and was attributed to precipitation of pyromorphite on the surfaces of Pb-paint particles that inhibited further Pb release. The results of this research suggest that the in vivo formation of pyromorphite in children that ingest Pb-contaminated material (soil, dust, paint) with a phosphate source, such as a cola soft drink, may significantly reduce Pb bioavailability and allow passage of the pyromorphite material through the GI tract with minimal Pb absorption into the body. PMID:12526914

Scheckel, Kirk G; Ryan, James A

2003-01-20

330

Coke formation on HFAU and HEMT zeolites. Influence of the reaction temperature and propene pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of coke from propene (Pp = 1.3 kPa and 13 kPa) was investigated on HFAU and HEMT zeolites in a microbalance for temperatures ranging from 120 °C to 450 °C. For both zeolites, the greater the propene pressure and the lower the temperature the faster the initial coke formation. However for high propene pressure, initial coke formation is faster with HEMT zeolite. This can be related to the stronger acidity of the HEMT sample. For low propene pressure and after 420 minutes of coking, a minimum in coke is observed for T = 350 ^circC, which can be related to the difference between the rate of formation and the rate of retention of coke molecules. At low temperature, due to their low volatility, oligomers are easily formed and retained in the zeolite pores. These molecules can be totally eliminated by an adequate thermal treatment in vacuum. At higher temperature, only aromatic or polyaromatic compounds which present a size larger than the pore apertures can be retained in the cavities of the zeolites. The greater the reaction time, the faster the retention. Whatever the reaction temperature, coke molecules are more homogeneously distributed in the HEMT crystallites than in those of HFAU samples. For this latter zeolite coke molecules are preferentially formed in the cavities located near the outer surface of the crystallites (shell coking). La formation de coke à partir du propène (Pp = 1,3 et 13 kPa) a été étudiée en microbalance sur zéolithes HFAU et HEMT dans une gamme de température variant de 120 à 450°C. La vitesse initiale de formation de coke dépend de la pression du propène, de la température et également de la zéolithe. Ainsi, pour une forte pression en propène, la vitesse initiale de formation de coke est toujours plus importante sur HEMT que sur HFAU. Ceci est à relier à la plus grande acidité et à la présence de sites acides plus forts sur HEMT. Après 420 minutes de réaction, et pour une faible pression en propène le pourcentage de coke déposé sur les deux zéolithes passe par un minimum à 350°C ; ce phénomène est dû à une compétition entre formation et rétention des molécules de coke. A basse température, des oligomères sont rapidement formés et restent bloqués dans les pores des zéolithes à cause de leur faible volatilité. Ces derniers peuvent être totalement éliminés par un traitement thermique sous vide. A hautes températures des aromatiques et polyaromatiques de tailles supérieures à celles des ouvertures de pores, sont formés et retenus dans les cavités des zéolithes ; plus le temps de réaction est grand, plus la rétention est importante. Quelle que soit la température de réaction, les molécules de coke sont réparties de façon plus homogène dans les crystallites de la zéolithe HEMT. Dans le cas de HFAU, les molécules de coke seraient préférentiellement localisées dans les cavités se trouvant proches de la surface externe des crystallites.

Doka Nassionou, G. A.; Magnoux, P.; Guisnet, M.

1999-02-01

331

Stereoelectronic effects in C-H bond oxidation reactions of Ni(I) N-heterocyclic carbene complexes.  

PubMed

Activation of O2 by the three-coordinate Ni(I) ring-expanded N-heterocyclic carbene complexes Ni(RE-NHC)(PPh3)Br (RE-NHC = 6-Mes, 1; 7-Mes, 2) produced the structurally characterized dimeric Ni(II) complexes Ni(6-Mes)(Br)(?-OH)(?-O-6-Mes')NiBr (3) and Ni(7-Mes)(Br)(?-OH)(?-O-7-Mes')NiBr (4) containing oxidized ortho-mesityl groups from one of the carbene ligands. NMR and mass spectrometry provided evidence for further oxidation in solution to afford bis-?-aryloxy compounds; the 6-Mes derivative was isolated, and its structure was verified. Low-temperature UV-visible spectroscopy showed that the reaction between 1 and O2 was too fast even at ca. -80 °C to yield any observable intermediates and also supported the formation of more than one oxidation product. Addition of O2 to Ni(I) precursors containing a less electron-donating diamidocarbene (6-MesDAC, 7) or less bulky 6- or 7-membered ring diaminocarbene ligands (6- or 7-o-Tol; 8 and 9) proceeded quite differently, affording phosphine and carbene oxidation products (Ni(O?PPh3)2Br2 and (6-MesDAC)?O) and the mononuclear Ni(II) dibromide complexes (Ni(6-o-Tol)(PPh3)Br2 (10) and (Ni(7-o-Tol)(PPh3)Br2 (11)) respectively. Electrochemical measurements on the five Ni(I) precursors show significantly higher redox potentials for 1 and 2, the complexes that undergo oxygen atom transfer from O2. PMID:24972307

Poulten, Rebecca C; López, Isidoro; Llobet, Antoni; Mahon, Mary F; Whittlesey, Michael K

2014-07-21

332

Characterization of self-propagating formation reactions in Ni/Zr multilayered foils using reaction heats, velocities, and temperature-time profiles  

SciTech Connect

We report on intermetallic formation reactions in vapor-deposited multilayered foils of Ni/Zr with 70 nm bilayers and overall atomic ratios of Ni:Zr, 2 Ni:Zr, and 7 Ni:2 Zr. The sequence of alloy phase formation and the stored energy is evaluated at slow heating rates (~1 K/s) using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) traces to 725ºC. All three chemistries initially form a Ni-Zr amorphous phase which crystallizes first to the intermetallic NiZr. The heat of reaction to the final phase is 34-36 kJ/mol atom for all chemistries. Intermetallic formation reactions are also studied at rapid heating rates (greater than 105 K/s) in high temperature, self-propagating reactions which can be ignited in these foils by an electric spark. We find that reaction velocities and maximum reaction temperatures (Tmax) are largely independent of foil chemistry at 0.6 ± 0.1 m/s and 1220 ± 50 K, respectively, and that the measured Tmax is more than 200 K lower than predicted adiabatic temperatures (Tad). The difference between Tmax and Tad is explained by the prediction that transformation to the final intermetallic phases occurs after Tmax and results in the release of 20-30 % of the total heat of reaction and a delay in rapid cooling.

Barron, S. C.; Knepper, R.; Walker, N.; Weihs, T. P.

2011-01-11

333

In situ investigations of bromine-storing complex formation in a zinc-flow battery at gold electrodes  

SciTech Connect

One of the most promising candidates for affordable energy storage systems for electric vehicles is the zinc/bromine battery. The reversible cell voltage of 1.82 V, a theoretical specific energy of 430 Wh kg{sup {minus}1}, robustness, high cycle life, unlimited standby periods in the charged or discharged state, low self-discharge rates, and operation at ambient temperature explain the scientific and industrial interest in this system. The storage reactions of the zinc/bromine battery are the cathodic deposition of zinc and the anodic formation of a nonaqueous polybromide phase. Quaternary ammonium cations, N-methylethylpyrrolidinium (MEP{sup +}) and N-methylethylmorpholinium (MEM{sup +}), store the bromine as polybromide complexes. The mechanism of this complicated reaction determines the polarization and self-discharge rate of the bromine electrode. Electrochemical in situ techniques, phase-stabilized electrochemical quartz microbalance, and in situ reflection-absorption Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were employed for the first time to investigate these electrode processes. It was shown that specifically adsorbed polybromide anions (Br{sub n}{minus}) formed MEM-Br{sub n}. Therefore, a homogeneous chemical reaction of the dissolved MEP{sup +} cation with electrochemically generated bromine leads to the storage complex MEP-Br{sub n} much more rapidly than the heterogeneous electrochemical reaction of the strongly adsorbed MEM{sup +} to MEM-Br{sub n}. These results demonstrate that in situ techniques not only support the evaluation of the mechanism but also provide key information for battery development.

Kautek, W.; Conradi, A.; Sahre, M.; Fabjan, C.; Drobits, J.; Bauer, G.; Schuster, P.

1999-09-01

334

Superoxide dismutase enhances the formation of hydroxyl radicals in the reaction of 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid with molecular oxygen.  

PubMed Central

Superoxide dismutase (SOD) enhanced the formation of hydroxyl radicals, which were detected by using the e.s.r. spin-trapping technique, in a reaction mixture containing 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (or p-aminophenol), Fe3+ ions, EDTA and potassium phosphate buffer, pH 7.4. The hydroxyl-radical formation enhanced by SOD was inhibited by catalase and desferrioxamine, and stimulated by EDTA and diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid, suggesting that both hydrogen peroxide and iron ions participate in the reaction. The hydroxyl-radical formation enhanced by SOD may be considered to proceed via the following steps. First, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid is spontaneously auto-oxidized in a process that requires molecular oxygen and yields superoxide anions and anthranilyl radicals. This reaction seems to be reversible. Secondly, the superoxide anions formed in the first step are dismuted by SOD to generate hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen, and hence the equilibrium in the first step is displaced in favour of the formation of superoxide anions. Thirdly, hydroxyl radicals are generated from hydrogen peroxide through the Fenton reaction. In this Fenton reaction Fe2+ ions are available since Fe3+ ions are readily reduced by 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid. The superoxide anions do not seem to participate in the reduction of Fe3+ ions, since superoxide anions are rapidly dismuted by SOD present in the reaction mixture. PMID:2843167

Iwahashi, H; Ishii, T; Sugata, R; Kido, R

1988-01-01

335

Metal-induced B-H bond activation: reactions between half-sandwich Ir and Rh complexes with carboranylthioamide.  

PubMed

Novel half-sandwich metal (Ir, Rh) complexes constructed from carboranylthioamide ligands containing an unexpected metal-boron bond were synthesized and characterized. The strong base n-butyllithium is demonstrated to be necessary in the reaction process. PMID:25492590

Xu, Bin; Wang, Yin-Ping; Yao, Zi-Jian; Jin, Guo-Xin

2014-12-23

336

Spectrophotometric determination of doxazosin mesylate in tablets by ion-pair and charge-transfer complexation reactions.  

PubMed

Two accurate, easy spectrophotometric methods for the determination of doxazosin mesylate were described. The first method was based on the formation of ion-pair complexes with the acidic sulfophthalein dyes bromocresol purple (BCP) and bromophenol blue (BPB) in pH 3.3 and 4.5 citrate-phosphate buffer, respectively. The formed complexes were extracted into dichloromethane, and their absorbance was measured at 403 and 410 nm for BCP and BPB, respectively. The second method was based on the charge transfer reaction of the drug as an n-electron donor with either 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ) or 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) as pi-acceptors, to give colored radical anions. The absorbances of products were measured at 457 nm in acetonitrile and 838 nm in methanol for DDQ and TCNQ, respectively. Under the optimum reaction conditions, Beer's law was obeyed with a good correlation coefficient (r = 0.9997-0.9999) in the concentration ranges 3.0-18.0, 3.0-20.0, 15.0-95.0, and 10.0-100.0 microg/mL for the BCP, BPB, DDQ, and TCNQ methods, respectively. Limits of detection of the BCP, BPB, DDQ, and TCNQ methods were 0.314, 0.408, 1.935, and 1.610 microg/mL, respectively. The limits of quantification were 1.045, 1.360, 6.449, and 5.367 microg/mL, respectively. The parameters molar absorptivity, precision, accuracy, recovery, robustness, and stability constant were studied. The proposed methods were successfully applied for determination of the drug in tablets with good accuracy and precision. Statistical comparison of the results with those obtained by a reported method showed good agreement and indicated no significant difference in accuracy and precision. PMID:19382570

Aydo?mu?, Zeynep; Aydodmup, Zeynep; Barla, Asli

2009-01-01

337

Dapper1 promotes autophagy by enhancing the Beclin1-Vps34-Atg14L complex formation  

PubMed Central

Autophagy is an intracellular degradation process to clear up aggregated proteins or aged and damaged organelles. The Beclin1-Vps34-Atg14L complex is essential for autophagosome formation. However, how the complex formation is regulated is unclear. Here, we show that Dapper1 (Dpr1) acts as a critical regulator of the Beclin1-Vps34-Atg14L complex to promote autophagy. Dpr1 ablation in the central nervous system results in motor coordination defect and accumulation of p62 and ubiquitinated proteins. Dpr1 increases autophagosome formation as indicated by elevated puncta formation of LC3, Atg14L and DFCP1 (Double FYVE-containing protein 1). Conversely, loss of Dpr1 impairs LC3 lipidation and causes p62/SQSTM1 accumulation. Dpr1 directly interacts with Beclin1 and Atg14L and enhances the Beclin1-Vps34 interaction and Vps34 activity. Together, our findings suggest that Dpr1 enhances the Atg14L-Beclin1-Vps34 complex formation to drive autophagy. PMID:24980960

Ma, Benyu; Cao, Weipeng; Li, Wenxia; Gao, Chan; Qi, Zhen; Zhao, Yan; Du, Jun; Xue, Hua; Peng, Junya; Wen, Jun; Chen, Hua; Ning, Yuanheng; Huang, Lei; Zhang, Hong; Gao, Xiang; Yu, Li; Chen, Ye-Guang

2014-01-01

338

URDME: a modular framework for stochastic simulation of reaction-transport processes in complex geometries  

PubMed Central

Background Experiments in silico using stochastic reaction-diffusion models have emerged as an important tool in molecular systems biology. Designing computational software for such applications poses several challenges. Firstly, realistic lattice-based modeling for biological applications requires a consistent way of handling complex geometries, including curved inner- and outer boundaries. Secondly, spatiotemporal stochastic simulations are computationally expensive due to the fast time scales of individual reaction- and diffusion events when compared to the biological phenomena of actual interest. We therefore argue that simulation software needs to be both computationally efficient, employing sophisticated algorithms, yet in the same time flexible in order to meet present and future needs of increasingly complex biological modeling. Results We have developed URDME, a flexible software framework for general stochastic reaction-transport modeling and simulation. URDME uses Unstructured triangular and tetrahedral meshes to resolve general geometries, and relies on the Reaction-Diffusion Master Equation formalism to model the processes under study. An interface to a mature geometry and mesh handling external software (Comsol Multiphysics) provides for a stable and interactive environment for model construction. The core simulation routines are logically separated from the model building interface and written in a low-level language for computational efficiency. The connection to the geometry handling software is realized via a Matlab interface which facilitates script computing, data management, and post-processing. For practitioners, the software therefore behaves much as an interactive Matlab toolbox. At the same time, it is possible to modify and extend URDME with newly developed simulation routines. Since the overall design effectively hides the complexity of managing the geometry and meshes, this means that newly developed methods may be tested in a realistic setting already at an early stage of development. Conclusions In this paper we demonstrate, in a series of examples with high relevance to the molecular systems biology community, that the proposed software framework is a useful tool for both practitioners and developers of spatial stochastic simulation algorithms. Through the combined efforts of algorithm development and improved modeling accuracy, increasingly complex biological models become feasible to study through computational methods. URDME is freely available at http://www.urdme.org. PMID:22727185

2012-01-01

339

Kinetic studies of dicopper complexes in catechol oxidase model reaction by using an approximationless evaluating method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oxidation of 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol to 3,5-di-tert-butyl-o-benzoquinone catalyzed by dinuclear copper(II) complexes {[Cu2(L1)(CF3SO3)2(H2O)4]-(CF3SO3)2 (1) and [Cu2(L2O)](CF3SO3)2 (2)| has been investigated in methanol saturated with O2 at ambient temperature. Detailed kinetic studies were carried out and for the treatment the fitting software ZiTa was applied. On the basis of the results in the kinetic studies a possible mechanism of the catalytic reaction

Katalin Selmeczi; Marius Réglier; Gábor Speier; Gábor Peintler

2004-01-01

340

The use of new ionic liquids in two-phase catalytic hydrogenation reaction by rhodium complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reaction of 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIC) with sodium tetrafluoroborate or sodium hexafluorophosphate produced the room temperature-, air- and water-stable molten salts (BMI+)(BF4?) (1) and (BMI+)(PF6?) (2), respectively, in almost quantitative yield. The rhodium complexes RhCl(PPh3)3 and [Rh(cod)2][BF4] are completely soluble in these ionic liquids and they are able to catalyse the hydrogenation of cyclohexene at 10 atm and 25°C in

Paulo A. Z. Suarez; Jeane E. L. Dullius; Sandra Einloft; Roberto F. De Souza; Jairton Dupont

1996-01-01

341

Standard enthalpies of formation of some 3d transition metal carbides by high temperature reaction calorimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The standard enthalpies of formation of some 3d transition metal carbides have been measured by high-temperature reaction calorimetry. The following results are reported: (All data in kJ\\/mole of atoms). V4C3:?(40.3±1.2); Cr7C3:?(14.1±0.8); Mn5C2:?(8.9±1.5); Mn7C3:?(9.1±1.3); Fe3C:4.7±1.1; Co2C:2.8±1.3; Co3C: 2.4±1.4; Ni3C:1.2±1.3. These values were all obtained by direct synthesis experiments. For TiC we found?(92.9±8.9) by solute-solvent drop calorimetry. The results are compared with

S. V. Meschel; O. J. Kleppa

1997-01-01

342

Formation of porous surface layers in reaction bonded silicon nitride during processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microstructural examination of reaction bonded silicon nitride (RBSN) has shown that there is often a region adjacent to the as-nitrided surfaces that is even more porous than the interior of this already quite porous material. Because this layer of large porosity is considered detrimental to both the strength and oxidation resistance of RBSN, a study was undertaken to determine if its formation could be prevented during processing. All test bars studied were made from a single batch of Si powder which was milled for 4 hours in heptane in a vibratory mill using high density alumina cylinders as the grinding media. After air drying the powder, bars were compacted in a single acting die and hydropressed.

Shaw, N. J.; Glasgow, T. K.

1979-01-01

343

Formation of P450•P450 Complexes and Their Effect on P450 Function  

PubMed Central

Cytochromes P450 (P450) are membrane-bound enzymes that catalyze the monooxygenation of a diverse array of xenobiotic and endogenous compounds. The P450s responsible for foreign compound metabolism generally are localized in the endoplasmic reticulum of the liver, lung and small intestine. P450 enzymes do not act alone but require an interaction with other electron transfer proteins such as NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) and cytochrome b5. Because P450s are localized in the endoplasmic reticulum with these and other ER-resident proteins, there is a potential for protein-protein interactions to influence P450 function. There has been increasing evidence that P450 enzymes form complexes in the ER, with compelling support that formation of P450•P450 complexes can significantly influence their function. Our goal is to review the research supporting the formation of P450•P450 complexes, their specificity, and how drug metabolism may be affected. This review describes the potential mechanisms by which P450s may interact, and provides evidence to support each of the possible mechanisms. Additionally, evidence for the formation of both heteromeric and homomeric P450 complexes are reviewed. Finally, direct physical evidence for P450 complex formation in solution and in membranes is summarized, and questions directing the future research of functional P450 interactions are discussed with respect to their potential impact on drug metabolism. PMID:22155419

Reed, James R.; Backes, Wayne L.

2011-01-01

344

Complex formation between heme oxygenase and phytochrome during biosynthesis in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato.  

PubMed

The plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato carries two genes encoding bacterial phytochromes. Sequence motifs identify both proteins (PstBphP1 and PstBphP2, respectively) as biliverdin IX? (BV)-binding phytochromes. PstbphP1 is arranged in an operon with a heme oxygenase (PstBphO)-encoding gene (PstbphO), whereas PstbphP2 is flanked downstream by a gene encoding a CheY-type response regulator. Expression of the heme oxygenase PstBphO yielded a green protein (?(max) = 650 nm), indicative for bound BV. Heterologous expression of PstbphP1 and PstbphP2 and in vitro assembly with BV IX? yielded the apoproteins for both phytochromes, but only in the case of PstBphP1 a light-inducible chromoprotein. Attempts to express the endogenous heme oxygenase BphO and either of the two phytochromes from two plasmids yielded only holo-PstBphP1. Relatively small amounts of soluble holo-PstBphP2 were just obtained upon co-expression with BphO from P. aeruginosa. Expression of the operon containing PstbphO:PstbphP1 led to an improved yield and better photoreactivity for PstBphP1, whereas an identical construct, exchanging PstbphP1 for PstbphP2 (PstbphO:PstbphP2), again yielded only minute amounts of chromophore-loaded BphP2-holoprotein. The improved yield for PstBphP1 from the PstbphO:PstbphP1 operon expression is apparently caused by complex formation between both proteins during biosynthesis as affinity chromatography of either protein using two different tags always co-purified the reaction partner. These results support the importance of protein-protein interactions during tetrapyrrole metabolism and phytochrome assembly. PMID:22415794

Shah, Rashmi; Schwach, Julia; Frankenberg-Dinkel, Nicole; Gärtner, Wolfgang

2012-06-01

345

Petrological and geochemical constraints on granitoid formation: The Waldoboro Pluton Complex, Maine  

SciTech Connect

The Waldoboro Pluton Complex (WPC) comprises seven units ranging from qtz-diorite to aplite. The country rocks are biotite-rich metagraywackes with minor shales mostly belonging to the Proterozoic Z-Ordovician Bucksport Formation. Field evidence strongly suggests that the WPC formed in-situ: contacts with the country rock are cryptic, transitional and concordant; restitic minerals in the granitoids are identical to those in the country rocks; prolific metasedimentary enclaves in the WPC are locally derived. Major and trace element data for country rock and the most voluminous units of the WPC define consistent linear trends suggesting limited melt segregation and retention of a high proportion of restite. Mixing models and partial melting models require 54--76% melting for generation of the gneissic granites and two-mica granites. Garnet-biotite geothermometry and garnet-Al[sub 2]SiO[sub 5]-SiO[sub 2]-plagioclase geobarometry indicate that the WPC formed at T = 740--780 C and P = 0.4--0.7 GPa. Published experimental data show that < 50% melting is likely under these conditions if melting is controlled by dehydration reactions. Bucksport lithologies contain < 20% biotite, suggesting that the maximum amount of melt that could have formed by dehydration melting is < 20%, even if all biotite was consumed during melting. It seems probable that a free fluid phase was required to generate the WPC. Migmatization is apparent in all lithologies (including amphibolites) in the vicinity of the WPC, consistent with fluid-present melting. Fluid may have ingressed along the St. George thrust, but the source of the fluid is unknown.

Barton, M. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Geological Science); Sidle, W.S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1992-01-01

346

Alumina plate containing photosystem I reaction center complex oriented inside plate-penetrating silica nanopores.  

PubMed

The photosynthetic photosystem I reaction center complex (PSI-RC), which has a molecular diameter of 21 nm with 100 pigments, was incorporated into silica nanopores with a 100-nm diameter that penetrates an alumina plate of 60-?m thickness to make up an inorganic-biological hybrid photocell. PSI-RCs, purified from a thermophilic cyanobacterium, were stable inside the nanopores and rapidly photoreduced a mediator dye methyl viologen. The reduced dye was more stable inside nanopores suggesting the decrease of dissolved oxygen. The analysis by a cryogenic electron spin paramagnetic resonance indicated the oriented arrangement of RCs inside the 100-nm nanopores, with their surface parallel to the silica wall and perpendicular to the plane of the alumina plate. PSI RC complex in the semicrystalline orientation inside silica nanopores can be a new type of light energy conversion unit to supply strong reducing power selectively to other molecules inside or outside nanopores. PMID:23888886

Kamidaki, Chihiro; Kondo, Toru; Noji, Tomoyasu; Itoh, Tetsuji; Yamaguchi, Akira; Itoh, Shigeru

2013-08-22

347

Electrocatalytic addition reaction of bromide compounds and activated olefins on nickel(II) tetraazamacrocyclic complex-modified graphite felt electrode  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrocatalytic addition reaction of bromide compounds and activated olefins was studied using a nickel(II) tetraazamacrocyclic complex-modified graphite felt (GF) electrode. The modified GF electrode was observed a catalytic current in the presence of bromide compound by cyclic voltammetry. A preparative electrocatalytic addition reaction of bromide compounds and activated olefins was successfully achieved on the modified GF electrode with an adequate

Yoshitomo Kashiwagi; Chikara Kikuchi; Futoshi Kurashima; Tetsuya Ono

2007-01-01

348

Resolution of proton and electron transfer events in the photosynthetic reaction center and the cytochrome-bc1 complex of  

E-print Network

S12-005 Resolution of proton and electron transfer events in the photosynthetic reaction center; Keywords: proton transfer, electron transfer, bc1 complex, Rhodobacter capsulatus. 1. Introduction. Flashes in the photochemical reaction center (RC) and lead to the reduction of a bound ubiquinone QB to a quinol QBH2

Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen

349

Low temperature iron- and nickel-catalyzed reactions leading to coalbed gas formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrocarbon hydrogenolysis and CO 2 hydrogenation in the presence of Fe/SiO 2 and Ni/SiO 2 catalysts were evaluated as potential mechanisms contributing to natural gas formation in coalbeds. The hydrocarbons used as reactants in hydrogenolysis included butane, octane, 1-octene, and 1-dodecene. The reactions carried out in a laboratory batch reactor produced gas that contained methane concentrations greater than 90%, which resembles the composition of natural gas. Reaction temperatures were selected to resemble natural coalbed conditions. Evidence is presented to show that iron and nickel minerals, which can be present in coals at levels of 2000 and 10 ppm, respectively, can become active under geologic conditions. The oxides (Fe 2O 3 and NiO) used as precursors of the active catalysts (Fe and Ni metals) were reduced at 200°C under a hydrogen atmosphere. Mössbauer spectroscopy showed that ca. 6% of the iron oxide was converted to the metal; in the case of nickel, oxygen titration showed that the extent of reduction to the metal was ca. 29%. The resultant fractions of the active metals in coals are adequate to catalyze generation of appreciable amounts of methane over geologic time.

Medina, Juan Carlos; Butala, Steven J.; Bartholomew, Calvin H.; Lee, Milton L.

2000-02-01

350

Formation of cysteine-S-conjugates in the Maillard reaction of cysteine and xylose.  

PubMed

Cysteine-S-conjugates (CS-conjugates) occur in foods derived from plant sources like grape, passion fruit, onion, garlic, bell pepper and hops. During eating CS-conjugates are degraded into aroma-active thiols by ?-lyases that originate from oral microflora. The present study provides evidence for the formation of the CS-conjugates S-furfuryl-l-cysteine (FFT-S-Cys) and S-(2-methyl-3-furyl)-l-cysteine (MFT-S-Cys) in the Maillard reaction of xylose with cysteine at 100°C for 2h. The CS-conjugates were isolated using cationic exchange and reversed-phase chromatography and identified by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and LC-MS(2). Spectra and LC retention times matched those of authentic standards. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that CS-conjugates are described as Maillard reaction products. Furfuryl alcohol (FFA) is proposed as an intermediate which undergoes a nucleophilic substitution with cysteine. Both FFT-S-Cys and MFT-S-Cys are odourless but produce strong aroma when tasted in aqueous solutions, supposedly induced by ? -lyases from the oral microflora. The perceived aromas resemble those of the corresponding aroma-active thiols 2-furfurylthiol (FFT) and 2-methyl-3-furanthiol (MFT) which smell coffee-like and meaty, respectively. PMID:23790889

Cerny, Christoph; Guntz-Dubini, Renée

2013-11-15

351

Efficient and directed peptide bond formation in the gas phase via ion/ion reactions  

PubMed Central

Amide linkages are among the most important chemical bonds in living systems, constituting the connections between amino acids in peptides and proteins. We demonstrate the controlled formation of amide bonds between amino acids or peptides in the gas phase using ion/ion reactions in a mass spectrometer. Individual amino acids or peptides can be prepared as reagents by (i) incorporating gas phase–labile protecting groups to silence otherwise reactive functional groups, such as the N terminus; (ii) converting the carboxyl groups to the active ester of N-hydroxysuccinimide; and (iii) incorporating a charge site. Protonation renders basic sites (nucleophiles) unreactive toward the N-hydroxysuccinimide ester reagents, resulting in sites with the greatest gas phase basicities being, in large part, unreactive. The N-terminal amines of most naturally occurring amino acids have lower gas phase basicities than the side chains of the basic amino acids (i.e., those of histidine, lysine, or arginine). Therefore, reagents may be directed to the N terminus of an existing “anchor” peptide to form an amide bond by protonating the anchor peptide’s basic residues, while leaving the N-terminal amine unprotonated and therefore reactive. Reaction efficiencies of greater than 30% have been observed. We propose this method as a step toward the controlled synthesis of peptides in the gas phase. PMID:24474750

McGee, William M.; McLuckey, Scott A.

2014-01-01

352

Formation of Pd/Au Nanostructures from Pd Nanowires via Galvanic Replacement Reaction  

SciTech Connect

Bimetallic nanostructures with non-random metal atoms distribution are very important for various applications. To synthesize such structures via benign wet chemistry approach remains challenging. This paper reports a synthesis of a Au/Pd alloy nanostructure through the galvanic replacement reaction between Pd ultrathin nanowires (2.4 {+-} 0.2 nm in width, over 30 nm in length) and AuCl3 in toluene. Both morphological and structural changes were monitored during the reaction up to 10 h. Continuous changes of chemical composition and crystalline structure from Pd nanowires to Pd68Au32 and Pd45Au55 alloys, and to Au nanoparticles were observed. More interestingly, by using combined techniques such as high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), UV-vis absorption, and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, we found the formation of Pd68Au32 non-random alloy with Au-rich core and Pd-rich shell, and random Pd45Au55 alloy with uniformly mixed Pd and Au atom inside the nanoparticles, respectively. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicated that alkylamine will strongly stabilize Pd to the surface, resulting in diffusion of Au atoms into the core region to form a non-random alloy. We believe such benign synthetic techniques can also enable the large scale preparation of various types of non-random alloys for several technically important catalysis applications.

Teng,X.; Wang, Q.; Liu, P.; Han, W.; Frenkel, A.; Wen, W.; Marinkovic, N.; Hanson, J.; Rodriguez, J.

2008-01-01

353

Formation of Pd/Au nanostructures from Pd nanowires via galvanic replacement reaction.  

PubMed

Bimetallic nanostructures with non-random metal atoms distribution are very important for various applications. To synthesize such structures via benign wet chemistry approach remains challenging. This paper reports a synthesis of a Au/Pd alloy nanostructure through the galvanic replacement reaction between Pd ultrathin nanowires (2.4 +/- 0.2 nm in width, over 30 nm in length) and AuCl3 in toluene. Both morphological and structural changes were monitored during the reaction up to 10 h. Continuous changes of chemical composition and crystalline structure from Pd nanowires to Pd68Au32 and Pd45Au55 alloys, and to Au nanoparticles were observed. More interestingly, by using combined techniques such as high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), UV-vis absorption, and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, we found the formation of Pd68Au32 non-random alloy with Au-rich core and Pd-rich shell, and random Pd45Au55 alloy with uniformly mixed Pd and Au atom inside the nanoparticles, respectively. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicated that alkylamine will strongly stabilize Pd to the surface, resulting in diffusion of Au atoms into the core region to form a non-random alloy. We believe such benign synthetic techniques can also enable the large scale preparation of various types of non-random alloys for several technically important catalysis applications. PMID:18161978

Teng, Xiaowei; Wang, Qi; Liu, Ping; Han, Weiqiang; Frenkel, Anatoly I; Wen, Wen; Marinkovic, Nebojsa; Hanson, Jonathan C; Rodriguez, Jose A

2008-01-23

354

(Phenoxyimidazolyl-salicylaldimine)iron complexes: synthesis, properties and iron catalysed ethylene reactions.  

PubMed

The reaction of 2-{[2-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)-ethylimino]-methyl}-phenol (L1), 2,4-di-tert-butyl-6-{[2-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)-ethylimino]-methyl}-phenol (L2) or 4-tert-butyl-2-{[2-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)-ethylimino]-methyl}-phenol (L3) with iron(ii) precursors produced either iron(ii) or iron(iii) complexes, depending on the nature of the anions in the iron(ii) precursor and the ligand. When the anion is chloride and the ligand L1, the product is [(L1)2Fe][FeCl4] (1), but when the anion is triflate (OTf(-)) and the ligand is L2, the product is [(L2)2Fe][OTf]2 (2). With iron(ii) halides and tert-butyl groups on the phenoxy ligands L2 and L3, the iron(iii) complexes [(L2)FeX2] {where X = Cl (3), Br (4) and I = (5)} and [(L3)FeCl2] (6) were formed. Complexes 1-6 were characterised by a combination of elemental analyses, IR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry; and in selected cases (3 and 4) by single crystal X-ray crystallography. The crystal structures of 3 and 4 indicated that the iron(ii) precursors oxidised to iron(iii) in forming complexes 3-6; an observation that was corroborated by the magnetic properties and the (57)Fe Mössbauer spectra of 3 and 4. The iron(iii) complexes 3-6 were used as pre-catalysts for the oligomerisation and polymerisation of ethylene. Products of these ethylene reactions depended on the solvent used. In toluene ethylene oligomerised mainly to 1-butene and was followed by the 1-butene alkylating the solvent to form butyl-toluenes via a Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction. In chlorobenzene, ethylene oligomerised mainly to a mixture of C4-C12 alkenes. Interestingly small amounts of butyl-chlorobenzenes and hexyl-chlorobenzenes were also formed via a Friedel-Crafts alkylation with butenes and hexenes from the oligomerisation of ethylene. PMID:25111396

Yankey, Margaret; Obuah, Collins; Guzei, Ilia A; Osei-Twum, Emmanuel; Hearne, Giovanni; Darkwa, James

2014-10-01

355

Cobalt catalysis in the gas phase: experimental characterization of cobalt(I) complexes as intermediates in regioselective Diels-Alder reactions.  

PubMed

In situ-formed cobalt(I) complexes are proposed to act as efficient catalysts in regioselective Diels-Alder reactions of unactivated substrates such as 1,3-dienes and alkynes. We report the first experimental evidence for the in situ reduction of CoBr2(dppe) [dppe = 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane] by Zn/ZnI2 to [Co(I)(dppe)](+) by means of electrospray MS(n) experiments. Additionally, the reactivities of Co(II) and Co(I) dppe complexes toward the Diels-Alder substrates isoprene and phenylacetylene were probed in gas-phase ion/molecule reactions (IMRs). Isoprene and phenylacetylene were introduced into the mass spectrometer via the buffer gas flow of a linear ion trap. The IMR experiments revealed a significantly higher substrate affinity of [Co(I)(dppe)](+) compared with [Co(II)Br(dppe)](+). Furthermore, the central intermediate of the solution-phase cobalt-catalyzed Diels-Alder reaction, [Co(I)(dppe)(isoprene)(phenylacetylene)](+), could be generated via IMR and examined in the gas phase. Collision activation of this complex ion delivered evidence for the gas-phase reaction of isoprene with phenylacetylene in the coordination sphere of the cobalt ion. The experimental findings are consistent with the results of quantum-chemical calculations on all of the observed Co(I) dppe complex ions. The results constitute strong analytical evidence for the formation and importance of different cobalt(I) species in regioselective Diels-Alder reactions of unactivated substrates and identify [Co(I)(dppe)](+) as the active Diels-Alder catalyst. PMID:24044877

Fiebig, Lukas; Kuttner, Julian; Hilt, Gerhard; Schwarzer, Martin C; Frenking, Gernot; Schmalz, Hans-Günther; Schäfer, Mathias

2013-10-18

356

Spectrophotometric analysis of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors based on formation of charge-transfer complexes with tetracyanoquinodimethane and chloranilic acid.  

PubMed

A simple, accurate, and sensitive spectrophotometric method for analysis of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has been developed and validated. The analysis was based on the formation of colored charge-transfer complexes between the intact molecule of SSRI drug as an n-electron donor and each of tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) or p-chloranilic acid (pCA) as electron acceptors. The formed complexes were measured spectrophotometrically at 842 and 520 nm for TCNQ and pCA, respectively. Different variables and parameters affecting the reactions were studied and optimized. Under the optimum reaction conditions, linear relationships with good correlation coefficients (0.9975-0.9996) were found between the absorbances and the concentrations of the investigated drugs in the concentration ranges of 4-50 and 20-400 microg/mL with TCNQ and pCA, respectively. With all the investigated drugs, TCNQ gave more sensitive assays than pCA; the limits of assay detection were 2.5-4.8 and 20-40 microg/mL with TCNQ and pCA, respectively. The intra- and interassay precisions were satisfactory; the relative standard deviations did not exceed 2%. The proposed procedures were successfully applied to the analysis of the studied drugs in pure form and pharmaceutical formulations with good accuracy; the recovery values were 98.4-102.8 +/- 1.24-1.81%. The results obtained from the proposed method were statistically comparable with those obtained from the previously reported methods. PMID:16640280

Darwish, Ibrahim A; Refaat, Ibrahim H

2006-01-01

357

A Method for Efficient Calculation of Diffusion and Reactions of Lipophilic Compounds in Complex Cell Geometry  

PubMed Central

A general description of effects of toxic compounds in mammalian cells is facing several problems. Firstly, most toxic compounds are hydrophobic and partition phenomena strongly influence their behaviour. Secondly, cells display considerable heterogeneity regarding the presence, activity and distribution of enzymes participating in the metabolism of foreign compounds i.e. bioactivation/biotransformation. Thirdly, cellular architecture varies greatly. Taken together, complexity at several levels has to be addressed to arrive at efficient in silico modelling based on physicochemical properties, metabolic preferences and cell characteristics. In order to understand the cellular behaviour of toxic foreign compounds we have developed a mathematical model that addresses these issues. In order to make the system numerically treatable, methods motivated by homogenization techniques have been applied. These tools reduce the complexity of mathematical models of cell dynamics considerably thus allowing to solve efficiently the partial differential equations in the model numerically on a personal computer. Compared to a compartment model with well-stirred compartments, our model affords a more realistic representation. Numerical results concerning metabolism and chemical solvolysis of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon carcinogen show good agreement with results from measurements in V79 cell culture. The model can easily be extended and refined to include more reactants, and/or more complex reaction chains, enzyme distribution etc, and is therefore suitable for modelling cellular metabolism involving membrane partitioning also at higher levels of complexity. PMID:21912588

Dreij, Kristian; Chaudhry, Qasim Ali; Jernström, Bengt; Morgenstern, Ralf; Hanke, Michael

2011-01-01

358

Photochemical reactions of divalent mercury with thioglycolic acid: Formation of mercuric sulfide particles.  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) is a key toxic global pollutant. Studies in aquatic environment have suggested that thiols could be important for mercury speciation. Thioglycolic acid has been detected in various natural water systems and used as a model compound to study the complicated interaction between mercury and polyfunctional dissolved organic matter (DOM). We herein presented the first evidence for mercury particle formation during kinetic and product studies on the photochemistry of divalent mercury (Hg(2+)) with thioglycolic acid at near environmental conditions. Mercuric sulfide (HgS) particles formed upon photolysis were identified by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectrometry and select area electron diffraction. Kinetic data were obtained using UV-visible spectrophotometry and cold vapour atomic fluorescent spectrometry. The apparent first-order reaction rate constant under our experimental conditions was calculated to be (2.3±0.4)×10(-5)s(-1) at T=296±2K and pH 4.0. It was found that (89±3)% of the reactants undergo photoreduction to generate elemental mercury (Hg(0)). The effects of ionic strengths, pH and potassium ion were also investigated. The formation of HgS particles pointed to the possible involvement of heterogeneous processes. Our kinetic results indicated the importance of weak binding sites on DOM to Hg in photoreduction of Hg(2+) to Hg(0). The potential implications of our data on environmental mercury transformation were discussed. PMID:25094064

Si, Lin; Ariya, Parisa A

2015-01-01

359

Intramolecular condensation reactions of {alpha}, {omega}- bis(triethoxy-silyl)alkanes. Formation of cyclic disilsesquioxanes  

SciTech Connect

Under acidic sol-gel polymerization conditions, 1,3-bis(triethoxysilyl)-propane (1) and 1,4-bis(triethoxysilyl)butane (2) were shown to preferentially form cyclic disilsesquioxanes 3 and 4 rather than the expected 1,3-propylene- and 1,4-butylene-bridged polysilsesquioxane gels. Formation of 3 and 4 is driven by a combination of an intramolecular cyclization to six and seven membered rings, and a pronounced reduction in reactivity under acidic conditions as a function of increasing degree of condensation. The ease with which these relatively unreactive cyclic monomers and dimers are formed (under acidic conditions) helps to explain the difficulties in forming gels from 1 and 2. The stability of cyclic disilsesquioxanes was confirmed withe the synthesis of 3 and 4 in gram quantities; the cyclic disilsesquioxanes react slowly to give tricyclic dimers containing a thermodynamically stable eight membered siloxane ring. Continued reactions were shown to perserve the cyclic structure, opening up the possibility of utilizing cyclic disilsesquioxanes as sol-gel monomers. Preliminary polymerization studies with these new, carbohydrate-like monomers revealed the formation of network poly(cyclic disilsesquioxanes) under acidic conditions and polymerization with ring-opening under basic conditions.

Loy, D.A.; Carpenter, J.P.; Myers, S.A.; Assink, R.A.; Small, J.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Greaves, J.; Shea, K.J. [California Univ., Irvine, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1996-08-01

360

Formation and alteration of complex amino acid precursors in cosmic dusts and their relevance to origins of life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wide variety of organic compounds including many kinds of amino acids have been detected in carbonaceous chondrites. It has been known that comets also bring complex organic compounds. The relevance of extraterrestrial organics to the origin of life is extensively discussed. There have been many scenarios of the origin of amino acids found in meteorites or comets, including the Strecker synthesis in the parent bodies of meteorites, the Fischer-Tropsch type reaction in the solar nebula and reactions in cosmic dusts. We examined possible formation of amino acids or their precursors in interstellar dust environments. When possible interstellar media (a mixture of carbon monoxide, ammonia and water) was irradiated with high energy protons, complex organic compounds whose molecular weights are thousands were formed [1], which gave amino acids after acid hydrolysis: Hereafter we will refer them simulated interstellar organics. It was suggested that complex amino acid precursors could be formed in ice mantles of interstellar dust particles in prior to the formation of the solar system. We are planning to irradiate simulated interstellar ices with high-energy heavy ions from the Digital Accelerator (KEK) to confirm the scenario. The simulated interstellar oraganics were so hydrophilic that they were easy to dissolve in water. Complex organics found in meteorites are generally so hydrophobic and are insoluble to water. Organics found in cometary dusts sampled by the Stardust Mission contains organics with various hydrophobicity. We irradiated the simulated interstellar organics with UV and/or soft X-rays. Soft X-rays irradiation of the simulated interstellar organics resulted in the formation of more hydrophobic compounds as seen in some of cometary dusts. It was suggested that organics of interstellar origin on dusts were altered when the solar system was being formed with soft X-rays from the young Sun in prior to the incorporation to planetesimals or comets. Dusts have another important role: Delivery of extraterrestrial organics to the primitive Earth. We are planning a novel astrobiology mission named Tanpopo by utilizing the Exposed Facility of Japan Experimental Module (JEM/EF) of the International Space Station (ISS). We will collect cosmic dusts by using ultra-low density silica gel (aerogel), and will analyze them after returning them to the Earth. Details will be presented in the other session of COSPAR 2014 [2]. [1] Y. Takano et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., 84 (2004) 1410-1412. [2] K. Kobayashi et al., COSPAR 2014, Session F31, #14256, Moscow, Russia.

Kobayashi, Kensei; Kaneko, Takeo; Mita, Hajime; Obayashi, Yumiko; Kawamoto, Yukinori; Kanda, Kazuhiro; Takayama, Ken; Shibata, Hiromi

361

Cytochrome P-450 complex formation by dirithromycin and other macrolides in rat and human livers.  

PubMed Central

Some macrolide antibiotics cause clinical drug interactions, resulting in altered metabolism of concomitantly administered drugs, via formation of an inactive cytochrome P-450 complex. In the present study, the formation of a cytochrome P-450 type I binding spectrum and a metabolic intermediate complex by troleandomycin and dirithromycin was assessed in liver microsomes obtained from untreated rats and phenobarbital- or dexamethasone-pretreated rats. Troleandomycin produced a type I binding spectrum and metabolic intermediate complex in microsomes from dexamethasone- and phenobarbital-pretreated rats. Dirithromycin did not produce a detectable type I binding spectrum but formed a small cytochrome P-450 metabolic intermediate complex (6% of that formed by troleandomycin) in microsomes from dexamethasone-pretreated rats only. The formation of a cytochrome P-450 type I binding spectrum and a metabolic intermediate complex by troleandomycin, erythromycin, dirithromycin, and erythromycylamine was also assessed in microsomes prepared from human livers. Troleandomycin and erythromycin formed a type I binding spectrum and a metabolic intermediate complex which were larger in microsomes from subjects on barbiturate therapy than in microsomes from subjects with no recent barbiturate exposure. Erythromycylamine did not form a detectable type I binding spectrum with any of the human microsomal samples, but a small metabolic intermediate complex was formed with microsomes from a subject on phenobarbital, phenytoin, and propranolol therapy. Dirithromycin did not form a detectable type I binding spectrum or a metabolic intermediate complex in any human liver sample. Preclinical quantitation of the human metabolic intermediate complex may be helpful in predicting the possibility of clinical drug interactions of new drug candidates. PMID:8452357

Lindstrom, T D; Hanssen, B R; Wrighton, S A

1993-01-01

362

Americium(iii) and europium(iii) complex formation with lactate at elevated temperatures studied by spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations.  

PubMed

Thermodynamic parameters for the complex formation of Am(iii) and Eu(iii) with lactate were determined with UV-vis and time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) in a temperature range between 25 and 70 °C. The reaction enthalpy decreased with increasing ionic strength. ATR FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy in combination with density functional theory (DFT) calculations revealed structural details of the Eu(iii) lactate 1?:?1 complex: a chelating coordination mode of the lactate with a monodentate binding carboxylate group and the hydroxyl group being deprotonated. PMID:24828353

Barkleit, Astrid; Kretzschmar, Jerome; Tsushima, Satoru; Acker, Margret

2014-08-01

363

Kinetics and mechanisms of the reactions of alkyl radicals with oxygen and with complexes of Co(III), Ru(III), and Ni(III)  

SciTech Connect

The kinetics of the reactions of C{sub 2}H{sub 5} radical with Co(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}X{sup 2+}, Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}X{sup 2+}, and Co(dmgH){sub 2} (X) (Y) (X = Br, Cl, N{sub 3}, SCN; Y = H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 3}CN) complexes were studied using laser flash photolysis of ethylcobalt complexes. The kinetics were obtained by the kinetic probe method. Some relative rate constants were also determined by a competition method based on ethyl halide product ratios. The kinetics of colligation reactions of a series of alkyl radicals with {beta}-Ni(cyclam){sup 2+} were studied using flaser flash photolysis of alkylcobalt complexes. Again, the kinetics were obtained by employing the kinetic probe competition method. The kinetics of the unimolecular homolysis of a series of RNi(cyclam)H{sub 2}O{sup 2+} were studied. Activation parameters were obtained for the unimolecular homolysis of C{sub 2}H{sub 5}Ni(cyclam)H{sub 2}O{sup 2+}. Kinetic and thermodynamic data obtained from these reactions were compared with those for the {sigma}-bonded organometallic complexes. The kinetics of the unimolecular homolysis of a series of RNi(cyclam)H{sub 2}O{sup 2+} complexes were studied by monitoring the formation of the oxygen insertion product RO{sub 2}Ni(cyclam)H{sub 2}O{sup 2+}. The higher rate constants for the reactions of alkyl radicals with oxygen in solution, as compared with those measured in the gas phase, were discussed. 30 refs.

Kelley, D.

1990-10-08

364

Preparation, spectroscopic and thermal characterization of charge-transfer molecular complexes formed in the reaction of 4-dimethylaminopyridine with ?-electron acceptors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interactions of the electron donor 4-dimethylaminopyridine (4DMAP) with the ?-acceptors tetracyanoethylene (TCNE), 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) and 2,4,4,6-tetrabromo-2,5-cyclohexadienone (TBCHD) were studied spectrophotometrically in chloroform at room temperature. The electronic and infrared spectra of the formed molecular charge-transfer (CT) complexes were recorded. Photometric titration showed that the stoichiometries of the reactions were not fixed and depended on the nature of both the donor and the acceptor. The molecular structures of the CT-complexes were, however, affected by the amino group in 4-dimethylaminopyridine and the two methyl groups and were formulated as [(4DMAP)(TCNE)2], [(4DMAP)(TCNQ)2] and [(4DMAP)(TBCHD)]. The formation constant (KCT), charge transfer energy (ECT), molar extinction coefficients (?CT) and free energy change of the formed CT-complexes were obtained.

Mostafa, Adel; Benjamin Cieslinski, G.; Bazzi, Hassan S.

2015-02-01

365

The significance of ACTH for the process of formation of complex heparin compounds in the blood during immobilization stress  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) was administered to rats at different times following adrenalectomy. Adrenocorticotropin caused a significant increase in the formation of heparin complexes even in the absence of stress factor. When ACTH secretion is blocked, immobilization stress is not accompanied by an increase in the process of complex formation. The effect of ACTH on the formation of heparin complexes was mediated through its stimulation of the adrenal cortex.

Kudryashov, B. A.; Shapiro, F. B.; Lomovskaya, F. B.; Lyapina, L. A.

1979-01-01

366

Complex formation of Zn-, Ni-, and Pd-derivatives of purpurin-18 with serum albumin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyzed the spectral characteristics of the complexes of Zn2+, Ni2+, and Pd2+ derivatives of purpurin-18 with human serum albumin (HSA) in aqueous buffer at pH 7.0. Pd2+ in the coordination sphere of purpurin-18 decreased the affinity to HSA compared to the respective complexes of zinc and nickel derivatives. Since the formation of complexes with HSA is an important parameter of photodynamic activity of tetrapyrrolic compounds, the differential affinity of metal derivatives of purpurin-18 to this protein should be considered for the optimization of photosensitizers.

Golovina, G. V.; Novikov, F. N.; Ol'shevskaya, V. A.; Kalinin, V. N.; Shtil, A. A.; Kuzmin, V. A.

2012-11-01

367

Formation of MgF3?-dependent complexes between an AAA+ ATPase and ?54  

PubMed Central

The widely distributed bacterial ?54-dependent transcription regulates pathogenicity and numerous adaptive responses in diverse bacteria. Formation of the ?54-dependent open promoter complex is a multi-step process driven by AAA+ ATPases. Non-hydrolysable nucleotide analogues are particularly suitable for studying such complexity by capturing various intermediate states along the energy coupling pathway. Here we report a novel ATP analogue, ADP–MgF3?, which traps an AAA+ ATPase with its target ?54. The MgF3?-dependent complex is highly homogeneous and functional assays suggest it may represent an early transcription intermediate state valuable for structural studies. PMID:23650585

Zhang, Nan; Buck, Martin

2012-01-01

368

Formation of MgF3 (-)-dependent complexes between an AAA(+) ATPase and ?(54.).  

PubMed

The widely distributed bacterial ?(54)-dependent transcription regulates pathogenicity and numerous adaptive responses in diverse bacteria. Formation of the ?(54)-dependent open promoter complex is a multi-step process driven by AAA(+) ATPases. Non-hydrolysable nucleotide analogues are particularly suitable for studying such complexity by capturing various intermediate states along the energy coupling pathway. Here we report a novel ATP analogue, ADP-MgF3 (-), which traps an AAA(+) ATPase with its target ?(54). The MgF3 (-)-dependent complex is highly homogeneous and functional assays suggest it may represent an early transcription intermediate state valuable for structural studies. PMID:23650585

Zhang, Nan; Buck, Martin

2012-01-01

369

Communication: Structure, formation, and equilibration of ensembles of Ag-S complexes on an Ag surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have utilized conditions of very low temperature (4.7 K) and very low sulfur coverage to isolate and identify Ag-S complexes that exist on the Ag(111) surface. The experimental conditions are such that the complexes form at temperatures above the temperature of observation. These complexes can be regarded as polymeric chains of varying length, with an Ag4S pyramid at the core of each monomeric unit. Steps may catalyze the formation of the chains and this mechanism may be reflected in the chain length distribution.

Russell, Selena M.; Kim, Yousoo; Liu, Da-Jiang; Evans, J. W.; Thiel, P. A.

2013-02-01

370

Stochastic dynamics of complexation reaction in the limit of small numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study stochastic dynamics of the non-linear bimolecular reaction A + B?AB. These reactions are common in several bio-molecular systems such as binding, complexation, protein multimerization to name a few. We use master equation to compute the full distribution of several stochastic equilibrium properties such as number of complexes formed (Nc), equilibrium constant (K). We provide exact analytical and simpler approximate expression for equilibrium fluctuation quantities to quickly estimate the amount of noise as a function of reactant molecules and rates. We construct the phase diagram for a fluctuational quantity f, defined as the ratio of standard deviation to average (f = {?{< (? Nc)^2 > } }/< N_c >), as a function of different number of reactant molecules and reaction rates. One of the striking result is, it is possible to have f as high as 45% or higher in significant regions of the phase diagram even when number of reactants involved are around 20-40, typical in biology. Our finding indicates studying averages alone using mass action law needs careful scrutiny. We also outline possible application of our findings in gene expression. Furthermore, we compute average and fluctuation properties of time dependent quantities and derive equations of motion for different moments such as and . While mean-field mass action law fails to reproduce the exact time dependence, approximate solutions of coupled equations of motions for different moments, capturing fluctuation, is in good agreement with exact results. This may be a way to compute time development of averages and fluctuations in such non-linear systems where mass action law breaks down. Moreover, for this reaction, we outline connection to variational principle of maximum caliber and other more traditional approaches such as chemical Langevin equation. We derive noise statistics for the equivalent Langevin equation and show possible departure from Gaussian white noise. We believe quantitative estimates of phase diagrams for noise, time dependent quantities, and simple analytical expression for equilibrium quantities will be particularly useful to guide experiments involving such non-linear reactions with small numbers of reactants that are often encountered in biology.

Ghosh, Kingshuk

2011-05-01

371

Fluorimetric determination of some sulfur containing compounds through complex formation with terbium (Tb+3) and uranium (U+3).  

PubMed

Two simple, sensitive and specific fluorimetric methods have been developed for the determination of some sulphur containing compounds namely, Acetylcysteine (Ac), Carbocisteine (Cc) and Thioctic acid (Th) using terbium Tb+3 and uranium U+3 ions as fluorescent probes. The proposed methods involve the formation of a ternary complex with Tb+3 in presence of Tris-buffer method (I) and a binary complex with aqueous uranyl acetate solution method (II). The fluorescence quenching of Tb+3 at 510, 488 and 540 nm (lambda(ex) 250, 241 and 268 nm) and of uranyl acetate at 512 nm (lambda(ex) 240 nm) due to the complex formation was quantitatively measured for Ac, Cc and Th, respectively. The reaction conditions and the fluorescence spectral properties of the complexes have been investigated. Under the described conditions, the proposed methods were applicable over the concentration range (0.2-2.5 microg ml(-1)), (1-4 microg ml(-1)) and (0.5-3.5 microg ml(-1)) with mean percentage recoveries 99.74+/-0.36, 99.70+/-0.52 and 99.43+/-0.23 for method (I) and (0.5-6 microg ml(-1)), (0.5-5 microg ml(-1)), and (1-6 microg ml(-1)) with mean percentage recoveries 99.38+/-0.20, 99.82+/-0.28 and 99.93+/-0.32 for method (II), for the three cited drugs, respectively. The proposed methods were successfully applied for the determination of the studied compounds in bulk powders and in pharmaceutical formulations, as well as in presence of their related substances. The results obtained were found to be in agree statistically with those obtained by official and reported ones. The two methods were validated according to USP guidelines and also assessed by applying the standard addition technique. PMID:17440799

Taha, Elham Anwer; Hassan, Nagiba Yehya; Aal, Fahima Abdel; Fattah, Laila El-Sayed Abdel

2007-05-01

372

Spectroscopic study on the complex formation of chromogenic bridged calixarenes with aliphatic amines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complex formation between chromogenic capped calix 4 arene derivatives comprising indophenol indicator group(s), and aliphatic amines has been studied by UV/Vis spectroscopy. The equilibrium constants have been determined in ethanol, and—for one ligand—also in dimethylsulfoxide. The results have been interpreted in terms of various types of host-guest interactions and of steric effects.

Mohammed-Ziegler, I.; Poór, B.; Kubinyi, M.; Grofcsik, A.; Grün, A.; Bitter, I.

2003-05-01

373

The effect of an ?-globulin preparation and of polyribonuclease complexes on humoral antibody formation  

PubMed Central

The effects of bovine ?-globulin (BAG), bovine-ribonuclease serum albumin (BSA-RNase) and polyribonuclease (poly-RNase) complexes on the primary response of rodents to sheep erythrocytes have been investigated. These preparations frequently failed to cause marked suppression of humoral antibody formation. PMID:4173925

Pullar, Diane M.; James, K.; Naysmith, J. D.

1968-01-01

374

Vibrational deactivation in Kr/O$ collisions: Role of complex formation and potential anisotropy  

E-print Network

Vibrational deactivation in Kr/O$ collisions: Role of complex formation and potential anisotropy,CornellUniversity,Ithaca,New York14853 (Received 11 May 1992;accepted20 July 1992) We report a theoretical study of vibrational resonancebetweenhindered rota- tion and diatom vibration. I. INTRODUCTION An understanding of the dynamics of thermal ion

375

The standard enthalpies of combustion and formation of crystalline cobalt tetrakis(4-metoxyphenyl)porphin complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy of combustion of cobalt tetrakis(4-metoxyphenyl)porphin was determined in an isothermic-shell liquid calorimeter with a stationary calorimetric bomb. The standard enthalpies of combustion and formation of the complex were calculated, -? c H o = 27334.06 ± 50.98 kJ/mol and ?f H o = 3062.90 ± 50.97 kJ/mol.

Tarasov, R. P.; Volkov, A. V.; Bazanov, M. I.; Semeikin, A. S.

2009-05-01

376

Substituent effect on the electron acceptor property of 1,4-benzoquinone towards the formation of molecular complex with sulfamethoxazole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

UV-Vis, 1H NMR, FT-IR, LC-MS and fluorescence spectral techniques were employed to investigate the mechanism of interaction of sulfamethoxazole with varying number of methoxy/chloro substituted 1,4-benzoquinones (MQ1-4) and to characterize the reaction products. The interactions of MQ1-4 with sulfamethoxazole (SULF) were found to proceed through the formation of a donor-acceptor complex, containing radical anion and its conversion to the product. Fluorescence quenching studies showed that the interaction between the donor and the acceptors are spontaneous. The results indicated that the progressive replacement of chlorine atom (-I effect) by methoxy group (+M effect) in the quinone decreased the electron acceptor property of the quinone. The results of the correlation of experimentally measured binding constants with electrochemical data and ab initio DFT calculations supported these observations.

Ganesh, K.; Satheshkumar, A.; Balraj, C.; Elango, K. P.

2013-04-01

377

Substitutionality of nitrogen atoms and formation of nitrogen complexes and point defects in GaPN alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen substitution and formation of point defects in GaP(1-x)Nx layers (x ranging from 0.01 to 0.04) grown on GaP substrates are characterized by channelling Rutherford backscattering, nuclear reaction analysis and positron annihilation spectroscopy measurements. It is observed that the substitutionality of nitrogen into GaP decreases from a value of 0.91 to that of <0.1 with increasing nitrogen content from x = 1.7% to x = 4.0%. In addition to substitutional nitrogen atoms, GaPN layers have nitrogen interstitials, nitrogen clusters and defect complexes composed of multiple nitrogen atoms. Positron annihilation spectroscopy of GaPN layer shows positron trapping not only in vacancies but also trapping due to nitrogen clusters. In addition, the footprint of different nitrogen cluster states and point defects is observed in temperature dependent photoluminescence measurements.

Jussila, H.; Yu, K. M.; Kujala, J.; Tuomisto, F.; Nagarajan, S.; Lemettinen, J.; Huhtio, T.; Tuomi, T. O.; Lipsanen, H.; Sopanen, M.

2014-02-01

378

Reversibility of the inhibitory effect of atrazine and lindane on cytosol 5. alpha. -dihydrotestosterone receptor complex formation in rat prostate  

SciTech Connect

Once entering the bloodstream, most toxic substances, including pesticides, can reach organs involved in the reproductive system. They can cross the placenta, as well as the brain barrier, posing various risks to the reproductive processes. The organochlorine insecticide lindane and the s-triazine herbicide atrazine produce changes in hormone-dependent reactions in the rat hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, and prostate. Lindane also causes histological and biochemical alterations in the rat testis. In vivo treatment with atrazine produces a markedly inhibitory influence of 5{alpha}-dihydrotestosterone - receptor complex formation in rat prostate cytosol. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether such changes in the crucial step in the reproductive process are reversible. A parallel investigation using lindane was also undertaken.

Simic, B.; Kniewald, Z.; Kniewald, J. (Univ. of Zagreb, (Yugoslavia)); Davies, J.E. (Univ. of Miami, FL (United States))

1991-01-01

379

Detection of complex formation between binuclear iron(III)–peroxide adduct and oligonucleotide by electrospray mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI–Mass) gave clear evidence for complex formation between an iron(III) complex and a DNA chain, and also between a binuclear iron(III)–peroxide adduct and a DNA chain.

Teruyuki Kobayashi; Satoshi Nishino; Hideki Masuda; Hisahiko Einaga; Yuzo Nishida

2000-01-01

380

Age Differences in Reaction Time and Attention in a National Telephone Sample of Adults: Education, Sex, and Task Complexity Matter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study demonstrated effects of age, education, and sex on complex reaction time in a large national sample (N = 3,616) with a wide range in age (32-85) and education. Participants completed speeded auditory tasks (from the MIDUS [Midlife in the U.S.] Stop and Go Switch Task) by telephone. Complexity ranged from a simple repeated task to an…

Tun, Patricia A.; Lachman, Margie E.

2008-01-01

381

Recrystallized Impact Glasses of the Onaping Formation and the Sudbury Igneous Complex, Sudbury Structure, Ontario, Canada  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The origin of the Sudbury Structure and of the associated heterolithic breccias of the Onaping Formation and the Sudbury Igneous Complex have been controversial. While an impact origin of the structure has gained wide acceptance over the last 15 years, the origin of the recrystallized Onaping Formation glasses and of the igneous complex is still being debated. Recently the interpretation of the breccias of the Onaping Formation as suevitic fall-back impact breccias has been challenged. The igneous complex is interpreted either as a differentiated impact melt sheet or as a combination of an upper impact melt represented by the granophyre, and a lower, impact-triggered magmatic body consisting of the norite-sublayer formations. The Onaping Formation contains glasses as fluidal and nonfluidal fragments of various shapes and sizes. They are recrystallized, and our research indicates that they are petrographically heterogeneous and span a wide range of chemical compositions. These characteristics are not known from glasses of volcanic deposits. This suggests an origin by shock vitrification, an interpretation consistent with their association with numerous and varied country rock clasts that exhibit microscopic shock metamorphic features. The recrystallized glass fragments represent individual solid-state and liquid-state vitrified rocks or relatively small melt pods. The basal member lies beneath the Gray and Black members of the Onaping Formation and, where not metamorphic, has an igneous matrix. Igneous-textured melt bodies occur in the upper two members and above the Basal Member. A comparison of the chemical compositions of recrystallized glasses and of the matrices of the Basal Member and the melt bodies with the components and the bulk composition of the igneous complex is inconclusive as to the origin of the igneous complex. Basal Member matrix and Melt Bodies, on average, are chemically similar to the granophyre of the Sudbury Igneous Complex, suggesting that they are genetically related. Our chemical results allow interpretation of the entire igneous complex as a differentiated impact melt. However, they are also consistent with the granophyre alone being the impact melt and the nofite and quartz gabbro beneath it representing an impact-triggered magmatic body. This interpretation is preferred, as it is consistent with a number of field observations. A re-evaluation and extension of structural field studies and of geochemical data, as well as a systematic study of the contact relationships of the various igneous phases of the igneous complex, are needed to establish a Sudbury impact model consistent with all data and observations

Dressler, B. O.; Weiser, T.; Brockmeyer, P.

1996-01-01

382

Bis(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) ytterbium: Electron-transfer reactions with organotransition metal complexes  

SciTech Connect

The divalent lanthanide complex, (Me{sub 5}C{sub 5}){sub 2}Yb, reacts with methylcopper to produce the base-free, ytterbium-methyl complex, (Me{sub 5}C{sub 5}){sub 2}YbMe. This product forms a asymmetric, methyl-bridged dimer in the solid state. The bulky alkyl complex, (Me{sub 5}C{sub 5}){sub 2}YbCH(SiMe{sub 3}){sub 2}, displays similar chemistry to (Me{sub 5}C{sub 5}){sub 2}YbMe, but at a reduced reaction rate due to the limited accessibility of the metal in (Me{sub 5}C{sub 5}){sub 2}YbCH(SiMe{sub 3}){sub 2}. Copper and silver halide salts react with (Me{sub 5}C{sub 5}){sub 2}V to produce the trivalent halide derivatives, (Me{sub 5}C{sub 5}){sub 2}VX (X + F, Cl, Br, I). The chloride complex, (Me{sub 5}C{sub 5}){sub 2}VCl, reacts with lithium reagents to form the phenyl and borohydride species. Nitrous oxide transfers an oxygen atom to (Me{sub 5}C{sub 5}){sub 2}V producing the vanadium-oxo complex, (Me{sub 5}Ce{sub 5}){sub 2}VO. The trivalent titanium species, (Me{sub 5}C{sub 5}){sub 2}TiX (X = Cl, Br, Me, BH{sub 4}), form bimetallic coordination complexes with (Me{sub 5}C{sub 5}){sub 2}Yb. The magnetic behavior of the products indicates that electron transfer has not occurred. The solid state structures of the chloride and bromide complexes show unusual bend angles for the halide bridges between ytterbium and titanium. A model based on frontier orbital theory has been proposed to account for the bending behavior in these species. The bimetallic methyl complex contains a linear methyl bridge between ytterbium and titanium.

Matsunaga, P.T.

1991-11-01

383

Redox Reactions of Copper Complexes Formed with Different ?-amyloid Peptides and Their Neuropathalogical Relevance†  

PubMed Central

The binding stoichiometry between Cu(II) and the full-length ?-amyloid A?(1–42) and the oxidation state of copper in the resultant complex were determined by electrospray ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI-FTICR-MS) and cyclic voltammetry. The same approach was extended to the copper complexes of A?(1–16) and A?(1–28). A stoichiometric ratio of 1:1 was directly observed and the oxidation state of copper was deduced to be 2+ for all the complexes and residues tyrosine-10 and methionine-35 are not oxidized in the A?(1–42)-Cu(II) complex. The stoichiometric ratio remains the same in the presence of more than 10 fold excess of Cu(II). Redox potentials of the sole tyrosine residue and the Cu(II) center were determined to be ca. 0.75 V and 0.08 V vs. Ag/AgCl (or 0.95 V and 0.28 V vs. normal hydrogen electrode (NHE)), respectively. More importantly, for the first time, A?-Cu(I) complex has been generated electrochemically and was found to catalyze the reduction of oxygen to produce hydrogen peroxide. The voltammetric behaviors of the three A? segments suggest that diffusion of oxygen to the metal center can be affected by the length and hydrophobicity of the A? peptide. The determination and assignment of the redox potentials clarify some misconceptions in the redox reactions involving A? and provide new insight into the possible roles of redox metal ions in the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis. In cellular environments, the reduction potential of the A?-Cu(II) complex is sufficiently low to react with antioxidants (e.g., ascorbic acid) and cellular redox buffers (e.g., glutathione), and the A?-Cu(I) complex produced could subsequently reduce oxygen to form hydrogen peroxide via a catalytic cycle. Using voltammetry, the A?-Cu(II) complex formed in solution was found to be readily reduced by ascorbic acid. Hydrogen peroxide produced, in addition to its role in damaging DNA, protein, and lipid molecules, can also be involved in the further consumption of antioxidants, causing their depletion in neurons and eventually damaging the neuronal defense system. Another possibility is that A?-Cu(II) could react with species involved in the cascade of electron transfer events of mitochondria and might potentially side-track the electron transfer processes in the respiratory chain, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:17636872

Jiang, Dianlu; Men, Lijie; Wang, Jianxiu; Zhang, Yi; Chickenyen, Sara; Wang, Yinsheng; Zhou, Feimeng

2011-01-01

384

Does crystal or gel matter to stereochemistry of a reaction? Silver complexation-promoted solid-state [2+2] reaction of an unsymmetrical olefin.  

PubMed

Head-to-tail and head-to-head [2+2] photodimerization of an unsymmetrical olefin containing benzimidazole and pyridyl groups was achieved by irradiating Ag(I) complexed olefin in crystalline state and gel state, respectively, in stereoselective manner. The [2+2] reaction indicates that the molecular arrangement in a gel is different from that of a xerogel. PMID:22935695

Samai, Suman; Ghosh, Prabir; Biradha, Kumar

2013-05-14

385

The reaction mechanism of formation of chemically synthesized Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B hard magnetic nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B based magnetic materials exhibit excellent magnetic properties and are widely used in many engineering applications. However, chemical synthesis of this compound is challenging. In this work, the formation mechanism of chemically synthesized Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B magnetic nanoparticles was studied. Nd, Fe and B precursors were converted to Nd-Fe-B oxide by the sol-gel method, reduction of these oxides by CaH{sub 2} resulted in Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B nanoparticles. Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B phase formation resulted from two competing reactions: (a) Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B phase formation by direct combination of NdH{sub 2}, Fe and B, (b) Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 17} phase formation from NdH{sub 2} and Fe, followed by Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B phase formation by the reaction of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 17} and B. Addition of boron to Nd-Fe-B oxide during reduction resulted in improved magnetic properties. The activation energy for Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B phase formation was found to be 365 kJ mol{sup -1}. The optimum heat treatment temperature and time for Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B phase formation were found to be 800 Degree-Sign C and 90 min, respectively. - Graphical abstract: The kinetics, reaction mechanism and morphology of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B magnetic nanoparticles synthesized by sol-gel followed by reduction-diffusion at 800 Degree-Sign C. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The formation mechanism of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B magnetic nanoparticles was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B phase formation occurs by two parallel competing reactions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reaction of NdH{sub 2}, Fe and B resulted in Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B phase formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B phase can also be formed by the reaction of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 17} and B. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Maximum wt% of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B phase was obtained at 800 Degree-Sign C and 90 min annealing.

Deheri, P.K., E-mail: DEHE0001@e.ntu.edu.sg [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Division of Materials Science, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639 798 (Singapore); Shukla, S., E-mail: shukla@pmail.ntu.edu.sg [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Division of Materials Science, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639 798 (Singapore); Ramanujan, R.V., E-mail: Ramanujan@ntu.edu.sg [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Division of Materials Science, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639 798 (Singapore)

2012-02-15

386

Carbon dioxide sequestration via olivine carbonation: Examining the formation of reaction products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to its abundance and natural ability to sequester CO2, olivine has been proposed as one mineral that could be used in the control of CO2 emissions into the atmosphere (Metz, 2005). Large scale peridotite deposits found in locations such as the Western Gneiss Region in Norway could provide in-situ sites for sequestration or the raw materials for ex-situ mineral carbonation. Determining the conditions under which magnesite (MgCO3) forms most efficiently is crucial to conduct a cost effective process. Understanding the development of secondary minerals is particularly important for in-situ methods as these phases can form passivating layers and affect the host rock porosity. The final solution of flow-through experiments conducted at alkaline pH have been shown to be supersaturated with respect to talc and chrysotile (Giammer et al., 2005), although these phases were not found to have precipitated the formation of a passivating, amorphous silica layer has been observed on reacted olivine surfaces (Bearat et al., 2006). By studying magnesite and other products produced during the carbonation of olivine within Teflon lined steel autoclaves we have begun to form a more comprehensive understanding of how these reactions would proceed during sequestration processes. We have performed batch experiments using carbonated saline solutions in the presence of air or gaseous CO2 from 80 to 200 Ë? C. X-ray powder diffraction was used to identify magnesite within the reaction products. Crystals of magnesite up to 20 m in diameter can be observed on olivine grain surfaces with scanning electron microscopy. Secondary reaction products formed a platy layer on olivine surfaces in reactions above 160 Ë? C and below pH 12. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis of the platy layer revealed an increase in Fe concentration. The macroscopically observable red colouration of the reaction products and Raman spectroscopy indicate that hematite is present in these layers. For experiments with a duration of 4 weeks, lizardite has also been identified using X-ray powder diffraction. The Mg/Si ratio obtained from energy dispersive X-ray analysis of the secondary phases from shorter period experiments indicates that lizardite may also be present. However, the components of these platy layers are closely associated and too low in concentration to be distinguishable with X-ray diffraction analysis. We have not observed the precipitation of talc or chrysotile phases in any of our experiments. Amorphous silica has also not been identified in any of the reaction rims. Higher temperature experiments and those with an initial solution slightly undersaturated with respect to magnesite produced well formed carbonate crystals. The presence of CO2 above the solution did not affect the final magnesite crystal shape but did increase the rate of precipitation. References: Bearat H., McKelvy M. J., Chizmeshya A. V. G., Gormley D., Nunez R., Carpenter R. W., Squires K. and Wolf G. H. (2006), Environ. Sci. Technol., 40 4802-4808. Giammar D. E., Bruant R. G. and Peters C. A. (2005), Chem. Geol., 217 257-276. Metz B. D. O., de Coninck H., Loos M. and Meyer L. (2005), IPCC Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage, Cambridge University Press.

King, H. E.; Plümper, O.; Putnis, A.

2009-04-01

387

Aryl-phenyl scrambling in intermediate organopalladium complexes: a gas-phase study of the Mizoroki-Heck reaction.  

PubMed

The intramolecular aryl-phenyl scrambling reaction within palladium-DPPP-aryl complex (DPPP=1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane) ions was analyzed by state-of-the-art tandem MS, including gas-phase ion/molecule reactions. The Mizoroki-Heck cross-coupling reaction was performed in the gas phase, and the intrinsic reactivity of important intermediates could be examined. Moreover, linear free-energy correlations were applied, and a mechanism for the scrambling reaction proceeding via phosphonium cations was assumed. PMID:24633762

Fiebig, Lukas; Schlörer, Nils; Schmalz, Hans-Günther; Schäfer, Mathias

2014-04-22

388

Enhanced CO2 hydrate formation kinetic under organo-mineral complex environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CO2 hydrate formation under marine sediments can be one of the feasible options to mitigate atmospheric concentration of CO2, main source of global warming. For the better application of CO2 sequestration via hydrate form under ocean, it is indispensable to understand the effects of marine environmental factors on hydrate formation kinetic and equilibrium. In this study, we investigated the effect of organo-mineral complex (i.e., Na-montmorillonite (Na-MMT) and glycine complex) on hydrate formation kinetic both experimentally and computationally. Organo-mineral complex suspension showed much more favorable hydrate formation kinetic (2-6 min) than pure water control (48-80 min). TEM image showed that glycine are well distributed and strongly adsorbed on Na-MMT surface and FT/IR results (i.e., increased frequency of N-H stretch) also proved that amine part of glycine can make strong hydrogen bonding with silicon atoms of Na-MMT. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was performed to fully understand the CO2 hydrate nucleation on the organo-mineral complex and its result showed that high concentration of CO2 molecules are located near Na-MMT surface and glycine attached on Na-MMT can attract water molecules to form intermediate hydrate structure. This one plays a key role in complete hydrate formation as nucleation seeds and can significantly enhance the hydrate formation kinetic. This fundamental knowledge could provide idea to select proper CO2 storage site under marine sediments and be applied to in-situ swapping technology to recover CH4 from deep sea gas hydrate deposits and sequester the CO2 to CH4 hydrate layer.

Kyung, D.; Lee, W.

2012-12-01

389

Geminin inhibits a late step in the formation of human pre-replicative complexes.  

PubMed

The initial step in initiation of eukaryotic DNA replication involves the assembly of pre-replicative complexes (pre-RCs) at origins of replication during the G1 phase of the cell cycle. In metazoans initiation is inhibited by the regulatory factor Geminin. We have purified the human pre-RC proteins, studied their interactions in vitro with each other and with origin DNA, and analyzed the effects of HsGeminin on formation of DNA-protein complexes. The formation of an initial complex containing the human origin recognition complex (HsORC), HsCdt1, HsCdc6, and origin DNA is cooperative, involving all possible binary interactions among the components. Maximal association of HsMCM2-7, a component of the replicative helicase, requires HsORC, HsCdc6, HsCdt1, and ATP, and is driven by interactions of HsCdt1 and HsCdc6 with multiple HsMCM2-7 subunits. Formation of stable complexes, resistant to high salt, requires ATP hydrolysis. In the absence of HsMCM proteins, HsGeminin inhibits the association of HsCdt1 with DNA or with HsORC-HsCdc6-DNA complexes. However, HsGeminin does not inhibit recruitment of HsMCM2-7 to DNA to form complexes containing all of the pre-RC proteins. In fact, HsGeminin itself is a component of such complexes, and interacts directly with the HsMcm3 and HsMcm5 subunits of HsMCM2-7, as well as with HsCdt1. Although HsGeminin does not prevent the initial formation of DNA-protein complexes containing the pre-RC proteins, it strongly inhibits the formation of stable pre-RCs that are resistant to high salt. We suggest that bound HsGeminin prevents transition of the pre-RC to a state that is competent for initiation of DNA replication. PMID:25231993

Wu, Min; Lu, Wenyan; Santos, Ruth E; Frattini, Mark G; Kelly, Thomas J

2014-10-31

390

Geminin Inhibits a Late Step in the Formation of Human Pre-replicative Complexes*  

PubMed Central

The initial step in initiation of eukaryotic DNA replication involves the assembly of pre-replicative complexes (pre-RCs) at origins of replication during the G1 phase of the cell cycle. In metazoans initiation is inhibited by the regulatory factor Geminin. We have purified the human pre-RC proteins, studied their interactions in vitro with each other and with origin DNA, and analyzed the effects of HsGeminin on formation of DNA-protein complexes. The formation of an initial complex containing the human origin recognition complex (HsORC), HsCdt1, HsCdc6, and origin DNA is cooperative, involving all possible binary interactions among the components. Maximal association of HsMCM2–7, a component of the replicative helicase, requires HsORC, HsCdc6, HsCdt1, and ATP, and is driven by interactions of HsCdt1 and HsCdc6 with multiple HsMCM2–7 subunits. Formation of stable complexes, resistant to high salt, requires ATP hydrolysis. In the absence of HsMCM proteins, HsGeminin inhibits the association of HsCdt1 with DNA or with HsORC-HsCdc6-DNA complexes. However, HsGeminin does not inhibit recruitment of HsMCM2–7 to DNA to form complexes containing all of the pre-RC proteins. In fact, HsGeminin itself is a component of such complexes, and interacts directly with the HsMcm3 and HsMcm5 subunits of HsMCM2–7, as well as with HsCdt1. Although HsGeminin does not prevent the initial formation of DNA-protein complexes containing the pre-RC proteins, it strongly inhibits the formation of stable pre-RCs that are resistant to high salt. We suggest that bound HsGeminin prevents transition of the pre-RC to a state that is competent for initiation of DNA replication. PMID:25231993

Wu, Min; Lu, Wenyan; Santos, Ruth E.; Frattini, Mark G.; Kelly, Thomas J.

2014-01-01

391

New reaction pathways in the charge-transfer photochemistry of aminecarboxylate cobalt(III) complexes  

SciTech Connect

Photolysis of cobalt(III) complexes [COL{sup 1}L{sup 2}], are examined. Here, L{sup 1} is nitrilotriacetate (nta) or N,N`- ethylenediaminediacetate (edda) ions; L{sup 1} is (en), (phen) or 2,2`-bipyridine (bpy). Primary photolytical products of these complexes, after irradiation of charge-transfer bands, are organocobalt(III) derivatives with three-membered Co-C-N cycles in place of five-membered aminecarboxylate-metal rings contacted via carbon dioxide elimination. When L{sup 1} is phen or bpy, these primary products (PP) distinguished for enhanced stability were identified by their relatively intense d-d absorption bands in comparison with those of known structure. In the case of [Co(nta)en], one third of the photoredox process leads to ethylenediaminetetraacetatocobalte(II) ions, presumably through the {open_quote}reductive elimination{close_quote} reaction involving two PP species. Heterolytic Co-C bond fission converts the PP species into [Co(H{sub 2}O)L{sup 2}L{sup 3}] complexes without any net change in an oxidation number of the Co atoms. This process may be termed as nonreductive photodeacetylation. In the case of [Co(edda)bpy]{sup +}, this amounts to more than one half of the whole photolytic process.

Campana, C.F.; Burshtein, I.F. [Siemens Energy and Automation Inc., Madison, WI (United States); Poznyak, A.L.; Stopolyanskaya, L.V. [Inst. of Molecular and Atomic Physics, Minsk (Belarus)

1996-12-31

392

Geometries, stabilities, and reactions of carbon clusters: Towards a microscopic theory of fullerene formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To clarify the microscopic formation process of C60 and other fullerenes, we study the geometries and energetics of small carbon clusters and the reaction between carbon clusters using the long-range transferable tight-binding model parametrized by Omata (Omata TB), the local-density-approximation (LDA) in the framework of the density-functional theory, and the constant-temperature molecular dynamics combined with Omata-TB (Omata TBMD). From the LDA geometry-optimization study, we find that the binding energy per atom of the C10 ring is 0.4eV /atom larger than that of the C10 chain. This energetic preference of a ring to a chain in C10 is most prominent among all Cn clusters studied (5?n?17) . Moreover, the study of sp -hybridized small carbon clusters with Omata TBMD reveals that C10 is the smallest stable ring at the temperature of 2000K , which can explain the high abundance of C10 in the experimental Cn- mass spectra. From the remarkable stability of the C10 ring as well as from its high abundance, it is considered that the sp -hybridized C10 ring should play a role of major constituent units of larger clusters and fullerenes. Therefore we perform various sets of simulations of reactions between carbon clusters possessing the C atoms in multiples of 10, C10m+C10n ( m+n=2,3,4,5,6 , m?n?1 ), at several temperatures with Omata TBMD. As a result, it is found that, in most cases studied, C20 and C30 clusters possess the sp2 -hybridized planar geometries, while C40 , C50 , and C60 take the sp2 -hybridized “fullerenelike” closed-cage geometries. These C40 , C50 , and C60 cages can be formed at as low as 1500K , which is in good accord with the experimental temperature of fullerene formation. In a few cases, even the C30 cluster is found to take the cage structure. These results are in good accord with the experimental results of the gas ion chromatography. The straightforward growth process from the sp -hybridized ring to the sp2 -hybridized plane and that from the sp2 -hybridized plane to the sp2 -hybridized fullerenelike cage revealed in the present study are considered to be the main road of the formation of fullerenes. Finally, the study of structural stabilities of cage geometries obtained through the reaction between a fullerenelike cage (C40) or a symmetrical fullerene ( D5h C50 or Ih C60 ) and a carbon cluster ( C10 or C12 ) at various temperatures with Omata TBMD indicates that C2n fullerenelike cages larger than C60 tend to decay into C2n-2 through the C2 loss process at the higher rate than C60 or smaller fullerenelike cages. Therefore this C2 loss process is considered to be one of the most important processes leading to the extreme abundance of C60 .

Ueno, Yusuke; Saito, Susumu

2008-02-01

393

Assembly of the Light-Harvesting Complexes (LHCs) of Photosystem II (Monomeric LHC IIb Complexes Are Intermediates in the Formation of Oligomeric LHC IIb Complexes).  

PubMed Central

The light-induced assembly of light-harvesting complex (LHC) II has been followed during the biogenesis of the plastid. Seedlings grown in intermittent light (IML) accumulate only small amounts of chlorophyll b. The minor LHC II apoproteins are present; however, the apoprotein levels of the major LHC II complex, LHC IIb, are severely depressed after exposure to IML. The levels of all LHC II apoproteins increase rapidly upon exposure to continuous illumination. The 25-kD, type 3 LHC IIb subunit appears to be more abundant during the early hours of greening in relation to its level in mature thylakoids. The LHC IIb apoproteins are initially associated with pigments to form monomeric pigment-protein complexes. The abundance of monomeric LHC IIb complexes gradually decreases during exposure to continuous light and a concomitant increase occurs in the amount of the trimeric and higher-order oligomeric forms. Pulse-chase experiments verify that labeled LHC IIb monomeric complexes are intermediates in the formation of trimeric and higher-order oligomeric LHC IIb-pigmented complexes. Therefore, the assembly of LHC II occurs via the initial pigmentation of the apoproteins to form monomeric complexes and proceeds in a sequential manner. PMID:12232371

Dreyfuss, B. W.; Thornber, J. P.

1994-01-01

394

Modeling Cl2 formation from aqueous NaCl particles: Evidence for interfacial reactions and importance of Cl2 decomposition in alkaline solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of experiments have demonstrated that a significant yield of chlorine gas is produced when mixtures of ozone and sodium chloride particles above their deliquescence point are irradiated at 254 nm. In order to obtain expressions for future modeling studies, a comprehensive model is used to analyze the system and to determine its sensitivity. This work reexamines and expands previous studies [, 2000]. The enhanced model, described in detail herein, reaffirms that current known physical and chemical processes fail to reproduce the observed Cl2 formation in the experiments. A methodological analysis, proposed as a framework for similar studies, of the physicochemical system supports the accountability of an overall mechanism initiated by the formation of a relatively stable complex of the hydroxyl radical and chloride ions at the gas-liquid interface for the observed chlorine generation. Different potential fates of the OH•••Clsurface•- intermediate are discussed. A rate expression and kinetic parameters are presented for the overall reaction of the interfacial mechanism. In addition, sensitivity studies underscore the importance of accurately modeling chlorine decomposition processes in alkaline solution—in particular, the reactions of chlorine with hydroxide, carbonate, and basic hydrogen peroxide. Recommended aqueous-phase rate constants for these reactions are drawn from a literature evaluation illustrating the limited availability and lack of agreement of related kinetic data.

Knipping, Eladio M.; Dabdub, Donald

2002-09-01

395

Enzyme-polyelectrolyte complex: Salt effects on the reaction of urease with polyallylamine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of inorganic mono- and divalent salts of different types on how the cation polyelectrolyte polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAA) binds with the oligomer enzyme urease were studied. It was shown that in solutions of the monovalent salts NaCl, KCl, and NH4Cl, polyelectrolyte-protein complexes formed by electrostatic interactions, which decreased monotonically as the salt concentrations increased according to the classic law of statistical physics, correlating the Debye radius with the ionic strength of the solution. In solutions of the divalent salts Na2SO4 and (NH4)2SO4, the efficiency of the formation of the polyelectrolyte-protein complexes changed abruptly (the enzyme was drastically activated) at low salt concentrations (˜0.6-0.8 mM), which was not consistent with the classic theory of charge interactions in solutions with different ionic strengths. Turbidimetric titration at different salt concentrations in the given range revealed a high aggregative ability for sulfates and low ability for chlorides. It was concluded that the anomalies in the concentration dependence of the enzyme activity and aggregative ability were related to the formation of stable bonds PAA to the divalent SO{4/2-} anion, which increased drastically when the ratio of anion concentration to the number of positively charged PAA monomers in solution reached 1: 2.

Tikhonenko, S. A.; Saburova, E. A.; Durdenko, E. N.; Sukhorukov, B. I.

2009-10-01

396

Phosphonato complexes of platinum(II): kinetics of formation and phosphorus-31 NMR characterization studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactions of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) with phosphonoformic acid (PFA), phosphonoacetic acid (PAA), and methylenediphosphonic acid (MDP) yield various phosphonatoplatinum(II) chelates which were characterized by phosphorus-31 NMR spectroscopy. The P-31 resonances for the chelates appear at 6-12 ppm downfield as compared to the uncomplexed ligands. All complexes exhibit monoprotic acidic behavior in the pH range 2-10. The chemical shift-pH profiles yielded acidity constants,

L. L. Slavin; R. N. Bose

1990-01-01

397

Salen-complex-mediated formation of cyclic carbonates by cycloaddition of CO2 to epoxides.  

PubMed

Metal complexes of salen ligands are an important class of compounds, and they have been widely studied in the past. Among their successful catalytic applications, the synthesis of cyclic carbonates by the coupling reaction of epoxides with CO(2) has received increased attention; this is mostly due to the importance of using a greenhouse gas as a feedstock for the synthesis of useful molecules. Herein the most relevant past and present research surrounding this topic is presented. PMID:20957709

Decortes, Antonello; Castilla, Ana M; Kleij, Arjan W

2010-12-17

398

Secondary organic aerosol formation from gasoline vehicle emissions in a new mobile environmental reaction chamber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new mobile environmental reaction chamber for the simulation of the atmospheric aging of different emission sources without limitation from the instruments or facilities available at any single site. Photochemistry is simulated using a set of 40 UV lights (total power 4 KW). Characterisation of the emission spectrum of these lights shows that atmospheric aging of emissions may be simulated over a range of temperatures (-7 to 25 °C). A photolysis rate of NO2, JNO2, of (8.0 ± 0.7) × 10-3 s-1 was determined at 25 °C. We demonstrate the utility of this new system by presenting results on the aging (OH = 12 × 106 cm-3 h) of emissions from a modern (Euro 5) gasoline car operated during a driving cycle (New European Driving Cycle, NEDC) on a chassis dynamometer in a vehicle test cell. Emissions from the entire NEDC were sampled and aged in the chamber. Total organic aerosol (OA; primary organic aerosol (POA) emission + secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation) was (369.8-397.5)10-3 g kg-1 fuel, or (13.2-15.4) × 10-3 g km-1, after aging, with aged OA/POA in the range 9-15. A thorough investigation of the composition of the gas phase emissions suggests that the observed SOA is from previously unconsidered precursors and processes. This large enhancement in particulate matter mass from gasoline vehicle aerosol emissions due to SOA formation, if it occurs across a wider range of gasoline vehicles, would have significant implications for our understanding of the contribution of on-road gasoline vehicles to ambient aerosols.

Platt, S. M.; El Haddad, I.; Zardini, A. A.; Clairotte, M.; Astorga, C.; Wolf, R.; Slowik, J. G.; Temime-Roussel, B.; Marchand, N.; Ježek, I.; Drinovec, L.; Mo?nik, G.; Möhler, O.; Richter, R.; Barmet, P.; Bianchi, F.; Baltensperger, U.; Prévôt, A. S. H.

2013-09-01

399

Functional insight into the role of Orc6 in septin complex filament formation in Drosophila.  

PubMed

Septins belong to a family of polymerizing GTP-binding proteins that are important for cytokinesis and other processes that involve spatial organization of the cell cortex. We reconstituted a recombinant Drosophila septin complex and compared activities of the wild-type and several mutant septin complex variants both in vitro and in vivo. We show that Drosophila septin complex functions depend on the intact GTP-binding and/or hydrolysis domains of Pnut, Sep1, and Sep2. The presence of the functional C-terminal domain of septins is required for the integrity of the complex. Drosophila Orc6 protein, the smallest subunit of the origin recognition complex (ORC), directly binds to septin complex and facilitates septin filament formation. Orc6 forms dimers through the interactions of its N-terminal, TFIIB-like domains. This ability of the protein suggests a direct bridging role for Orc6 in stimulating septin polymerization in Drosophila. Studies reported here provide a functional dissection of a Drosophila septin complex and highlight the basic conserved and divergent features among metazoan septin complexes. PMID:25355953

Akhmetova, Katarina; Balasov, Maxim; Huijbregts, Richard P H; Chesnokov, Igor

2015-01-01

400

Drosophila Orc6 Facilitates GTPase Activity and Filament Formation of the Septin Complex  

PubMed Central

The origin recognition complex or ORC is a six-subunit protein important for DNA replication and other cell functions. Orc6, the smallest subunit of ORC, is essential for both replication and cytokinesis in Drosophila, and interacts with the septin protein Pnut, which is part of the Drosophila septin complex. In this study, we describe the analysis of the interaction of Orc6 with Pnut and whole Drosophila septin complex. Septin complex was purified from Drosophila embryos and also reconstituted from recombinant proteins. The interaction of Orc6 with the septin complex is dependent on the coiled-coil domain of Pnut. Furthermore, the binding of Orc6 to Pnut increases the intrinsic GTPase activity of the Drosophila septin complex, whereas in the absence of GTP it enhances septin complex filament formation. These results suggest an active role for Orc6 in septin complex function. Orc6 might be a part of a control mechanism directing the cytokinesis machinery during the final steps of mitosis. PMID:18987337

Huijbregts, Richard P.H.; Svitin, Anton; Stinnett, Monica W.; Renfrow, Matthew B.

2009-01-01

401

The role of focal adhesion complexes in fibroblast mechanotransduction during scar formation.  

PubMed

Historically, great efforts have been made to elucidate the biochemical pathways that direct the complex process of wound healing; however only recently has there been recognition of the importance that mechanical signals play in the process of tissue repair and scar formation. The body's physiologic response to injury involves a dynamic interplay between mechanical forces and biochemical cues which directs a cascade of signals leading ultimately to the formation of fibrotic scar. Fibroblasts are a highly mechanosensitive cell type and are also largely responsible for the generation of the fibrotic matrix during scar formation and are thus a critical player in the process of mechanotransduction during tissue repair. Mechanotransduction is initiated at the interface between the cell membrane and the extracellular matrix where mechanical signals are first translated into a biochemical response. Focal adhesions are dynamic multi-protein complexes through which the extracellular matrix links to the intracellular cytoskeleton. These focal adhesion complexes play an integral role in the propagation of this initial mechanical cue into an extensive network of biochemical signals leading to widespread downstream effects including the influx of inflammatory cells, stimulation of angiogenesis, keratinocyte migration, fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis. Increasing evidence has demonstrated the importance of the biomechanical milieu in healing wounds and suggests that an integrated approach to the discovery of targets to decrease scar formation may prove more clinically efficacious than previous purely biochemical strategies. PMID:23623400

Rustad, Kristine C; Wong, Victor W; Gurtner, Geoffrey C

2013-10-01

402

THE GAS PHASE REACTION OF OZONE WITH 1,3-BUTADIENE: FORMATION YIELDS OF SOME TOXIC PRODUCTS. (R826236)  

EPA Science Inventory

The formation yields of acrolein, 1,2-epoxy-3-butene and OH radicals have been measured from reaction of ozone with 1,3-butadiene at room temperature and atmosphere pressure. 1,3,5-Trimethyl benzene was added to scavenge OH radicals in measurements of product yields. In separa...

403

Oxo-group-14-element bond formation in binuclear uranium(V) Pacman complexes.  

PubMed

Simple and versatile routes to the functionalization of uranyl-derived U(V)-oxo groups are presented. The oxo-lithiated, binuclear uranium(V)-oxo complexes [{(py)3LiOUO}2(L)] and [{(py)3LiOUO}(OUOSiMe3)(L)] were prepared by the direct combination of the uranyl(VI) silylamide "ate" complex [Li(py)2][(OUO)(N")3] (N" = N(SiMe3)2) with the polypyrrolic macrocycle H4L or the mononuclear uranyl (VI) Pacman complex [UO2(py)(H2L)], respectively. These oxo-metalated complexes display distinct U-O single and multiple bonding patterns and an axial/equatorial arrangement of oxo ligands. Their ready availability allows the direct functionalization of the uranyl oxo group leading to the binuclear uranium(V) oxo-stannylated complexes [{(R3Sn)OUO}2(L)] (R = nBu, Ph), which represent rare examples of mixed uranium/tin complexes. Also, uranium-oxo-group exchange occurred in reactions with [TiCl(OiPr)3] to form U-O-C bonds [{(py)3LiOUO}(OUOiPr)(L)] and [(iPrOUO)2(L)]. Overall, these represent the first family of uranium(V) complexes that are oxo-functionalised by Group 14 elements. PMID:23794441

Jones, Guy M; Arnold, Polly L; Love, Jason B

2013-07-29

404

Regulated clearance of histone deacetylase 3 protects independent formation of nuclear receptor corepressor complexes.  

PubMed

An important step in transcriptional regulation by corepressors N-CoR and SMRT is the formation of a stable and active histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3)-containing complex. Although N-CoR and SMRT are thought to bind HDAC3 competitively, multiple studies have shown that they do not interfere with the function of each other. How this functional independence is sustained under the competitive interaction is unclear. Here, we show that the coupling of corepressor expression with HDAC3 degradation allows cells to maintain a stable level of uncomplexed HDAC3, thereby preventing mutual interference in the assembly of N-CoR and SMRT complexes. The free uncomplexed HDAC3 is highly unstable. Unexpectedly, the rate of HDAC3 degradation is inversely correlated with the expression level of corepressors. Our results indicate that reducing one corepressor accelerates HDAC3 clearance, thus preventing an increase in complex formation between HDAC3 and the other corepressor. In addition, this study also indicates that the formation of a stable and active HDAC3-corepressor complex is a stepwise process in which the C terminus of HDAC3 plays a critical role at late steps of the assembly process. PMID:22337871

Guo, Chun; Gow, Chien-Hung; Li, Yali; Gardner, Amanda; Khan, Sohaib; Zhang, Jinsong

2012-04-01

405

Formation of Po isotopes in the reactions {sup 27}Al + {sup 175}Lu and {sup 31}P + {sup 169}Tm  

SciTech Connect

The excitation functions and the cross sections for the formation of {sup 192-198}Po isotopes in the reactions {sup 27}Al + {sup 175}Lu and {sup 31}P + {sup 169}Tm are measured. A comparison of the results obtained for these reactions with the data on the cross sections for the formation of Po isotopes in the reaction {sup 100}Mo + {sup 92-100}Mo leads to the conclusion that the characteristics of the evaporation channel do not depend on the mass of the bombarding ion up to the complete symmetry in the input channel. It is shown that the experimental data can be adequately described using the statistical approach to the deexcitation of a compound nucleus only under the assumption that the liquid-drop fission barrier is reduced significantly for neutron-deficient Po isotopes. 21 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Andreev, A.N.; Bogdanov, D.D.; Eremin, A.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

1995-05-01

406

Metastable Phase Formation During the Reaction of Ni Films with Si(001): the Role of Texture Inheritance  

SciTech Connect

The thermally induced solid-state reaction between a 10-nm-thick Ni film and a Si(001) substrate was investigated using in situ x-ray diffraction and ex situ pole figure analyses. The reaction begins with the appearance of orthorhombic Ni{sub 2}Si grains characterized by a strong fiber texture. The formation of the metastable hexagonal {theta} phase - which inherits the fiber texture of Ni{sub 2}Si - is then observed. This phase has been observed in every sample studied regardless of dopant, film thickness, deposition method, and anneal profile (>2000 conditions). Texture inheritance allows a reaction pathway with a lower activation energy than the expected formation through thermodynamically stable Ni silicide phases.

Gaudet, S.; Coia, C; Desjardins, P; Lavoie, C

2010-01-01

407

Live imaging system for visualizing nuclear pore complex (NPC) formation during interphase in mammalian cells.  

PubMed

Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are 'supramolecular complexes' on the nuclear envelope assembled from multiple copies of approximately 30 different proteins called nucleoporins (Nups) that provide aqueous channels for nucleocytoplasmic transport during interphase. Although the structural aspects of NPCs have been characterized in detail, NPC formation and its regulation, especially during interphase, are poorly understood. In this study, using the temperature-sensitive RCC1 mutant tsBN2, a baby hamster kidney 21 cell line, we found that a lack of RCC1 activity inhibited NPC formation during interphase, suggesting that RanGTP is required for NPC formation during interphase in mammalian cells. Utilizing the reversible RCC1 activity in tsBN2 cells, we established a live-cell system that allows for the inhibition or initiation of NPC formation by changes in temperature. Our system enables the examination of NPC formation during interphase in living cells. As a lack of RCC1 decreased some Nups containing unstructured phenylalanine-glycine repeats in the NPC structure, we propose that RCC1 is also involved in maintaining NPC integrity during interphase in mammalian cells. PMID:20465562

Iino, Haruki; Maeshima, Kazuhiro; Nakatomi, Reiko; Kose, Shingo; Hashikawa, Tsutomu; Tachibana, Taro; Imamoto, Naoko

2010-06-01

408

Kinetics of an enzyme reaction in which both the enzyme-substrate complex and the product are unstable or only the product is unstable.  

PubMed Central

A kinetic analysis of the Michaelis-Menten mechanism has been made for the case in which both the enzyme-substrate complex and the product are unstable or only the product is unstable, either spontaneously or as the result of the addition of a reagent. This analysis allows the derivation of equations which under conditions of limiting enzyme concentration relate the concentration of all of the species to the time. A kinetic data analysis is suggested, which leads to the evaluation of the kinetic parameters involved in the reaction. The analysis is based on the equation which describes the formation of products with time and one's experimental progress curves. We demonstrate the method numerically by computer simulation of the reaction with added experimental errors and experimentally by the use of data from the kinetic study of the action of tyrosinase on dopamine. PMID:7980401

Garrido-del Solo, C; García-Cánovas, F; Havsteen, B H; Valero, E; Varón, R

1994-01-01

409

Rhenium 2-oxoalkyl (enolate) complexes: Synthesis and carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions with nitriles  

SciTech Connect

The (2-oxoalkyl)rhenium complexes (rhenium enolates) (CO){sub 5}ReCH{sub 2}COR{sup 1} (R{sup 1} = OEt, Me, Ph, 1-3) can be prepared on a multigram scale by alkylation of (CO){sub 5}ReNa with ClCH{sub 2}COR{sup 1}. The secondary enolate (CO){sub 5}ReCH(Me)CO{sub 2}Et (4) can also be prepared in a similar fashion with use of MsOCH(Me)CO{sub 2}Et (Ms = CH{sub 3}SO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}). The mono(phosphine) enolates cis-(Ph{sub 3}P)(CO){sub 4}ReCH{sub 2}R{sup 2}(R{sup 2} = CO{sub 2}Et, CO{sub 2}Bu{sup t}, CONEt{sub 2}, COMe, COPh, CN, 8-13) are prepared in high yield via alkylation of (Ph{sub 3}P)(CO){sub 4}ReNa with ClCH{sub 2}R{sup 2}. Synthesis of the secondary enolate cis-(Ph{sub 3}P)(CO){sub 4}ReCH(Me)CO{sub 2}Et (14) is accomplished in 75% yield by alkylation with TfOCH(Me)CO{sub 2}Et (Tf = CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}). The chelating phosphine complex is substitutionally inert under forcing thermal and photochemical conditions. Kinetic studies of the nitrile insertion reaction revealed a weak linear dependence of the rate constant of the reaction on the concentration of added CH{sub 3}CN in benzene; we believe this to b