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Sample records for complex formation reactions

  1. Redox reactions and complex formation of transplutonium elements in solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Krot, N.N.; Myasoedov, B.F.

    1986-01-01

    This paper gives a brief analysis of the kinetics and mechanism of a number of redox processes and the complex formation of transplutonium elements in unusual oxidation states. The composition and strength of complexes of TPE with various addends have been determined. The new experimental data on the oxidation potentials of americium and berkelium ions in solutions are cited in abbreviated form. It follows from the data that in phosphoric acid solutions, when the H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ concentration is increased from 10 to 15 M, the oxidation potential of the couple Am(IV)-Am(III) decreases. The oxidation potentials of the couples Am(VI)-Am(V), Cm(V)-Cm(IV), and Bk(IV)Bk(III) are also presented.

  2. Reversible Formation and Transmetalation of Schiff-Base Complexes in Subcomponent Self-Assembly Reactions.

    PubMed

    Lewing, Dennis; Koppetz, Hannah; Hahn, F Ekkehardt

    2015-08-01

    Dinuclear complexes [Zn2(NS,NS)2] 3 and [Ni2(NS,NS)2] 6 bearing Schiff-base ligands featuring two NS donor groups were obtained in subcomponent self-assembly reactions using nickel or zinc as template metals. Several transmetalation reactions starting from 3 or 6 yielded the complexes [Pd2(NS,NS)2] 4 and [Co2(NS,NS)2] 5, and their molecular structures were determined by X-ray diffraction. Starting from the mononuclear complex [Ni(NS/NOH)2] 9 featuring a coordinated NS Schiff base and a free NOH Schiff base, completely reversible thermodynamically controlled imine bond formation was observed leading to complex [Ni2(NS,NS)2] 6 and the free Schiff -base ligand NOH,NOH 10. PMID:26161894

  3. Nucleophilicity and P-C Bond Formation Reactions of a Terminal Phosphanido Iridium Complex.

    PubMed

    Serrano, ngel L; Casado, Miguel A; Ciriano, Miguel A; de Bruin, Bas; Lpez, Jos A; Tejel, Cristina

    2016-01-19

    The diiridium complex [{Ir(ABPN2)(CO)}2(?-CO)] (1; [ABPN2](-) = [(allyl)B(Pz)2(CH2PPh2)](-)) reacts with diphenylphosphane affording [Ir(ABPN2)(CO)(H) (PPh2)] (2), the product of the oxidative addition of the P-H bond to the metal. DFT studies revealed a large contribution of the terminal phosphanido lone pair to the HOMO of 2, indicating nucleophilic character of this ligand, which is evidenced by reactions of 2 with typical electrophiles such as H(+), Me(+), and O2. Products from the reaction of 2 with methyl chloroacetate were found to be either [Ir(ABPN2)(CO)(H)(PPh2CH2CO2Me)][PF6] ([6]PF6) or [Ir(ABPN2)(CO)(Cl)(H)] (7) and the free phosphane (PPh2CH2CO2Me), both involving P-C bond formation, depending on the reaction conditions. New complexes having iridacyclophosphapentenone and iridacyclophosphapentanone moieties result from reactions of 2 with dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate and dimethyl maleate, respectively, as a consequence of a further incorporation of the carbonyl ligand. In this line, the terminal alkyne methyl propiolate gave a mixture of a similar iridacyclophosphapentanone complex and [Ir(ABPN2){CH?C(CO2Me)-CO}{PPh2-CH?CH(CO2Me)}] (10), which bears the functionalized phosphane PPh2-CH?CH(CO2Me) and an iridacyclobutenone fragment. Related model reactions aimed to confirm mechanistic proposals are also studied. PMID:26695592

  4. Formation of complex organic molecules in cold objects: the role of gas-phase reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balucani, Nadia; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Taquet, Vianney

    2015-04-01

    While astrochemical models are successful in reproducing many of the observed interstellar species, they have been struggling to explain the observed abundances of complex organic molecules. Current models tend to privilege grain surface over gas-phase chemistry in their formation. One key assumption of those models is that radicals trapped in the grain mantles gain mobility and react on lukewarm ( ≳ 30 K) dust grains. Thus, the recent detections of methyl formate (MF) and dimethyl ether (DME) in cold objects represent a challenge and may clarify the respective role of grain-surface and gas-phase chemistry. We propose here a new model to form DME and MF with gas-phase reactions in cold environments, where DME is the precursor of MF via an efficient reaction overlooked by previous models. Furthermore, methoxy, a precursor of DME, is also synthesized in the gas phase from methanol, which is desorbed by a non-thermal process from the ices. Our new model reproduces fairly well the observations towards L1544. It also explains, in a natural way, the observed correlation between DME and MF. We conclude that gas-phase reactions are major actors in the formation of MF, DME and methoxy in cold gas. This challenges the exclusive role of grain-surface chemistry and favours a combined grain-gas chemistry.

  5. Reaction time dependent formation of Pd(II) and Pt(II) complexes of bis(methyl)thiasalen podand.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Pradip Kr; Panda, Snigdha; Krishna, G Rama; Reddy, C Malla; Zade, Sanjio S

    2013-01-14

    Thiasalen podand 9 having S2N2 donor set has been synthesized by the condensation of 2-methylthiobenzaldehyde with ethylenediamine. The reaction of the thiasalen podand ligand with Pd(II) afforded two complexes depending on the reaction time. Shorter reaction time (5 min) afforded thioether complex 10; whereas with increase in reaction time (4 h) thioether-thiolate complex 11 was obtained via cleavage of one of the two S-C(Me) bonds of bis(methyl)thiasalen podand upon complexation. The reaction of 9 with Pt(II) afforded only thiolate-thioether complex 12 independent of the reaction time. The cleavage of both the S-C(Me) bonds of bis(methyl)thiasalen to afford bisthiolate complexes has never been observed. The structures of thiasalen podands and all three complexes have been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. All three complexes possess a square planar geometry around the metal centres. Weak van der Waals interactions through C-HF interactions are present in all three complexes leading to the formation of supramolecular synthons and the supramolecular structures are stabilized by aromatic ?? interactions, which leads to the formation of 3D pseudo-double helical network packing. Under similar conditions bis(methyl)salen did not form any complexes with Pd(II) and Pt(II). PMID:23073301

  6. Reactions of a Dinitrogen Complex of Molybdenum: Formation of a Carbon-Nitrogen Bond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busby, David C.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Reports a procedure for the formation of alkyldiazenido complexes of molybdenum in the absence of dioxygen, suitable for inclusion in an advanced inorganic chemistry laboratory. Includes background information and experimental procedures for two complexes. (SK)

  7. Mass-dependent and -independent fractionation of isotopes in Ni and Pb chelate complex formation reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Nomura, Masao; Kudo, Takashi; Adachi, Atsuhiko; Aida, Masao; Fujii, Yasuhiko

    2013-11-13

    Mass independent fractionation (MIF) has been a very interesting topic in the field of inorganic isotope chemistry, in particular, geo- and cosmo- chemistry. In the present work, we studied the isotope fractionation of Ni(II) and Pb(II) ions in complex formation with chelating reagent EDTA. To obtain clear results on the mass dependence of the isotope fractionation, we have conducted long-distance ion exchange chromatography of Ni(II) and Pb(II), using chelate complex reagent EDTA. The results apparently show that the isotope fractionation in Ni complex formation system is governed by the mass dependent rule. On the other hand the isotope fractionation in the Pb complex system is governed by the mass independent rule or the nuclear volume effect.

  8. Formation of mono(dithiolene)-thiocarboxamido complexes in reactions of thio(dithiocarbamato)-Mo/W complexes and dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate.

    PubMed

    Lim, Patrick J; Slizys, Damian A; Tiekink, Edward R T; Young, Charles G

    2005-01-10

    Reactions of TpMS(S(2)CNEt(2)) with dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate in dichloromethane produce olive green/black TpM{S(2)C(2)(CO(2)Me)(2)}(SCNEt(2)-kappa(2)S,C) (M = Mo (1), W (2); Tp = hydrotris(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)borate). The seven-coordinate complexes exhibit pseudo-octahedral (1) and distorted pentagonal bipyramidal (2) coordination spheres comprised of tridentate fac-Tp, bidentate dithiolene, and thiocarboxamido-kappa(2)S,C ligands. In the solid state, molecules of 1 exhibit pseudo-C(s)() symmetry, with the thiocarboxamide NEt(2) group in a cleft in the Tp ligand. Molecules of 2 have C(1) symmetry in the solid state; here, the thiocarboxamide unit is orientated along one of the W-S(dithiolene) bonds with its NEt(2) group projecting away from the Tp ligand. Both complexes possess effective C(s)() symmetry in solution. Reaction of TpMoI(CO)(3) with AgS(2)CNEt(2) affords olive green TpMo(S(2)CNEt(2))(CO)(2) (3), which reacts with propylene sulfide in a new synthesis for TpMoS(S(2)CNEt(2)), the starting material for 1. Complex 3 exhibits a distorted pentagonal bipyramidal structure, the axial sites being defined by a Tp nitrogen atom and a carbonyl ligand, the pentagonal plane by the remaining nitrogen and carbonyl donors and the two sulfur atoms of the bidentate dithiocarbamate ligand. PMID:15627367

  9. Kinetics of actinide complexation reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, K.L.; Sullivan, J.C.

    1997-09-01

    Though the literature records extensive compilations of the thermodynamics of actinide complexation reactions, the kinetics of complex formation and dissociation reactions of actinide ions in aqueous solutions have not been extensively investigated. In light of the central role played by such reactions in actinide process and environmental chemistry, this situation is somewhat surprising. The authors report herein a summary of what is known about actinide complexation kinetics. The systems include actinide ions in the four principal oxidation states (III, IV, V, and VI) and complex formation and dissociation rates with both simple and complex ligands. Most of the work reported was conducted in acidic media, but a few address reactions in neutral and alkaline solutions. Complex formation reactions tend in general to be rapid, accessible only to rapid-scan and equilibrium perturbation techniques. Complex dissociation reactions exhibit a wider range of rates and are generally more accessible using standard analytical methods. Literature results are described and correlated with the known properties of the individual ions.

  10. Effects of Ce{sup 4+}/sulfato complex formation in the Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction: ESR studies of malonyl radical formation

    SciTech Connect

    Foersterling, H.D.; Stuk, L.

    1992-04-02

    The authors investigated the effects of the formation of sulfato complexes from Ce{sup 4+} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} on the oxidation of malonic acid (MA) by Ce{sup 4+} in the Belousov-Zhabotinskii (BZ) reaction. The authors found from measuring malonyl radical concentrations in an ESR flow experiment that the rate of formation of sulfato complexes is very fast compared to the rate of the MA/Ce{sup 4+} reaction. This result is important in the theory of the BZ reaction; there is no difference in the reaction rate whether Ce{sup 4+} is freshly produced in the autocatalytic cycle or it is introduced in the sulfato-complexed form. Moreover, the authors did absolute calibrations of the malonyl radical concentrations by using Mn{sup 2+} and 3-carbamoyl-PROXYL as calibration standards. From these concentrations the authors calculated malonyl radical self-decay rates of 4.2 x 10{sup 8} M{sup -1}s{sup -1} in 1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and 1.5 x 10{sup 9} M{sup -1} s{sup -1} in 2 M HClO{sub 4-}. 23 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Unexpected formation of stannolanes and trigonal bipyramidal tin complexes by radical cyclization reaction.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Akio; Ishikawa, Shingo; Noguchi, Fumiaki; Moriyama, Takaaki; So, Masahiro; Murafuji, Toshihiro; Uno, Hidemitsu

    2012-07-01

    Optically active stannolanes and trigonal bipyramidal pentacoordinated tin complexes were readily prepared by radical cyclization of N-propargylated chiral aza-Morita-Baylis-Hillman adducts induced by Bu(3)SnH. A translocated radical through the cyclization attacked the Bu(3)Sn group in an S(H)2 manner. PMID:22622256

  12. Dinitrosyl iron complexes with cysteine. Kinetics studies of the formation and reactions of DNICs in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Pereira, José Clayston Melo; Iretskii, Alexei V; Han, Rui-Min; Ford, Peter C

    2015-01-14

    Kinetics studies provide mechanistic insight regarding the formation of dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNICs) now viewed as playing important roles in the mammalian chemical biology of the ubiquitous bioregulator nitric oxide (NO). Reactions in deaerated aqueous solutions containing FeSO4, cysteine (CysSH), and NO demonstrate that both the rates and the outcomes are markedly pH dependent. The dinuclear DNIC Fe2(μ-CysS)2(NO)4, a Roussin's red salt ester (Cys-RSE), is formed at pH 5.0 as well as at lower concentrations of cysteine in neutral pH solutions. The mononuclear DNIC Fe(NO)2(CysS)2(-) (Cys-DNIC) is produced from the same three components at pH 10.0 and at higher cysteine concentrations at neutral pH. The kinetics studies suggest that both Cys-RSE and Cys-DNIC are formed via a common intermediate Fe(NO)(CysS)2(-). Cys-DNIC and Cys-RSE interconvert, and the rates of this process depend on the cysteine concentration and on the pH. Flash photolysis of the Cys-RSE formed from Fe(II)/NO/cysteine mixtures in anaerobic pH 5.0 solution led to reversible NO dissociation and a rapid, second-order back reaction with a rate constant kNO = 6.9 × 10(7) M(-1) s(-1). In contrast, photolysis of the mononuclear-DNIC species Cys-DNIC formed from Fe(II)/NO/cysteine mixtures in anaerobic pH 10.0 solution did not labilize NO but instead apparently led to release of the CysS(•) radical. These studies illustrate the complicated reaction dynamics interconnecting the DNIC species and offer a mechanistic model for the key steps leading to these non-heme iron nitrosyl complexes. PMID:25479566

  13. Reactions of isocyanides with rhodium porphyrins. Formation of formimidoyl and carbamoyl complexes and CN-R bond cleavage

    SciTech Connect

    Poszmik, G.; Carroll, P.J.; Wayland, B.B. )

    1993-09-01

    Reactions of alkyl and aryl isocyanides with (octaethylporphyrinato)rhodium hydride, (OEP)Rh-H, (octaethylporphyrinato)rhodium(II) dimer, [(OEP)Rh][sub 2] and (tetramesitylporphyrinato)rhodium(II), (TMP)Rh, have been investigated for comparison with CO reactivity. Alkyl and aryl isocyanides interact with (OEP)Rh-H to form 1:1 adducts, (OEP)Rh(H)(CNR), which react further to produce formimidoyl complexes, (OEP)Rh-CH=NR, in analog with the reaction of (OEP)Rh-H with CO that produces a formyl complex, (OEP)Rh-CHO. [(OEP)Rh][sub 2] forms 1:1 complexes with isocyanides where the 2,6-dimethylphenyl isocyanide derivative persists at equilibrium, but alkyl isocyanides undergo CN- alkyl bond cleavage to form alkyl, (OEP)Rh-R and cyanide, (OEP)Rh(CN)(CNR), complexes. No evidence was obtained for bridging isocyanide species analogous to the dimetal ketone RhC(O)Rh and dimetal diketone RhC(O)C(O)Rh complexes observed in reactions of [(OEP)Rh][sub 2] with CO. Carbamoyl complexes, (OEP)Rh-C(O)NHR, are formed in reactions of [(OEP)Rh][sub 2] with CNR and H[sub 2]O or CO and RNH[sub 2]. 24 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. A STUDY OF FUNDAMENTAL REACTION PATHWAYS FOR TRANSITION METAL ALKYL COMPLEXES. I. THE REACTION OF A NICKEL METHYL COMPLEX WITH ALKYNES. II. THE MECHANISM OF ALDEHYDE FORMATION IN THE REACTION OF A MOLYBDENUM HYDRIDE WITH MOLYBDENUM ALKYLS

    SciTech Connect

    Huggins, John Mitchell

    1980-06-01

    I. This study reports the rapid reaction under mild conditions of internal or terminal alkynes with methyl (acetyl~ acetonato) (triphenylphosphine) nickel (1) in either aromatic or ether solvents. In all cases vinylnickel products 2 are formed by insertion of the alkyne into the nickel=methyl bond. These complexes may be converted into a variety of organic products (e.g. alkenes, esters, vinyl halides) by treatment with appropriate reagents. Unsymmetrical alkynes give selectively the one regioisomer with the sterically largest substituent next to the nickel atom. In order to investigate the stereochemistry of the initial insertion, a x-ray diffraction study of the reaction of 1 with diphenylacetylene was carried out. This showed that the vinylnickel complex formed by overall trans insertion was the product of the reaction. Furthermore, subsequent slow isomerization of this complex, to a mixture of it and the corresponding cis isomer, demonstrated that this trans addition product is the kinetic product of the reaction. In studies with other alkynes, the product of trans addition was not always exclusively (or even predominantly) formed, but the ratio of the stereoisomers formed kinetically was substantially different from the thermodynamic ratio. Isotope labeling, added phosphine, and other experiments have allowed us to conclude that the mechanism of this reaction does involve initial cis addition. However, a coordinatively unsaturated vinylnickel complex is initially formed which can undergo rapid, phosphine-catalyzed cis-trans isomerization in competition with its conversion to the isolable phosphine-substituted kinetic reaction products. II. The reaction of CpMo(CO){sub 3}H (1a) with CpMo(CO){sub 3}R (2, R= CH{sub 3}, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}) at 50{degrees} C in THF gives the aldehyde RCHO and the dimers [CpMo(CO){sub 3}]{sub 2} (3a) and [CpMo(CO){sub 2}]{sub 2} (4a). Labeling one of the reactants with a methylcyclopentadienyl ligand it was possible to show that the mixed dimers MeCpMo(CO){sub 3}-(CO){sub 3}MoCp (3b) and MeCpMo(CO){sub 2}{triple_bond}(CO){sub 2}MoCp (4b) are the predominant kinetic products of the reaction. Additionally labeling the carbonyl ligands of 1a with {sup 13}CO led to the conclusion that all three of the carbonyl ligands in 1a end up in the tetracarbonyl dimers 4a if the reaction is carried out under a continuous purge of argon Trapping studies failed to find any evidence for the intermediacy of either [CpMo(CO){sub 3}]{sup -} or [CpMo(CO){sub 3}]{sup +} in this reaction. A mechanism is proposed that involves the initial migration of the alkyl ligand in 2 to CO forming an unsaturated acyl complex which reacts with 1a to give a binuclear complex containing a three center-two electron Mo-H-Mo bond. This complex then selectively looses a carbonyl from the acyl molybdenum, migrates the hydride to that same metal, and forms a metal-metal bond. This binuclear complex with the hydride and acyl ligands on one metal reductively eliminates aldehyde, and migrates a carbonyl ligand, to give 4a directly. The other product 3a is formed by addition of two molecules of free CO to 4a.

  15. Reactions of sulfur-nitrosyl iron complexes of "g=2.03" family with hemoglobin (Hb): kinetics of Hb-NO formation in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Sanina, N A; Syrtsova, L A; Shkondina, N I; Rudneva, T N; Malkova, E S; Bazanov, T A; Kotel'nikov, A I; Aldoshin, S M

    2007-03-01

    NO-donating ability of nitrosyl [Fe-S] complexes, namely, mononuclear dinitrosyl complexes of anionic type [Fe(S2O3)2(NO)2]-(I) and neutral [Fe2(SL1)2(NO)2] with L1=1H-1,2,4-triazole-3-yl (II); tetranitrosyl binuclear neutral complexes [Fe2(SL2)2(NO)4] with L2=5-amino-1,2,4-triazole-3-yl (III); 1-methyl-1H-tetrazole-5-yl (IV); imidazole-2-yl (V) and 1-methyl-imidazole-2-yl (VI) has been studied. In addition, Roussin's "red salt" Na2[Fe2S2(NO)4] x 8H2O (VII) and Na2[Fe(CN)5NO] x H2O (VIII) have been investigated. The method for research has been based on the formation of Hb-NO adduct upon the interaction of hemoglobin with NO generated by complexes I-VIII in aqueous solutions. Kinetics of NO formation was studied by registration of absorption spectra of the reaction systems containing Hb and the complex under study. For determination of HbNO concentration, the experimental absorption spectra were processed during the reaction using standard program MATHCAD to determine the contribution of individual Hb and HbNO spectra in each spectrum. The reaction rate constants were obtained by analyzing kinetic dependence of Hb interaction with NO donors under study. All kinetic dependences for complexes I-VI were shown to be described well in the frame of formalism of pseudo first-order reactions. The effective first-order rate constants for the studied reactions have been determined. As follows from the values of rate constants, the rate of interaction of sulfur-nitrosyl iron complexes (I-VI) with Hb is limited by the stage of NO release in the solution. PMID:17140821

  16. Solvation effects in complex-forming reactions. I. The effect of solvents on complex formation between seleno and thioanisoles and iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Safin, D.Kh.; Chmutova, G.A.; Solomonov, B.N.

    1986-02-10

    The enthalpies of solution of seleno- and thioanisoles in a large group of solvents, the constants and enthalpies of complex formation between both compounds and iodine, and the spectral characteristics of the complexes in the same solvents were measured and analyzed. In chemically inert solvents there are fairly clear relationships between the spectral and thermodynamic characteristics of the obtained Mulliken-type complexes, both groups of CTC (charge-transfer complex) parameters, and the universal intermolecular interaction functions of the solvent; a series of the characteristics of the complex were analyzed in relation to the behavior of the reagents. Such correlations are not observed in coordinating solvents, but the directions of the change in the enthalpies of complex formation with variation of the solvents can be predicted.

  17. Bacterial formate hydrogenlyase complex

    PubMed Central

    McDowall, Jennifer S.; Murphy, Bonnie J.; Haumann, Michael; Palmer, Tracy; Armstrong, Fraser A.; Sargent, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Under anaerobic conditions, Escherichia coli can carry out a mixed-acid fermentation that ultimately produces molecular hydrogen. The enzyme directly responsible for hydrogen production is the membrane-bound formate hydrogenlyase (FHL) complex, which links formate oxidation to proton reduction and has evolutionary links to Complex I, the NADH:quinone oxidoreductase. Although the genetics, maturation, and some biochemistry of FHL are understood, the protein complex has never been isolated in an intact form to allow biochemical analysis. In this work, genetic tools are reported that allow the facile isolation of FHL in a single chromatographic step. The core complex is shown to comprise HycE (a [NiFe] hydrogenase component termed Hyd-3), FdhF (the molybdenum-dependent formate dehydrogenase-H), and three iron-sulfur proteins: HycB, HycF, and HycG. A proportion of this core complex remains associated with HycC and HycD, which are polytopic integral membrane proteins believed to anchor the core complex to the cytoplasmic side of the membrane. As isolated, the FHL complex retains formate hydrogenlyase activity in vitro. Protein film electrochemistry experiments on Hyd-3 demonstrate that it has a unique ability among [NiFe] hydrogenases to catalyze production of H2 even at high partial pressures of H2. Understanding and harnessing the activity of the FHL complex is critical to advancing future biohydrogen research efforts. PMID:25157147

  18. The citric acid-Mn III,IVO 2(birnessite) reaction. Electron transfer, complex formation, and autocatalytic feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yun; Stone, Alan T.

    2006-09-01

    Citrate released by plants, bacteria, and fungi into soils is subject to abiotic oxidation by MnO 2(birnessite), yielding 3-ketoglutarate, acetoacetate, and Mn II. Citrate loss and generation of products as a function of time all yield S-shaped curves, indicating autocatalysis. Increasing the citrate concentration decreases the induction period. The maximum rate ( rmax) along the reaction coordinate follows a Langmuir-Hinshelwood dependence on citrate concentration. Increases in pH decrease rmax and increase the induction time. Adding Mn II, Zn II, orthophosphate, or pyrophosphate at the onset of reaction decreases rmax. Mn II addition eliminates the induction period, while orthophosphate and pyrophosphate addition increase the induction period. These findings indicate that two parallel processes are responsible. The first, relatively slow process involves the oxidation of free citrate by surface-bound Mn III,IV, yielding Mn II and citrate oxidation products. The second process, which is subject to strong positive feedback, involves electron transfer from Mn II-citrate complexes to surface-bound Mn III,IV, generating Mn III-citrate and Mn II. Subsequent intramolecular electron transfer converts Mn III-citrate into Mn II and citrate oxidation products.

  19. H-atom addition and abstraction reactions in mixed CO, H2CO and CH3OH ices - an extended view on complex organic molecule formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, K.-J.; Fedoseev, G.; Ioppolo, S.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Linnartz, H.

    2016-01-01

    Complex organic molecules (COMs) have been observed not only in the hot cores surrounding low- and high-mass protostars, but also in cold dark clouds. Therefore, it is interesting to understand how such species can be formed without the presence of embedded energy sources. We present new laboratory experiments on the low-temperature solid state formation of three complex molecules - methyl formate (HC(O)OCH3), glycolaldehyde (HC(O)CH2OH) and ethylene glycol (H2C(OH)CH2OH) - through recombination of free radicals formed via H-atom addition and abstraction reactions at different stages in the CO→H2CO→CH3OH hydrogenation network at 15 K. The experiments extend previous CO hydrogenation studies and aim at resembling the physical-chemical conditions typical of the CO freeze-out stage in dark molecular clouds, when H2CO and CH3OH form by recombination of accreting CO molecules and H-atoms on ice grains. We confirm that H2CO, once formed through CO hydrogenation, not only yields CH3OH through ongoing H-atom addition reactions, but is also subject to H-atom-induced abstraction reactions, yielding CO again. In a similar way, H2CO is also formed in abstraction reactions involving CH3OH. The dominant methanol H-atom abstraction product is expected to be CH2OH, while H-atom additions to H2CO should at least partially proceed through CH3O intermediate radicals. The occurrence of H-atom abstraction reactions in ice mantles leads to more reactive intermediates (HCO, CH3O and CH2OH) than previously thought, when assuming sequential H-atom addition reactions only. This enhances the probability to form COMs through radical-radical recombination without the need of UV photolysis or cosmic rays as external triggers.

  20. Highly valence-diversified binuclear uranium complexes of a schiff-base polypyrrolic macrocycle: prediction of unusual structures, electronic properties, and formation reactions.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jun; Zheng, Xiu-Jun; Pan, Qing-Jiang; Schreckenbach, Georg

    2015-06-01

    On the basis of relativistic density functional theory calculations, homo- and heterovalent binuclear uranium complexes of a polypyrrolic macrocycle in a U-O-U bridging fashion have been investigated. These complexes show a variety of oxidation states for uranium ranging from III to VI, which have been confirmed by the calculated electron-spin density on each metal center. An equatorially 5-fold uranyl coordination mode is suitable for hexavalent uranium complexes, while silylation of the uranyl oxo is favored by pentavalent uranium. Uranyl oxo ligands are not required anymore for the coordination environment of tetra- and trivalent uranium because of their replacement by strong donors such as tetrahydrofuran and iodine. Optimization of binuclear U(VI)-U(III) complexes with various coordinating modes of U(III), donor numbers, and donor types reveals that 0.5-1.0 electron has been transferred from U(III) to U(VI). Consequently, U(V)-U(IV) complexes are more favorable. Electronic structures and formation reactions of several representative uranium complexes were calculated. For example, a 5f-based ?(U-U) bonding orbital is found in the diuranium(IV) complex, rationalizing the fact that it shows the shortest U-U distance (3.82 ) among the studied binuclear complexes. PMID:25955709

  1. Characterising Complex Enzyme Reaction Data

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Syed Asad; Thornton, Janet M.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between enzyme-catalysed reactions and the Enzyme Commission (EC) number, the widely accepted classification scheme used to characterise enzyme activity, is complex and with the rapid increase in our knowledge of the reactions catalysed by enzymes needs revisiting. We present a manual and computational analysis to investigate this complexity and found that almost one-third of all known EC numbers are linked to more than one reaction in the secondary reaction databases (e.g., KEGG). Although this complexity is often resolved by defining generic, alternative and partial reactions, we have also found individual EC numbers with more than one reaction catalysing different types of bond changes. This analysis adds a new dimension to our understanding of enzyme function and might be useful for the accurate annotation of the function of enzymes and to study the changes in enzyme function during evolution. PMID:26840640

  2. Characterising Complex Enzyme Reaction Data.

    PubMed

    Dnerta?, Handan Melike; Martnez Cuesta, Sergio; Rahman, Syed Asad; Thornton, Janet M

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between enzyme-catalysed reactions and the Enzyme Commission (EC) number, the widely accepted classification scheme used to characterise enzyme activity, is complex and with the rapid increase in our knowledge of the reactions catalysed by enzymes needs revisiting. We present a manual and computational analysis to investigate this complexity and found that almost one-third of all known EC numbers are linked to more than one reaction in the secondary reaction databases (e.g., KEGG). Although this complexity is often resolved by defining generic, alternative and partial reactions, we have also found individual EC numbers with more than one reaction catalysing different types of bond changes. This analysis adds a new dimension to our understanding of enzyme function and might be useful for the accurate annotation of the function of enzymes and to study the changes in enzyme function during evolution. PMID:26840640

  3. Energetics and excited state dynamics of the radical pair formation in isolated CP47-reaction center complex of photosystem II at various temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Groot, Marie-Louise; Paa lsson, Lars-Olof; Pribic, Radmila; Stokkum, Ivo H. van; Dekker, Jan P.; Grondelle, Rienk van

    1996-04-01

    The isolated CP47-reaction center complex of spinach photosystem II has been studied with time resolved picosecond fluorescence spectroscopy between 77 K and 270 K. It was observed that these particles exhibit multi-exponential fluorescence decays of the excited state at all temperatures. The major observations are an energy transfer/trapping time of {approx}40 picoseconds and a long-lived {approx}23 nanosecond component attributed to the recombination of the radical pair. These experimentally obtained parameters were used to estimate the free energy difference for the radical pair formation.

  4. Reactions of Phenylhydrosilanes with Pincer-Nickel Complexes: Evidence for New Si-O and Si-C Bond Formation Pathways.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jingjun; Vabre, Boris; Zargarian, Davit

    2015-12-01

    This contribution presents evidence for new pathways manifested in the reactions of the phenylhydrosilanes PhnSiH4-n with the pincer complexes (POCsp(2)OP)Ni(OSiMe3), 1-OSiMe3, and (POCsp(3)OP)Ni(OSiMe3), 2-OSiMe3 (POCsp(2)OP = 2,6-(i-Pr2PO)2C6H3; POCsp(3)OP = (i-Pr2POCH2)2CH). Excess PhSiH3 or Ph2SiH2 reacted with 1-OSiMe3 to eliminate the disilyl ethers PhnH3-nSiOSiMe3 (n = 1 or 2) and generate the nickel hydride species 1-H. Subsequent reaction of the latter with more substrate formed corresponding nickel silyl species 1-SiPhH2 or 1-SiPh2H and generated multiple Si-containing products, including disilanes and redistribution products. The reaction of 1-OSiMe3 with excess Ph2SiH2/Ph2SiD2 revealed a net KIE of ca. 1.3-1.4 at room temperature. Treating 1-OSiMe3 with excess Ph3SiH also gave 1-H and the corresponding disilyl ether Ph3SiOSiMe3, but this reaction also generated the new siloxide 1-OSiPh3 apparently via an unconventional ?-bond metathesis pathway in which the Ni center is not involved directly. The reaction of excess PhSiH3 and 2-OSiMe3 gave polysilanes of varying solubilities and molecular weights; NMR investigations showed that these polymers arise from Ni(0) species generated in situ from the reductive elimination of the highly reactive hydride intermediate, 2-H. The stoichiometric reactions of 2-OSiMe3 with Ph2SiH2 and Ph3SiH gave, respectively, siloxides 2-OSiPh2(OSiMe3) and 2-OSiPh3. Together, these results demonstrate the strong influence of pincer backbone and hydrosilane sterics on the different reactivities of 1-OSiMe3 and 2-OSiMe3 toward PhnSiH4-n (dimerization, polymerization, and redistribution vs formation of new siloxides). The mechanisms of the reactions that lead to the observed Si-O, Si-C, and Si-Si bond formations are discussed in terms of classical and unconventional ?-bond metathesis pathways. PMID:26562478

  5. Complex format synchronization and decommutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thom, Gary A.

    Some complex telemetry formats currently used for data transmission by airborn data acquisition systems are reviewed. The formats discussed include asynchronous embedded formats, tagged data formats, IRIG 106 Chapter 8 formats, multiplexed formats, and adaptive formats. The need for designing decommutation systems characterized by extended life or capable of supporting multiple applications that are flexible enough to adapt to new formats is emphasized. It is suggested that existing complex formats be used as a guide in designing new systems with flexibility for future applications.

  6. Complexation reactions in aquatic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Buffle, J.; Chalmers, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    This book discusses the properties, reactivities, and ecological implications of all chemically ill-defined natural complexants in aquatic systems. Analytical and theoretical aspects are presented simultaneously, covering speciation parameters, nature, and properties of organic and inorganic ligands in natural waters, their reactions with inorganic elements (particularly metals), and methods of measurement of speciation parameters.

  7. Isomer formation and other issues in the substitution reactions of oxorhenium(V) complexes of 2,2'-bipyridine and related ligands.

    PubMed

    Espenson, J H; Shan, X; Lahti, D W; Rockey, T M; Saha, B; Ellern, A

    2001-12-17

    Two new oxorhenium(V) compounds were prepared and characterized: MeReO(mtp)(Me(2)Bpy) and MeReO(mtp)(dppb), where mtpH(2) is 2-(mercaptomethyl)thiophenol, Me(2)Bpy is 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine, and dppb is 1,2-(Ph(2)P)(2)C(6)H(4). The more stable geometric isomer of MeReO(mtp)X forms MeReO(mtp)Y (X, Y = PR(3), NC(5)H(4)R) in two steps, both of which show a first-order dependence on [Y], proceeding through the metastable geometric isomer MeReO(mtp)Y. When Y = PR(3), no MeReO(mtp)Y was detected at equilibrium; with NC(5)H(4)R, however, both isomers were detected. The values of K(PyPy) were 8.5-9.8, largely irrespective of R; for NC(5)H(5), DeltaH degrees = -4.47 +/- 0.29 kJ and DeltaS degrees = 3.9 +/- 1.0 J K(-1). For the more symmetric edt ligand, geometric isomers do not exist, but enantiomers do. The rate of racemization of MeReO(edt)(NC(5)H(4)R) was proportional to [Py]. Values of k(rac) for 16 compounds span the range 135-370 L mol(-1) s(-1) in C(6)H(6) at 25 degrees C (rho = -0.39 +/- 0.07). In toluene-d(8), k(rac) for 4-picoline has DeltaH = 28.9 +/- 0.4 kJ, DeltaS() = -103.6 +/- 0.9 J K(-1). A common mechanism applies to ligand substitution (mtp) and racemization (edt). MeReO(dithiolate)Py complexes react with Bpy, Me(2)Bpy, Phen, and Me(2)Phen to form six-coordinate chelates, with rate constants 0.024-0.74 L mol(-1) s(-1) at 25 degrees C, some 10(3) times smaller than with pyridines, no doubt owing to the bulk of the bidentates. Values of DeltaS are -86 to -138 J K(-1), reflecting substantial orientational barriers as well as the inherent contribution of the associative mechanism. The product is MeReO(mtp)(Me(2)Bpy). The formation of the metastable isomer is consistent with the mechanism assigned to the ligand substitution and racemization reactions. Such compounds, once formed, no longer participate in ligand substitution reactions at reasonable rates. The formation of the metastable isomer is consistent with the mechanism assigned to the ligand substitution and racemization reactions. PMID:11735483

  8. Crystal structures of acetylcholinesterase in complex with organophosphorus compounds suggest that the acyl pocket modulates the aging reaction by precluding the formation of the trigonal bipyramidal transition state.

    PubMed

    Hrnberg, Andreas; Tunemalm, Anna-Karin; Ekstrm, Fredrik

    2007-04-24

    Organophosphorus compounds (OPs), such as nerve agents and a group of insecticides, irreversibly inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by a rapid phosphorylation of the catalytic Ser203 residue. The formed AChE-OP conjugate subsequently undergoes an elimination reaction, termed aging, that results in an enzyme completely resistant to oxime-mediated reactivation by medical antidotes. In this study, we present crystal structures of the non-aged and aged complexes between Mus musculus AChE (mAChE) and the nerve agents sarin, VX, and diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) and the OP-based insecticides methamidophos (MeP) and fenamiphos (FeP). Non-aged conjugates of MeP, sarin, and FeP and aged conjugates of MeP, sarin, and VX are very similar to the noninhibited apo conformation of AChE. A minor structural change in the side chain of His447 is observed in the non-aged conjugate of VX. In contrast, an extensive rearrangement of the acyl loop region (residues 287-299) is observed in the non-aged structure of DFP and in the aged structures of DFP and FeP. In the case of FeP, the relatively large substituents of the phosphorus atom are reorganized during aging, providing a structural support of an aging reaction that proceeds through a nucleophilic attack on the phosphorus atom. The FeP aging rate constant is 14 times lower than the corresponding constant for the structurally related OP insecticide MeP, suggesting that tight steric constraints of the acyl pocket loop preclude the formation of a trigonal bipyramidal intermediate. PMID:17402711

  9. Reactions of coordinated dinitrogen. 8. Formation of ammonia by protonation of a molybdenum-dinitrogen complex and isolation and characterization of the molybdenum-containing product

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, J.A.; George, T.A.

    1980-09-10

    This is the first reported conversion of metal-coordinated dinitrogen into ammonia in which the fate of the metal has been determined. This reaction is shown in the following equation, where triphos = PhP(CH/sub 2/CH/sub 2/PPh/sub 2/)/sub 2/ and L = PPh/sub 3/:2Mo(N/sub 2/)/sub 2/(triphos)(L) + 8HBr ..-->.. 2NH/sub 4/Br + 2MoBr/sub 3/(triphos) + 3N/sub 2/ + 2L. The metal complex which is a new subclass of bis(dinitrogen) complexes of molybdenum, reacted in tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution with anhydrous hydrogen bromide to produce ammonium bromide. No hydrazine or hydrazinium bromide was detected among the reaction products. Ammonium bromide was detected by infrared spectroscopy among the reaction products after solvent and excess HBr had been removed in vacuo. The yield of ammonia was determined quantitatively by the indophenol method after either aqueous, nonaqueous (ethanol), or two-phase (dichloromethane-water) extraction of ammonium bromide from the residue. The molybdenum-containing product slowly decomposed during the dichloromethane-water extraction step. Isolation of pure MoBr/sub 3/(triphos) was carried out in a separate experiment in which only N/sub 2/ evolution was measured. All volatiles were removed from the reaction vessel and the resulting yellow solid was washed with ethanol and dried. Its identity was confirmed by elemental analysis.

  10. Modeling the complex bromate-iodine reaction.

    PubMed

    Machado, Priscilla B; Faria, Roberto B

    2009-05-01

    In this article, it is shown that the FLEK model (ref 5 ) is able to model the experimental results of the bromate-iodine clock reaction. Five different complex chemical systems, the bromate-iodide clock and oscillating reactions, the bromite-iodide clock and oscillating reactions, and now the bromate-iodine clock reaction are adequately accounted for by the FLEK model. PMID:19361181

  11. Reactions of trivacant Wells-Dawson heteropolytungstates. Ionic strength and Jahn-Teller effects on formation in multi-iron complexes.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Travis M; Zhang, Xuan; Hardcastle, Kenneth I; Hill, Craig L

    2002-05-01

    Reaction of alpha-P(2)W(15)O(56)(12-) and Fe(III) in a saturated NaCl solution produces a trisubstituted Wells-Dawson structure with three low-valent metals, alpha-(Fe(III)Cl)(2)(Fe(III)OH(2))P(2)W(15)O(59)(11-) (1). Dissolution of this species into 1 M NaBr (Br(-) is non-coordinating) gives the triaquated species alpha-(Fe(III)OH(2))(3)P(2)W(15)O(59)(9-) (2). Ionic strength values of 1 M or greater are necessary to avoid decomposition of 1 or 2 to the conventional sandwich-type complex, alpha beta beta alpha-(Fe(III)OH(2))(2)Fe(III)(2)(P(2)W(15)O(56))(2)(12-) (3). If the pH is greater than 5, a new triferric sandwich, alpha alpha beta alpha-(NaOH(2))(Fe(III)OH(2))Fe(III)(2)(P(2)W(15)O(56))(2)(14-) (4), forms rather than 3. Like the previously reported Wells-Dawson-derived sandwich-type structures with three metals in the central unit ([TM(II)Fe(III)(2)(P(2)W(15)O(56))(P(2)TM(II)(2)W(13)O(52))],(16-) TM = Cu, Co), this complex has a central alpha-junction and a central beta-junction. Thermal studies suggest that 4 is more stable than 3 over a wide range of temperatures and pH values. The intrinsic Jahn-Teller distortion of d-electron-containing metal ions incorporated into the external sites of the central multi-metal unit impacts the stoichiometry of their incorporation (with a consequent change in the inter-POM-unit connectivity, where POM = polyoxometalate). Reaction of non-distorting Ni(II) with the diferric lacunary sandwich-type POM alpha alpha alpha alpha-(NaOH(2))(2)Fe(III)(2)(P(2)W(15)O(56))(2)(16-) (5) produces alpha beta beta alpha-(Ni(II)OH(2))(2)Fe(III)(2)(P(2)W(15)O(56))(2)(14-) (6), a Wells-Dawson sandwich-type structure with two Ni(II) and two Fe(III) in the central unit. All structures are characterized by (31)P NMR, IR, UV-vis, magnetic susceptibility, and X-ray crystallography. Complexes 4 and 6 are highly selective and effective catalysts for the H(2)O(2)-based epoxidation of alkenes. PMID:11978116

  12. Complex dynamics of the formation of spatially localized standing structures in the vicinity of saddle-node bifurcations of waves in the reaction-diffusion model of blood clotting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobanova, E. S.; Shnol, E. E.; Ataullakhanov, F. I.

    2004-09-01

    Local activation in a one-dimensional three-component reaction-diffusion model of blood clotting may lead to a formation of spatially localized standing structures (peaks) via several complex scenarios. In the first scenario, two concentration pulses first propagate from the site of activation, then stop and transform into peaks [Zarnitsina , Chaos 11, 57 (2001)]. Here, we examine this scenario, and also describe a different scenario of peak formation. In this scenario, two trigger waves propagate initially in opposite directions away from the site of activation. Then they stop and change direction of propagation toward each other to the activation site, where they interact and form a peak. Both of these scenarios of stable peak formation are observed in the vicinity of saddle-node bifurcation and may be viewed as a memory of the extinct wave modes.

  13. Audience Reactions to Two Visual Formats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Richard David

    One hundred undergraduate business students completed a questionnaire designed to determine their reactions to a traditional and a "flashier" textbook format. Before completing the questionnaire, subjects spent several minutes examining two business textbooks--one an older textbook with black ink on white paper, narrow margins, and few

  14. Pattern Formation and Complexity Emergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezin, Alexander A.

    2001-03-01

    Success of nonlinear modelling of pattern formation and self-organization encourages speculations on informational and number theoretical foundations of complexity emergence. Pythagorean "unreasonable effectiveness of integers" in natural processes is perhaps extrapolatable even to universal emergence "out-of-nothing" (Leibniz, Wheeler). Because rational numbers (R = M/N) are everywhere dense on real axis, any digital string (hence any "book" from "Library of Babel" of J.L.Borges) is "recorded" infinitely many times in arbitrary many rationals. Furthermore, within any arbitrary small interval there are infinitely many Rs for which (either or both) integers (Ms and Ns) "carry" any given string of any given length. Because any iterational process (such as generation of fractal features of Mandelbrot Set) is arbitrary closely approximatable with rational numbers, the infinite pattern of integers expresses itself in generation of complexity of the world, as well as in emergence of the world itself. This "tunnelling" from Platonic World ("Platonia" of J.Barbour) to a real (physical) world is modern recast of Leibniz's motto ("for deriving all from nothing there suffices a single principle").

  15. Reaction front formation in contaminant plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cribbin, Laura B.; Winstanley, Henry F.; Mitchell, Sarah L.; Fowler, Andrew C.; Sander, Graham C.

    2014-12-01

    The formation of successive fronts in contaminated groundwater plumes by subsoil bacterial action is a commonly accepted feature of their propagation, but it is not obviously clear from a mathematical standpoint quite how such fronts are formed or propagate. In this paper we show that these can be explained by combining classical reaction-diffusion theory involving just two reactants (oxidant and reductant), and a secondary reaction in which a reactant on one side of such a front is (re-)formed on the other side of the front via diffusion of its product across the front. We give approximate asymptotic solutions for the reactant profiles, and the propagation rate of the front.

  16. Complex formation of metal ions with xylenol orange

    SciTech Connect

    Tikhonov, V.N.

    1987-01-20

    The complex formation of metals with xylenol orange, purified by gel filtration on Molselekt G-10, was studied. The spectrophotometric characteristics of the complexes formed were refined. The chemistry of the reaction with xylenol orange was studied. A method was developed for the determination of aluminum in copper alloys.

  17. Photosynthetic reaction center complexes from heliobacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trost, J. T.; Vermaas, W. F. J.; Blankenship, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    The goal of this project is to understand the early evolutionary development of photosynthesis by examining the properties of reaction centers isolated from certain contemporary organisms that appear to contain the simplest photosynthetic reaction centers. The major focus of this project is the family of newly discovered strictly anaerobic photosynthetic organisms known as Heliobacteria. These organisms are the only known photosynthetic organisms that are grouped with the gram-positive phylum of bacteria. The properties of these reaction centers suggest that they might be the decendants of an ancestor that also gave rise to Photosystem 1 found in oxygen-evolving photosynthetic organisms. Photoactive reaction center-core antenna complexes have been isolated from the photosynthetic bacteria Heliobacillus mobilis and Heliobacterium gestii. The absorption and fluorescence properties of membranes and reaction centers are almost identical, suggesting that a single pigment-protein complex serves as both antenna and reaction center. Experiments in progress include sequence determination of the 48,000 Mr reaction center protein, and evolutionary comparisons with other reaction center proteins.

  18. Pattern Formation in Complex Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelley, Michael

    2000-03-01

    Classical fluid instabilities -- such as the Saffman-Taylor instability in a Hele-Shaw cell -- are dramatically modified by using complex fluids. For example, polymeric liquids driven in a Hele-Shaw cell yield "dendritic" patterns with an apparent directional anisotropy. The dynamics of complex liquids can also lead to new instabilities and patterns, such as space-filling patterns formed by successive bucklings of growing "elastica" seen in the phase transition of a liquid crystalline material. Understanding such problems requires an interplay between physical modeling, mathematical analysis, and sophisticated nonlinear simulation. For the first problem, I will discuss a non-Newtonian version of Darcy's law for Hele-Shaw flow. This yields a free-boundary problem for the pattern formation, and requires the solution of a nonlinear elliptic equation in a time-dependent domain. This is pushing the development of adaptive grid methods that represent the geometry accurately and efficiently. Our simulations yield insight into how shear-thinning, as is evinced by polymeric liquids, can produce patterns reminiscent of experiment, with "dendritic fingers", side-branching, and reduced tip-splitting. In the second problem, a long filament in a smectic-A phase grows within an isotropic fluid. The splay deformation of the material gives this filament an elastic response. The macroscopic model describes the dynamics of a growing, elastic filament immersed in a Stokesian fluid. The model marries filament elasticity and tensile forces with a numerically tractable nonlocal slender-body theory. Analysis shows that growth of the filament, despite fluid drag, produces a buckling instability. When coupled to a nonlocal hydrodynamic self-interaction, our fully nonlinear simulations show that such instabilities iterate along the filament, and give "space-filling" patterns.

  19. Kinetics of rouleau formation. II. Reversible reactions.

    PubMed Central

    Samsel, R W; Perelson, A S

    1984-01-01

    Red blood cells aggregate face-to-face to form long, cylindrical, straight chains and sometimes branched structures called rouleaux. Here we extend a kinetic model developed by R. W. Samsel and A. S. Perelson (1982, Biophys. J. 37:493-514) to include both the formation and dissociation of rouleaux. We examine thermodynamic constraints on the rate constants of the model imposed by the principle of detailed balance. Incorporation of reverse reactions allows us to compute mean sizes of rouleaux and straight chain segments within rouleaux, as functions of time and at equilibrium. Using the Flory - Stockmayer method from polymer chemistry, we obtain a closed-form solution for the size distribution of straight chain segments within rouleaux at any point in the evolution of the reaction. The predictions of our theory compare favorably with data collected by D. Kernick , A.W.L. Jay , S. Rowlands , and L. Skibo (1973, Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 51:690-699) on the kinetics of rouleau formation. When rouleaux grow large, they may contain rings or loops and take on the appearance of a network. We demonstrate the importance of including the kinetics of ring closure in the development of realistic models of rouleaux formation. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 13 PMID:6426540

  20. Synthesis, DNA binding and complex formation reactions of 3-amino-5,6-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazine with Pd(II) and some selected biorelevant ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoukry, Azza A.; Alghanmi, Reem M.

    2015-03-01

    With the purpose of studying the binding behavior of Pd(II) complexes with DNA as the main biological target, and their ability to penetrate reasonably into tumour cells and destroy their replication ability, Pd(ADT)Cl2 complex was synthesized and characterized, where ADT is 3-amino-5,6-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazine. Stoichiometry and stability constants of the complexes formed between various biologically relevant ligands (amino acids, amides, DNA constituents, and dicarboxylic acids) and [Pd(ADT)(H2O)2]2+ were investigated at 25 C and at constant 0.1 mol dm-3 ionic strength. The concentration distribution diagrams of the various species formed are evaluated. Further investigation of the binding properties of the diaqua complex [Pd(ADT)(H2O)2]2+ with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was investigated by UV-vis spectroscopy. The intrinsic binding constants (Kb) calculated from UV-vis absorption studies was calculated to be 2.00 103 mol dm-3. The calculated (Kb) value was found to be of lower magnitude than that of the classical intercalator EB (Ethidium bromide) (Kb = 1.23(0.07) 105 mol dm-3) suggesting an electrostatic and/or groove binding mode for the interaction with CT-DNA. Thermal denaturation has been systematically studied by spectrophotometric method and the calculated ?Tm was nearly 5 C, supporting the electrostatic and/or groove binding mode for the interaction between the complex and CT-DNA

  1. In vacuo formation of peptide-metal coordination complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAlister, Graeme C.; Kiessel, Sharon E. B.; Coon, Joshua J.

    2008-10-01

    Here we report on the reaction of rhenate anions (ReO3-) with multiply protonated peptide cations in a quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometerE These reactions effect the formation of an anion-cation complex that, upon collisional activation, dissociates along the peptide backbone rather than by displacement of the anion. Cleavage of the peptide backbone, with anion retention, leads us to conclude the anion-cation complex must be tightly bound, most probably through coordination chemistry. We describe this chemistry and detail the possible application of such ion attachment reactions to the characterization of intact proteins.

  2. Photosynthetic reaction center complexes from heliobacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trost, J. T.; Vermaas, W. F. J.; Blankenship, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    Photosynthetic reaction centers are pigment-protein complexes that are responsible for the transduction of light energy into chemical energy. Considerable evidence indicates that photosynthetic organisms were present very early in the evolution of life on Earth. The goal of this project is to understand the early evolutionary development of photosynthesis by examining the properties of reaction centers isolated from certain contemporary organisms that appear to contain the simplest photosynthetic reaction centers. The major focus is on the family of newly discovered strictly anaerobic photosynthetic organisms that are grouped with the gram-positive phylum of bacteria. The properties of these reactions centers suggest that they may be the descendants of an ancestor that also gave rise to Photosystem 1 found in oxygen-evolving photosynthetic organisms. Photoactive reaction center-core antenna complexes were isolated from the photosynthetic bacteria, Heliobacillus mobilis and Heliobacterium gestii, by extraction of membranes with Deriphat 160C followed by differential centrifugation and sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Other aspects of this investigation are briefly discussed.

  3. Kinetic analysis of complex reactions using FEMLAB

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Chunshe; Wang, Yong

    2005-06-07

    A finite element method software FEMALB has been implemented to the kinetic analysis of complex reaction systems. The established protocol provides fast solutions to the coupled differential-algebraic equations. It shows significant advantages over the conventional coding process with the standard implicit Runge-Kutta (IRK) method. The accuracy and high efficiency have been demonstrated in the simulation of the reaction processes such as glucose/fructose hydrogenation and catalytic cracking of gasoil. As model validation, the numerical results showed satisfactory agreement with the exact solutions. With the powerful capability of solving large matrixes of differential equations (both ODE and PDE) with nonlinear algebraic constrains, such an algorithm has greatly reduced the coding labor in reaction mechanistic studies and provided a unique tool in reactor design and optimization.

  4. Visualization of chemical reaction dynamics: Toward understanding complex polyatomic reactions

    PubMed Central

    SUZUKI, Toshinori

    2013-01-01

    Polyatomic molecules have several electronic states that have similar energies. Consequently, their chemical dynamics often involve nonadiabatic transitions between multiple potential energy surfaces. Elucidating the complex reactions of polyatomic molecules is one of the most important tasks of theoretical and experimental studies of chemical dynamics. This paper describes our recent experimental studies of the multidimensional multisurface dynamics of polyatomic molecules based on two-dimensional ion/electron imaging. It also discusses ultrafast photoelectron spectroscopy of liquids for elucidating nonadiabatic electronic dynamics in aqueous solutions. PMID:23318678

  5. Photoinitiated reactions in weakly bonded complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Wittig, C.

    1993-05-01

    This paper discusses photoinitiated reactions in weakly bonded binary complexes in which the constituents are only mildly perturbed by the intermolecular bond. Such complexes, with their large zero point excursions, set the stage for events that occur following electronic excitation of one of the constituents. This can take several forms, but in all cases, entrance channel specificity is imposed by the character of the complex as well as the nature of the photoinitiation process. This has enabled us to examine aspects of bimolecular processes: steric effects, chemical branching ratios, and inelastic scattering. Furthermore, monitoring reactions directly in the time domain can reveal mechanisms that cannot be inferred from measurements of nascent product excitations. Consequently, we examined several systems that had been studied previously by our group with product state resolution. With CO{sub 2}/HI, in which reaction occurs via a HOCO intermediate, the rates agree with RRKM predictions. With N{sub 2}O/HI, the gas phase single collision reaction yielding OH + N{sub 2} has been shown to proceed mainly via an HNNO intermediate that undergoes a 1,3-hydrogen shift to the OH + N{sub 2} channel. With complexes, ab initio calculations and high resolution spectroscopic studies of analogous systems suggest that the hydrogen, while highly delocalized, prefers the oxygen to the nitrogen. We observe that OH is produced with a fast risetime (< 250 fs) which can be attributed to either direct oxygen-side attack or rapid HNNO decomposition and/or a termolecular contribution involving the nearby iodine.

  6. Reaction-diffusion controlled growth of complex structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noorduin, Willem; Mahadevan, L.; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2013-03-01

    Understanding how the emergence of complex forms and shapes in biominerals came about is both of fundamental and practical interest. Although biomineralization processes and organization strategies to give higher order architectures have been studied extensively, synthetic approaches to mimic these self-assembled structures are highly complex and have been difficult to emulate, let alone replicate. The emergence of solution patterns has been found in reaction-diffusion systems such as Turing patterns and the BZ reaction. Intrigued by this spontaneous formation of complexity we explored if similar processes can lead to patterns in the solid state. We here identify a reaction-diffusion system in which the shape of the solidified products is a direct readout of the environmental conditions. Based on insights in the underlying mechanism, we developed a toolbox of engineering strategies to deterministically sculpt patterns and shapes, and combine different morphologies to create a landscape of hierarchical multi scale-complex tectonic architectures with unprecedented levels of complexity. These findings may hold profound implications for understanding, mimicking and ultimately expanding upon nature's morphogenesis strategies, allowing the synthesis of advanced highly complex microscale materials and devices. WLN acknowledges the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research for financial support

  7. New Pathways for the Formation of Complex Organics and Prebiotic Synthesis in the Gas Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Shall, M. S.

    2010-04-01

    We study the formation mechanisms of complex organics that are present in interstellar clouds. The reaction of acetylene ion with water produces vinyl alcohol while the reaction of benzene ion with acetylene produces naphthalene-type ion.

  8. C-H insertion and. pi. -complex formation reactions of (/eta//sup 5/-C/sub 5/Me/sub 5/)(PMe/sub 3/)Ir with ethylene: an intra- and intermolecular isotope effect study

    SciTech Connect

    Stoutland, P.O.; Bergman, R.G.

    1988-08-17

    Thermolysis of the iridium cyclohexyl hydride (/eta//sup 5/-Me/sub 5/C/sub 5/)(PMe/sub 3/)Ir(C/sub 6/H/sub 11/)(H) at 130-160/degrees/C in cyclohexane in the presence of ethylene results in formation of the vinyl hydride (/eta//sup 5/-Me/sub 5/C/sub 5/)(PMe/sub 3/)Ir(HC /double bond/CH/sub 2/)(H) (1) and the ..pi..-complex (/eta//sub 5/-Me/sub 5/C/sub 5/)(PMe/sub 3/)Ir(H/sub 2/C /double bond/CH/sub 2/) (2) in a ratio of 2:1. Thermolysis of 1 in cyclohexane or benzene above 180/degrees/C results in quantitative conversion to 2. Thermolysis of (/eta//sub 5/-Me/sub 5/C/sub 5/)PMe/sub 3/Ir(C/sub 6/H/sub 11/)(H) in the presence of ethylene-d/sub 2/ results in insertion into both the C-H and the C-D bonds and allows determination of an intramolecular isotope effect: k/sub H//k/sub D/ = 1.18 /plus minus/ 0.03. Competition experiments involving ethylene and ethylene-d/sub 4/ allow determination of an intermolecular isotope effect for insertion into a C-H(D) bond: k/sub H//k/sub D/ = 1.49 /plus minus/ 0.08. The intermolecular isotope effect for formation of 2 was found to be 0.82 /plus minus/ 0.05. The different intra- and intermolecular isotope effects for C-H insertion require an intermediate different from the ..pi..-complex 2 on the reaction pathway leading to 1. Possible structures for this species are discussed. 44 references, 9 figures, 8 tables.

  9. Reactions of tetrakis(dimethylamide)-titanium, -zirconium and -hafnium with silanes: synthesis of unusual amide hydride complexes and mechanistic studies of titanium-silicon-nitride (Ti-Si-N) formation.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Wu, Z; Cai, H; Yang, Y; Chen, T; Vallet, C E; Zuhr, R A; Beach, D B; Peng, Z H; Wu, Y D; Concolino, T E; Rheingold, A L; Xue, Z

    2001-08-22

    M(NMe(2))(4) (M = Ti, Zr, Hf) were found to react with H(2)SiR'Ph (R' = H, Me, Ph) to yield H(2), aminosilanes, and black solids. Unusual amide hydride complexes [(Me(2)N)(3)M(mu-H)(mu-NMe(2))(2)](2)M (M = Zr, 1; Hf, 2) were observed to be intermediates and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. [(Me(2)N)(3)M(mu-D)(mu-NMe(2))(2)](2)M (1-d(2), 2-d(2)) were prepared through reactions of M(NMe(2))(4) with D(2)SiPh(2). Reactions of (Me(2)N)(3)ZrSi(SiMe(3))(3) (5) with H(2)SiR'Ph were found to give aminosilanes and (Me(2)N)(2)Zr(H)Si(SiMe(3))(3) (6). These reactions are reversible through unusual equilibria such as (Me(2)N)(3)ZrSi(SiMe(3))(3) (5) + H(2)SiPh(2) right arrow over left arrow (Me(2)N)(2)Zr(H)Si(SiMe(3))(3) (6) + HSi(NMe(2))Ph(2). The deuteride ligand in (Me(2)N)(2)Zr(D)Si(SiMe(3))(3) (6-d(1)) undergoes H-D exchange with H(2)SiR'Ph (R' = Me, H) to give 6 and HDSiR'Ph. The reaction of Ti(NMe(2))(4) with SiH(4) in chemical vapor deposition at 450 degrees C yielded thin Ti-Si-N ternary films containing TiN and Si(3)N(4). Ti(NMe(2))(4) reacts with SiH(4) at 23 degrees C to give H(2), HSi(NMe(2))(3), and a black solid. HNMe(2) was not detected in this reaction. The reaction mixture, upon heating, gave TiN and Si(3)N(4) powders. Analyses and reactivities of the black solid revealed that it contained -H and unreacted -NMe(2) ligands but no silicon-containing ligand. Ab initio quantum chemical calculations of the reactions of Ti(NR(2))(4) (R = Me, H) with SiH(4) indicated that the formation of aminosilanes and HTi(NR(2))(3) was favored. These calculations also showed that HTi(NH(2))(3) (3b) reacted with SiH(4) or H(3)Si-NH(2) in the following step to give H(2)Ti(NH(2))(2) (4b) and aminosilanes. The results in the current studies indicated that the role of SiH(4) in its reaction with Ti(NMe(2))(4) was mainly to remove amide ligands as HSi(NMe(2))(3). The removal of amide ligands is incomplete, and the reaction thus yielded "=Ti(H)(NMe(2))" as the black solid. Subsequent heating of the black solid and HSi(NMe(2))(3) may then yield TiN and Si(3)N(4), respectively, as the Ti-Si-N materials. PMID:11506557

  10. In vacuo formation of peptide-metal coordination complexes.

    PubMed

    McAlister, Graeme C; Kiessel, Sharon E B; Coon, Joshua J

    2008-10-01

    Here we report on the reaction of rhenate anions (ReO(3) (-)) with multiply protonated peptide cations in a quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer. These reactions effect the formation of an anion-cation complex that, upon collisional activation, dissociates along the peptide backbone rather than by displacement of the anion. Cleavage of the peptide backbone, with anion retention, leads us to conclude the anion-cationcomplexmust be tightly bound, most probably through coordination chemistry. We describe this chemistry and detail the possible application of such ion attachment reactions to the characterization of intact proteins. PMID:19424441

  11. In vacuo formation of peptidemetal coordination complexes

    PubMed Central

    McAlister, Graeme C.; Kiessel, Sharon E.B.; Coon, Joshua J.

    2009-01-01

    Here we report on the reaction of rhenate anions (ReO3?) with multiply protonated peptide cations in a quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer. These reactions effect the formation of an anioncation complex that, upon collisional activation, dissociates along the peptide backbone rather than by displacement of the anion. Cleavage of the peptide backbone, with anion retention, leads us to conclude the anioncationcomplexmust be tightly bound, most probably through coordination chemistry. We describe this chemistry and detail the possible application of such ion attachment reactions to the characterization of intact proteins. PMID:19424441

  12. Ligand substitution reactions of a dinuclear platinum(I) complex

    SciTech Connect

    Shimura, M.; Espenson, J.H.

    1984-11-21

    The complex Pt/sub 2/Br/sub 2/(..mu..-dppm)/sub 2/ when dppm = bis(diphenylphosphio)methane reacts with Et/sub 4/NCl in dichloromethane and dichloroethane to form Pt/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/(..mu..-dppm)/sub 2/. The reaction is reversible and proceeds via stepwise formation of the mixed-ligand (Br, Cl) complex. The reaction follows biphasic kinetics, and each step shows a linear dependence on (Et/sub 4/NCl), with rate constants 93 +/- 20 and 19.4 +/- 1.2 M/sup -1/ s/sup -1/ for the respective steps (10.0/sup 0/C in CH/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/). The identification of a rate constant with an individual step is a process that inherently admits of dual solutions; the assignment of values of h's was made on the basis that only this model gave a consistent and reasonable value for the molar absorptivity of the mixed-halide intermediate. The reaction in 1,2-dichloroethane shows a quite different kinetic pattern, with a single pseudo-first-order rate law and a more complex variation of the observed reaction constituent with (Et/sub 4/NCl).

  13. Class pi glutathione S-transferase: Meisenheimer complex formation.

    PubMed

    Bico, P; Chen, C Y; Jones, M; Erhardt, J; Dirr, H

    1994-08-01

    The enzyme-catalysed formation of the dead-end Meisenheimer complex, 1-(S-glutathionyl)-2,4,6-trinitrocyclohexadienate, between glutathione and 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene by two class pi glutathione S-transferases was studied under equilibrium conditions. The apparent formation constant of the complex at pH6.5, is 1.21 x 10(3) M-1 and 1.47 x 10(3) M-1 for isoenzyme pGSTP1-1 from porcine lung and hGSTP1-1 the human recombinant orthologue, respectively. These values are about 40- to 50-times larger than that determined for the nonenzymatic reaction in solution. Competitive inhibitors in the form of glutathione analogues that bind the G-site (glutathione sulphonate) or both the G-site and the H-site (S-hexylglutathione) regions of the active site markedly diminish complex formation. Comparison of kinetic data for glutathione S-transferase isoenzymes from the pi and mu gene classes suggests that the catalytic efficiencies for nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions correspond with the ability of the enzyme's active site to stabilise the Meisenheimer complex. Formation of the red-coloured complex in orthorhombic crystals of pGSTP1-1 demonstrated that the crystallized protein retains its catalytically functional conformation in the crystal lattice. PMID:7987257

  14. Reaction Dynamics of the Bromine-Bromoform Complex in Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, Thomas J.; Dutta, Maitreya; Crim, F. Fleming

    2010-06-01

    We have followed the evolution of the bromine species that arise from the photolysis of bromoform in the condensed phase. Solvent caging promotes the formation of iso-bromoform (CHBr_2-Br), which can then release a Br atom by breaking the newly formed Br-Br bond. This ejected Br can form a van der Waals complex (Br-CHBr_3) with a nearby un-photolyzed bromoform molecule, which is stable during our 1 ns time-window. Using the van der Waals complex as a reservoir for Br atoms, we now proceed to drive hydrogen abstraction from CHBr_3 by Br. Estimates indicate that the barrier to this reaction is a few thousand wavenumbers. Our goal is to introduce excitation into the C-H stretching motion of a nearby solvent CHBr_3 to access the activated complex region of the bimolecular potential energy surface.

  15. Star Formation Across the W3 Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Román-Zúñiga, Carlos G.; Ybarra, Jason E.; Megías, Guillermo D.; Tapia, Mauricio; Lada, Elizabeth A.; Alves, Joáo F.

    2015-09-01

    We present a multi-wavelength analysis of the history of star formation in the W3 complex. Using deep, near-infrared ground-based images combined with images obtained with Spitzer and Chandra observatories, we identified and classified young embedded sources. We identified the principal clusters in the complex and determined their structure and extension. We constructed extinction-limited samples for five principal clusters and constructed K-band luminosity functions that we compare with those of artificial clusters with varying ages. This analysis provided mean ages and possible age spreads for the clusters. We found that IC 1795, the centermost cluster of the complex, still hosts a large fraction of young sources with circumstellar disks. This indicates that star formation was active in IC 1795 as recently as 2 Myr ago, simultaneous to the star-forming activity in the flanking embedded clusters, W3-Main and W3(OH). A comparison with carbon monoxide emission maps indicates strong velocity gradients in the gas clumps hosting W3-Main and W3(OH) and shows small receding clumps of gas at IC 1795, suggestive of rapid gas removal (faster than the T Tauri timescale) in the cluster-forming regions. We discuss one possible scenario for the progression of cluster formation in the W3 complex. We propose that early processes of gas collapse in the main structure of the complex could have defined the progression of cluster formation across the complex with relatively small age differences from one group to another. However, triggering effects could act as catalysts for enhanced efficiency of formation at a local level, in agreement with previous studies.

  16. ESR study of the formation of complex defects involving molecular oxygen by electron--hole reactions in x-irradiated KClO/sub 3/ and KBrO/sub 3/

    SciTech Connect

    Byberg, J.R.

    1986-06-01

    X irradiation of solid KXO/sub 3/, X = Cl, Br, is shown to produce complex defects of composition (XO/sup -/, O/sub 2/) and (XO, O/sub 2/). (XO/sup -/, O/sub 2/), which is produced also by UV irradiation of KXO/sub 3/, is formed during and after x irradiation in a reaction between electrons, self-trapped as XO/sup 2 -//sub 3/, and holes, self-trapped as XO/sub 3/. (XO,O/sub 2/) is shown to arise in the oxidation of (XO/sup -/,O/sub 2/) by reaction with XO/sub 3/. In KClO/sub 3/, the complex (ClO/sub 2/,O/sub 2/) is formed also, possibly in a reaction between ClO/sub 3/ and (ClO/sup -//sub 2/,O/sub 2/) .

  17. Thiazole formation through a modified Gewald reaction

    PubMed Central

    Mallia, Carl J; Englert, Lukas; Walter, Gary C

    2015-01-01

    Summary The synthesis of thiazoles and thiophenes starting from nitriles, via a modified Gewald reaction has been studied for a number of different substrates. 1,4-Dithiane-2,5-diol was used as the aldehyde precursor to give either 2-substituted thiazoles or 2-substituted aminothiophenes depending on the substitution of the ?-carbon to the cyano group. PMID:26124889

  18. Reactions and mass spectra of complex particles using Aerosol CIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearn, John D.; Smith, Geoffrey D.

    2006-12-01

    Aerosol chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) is used both on- and off-line for the analysis of complex laboratory-generated and ambient particles. One of the primary advantages of Aerosol CIMS is the low degree of ion fragmentation, making this technique well suited for investigating the reactivity of complex particles. To demonstrate the usefulness of this "soft" ionization, particles generated from meat cooking were reacted with ozone and the composition was monitored as a function of reaction time. Two distinct kinetic regimes were observed with most of the oleic acid in these particles reacting quickly but with 30% appearing to be trapped in the complex mixture. Additionally, detection limits are measured to be sufficiently low (100-200 ng/m3) to detect some of the more abundant constituents in ambient particles, including sulfate, which is measured in real-time at 1.2 [mu]g/m3. To better characterize complex aerosols from a variety of sources, a novel off-line collection method was also developed in which non-volatile and semi-volatile organics are desorbed from particles and concentrated in a cold U-tube. Desorption from the U-tube followed by analysis with Aerosol CIMS revealed significant amounts of nicotine in cigarette smoke and levoglucosan in oak and pine smoke, suggesting that this may be a useful technique for monitoring particle tracer species. Additionally, secondary organic aerosol formed from the reaction of ozone with R-limonene and volatile organics from orange peel were analyzed off-line showing large molecular weight products (m/z > 300 amu) that may indicate the formation of oligomers. Finally, mass spectra of ambient aerosol collected offline reveal a complex mixture of what appears to be highly processed organics, some of which may contain nitrogen.

  19. Complex kinetics of a Landolt-type reaction: the later phase of the thiosulfate-iodate reaction.

    PubMed

    Varga, Dnes; Nagypl, Istvn; Horvth, Attila K

    2010-05-13

    The thiosulfate-iodate reaction has been studied spectrophotometrically in slightly acidic medium at 25.0 +/- 0.1 degrees C in acetate/acetic acid buffer by monitoring the absorbance at 468 nm at the isosbestic point of iodine-triiodide ion system. The formation of iodine after the Landolt time follows a rather complex kinetic behavior depending on the pH and on the concentration of the reactants as well. It is shown that the key intermediate of the reaction is I(2)O(2), its equilibrium formation from the well-known Dushman reaction along with their further reactions followed by subsequent reactions of HOI, HIO(2), S(2)O(3)OH(-), and S(2)O(3)I(-) adequately accounts for all the experimentally measured characteristics of the kinetic curves. A 19-step kinetic model is proposed and discussed with 13 fitted and 7 fixed parameters in detail. PMID:20397669

  20. Synthesis and reaction of the first 1,2-oxaphosphetane complexes.

    PubMed

    Kyri, Andreas Wolfgang; Nesterov, Vitaly; Schnakenburg, Gregor; Streubel, Rainer

    2014-09-26

    While P(V) 1,2-oxaphosphetanes are well known from the Wittig reaction, their P(III) analogues are still unexplored. Herein, the synthesis and reactions of the first 1,2-oxaphosphetane complexes are presented, which were achieved by reaction of the phosphinidenoid complex [Li(12-crown-4)(solv)][(OC)5W{(Me3Si)2HCPCl}] with different epoxides. The title compounds appeared to be stable in toluene up to 100?C, before unselective decomposition started. Acid-induced ring expansion with benzonitrile resulted in selective formation of the first complex bearing a 1,3,4-oxazaphosphacyclohex-2-ene ligand. PMID:25164241

  1. [Formations and reactions of aromatic furazan compounds].

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, M; Takabatake, T; Miyazawa, T

    2001-06-01

    A reaction from various kinds of nitroquinoline with hydroxylamine in potassium hydroxide alkalinity produced a novel product, furazanoquinoline, besides the known amino derivatives. The products obtained were furazano [3,4-f] quinoline (5) from 5-nitroquinoline (1) and 6-nitroquinoline (6), and furazano [3,4-h] quinoline (10) from 7-nitroquinoline (8) and 8-nitroquinoline (11). The reaction mechanism was believed to be as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. The photoreaction of benzofuroxan (19) in acetonitrile containing a little water, under a high pressure mercury lamp, produced 1H-azepine-2,7-dione (20), while under irradiation using a low pressure lamp, 6H-furazano [4,5-c] carbazole-3-oxide (21) and compound 20 were obtained. Then the photoproduct 20 produced photodimer 22 by irradiation in acetonitrile: water (9:1, v/v) using a high or low pressure mercury lamp, while photolysis with alkali proceeded as in the photoreaction of N-alkylimide to give 7-hydroxy-1H-azepine-2-one (23). When pyrido [2,3-c] furoxan (24) was irradiated in acetonitrile containing a little water with a low pressure mercury lamp, 3-nitro-2-pyridone (25) was obtained. When compound 24 was irradiated in the presence of morpholine with a low pressure mercury lamp in an argon atmosphere, 6-morpholinopyridine 2,3-dioxime (26) was produced. Quinoxaline 1,4-dioxide derivatives (31, 33), phenazine 5,10-dioxide derivatives (36, 37) and pyrido [2,3-b] pyrazine derivatives (38, 39) were synthesized from the corresponding furoxan catalyzed by silica gel or molecular sieves, and their antibacterial properties were evaluated. The results of antibacterial screening tests in vitro, revealed strong activity against Bacteroides fragilis. PMID:11433773

  2. Hydroxyl radical reactions with adenine: reactant complexes, transition states, and product complexes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qianyi; Gu, Jiande; Compaan, Katherine R; Schaefer, Henry F

    2010-10-18

    In order to address problems such as aging, cell death, and cancer, it is important to understand the mechanisms behind reactions causing DNA damage. One specific reaction implicated in DNA oxidative damage is hydroxyl free-radical attack on adenine (A) and other nucleic acid bases. The adenine reaction has been studied experimentally, but there are few theoretical results. In the present study, adenine dehydrogenation at various sites, and the potential-energy surfaces for these reactions, are investigated theoretically. Four reactant complexes [AOH]* have been found, with binding energies relative to A+OH* of 32.8, 11.4, 10.7, and 10.1 kcal mol(-1). These four reactant complexes lead to six transition states, which in turn lie +4.3, -5.4, (-3.7 and +0.8), and (-2.3 and +0.8) kcal mol(-1) below A+OH*, respectively. Thus the lowest lying [AOH]* complex faces the highest local barrier to formation of the product (A-H)*+H(2)O. Between the transition states and the products lie six product complexes. Adopting the same order as the reactant complexes, the product complexes [(A-H)H(2)O]* lie at -10.9, -22.4, (-24.2 and -18.7), and (-20.5 and -17.5) kcal mol(-1), respectively, again relative to separated A+OH*. All six A+OH* ? (A-H)*+H(2)O pathways are exothermic, by -0.3, -14.7, (-17.4 and -7.8), and (-13.7 and -7.8) kcal mol(-1), respectively. The transition state for dehydrogenation at N(6) lies at the lowest energy (-5.4 kcal mol(-1) relative to A+OH*), and thus reaction is likely to occur at this site. This theoretical prediction dovetails with the observed high reactivity of OH radicals with the NH(2) group of aromatic amines. However, the high barrier (37.1 kcal mol(-1)) for reaction at the C(8) site makes C(8) dehydrogenation unlikely. This last result is consistent with experimental observation of the imidazole ring opening upon OH radical addition to C(8). In addition, TD-DFT computed electronic transitions of the N(6) product around 420 nm confirm that this is the most likely site for hydrogen abstraction by hydroxyl radical. PMID:20878802

  3. Formation mechanism of complex pattern on fishes' skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xia; Liu, Shuhua

    2009-10-01

    In this paper, the formation mechanism of the complex patterns observed on the skin of fishes has been investigated by a two-coupled reaction diffusion model. The effects of coupling strength between two layers play an important role in the pattern-forming process. It is found that only the epidermis layer can produce complicated patterns that have structures on more than one length scale. These complicated patterns including super-stripe pattern, mixture of spots and stripe, and white-eye pattern are similar to the pigmentation patterns on fishes' skin.

  4. Formation of a Bridging Phosphinidene Thorium Complex.

    PubMed

    Behrle, Andrew C; Castro, Ludovic; Maron, Laurent; Walensky, Justin R

    2015-12-01

    The synthesis and structural determination of the first thorium phosphinidene complex are reported. The reaction of 2 equiv of (C5Me5)2Th(CH3)2 with H2P(2,4,6-(i)Pr3C6H2) at 95 C produces [(C5Me5)2Th]2(?2-P[(2,6-CH2CHCH3)2-4-(i)PrC6H2] as well as 4 equiv of methane, 2 equiv from deprotonation of the phosphine and 2 equiv from C-H bond activation of one methyl group of each of the isopropyl groups at the 2- and 6-positions. Transition state calculations indicate that the steps in the mechanism are P-H, C-H, C-H, and then P-H bond activation to form the phosphinidene. PMID:26575219

  5. Vortex formation in a complex plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, Osamu

    Complex plasma experiments in ground-based laboratories as well as in microgravity conditions have shown the formation of vortex structures in various conditions (e.g., 1,2,3,4). The vortex structures formed in a complex plasma are visible by naked eyes with the help of irradiating laser and the individual dust particles in the structure give us the opportunity to study detailed physics of the commonly observed natural phenomena known such as tornadoes, typhoons, hurricanes and dust devils. Based on the Navier-Stokes equation with proper complex plasma conditions we analyze as much as possible in a universal way the vortex structure and clarifies the role of the controlling parameters like flow velocity and external magnetic field. 1. G. E. Morfill,H. M. Thomas, U. Konopka,H. Rothermel, M. Zuzic, A. Ivlev, and J. Goree, Phys,. Rev. Lett. 83, 1598 (1999). 2. E. Nebbat and R. Annou, Phys. Plasmas 17, 093702 (2010). 3. Y. Saitou and O. Ishihara, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 185003 (2013). 4. V. N. Tsytovich and N. G. Gusein-zade, Plasma Phys. Rep. 39, 515 (2013).

  6. The catalytic role of uranyl in formation of polycatechol complexes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    To better understand the association of contaminant uranium with natural organic matter (NOM) and the fate of uranium in ground water, spectroscopic studies of uranium complexation with catechol were conducted. Catechol provides a model for ubiquitous functional groups present in NOM. Liquid samples were analyzed using Raman, FTIR, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Catechol was found to polymerize in presence of uranyl ions. Polymerization in presence of uranyl was compared to reactions in the presence of molybdate, another oxyion, and self polymerization of catechol at high pH. The effect of time and dissolved oxygen were also studied. It was found that oxygen was required for self-polymerization at elevated pH. The potential formation of phenoxy radicals as well as quinones was monitored. The benzene ring was found to be intact after polymerization. No evidence for formation of ether bonds was found, suggesting polymerization was due to formation of C-C bonds between catechol ligands. Uranyl was found to form outer sphere complexes with catechol at initial stages but over time (six months) polycatechol complexes were formed and precipitated from solution (forming humic-like material) while uranyl ions remained in solution. Our studies show that uranyl acts as a catalyst in catechol-polymerization. PMID:21396112

  7. Classic reaction kinetics can explain complex patterns of antibiotic action

    PubMed Central

    zur Wiesch, P. Abel; Abel, S.; Gkotzis, S.; Ocampo, P.; Engelstädter, J.; Hinkley, T.; Magnus, C.; Waldor, M. K.; Udekwu, K.; Cohen, T.

    2015-01-01

    Finding optimal dosing strategies for treating bacterial infections is extremely difficult, and improving therapy requires costly and time-intensive experiments. To date, an incomplete mechanistic understanding of drug effects has limited our ability to make accurate quantitative predictions of drug-mediated bacterial killing and impeded the rational design of antibiotic treatment strategies. Three poorly understood phenomena complicate predictions of antibiotic activity: post-antibiotic growth suppression, density-dependent antibiotic effects, and persister cell formation. Here, we show that chemical binding kinetics alone are sufficient to explain these three phenomena, using single cell data and time-kill curves of Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae exposed to a variety of antibiotics in combination with a theoretical model that links chemical reaction kinetics to bacterial population biology. Our model reproduces existing observations, has a high predictive power across different experimental setups (R2= 0.86), and makes several testable predictions, which we verified in new experiments and by analysing published data from a clinical trial on tuberculosis therapy. While a variety of biological mechanisms have previously been invoked to explain post-antibiotic growth suppression, density-dependent antibiotic effects, and especially persister cell formation, our findings reveal that a simple model which considers only binding kinetics provides a parsimonious and unifying explanation for these three complex, phenotypically distinct behaviours. Current antibiotic and other chemotherapeutic regimens are often based on trial-and-error or expert opinion. Our ‘chemical reaction kinetics’-based approach may inform new strategies, that are based on rational design. PMID:25972005

  8. Hydrophosphination reactions with transition metal ferrocenylphosphine complexes.

    PubMed

    Pritzwald-Stegmann, Julian Rodger Frederic; Lönnecke, Peter; Hey-Hawkins, Evamarie

    2016-02-01

    The group 6 metal mono-, bis- and tris-ferrocenylphosphine complexes [M(CO)5(PH2Fc)] (1a, M = Cr; 1b, M = Mo; 1c, M = W), cis-[M(CO)4(PH2Fc)2] (2a, M = Cr; 2b, M = Mo; 2c, M = W) and fac-[M(CO)3(PH2Fc)3] (3a, M = Cr; 3b, M = Mo; 3c, M = W) [Fc = Fe(η(5)-C5H4)(η(5)-C5H5)] were prepared and fully characterised. IR and NMR spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis indicate that FcPH2 is as good a σ donor as PhPH2 but is easier to handle and furthermore has a redox-active ferrocenyl group. Complex 1c was employed in the hydrophosphination of acrylonitrile and methyl acrylate in the presence of catalytic amounts of KOtBu giving the secondary phosphine complexes [W(CO)5{PH(Fc)(CH2CH2CN)}] (4a) and [W(CO)5{PH(Fc)(CH2CH2C(O)OMe)}] (4b). In addition, FcP(CH2CH2CN)2 (5) was prepared by a similar method from FcPH2 and acrylonitrile. These hydrophosphination products represent a convenient method for the modification of phosphines. PMID:26579617

  9. Formation of mesic nuclei by (γ,p) reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagahiro, H.; Jido, D.; Hirenzaki, S.

    2005-10-01

    We present a theoretical study on formation rates of η and ω meson-nucleus systems induced by (γ,p) reactions on nuclear targets at ideal recoilless condition. We find that the smaller distortion effect in the (γ,p) reaction enables us to investigate properties of the mesons created deeply inside nucleus more clearly. We also consider excitation of scalar-isoscalar (σ) mode in nucleus in order to investigate spectral enhancement around two-pion threshold caused by partial restoration of chiral symmetry. We conclude that valuable information of meson-nucleus interactions can be extracted from global structure of the missing mass spectra in the (γ,p) reaction.

  10. EXFOR SYSTEMS MANUAL NUCLEAR REACTION DATA EXCHANGE FORMAT.

    SciTech Connect

    MCLANE,V.; NUCLEAR DATA CENTER NETWORK

    2000-05-19

    EXFOR is an exchange format designed to allow transmission of nuclear reaction data between the members of the Nuclear Data Centers Network. This document has been written for use by the members of the Network and includes matters of procedure and protocol, as well as detailed rules for the compilation of data. Users may prefer to consult EXFOR Basics' for a brief description of the format.

  11. Effect of inclusion complex on nitrous acid reaction with flavonoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalafi, Lida; Rafiee, Mohammad; Sedaghat, Sajjad

    2011-10-01

    The kinetic of the nitrous acid reactions with quercetin and catechin has been studied using spectrophotometric method in aqueous solution. The results show that these antioxidants participate in oxidation reactions with nitrous acid which is derived from protonation of nitrite ion in mild acidic conditions. Corresponding o-quinones as relatively stable products were detected by spectrophotometric techniques. pH dependence of the reactions has been examined and the rate constants of reactions were obtained by non-linear fitting of kinetic profiles. The effect of β-cyclodextrin on the oxidation pathway was another object of this study. It is shown that β-cyclodextrin has an inhibitory effect on the oxidation reaction. The rate constants of oxidation reactions for complexed forms and their stability constants were obtained based on changes in the reaction rates as a function of β-cyclodextrin concentration.

  12. A complex reaction time study (Sternberg) in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, W.; Uri, John; Moore, Tom

    1993-01-01

    Simple and complex (Sternberg) reaction time studies were flown on three and seven day Shuttle flights in 1985. Three subjects did selftesting with an onboard handheld calculator without difficulty. There was little change in simple reaction time. One subject demonstrated a decrease in the processing rate during space motion sickness while a second exhibited an increase in complex reaction time without a change in processing rate during a period of high work load. The population was too small to demonstrate significant changes. This study demonstrates the ease and practicality of such measurements and indicates the potential value of such studies in space.

  13. Structure of soybean serine acetyltransferase and formation of the cysteine regulatory complex as a molecular chaperone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serine acetyltransferase (SAT) catalyzes the limiting reaction in plant and microbial biosynthesis of cysteine. In addition to its enzymatic function, SAT forms a macromolecular complex with O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase (OASS). Formation of the cysteine regulatory complex (CRC) is a critical biochem...

  14. Multistability and sustained oscillations in a model for protein complex formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löb, Daniel; Priester, Christopher; Drossel, Barbara

    2016-03-01

    We investigate a model for the formation of protein complexes where each protein can occur at most once in a complex. The reaction rates for association and dissociation of proteins can be chosen independently for each reaction, without imposing detailed balance conditions. We show that this simple model can display multistability and periodic oscillations when it contains at least four different protein species. We prove that a system with three elementary species cannot be multistable.

  15. Formation of superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Feng Zhaoqing; Jin Genming; Li Junqing; Scheid, Werner

    2007-10-15

    Within the concept of the dinuclear system (DNS), a dynamical model is proposed for describing the formation of superheavy nuclei in complete fusion reactions by incorporating the coupling of the relative motion to the nucleon transfer process. The capture of two heavy colliding nuclei, the formation of the compound nucleus, and the de-excitation process are calculated by using an empirical coupled channel model, solving a master equation numerically and applying statistical theory, respectively. Evaporation residue excitation functions in cold fusion reactions are investigated systematically and compared with available experimental data. Maximal production cross sections of superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reactions with stable neutron-rich projectiles are obtained. Isotopic trends in the production of the superheavy elements Z=110, 112, 114, 116, 118, and 120 are analyzed systematically. Optimal combinations and the corresponding excitation energies are proposed.

  16. Formation of superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhao-Qing; Jin, Gen-Ming; Li, Jun-Qing; Scheid, Werner

    2007-10-01

    Within the concept of the dinuclear system (DNS), a dynamical model is proposed for describing the formation of superheavy nuclei in complete fusion reactions by incorporating the coupling of the relative motion to the nucleon transfer process. The capture of two heavy colliding nuclei, the formation of the compound nucleus, and the de-excitation process are calculated by using an empirical coupled channel model, solving a master equation numerically and applying statistical theory, respectively. Evaporation residue excitation functions in cold fusion reactions are investigated systematically and compared with available experimental data. Maximal production cross sections of superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reactions with stable neutron-rich projectiles are obtained. Isotopic trends in the production of the superheavy elements Z=110, 112, 114, 116, 118, and 120 are analyzed systematically. Optimal combinations and the corresponding excitation energies are proposed.

  17. Thiazolidinones Derived from Dynamic Systemic Resolution of Complex Reversible-Reaction Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Ramstrm, Olof

    2014-01-01

    A complex dynamic system based on a network of multiple reversible reactions has been established. The network was applied to a dynamic systemic resolution protocol based on kinetically controlled lipase-catalyzed transformations. This resulted in the formation of cyclized products, where two thiazolidinone compounds were efficiently produced from a range of potential transformations. PMID:24677507

  18. ReactionPredictor: prediction of complex chemical reactions at the mechanistic level using machine learning.

    PubMed

    Kayala, Matthew A; Baldi, Pierre

    2012-10-22

    Proposing reasonable mechanisms and predicting the course of chemical reactions is important to the practice of organic chemistry. Approaches to reaction prediction have historically used obfuscating representations and manually encoded patterns or rules. Here we present ReactionPredictor, a machine learning approach to reaction prediction that models elementary, mechanistic reactions as interactions between approximate molecular orbitals (MOs). A training data set of productive reactions known to occur at reasonable rates and yields and verified by inclusion in the literature or textbooks is derived from an existing rule-based system and expanded upon with manual curation from graduate level textbooks. Using this training data set of complex polar, hypervalent, radical, and pericyclic reactions, a two-stage machine learning prediction framework is trained and validated. In the first stage, filtering models trained at the level of individual MOs are used to reduce the space of possible reactions to consider. In the second stage, ranking models over the filtered space of possible reactions are used to order the reactions such that the productive reactions are the top ranked. The resulting model, ReactionPredictor, perfectly ranks polar reactions 78.1% of the time and recovers all productive reactions 95.7% of the time when allowing for small numbers of errors. Pericyclic and radical reactions are perfectly ranked 85.8% and 77.0% of the time, respectively, rising to >93% recovery for both reaction types with a small number of allowed errors. Decisions about which of the polar, pericyclic, or radical reaction type ranking models to use can be made with >99% accuracy. Finally, for multistep reaction pathways, we implement the first mechanistic pathway predictor using constrained tree-search to discover a set of reasonable mechanistic steps from given reactants to given products. Webserver implementations of both the single step and pathway versions of ReactionPredictor are available via the chemoinformatics portal http://cdb.ics.uci.edu/. PMID:22978639

  19. Secondary organic aerosol formation from reaction of tertiary amines with nitrate radical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erupe, M. E.; Price, D. J.; Silva, P. J.; Malloy, Q. G. J.; Qi, L.; Warren, B.; Cocker, D. R., III

    2008-09-01

    Secondary organic aerosol formation from the reaction of tertiary amines with nitrate radical was investigated in an indoor environmental chamber. Particle chemistry was monitored using a high resolution aerosol mass spectrometer while gas-phase species were detected using a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer. Trimethylamine, triethylamine and tributylamine were studied. Results indicate that tributylamine forms the most aerosol mass followed by trimethylamine and triethylamine respectively. Spectra from the aerosol mass spectrometer indicate the formation of complex non-salt aerosol products. We propose a reaction mechanism that proceeds via abstraction of a proton by nitrate radical followed by RO2 chemistry. Rearrangement of the aminyl alkoxy radical through hydrogen shift leads to the formation of hydroxylated amides, which explain most of the higher mass ions in the mass spectra. These experiments show that oxidation of tertiary amines by nitrate radical may be an important night-time source of secondary organic aerosol.

  20. A new metalation complex for organic synthesis and polymerization reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirshfield, S. M.

    1971-01-01

    Organometallic complex of N,N,N',N' tetramethyl ethylene diamine /TMEDA/ and lithium acts as metalation intermediate for controlled systhesis of aromatic organic compounds and polymer formation. Complex of TMEDA and lithium aids in preparation of various organic lithium compounds.

  1. EXFOR systems manual: Nuclear reaction data exchange format

    SciTech Connect

    McLane, V.

    1996-07-01

    This document describes EXFOR, the exchange format designed to allow transmission of nuclear reaction data between the members of the Nuclear Data Centers Network. In addition to storing the data and its bibliographic information, experimental information, including source of uncertainties, is also compiled. The status and history of the data set is also included, e.g., the source of the data, any updates which have been made, and correlations to other data sets. The exchange format, as outlined, is designed to allow a large variety of numerical data tables with explanatory and bibliographic information to be transmitted in an easily machine-readable format (for checking and indicating possible errors) and a format that can be read by personnel (for passing judgment on and correcting any errors indicated by the machine).

  2. Reaction of an Iron(IV) Nitrido Complex with Cyclohexadienes: Cycloaddition and Hydrogen-Atom Abstraction

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The iron(IV) nitrido complex PhB(MesIm)3Fe?N reacts with 1,3-cyclohexadiene to yield the iron(II) pyrrolide complex PhB(MesIm)3Fe(?5-C4H4N) in high yield. The mechanism of product formation is proposed to involve sequential [4 + 1] cycloaddition and retro DielsAlder reactions. Surprisingly, reaction with 1,4-cyclohexadiene yields the same iron-containing product, albeit in substantially lower yield. The proposed reaction mechanism, supported by electronic structure calculations, involves hydrogen-atom abstraction from 1,4-cyclohexadiene to provide the cyclohexadienyl radical. This radical is an intermediate in substrate isomerization to 1,3-cyclohexadiene, leading to formation of the pyrrolide product. PMID:25068927

  3. Light induced electron transfer reactions of metal complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Sutin, N.; Creutz, C.

    1980-01-01

    Properties of the excited states of tris(2,2'-bipyridine) and tris(1,10-phenanthroline) complexes of chromium(III), iron(II), ruthenium(II), osmium(II), rhodium(III), and iridium(III) are described. The electron transfer reactions of the ground and excited states are discussed and interpreted in terms of the driving force for the reaction and the distortions of the excited states relative to the corresponding ground states. General considerations relevant to the conversion of light into chemical energy are presented and progress in the use of polypyridine complexes to effect the light decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen is reviewed.

  4. Microkinetics of oxygenate formation in the Fischer-Tropsch reaction.

    PubMed

    van Santen, Rutger A; Ghouri, Minhaj; Hensen, Emiel M J

    2014-06-01

    Microkinetics simulations are presented on the intrinsic activity and selectivity of the Fischer-Tropsch reaction with respect to the formation of long chain oxygenated hydrocarbons. Two different chain growth mechanisms are compared: the carbide chain growth mechanism and the CO insertion chain growth mechanism. The microkinetics simulations are based on quantum-chemical data on reaction rate parameters of the elementary reaction steps of the Fischer-Tropsch reaction available in the literature. Because the overall rate constant of chain growth remains too low the CO insertion chain growth mechanism is not found to produce higher hydrocarbons, except for ethylene and acetaldehyde or the corresponding hydrogenated products. According to the carbide mechanism available quantum-chemical data are consistent with high selectivity to long chain oxygenated hydrocarbon production at low temperature. The anomalous initial increase with temperature of the chain growth parameter observed under such conditions is reproduced. It arises from the competition between the apparent rate of C-O bond activation to produce "CHx" monomers to be inserted into the growing hydrocarbon chain and the rate of chain growth termination. The microkinetics simulations data enable analysis of selectivity changes as a function of critical elementary reaction rates such as the rate of activation of the C-O bond of CO, the insertion rate of CO into the growing hydrocarbon chain or the rate constant of methane formation. Simulations show that changes in catalyst site reactivity affect elementary reaction steps differently. This has opposing consequences for oxygenate production selectivity, so an optimizing compromise has to be found. The simulation results are found to be consistent with most experimental data available today. It is concluded that Fischer-Tropsch type catalysis has limited scope to produce long chain oxygenates with high yield, but there is an opportunity to improve the yield of C2 oxygenates. PMID:24509610

  5. Actinide complexation kinetics: rate and mechanism of dioxoneptunium (V) reaction with chlorophosphonazo III

    SciTech Connect

    Fugate, G.; Feil-Jenkins, J.F.; Sullivan, J.C.; Nash, K.L.

    1996-12-01

    Rates of complex formation and dissociation in NpO{sub 2}{sup +}- Chlorophosphonazo III (2,7-bis(4-chloro-2-phosphonobenzeneazo)-1,8- dihydroxynapthalene-3,6-disulfonic acid)(CLIII) were investigated by stopped-flow spectrophotometry. Also, limited studies were made of the rates of reaction of La{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}, and Fe{sup 3+} with CLIII. Rate determining step in each system is an intramolecular process, the NpO{sub 2}{sup +}-CLIII reaction proceeding by a first order approach to equilibrium in the acid range from 0.1 to 1.0 M. Complex formation occurs independent of acidity, while both acid dependent and independent dissociation pathways are observed. Activation parameters for the complex formation reaction are {Delta}H=46.2{+-}0.3 kJ/m and {Delta}S=7{+-} J/mK (I=1.0 M); these for the acid dependent and independent dissociation pathways are {Delta}H=38.8{+-}0.6 kJ/m, {Delta}S=-96{+-}18 J/mK, {Delta}H=70.0{+-} kJ/m, and {Delta}S=17{+-}1 J/mK, respectively. An isokinetic relationship is observed between the activation parameters for CLIII complex formation with NpO{sub 2}{sup +}, UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, Th{sup 4+}, and Zr{sup 4+}. Rates of CLIII complex formation reactions for Fe{sup 3+}, Zr{sup 4+}, NpO{sub 2}{sup +}, UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, Th{sup 4+}, La{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+}, and Dy{sup 3+} correlate with cation radius rather than charge/radius ratio.

  6. Reaction mechanism governing formation of 1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane-protected gold nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Hudgens, Jeffrey W; Pettibone, John M; Senftle, Thomas P; Bratton, Ryan N

    2011-10-17

    This report outlines the determination of a reaction mechanism that can be manipulated to develop directed syntheses of gold monolayer-protected clusters (MPCs) prepared by reduction of solutions containing 1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane (L(3)) ligand and Au(PPh(3))Cl. Nanocluster synthesis was initiated by reduction of two-coordinate phosphine-ligated [Au(I)LL'](+) complexes (L, L' = PPh(3), L(3)), resulting in free radical complexes. The [Au(0)LL'](•) free radicals nucleated, forming a broad size distribution of ligated clusters. Timed UV-vis spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry monitored the ligated Au(x), 6 ≤ x ≤ 13, clusters, which comprise reaction intermediates and final products. By employing different solvents and reducing agents, reaction conditions were varied to highlight the largest portion of the reaction mechanism. We identified several solution-phase reaction classes, including dissolution of the gold precursor, reduction, continuous nucleation/core growth, ligand exchange, ion-molecule reactions, and etching of colloids and larger clusters. Simple theories can account for the reaction intermediates and final products. The initial distribution of the nucleation products contains mainly neutral clusters. However, the rate of reduction controls the amount of reaction overlap occurring in the system, allowing a clear distinction between reduction/nucleation and subsequent solution-phase processing. During solution-phase processing, the complexes undergo core etching and core growth reactions, including reactions that convert neutral clusters to cations, in a cyclic process that promotes formation of stable clusters of specific metal nuclearity. These processes comprise "size-selective" processing that can narrow a broad distribution into specific nuclearities, enabling development of tunable syntheses. PMID:21928777

  7. Effect of reaction time on the formation of disinfection byproducts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rathbun, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of reaction time on the trihalomethane and nonpurgeable total organic-halide formation potentials was determined by chlorinating water samples from the Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio Rivers. Samples were collected for three seasons at 12 locations on the Mississippi from Minneapolis, Minnesota, to New Orleans, Louisiana, and on the Missouri and Ohio 1.6 kilometers above their confluences with the Mississippi. Both types of compounds formed rapidly during the initial stages of the reaction-time period, with formation rates decreasing with time. The ratio of the nonpurgeable total organic-halide and trihalomethane concentrations decreased with time, with the nonpurgeable total organic-halide compounds forming faster during the first stages of the time period and the trihalomethane compounds forming faster during the latter stages of the time period. Variation with distance along the Mississippi River of the formation rates approximately paralleled the variation of the dissolved organic carbon concentration, indicating that the rates of formation, as well as the concentrations of the compounds formed, depended on the dissolved organic carbon concentration.

  8. On the Formation of "Hypercoordinated" Uranyl Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Schoendorff, George E.; De Jong, Wibe A.; van Stipdonk, Michael J.; Gibson, John K.; Rios, Daniel; Gordon, Mark S.; Windus, Theresa L.

    2011-09-05

    Recent gas phase experimental studies suggest the presence of hypercoordinated uranyl complexes. Coordination of acetone (Ace) to uranyl to form hypercoordinated species is examined using density functional theory (DFT) with a range of functionals and second order perturbation theory (MP2). Complexes with up to eight acetones were studied. It is shown that no more than six acetones can bind directly to uranium and that the observed uranyl complexes are not hypercoordinated.

  9. Acid-catalyzed Heterogeneous Reactions in SOA Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, N.; Keywood, M.; Varutbangkul, V.; Gao, S.; Loewer, E.; Surratt, J.; Richard, F. C.; John, S. H.

    2003-12-01

    The importance of heterogeneous reactions in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation has recently excited a great deal of interest in the aerosol community. Jang and Kamens (2001) showed enhanced aerosol yield from aldehydes, which can be produced by atmospheric photochemical reactions, in the presence of acidic seed. They suggest that the carbonyl functional groups of the aldehydes further react in the aerosol phase via hydration, polymerization, and hemiacetal/acetal formation with alcohols at an accelerated rate in the presence of acid. Jang et al. (2003) demonstrated similar results using a flow reactor and Czoschke et al. (in press) qualitatively showed increased yields for isoprene and alpha-pinene ozonolysis in the presence of acidic seed. While these findings are intriguing and important, the conditions under which the experiments were carried out were atmospherically unrealistic. A series of SOA formation experiments have been carried out in the Caltech Indoor Chamber Facility, which is comprised of dual 28 m3 FEP Teflon chambers, with the flexibility to carry out both dark ozonolysis and photochemical OH oxidation reactions. Cycloheptene and alpha-pinene were oxidized in the presence of neutral seed under dry (<10% RH) and humid (50% RH) conditions and in the presence of acidic seed under humid (50% RH) conditions. The SOA yields for these experiments will be presented, and the extent of the influence of acid-catalyzed reactions on SOA yield will be discussed. Reference List 1. Cocker, D. R. III. and R. C. Flagan and J. H. Seinfeld, State-of-the-art chamber facility for studying atmospheric aerosol chemistry, Environmental Science and Technology, 35, 2594-2601, 2001. 2. Czoschke, N. M., M. Jang, and R. M. Kamens, Effect of acid seed on biogenic sceondary organic aerosol growth, Atmospheric Environment, In press. 3. Jang, M., S. Lee, and R. M. Kamens, Organic aerosol growth by acid-catalyzed heterogeneous reactions of octanal in a flow reactor, Atmospheric Environment, 37, 2125-2138, 2003. 4. Jang, M. S. and R. M Kamens, Atmospheric secondary aerosol formation by heterogeneous reactions of aldehydes in the presence of a sulfuric acid aerosol catalyst. Environmental Science and Technology, 35, 4758-4766,2001.

  10. A quantitative approach to understanding amphibole reaction rims: Texture, mineralogy, and processes of formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Angelis, S. H.; Larsen, J. F.; Coombs, M. L.; Dunn, A.

    2012-12-01

    Amphibole is an important mineral present in many calc-alkaline volcanic deposits. A hydrous phase, volcanic amphibole is only stable at pressures greater than 100 MPa (approx. 4 km) and in melts containing at least 4 wt % H2O. When removed from their thermal and barometric stability field, amphiboles decompose to form aggregate rims of anhydrous minerals. Reaction rim thicknesses have been used to estimate timescales and rates of magma ascent, important parameters in determining eruptive style. However, the textures and mineralogy of reaction rims are complex; multiple forcing factors, such as heating and decompression, are responsible for their formation. Few studies have performed in-depth, systematic, and quantitative investigations of reaction rim textures and mineralogy: as a result, amphibole reaction rims are poorly understood. Based on natural reaction rims from Augustine Volcano Alaska, we have developed a new crystallization kinetics model for reaction rim formation in which the differences in reaction rim textures represent different degrees of forcing away from equilibrium. We present the results of an experimental study used to test this model. We performed experiments using a sintered high-silica andesite glass from the 2006 eruption of Augustine volcano. The starting powder was seeded with unrimmed amphibole phenocrysts. After at least 24 hours of equilibration at Augustine storage conditions (140 MPa/ 860oC), experiments were heated or decompressed. The experimental series experiments took samples to differing degrees of thermal of barometric instability, over different time scales, ranging from 3 hours to several days. The resulting reaction rims were analyzed using a variety of analytical imaging and X-ray mapping techniques. Reaction rims thickened and became more texturally and mineralogically complex as a result of 1) greater time spent outside of stability and; 2) the magnitude of instability experienced.

  11. DNA Branch Migration Reactions Through Photocontrollable Toehold Formation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Fujian; You, Mingxu; Han, Da; Xiong, Xiangling

    2013-01-01

    Strand displacement cascades are commonly used to make dynamically assembled structures. Particularly, the concept of toehold-mediated DNA branch migration reactions has attracted considerable attention in relation to dynamic DNA nanostructures. However, it is a challenge to obtain and control the formation of pure 1:1 ratio DNA duplexes with toehold structures. Here, for the first time, we report a photocontrolled toehold formation method, which is based on the photocleavage of 2-nitrobenzyl linker-embedded DNA hairpin precursor structures. UV light irradiation (??365 nm) of solutions containing these DNA hairpin structures causes the complete cleavage of the nitrobenzyl linker, and pure 1:1 DNA duplexes with toehold structures are easily formed. Our experimental results indicate that the amount of toehold can be controlled by simply changing the dose of UV irradiation and that the resulting toehold structures can be used for subsequent toehold-mediated DNA branch migration reactions, e.g., DNA hybridization chain reactions. This newly established method will find broad application in the construction of light-powered, controllable and dynamic DNA nanostructures or large-scale DNA circuits. PMID:23642046

  12. Tungsten oxo salicylate complexes from tungsten hexachloride reactions systems.

    PubMed

    Kolesnichenko, V; Mason, M H; Botts, J B; Botts, A M; Baroni, T E; Heppert, J A; Rheingold, A L; Liable-Sands, L; Yap, G P

    2001-09-10

    Tungsten hexachloride is a potent halogen-transfer agent, capable of reacting directly with salicylic acid to generate a tungsten oxo fragment and salicoyl chloride. As a result, oxo complexes dominate the chemistry of tungsten(VI) salicylates. Both mono- and disalicylate substituted tungsten oxo complexes are accessible. The Brnsted free acid W(=O)Cl(Hsal)(sal) complex is a sparingly soluble, presumably polymeric material that can be dissolved in THF. The THF adduct has been characterized by NMR spectroscopy, although an X-ray crystallographic study indicates that the product cocrystallizes with a structurally analogous d(1) WCl(2)(Hsal.THF)(sal) byproduct. The remaining chloride ligand in W(=O)Cl(Hsal)(sal) is replaced by a bridging oxo unit when the reaction contains a significant excess of salicylic acid. The product "linear" oxo bridged ditungsten complex, [W(=O)(Hsal)(sal)](2)O, forms intramolecular hydrogen bonds, accounting for its high solubility in noncoordinating solvents. An X-ray study shows that the intramolecular Hsal.sal hydrogen bonding in this complex accommodates a more linear W-O-W arrangement than does a previously observed class of isostructural diolate derivatives. Tungsten oxo tetrachloride, formed in the initial reaction between salicylic acid and WCl(6), also reacts with the salicoyl chloride byproduct to generate tungsten salicoylate (OAr-2-COCl) complexes. PMID:11531451

  13. Reaction kinetic mechanism for methane hydrate formation in liquid water

    SciTech Connect

    Lekvam, K. ); Ruoff, P. )

    1993-09-22

    On the basis of experimental studies, we propose a reaction kinetic model for the formation of methane hydrate from liquid water and methane gas. The model consists of 5 pseudoelementary processes with the following three dynamic elements: (1) the dissolution of methane gas into the water phase, (2) the buildup of an oligomeric precursor of methane hydrate, and (3) the growth of methane hydrate by an autocatalytic process. The integrated rate equations of our model show close agreement to experimentally observed behavior. 20 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. First stage of CoSi{sub 2} formation during a solid-state reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Delattre, R.; Thomas, O.; Perrin-Pellegrino, C.; Rivero, C.; Simola, R.

    2014-12-28

    The kinetics of CoSi{sub 2} formation via a solid-state reaction between CoSi and single crystal Si has been the object of many studies in the past. Because of the importance of nucleation, complex kinetics has been reported. In this work, we investigate CoSi{sub 2} formation kinetics with in-situ diffraction during isothermal annealing of CoSi films on Si (100). In-situ measurements allow capturing the initial stage of CoSi{sub 2} formation. An initial t{sup 3/2} time-dependent evolution is observed and attributed to 3D growth of individual nuclei. This first regime is followed after the coalescence of the nuclei by a classical parabolic t{sup 1/2} one-dimensional film growth. We evidence a marked influence of the initial Co thickness (50?nm vs 10?nm) on the growth kinetics. A significant slowdown of the CoSi{sub 2} formation kinetics is observed for the thinnest film, whereas the activation energy remains the same. These results shine a new light on the complex formation kinetics of CoSi{sub 2} during solid-state reaction between CoSi and single crystal silicon and bring new knowledge about what occurs in the ultra-thin film regime, which is important for nanotechnologies.

  15. Exploring complex chemical reactions by ab-initio simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrinello, Michele

    1998-03-01

    Recent progress in the ab-initio molecular dynamics method and the power of parallel computing, allow the detailed study of complex chemical reaction of great industrial relevance. We illustrate this unprecedented capability by investigating the second generation Ziegler-Natta catalytic process. In this inhomogeneous catalyst, a polymerization reaction is induced by TiCl4 molecules deposited on an MgCl2 solid support. A density functional based ab-initio molecular dynamics calculation conducted with a minimum of initial assumption allows to understand the nature of the catalytic center and to determine the reaction path with the associated free energy barrier. Furthermore our calculation can explain in a nontrivial way the stereo-selectivity of the process.

  16. Interaction of 2-aminopyrimidine with ?- and ?-acceptors involving chemical reactions via initial charge transfer complexation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabie, U. M.; Abou-El-Wafa, M. H.; Mohamed, R. A.

    2007-12-01

    Interaction of 2-aminopyrimidine (AP) with iodine as a typical ?-type acceptor and with a typical ?-type acceptor, 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone, p-chloranil (CHL) have been studied spectrophotometrically. Electronic absorption spectra of the system AP-I 2 in several organic solvents of different polarities have performed clear charge transfer (CT) band(s). Formation constants ( KCT) and molar absorption coefficients ( ?CT) and thermodynamic properties, ? H, ? S, and ? G, of this system in various organic solvents were determined and discussed. Interaction of AP with the ?-acceptor has shown unique behaviors. Chemical reaction has occurred via prior or initial formation of the outer-sphere CT complex followed by formation of the corresponding anion radicals, CHL rad - , as intermediates. UV-vis, 1H NMR, Mass, and FT-IR spectra in addition to the elemental analysis were used to confirm the proposed occurrence of the chemical reaction and to investigate the synthesized solid products.

  17. Formation of molecular oxygen in ultracold O + OH reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Kendrick, Brian Kent; Quemener, Goulven; Balakrishman, Naduvalath

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the formation of molecular oxygen in ultracold collisions between hydroxyl radicals and atomic oxygen. A time-independent quantum formalism based on hyperspherical coordinates is employed for the calculations. Elastic, inelastic and reactive cross sections as well as the vibrational and rotational populations of the product O{sub 2} molecules are reported. A J-shifting approximation is used to compute the rate coefficients. At temperatures T = 10--100 mK for which the OH molecules have been cooled and trapped experimentally, the elastic and reactive rate coefficients are of comparable magnitude, while at colder temperatures, T < 1 mK, the formation of molecular oxygen becomes the dominant pathway. The validity of a classical capture model to describe cold collisions of OH and O is also discussed. While very good agreement is found between classical and quantum results at T = 0.3 K, at higher temperatures, the quantum calculations predict a higher rate coefficient than the classical model, in agreement with experimental data for the O + OH reaction. The zero-temperature limiting value of the rate coefficient is predicted to be about 6 x 10{sup -12} cm{sup 3} s{sup 01}, a value comparable to that of barrierless alkali metal atom-dimer systems and about a factor of five larger than that of the tunneling dominated F + H{sub 2} reaction.

  18. Theoretical aspects of product formation from the NCO + NO reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, M.C.; He, Y. ); Melius, C.F. )

    1993-09-09

    The reaction of NCO with NO, an important elementary process involved in the reduction of NO[sub x] by HNCO, has been studied theoretically using the BAC-MP4 technique in conjunction with RRKM calculations. The computed molecular structures and thermochemical data for various intermediates and transition states suggest that the reaction takes place primarily via the singlet, ground electronic state OCNNO molecule according to the following mechanism; (step a) NCO + NO [leftrightarrow] [sup 1]OCNNO [yields] N[sub 2]O + CO; (step b) NCO + NO [leftrightarrow] [sup 1]OCNNO [yields] c-OCNNO[minus] N[sub 2] + CO[sub 2]. The formation of N[sub 2]O + CO occurs by the fragmentation of the singlet OCNNO intermediate step (a), whereas the production of N[sub 2] + CO[sub 2] by cyclization-fragmentation occurs via step b. The tight transition states leading to the formation of these products, coupled with the loose entrance channel, give rise to the experimentally observed strong negative temperature dependence which can be quantitatively accounted for by the results of RRKM calculations based on the BAC-MP4 data. The experimentally measured product branching ratio for channels a and b could be accounted for theoretically by lowering the calculated energy barrier for step a by 3.6 kcal/mol, corresponding to about 15% of the barrier height. 22 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Probing simple patterns in complex nuclei with transfer reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cizewski, Jolie

    2011-04-01

    The first observation of the O(6) limit of the Interacting Boson Model provided an unexpected benchmark for nuclear structure. A shape intermediate between a spherical vibrator and deformed rotor was a new simple pattern that described the complex nucleus, 196Pt. Shortly thereafter simple patterns in odd-mass nuclei were recognized as the coupling of a fermion to O(6) structures of the core. In addition to selection rules for electromagnetic transitions, there were now selection rules for single-particle transfer. As the properties of nuclei further from stability are explored, identifying simple patterns in complex nuclei becomes even more important as benchmarks in extrapolations of nuclear models to even more exotic nuclei. Identifying such benchmarks requires a full spectrum of spectroscopic probes, including single-particle transfer reactions. The present talk will provide an overview of how transfer reactions have been used to identify simple patterns in complex nuclei, from proton transfer reactions near 196Pt to recent neutron transfer work near 132Sn, eight neutrons from stability. This work was supported in part by the National Nuclear Security Administration under the Stewardship Science Academic Alliances program and the National Science Foundation.

  20. Metallacycle-catalyzed SNAr reaction in water: supramolecular inhibition by means of hostguest complexation.

    PubMed

    Lpez-Vidal, Eva M; Fernndez-Mato, Antonio; Garca, Marcos D; Prez-Lorenzo, Moiss; Peinador, Carlos; Quintela, Jos M

    2014-02-01

    The performance of a Pt(II) diazapyrenium-based metallacycle as a reusable substoichiometric catalyst for the SNAr reaction between halodinitrobenzenes and sodium azide at rt in aqueous media is reported. The results suggest that the catalytic effect is promoted by the association of the azide to the diazapyrenium cationic subunits of the catalyst. The findings demonstrate that the formation of an inclusion complex between pyrene and the metallacycle has a regulatory effect over the system, resulting in allosteric-like inhibition of the SNAr reaction. PMID:24444092

  1. Spatial Heterogeneity and Imperfect Mixing in Chemical Reactions: Visualization of Density-Driven Pattern Formation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sobel, Sabrina G.; Hastings, Harold M.; Testa, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Imore » mperfect mixing is a concern in industrial processes, everyday processes (mixing paint, bread machines), and in understanding salt water-fresh water mixing in ecosystems. The effects of imperfect mixing become evident in the unstirred ferroin-catalyzed Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction, the prototype for chemical pattern formation. Over time, waves of oxidation (high ferriin concentration, blue) propagate into a background of low ferriin concentration (red); their structure reflects in part the history of mixing in the reaction vessel. However, it may be difficult to separate mixing effects from reaction effects. We describe a simpler model system for visualizing density-driven pattern formation in an essentially unmixed chemical system: the reaction of pale yellow Fe 3 + with colorless SCN − to form the blood-red Fe ( SCN ) 2 + complex ion in aqueous solution. Careful addition of one drop of Fe ( NO 3 ) 3 to KSCN yields striped patterns after several minutes. The patterns appear reminiscent of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities and convection rolls, arguing that pattern formation is caused by density-driven mixing.« less

  2. Dynamic NMR study of the oxaphosphetane complexation with lithium during the Wittig reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascariu, Aurelia; Mracec, Mircea; Berger, Stefan

    Dynamic NMR spectroscopy at very low temperatures (148-182 K) reveal the dynamic behavior of the (2-tri(3-furyl)-3-methyl-4-cyclopropenyl-oxaphosphetane) generated during a Wittig reaction between tri(3-furyl)ethylphosphonium iodine and cyclopropylaldehyde. The possibility of formation of different adducts between Li+ ions and oxaphosphetane or betainic intermediates was checked calculating the formation enthalpies using the MNDO, AM1, and PM3 semiempirical MO methods. The observed species are interpreted as oxaphosphetane complexes with lithium ions present in solution. Quantum mechanical calculations confirm the spectroscopic results.0

  3. From simple to complex reactions: Nuclear collisions near the Coulomb barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Rehm, K.E.

    1992-01-01

    Collisions between two heavy nuclei produce a diverse spectrum of reaction modes which is much wider than that observed in light ion studies. For the latter case, two processes are observed: direct reactions and compound nucleus formation. Heavy ion reaction studies on the other hand have identified additional processes such as deep-inelastic scattering, incomplete fusion and quasi-fission reactions. While the boundaries between the various processes are usually not well defined, it is generally accepted that with increasing overlap of the two nuclei the interaction evolves from distant collisions where only elastic scattering and Coulomb excitation processes occur, through grazing-type collisions associated with quasi-elastic reactions to deep-inelastic and fusion-fission processes requiring a substantial nuclear overlap. Varying the bombarding energy is a convenient way to change the overlap of the two nuclei. Measurements of excitation functions can thus probe the onset and the interplay of the various reaction modes. Experiments at bombarding energies in the vicinity of the Coulomb barrier are particularly suited for comparisons with theoretical predictions since the small number of degrees of freedom involved in the interaction greatly simplifies the calculations. In the first part of this contribution a short overview is given on the status of heavy ion reaction studies at energies in the vicinity of the Coulomb barrier. In the second part two experiments, one involving simple and the other studying complex reactions, are discussed in more detail.

  4. From simple to complex reactions: Nuclear collisions near the Coulomb barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Rehm, K.E.

    1992-12-01

    Collisions between two heavy nuclei produce a diverse spectrum of reaction modes which is much wider than that observed in light ion studies. For the latter case, two processes are observed: direct reactions and compound nucleus formation. Heavy ion reaction studies on the other hand have identified additional processes such as deep-inelastic scattering, incomplete fusion and quasi-fission reactions. While the boundaries between the various processes are usually not well defined, it is generally accepted that with increasing overlap of the two nuclei the interaction evolves from distant collisions where only elastic scattering and Coulomb excitation processes occur, through grazing-type collisions associated with quasi-elastic reactions to deep-inelastic and fusion-fission processes requiring a substantial nuclear overlap. Varying the bombarding energy is a convenient way to change the overlap of the two nuclei. Measurements of excitation functions can thus probe the onset and the interplay of the various reaction modes. Experiments at bombarding energies in the vicinity of the Coulomb barrier are particularly suited for comparisons with theoretical predictions since the small number of degrees of freedom involved in the interaction greatly simplifies the calculations. In the first part of this contribution a short overview is given on the status of heavy ion reaction studies at energies in the vicinity of the Coulomb barrier. In the second part two experiments, one involving simple and the other studying complex reactions, are discussed in more detail.

  5. Direct electronic probing of biological complexes formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macchia, Eleonora; Magliulo, Maria; Manoli, Kyriaki; Giordano, Francesco; Palazzo, Gerardo; Torsi, Luisa

    2014-10-01

    Functional bio-interlayer organic field - effect transistors (FBI-OFET), embedding streptavidin, avidin and neutravidin as bio-recognition element, have been studied to probe the electronic properties of protein complexes. The threshold voltage control has been achieved modifying the SiO2 gate diaelectric surface by means of the deposition of an interlayer of bio-recognition elements. A threshold voltage shift with respect to the unmodified dielectric surface toward more negative potential values has been found for the three different proteins, in agreement with their isoelectric points. The relative responses in terms of source - drain current, mobility and threshold voltage upon exposure to biotin of the FBI-OFET devices have been compared for the three bio-recognition elements.

  6. Studies of complex fragment emission in heavy ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Charity, R.J.; Sobotka, L.G.

    1992-01-01

    Our work involves the study of intermediate energy heavy-ion nuclear reactions. This work has two foci. On the one hand, we desire to learn about the properties of nuclear matter under abnormal conditions, in this energy domain, predominately low densities. This purpose runs abreast of the second, which is the study of the relevant reaction mechanisms. The two objectives are inexorably linked because our experimental laboratory for studying nuclear matter properties is a dynamic one. We are forced to ask how nuclear matter properties, such as phase transitions, are reflected in the dynamics of the reactions. It may be that irrefutable information about nuclear matter will not be extracted from the reaction work. Nevertheless, we are compelled to undertake this effort not only because it is the only game in town and as yet we do not know that information cannot be extracted, but also because of our second objective. The process leads to an understanding of the reaction mechanism themselves and therefore to the response characteristics of finite, perhaps non-equilibrium, strongly interacting systems. Our program has been: To study energy, mass, and angular momentum deposition by studying incomplete fusion reactions. To gain confidence that we understand how highly excited systems decompose by studying all emissions from the highly excited systems. To push these kinds of studies into the intermediate energy domain, with excitation function studies. And attempt to learn about the dynamics of the decays using particle-particle correlations. In the last effort, we have decided to focus on simple systems, where we believe, definitive statements are possible. These avenues of research share a common theme, large complex fragment production.

  7. Transition state ensemble optimization for reactions of arbitrary complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinovjev, Kirill; Tun, Iaki

    2015-10-01

    In the present work, we use Variational Transition State Theory (VTST) to develop a practical method for transition state ensemble optimization by looking for an optimal hyperplanar dividing surface in a space of meaningful trial collective variables. These might be interatomic distances, angles, electrostatic potentials, etc. Restrained molecular dynamics simulations are used to obtain on-the-fly estimates of ensemble averages that guide the variations of the hyperplane maximizing the transmission coefficient. A central result of our work is an expression that quantitatively estimates the importance of the coordinates used for the localization of the transition state ensemble. Starting from an arbitrarily large set of trial coordinates, one can distinguish those that are indeed essential for the advance of the reaction. This facilitates the use of VTST as a practical theory to study reaction mechanisms of complex processes. The technique was applied to the reaction catalyzed by an isochorismate pyruvate lyase. This reaction involves two simultaneous chemical steps and has a shallow transition state region, making it challenging to define a good reaction coordinate. Nevertheless, the hyperplanar transition state optimized in the space of 18 geometrical coordinates provides a transmission coefficient of 0.8 and a committor histogram well-peaked about 0.5, proving the strength of the method. We have also tested the approach with the study of the NaCl dissociation in aqueous solution, a stringest test for a method based on transition state theory. We were able to find essential degrees of freedom consistent with the previous studies and to improve the transmission coefficient with respect to the value obtained using solely the NaCl distance as the reaction coordinate.

  8. Transition state ensemble optimization for reactions of arbitrary complexity.

    PubMed

    Zinovjev, Kirill; Tun, Iaki

    2015-10-01

    In the present work, we use Variational Transition State Theory (VTST) to develop a practical method for transition state ensemble optimization by looking for an optimal hyperplanar dividing surface in a space of meaningful trial collective variables. These might be interatomic distances, angles, electrostatic potentials, etc. Restrained molecular dynamics simulations are used to obtain on-the-fly estimates of ensemble averages that guide the variations of the hyperplane maximizing the transmission coefficient. A central result of our work is an expression that quantitatively estimates the importance of the coordinates used for the localization of the transition state ensemble. Starting from an arbitrarily large set of trial coordinates, one can distinguish those that are indeed essential for the advance of the reaction. This facilitates the use of VTST as a practical theory to study reaction mechanisms of complex processes. The technique was applied to the reaction catalyzed by an isochorismate pyruvate lyase. This reaction involves two simultaneous chemical steps and has a shallow transition state region, making it challenging to define a good reaction coordinate. Nevertheless, the hyperplanar transition state optimized in the space of 18 geometrical coordinates provides a transmission coefficient of 0.8 and a committor histogram well-peaked about 0.5, proving the strength of the method. We have also tested the approach with the study of the NaCl dissociation in aqueous solution, a stringest test for a method based on transition state theory. We were able to find essential degrees of freedom consistent with the previous studies and to improve the transmission coefficient with respect to the value obtained using solely the NaCl distance as the reaction coordinate. PMID:26450296

  9. Dynamics of Lane Formation in Driven Binary Complex Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Suetterlin, K. R.; Ivlev, A. V.; Raeth, C.; Thomas, H. M.; Rubin-Zuzic, M.; Morfill, G. E.; Wysocki, A.; Loewen, H.; Goedheer, W. J.; Fortov, V. E.; Lipaev, A. M.; Molotkov, V. I.; Petrov, O. F.

    2009-02-27

    The dynamical onset of lane formation is studied in experiments with binary complex plasmas under microgravity conditions. Small microparticles are driven and penetrate into a cloud of big particles, revealing a strong tendency towards lane formation. The observed time-resolved lane-formation process is in good agreement with computer simulations of a binary Yukawa model with Langevin dynamics. The laning is quantified in terms of the anisotropic scaling index, leading to a universal order parameter for driven systems.

  10. Structure and kinetics of formation of catechol complexes of ferric soybean lipoxygenase-1

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, M.J.; Brennan, B.A.; Chase, D.B. |

    1995-11-21

    Ferric soybean lipoxygenase forms stable complexes with 4-substituted catechols. The structure of the complex between the enzyme and 3,4-dihydroxybenzonitrile has been studied by resonance Raman, electron paramagnetic resonance, visible, and X-ray spectroscopies. It is a bidentate iron-catecholate complex with at least one water ligand. The kinetics of formation of complexes between lipoxygenase and 3,4-dihydroxybenzonitrile and 3,4-dihydroxyacetophenone have been studied by stopped-flow spectroscopy. The data are consistent with two kinetically distinct, reversible steps. The pH dependence of the first step suggests that the substrate for the reaction is the catechol monoanion. When these results are combined, plausible mechanisms for the complexation reaction are suggested. 51 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Ethanol oxidation by imidorhenium(V) complexes: formation of amidorhenium(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Suing, A L; Dewan, C R; White, P S; Thorp, H H

    2000-12-25

    The reaction of Re(NC6H4R)Cl3(PPh3)2 (R = H, 4-Cl, 4-OMe) with 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane (dppe) is investigated in refluxing ethanol. The reaction produces two major products, Re(NC6H4R)Cl(dppe)(2)2+ (R = H, 1-H; R = Cl, 1-Cl; R = OMe, 1-OMe) and the rhenium(III) species Re(NHC6H4R)Cl(dppe)2+ (R = H, 2-H; R = Cl, 2-Cl). Complexes 1-H (orthorhombic, Pcab, a = 22.3075(10) A, b = 23.1271(10) A, c = 23.3584(10) A, Z = 8), 1-Cl (triclinic, P1, a = 11.9403(6) A, b = 14.6673(8) A, c = 17.2664(9) A, alpha = 92.019(1) degrees, beta = 97.379(1) degrees, gamma = 90.134(1) degrees, Z = 2), and 1-OMe (triclinic, P1, a = 11.340(3) A, b = 13.134(4) A, c = 13.3796(25) A, alpha = 102.370(20) degrees, beta = 107.688(17) degrees, gamma = 114.408(20) degrees, Z = 1) are crystallographically characterized and show an average Re-N bond length (1.71 A) typical of imidorhenium(V) complexes. There is a small systematic decrease in the Re-N bond length on going from Cl to H to OMe. Complex 2-Cl (monoclinic, Cc, a = 24.2381(11) A, b = 13.4504(6) A, c = 17.466(8) A, beta = 97.06900(0) degrees, Z = 4) is also crystallographically characterized and shows a Re-N bond length (1.98 A) suggestive of amidorhenium(III). The rhenium(III) complexes exhibit unusual proton NMR spectra where all of the resonances are found at expected locations except those for the amido protons, which are at 37.8 ppm for 2-Cl and 37.3 ppm for 1-H. The phosphorus resonances are also unremarkable, but the 13C spectrum of 2-Cl shows a significantly shifted resonance at 177.3 ppm, which is assigned to the ipso carbon of the phenylamido ligand. The extraordinary shifts of the amido hydrogen and ipso carbon are attributed to second-order magnetism that is strongly focused along the axially compressed amido axis. The reducing equivalents for the formation of the Re(III) product are provided by oxidation of the ethanol solvent, which produces acetal and acetaldehyde in amounts as much as 30 equiv based on the quantity of rhenium starting material. Equal amounts of hydrogen gas are produced, suggesting that the catalyzed reaction is the dehydrogenation of ethanol to produce acetaldehyde and hydrogen gas. Metal hydrides are detected in the reaction solution, suggesting a mechanism involving beta-elimination of ethanol at the metal center. Formation of the amidorhenium(III) product possibly arises from migration of a metal hydride in the imidorhenium(V) complex. PMID:11151507

  12. Experimental Astrochemistry: Molecular Formation via Grain-Surface Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Congiu, E.

    2007-03-01

    Central to this thesis is the chemistry occurring on dust grain surfaces leading to the formation of molecules in the ISM, and, in particular, the laboratory simulation of formation mechanisms and formation rates. Surface chemistry plays a crucial role in the ISM because it produces key species that are not formed in gas-phase reactions at an efficient rate. Among them, molecular hydrogen (H_2) is by far the most important. In this work (Chapter 3), I shall address the experimental investigation of H_2 formation on diverse samples of amorphous silicates. The experimental work was conducted in the Physics Department laboratories at Syracuse University, New York, as part of the most successful programme of experiments so far to study the processes involved in the formation of molecular hydrogen on a variety of dust analogue materials, also including poly-crystalline olivine, amorphous carbon, and ices. The experiments were carried out through mass spectrometry and TPD techniques and under conditions that come as close as technically feasible to the ones in the most relevant ISM environments, namely, under ultra high vacuum pressures (low 10e-10 torr) and at surface temperatures between 6 and 30 K. Experimental studies of H_2 formation on amorphous olivines are of major concern in grain-surface chemistry because amorphous silicates are believed, together with carbonaceous materials, to be the most realistic analogues of bare cosmic dust surfaces in diffuse clouds. In my doctorate work I carried out numerous experiments on a set of several samples of amorphous olivines of the type (Mg_x,Fe_1-x)_2SiO_4, namely, samples made up of diverse amounts of Mg and Fe. Besides, in Chapter 4, I shall address the project and the construction of a FT-RAIRS facility that is to integrate the existent research apparatus in the laboratory at Syracuse University. I shall first discuss the FT-IR spectroscopy, then I shall focus on a particular technique used in surface science called RAIRS. Its physical principle will be discussed as well. Finally, I shall describe ''piece by piece'', the design and the construction of the FT-RAIRS arrangement.

  13. Time scales for molecule formation by ion-molecule reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langer, W. D.; Glassgold, A. E.

    1976-01-01

    Analytical solutions are obtained for nonlinear differential equations governing the time-dependence of molecular abundances in interstellar clouds. Three gas-phase reaction schemes are considered separately for the regions where each dominates. The particular case of CO, and closely related members of the Oh and CH families of molecules, is studied for given values of temperature, density, and the radiation field. Nonlinear effects and couplings with particular ions are found to be important. The time scales for CO formation range from 100,000 to a few million years, depending on the chemistry and regime. The time required for essentially complete conversion of C(+) to CO in the region where the H3(+) chemistry dominates is several million years. Because this time is longer than or comparable to dynamical time scales for dense interstellar clouds, steady-state abundances may not be observed in such clouds.

  14. Roles of acetone and diacetone alcohol in coordination and dissociation reactions of uranyl complexes.

    PubMed

    Rios, Daniel; Schoendorff, George; Van Stipdonk, Michael J; Gordon, Mark S; Windus, Theresa L; Gibson, John K; de Jong, Wibe A

    2012-12-01

    Combined collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry experiments with DFT and MP2 calculations were employed to elucidate the molecular structures and energetics of dissociation reactions of uranyl species containing acetone and diacetone alcohol ligands. It is shown that solutions containing diacetone alcohol ligands can produce species with more than five oxygen atoms available for coordination. Calculations confirm that complexes with up to four diacetone alcohol ligands can be energetically stable but that the effective number of atoms coordinating with uranium in the equatorial plane does not exceed five. Water elimination reactions of diacetone alcohol ligands are shown to have two coordination-dependent reaction channels, through formation of mesityl oxide ligands or formation of alkoxide and protonated mesityl oxide species. The present results provide an explanation for the implausible observation of "[UO(2)(ACO)(6,7,8)](2+)" in and observed water-elimination reactions from purportedly uranyl-acetone complexes (Rios, D.; Rutkowski, P. X.; Van Stipdonk, M. J.; Gibson, J. K. Inorg. Chem. 2011, 50, 4781). PMID:23146003

  15. Complex molecule formation around massive young stellar objects.

    PubMed

    Oberg, Karin I; Fayolle, Edith C; Reiter, John B; Cyganowski, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Interstellar complex organic molecules were first identified in the hot inner regions of massive young stellar objects (MYSOs), but have more recently been found in many colder sources, indicating that complex molecules can form at a range of temperatures. However, individually these observations provide limited constraints on how complex molecules form, and whether the same formation pathways dominate in cold, warm and hot environments. To address these questions, we use spatially resolved observations from the Submillimeter Array of three MYSOs together with mostly unresolved literature data to explore how molecular ratios depend on environmental parameters, especially temperature. Towards the three MYSOs, we find multiple complex organic emission peaks characterized by different molecular compositions and temperatures. In particular, CH3CCH and CH3CN seem to always trace a lukewarm (T = 60 K) and a hot (T > 100 K) complex chemistry, respectively. These spatial trends are consistent with abundance-temperature correlations of four representative complex organics--CH3CCH, CH3CN, CH3OCH3 and CH3CHO--in a large sample of complex molecule hosts mined from the literature. Together, these results indicate a general chemical evolution with temperature, i.e. that new complex molecule formation pathways are activated as a MYSO heats up. This is qualitatively consistent with model predictions. Furthermore, these results suggest that ratios of complex molecules may be developed into a powerful probe of the evolutionary stage of a MYSO, and may provide information about its formation history. PMID:25302375

  16. Complex molecule formation around massive young stellar objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    berg, Karin I.; Fayolle, Edith C.; Reiter, John B.; Cyganowski, Claudia

    2014-02-01

    Interstellar complex organic molecules were first identified in the hot inner regions of massive young stellar objects (MYSOs), but have more recently been found in many colder sources, indicating that complex molecules can form at a range of temperatures. However, individually these observations provide limited constraints on how complex molecules form, and whether the same formation pathways dominate in cold, warm and hot environments. To address these questions, we use spatially resolved observations from the Submillimeter Array of three MYSOs together with mostly unresolved literature data to explore how molecular ratios depend on environmental parameters, especially temperature. Towards the three MYSOs, we find multiple complex organic emission peaks characterized by different molecular compositions and temperatures. In particular, CH3CCH and CH3CN seem to always trace a lukewarm (T ? 60 K) and a hot (T > 100 K) complex chemistry, respectively. These spatial trends are consistent with abundance-temperature correlations of four representative complex organics - CH3CCH, CH3CN, CH3OCH3 and CH3CHO - in a large sample of complex molecule hosts mined from the literature. Together, these results indicate a general chemical evolution with temperature, i.e. that new complex molecule formation pathways are activated as a MYSO heats up. This is qualitatively consistent with model predictions. Furthermore, these results suggest that ratios of complex molecules may be developed into a powerful probe of the evolutionary stage of a MYSO, and may provide information about its formation history.

  17. The formation of Kuiper-belt binaries through exchange reactions.

    PubMed

    Funato, Yoko; Makino, Junichiro; Hut, Piet; Kokubo, Eiichiro; Kinoshita, Daisuke

    2004-02-01

    Recent observations have revealed that an unexpectedly high fraction--a few per cent--of the trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) that inhabit the Kuiper belt are binaries. The components have roughly equal masses, with very eccentric orbits that are wider than a hundred times the radius of the primary. Standard theories of binary asteroid formation tend to produce close binaries with circular orbits, so two models have been proposed to explain the unique characteristics of the TNOs. Both models, however, require extreme assumptions regarding the size distribution of the TNOs. Here we report a mechanism that is capable of producing binary TNOs with the observed properties during the early stages of their formation and growth. The only required assumption is that the TNOs were initially formed through gravitational instabilities in the protoplanetary dust disk. The basis of the mechanism is an exchange reaction in which a binary whose primary component is much more massive than the secondary interacts with a third body, whose mass is comparable to that of the primary. The low-mass secondary component is ejected and replaced by the third body in a wide but eccentric orbit. PMID:14765188

  18. Reaction of monovalent gold complex salts with ferrocene thio derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Perevalova, E.G.; Bavkova, T.V.; Grandberg, K.I.; Sazonenko, M.M.

    1986-02-01

    In a continuation of a study of the reactions of aurous complex salts with ferrocene thio derivatives, the authors studied the auration of 1,1-ferrocenylenedithiol (II). The auration of dithiol (II) by tris(triphenylphosphinegold)oxonium tetrafluoroborate was carried out in an argon atmosphere. Relative to the auration of ethyl cyanoacetate, the aurating capacity of the tris-(triphenylphosphinegold)sulfonium tetrafluorobroate is significantly lower than that of (Dh/sub 3/PAu)/sub 3/>0 +BF-/sub 4/ and (Ph/sub 3/PAu)/sub 4/N /SUP BF/ >-/sub 4/.

  19. Particle formation during oxidation catalysis with Cp* iridium complexes.

    PubMed

    Hintermair, Ulrich; Hashmi, Sara M; Elimelech, Menachem; Crabtree, Robert H

    2012-06-13

    Real-time monitoring of light scattering and UV-vis profiles of four different Cp*Ir(III) precursors under various conditions give insight into nanoparticle formation during oxidation catalysis with NaIO(4) as primary oxidant. Complexes bearing chelate ligands such as 2,2'-bipyridine, 2-phenylpyridine, or 2-(2'-pyridyl)-2-propanolate were found to be highly resistant toward particle formation, and oxidation catalysis with these compounds is thus believed to be molecular in nature under our conditions. Even with the less stable hydroxo/aqua complex [Cp*(2)Ir(2)(?-OH)(3)]OH, nanoparticle formation strongly depended on the exact conditions and elapsed time. Test experiments on the isolated particles and comparison of UV-vis data with light scattering profiles revealed that the formation of a deep purple-blue color (~580 nm) is not indicative of particle formation during oxidation catalysis with molecular iridium precursors as suggested previously. PMID:22594951

  20. Aryl palladium carbene complexes and carbene-aryl coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Albniz, Ana C; Espinet, Pablo; Manrique, Ral; Prez-Mateo, Alberto

    2005-02-18

    Transmetalation of an aminocarbene moiety from [W(CO)5{C(NEt2)R}] to palladium leads to isolable monoaminocarbene palladium aryl complexes [{Pd(mu-Br)Pf[C(NEt2)R]}2] (R = Me, Ph; Pf = C6F5). When [W(CO)5{C(OMe)R}] is used, the corresponding palladium carbenes cannot be isolated since these putative, more electrophilic carbenes undergo a fast migratory insertion process to give alkyl palladium complexes. These complexes could be stabilized in the eta3-allylic form for R = 2-phenylethenyl or in the less stable eta3-benzylic fashion for R = Ph. Hydrolysis products and a pentafluorophenylvinylic methyl ether (when R = Me) were also observed. The monoaminocarbenes slowly decompose through carbene-aryl coupling to produce the corresponding iminium salts and, depending on the reaction conditions, the corresponding hydrolysis products. The electrophilicity of the carbene carbon, which is mainly determined by the nature of the heteroatom group, controls the ease of evolution by carbene-aryl coupling. Accordingly, no carbene-aryl coupling was observed for a diaminocarbene palladium aryl complex. PMID:15662682

  1. An artificial photosynthetic antenna-reaction center complex

    SciTech Connect

    Kuciauskas, D.; Liddell, P.A.; Lin, S.; Johnson, T.E.; Weghorn, S.J.; Lindsey, J.S.; Moore, A.L.; Moore, T.A.; Gust, D.

    1999-09-22

    A model photosynthetic antenna consisting of four covalently linked zinc tetraarylporphyrins, (P{sub ZP}){sub 3}-P{sub ZP}, has been joined to a free base porphyrin-fullerene artificial photosynthetic reaction center, P-C{sub 60}, to form a (P{sub ZP}){sub 3}-P{sub ZC}-PC{sub 60} hexad. As revealed by time-resolved absorption and emissions studies, excitation of any peripheral zinc porphyrin moiety (P{sub ZP}) in 2-methyltetrahydrofuran solution is followed by singlet-singlet energy transfer to the central zinc porphyrin to give (P{sub ZP}){sub 3}-{sup 1}P{sub ZC}-P-C{sub 60} with a time constant of {approximately}50 ps. The excitation is passed on to the free base porphyrin in 240 ps to produce (P{sub ZP}){sub 3}-P{sub ZC}-{sup 1}P-C{sub 60}, which decays by electron transfer to the fullerene with a time constant of 3 ps. The (P{sub ZP}){sub 3}-P{sub ZC}-P{sup {center{underscore}dot}{plus}}-C{sub 60}{sup {center{underscore}dot}{minus}} charge-separated state thus formed has a lifetime of 1,330 ps, and is generated with a quantum yield of 0.70 based on light absorbed by the zinc porphyrin antenna. The complex thus mimics the basic functions of natural photosynthetic antenna systems and reaction center complexes.

  2. Validated spectrophotometric methods for determination of sodium valproate based on charge transfer complexation reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belal, Tarek S.; El-Kafrawy, Dina S.; Mahrous, Mohamed S.; Abdel-Khalek, Magdi M.; Abo-Gharam, Amira H.

    2016-02-01

    This work presents the development, validation and application of four simple and direct spectrophotometric methods for determination of sodium valproate (VP) through charge transfer complexation reactions. The first method is based on the reaction of the drug with p-chloranilic acid (p-CA) in acetone to give a purple colored product with maximum absorbance at 524 nm. The second method depends on the reaction of VP with dichlone (DC) in dimethylformamide forming a reddish orange product measured at 490 nm. The third method is based upon the interaction of VP and picric acid (PA) in chloroform resulting in the formation of a yellow complex measured at 415 nm. The fourth method involves the formation of a yellow complex peaking at 361 nm upon the reaction of the drug with iodine in chloroform. Experimental conditions affecting the color development were studied and optimized. Stoichiometry of the reactions was determined. The proposed spectrophotometric procedures were effectively validated with respect to linearity, ranges, precision, accuracy, specificity, robustness, detection and quantification limits. Calibration curves of the formed color products with p-CA, DC, PA and iodine showed good linear relationships over the concentration ranges 24-144, 40-200, 2-20 and 1-8 μg/mL respectively. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the assay of sodium valproate in tablets and oral solution dosage forms with good accuracy and precision. Assay results were statistically compared to a reference pharmacopoeial HPLC method where no significant differences were observed between the proposed methods and reference method.

  3. Validated spectrophotometric methods for determination of sodium valproate based on charge transfer complexation reactions.

    PubMed

    Belal, Tarek S; El-Kafrawy, Dina S; Mahrous, Mohamed S; Abdel-Khalek, Magdi M; Abo-Gharam, Amira H

    2016-02-15

    This work presents the development, validation and application of four simple and direct spectrophotometric methods for determination of sodium valproate (VP) through charge transfer complexation reactions. The first method is based on the reaction of the drug with p-chloranilic acid (p-CA) in acetone to give a purple colored product with maximum absorbance at 524nm. The second method depends on the reaction of VP with dichlone (DC) in dimethylformamide forming a reddish orange product measured at 490nm. The third method is based upon the interaction of VP and picric acid (PA) in chloroform resulting in the formation of a yellow complex measured at 415nm. The fourth method involves the formation of a yellow complex peaking at 361nm upon the reaction of the drug with iodine in chloroform. Experimental conditions affecting the color development were studied and optimized. Stoichiometry of the reactions was determined. The proposed spectrophotometric procedures were effectively validated with respect to linearity, ranges, precision, accuracy, specificity, robustness, detection and quantification limits. Calibration curves of the formed color products with p-CA, DC, PA and iodine showed good linear relationships over the concentration ranges 24-144, 40-200, 2-20 and 1-8μg/mL respectively. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the assay of sodium valproate in tablets and oral solution dosage forms with good accuracy and precision. Assay results were statistically compared to a reference pharmacopoeial HPLC method where no significant differences were observed between the proposed methods and reference method. PMID:26574649

  4. Complex reaction networks in high temperature hydrocarbon chemistry.

    PubMed

    Mutlay, ?brahim; Restrepo, Albeiro

    2015-03-28

    Complex chemical reaction mechanisms of high temperature hydrocarbon decomposition are represented as networks and their underlying graph topologies are analyzed as a dynamic system. As model reactants, 1,3-butadiene, acetylene, benzene, ethane, ethylene, methane, methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) and toluene are chosen in view of their importance for the global environment, energy technologies as well as their quantum chemical properties. Accurate kinetic mechanisms are computationally simulated and converted to bipartite graphs for the incremental conversion steps of the main reactant. Topological analysis of the resulting temporal networks reveals novel features unknown to classical chemical kinetics theory. The time-dependent percolation behavior of the chemical reaction networks shows infinite order phase transition and a unique correlation between the percolation thresholds and electron distribution of the reactants. These observations are expected to yield important applications in the development of a new theoretical perspective to chemical reactions and technological processes e.g. inhibition of greenhouse gases, efficient utilization of fossil fuels, and large scale carbon nanomaterial production. PMID:25720589

  5. Thermodynamics of the formation of copper(II) complexes with L-histidine in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorboletova, G. G.; Metlin, A. A.

    2015-02-01

    The heat effects from the reaction between L-histidine solutions and Cu(NO3)2 solutions at 298.15 K in the 0.2 to 1.0 (KNO3) range of ionic strength are measured by means of direct calorimetry. The experimental data is treated with allowance for the simultaneous proceeding of several processes. The heat effects of the formation of complexes Cu(His)+, Cu(His)2, CuHHis2+, CuH(His){2/+} and CuH2(His){2/2+} are calculated from calorimetric measurements. The standard enthalpies of formation for complexes of L-histidine with Cu2+ ions are obtained via extrapolation to zero ionic strength. The relationship between the thermodynamic characteristics of the formation of complexes of copper(II) with L-histidine and their structure is determined.

  6. Exploring Regioselective Bond Cleavage and Cross-Coupling Reactions using a Low-Valent Nickel Complex.

    PubMed

    Desnoyer, Addison N; Friese, Florian W; Chiu, Weiling; Drover, Marcus W; Patrick, Brian O; Love, Jennifer A

    2016-03-14

    Recently, esters have received much attention as transmetalation partners for cross-coupling reactions. Herein, we report a systematic study of the reactivity of a series of esters and thioesters with [{(dtbpe)Ni}2 (μ-η(2) :η(2) -C6 H6 )] (dtbpe=1,2-bis(di-tert-butyl)phosphinoethane), which is a source of (dtbpe)nickel(0). Trifluoromethylthioesters were found to form η(2) -carbonyl complexes. In contrast, acetylthioesters underwent rapid Cacyl -S bond cleavage followed by decarbonylation to generate methylnickel complexes. This decarbonylation could be pushed backwards by the addition of CO, allowing for regeneration of the thioester. Most of the thioester complexes were found to undergo stoichiometric cross-coupling with phenylboronic acid to yield sulfides. While ethyl trifluoroacetate was also found to form an η(2) -carbonyl complex, phenyl esters were found to predominantly undergo Caryl -O bond cleavage to yield arylnickel complexes. These could also undergo transmetalation to yield biaryls. Attempts to render the reactions catalytic were hindered by ligand scrambling to yield nickel bis(acetate) complexes, the formation of which was supported by independent syntheses. Finally, 2-naphthyl acetate was also found to undergo clean Caryl -O bond cleavage, and although stoichiometric cross-coupling with phenylboronic acid proceeded with good yield, catalytic turnover has so far proven elusive. PMID:26879766

  7. Chelate effect and thermodynamics of metal complex formation in solution: a quantum chemical study.

    PubMed

    Vallet, Valrie; Wahlgren, Ulf; Grenthe, Ingmar

    2003-12-01

    The accuracy of quantum chemical predictions of structures and thermodynamic data for metal complexes depends both on the quantum chemical methods and the chemical models used. A thermodynamic analogue of the Eigen-Wilkins mechanism for ligand substitution reactions (Model A) turns out to be sufficiently simple to catch the essential chemistry of complex formation reactions and allows quantum chemical calculations at the ab initio level of thermodynamic quantities both in gas phase and solution; the latter by using the conductor-like polarizable continuum (CPCM) model. Model A describes the complex formation as a two-step reaction: 1. [M(H2O)x](aq) + L(aq) <==>[M(H2O)x], L(aq); 2. [M(H2O)x], L(aq) <==>[M(H2O)(x-1)L],(H2O)(aq). The first step, the formation of an outer-sphere complex is described using the Fuoss equation and the second, the intramolecular exchange between an entering ligand from the second and water in the first coordination shell, using quantum chemical methods. The thermodynamic quantities for this model were compared to those for the reaction: [M(H2O)x](aq) + L(aq) <==>[M(H2O)(x-1)L](aq) + (H2O)(aq) (Model B), as calculated for each reactant and product separately. The models were tested using complex formation between Zn(2+) and ammonia, methylamine, and ethylenediamine, and complex formation and chelate ring closure reactions in binary and ternary UO(2)(2+)-oxalate systems. The results show that the Gibbs energy of reaction for Model A are not strongly dependent on the number of water ligands and the structure of the second coordination sphere; it provides a much more precise estimate of the thermodynamics of complex formation reactions in solution than that obtained from Model B. The agreement between the experimental and calculated data for the formation of Zn(NH(3))(2+)(aq) and Zn(NH(3))(2)(2+)(aq) is better than 8 kJ/mol for the former, as compared to 30 kJ/mol or larger, for the latter. The Gibbs energy of reaction obtained for the UO(2)(2+) oxalate systems using model B differs between 80 and 130 kJ/mol from the experimental results, whereas the agreement with Model A is better. The errors in the quantum chemical estimates of the entropy and enthalpy of reaction are somewhat larger than those for the Gibbs energy, but still in fair agreement with experiments; adding water molecules in the second coordination sphere improves the agreement significantly. Reasons for the different performance of the two models are discussed. The quantum chemical data were used to discuss the microscopic basis of experimental enthalpy and entropy data, to determine the enthalpy and entropy contributions in chelate ring closure reactions and to discuss the origin of the so-called "chelate effect". Contrary to many earlier suggestions, this is not even in the gas phase, a result of changes in translation entropy contributions. There is no simple explanation of the high stability of chelate complexes; it is a result of both enthalpy and entropy contributions that vary from one system to the other. PMID:14640672

  8. The SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex regulates germinal center formation by repressing Blimp-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jinwook; Jeon, Shin; Choi, Seungjin; Park, Kyungsoo; Seong, Rho Hyun

    2015-02-17

    Germinal center (GC) reaction is crucial in adaptive immune responses. The formation of GC is coordinated by the expression of specific genes including Blimp-1 and Bcl-6. Although gene expression is critically influenced by the status of chromatin structure, little is known about the role of chromatin remodeling factors for regulation of GC formation. Here, we show that the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex is required for GC reactions. Mice lacking Srg3/mBaf155, a core component of the SWI/SNF complex, showed impaired differentiation of GC B and follicular helper T cells in response to T cell-dependent antigen challenge. The SWI/SNF complex regulates chromatin structure at the Blimp-1 locus and represses its expression by interacting cooperatively with Bcl-6 and corepressors. The defect in GC reactions in mice lacking Srg3 was due to the derepression of Blimp-1 as supported by genetic studies with Blimp-1-ablated mice. Hence, our study identifies the SWI/SNF complex as a key mediator in GC reactions by modulating Bcl-6-dependent Blimp-1 repression. PMID:25646472

  9. The SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex regulates germinal center formation by repressing Blimp-1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jinwook; Jeon, Shin; Choi, Seungjin; Park, Kyungsoo; Seong, Rho Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Germinal center (GC) reaction is crucial in adaptive immune responses. The formation of GC is coordinated by the expression of specific genes including Blimp-1 and Bcl-6. Although gene expression is critically influenced by the status of chromatin structure, little is known about the role of chromatin remodeling factors for regulation of GC formation. Here, we show that the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex is required for GC reactions. Mice lacking Srg3/mBaf155, a core component of the SWI/SNF complex, showed impaired differentiation of GC B and follicular helper T cells in response to T cell-dependent antigen challenge. The SWI/SNF complex regulates chromatin structure at the Blimp-1 locus and represses its expression by interacting cooperatively with Bcl-6 and corepressors. The defect in GC reactions in mice lacking Srg3 was due to the derepression of Blimp-1 as supported by genetic studies with Blimp-1–ablated mice. Hence, our study identifies the SWI/SNF complex as a key mediator in GC reactions by modulating Bcl-6–dependent Blimp-1 repression. PMID:25646472

  10. Snapshot of a Reaction Intermediate: Analysis of Benzoylformate Decarboxylase in Complex with a Benzoylphosphonate Inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, Gabriel S.; Kneen, Malea M.; Chakraborty, Sumit; Baykal, Ahmet T.; Nemeria, Natalia; Yep, Alejandra; Ruby, David I.; Petsko, Gregory A.; Kenyon, George L.; McLeish, Michael J.; Jordan, Frank; Ringe, Dagmar

    2009-04-22

    Benzoylformate decarboxylase (BFDC) is a thiamin diphosphate- (ThDP-) dependent enzyme acting on aromatic substrates. In addition to its metabolic role in the mandelate pathway, BFDC shows broad substrate specificity coupled with tight stereo control in the carbon-carbon bond-forming reverse reaction, making it a useful biocatalyst for the production of chiral-hydroxy ketones. The reaction of methyl benzoylphosphonate (MBP), an analogue of the natural substrate benzoylformate, with BFDC results in the formation of a stable analogue (C2{alpha}-phosphonomandelyl-ThDP) of the covalent ThDP-substrate adduct C2{alpha}-mandelyl-ThDP. Formation of the stable adduct is confirmed both by formation of a circular dichroism band characteristic of the 1',4'-iminopyrimidine tautomeric form of ThDP (commonly observed when ThDP forms tetrahedral complexes with its substrates) and by high-resolution mass spectrometry of the reaction mixture. In addition, the structure of BFDC with the MBP inhibitor was solved by X-ray crystallography to a spatial resolution of 1.37 {angstrom} (PDB ID 3FSJ). The electron density clearly shows formation of a tetrahedral adduct between the C2 atom of ThDP and the carbonyl carbon atom of the MBP. This adduct resembles the intermediate from the penultimate step of the carboligation reaction between benzaldehyde and acetaldehyde. The combination of real-time kinetic information via stopped-flow circular dichroism with steady-state data from equilibrium circular dichroism measurements and X-ray crystallography reveals details of the first step of the reaction catalyzed by BFDC. The MBP-ThDP adduct on BFDC is compared to the recently solved structure of the same adduct on benzaldehyde lyase, another ThDP-dependent enzyme capable of catalyzing aldehyde condensation with high stereospecificity.

  11. Activation of immobilized plasminogen by tissue activator. Multimolecular complex formation

    SciTech Connect

    Silverstein, R.L.; Nachman, R.L.; Leung, L.L.; Harpel, P.C.

    1985-08-25

    Ternary complex formation of tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) and plasminogen (Plg) with thrombospondin (TSP) or histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRGP) has been demonstrated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, an affinity bead assay, and a rocket immunoelectrophoresis assay. The formation of these complexes was specific, concentration dependent, saturable, lysine binding site-dependent, and inhibitable by fluid phase plasminogen. Apparent Kd values were approximately 12-36 nM for the interaction of TPA with TSP-Plg complexes and 15-31 nM with HRGP-Plg complexes. At saturation the relative molar stoichiometry of Plg:TPA was 3:1 within the TSP-containing complexes and 1:1 within HRGP-containing complexes. The activation of Plg to plasmin by TPA on TSP- and HRGP-coated surfaces was studied using a synthetic fluorometric plasmin substrate (D-Val-Leu-Lys-7-amino-4-trifluoromethyl coumarin). Kinetic analysis demonstrated a marked increase in the affinity of TPA for plasminogen in the presence of surface-associated TSP or HRGP. Complex formation of locally released tissue plasminogen activator with Plg immobilized on TSP or HRGP surfaces may thus play an important role in effecting proteolytic events in nonfibrin-containing microenvironments.

  12. Solvation effects in complex-forming reactions. IV. Complexes of a series of donors with tetracyanoethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Safin, D.Kh.; Chmutova, G.A.

    1987-09-20

    The enthalpies of formation were measured and the positions of the charge-transfer bands in the electronic spectra were determined for the complexes of dipropyl sulfide, thioanisole, and mesitylene with tetracyanoethylene in a wide range of solvents. The relative enthalpies of solvation (interaction) of the complexes in the ground and excited states were determined with due regard to the enthalpies of solution of the reagents and the solvatochromism of the charge-transfer bands. The general relationships were investigated, and features of the effect of solvents on the complexes with iodine and tetracyanoethylene as acceptors were studied in terms of the thermodynamic approach.

  13. Mechanisms Underlying Methamphetamine-Induced Dopamine Transporter Complex Formation

    PubMed Central

    Hadlock, Gregory C.; Baucum, Anthony J.; King, Jill L.; Horner, Kristen A.; Cook, Glen A.; Gibb, James W.; Wilkins, Diana G.; Hanson, Glen R.; Fleckenstein, Annette E.

    2009-01-01

    Repeated, high-dose methamphetamine (METH) administrations cause persistent dopaminergic deficits in rodents, nonhuman primates, and humans. In rats, this treatment also causes the formation of high-molecular mass (greater than approximately 120 kDa) dopamine transporter (DAT)-associated complexes, the loss of DAT monomer immunoreactivity, and a decrease in DAT function, as assessed in striatal synaptosomes prepared 24 h after METH treatment. The present study extends these findings by demonstrating the regional selectivity of DAT complex formation and monomer loss because these changes in DAT immunoreactivity were not observed in the nucleus accumbens. Furthermore, DAT complex formation was not a consequence limited to METH treatment because it was also caused by intrastriatal administration of 6-hydroxydopamine. Pretreatment with the D2 receptor antagonist, eticlopride [S-(-)-3-chloro-5-ethyl-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-6-hydroxy-2-methoxybenzamide hydrochloride], but not the D1 receptor antagonist, SCH23390 [R(+)-7-chloro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine hydrochloride], attenuated METH-induced DAT complex formation. Eticlopride pretreatment also attenuated METH-induced DAT monomer loss and decreases in DAT function; however, the attenuation was much less pronounced than the effect on DAT complex formation. Finally, results also revealed a negative correlation between METH-induced DAT complex formation and DAT activity. Taken together, these data further elucidate the underlying mechanisms and the functional consequences of repeated administrations of METH on the DAT protein. Furthermore, these data suggest a multifaceted role for D2 receptors in mediating METH-induced alterations of the DAT and its function. PMID:19141713

  14. Palladium- and copper-mediated N-aryl bond formation reactions for the synthesis of biological active compounds

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Carolin

    2011-01-01

    Summary N-Arylated aliphatic and aromatic amines are important substituents in many biologically active compounds. In the last few years, transition-metal-mediated N-aryl bond formation has become a standard procedure for the introduction of amines into aromatic systems. While N-arylation of simple aromatic halides by simple amines works with many of the described methods in high yield, the reactions may require detailed optimization if applied to the synthesis of complex molecules with additional functional groups, such as natural products or drugs. We discuss and compare in this review the three main N-arylation methods in their application to the synthesis of biologically active compounds: Palladium-catalysed BuchwaldHartwig-type reactions, copper-mediated Ullmann-type and ChanLam-type N-arylation reactions. The discussed examples show that palladium-catalysed reactions are favoured for large-scale applications and tolerate sterically demanding substituents on the coupling partners better than ChanLam reactions. ChanLam N-arylations are particularly mild and do not require additional ligands, which facilitates the work-up. However, reaction times can be very long. Ullmann- and BuchwaldHartwig-type methods have been used in intramolecular reactions, giving access to complex ring structures. All three N-arylation methods have specific advantages and disadvantages that should be considered when selecting the reaction conditions for a desired CN bond formation in the course of a total synthesis or drug synthesis. PMID:21286396

  15. Carbonheteroatom bond formation catalysed by organometallic complexes

    PubMed Central

    Hartwig, John F.

    2010-01-01

    At one time the synthetic chemists last resort, reactions catalysed by transition metals are now the preferred method for synthesizing many types of organic molecule. A recent success in this type of catalysis is the discovery of reactions that form bonds between carbon and heteroatoms (such as nitrogen, oxygen, sulphur, silicon and boron) via complexes of transition metals with amides, alkoxides, thiolates, silyl groups or boryl groups. The development of these catalytic processes has been supported by the discovery of new elementary reactions that occur at metalheteroatom bonds and by the identification of factors that control these reactions. Together, these findings have led to new synthetic processes that are in daily use and have formed a foundation for the development of processes that are likely to be central to synthetic chemistry in the future. PMID:18800130

  16. Complex formation in the system zirconium-diantipyrylpropylmethane-acidic dye

    SciTech Connect

    Shtokalo, M.I.; Kostenko, E.E.

    1985-05-01

    Previously, the authors used a metal indicator method to examine the formation of complexes of zirconium with diantipyrylpropylmethane (DAPM) and have shown that two complexes, Zr (DAPM)/sup 4 +/ and Zr (DAPM) /sup 4 +//sub 2/ are formed in 0.1 and 1.0 M HC1, with stability constants of 5.10.10/sup 10/ and 3.80.10/sup 14/ respectively. Now the authors combine this complex with the acidic dye 2-(4-sulfonphenylazo)-1.8-dihydroxynaphthalene-3.6-disulfonic acid (SPADNS). The optimal conditions have been found for the formation of the heteroligand complex. It is shown that Zr (IV) ions are involved in coordination, giving the compound (Zr (DAPM) (HR) 2)/sup 2 -/. A method has been developed for the photometric determination of (0.202.0).10/sup -5/ M solutions of zirconium, and this has been used for the analysis of process water from the Rovensk nuclear power station.

  17. The significance of surface complexation reactions in hydrologic systems: a geochemist's perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koretsky, C.

    2000-05-01

    Complexation reactions at the mineral-water interface affect the transport and transformation of metals and organic contaminants, nutrient availability in soils, formation of ore deposits, acidification of watersheds and the global cycling of elements. Such reactions can be understood by quantifying speciation reactions in homogeneous aqueous solutions, characterizing reactive sites at mineral surfaces and developing models of the interactions between aqueous species at solid surfaces. In this paper, the application of thermodynamic principles to quantify aqueous complexation reactions is described. This is followed by a brief overview of a few of the methods that have been used to characterize reactive sites on mineral surfaces. Next, the application of empirical and semi-empirical models of adsorption at the mineral-water interface, including distribution coefficients, simple ion exchange models, and Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the limitations of such models in providing an adequate representation of adsorption in hydrological systems. These limitations arise because isotherms do not account for the structure of adsorbed species, nor do they account for the development of surface charge with adsorption. This is contrasted with more sophisticated models of adsorption, termed 'surface complexation models', which include the constant capacitance model, the diffuse layer model, the triple layer model and the MUSIC model. In these models, speciation reactions between surface functional groups and dissolved species control the variable surface charge build-up and the specific adsorption properties of minerals in aqueous solutions. Next, the influence of mineral surface speciation on the reactivity of adsorbed species and on far from equilibrium dissolution rates of minerals is discussed. Finally, the applicability of microscopic models of surface complexation to field-scale systems is explored and the need to integrate sophisticated surface chemical and hydrological modeling approaches is stressed.

  18. A tethering complex dimer catalyzes trans-SNARE complex formation in intracellular membrane fusion

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Aditya; Alpadi, Kannan; Namjoshi, Sarita; Peters, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    SNARE complexes mediate membrane fusion in the endomembrane system. They consist of coiled-coil bundles of four helices designated as Qa, Qb, Qc and R. A critical intermediate in the fusion pathway is the trans-SNARE complex generated by the assembly of SNAREs residing in opposing membranes. Mechanistic details of trans-SNARE complex formation and topology in a physiological system remain largely unresolved. Our studies on native yeast vacuoles revealed that SNAREs alone are insufficient to form trans-SNARE complexes and that additional factors, potentially tethering complexes and Rab GTPases, are required for the process. Here we report a novel finding that a HOPS tethering complex dimer catalyzes Rab GTPase-dependent formation of a topologically preferred QbQcR-Qa trans-SNARE complex. PMID:22754631

  19. Molecular Epoxidation Reactions Catalyzed by Rhenium, Molybdenum, and Iron Complexes.

    PubMed

    Kück, Jens W; Reich, Robert M; Kühn, Fritz E

    2016-02-01

    Epoxidations are of high relevance in many organic syntheses, both in industry and academia. In this personal account, the development of rhenium, molybdenum, and iron complexes in molecular epoxidation catalysis is presented. Methyltrioxorhenium (MTO) is the benchmark catalyst for these reactions, with a thoroughly investigated mechanism and reactivity profile. More recently, highly active molecular molybdenum and iron catalysts have emerged, challenging the extraordinary role of MTO in epoxidation catalysis with high turnover frequencies (TOFs). This development is highlighted in its use of cheaper, more readily available metals, and the challenges of using base metals in catalysis are discussed. These results show the promise that relatively cheap and abundant metals, such as molybdenum and iron, hold for the future of epoxidation catalysis. PMID:26776087

  20. Carbon Dioxide Influence on the Thermal Formation of Complex Organic Molecules in Interstellar Ice Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradoff, V.; Duvernay, F.; Fray, N.; Bouilloud, M.; Chiavassa, T.; Cottin, H.

    2015-08-01

    Interstellar ices are submitted to energetic processes (thermal, UV, and cosmic-ray radiations) producing complex organic molecules. Laboratory experiments aim to reproduce the evolution of interstellar ices to better understand the chemical changes leading to the reaction, formation, and desorption of molecules. In this context, the thermal evolution of an interstellar ice analogue composed of water, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and formaldehyde is investigated. The ice evolution during the warming has been monitored by IR spectroscopy. The formation of hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) and polymethylenimine (PMI) are observed in the organic refractory residue left after ice sublimation. A better understanding of this result is realized with the study of another ice mixture containing methylenimine (a precursor of HMT) with carbon dioxide and ammonia. It appears that carbamic acid, a reaction product of carbon dioxide and ammonia, plays the role of catalyst, allowing the reactions toward HMT and PMI formation. This is the first time that such complex organic molecules (HMT, PMI) are produced from the warming (without VUV photolysis or irradiation with energetic particles) of abundant molecules observed in interstellar ices (H2O, NH3, CO2, H2CO). This result strengthens the importance of thermal reactions in the ices’ evolution. HMT and PMI, likely components of interstellar ices, should be searched for in the pristine objects of our solar system, such as comets and carbonaceous chondrites.

  1. Enthalpy of hydrogen bond formation in a protein-ligand binding reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Connelly, P R; Aldape, R A; Bruzzese, F J; Chambers, S P; Fitzgibbon, M J; Fleming, M A; Itoh, S; Livingston, D J; Navia, M A; Thomson, J A

    1994-01-01

    Parallel measurements of the thermodynamics (free-energy, enthalpy, entropy and heat-capacity changes) of ligand binding to FK506 binding protein (FKBP-12) in H2O and D2O have been performed in an effort to probe the energetic contributions of single protein-ligand hydrogen bonds formed in the binding reactions. Changing tyrosine-82 to phenylalanine in FKBP-12 abolishes protein-ligand hydrogen bond interactions in the FKBP-12 complexes with tacrolimus or rapamycin and leads to a large apparent enthalpic stabilization of binding in both H2O and D2O. High-resolution crystallographic analysis reveals that two water molecules bound to the tyrosine-82 hydroxyl group in unliganded FKBP-12 are displaced upon formation of the protein-ligand complexes. A thermodynamic analysis is presented that suggests that the removal of polar atoms from water contributes a highly unfavorable enthalpy change to the formation of C=O...HO hydrogen bonds as they occur in the processes of protein folding and ligand binding. Despite the less favorable enthalpy change, the entropic advantage of displacing two water molecules upon binding leads to a slightly more favorable free-energy change of binding in the reactions with wild-type FKBP-12. Images PMID:7510408

  2. Enantioselective Diels-Alder reactions of unsaturated beta-ketoesters catalyzed by chiral ruthenium PNNP complexes.

    PubMed

    Schotes, Christoph; Mezzetti, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    We report here dicationic ruthenium PNNP complexes that promote the enantioselective Diels-Alder reaction of alpha-methylene beta-ketoesters with various dienes. Complex [Ru(OEt2)2(PNNP)](PF6)2, formed in situ from [RuCl2,(PNNP)] and (Et3O)PF6 (2 equiv.), catalyzes the Diels-Alder reaction of such unsaturated beta-ketoesters to give novel alkoxycarbonyltetrahydro-1-indanone derivatives (nine examples) with up to 93% ee. The crystal structure of the substrate-catalyst adduct shows that the lower face of the substrate is shielded by a phenyl ring of the PNNP ligand, which accounts for the high enantioselectivity. The attack of the diene from the open re enantioface of the unsaturated beta-ketoester is consistent with the absolute configuration of the product. A useful application of this method is the reaction with Dane's diene to give estrone derivatives with up to 99% ee and an ester-exo:endo ratio of up to 145:1 (after recrystallization). Besides the enantioselective formation of all-carbon quaternary centers, this methodology is notable because unsaturated beta-ketoesters have been rarely used in Diels-Alder reactions. Furthermore, enantiomerically pure estrone derivatives are interesting in view of their potential applications, including the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:21678768

  3. Geology of the Biwabik Iron Formation and Duluth Complex.

    PubMed

    Jirsa, Mark A; Miller, James D; Morey, G B

    2008-10-01

    The Biwabik Iron Formation is a approximately 1.9 billion year-old sequence of iron-rich sedimentary rocks that was metamorphosed at its eastern-most extent by approximately 1.1 billion year-old intrusions of the Duluth Complex. The metamorphic recrystallization of iron-formation locally produced iron-rich amphiboles and other fibrous iron-silicate minerals. The presence of these minerals in iron-formation along the eastern part of what is known as the Mesabi Iron Range, and their potential liberation by iron mining has raised environmental health concerns. We describe here the geologic setting and mineralogic composition of the Biwabik Iron Formation in and adjacent to the contact metamorphic aureole of the Duluth Complex. The effects of metamorphism are most pronounced within a few kilometers of the contact, and decrease progressively away from it. The contact aureole has been divided into four metamorphic zones-each characterized by the composition and crystal structure of the metamorphic minerals it contains. The recrystallization of iron-formation to iron-rich amphibole minerals (grunerite and cummingtonite) and iron-pyroxene minerals (hedenbergite and ferrohypersthene) is best developed in zones that are most proximal to the Duluth Complex contact. PMID:17997209

  4. Geology of the Biwabik Iron Formation and Duluth Complex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jirsa, M.A.; Miller, J.D., Jr.; Morey, G.B.

    2008-01-01

    The Biwabik Iron Formation is a ???1.9 billion year-old sequence of iron-rich sedimentary rocks that was metamorphosed at its eastern-most extent by ???1.1 billion year-old intrusions of the Duluth Complex. The metamorphic recrystallization of iron-formation locally produced iron-rich amphiboles and other fibrous iron-silicate minerals. The presence of these minerals in iron-formation along the eastern part of what is known as the Mesabi Iron Range, and their potential liberation by iron mining has raised environmental health concerns. We describe here the geologic setting and mineralogic composition of the Biwabik Iron Formation in and adjacent to the contact metamorphic aureole of the Duluth Complex. The effects of metamorphism are most pronounced within a few kilometers of the contact, and decrease progressively away from it. The contact aureole has been divided into four metamorphic zones-each characterized by the composition and crystal structure of the metamorphic minerals it contains. The recrystallization of iron-formation to iron-rich amphibole minerals (grunerite and cummingtonite) and iron-pyroxene minerals (hedenbergite and ferrohypersthene) is best developed in zones that are most proximal to the Duluth Complex contact. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mssbauer study of peroxynitrito complex formation with FeIII-chelates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homonnay, Zoltan; Buszlai, Peter; Ndor, Judit; Sharma, Virender K.; Kuzmann, Erno; Vrtes, Attila

    2012-03-01

    The reaction of the ?-oxo-diiron(III)-L complex (L = EDTA, ethylene diamine tetraacetate, HEDTA, hydroxyethyl ethylene diamine triacetate, and CyDTA, cyclohexane diamine tetraacetate) with peroxynitrite in alkaline solution was studied by Mssbauer spectroscopy using rapid-freezing technique. These complexes yield an (L)FeIII( ? 2-O2)^{3-} complex ion when they react with hydrogen peroxide and the formation of the peroxide adduct results in a deep purple coloration of the solution. The same color appears when the reaction occurs with peroxinitrite. Although spectrophotometry indicated some difference between the molar extinction coefficients of the peroxo and the peroxinitrito adducts, the Mssbauer parameters proved to be the same within experimental error. It is concluded that the peroxynitrite ion decomposes when reacting with FeIII(L) and the peroxo adduct forms.

  6. Dissection and engineering of the Escherichia coli formate hydrogenlyase complex.

    PubMed

    McDowall, Jennifer S; Hjersing, M Charlotte; Palmer, Tracy; Sargent, Frank

    2015-10-01

    The Escherichia coli formate hydrogenlyase (FHL) complex is produced under fermentative conditions and couples formate oxidation to hydrogen production. In this work, the architecture of FHL has been probed by analysing affinity-tagged complexes from various genetic backgrounds. In a successful attempt to stabilize the complex, a strain encoding a fusion between FdhF and HycB has been engineered and characterised. Finally, site-directed mutagenesis of the hycG gene was performed, which is predicted to encode a hydrogenase subunit important for regulating sensitivity to oxygen. This work helps to define the core components of FHL and provides solutions to improving the stability of the enzyme. PMID:26358294

  7. Complexation of Al(III) with gluconate in alkaline to hyperalkaline solutions: formation, stability and structure.

    PubMed

    Pallagi, Attila; Tasi, gost Gyula; Peintler, Gbor; Forgo, Pter; Plink, Istvn; Sipos, Pl

    2013-10-01

    Contrary to suggestions in the literature, it has been proven that Al(III) forms a 1?:?1 complex with gluconate (hereafter Gluc(-)) in strongly alkaline (pH > 12) aqueous solutions. The complex formation was proven via(27)Al and (1)H NMR, freezing-point depression, polarimetric measurements as well as potentiometric and conductometric titrations. This complexation is a pH independent process, i.e., a condensation reaction takes place. The stability constant of the complex formed was derived from (1)H NMR and polarimetric measurements, and was found to be log K = 2.4 0.4. In the complex formed, Al(III) has a tetrahedral geometry, and the Al(OH)4(-) is most probably statistically distributed between the alcoholate groups of the Gluc(-). PMID:23897548

  8. Direct detection of pyridine formation by the reaction of CH (CD) with pyrrole: a ring expansion reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Soorkia, Satchin; Taatjes, Craig A.; Osborn, David L.; Selby, Talitha M.; Trevitt, Adam J.; Wilson, Kevin R.; Leone, Stephen R.

    2010-03-16

    The reaction of the ground state methylidyne radical CH (X2Pi) with pyrrole (C4H5N) has been studied in a slow flow tube reactor using Multiplexed Photoionization Mass Spectrometry coupled to quasi-continuous tunable VUV synchrotron radiation at room temperature (295 K) and 90 oC (363 K), at 4 Torr (533 Pa). Laser photolysis of bromoform (CHBr3) at 248 nm (KrF excimer laser) is used to produce CH radicals that are free to react with pyrrole molecules in the gaseous mixture. A signal at m/z = 79 (C5H5N) is identified as the product of the reaction and resolved from 79Br atoms, and the result is consistent with CH addition to pyrrole followed by Helimination. The Photoionization Efficiency curve unambiguously identifies m/z = 79 as pyridine. With deuterated methylidyne radicals (CD), the product mass peak is shifted by +1 mass unit, consistent with the formation of C5H4DN and identified as deuterated pyridine (dpyridine). Within detection limits, there is no evidence that the addition intermediate complex undergoes hydrogen scrambling. The results are consistent with a reaction mechanism that proceeds via the direct CH (CD) cycloaddition or insertion into the five-member pyrrole ring, giving rise to ring expansion, followed by H atom elimination from the nitrogen atom in the intermediate to form the resonance stabilized pyridine (d-pyridine) molecule. Implications to interstellar chemistry and planetary atmospheres, in particular Titan, as well as in gas-phase combustion processes, are discussed.

  9. Standard thermodynamic functions of complex formation between Cu2+ and glycine in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorboletova, G. G.; Metlin, A. A.

    2013-05-01

    Heat effects of the interaction of copper(II) solutions with aminoacetic acid (glycine) are measured by the direct calorimetry at 298.15 K and ionic strengths of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 against a background of potassium nitrate. Standard enthalpy values for reactions of the formation of aminoacetic acid copper complexes in aqueous solutions are obtained using an equation with a single individual parameter by extrapolating it to zero ionic strength. The standard thermodynamic characteristics of complex formation in the Cu2+-glycine system are calculated. It is shown that glycine-like coordination is most likely in Cu(II) complexes with L-asparagine, L-glutamine, and L-valine.

  10. Oxidation Reactions of Dithiocarbamate Complexes of Ruthenium(II).

    PubMed

    Leung, Wa-Hung; Chim, Joyce L. C.; Hou, Hongwei; Hun, Tom S. M.; Williams, Ian D.; Wong, Wing-Tak

    1997-09-24

    The reaction of Ru(Et(2)dtc)(2)(DMSO)(2) (Et(2)dtc = N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate; DMSO = dimethyl sulfoxide) with t-BuNC gave trans-Ru(Et(2)dtc)(2)(CN-t-Bu)(2), 1. Complex 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/n with a = 9.753(2) , b = 11.583(2) , c = 12.974(2) , and beta = 91.8(2) degrees for Z = 2. The crystal structure of 1 shows the trans disposition of the two isocyanides; the mean Ru-S and Ru-C distances are 2.409 and 1.977(2) , respectively. Treatment of [Ru(diene)Cl(2)](n)() with Na(Et(2)dtc) afforded Ru(Et(2)dtc)(2)(diene) (diene = bicyclo[2.2.1]hepta-2,5-diene (NBD), 2, 1,5-cyclooctadiene (COD), 3). Complex 2 crystallizes in the triclinic space group P&onemacr; with a = 7.316(1) , b = 10.346(1) , c = 15.123(2) , alpha = 103.69(2) degrees, beta = 93.54(2) degrees, and gamma = 100.61(2) degrees for Z = 2. The mean Ru-S and Ru-C distances in 2 are 2.416 and 2.137 , respectively. The reaction of cis-Ru(Et(2)dtc)(2)(CO)(2) with iodine gave the 2:1 molecular iodine complex cis-Ru(Et(2)dtc)(2)(CO)(2).(1)/(2)I(2) 4, which crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/c with a = 7.347(2), b = 22.227(2) , c = 12.891(2) , and beta =95.98 (2) degrees for Z = 4. The mean Ru-S and Ru-C and the I-I distances in complex 4 are 2.427, 1.903, and 2.745(1) , respectively. Treatment of Ru(Et(2)dtc)(2)(DMSO)(2) with I(2) gave the linear Ru(II)-Ru(III)-Ru(III) trimer [Ru(3)(Et(2)dtc)(6)(DMSO)(2)](I(3))(2), 5, which crystallizes in the triclinic space group P&onemacr; with a = 14.125(3) , b = 20.829(6) , c = 13.658(3) , alpha = 97.57(2) degrees, beta = 110.01(2) degrees, and gamma = 71.25(2) degrees for Z = 2. The structure of complex 6 can be viewed as consisting of a {Ru(2)(III)(Et(2)dtc)(4)}(2+) core and a {Ru(II)(Et(2)dtc)(2)(DMSO)(2)} moiety, which are linked together via the two dithiocarbamate sulfurs of the latter. While the two Ru(III) centers are connected by a Ru-Ru single bond (Ru-Ru = 2.826(2) ), there is no direct interaction between the Ru(III) and Ru(II) centers. Oxidation of Ru(Et(2)dtc)(2)L(2) (L = PPh(3), t-BuNC) by I(2) gave the respective [Ru(Et(2)dtc)(2)L(2)](+) cations. The reaction of cis-Ru(Et(2)dtc)(2)(PPh(3))(2) with excess tosyl azide gave the diamagnetic Ru(IV) tetrazene complex Ru(Et(2)dtc)(2)(Ts(2)N(4)), 7. Complex 7 crystallizes in the triclinic space group P&onemacr; with a = 10.380(1) , b = 11.322(1) , c = 15.310(1) , alpha = 106.84(2) degrees, beta = 106.87(2) degrees, and gamma = 92.63(2) degrees for Z = 2. The Ru-S and Ru-N(alpha) distances in 7 are 2.385 and 1.98 , respectively. The formal potentials of the Ru dithiocarbamate complexes were determined by cyclic voltammetry. PMID:11670104

  11. Photochemical reactions of metal nitrosyl complexes. Mechanisms of NO reactions with biologically relevant metal centers

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ford, Peter C.

    2001-01-01

    Tmore » he discoveries that nitric oxide (a.k.a. nitrogen monoxide) serves important roles in mammalian bioregulation and immunology have stimulated intense interest in the chemistry and biochemistry of NO and derivatives such as metal nitrosyl complexes. Also of interest are strategies to deliver NO to biological targets on demand. One such strategy would be to employ a precursor which displays relatively low thermal reactivity but is photochemically active to release NO. This proposition led us to investigate laser flash and continuous photolysis kinetics of nitrosyl complexes such as the Roussin's iron-sulfur-nitrosyl cluster anions Fe 2 S 2 ( NO ) 4 2 − and Fe 4 S 3 ( NO ) 7 − and several ruthenium salen and porphyrin nitrosyls. These include studies using metal-nitrosyl photochemistry as a vehicle for delivering NO to hypoxic cell cultures in order to sensitize γ -radiation damage. Also studied were the rates and mechanisms of NO “on” reactions with model water soluble heme compounds, the ferriheme protein met-myoglobin and various ruthenium complexes using ns laser flash photolysis techniques. An overview of these studies is presented.« less

  12. Equilibria and partitioning of complexes in the S-adenosylmethionine synthetase reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Markham, G.D.

    1987-05-01

    S-adenosylmethionine synthetase (ATP: L-methionine S-adenosyltransferase) catalyzes a reaction in which the (enzyme-ATP-methionine) complex reacts to form an intermediate (enzyme-AdoMet-PPPi) complex: hydrolysis of PPPi yields an (enzyme-AdoMet-PPi-Pi) complex from which AdoMet is the last product to dissociate. Analysis of reaction mixtures which were quenched with acid during turnover of E. coli AdoMet synthetase with saturating substrates containing ( - TSP)ATP showed that PPPi is present in an amount corresponding to 45% of the total enzyme active sites, reflecting the portion of enzyme present in an (enzyme-AdoMet-PPPi) complex. Similar experiments in which excess pyrophosphatase was included (to hydrolyze PPi as it was released from AdoMet synthetase), showed that enzyme-bound PPi is present in an amount corresponding to 22% of the total AdoMet synthetase. The enzyme not present in complexes with PPPi or PPi is probably distributed between the (enzyme-ATP-methionine) and the (enzyme-AdoMet) complexes. AdoMet synthetase forms enzyme-bound TSPPPi from added TSPPi and Pi; the equilibrium constant (enzyme-AdoMet-PPi-Pi)/(enzyme-AdoMet-PPPi) is 2.0, greatly displaced from the equilibrium for hydrolysis of free PPPi. Since the ratio of enzyme-bound PPi to PPPi is 0.5 during the steady state, the PPPi hydrolysis step is not at equilibrium during turnover. Formation of (TSP)ATP from the (enzyme-AdoMet-TSPPPi) complex was not detected.

  13. Positronium formation studies in crystalline molecular complexes: Triphenylphosphine oxide - Acetanilide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, F. C.; Denadai, A. M. L.; Guerra, L. D. L.; Fulgêncio, F. H.; Windmöller, D.; Santos, G. C.; Fernandes, N. G.; Yoshida, M. I.; Donnici, C. L.; Magalhães, W. F.; Machado, J. C.

    2013-04-01

    Hydrogen bond formation in the triphenylphosphine oxide (TPPO), acetanilide (ACN) supramolecular heterosynton system, named [TPPO0.5·ACN0.5], has been studied by Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS) and supported by several analytical techniques. In toluene solution, Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) presented a 1:1 stoichiometry and indicated that the complexation process is driven by entropy, with low enthalpy contribution. X-ray structure determination showed the existence of a three-dimensional network of hydrogen bonds, allowing also the confirmation of the existence of a 1:1 crystalline molecular complex in solid state. The results of thermal analysis (TGA, DTA and DSC) and FTIR spectroscopy showed that the interactions in the complex are relatively weaker than those found in pure precursors, leading to a higher positronium formation probability at [TPPO0.5·ACN0.5]. These weak interactions in the complex enhance the possibility of the n- and π-electrons to interact with positrons and consequently, the probability of positronium formation is higher. Through the present work is shown that PALS is a sensible powerful tool to investigate intermolecular interactions in solid heterosynton supramolecular systems.

  14. Parameter estimation in complex flows with chemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Daniel J.

    The estimation of unknown parameters in engineering and scientific models continues to be of great importance in order to validate them to available experimental data. These parameters of concern cannot be known beforehand, but must be measured experimentally, variables such as chemical species concentrations, pressures, or temperatures as examples. Particularly, in chemically reacting flows, the estimation of kinetic rate parameters from experimentally determined values is in great demand and not well understood. New parameter optimization algorithms have been developed from a Gauss-Newton formulation for the estimation of reaction rate parameters in several different complex flow applications. A zero-dimensional parameter estimation methodology was used in conjunction with a parameter sensitivity study and then applied to three-dimensional flow models. This new parameter estimation technique was applied to three-dimensional models for chemical vapor deposition of silicon carbide and gallium arsenide semiconductor materials. The parameter estimation for silicon carbide for several different operating points was in close agreement to experiment. The parameter estimation for gallium arsenide proved to be very accurate, being within four percent of the experimental data. New parameter estimation algorithms were likewise created for a three-dimensional multiphase model for methanol spray combustion. The kinetic rate parameters delivered results in close agreement to experiment for profiles of combustion species products. In addition, a new parameter estimation method for the determination of spray droplet sizes and velocities is presented. The results for methanol combustion chemical species profiles are in good agreement to experiment for several different droplet sizes. Lastly, the parameter estimation method was extended to a bio-kinetic application, namely mitochondrial cells, that are cardiac or respiratory cells found in animals and humans. The results for the electrochemical parameters examined again show very close agreement to the experimental values. The usual method of determining chemical reaction rates by measurement is lengthy and time consuming, especially where the chemistry and chemical processes are of a more complex nature. This computational method and associated algorithms has shown to deliver accurate correlations to the experimental data for three-dimensional models, demonstrated in these new unique applications of the technique.

  15. Accelerating procelain formation by incorporating a complex additive

    SciTech Connect

    Maslennikova, G.N.; Dubovitskii, S.A.; Moroz, I.K.

    1986-05-01

    The authors studied the influence of a complex additive consisting of oxides of calcium, zinc, and magnesium on the formaton of porcelain. In order to achieve a more uniform distribution of the complex additive in the porcelain body it was incorporated in the form of water soluble salts-nitrates, which ensured comparability of results and excluded the effect of the different types of anions. The study of the main parameters of sintering (porosity, shrinkage, and mechanical strength) for the test bodies showed that they sinter at lower temperatures and attain zero porosity, maximum shrinkage, and mechanical strength. The most typical bodies indentified in this way were investigated by methods of complex differential thermal analysis and x-ray diffraction. Thus, the introduction of complex additives consisting of calcium, zinc, and magnesium oxides contributes to the earlier formation of porcelain. With the reduction of firing temperatures by 100/sup 0/C the authors observe an improvement in the basic properties of porcelain.

  16. Reversible dissociation and ligand-glutathione exchange reaction in binuclear cationic tetranitrosyl iron complex with penicillamine.

    PubMed

    Syrtsova, Lidia; Sanina, Natalia; Lyssenko, Konstantin; Kabachkov, Evgeniy; Psikha, Boris; Shkondina, Natal'ja; Pokidova, Olesia; Kotelnikov, Alexander; Aldoshin, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a comparative study of the decomposition of two nitrosyl iron complexes (NICs) with penicillamine thiolic ligands [Fe2(SC5H11NO2)2(NO)4]SO4 5H2O (I) and glutathione- (GSH-) ligands [Fe2(SC10H17N3O6)2(NO)4]SO4 2H2O (II), which spontaneously evolve to NO in aqueous medium. NO formation was measured by a sensor electrode and by spectrophotometric methods by measuring the formation of a hemoglobin- (Hb-) NO complex. The NO evolution reaction rate from (I)??k 1 = (4.6 0.1)10(-3)?s(-1) and the elimination rate constant of the penicillamine ligand k 2 = (1.8 0.2)10(-3)?s(-1) at 25C in 0.05?M phosphate buffer, ?pH 7.0, was calculated using kinetic modeling based on the experimental data. Both reactions are reversible. Spectrophotometry and mass-spectrometry methods have firmly shown that the penicillamine ligand is exchanged for GS(-) during decomposition of 1.510(-4)?M (I) in the presence of 10(-3)?M GSH, with 76% yield in 24?h. As has been established, such behaviour is caused by the resistance of (II) to decomposition due to the higher affinity of iron to GSH in the complex. The discovered reaction may impede S-glutathionylation of the essential enzyme systems in the presence of (I) and is important for metabolism of NIC, connected with its antitumor activity. PMID:24790592

  17. Reversible Dissociation and Ligand-Glutathione Exchange Reaction in Binuclear Cationic Tetranitrosyl Iron Complex with Penicillamine

    PubMed Central

    Syrtsova, Lidia; Sanina, Natalia; Lyssenko, Konstantin; Kabachkov, Evgeniy; Psikha, Boris; Shkondina, Natal'ja; Pokidova, Olesia; Kotelnikov, Alexander; Aldoshin, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a comparative study of the decomposition of two nitrosyl iron complexes (NICs) with penicillamine thiolic ligands [Fe2(SC5H11NO2)2(NO)4]SO45H2O (I) and glutathione- (GSH-) ligands [Fe2(SC10H17N3O6)2(NO)4]SO42H2O (II), which spontaneously evolve to NO in aqueous medium. NO formation was measured by a sensor electrode and by spectrophotometric methods by measuring the formation of a hemoglobin- (Hb-) NO complex. The NO evolution reaction rate from (I)??k1 = (4.6 0.1)10?3?s?1 and the elimination rate constant of the penicillamine ligand k2 = (1.8 0.2)10?3?s?1 at 25C in 0.05?M phosphate buffer, ?pH 7.0, was calculated using kinetic modeling based on the experimental data. Both reactions are reversible. Spectrophotometry and mass-spectrometry methods have firmly shown that the penicillamine ligand is exchanged for GS? during decomposition of 1.510?4?M (I) in the presence of 10?3?M GSH, with 76% yield in 24?h. As has been established, such behaviour is caused by the resistance of (II) to decomposition due to the higher affinity of iron to GSH in the complex. The discovered reaction may impede S-glutathionylation of the essential enzyme systems in the presence of (I) and is important for metabolism of NIC, connected with its antitumor activity. PMID:24790592

  18. Reinvestigation of the formation of a mononuclear Fe(III) hydroperoxido complex using high pressure kinetics.

    PubMed

    Nebe, Thomas; Beitat, Alexander; Wrtele, Christian; Dcker-Benfer, Carlos; van Eldik, Rudi; McKenzie, Christine J; Schindler, Siegfried

    2010-09-01

    Previous stopped flow kinetic experiments suggested an interchange associative mechanism for the ligand substitution reaction, [Fe(bztpen)(OMe)](2+) + H(2)O(2)--> {[Fe(bztpen)(OMe)(HOOH)](2+)}(++)--> [Fe(bztpen)(OOH)](2+) + MeOH (bztpen = N-benzyl-N, N',N'tris(2-methylpyridyl)-ethylenediamine). Thus a seven-coordinate transition state containing both the leaving methoxide and the incoming hydrogen peroxide ligands was proposed. On the basis of high pressure kinetic data we can now conclude that this is not the case since the rate of the reaction is independent of pressure for the formation of the purple low spin transient hydroperoxido complex, [Fe(bztpen)(OOH)](2+). [Fe(bztpen)(OOH)](2+) has so far proved to be too short-lived for solid state isolation. As part of our ongoing pursuit of this elusive species we have structurally characterised the nitrosyl and acetate iron(II) complexes, [Fe(bztpen)(NO)](OTf)(2) and [Fe(bztpen)(OAc)](BPh(4)), as well as the air stable Co(II) complexes [Co(bztpen)Cl)]BF(4), [Co(metpen)Cl]SbF(6) and [Co(bztpen)(OAc)]BPh(4). We did not realise our aim of accessing stable Co(III) hydroperoxido or peroxido complexes by reaction of the cobalt complexes with H(2)O(2). PMID:20648392

  19. Chemical proprieties of the iron-quinone complex in mutated reaction centers of Rb. sphaeroides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha?as, Agnieszka; Derrien, Valerie; Sebban, Pierre; Matlak, Krzysztof; Korecki, Jzef; Kruk, Jerzy; Burda, Kv?toslava

    2012-03-01

    We investigated type II bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers, which contain a quinone - iron complex (QA-Fe-QB) on their acceptor side. Under physiological conditions it was observed mainly in a reduced high spin state but its low spin ferrous states were also observed. Therefore, it was suggested that it might regulate the dynamical properties of the iron-quinone complex and the protonation and deprotonation events in its neighbourhood. In order to get insight into the molecular mechanism of the NHFe low spin state formation, we preformed Mssbauer studies of a wild type of Rb. sphaeroides and its two mutated forms. Our Mssbauer measurements show that the hydrophobicity of the QA binding site can be crucial for stabilization of the high spin ferrous state of NHFe.

  20. Complexation Key to a pH Locked Redox Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizvi, Masood Ahmad; Dangat, Yuvraj; Shams, Tahir; Khan, Khaliquz Zaman

    2016-01-01

    An unfavorable pH can block a feasible electron transfer for a pH dependent redox reaction. In this experiment, a series of potentiometric titrations demonstrate the sequential loss in feasibility of iron(II) dichromate redox reaction over a pH range of 0-4. The pH at which this reaction failed to occur was termed as a pH locked reaction. The

  1. Complexation Key to a pH Locked Redox Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizvi, Masood Ahmad; Dangat, Yuvraj; Shams, Tahir; Khan, Khaliquz Zaman

    2016-01-01

    An unfavorable pH can block a feasible electron transfer for a pH dependent redox reaction. In this experiment, a series of potentiometric titrations demonstrate the sequential loss in feasibility of iron(II) dichromate redox reaction over a pH range of 0-4. The pH at which this reaction failed to occur was termed as a pH locked reaction. The…

  2. Dynamics and rate of complex ions formation in comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoyoqubov, Shoayub; Shoyoqubov, Shohrukh; Ibrohimov, Alisher

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this research is to create a laboratory model of comet phenomenon and perform mass spectral analysis of the dynamics and rate of formation of complex ions by bombarding the solid mixture of H2O and CO2 with positive Cs ions with energy of 1.5 keV. Results of previous mass spectral studies of laboratory modeled comet phenomena and emission coefficient proportionality method were used in calculations.

  3. The Dynamics of Coalition Formation on Complex Networks

    PubMed Central

    Auer, S.; Heitzig, J.; Kornek, U.; Schöll, E.; Kurths, J.

    2015-01-01

    Complex networks describe the structure of many socio-economic systems. However, in studies of decision-making processes the evolution of the underlying social relations are disregarded. In this report, we aim to understand the formation of self-organizing domains of cooperation (“coalitions”) on an acquaintance network. We include both the network’s influence on the formation of coalitions and vice versa how the network adapts to the current coalition structure, thus forming a social feedback loop. We increase complexity from simple opinion adaptation processes studied in earlier research to more complex decision-making determined by costs and benefits, and from bilateral to multilateral cooperation. We show how phase transitions emerge from such coevolutionary dynamics, which can be interpreted as processes of great transformations. If the network adaptation rate is high, the social dynamics prevent the formation of a grand coalition and therefore full cooperation. We find some empirical support for our main results: Our model develops a bimodal coalition size distribution over time similar to those found in social structures. Our detection and distinguishing of phase transitions may be exemplary for other models of socio-economic systems with low agent numbers and therefore strong finite-size effects. PMID:26303622

  4. The Dynamics of Coalition Formation on Complex Networks.

    PubMed

    Auer, S; Heitzig, J; Kornek, U; Schöll, E; Kurths, J

    2015-01-01

    Complex networks describe the structure of many socio-economic systems. However, in studies of decision-making processes the evolution of the underlying social relations are disregarded. In this report, we aim to understand the formation of self-organizing domains of cooperation ("coalitions") on an acquaintance network. We include both the network's influence on the formation of coalitions and vice versa how the network adapts to the current coalition structure, thus forming a social feedback loop. We increase complexity from simple opinion adaptation processes studied in earlier research to more complex decision-making determined by costs and benefits, and from bilateral to multilateral cooperation. We show how phase transitions emerge from such coevolutionary dynamics, which can be interpreted as processes of great transformations. If the network adaptation rate is high, the social dynamics prevent the formation of a grand coalition and therefore full cooperation. We find some empirical support for our main results: Our model develops a bimodal coalition size distribution over time similar to those found in social structures. Our detection and distinguishing of phase transitions may be exemplary for other models of socio-economic systems with low agent numbers and therefore strong finite-size effects. PMID:26303622

  5. The Dynamics of Coalition Formation on Complex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auer, S.; Heitzig, J.; Kornek, U.; Schöll, E.; Kurths, J.

    2015-08-01

    Complex networks describe the structure of many socio-economic systems. However, in studies of decision-making processes the evolution of the underlying social relations are disregarded. In this report, we aim to understand the formation of self-organizing domains of cooperation (“coalitions”) on an acquaintance network. We include both the network’s influence on the formation of coalitions and vice versa how the network adapts to the current coalition structure, thus forming a social feedback loop. We increase complexity from simple opinion adaptation processes studied in earlier research to more complex decision-making determined by costs and benefits, and from bilateral to multilateral cooperation. We show how phase transitions emerge from such coevolutionary dynamics, which can be interpreted as processes of great transformations. If the network adaptation rate is high, the social dynamics prevent the formation of a grand coalition and therefore full cooperation. We find some empirical support for our main results: Our model develops a bimodal coalition size distribution over time similar to those found in social structures. Our detection and distinguishing of phase transitions may be exemplary for other models of socio-economic systems with low agent numbers and therefore strong finite-size effects.

  6. The Copper-nicotinamide complex: sustainable applications in coupling and cycloaddition reactions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Crystalline copper (II)-nicotinamide complex, synthesized via simple mixing of copper chloride and nicotinamide solution at room temperature, catalyzes the C-S, C-N bond forming and cycloaddition reactions under a variety of sustainable reaction conditions.

  7. Demixing-stimulated lane formation in binary complex plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Du, C.-R.; Jiang, K.; Suetterlin, K. R.; Ivlev, A. V.; Morfill, G. E.

    2011-11-29

    Recently lane formation and phase separation have been reported for experiments with binary complex plasmas in the PK3-Plus laboratory onboard the International Space Station (ISS). Positive non-additivity of particle interactions is known to stimulate phase separation (demixing), but its effect on lane formation is unknown. In this work, we used Langevin dynamics (LD) simulation to probe the role of non-additivity interactions on lane formation. The competition between laning and demixing leads to thicker lanes. Analysis based on anisotropic scaling indices reveals a crossover from normal laning mode to a demixing-stimulated laning mode. Extensive numerical simulations enabled us to identify a critical value of the non-additivity parameter {Delta} for the crossover.

  8. Formation mechanisms of 3,4-dinitrofuroxan via nitration reaction of furoxan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yajing; Ye, Yuqing; Liu, Jianyong; Lai, Weipeng

    2016-03-01

    A systematic investigations on the nitration of furoxan by two typical nitration reagents nitronium tetrafluoroborate (BF4NO2) and dilute nitric acid (HNO3) in chloroform (CHCl3) solvent using density functional theory (DFT) method to reveal the formation mechanism of 3,4-dinitrofuroxan (DNFO) and explore new synthesis routes. The geometry optimizations of the minima and transition states involved in the two nitration reactions are performed at the B3LYP/6-311++G** basis set level. The CCSD single-point energy corrections at the same level are carried out on top of the optimized geometries to obtain the accurate energy. Calculated results demonstrate that the electrophilic substitutions of nitronium ions from the nitration reagents and the abstractions of protons in the complex intermediates are the main formation mechanism of DNFO. BF4- is shown to be a better proton abstracter than HNO3 and H2O due to its no barrier combination with H+. The abstraction of proton by HNO3 is predicted to be more feasible than H2O because it can supply the nitration attacker (NO2+) and release more heat. Chloroform is a feasible solvent and heating properly is necessary for the two reactions due to the relatively high barrier of 37 kcal/mol. These conclusions provide some significant indications on the new experimental synthesis of DNFO.

  9. Chiral symmetry breaking in complex chemical systems during formation of life on earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinova, A. F.; Konstantinov, K. K.

    2015-09-01

    The chiral symmetry in complex chemical systems containing many amino acids and characterized by many similar chemical reactions (a situation corresponding to the formation of life on Earth) is considered. It is shown that effective averaging over similar reaction channels may lead to very weak effective enantioselectivity, which does not allow for chiral symmetry breaking in most known models. A class of models with simple and catalytic synthesis of one amino acid, the formation of peptides with a length reaching three, and the precipitation of one insoluble pair of materials is analyzed. It is proven that chiral symmetry breaking may occur in one possible version from an insoluble pair of materials even in the complete absence of catalytic synthesis of amino acid. It is shown that the presence of weakly enantioselective catalytic synthesis in a model significantly increases the number of possible versions in which chiral symmetry breaks.

  10. Computational Analyses of Complex Flows with Chemical Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Kang-Sik

    The heat and mass transfer phenomena in micro-scale for the mass transfer phenomena on drug in cylindrical matrix system, the simulation of oxygen/drug diffusion in a three dimensional capillary network, and a reduced chemical kinetic modeling of gas turbine combustion for Jet propellant-10 have been studied numerically. For the numerical analysis of the mass transfer phenomena on drug in cylindrical matrix system, the governing equations are derived from the cylindrical matrix systems, Krogh cylinder model, which modeling system is comprised of a capillary to a surrounding cylinder tissue along with the arterial distance to veins. ADI (Alternative Direction Implicit) scheme and Thomas algorithm are applied to solve the nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs). This study shows that the important factors which have an effect on the drug penetration depth to the tissue are the mass diffusivity and the consumption of relevant species during the time allowed for diffusion to the brain tissue. Also, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been developed to simulate the blood flow and oxygen/drug diffusion in a three dimensional capillary network, which are satisfied in the physiological range of a typical capillary. A three dimensional geometry has been constructed to replicate the one studied by Secomb et al. (2000), and the computational framework features a non-Newtonian viscosity model for blood, the oxygen transport model including in oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation and wall flux due to tissue absorption, as well as an ability to study the diffusion of drugs and other materials in the capillary streams. Finally, a chemical kinetic mechanism of JP-10 has been compiled and validated for a wide range of combustion regimes, covering pressures of 1atm to 40atm with temperature ranges of 1,200 K--1,700 K, which is being studied as a possible Jet propellant for the Pulse Detonation Engine (PDE) and other high-speed flight applications such as hypersonic missiles. The comprehensive skeletal mechanism consists of 58 species and 315 reactions including in CPD, Benzene formation process by the theory for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and soot formation process on the constant volume combustor, premixed flame characteristics.

  11. Frataxin Accelerates [2Fe-2S] Cluster Formation on the Human Fe–S Assembly Complex

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Nicholas G.; Das, Deepika; Chakrabarti, Mrinmoy; Lindahl, Paul A.; Barondeau, David P.

    2015-01-01

    Iron–sulfur (Fe–S) clusters function as protein cofactors for a wide variety of critical cellular reactions. In human mitochondria, a core Fe–S assembly complex [called SDUF and composed of NFS1, ISD11, ISCU2, and frataxin (FXN) proteins] synthesizes Fe–S clusters from iron, cysteine sulfur, and reducing equivalents and then transfers these intact clusters to target proteins. In vitro assays have relied on reducing the complexity of this complicated Fe–S assembly process by using surrogate electron donor molecules and monitoring simplified reactions. Recent studies have concluded that FXN promotes the synthesis of [4Fe-4S] clusters on the mammalian Fe–S assembly complex. Here the kinetics of Fe–S synthesis reactions were determined using different electron donation systems and by monitoring the products with circular dichroism and absorbance spectroscopies. We discovered that common surrogate electron donor molecules intercepted Fe–S cluster intermediates and formed high-molecular weight species (HMWS). The HMWS are associated with iron, sulfide, and thiol-containing proteins and have properties of a heterogeneous solubilized mineral with spectroscopic properties remarkably reminiscent of those of [4Fe-4S] clusters. In contrast, reactions using physiological reagents revealed that FXN accelerates the formation of [2Fe-2S] clusters rather than [4Fe-4S] clusters as previously reported. In the preceding paper [Fox, N. G., et al. (2015) Biochemistry 54, DOI: 10.1021/bi5014485], [2Fe-2S] intermediates on the SDUF complex were shown to readily transfer to uncomplexed ISCU2 or apo acceptor proteins, depending on the reaction conditions. Our results indicate that FXN accelerates a rate-limiting sulfur transfer step in the synthesis of [2Fe-2S] clusters on the human Fe–S assembly complex. PMID:26016518

  12. Complex formation with nucleic acids and aptamers alters the antigenic properties of platelet factor 4.

    PubMed

    Jaax, Miriam E; Krauel, Krystin; Marschall, Thomas; Brandt, Sven; Gansler, Julia; Frll, Birgitt; Appel, Bettina; Fischer, Silvia; Block, Stephan; Helm, Christiane A; Mller, Sabine; Preissner, Klaus T; Greinacher, Andreas

    2013-07-11

    The tight electrostatic binding of the chemokine platelet factor 4 (PF4) to polyanions induces heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, a prothrombotic adverse drug reaction caused by immunoglobulin G directed against PF4/polyanion complexes. This study demonstrates that nucleic acids, including aptamers, also bind to PF4 and enhance PF4 binding to platelets. Systematic assessment of RNA and DNA constructs, as well as 4 aptamers of different lengths and secondary structures, revealed that increasing length and double-stranded segments of nucleic acids augment complex formation with PF4, while single nucleotides or single-stranded polyA or polyC constructs do not. Aptamers were shown by circular dichroism spectroscopy to induce structural changes in PF4 that resemble those induced by heparin. Moreover, heparin-induced anti-human-PF4/heparin antibodies cross-reacted with human PF4/nucleic acid and PF4/aptamer complexes, as shown by an enzyme immunoassay and a functional platelet activation assay. Finally, administration of PF4/44mer-DNA protein C aptamer complexes in mice induced anti-PF4/aptamer antibodies, which cross-reacted with murine PF4/heparin complexes. These data indicate that the formation of anti-PF4/heparin antibodies in postoperative patients may be augmented by PF4/nucleic acid complexes. Moreover, administration of therapeutic aptamers has the potential to induce anti-PF4/polyanion antibodies and a prothrombotic diathesis. PMID:23673861

  13. Complex formation with nucleic acids and aptamers alters the antigenic properties of platelet factor 4

    PubMed Central

    Jaax, Miriam E.; Krauel, Krystin; Marschall, Thomas; Brandt, Sven; Gansler, Julia; Frll, Birgitt; Appel, Bettina; Fischer, Silvia; Block, Stephan; Helm, Christiane A.; Mller, Sabine; Preissner, Klaus T.

    2013-01-01

    The tight electrostatic binding of the chemokine platelet factor 4 (PF4) to polyanions induces heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, a prothrombotic adverse drug reaction caused by immunoglobulin G directed against PF4/polyanion complexes. This study demonstrates that nucleic acids, including aptamers, also bind to PF4 and enhance PF4 binding to platelets. Systematic assessment of RNA and DNA constructs, as well as 4 aptamers of different lengths and secondary structures, revealed that increasing length and double-stranded segments of nucleic acids augment complex formation with PF4, while single nucleotides or single-stranded polyA or polyC constructs do not. Aptamers were shown by circular dichroism spectroscopy to induce structural changes in PF4 that resemble those induced by heparin. Moreover, heparin-induced anti-humanPF4/heparin antibodies cross-reacted with human PF4/nucleic acid and PF4/aptamer complexes, as shown by an enzyme immunoassay and a functional platelet activation assay. Finally, administration of PF4/44merDNA protein C aptamer complexes in mice induced antiPF4/aptamer antibodies, which cross-reacted with murine PF4/heparin complexes. These data indicate that the formation of anti-PF4/heparin antibodies in postoperative patients may be augmented by PF4/nucleic acid complexes. Moreover, administration of therapeutic aptamers has the potential to induce anti-PF4/polyanion antibodies and a prothrombotic diathesis. PMID:23673861

  14. EXFOR BASICS A SHORT GUIDE TO THE NEUTRON REACTION DATA EXCHANGE FORMAT.

    SciTech Connect

    MCLANE,V.; NUCLEAR DATA CENTER NETWORK

    2000-05-19

    This manual is intended as a guide to users of nuclear reaction data compiled in the EXFOR format, and is not intended as a complete guide to the EXFOR System. EXFOR is the exchange format designed to allow transmission of nuclear reaction data between the Nuclear Reaction Data Centers. In addition to storing the data and its' bibliographic information, experimental information is also compiled. The status (e.g., the source of the data) and history (e.g., date of last update) of the data set is also included. EXFOR is designed for flexibility in order to meet the diverse needs of the nuclear reaction data centers. It was originally conceived for the exchange of neutron data and was developed through discussions among personnel from centers situated in Saclay, Vienna, Livermore and Brookhaven. It was accepted as the official exchange format of the neutron data centers at Saclay, Vienna, Brookhaven and Obninsk, at a meeting held in November 1969.3 As a result of two meetings held in 1975 and 1976 and attended by several charged-particle data centers, the format was further developed and adapted to cover all nuclear reaction data. The exchange format should not be confused with a center-to-user format. Although users may obtain data from the centers in the EXFOR format, other center-to-user formats have been developed to meet the needs of the users within each center's own sphere of responsibility. The EXFOR format, as outlined, allows a large variety of numerical data tables with explanatory and bibliographic information to be transmitted in a format: l that is machine-readable (for checking and indicating possible errors); l that can be read by personnel (for passing judgment on and correcting errors). The data presently included in the EXFOR exchange file include: a complete compilation of experimental neutron-induced reaction data, a selected compilation of charged-particle-induced reaction data, a selected compilation of photon-induced reaction data.

  15. EXFOR BASICS A SHORT GUIDE TO THE NEUTRON REACTION DATA EXCHANGE FORMAT.

    SciTech Connect

    MCLANE,V.; NUCLEAR DATA CENTER NETWORK

    2000-05-19

    This manual is intended as a guide to users of nuclear reaction data compiled in the EXFOR format, and is not intended as a complete guide to the EXFOR System. EXFOR is the exchange format designed to allow transmission of nuclear reaction data between the Nuclear Reaction Data Centers. In addition to storing the data and its' bibliographic information, experimental information is also compiled. The status (e.g., the source of the data) and history (e.g., date of last update) of the data set is also included. EXFOR is designed for flexibility in order to meet the diverse needs of the nuclear reaction data centers. It was originally conceived for the exchange of neutron data and was developed through discussions among personnel from centers situated in Saclay, Vienna, Livermore and Brookhaven. It was accepted as the official exchange format of the neutron data centers at Saclay, Vienna, Brookhaven and Obninsk, at a meeting held in November 1969. As a result of two meetings held in 1975 and 1976 and attended by several charged-particle data centers, the format was further developed and adapted to cover all nuclear reaction data. The exchange format should not be confused with a center-to-user format. Although users may obtain data from the centers in the EXFOR format, other center-to-user formats have been developed to meet the needs of the users within each center's own sphere of responsibility. The EXFOR format, as outlined, allows a large variety of numerical data tables with explanatory and bibliographic information to be transmitted in a format: that is machine-readable (for checking and indicating possible errors); that can be read by personnel (for passing judgment on and correcting errors). The data presently included in the EXFOR exchange file include: a complete compilation of experimental neutron-induced reaction data, a selected compilation of charged-particle-induced reaction data, a selected compilation of photon-induced reaction data.

  16. The cytoprotective effect of nitrite is based on the formation of dinitrosyl iron complexes.

    PubMed

    Dungel, Peter; Perlinger, Martin; Weidinger, Adelheid; Redl, Heinz; Kozlov, Andrey V

    2015-12-01

    Nitrite protects various organs from ischemia-reperfusion injury by ameliorating mitochondrial dysfunction. Here we provide evidence that this protection is due to the inhibition of iron-mediated oxidative reactions caused by the release of iron ions upon hypoxia. We show in a model of isolated rat liver mitochondria that upon hypoxia, mitochondria reduce nitrite to nitric oxide (NO) in amounts sufficient to inactivate redox-active iron ions by formation of inactive dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNIC). The scavenging of iron ions in turn prevents the oxidative modification of the outer mitochondrial membrane and the release of cytochrome c during reoxygenation. This action of nitrite protects mitochondrial function. The formation of DNIC with nitrite-derived NO could also be confirmed in an ischemia-reperfusion model in liver tissue. Our data suggest that the formation of DNIC is a key mechanism of nitrite-mediated cytoprotection. PMID:26415027

  17. Evaluation of maillard reaction variables and their effect on heterocyclic amine formation in chemical model systems.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Cara; Karim, Faris; Smith, J Scott

    2015-02-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HCAs), highly mutagenic and potentially carcinogenic by-products, form during Maillard browning reactions, specifically in muscle-rich foods. Chemical model systems allow examination of in vitro formation of HCAs while eliminating complex matrices of meat. Limited research has evaluated the effects of Maillard reaction parameters on HCA formation. Therefore, 4 essential Maillard variables (precursors molar concentrations, water amount, sugar type, and sugar amounts) were evaluated to optimize a model system for the study of 4 HCAs: 2-amino-3-methylimidazo-[4,5-f]quinoline, 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, and 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline. Model systems were dissolved in diethylene glycol, heated at 175 C for 40 min, and separated using reversed-phase liquid chromatography. To define the model system, precursor amounts (threonine and creatinine) were adjusted in molar increments (0.2/0.2, 0.4/0.4, 0.6/0.6, and 0.8/0.8 mmol) and water amounts by percentage (0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%). Sugars (lactose, glucose, galactose, and fructose) were evaluated in several molar amounts proportional to threonine and creatinine (quarter, half, equi, and double). The precursor levels and amounts of sugar were significantly different (P < 0.05) in regards to total HCA formation, with 0.6/0.6/1.2 mmol producing higher levels. Water concentration and sugar type also had a significant effect (P < 0.05), with 5% water and lactose producing higher total HCA amounts. A model system containing threonine (0.6 mmol), creatinine (0.6 mmol), and glucose (1.2 mmol), with 15% water was determined to be the optimal model system with glucose and 15% water being a better representation of meat systems. PMID:25597341

  18. Noble reactions for the actinides: safe gold-based access to organouranium and azide complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, Robert K; Graves, Christopher R; Scott, Brian L; Kiplinger, Jaqueline L

    2008-01-01

    Gold has had a profound impact on organic chemistry; its compounds are spectacular catalysts for many organic transformations involving the formation of C-C, C-O, C-N and CoS bonds, and have enabled unprecedented pathways for the functionalization of C-H and C-C bonds. In general, gold complexes have not been exploited as reagents in organometallic or inorganic chemistry, although a few gold(l) aryl and alkynyl compounds have been reported to undergo transmetalation with transition metal complexes. We have been developing methods for functionalizing uranium complexes and have shown that Cu(l)-X reagents effect the oxidation of uranium with formation of U-X bonds, providing easy chemical control over uranium in oxidation states ranging from U{sup III}{yields}U{sup VI}. Although a logical approach for the direct generation of U-carbon and U-azide bonds, this Cu-based platform is limited in scope as it only works for pure and isolable copper compounds. This is problematic given the instability of organocuprates and copper azides, which can detonate violently as isolated solids. As such, this route has been confined to the synthesis of select uranium phenylacetylide complexes. Over the past few years, a variety of stable gold(l) alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, alkynyl, and azide complexes have been reported, propelling us to investigate their potential as reagents within the oxidative functionalization platform. Unlike the related CU{sup I} systems, Au{sup I} reagents are easily derivatized, and are safe to handle and isolate. Herein, we report that gold(l)-phosphine compounds can undergo a new class of reaction, and are excellent reagents for the oxidative functionalization of uranium with azide and carbon anions.

  19. Fission and quasifission modes in heavy-ion-induced reactions leading to the formation of Hs*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itkis, I. M.; Kozulin, E. M.; Itkis, M. G.; Knyazheva, G. N.; Bogachev, A. A.; Chernysheva, E. V.; Krupa, L.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Zagrebaev, V. I.; Rusanov, A. Ya.; Goennenwein, F.; Dorvaux, O.; Stuttgé, L.; Hanappe, F.; Vardaci, E.; de Goés Brennand, E.

    2011-06-01

    Mass and energy distributions of binary reaction products obtained in the reactions Ne22+Cf249,Mg26+Cm248, S36+U238, and Fe58+Pb208 have been measured. All reactions lead to Hs isotopes. At energies below the Coulomb barrier the bimodal fission of Hs*, formed in the reaction Mg26+Cm248, is observed. In the reaction S36+U238, leading to the formation of a similar compound nucleus, the main part of the symmetric fragments arises from the quasifission process. At energies above the Coulomb barrier fusion-fission is the main process leading to the formation of symmetric fragments for both reactions with Mg and S ions. In the case of the Fe58+Pb208 reaction the quasifission process dominates at all measured energies.

  20. The ribosome-associated complex antagonizes prion formation in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Amor, Alvaro J; Castanzo, Dominic T; Delany, Sean P; Selechnik, Daniel M; van Ooy, Alex; Cameron, Dale M

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The number of known fungal proteins capable of switching between alternative stable conformations is steadily increasing, suggesting that a prion-like mechanism may be broadly utilized as a means to propagate altered cellular states. To gain insight into the mechanisms by which cells regulate prion formation and toxicity we examined the role of the yeast ribosome-associated complex (RAC) in modulating both the formation of the [PSI+] prion – an alternative conformer of Sup35 protein – and the toxicity of aggregation-prone polypeptides. The Hsp40 RAC chaperone Zuo1 anchors the RAC to ribosomes and stimulates the ATPase activity of the Hsp70 chaperone Ssb. We found that cells lacking Zuo1 are sensitive to over-expression of some aggregation-prone proteins, including the Sup35 prion domain, suggesting that co-translational protein misfolding increases in Δzuo1 strains. Consistent with this finding, Δzuo1 cells exhibit higher frequencies of spontaneous and induced prion formation. Cells expressing mutant forms of Zuo1 lacking either a C-terminal charged region required for ribosome association, or the J-domain responsible for Ssb ATPase stimulation, exhibit similarly high frequencies of prion formation. Our findings are consistent with a role for the RAC in chaperoning nascent Sup35 to regulate folding of the N-terminal prion domain as it emerges from the ribosome. PMID:25739058

  1. The ribosome-associated complex antagonizes prion formation in yeast.

    PubMed

    Amor, Alvaro J; Castanzo, Dominic T; Delany, Sean P; Selechnik, Daniel M; van Ooy, Alex; Cameron, Dale M

    2015-01-01

    The number of known fungal proteins capable of switching between alternative stable conformations is steadily increasing, suggesting that a prion-like mechanism may be broadly utilized as a means to propagate altered cellular states. To gain insight into the mechanisms by which cells regulate prion formation and toxicity we examined the role of the yeast ribosome-associated complex (RAC) in modulating both the formation of the [PSI(+)] prion - an alternative conformer of Sup35 protein - and the toxicity of aggregation-prone polypeptides. The Hsp40 RAC chaperone Zuo1 anchors the RAC to ribosomes and stimulates the ATPase activity of the Hsp70 chaperone Ssb. We found that cells lacking Zuo1 are sensitive to over-expression of some aggregation-prone proteins, including the Sup35 prion domain, suggesting that co-translational protein misfolding increases in ?zuo1 strains. Consistent with this finding, ?zuo1 cells exhibit higher frequencies of spontaneous and induced prion formation. Cells expressing mutant forms of Zuo1 lacking either a C-terminal charged region required for ribosome association, or the J-domain responsible for Ssb ATPase stimulation, exhibit similarly high frequencies of prion formation. Our findings are consistent with a role for the RAC in chaperoning nascent Sup35 to regulate folding of the N-terminal prion domain as it emerges from the ribosome. PMID:25739058

  2. Complex interactions between formative assessment, technology, and classroom practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Edward

    2012-02-01

    Interactive engagement (IE) methods provide instructors with evidence of student thinking that can guide instructional decisions across a range of timescales: facilitating an activity, determining the flow of activities, or modifying the curriculum. Thus, from the instructor's perspective, IE activities can function as formative assessments. As a practical matter, the ability to utilize this potential depends on how the activities are implemented. This paper describes different tools for small group problem solving, including whiteboards, Tablet PCs, digital cameras, and photo-sharing websites. These tools provide the instructor with varying levels of access to student work during and after class, and therefore provide a range of support for formative assessment. Furthermore, the tools differ in physical size, ease of use, and the roles for students and instructor. These differences lead to complex, often surprising interactions with classroom practices.

  3. Protein thiyl radical reactions and product formation: a kinetic simulation.

    PubMed

    Nauser, Thomas; Koppenol, Willem H; Schneich, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Protein thiyl radicals are important intermediates generated in redox processes of thiols and disulfides. Thiyl radicals efficiently react with glutathione and ascorbate, and the common notion is that these reactions serve to eliminate thiyl radicals before they can enter potentially hazardous processes. However, over the past years increasing evidence has been provided for rather efficient intramolecular hydrogen transfer processes of thiyl radicals in proteins and peptides. Based on rate constants published for these processes, we have performed kinetic simulations of protein thiyl radical reactivity. Our simulations suggest that protein thiyl radicals enter intramolecular hydrogen transfer reactions to a significant extent even under physiologic conditions, i.e., in the presence of 30 M oxygen, 1 mM ascorbate, and 10 mM glutathione. At lower concentrations of ascorbate and glutathione, frequently observed when tissue is exposed to oxidative stress, the extent of irreversible protein thiyl radical-dependent protein modification increases. PMID:25499854

  4. Bio-Photoelectrochemical Solar Cells Incorporating Reaction Center and Reaction Center Plus Light Harvesting Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaghoubi, Houman

    Harvesting solar energy can potentially be a promising solution to the energy crisis now and in the future. However, material and processing costs continue to be the most important limitations for the commercial devices. A key solution to these problems might lie within the development of bio-hybrid solar cells that seeks to mimic photosynthesis to harvest solar energy and to take advantage of the low material costs, negative carbon footprint, and material abundance. The bio-photoelectrochemical cell technologies exploit biomimetic means of energy conversion by utilizing plant-derived photosystems which can be inexpensive and ultimately the most sustainable alternative. Plants and photosynthetic bacteria harvest light, through special proteins called reaction centers (RCs), with high efficiency and convert it into electrochemical energy. In theory, photosynthetic RCs can be used in a device to harvest solar energy and generate 1.1 V open circuit voltage and ~1 mA cm-2 short circuit photocurrent. Considering the nearly perfect quantum yield of photo-induced charge separation, efficiency of a protein-based solar cell might exceed 20%. In practice, the efficiency of fabricated devices has been limited mainly due to the challenges in the electron transfer between the protein complex and the device electrodes as well as limited light absorption. The overarching goal of this work is to increase the power conversion efficiency in protein-based solar cells by addressing those issues (i.e. electron transfer and light absorption). This work presents several approaches to increase the charge transfer rate between the photosynthetic RC and underlying electrode as well as increasing the light absorption to eventually enhance the external quantum efficiency (EQE) of bio-hybrid solar cells. The first approach is to decrease the electron transfer distance between one of the redox active sites in the RC and the underlying electrode by direct attachment of the of protein complex onto Au electrodes via surface exposed cysteine residues. This resulted in photocurrent densities as large as ~600 nA cm-2 while still the incident photon to generated electron quantum efficiency was as low as %3 x 10-4. 2- The second approach is to immobilize wild type RCs of Rhodobacter sphaeroides on the surface of a Au underlying electrode using self-assembled monolayers of carboxylic acid terminated oligomers and cytochrome c charge mediating layers, with a preferential orientation from the primary electron donor site. This approach resulted in EQE of up to 0.06%, which showed 200 times efficiency improvement comparing to the first approach. In the third approach, instead of isolated protein complexes, RCs plus light harvesting (LH) complexes were employed for a better photon absorption. Direct attachment of RC-LH1 complexes on Au working electrodes, resulted in 0.21% EQE which showed 3.5 times efficiency improvement over the second approach (700 times higher than the first approach). The main impact of this work is the harnessing of biological RCs for efficient energy harvesting in man-made structures. Specifically, the results in this work will advance the application of RCs in devices for energy harvesting and will enable a better understanding of bio and nanomaterial interfaces, thereby advancing the application of biological materials in electronic devices. At the end, this work offers general guidelines that can serve to improve the performance of bio-hybrid solar cells.

  5. Complex formation between uranyl and various thiosemicarbazide derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Chuguryan, D.G.; Dzyubenko, V.I.

    1987-01-01

    Complex formation between hexavalent uranium and salicylaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (H/sub 2/L), salicylaldehyde S-methyl-isothiosemicarbazone (H/sub 2/Q), S-methyl-N/sub 1/,N/sub 4/-bis(salicylidene)isothiosemicarbazide(H/sub 2/Z), and thiosemicarbazidodiacetic acid (H/sub 2/R) has been studied spectrophotometrically in solution. Stability constants for complexes having the composition UO/sub 2/A have been calculated. Solid uranyl derivatives having the composition UO/sub 2/L x 2H/sub 2/O, UO/sub 2/Q x 2H/sub 2/O, UO/sub 2/Z x 2H/sub 2/O, and UO/sub 2/R x 2H/sub 2/O have been obtained. These derivatives were isolated and their IR spectroscopic behavior and thermal properties were investigated.

  6. Molecular determinants of orexin receptor-arrestinubiquitin complex formation

    PubMed Central

    Jaeger, Werner C; Seeber, Ruth M; Eidne, Karin A; Pfleger, Kevin DG

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The orexin system regulates a multitude of key physiological processes, particularly involving maintenance of metabolic homeostasis. Consequently, there is considerable potential for pharmaceutical development for the treatment of disorders from narcolepsy to metabolic syndrome. It acts through the hormonal activity of two endogenous peptides, orexin A binding to orexin receptors 1 and 2 (OX1 and OX2) with similar affinity, and orexin B binding to OX2 with higher affinity than OX1 receptors. We have previously revealed data differentiating orexin receptor subtypes with respect to their relative stability in forming orexin receptor-arrestin-ubiquitin complexes measured by BRET. Recycling and cellular signalling distinctions were also observed. Here, we have investigated, using BRET, the molecular determinants involved in providing OX2 receptors with greater β-arrestin-ubiquitin complex stability. Experimental Approach: The contribution of the C-terminal tail of the OX receptors was investigated by bulk substitution and site-specific mutagenesis using BRET and inositol phosphate assays. Key Results: Replacement of the OX1 receptor C-terminus with that of the OX2 receptor did not result in the expected gain of function, indicating a role for intracellular domain configuration in addition to primary structure. Furthermore, two out of the three putative serine/threonine clusters in the C-terminus were found to be involved in OX2 receptor-β-arrestin-ubiquitin complex formation. Conclusions and Implications: This study provides fundamental insights into the molecular elements that influence receptor-arrestin-ubiquitin complex formation. Understanding how and why the orexin receptors can be functionally differentiated brings us closer to exploiting these receptors as drug targets. Linked Articles: This article is part of a themed section on Orexin Receptors. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-2 PMID:24206104

  7. Novel tailoring reaction for two adjacent coordinated nitriles giving platinum 1,3,5-triazapentadiene complexes.

    PubMed

    Gushchin, Pavel V; Tyan, Marina R; Bokach, Nadezhda A; Revenco, Mikhail D; Haukka, Matti; Wang, Meng-Jiy; Lai, Cheng-Hsuan; Chou, Pi-Tai; Kukushkin, Vadim Yu

    2008-12-15

    The tailoring reaction of the two adjacent nitrile ligands in cis-[PtCl(2)(RCN)(2)] (R = Me, Et, CH(2)Ph, Ph) and [Pt(tmeda)(EtCN)(2)][SO(3)CF(3)](2) (8.(OTf)(2); tmeda = N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine) upon their interplay with N,N'-diphenylguanidine (DPG; NH=C(NHPh)(2)), in a 1:2 molar ratio gives the 1,3,5-triazapentadiene complexes [PtCl(2){NHC(R)NHC(R)=NH}] (1-4) and [Pt(tmeda){NHC(Et)NHC(Et)NH}][SO(3)CF(3)](2) (10.(OTf)(2)), respectively. In contrast to the reaction of 8.(OTf)(2) with NH=C(NHPh)(2), interaction of 8.(OTf)(2) with excess gaseous NH(3) leads to formation of the platinum(II) bis(amidine) complex cis-[Pt(tmeda){NH=C(NH(2))Et}(2)][SO(3)CF(3)](2) (9.(OTf)(2)). Treatment of trans-[PtCl(2)(RCN)(2)] (R = Et, CH(2)Ph, Ph) with 2 equiv of NH=C(NHPh)(2) in EtCN (R = Et) and CH(2)Cl(2) (R = CH(2)Ph, Ph) solutions at 20-25 degrees C leads to [PtCl{NH=C(R)NC(NHPh)=NPh}(RCN)] (11-13). When any of the trans-[PtCl(2)(RCN)(2)] (R = Et, CH(2)Ph, Ph) complexes reacts in the corresponding nitrile RCN with 4 equiv of DPG at prolonged reaction time (75 degrees C, 1-2 days), complexes containing two bidentate 1,3,5-triazapentadiene ligands, i.e. [Pt{NH=C(R)NC(NHPh)=NPh}(2)] (14-16), are formed. Complexes 14-16 exhibit strong phosphorescence in the solid state, with quantum yields (peak wavelengths) of 0.39 (530 nm), 0.61 (460 nm), and 0.74 (530 nm), respectively. The formulation of the obtained complexes was supported by satisfactory C, H, and N elemental analyses, in agreement with FAB-MS, ESI-MS, IR, and (1)H and (13)C{(1)H} NMR spectra. The structures of 1, 2, 4, 11, 13, 14, 9.(picrate)(2), and 10.(picrate)(2) were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. PMID:18376821

  8. Characterization of Hydrogen Complex Formation in III-V Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Michael D

    2006-09-28

    Atomic hydrogen has been found to react with some impurity species in semiconductors. Hydrogenation is a methodology for the introduction of atomic hydrogen into the semiconductor for the express purpose of forming complexes within the material. Efforts to develop hydrogenation as an isolation technique for AlGaAs and Si based devices failed to demonstrate its commercial viability. This was due in large measure to the low activation energies of the formed complexes. Recent studies of dopant passivation in long wavelength (0.98 - 1.55m) materials suggested that for the appropriate choice of dopants much higher activation energies can be obtained. This effort studied the formation of these complexes in InP, This material is extensively used in optoelectronics, i.e., lasers, modulators and detectors. The experimental techniques were general to the extent that the results can be applied to other areas such as sensor technology, photovoltaics and to other material systems. The activation energies for the complexes have been determined and are reported in the scientific literature. The hydrogenation process has been shown by us to have a profound effect on the electronic structure of the materials and was thoroughly investigated. The information obtained will be useful in assessing the long term reliability of device structures fabricated using this phenomenon and in determining new device functionalities.

  9. Glutathione-Complexed Iron-Sulfur Clusters. Reaction Intermediates and Evidence for a Template Effect Promoting Assembly and Stability

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Wenbin; Li, Jingwei; Chain, C. Y; Pasquevich, G.A.; Pasquevich, A. F.; Cowan, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    Assembly and stabilization of a glutathione-complexed [2Fe-2S] cluster is promoted by aggregation of glutathione. The cluster core selects the tetramer species from a collection of equilibrating solution aggregate species, and in turn the core is stabilized toward hydrolytic degradation. Studies of glutathione derivatives, in combination with mass spectrometric and Mssbauer investigations provide insight on reaction intermediates during formation of [2Fe-2S](GS)42-. PMID:23739324

  10. Photoinduced reactions of organic compounds with transition-metal complexes. VII. Photochemical oxidative coupling of arenes under the action of chloride complexes of Os(IV), Ir(IV), and Rh(III)

    SciTech Connect

    Shul'pin, G.B.; Nizova, G.V.; Serdobov, M.V.

    1987-08-10

    The irradiation of solutions of anisole and the complex OsCl/sub 6//sup 2 -/, IrCl/sub 6//sup 2 -/, or RhCl/sub 3/ in acetic acid leads to the formation of dimethoxybiphenyls. Reaction probably starts with the transfer of an electron from the arene to an excited species of the complex.

  11. Mixed amido-/imido-/guanidinato niobium complexes: synthesis and the effect of ligands on insertion reactions.

    PubMed

    Elorriaga, David; Carrillo-Hermosilla, Fernando; Antiñolo, Antonio; López-Solera, Isabel; Fernández-Galán, Rafael; Villaseñor, Elena

    2014-12-14

    The new monoguanidinato complexes [Nb(NMe2)2{N(2,6-(i)Pr2C6H3)}{(NR)(NR')C(NMe2)}] (R = R' = (i)Pr, 2; R = (t)Bu, R' = Et, 3) were obtained by the insertion reaction of either diisopropylcarbodiimide or 1-tert-butyl-3-ethylcarbodiimide with the triamido precursor [Nb(NMe2)3(N-2,6-(i)Pr2C6H3)] (1) bearing a bulky imido moiety. The μ-oxo derivative [{N(2,6-(i)Pr2C6H3)}{(N(i)Pr)2C(NMe2)}(NMe2)Nb]2(μ-O) (2a) was formed by an unexpected hydrolysis reaction of the amido niobium compound 2. Alternatively, monoguanidinato complexes [Nb(NMe2)2{N(2,6-(i)Pr2C6H3)}{(N(i)Pr)2C(NHR)}] (R = (i)Pr, 4, (n)Bu, 5) can be obtained by protonolysis of 1 with N,N',N''-alkylguanidines [(NH(i)Pr)2C(NR)] (R = (i)Pr, (n)Bu). Compound also reacts with either tert-butylisocyanide or 2,6-xylylisocyanide to give, by a migratory insertion reaction, the corresponding iminocarbamoyl compounds [Nb(NMe2)2{(NMe2)C=NR}{N(2,6-(i)Pr2C6H3)}] (R = (t)Bu, 6, Xy, 7). Addition of the neutral alkylguanidines to complex 6 results in a facile C-N bond cleavage at room temperature in a process directed by the formation of the stable chelate complex 4 or 5. Complex reacts with heterocumulenic CS2 to produce new imido dithiocarbamato complexes [Nb(NMe2){S2C(NMe2)}2{N(2,6-(i)Pr2C6H3)}] (8) and [Nb{S2C(NMe2)}3{N(2,6-(i)Pr2C6H3)}] (9). These complexes do not react with alkylguanines, although new mixed guanidinato dithiocarbamato complexes [Nb(NMe2){S2C(NMe2)}{(N(i)Pr)2C(NHiPr)}{N(2,6-(i)Pr2C6H3)}] (10) and [Nb{(S2C(NMe2)}2{(N(i)Pr)2C(NH(i)Pr)}{N(2,6-(i)Pr2C6H3)}] (11) can be obtained by reaction of complex 4 with one or two equivalents of CS2, respectively. All of the complexes were characterized spectroscopically and the dynamic behaviour of some of them was studied by variable-temperature NMR. The molecular structures of 2a, 3, 6 and 10 were also established by X-ray diffraction studies. PMID:25338231

  12. Formation of transition metal-doxorubicin complexes inside liposomes.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Sheela Ann; Edwards, Katarina; Karlsson, Göran; MacIntosh, Scott; Mayer, Lawrence D; McKenzie, Cheryl; Bally, Marcel B

    2002-09-20

    Doxorubicin complexation with the transition metal manganese (Mn(2+)) has been characterized, differentiating between the formation of a doxorubicin-metal complex and doxorubicin fibrous-bundle aggregates typically generated following ion gradient-based loading procedures that rely on liposome encapsulated citrate or sulfate salts. The physical and chemical characteristics of the encapsulated drug were assessed using cryo-electron microscopy, circular dichroism (CD) and absorbance spectrophotometric analysis. In addition, in vitro and in vivo drug loading and release characteristics of the liposomal formulations were investigated. Finally, the internal pH after drug loading was measured with the aim of linking formation of the Mn(2+) complex to the presence or absence of a transmembrane pH gradient. Doxorubicin was encapsulated into either 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC)/cholesterol (Chol) or 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC)/Chol liposomes, where the entrapped salts were citrate, MnSO(4) or MnCl(2). In response to a pH gradient or a Mn(2+) ion gradient, doxorubicin accumulated inside to achieve a drug-to-lipid ratio of approximately 0.2:1 (wt/wt). Absorbance and CD spectra of doxorubicin in the presence of Mn(2+) suggested that there are two distinct structures captured within the liposomes. In the absence of added ionophore A23187, drug loading is initiated on the basis of an established pH gradient; however, efficient drug uptake is not dependent on maintenance of the pH gradient. Drug release from DMPC/Chol is comparable regardless of whether doxorubicin is entrapped as a citrate-based aggregate or a Mn(2+) complex. However, in vivo drug release from DSPC/Chol liposomes indicate less than 5% or greater than 50% drug loss over a 24-h time course when the drug was encapsulated as an aggregate or a Mn(2+) complex, respectively. These studies define a method for entrapping drugs possessing coordination sites capable of complexing transition metals and suggest that drug release is dependent on lipid composition, internal pH, as well as the nature of the crystalline precipitate, which forms following encapsulation. PMID:12225851

  13. Complex reaction dynamics in the cerium-bromate-2-methyl-1,4-hydroquinone photoreaction.

    PubMed

    Bell, Jeffrey G; Green, James R; Wang, Jichang

    2014-10-23

    Spontaneous oscillations with a long induction time were observed in the bromate-2-methyl-1,4-hydroquinone photoreaction in a batch reactor, where removal of illumination effectively quenched any reactivity. A substantial lengthening of the oscillatory window and a dramatic increase in the complexity of the reaction behavior arose upon the addition of cerium ions, in which separate bifurcation regions and mixed mode oscillations were present. The complexity has a strong dependence on the intensity of illumination supplied to the system and on the initial concentrations of the reactants. (1)H NMR spectroscopy measurements show that the photoreduction of 2-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone leads to the formation of 2-methyl-1,4-hydroquinone and the compound 2-hydroxy-3-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone. Spectroscopic investigation also indicates that the presence of methyl group hinders the bromination of the studied organic substrate 2-methyl-1,4-hydroquinone, resulting in the formation of 2-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone. PMID:25279948

  14. Complexation reactions of phthalic acid and aluminium (III) with the surface of goethite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lvgren, Lars

    1991-12-01

    Complexation reactions of phthalic acid at the goethite-solution interface have been investigated in the absence and the presence of Al(III) in order to evaluate an equilibrium model applicable in chemical modelling. Phthalic acid was chosen as a model compound for natural organic substances. The study was performed as potentiometric titrations in 0.100 M NaNO 3 at 298.2 K using a glass electrode. Evaluation of experimental data was based on the constant-capacitance model ( K = 1.28 Fm-2). Complexation of phthalic acid (H 2L) at the surface of goethite is rather weak and results in the formation of mononuclear species, as described by the equilibria and intrinsic equilibrium constants (3 ?): ? FeOH + H2L ? FeLH + H2O; log?0,1,0,1( int) s = 6.68 (0.05) and ? FeOH + H2L ? FeL- + H2O + H+; log?-1,1,0,1( int) s = 0.35 (0.06). In the presence of Al(III), the adsorption behavior of phthalic acid indicated formation of ternary surface complexes in the region 4 ?- log [ H+] ?7. Additional complexes occurring in the four-component system are described by the equilibria and intrinsic equilibrium constants: ? FeOH + Al3+ + H2L ? FeOAlL + 3 H+; log?-3,1,1,1( int) s = -2.7 (0.29) and ? FeOH + Al3+ + H2L + H2O ? FeOAl( OH) L- + 4 H+; log?-4,1,1,1( int) s = -8.3 (0.16).

  15. Pattern formation of Cu layer by photocatalytic reaction of ZnO thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshiki, Hajime; Kitahara, Hiromitsu; Hashimoto, Kazuhito; Fujishima, Akira

    1995-12-01

    A new, fully additive-based, electroless plating process for the formation of fine Cu patterns without using a conventional photoresist has been developed which utilizes a photocatalytic reaction of ZnO thin films prepared on ceramic substrates for printed circuit boards. The ZnO layer serves both as an adhesive layer and as a photosensitive layer. The Cu patterns could be easily fabricated in an electroless Cu plating bath after Pd nuclei, which act as catalytic sites for the electroless plating, were patterned via an area-selective photocatalytic reaction. This was achieved by adsorbing Pd(II) onto the ZnO surface and selectively exposing the surface with UV light through a photomask. The unexposed regions can be freed of Pd(II) using ethylenediamine, which can form a stable complex with Pd(II). Cu patterns 17 {micro}m wide, with adhesion strengths suitable for practical use, have been achieved on alumina substrates with this electroless plating method.

  16. Iterative reactions of transient boronic acids enable sequential C-C bond formation.

    PubMed

    Battilocchio, Claudio; Feist, Florian; Hafner, Andreas; Simon, Meike; Tran, Duc N; Allwood, Daniel M; Blakemore, David C; Ley, Steven V

    2016-04-01

    The ability to form multiple carbon-carbon bonds in a controlled sequence and thus rapidly build molecular complexity in an iterative fashion is an important goal in modern chemical synthesis. In recent times, transition-metal-catalysed coupling reactions have dominated in the development of C-C bond forming processes. A desire to reduce the reliance on precious metals and a need to obtain products with very low levels of metal impurities has brought a renewed focus on metal-free coupling processes. Here, we report the in situ preparation of reactive allylic and benzylic boronic acids, obtained by reacting flow-generated diazo compounds with boronic acids, and their application in controlled iterative C-C bond forming reactions is described. Thus far we have shown the formation of up to three C-C bonds in a sequence including the final trapping of a reactive boronic acid species with an aldehyde to generate a range of new chemical structures. PMID:27001732

  17. Reaction of nitrosonium cation with resorc[4]arenes activated by supramolecular control: covalent bond formation.

    PubMed

    Ghirga, Francesca; D'Acquarica, Ilaria; Delle Monache, Giuliano; Mannina, Luisa; Molinaro, Carmela; Nevola, Laura; Sobolev, Anatoly P; Pierini, Marco; Botta, Bruno

    2013-07-19

    Resorc[4]arenes 1 and 2, which previously proved to entrap NO(+) cation within their cavities under conditions of host-to-guest excess, were treated with a 10-fold excess of NOBF4 salt in chloroform. Kinetic and spectral UV-visible analyses revealed the formation of isomeric 1:2 complexes as a direct evolution of the previously observed event. Accordingly, three-body 1-(NO(+))2 and 2-(NO(+))2 adducts were built by MM and fully optimized by DFT calculations at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory. Notably, covalent nitration products 4, 5 and 6, 7 were obtained by reaction of NOBF4 salt with host 1 and 2, respectively, involving macrocycle ring-opening and insertion of a nitro group in one of the four aromatic rings. In particular, compounds 4 and 6, both containing a trans-double bond in the place of the methine bridge, were oxidized to aldehydes 5 and 7, respectively, after addition of water to the reaction mixture. Calculation of the charge and frontier orbitals of the aromatic donor (HOMO) and the NO(+) acceptor (LUMO) clearly suggests an ipso electrophilic attack by a first NO(+) unit on the resorcinol ring, mediated by the second NO(+) unit. PMID:23786237

  18. Incipient species formation in salamanders of the Ensatina?complex

    PubMed Central

    Wake, David B.

    1997-01-01

    The Ensatina eschscholtzii complex of plethodontid salamanders, a well-known ring species, is thought to illustrate stages in the speciation process. Early research, based on morphology and coloration, has been extended by the incorporation of studies of protein variation and mitochondrial DNA sequences. The new data show that the complex includes a number of geographically and genetically distinct components that are at or near the species level. The complex is old and apparently has undergone instances of range contraction, isolation, differentiation, and then expansion and secondary contact. While the hypothesis that speciation is retarded by gene flow around the ring is not supported by molecular data, the general biogeographical hypothesis is supported. There is evidence of a north to south range expansion along two axes, with secondary contact and completion of the ring in southern California. Current research targets regions once thought to show primary intergradation, but which molecular markers reveal to be zones of secondary contact. Here emphasis is on the subspecies E. e. xanthoptica, which is involved in four distinct secondary contacts in central California. There is evidence of renewed genetic interactions upon recontact, with greater genetic differentiation within xanthoptica than between it and some of the interacting populations. The complex presents a full array of intermediate conditions between well-marked species and geographically variable populations. Geographically differentiated segments represent a diversity of depths of time of isolation and admixture, reflecting the complicated geomorphological history of California. Ensatina illustrates the continuing difficulty in making taxonomic assignments in complexes studied during species formation. PMID:9223261

  19. Clay surface catalysis of formation of humic substances: potential role of maillard reactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mechanisms of the formation of humic substances are poorly understood, especially the condensation of amino acids and reducing sugars products (Maillard reaction) in soil environments. Clay minerals behave as Lewis and Brönsted acids and catalyze several reactions and likely to catalyze the Mai...

  20. Role of water complexes in the reaction of propionaldehyde with OH radicals.

    PubMed

    Vhringer-Martinez, E; Tellbach, E; Liessmann, M; Abel, B

    2010-09-16

    There has been considerable debate and speculation about the role of weakly bound complexes in radical-molecule reactions in the gas phase, especially in atmospheric chemistry. Among the significant number of potentially important molecular aggregates in chemical reactions, water complexes are of particular interest. Beyond the well-known energy transfer role of water in complex-forming reactions, it has been shown that water may also have a catalytic effect on the kinetics of radical-molecule reactions because of reduced reaction barrier heights for the complexes. Here we report studies of the reaction of OH radicals and propionaldehyde in the presence and absence of water vapor between 300 and 60 K in Laval nozzle expansions. Water accelerates the overall reaction at low temperatures but much less pronounced than for the reaction of OH with acetaldehyde reported recently. Quantum chemical calculations help us to understand this behavior, which can be rationalized in terms of the stability of intermediate reaction complexes and the effect of water aggregation on the barrier separating prereactive complexes and products. PMID:20507131

  1. Complexation reactions in aquatic systems. An analytical approach

    SciTech Connect

    Buffle, J.

    1988-01-01

    This 10-chapter book discusses components of aquatic systems, natural organic matter, aquatic organic compounds, complexation equilibria, homologous complexants, in situ distribution of chemical species, potentiometric methods, voltammetric methods, and nonelectrochemical methods. The references are from the 1970s and early 1980s. An index and an extensive reference section also are provided.

  2. Nickel-Catalyzed Reactions Directed toward the Formation of Heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Kurahashi, Takuya; Matsubara, Seijiro

    2015-06-16

    Heterocycles have garnered significant attention because they are important functional building blocks in various useful molecules, such as pharmaceuticals, agricultural chemicals, pesticides, and materials. Several studies have been conducted regarding the preparation of heterocyclic skeletons with an emphasis on selectivity and efficiency. Three strategies are typically employed to construct cyclic molecules, namely, cyclization, cycloaddition, and ring-size alterations. Although each method has certain advantages, cycloaddition may be superior from the viewpoint of divergence. Specifically, cycloadditions enable the construction of rings from several pieces. However, the construction of heterocycles via cycloadditions is more challenging than the construction of carbocycles. For heterocycle construction, simple pericyclic reactions rarely work smoothly because of the large HOMO-LUMO gap unless well-designed combinations, such as electron-rich dienes and aldehydes, are utilized. Thus, a different approach should be employed to prepare heterocycles via cycloadditions. To this end, the use of metallacycles containing heteroatoms is expected to serve as a promising solution. In this study, we focused on the preparation of heteroatom-containing nickelacycles. Because nickel possesses a relatively high redox potential and an affinity for heteroatoms, several methods were developed to synthesize heteronickelacycles from various starting materials. The prepared nickelacycles were demonstrated to be reasonable intermediates in cycloaddition reactions, which were used to prepare various heterocycles. In this Account, we introduce the following four methods to prepare heterocycles via heteronickelacycles. (1) Direct oxidative insertion of Ni(0) to ?,?-unsaturated enone derivatives: treatment of 3-ethoxycarbonyl-4-phenyl-3-buten-2-one with Ni(0) afforded an oxa-nickelacycle, which reacted with alkynes to give pyrans. (2) Substitution of a part of a cyclic compound with low-valent nickel, accompanied by elimination of small molecules such as CO, CO2, and acetophenone: treatment of phthalic anhydride with Ni(0) in the presence of ZnCl2 afforded the oxanickelacycle, which was formed via decarbonylative insertion of Ni(0) and reacted with alkynes to give isocumarins. (3) Cyclization to a nickelacycle, accompanied by two C-C ?-bond activations: insertion of Ni(0) into an arylnitrile, followed by aryl cyanation of an alkyne, gave alkenylnickel as an intermediate. The alkenylnickel species subsequently underwent an intramolecular nucleophilic attack with an arylcarbonyl group to form a cyclized product with concomitant cleavage of the C-C ?-bond between the carbonyl and aryl groups. (4) Assembly of several components to form a heteroatom-containing nickelacycle via cycloaddition: a new [2 + 2 + 1] cyclization reaction was carried out using an ?,?-unsaturated ester, isocyanate, and alkyne via a nickelacycle. On the basis of these four strategies, we developed new methods to prepare heterocyclic compounds using nickelacycles as the key active species. PMID:25989256

  3. Proton exchange in acid-base complexes induced by reaction coordinates with heavy atom motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alavi, Saman; Taghikhani, Mahdi

    2012-06-01

    We extend previous work on nitric acid-ammonia and nitric acid-alkylamine complexes to illustrate that proton exchange reaction coordinates involve the rocking motion of the base moiety in many double hydrogen-bonded gas phase strong acid-strong base complexes. The complexes studied involve the biologically and atmospherically relevant glycine, formic, acetic, propionic, and sulfuric acids with ammonia/alkylamine bases. In these complexes, the magnitude of the imaginary frequencies associated with the proton exchange transition states are <400 cm-1. This contrasts with widely studied proton exchange reactions between symmetric carboxylic acid dimers or asymmetric DNA base pair and their analogs where the reaction coordinate is localized in proton motions and the magnitude of the imaginary frequencies for the transition states are >1100 cm-1. Calculations on complexes of these acids with water are performed for comparison. Variations of normal vibration modes along the reaction coordinate in the complexes are described.

  4. A Macroscopic Reaction: Direct Covalent Bond Formation between Materials Using a Suzuki-Miyaura Cross-Coupling Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekine, Tomoko; Kakuta, Takahiro; Nakamura, Takashi; Kobayashi, Yuichiro; Takashima, Yoshinori; Harada, Akira

    2014-09-01

    Cross-coupling reactions are important to form C-C covalent bonds using metal catalysts. Although many different cross-coupling reactions have been developed and applied to synthesize complex molecules or polymers (macromolecules), if cross-coupling reactions are realized in the macroscopic real world, the scope of materials should be dramatically broadened. Here, Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reactions are realized between macroscopic objects. When acrylamide gel modified with an iodophenyl group (I-gel) reacts with a gel possessing a phenylboronic group (PB-gel) using a palladium catalyst, the gels bond to form a single object. This concept can also be adapted for bonding between soft and hard materials. I-gel or PB-gel selectively bonds to the glass substrates whose surfaces are modified with an electrophile or nucleophile, respectively.

  5. A Macroscopic Reaction: Direct Covalent Bond Formation between Materials Using a Suzuki-Miyaura Cross-Coupling Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Sekine, Tomoko; Kakuta, Takahiro; Nakamura, Takashi; Kobayashi, Yuichiro; Takashima, Yoshinori; Harada, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Cross-coupling reactions are important to form CC covalent bonds using metal catalysts. Although many different cross-coupling reactions have been developed and applied to synthesize complex molecules or polymers (macromolecules), if cross-coupling reactions are realized in the macroscopic real world, the scope of materials should be dramatically broadened. Here, Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reactions are realized between macroscopic objects. When acrylamide gel modified with an iodophenyl group (I-gel) reacts with a gel possessing a phenylboronic group (PB-gel) using a palladium catalyst, the gels bond to form a single object. This concept can also be adapted for bonding between soft and hard materials. I-gel or PB-gel selectively bonds to the glass substrates whose surfaces are modified with an electrophile or nucleophile, respectively. PMID:25231557

  6. Complex behavior of self-propagating reaction waves in heterogeneous media

    PubMed Central

    Varma, Arvind; Rogachev, Alexander S.; Mukasyan, Alexander S.; Hwang, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    Self-propagating high temperature reaction waves, leading to the synthesis of advanced materials, are investigated in a variety of heterogeneous reaction systems by using a digital high-speed microscopic video recording technique. It is shown that, although on the macroscopic length and time scales, the reaction appears to move in a steady mode, on the microscopic level it has a complex character that is related to the reaction mechanism. PMID:9736688

  7. Fluoridonitrosyl complexes of technetium(I) and technetium(II). Synthesis, characterization, reactions, and DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Balasekaran, Samundeeswari Mariappan; Spandl, Johann; Hagenbach, Adelheid; Khler, Klaus; Drees, Markus; Abram, Ulrich

    2014-05-19

    A mixture of [Tc(NO)F5](2-) and [Tc(NO)(NH3)4F](+) is formed during the reaction of pertechnetate with acetohydroxamic acid (Haha) in aqueous HF. The blue pentafluoridonitrosyltechnetate(II) has been isolated in crystalline form as potassium and rubidium salts, while the orange-red ammine complex crystallizes as bifluoride or PF6(-) salts. Reactions of [Tc(NO)F5](2-) salts with HCl give the corresponding [Tc(NO)Cl4/5](-/2-) complexes, while reflux in neat pyridine (py) results in the formation of the technetium(I) cation [Tc(NO)(py)4F](+), which can be crystallized as hexafluoridophosphate. The same compound can be synthesized directly from pertechnetate, Haha, HF, and py or by a ligand-exchange procedure starting from [Tc(NO)(NH3)4F](HF2). The technetium(I) cation [Tc(NO)(NH3)4F](+) can be oxidized electrochemically or by the reaction with Ce(SO4)2 to give the corresponding Tc(II) compound [Tc(NO)(NH3)4F](2+). The fluorido ligand in [Tc(NO)(NH3)4F](+) can be replaced by CF3COO(-), leaving the "[Tc(NO)(NH3)4](2+) core" untouched. The experimental results are confirmed by density functional theory calculations on [Tc(NO)F5](2-), [Tc(NO)(py)4F](+), [Tc(NO)(NH3)4F](+), and [Tc(NO)(NH3)4F](2+). PMID:24797021

  8. Generalization of the Activated Complex Theory of Reaction Rates. I. Quantum Mechanical Treatment

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Marcus, R. A.

    1964-01-01

    In its usual form activated complex theory assumes a quasi-equilibrium between reactants and activated complex, a separable reaction coordinate, a Cartesian reaction coordinate, and an absence of interaction of rotation with internal motion in the complex. In the present paper a rate expression is derived without introducing the Cartesian assumption. The expression bears a formal resemblance to the usual one and reduces to it when the added assumptions of the latter are introduced.

  9. Multi-path variational transition state theory for chemical reaction rates of complex polyatomic species: ethanol + OH reactions.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jingjing; Truhlar, Donald G

    2012-01-01

    Complex molecules often have many structures (conformations) of the reactants and the transition states, and these structures may be connected by coupled-mode torsions and pseudorotations; some but not all structures may have hydrogen bonds in the transition state or reagents. A quantitative theory of the reaction rates of complex molecules must take account of these structures, their coupled-mode nature, their qualitatively different character, and the possibility of merging reaction paths at high temperature. We have recently developed a coupled-mode theory called multi-structural variational transition state theory (MS-VTST) and an extension, called multi-path variational transition state theory (MP-VTST), that includes a treatment of the differences in the multi-dimensional tunneling paths and their contributions to the reaction rate. The MP-VTST method was presented for unimolecular reactions in the original paper and has now been extended to bimolecular reactions. The MS-VTST and MP-VTST formulations of variational transition state theory include multi-faceted configuration-space dividing surfaces to define the variational transition state. They occupy an intermediate position between single-conformation variational transition state theory (VTST), which has been used successfully for small molecules, and ensemble-averaged variational transition state theory (EA-VTST), which has been used successfully for enzyme kinetics. The theories are illustrated and compared here by application to three thermal rate constants for reactions of ethanol with hydroxyl radical--reactions with 4, 6, and 14 saddle points. PMID:23230764

  10. Paramagnetic intermediates in reactions of the components of catalytic systems of the Ziegler type. Reactions of azo and azomethine complexes of Ni(II) with diethylaluminum chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Abbasov, Ya.A.; Ismailov, E.G.; Medzhidov, A.A.

    1988-04-01

    The intermediate paramagnetic particles, i.e., radical particles, complexes of Ni(I), and Ni/sub n/(O) aggregates, formed as a result of the reaction of azo and azomethine complexes of Ni(II) with Et/sub 2/AlCl in solvent media (toluene, THF, heptane) have been identified with the aid of ESR. The possibility of the stabilization of reactive intermediate complexes of Ni(I) by organophosphorus ligands (DPPE and TPP) has been demonstrated, and the magnetic-resonance parameters of their adducts have been determined. It has been postulated that the formation of radical particles occurs as a result of the coordination of the nitrogen atoms of the azo or azomethine ligands by the organoaluminum compound followed by splitting of the -N=N or -CH=N bonds.

  11. The C(3P) + NH3 Reaction in Interstellar Chemistry. I. Investigation of the Product Formation Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgalais, Jrmy; Capron, Michael; Abhinavam Kailasanathan, Ranjith Kumar; Osborn, David L.; Hickson, Kevin M.; Loison, Jean-Christophe; Wakelam, Valentine; Goulay, Fabien; Le Picard, Sbastien D.

    2015-10-01

    The product formation channels of ground state carbon atoms, C(3P), reacting with ammonia, NH3, have been investigated using two complementary experiments and electronic structure calculations. Reaction products are detected in a gas flow tube experiment (330 K, 4 Torr) using tunable vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization coupled with time of flight mass spectrometry. Temporal profiles of the species formed and photoionization spectra are used to identify primary products of the C + NH3 reaction. In addition, H-atom formation is monitored by VUV laser induced fluorescence (LIF) from room temperature to 50 K in a supersonic gas flow generated by the Laval nozzle technique. Electronic structure calculations are performed to derive intermediates, transition states, and complexes formed along the reaction coordinate. The combination of photoionization and LIF experiments supported by theoretical calculations indicate that in the temperature and pressure range investigated, the H + H2CN production channel represents 100% of the product yield for this reaction. Kinetics measurements of the title reaction down to 50 K and the effect of the new rate constants on interstellar nitrogen hydride abundances using a model of dense interstellar clouds are reported in Paper II.

  12. Pattern Formation in the Bromate-Sulfite-Ferrocyanide Reaction.

    PubMed

    Molnár, István; Szalai, István

    2015-10-01

    Mixed Landolt-type pH oscillators are versatile systems that allow the experimental study of a wide range of nonlinear phenomena including multistability, oscillations, and spatiotemporal patterns. We report on the dynamics of the bromate-sulfite-ferrocyanide reaction operated in a open one-side-fed reactor, where spatial bistability, spatiotemporal oscillations, front and Turing-type patterns have been observed. The role of different experimental parameters, like the input flow concentrations of the hydrogen and the ferrocyanide ions, the temperature and the thickness of the gel medium (which affects the rate of the diffusive feed) have been investigated. We point out that all these parameters can be efficiently used to control the spatiotemporal dynamics. We show that the increase of ionic strength stabilizes the uniform states at the expense of the patterned one. Some general aspects of the spatiotemporal dynamics of mixed Landolt type systems, which are based on the oxidation of sulfite ions by strong oxidants, are emphasized. PMID:26371068

  13. Perfluoroalkyl Cobalt(III) Fluoride and Bis(perfluoroalkyl) Complexes: Catalytic Fluorination and Selective Difluorocarbene Formation.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Matthew C; Bayne, Julia M; Lee, Graham M; Gorelsky, Serge I; Vasiliu, Monica; Korobkov, Ilia; Harrison, Daniel J; Dixon, David A; Baker, R Tom

    2015-12-30

    Four perfluoroalkyl cobalt(III) fluoride complexes have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, and powder X-ray diffraction. The remarkable cobalt fluoride (19)F NMR chemical shifts (-716 to -759 ppm) were studied computationally, and the contributing paramagnetic and diamagnetic factors were extracted. Additionally, the complexes were shown to be active in the catalytic fluorination of p-toluoyl chloride. Furthermore, two examples of cobalt(III) bis(perfluoroalkyl)complexes were synthesized and their reactivity studied. Interestingly, abstraction of a fluoride ion from these complexes led to selective formation of cobalt difluorocarbene complexes derived from the trifluoromethyl ligand. These electrophilic difluorocarbenes were shown to undergo insertion into the remaining perfluoroalkyl fragment, demonstrating the elongation of a perfluoroalkyl chain arising from a difluorocarbene insertion on a cobalt metal center. The reactions of both the fluoride and bis(perfluoroalkyl) complexes provide insight into the potential catalytic applications of these model systems to form small fluorinated molecules as well as fluoropolymers. PMID:26674217

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation from benzyl radicals: a reaction kinetics study.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Sourab; Raj, Abhijeet

    2016-03-01

    The role of resonantly stabilized radicals such as propargyl, cyclopentadienyl and benzyl in the formation of aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene and naphthalene in the high temperature environments has been long known. In this work, the possibility of benzyl recombination to form three-ring aromatics, phenanthrene and anthracene, is explored. A reaction mechanism for it is developed, where reaction energetics are calculated using density functional theory (B3LYP functional with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set) and CBS-QB3, while temperature-dependent reaction kinetics are evaluated using transition state theory. The mechanism begins with barrierless formation of bibenzyl from two benzyl radicals with the release of 283.2 kJ mol(-1) of reaction energy. The further reactions involve H-abstraction by a H atom, H-desorption, H-migration, and ring closure to gain aromaticity. Through mechanism and rate of production analyses, the important reactions leading to phenanthrene and anthracene formation are determined. Phenanthrene is found to be the major product at high temperatures. Premixed laminar flame simulations are carried out by including the proposed reactions for phenanthrene formation from benzyl radicals and compared to experimentally observed species profiles to understand their effects on species concentrations. PMID:26923612

  15. Biological pattern formation: from basic mechanisms to complex structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, A. J.; Meinhardt, H.

    1994-10-01

    The reliable development of highly complex organisms is an intriguing and fascinating problem. The genetic material is, as a rule, the same in each cell of an organism. How then do cells, under the influence of their common genes, produce spatial patterns? Simple models are discussed that describe the generation of patterns out of an initially nearly homogeneous state. They are based on nonlinear interactions of at least two chemicals and on their diffusion. The concepts of local autocatalysis and of long-range inhibition play a fundamental role. Numerical simulations show that the models account for many basic biological observations such as the regeneration of a pattern after excision of tissue or the production of regular (or nearly regular) arrays of organs during (or after) completion of growth. Very complex patterns can be generated in a reproducible way by hierarchical coupling of several such elementary reactions. Applications to animal coats and to the generation of polygonally shaped patterns are provided. It is further shown how to generate a strictly periodic pattern of units that themselves exhibit a complex and polar fine structure. This is illustrated by two examples: the assembly of photoreceptor cells in the eye of Drosophila and the positioning of leaves and axillary buds in a growing shoot. In both cases, the substructures have to achieve an internal polarity under the influence of some primary pattern-forming system existing in the fly's eye or in the plant. The fact that similar models can describe essential steps in organisms as distantly related as animals and plants suggests that they reveal some universal mechanisms.

  16. Biological pattern formation: from basic mechanisms to complex structures

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, A.J.; Meinhardt, H. )

    1994-10-01

    The reliable development of highly complex organisms is an intriguing and fascinating problem. The genetic material is, as a rule, the same in each cell of an organism. How then do cells, under the influence of their common genes, produce spatial patterns Simple models are discussed that describe the generation of patterns out of an initially nearly homogeneous state. They are based on nonlinear interactions of at least two chemicals and on their diffusion. The concepts of local autocatalysis and of long-range inhibition play a fundamental role. Numerical simulations show that the models account for many basic biological observations such as the regeneration of a pattern after excision of tissue or the production of regular (or nearly regular) arrays of organs during (or after) completion of growth. Very complex patterns can be generated in a reproducible way by hierarchical coupling of several such elementary reactions. Applications to animal coats and to the generation of polygonally shaped patterns are provided. It is further shown how to generate a strictly periodic pattern of units that themselves exhibit a complex and polar fine structure. This is illustrated by two examples: the assembly of photoreceptor cells in the eye of [ital Drosophila] and the positioning of leaves and axillary buds in a growing shoot. In both cases, the substructures have to achieve an internal polarity under the influence of some primary pattern-forming system existing in the fly's eye or in the plant. The fact that similar models can describe essential steps in organisms as distantly related as animals and plants suggests that they reveal some universal mechanisms.

  17. Module Based Complexity Formation: Periodic Patterning in Feathers and Hairs

    PubMed Central

    Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Yeh, Chao-Yuan; Jiang, Ting-Xin; Widelitz, Randall

    2012-01-01

    Patterns describe order which emerges from homogeneity. Complex patterns on the integument are striking because of their visibility throughout an organism's lifespan. Periodic patterning is an effective design because the ensemble of hair or feather follicles (modules) allows the generation of complexity, including regional variations and cyclic regeneration, giving the skin appendages a new lease on life. Spatial patterns include the arrangements of feathers and hairs in specified number, size, and spacing. We explore how a field of equivalent progenitor cells can generate periodically arranged modules based on genetic information, physical-chemical rules and developmental timing. Reconstitution experiments suggest a competitive equilibrium regulated by activators / inhibitors involving Turing reaction-diffusion. Temporal patterns result from oscillating stem cell activities within each module (micro-environment regulation), reflected as growth (anagen) and resting (telogen) phases during the cycling of feather and hair follicles. Stimulating modules with activators initiates the spread of regenerative hair waves, while global inhibitors outside each module (macro-environment) prevent this. Different wave patterns can be simulated by Cellular Automata principles. Hormonal status and seasonal changes can modulate appendage phenotypes, leading to organ metamorphosis, with multiple ectodermal organ phenotypes generated from the same precursors. We discuss potential evolutionary novel steps using this module based complexity in several amniote integument organs, exemplified by the spectacular peacock feather pattern. We thus explore the application of the acquired knowledge of patterning in tissue engineering. New hair follicles can be generated after wounding. Hairs and feathers can be reconstituted through self-organization of dissociated progenitor cells. PMID:23539312

  18. Application of genetic algorithms to a detailed chemical reaction system for secondary organic aerosol formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, A.; Stroud, C.; Makar, P.

    2009-12-01

    An explicit chemical mechanism is instrumental to modeling secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. It is, however, difficult to implement an explicit mechanism in a 3-dimensional air quality model because of the high computational cost caused by a large number of reactions and organic species involved. To address this issue, a new simplified chemical reaction system is first proposed for ?-pinene SOA formation, which uses the volatility-basis set speciation for condensable products. The simple reaction system reflects the evolution of chemical species from a near-explicit master chemical mechanism (MCM) and it also unifies reactions between SOA precursors with different oxidants under different conditions. A total of 440 unknown parameters (product yields of parameterized products, reaction rates, etc.) from the new reaction system are estimated by using multi-objective genetic algorithms operating on the detailed mechanism. The number of species was reduced from 300 in the detailed mechanism to 30 in the simplified mechanism. Output species profiles, obtained from original subset of MCM reactions for ?-pinene oxidation, are reproduced for scenarios under a wide range of HC/NOx conditions. Ultimately, the same unified simple reaction system with updated parameters could be used to describe the SOA formation from different precursors.

  19. Formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from bimolecular reactions of phenyl radicals at high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Constantinidis, P; Schmitt, H-C; Fischer, I; Yan, B; Rijs, A M

    2015-10-28

    The self-reaction of the phenyl radical is one of the key reactions in combustion chemistry. Here we study this reaction in a high-temperature flow reactor by IR/UV ion dip spectroscopy, using free electron laser radiation as mid-infrared source. We identified several major reaction products based on their infrared spectra, among them indene, 1,2-dihydronaphthalene, naphthalene, biphenyl and para-terphenyl. Due to the structural sensitivity of the method, the reaction products were identified isomer-selectively. The work shows that the formation of indene and naphthalene, which was previously considered to be evidence for the HACA (hydrogen abstraction C2H2 addition) mechanism in the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and soot can also be understood in a phenyl addition model. PMID:26457393

  20. Single Nucleoprotein Residue Modulates Arenavirus Replication Complex Formation

    PubMed Central

    Knopp, Kristeene A.; Ngo, Tuan; Gershon, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Arenaviridae are enveloped, negative-sense RNA viruses with several family members that cause hemorrhagic fevers. This work provides immunofluorescence evidence that, unlike those of New World arenaviruses, the replication and transcription complexes (RTC) of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) colocalize with eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) and that eIF4E may participate in the translation of LCMV mRNA. Additionally, we identify two residues in the LCMV nucleoprotein (NP) that are conserved in every mammalian arenavirus and are required for recombinant LCMV recovery. One of these sites, Y125, was confirmed to be phosphorylated by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). NP Y125 is located in the N-terminal region of NP that is disordered when RNA is bound. The other site, NP T206, was predicted to be a phosphorylation site. Immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated that NP T206 is required for the formation of the punctate RTC that are typically observed during LCMV infection. A minigenome reporter assay using NP mutants, as well as Northern blot analysis, demonstrated that although NP T206A does not form punctate RTC, it can transcribe and replicate a minigenome. However, in the presence of matrix protein (Z) and glycoprotein (GP), translation of the minigenome message with NP T206A was inhibited, suggesting that punctate RTC formation is required to regulate viral replication. Together, these results highlight a significant difference between New and Old World arenaviruses and demonstrate the importance of RTC formation and translation priming in RTC for Old World arenaviruses. PMID:25922393

  1. Reaction mechanism of Ru(II) piano-stool complexes: umbrella sampling QM/MM MD study.

    PubMed

    Futera, Zden?k; Burda, Jaroslav V

    2014-07-15

    Biologically relevant interactions of piano-stool ruthenium(II) complexes with ds-DNA are studied in this article by hybrid quantum mechanics-molecular mechanics (QM/MM) computational technique. The whole reaction mechanism is divided into three phases: (i) hydration of the [Ru(II) (?(6) -benzene)(en)Cl](+) complex, (ii) monoadduct formation between the resulting aqua-Ru(II) complex and N7 position of one of the guanines in the ds-DNA oligomer, and (iii) formation of the intrastrand Ru(II) bridge (cross-link) between two adjacent guanines. Free energy profiles of all the reactions are explored by QM/MM MD umbrella sampling approach where the Ru(II) complex and two guanines represent a quantum core, which is described by density functional theory methods. The combined QM/MM scheme is realized by our own software, which was developed to couple several quantum chemical programs (in this study Gaussian 09) and Amber 11 package. Calculated free energy barriers of the both ruthenium hydration and Ru(II)-N7(G) DNA binding process are in good agreement with experimentally measured rate constants. Then, this method was used to study the possibility of cross-link formation. One feasible pathway leading to Ru(II) guanine-guanine cross-link with synchronous releasing of the benzene ligand is predicted. The cross-linking is an exergonic process with the energy barrier lower than for the monoadduct reaction of Ru(II) complex with ds-DNA. PMID:24865949

  2. Substitution reactions in dinuclear Ru-Hbpp complexes: an evaluation of through-space interactions.

    PubMed

    Planas, Nora; Christian, Gemma; Roeser, Stephan; Mas-Marzá, Elena; Kollipara, Mohan-Rao; Benet-Buchholz, Jordi; Maseras, Feliu; Llobet, Antoni

    2012-02-01

    The synthesis of new dinuclear complexes of the general formula in,in-{[Ru(II)(trpy)(L)](μ-bpp)[Ru(II)(trpy)(L')]}(3+) [bpp(-) is the bis(2-pyridyl)-3,5-pyrazolate anionic ligand; trpy is the 2,2':6',2″-terpyridine neutral meridional ligand, and L and L' are monodentate ligands; L = L' = MeCN, 3a(3+); L = L' = 3,5-lutidine (Me(2)-py), 3c(3+); L = MeCN, L' = pyridine (py), 4(3+)], have been prepared and thoroughly characterized. Further, the preparation and isolation of dinuclear complexes containing dinitrile bridging ligands of the general formula in,in-{[Ru(II)(trpy)](2)(μ-bpp)(μ-L-L)}(3+) [μ-L-L = 1,4-dicyanobutane (adiponitrile, adip), 6a(3+); 1,3-dicyanopropane (glutaronitrile, glut), 6b(3+); 1,2-dicyanoethane (succinonitrile; succ), 6c(3+)] have also been carried out. In addition, a number of homologous dinuclear complexes previously described, containing the anionic bis(pyridyl)indazolate (bid(-)) tridentate meridional ligand in lieu of trpy, have also been prepared for comparative purposes. In the solid state, six complexes have been characterized by X-ray crystallography, and in solution, all of them have been spectroscopically characterized by NMR and UV-vis spectroscopy. In addition, their redox properties have also been investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry and show the existence of two one-electron waves assigned to the formation of the II,III and III,III species. Dinitrile complexes 6a(3+), 6b(3+), and 6c(3+) display a dynamic behavior involving their enantiomeric interconversion. The energy barrier for this interconversion can be controlled by the number of methylenic units between the dinitrile ligand. On the other hand, pyridyl complexes in,in-{[Ru(II)(T)(py)](2)(μ-bpp)}(n+) (T = trpy, n = 3, 3b(3+); T = bid(-), n = 1, 3b'(+)) and 3c(3+) undergo two consecutive substitution reactions of their monodentate ligands by MeCN.The substitution kinetics have been monitored by (1)H NMR and UV-vis spectroscopy and follow first-order behavior with regard to the initial ruthenium complex. For the case of 3b(3+), the first-order rate constant k(1) = (2.9 ± 0.3) × 10(-5) s(-1), whereas for the second substitution, the k obtained is k(2) = (1.7 ± 0.7) × 10(-6) s(-1), both measured at 313 K. Their energies of activation at 298 K are 114.7 and 144.3 kJ mol(-1), respectively. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been performed for two consecutive substitution reactions, giving insight into the nature of the intermediates. Furthermore, the energetics obtained by DFT calculations of the two consecutive substitution reactions agree with the experimental values obtained. The kinetic properties of the two consecutive substitution reactions are rationalized in terms of steric crowding and also in terms of through-space interactions. PMID:22242940

  3. Formation of an iron phosphine-borane complex by formal insertion of BH₃ into the Fe-P bond.

    PubMed

    Frank, Nicolas; Hanau, Katharina; Flosdorf, Kimon; Langer, Robert

    2013-08-21

    A unique hydrido phosphine-borane iron(II) complex [(dppa)(Ph₂P-N-P(BH₃)Ph₂)Fe(H)] (1) was obtained by the reaction of iron(II) chloride and two equivalents of bis(diphenylphosphino)amine (dppa) with an excess of sodium borohydride in acetonitrile-ethanol mixtures. Detailed investigations of the reaction revealed that a mixture of cis- and trans-[(dppa)₂Fe(NCMe)₂]²⁺ is formed prior to the reduction by sodium borohydride. Depending on the solvent, different products were obtained by the reduction: in acetonitrile-ethanol mixtures the hydrido phosphine-borane complex 1 is formed by formal insertion of BH₃, while the reduction in pure acetonitrile results in the formation of the cationic complex trans-[(dppa)₂Fe(H)(NCMe)](BH₄) (4). Complex 4 is remarkably stable in ethanol and does not undergo phosphine-borane formation, even in the presence of excess sodium borohydride. This observation suggests that the phosphine-borane complex is generated by the reaction with the first equivalent of sodium borohydride with the participation of ethanol, followed by deprotonation or dihydrogen elimination. Experiments with similar diphosphine ligands, such as bis(diphenylphosphino)methane, did not yield a phosphine-borane complex, indicating the crucial role of the amine group in the observed reactivity. PMID:23811820

  4. EXFOR basics: A short guide to the nuclear reaction data exchange format

    SciTech Connect

    McLane, V.

    1996-07-01

    This manual is intended as a guide to users of nuclear reaction data compiled in the EXFOR format, and is not intended as a complete guide to the EXFOR System. EXFOR is the exchange format designed to allow transmission of nuclear data between the Nuclear Reaction Data Centers. In addition to storing the data and its` bibliographic information, experimental information, including source of uncertainties, is also compiled. The status and history of the data set is also included, e.g., the source of the data, any updates which have been made, and correlations to other data sets. EXFOR is designed for flexibility in order to meet the diverse needs of the nuclear data compilation centers. This format should not be confused with a center-to-user format. Although users may obtain data from the centers in the EXFOR format, other center-to-user formats have been developed to meet the needs of the users within each center`s own sphere of responsibility. The exchange format, as outlined, allows a large variety of numerical data tables with explanatory and bibliographic information to be transmitted in an easily machine-readable format (for checking and indicating possible errors) and a format that can be read by personnel (for passing judgment on and correcting any errors indicated by the machine). The data presently included in the EXFOR exchange include: a complete compilation of experimental neutron-induced reaction data, a selected compilation of charged-particle induced reaction data, a selected compilation of photon-induced reaction data.

  5. Image formation in the eye: very specified complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoltzmann, David E.

    2005-08-01

    The formation of an image, and its correct interpretation by sighted living creatures, is a unique example of specified complexity unlike anything else in nature. While many of the functional aspects of living organisms are extremely complex, only an image requires a unique mapping process by the eye-brain system to be useful to the organism. The transfer of light from an object scene to a visual detection system (eye + brain) conveys an enormous amount of information. But unless that information is correctly organized into a useful image, the exchange of information is degraded and of questionable use. This paper examines the "connections" necessary for images to be interpreted correctly, as well as addressing the additional complexity requirement of dual-image mapping for stereovision capabilities. Statistics are presented for "simple eyes" consisting of a few pixels to illustrate the daunting task that random chance has to produce any form of a functional eye. For example, a 12-pixel eye (or camera) has 12! (479,001,600) possible pixel-to-brain (computer) wiring combinations, which can then be compared to the 126 million rods/cones of the actual human eye. If one tries to "connect the wires" (correctly interpret the information contained) in a 12-pixel image by random processes, by the time 6 pixels become correctly connected, over 99.9% of all the trials are incorrect, producing "noise" rather than a recognizable image. Higher numbers of pixels quickly make the problem astronomically worse for achieving any kind of useful image. This paper concludes that random-chance purposeless undirected processes cannot account for how images are perceived by living organisms.

  6. Cyclodextrins in pharmaceutical formulations I: structure and physicochemical properties, formation of complexes, and types of complex.

    PubMed

    Jambhekar, Sunil S; Breen, Philip

    2016-02-01

    Cyclodextrins are cyclic oligosaccharides that have been recognized as pharmaceutical adjuvants for the past 20 years. The molecular structure of these glucose derivatives, which approximates a truncated cone, bucket, or torus, generates a hydrophilic exterior surface and a nonpolar interior cavity. Cyclodextrins can interact with appropriately sized drug molecules to yield an inclusion complex. These noncovalent inclusion complexes offer a variety of advantages over the noncomplexed form of a drug. Cyclodextrins are primarily used to enhance the aqueous solubility, physical chemical stability, and bioavailability of drugs. Their other applications include preventing drug-drug interactions, converting liquid drugs into microcrystalline powders, minimizing gastrointestinal and ocular irritation, and reducing or eliminating unpleasant taste and smell. Here, we discuss the physical chemical properties of various cyclodextrins, including the effects of substitutions on these properties. Additionally, we report on the regulatory status of their use, commercial products containing cyclodextrins, toxicological considerations, and the forces involved in complex formation. We also highlight the types of complex formed and discuss the methods used to determine the types of complex present. PMID:26686054

  7. Evolutionary Plasticity and Innovations in Complex Metabolic Reaction Networks

    PubMed Central

    Matias Rodrigues, Joo F.; Wagner, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Genome-scale metabolic networks are highly robust to the elimination of enzyme-coding genes. Their structure can evolve rapidly through mutations that eliminate such genes and through horizontal gene transfer that adds new enzyme-coding genes. Using flux balance analysis we study a vast space of metabolic network genotypes and their relationship to metabolic phenotypes, the ability to sustain life in an environment defined by an available spectrum of carbon sources. Two such networks typically differ in most of their reactions and have few essential reactions in common. Our observations suggest that the robustness of the Escherichia coli metabolic network to mutations is typical of networks with the same phenotype. We also demonstrate that networks with the same phenotype form large sets that can be traversed through single mutations, and that single mutations of different genotypes with the same phenotype can yield very different novel phenotypes. This means that the evolutionary plasticity and robustness of metabolic networks facilitates the evolution of new metabolic abilities. Our approach has broad implications for the evolution of metabolic networks, for our understanding of mutational robustness, for the design of antimetabolic drugs, and for metabolic engineering. PMID:20019795

  8. Reaction layer formation at the graphite/copper-chromium alloy interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devincent, Sandra M.; Michal, Gary M.

    1992-01-01

    Sessile drop tests were used to obtain information about copper chromium alloys that suitably wet graphite. Characterization of graphite/copper-chromium alloy interfaces subjected to elevated temperatures were conducted using scanning electron micrography, energy dispersive spectroscopy, auger electron spectroscopy, and x ray diffraction analyses. These analyses indicate that during sessile drop tests conducted at 1130 C for one hour, copper alloys containing greater than 0.98 percent chromium form continuous reaction layers of approximately 10 micron thickness. The reaction layers adhere to the graphite surface. The copper wets the reaction layer to form a contact angle of 60 degrees or less. X ray diffraction results indicate that the reaction layer is chromium carbide. The kinetics of reaction layer formation were modelled in terms of bulk diffusion mechanisms. Reaction layer thickness is controlled initially by the diffusion of Cr out of Cu alloy and later by the diffusion of C through chromium carbide.

  9. Reaction layer formation at the graphite/copper-chromium alloy interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devincent, Sandra M.; Michal, Gary M.

    1993-01-01

    Sessile drop tests were used to obtain information about copper chromium alloys that suitably wet graphite. Characterization of graphite/copper-chromium alloy interfaces subjected to elevated temperatures were conducted using scanning electron micrography, energy dispersive spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction analyses. These analyses indicate that during sessile drop tests conducted at 1130 C for one hour, copper alloys containing greater than 0.98 percent chromium form continuous reaction layers of approximately 10 micron thickness. The reaction layers adhere to the graphite surface. The copper wets the reaction layer to form a contact angle of 60 degrees or less. X-ray diffraction results indicate that the reaction layer is chromium carbide. The kinetics of reaction layer formation were modelled in terms of bulk diffusion mechanisms. Reaction layer thickness is controlled initially by the diffusion of Cr out of Cu alloy and later by the diffusion of C through chromium carbide.

  10. Formation of HCN+ in Heterogeneous Reactions of N2+ and N+ with Surface Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A significant increase of the ion yield at m/z 27 in collisions of low-energy ions of N2+ and N+ with hydrocarbon-covered room-temperature or heated surfaces of tungsten, carbon-fiber composite, and beryllium, not observed in analogous collisions of Ar+, is ascribed to the formation of HCN+ in heterogeneous reactions between N2+ or N+ and surface hydrocarbons. The formation of HCN+ in the reaction with N+ indicated an exothermic reaction with no activation barrier, likely to occur even at very low collision energies. In the reaction with N2+, the formation of HCN+ was observed to a different degree on these room-temperature and heated (150 and 300 C) surfaces at incident energies above about 50 eV. This finding suggested an activation barrier or reaction endothermicity of the heterogeneous reaction of about 33.5 eV. The main process in N2+ or N+ interaction with the surfaces is ion neutralization; the probability of forming the reaction product HCN+ was very roughly estimated for both N2+ and N+ ions to about one in 104 collisions with the surfaces. PMID:23614645

  11. Formation of HCN+ in Heterogeneous Reactions of N2+ and N+ with Surface Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harnisch, Martina; Keim, Alan; Scheier, Paul; Herman, Zdenek

    2013-10-01

    A significant increase of the ion yield at m/z 27 in collisions of low-energy ions of N2+ and N+ with hydrocarbon-covered room-temperature or heated surfaces of tungsten, carbon-fiber composite, and beryllium, not observed in analogous collisions of Ar+, is ascribed to the formation of HCN+ in heterogeneous reactions between N2+ or N+ and surface hydrocarbons. The formation of HCN+ in the reaction with N+ indicated an exothermic reaction with no activation barrier, likely to occur even at very low collision energies. In the reaction with N2+, the formation of HCN+ was observed to a different degree on these room-temperature and heated (150 and 300 C) surfaces at incident energies above about 50 eV. This finding suggested an activation barrier or reaction endothermicity of the heterogeneous reaction of about 3-3.5 eV. The main process in N2+ or N+ interaction with the surfaces is ion neutralization; the probability of forming the reaction product HCN+ was very roughly estimated for both N2+ and N+ ions to about one in 104 collisions with the surfaces.

  12. Selective arylation reactions of bismuth-transition metal salicylate complexes.

    PubMed

    Stavila, Vitalie; Thurston, John H; Whitmire, Kenton H

    2009-07-20

    Heterometallic bismuth-niobium or -tantalum salicylate complexes react with sodium tetraphenylborate to produce complexes in which one or more aryl groups have been transferred from boron to bismuth with the concomitant displacement of a eta(2)-salicylato ligand. When the previously reported Bi(2)Ta(2)(sal)(4)(Hsal)(4)(OEt)(4) (1) and BiTa(4)(mu-O)(4)(sal)(4)(Hsal)(3)(O(i)Pr)(4) (2) are treated with an alcoholic solution of NaBPh(4), the compounds [PhBi(Hsal)Ta(sal)(2)(OEt)(2) x EtOH](2) (3) and PhBiTa(4)(mu-O)(4)(Hsal)(2)(sal)(4)(OEt)(4) x CH(2)Cl(2) (4) are produced (sal = O(2)CC(6)H(4)-2-O(2-), Hsal = O(2)CC(6)H(4)-2-OH(-)). The core geometries of the heterometallic complexes are retained. However, if preparations of compound 1 are treated with NaBPh(4) without prior isolation of 1, [Ph(2)BiNb(sal)(2)(OMe)(2)](infinity) (5) is produced instead. This compound was characterized both as a solvent-free crystalline form and as one containing a lattice diethyl ether. The compound exhibits a polymeric chain structure that can be viewed as alternating [Ph(2)Bi](+) and [Nb(sal)(2)(OMe)(2)](-) units connected via bridging carboxylate groups. The arylation of the bismuth(III) center proceeds smoothly under mild conditions at room temperature, affording a new means for the mild functionalization of bismuth-transition metal heterometallic complexes. PMID:19537724

  13. Calibration of Complex Subsurface Reaction Models Using a Surrogate-Model Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Application of model assessment techniques to complex subsurface reaction models involves numerous difficulties, including non-trivial model selection, parameter non-uniqueness, and excessive computational burden. To overcome these difficulties, this study introduces SAMM (Simult...

  14. Neutral and Cationic Alkyl Tantalum Imido Complexes: Synthesis and Migratory Insertion Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Laura L.; Schmidt, Joseph A. R.; Arnold, John; Bergman, Robert G.

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis and reactivity of dibenzyl cationic tantalum imido complexes is described. The trialkyl tantalum imido compounds Bn3Ta=NCMe3 (1) and Np3Ta=NCMe3 (2) were synthesized as starting materials for the study of dialkyl cationic tantalum imido complexes. Compound 1 undergoes insertion reactions with diisopropylcarbodiimide and 2,6-dimethylphenylisocyanide to give (bisamidinate)imido complex 5 and (bisimino-acyl)imido complex 6, respectively. Treatment of compound 1 with B(C6F5)3 gives the zwitterionic tantalum complex [Bn2Ta=NCMe3][BnB(C6F5)3] (7) which is stabilized by η6-coordination of the benzyl triaryl borate anion. Coordination of the aryl anion can be displaced by three equivalents of pyridine to give the Lewis base complex 8. Treatment of compound 1 with [Ph3C][B(C6F5)4] gives the cationic tantalum imido complex [Bn2Ta=NCMe3][B(C6F5)4] (3). This salt forms insoluble aggregates unless trapped by THF coordination or an insertion reaction with an alkyne or an alkene. Cation 3 undergoes migratory insertion reactions with diphenylacetylene, phenylacetylene, norbornene, and cis-cyclooctene to give the corresponding alkenyl or modified alkyl imido complexes. The characterization of these products and the significance of these insertion reactions with respect to Ziegler-Natta polymerizations and hydroamination reactions are described. PMID:19079787

  15. Neutral and Cationic Alkyl Tantalum Imido Complexes: Synthesis and Migratory Insertion Reactions.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Laura L; Schmidt, Joseph A R; Arnold, John; Bergman, Robert G

    2006-07-01

    The synthesis and reactivity of dibenzyl cationic tantalum imido complexes is described. The trialkyl tantalum imido compounds Bn(3)Ta=NCMe(3) (1) and Np(3)Ta=NCMe(3) (2) were synthesized as starting materials for the study of dialkyl cationic tantalum imido complexes. Compound 1 undergoes insertion reactions with diisopropylcarbodiimide and 2,6-dimethylphenylisocyanide to give (bisamidinate)imido complex 5 and (bisimino-acyl)imido complex 6, respectively. Treatment of compound 1 with B(C(6)F(5))(3) gives the zwitterionic tantalum complex [Bn(2)Ta=NCMe(3)][BnB(C(6)F(5))(3)] (7) which is stabilized by eta(6)-coordination of the benzyl triaryl borate anion. Coordination of the aryl anion can be displaced by three equivalents of pyridine to give the Lewis base complex 8. Treatment of compound 1 with [Ph(3)C][B(C(6)F(5))(4)] gives the cationic tantalum imido complex [Bn(2)Ta=NCMe(3)][B(C(6)F(5))(4)] (3). This salt forms insoluble aggregates unless trapped by THF coordination or an insertion reaction with an alkyne or an alkene. Cation 3 undergoes migratory insertion reactions with diphenylacetylene, phenylacetylene, norbornene, and cis-cyclooctene to give the corresponding alkenyl or modified alkyl imido complexes. The characterization of these products and the significance of these insertion reactions with respect to Ziegler-Natta polymerizations and hydroamination reactions are described. PMID:19079787

  16. The colorants, antioxidants, and toxicants from nonenzymatic browning reactions and the impacts of dietary polyphenols on their thermal formation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinchen; Tao, Ningping; Wang, Xichang; Chen, Feng; Wang, Mingfu

    2015-02-01

    Nonenzymatic browning reactions proceed with the starting reactants of sugar and/or protein during thermal processing and storage of food. In addition to food color formation, the process also contributes to the loss of essential nutrients, generation of beneficial antioxidants, and production of toxicants, including 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), reactive carbonyl species, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and heterocyclic amines (HAs). Recent research has demonstrated that dietary polyphenols can actively participate in nonenzymatic browning reactions, contributing to the generation of new colorants and antioxidants. More importantly, polyphenol addition has been found to be an effective approach to mitigate heat-induced formation of toxicants, mainly through inhibiting oxidative pathways and trapping reactive intermediates. In the matrix of polyphenol-fortified foods, a complex array of chemical interactions happen among polyphenols, traditional nutritional components, and neo-formed compounds they are thermally converted to. These reactions play a significant role in the colorants, antioxidants as well as toxicants production. Our findings support the potential of dietary polyphenols for increasing the antioxidant content and for reducing the level of toxicants when they participate in nonenzymatic browning reactions in fortified food products. PMID:25468403

  17. A new mechanism for the control of phenoloxidase activity: inhibition and complex formation with quinone isomerase.

    PubMed

    Sugumaran, M; Nellaiappan, K; Valivittan, K

    2000-07-15

    Insect phenoloxidases participate in three physiologically important processes, viz., cuticular hardening (sclerotization), defense reactions (immune reaction), and wound healing. Arrest or even delay of any of these processes compromises the survival of insects. Since the products of phenoloxidase action, viz., quinones, are cytotoxic, uncontrolled phenoloxidase action is deleterious to the insects. Therefore, the activity of this important enzyme has to be finely controlled. A novel inhibition of insect phenoloxidases, which serves as a new regulatory mechanism for control of its activity, is described. The activity of phenoloxidases isolated from both Sarcophaga bullata and Manduca sexta is drastically inhibited by quinone isomerase (isolated from Calliphora), an enzyme that utilizes the phenoloxidase-generated 4-alkylquinones. In turn, phenoloxidase reciprocated the inhibition of isomerase. By forming a complex and controlling each other's activity, these two enzymes seem to regulate the levels of endogenously quinones. In support of this contention, an endogenous complex consisting of phenoloxidase, quinone isomerase, and quinone methide isomerase was characterized from the insect, Calliphora. This sclerotinogenic complex was isolated and purified by borate extraction of the larval cuticle, ammonium sulfate precipitation, and Sepharose 6B column chromatography. The complex exhibited a molecular mass of about 620-680 kDa, as judged by size-exclusion chromatography on Sepharose 6B and HPLC and did not even enter 3% polyacrylamide gel during electrophoresis. The phenoloxidase activity of the complex exhibited a wide substrate specificity. Incubation of the complex with N-acetyldopamine rapidly generated N-acetylnorepinephrine, dehydro-N-acetyldopamine, and its dimers. In addition, transient accumulation of N-acetyldopamine quinone was also observed. These results confirm the presence of phenoloxidase, quinone isomerase, and quinone methide isomerase in the complex. Attempts to dissociate the complex with even trace amounts of SDS ended in the total loss of quinone isomerase activity. The complex does not seems to be made up of stoichiometric amounts of individual enzymes as the ratio of phenoloxidase to quinone isomerase varied from preparation to preparation. It is proposed that the complex formation between sequential enzymes of sclerotinogenic pathway is advantageous for the organism to effectively channel various reactive intermediates during cuticular hardening. PMID:10898942

  18. Zebra reaction or the recipe for the synthesis of heterodimeric zinc complexes.

    PubMed

    Jędrzkiewicz, D; Ejfler, J; John, Ł; Szafert, S

    2016-02-21

    A series of asymmetric heterodimeric zinc complexes have been synthesized in a direct reaction between conformationally flexible chiral/achiral homodimers. The cooperative activity of steric factors and coordination codes resulted in an intriguing chiral self-sorting process. Herein, we are reporting our recent exploration of the first example of such a type of reaction. PMID:26658768

  19. Changes in protein structure at the interface accompanying complex formation

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarty, Devlina; Janin, Joël; Robert, Charles H.; Chakrabarti, Pinak

    2015-01-01

    Protein interactions are essential in all biological processes. The changes brought about in the structure when a free component forms a complex with another molecule need to be characterized for a proper understanding of molecular recognition as well as for the successful implementation of docking algorithms. Here, unbound (U) and bound (B) forms of protein structures from the Protein–Protein Interaction Affinity Database are compared in order to enumerate the changes that occur at the interface atoms/residues in terms of the solvent-accessible surface area (ASA), secondary structure, temperature factors (B factors) and disorder-to-order transitions. It is found that the interface atoms optimize contacts with the atoms in the partner protein, which leads to an increase in their ASA in the bound interface in the majority (69%) of the proteins when compared with the unbound interface, and this is independent of the root-mean-square deviation between the U and B forms. Changes in secondary structure during the transition indicate a likely extension of helices and strands at the expense of turns and coils. A reduction in flexibility during complex formation is reflected in the decrease in B factors of the interface residues on going from the U form to the B form. There is, however, no distinction in flexibility between the interface and the surface in the monomeric structure, thereby highlighting the potential problem of using B factors for the prediction of binding sites in the unbound form for docking another protein. 16% of the proteins have missing (disordered) residues in the U form which are observed (ordered) in the B form, mostly with an irregular conformation; the data set also shows differences in the composition of interface and non-interface residues in the disordered polypeptide segments as well as differences in their surface burial. PMID:26594372

  20. Changes in protein structure at the interface accompanying complex formation.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, Devlina; Janin, Joël; Robert, Charles H; Chakrabarti, Pinak

    2015-11-01

    Protein interactions are essential in all biological processes. The changes brought about in the structure when a free component forms a complex with another molecule need to be characterized for a proper understanding of molecular recognition as well as for the successful implementation of docking algorithms. Here, unbound (U) and bound (B) forms of protein structures from the Protein-Protein Interaction Affinity Database are compared in order to enumerate the changes that occur at the interface atoms/residues in terms of the solvent-accessible surface area (ASA), secondary structure, temperature factors (B factors) and disorder-to-order transitions. It is found that the interface atoms optimize contacts with the atoms in the partner protein, which leads to an increase in their ASA in the bound interface in the majority (69%) of the proteins when compared with the unbound interface, and this is independent of the root-mean-square deviation between the U and B forms. Changes in secondary structure during the transition indicate a likely extension of helices and strands at the expense of turns and coils. A reduction in flexibility during complex formation is reflected in the decrease in B factors of the interface residues on going from the U form to the B form. There is, however, no distinction in flexibility between the interface and the surface in the monomeric structure, thereby highlighting the potential problem of using B factors for the prediction of binding sites in the unbound form for docking another protein. 16% of the proteins have missing (disordered) residues in the U form which are observed (ordered) in the B form, mostly with an irregular conformation; the data set also shows differences in the composition of interface and non-interface residues in the disordered polypeptide segments as well as differences in their surface burial. PMID:26594372

  1. Deciphering complex soil/site formation in sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, D. L.; Johnson, D. N.; Benn, D. W.; Bettis, E. A., III

    2008-10-01

    This paper summarizes aspects of the geoarchaeological research at two adjacent multi-component archaeological sites, 13JP86 and 13JP87, along Indian Creek in central Iowa, USA. The sites, both recently salvaged but now destroyed, formed in late Pleistocene sands reworked from glacial sediments that emanated from the wasting Des Moines Lobe glacier some 13,000-14,000 years ago. The soils contained shallowly dispersed and mixed artifacts that span the Paleoindian-to-historic cultural spectrum. In open areas, as at Indian Creek, site formation processes equate to natural soil genetic processes, plus human imprints. Cultural materials, once deposited, become part of the soil and subject to dynamic soil processes. These soils had reasonably well expressed Ap, A, and E horizons that collectively formed thick one-layered biomantles, underlain by well expressed argillic Bt horizons. The biomantles had been well bioturbated, deeply in some pedons, but still exhibited organized A and E horizons. The Bt horizons were also bioturbated, though less so, and consisted of multiple thin to thick sandy clay bands, termed illuvial clay lamellae (icl's). The icl's contained modest to appreciable amounts of illuvial clay as bridges between grains, and as diffuse splotches and blebs separated by less clayey, E horizon-like interlamellar sandy zones. Deeper and less bioturbated E-like sandy zones had accumulated so much clay that they had coalesced with icl's into thick, complexly banded argillic Bt horizons. The process histories of the sandy pedons were obviously extremely complex. The geoarchaeological aspects of the project, which were mainly complex pedologic ones, were largely interpreted by drawing on the genetic principles of dynamic denudation to explain soil/site evolution. Many questions were raised, and most were answered under these principles. New concepts and perspectives were gained in this study, and the resulting interpretive scenarios carry explanatory implications for sandy soils everywhere, whether charged with cultural materials or not.

  2. Numerical study on the impacts of heterogeneous reactions on ozone formation in the Beijing urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jun; Zhang, Yuanhang; Wang, Wei

    2006-12-01

    The air quality model CMAQ-MADRID (Community Multiscale Air Quality-Model of Aerosol Dynamics, Reaction, Ionization and Dissolution) was employed to simulate summer O3 formation in Beijing China, in order to explore the impacts of four heterogeneous reactions on O3 formation in an urban area. The results showed that the impacts were obvious and exhibited the characteristics of a typical response of a VOC-limited regime in the urban area. For the four heterogeneous reactions considered, the NO2 and HO2 heterogeneous reactions have the most severe impacts on O3 formation. During the O3 formation period, the NO2 heterogeneous reaction increased new radical creation by 30%, raising the atmospheric activity as more NO?NO2 conversion occurred, thus causing the O3 to rise. The increase of O3 peak concentration reached a maximum value of 67 ppb in the urban area. In the morning hours, high NO titration reduced the effect of the photolysis of HONO, which was produced heterogeneously at night in the surface layer. The NO2 heterogeneous reaction in the daytime is likely one of the major reasons causing the O3 increase in the Beijing urban area. The HO2 heterogeneous reaction accelerated radical termination, resulting in a decrease of the radical concentration by 44% at the most. O3 peak concentration decreased by a maximum amount of 24 ppb in the urban area. The simulation results were improved when the heterogeneous reactions were included, with the O3 and HONO model results close to the observations.

  3. Formation spectra of light kaonic nuclei by in-flight (K¯,N) reactions with a chiral unitary amplitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagata-Sekihara, J.; Jido, D.; Nagahiro, H.; Hirenzaki, S.

    2009-10-01

    We study theoretically the in-flight (K-,N) reactions for the formation of light kaonic nuclear systems to get deeper physical insights on the spectra and to investigate the formation spectra of the reaction that will be observed at new facilities like the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). We show the expected spectra for the formation of the K-pp, K-pn, K-nn, and K--B11 systems that are accessible by the (K-,N) experiments. By considering the conversion part of the Green’s function, we show the missing mass spectra of the (K-,N) reactions in coincident with the particle emissions due to K¯ absorption. To calculate the cross sections, we use the so-called Tρ approximation to evaluate the optical potential. As for the amplitude T, we adopt the chiral unitary amplitude of K¯N channel in vacuum for simplicity. The effects of the p-wave optical potential of Σ(1385) channel and the contributions from K¯0 mixing in He3(K-,n) reaction are also evaluated numerically. We also study the behavior of the poles of kaon Green’s function in nuclear matter. We conclude that He3(K-,n) and He3(K-,p) reaction spectra in coincident with the πΣ emission may show the structure in the kaon bound region indicating the existence of the unstable kaonic nuclear states. As for the C12(K-,p) spectra with the πΣ emission, we may also observe the structure in the bound region, however, we need to evaluate the medium effects carefully for larger nuclei.

  4. Formation of degradation compounds from lignocellulosic biomass in the biorefinery: sugar reaction mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Helena; Srensen, Hanne R; Meyer, Anne S

    2014-02-19

    The degradation compounds formed during pretreatment when lignocellulosic biomass is processed to ethanol or other biorefinery products include furans, phenolics, organic acids, as well as mono- and oligomeric pentoses and hexoses. Depending on the reaction conditions glucose can be converted to 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde (HMF) and/or levulinic acid, formic acid and different phenolics at elevated temperatures. Correspondingly, xylose can follow different reaction mechanisms resulting in the formation of furan-2-carbaldehyde (furfural) and/or various C-1 and C-4 compounds. At least four routes for the formation of HMF from glucose and three routes for furfural formation from xylose are possible. In addition, new findings show that biomass monosaccharides themselves can react further to form pseudo-lignin and humins as well as a wide array of other compounds when exposed to high temperatures. Hence, several aldehydes and ketones and many different organic acids and aromatic compounds may be generated during hydrothermal treatment of lignocellulosic biomass. The reaction mechanisms are of interest because the very same compounds that are possible inhibitors for biomass processing enzymes and microorganisms may be valuable biobased chemicals. Hence a new potential for industrial scale synthesis of chemicals has emerged. A better understanding of the reaction mechanisms and the impact of the reaction conditions on the product formation is thus a prerequisite for designing better biomass processing strategies and forms an important basis for the development of new biorefinery products from lignocellulosic biomass as well. PMID:24412507

  5. On the formation of cyclopentadiene in the C3H5? + C2H2 reaction.

    PubMed

    Bouwman, Jordy; Bodi, Andras; Oomens, Jos; Hemberger, Patrick

    2015-08-28

    The reaction between the allyl radical (C3H5?) and acetylene (C2H2) in a heated microtubular reactor has been studied at the VUV beamline of the Swiss Light Source. The reaction products are sampled from the reactor and identified by their photoion mass-selected threshold photoelectron spectra (ms-TPES) by means of imaging photoelectron photoion coincidence spectroscopy. Cyclopentadiene is identified as the sole reaction product by comparison of the measured photoelectron spectrum with that of cyclopentadiene. With the help of quantum-chemical computations of the C5H7 potential energy surface, the C2H2 + C3H5? association reaction is confirmed to be the rate determining step, after which H-elimination to form C5H6 is prompt in the absence of re-thermalization at low pressures. The formation of cyclopentadiene as the sole product from the allyl + acetylene reaction offers a direct path to the formation of cyclic hydrocarbons under combustion relevant conditions. Subsequent reactions of cyclopentadiene may lead to the formation of the smallest polycyclic aromatic molecule, naphthalene. PMID:26086435

  6. EUV resist simulation based on process parameters of pattern formation reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugie, Norihiko; Itani, Toshiro; Kozawa, Takahiro

    2014-04-01

    We simulated the process parameters of a pattern formation reaction that included during-the-exposure and post exposure bake (PEB) processes using an originally developed simulator. From the simulation results, the relationship between process parameters of pattern formation reaction and quencher concentration has been clarified. Moreover, we simulated the present target process parameters of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) resist for breaking the RLS trade-off. In this simulation, the process parameters were calculated from lithographic results (sensitivity, LWR, and CD) using real SEM images. This methodology was used to determine the process parameters required to break the RLS trade-off to obtain the required lithographic target of the EUV resist. We simulated the present lithography performance target using the process parameters of pattern formation reactions. These simulation results showed that a large reaction radius is necessary to break the RLS trade-off. Furthermore, we confirmed that increasing the PEB temperature leads to an improvement in the reaction radius. However, there is a discrepancy between the target radius and the controllable range of reaction radius that can be obtained by varying the PEB temperature.

  7. Secondary organic aerosol formation from ozone-initiated reactions with nicotine and secondhand tobacco smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleiman, Mohamad; Destaillats, Hugo; Smith, Jared D.; Liu, Chen-Lin; Ahmed, Musahid; Wilson, Kevin R.; Gundel, Lara A.

    2010-11-01

    We used controlled laboratory experiments to evaluate the aerosol-forming potential of ozone reactions with nicotine and secondhand smoke. Special attention was devoted to real-time monitoring of the particle size distribution and chemical composition of SOA as they are believed to be key factors determining the toxicity of SOA. The experimental approach was based on using a vacuum ultraviolet photon ionization time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (VUV-AMS), a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and off-line thermal desorption coupled to mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) for gas-phase byproducts analysis. Results showed that exposure of SHS to ozone induced the formation of ultrafine particles (<100 nm) that contained high molecular weight nitrogenated species ( m/ z 400-500), which can be due to accretion/acid-base reactions and formation of oligomers. In addition, nicotine was found to contribute significantly (with yields 4-9%) to the formation of secondary organic aerosol through reaction with ozone. The main constituents of the resulting SOA were tentatively identified and a reaction mechanism was proposed to elucidate their formation. These findings identify a new component of thirdhand smoke that is associated with the formation of ultrafine particles (UFP) through oxidative aging of secondhand smoke. The significance of this chemistry for indoor exposure and health effects is highlighted.

  8. Experimental and computational investigation on the gas phase reaction of ethyl formate with Cl atoms.

    PubMed

    Balaganesh, M; Dash, Manas Ranjan; Rajakumar, B

    2014-07-17

    The rate coefficient for the gas-phase reaction of Cl atoms with ethyl formate was measured over the temperature range of 268-343 K using relative rate methods, with ethyl chloride as a reference compound. The temperature dependent relative rate coefficients for the ethyl formate + Cl reaction were measured, and the modified Arrhenius expression kethylformate(268-343) = (2.54 0.57) 10(-23) T(4.1) exp {-(981 102)/T} cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) was obtained with 2? error limits. The room temperature rate coefficient for the title reaction is (9.84 0.79) 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), which is in good agreement with reported values. To complement the experimental measurement, computational methods were used to calculate the rate coefficient for the ethyl formate + Cl reaction atoms using canonical variational transition state theory (CVT) with small curvature tunneling (SCT) and the CCSD (T)/cc-pVDZ//M062X/6-31+g(d,p) level of theory. The temperature dependent Arrhenius expression was obtained to be 2.97 10(-18) T(2.4) exp[-(390/T)] cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) over the temperature range of 200-400 K. The thermodynamic parameters and branching ratio were calculated. Also, the atmospheric lifetime and global warming potentials (GWPs) were calculated for ethyl formate. PMID:24945822

  9. Structural basis of complement membrane attack complex formation

    PubMed Central

    Serna, Marina; Giles, Joanna L.; Morgan, B. Paul; Bubeck, Doryen

    2016-01-01

    In response to complement activation, the membrane attack complex (MAC) assembles from fluid-phase proteins to form pores in lipid bilayers. MAC directly lyses pathogens by a ‘multi-hit' mechanism; however, sublytic MAC pores on host cells activate signalling pathways. Previous studies have described the structures of individual MAC components and subcomplexes; however, the molecular details of its assembly and mechanism of action remain unresolved. Here we report the electron cryo-microscopy structure of human MAC at subnanometre resolution. Structural analyses define the stoichiometry of the complete pore and identify a network of interaction interfaces that determine its assembly mechanism. MAC adopts a ‘split-washer' configuration, in contrast to the predicted closed ring observed for perforin and cholesterol-dependent cytolysins. Assembly precursors partially penetrate the lipid bilayer, resulting in an irregular β-barrel pore. Our results demonstrate how differences in symmetric and asymmetric components of the MAC underpin a molecular basis for pore formation and suggest a mechanism of action that extends beyond membrane penetration. PMID:26841837

  10. Structural basis of complement membrane attack complex formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serna, Marina; Giles, Joanna L.; Morgan, B. Paul; Bubeck, Doryen

    2016-02-01

    In response to complement activation, the membrane attack complex (MAC) assembles from fluid-phase proteins to form pores in lipid bilayers. MAC directly lyses pathogens by a `multi-hit' mechanism; however, sublytic MAC pores on host cells activate signalling pathways. Previous studies have described the structures of individual MAC components and subcomplexes; however, the molecular details of its assembly and mechanism of action remain unresolved. Here we report the electron cryo-microscopy structure of human MAC at subnanometre resolution. Structural analyses define the stoichiometry of the complete pore and identify a network of interaction interfaces that determine its assembly mechanism. MAC adopts a `split-washer' configuration, in contrast to the predicted closed ring observed for perforin and cholesterol-dependent cytolysins. Assembly precursors partially penetrate the lipid bilayer, resulting in an irregular β-barrel pore. Our results demonstrate how differences in symmetric and asymmetric components of the MAC underpin a molecular basis for pore formation and suggest a mechanism of action that extends beyond membrane penetration.

  11. Structural basis of complement membrane attack complex formation.

    PubMed

    Serna, Marina; Giles, Joanna L; Morgan, B Paul; Bubeck, Doryen

    2016-01-01

    In response to complement activation, the membrane attack complex (MAC) assembles from fluid-phase proteins to form pores in lipid bilayers. MAC directly lyses pathogens by a 'multi-hit' mechanism; however, sublytic MAC pores on host cells activate signalling pathways. Previous studies have described the structures of individual MAC components and subcomplexes; however, the molecular details of its assembly and mechanism of action remain unresolved. Here we report the electron cryo-microscopy structure of human MAC at subnanometre resolution. Structural analyses define the stoichiometry of the complete pore and identify a network of interaction interfaces that determine its assembly mechanism. MAC adopts a 'split-washer' configuration, in contrast to the predicted closed ring observed for perforin and cholesterol-dependent cytolysins. Assembly precursors partially penetrate the lipid bilayer, resulting in an irregular ?-barrel pore. Our results demonstrate how differences in symmetric and asymmetric components of the MAC underpin a molecular basis for pore formation and suggest a mechanism of action that extends beyond membrane penetration. PMID:26841837

  12. Adhesion and formation of microbial biofilms in complex microfluidic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Aloke; Karig, David K; Neethirajan, Suresh; Suresh, Anil K; Srijanto, Bernadeta R; Mukherjee, Partha P; Retterer, Scott T; Doktycz, Mitchel John

    2012-01-01

    Shewanella oneidensis is a metal reducing bacterium, which is of interest for bioremediation and clean energy applications. S. oneidensis biofilms play a critical role in several situations such as in microbial energy harvesting devices. Here, we use a microfluidic device to quantify the effects of hydrodynamics on the biofilm morphology of S. oneidensis. For different rates of fluid flow through a complex microfluidic device, we studied the spatiotemporal dynamics of biofilms, and we quantified several morphological features such as spatial distribution, cluster formation and surface coverage. We found that hydrodynamics resulted in significant differences in biofilm dynamics. The baffles in the device created regions of low and high flow in the same device. At higher flow rates, a nonuniform biofilm develops, due to unequal advection in different regions of the microchannel. However, at lower flow rates, a more uniform biofilm evolved. This depicts competition between adhesion events, growth and fluid advection. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed that higher production of extra-cellular polymeric substances (EPS) occurred at higher flow velocities.

  13. Integrin activation and focal complex formation in cardiac hypertrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laser, M.; Willey, C. D.; Jiang, W.; Cooper, G. 4th; Menick, D. R.; Zile, M. R.; Kuppuswamy, D.

    2000-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is characterized by both remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and hypertrophic growth of the cardiocytes. Here we show increased expression and cytoskeletal association of the ECM proteins fibronectin and vitronectin in pressure-overloaded feline myocardium. These changes are accompanied by cytoskeletal binding and phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) at Tyr-397 and Tyr-925, c-Src at Tyr-416, recruitment of the adapter proteins p130(Cas), Shc, and Nck, and activation of the extracellular-regulated kinases ERK1/2. A synthetic peptide containing the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif of fibronectin and vitronectin was used to stimulate adult feline cardiomyocytes cultured on laminin or within a type-I collagen matrix. Whereas cardiocytes under both conditions showed RGD-stimulated ERK1/2 activation, only collagen-embedded cells exhibited cytoskeletal assembly of FAK, c-Src, Nck, and Shc. In RGD-stimulated collagen-embedded cells, FAK was phosphorylated only at Tyr-397 and c-Src association occurred without Tyr-416 phosphorylation and p130(Cas) association. Therefore, c-Src activation is not required for its cytoskeletal binding but may be important for additional phosphorylation of FAK. Overall, our study suggests that multiple signaling pathways originate in pressure-overloaded heart following integrin engagement with ECM proteins, including focal complex formation and ERK1/2 activation, and many of these pathways can be activated in cardiomyocytes via RGD-stimulated integrin activation.

  14. Neutral-neutral reactions in the interstellar medium. I. Formation of carbon hydride radicals via reaction of carbon atoms with unsaturated hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, R.I.; Stranges, D.; Lee, Y.T.; Suits, A.G.

    1997-03-01

    The reactions of ground-state atomic carbon with acetylene, C{sub 2}H{sub 2} (1), methylacetylene, CH{sub 3}CCH (2), ethylene, C{sub 2}H{sub 4} (3), and propylene, C{sub 3}H{sub 6} (4), are investigated at relative collision energies between 8.8 and 45kJmol{sup {minus}1} in crossed-beam experiments to elucidate the reaction products and chemical dynamics of atom-neutral encounters relevant to the formation of carbon-bearing molecules in the interstellar medium (ISM). Reactive scattering signal is found for C{sub 3}H (1), as well as the hitherto unobserved interstellar radicals C{sub 4}H{sub 3} (2), C{sub 3}H{sub 3} (3), and C{sub 4}H{sub 5} (4). All reactions proceed on the triplet surface via addition of the carbon atom to the molecular {pi}-bond. The initial collision complexes undergo hydrogen migration (1/2) or ring opening (3/4) and decompose via C-H-bond rupture to 1/c-C{sub 3}H (1), n-C{sub 4}H{sub 3} (2), propargyl (3), and methylpropargyl (4). The explicit identification of the carbon-hydrogen exchange channel under single collision conditions identifies this class of reaction as a potential pathway to carbon-bearing species in the ISM. Especially, the formation of 1/c-C{sub 3}H correlates with actual astronomical observations and explains a higher [c-C{sub 3}H]/[l-C{sub 3}H] ratio in the dark cloud TMC-1 as compared to the carbon star IRC+10216. Our findings strongly demand the incorporation of distinct structural isomers in prospective chemical models of interstellar clouds, hot cores, and circumstellar envelopes around carbon stars. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

  15. How can macromolecular crowding inhibit biological reactions? The enhanced formation of DNA nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Sen; Trochimczyk, Piotr; Sun, Lili; Wisniewska, Agnieszka; Kalwarczyk, Tomasz; Zhang, Xuzhu; Wielgus-Kutrowska, Beata; Bzowska, Agnieszka; Holyst, Robert

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to the already known effect that macromolecular crowding usually promotes biological reactions, solutions of PEG 6k at high concentrations stop the cleavage of DNA by HindIII enzyme, due to the formation of DNA nanoparticles. We characterized the DNA nanoparticles and probed the prerequisites for their formation using multiple techniques such as fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, fluorescence analytical ultracentrifugation etc. In >25% PEG 6k solution, macromolecular crowding promotes the formation of DNA nanoparticles with dimensions of several hundreds of nanometers. The formation of DNA nanoparticles is a fast and reversible process. Both plasmid DNA (2686 bp) and double-stranded/single-stranded DNA fragment (66bp/nt) can form nanoparticles. We attribute the enhanced nanoparticle formation to the depletion effect of macromolecular crowding. This study presents our idea to enhance the formation of DNA nanoparticles by macromolecular crowding, providing the first step towards a final solution to efficient gene therapy. PMID:26903405

  16. Effect of antioxidants on elimination and formation of acrylamide in model reaction systems.

    PubMed

    Ou, Shiyi; Shi, Jianjun; Huang, Caihuan; Zhang, Guangwen; Teng, Jiuwei; Jiang, Yue; Yang, Baoru

    2010-10-15

    Antioxidants, including tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ), butylated hydroxy anisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), ferulic acid, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and vitamin C (V(C)), and their corresponding oxidation products, were tested for their influence on elimination of acrylamide and inhibition of acrylamide formation. Our experimental results showed that the antioxidants could neither effectively destruct acrylamide nor inhibit (or even promote) its formation, but their corresponding oxidation products were able to directly destruct acrylamide and its precursor, asparagine, thus inhibit acrylamide formation. Moreover, a positive correlation between the carbonyl value and acrylamide formation was observed in a frying oil-asparagine reaction model system, suggesting that antioxidants can inhibit acrylamide formation by inhibiting oil carbonyl compounds formation. PMID:20667655

  17. Substrate decomposition in galvanic displacement reaction: Contrast between gold and silver nanoparticle formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Tapas; Kabiraj, D.; Satpati, Biswarup

    2015-06-01

    We have investigated substrate decomposition during formation of silver and gold nanoparticles in galvanic displacement reaction on germanium surfaces. Silver and gold nanoparticles were synthesized by electroless deposition on sputter coated germanium thin film ( 200 nm) grown initially on silicon substrate. The naoparticles formation and the substrate corrosion were studied using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and the energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy.

  18. Selenium-ligated palladium(II) complexes as highly active catalysts for carbon-carbon coupling reactions: the Heck reaction.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qingwei; Kinney, Elizabeth P; Zheng, Chong

    2004-08-19

    Three selenium-ligated Pd(II) complexes were readily synthesized and shown to be extremely active catalysts for the Heck reaction of various aryl bromides, including deactivated and heterocyclic ones. The catalytic activity of the selenide-based Pd(II) complexes not only rivals but vastly outperforms that of the corresponding phosphorus and sulfur analogues. Practical advantages of the selenium-based catalysts include their straightforward synthesis and high activity in the absence of any additives as well as the enhanced stability of the selenide ligands toward air oxidation. PMID:15330667

  19. Template Synthesis and Reactions of Tricarbonylmolybdenum Phosphadithiamacrocycle Complexes.

    PubMed

    Blower, Philip J.; Jeffery, John C.; Miller, John R.; Salek, Spencer N.; Schmaljohann, Dirk; Smith, Raymond J.; Went, Michael J.

    1997-04-01

    Treatment of [Me(4)N](2)[PhP(CH(2)CH(2)S)(2)] with [Mo(CO)(3)(NCMe)(3)] affords the reactive intermediate [Me(4)N](2)[Mo(CO)(3){PhP(CH(2)CH(2)S)(2)}] (1), which undergoes oxidation to afford [Mo{PhP(CH(2)CH(2)S)(2)}(2)] (2). Reaction of 1 with a variety of dichloroalkanes produces [Mo(CO)(3){c-PhP(CH(2)CH(2)S)(2)X}] (X = CH(2)CH(2), CH(2)CH(2)CH(2), CH(2)CHMe or CH(2)CH(OH)CH(2)). The structure of [Mo(CO)(3){c-PhP(CH(2)CH(2)S)(2)CH(2)CH(2)}] (3) has been established by X-ray crystallography and consists of a Mo(CO)(3) fragment facially coordinated by the tridentate c-PhP(CH(2)CH(2)S)(2)CH(2)CH(2) ligand. Reaction of 3 with bromine affords seven-coordinate [Mo(CO)(2){c-PhP(CH(2)CH(2)S)(2)CH(2)CH(2)}Br(2)] (7), the X-ray crystal structure of which reveals a carbonyl-capped octahedral geometry. Treatment of 3 with sulfur results in loss of the Mo(CO)(3) fragment and isolation of c-PhPS(CH(2)CH(2)S)(2)CH(2)CH(2) (8), the X-ray structure of which shows a nine-membered ring with the phosphorus center bearing phenyl and sulfide substituents. Reduction of 8 with sodium naphthalenide affords the parent ligand c-PhP(CH(2)CH(2)S)(2)CH(2)CH(2). Crystal data: 2, C(20)H(26)MoP(2)S(4), triclinic P&onemacr;, a = 8.105(3) , b = 8.263(3) , c = 17.663(4) , alpha = 100.29(2) degrees, beta = 99.78(2) degrees, gamma = 98.81(2) degrees, Z = 2; 3, C(15)H(17)MoO(3)PS(2), monoclinic P2(1)/n, a = 9.600(3) , b = 15.594(5) , c = 11.335(3) , beta = 93.01(2) degrees, Z = 4; 7, C(14)H(17)Br(2)MoO(2)PS(2), monoclinic P2(1)/c, a = 17.039(3) , b = 8.686(2) , c = 12.466(3) , beta = 100.52(2) degrees, Z = 4; 8, C(12)H(17)PS(3), monoclinic P2(1), a = 6.651(4) , b = 7.313(2) , c = 14.687(9) , beta = 101.62(3) degrees, Z = 2. PMID:11669745

  20. Cleavage of Ni-(?2-S)-Ni Bridges in Dinuclear Nickel(II) Dithiolate Pincer Complexes and Related Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Deguang; Deng, Liang; Sun, Jibin; Holm, R. H.

    2009-01-01

    Pyridine-2,6-dimethanethiolate and pyridine-2,6-dithiocarboxylate form sparingly soluble NiII pincer complexes formulated as [Ni(pdmt)]2 and [Ni(pdtc)]2, respectively, with two Ni-(?2-S)-Ni bridges. In acetonitrile reaction systems, the latter undergoes the facile bridge cleavage reactions [Ni(pdtc)]2 + 2L0,? ? 2[Ni(pdtc)L]0,? with an extensive set of nucleophiles to afford planar mononuclear products with L? = halide, CN, Me3SiO?, RS? and L0 = Et3P and a N-heterocyclic carbene. [Ni(pdmt)]2 is considerably less reactive toward bridge disruption. Cleavage products support several reactions of interest leading to other mononuclear species and to di- and trinuclear complexes. [Ni(pdtc)(OSiMe3)]1? deprotonates acetonitrile and acetone to form [Ni(pdtc)(CH2R)]1? (R = CN, COMe). Reaction of [Ni(pdtc)SEt]1? with FeII yields the thiolate-bridged dimer {[Ni(pdtc)]2(SEt)}1?. Refluxing an acetonitrile solution of [Ni(pdtc)SH]1? in air results in formation of trinuclear {[Ni(pdtc)]3S]2? containing the rare unsupported Ni3(?3-S) bridge core. Reaction of [Ni(pdtc)CN]1? with [Fe(Me6tren)(OTf)]1+ forms the complex [Ni(pdtc)CNFe(Me6tren)]1+, the only example of a single Ni-C?N-Fe bridge within a molecule. Structures of the various types of reaction products are presented. This work demonstrates the potential utility of bridge cleavage of polynuclear NiII thiolates, an extensive family of compounds, to produce mononuclear products. PMID:19459662

  1. EXFOR systems manual: Nuclear reaction data exchange format. Revision 97/1

    SciTech Connect

    McLane, V.

    1997-07-01

    This document describes EXFOR, the exchange format designed to allow transmission of nuclear reaction data between the members of the Nuclear Data Center Network. In addition to storing the data and its` bibliographic information, experimental information, including source of uncertainties, is also compiled. The status and history of the data set is also included, e.g., the source of the data, any updates which have been made, and correlations to other data sets. EXFOR is designed for flexibility rather than optimization of data processing in order to meet the diverse needs of the nuclear reaction data centers. The exchange format should not be confused with a center-to-user format. Although users may obtain data from the centers in the EXFOR format, other center-to-user formats have been developed to meet the needs of the users within each center`s own sphere of responsibility. The exchange format, as outlined, is designed to allow a large variety of numerical data tables with explanatory and bibliographic information to be transmitted in an easily machine-readable format (for checking and indicating possible errors) and a format that can be read by personnel (for passing judgment on and correcting any errors indicated by the machine).

  2. Reactivity of the uranium(IV) carbene complex [U(BIPM(TMS))(Cl)(?-Cl)?Li(THF)?] (BIPM(TMS) = {C(PPh?NSiMe?)?}) towards carbonyl and heteroallene substrates: metallo-Wittig, adduct formation, C-F bond activation, and [2 + 2]-cycloaddition reactions.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Oliver J; Mills, David P; Lewis, William; Blake, Alexander J; Liddle, Stephen T

    2014-10-14

    The reactivity of the uranium(IV) carbene complex [U(BIPM(TMS))(Cl)(?-Cl)2Li(THF)2] (1, BIPM(TMS) = {C(PPh2NSiMe3)2}) towards carbonyl and heteroallene substrates is reported. Reaction of 1 with benzophenone proceeds to give the metallo-Wittig terminal alkene product Ph2C=C(PPh2NSiMe3)2 (2); the likely "UOCl2" byproduct could not be isolated. Addition of the bulky ketone PhCOBu(t) to 1 resulted in loss of LiCl, coordination of the ketone, and dimerisation to give [U(BIPM(TMS))(Cl)(?-Cl){OC(Ph)(Bu(t))}]2 (3). The reaction of 1 with coumarin resulted in ring opening of the cyclic ester and a metallo-Wittig-type reaction to afford [U{BIPM(TMS)[C(O)(CHCHC6H4O-2)]-?(3)-N,O,O'}(Cl)2(THF)] (4) where the enolate product remains coordinated to uranium. The reaction of PhCOF with 1 resulted in C-F bond activation and oxidation resulting in isolation of [U(O)2(Cl)2(?-Cl)2{(?-LiDME)OC(Ph)=C(PPh2NSiMe3)(PPh2NHSiMe3)}2] (5) along with [U(Cl)2(F)2(py)4] (6). The reactions of 1 with tert-butylisocyanate or dicyclohexylcarbodiimide resulted in the isolation of the [2 + 2]-cycloaddition products [U{BIPM(TMS)[C(NBu(t)){OLi(THF)2(?-Cl)Li(THF)3}]-?(4)-C,N,N',N''}(Cl)3] (7) and [U{BIPM(TMS)[C(NCy)2]-?(4)-C,N,N',N''}(Cl)(?-Cl)2Li(THF)2] (8). Complexes 2-8 have been variously characterised by single crystal X-ray diffraction, multi-nuclear NMR and FTIR spectroscopies, Evans method solution magnetic moments, variable temperature SQUID magnetometry, and elemental analyses. PMID:24798878

  3. Complex chemical zoning in eclogite facies garnet reaction rims: the role of grain boundary diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prenzel, J.; Abart, R.; Keller, L.

    2009-03-01

    In metapelites of the Saualpe complex (Eastern Alps) continuous 10 m to 20 m wide garnet reaction rims formed along biotite-plagioclase and biotite-perthite interfaces. The pre-existing mineral assemblages are remnants of low pressure high temperature metamorphism of Permian age. The garnet reaction rims grew during the Cretaceous eclogite facies overprint. Reaction rim growth involved transfer of Fe and Mg components from the garnet-biotite interface to the garnet-feldspar interface and transfer of the Ca component in the opposite direction. The garnets show complex, asymmetrical chemical zoning, which reflects the relative contributions of short circuit diffusion along grain boundaries within the polycrystalline garnet reaction rims and volume diffusion through the grain interiors on bulk mass transfer. It is demonstrated by numerical modelling that the spacing of the grain boundaries, i.e. the grain size of the garnet in the reaction rim is a first order control on its internal chemical zoning.

  4. Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer Reactions Catalysed by 3?d Metal Complexes.

    PubMed

    Siewert, Inke

    2015-10-19

    Proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactions are essential for a wide range of natural energy-conversion reactions and recently, the impact of PCET pathways has been exploited in artificial systems, too. The Minireview highlights PCET reactions catalysed by first-row transition-metal complexes, with a focus on the water oxidation, the oxygen reduction, the hydrogen evolution, and the CO2 reduction reaction. Special attention will be paid to systems in which the impact of such pathways is deduced by comparison to systems with "electron-only"-transfer pathways. PMID:26249557

  5. Modeling the photochemical transformation of nitrobenzene under conditions relevant to sunlit surface waters: Reaction pathways and formation of intermediates.

    PubMed

    Vione, Davide; De Laurentiis, Elisa; Berto, Silvia; Minero, Claudio; Hatipoglu, Arzu; Cinar, Zekiye

    2016-02-01

    Nitrobenzene (NB) would undergo photodegradation in sunlit surface waters, mainly by direct photolysis and triplet-sensitized oxidation, with a secondary role of the OH reaction. Its photochemical half-life time would range from a few days to a couple of months under fair-weather summertime irradiation, depending on water chemistry and depth. NB phototransformation gives phenol and the three nitrophenol isomers, in different yields depending on the considered pathway. The minor OH role in degradation would make NB unsuitable as OH probe in irradiated natural water samples, but the selectivity towards OH could be increased by monitoring the formation of phenol from NB+OH. The relevant reaction would proceed through ipso-addition of OH on the carbon atom bearing the nitro-group, forming a pre-reactive complex that would evolve into a transition state (and then into a radical addition intermediate) with very low activation energy barrier. PMID:26688265

  6. Computer analysis of the binding reactions leading to a transmembrane receptor-linked multiprotein complex involved in bacterial chemotaxis.

    PubMed Central

    Bray, D; Bourret, R B

    1995-01-01

    The chemotactic response of bacteria is mediated by complexes containing two molecules each of a transmembrane receptor and the intracellular signaling proteins CheA and CheW. Mutants in which one or the other of the proteins of this complex are absent, inactive, or expressed at elevated amounts show altered chemotactic behavior and the phenotypes are difficult to interpret for some overexpression mutants. We have examined the possibility that these unexpected phenotypes might arise from the binding steps that lead to active complex formation. A limited genetic algorithm was used to search for sets of binding reactions and associated binding constants expected to give mutant phenotypes in accord with experimental data. Different sets of binding equilibria and different assumptions about the activity of particular receptor complexes were tried. Computer analysis demonstrated that it is possible to obtain sets of binding equilibria consistent with the observed phenotypes and provided a simple explanation for these phenotypes in terms of the distribution of active and inactive complexes formed under various conditions. Optimization methods of this kind offer a unique way to analyze reactions taking place inside living cells based on behavioral data. PMID:8573792

  7. Photoinduced electron transfer reactions of ruthenium(II) phenanthroline complexes with dimethylaniline in aqueous and micellar media.

    PubMed

    Sangiliapillai, Ramanathan; Arumugam, Ramdass; Eswaran, Rajkumar; Seenivasan, Rajagopal

    2015-01-01

    Four [Ru(NN)(3)](2+) complexes (NN?=?polypyridine) with ligands of varying hydrophobicity with different charges +2, 0 and -4 were synthesized. The photophysics and photoinduced electron transfer reactions of these Ru(II)-complexes with dimethylaniline (DMA) as the quencher have been studied in aqueous medium and ionic and non-ionic micellar medium. The extent of binding of the complexes with the surfactant interface is evident from the calculated binding constant values (K). Dimethylaniline (DMA) being a neutral quencher, the hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions competing with one another and their combined effect with the surfactants were reported by observing the quenching rate constant (k(q)) values. The formation of anilinium cation radical in transient absorption spectrum confirms the excited state electron transfer reactions of ruthenium(II) complexes with dimethylaniline. The calculated rate constant values (k(q)) are in good agreement with the experimental k(q) values giving quantitative evidence for the bimolecular reductive quenching rate constant for the complexes with DMA. Pseudophase ion exchange model is successfully applied to analyse the quenching data. PMID:25524086

  8. Oligomerization reactions of deoxyribonucleotides on montmorillonite clay - The effect of mononucleotide structure on phosphodiester bond formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, James P.; KAMALUDDIN

    1989-01-01

    The formation of oligomers from deoxynucleotides, catalyzed by Na(+)-montmorillonite, was investigated with special attention given to the effect of the monomer structure on the phosphodiester bond formation. It was found that adenine deoxynucleotides bind more strongly to montmorillonite than do the corresponding ribonucleotides and thymidine nucleotides. Tetramers of 2-prime-dpA were detected in the reaction of 2-prime-d-5-prime-AMP with a water-soluble carbodiimide EDAC in the presence of Na(+)-montmorillonite, illustrating the possible role of minerals in the formation of biopolymers on the primitive earth.

  9. THE OZONE REACTION WITH BUTADIENE: FORMATION OF TOXIC PRODUCTS. (R826236)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    The formation yields of acrolein, 1,2-epoxy-3-butene and OH radicals have been measured from reaction of ozone with 1,3-butadiene at room temperature and atmosphere pressure. 1,3,5-Trimethyl benzene was added to scavenge OH radicals in measurements of product ...

  10. Interfacial reactions in the formation of ohmic contacts to wide bandgap semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, P. H.; Kim, T.-J.; Trexler, J. T.; Miller, S.; Fijol, J. J.; Lampert, W. V.; Haas, T. W.

    1997-06-01

    The influence of interfacial reactions on the formation of ohmic contacts to GaAs, ZnSe and GaN based semiconductor layers is reviewed. In the case of semiconductors whose Fermi levels are not pinned (ZnSe and GaN), disruption of interfacial contamination layers is critical during the interfacial reaction step. In these cases, interfacial phase formation appears to be detrimental to the contact properties. In GaAs where the Fermi level is pinned near midgap, interfacial reactions which consist of dissociation of the GaAs lattice and regrowth of this lattice in the presence of a dopant, are critical to successful formation of the ohmic contact. Dopant incorporation during GaAs regrowth leads to a heavily doped surface layer, charge transport across the interface by thermionic field emission, and ohmic behavior with a low specific contact resistance. The most difficult contacts to form are those to p-type ZnSe and GaN since the top of the valence band is at too low an energy to match with the work function of any known metal or compound. To date no metallization scheme has been identified which will lead to lattice reactions with ZnSe or GaN and yield a p ++ surface layer and subsequent ohmic contact formation.

  11. IN VIVO FORMATION OF HALOGENATED REACTION PRODUCTS FOLLOWING PERORAL SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    To date the principal concern of the disinfection of potable water has centered on the formation of halogenated organic reaction products and the adverse health effects that these products may have. However, an additional area for concern relating to water disinfection is the pot...

  12. Peroxynitrite affects exocytosis and SNARE complex formation and induces tyrosine nitration of synaptic proteins.

    PubMed

    Di Stasi, A M Michela; Mallozzi, Cinzia; Macchia, Gianfranco; Maura, Guido; Petrucci, Tamara C; Minetti, Maurizio

    2002-07-01

    The reactive species peroxynitrite, formed via the near diffusion-limited reaction of nitric oxide and superoxide anion, is a potent oxidant that contributes to tissue damage in neurodegenerative disorders. Peroxynitrite readily nitrates tyrosine residues in proteins, producing a permanent modification that can be immunologically detected. We have previously demonstrated that in the nerve terminal, nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity is primarily associated with synaptophysin. Here we identify two other presynaptic proteins nitrated by peroxynitrite, Munc-18 and SNAP25, both of which are involved in sequential steps leading to vesicle exocytosis. To investigate whether peroxynitrite affects vesicle exocytosis, we used the fluorescent dye FM1-43 to label a recycling population of secretory vesicles within the synaptosomes. Bolus addition of peroxynitrite stimulated exocytosis and glutamate release. Notably, these effects were strongly reduced in the presence of NaHCO(3), indicating that peroxynitrite acts mainly intracellularly. Furthermore, peroxynitrite enhanced the formation of the sodium dodecyl sulfate-resistant SNARE complex in a dose-dependent manner (100-1000 microm) and induced the formation of 3-nitrotyrosine in proteins of SNARE complex. These data suggest that modification(s) of synaptic vesicle proteins induced by peroxynitrite may affect protein-protein interactions in the docking/fusion steps, thus promoting exocytosis, and that, under excessive production of superoxide and nitric oxide, neurons may up-regulate neuronal signaling. PMID:12124443

  13. Short communication: Study on the formation of 2-methylimidazole and 4-methylimidazole in the Maillard reaction.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xinlan; Huang, Minghui; Kong, Fansheng; Yu, Shujuan

    2015-12-01

    2-Methylimidazole (2-MI) and 4-methylimidazole (4-MI) can be formed via the Maillard reaction during dairy thermal treatment. In this study, different reactions between ?-dicarbonyl compounds (methylglyoxal, glyoxal) and aldehydes (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde) in the presence of ammonium sulfate were performed to investigate the formation of 2-MI and 4-MI. Two formation pathways of 2-MI and 4-MI were proposed. One pathway is that ?-dicarbonyl compound reacts with equivalent ammonia to form an intermediate, while aldehyde reacts with equivalent ammonia to form another intermediate, then the 2 intermediates react together to generate 2-MI or 4-MI. Alternatively, ?-dicarbonyl compound can react with double ammonia to form an intermediate, and subsequently reacts with aldehyde to form 2-MI or 4-MI. Additionally, possible mechanisms were also proposed to explain the phenomenon that the 2-MI content was much lower than 4-MI in Maillard reaction. PMID:26409957

  14. Aza-crown ether complex cation ionic liquids: preparation and applications in organic reactions.

    PubMed

    Song, Yingying; Cheng, Chen; Jing, Huanwang

    2014-09-26

    Aza-crown ether complex cation ionic liquids (aCECILs) were devised, fabricated, and characterized by using NMR spectroscopy, MS, thermogravimetric differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), elemental analysis and physical properties. These new and room-temperature ILs were utilized as catalysts in various organic reactions, such as the cycloaddition reaction of CO2 to epoxides, esterification of acetic acid and alcohols, the condensation reaction of aniline and propylene carbonate, and Friedel-Crafts alkylation of indole with aldehydes were investigated carefully. In these reactions, the ionic liquid exhibited cooperative catalytic activity between the anion and cation. In addition, the aza-[18-C-6HK][HSO4]2 was the best acidic catalyst in the reactions of esterification and Friedel-Crafts alkylation under mild reaction conditions. PMID:25154312

  15. Solid-state formation of CO2 via the H2CO + O reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minissale, M.; Loison, J.-C.; Baouche, S.; Chaabouni, H.; Congiu, E.; Dulieu, F.

    2015-05-01

    Context. The formation of carbon dioxide ice in quiescent regions of molecular clouds has not yet been fully understood, even though CO2 is one the most abundant species in interstellar ices. Aims: CO2 formation was studied via oxidation of formaldehyde molecules on cold surfaces under conditions close to those encountered in quiescent molecular clouds to evaluate the efficiency and the activation barrier of the H2CO + O reaction. Methods: Formaldehyde ices were exposed to O atoms using a differentially pumped beam line. The H2CO + O reaction experiments were carried out on two different surfaces of astrophysical interest (amorphous water ice and oxidised graphite) held at 10 or 55 K. The products were probed via infrared and mass spectroscopy by using RAIRS and temperature-programmed desorption techniques. Results: In this paper we show that the H2CO + O reaction can efficiently form carbon dioxide in the solid phase. The activation barrier for the reaction, based on a model fit to the experimental data, was estimated to be 335 55 K. Conclusions: The H2CO+O reaction on cold surfaces can be added to the set of pathways that lead to carbon dioxide in the interstellar ices. Astrophysically, the abundance of CO2 in quiescent molecular clouds may potentially be explained by three reactions occurring on cosmic grains: CO + OH,CO + O, and H2CO + O. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  16. Secondary organic aerosol formation initiated from reactions between ozone and surface-sorbed squalene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunyi; Waring, Michael S.

    2014-02-01

    Previous research has shown that ozone reactions on surface-sorbed D-limonene can promote gas phase secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation indoors. In this work, we conducted 13 steady state chamber experiments to measure the SOA formation entirely initiated by ozone reactions with squalene sorbed to glass, at chamber ozone of 57-500 ppb for two relative humidity (RH) conditions of 21% and 51%, in the absence of seed particles. Squalene is a nonvolatile compound that is a component of human skin oil and prevalent on indoor surfaces and in settled dust due to desquamation. The size distributions, mass and number secondary emission rates (SER), aerosol mass fractions (AMF), and aerosol number fractions (ANF) of formed SOA were quantified. The surface AMF and ANF are defined as the change in SOA mass or number formed, respectively, per ozone mass consumed by ozone-squalene reactions. All experiments but one exhibited nucleation and mass formation. Mass formation was relatively small in magnitude and increased with ozone, most notably for the RH = 51% experiments. The surface AMF was a function of the chamber aerosol concentration, and a multi-product model was fit using the 'volatility basis set' framework. Number formation was relatively strong at low ozone and low RH conditions. Though we cannot extrapolate our results because experiments were conducted at high air exchange rates, we speculate that this process may enhance particle number more than mass concentrations indoors.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and thermodynamics of complex formation of some new Schiff base ligands with some transition metal ions and the adduct formation of zinc Schiff base complexes with some organotin chlorides.

    PubMed

    Asadi, Mozaffar; Asadi, Zahra; Torabi, Susan; Lotfi, Najmeh

    2012-08-01

    Four new complexes, [M(Salpyr)] where Salpyr=N,N'-bis(Salicylidene)-2,3- and 3,4-diiminopyridine and M=Co, Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn were synthesized and characterized by (1)H NMR, IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and UV-vis spectrophotometry. UV-vis spectrophotometric study of the adduct formation of the zinc(II) complexes, [Zn(2,3-Salpyr)] and [Zn(3,4-Salpyr)], as donor with R(2)SnCl(2) (R=methyl, phenyl, n-butyl), PhSnCl(3) and Bu(3)SnCl as acceptors has been investigated in methanol, as solvent. The formation constants and the thermodynamic free energies were measured using UV-vis spectrophotometry. Titration of the organotin chlorides with Zn(II) complexes at various temperatures (T=283-313K) leads to 1:1 adduct formation. The results show that the formation constants were decreased by increasing the temperature. The trend of the reaction of R(n)SnCl(4-n) as acceptors toward given zinc complexes was as follows: PhSnCl3 > Me2SnCl2 > Ph2SnCl2 > Bu2SnCl2 > Bu3SnCl. By considering the formation constants and the ?G of the complex formation for the Schiff base as donor and the M(II) as acceptor, the following conclusion was drawn: the formation constant for a given Schiff base changes according to the following trend: Ni > Cu > Co > Zn > Mn. PMID:22626922

  18. Synthesis, characterization and thermodynamics of complex formation of some new Schiff base ligands with some transition metal ions and the adduct formation of zinc Schiff base complexes with some organotin chlorides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadi, Mozaffar; Asadi, Zahra; Torabi, Susan; Lotfi, Najmeh

    Four new complexes, [M(Salpyr)] where Salpyr = N,N'-bis(Salicylidene)-2,3- and 3,4-diiminopyridine and M = Co, Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn were synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR, IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and UV-vis spectrophotometry. UV-vis spectrophotometric study of the adduct formation of the zinc(II) complexes, [Zn(2,3-Salpyr)] and [Zn(3,4-Salpyr)], as donor with R2SnCl2 (R = methyl, phenyl, n-butyl), PhSnCl3 and Bu3SnCl as acceptors has been investigated in methanol, as solvent. The formation constants and the thermodynamic free energies were measured using UV-vis spectrophotometry. Titration of the organotin chlorides with Zn(II) complexes at various temperatures (T = 283-313 K) leads to 1:1 adduct formation. The results show that the formation constants were decreased by increasing the temperature. The trend of the reaction of RnSnCl4-n as acceptors toward given zinc complexes was as follows: PhSnCl3 > Me2SnCl2 > Ph2SnCl2 > Bu2SnCl2 > Bu3SnCl By considering the formation constants and the ?G of the complex formation for the Schiff base as donor and the M(II) as acceptor, the following conclusion was drawn: the formation constant for a given Schiff base changes according to the following trend: Ni > Cu > Co > Zn > Mn

  19. Lattice Boltzmann study of pattern formation in reaction-diffusion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayodele, S. G.; Varnik, F.; Raabe, D.

    2011-01-01

    Pattern formation in reaction-diffusion systems is of great importance in surface micropatterning [Grzybowski , Soft Matter1744-683X10.1039/B501769F 1, 114 (2005)], self-organization of cellular micro-organisms [Schulz , Annu. Rev. Microbiol.ARMIAZ0066-422710.1146/annurev.micro.55.1.105 55, 105 (2001)], and in developmental biology [Barkai , FEBS Journal1742-464X10.1111/j.1742-4658.2008.06854.x 276, 1196 (2009)]. In this work, we apply the lattice Boltzmann method to study pattern formation in reaction-diffusion systems. As a first methodological step, we consider the case of a single species undergoing transformation reaction and diffusion. In this case, we perform a third-order Chapman-Enskog multiscale expansion and study the dependence of the lattice Boltzmann truncation error on the diffusion coefficient and the reaction rate. These findings are in good agreement with numerical simulations. Furthermore, taking the Gray-Scott model as a prominent example, we provide evidence for the maturity of the lattice Boltzmann method in studying pattern formation in nonlinear reaction-diffusion systems. For this purpose, we perform linear stability analysis of the Gray-Scott model and determine the relevant parameter range for pattern formation. Lattice Boltzmann simulations allow us not only to test the validity of the linear stability phase diagram including Turing and Hopf instabilities, but also permit going beyond the linear stability regime, where large perturbations give rise to interesting dynamical behavior such as the so-called self-replicating spots. We also show that the length scale of the patterns may be tuned by rescaling all relevant diffusion coefficients in the system with the same factor while leaving all the reaction constants unchanged.

  20. Reaction Mechanism of 3,4-Dinitrofuroxan Formation from Glyoxime: Dehydrogenation and Cyclization of Oxime.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ya-Jing; Jiang, Yan-Xue; Peng, Xie; Liu, Jian-Yong; Lai, Wei-Peng

    2016-02-01

    The reaction pathway of the formation of 3,4-dinitrofuroxan from glyoxime is theoretically investigated under experimental conditions with 25?% nitric acid and dinitrogentetroxide reagents to clarify the mechanism of formation of a furoxan ring by glyoxime. The geometric configurations of minima and transition-state species are optimized at the (U)B3LYP/6-311++G** level. The CCSD(T) and CASSCF(10e,8o)/CASSCF(9e,8o) single-point energy corrections at the same level are performed on top of the optimized geometries. A subsequent dynamic correlation by using NEVPT2/6-311++G**-level single-point energy calculations based on the CASSCF results is also performed to obtain accurate energy values. The formation reaction is analyzed from two processes: glyoxime nitration and 3,4-dinitroglyoxime (nitration product) oxidative cyclization. Calculation results indicate that the electrophilic substitution of nitronium ions from the protonated HNO3 and the abstraction of hydrogen ions by HNO3 molecules are requisites of glyoxime nitration. The formation of a furoxan ring from 3,4-dinitroglyoxime involves two possible mechanisms: 1)?oxydehydrogenation by NO2 molecules and the subsequent torsion of NO radical groups to form a ring and 2)?the alternation of dehydrogenation and cyclization. The intermediates and transition states in both routes exhibit monoradical and diradical characteristics. Singlet and triplet reactions are considered for the diradical species. Results show that the singlet reaction mechanism is more favorable for cyclization than the triplet reaction. The formation of a furoxan ring from oxime is in accordance with the stepwise intermolecular dehydrogenation and intramolecular torsion to the ring. PMID:26677195

  1. N,O-Chelating Four-Membered Metallacyclic Titanium(IV) Complexes for Atom-Economic Catalytic Reactions.

    PubMed

    Ryken, Scott A; Schafer, Laurel L

    2015-09-15

    Titanium, as the second most abundant transition metal in the earth's crust, lends itself as a sustainable and inexpensive resource in catalysis. Its nontoxicity and biocompatibility are also attractive features for handling and disposal. Titanium has excelled as a catalyst for a broad range of transformations, including ethylene and ?-olefin polymerizations. However, many reactions relevant to fine chemical synthesis have preferrentially employed late transition metals, and reactive, inexpensive early transition metals have been largely overlooked. In addition to promising reactivity, titanium complexes feature more robust character compared with some other highly Lewis-acidic metals such as those found in the lanthanide series. Since the advent of modulating ligand scaffolds, titanium has found use in a growing variety of reactions as a versatile homogeneous catalyst. These catalytic transformations include hydrofunctionalization reactions (adding an element-hydrogen (E-H) bond across a C-C multiple bond), as well as the ring-opening polymerization of cyclic esters, all of which are atom-economic transformations. Our investigations have focused on tight bite angle monoanionic N,O-chelating ligands, forming four-membered metallacycles. These ligand sets, including amidates, ureates, pyridonates, and sulfonamidates, have flexible binding modes offering a range of stable and reactive intermediates necessary for catalytic activity. Additionally, the simple form of these ligands leads to easily prepared proligands, along with facile tuning of steric and electronic factors. A sterically bulky titanium amidate complex has proven to be a leading catalyst for the selective formation of anti-Markovnikov addition products via intermolecular hydroamination of terminal alkynes, while sterically less demanding titanium pyridonates have opened the path to the selective formation of amine substituted cycloalkanes via the intramolecular hydroaminoalkylation of aminoalkenes over the competing hydroamination pathway. Sulfonamidates have boosted reactivity for hydrofunctionalization and polymerization reactions compared with amide ligands not bearing a sulfonyl group. N,O-Chelated titanium complexes have been used to synthesize ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene and have been utilized in the challenging task of realizing equal incorporation of two different cyclic esters in a random ring-opening copolymerization. These discrete complexes have allowed for careful study of fundamental coordination chemistry and stoichiometric organometallic investigations. With inexpensive starting materials and modular ligands, titanium N,O-chelated complexes are well-suited to address the challenges of achieving greener chemical processes while accessing useful reaction manifolds for sustainable synthesis. PMID:26247696

  2. Kinetics of exciplex formation/dissipation in reaction following Weller Scheme II.

    PubMed

    Fedorenko, S G; Burshtein, A I

    2014-09-21

    Creation of exciplexes from the charged products of photoionization is considered by means of Integral Encounter Theory. The general kinetic equations of such a reaction following the Weller scheme II are developed. The special attention is given to the particular case of irreversible remote ionization of primary excited electron donor. Kinetics of exciplex formation is considered at fast biexponential geminate transformation of exciplexes in cage that gives way to subsequent bulk reaction of equilibrated reaction products controlled by power law recombination of ions. It is shown that the initial geminate stage of exciplex kinetics is observed only in diffusion controlled regime of the reaction and disappears with increasing mobility of ions in passing to kinetic regime. The quantum yield of exciplexes is studied along with their kinetics. PMID:25240361

  3. Kinetics of exciplex formation/dissipation in reaction following Weller Scheme II

    SciTech Connect

    Fedorenko, S. G.; Burshtein, A. I.

    2014-09-21

    Creation of exciplexes from the charged products of photoionization is considered by means of Integral Encounter Theory. The general kinetic equations of such a reaction following the Weller scheme II are developed. The special attention is given to the particular case of irreversible remote ionization of primary excited electron donor. Kinetics of exciplex formation is considered at fast biexponential geminate transformation of exciplexes in cage that gives way to subsequent bulk reaction of equilibrated reaction products controlled by power law recombination of ions. It is shown that the initial geminate stage of exciplex kinetics is observed only in diffusion controlled regime of the reaction and disappears with increasing mobility of ions in passing to kinetic regime. The quantum yield of exciplexes is studied along with their kinetics.

  4. Theoretical investigation of the thermodynamic structures and kinetic water-exchange reactions of aqueous Al(III)-salicylate complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wenjing; Jin, Xiaoyan; Dong, Shaonan; Bi, Shuping

    2013-11-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed on the structures and water-exchange reactions of aqueous Al(III)-salicylate complexes. Based on the four models (gas phase (GP); polarizable continuum model (PCM), which estimates the bulk solvent effect; supermolecule model (SM), which considers the explicit solvent effect, and supermolecule-polarizable continuum model (SM-PCM), which accounts for both types of solvent effects), we systematically conducted this study by examining three different properties of the complexes. (1) The microscopic properties of the aqueous Al(III)-salicylate complexes were studied by optimizing their various structures (including the possible 1:1 mono- and bidentate complexes, cis and trans isomers of the 1:2 bidentate complexes and 1:3 bidentate complexes) at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d, p) level. (2) The 27Al and 13C NMR chemical shifts were calculated using the GIAO method at the HF/6-311+G(d, p) level. The calculation results show that the values obtained with the SM-PCM models are in good agreement with the experimental data available in the literature, indicating that the models we employed are appropriate for Al(III)-salicylate complexes. (3) The water-exchange reactions of 1:1 mono- and bidentate Al(III)-salicylate complexes were simulated using supermolecule models at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d, p) level. The logarithm of the water-exchange rate constant (log kex) of the 1:1 bidentate complex predicted using the "log kex-dAl-OH2" correlation is 4.0, which is in good agreement with the experimental value of 3.7, whereas the calculated range of log kex of the 1:1 monodentate complexes is 1.3-1.9. By effectively combining the results for the thermodynamic static structures with the simulations of the kinetic water-exchange reactions, this work promotes further understanding of the configurations and formation mechanism of Al(III)-salicylate complexes.

  5. Synthesis, Mechanism of Formation, and Catalytic Activity of Xantphos Nickel ?-Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Staudaher, Nicholas D.; Stolley, Ryan M.; Louie, Janis

    2015-01-01

    A general synthetic route to the first Xantphos nickel alkyne and alkene complexes has been discovered. Various Ni complexes were prepared and characterized. NMR experiments indicate benzonitrile undergoes ligand exchange with a Xantphos ligand of (Xant)2Ni, a compound that was previously believed to be unreactive. The Ni ?-complexes were also shown to be catalytically competent in cross coupling and cycloaddition reactions. (Xant)2Ni is also catalytically active for these reactions when activated by a nitrile or coordinating solvent. PMID:25356514

  6. O2/GaAs(110) interface formation at 20 K: Photon-induced reaction and desorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Steven G.; Komeda, T.; Seo, J. M.; Capasso, C.; Waddill, G. D.; Benning, P. J.; Weaver, J. H.

    1990-09-01

    High-resolution synchrotron-radiation photoemission studies of molecular O2 condensed on GaAs(110) at 20 K show that oxidation is a consequence of photon irradiation. Core-level results for 2 L O2 [1 langmuir (L)==10-6 Torr sec] demonstrate that the topmost layer of As atoms is initially involved in a sequential, two-step reaction to produce As1+- and As3+-like oxides. These reactions are mediated by secondary electron capture by O2 which then dissociates to form surface oxides. As5+-like bonding configurations are formed when additional O2 is condensed on the surface and exposed to photon irradiation. O2-GaAs interface reactions slow as transport through the thickening oxides is impeded, and photon-induced desorption of oxygen becomes significant. Studies of Fermi-level movement into the gap as a function of O2 exposure suggest that oxidation at 20 K produces acceptorlike states. Fermi-level evolution for n-type GaAs is strongly dependent on dopant concentration, O2 dose, and light exposure, indicating band flattening for lightly doped samples due to surface photovoltage effects. These effects are not significant for p-type GaAs at 20 K, consistent with the formation of acceptorlike states. Together, these results show a complex dependence of surface chemistry on photon irradiation, but remarkably little dependence of the surface Fermi-level position on the reactions.

  7. Formation of unsaturated vicinal Zr(+)/P frustrated Lewis pairs by the unique 1,1-carbozirconation reactions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin; Kehr, Gerald; Daniliuc, Constantin G; Erker, Gerhard

    2014-09-01

    Treatment of the metallocene cation complexes [Cp*2MCH3](+)[B(C6F5)4](-) (M = Zr or Hf) with trimethylsilyl(diarylphosphino)acetylenes Ar2P-C?C-SiMe3 (Ar = Ph or p-tolyl) resulted in the formation of internal phosphane stabilized cations [Cp*2M-C(CH3)?C(SiMe3)PAr2](+) 4 through the unique 1,1-carbometalation reaction under mild conditions. In contrast, when the low Lewis basicity phosphane containing alkyne (C6F5)2P-C?C-SiMe3 was used, normal 1,2-carbometalation occurred to produce complexes 5, which show agostic coordination of a Me-Si group to the metal center. Complex 4a reacts with n-butyl isocyanide to give the coordination product 6, which has the Zr-P bond retained. Treatment of 4a with N2O gave the five-membered metallaheterocycle 7 by oxidation of the phosphane. The vicinal M(+)/P complexes 4 also show some typical FLP reactivity. They add to cinnamaldehyde or paraformaldehyde, for example, to produce carbonyl addition products 8 and 9, respectively. Complex 4a adds to the N?O functionality of nitrosobenzene with formation of 10. The vicinal M(+)/P systems 4 behave as reactive frustrated Lewis pairs toward hetercumulenes, undergoing 1,2-addition to the C?O bond of CO2 and the S?O bond of SO2 to form the respective adducts 11 and 12. The Zr(+)/P FLP 4a reacts with PhN?S?O to give the addition product 13, in which the phosphane Lewis base has added to the nitrogen atom and the Zr(+) Lewis acid to both atoms of the S?O unit. The reaction of complex 4a with the metal complex [Ir(COD)Cl]2 affords a heterobimetallic Zr/Ir product 14. The vicinal M(+)/P complexes 4 can be also used as efficient catalysts for the regioselective dimerization of phenyl acetylene. PMID:25089591

  8. Spectrophotometric determination of some pharmaceutical piperazine derivatives through charge-transfer and ion-pair complexation reactions.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Gawad, F M

    1997-07-01

    Simple and sensitive spectrophotometric methods are described for the assay of three piperazine derivatives; ketoconazole, piribedil and prazosin hydrochloride based on charge-transfer and ion-pair complexation reactions. The first method is based on the reaction of the basic drug with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-p-benzoquinone (DDQ) in acetonitrile. The orange-red colour formed due to the formation of charge-transfer complex showed maximum absorbance at 460 nm. The second method is based upon the interaction of the basic drug in dry chloroform with bromophenol blue (BPB) in the same solvent to produce a stable yellow ion-pair complex which absorbs at 410 nm. Beer's law was obeyed for both methods and the relative standard deviations were found to be less than 1%. The two methods can be applied to the analysis of tablets, with no evidence of interference from excipients. A more detailed investigation of the complex was made with respect to its composition, association constant and free energy change. PMID:9260663

  9. Charge-transfer complexes formed in the reaction of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane with ?-electron acceptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlQaradawi, Siham Y.; Mostafa, Adel; Bazzi, Hassan S.

    2013-04-01

    The reactions of the electron donor 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (TACDD) with the ?-electron acceptors 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ), tetracyanoethylene (TCNE), 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-p-benzoquinone (DDQ), 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone (CHL) and 2,4,4,6-tetrabromo-2,5-cyclohexadienone (TBCHD) were studied spectrophotometrically in chloroform at room temperature. The electronic and infrared spectra of the formed molecular charge-transfer (CT) complexes were recorded. The obtained results showed that the stoichiometries of the reactions are fixed and depend on the nature of both the donor and the acceptor. Based on the obtained data, the formed charge-transfer complexes were formulated as [(Donor)(Acceptor)2] for the donor (TACDD) and the acceptors TCNQ, TCNE, DDQ, CHL and TBCHD. These CT-complexes were isolated as solids and have been characterized through electronic and infrared spectra as well as elemental and thermal analysis measurements. The formation constants (KCT), charge transfer energy (ECT), molar extinction coefficients (?CT), free energy change ?G0, ionization potential Ip and oscillator strength of the formed CT-complexes were obtained.

  10. Multicomponent One-pot Reactions Towards the Synthesis of Stereoisomers of Dipicolylamine Complexes.

    PubMed

    Raje, Sakthi; Gurusamy, Sureshbabu; Koner, Abhishek; Mehrotra, Sonam; Jennifer, Samson Jegan; Vasudev, Prema G; Butcher, Ray J; Angamuthu, Raja

    2016-01-01

    Reported are multi-component one-pot syntheses of chiral complexes [M(L(R) OR')Cl2 ] or [M(L(R) SR')Cl2 ] from the mixture of an N-substituted ethylenediamine, pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde, a primary alcohol or thiol and MCl2 utilizing in-situ formed cyclized Schiff bases where a C-O bond, two stereocenters, and three C-N bonds are formed (M=Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd; R=Et, Ph; R'=Me, Et, nPr, nBu). Tridentate ligands L(R) OR' and L(R) SR' comprise two chiral centers and a hemiaminal ether or hemiaminal thioether moiety on the dipicolylamine skeleton. Syn-[Zn(L(Ph) OMe)Cl2 ] precipitates out readily from the reaction mixture as a major product whereas anti-[Zn(L(Ph) OMe)Cl2 ] stays in solution as minor product. Both syn-[Zn(L(Ph) OMe)Cl2 ] and anti-[Zn(L(Ph) OMe)Cl2 ] were characterized using NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Solid-state structures revealed that syn-[Zn(L(Ph) OMe)Cl2 ] adopted a square pyramidal geometry while anti-[Zn(L(Ph) OMe)Cl2 ] possesses a trigonal bipyramidal geometry around the Zn centers. The scope of this method was shown to be wide by varying the components of the dynamic coordination assembly, and the structures of the complexes isolated were confirmed by NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and X-ray crystallography. Syn complexes were isolated as major products with Zn(II) and Cu(II) , and anti complexes were found to be major products with Ni(II) and Cd(II) . Hemiaminals and hemiaminal ethers are known to be unstable and are seldom observed as part of cyclic organic compounds or as coordinated ligands assembled around metals. It is now shown, with the support of experimental results, that linear hemiaminal ethers or thioethers can be assembled without the assistance of Lewis acidic metals in the multi-component assembly, and a possible pathway of the formation of hemiaminal ethers has been proposed. PMID:26415522

  11. N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes of Rh: Reaction With Dioxygen Without Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Praetorius, J.M.; Allen, D.P.; Wang, R.; Webb, J.D.; Grein, F.; Kennepohl, P.; Crudden, C.M.

    2009-05-21

    The reaction of oxygen with rhodium complexes containing N-heterocyclic carbenes was found to give dioxygen complexes with rare square planar geometries and unusually short O-O bond lengths. Analysis of the bonding in these complexes by Rh L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), Raman spectroscopy, and DFT calculations provides evidence for a bonding model in which singlet oxygen is bound to a Rh(I) d{sup 8} metal complex, rather than the more common Rh(III) d{sup 6} peroxo species with octahedral geometry and O-O bond lengths in the 1.4-1.5 {angstrom} range.

  12. Pattern formation on networks with reactions: A continuous-time random-walk approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angstmann, C. N.; Donnelly, I. C.; Henry, B. I.

    2013-03-01

    We derive the generalized master equation for reaction-diffusion on networks from an underlying stochastic process, the continuous time random walk (CTRW). The nontrivial incorporation of the reaction process into the CTRW is achieved by splitting the derivation into two stages. The reactions are treated as birth-death processes and the first stage of the derivation is at the single particle level, taking into account the death process, while the second stage considers an ensemble of these particles including the birth process. Using this model we have investigated different types of pattern formation across the vertices on a range of networks. Importantly, the CTRW defines the Laplacian operator on the network in a non-ad hoc manner and the pattern formation depends on the structure of this Laplacian. Here we focus attention on CTRWs with exponential waiting times for two cases: one in which the rate parameter is constant for all vertices and the other where the rate parameter is proportional to the vertex degree. This results in nonsymmetric and symmetric CTRW Laplacians, respectively. In the case of symmetric Laplacians, pattern formation follows from the Turing instability. However in nonsymmetric Laplacians, pattern formation may be possible with or without a Turing instability.

  13. Quantifying the ionic reaction channels in the Secondary Organic Aerosol formation from glyoxal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxut, Aurelia; Nozière, Barbara; Rossignol, Stéphanie; George, Christian; Waxman, Eleanor Marie; Laskin, Alexander; Slowik, Jay; Dommen, Josef; Prévôt, André; Baltensperger, Urs; Volkamer, Rainer

    2014-05-01

    Glyoxal, a common organic gas in the atmosphere, has been identified in recent years as an important Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) precursor (Volkamer et al., 2007). But, unlike with other precursors, the SOA is largely produced by particle-phase reactions (Volkamer et al., 2009) and equilibria (Kampf et al. 2013) that are still not entirely characterized. Since 2009 series of smog chamber experiments have been performed within the Eurochamp program at the Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland, to investigate SOA formation from glyoxal. In these experiments, glyoxal was produced by the gas-phase oxidation of acetylene in the presence of seeds, the seed composition and other conditions being varied. The 2011 campaign resulted in the identification of salting processes controlling the glyoxal partitioning in the seeds (Kampf et al. 2013). This presentation will report results of the 2013 campaign focusing on the identification of the various reactions (ionic or photo-induced) contributing to the SOA mass. In particular, the contribution of the ionic reactions, i.e. mediated by NH4+, were investigated by quantifying the formation of imidazoles (imidazole, imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde, 2,2'-biimidazole) from the small condensation channel of glyoxal with ammonia. For this, the SOA produced were collected on quartz filters and analyzed by Orbitrap LC/MS (Q-Exactive Thermo Fisher). The formation of other products such as organic acids was also investigated to determine potential competing reactions. Time-resolved MOUDI sampling coupled with nano-DESY/ESI-MS/MS analysis was also used to identify nitrogen- and sulphur-containing products from all the reactions. The results obtained for a range of conditions will be presented and compared with recent mechanistic information on the ionic reaction channels (Nozière et al., in preparation, 2013). The implementation of all this new information into a glyoxal-SOA model will be discussed.

  14. Coupling reaction of vinyl esters with aldehydes catalyzed by samarium complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, Yasutaka; Takeno, Mitsuhiro; Sakaguchi, Satoshi; Nishiyama, Yutaka

    1995-12-31

    In recent years, a unique catalysis of samarium(II) complexes such as Cp*{sub 2}Sm(thf){sub 2} is increasing interest in organic synthesis. The authors now find that Sm(II) complexes catalyze a new 1:2 coupling reaction of vinyl esters and aldehydes under mild conditions. For instance, the coupling reaction of vinyl acetate with acetaldehyde under the influence of Cp*{sub 2}Sm(thf){sub 2}(10 mol%) in toluene at room temperature for 3 h afforded a 1:2 coupling product 3a, in 80% yield. From the examination of the reaction of 1a with cyaclohexanecarbaldehyde using several samarium complexes as catalysts, Cp*{sub 2}Sm(thf){sub 2} was found to be the best catalyst. In the coupling of 1a with benzaldehyde, however, SmI{sub 2} was more efficient than CP*{sub 2}Sm(thf){sub 2} to form the corresponding coupling product in almost quantitative yield (>99 %). The reaction of isopropenyl acetate with deutrated acetaldehyde, CD{sub 3}CDO, afforded a coupling product, 5, in which 11 deuteriums are incorporated in the molecule. The authors will present a detailed reaction mechanism in the Cp*{sub 2}Sm(thf){sub 2} - catalyzed coupling reaction of vinyl acetates with aldehydes.

  15. Stoichiometric Reactions of Acylnickel(II) Complexes with Electrophiles and the Catalytic Synthesis of Ketones

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Acylnickel(II) complexes feature prominently in cross-electrophile coupling (XEC) reactions that form ketones, yet their reactivity has not been systematically investigated. We present here our studies on the reactivity of acylnickel(II) complexes with a series of carbon electrophiles. Bromobenzene, ?-chloroethylbenzene, bromooctane, and iodooctane were reacted with (dtbbpy)NiII(C(O)C5H11)(Br) (1b) and (dtbbpy)NiII(C(O)tolyl)(Br) (1c) to form a variety of organic products. While reactions with bromobenzene formed complex mixtures of ketones, reactions with ?-chloroethylbenzene were highly selective for the cross-ketone product. Reactions with iodooctane and bromooctane also produced the cross-ketone product, but in intermediate yield and selectivity. In most cases the presence or absence of a chemical reductant (zinc) had only a small effect on the selectivity of the reaction. The coupling of 1c with iodooctane (60% yield) was translated into a catalytic reaction, the carbonylative coupling of bromoarenes with primary bromoalkanes (six examples, 60% average yield). PMID:25364092

  16. New platinum and ruthenium Schiff base complexes for water splitting reactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuanjun; Chen, Yong; Fu, Wen-Fu

    2015-08-28

    New platinum(ii) and ruthenium(ii) mononuclear complexes with naphthalene-based Schiff base ligands L1 (H2-selnaph) and L2 (H2-selnaph-COOH) were synthesized: Pt-selnaph (), Pt-selnaph-COOH (), Ru-selnaph(4-picoline)2 (), and Ru-selnaph(isoquinoline)2 (). The complexes were characterized by NMR spectroscopy, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight spectrometry, and elemental analysis, and their electrochemical and photophysical properties were investigated. The luminescent complexes and were used as photosensitizers for visible-light driven hydrogen production reactions in the presence of sacrificial electron donor triethylamine and cocatalyst precursor K2PtCl4 aqueous solution. When complex was attached to the surface of TiO2 by a carboxyl group, enhanced hydrogen photogeneration was achieved compared with complex alone, with turnover numbers of about 84 after 12 h irradiation. Calculations based on electrochemical and spectroscopic data also confirmed the feasibility of electron injection through the carboxyl group of complex into the conduction band of TiO2 for hydrogen production reactions. Complexes and were found to be efficient stable water oxidation (NH4)2Ce(NO3)6-driven catalysts with a first-order reaction behavior. A turnover frequency of 5.34 min(-1) was achieved for complex , while complex exhibited an enhanced turnover frequency of 11.9 min(-1) in pH 1.0 aqueous solution. Turnover numbers up to 1400 and 2060 were obtained after 6.5 h of reaction for and , respectively. Unique mechanistic information for water splitting is also presented through electrochemical, spectroscopic and ESI-MS high-valent ruthenium-oxo intermediate investigations. PMID:26205430

  17. Formations of Bacteria-like Textures by dynamic reactions in Meteorite and Syntheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Y.

    2009-05-01

    1. Introduction Spherule texture can be formed in dynamic reaction during meteoritic impact in air. However, there are no reports on nano-bacteria-like (i.e. spherule-chained) textures with iron (and Nickel) oxides (with chlorine) in composition and micro-texture with 100nm order [1] in meteorite and synthetic experiment. The purpose of the present study is to elucidate spherule-chained texture with micro-texture of 100nm in order found in the Kuga iron meteorite, Iwakuni, Yamaguchi, Japan, and its first artificial synthesis in laboratory. 2. Two textures in the Kuga meteorite: The Kuga iron meteorite found in Kuga, Iwakuni, Yamaguchi, Japan reveals spherule-chained texture with Fe, Ni-rich composition with 10?m in size, where each spherule contained "long micro-texture in 100nm in size"[1,2]. The complex texture of flow and chained shapes can be found only in the fusion crust of the meteorite formed by quenched and random processes with vapor-melting process in air of the Earth. The FE-ASEM with EDX analyses by an in-situ observation indicate that the matrix of the spherule-chained texture with Fe, Ni, O-rich (with minor Cl) composition is carbon-rich composition formed by impact reactions in air. 3. Comparison with Martian meteorite Remnant of life in ocean can be found by mineralized fossil, which can be found in the Martian meteorite ALH84001 as bacteria-like chained texture of magnetite in composition (in 100nm order) around carbonate spherules [3]. Similarity of bacteria-like texture of the ALH84001 compared with the Kuga meteorites in this study are composition of Fe-rich, C-bearing, and chained texture of small size replaced by Fe and O-rich composition in air. Major difference of these textures is no carbonates minerals in the Kuga meteorite at dynamic reaction in air [1, 2, 3]. 4. First synthesis of bacteria- like akaganeite: A bacteria-like texture with Fe oxides (with minor chlorine as akaganeite-like compositions) is synthesized by chlorine and water fixings on iron plates at author's laboratory [4]. 5. Summary 1) Spherule- chained texture with Fe, Ni and Cl has been obtained at the fusion crust of the Kuga iron meteorite found in Japan. 2) As the Kuga iron meteorite is different with the Martian meteorite ALH84001 with composition and formation steps, bacteria-like texture of the Kuga meteorite is first significant example to form fossil-like texture by dynamic reaction of materials in the Solar System. Acknowledgements Author thanks to Dr. T. Kato, Yamaguchi University, for interpretation on bacteria-like texture. References: [1] Miura Y.(2008) 5th AOGS (Asia- Oceania Geosciences Society) Annual Meet. (Busan, Korea), CD#PS07- ST31-A22. [2] Miura Y.(2008). Meteoritics & Planetary Science (USA), 43-7, #5203. [3] McKay D.S. et al. (1996): Science, 273, 924-930. [4]Miura Y. (2009): 6th AGOS (submitted )

  18. Double layer formation at the interface of complex plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Yaroshenko, V. V.; Thoma, M. H.; Thomas, H. M.; Morfill, G. E.

    2008-08-15

    Necessary conditions are formulated for the generation of a double layer at the interface of a complex plasma and a particle-free electron-ion plasma in a weakly collisional discharge. Examples are calculated for realistic observed complex plasmas, and it is shown that situations of both ''smooth'' transitions and 'sharp' transitions can exist. The model can explain the abrupt boundaries observed.

  19. IR spectroscopic study of the complex formation between ammonia and water molecules in a KBr matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorotyntsev, I. V.; Grinvald, I. I.; Kagalaev, I. Yu.; Petukhov, A. N.; Sutyagina, E. A.; Vorotyntsev, A. V.; Derbisher, E. V.; Petukhova, N. A.; Vorotyntsev, V. M.

    2014-04-01

    The formation of complexes of ammonia and water molecules in a potassium bromide matrix is studied by means of IR spectroscopy. Ammonia and water complexes of variable composition are stabilized in a solid matrix using different approaches to saturating KBr powder with the initial components. Proton transfer can occur, leading to the formation of ammonium salts.

  20. Reactions of vitamin A with acceptors of electrons. Interactions with iodine and the formation of iodide

    PubMed Central

    Lucy, J. A.; Lichti, F. Ulrike

    1969-01-01

    1. The reactions of retinol and retinoic acid with iodine were investigated since knowledge of the chemical reactions of vitamin A with acceptors of electrons may shed light on its biochemical mode of action. 2. Colloidal retinol, but not retinoic acid, reacts with iodine to yield a bluegreen complex that rapidly decomposes, giving iodide and an unknown species with ?max. at 870m?. 3. In addition, both retinol and retinoic acid reduce iodine to iodide by a reaction that does not involve an intermediate coloured complex; this reaction appears to yield unstable carbonium ion derivatives of the vitamin. 4. The presence of water greatly facilitates the production of iodide from vitamin A and iodine. 5. Possible chemical pathways involved in these reactions are discussed. 6. It is suggested that the chemical properties of retinol and retinoic acid that underlie their biochemical behaviour might be apparent only when the molecules are at a lipidwater interface, and that vitamin A might be expected to react with a number of different electron acceptors in vivo. PMID:5801297

  1. Reaction Intermediates Kinetics in Solution Investigated by Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry: Diaurated Complexes.

    PubMed

    Jašíková, Lucie; Anania, Mariarosa; Hybelbauerová, Simona; Roithová, Jana

    2015-10-28

    A new method to investigate the reaction kinetics of intermediates in solution by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry is presented. The method, referred to as delayed reactant labeling, allows investigation of a reaction mixture containing isotopically labeled and unlabeled reactants with different reaction times. It is shown that we can extract rate constants for the degradation of reaction intermediates and investigate the effects of various reaction conditions on their half-life. This method directly addresses the problem of the relevance of detected gaseous ions toward the investigated reaction solution. It is demonstrated for geminally diaurated intermediates formed in the gold mediated addition of methanol to alkynes. Delayed reactant labeling allows us to directly link the kinetics of the diaurated intermediates with the overall reaction kinetics determined by NMR spectroscopy. It is shown that the kinetics of protodeauration of these intermediates mirrors the kinetics of the addition of methanol demonstrating they are directly involved in the catalytic cycle. Formation as well as decomposition of diaurated intermediates can be drastically slowed down by employing bulky ancillary ligands at the gold catalyst; the catalytic cycle then proceeds via monoaurated intermediates. The reaction is investigated for 1-phenylpropyne (Ph-CC-CH3) using [AuCl(PPh3)]/AgSbF6 and [AuCl(IPr)]/AgSbF6 as model catalysts. Delayed reactant labeling is achieved by using a combination of CH3OH and CD3OH or Ph-CC-CH3 and Ph-CC-CD3. PMID:26430872

  2. Positronium formation studies in solid molecular complexes: Triphenylphosphine oxide-triphenylmethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, F. C.; Denadai, A. M. L.; Fulgncio, F. H.; Magalhes, W. F.; Alcntara, A. F. C.; Windmller, D.; Machado, J. C.

    2012-06-01

    Positronium formation in triphenylphosphine oxide (TPPO), triphenylmethanol (TPM), and systems [TPPO(1-X)?TPMX] has been studied. The low probability of positronium formation in complex [TPPO0.5?TPM0.5] was attributed to strong hydrogen bond and sixfold phenyl embrace interactions. These strong interactions in complex reduce the possibility of the n- and ?-electrons to interact with positrons on the spur and consequently, the probability of positronium formation is lower. The ?3 parameter and free volume (correlated to ?3) were also sensitive to the formation of hydrogen bonds and sixfold phenyl embrace interactions within the complex. For physical mixture the positron annihilation parameters remained unchanged throughout the composition range.

  3. Hair dye-incorporated poly-?-glutamic acid/glycol chitosan nanoparticles based on ion-complex formation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye-Young; Jeong, Young-IL; Choi, Ki-Choon

    2011-01-01

    Background p-Phenylenediamine (PDA) or its related chemicals are used more extensively than oxidative hair dyes. However, permanent hair dyes such as PDA are known to have potent contact allergy reactions in humans, and severe allergic reactions are problematic. Methods PDA-incorporated nanoparticles were prepared based on ion-complex formation between the cationic groups of PDA and the anionic groups of poly(?-glutamic acid) (PGA). To reinforce PDA/PGA ion complexes, glycol chitosan (GC) was added. PDA-incorporated nanoparticles were characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier- transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and powder X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Results Nanoparticles were formed by ion-complex formation between the amine groups of PDA and the carboxyl groups of PGA. PDA-incorporated nanoparticles are small in size (<100 nm), and morphological observations showed spherical shapes. FT-IR spectra results showed that the carboxylic acid peak of PGA decreased with increasing PDA content, indicating that the ion complexes were formed between the carboxyl groups of PGA and the amine groups of PDA. Furthermore, the intrinsic peak of the carboxyl groups of PGA was also decreased by the addition of GC. Intrinsic crystalline peaks of PDA were observed by XRD. This crystalline peak of PDA was completely nonexistent when nanoparticles were formed by ion complex between PDA, PGA, and GC, indicating that PDA was complexed with PGA and no free drug existed in the formulation. During the drug-release experiment, an initial burst release of PDA was observed, and then PDA was continuously released over 1 week. Cytotoxicity testing against HaCaT human skin keratinocyte cells showed PDA-incorporated nanoparticles had lower toxicity than PDA itself. Furthermore, PDA-incorporated nanoparticles showed reduced apoptosis and necrosis reaction at HaCaT cells. Conclusion The authors suggest that these microparticles are ideal candidates for a vehicle for decreasing side effects of hair dye. PMID:22131834

  4. Chemistry of high-oxidation-state groups V and VI complexes: Novel silyl and imido complexes and the reactions of silyl and alkyl alkylidyne complexes with oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tianniu

    This dissertation describes the synthesis and characterization of the novel early transition metal (especially group VI metals) complexes free of anionic pi-ligands such as cyclopentadienyl (Cp) and studies of their reactions with oxygen and silanes. Our study of Cp-free tungsten silyl chemistry is reported. A novel d 0 tungsten silyl complex 2 [(ButCH 2)W(=CHBut)2(SiButPh2 ) (2a) ⇌ (ButCH2)2W(≡CBu t)(SiButPh2) (2b)] and an equilibrium between 2a and 2b are described in Chapter 2. The thermodynamics of this equilibrium [DeltaH° = -0.9(0.2) kcal/mol, DeltaS° = -0.6(0.8) eu] was investigated by 1H NMR. The studies of the alpha-hydrogen exchange between 2a and 2b by 2-D EXSY experiments gave kinetic parameters of the exchange: DeltaH≠ = 17.9(1.1) kcal/mol, DeltaS≠ = 1.9(5.7) eu for the forward reaction (2a → 2b) and Delta H≠ = 18.6 (1.1) kcal/mol, DeltaS ≠ = 1.9(5.7) eu for the back reaction (2b → 2a). The reaction of O2 with silyl alkylidyne 2b [(Bu tCH2)W(=CHBut)2(SiBut Ph2) (2a) ⇌ (ButCH2)2W(≡CBu t)(SiButPh2) (2b)] is described in Chapter 3. A silyl migration product (ButCH2) 2W(=O)[=C(But)(SiButPh2)] ( 5) was characterized. A siloxy analog of 2b, (Bu tCH2)2W≡CBut(OSiBu tPh2) (6), was prepared and excluded as a possible intermediate in the formation of 5. Ab initio calculations suggested a pathway involving silyl migration in 2b to give a tungsten (IV) intermediate (ButCH 2)2W=C(But)(SiButPh2) (7) prior to the reaction with O2. A crystal structure of (Me3SiCH2)2W(=O)(=CHSiMe3)(O=PMe 3)•(Me3SiCH2)3W≡CSiMe 3 (12) was obtained from the reaction of alkyl alkylidyne (Me3SiCH2)3W≡CSiMe3 with O2 in the presence of PMe3. In Chapter 4, preparation and characterization of bis(2,6-diisopropylphenylimido)molybdenum(VI) amide and silyl complexes (ArN=)2Mo(NMe2)2 (14), (ArN=)2Mo(NMe2)[Si(SiMe3) 3] (15), (ArN=)2MoCl[N(SiMe3) 2] (16), (ArN=)2Mo(NMe2)[N(SiMe 3)2] (17), and (ArN=)2Mo(NHAr) 2 (18) are reported. In addition, new bis(imido)molybdenum(VI) amine adducts (ArN=)2MoCl2(NHMe2) ( 19), (ArN=)2MoCl2(NHEt2) (20 ), (ArN=)2MoCl2(NHMe2)2 (21), and (ArN=)2MoCl2(NHMe2)•(ArN=) 2MoCl2(DME) (22) and their X-ray structures are reported. Preparation and characterization of Cp-free tantalum(V) amide silyl complexes have been investigated, as reported in Chapter 5. Thermodynamics of interesting equilibria (Me2N)3Ta[Si(SiMe3)3] 2 (25) ⇌ (Me2N)3Ta(SiButPh2)[Si(SiMe 3)3] (27) ⇌ (Me2N)3Ta(SiButPh2) 2 (26) was studied. In the equilibrium 25 + Li(THF)3SiButPh2 ⇌ 27 + Li(THF)3Si(SiMe3)3, Delta H° = -0.54(0.17) kcal/mol and DeltaS° = -0.79(0.65) eu, and in the equilibrium 27 + Li(THF) 3SiButPh2 ⇌ 26 + Li(THF)3Si(SiMe3)3, Delta H° = - 0.56(0.17) kcal/mol and DeltaS° = -1.52(0.65) eu.

  5. Secondary sup 15 N isotope effects on the reactions catalyzed by alcohol and formate dehydrogenases

    SciTech Connect

    Rotberg, N.S.; Cleland, W.W. )

    1991-04-23

    Secondary {sup 15}N isotope effects at the N-1 position of 3-acetylpyridine adenine dinucleotide have been determined, by using the internal competition technique, for horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase (LADH) with cyclohexanol as a substrate and yeast formate dehydrogenase (FDH) with formate as a substrate. On the basis of less precise previous measurements of these {sup 15}N isotope effects, the nicotinamide ring of NAD has been suggested to adopt a boat conformation with carbonium ion character at C-4 during hydride transfer. If this mechanism were valid, as N-1 becomes pyramidal an {sup 15}N isotope effect for the reaction catalyzed by LADH was measured. These values suggest that a significant {sup 15}N kinetic isotope effect is not associated with hydride transfer for LADH and FDH. Thus, in contrast with the deformation mechanism previously postulated, the pyridine ring of the nucleotide apparently remains planar during these dehydrogenase reactions.

  6. Selective Covalent Bond Formation in Polypeptide Ions via Gas-Phase Ion/Ion Reaction Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hongling; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    Primary amines present in protonated polypeptides can be covalently modified via gas-phase ion/ion reactions using bifunctional reagent ions. The use of reagent anions with a charge bearing site that leads to strong interactions with the polypeptide, such as sulfonic acid, gives rise to the formation of a long-lived adduct. A distinct reactive functional group, an aldehyde in the present case, can then undergo a reaction with the peptide. Collisional activation of the adduct ion formed from a reagent with an aldehyde group and a peptide ion with a primary amine gives rise to water loss in conjunction with imine (Schiff base) formation. The covalently-bound modification is retained upon subsequent collisional activation. This work demonstrates the ability to selectively modify polypeptide ions in the gas-phase within the context of a multi-stage mass spectrometry experiment. PMID:19702304

  7. Complex formation by neptunium (V) with Citric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Sevost'yanova, E.P.

    1985-09-01

    Experimental data are presented for the reactions of Np(V) with citric acid solutions over the pH range 1-12. The investigation was conducted by spectrophotometry. It has been established that Np(V) reacts with citric acid in the stoichiometric ratio 1:1.

  8. Some new reaction pathways for the formation of cytosine in interstellar space - A quantum chemical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, V. P.; Tandon, Poonam; Mishra, Priti

    2013-03-01

    The detection of nucleic acid bases in carbonaceous meteorites suggests that their formation and survival is possible outside of the Earth. Small N-heterocycles, including pyrimidine, purines and nucleobases, have been extensively sought in the interstellar medium. It has been suggested theoretically that reactions between some interstellar molecules may lead to the formation of cytosine, uracil and thymine though these processes involve significantly high potential barriers. We attempted therefore to use quantum chemical techniques to explore if cytosine can possibly form in the interstellar space by radical-radical and radical-molecule interaction schemes, both in the gas phase and in the grains, through barrier-less or low barrier pathways. Results of DFT calculations for the formation of cytosine starting from some of the simple molecules and radicals detected in the interstellar space are being reported. Global and local descriptors such as molecular hardness, softness and electrophilicity, and condensed Fukui functions and local philicity indices were used to understand the mechanistic aspects of chemical reaction. The presence and nature of weak bonds in the molecules and transition states formed during the reaction process have been ascertained using Bader's quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIMs). Two exothermic reaction pathways starting from propynylidyne (CCCH) and cyanoacetylene (HCCCN), respectively, have been identified. While the first reaction path is found to be totally exothermic, it involves a barrier of 12.5 kcal/mol in the gas phase against the lowest value of about 32 kcal/mol reported in the literature. The second path is both exothermic and barrier-less. The later has, therefore, a greater probability of occurrence in the cold interstellar clouds (10-50 K).

  9. Molybdenum Hydride and Dihydride Complexes Bearing Diphosphine Ligands with a Pendant Amine: Formation of Complexes With Bound Amines

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Shaoguang; Bullock, R. Morris

    2015-07-06

    CpMo(CO)(PNP)H complexes (PNP = (R2PCH2)2NMe, R = Et or Ph) were synthesized by displacement of two CO ligands of CpMo(CO)3H by the PNP ligand; these complexes were characterized by IR and variable temperature 1H and 31P NMR spectroscopy. CpMo(CO)(PNP)H complexes are formed as mixture of cis and trans-isomers. Both cis-CpMo(CO)(PEtNMePEt)H and trans-CpMo(CO)(PPhNMePPh)H were analyzed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Electrochemical oxidation of CpMo(CO)(PEtNMePEt)H and CpMo(CO)(PPhNMePPh)H in CH3CN are both irreversible at slow scan rates and quasi-reversible at higher scan rates, with E1/2 = -0.36 V (vs. Cp2Fe+/0) for CpMo(CO)(PEtNMePEt)H and E1/2 = -0.18 V for CpMo(CO)(PPhNMePPh)H. Hydride abstraction from CpMo(CO)(PNP)H with [Ph3C]+[A]- (A = B(C6F5)4 or BArF4; [ArF = 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]) afforded “tuck-in” [CpMo(CO)(κ3-PNP)]+ complexes that feature the amine bound to the metal. Displacement of the κ3 Mo-N bond by CD3CN gives [CpMo(CO)(PNP)(CD3CN)]+. The kinetics of this reaction were studied by NMR spectroscopy, providing the activation parameters ΔH‡ = 22.1 kcal/mol, ΔS‡ = 1.89 cal/(mol·K), Ea = 22.7 kcal/mol. Protonation of CpMo(CO)(PEtNMePEt)H affords [CpMo(CO)(κ2-PEtNMePEt)(H)2]+ as a Mo dihydride complex, which loses H2 to generate [CpMo(CO)(κ3-PEtNMePEt)]+ at room temperature. CpMo(CO)(dppp)H (dppp = 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane) was studied as a Mo diphosphine analogue without a pendant amine, and the product of protonation of this complex gives [CpMo(CO)(dppp)(H)2]+. Our results show that the pendant amine has a strong driving force to form stable “tuck-in” [CpMo(CO)(κ3-PNP)]+ complexes, and also promotes hydrogen elimination from [CpMo(CO)(PNP)(H)2]+ complexes by formation of Mo-N dative bond. We thank the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences for support. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy. We thank Monte Helm, Elliott Hulley and Deanna Miller for help on the crystallography, and Ming Fang for assistance on the electrochemical experiments.

  10. Synthesis, Characterization, and Reactions of Isolable (?-Diketiminato)Nb(III) Imido Complexes*

    PubMed Central

    Tomson, Neil C.; Arnold, John; Bergman, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated both the chemical reduction of (BDI)Nb(V) imido complexes (BDI = HC[C(Me)NAr]2; Ar = 2,6-iPr2-C6H3) to the formal Nb(III) oxidation state and the ability of these Nb(III) complexes to behave as two-electron reductants. The reduction of the Nb(V) species was found to depend heavily on the nature of available supporting ligands, but the chemistry of the reduced compounds proceeded cleanly with a number of unsaturated organic reagents. Accordingly, the novel Nb(V) bis(imido) complexes supported by the monoazabutadiene (mad) ligand (mad)Nb(NtBu)(NAr)(L?) (L? = py, thf) were formed by either KC8 reduction of (BDI)Nb(NtBu)Cl2(py) in the absence of strong ?-acids or by H2 reduction of the Nb(V) dimethyl complex (BDI)Nb(NtBu)Me2 in THF. These products are likely formed though an intramolecular, 2 e? reductive CN bond cleavage, as has been observed previously for related Group 4 systems, suggesting that transient Nb(III) intermediates were present in both cases. In the presence of 1,2-bis(dimethylphosphino)ethane (dmpe), KC8 reduction of (BDI)Nb(NtBu)Cl2(py) was arrested at the Nb(IV) oxidation state to give (BDI)Nb(NtBu)Cl(dmpe), which was characterized by solution-state EPR spectroscopy as a Nb-centered paramagnet with strong coupling to the two equivalent phosphorus nuclei (Aiso{93Nb} = 120.510?4 cm?1, Aiso{31P} = 31.010?4 cm?1, giso = 1.9815). When strong ?-acids were used to intercept the thermally unstable Nb(III) complex (BDI)Nb(NtBu)(py) prior to reductive cleavage of the ligand CN bond, the thermally stable Nb(III) species (BDI)Nb(NtBu)(CX)2(L?) (X = O, L? = py; X = NXyl, L? = CNXyl; Xyl = 2,6-Me2-C6H3) were obtained in good yields. The Nb(III) complexes (BDI)Nb(NtBu)py, (BDI)Nb(NtBu)(CO)2(py) and (BDI)Nb(NtBu)(CO)2 were subsequently investigated for their ability to serve as two-electron reducing reagents for both metal-ligand multiple bond formation and for the reduction of organic ?-systems. The reduction of mesityl azide by (BDI)Nb(NtBu)(py) and diphenylsulfoxide by (BDI)Nb(NtBu)(CO)2 led to the monomeric bis(imido) and dimeric oxo complexes (BDI)Nb(NtBu)(NMes)(py) and [(BDI)Nb(NtBu)]2(?2-O)2, respectively. MeLi addition to (BDI)Nb(NtBu)(CO)2(py) resulted in the formation of a Nb-acylate via methide addition to one of the carbonyl carbons. The acylate product was revealed to have a short NbCacylate bond distance (2.059(4) ), consistent with multiple NbC bond character resulting from Nb(III) back-bonding into the acylate carbon. The interaction of (BDI)Nb(NtBu)(CO)2 with two equivalents of 4,4?-dichlorobenzophenone resulted in the clean, quantitative formation of the corresponding pinacol coupling product, but introduction of the ketone in 1: 1 molar ratios resulted in mixtures of the pinacol product and the starting material, suggesting that ketone coordination to the Nb(III) complex may be reversible. Relatedly, addition of 1-phenyl-1-propyne to (BDI)Nb(NtBu)(CO)2 formed a thermally unstable 1: 1 Nb/alkyne complex, as characterized by NMR and IR spectroscopies; reaction of this species with HCl/MeOH yielded a 2: 1 mixture of 1-phenyl-1-propene and the free alkyne, suggesting a high degree of covalency in the NbC bonds. PMID:21116450

  11. Thermochemistry and Reaction Barriers for the Formation of Levoglucosenone from Cellobiose

    SciTech Connect

    Assary, Rajeev S.; Curtiss, Larry A.

    2011-10-19

    Cellobiose jumps the barrier: High-level quantum mechanical studies show that the ether bond cleavage in cellobiose occurs through internal hydrogen transfer in the gas phase and that the activation energy required is similar to that required for activating cellulose. The reaction barriers are computed for various pathways for the formation of levoglucosenone from levoglucosan, and the most likely pathway requires a relatively low activation barrier compared to that for the activation of cellobiose.

  12. Thermochemistry and reaction barriers for the formation of levoglucosenone from cellobiose.

    SciTech Connect

    Assary, R. S.; Curtiss, L. A.

    2012-02-06

    Cellobiose jumps the barrier: High-level quantum mechanical studies show that the ether bond cleavage in cellobiose occurs through internal hydrogen transfer in the gas phase and that the activation energy required is similar to that required for activating cellulose. The reaction barriers are computed for various pathways for the formation of levoglucosenone from levoglucosan, and the most likely pathway requires a relatively low activation barrier compared to that for the activation of cellobiose.

  13. Thermochemistry and Reaction Barriers for the Formation of Levoglucosenone from Cellobiose

    SciTech Connect

    Assary, Rajeev S.; Curtiss, Larry A.

    2012-02-06

    Cellobiose jumps the barrier: High-level quantum mechanical studies show that the ether bond cleavage in cellobiose occurs through internal hydrogen transfer in the gas phase and that the activation energy required is similar to that required for activating cellulose. The reaction barriers are computed for various pathways for the formation of levoglucosenone from levoglucosan, and the most likely pathway requires a relatively low activation barrier compared to that for the activation of cellobiose.

  14. Formation of O3/+/ by the reaction of metastable O2/+/ ions with O2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ajello, J. M.; Pang, K. D.; Monahan, K. M.

    1974-01-01

    The high resolution of the photoionization mass spectrophotometer was utilized to resolve some doubts about the participating species in the reaction of metastable oxygen molecular ions with oxygen molecules to yield ozone ions and oxygen radicals. It is found from inspection of the appearance potential of the ozone ion that an a4 Pi-excited state is responsible for the formation of ozone near the appearance potential of these lines.

  15. Interplay of Experiment and Theory in Elucidating Mechanisms of Oxidation Reactions by a Nonheme Ru(IV)O Complex.

    PubMed

    Dhuri, Sunder N; Cho, Kyung-Bin; Lee, Yong-Min; Shin, Sun Young; Kim, Jin Hwa; Mandal, Debasish; Shaik, Sason; Nam, Wonwoo

    2015-07-01

    A comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the reactivity patterns and reaction mechanisms in alkane hydroxylation, olefin epoxidation, cyclohexene oxidation, and sulfoxidation reactions by a mononuclear nonheme ruthenium(IV)-oxo complex, [Ru(IV)(O)(terpy)(bpm)](2+) (1), has been conducted. In alkane hydroxylation (i.e., oxygen rebound vs oxygen non-rebound mechanisms), both the experimental and theoretical results show that the substrate radical formed via a rate-determining H atom abstraction of alkanes by 1 prefers dissociation over oxygen rebound and desaturation processes. In the oxidation of olefins by 1, the observations of a kinetic isotope effect (KIE) value of 1 and styrene oxide formation lead us to conclude that an epoxidation reaction via oxygen atom transfer (OAT) from the Ru(IV)O complex to the C?C double bond is the dominant pathway. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations show that the epoxidation reaction is a two-step, two-spin-state process. In contrast, the oxidation of cyclohexene by 1 affords products derived from allylic C-H bond oxidation, with a high KIE value of 38(3). The preference for H atom abstraction over C?C double bond epoxidation in the oxidation of cyclohexene by 1 is elucidated by DFT calculations, which show that the energy barrier for C-H activation is 4.5 kcal mol(-1) lower than the energy barrier for epoxidation. In the oxidation of sulfides, sulfoxidation by the electrophilic Ru-oxo group of 1 occurs via a direct OAT mechanism, and DFT calculations show that this is a two-spin-state reaction in which the transition state is the lowest in the S = 0 state. PMID:26075466

  16. Models for nicotinamide coenzymes. Isotope effect discrepancies in the reaction of dihydronicotinamides with trifluoroacetophenone are due to adduct formation

    SciTech Connect

    Chipman, D.M.; Yaniv, R.; van Eikeren, P.

    1980-04-23

    Isotope effects were measured during oxidation-reduction reactions of two dihydronicotinamides. All data reported can be accounted for by the reversible formation of an adduct between the dihydronicotinamide and a ketone which is not on the pathway for the oxidation-reduction reaction. The kinetics of the redox reaction are explained by a simple hydride transfer. (BLM)

  17. Proton Mobility in b2 Ion Formation and Fragmentation Reactions of Histidine-Containing Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Carissa R.; Abutokaikah, Maha T.; Harrison, Alex G.; Bythell, Benjamin J.

    2016-03-01

    A detailed energy-resolved study of the fragmentation reactions of protonated histidine-containing peptides and their b2 ions has been undertaken. Density functional theory calculations were utilized to predict how the fragmentation reactions occur so that we might discern why the mass spectra demonstrated particular energy dependencies. We compare our results to the current literature and to synthetic b2 ion standards. We show that the position of the His residue does affect the identity of the subsequent b2 ion (diketopiperazine versus oxazolone versus lactam) and that energy-resolved CID can distinguish these isomeric products based on their fragmentation energetics. The histidine side chain facilitates every major transformation except trans-cis isomerization of the first amide bond, a necessary prerequisite to diketopiperazine b2 ion formation. Despite this lack of catalyzation, trans-cis isomerization is predicted to be facile. Concomitantly, the subsequent amide bond cleavage reaction is rate-limiting.

  18. Proton Mobility in b2 Ion Formation and Fragmentation Reactions of Histidine-Containing Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Carissa R.; Abutokaikah, Maha T.; Harrison, Alex G.; Bythell, Benjamin J.

    2015-11-01

    A detailed energy-resolved study of the fragmentation reactions of protonated histidine-containing peptides and their b2 ions has been undertaken. Density functional theory calculations were utilized to predict how the fragmentation reactions occur so that we might discern why the mass spectra demonstrated particular energy dependencies. We compare our results to the current literature and to synthetic b2 ion standards. We show that the position of the His residue does affect the identity of the subsequent b2 ion (diketopiperazine versus oxazolone versus lactam) and that energy-resolved CID can distinguish these isomeric products based on their fragmentation energetics. The histidine side chain facilitates every major transformation except trans-cis isomerization of the first amide bond, a necessary prerequisite to diketopiperazine b2 ion formation. Despite this lack of catalyzation, trans-cis isomerization is predicted to be facile. Concomitantly, the subsequent amide bond cleavage reaction is rate-limiting.

  19. Proton Mobility in b2 Ion Formation and Fragmentation Reactions of Histidine-Containing Peptides.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Carissa R; Abutokaikah, Maha T; Harrison, Alex G; Bythell, Benjamin J

    2016-03-01

    A detailed energy-resolved study of the fragmentation reactions of protonated histidine-containing peptides and their b2 ions has been undertaken. Density functional theory calculations were utilized to predict how the fragmentation reactions occur so that we might discern why the mass spectra demonstrated particular energy dependencies. We compare our results to the current literature and to synthetic b2 ion standards. We show that the position of the His residue does affect the identity of the subsequent b2 ion (diketopiperazine versus oxazolone versus lactam) and that energy-resolved CID can distinguish these isomeric products based on their fragmentation energetics. The histidine side chain facilitates every major transformation except trans-cis isomerization of the first amide bond, a necessary prerequisite to diketopiperazine b2 ion formation. Despite this lack of catalyzation, trans-cis isomerization is predicted to be facile. Concomitantly, the subsequent amide bond cleavage reaction is rate-limiting. PMID:26602904

  20. Reaction pathways towards the formation of dolomite-analogues at ambient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimentel, Carlos; Pina, Carlos M.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we present results of a study of the crystallisation behaviour of the dolomite-analogues norsethite and PbMg(CO3)2 at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Whereas precipitation of norsethite was previously obtained by mixing solutions (Hood et al., 1974; Pimentel and Pina, 2014a,b), we report, for the first time, the synthesis of PbMg(CO3)2 by using the same method. The formation of both phases was promoted by ageing slurries for periods of time ranging from a few days (norsethite) up to 6 months (PbMg(CO3)2). The crystallisation of both norsethite and PbMg(CO3)2 occurs by sequences of dissolution-precipitation reactions involving several amorphous and crystalline precursor phases, which were identified and characterised by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Depending on the initial composition and Ba:Mg and Pb:Mg ratios in the slurries, different precursors and reaction kinetics were observed. This demonstrates the existence of different reaction pathways towards the formation of the investigated dolomite-analogues. Our experimental results provide new insights into the possible mechanisms of formation of dolomite and other double carbonates in nature.

  1. Pressure dependence of butyl nitrate formation in the reaction of butylperoxy radicals with nitrogen oxide.

    PubMed

    Butkovskaya, N I; Kukui, A; Le Bras, G; Rayez, M-T; Rayez, J-C

    2015-05-14

    The yield of 1- and 2-butyl nitrates in the gas-phase reactions of NO with n-C4H9O2 and sec-C4H9O2, obtained from the reaction of F atoms with n-butane in the presence of O2, was determined over the pressure range of 100-600 Torr at 298 K using a high-pressure turbulent flow reactor coupled with a chemical ionization quadrupole mass spectrometer. The yield of butyl nitrates was found to increase linearly with pressure from about 3% at 100 Torr to about 8% at 600 Torr. The results obtained are compared with the available data concerning nitrate formation from NO reaction with other small alkylperoxy radicals. These results are also discussed through the topology of the lowest potential energy surface mainly obtained from DFT(B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ) calculations of the RO2 + NO reaction paths. The formation of alkyl nitrates, due essentially to collision processes, is analyzed through a model that points out the pertinent physical parameters of this system. PMID:25380343

  2. Elucidating Latent Mechanistic Complexity in Competing Acid-Catalyzed Reactions of Salicylaldehyde-Derived Baylis-Hillman Adducts.

    PubMed

    Olomola, Temitope O; Klein, Rosalyn; Caira, Mino R; Kaye, Perry T

    2016-01-01

    (1)H NMR-based kinetic studies have revealed the latent mechanistic complexity of deceptively simple hydrochloric acid-catalyzed reactions of salicylaldehyde-derived Baylis-Hillman adducts. Reactions conducted at 0 C afforded 2-(chloromethyl)cinnamic acid derivatives as the major products and the corresponding 3-(chloromethyl)coumarin derivatives as the minor products. In reactions conducted in refluxing acetic acid, however, the 3-(chloromethyl)coumarin derivatives are the sole products. Variable-temperature (1)H NMR analysis permitted the determination of the rate constants and kinetic parameters involved in the pseudo-first-order formation of (Z)-2-(chloromethyl)-3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-2-propenoic acid. The kinetic data clearly preclude the operation of classical kinetic versus thermodynamic control and indicate the operation of three independent reaction pathways. Theoretical studies of these pathways undertaken at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level permitted rationalization of the experimental data and provided insights into the possible mechanism of the enzymic E-Z isomerization and cyclization of (E)-cinnamic acid analogues to afford coumarins. PMID:26655750

  3. Placebo Effect upon Complex Reaction Time When Hypnotic Suggestibility is Controlled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eskridge, Veronica L.

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of a placebo (sugar pill) accompanied by suggestions that the pill would either (1) improve performance as a stimulant or (2) cause a deterioration in performance as a depressant when the performance in question was the subjects' complex reaction time to a light stimulus. The Harvard Group Scale of

  4. Increasing complexity of a diterpene synthase reaction with a single residue switch.

    PubMed

    Morrone, Dana; Xu, Meimei; Fulton, D Bruce; Determan, Mara K; Peters, Reuben J

    2008-04-23

    Terpene synthases often catalyze complex reactions involving intricate series of carbocation intermediates. The resulting, generally cyclical, structures provide initial hydrocarbon frameworks that underlie the astonishing structural diversity of the enormous class of terpenoid natural products (>50,000 known), and these enzymes often mediate the committed step in their particular biosynthetic pathway. Accordingly, how terpene synthases specify product outcome has drawn a great deal of attention. In previous work, we have shown that mutational introduction of a hydroxyl group at specific positions within diterpene synthase active sites can "short circuit" complex cyclization and/or rearrangement reactions, resulting in the production of "simpler"' diterpenes. Here we demonstrate that the converse change, substitution of an Ile for Thr at the relevant position in a native pimaradiene synthase, leads to a dramatic increase in reaction complexity. Product outcome is shifted from the tricyclic pimaradiene to a rearranged tetracycle, aphidicol-15-ene. Thus, the nature of the residue at this position acts as a true switch for product outcome. In addition, the ability of aliphatic residue substitution to enable a more complex reaction emphasizes the importance of substrate conformation imposed by a largely inert active site. Furthermore, the profound plasticity of diterpene synthases exemplified by this single residue switch for product outcome is consistent with the screening/diversity-oriented hypothesis of natural products metabolism. PMID:18366162

  5. Generalization of the Activated Complex Theory of Reaction Rates. II. Classical Mechanical Treatment

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Marcus, R. A.

    1964-01-01

    In its usual classical form activated complex theory assumes a particular expression for the kinetic energy of the reacting system -- one associated with a rectilinear motion along the reaction coordinate. The derivation of the rate expression given in the present paper is based on the general kinetic energy expression.

  6. Thermodynamic characteristics of the formation of Cd2+ ion-L-serine complexes in aqueous KNO3 solutions at 288-308 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochergina, L. A.; Khokhlova, E. A.; Drobilova, O. M.

    2014-06-01

    The heats of formation of complexes of L-serine and doubly charged cadmium ions are determined by calorimetry. The heat effects of the reaction between an amino acid solution and a cadmium(II) solution and the respective heats of dilution of cadmium nitrate solution are measured at temperatures of 288.15, 298.15, and 308.15 K and ionic strengths of 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75 against the background of KNO3. The standard thermodynamic characteristics of complexation are calculated. Standard enthalpies of formation of mono-, bis-, and tris-coordinated complexes of cadmium(II) in an aqueous solution are found.

  7. Recent aspects of the proton transfer reaction in H-bonded complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szafran, Miros?aw

    1996-07-01

    Proton transfer processes cover a very wide range of situations and time scales and they are of great interest from the viewpoint of chemical reactions in solution. These processes can occur via thermally activated crossing or tunneling. This review considers various aspects of this many-faceted field. Spectroscopic, dielectric, colligative and energetic properties and structures of various species with H-bonds are examined. Proton transfer reactions in water and organic solvents, and the contribution of various H-bonded species and ions to these processes are discussed. Among other topics, this survey includes the effects of solvent, acid-base stoichiometry, concentration, temperature and impurity on proton transfer reactions in complexes of phenols and carboxylic acids with amines, pyridines and pyridine N-oxides. The contribution of the nonstoichiometric acid-base complexes and ionic species to the reversible proton transfer mechanism is discussed.

  8. Highly reactive nonheme iron(III) iodosylarene complexes in alkane hydroxylation and sulfoxidation reactions.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seungwoo; Wang, Bin; Seo, Mi Sook; Lee, Yong-Min; Kim, Myoung Jin; Kim, Hyung Rok; Ogura, Takashi; Garcia-Serres, Ricardo; Clmancey, Martin; Latour, Jean-Marc; Nam, Wonwoo

    2014-06-16

    High-spin iron(III) iodosylarene complexes bearing an N-methylated cyclam ligand are synthesized and characterized using various spectroscopic methods. The nonheme high-spin iron(III) iodosylarene intermediates are highly reactive oxidants capable of activating strong C-H bonds of alkanes; the reactivity of the iron(III) iodosylarene intermediates is much greater than that of the corresponding iron(IV) oxo complex. The electrophilic character of the iron(III) iodosylarene complexes is demonstrated in sulfoxidation reactions. PMID:24820976

  9. A calorimetric study of the hydrolysis and peroxide complex formation of the uranyl(VI) ion.

    PubMed

    Zanonato, Pier Luigi; Di Bernardo, Plinio; Grenthe, Ingmar

    2014-02-14

    The enthalpies of reaction for the formation of uranyl(vi) hydroxide {[(UO2)2(OH)2](2+), [(UO2)3(OH)4](2+), [(UO2)3(OH)5](+), [(UO2)3(OH)6](aq), [(UO2)3(OH)7](-), [(UO2)3(OH)8](2-), [(UO2)(OH)3](-), [(UO2)(OH)4](2-)} and peroxide complexes {[UO2(O2)(OH)](-) and [(UO2)2(O2)2(OH)](-)} have been determined from calorimetric titrations at 25 °C in a 0.100 M tetramethyl ammonium nitrate ionic medium. The hydroxide data have been used to test the consistency of the extensive thermodynamic database published by the Nuclear Energy Agency (I. Grenthe, J. Fuger, R. J. M. Konings, R. J. Lemire, A. B. Mueller, C. Nguyen-Trung and H. Wanner, Chemical Thermodynamics of Uranium, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1992 and R. Guillaumont, T. Fanghänel, J. Fuger, I. Grenthe, V. Neck, D. J. Palmer and M. R. Rand, Update on the Chemical Thermodynamics of Uranium, Neptunium, Plutonium, Americium and Technetium, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2003). A brief discussion is given about a possible structural relationship between the trinuclear complexes [(UO2)3(OH)n](6-n), n = 4-8. PMID:24301256

  10. Functionalized organotin-chalcogenide complexes that exhibit defect heterocubane scaffolds: formation, synthesis, and characterization.

    PubMed

    Euner, Jens P; Barth, Beatrix E K; Leusmann, Eliza; You, Zhiliang; Rinn, Niklas; Dehnen, Stefanie

    2013-10-01

    The synthesis of new functionalized organotin-chalcogenide complexes was achieved by systematic optimization of the reaction conditions. The structures of compounds [(R(1,?2) Sn)3 S4 Cl] (1, 2), [((R(2) Sn)2 SnS4 )2 (?-S)2 ] (3), [(R(1,?2) Sn)3 Se4 ][SnCl3 ] (4, 5), and [Li(thf)n ][(R(3) Sn)(HR(3) Sn)2 Se4 Cl] (6), in which R(1) =CMe2 CH2 C(O)Me, R(2) =CMe2 CH2 C(NNH2 )Me, and R(3) =CH2 CH2 COO, are based on defect heterocubane scaffolds, as shown by X-ray diffraction, (119) Sn?NMR spectroscopy, and ESI mass spectrometry analyses. Compounds 4, 5, and 6 constitute the first examples of defect heterocubane-type metal-chalcogenide complexes that are comprised of selenide ligands. Comprehensive DFT calculations prompted us to search for the formal intermediates [(R(1) SnCl2 )2 (?-S)] (7) and [(R(1) SnCl)2 (?-S)2 ] (8), which were isolated and helped to understand the stepwise formation of compounds 1-6. PMID:23963989

  11. TraML--a standard format for exchange of selected reaction monitoring transition lists.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Eric W; Chambers, Matthew; Neumann, Steffen; Levander, Fredrik; Binz, Pierre-Alain; Shofstahl, Jim; Campbell, David S; Mendoza, Luis; Ovelleiro, David; Helsens, Kenny; Martens, Lennart; Aebersold, Ruedi; Moritz, Robert L; Brusniak, Mi-Youn

    2012-04-01

    Targeted proteomics via selected reaction monitoring is a powerful mass spectrometric technique affording higher dynamic range, increased specificity and lower limits of detection than other shotgun mass spectrometry methods when applied to proteome analyses. However, it involves selective measurement of predetermined analytes, which requires more preparation in the form of selecting appropriate signatures for the proteins and peptides that are to be targeted. There is a growing number of software programs and resources for selecting optimal transitions and the instrument settings used for the detection and quantification of the targeted peptides, but the exchange of this information is hindered by a lack of a standard format. We have developed a new standardized format, called TraML, for encoding transition lists and associated metadata. In addition to introducing the TraML format, we demonstrate several implementations across the community, and provide semantic validators, extensive documentation, and multiple example instances to demonstrate correctly written documents. Widespread use of TraML will facilitate the exchange of transitions, reduce time spent handling incompatible list formats, increase the reusability of previously optimized transitions, and thus accelerate the widespread adoption of targeted proteomics via selected reaction monitoring. PMID:22159873

  12. TraMLA Standard Format for Exchange of Selected Reaction Monitoring Transition Lists*

    PubMed Central

    Deutsch, Eric W.; Chambers, Matthew; Neumann, Steffen; Levander, Fredrik; Binz, Pierre-Alain; Shofstahl, Jim; Campbell, David S.; Mendoza, Luis; Ovelleiro, David; Helsens, Kenny; Martens, Lennart; Aebersold, Ruedi; Moritz, Robert L.; Brusniak, Mi-Youn

    2012-01-01

    Targeted proteomics via selected reaction monitoring is a powerful mass spectrometric technique affording higher dynamic range, increased specificity and lower limits of detection than other shotgun mass spectrometry methods when applied to proteome analyses. However, it involves selective measurement of predetermined analytes, which requires more preparation in the form of selecting appropriate signatures for the proteins and peptides that are to be targeted. There is a growing number of software programs and resources for selecting optimal transitions and the instrument settings used for the detection and quantification of the targeted peptides, but the exchange of this information is hindered by a lack of a standard format. We have developed a new standardized format, called TraML, for encoding transition lists and associated metadata. In addition to introducing the TraML format, we demonstrate several implementations across the community, and provide semantic validators, extensive documentation, and multiple example instances to demonstrate correctly written documents. Widespread use of TraML will facilitate the exchange of transitions, reduce time spent handling incompatible list formats, increase the reusability of previously optimized transitions, and thus accelerate the widespread adoption of targeted proteomics via selected reaction monitoring. PMID:22159873

  13. Formation of Chlorotriophenoxy Radicals from Complete Series Reactions of Chlorotriophenols with H and OH Radicals.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fei; Shi, Xiangli; Zhang, Qingzhu; Wang, Wenxing

    2015-01-01

    The chlorothiophenoxy radicals (CTPRs) are key intermediate species in the formation of polychlorinated dibenzothiophenes/thianthrenes (PCDT/TAs). In this work, the formation of CTPRs from the complete series reactions of 19 chlorothiophenol (CTP) congeners with H and OH radicals were investigated theoretically by using the density functional theory (DFT) method. The profiles of the potential energy surface were constructed at the MPWB1K/6-311+G(3df,2p)//MPWB1K/6-31+G(d,p) level. The rate constants were evaluated by the canonical variational transition-state (CVT) theory with the small curvature tunneling (SCT) contribution at 600-1200 K. The present study indicates that the structural parameters, thermal data, and rate constants as well as the formation potential of CTPRs from CTPs are strongly dominated by the chlorine substitution at the ortho-position of CTPs. Comparison with the study of formation of chlorophenoxy radicals (CPRs) from chlorophenols (CPs) clearly shows that the thiophenoxyl-hydrogen abstraction from CTPs by H is more efficient than the phenoxyl-hydrogen abstraction from CPs by H, whereas the thiophenoxyl-hydrogen abstraction from CTPs by OH is less impactful than the phenoxyl-hydrogen abstraction from CPs by OH. Reactions of CTPs with H can occur more readily than that of CTPs with OH, which is opposite to the reactivity comparison of CPs with H and OH. PMID:26270566

  14. Formation of Chlorotriophenoxy Radicals from Complete Series Reactions of Chlorotriophenols with H and OH Radicals

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fei; Shi, Xiangli; Zhang, Qingzhu; Wang, Wenxing

    2015-01-01

    The chlorothiophenoxy radicals (CTPRs) are key intermediate species in the formation of polychlorinated dibenzothiophenes/thianthrenes (PCDT/TAs). In this work, the formation of CTPRs from the complete series reactions of 19 chlorothiophenol (CTP) congeners with H and OH radicals were investigated theoretically by using the density functional theory (DFT) method. The profiles of the potential energy surface were constructed at the MPWB1K/6-311+G(3df,2p)//MPWB1K/6-31+G(d,p) level. The rate constants were evaluated by the canonical variational transition-state (CVT) theory with the small curvature tunneling (SCT) contribution at 6001200 K. The present study indicates that the structural parameters, thermal data, and rate constants as well as the formation potential of CTPRs from CTPs are strongly dominated by the chlorine substitution at the ortho-position of CTPs. Comparison with the study of formation of chlorophenoxy radicals (CPRs) from chlorophenols (CPs) clearly shows that the thiophenoxyl-hydrogen abstraction from CTPs by H is more efficient than the phenoxyl-hydrogen abstraction from CPs by H, whereas the thiophenoxyl-hydrogen abstraction from CTPs by OH is less impactful than the phenoxyl-hydrogen abstraction from CPs by OH. Reactions of CTPs with H can occur more readily than that of CTPs with OH, which is opposite to the reactivity comparison of CPs with H and OH. PMID:26270566

  15. Zwitterion formation in titan ice analogs: reaction between HC3N and NH3.

    PubMed

    Couturier-Tamburelli, Isabelle; Sessouma, Bintou; Chiavassa, Thierry; Pitri, Nathalie

    2012-11-01

    A zwitterion is formed in the laboratory at low temperatures in the solid phase from the thermal reaction of HC(3)N and NH(3). We report for the first time its infrared spectrum. We study its reaction using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Its reaction rate is estimated to be k(T) = 2.9 10(5) exp(-2.3 0.1 (kJ mol(-1))/RT). Calculations using density functional theory (B3LYP/6-31g**) are used to characterize all the species (complexes, zwitterions, and transition states) and are in good agreement with the infrared spectra. The structure of the zwitterion is determined planar and it is characterized by a N-C bond around 1.5 . PMID:23075265

  16. Bifunctional mechanism of catalysis in reactions leading to formation of /alpha/-amino ketones

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, A.F.; Anikeev, A.V.

    1988-10-20

    The kinetics of the reaction of /alpha/-bromoacetophenone and benzyl bromide with aniline and pyridine in the presence of additions of acetic acid and phenol in benzene at 30/degree/C were investigated. The catalytic effects due to the activity of the uncombined forms of the catalyst, their dimers, and their 1:1 complexes with the amines were separated quantitatively. The change in the catalytic activity of the respective particles in the solutions with variation in the structure of the reagents is examined, and possible mechanisms for the catalytic reactions are discussed on this basis. It is concluded that there is a bifunctional mechanism of catalysis by acetic acid in the reaction of /alpha/-bromoacetophenone with aniline.

  17. Crystal structures of complexes of NAD+-dependent formate dehydrogenase from methylotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas sp. 101 with formate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippova, E. V.; Polyakov, K. M.; Tikhonova, T. V.; Stekhanova, T. N.; Boiko, K. M.; Sadykhov, I. G.; Tishkov, V. I.; Popov, V. O.; Labru, N.

    2006-07-01

    Formate dehydrogenase (FDH) from the methylotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas sp. 101 catalyzes oxidation of formate to NI2 with the coupled reduction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). The three-dimensional structures of the apo form (the free enzyme) and the holo form (the ternary FDH-NAD+-azide complex) of FDH have been established earlier. In the present study, the structures of FDH complexes with formate are solved at 2.19 and 2.28 resolution by the molecular replacement method and refined to the R factors of 22.3 and 20.5%, respectively. Both crystal structures contain four protein molecules per asymmetric unit. These molecules form two dimers identical to the dimer of the apo form of FDH. Two possible formatebinding sites are found in the active site of the FDH structure. In the complexes the sulfur atom of residue Cys354 exists in the oxidized state.

  18. Crystal structures of complexes of NAD{sup +}-dependent formate dehydrogenase from methylotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas sp. 101 with formate

    SciTech Connect

    Filippova, E. V. Polyakov, K. M.; Tikhonova, T. V.; Stekhanova, T. N.; Boiko, K. M.; Sadykhov, I. G.; Tishkov, V. I.; Popov, V. O.; Labru, N.

    2006-07-15

    Formate dehydrogenase (FDH) from the methylotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas sp. 101 catalyzes oxidation of formate to NI{sub 2} with the coupled reduction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD{sup +}). The three-dimensional structures of the apo form (the free enzyme) and the holo form (the ternary FDH-NAD{sup +}-azide complex) of FDH have been established earlier. In the present study, the structures of FDH complexes with formate are solved at 2.19 and 2.28 A resolution by the molecular replacement method and refined to the R factors of 22.3 and 20.5%, respectively. Both crystal structures contain four protein molecules per asymmetric unit. These molecules form two dimers identical to the dimer of the apo form of FDH. Two possible formatebinding sites are found in the active site of the FDH structure. In the complexes the sulfur atom of residue Cys354 exists in the oxidized state.

  19. Developing mononuclear copper-active-oxygen complexes relevant to reactive intermediates of biological oxidation reactions.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Shinobu

    2015-07-21

    Active-oxygen species generated on a copper complex play vital roles in several biological and chemical oxidation reactions. Recent attention has been focused on the reactive intermediates generated at the mononuclear copper active sites of copper monooxygenases such as dopamine β-monooxygenase (DβM), tyramine β-monooxygenase (TβM), peptidylglycine-α-hydroxylating monooxygenase (PHM), and polysaccharide monooxygenases (PMO). In a simple model system, reaction of O2 and a reduced copper(I) complex affords a mononuclear copper(II)-superoxide complex or a copper(III)-peroxide complex, and subsequent H(•) or e(-)/H(+) transfer, which gives a copper(II)-hydroperoxide complex. A more reactive species such as a copper(II)-oxyl radical type species could be generated via O-O bond cleavage of the peroxide complex. However, little had been explored about the chemical properties and reactivity of the mononuclear copper-active-oxygen complexes due to the lack of appropriate model compounds. Thus, a great deal of effort has recently been made to develop efficient ligands that can stabilize such reactive active-oxygen complexes in synthetic modeling studies. In this Account, I describe our recent achievements of the development of a mononuclear copper(II)-(end-on)superoxide complex using a simple tridentate ligand consisting of an eight-membered cyclic diamine with a pyridylethyl donor group. The superoxide complex exhibits a similar structure (four-coordinate tetrahedral geometry) and reactivity (aliphatic hydroxylation) to those of a proposed reactive intermediate of copper monooxygenases. Systematic studies based on the crystal structures of copper(I) and copper(II) complexes of the related tridentate supporting ligands have indicated that the rigid eight-membered cyclic diamine framework is crucial for controlling the geometry and the redox potential, which are prerequisites for the generation of such a unique mononuclear copper(II)-(end-on)superoxide complex. Reactivity of a mononuclear copper(II)-alkylperoxide complex has also been examined to get insights into the intrinsic reactivity of copper(II)-peroxide species, which is usually considered as a sluggish oxidant or just a precursor of copper-oxyl radical type reactive species. However, our studies have unambiguously demonstrated that copper(II)-alkylperoxide complex can be a direct oxidant for C-H bond activation of organic substrates, when the C-H bond activation is coupled with O-O bond cleavage (concerted mechanism). The reactivity studies of these mononuclear copper(II) active-oxygen species (superoxide and alkylperoxide) will provide significantly important insights into the catalytic mechanism of copper monooxygenases as well as copper-catalyzed oxidation reactions in synthetic organic chemistry. PMID:26086527

  20. Metallic film formation using direct micropatterning with photoreactive metal complexes.

    PubMed

    Cordonier, Christopher E J; Nakamura, Akimasa; Shimada, Kazuhiko; Fujishima, Akira

    2012-09-18

    Palladium, cobalt, and nickel in complex with photoacid-generating ligands, 4-(2-nitrobenzyloxycarbonyl)catechol and 4-(6-nitroveratryloxycarbonyl)catechol, were prepared in solution. Films formed from the metal complex solutions perform as positive-tone, directly photopatternable palladium, cobalt, nickel oxide, or composite film precursors. After exposure, acid-bearing selectively soluble complexes could be removed to give patterned films upon developing in aqueous base, which were transformable to the corresponding pattern-preserving metal/metal oxide film. The photodynamics of photoinduced solubility and direct micropatterning of palladium, cobalt, nickel, and palladium/nickel oxide composite films were investigated. Employing palladium as the initiator for autocatalytic chemical plating, selective direct copper plating on palladium film on polyethylene naphthalate and palladium/nickel oxide composite film on glass was accomplished. PMID:22892024

  1. REACTIVE DESORPTION AND RADIATIVE ASSOCIATION AS POSSIBLE DRIVERS OF COMPLEX MOLECULE FORMATION IN THE COLD INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Vasyunin, A. I.; Herbst, Eric E-mail: eh2ef@virginia.edu

    2013-05-20

    The recent discovery of terrestrial-type organic species such as methyl formate and dimethyl ether in the cold interstellar gas has proved that the formation of organic matter in the Galaxy begins at a much earlier stage of star formation than was previously thought. This discovery represents a challenge for astrochemical modelers. The abundances of these molecules cannot be explained by the previously developed ''warm-up'' scenario, in which organic molecules are formed via diffusive chemistry on surfaces of interstellar grains starting at 30 K, and then released to the gas at higher temperatures during later stages of star formation. In this article, we investigate an alternative scenario in which complex organic species are formed via a sequence of gas-phase reactions between precursor species formed on grain surfaces and then ejected into the gas via efficient reactive desorption, a process in which non-thermal desorption occurs as a result of conversion of the exothermicity of chemical reactions into the ejection of products from the surface. The proposed scenario leads to reasonable if somewhat mixed results at temperatures as low as 10 K and may be considered as a step toward the explanation of abundances of terrestrial-like organic species observed during the earliest stages of star formation.

  2. [Mechanism of the inhibiting effect of the Cu-tyrosine complex on the hydroxylation reactions].

    PubMed

    Karuzina, I I; Bachmanova, G I; Izotov, M V; Osipov, A N; Varenitsa, A I

    1981-10-01

    The Cu-tyrosine complex, a low molecular weight analog of superoxide dismutase, exerts an inhibiting effect on cytochrome P-450. The inactivation of cytochrome Y-450 with its transition to cytochrome Y-420 can cause the inhibition by the Cu2+ - Tyr2 complex of dimethylaniline N-demethylation and p-nitroanisol O-demethylation. In case of p-hydroxylation of aniline the inhibiting effect of the Cu-tyrosine complex is much more pronounced than its inactivating effect on cytochrome P-450. In the presence of albumin the complex produced no inactivating effect on cytochrome P-450; under these conditions the inhibiting effect of Cu2+ - Tyr2 on N- and O-demethylation is removed. In case of aniline p-hydroxylation albumin partly decreases the inhibiting effect of the complex on this reaction. In a soluble system containing isolated cytochrome P-450 and cumole hydroperoxide only the aniline p-hydroxylation reaction was found sensitive to the effect of superoxide dismutase. The data obtained suggest participation of the superoxide radical only in aniline p-hydroxylation but not in the reactions of N-demethylation of dimethylaniline and O-dealkylation of p-nitroanisol. PMID:6272881

  3. Application of silver N-heterocyclic carbene complexes in O-glycosidation reactions

    PubMed Central

    Talisman, Ian J.; Kumar, Vineet; Deschamps, Jeffrey R.; Frisch, Mark

    2011-01-01

    We report the efficient O-glycosidation of glycosyl bromides with therapeutically relevant acceptors facilitated by silver N-heterocyclic carbene (Ag-NHC) complexes. A set of four Ag-NHC complexes was synthesized and evaluated as promoters for glycosidation reactions. Two new bis-Ag-NHC complexes derived from ionic liquids 1-benzyl-3-methyl-1H-imidazolium chloride and 1-(2-methoxyethyl)-3-methyl-1H-imidazolium chloride were found to efficiently promote glycosidation, whereas known mono-Ag complexes of 1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazolium chloride and 1,3-bis(2,6-di-isopropylphenyl)imidazolium chloride failed to facilitate the reaction. The structures of the promoters were established by X-ray crystallography, and these complexes were employed in the glycosidation of different glycosyl bromide donors with biologically valuable acceptors, such as estrone, estradiol, and various flavones. The products were obtained in yields considered good to excellent, and all reactions were highly selective for the ? isomer regardless of neighboring group effects. PMID:21911215

  4. Numerical simulation and analysis of complex patterns in a two-layer coupled reaction diffusion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin-Zheng; Bai, Zhan-Guo; Li, Yan; He, Ya-Feng; Zhao, Kun

    2015-04-01

    The resonance interaction between two modes is investigated using a two-layer coupled Brusselator model. When two different wavelength modes satisfy resonance conditions, new modes will appear, and a variety of superlattice patterns can be obtained in a short wavelength mode subsystem. We find that even though the wavenumbers of two Turing modes are fixed, the parameter changes have influences on wave intensity and pattern selection. When a hexagon pattern occurs in the short wavelength mode layer and a stripe pattern appears in the long wavelength mode layer, the Hopf instability may happen in a nonlinearly coupled model, and twinkling-eye hexagon and travelling hexagon patterns will be obtained. The symmetries of patterns resulting from the coupled modes may be different from those of their parents, such as the cluster hexagon pattern and square pattern. With the increase of perturbation and coupling intensity, the nonlinear system will convert between a static pattern and a dynamic pattern when the Turing instability and Hopf instability happen in the nonlinear system. Besides the wavenumber ratio and intensity ratio of the two different wavelength Turing modes, perturbation and coupling intensity play an important role in the pattern formation and selection. According to the simulation results, we find that two modes with different symmetries can also be in the spatial resonance under certain conditions, and complex patterns appear in the two-layer coupled reaction diffusion systems. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11247242), the Young Scientists Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51201057), and the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (Grant No. A2014208171).

  5. Characterizing Pyroxene Reaction Space in Calcium-Aluminum Rich Inclusions: Oxidation During CAI Rim Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyl, K. A.; Young, E. D.

    2009-12-01

    We define the reaction space that controls changes in pyroxene composition in CAIs and Wark-Lovering (WL) rims in an oxidizing solar nebula. Ti-rich pyroxenes in CAIs record a sub-solar oxygen fugacity (Ti3+/Ti4+~1.5). WL rim pyroxenes in the CAI Leoville 144A have a distinctly lower oxidation state.This difference supports WL rim condensation in an environment of increasing O2(g) and Mg(g) (Simon et al. 2005). We used the following phase components to identify four linearly independent reactions (Thompson 1982): diopside, CaTs (Al2Mg-1Si-1), T3 (Ti3+AlMg-1Si-1), T4 (Ti4+Al2Mg-1Si-2), En (MgCa-1), perovskite, O(g), Mg(g), SiO(g), and Ca(g). Compositional variation in this system is dominated by two reactions. The first is oxidation of Ti3+ via reaction with O and Mg in the gas phase: 1.5 O(g) + Mg(g) ? Di + [Ti4+Mg3/4Ti3+-1Ca-1/4Si-1/2] (1). Pyroxene is produced and En is introduced. The second reaction (2) is perovskite formation. It is observed in the WL rim of Leoville 144A, and experiments confirm that an elevated Ti component converts pyroxene to perovskite(Gupta et al. 1973). MgCa-1 is the third linearly independent reaction (3). They combine to give: Di + x Ca(g)? x Mg(g)+ Pv + [Mg1/2-xSiTi4+-1Ca-1/2+x](2,3). Unlike (1), pyroxene is consumed in this reaction. The parameter x defines the extent of Mg-Ca exchange. When x > 0.5, WL rim formation occurs in an environment where Mg is volatile and Ca condenses. The reaction space defined by reactions (1) and (2,3) describes the transition from CAI interior to WL rims. WL rim pyroxene Ti contents, [CaTs], and Ca < 1 pfu are all explained in this space. The fourth linearly independent reaction is SiO(g):1/8 Di + Mg(g)? SiO(g) + [Mg3/8Ca1/8Ti4+Ti3+-1Si-1/2](4). Silica reduction forms Ti4+, releasing SiO(g). (4) does not describe the oxidation of Ti3+ in WL rim pyroxene, but (1) - (4) results in En formation directly from the gas phase. This may explain WL rim analyses that have Si contents in excess of those predicted from reactions (1) and (2,3). Simon et al. (2005) EPSL 41, 272-283; Thompson (1982)Rev. Min. 10, 33-52; Gupta et al. (1973) Contr. Mineral. Petrol. 41, 333-344 Reaction space for CAI pyroxene. Pyroxenes plotted using titanium contents.

  6. Dearomatization Reactions of N-Heterocycles Mediated by Group 3 Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Kevin L; Williams, Bryan N; Benitez, Diego; Carver, Colin T; Ogilby, Kevin R; Tkatchouk, Ekaterina; Goddard, William A; Diaconescu, Paula L

    2010-01-13

    Group 3 (Sc, Y, Lu, La) benzyl complexes supported by a ferrocene diamide ligand are reactive toward aromatic N-heterocycles by mediating their coupling and, in a few cases, the cleavage of their C-N bonds. When these complexes reacted with 2,2'-bipyridine or isoquinoline, they facilitated the alkyl migration of the benzyl ligand onto the pyridine ring, a process accompanied by the dearomatization of the N-heterocycle. The products of the alkyl-transfer reactions act as hydrogen donors in the presence of aromatic N-heterocycles, ketones, and azobenzene. Experimental and computational studies suggest that the hydrogen transfer takes place through a concerted mechanism. An interesting disproportionation reaction of the dearomatized, alkyl-substituted isoquinoline complexes is also reported.

  7. Formation of bare UO2(2+) and NUO(+) by fragmentation of gas-phase uranyl-acetonitrile complexes.

    PubMed

    Van Stipdonk, Michael J; Michelini, Maria del Carmen; Plaviak, Alexandra; Martin, Dean; Gibson, John K

    2014-09-11

    In a prior study [Van Stipdonk; et al. J. Phys. Chem. A 2006, 110, 959-970], electrospray ionization (ESI) was used to generate doubly charged complex ions composed of the uranyl ion and acetonitrile (acn) ligands. The complexes, general formula [UO2(acn)n](2+), n = 0-5, were isolated in an 3-D quadrupole ion-trap mass spectrometer to probe intrinsic reactions with H2O. Two general reaction pathways were observed: (a) the direct addition of one or more H2O ligands to the doubly charged complexes and (b) charge-exchange reactions. For the former, the intrinsic tendency to add H2O was dependent on the number and type of nitrile ligand. For the latter, charge exchange involved primarily the formation of uranyl hydroxide, [UO2OH](+), presumably via a collision with gas-phase H2O and the elimination of a protonated nitrile ligand. Examination of general ion fragmentation patterns by collision-induced dissociation, however, was hindered by the pronounced tendency to generate hydrated species. In an update to this story, we have revisited the fragmentation of uranyl-acetonitrile complexes in a linear ion-trap (LIT) mass spectrometer. Lower partial pressures of adventitious H2O in the LIT (compared to the 3-D ion trap used in our previous study) minimized adduct formation and allowed access to lower uranyl coordination numbers than previously possible. We have now been able to investigate the fragmentation behavior of these complex ions completely, with a focus on tendency to undergo ligand elimination versus charge reduction reactions. CID can be used to drive ligand elimination to completion to furnish the bare uranyl dication, UO2(2+). In addition, fragmentation of [UO2(acn)](2+) generated [UO2(NC)](+), which subsequently fragmented to furnish NUO(+). Formation of the nitrido by transfer of N from cyanide was confirmed using precursors labeled with (15)N. The observed formation of [UO2(NC)](+) and NUO(+) was modeled by density functional theory. PMID:25121574

  8. Structural investigation of trifuoromethyl substituted bis(?-diketonato)-dichlorotitanium(IV) complexes displaying a mono-dinuclear equilibrium hydrolysis reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Annemarie; Conradie, Jeanet

    2015-10-01

    Mononuclear Ti(?-diketonato)2Cl2 complexes with CF3-containing ?-diketonato ligands, exhibit a monomer-hydrolysed dinuclear complex equilibrium when dissolved in CDCl3 containing trace amounts of water. This result is in contrast to the more electron rich derivatives with non CF3-containing ?-diketonato ligands, for example, Ti(acac)2Cl2, which exsists only as the monomer in CDCl3 solution. The X-ray structure of the ?-oxo bridged hydrolysed dinuclear complex {Ti(CF3COCHCOCH3)2Cl}2(?-O) reveals that the two mononuclear Ti units forming the dinuclear structure, both adopt a cis-trans-cis configuration with the CF3 groups of the trifluoroacetylacetonate ligands in trans positions. In solution both mononuclear Ti(?-diketonato)2Cl2 and hydrolysed dinuclear {Ti(?-diketonato)2Cl}2(?-O) complexes exist as equilibrium mixtures of isomers. DFT calculations, used to determine the stability of the isomers, showed that for monomeric bis(?-diketonato)-titanium(IV) complexes, there is agreement with experimental solid state structures, in that the most stable DFT calculated isomer, of a specific complex, formed in the solid state. However for the dinuclear {Ti(CF3COCHCOCH3)2Cl}2(?-O) complex, DFT calculations revealed that although most of the 10 isomers are experimentally possible due to the small energy difference obtained between the isomers, an isomer of higher energy formed in the solid state, suggesting that the equilibrium reaction between the monomer and hydrolysed dinuclear complex may contribute to the formation of the less stable dinuclear isomer {Ti(CF3COCHCOCH3)2Cl}2(?-O) (1111).

  9. Spectrophotometric Determination of 6-Propyl-2-Thiouracil in Pharmaceutical Formulations Based on Prussian Blue Complex Formation: An Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakrzewski, Robert; Skowron, Monika; Ciesielski, Witold; Rembisz, Zaneta

    2016-01-01

    The laboratory experiment challenges students to determine 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) based on Prussian blue complex formation. Prussian blue is formed by ferricyanide and Fe(II) ions which are generated in situ from Fe(III) ions reduced by PTU. The absorbance of this product was measured at a wavelength of 840 nm, after a reaction time of 30

  10. Spectrophotometric Determination of 6-Propyl-2-Thiouracil in Pharmaceutical Formulations Based on Prussian Blue Complex Formation: An Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakrzewski, Robert; Skowron, Monika; Ciesielski, Witold; Rembisz, Zaneta

    2016-01-01

    The laboratory experiment challenges students to determine 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) based on Prussian blue complex formation. Prussian blue is formed by ferricyanide and Fe(II) ions which are generated in situ from Fe(III) ions reduced by PTU. The absorbance of this product was measured at a wavelength of 840 nm, after a reaction time of 30…

  11. A novel samarium(ii) complex bearing a dianionic bis(phenolate) cyclam ligand: synthesis, structure and electron-transfer reactions.

    PubMed

    Maria, Leonor; Soares, Marina; Santos, Isabel C; Sousa, Vnia R; Mora, Elsa; Maralo, Joaquim; Luzyanin, Konstantin V

    2016-02-18

    The reaction of the hexadentate dianionic 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane-based bis(phenolate) ligand, ((tBu2)ArO)2Me2-cyclam(2-), with [SmI2(thf)2] in thf resulted in the formation of the divalent samarium complex [Sm(?(6)-{((tBu2)ArO)2Me2-cyclam})] (). X-ray diffraction studies revealed that after recrystallization from n-hexane/thf complex has a monomeric structure and does not contain thf molecules coordinated to the Sm(ii) center. However, UV-vis and (1)H NMR spectroscopy of evidenced the formation of thf-solvated complexes in neat thf. Reductive studies show that complex can act as a single electron-transfer reagent and form well-defined Sm(iii) species. The reaction of with several substrates, namely, TlBPh4, pyridine N-oxide, OPPh3, SPPh3 and bipyridines, are reported. Spectroscopy studies, including NMR, and single crystal X-ray diffraction data are in agreement with the formation of cationic Sm(iii) species, monochalcogenide bridged Sm(iii) complexes and Sm(iii) complexes with bipyridine radical ligand, respectively. PMID:26818107

  12. Dimeric interactions and complex formation using direct coevolutionary couplings.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Ricardo N; Morcos, Faruck; Jana, Biman; Andricopulo, Adriano D; Onuchic, Jos N

    2015-01-01

    We develop a procedure to characterize the association of protein structures into homodimers using coevolutionary couplings extracted from Direct Coupling Analysis (DCA) in combination with Structure Based Models (SBM). Identification of dimerization contacts using DCA is more challenging than intradomain contacts since direct couplings are mixed with monomeric contacts. Therefore a systematic way to extract dimerization signals has been elusive. We provide evidence that the prediction of homodimeric complexes is possible with high accuracy for all the cases we studied which have rich sequence information. For the most accurate conformations of the structurally diverse dimeric complexes studied the mean and interfacial RMSDs are 1.95 and 1.44, respectively. This methodology is also able to identify distinct dimerization conformations as for the case of the family of response regulators, which dimerize upon activation. The identification of dimeric complexes can provide interesting molecular insights in the construction of large oligomeric complexes and be useful in the study of aggregation related diseases like Alzheimer's or Parkinson's. PMID:26338201

  13. Dimeric interactions and complex formation using direct coevolutionary couplings

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Ricardo N.; Morcos, Faruck; Jana, Biman; Andricopulo, Adriano D.; Onuchic, José N.

    2015-01-01

    We develop a procedure to characterize the association of protein structures into homodimers using coevolutionary couplings extracted from Direct Coupling Analysis (DCA) in combination with Structure Based Models (SBM). Identification of dimerization contacts using DCA is more challenging than intradomain contacts since direct couplings are mixed with monomeric contacts. Therefore a systematic way to extract dimerization signals has been elusive. We provide evidence that the prediction of homodimeric complexes is possible with high accuracy for all the cases we studied which have rich sequence information. For the most accurate conformations of the structurally diverse dimeric complexes studied the mean and interfacial RMSDs are 1.95Å and 1.44Å, respectively. This methodology is also able to identify distinct dimerization conformations as for the case of the family of response regulators, which dimerize upon activation. The identification of dimeric complexes can provide interesting molecular insights in the construction of large oligomeric complexes and be useful in the study of aggregation related diseases like Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s. PMID:26338201

  14. Base Flipping in Open Complex Formation at Bacterial Promoters

    PubMed Central

    Karpen, Mary E.; deHaseth, Pieter L.

    2015-01-01

    In the process of transcription initiation, the bacterial RNA polymerase binds double-stranded (ds) promoter DNA and subsequently effects strand separation of 12 to 14 base pairs (bp), including the start site of transcription, to form the so-called open complex (also referred to as RPo). This complex is competent to initiate RNA synthesis. Here we will review the role of ?70 and its homologs in the strand separation process, and evidence that strand separation is initiated at the ?11A (the A of the non-template strand that is 11 bp upstream from the transcription start site) of the promoter. By using the fluorescent adenine analog, 2-aminopurine, it was demonstrated that the ?11A on the non-template strand flips out of the DNA helix and into a hydrophobic pocket where it stacks with tyrosine 430 of ?70. Open complexes are remarkably stable, even though in vivo, and under most experimental conditions in vitro, dsDNA is much more stable than its strand-separated form. Subsequent structural studies of other researchers have confirmed that in the open complex the ?11A has flipped into a hydrophobic pocket of ?70. It was also revealed that RPo was stabilized by three additional bases of the non-template strand being flipped out of the helix and into hydrophobic pockets, further preventing re-annealing of the two complementary DNA strands. PMID:25927327

  15. Aqueous-Phase Reactions of Isoprene with Sulfoxy Radical Anions as a way of Wet Aerosol Formation in the Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznietsova, I.; Rudzinski, K. J.; Szmigielski, R.; Laboratory of the Environmental Chemistry

    2011-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols exhibit an important role in the environment. They have implications on human health and life, and - in the larger scale - on climate, the Earth's radiative balance and the cloud's formation. Organic matter makes up a significant fraction of atmospheric aerosols (~35% to ~90%) and may originate from direct emissions (primary organic aerosol, POA) or result from complex physico-chemical processes of volatile organic compounds (secondary organic aerosol, SOA). Isoprene (2-methyl-buta-1,3-diene) is one of the relevant volatile precursor of ambient SOA in the atmosphere. It is the most abundant non-methane hydrocarbon emitted to the atmosphere as a result of living vegetation. According to the recent data, the isoprene emission rate is estimated to be at the level of 500 TgC per year. While heterogeneous transformations of isoprene have been well documented, aqueous-phase reactions of this hydrocarbon with radical species that lead to the production of new class of wet SOA components such as polyols and their sulfate esters (organosulfates), are still poorly recognized. The chain reactions of isoprene with sulfoxy radical-anions (SRA) are one of the recently researched route leading to the formation of organosulfates in the aqueous phase. The letter radical species originate from the auto-oxidation of sulfur dioxide in the aqueous phase and are behind the phenomenon of atmospheric acid rain formation. This is a complicated chain reaction that is catalyzed by transition metal ions, such as manganese(II), iron(III) and propagated by sulfoxy radical anions . The presented work addresses the chemical interaction of isoprene with sulfoxy radical-anions in the water solution in the presence of nitrite ions and nitrous acid, which are important trace components of the atmosphere. We showed that nitrite ions and nitrous acid significantly altered the kinetics of the auto-oxidation of SO2 in the presence of isoprene at different solution acidity from 2 to 8.7. The presence of nitrogen-containing inorganic salts strongly impact the formation of novel organosulfur products, whereas no organonitrates were observed. A detailed characterization of these products with the triple-quadruple negative electrospray mass spectrometry (-)ESI-MS/MS revealed oxygenated polar species with C-5 skeleton bearing SO3H (MW 182, 180) and SO2H (MW 166, 164) moieties on the hydroxyl group. The structures of these products were firmly confirmed by comparison of their liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry behaviors with that corresponding to the synthesized model compounds. It is believed that newly discovered highly polar low molecular weight compounds may contribute to the growth of wet aerosol particles by the formation of higher molecular weight species.

  16. Atomic force spectroscopy in biological complex formation: strategies and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bizzarri, Anna Rita; Cannistraro, Salvatore

    2009-12-31

    Atomic force spectroscopy has become a widely used technique for investigating forces, energies, and dynamics of biomolecular interactions. These studies provide dissociation kinetic parameters by pulling apart proteins involved in a complex. Biological complexes are studied under near-physiological conditions, without labeling procedures, and are probed one at time, the latter allowing to one obtain results which are not averaged over the ensemble. However, to gain reliable information, some experimental aspects have to be carefully controlled. In particular, the immobilization of molecular partners to AFM tips and supports, required to force the molecular dissociation, plays a crucial role in determining the success of the experiments. To actually resolve single interactions, multiple simultaneous complex dissociations have to be avoided, and nonspecific adhesions, commonly found in these studies, have to be recognized and discarded. This article is aimed at offering a critical revisitation of the atomic force spectroscopy technique applied to the study of biomolecular interactions, highlighting the critical points, identifying strategies to be adopted for a more reliable data extraction and interpretation, and pointing out the experimental and theoretical aspects which still need to be refined. To this purpose, we take advantage of the vast landscape of literature and then proceed into the details of our works. In this respect, we describe the general principles of the technique, the procedures for protein immobilization, and how they can affect the results. We emphasize the use of computational docking to predict molecular complex configurations, when unknown, as a useful approach to select proper anchorage architectures. Additionally, we deal with data acquirement and analysis, with regard to the force curve selection, to the force histograms interpretation, and to the theoretical frameworks used to extract kinetic parameters. Through this, we outline that AFS can be successfully used both to investigate complexes having very different affinities and also to reveal competitive binding mechanisms, thus gaining deeper information about molecular interactions. PMID:19904973

  17. Complex satellite systems: a general model of formation from rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crida, Aurlien; Charnoz, Sbastien

    2014-07-01

    Summary of the Abstract We present our model of formation of regular satellites by the spreading of a cold debris disk beyond the Roche radius. By numerical simulations and analytical calculations, we show that this process explains the peculiar properties of Saturn's small and mid-sized moons, in particular their mass - distance distribution. This process seems to also account for the structures of the satellite systems of Uranus, Neptune, and the Earth, suggesting that they used to have massive rings.

  18. Dynamics of Research Team Formation in Complex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Caihong; Wan, Yuzi; Chen, Yu

    Most organizations encourage the formation of teams to accomplish complicated tasks, and vice verse, effective teams could bring lots benefits and profits for organizations. Network structure plays an important role in forming teams. In this paper, we specifically study the dynamics of team formation in large research communities in which knowledge of individuals plays an important role on team performance and individual utility. An agent-based model is proposed, in which heterogeneous agents from research communities are described and empirically tested. Each agent has a knowledge endowment and a preference for both income and leisure. Agents provide a variable input (effort) and their knowledge endowments to production. They could learn from others in their team and those who are not in their team but have private connections in community to adjust their own knowledge endowment. They are allowed to join other teams or work alone when it is welfare maximizing to do so. Various simulation experiments are conducted to examine the impacts of network topology, knowledge diffusion among community network, and team output sharing mechanisms on the dynamics of team formation.

  19. The formation of glycine and other complex organic molecules in exploding ice mantles.

    PubMed

    Rawlings, J M C; Williams, D A; Viti, S; Cecchi-Pestellini, C; Duley, W W

    2014-01-01

    Complex Organic Molecules (COMs), such as propylene (CH3CHCH2) and the isomers of C2H4O2 are detected in cold molecular clouds (such as TMC-1) with high fractional abundances (Marcelino et al., Astrophys. J., 2007, 665, L127). The formation mechanism for these species is the subject of intense speculation, as is the possibility of the formation of simple amino acids such as glycine (NH2CH2COOH). At typical dark cloud densities, normal interstellar gas-phase chemistries are inefficient, whilst surface chemistry is at best ill defined and does not easily reproduce the abundance ratios observed in the gas phase. Whatever mechanism(s) is/are operating, it/they must be both efficient at converting a significant fraction of the available carbon budget into COMs, and capable of efficiently returning the COMs to the gas phase. In our previous studies we proposed a complementary, alternative mechanism, in which medium- and large-sized molecules are formed by three-body gas kinetic reactions in the warm high density gas phase. This environment exists, for a very short period of time, after the total sublimation of grain ice mantles in transient co-desorption events. In order to drive the process, rapid and efficient mantle sublimation is required and we have proposed that ice mantle 'explosions' can be driven by the catastrophic recombination of trapped hydrogen atoms, and other radicals, in the ice. Repeated cycles of freeze-out and explosion can thus lead to a cumulative molecular enrichment of the interstellar medium. Using existing studies we based our chemical network on simple radical addition, subject to enthalpy and valency restrictions. In this work we have extended the chemistry to include the formation pathways of glycine and other large molecular species that are detected in molecular clouds. We find that the mechanism is capable of explaining the observed molecular abundances and complexity in these sources. We find that the proposed mechanism is easily capable of explaining the large abundances of all three isomers of C2H4O2 that are observationally inferred for star-forming regions. However, the model currently does not provide an obvious explanation for the predominance of methyl formate, suggesting that some refinement to our (very simplistic) chemistry is necessary. The model also predicts the production of glycine at a (lower) abundance level, that is consistent with its marginal detection in astrophysical sources. PMID:25302390

  20. Universal reaction mechanism of boronic acids with diols in aqueous solution: kinetics and the basic concept of a conditional formation constant.

    PubMed

    Furikado, Yuki; Nagahata, Tomomi; Okamoto, Takuya; Sugaya, Tomoaki; Iwatsuki, Satoshi; Inamo, Masahiko; Takagi, Hideo D; Odani, Akira; Ishihara, Koji

    2014-10-01

    To establish a detailed reaction mechanism for the condensation between a boronic acid, RB(OH)2, and a diol, H2L, in aqueous solution, the acid dissociation constants (Ka(BL)) of boronic acid diol esters (HBLs) were determined based on the well-established concept of conditional formation constants of metal complexes. The pKa values of HBLs were 2.30, 2.77, and 2.00 for the reaction systems, 2,4-difluorophenylboronic acid and chromotropic acid, 3-nitrophenylboronic acid and alizarin red?S, and phenylboronic acid and alizarin red?S, respectively. A general and precise reaction mechanism of RB(OH)2 with H2L in aqueous solution, which can serve as a universal reaction mechanism for RB(OH)2 and H2L, was proposed on the basis of (a)?the relative kinetic reactivities of the RB(OH)2 and its conjugate base, that is, the boronate ion, toward H2L, and (b)?the determined pKa values of HBLs. The use of the conditional formation constant, K', based on the main reaction: RB(OH)2 + H2L (K1)? RB(L)(OH)(-) + H3O(+) instead of the binding constant has been proposed for the general reaction of uncomplexed boronic acid species (B') with uncomplexed diol species (L') to form boronic acid diol complex species (esters, BL') in aqueous solution at pH?5-11: B' + L' (K')? BL'. The proposed reaction mechanism explains perfectly the formation of boronic acid diol ester in aqueous solution. PMID:25169423

  1. Asymmetric 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition Reactions Catalyzed by Heterocycle-Based Metal Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suga, Hiroyuki

    Highly enantioselective 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions of several 1,3-dipoles, such as nitrones, nitrile oxides, nitrile imines, diazoalkanes, azomethine imines and carbonyl ylides, catalyzed by heterocyclic supramolecular type of metal complexes consisting of chiral heterocyclic compounds and metal salts were described in terms of their ability of asymmetric induction and enantioface differentiation. The scope and limitations of each cycloaddition reactions were also briefly described. Of the chiral hererocycle-based ligands, chiral bisoxazoline, 2,6-bis(oxazolinyl)pyridine, and related oxazoline ligands are shown to be quite effective in obtaining high levels of asymmtric induction. The combination of the bisoxazoline ligand derived from (1S,2R)-cis-1-amino-2-indanol and metal salts was especially efficient for asymmetric cycloaddition reactions of a number of 1,3-dipoles, such as nitrones, nitrile oxide, nitrile imines, diazoacetates and azomethine imines. The metals utilized for the heterocycle-based complexes show a crucial role for degree of asymmetric induction depending upon the 1,3-dipole used. High levels of enantioselectivity were achieved in 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions of unstable carbonyl ylides with benzyloxyacetaldehyde derivatives, ?-keto esters, 3-(2-alkenoyl)-2-oxazolidinones, and even vinyl ethers, which were catalyzed by Pybox-lanthanoid metal complexes.

  2. The reaction of an iridium PNP complex with parahydrogen facilitates polarisation transfer without chemical change Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Sample preparation, signal enhancements and raw data. CCDC 1026865. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c4dt03088e Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Arthur J.; Rayner, Peter J.; Cowley, Michael J.; Green, Gary G. R.; Whitwood, Adrian C.

    2015-01-01

    The short lived pincer complex [(C5H3N(CH2P(tBu)2)2)Ir(H)2(py)]BF4 is shown to be active for signal amplification by reversible exchange. This catalyst formulation enables the efficient transfer of polarization from parahydrogen to be placed into just a single molecule of the hyperpolarisation target, pyridine. When the catalysts 1H nuclei are replaced by 2H, increased levels of substrate hyperpolarization result and when the reverse situation is examined the catalyst itself is clearly visible through hyperpolarised signals. The ligand exchange pathways of [(C5H3N(CH2P(tBu)2)2)Ir(H)2(py)]BF4 that are associated with this process are shown to involve the formation of 16-electron [(C5H3N(CH2P(tBu)2)2)Ir(H)2]BF4 and the 18-electron H2 addition product [(C5H3N(CH2P(tBu)2)2)Ir(H)2(H2)]BF4. PMID:25410259

  3. Ligand substitution reactions of a phenolic quinolyl hydrazone; oxidovanadium (IV) complexes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Quinoline ring has therapeutic and biological activities. Quinolyl hydrazones constitute a class of excellent chelating agents. Recently, the physiological and biological activities of quinolyl hydrazones arise from their tendency to form metal chelates with transition metal ions. In this context, we have aimed to study the competency effect of a phenolic quinolyl hydrazone (H2L; primary ligand) with some auxiliary ligands (Tmen, Phen or Oxine; secondary ligands) towards oxidovanadium (IV) ions. Results Mono- and binuclear oxidovanadium (IV) - complexes were obtained from the reaction of a phenolic quinolyl hydrazone with oxidovanadium (IV)- ion in absence and presence of N,N,N',N'- tetramethylethylenediamine (Tmen), 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) or 8-hydroxyquinoline (Oxine). The phenolic quinolyl hydrazone ligand behaves as monobasic bidentate (NO- donor with O- bridging). All the obtained complexes have the preferable octahedral geometry except the oxinato complex (2) which has a square pyramid geometry with no axial interaction; the only homoleptic complex in this study. Conclusion The ligand exchange (substitution/replacement) reactions reflect the strong competency power of the auxiliary aromatic ligands (Phen/Oxine) compared to the phenolic quinolyl hydrazone (H2L) towards oxidovanadium (IV) ion; (complexes 2 and 3). By contrast, in case of the more flexible aliphatic competitor (Tmen), an adduct was obtained (4). The obtained complexes reflect the strength of the ligand field towards the oxidovanadium (IV)- ion; Oxine or Phen >> phenolic hydrazone (H2L) > Tmen. PMID:21846387

  4. Reactions Between Water Soluble Organic Acids and Nitrates in Atmospheric Aerosols: Recycling of Nitric Acid and Formation of Organic Salts

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bingbing; Laskin, Alexander

    2014-03-25

    Atmospheric particles often include a complex mixture of nitrate and secondary organic materials accumulated within the same individual particles. Nitrate as an important inorganic component can be chemically formed in the atmosphere. For instance, formation of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) and calcium nitrate Ca(NO3)2 when nitrogen oxide and nitric acid (HNO3) species react with sea salt and calcite, respectively. Organic acids contribute a significant fraction of photochemically formed secondary organics that can condense on the preexisting nitrate-containing particles. Here, we present a systematic microanalysis study on chemical composition of laboratory generated particles composed of water soluble organic acids and nitrates (i.e. NaNO3 and Ca(NO3)2) investigated using computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX) and Fourier transform infrared micro-spectroscopy (micro-FTIR). The results show that water-soluble organic acids can react with nitrates releasing gaseous HNO3 during dehydration process. These reactions are attributed to acid displacement of nitrate with weak organic acids driven by the evaporation of HNO3 into gas phase due to its relatively high volatility. The reactions result in significant nitrate depletion and formation of organic salts in mixed organic acids/nitrate particles that in turn may affect their physical and chemical properties relevant to atmospheric environment and climate. Airborne nitrate concentrations are estimated by thermodynamic calculations corresponding to various nitrate depletions in selected organic acids of atmospheric relevance. The results indicate a potential mechanism of HNO3 recycling, which may further affect concentrations of gas- and aerosol-phase species in the atmosphere and the heterogeneous reaction chemistry between them.

  5. Structural Basis of Clostridium perfringens Toxin Complex Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Adams,J.; Gregg, K.; Bayer, E.; Boraston, A.; Smith, S.

    2008-01-01

    The virulent properties of the common human and livestock pathogen Clostridium perfringens are attributable to a formidable battery of toxins. Among these are a number of large and highly modular carbohydrate-active enzymes, including the {mu}-toxin and sialidases, whose catalytic properties are consistent with degradation of the mucosal layer of the human gut, glycosaminoglycans, and other cellular glycans found throughout the body. The conservation of noncatalytic ancillary modules among these enzymes suggests they make significant contributions to the overall functionality of the toxins. Here, we describe the structural basis of an ultra-tight interaction (Ka = 1.44 x 1011 M-1) between the X82 and dockerin modules, which are found throughout numerous C. perfringens carbohydrate-active enzymes. Extensive hydrogen-bonding and van der Waals contacts between the X82 and dockerin modules give rise to the observed high affinity. The {mu}-toxin dockerin module in this complex is positioned {approx}180 relative to the orientation of the dockerin modules on the cohesin module surface within cellulolytic complexes. These observations represent a unique property of these clostridial toxins whereby they can associate into large, noncovalent multitoxin complexes that allow potentiation of the activities of the individual toxins by combining complementary toxin specificities.

  6. Reaction-path calculations of groundwater chemistry and mineral formation at Rainier Mesa, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Kerrisk, J F

    1983-12-01

    Reaction-patch calculations of groundwater chemistry and mineral formation at Rainier Mesa, Nevada, have been done using a model of volcanic-glass dissolution by water that is initially saturated with CO{sub 2}. In the reaction-path calculation, rate processes control the availability of species through dissolution of volcanic glass, and equilibrium processes distribute the species between the aqueous phase and mineral phases in equilibrium at each step in the reaction path. The EQ3/6 chemical-equilibrium programs were used for the calculation. Formation constants were estimated for three zeolites (clinoptilolite, mordenite, and heulandite), so they could be considered as possible mineral precipitates. The first stage of mineral evolution, from volcanic glass to a cristobalite, smectite clay, and zeolite mixture, was modeled quite well. Predicted aqueous-phase compositions and precipitates agree with observations at Rainier Mesa and other Nevada Test Site areas. Further mineral evolution, to quartz, clay, analcime, and albite mixtures, was also modeled. Decreasing aqueous silica activity from the first stage, where cristobalite precipitates, to later stages, where quartz is present, was the controlling variable in the mineral evolution. 30 references, 20 figures, 4 tables.

  7. Reactions of the OOH radical with guanine: Mechanisms of formation of 8-oxoguanine and other products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Nagendra; Shukla, P. K.; Mishra, P. C.

    2010-09-01

    The mutagenic product 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoGua) is formed due to intermediacy of peroxyl (OOR) radicals in lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation-induced DNA damage. The mechanisms of these reactions are not yet understood properly. Therefore, in the present study, the mechanisms of formation of 8-oxoGua and other related products due to the reaction of the guanine base of DNA with the hydroperoxyl radical (OOH) were investigated theoretically employing the B3LYP and BHandHLYP hybrid functionals of density functional theory and the polarizable continuum model for solvation. It is found that the reaction of the OOH radical with guanine can occur following seven different mechanisms leading to the formation of various products including 8-oxoGua, its radicals, 5-hydroxy-8-oxoguanine and CO 2. The mechanism that yields 8-oxoGua as an intermediate and 5-hydroxy-8-oxoGua as the final product was found to be energetically most favorable.

  8. Reactivity of Ir(III) carbonyl complexes with water: alternative by-product formation pathways in catalytic methanol carbonylation.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Paul I P; Haak, Susanne; Meijer, Anthony J H M; Sunley, Glenn J; Haynes, Anthony

    2013-12-21

    The reactions of water with a number of iridium(III) complexes relevant to the mechanism for catalytic methanol carbonylation are reported. The iridium acetyl, [Ir(CO)2I3(COMe)](-), reacts with water under mild conditions to release CO2 and CH4, rather than the expected acetic acid. Isotopic labeling and kinetic experiments are consistent with a mechanism involving nucleophilic attack by water on a terminal CO ligand of [Ir(CO)2I3(COMe)](-) to give an (undetected) hydroxycarbonyl species. Subsequent decarboxylation and elimination of methane gives [Ir(CO)2I2](-). Similar reactions with water are observed for [Ir(CO)2I3Me](-), [Ir(CO)2(NCMe)I2(COMe)] and [Ir(CO)3I2Me] with the neutral complexes exhibiting markedly higher rates. The results demonstrate that CO2 formation during methanol carbonylation is not restricted to the conventional water gas shift mechanism mediated by [Ir(CO)2I4](-) or [Ir(CO)3I3], but can arise directly from key organo-iridium(III) intermediates in the carbonylation cycle. An alternative pathway for methane formation not involving the intermediacy of H2 is also suggested. A mechanism is proposed for the conversion MeOH + CO ? CO2 + CH4, which may account for the similar rates of formation of the two gaseous by-products during iridium-catalysed methanol carbonylation. PMID:24071892

  9. Radical formation during autoxidation of 4-dimethylaminophenol and some properties of the reaction products.

    PubMed

    Eyer, P; Lengfelder, E

    1984-04-01

    4-Dimethylaminophenol (DMAP), after intravenous injection, rapidly forms ferrihaemoglobin and has been successfully used in the treatment of cyanide poisoning. Since DMAP produces many equivalents of ferrihaemoglobin, it was of interest to obtain further insight into this catalytic process. DMAP autoxidizes readily at pH regions above neutrality, a process which is markedly accelerated by oxyhaemoglobin. The resulting red-coloured product was identified as the 4-(N,N-dimethylamino) phenoxyl radical by EPR spectroscopy. The same radical was also produced by pulse radiolysis and oxidation with ferricyanide. The 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)phenoxyl radical is quite unstable and decays in a pseudo-first order reaction (k = 0.4 sec-1 at pH 8.5, 22 degrees) with the formation of p-benzoquinone and dimethylamine. This observed decay rate is identical with the rate of hydrolysis of N,N-dimethylquinonimine. When a solution containing the phenoxyl radical was extracted with ether, half the stoichiometric amount of DMAP was recovered. Hence it is apparent that the phenoxyl radical decays by disproportionation yielding DMAP and N,N-dimethylquinonimine. The latter product then quickly hydrolyses. The equilibrium of this disproportionation reaction is far towards the radical side, and the pseudo-first order hydrolysis controls the radical decay rate. p-Benzoquinone rapidly reacts with DMAP (k2 = 2 X 10(4) M-1 sec-1) with the formation of the 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)phenoxyl and the semiquinone radicals. This reaction explains the autocatalytic phenoxyl radical formation during autoxidation of DMAP. DMAP is not oxidized by H2O2 or O-.2 but the 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)phenoxyl radical is very rapidly reduced by O-.2 (k2 = 2 X 10(8) M-1 sec-1). In addition, the phenoxyl radical is quickly reduced by NAD(P)H or GSH with the formation of NAD(P)+ or GSSG. Since DMAP is also able to reduce two equivalents of ferrihaemoglobin (provided that the ferrohaemoglobin produced is trapped by carbon monoxide), electrophilic addition reactions of the phenoxyl radical seem unimportant in contrast to N,N-dimethylquinonimine. Hence, during the catalytic ferrihaemoglobin formation, DMAP is oxidized by oxygen which is activated by haemoglobin, and the phenoxyl radical oxidizes ferrohaemoglobin. This catalytic process is terminated by covalent binding of N,N-dimethylquinonimine to SH groups of haemoglobin (and GSH in red cells). PMID:6324808

  10. Monitoring benzene formation from benzoate in model systems by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aprea, Eugenio; Biasioli, Franco; Carlin, Silvia; Mrk, Tilmann D.; Gasperi, Flavia

    2008-08-01

    The presence of benzene in food and in particular in soft drinks has been reported in several studies and should be considered in fundamental investigations about formation of this carcinogen compound as well as in quality control. Proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) has been used here for rapid, direct quantification of benzene and to monitor its formation in model systems related to the use of benzoate, a common preservative, in presence of ascorbic acid: a widespread situation that yields benzene in, e.g., soft drinks and fruit juices. Firstly, we demonstrate here that PTR-MS allows a rapid determination of benzene that is in quantitative agreement with independent solid phase micro-extraction/gas chromatography (SPME/GC) analysis. Secondly, as a case study, the effect of different sugars (sucrose, fructose and glucose) on benzene formation is investigated indicating that they inhibit its formation and that this effect is enhanced for reducing sugars. The sugar-induced inhibition of benzene formation depends on several parameters (type and concentration of sugar, temperature, time) but can be more than 80% in situations that can be expected in the storage of commercial soft drinks. This is consistent with the reported observations of higher benzene concentrations in sugar-free soft drinks.

  11. 'Super Silyl' Group for Diastereoselective Sequential Reactions: Access to Complex Chiral Architecture in One Pot

    SciTech Connect

    Boxer, Matthew B.; Yamamoto, Hisashi

    2008-04-02

    We have shown that the tris(trimethylsilyl)silyl (TTMSS) silyl enol ether of acetaldehyde undergoes aldehyde cross-aldol reactions with high selectivity and the extremely low catalyst loading (0.05 mol % of HNTf{sub 2}) allows for one-pot sequential reactions where acidic or basic nucleophiles can be subsequently added. Various ketone-derived silyl enol ethers, Grignard reagents, and dienes succeeded, generating relatively complex molecular architectures in a single step. This represents the first case where, in a single pot, highly acidic conditions followed by very basic conditions were tolerated to give products with high diastereoselectivities and good yields.

  12. Parity conservation and polarization of differential cross sections in complex-forming chemical reactions.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, L; Larrgaray, P; Rayez, J-C; Gonzalez-Lezana, T

    2006-09-14

    For complex-forming chemical reactions, such as atom-diatom insertion reactions, quantum scattering and quantum statistical calculations usually predict sharp forward/backward peaks in the Differential Cross Sections (DCS). Conversely, the corresponding classical calculations are unable to reproduce these peaks. We show here that the basic reason for such an intriguing failure is that parity conservation is ignored in classical mechanics. A by-product of the analysis is a simple parity-restoring approximation that might significantly increase the ability of classical mechanics to describe DCSs over the whole angular range for the title processes. PMID:17028685

  13. A two-color fluorogenic carbene complex for tagging olefins via metathesis reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirtz, Marcel; Grter, Andreas; Heib, Florian; Huch, Volker; Zapp, Josef; Herten, Dirk-Peter; Schmitt, Michael; Jung, Gregor

    2015-12-01

    We describe a fluorogenic ruthenium (II) carbene complex in which the chromophore is directly connected to the metal center. The compound introduces a boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) moiety into target double bonds by metathesis. Tagging of terminal double bonds is demonstrated on immobilized styrene units on a glass surface. We also show that two compounds with distinguishable fluorescence properties are formed in the model reaction with styrene. The outcome of the metathesis reaction is characterized by 19F-NMR, optical spectroscopy, and, finally, single-molecule trajectories. This labeling scheme, in our perception, is of particular interest in the fields of interfacial science and biorthogonal ligation in combination with super-resolution imaging.

  14. Charge-transfer complexes formed in the reaction of 2-amino-4-ethylpyridine with π-electron acceptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlQaradawi, Siham Y.; Mostafa, Adel; Bengali, A. A.

    2016-02-01

    Molecular charge-transfer complexes (CT) of electron donor 2-amino-4-ethylpyridine (2A4EPy) with π-acceptors tetracyanoethylene (TCNE), 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ) and 2,4,4,6-tetrabromo-2,5-cyclohexadienone (TBCHD) have been studied spectrophotometrically in chloroform at 25 °C. These were investigated through electronic, infrared, mass spectra and thermal measurements as well as elemental analysis. All formed complexes exhibit well resolved charge-transfer bands in the regions where neither donor nor acceptors have any absorption. The obtained results show that the formed solid CT-complexes have the structures [(2A4EPy)(TCNE)2], [(2A4EPy)2(DDQ)] and [(2A4EPy)2(TBCHD)] for 2-amino-4-ethylpyridine in full agreement with the known reaction stoichiometries in solution as well as the elemental measurements. The formation constant KCT, molar extinction coefficient εC.T, free energy change ΔG0, CT energy ECT, ionization potential Ip and oscillator strength ƒ have been calculated for these three CT-complexes.

  15. Evaluation of Multi-tRNA Synthetase Complex by Multiple Reaction Monitoring Mass Spectrometry Coupled with Size Exclusion Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jun Seok; Lee, Cheolju

    2015-01-01

    Eight aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (M, K, Q, D, R, I, EP and LARS) and three auxiliary proteins (AIMP1, 2 and 3) are known to form a multi-tRNA synthetase complex (MSC) in mammalian cells. We combined size exclusion chromatography (SEC) with reversed-phase liquid chromatography multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (RPLC-MRM-MS) to characterize MSC components and free ARS proteins in human embryonic kidney (HEK 293T) cells. Crude cell extract and affinity-purified proteins were fractionated by SEC in non-denaturing state and ARSs were monitored in each fraction by MRM-MS. The eleven MSC components appeared mostly in earlier SEC fractions demonstrating their participation in complex formation. TARSL2 and AIMP2-DX2, despite their low abundance, were co-purified with KARS and detected in the SEC fractions, where MSC appeared. Moreover, other large complex-forming ARS proteins, such as VARS and FARS, were detected in earlier fractions. The MRM-MS results were further confirmed by western blot analysis. Our study demonstrates usefulness of combined SEC-MRM analysis for the characterization of protein complexes and in understanding the behavior of minor isoforms or variant proteins. PMID:26544075

  16. The formation and study of titanium, zirconium, and hafnium complexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Bobby; Sarin, Sam; Smith, Laverne; Wilson, Melanie

    1989-01-01

    Research involves the preparation and characterization of a series of Ti, Zr, Hf, TiO, and HfO complexes using the poly(pyrazole) borates as ligands. The study will provide increased understanding of the decomposition of these coordination compounds which may lead to the production of molecular oxygen on the Moon from lunar materials such as ilmenite and rutile. The model compounds are investigated under reducing conditions of molecular hydrogen by use of a high temperature/pressure stainless steel autoclave reactor and by thermogravimetric analysis.

  17. Pressure dependent product formation in the photochemically initiated allyl + allyl reaction.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Lars; Hoyermann, Karlheinz; Mauß, Fabian; Nothdurft, Jörg; Zeuch, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Photochemically driven reactions involving unsaturated radicals produce a thick global layer of organic haze on Titan, Saturn's largest moon. The allyl radical self-reaction is an example for this type of chemistry and was examined at room temperature from an experimental and kinetic modelling perspective. The experiments were performed in a static reactor with a volume of 5 L under wall free conditions. The allyl radicals were produced from laser flash photolysis of three different precursors allyl bromide (C3H5Br), allyl chloride (C3H5Cl), and 1,5-hexadiene (CH2CH(CH2)2CHCH2) at 193 nm. Stable products were identified by their characteristic vibrational modes and quantified using FTIR spectroscopy. In addition to the (re-) combination pathway C3H5+C3H5 → C6H10 we found at low pressures around 1 mbar the highest final product yields for allene and propene for the precursor C3H5Br. A kinetic analysis indicates that the end product formation is influenced by specific reaction kinetics of photochemically activated allyl radicals. Above 10 mbar the (re-) combination pathway becomes dominant. These findings exemplify the specificities of reaction kinetics involving chemically activated species, which for certain conditions cannot be simply deduced from combustion kinetics or atmospheric chemistry on Earth. PMID:24192913

  18. Hydrogen-transfer reactions which generate new imine, imido, and trimethylenemethane complexes of tantalum

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, J.M.; Curtis, C.J.; Bercaw, J.E.

    1983-05-04

    The reactions of Cp*TaMe/sub 3/Cl (Cp* = n/sup 5/-C/sub 5/Me/sub 5/) with a variety of alkali-metal alkoxide, alkylamide, and alkyl reagents have been examined. Reaction with LiNMe/sub 2/ produces Cp*Ta(NMe/sub 2/)Me/sub 3/, which decomposes at 25/sup 0/C to an imine (or metallaazirane) complex, Cp*Ta(CH/sub 2/NMe)Me/sub 2/. The decomposition is a first-order, unimolecular process with a large kinetic isotope effect (k/sub H//k/sub D/ = 9.7). Monoalkylamides (LiNHR) react with Cp*TaMe/sub 3/Cl to form imido complexes Cp*Ta(NR)Me/sub 2/. Reaction of Cp*TaMe/sub 3/Cl with lithium diisopropylamide forms a bridging methylene complex, Cp*Ta(..mu..-CH/sub 2/)(..mu..-H)/sub 2/TaMe/sub 2/Cp*. The alkoxide compounds Cp*Ta(OR)Me/sub 3/ (R = Me, CHMe/sub 2/, CMe/sub 3/) are very stable and decompose only over 100/sup 0/C. Alkyl complexes are stable only if the alkyl group does not have ..beta..-hydrogens. Treatment of Cp*TaMe/sub 3/Cl with (2-methylallyl)magnesium bromide affords an unstable tantalum 2-methylallyl compound, which decomposes cleanly to the trimethylenemethane complex Cp*TaMe/sub 2/)n/sup 4/-C(CH/sub 2/)/sub 3/). The rates of hydrogen abstraction or elimination processes in this system correlate with the nature of the atom bound to tantalum: for reactions involving a ..beta..-hydrogen transfer the order is C > N > O, while the facility of ..cap alpha..-hydrogen abstraction reactions appear to decrease in the reverse order N > C. These reactivity patterns appear to reflect the variance in Ta-C, Ta-N, and Ta-O bond energies in this series. Hydrogenation of the imido compounds (Cp*Ta(NR)Me/sub 2/) in the presence of phosphine ligands yields new examples of imido hydride complexes Cp*Ta(NR)H/sub 2/(L) (L = PMe/sub 3/, PMe/sub 2/(C/sub 6/H/sub 5/); R = CMe/sub 3/, CH/sub 2/CMe/sub 3/). A moderately stable alkyl hydride complex, Cp*Ta(CH/sub 2/NMe)Me(PMe/sub 3/)H, has also been prepared.

  19. Charge recombination reactions in photoexcited C[sub 60]-amine complexes studied by picosecond pump probe spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, H.N.; Pal, H.; Sapre, A.V.; Mittal, J.P. )

    1993-12-15

    Photoexcitation of complexes between fullerence C[sub 60] and organic amines in benzene solutions is known to result in charge separation (CS) and subsequent charge recombination (CR) reactions, which lead to varying yields of fullerence triplet formation. Picosecond flash photolysis studies are carried out on C[sub 60]-diphenylamine (DPA), C[sub 60]-triethylamine (TEA), C[sub 60]-diazabicyclooctane (DABCO), and C[sub 60]-triphenylamine (TPA) systems to find out mechanistic details of the triplet formation on CR by inducing heavy atom and polarity effects by using suitable solvents. It is found that in the case of C[sub 60]-DPA, C[sub 60]-TEA, and C[sub 60]-DABCO systems proton transfer from the amine cation to the C[sub 60] anion in the ion pair state dominates, leading to poor triplet yields, which improve in heavy atom containing solvents. In TPA, proton transfer is not possible and hence fullerene triplet yields are high. Increase of solvent polarity for this system results in decreased C[sub 60] triplet yields with a consequent increase in the ion dissociation yield. A suitable reaction scheme is proposed to explain the results obtained. 34 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Redirection of the Reaction Specificity of a Thermophilic Acetolactate Synthase toward Acetaldehyde Formation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Maria; Yoshiyasu, Hayato; Okano, Kenji; Ohtake, Hisao; Honda, Kohsuke

    2016-01-01

    Acetolactate synthase and pyruvate decarboxylase are thiamine pyrophosphate-dependent enzymes that convert pyruvate into acetolactate and acetaldehyde, respectively. Although the former are encoded in the genomes of many thermophiles and hyperthermophiles, the latter has been found only in mesophilic organisms. In this study, the reaction specificity of acetolactate synthase from Thermus thermophilus was redirected to catalyze acetaldehyde formation to develop a thermophilic pyruvate decarboxylase. Error-prone PCR and mutant library screening led to the identification of a quadruple mutant with 3.1-fold higher acetaldehyde-forming activity than the wild-type. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments revealed that the increased activity of the mutant was due to H474R amino acid substitution, which likely generated two new hydrogen bonds near the thiamine pyrophosphate-binding site. These hydrogen bonds might result in the better accessibility of H+ to the substrate-cofactor-enzyme intermediate and a shift in the reaction specificity of the enzyme. PMID:26731734

  1. Urea-acetylene dicarboxylic acid reaction: A likely pathway for prebiotic uracil formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subbaraman, A. S.; Kazi, Z. A.; Choughuley, A. S. U.; Chadha, M. S.

    1980-12-01

    A number of routes have been suggested for the prebiotic synthesis of uracil involving the reaction of urea with malic acid, propiolic acid, cyanoacetylene and others. Cyanoacetylene has been detected in the interstellar medium as well as simulated prebiotic experiments. It is therefore plausible that dicyanoacetylene and its hydrolytic product acetylene dicarboxylic acid, (ADCA) may have played a role in chemical evolution. This aspect has been examined in the present work for the synthesis of uracil from ADCA and urea reaction. It was found that when ADCA reacted with urea, uracil was formed only in the presence of phosphoric acid and phosphates. Ammonium phosphates gave higher yields of uracil than other phosphates. In the absence of phosphoric acid or phosphates no uracil formation took place. This type of synthesis could have taken place in prebiotic oceans which contained ammonium phosphates and other salts.

  2. Redirection of the Reaction Specificity of a Thermophilic Acetolactate Synthase toward Acetaldehyde Formation

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Maria; Yoshiyasu, Hayato; Okano, Kenji; Ohtake, Hisao; Honda, Kohsuke

    2016-01-01

    Acetolactate synthase and pyruvate decarboxylase are thiamine pyrophosphate-dependent enzymes that convert pyruvate into acetolactate and acetaldehyde, respectively. Although the former are encoded in the genomes of many thermophiles and hyperthermophiles, the latter has been found only in mesophilic organisms. In this study, the reaction specificity of acetolactate synthase from Thermus thermophilus was redirected to catalyze acetaldehyde formation to develop a thermophilic pyruvate decarboxylase. Error-prone PCR and mutant library screening led to the identification of a quadruple mutant with 3.1-fold higher acetaldehyde-forming activity than the wild-type. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments revealed that the increased activity of the mutant was due to H474R amino acid substitution, which likely generated two new hydrogen bonds near the thiamine pyrophosphate-binding site. These hydrogen bonds might result in the better accessibility of H+ to the substrate-cofactor-enzyme intermediate and a shift in the reaction specificity of the enzyme. PMID:26731734

  3. Formation of Au and tetrapyridyl porphyrin complexes in superfluid helium.

    PubMed

    Feng, Cheng; Latimer, Elspeth; Spence, Daniel; Al Hindawi, Aula M A A; Bullen, Shem; Boatwright, Adrian; Ellis, Andrew M; Yang, Shengfu

    2015-07-14

    Binary clusters containing a large organic molecule and metal atoms have been formed by the co-addition of 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-pyridyl)porphyrin (H2TPyP) molecules and gold atoms to superfluid helium nanodroplets, and the resulting complexes were then investigated by electron impact mass spectrometry. In addition to the parent ion H2TPyP yields fragments mainly from pyrrole, pyridine and methylpyridine ions because of the stability of their ring structures. When Au is co-added to the droplets the mass spectra are dominated by H2TPyP fragment ions with one or more Au atoms attached. We also show that by switching the order in which Au and H2TPyP are added to the helium droplets, different types of H2TPyP-Au complexes are clearly evident from the mass spectra. This study suggests a new route for the control over the growth of metal-organic compounds inside superfluid helium nanodroplets. PMID:26059415

  4. Scale-Dependent Rates of Uranyl Surface Complexation Reaction in Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chongxuan; Shang, Jianying; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Zachara, John M.; Zhu, Weihuang

    2013-03-15

    Scale-dependency of uranyl[U(VI)] surface complexation rates was investigated in stirred flow-cell and column systems using a U(VI)-contaminated sediment from the US Department of Energy, Hanford site, WA. The experimental results were used to estimate the apparent rate of U(VI) surface complexation at the grain-scale and in porous media. Numerical simulations using molecular, pore-scale, and continuum models were performed to provide insights into and to estimate the rate constants of U(VI) surface complexation at the different scales. The results showed that the grain-scale rate constant of U(VI) surface complexation was over 3 to 10 orders of magnitude smaller, dependent on the temporal scale, than the rate constant calculated using the molecular simulations. The grain-scale rate was faster initially and slower with time, showing the temporal scale-dependency. The largest rate constant at the grain-scale decreased additional 2 orders of magnitude when the rate was scaled to the porous media in the column. The scaling effect from the grain-scale to the porous media became less important for the slower sorption sites. Pore-scale simulations revealed the importance of coupled mass transport and reactions in both intragranular and inter-granular domains, which caused both spatial and temporal dependence of U(VI) surface complexation rates in the sediment. Pore-scale simulations also revealed a new rate-limiting mechanism in the intragranular porous domains that the rate of coupled diffusion and surface complexation reaction was slower than either process alone. The results provided important implications for developing models to scale geochemical/biogeochemical reactions.

  5. The complex interplay between semantics and grammar in impression formation.

    PubMed

    Shreves, Wyley B; Hart, William; Adams, John M; Guadagno, Rosanna E; Eno, Cassie A

    2014-09-01

    We sought to bridge findings showing that (a) describing a person's behavior with the perfective verb aspect (did), compared to the imperfective aspect (was doing), increases processing of semantic knowledge unrelated to the target's action such as stereotypes and (b) an increased recognition of stereotypical thoughts often promotes a judgment correction for the stereotypes. We hypothesized an interplay between grammar (verb conjugation) and semantic information (gender) in impression-formation. Participants read a resume, attributed to a male or female, for a traditionally masculine job. When the resume was written in the imperfective, people rated a male (vs. female) more positively. When the resume was in the perfective, this pattern reversed. Only these latter effects of gender were influenced by cognitive load. Further, people more quickly indicated the applicant's gender in the perfective condition, suggesting an enhanced focus on gender during processing. PMID:24950389

  6. Assessment of the potential for ammonium nitrate formation and reaction in Tank 241-SY-101

    SciTech Connect

    Pederson, L.R.; Bryan, S.A.

    1994-08-01

    Two principal scenarios by which ammonium nitrate may be formed were considered: (a) precipitation of ammonium nitrate in the waste, and (b) ammonium nitrate formation via the gas phase reaction of ammonia and nitrogen dioxide. The first of these can be dismissed because ammonium ions, which are necessary for ammonium nitrate precipitation, can exist only in negligibly small concentrations in strongly alkaline solutions. Gas phase reactions between ammonia, nitrogen dioxide, and water vapor in the gas phase represent the most likely means by which ammonium nitrate aerosols could be formed in Tank 241-SY-101. Predicted ammonium nitrate formation rates are largely controlled by the concentration of nitrogen dioxide. This gas has not been detected among those gases vented from the wastes using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR) or mass spectrometry. While detection limits for nitrogen dioxide have not been established experimentally, the maximum concentration of nitrogen dioxide in the gas phase in Tank 241-SY-101 was estimated at 0.1 ppm based on calculations using the HITRAN data base and on FTIR spectra of gases vented from the wastes. At 50 C and with 100 ppm ammonia also present, less than one gram of ammonium nitrate per year is estimated to be formed in the tank. To date, ammonium nitrate has not been detected on HEPA filters in the ventilation system, so any quantity that has been formed in the tank must be quite small, in good agreement with rate calculations. The potential for runaway exothermic reactions involving ammonium nitrate in Tank 241-SY-101 is minimal. Dilution by non-reacting waste components, particularly water, would prevent hazardous exothermic reactions from occurring within the waste slurry, even if ammonium nitrate were present. 41 refs.

  7. Characterization of self-propagating formation reactions in Ni/Zr multilayered foils using reaction heats, velocities, and temperature-time profiles

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Barron, S. C.; Knepper, R.; Walker, N.; Weihs, T. P.

    2011-01-11

    We report on intermetallic formation reactions in vapor-deposited multilayered foils of Ni/Zr with 70 nm bilayers and overall atomic ratios of Ni:Zr, 2 Ni:Zr, and 7 Ni:2 Zr. The sequence of alloy phase formation and the stored energy is evaluated at slow heating rates (~1 K/s) using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) traces to 725ºC. All three chemistries initially form a Ni-Zr amorphous phase which crystallizes first to the intermetallic NiZr. The heat of reaction to the final phase is 34-36 kJ/mol atom for all chemistries. Intermetallic formation reactions are also studied at rapid heating rates (greater than 105 K/s) inmore » high temperature, self-propagating reactions which can be ignited in these foils by an electric spark. We find that reaction velocities and maximum reaction temperatures (Tmax) are largely independent of foil chemistry at 0.6 ± 0.1 m/s and 1220 ± 50 K, respectively, and that the measured Tmax is more than 200 K lower than predicted adiabatic temperatures (Tad). The difference between Tmax and Tad is explained by the prediction that transformation to the final intermetallic phases occurs after Tmax and results in the release of 20-30 % of the total heat of reaction and a delay in rapid cooling.« less

  8. Synthesis and structures of ruthenium–NHC complexes and their catalysis in hydrogen transfer reaction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chao; Lu, Chunxin; Zheng, Qing; Zhang, Min

    2015-01-01

    Summary Ruthenium complexes [Ru(L1)2(CH3CN)2](PF6)2 (1), [RuL1(CH3CN)4](PF6)2 (2) and [RuL2(CH3CN)3](PF6)2 (3) (L1= 3-methyl-1-(pyrimidine-2-yl)imidazolylidene, L2 = 1,3-bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)benzimidazolylidene) were obtained through a transmetallation reaction of the corresponding nickel–NHC complexes with [Ru(p-cymene)2Cl2]2 in refluxing acetonitrile solution. The crystal structures of three complexes determined by X-ray analyses show that the central Ru(II) atoms are coordinated by pyrimidine- or pyridine-functionalized N-heterocyclic carbene and acetonitrile ligands displaying the typical octahedral geometry. The reaction of [RuL1(CH3CN)4](PF6)2 with triphenylphosphine and 1,10-phenanthroline resulted in the substitution of one and two coordinated acetonitrile ligands and afforded [RuL1(PPh3)(CH3CN)3](PF6)2 (4) and [RuL1(phen)(CH3CN)2](PF6)2 (5), respectively. The molecular structures of the complexes 4 and 5 were also studied by X-ray diffraction analysis. These ruthenium complexes have proven to be efficient catalysts for transfer hydrogenation of various ketones. PMID:26664598

  9. ADMR of carotenoid triplet states in bacterial photosynthetic antenna and reaction center complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aust, V.; Angerhofer, A.; Ullrich, J.; von Schtz, J. U.; Wolf, H. C.; Cogdell, R. J.

    1991-06-01

    Using absorption detected magnetic resonance (ADMR) the triplet states of carotenoids have been detected in B880RC complexes of the purple photosynthetic bacteria Rhodocyclus gelatinosus 149, Rhodopseudomonas acidophila 7050, Rhodopseudomonas palustris 8252, and Rhodospirillum rubrum S1, and in reaction center (RC) complexes of Rhodospirillum rubrum S1. The triplet states were identified as belonging to antenna carotenois in the all-trans conformation with conjugated chain lengths ranging from 10 to 13 double bonds, and to the RC carotenoid 15,15'-cis spirilloxanthin. Carotenoids with different numbers of conjugated double bonds have similar ability to quench the triplet states of the bacteriochlorophylls.

  10. Boron-selective reactions as powerful tools for modular synthesis of diverse complex molecules.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liang; Zhang, Shuai; Li, Pengfei

    2015-12-21

    In the context of modular and rapid construction of molecular diversity and complexity for applications in organic synthesis, biomedical and materials sciences, a generally useful strategy has emerged based on boron-selective chemical transformations. In the last decade, these types of reactions have evolved from proof-of-concept to some advanced applications in the efficient preparation of complex natural products and even automated precise manufacturing on the molecular level. These advances have shown the great potential of boron-selective reactions in simplifying synthetic design and experimental operations, and should inspire new developments in related chemical and technological areas. This tutorial review will highlight the original contributions and representative advances in this emerging field. PMID:26393673

  11. Roles of Acetone and Diacetone Alcohol in Coordination and Dissociation Reactions of Uranyl Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Rios, Daniel; Schoendorff, George E.; Van Stipdonk, Michael J.; Gordon, Mark S.; Windus, Theresa L.; Gibson, John K.; De Jong, Wibe A.

    2012-12-03

    Combined collision-induced dissociation mass-spectrometry experiments and DFT calculations were employed to elucidate the molecular structure of "hypercoordinated" species and the energetics of water-elimination reactions of uranyl acetone complexes observed in earlier work (Rios, D.; Rutkowski, P. X.; Van Stipdonk, M. J.; Gibson, J. K. Inorg. Chem. 2011, 50, 4781). It is shown that the "hypercoordinated" species contain diacetone alcohol ligands bonded in either bidentate or monodentate fashion, which are indistinguishable from (acetone)2 in mass spectrometry. Calculations confirm that four diacetone ligands can form stable complexes, but that the effective number of atoms coordinating with uranium in the equatorial plane does not exceed five. Diacetone alcohol ligands are shown to form mesityl oxide ligands and alkoxide species through the elimination of water, providing an explanation for the observed water-elimination reactions.

  12. Tuning reactivity and mechanism in oxidation reactions by mononuclear nonheme iron(IV)-oxo complexes.

    PubMed

    Nam, Wonwoo; Lee, Yong-Min; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2014-04-15

    Mononuclear nonheme iron enzymes generate high-valent iron(IV)-oxo intermediates that effect metabolically important oxidative transformations in the catalytic cycle of dioxygen activation. In 2003, researchers first spectroscopically characterized a mononuclear nonheme iron(IV)-oxo intermediate in the reaction of taurine: ?-ketogultarate dioxygenase (TauD). This nonheme iron enzyme with an iron active center was coordinated to a 2-His-1- carboxylate facial triad motif. In the same year, researchers obtained the first crystal structure of a mononuclear nonheme iron(IV)-oxo complex bearing a macrocyclic supporting ligand, [(TMC)Fe(IV)(O)](2+) (TMC = 1,4,8,11-tetramethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecene), in studies that mimicked the biological enzymes. With these breakthrough results, many other studies have examined mononuclear nonheme iron(IV)-oxo intermediates trapped in enzymatic reactions or synthesized in biomimetic reactions. Over the past decade, researchers in the fields of biological, bioinorganic, and oxidation chemistry have extensively investigated the structure, spectroscopy, and reactivity of nonheme iron(IV)-oxo species, leading to a wealth of information from these enzymatic and biomimetic studies. This Account summarizes the reactivity and mechanisms of synthetic mononuclear nonheme iron(IV)-oxo complexes in oxidation reactions and examines factors that modulate their reactivities and change their reaction mechanisms. We focus on several reactions including the oxidation of organic and inorganic compounds, electron transfer, and oxygen atom exchange with water by synthetic mononuclear nonheme iron(IV)-oxo complexes. In addition, we recently observed that the C-H bond activation by nonheme iron(IV)-oxo and other nonheme metal(IV)-oxo complexes does not follow the H-atom abstraction/oxygen-rebound mechanism, which has been well-established in heme systems. The structural and electronic effects of supporting ligands on the oxidizing power of iron(IV)-oxo complexes are significant in these reactions. However, the difference in spin states between nonheme iron(IV)-oxo complexes with an octahedral geometry (with an S = 1 intermediate-spin state) or a trigonal bipyramidal (TBP) geometry (with an S = 2 high-spin state) does not lead to a significant change in reactivity in biomimetic systems. Thus, the importance of the high-spin state of iron(IV)-oxo species in nonheme iron enzymes remains unexplained. We also discuss how the axial and equatorial ligands and binding of redox-inactive metal ions and protons to the iron-oxo moiety influence the reactivities of the nonheme iron(IV)-oxo complexes. We emphasize how these changes can enhance the oxidizing power of nonheme metal(IV)-oxo complexes in oxygen atom transfer and electron-transfer reactions remarkably. This Account demonstrates great advancements in the understanding of the chemistry of mononuclear nonheme iron(IV)-oxo intermediates within the last 10 years. PMID:24524675

  13. Subcellular location for the formation of the retinol/retinol-binding protein complex in rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Crumbaugh, L.M.; Green, E.L.; Smith, J.E.

    1986-03-01

    Retinol complexes with retinol-binding protein (RBP) within the hepatocyte, however the subcellular location where complex formation occurs has not previously been identified. A model similar to that of lipoproteins formation has been hypothesized. The authors have identified the initial site of retinol/RBP complex formation. Furthermore, the authors have elucidated the progression of the complex through the subcellular organelles. Intravenous injections of /sup 3/H-retinol suspended in Tween 40 were administered to vitamin A depleted rats. After intervals of 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 minutes the rat livers were removed and fractions enriched in rough and smooth microsomes and Golgi apparatus were prepared. Extracts of these subcellular fractions were chromatographed on Sephadex G-100. Simultaneous elution of /sup 3/H-retinol and immunoreactive RBP indicated the presence of the complex. The retinol/RBP complex was observed in rough microsomes 2 minute after the injection of /sup 3/H-retinal. The complex appeared subsequently in smooth microsomes and Golgi apparatus. The complex was first detected serum around 10 minutes after injection. Based on the data, they believe that the retinol/RBP complex formation occurs in rough microsomes.

  14. Synthetic and Mechanistic Studies of Strained Heterocycle Opening Reactions Mediated by Zirconium(IV) Imido Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Suzanne A.; Rivera, Vicki A.; Ruck, Rebecca T.; Michael, Forrest E.; Bergman, Robert G.

    2005-01-01

    The reactions of the bis(cyclopentadienyl)(tert-butylimido)zirconium complex (Cp2Zr=N-t-Bu)(THF) (1) with epoxides, aziridines, and episulfides were investigated. Heterocycles without accessible ?-hydrogens undergo insertion/protonation of the CX bond to produce 1,2-amino alcohols (X = O) and 1,2-diamines (X = NR), whereas heterocycles with accessible ?-hydrogens undergo elimination/protonation to produce allylic alcohols (X = O) and allylic sulfides (X = S). Mechanistic investigations support a stepwise pathway with zwitterionic intermediates for the first reaction class and a concerted pathway for the second reaction class. Additionally, the feasibility of chirality transfer from the planar-chiral ebthi (ebthi = ethylenebis(tetrahydroindenyl)) ligand was demonstrated with a chiral analogue, (ebthi)-Zr=NAr(THF) (Ar = 2,6-dimethylphenyl), 2, through the diastereoselective ring opening of meso epoxides. PMID:16508693

  15. Reaction between CH2 and HCCN: a theoretical approach to acrylonitrile formation in the interstellar medium.

    PubMed

    Shivani; Misra, Alka; Tandon, Poonam

    2014-04-01

    Acrylonitrile (CH2CHCN) was first detected in dense molecular cloud SgrB2. The synthesis of this interstellar molecule is reported to be quite difficult. Therefore, in the present work an attempt has been made to explore the possibility of formation of acrylonitrile from some simple molecules and radicals detected in interstellar space by radical-radical interaction scheme, both in the gas phase and in the icy grains. All calculations are performed using quantum chemical methods with density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-311G (d,p) level and Mller-Plesset perturbation theory at the MP2/6-311G (d,p) level. In the discussed chemical pathway, the reaction is found to be totally exothermic and barrier less giving rise to a high probability of acrylonitrile formation in Interstellar space. PMID:25416678

  16. Synthesis of mono(dinitrogen) complexes of molybdenum. Formation of ammonia and hydrazine

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.A.; Tisdale, R.C.

    1988-08-24

    The synthesis and reactivity of a series of mono-N/sub 2/ complexes of molybdenum are reported. Reduction of MoCl/sub 3/(triphos), where triphos = PhP(CH/sub 2/CH/sub 2/PPh/sub 2/)/sub 2/, with sodium amalgam in the presence of 2L or L/sub 2/ and with a regulated amount of N/sub 2/ led to the formation of Mo(N/sub 2/)(triphos)(L/sub 2/) (1-5): 1, L = PMe/sub 2/Ph; 2, L/sub 2/ = Me/sub 2/PCH/sub 2/PMe/sub 2/, dmpm; 3, L/sub 2/ = 1,2-(Me/sub 2/As)/sub 2/C/sub 6/H/sub 4/, diars; 4, L/sub 2/ = Ph/sub 2/PCH/sub 2/PPh/sub 2/, dppm; 5, L/sub 2/ = Ph/sub 2/PCH/sub 2/CH/sub 2/PPh/sub 2/, dppe. Complexes 3 and 5 were each a mixture of two isomeric mono-N/sub 2/ complexes. Complexes 1-5 reacted with excess HX (X = Br, Cl) to afford varying yields of ammonia, hydrazine, and N/sub 2/ (and some H/sub 2/). Loss of N/sub 2/ occurred readily from 1 when it was evacuate in the solid state to give 7. Five-coordinate 7 reacted with H/sub 2/, CO, and C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ in the solid state to form MoH/sub 2/(triphos)(PMe/sub 2/Ph)/sub 2/ (8), Mo(CO)(triphos)(PMe/sub 2/Ph)/sub 2/ (9), and Mo(C/sub 2/H/sub 4/)(triphos)(PMe/sub 2/Ph)/sub 2/ (10), respectively. Reaction of solids 7, 8, and 10 with N/sub 2/ regenerated 1. Structural assignments of the new complexes are based upon /sup 31/P and /sup 1/H NMR spectral data. Triphos is shown to adopt both fac and mer configurations. 33 references, 1 table.

  17. Ion wake formation with dust charge fluctuation in complex plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharjee, Saurav; Das, Nilakshi

    2013-11-15

    In complex plasma, the interaction mechanism among dust grains near the plasma sheath is significantly influenced by the downward ion flow towards the sheath and dust charge fluctuation over grain surface. Asymmetric ion flow towards the sheath gives rise to well known attractive wake potential in addition to repulsive Yukawa type of potential. The present work shows that the charging dynamics play a significant role in modification of plasma dielectric response function and hence the interaction mechanism among test dust particulates. The effective Debye length is found to be a characteristic of dust size and background plasma response towards the grain along with ion flow speed. The potentials thus obtained show a damping in strength of interaction in the presence of dynamical charging of dust as compared to that of constant charge dust grains. The result also shows decrease in focal length of ion lensing with increase in grain size.

  18. Effects of salt on intermolecular polyelectrolyte complexes formation between cationic microgel and polyanion.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Kazuyoshi

    2015-12-01

    The study of interpolyelectrolyte complex (IPEC) formation between cationic microgel and polyanion was presented. The size and molecular weight of cationic microgel are much larger than those of linear anionic polyelectrolyte. The resulting IPEC was divided by dynamic light scattering (DLS), static light scattering (SLS), and turbidity or spectrometry; (i) water-soluble intra-particle complexes consisting of one microgel to which linear polyelectrolytes bind; (ii) complex coacervates (inter-particle complexes composed of aggregated intra-particle complexes); and (iii) insoluble amorphous precipitates. These types depended on not only the mixing ratio of polyanion to cationic microgel but also salt concentration. This trend was discussed from IPEC's composition, thermodynamics of IPEC formation and the salt effect on intermolecular interactions which were expected in IPEC formation. The results obtained from the use of microgel in IPEC's study suggested that not only electrostatic interaction but also hydrophobic interaction play an important role in the aggregation or association of IPEC. PMID:26472211

  19. Search for reaction conditions and catalyst for selective prebiotic formation of Aldopentoses from Glycolaldehyde and Formaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delidovich, Irina; Taran, Oxana; Parmon, Valentin; Gromov, Nikolay

    2012-07-01

    Formation of organic compounds from simple precursors appears to have been one of the first steps from geochemistry towards modern biochemistry. The Earth lagoons, hydrothermal springs, cosmic dust, meteorites, protoplanetary disk, etc. has been considered as the possible ``reactors'' in which the prebiotic synthesis could have taken place. The finding of reactions and reaction conditions which allow to produce the high yields of the biologically relevant substances from simple compounds could help us to verify different hypothesis of plausible prebotic conditions. In this work we have studied the formation of vitally important sugars, namely aldopentoses (ribose, xylose, lyxose and arabinose), from glycolaldehyde and formaldehyde over catalysts. Aldopentoses nowadays play the important roles as the components of polysaccharides, glycosides, nucleic acids and ATP. Glycolaldehyde is the simplest monosaccharide, which was found in the interstellar space [1], where it could be generated as a result of several processes, for instance, condensation of formaldehyde under UV-radiation [2]. In this work the peculiarities of interaction between glycolaldehyde and formaldehyde in the presence of soluble (phosphate and borate buffers) and solid (minerals apatite and montmorillonites) catalysts were studied. The dependences of composition of the reaction products on the catalyst nature, molar ratio of substrates, pH value of reaction mixture were revealed. The yields of aldopentoses amount to ca. 60-65% in the presence of borate catalyst under optimized reaction conditions. Borate acts not only as a catalyst, but also as the stabilizer of active intermediates and aldopentoses from side reactions [3]. Borates are present in some mineral and clays (serpentine, montmorillonite etc.) and in water of Cityhot springs (Geyser valley, placeKamchatka) in rather high concentrations. Therefore catalysis by borates could be considered as plausible prebotic condition. Acknowledgements. We thank Dr. S. Yashnik for providing the montmorillonite clays. The financial support of Program RAS (program ``Origin of biosphere and evolution biogeology systems'') is gratefully acknowledged. Hollis, J., Jewell, P., Lovas, F., et al., The Astrophysical Journal. 613, L45--L48, 2004 Pestunova, O., Simonov, A., Snytnikov, V., et al., Adv. Space Res. 36/2, 214-219, 2005. Ricardo, A., Carrigan, M.A., Olcott, A.N., Benner, S.A. Science. 303, 5655, 196, 2004.

  20. Simplicity in complexity: the photosynthetic reaction center performs as a simple 0.2 V battery.

    PubMed

    van Rotterdam, Bart J; Crielaard, Wim; van Stokkum, Ivo H M; Hellingwerf, Klaas J; Westerhoff, Hans V

    2002-01-01

    The photosynthetic reaction center is one of the most complicated molecular complexes. Transducing photon energy to a transmembrane electrochemical potential difference for protons, it is the direct or indirect energy source for virtually all life. We show here that it operates in a simple, battery-like manner, with a maximum potential of 0.20 V. Intriguingly this is only one fifth of the energy of the absorbed photon. PMID:11755540

  1. Evidence for a Tetraoxo Intermediate in a Reaction Between a Superoxometal Complex and Acylperoxyl Radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Pestovsky, Oleg; Harrata, Kamel A.; Bakac, Andreja

    2008-08-05

    The superoxo complex Cr{sub aq}({sup 18}O{sup 18}O){sup 2+} reacts with (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}C(O){sup 16}O{sup 16}O{sup {center_dot}} to generate quantitative yields of mixed-label dioxygen, {sup 18}O{sup 16}O, demonstrating that this cross-reaction involves head-to-head interaction between the metal-activated and alkyl-activated dioxygen.

  2. Oligomer Formation Reactions of Criegee Intermediates in the Ozonolysis of Small Unsaturated Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Y.; Inomata, S.; Hirokawa, J.

    2013-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) constitutes a substantial fraction of atmospheric fine particulate matters and has an effect on visibility, climate and human health. One of the major oxidizing processes leading to SOA formation is an ozonolysis of unsaturated hydrocarbons (UHCs).[1] Despite of its importance, the contribution of the ozonolysis of UHCs to the SOA formation in the troposphere is not sufficiently understood due to a lack of information on reaction pathways to produce low volatile compounds. While many studies have previously been focused on SOA formation from the ozonolysis of large UHCs, SOA formation from the ozonolysis of UHCs with less than six carbon atoms have been rarely investigated because their products are expected to be too volatile to contribute to the SOA formation. Very recently, a few studies have reported the SOA formation from the ozonolysis of such small UHCs but chemical mechanisms are still unclear. [2-4] In order to understand SOA formation from the ozonolysis of the small UHCs, this study investigated gas- and particle-phase products in laboratory experiments with a Teflon bag using a negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry (NI-CIMS) with chloride ion transfer for chemical ionization. This technique is suitable for analysis of compounds such as carboxylic acids and hydroperoxides expected to be produced in the ozonolysis of UHCs with less fragmentation, high selectivity, and high sensitivity. In the particle-phase analysis, SOAs collected on a PTFE filter were heated, and thermally desorbed compounds were analyzed. In the gas-phase analysis, series of peaks with an interval of a mass-to-charge ratio equal to the molecular weight of a Criegee intermediate formed in their ozonolysis were observed. These peaks were attributed to oligomeric hydroperoxides composed of Criegee intermediates as a chain unit. These oligomeric hydroperoxides were also observed in the particle-phase analysis, indicating that the oligomeric hydroperoxides of low volatility formed in the gas phase are partitioned into the particle phase to contribute to the SOA formation. Here, we propose a new oligomer formation mechanism including sequential addition of Criegee intermediates to hydroperoxides. REFERENCE: (1)Kroll, J. H.; Seinfeld, J. H. Chemistry of Secondary Organic Aerosol: Formation and Evolution of Low-Volatility Organics in the Atmosphere. Atmos. Environ. 2008, 42, 3593-3624. (2)Sadezky, A.; Chaimbault, P.; Mellouki, A.; Roempp, A.; Winterhalter, R.; Le Bras, G.; Moortgat, G. K. Formation of Secondary Organic Aerosol and Oligomers from the Ozonolysis of Enol Ethers. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2006, 6, 5009-5024. (3)Sadezky, A.; Winterhalter, R.; Kanawati, B.; Roempp, A.; Spengler, B.; Mellouki, A.; Le Bras, G.; Chaimbault, P.; Moortgat, G. K. Oligomer Formation during Gas-Phase Ozonolysis of Small Alkenes and Enol Ethers: New Evidence for the Central Role of the Criegee Intermediate as Oligomer Chain Unit. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2008, 8, 2667-2699. (4)Klotz, B.; Barnes, I.; Imamura, T. Product Study of the Gas-Phase Reactions of O3, OH and NO3 Radicals with Methyl Vinyl Ether. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2004, 6, 1725-1734.

  3. Formation, Migration, and Reactivity of Au CO Complexes on Gold Surfaces

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Jun; McEntee, Monica; Tang, Wenjie; Neurock, Matthew; Baddorf, Arthur P.; Maksymovych, Petro; Yates, Jr, John T.

    2016-01-12

    Here, we report experimental as well as theoretical evidence that suggests Au CO complex formation upon the exposure of CO to active sites (step edges and threading dislocations) on a Au(111) surface. Room-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission infrared spectroscopy, and density functional theory calculations point to Au CO complex formation and migration. Room-temperature STM of the Au(111) surface at CO pressures in the range from 10^ 8 to 10^ 4 Torr (dosage up to 10^6 langmuir) indicates Au atom extraction from dislocation sites of the herringbone reconstruction, mobile Au CO complex formation and diffusion, and Aumore » adatom cluster formation on both elbows and step edges on the Au surface. The formation and mobility of the Au CO complex result from the reduced Au Au bonding at elbows and step edges leading to stronger Au CO bonding and to the formation of a more positively charged CO (CO +) on Au. These studies indicate that the mobile Au CO complex is involved in the Au nanoparticle formation and reactivity, and that the positive charge on CO increases due to the stronger adsorption of CO at Au sites with lower coordination numbers.« less

  4. Formation, Migration, and Reactivity of Au-CO Complexes on Gold Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; McEntee, Monica; Tang, Wenjie; Neurock, Matthew; Baddorf, Arthur P; Maksymovych, Petro; Yates, John T

    2016-02-10

    We report experimental as well as theoretical evidence that suggests Au-CO complex formation upon the exposure of CO to active sites (step edges and threading dislocations) on a Au(111) surface. Room-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission infrared spectroscopy, and density functional theory calculations point to Au-CO complex formation and migration. Room-temperature STM of the Au(111) surface at CO pressures in the range from 10(-8) to 10(-4) Torr (dosage up to 10(6) langmuir) indicates Au atom extraction from dislocation sites of the herringbone reconstruction, mobile Au-CO complex formation and diffusion, and Au adatom cluster formation on both elbows and step edges on the Au surface. The formation and mobility of the Au-CO complex result from the reduced Au-Au bonding at elbows and step edges leading to stronger Au-CO bonding and to the formation of a more positively charged CO (CO(δ+)) on Au. Our studies indicate that the mobile Au-CO complex is involved in the Au nanoparticle formation and reactivity, and that the positive charge on CO increases due to the stronger adsorption of CO at Au sites with lower coordination numbers. PMID:26754257

  5. LBGK method coupled to time splitting technique for solving reaction-diffusion processes in complex systems.

    PubMed

    Alemani, Davide; Chopard, Bastien; Galceran, Josep; Buffle, Jacques

    2005-09-21

    A new approach to numerically solve a reaction-diffusion system is given, specifically developed for complex systems including many reacting/diffusing species with broad ranges of rate constants and diffusion coefficients, as well as complicated geometry of reacting interfaces. The approach combines a Lattice Boltzmann (LB) method with a splitting time technique. In the present work, the proposed approach is tested by focusing on the typical reaction process between a metal ion M and a ligand L, to form a complex ML with M being consumed at an electrode. The aim of the paper is to systematically study the convergence conditions of the associated numerical scheme. We find that the combination of LB with the time splitting method allows us to solve the problem for any value of association and dissociation rate constant of the reaction process. Also, the method can be extended to a mixture of ligands. We stress two main points: (1) the LB approach is particularly convenient for the flux computation of M and (2) the splitting time procedure is very well suited for reaction processes involving association-dissociation rate constants varying on many orders of magnitude. PMID:16240048

  6. Heterogeneous reactions of glyoxal on mineral particles: A new avenue for oligomers and organosulfate formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xiaoli; Wu, Huihui; Zhao, Yue; Huang, Dao; Huang, Liubin; Chen, Zhongming

    2016-04-01

    Glyoxal (GL) plays a crucial role in the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA), because it is highly water soluble and capable of oligomerization. This is the first study to describe irreversible heterogeneous reactions of GL on clean and acidic gas-aged SiO2, α-Al2O3, and CaCO3 particles, as models of real mineral particles, at various relative humidity and without irradiation and gas phase oxidants. A series of products, including oligomers, organosulfates, and organic acids, which contribute to SOA formation, were produced. GL uptake on SO2-aged α-Al2O3 enabled the oxidation of surface S(IV) to S(VI). The presence of adsorbed water on particles favored GL uptake and the formation of oligomers and organosulfate, but it suppressed organic acid formation. In addition, the aging process enhanced the positive effect of adsorbed water on GL uptake. These findings will further our understanding of the GL sink and SOA sources in the atmosphere.

  7. FORMATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND THEIR GROWTH TO SOOT -A REVIEW OF CHEMICAL REACTION PATHWAYS. (R824970)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The generation by combustion processes of airborne species of current health concern such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and soot particles necessitates a detailed understanding of chemical reaction pathways responsible for their formation. The present review discus...

  8. Complex Formation History of Highly Evolved Basaltic Shergottite, Zagami

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niihara, T.; Misawa, K.; Mikouchi, T.; Nyquist, L. E.; Park, J.; Hirata, D.

    2012-01-01

    Zagami, a basaltic shergottite, contains several kinds of lithologies such as Normal Zagami consisting of Fine-grained (FG) and Coarse-grained (CG), Dark Mottled lithology (DML), and Olivine-rich late-stage melt pocket (DN). Treiman and Sutton concluded that Zagami (Normal Zagami) is a fractional crystallization product from a single magma. It has been suggested that there were two igneous stages (deep magma chamber and shallow magma chamber or surface lava flow) on the basis of chemical zoning features of pyroxenes which have homogeneous Mg-rich cores and FeO, CaO zoning at the rims. Nyquist et al. reported that FG has a different initial Sr isotopic ratio than CG and DML, and suggested the possibility of magma mixing on Mars. Here we report new results of petrology and mineralogy for DML and the Olivine-rich lithology (we do not use DN here), the most evolved lithology in this rock, to understand the relationship among lithologies and reveal Zagami s formation history

  9. Spectrophotometric determination of carvedilol in pharmaceutical formulations through charge-transfer and ion-pair complexation reactions.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, S G; Ieggli, C V S; Pomblum, S C G

    2007-01-01

    Simple extraction-free spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the determination of carvedilol (CAR). The methods were based either on charge-transfer reaction of the drug with the sigma-acceptor iodine, in acetonitrile, or on ion-pair formation with the acidic sulphophthalein dyes bromothymol blue (BTB) and bromocresol green (BCG), in chloroform. The obtained complexes showed absorbance maxima at 363, 411 and 414 nm, respectively for iodine, BTB and BCG. Beer's law validation, accuracy, precision, and other aspects of analytical merit are presented in the text. The proposed methods were applied for the determination of CAR in tablets and compounded capsules. The results were in good agreement with those obtained by an established UV spectrophotometric method. PMID:17294810

  10. Photocatalytic CO2 reduction with high turnover frequency and selectivity of formic acid formation using Ru(II) multinuclear complexes

    PubMed Central

    Tamaki, Yusuke; Morimoto, Tatsuki; Koike, Kazuhide; Ishitani, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    Previously undescribed supramolecules constructed with various ratios of two kinds of Ru(II) complexes—a photosensitizer and a catalyst—were synthesized. These complexes can photocatalyze the reduction of CO2 to formic acid with high selectivity and durability using a wide range of wavelengths of visible light and NADH model compounds as electron donors in a mixed solution of dimethylformamide–triethanolamine. Using a higher ratio of the photosensitizer unit to the catalyst unit led to a higher yield of formic acid. In particular, of the reported photocatalysts, a trinuclear complex with two photosensitizer units and one catalyst unit photocatalyzed CO2 reduction (ΦHCOOH = 0.061, TONHCOOH = 671) with the fastest reaction rate (TOFHCOOH = 11.6 min-1). On the other hand, photocatalyses of a mixed system containing two kinds of model mononuclear Ru(II) complexes, and supramolecules with a higher ratio of the catalyst unit were much less efficient, and black oligomers and polymers were produced from the Ru complexes during photocatalytic reactions, which reduced the yield of formic acid. The photocatalytic formation of formic acid using the supramolecules described herein proceeds via two sequential processes: the photochemical reduction of the photosensitizer unit by NADH model compounds and intramolecular electron transfer to the catalyst unit. PMID:22908243

  11. Tandem buildup of complexity of aromatic molecules through multiple successive electrophile generation in one pot, controlled by varying the reaction temperature.

    PubMed

    Sumita, Akinari; Otani, Yuko; Ohwada, Tomohiko

    2016-01-27

    While some sequential electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions, known as tandem/domino/cascade reactions, have been reported for the construction of aromatic single skeletons, one of the most interesting and challenging possibilities remains the one-pot build-up of a complex aromatic molecule from multiple starting components, i.e., ultimately multi-component electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions. In this work, we show how tuning of the leaving group ability of phenolate derivatives from carbamates and esters provides a way to successively generate multiple unmasked electrophiles in a controlled manner in one pot, simply by varying the temperature. Here, we demonstrate the autonomous formation of up to three bonds in one pot and formation of two bonds arising from a three-component electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction. This result provides a proof-of-concept of our strategy applicable for the self-directed construction of complex aromatic structures from multiple simple molecules, which can be a potential avenue to realize multi-component electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions. PMID:26699842

  12. A cyclo-P6 Ligand Complex for the Formation of Planar 2D Layers.

    PubMed

    Heindl, Claudia; Peresypkina, Eugenia V; Lüdeker, David; Brunklaus, Gunther; Virovets, Alexander V; Scheer, Manfred

    2016-02-01

    The all-phosphorus analogue of benzene, stabilized as middle deck in triple-decker complexes, is a promising building block for the formation of graphene-like sheet structures. The reaction of [(CpMo)2 (μ,η(6) :η(6) -P6 )] (1) with CuX (X=Br, I) leads to self-assembly into unprecedented 2D networks of [{(CpMo)2 P6 }(CuBr)4 ]n (2) and [{(CpMo)2 P6 }(CuI)2 ]n (3). X-ray structural analyses show a unique deformation of the previously planar cyclo-P6 ligand. This includes bending of one P atom in an envelope conformation as well as a bisallylic distortion. Despite this, 2 and 3 form planar layers. Both polymers were furthermore analyzed by (31) P{(1) H} magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy, revealing signals corresponding to six non-equivalent phosphorus sites. A peak assignment is achieved by 2D correlation spectra as well as by DFT chemical shift computations. PMID:26711699

  13. Oxidative peptide /and amide/ formation from Schiff base complexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strehler, B. L.; Li, M. P.; Martin, K.; Fliss, H.; Schmid, P.

    1982-01-01

    One hypothesis of the origin of pre-modern forms of life is that the original replicating molecules were specific polypeptides which acted as templates for the assembly of poly-Schiff bases complementary to the template, and that these polymers were then oxidized to peptide linkages, probably by photo-produced oxidants. A double cycle of such anti-parallel complementary replication would yield the original peptide polymer. If this model were valid, the Schiff base between an N-acyl alpha mino aldehyde and an amino acid should yield a dipeptide in aqueous solution in the presence of an appropriate oxidant. In the present study it is shown that the substituted dipeptide, N-acetyl-tyrosyl-tyrosine, is produced in high yield in aqueous solution at pH 9 through the action of H2O2 on the Schiff-base complex between N-acetyl-tyrosinal and tyrosine and that a great variety of N-acyl amino acids are formed from amino acids and aliphatic aldehydes under similar conditions.

  14. Interferogram formation in the presence of complex and large deformation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yun, S.-H.; Zebker, H.; Segall, P.; Hooper, A.; Poland, M.

    2007-01-01

    Sierra Negra volcano in Isabela island, Gala??pagos, erupted from October 22 to October 30 in 2005. During the 8 days of eruption, the center of Sierra Negra's caldera subsided about 5.4 meters. Three hours prior to the onset of the eruption, an earthquake (Mw 5.4) occurred, near the caldera. Because of the large and complex phase gradient due to the huge subsidence and the earthquake, it is difficult to form an interferogram inside the caldera that spans the eruption. The deformation is so large and spatially variable that the approximations used in existing InSAR software (ROI, ROI_PAC, DORIS, GAMMA) cannot properly coregister SAR image pairs spanning the eruption. We have developed here a two-step algorithm that can form intra-caldera interferograms from these data. The first step involves a "rubber-sheeting" SAR image coregistration. In the second step we use range offset estimates to mitigate the steep phase gradient. Using this new algorithm, we retrieve an interferogram with the best coverage to date inside the caldera of Sierra Negra. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Factors leading to the formation of arc cloud complexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welshinger, Mark John; Brundidge, Kenneth C.

    1987-01-01

    A total of 12 mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) were investigated. The duration of the gust front, produced by each MCS, was used to classify the MCSs. Category 1 MCSs were defined as ones that produced a gust front and the gust front lasted for more than 6 h. There were 7 category 1 MCSs in the sample. Category 2 MCSs were defined as ones that produced a gust front and the gust front lasted for 6 h or less. There were 4 category 2 MCSs. The MCS of Case 12 was not categorized because the precipitation characteristics were similar to a squall line, rather than an MCS. All of the category 1 MCSs produced arc cloud complexes (ACCs), while only one of the category 2 MCSs produced an ACC. To determine if there were any differences in the characteristics between the MCSs of the two categories, composite analyses were accomplished. The analyses showed that there were significant differences in the characteristics of category 1 and 2 MCSs. Category 1 MCSs, on average, had higher thunderstorm heights, greater precipitation intensities, colder cloud top temperatures and produced larger magnitudes of surface divergence than category 2 MCSs.

  16. Peptide Bond Formation through Gas-phase Reactions in the Interstellar Medium: Formamide and Acetamide as Prototypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redondo, Pilar; Barrientos, Carmen; Largo, Antonio

    2014-09-01

    A theoretical study of the reactions of NH_4+ with formaldehyde and CH_5+ with formamide is carried out. The viability of these gas-phase ion-molecule reactions as possible sources of formamide and acetamide under the conditions of interstellar medium is evaluated. We report a theoretical estimation of the reaction enthalpies and an analysis of their potential energy surfaces. Formation of protonated formamide from the reaction between ammonium cation and formaldehyde is an exothermic process, but all the channels located on the potential energy surface leading to this product present net activation energies. For the reaction between methanium and formamide, different products are possible from a thermodynamic point of view. An analysis of its potential energy surface showed that formation of protonated acetamide and amino acetaldehyde takes place through barrier-free paths. Therefore, this reaction could be a feasible source of acetamide and amino acetaldehyde in space.

  17. Peptide bond formation through gas-phase reactions in the interstellar medium: formamide and acetamide as prototypes

    SciTech Connect

    Redondo, Pilar; Barrientos, Carmen; Largo, Antonio

    2014-09-20

    A theoretical study of the reactions of NH{sub 4}{sup +} with formaldehyde and CH{sub 5}{sup +} with formamide is carried out. The viability of these gas-phase ion-molecule reactions as possible sources of formamide and acetamide under the conditions of interstellar medium is evaluated. We report a theoretical estimation of the reaction enthalpies and an analysis of their potential energy surfaces. Formation of protonated formamide from the reaction between ammonium cation and formaldehyde is an exothermic process, but all the channels located on the potential energy surface leading to this product present net activation energies. For the reaction between methanium and formamide, different products are possible from a thermodynamic point of view. An analysis of its potential energy surface showed that formation of protonated acetamide and amino acetaldehyde takes place through barrier-free paths. Therefore, this reaction could be a feasible source of acetamide and amino acetaldehyde in space.

  18. Asymmetric catalytic cascade reactions for constructing diverse scaffolds and complex molecules.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yao; Lu, Hong; Xu, Peng-Fei

    2015-07-21

    With the increasing concerns about chemical pollution and sustainability of resources, among the significant challenges facing synthetic chemists are the development and application of elegant and efficient methods that enable the concise synthesis of natural products, drugs, and related compounds in a step-, atom- and redox-economic manner. One of the most effective ways to reach this goal is to implement reaction cascades that allow multiple bond-forming events to occur in a single vessel. This Account documents our progress on the rational design and strategic application of asymmetric catalytic cascade reactions in constructing diverse scaffolds and synthesizing complex chiral molecules. Our research is aimed at developing robust cascade reactions for the systematic synthesis of a range of interesting molecules that contain structural motifs prevalent in natural products, pharmaceuticals, and biological probes. The strategies employed to achieve this goal can be classified into three categories: bifunctional base/Brønsted acid catalysis, covalent aminocatalysis/N-heterocyclic carbene catalysis, and asymmetric organocatalytic relay cascades. By the use of rationally designed substrates with properly reactive sites, chiral oxindole, chroman, tetrahydroquinoline, tetrahydrothiophene, and cyclohexane scaffolds were successfully assembled under bifunctional base/Brønsted acid catalysis from simple and readily available substances such as imines and nitroolefins. We found that some of these reactions are highly efficient since catalyst loadings as low as 1 mol % can promote the multistep sequences affording complex architectures with high stereoselectivities and yields. Furthermore, one of the bifunctional base/Brønsted acid-catalyzed cascade reactions for the synthesis of chiral cyclohexanes has been used as a key step in the construction of the tetracyclic core of lycorine-type alkaloids and the formal synthesis of α-lycorane. Guided by the principles of covalent aminocatalysis and N-heterocyclic carbene catalysis, we synthesized chiral piperidine, indole, and cyclobutane derivatives. The synthesis of chiral cyclobutanes and pyrroloindolones showed unprecedented reactivity of substrates and catalysts. The development of the strategy of asymmetric organocatalytic relay cascades has provided a useful tool for the controlled synthesis of specific diastereomers in complex molecules. This Account gives a panoramic view and the logic of our research on the design, development, and applications of asymmetric catalytic cascade reactions that will potentially provide useful insights into exploring new reactions. PMID:26099943

  19. Reaction of Thin Ni Films with Ge: Phase Formation and Texture

    SciTech Connect

    Gaudet,S.; Detavernier, C.; Lavoie, C.; Desjardins, P.

    2006-01-01

    The solid-state reaction between a 30-nm-thick Ni film and Ge substrates was investigated using in situ x-ray diffraction, diffuse light scattering, and four-point probe electrical measurements. Our results reveal that Ni{sub 5}Ge{sub 3} and NiGe appear consecutively on Ge(111) while they grow simultaneously on amorphous Ge ({alpha}-Ge) and Ge(001). Furthermore, phase formation temperatures depend strongly on the nature of the substrate being the lowest on {alpha}-Ge and the highest on Ge(111). X-ray pole figure measurements of the NiGe phase obtained from the reaction with an amorphous substrate indicate a completely random texture while several epitaxial and axiotaxial texture components are observed on both Ge(001) and Ge(111). The texturing for the NiGe film on Ge(111), which showed a sequential phase formation, is an order of magnitude more pronounced than for the film on Ge(001) which showed a simultaneous growth.

  20. Formation of Lactic Acid from Cellulosic Biomass by Alkaline Hydrothermal Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, X.; Jini, F.; Kishita, A.; Enomoto, H.; Tohji, K.

    2008-02-01

    Glucose, as a model compound of cellulosic biomass, was used as a test material. Ca(OH)2 and NaOH were selected as alkali. Results showed that both NaOH and Ca(OH)2, can promote the formation of lactic acid in a hydrothermal reaction of glucose. In the case of the addition of NaOH, lactic acid was obtained with a good yield of 27% based on a carbon base at 300 C for 60 s with a NaOH concentration of 2.5 M. In the case of the addition of Ca(OH)2, the highest yield of lactic acid is 20%, which occurred at 300 C for 60 s with a Ca(OH)2 concentration of 0.32 M. The formation mechanisms of lactic acid from glucose were also discussed according to intermediate products identified. Lactic acid may be generated via formaldehyde, glycolaldehyde besides via the aldose having three carbon atoms in hydrothermal reaction which all formed by the reverse aldol condensation of hexoses.

  1. Complexes of HNO? and NO? with NO? and N?O?, and their potential role in atmospheric HONO formation

    SciTech Connect

    Kamboures, Michael A.; Raff, Jonathan D.; Miller, Y.; Phillips, Leon F.; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.; Gerber, Robert B.

    2008-08-11

    Calculations were performed to determine the structures, energetics, and spectroscopy of the atmospherically relevant complexes (HNO?)(NO?), (HNO?)(N?O?), (NO?)(NO?), and (NO?)(N?O?). The binding energies indicate that three of the four complexes are quite stable, with the most stable (NO?)(N?O?) possessing binding energy of almost -14 kcal mol. Vibrational frequencies were calculated for use in detecting the complexes by infrared and Raman spectroscopy. An ATR-FTIR experiment showed features at 1632 and 1602 cm that are attributed to NO? complexed to NO? and HNO?, respectively. The electronic states of (HNO?)(N?O?) and (NO?)( N?O?) were investigated using an excited state method and it was determined that both complexes possess one low-lying excited state that is accessible through absorption of visible radiation. Evidence for the existence of (NO?)( N?O?) was obtained from UV/vis absorption spectra of N?O? in concentrated HNO?, which show a band at 320 nm that is blue shifted by 20 nm relative to what is observed for N?O? dissolved in organic solvents. Finally, hydrogen transfer reactions within the (HNO?)(NO?) and (HNO?)( N?O?) complexes leading to the formation of HONO, were investigated. In both systems the calculated potential profiles rule out a thermal mechanism, but indicate the reaction could take place following the absorption of visible radiation. We propose that these complexes are potentially important in the thermal and photochemical production of HONO observed in previous laboratory and field studies.

  2. Photo-induced reactions in the ion-molecule complex Mg+-OCNC2H5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ju-Long; Liu, Haichuan; Han, Ke-Li; Yang, Shihe

    2003-06-01

    Ion-molecule complexes of magnesium cation with ethyl isocyanate were produced in a laser-ablation supersonic expansion nozzle source. Photo-induced reactions in the 1:1 complexes have been studied in the spectral range of 230-410 nm. Photodissociation mass spectrometry revealed the persistent product Mg+ from nonreactive quenching throughout the entire wavelength range. As for the reactive channels, the photoproducts, Mg+OCN and C2H5+, were produced only in the blue absorption band of the complex with low yields. The action spectrum of Mg+(OCNC2H5) consists of two pronounced peaks on the red and blue sides of the Mg+ 32P←32S atomic transition. The ground state geometry of Mg+-OCNC2H5 was fully optimized at B3LYP/6-31+G** level by using GAUSSIAN 98 package. The calculated absorption spectrum of the complex using the optimized structure of its ground state agrees well with the observed action spectrum. Photofragment branching fractions of the products are almost independent of the photolysis photon energy for the 3Px,y,z excitations. The very low branching ratio of reactive products to nonreactive fragment suggests that evaporation is the main relaxation pathway in the photo-induced reactions of Mg+(OCNC2H5).

  3. Impacts of diffusive transport on carbonate mineral formation from magnesium silicate-CO2-water reactions.

    PubMed

    Giammar, Daniel E; Wang, Fei; Guo, Bin; Surface, J Andrew; Peters, Catherine A; Conradi, Mark S; Hayes, Sophia E

    2014-12-16

    Reactions of CO2 with magnesium silicate minerals to precipitate magnesium carbonates can result in stable carbon sequestration. This process can be employed in ex situ reactors or during geologic carbon sequestration in magnesium-rich formations. The reaction of aqueous CO2 with the magnesium silicate mineral forsterite was studied in systems with transport controlled by diffusion. The approach integrated bench-scale experiments, an in situ spectroscopic technique, and reactive transport modeling. Experiments were performed using a tube packed with forsterite and open at one end to a CO2-rich solution. The location and amounts of carbonate minerals that formed were determined by postexperiment characterization of the solids. Complementing this ex situ characterization, (13)C NMR spectroscopy tracked the inorganic carbon transport and speciation in situ. The data were compared with the output of reactive transport simulations that accounted for diffusive transport processes, aqueous speciation, and the forsterite dissolution rate. All three approaches found that the onset of magnesium carbonate precipitation was spatially localized about 1 cm from the opening of the forsterite bed. Magnesite was the dominant reaction product. Geochemical gradients that developed in the diffusion-limited zones led to locally supersaturated conditions at specific locations even while the volume-averaged properties of the system remained undersaturated. PMID:25420634

  4. Reaction of Sb on In/Si(111) surfaces: Heteroepitaxial InSb(111) formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, M.; Nakaguchi, A.; Guo, F.-Z.; Ueda, M.; Yasue, T.; Matsushita, T.; Kinoshita, T.; Kobayashi, K.; Oura, M.; Takeuchi, T.; Saito, Y.; Shin, S.; Koshikawa, T.

    2015-11-01

    Sb deposition and reaction on In/Si(111) were investigated by low-energy electron microscopy, low-energy electron diffraction, synchrotron radiation micro X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and synchrotron radiation X-ray photo-emission electron microscopy. The Sb deposition process strongly depends on the initial In/Si(111) phases such as ?3 ?3, ?31 ?31 and 4 1. On the In/Si(111) surface where two phases co-exist, the diffusion of In atoms, which are released by the attack of Sb, modifies the deposition and reaction process of Sb. On a mixed In/Si(111) ?31 ?31 + 4 1 surface, an InSb(111) 2 2 structure with elongated domains initially forms along steps. Then In atoms are replaced by Sb atoms and InSb(111) 2 2 transforms into Sb/Si(111) 2 1 by further reaction with Sb atoms. Here, the existence of the 4 1 phase promotes the formation of larger InSb(111) 2 2 domains.

  5. Carbon Isotopic Fractionation During Formation of Macromolecular Organic Grain Coatings via FTT Reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuth, J. A.; Johnson, N. M.; Elsila-Cook, J.; Kopstein, M.

    2011-01-01

    Observations of carbon isotopic fractionation of various organic compounds found in meteorites may provide useful diagnostic information concerning the environments and mechanisms that were responsible for their formation. Unfortunately, carbon has only two stable isotopes, making interpretation of such observations quite problematic. Chemical reactions can increase or decrease the C-13/C-12 ratio by various amounts, but the final ratio will depend on the total reaction pathway followed from the source carbon to the final product, a path not readily discernable after 4.5 billion years. In 1970 Libby showed that the C-13/C-12 ratios of terrestrial and meteoritic carbon were similar by comparing carbon from the Murchison meteorite to that of terrestrial sediments. More recent studies have shown that the C-13/C-12 ratio of the Earth and meteorites may be considerably enriched in C-13 compared to the ratio observed in the solar wind [2], possibly suggesting that carbon produced via ion-molecule reactions in cold dark clouds could be an important source of terrestrial and meteoritic carbon. However, meteoritic carbon has been subjected to parent body processing that could have resulted in significant changes to the C-13/C-12 ratio originally present while significant variation has been observed in the C-13/C-12 ratio of the same molecule extracted from different terrestrial sources. Again we must conclude that understanding the ratio found in meteorites may be difficult.

  6. Coke formation and carbon atom economy of methanol-to-olefins reaction.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yingxu; Yuan, Cuiyu; Li, Jinzhe; Xu, Shutao; Zhou, You; Chen, Jingrun; Wang, Quanyi; Xu, Lei; Qi, Yue; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Zhongmin

    2012-05-01

    The methanol-to-olefins (MTO) process is becoming the most important non-petrochemical route for the production of light olefins from coal or natural gas. Maximizing the generation of the target products, ethene and propene, and minimizing the production of byproducts and coke, are major considerations in the efficient utilization of the carbon resource of methanol. In the present work, the heterogeneous catalytic conversion of methanol was evaluated by performing simultaneous measurements of the volatile products generated in the gas phase and the confined coke deposition in the catalyst phase. Real-time and complete reaction profiles were plotted to allow the comparison of carbon atom economy of methanol conversion over the catalyst SAPO-34 at varied reaction temperatures. The difference in carbon atom economy was closely related with the coke formation in the SAPO-34 catalyst. The confined coke compounds were determined. A new type of confined organics was found, and these accounted for the quick deactivation and low carbon atom economy under low-reaction-temperature conditions. Based on the carbon atom economy evaluation and coke species determination, optimized operating conditions for the MTO process are suggested; these conditions guarantee high conversion efficiency of methanol. PMID:22359363

  7. Label-free optical detection of biochemical reactions in microarray format

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landry, J. P.; Gregg, J. P.

    2005-03-01

    We have developed an oblique-incidence optical reflectivity difference (OI-RD) scanning microscope for detecting biochemical reactions involving unlabeled macromolecules such as DNA, protein, or lipid membranes in microarray format. This optical microscope detects changes in density, thickness, and conformation of macromolecules as a result of the reactions of probe molecules with target molecules immobilized on a solid surface such as a chemically functionalized glass microscope slide. Of particular interest to our current investigation are microarrays of small ligands and macromolecules that are targeted for protein binding. Our OI-RD microscope is particularly desirable for such microarray-based proteomic investigations as it offers the capability to detect activities of protein molecules without the influence of extrinsic "tag" molecules attached to the protein (such as organic fluorophore molecules) and other undesirable effects such as photobleaching. We have used our OI-RD scanning microscope in a series of proof-of-principle studies of oligonucleotide hybridization and antibody-antigen capture reactions without labeling.

  8. Effect of heterogeneous aqueous reactions on the secondary formation of inorganic aerosols during haze events

    SciTech Connect

    Quan, Jiannong; Liu, Yangang; Liu, Quan; Li, Xia; Gao, Yang; Jia, Xingcan; Sheng, Jiujiang

    2015-09-30

    In this study, the effect of heterogeneous aqueous reactions on the secondary formation of inorganic aerosols during haze events was investigated by analysis of comprehensive measurements of aerosol composition and concentrations [e.g., particular matters (PM2.5), nitrate (NO3), sulfate (SO4), ammonium (NH4)], gas-phase precursors [e.g., nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and ozone (O3)], and relevant meteorological parameters [e.g., visibility and relative humidity (RH)]. The measurements were conducted in Beijing, China from Sep. 07, 2012 to Jan. 16, 2013. The results show that the conversion ratios of N from NOx to nitrate (Nratio) and S from SO2 to sulfate (Sratio) both significantly increased in haze events, suggesting enhanced conversions from NOx and SO2 to their corresponding particle phases in the late haze period. Further analysis shows that Nratio and Sratio increased with increasing RH, with Nratio and Sratio being only 0.04 and 0.03, respectively, when RH < 40%, and increasing up to 0.16 and 0.12 when RH reached 60–80%, respectively. The enhanced conversion ratios of N and S in the late haze period is likely due to heterogeneous aqueous reactions, because solar radiation and thus the photochemical capacity are reduced by the increases in aerosols and RH. This point was further affirmed by the relationships of Nratio and Sratio to O3: the conversion ratios increase with decreasing O3 concentration when O3 concentration is lower than <15 ppb but increased with increasing O3 when O3 concentration is higher than 15 ppb. The results suggest that heterogeneous aqueous reactions likely changed aerosols and their precursors during the haze events: in the beginning of haze events, the precursor gases accumulated quickly due to high emission and low reaction rate; the occurrence of heterogeneous aqueous reactions in the late haze period, together with the accumulated high concentrations of precursor gases such as SO2 and NOx, accelerated the formation of secondary inorganic aerosols, and led to rapid increase of the PM2.5 concentration.

  9. Effect of heterogeneous aqueous reactions on the secondary formation of inorganic aerosols during haze events

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Quan, Jiannong; Liu, Yangang; Liu, Quan; Li, Xia; Gao, Yang; Jia, Xingcan; Sheng, Jiujiang

    2015-09-30

    In this study, the effect of heterogeneous aqueous reactions on the secondary formation of inorganic aerosols during haze events was investigated by analysis of comprehensive measurements of aerosol composition and concentrations [e.g., particular matters (PM2.5), nitrate (NO3), sulfate (SO4), ammonium (NH4)], gas-phase precursors [e.g., nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and ozone (O3)], and relevant meteorological parameters [e.g., visibility and relative humidity (RH)]. The measurements were conducted in Beijing, China from Sep. 07, 2012 to Jan. 16, 2013. The results show that the conversion ratios of N from NOx to nitrate (Nratio) and S from SO2 to sulfate (Sratio) bothmore » significantly increased in haze events, suggesting enhanced conversions from NOx and SO2 to their corresponding particle phases in the late haze period. Further analysis shows that Nratio and Sratio increased with increasing RH, with Nratio and Sratio being only 0.04 and 0.03, respectively, when RH < 40%, and increasing up to 0.16 and 0.12 when RH reached 60–80%, respectively. The enhanced conversion ratios of N and S in the late haze period is likely due to heterogeneous aqueous reactions, because solar radiation and thus the photochemical capacity are reduced by the increases in aerosols and RH. This point was further affirmed by the relationships of Nratio and Sratio to O3: the conversion ratios increase with decreasing O3 concentration when O3 concentration is lower than <15 ppb but increased with increasing O3 when O3 concentration is higher than 15 ppb. The results suggest that heterogeneous aqueous reactions likely changed aerosols and their precursors during the haze events: in the beginning of haze events, the precursor gases accumulated quickly due to high emission and low reaction rate; the occurrence of heterogeneous aqueous reactions in the late haze period, together with the accumulated high concentrations of precursor gases such as SO2 and NOx, accelerated the formation of secondary inorganic aerosols, and led to rapid increase of the PM2.5 concentration.« less

  10. Effect of heterogeneous aqueous reactions on the secondary formation of inorganic aerosols during haze events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Jiannong; Liu, Quan; Li, Xia; Gao, Yang; Jia, Xingcan; Sheng, Jiujiang; Liu, Yangang

    2015-12-01

    The effect of heterogeneous aqueous reactions on the secondary formation of inorganic aerosols during haze events was investigated by analysis of comprehensive measurements of aerosol composition and concentrations [e.g., particular matters (PM2.5), nitrate (NO3), sulfate (SO4), ammonium (NH4)], gas-phase precursors [e.g., nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and ozone (O3)], and relevant meteorological parameters [e.g., visibility and relative humidity (RH)]. The measurements were conducted in Beijing, China from Sep. 07, 2012 to Jan. 16, 2013. The results show that the conversion ratios of N from NOx to nitrate (Nratio) and S from SO2 to sulfate (Sratio) both significantly increased in haze events, suggesting enhanced conversions from NOx and SO2 to their corresponding particle phases in the late haze period. Further analysis shows that Nratio and Sratio increased with increasing RH, with Nratio and Sratio being only 0.04 and 0.03, respectively, when RH < 40%, and increasing up to 0.16 and 0.12 when RH reached 60-80%, respectively. The enhanced conversion ratios of N and S in the late haze period is likely due to heterogeneous aqueous reactions, because solar radiation and thus the photochemical capacity are reduced by the increases in aerosols and RH. This point was further affirmed by the relationships of Nratio and Sratio to O3: the conversion ratios increase with decreasing O3 concentration when O3 concentration is lower than <15 ppb but increased with increasing O3 when O3 concentration is higher than 15 ppb. The results suggest that heterogeneous aqueous reactions likely changed aerosols and their precursors during the haze events: in the beginning of haze events, the precursor gases accumulated quickly due to high emission and low reaction rate; the occurrence of heterogeneous aqueous reactions in the late haze period, together with the accumulated high concentrations of precursor gases such as SO2 and NOx, accelerated the formation of secondary inorganic aerosols, and led to rapid increase of the PM2.5 concentration.

  11. Photochemical Formation of Water-Aerosol/Droplet in Air: Optical Manipulation and Reaction Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshihara, K.; Kato, S.; Miyazaki, K.; Takatori, Y.; Kajii, Y. J.

    2010-12-01

    Photo-induced nucleation of water vapor in air was reported many years ago [1], but did not draw much attentions by the atmospheric scientists. We report a photochemical formation of water droplet/aerosol in wet air at different conditions, its optical manipulation, and we propose a comprehensive reaction mechanism by observing reaction intermediates in combination with theoretical simulations. Since aerosol/droplet formation is induced by photons, it can be manipulated by changing of wavelengths, duration of irradiations, light intensities, pulse repetition rates, etc. The wavelengths of light applied were 185 nm (Hg lamp), 193 nm (ArF laser), and 248 nm (KrF laser). Water aerosol/droplets were produced in air-filled 1 atm-reaction vessels with different temperature and relative humidity (RH) conditions and were observed by light scattering, mass spectrometry, and photographic recording. Particle sizes were heavily dependent on humidity from 50nm to ca.0.1mm. At the sub-micron levels the number of particles produced increased significantly (two orders of magnitude) by manipulating durations of irradiation-intermission cycles of Hg lamp. The growth of particle sizes was also observed by sequential irradiations. The mechanism of the reaction is proposed with experimental confirmation and theoretical simulations as follows. Photo-dissociation of oxygen produces ozone and the latter is photo-dissociated by a second photon to an active singlet-oxygen (1D). It reacts with a water molecule and produces OH radicals and further dark reactions give a final stable molecule of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). This works as a seeding nucleus since the vapor pressure of hydrogen peroxide is ca. two orders of magnitude smaller than water. The experimental observation of HO2 as a reaction intermediate was made in situ by chemical amplification method combined with laser-induced fluorescence [2]. The experimental observation was successfully simulated by solving differential equations with 30 related elementary reactions [3]. Interesting dependence of laser intensity and repetition rates was simulated on the amounts of intermediates and the final product. Particle formation and their dynamics were recognized almost at any temperature and humidity conditions. For example, even under very hot and dry conditions, like 50 degree centigrade and RH 10%, a large amount (>1,000,000/ml) of particles were formed by a KrF laser. This laser could be important due to its high transmittance in the air. Reference [1] C.T.B. Wilson, Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc. 9, 392 (1987). More recently, F.C. Wen, T. McLaughlin, J.J. Katz, Science, 200, 769 (1978). [2] Y. Sadanaga, J. Matsumoto, K. Sakurai, R. Isozaki, S. Kato, T. Nomaguchi, H. Bandow, Y. Kajii, Rev. Sci. Instr., 75, 864 (2004). [3] K. Yoshihara, Y. Takatori, K. Miyazaki, Y. Kajii, Proc. Jpn. Acad, B83, 320 (2007).

  12. Complex formation between organotin chlorides and bis(1-pyrazolyl) methane ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesubi, M. Adediran; Enemo, R. E.

    The complex formation between organotin chloride and bis(1-pyrazolyl)methane, H 2CPz 2 has been investigated. Complexes of formula R 2SnCl 2H 2CPz 2 or RSnCl 3H 2CPz 2 have been isolated and characterised by elemental analysis, i.r. and 1H-NMR spectra. On the basis of their spectral properties, the complexes have been assigned an octahedral structure with the chlorides in the cis-position.

  13. Chemically Activated Formation of Organic Acids in Reactions of the Criegee Intermediate with Aldehydes and Ketones

    SciTech Connect

    Jalan, Amrit; Allen, Joshua W.; Green, William H.

    2013-08-08

    Reactions of the Criegee intermediate (CI, .CH2OO.) are important in atmospheric ozonolysis models. In this work, we compute the rates for reactions between .CH2OO. and HCHO, CH3CHO and CH3COCH3 leading to the formation of secondary ozonides (SOZ) and organic acids. Relative to infinitely separated reactants, the SOZ in all three cases is found to be 48–51 kcal mol-1 lower in energy, formed via 1,3- cycloaddition of .CH2OO. across the CQO bond. The lowest energy pathway found for SOZ decomposition is intramolecular disproportionation of the singlet biradical intermediate formed from cleavage of the O–O bond to form hydroxyalkyl esters. These hydroxyalkyl esters undergo concerted decomposition providing a low energy pathway from SOZ to acids. Geometries and frequencies of all stationary points were obtained using the B3LYP/MG3S DFT model chemistry, and energies were refined using RCCSD(T)-F12a/cc-pVTZ-F12 single-point calculations. RRKM calculations were used to obtain microcanonical rate coefficients (k(E)) and the reservoir state method was used to obtain temperature and pressure dependent rate coefficients (k(T, P)) and product branching ratios. At atmospheric pressure, the yield of collisionally stabilized SOZ was found to increase in the order HCHO o CH3CHO o CH3COCH3 (the highest yield being 10-4 times lower than the initial .CH2OO. concentration). At low pressures, chemically activated formation of organic acids (formic acid in the case of HCHO and CH3COCH3, formic and acetic acid in the case of CH3CHO) was found to be the major product channel in agreement with recent direct measurements. Collisional energy transfer parameters and the barrier heights for SOZ reactions were found to be the most sensitive parameters determining SOZ and organic acid yield.

  14. [Protein isolation by means of complexing agents. 2. Formation of insoluble complexes of sunflower albumins with alginate or pectin].

    PubMed

    Schwenke, K D; Kracht, E; Mieth, G; Freimuth, U

    1977-01-01

    The formation of insoluble complexes of sunflower seed albumin and alginate or pectin is studied by means of turbidimetric titration and by determining the pH-dependent precipitability of protein. The complex formation that is based on electrostatic interaction is a function of the pH value and the protein-polyanion ratio. Consequently, it is affected by the neutral salt content of the solutions. 90% and more of the dissolved protein may be precipitated if the proportion of the precipitant amounts to 20%. A sodium chloride content of 0.6% reduces the precipitability by alginate to 74%. In the presence of 0.3% sodium chloride, at most 55% of protein are still precipitated by pectin. The difference in strength between the albumin-alginate and the albumin-pectin complex is also expressed by the dye-binding power. Albumin-pectin complexes bind the same amount of amido black as free protein. On the contrary, albumin-alginate complexes exhibit reduced dye-binding power due to stronger binding of the protein to the polyanion. The results obtained by turbidimetric titration of model systems can, in principle, be extrapolated to the precipitation of albumins from protein extracts. In accordance with the heterogenicity of the protein, the turbidimetric titration of the albumin-alginate and the albumin-pectin complexes exhibits two maxima. PMID:895835

  15. Complex oscillations in a simple model for the Briggs-Rauscher reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyoung-Ran; Shin, Kook Joe; Lee, Dong J.

    2004-08-01

    Complex oscillations in a simple model of the Briggs-Rauscher reaction mechanism in a continuously stirred tank reactor proposed by Kim et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 117, 2710 (2002)] are investigated numerically. The k0-[CH2(COOH)2]0 phase diagram is constructed first where k0 is the flow rate and []0 is the input concentration. Within the region surrounded by the Hopf bifurcation curve, we find complex oscillation regions which are again separated from the regular oscillation region by the secondary Hopf bifurcation curves. Mixed mode oscillations with an incomplete Farey sequence, periodic-chaotic (or nonperiodic) sequence, and various types of burst oscillations are observed in complex oscillation regions. Also, chaotic burst oscillations, which are due to the transition from one kind of burst to another kind, are reported.

  16. Sn(IV) Schiff base complexes: triplet photosensitizers for photoredox reactions.

    PubMed

    Grusenmeyer, Tod A; King, Albert W; Mague, Joel T; Rack, Jeffrey J; Schmehl, Russell H

    2014-12-21

    We present the synthesis and characterization of a series of four fluorescent Sn(iv) Schiff base complexes, which also possess long-lived triplet excited states. The complexes absorb visible light (λmax = 420 to 462 nm) and the optical properties are easily tunable without laborious synthetic elaboration. The triplet excited states are not luminescent, but can be observed and followed using nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. The lifetimes of the triplet excited states are on the order of 500 μs-10 ms in PMMA matrices. The triplet state energies were estimated via energy transfer reactions with a series of organic triplet acceptors. In addition, the photoexcited complexes react with electron donors and acceptors in solution. These results demonstrate the potential for the development of photosensitizers based on main group elements with high spin orbit coupling constants. PMID:25043697

  17. Thermodynamics of the formation of nickel(II) complexes with L-histidine in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorboletova, G. G.; Metlin, A. A.

    2014-09-01

    The heat effects of the formation of Ni(II) complexes with L-histidine in an aqueous solution are determined via direct calorimetry at 298.15 K and ionic strengths of 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 (KNO3). The standard thermodynamic characteristics (?r H ?, ?r G ?, ?r S ?) of complex formation in the investigated system are calculated. It is concluded that the resulting values are consistent with the results from studying the structure of L-histidine complexes with Ni2+ ions by various spectral methods.

  18. DHA- Rich Fish Oil Improves Complex Reaction Time in Female Elite Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Guzmn, Jos F.; Esteve, Hector; Pablos, Carlos; Pablos, Ana; Blasco, Cristina; Villegas, Jos A.

    2011-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids (n-3) has shown to improve neuromotor function. This study examined the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on complex reaction time, precision and efficiency, in female elite soccer players. 24 players from two Spanish female soccer Super League teams were randomly selected and assigned to two experimental groups, then administered, in a double-blind manner, 3.5 gday-1 of either DHA-rich fish oil (FO =12) or olive oil (OO = 12) over 4 weeks of training. Two measurements (pre- and post-treatment) of complex reaction time and precision were taken. Participants had to press different buttons and pedals with left and right hands and feet, or stop responding, according to visual and auditory stimuli. Multivariate analysis of variance displayed an interaction between supplement administration (pre/post) and experimental group (FO/OO) on complex reaction time (FO pre = 0.713 0.142 ms, FO post = 0.623 0.109 ms, OO pre = 0.682 1.132 ms, OO post = 0.715 0.159 ms; p = 0.004) and efficiency (FO pre = 40.88 17.41, FO post = 57.12 11.05, OO pre = 49.52 14.63, OO post = 49. 50 11.01; p = 0.003). It was concluded that after 4 weeks of supplementation with FO, there was a significant improvement in the neuromotor function of female elite soccer players. Key points The results obtained from the study suggest that supplementation with DHA produced perceptual-motor benefits in female elite athletes. DHA could be a beneficial supplement in sports where decision making and reaction time efficiency are of importance. PMID:24149875

  19. Pyrite formation by reactions of iron monosulfides with dissolved inorganic and organic sulfur species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkin, R. T.; Barnes, H. L.

    1996-11-01

    Pyrite formation has been investigated at 70C and pH 6-8 by aging precipitated, disordered mackinawite, Fe 9S 8, and greigite, Fe 3S 4, in solutions containing aqueous H 2S, HS -, S x2-, S 2O 32-, SO 32-, colloidal elemental sulfur, and the organic sulfur species thiol, disulfide, and sulfonate. Pyrite formed in all experiments where unoxidized iron monosulfides were aged with species containing zero-valent sulfur, i.e., polysulfides and colloidal elemental sulfur, but not with hydrogen sulfide (or bisulfide), the sulfoxy anions, or the organic sulfur species. Pyrite formation also occurred in experiments where the starting monosulfides were air-exposed prior to aging in sulfide solutions, or when air was bubbled through a reaction vessel containing iron monosulfides suspended in a sulfid sulfide solution. The experiments indicate the rate of conversion from iron monosulfides to pyrite is not only a function of solution chemistry (i.e., pH and aqueous speciation), but also depends on the surface oxidation state of the precursor iron monosulfides. Measurements of ?34S of reactants and products from pyrite-forming experiments suggest that the conversion from iron monosulfides to pyrite may proceed via loss of ferrous iron from, rather than via addition of zero-valent sulfur to, the precursor monosulfides. The sulfur isotopic composition of pyrite in sedimentary environments should reflect the sulfur isotopic composition of the precursor iron monosulfide plus sulfur sources incorporated during surface-controlled growth processes. Pyrite forms produced in this study ranged from poorly developed octahedral grains, in experiments where initial pyritization rates were the slowest, to framboidal aggregates in experiments where initial pyritization rates were the fastest. Although greigite formation occurred in experiments that produced framboids, not all experiments that produced greigite led to framboid formation. The formation of pyrite with framboidal texture is apparently favored when iron monosulfides rapidly convert to pyrite.

  20. Aerobic oxidation reactions catalyzed by vanadium complexes of bis(phenolate) ligands.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoqi; Scott, Brian L; Wu, Ruilian; Silks, L A Pete; Hanson, Susan K

    2012-07-01

    Vanadium(V) complexes of the tridentate bis(phenolate)pyridine ligand H(2)BPP (H(2)BPP = 2,6-(HOC(6)H(2)-2,4-(t)Bu(2))(2)NC(5)H(3)) and the bis(phenolate)amine ligand H(2)BPA (H(2)BPA = N,N-bis(2-hydroxy-4,5-dimethylbenzyl)propylamine) have been synthesized and characterized. The ability of the complexes to mediate the oxidative C-C bond cleavage of pinacol was tested. Reaction of the complex (BPP)V(V)(O)(O(i)Pr) (4) with pinacol afforded the monomeric vanadium(IV) product (BPP)V(IV)(O)(HO(i)Pr) (6) and acetone. Vanadium(IV) complex 6 was oxidized rapidly by air at room temperature in the presence of NEt(3), yielding the vanadium(V) cis-dioxo complex [(BPP)V(V)(O)(2)]HNEt(3). Complex (BPA)V(V)(O)(O(i)Pr) (5) reacted with pinacol at room temperature, to afford acetone and the vanadium(IV) dimer [(BPA)V(IV)(O)(HO(i)Pr)](2). Complexes 4 and 5 were evaluated as catalysts for the aerobic oxidation of 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol and arylglycerol ?-aryl ether lignin model compounds. Although both 4 and 5 catalyzed the aerobic oxidation of 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol, complex 4 was found to be a more active and robust catalyst for oxidation of the lignin model compounds. The catalytic activities and selectivities of the bis(phenolate) complexes are compared to previously reported catalysts. PMID:22708725

  1. Supramolecular hydrogel formation based on inclusion complexation between poly(ethylene glycol)-modified chitosan and alpha-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Huh, Kang Moo; Cho, Yong Woo; Chung, Hesson; Kwon, Ick Chan; Jeong, Seo Young; Ooya, Tooru; Lee, Won Kyu; Sasaki, Shintaro; Yui, Nobuhiko

    2004-02-20

    Supramolecular hydrogels have been prepared on the basis of polymer inclusion complex (PIC) formation between poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-modified chitosans and alpha-cyclodextrin (alpha-CD). A series of PEG-modified chitosans were synthesized by coupling reactions between chitosan and monocarboxylated PEG using water-soluble carbodiimide (EDC) as coupling agent. With simple mixing, the resultant supramolecular assembly of the polymers and alpha-CD molecules led to hydrogel formation in aqueous media. The supramolecular structure of the PIC hydrogels was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction, and (13)C cross-polarized/magic-angle spinning (CP/MAS) NMR characterization. The PEG side-chains on the chitosan backbones were found to form inclusion complexes (ICs) with alpha-CD molecules, resulting in the formation of channel-type crystalline micro-domains. The IC domains play an important role in holding together hydrated chitosan chains as physical junctions. The gelation property was affected by several factors including the PEG content in the polymers, the solution concentration, the mixing ratio of host and guest molecules, temperature, pH, etc. All the hydrogels in acidic conditions exhibited thermo-reversible gel-sol transitions under appropriate conditions of mixing ratio and PEG content in the mixing process. The transitions were induced by supramolecular association and dissociation. These supramolecular hydrogels were found to have phase-separated structures that consist of hydrophobic crystalline PIC domains, which were formed by the host-guest interaction between alpha-CD and PEG, and hydrated chitosan matrices below the pK(a).The formation of inclusion complexes between alpha-cyclodextrin and PEG-modified chitosan leads to the formation of hydrogels that can undergo thermo-reversible supramolecular dissociation. PMID:15468199

  2. Isolation of a photoactive photosynthetic reaction center - core antenna complex from Heliobacillus mobilis

    SciTech Connect

    Trost, J.T.; Blankenship, R.E. )

    1989-12-26

    A photoactive reaction center-core antenna complex was isolated from the photosynthetic bacterium Heliobacillus mobilis by extraction of membranes with Deriphat 160c followed by differential centrifugation and sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation. The purified complex contained a M{sub r} 47000 polypeptide(s) that bound both the primary donor (P800) and approximately 24 antenna bacteriochlorophylls g. Time-resolved fluorescence emission spectroscopy indicated that the antenna bacteriochlorophylls g are active in energy transfer to P800, exhibiting a decay time of 25 ps. The complex contained 1.4 menaquinones, 9 Fe, and 3 labile S{sup 2{minus}} per P800. The complex was photoactive with an exponential decay time of 14 ms for P800{sup +} yet showed no EPR-detectable Fe-S center signal in the g {le} 2.0 region, either by chemical reduction to -600 mV or by illumination of reduced samples. The complex is similar to photosystem I or oxygen-evolving photosynthetic systems in that both the primary donor and a core antenna are bound to the same pigment-protein complex.

  3. ESI-MS and theoretical study on the coordination structures and reaction modes of the diperoxovanadate complexes containing histidine-like ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xian-Yong; Xu, Xin; Chen, Zhong

    2008-01-01

    In order to study the coordination structures and the reaction modes of diperoxovanadate complexes in the gas phase, the interaction between K3[OV(O2)2(C2O4)]·H2O and a series of histidine-like ligands has been investigated by the combination of the electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and the density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The experimental results proved the formation of both [OV(O2)2L]- (L = all histidine-like ligands) and [OV(O2)2L'2]- (L' = histidine and carnosine only) species. DFT calculations at the level of B3LYP/6-31+G* showed that [OV(O2)2L'2]- is a hexa-coordinated complex, instead of a hepta-coordinated complex as proposed before. The unique coordination mode in the gas phase is for one ligand to bind to the oxygen atoms via hydrogen binding, rather than both ligands to the metal center. The L'2 dimer formation and the maintenance of the hydrogen bonding within the dimer during the complex formation are two important factors that enhance the abundance of the [OV(O2)2L'2]- species. The calculated bonding enthalpy and free energy changes provided an explanation on the reaction modes of the interaction systems, in agreement with the observations of the ESI-MS experiments.

  4. The chitosan-gelatin (bio)polyelectrolyte complexes formation in an acidic medium.

    PubMed

    Voron'ko, Nicolay G; Derkach, Svetlana R; Kuchina, Yuliya A; Sokolan, Nina I

    2016-03-15

    The interaction of cationic polysaccharide chitosan and gelatin accompanied by the stoichiometric (bio)polyelectrolyte complexes formation has been studied by the methods of capillary viscometry, UV and FTIR spectroscopy and dispersion of light scattering. Complexes were formed in the aqueous phase, with pH being less than the isoelectric point of gelatin (pIgel). The particle size of the disperse phase increases along with the growth of the relative viscosity in comparison with sols of the individual components-polysaccharide and gelatin. Possible models and mechanism of (bio)polyelectrolyte complexes formation have been discussed. It was shown that the complex formation takes place not only due to the hydrogen bonds, but also due to the electrostatic interactions between the positively charged amino-groups of chitosan and negatively charged amino acid residues (glutamic Glu and aspartic Asp acids) of gelatin. PMID:26794762

  5. Cellular consequences of copper complexes used to catalyze bioorthogonal click reactions.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David C; McKay, Craig S; Legault, Marc C B; Danielson, Dana C; Blake, Jessie A; Pegoraro, Adrian F; Stolow, Albert; Mester, Zoltan; Pezacki, John Paul

    2011-11-01

    Copper toxicity is a critical issue in the development of copper-based catalysts for copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reactions for applications in living systems. The effects and related toxicity of copper on mammalian cells are dependent on the ligand environment. Copper complexes can be highly toxic, can induce changes in cellular metabolism, and can be rapidly taken up by cells, all of which can affect their ability to function as catalysts for CuAAC in living systems. Herein, we have evaluated the effects of a number of copper complexes that are typically used to catalyze CuAAC reactions on four human cell lines by measuring mitochondrial activity based on the metabolism of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) to study toxicity, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to study cellular uptake, and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy to study effects on lipid metabolism. We find that ligand environment around copper influences all three parameters. Interestingly, for the Cu(II)-bis-L-histidine complex (Cu(his)(2)), cellular uptake and metabolic changes are observed with no toxicity after 72 h at micromolar concentrations. Furthermore, we show that under conditions where other copper complexes kill human hepatoma cells, Cu(I)-L-histidine is an effective catalyst for CuAAC labeling of live cells following metabolic incorporation of an alkyne-labeled sugar (Ac(4)ManNAl) into glycosylated proteins expressed on the cell surface. This result suggests that Cu(his)(2) or derivatives thereof have potential for in vivo applications where toxicity as well as catalytic activity are critical factors for successful bioconjugation reactions. PMID:21970470

  6. Formation of the diphenyl molecule in the crossed beam reaction of phenyl radicals with benzene

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Fangtong; Gu Xibin; Kaiser, Ralf I.

    2008-02-28

    The chemical dynamics to form the D5-diphenyl molecule, C{sub 6}H{sub 5}C{sub 6}D{sub 5}, via the neutral-neutral reaction of phenyl radicals (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}) with D6-benzene (C{sub 6}D{sub 6}), was investigated in a crossed molecular beams experiment at a collision energy of 185 kJ mol{sup -1}. The laboratory angular distribution and time-of-flight spectra of the C{sub 6}H{sub 5}C{sub 6}D{sub 5} product were recorded at mass to charge m/z of 159. Forward-convolution fitting of our data reveals that the reaction dynamics are governed by an initial addition of the phenyl radical to the {pi} electron density of the D6-benzene molecule yielding a short-lived C{sub 6}H{sub 5}C{sub 6}D{sub 6} collision complex. The latter undergoes atomic deuterium elimination via a tight exit transition state located about 30 kJ mol{sup -1} above the separated reactants; the overall reaction to form D5-diphenyl from phenyl and D6-benzene was found to be weakly exoergic. The explicit identification of the D5-biphenyl molecules suggests that in high temperature combustion flames, a diphenyl molecule can be formed via a single collision event between a phenyl radical and a benzene molecule.

  7. Kinetics and Thermochemistry of ClCO Formation from the Cl + CO Association Reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicovich, J. M.; Kreutter, K. D.; Wine, P. H.

    1997-01-01

    Laser flash photolysis of Cl2/CO/M mixtures (M = N2, CO, Ar, CO2) has been employed in conjunction with Cl((sup 2)P(sub J)) detection by time-resolved resonance fluorescence spectroscopy to investigate equilibration kinetics in the reactions Cl((sup 2)P(sub J)) + CO ClCO as a function of temperature (185-260 K) and pressure (14-200 Torr). The association and dissociation reactions are found to be in the low-pressure limit over the range of experimental conditions investigated. In N2 and/or CO buffer gases, the temperature dependences of the ClCO formation and dissociation reaction rate constants are described by the Arrhenius expressions k(sub 1) = (1.05 +/- 0.36) x 10(exp -34) exp[(810 +/- 70)/T] cm(exp 6)/molecules(exp 2).s and k(sub -1) = (4.1 +/- 3.1) x 10(exp -10) exp[(-2960 +/- 60)/T]cu cm/(molecule.s) (errors are 2 sigma). Second- and third-law analyses of the temperature dependence of the equilbrium constant (k/k-1) lead to the following thermodynamic parameters for the association reaction: Delta-H(sub 298) = -7.7 +/- 0.6 kcal/mol, Delta-H(sub 0) = -6.9 +/- 0.7 kcal/mol, Delta-S(sub 298) = -23.8 +/- 2.0 cal/mole.K, Delta-H(sub f,298)(ClCO) = 5.2 +/- 0.6 kcal/mol (errors are 2 sigma). The results repported in this study significantly reduce the uncertainties in all reported kinetic and thermodynamic parameters.

  8. Formation of ferriolivine and magnesioferrite from Mg Fe-olivine: Reactions and kinetics of oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khisina, N. R.; Khramov, D. A.; Kolosov, M. V.; Kleschev, A. A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.

    1995-06-01

    Olivine samples (Fa 11) have been oxidized in air ( f O2 = 0.2 atm) at temperatures ranging from 350 700 C and examined by Mssbauer spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and thermomagnetic analysis. Oxidation of olivine was found to result in ferriolivine, magnesioferrite (major oxide phase) and magnetite (minor oxide phase) formation. Ferriolivine forms planar (001) precipitates, 0.6 nm in thickness, in the olivine host; the composition is likely to be Mg0.5 v 0.5(Fe3+)1.0SiO4. Magnesioferrite MgFe2O4 exsolves as fine-grained precipitates (5 6 nm in size) filling interstices between the ferriolivine planar precipitates. Oxidation kinetic data at 700 C show two stages of oxidation corresponding to formation of ferriolivine in the first stage and magnesioferrite in the second stage. The linear rate law with a rate constant k Fol = 1.23 10-3 s-1 was found for the first stage whereas a parabolic rate-law with a constant of k oxi = 3.28 10-3 s-1 was determined for the second stage of oxidation. It was found that ferriolivine is not an intermediate metastable phase in the oxidation process, terminated by magnesioferrite formation. The ferriolivine and magnesioferrite are considered to have formed by independent reactions which do not necessarily proceed simultaneously.

  9. Formation of bromophenoxy radicals from complete series reactions of bromophenols with H and OH radicals.

    PubMed

    Gao, Rui; Xu, Fei; Li, Shanqing; Hu, Jingtian; Zhang, Qingzhu; Wang, Wenxing

    2013-07-01

    The bromophenoxy radicals (BPRs) are key intermediate species involved in the formation of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs). In this work, the formation of BPRs from the complete series reactions of 19 bromophenol (BP) congeners with H and OH radicals were investigated theoretically by using the density functional theory (DFT) method and the direct dynamics method. The geometries and frequencies of the reactants, transition states, and products were calculated at the MPWB1K/6-31+G(d,p) level, and the energetic parameters were further refined by the MPWB1K/6-311+G(3df,2p) method. The rate constants were evaluated by the canonical variational transition-state (CVT) theory with the small curvature tunneling (SCT) contribution over a wide temperature range of 600-1200K. The present study indicates that the reactivity of the O-H bonds in BPs as well as the formation potential of BPRs from BPs is strongly related to the bromine substitution pattern. The obtained results can be used for future estimates of PBDD/F emissions quantity based on the well estimated PCDD/F inventory. PMID:23402922

  10. Formation of porous surface layers in reaction bonded silicon nitride during processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, N. J.; Glasgow, T. K.

    1979-01-01

    An effort was undertaken to determine if the formation of the generally observed layer of large porosity adjacent to the as-nitride surfaces of reaction bonded silicon nitrides could be prevented during processing. Isostatically pressed test bars were prepared from wet vibratory milled Si powder. Sintering and nitriding were each done under three different conditions:(1) bars directly exposed to the furnance atmosphere; (2) bars packed in Si powder; (3) bars packed in Si3N4 powder. Packing the bars in either Si of Si3N4 powder during sintering retarded formation of the layer of large porosity. Only packing the bars in Si prevented formation of the layer during nitridation. The strongest bars (316 MPa) were those sintered in Si and nitrided in Si3N4 despite their having a layer of large surface porosity; failure initiated at very large pores and inclusions. The alpha/beta ratio was found to be directly proportional to the oxygen content; a possible explanation for this relationship is discussed.

  11. Formation of shellac succinate having improved enteric film properties through dry media reaction.

    PubMed

    Limmatvapirat, Sontaya; Panchapornpon, Danuch; Limmatvapirat, Chutima; Nunthanid, Jurairat; Luangtana-Anan, Manee; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to improve enteric properties of shellac by the formation of succinate derivative through dry media reaction. Shellac and succinic anhydride were mixed and then co-ground by planetary ball mill. The ground mixture was then activated by heating for various times and washed for removal of excess succinic anhydride. The ground mixtures and the heat-activated mixtures were characterized by physical and chemical tests, including acid value, FTIR spectroscopy, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, thermal analysis and film properties. The results demonstrated that acid values of heat-activated shellac mixtures increased with the increase of annealing time, suggesting the presence of carboxylic acid moieties of succinate at shellac molecules. The results were in good agreement with the DSC thermograms. The melting peak of shellac disappeared after heating, while melting peak of succinic anhydride gradually decreased, suggesting the utilization of succinic anhydride for the esterification. The shellac succinate formation was also confirmed by (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectroscopies. Film prepared from shellac succinate showed improved solubility, especially at the pH of small intestine (5.8-6.7), as compared to native shellac. The shellac succinate film also demonstrated better mechanical property, in terms of increased flexibility. In conclusion, solid-state formation of shellac succinate ester, which had improved enteric properties, was easily accomplished under the concept of "green approach". PMID:18430548

  12. Reactions between vanadium ions and biogenic reductants of tunicates: Spectroscopic probing for complexation and redox products in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, D.E.; Grant, K.B.; Nakanishi, K.

    1996-07-02

    Several species of marine tunicates store oxygen-sensitive V{sup III} in blood cells. A sensitive colorimetric V{sup III} assay was used t survey the leading candidates for the native reducing agent of vanadate in tunicates (i.e., An-type tunichromes, glutathione, NADPH, and H{sub 2}S) in reactions with V{sup V} or V{sup IV} ions under anaerobic, aqueous conditions at acidic or neutral pH. Except for the case of An-1 and V{sup V} ions in pH 7 buffer, the assay results for the biogenic reducing agents clearly showed that appreciable quantities of V{sup III} products were not generated under the conditions tested. Therefore, the assay results place new limits on hypothetical mechanisms of V{sup III} formation in vivo. For reactions between An-1 and V{sup V} ions in pH 7 buffer, low levels of V{sup III} products could not be ruled out because of an interfering peak in the colorimetric assays. For similar reactions between V{sup V} ions and An-1, or an An-1,2 mixture, in mildly to moderately basic media, the product mixtures precipitated as greenish black solids. Analyses of the precipitated V/An mixtures using vanadium K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) showed that the major products were tris(catecholate)-type V{sup IV} complexes (65 {plus_minus} 6%) and bis(catecholate)-type V{sup IV}O complexes (20 {plus_minus} 4%). XAS analysis of the V/An-1 product mixture also provided evidence of a minor V{sup III} component (9 {plus_minus} 5% of total V), notable for possible relevance to tunicate biochemistry. The combined results of XAS studies, spectrophotometric studies, and EPR studies consistently establish that reactions between tunichromes (Mm-1 or An-1) and V{sup V} ions generate predominantly V{sup IV}-tunichrome complexes in neutral to moderately basic aqueous media. 53 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Cationic cluster formation versus disproportionation of low-valent indium and gallium complexes of 2,2'-bipyridine

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenthaler, Martin R.; Stahl, Florian; Kratzert, Daniel; Heidinger, Lorenz; Schleicher, Erik; Hamann, Julian; Himmel, Daniel; Weber, Stefan; Krossing, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    Group 13 MI compounds often disproportionate into M0 and MIII. Here, however, we show that the reaction of the MI salt of the weakly coordinating alkoxyaluminate [GaI(C6H5F)2]+[Al(ORF)4]− (RF=C(CF3)3) with 2,2'-bipyridine (bipy) yields the paramagnetic and distorted octahedral [Ga(bipy)3]2+•{[Al(ORF)4]−}2 complex salt. While the latter appears to be a GaII compound, both, EPR and DFT investigations assign a ligand-centred [GaIII{(bipy)3}•]2+ radical dication. Surprisingly, the application of the heavier homologue [InI(C6H5F)2]+[Al(ORF)4]− leads to aggregation and formation of the homonuclear cationic triangular and rhombic [In3(bipy)6]3+, [In3(bipy)5]3+ and [In4(bipy)6]4+ metal atom clusters. Typically, such clusters are formed under strongly reductive conditions. Analysing the unexpected redox-neutral cationic cluster formation, DFT studies suggest a stepwise formation of the clusters, possibly via their triplet state and further investigations attribute the overall driving force of the reactions to the strong In−In bonds and the high lattice enthalpies of the resultant ligand stabilized [M3]3+{[Al(ORF)4]−}3 and [M4]4+{[Al(ORF)4]−}4 salts. PMID:26478464

  14. Formation of octahedral iridium(III) dihydrides from the reaction of ortho-chelated aryliridium(I) compounds with dihydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    van der Zeijden, A.A.H.; van Koten, G.; Lujik, R.; Grove, D.M.

    1988-07-01

    The reaction of Ir/sup I/(CH/sub 2/NMe/sub 2/)-2-R/sup 1/-4-R/sup 2/-6)(COD) (COD = cyclooacta-1,5-diene) with dihydrogen in CD/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/ was monitored by /sup 1/H NMR. At -20/sup 0/C quantitative formation of the novel dihydride complexes Ir/sup III/H/sub 2/(C/sub 6/H/sub 2/(CH/sub 2/NMe/sub 2/)-2-R/sup 1/-4-R/sup 2/-6)(COD) (R/sup 1/ = H, R/sup 2/ = CH/sub 2/NMe/sub 2/ (10), Me (11); R/sup 2/ = H, R/sup 1/ = H (12), Me (13), CH/sub 2/NMe/sub 2/ (14); R/sup 1/ = R/sup 2/ = CH/sub 2/NMe/sub 2/ (15)) occurs. Further reactions, the type of which depends on the bulkiness of the R/sup 1/ and R/sup 2/ groups, occur when these solutions are warmed to 0/sup 0/C. Complexes 12-14 (R/sup 2/ = H) lose H/sub 2/ to re-form Ir/sup I/(C/sub 6/H/sub 3/(CH/sub 2/NMe/sub 2/)-2-R/sup 1/-4)(COD). In contrast, complexes 10, 11, and 15 (R/sup 2/ = alkyl) react further by means of C(aryl)-H reductive elimination. For complex 15 (R/sup 1/ = CH/sub 2/NMe/sub 2/) this results in quantitative formation of 1,3,5-(Me/sub 2/NCH/sub 2/)/sub 3/C/sub 6/H/sub 3/ and IrH(COD). In Ir/sup III/H/sub 2/(C/sub 6/H/sub 3/(CH/sub 2/NMe/sub 2/)-2-R-6)(COD) (R = alkyl (10 and 11)), C(aryl)-H reductive elimination is followed by re-addition of another C(aryl)-H bond, which upon subsequent reductive elimination of H/sub 2/, yields the rearranged iridium(I) complexes Ir/sup I/(C/sub 6/H/sub 3/(CH/sub 2/NMe/sub 2/)-2-R-4)(COD). Since the rearrangement of Ir/sup I/(C/sub 6/H/sub 3/-(CH/sub 2/NMe/sub 2/)-2-R-6)(COD) to Ir/sup I/(C/sub 6/H/sub 3/(CH/sub 2/NMe/sub 2/)-2-R-4)(COD) can also be induced thermally at 60/sup 0/C, it is therefore being catalyzed by dihydrogen at 0/sup 0/C. None of these reactions with dihydrogen is attended by hydrogenation of the COD ligand.

  15. Reactivity of Cys4 zinc finger domains with gold(III) complexes: insights into the formation of "gold fingers".

    PubMed

    Jacques, Aurlie; Lebrun, Colette; Casini, Angela; Kieffer, Isabelle; Proux, Olivier; Latour, Jean-Marc; Snque, Olivier

    2015-04-20

    Gold(I) complexes such as auranofin or aurothiomalate have been used as therapeutic agents for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis for several decades. Several gold(I) and gold(III) complexes have also shown in vitro anticancer properties against human cancer cell lines, including cell lines resistant to cisplatin. Because of the thiophilicity of gold, cysteine-containing proteins appear as likely targets for gold complexes. Among them, zinc finger proteins have attracted attention and, recently, gold(I) and gold(III) complexes have been shown to inhibit poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose)polymerase-1 (PARP-1), which is an essential protein involved in DNA repair and in cancer resistance to chemotherapies. In this Article, we characterize the reactivity of the gold(III) complex [Au(III)(terpy)Cl]Cl2 (Auterpy) with a model of Zn(Cys)4 "zinc ribbon" zinc finger by a combination of absorption spectroscopy, circular dichroism, mass spectrometry, high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. We show that the Zn(Cys)4 site of ZnLZR is rapidly oxidized by Auterpy to form a disulfide bond. The Zn(2+) ion is released, and the two remaining cysteines coordinate the Au(+) ion that is produced during the redox reaction. Subsequent oxidation of these cysteines can take place in conditions of excess gold(III) complex. In the presence of excess free thiols mimicking the presence of glutathione in cells, mixing of the zinc finger model and gold(III) complex yields a different product: complex (Au(I))2LZR with two Au(+) ions bound to cysteines is formed. Thus, on the basis of detailed speciation and kinetic measurements, we demonstrate herein that the destruction of Zn(Cys)4 zinc fingers by gold(III) complexes to achieve the formation of "gold fingers" is worth consideration, either directly or mediated by reducing agents. PMID:25839236

  16. Complexity of Central Processing in Simple and Choice Multilimb Reaction-Time Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Boisgontier, Matthieu P.; Wittenberg, George F.; Fujiyama, Hakuei; Levin, Oron; Swinnen, Stephan P.

    2014-01-01

    The default mode of the motor system is a coupling between limbs. However, in some movements, a decoupling is required and thus calls for selection and facilitation/inhibition processes. Here, we investigate the relative contribution of recruitment versus selection processes to the overall processing complexity. To this aim we proposed a new multilimb reaction-time task (MUL-RT). Simple, choice and normalized (choice minus simple) RT were analysed together with error rates in thirty-six young adults for 15 coordination modes including all possible configuration of limb recruitment. Simple and normalized RTs were respectively assumed to be indicative of the recruitment and selection processes. Results supported a model of coupling/decoupling interactions respectively reporting weak, intermediate and strong interaction for selecting diagonal, ipsilateral and homologous limbs. Movement laterality (left vs. right) had no effect on selection complexity, whereas selecting upper limbs was less challenging than selecting lower limbs. Results in the different coordination modes suggested that recruitment complexity decreased as follows: 3 limbs?=?4 limbs>2 limbs (homologous, ipsilateral and diagonal)>1 limb, and selection complexity as follows: 2 diagonal limbs>3 limbs>2 ipsilateral limbs>1 limb?=?2 homologous limbs>4 limbs. Based on these ordinal scales of recruitment and selection complexity, we extrapolated the overall processing complexity of the simple and choice MUL-RT. This method was efficient in reproducing the absolute results we obtained on a ratio scale (ms) and demonstrated that processing complexity in simple RT was mainly governed by the recruitment principle (the more limbs recruited the lower the performance), whereas contributions of recruitment and selection principle (nature of the coordination determines performance) to overall processing complexity were similar in choice RT. PMID:24587371

  17. Indene formation under single-collision conditions from the reaction of phenyl radicals with allene and methylacetylene--a crossed molecular beam and ab initio study.

    PubMed

    Parker, Dorian S N; Zhang, Fangtong; Kaiser, Ralf I; Kislov, Vadim V; Mebel, Alexander M

    2011-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are regarded as key intermediates in the molecular growth process that forms soot from incomplete fossil fuel combustion. Although heavily researched, the reaction mechanisms for PAH formation have only been investigated through bulk experiments; therefore, current models remain conjectural. We report the first observation of a directed synthesis of a PAH under single-collision conditions. By using a crossed-molecular-beam apparatus, phenyl radicals react with C(3)H(4) isomers, methylacetylene and allene, to form indene at collision energies of 45 kJ mol(-1). The reaction dynamics supported by theoretical calculations show that both isomers decay through the same collision complex, are indirect, have long lifetimes, and form indene in high yields. Through the use of deuterium-substituted reactants, we were able to identify the reaction pathway to indene. PMID:21956874

  18. Formation of nitroanthracene and anthraquinone from the heterogeneous reaction between NO2 and anthracene adsorbed on NaCl particles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenyuan; Zhu, Tong

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), that is, nitro-PAHs and quinones, are classed as hazardous semivolatile organic compounds but their formation mechanism from the heterogeneous reactions of PAHs adsorbed on atmospheric particles is not well understood. The heterogeneous reaction of NO2 with anthracene adsorbed on NaCl particles under different relative humidity (RH 0-60%) was investigated under dark conditions at 298 K. The formation of the major products, 9,10-anthraquinone (9,10-AQ) and 9-nitroanthracene (9-NANT), were determined to be second-order reactions with respect to NO2 concentration. The rate of formation of 9,10-AQ under low RH (0-20%) increased as the RH increased but decreased when the RH was further increased in high RH (40-60%). In contrast, the rate of formation of 9-NANT across the whole RH range (0-60%) decreased significantly with increasing RH. Two different reaction pathways are discussed for the formation of 9,10-AQ and 9-NANT, respectively, and both are considered to be coupled to the predominant reaction of NO2 with the NaCl substrate. These results suggest that relative humidity, which controls the amount of surface adsorbed water on NaCl particles, plays an important role in the heterogeneous reaction of NO2 with adsorbed PAHs. PMID:24950458

  19. Trichloramine reactions with nitrogenous and carbonaceous compounds: kinetics, products and chloroform formation.

    PubMed

    Soltermann, Fabian; Canonica, Silvio; von Gunten, Urs

    2015-03-15

    Trichloramine is a hazardous disinfection by-product that is of particular relevance in indoor swimming pools. To better understand its fate in pool waters, apparent second order rate constants (kapp) at pH 7 for its reaction with several model compounds were determined. kapp values at pH 7 for nitrogenous compounds were found to increase in the following order: ammonia?amides (?10(-2)-10(-1)M(-1)s(-1))reaction of trichloramine with Suwannee River and Pony Lake fulvic acid standards showed a decrease of their reactivity upon chlorination, which can be related to the electron donating capacity and the SUVA254. Chlorinated nitrogenous compounds (e.g. uric acid) also have a reduced reactivity with trichloramine. Hence, the residual chlorine in pool water hinders a fast consumption of trichloramine. This explains why trichloramine degradation in pool water is lower than expected from the reactivity with the estimated bather input. Trichloramine also has the potential to form secondary disinfection by-products such as chlorinated aromatic compounds or chloroform by electron transfer or Cl(+)-transfer reactions. The chloroform formation from the reaction of trichloramine with resorcinol occurs with a similar yield and rate as for chlorination of resorcinol. Since the trichloramine concentration in pool water is commonly about one order of magnitude lower than the free chlorine concentration, its contribution to the disinfection by-product formation is assumed to be minor in most cases but might be relevant for few precursors (e.g. phenols) that react faster with trichloramine than with free chlorine. PMID:25655201

  20. Inhibitory effects of NAMI-A-like ruthenium complexes on prion neuropeptide fibril formation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuesong; Zhu, Dengsen; Zhao, Cong; He, Lei; Du, Weihong

    2015-05-01

    Prion diseases are a group of infectious and fatal neurodegenerative disorders caused by the conformational conversion of a cellular prion protein (PrP) into its abnormal isoform PrP(Sc). PrP106-126 resembles PrP(Sc) in terms of physicochemical and biological characteristics and is used as a common model for the treatment of prion diseases. Inhibitory effects on fibril formation and neurotoxicity of the prion neuropeptide PrP106-126 have been investigated using metal complexes as potential inhibitors. Nevertheless, the binding mechanism between metal complexes and the peptide remains unclear. The present study is focused on the interaction of PrP106-126 with NAMI-A and NAMI-A-like ruthenium complexes, including KP418, KP1019, and KP1019-2. Results demonstrated that these ruthenium complexes could bind to PrP106-126 in a distinctive binding mode through electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. NAMI-A-like ruthenium complexes can also effectively inhibit the aggregation and fibril formation of PrP106-126. The complex KP1019 demonstrated the optimal inhibitory ability upon peptide aggregation, and cytotoxicity because of its large aromatic ligand contribution. The studied complexes could also regulate the copper redox chemistry of PrP106-126 and effectually inhibit the formation of reactive oxygen species. Given these findings, ruthenium complexes with relatively low cellular toxicity may be used to develop potential pharmaceutical products against prion diseases. PMID:25856332

  1. Thermodynamics of the formation of atmospheric organic particulate matter by accretion reactions2. Dialdehydes, methylglyoxal, and diketones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsanti, Kelley C.; Pankow, James F.

    Predicting the formation of organic particulate matter (OPM) in the atmosphere by absorptive gas/particle partitioning requires a knowledge of the identities, atmospheric levels, and physical properties of all condensable species. Data from field and chamber experiments have shown that a portion of atmospheric OPM samples are comprised of products generated during oxidation of volatile organic compounds. It has been suggested that some of these initially formed oxidation products also contribute to the formation of atmospheric OPM via molecular-weight (MW) building "accretion reactions". The role of such reactions as well as a general theoretical approach for evaluating their thermodynamic relevance in regard to atmospheric OPM formation, have been discussed in prior work. This work utilizes that approach in considerations of accretion reactions of glyoxal, two other dialdehydes, methylglyoxal, and two diketones. The methods used to predict free energy of formation ( ?G) values (and hence equilibrium constant ( K) values) indicate that: (1) for 1,4-butanedial, 2,3-butanedione, and 2,5-hexanedione, the accretion reactions considered are not favorable; (2) for C 6 and higher dialdehydes, reaction by aldol condensation may contribute to atmospheric OPM formation under certain circumstances, if kinetically favorable; and (3) for glyoxal, diol and subsequent oligomer formation, and for methylglyoxal, aldol condensation, are thermodynamically favorable, and may contribute significantly to OPM in the atmosphere, if kinetically favorable.

  2. Insertion Reactions of Neutral Phosphidozirconocene Complexes as a Convenient Entry into Frustrated Lewis Pair Territory.

    PubMed

    Normand, Adrien T; Daniliuc, Constantin G; Wibbeling, Birgit; Kehr, Gerald; Le Gendre, Pierre; Erker, Gerhard

    2016-03-14

    Neutral phosphidozirconocene complexes [Cp2 Zr(PR2 )Me] (Cp=cyclopentadienyl; 1a: R=cyclohexyl (Cy); 1b: R=mesityl (Mes); 1c: R=tBu) undergo insertion into the Zr-P bond by non-enolisable carbonyl building blocks (O=CR'R''), such as benzophenone, aldehydes, paraformaldehyde or CO2 , to give [Cp2 Zr(OCR'R''PR2 )Me] (3-7). Depending on the steric bulk around P, complexes 3-7 react with B(C6 F5 )3 to give O-bridged cationic zirconocene dimers that display typical frustrated Lewis pair (FLP)/ambiphilic ligand behaviour. Thus, the reaction of {[Cp2 Zr(μ-OCHPhPCy2 )][MeB(C6 F5 )3 ]}2 (10a) with chalcone results in 1,4 addition of the Zr(+) /P FLP, whereas the reaction of {[Cp2 Zr(μ-OCHFcPCy2 )][MeB(C6 F5 )3 ]}2 (11a; Fc=(C5 H4 )CpFe) with [Pd(η(3) -C3 H5 )Cl]2 yields the unique Zr-Fe-Pd trimetallic complex 13a, which has been characterised by XRD analysis. PMID:26864796

  3. Accelerating the Computation of Detailed Chemical Reaction Kinetics for Simulating Combustion of Complex Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Sankaran, R.; Grout, R.

    2012-01-01

    Combustion of hydrocarbon fuels has been a very challenging scientific and engineering problem due to the complexity of turbulent flows and hydrocarbon reaction kinetics. There is an urgent need to develop an efficient modeling capability to accurately predict the combustion of complex fuels. Detailed chemical kinetic models for the surrogates of fuels such as gasoline, diesel and JP-8 consist of thousands of chemical species and Arrhenius reaction steps. Oxygenated fuels such as bio-fuels and heavier hydrocarbons, such as from newer fossil fuel sources, are expected to have a much more complex chemistry requiring increasingly larger chemical kinetic models. Such models are beyond current computational capability, except for homogeneous or partially stirred reactor type calculations. The advent of highly parallel multi-core processors and graphical processing units (GPUs) promises a steep increase in computational performance in the coming years. This paper will present a software framework that translates the detailed chemical kinetic models to high-performance code targeted for GPU accelerators.

  4. Low-valent iron(i) amido olefin complexes as promotors for dehydrogenation reactions.

    PubMed

    Lichtenberg, Crispin; Viciu, Liliana; Adelhardt, Mario; Sutter, Jrg; Meyer, Karsten; de Bruin, Bas; Grtzmacher, Hansjrg

    2015-05-01

    Fe(I) compounds including hydrogenases show remarkable properties and reactivities. Several iron(I) complexes have been established in stoichiometric reactions as model compounds for N2 or CO2 activation. The development of well-defined iron(I) complexes for catalytic transformations remains a challenge. The few examples include cross-coupling reactions, hydrogenations of terminal olefins, and azide functionalizations. Here the syntheses and properties of bimetallic complexes [MFe(I) (trop2 dae)(solv)] (M=Na, solv=3?thf; M=Li, solv=2?Et2 O; trop=5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclo-hepten-5-yl, dae=(N-CH2 -CH2 -N) with a d(7) Fe low-spin valence-electron configuration are reported. Both compounds promote the dehydrogenation of N,N-dimethylaminoborane, and the former is a precatalyst for the dehydrogenative alcoholysis of silanes. No indications for heterogeneous catalyses were found. High activities and complete conversions were observed particularly with [NaFe(I) (trop2 dae)(thf)3 ]. PMID:25765487

  5. Accelerating the Computation of Detailed Chemical Reaction Kinetics for Simulating Combustion of Complex Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Grout, Ray W

    2012-01-01

    Combustion of hydrocarbon fuels has been a very challenging scientific and engineering problem due to the complexity of turbulent flows and hydrocarbon reaction kinetics. There is an urgent need to develop an efficient modeling capability to accurately predict the combustion of complex fuels. Detailed chemical kinetic models for the surrogates of fuels such as gasoline, diesel and JP-8 consist of thousands of chemical species and Arrhenius reaction steps. Oxygenated fuels such as bio-fuels and heavier hydrocarbons, such as from newer fossil fuel sources, are expected to have a much more complex chemistry requiring increasingly larger chemical kinetic models. Such models are beyond current computational capability, except for homogeneous or partially stirred reactor type calculations. The advent of highly parallel multi-core processors and graphical processing units (GPUs) promises a steep increase in computational performance in the coming years. This paper will present a software framework that translates the detailed chemical kinetic models to high- performance code targeted for GPU accelerators.

  6. Stereoselective formation and catalytic activity of hydrido(acylphosphane)(chlorido)(pyrazole)rhodium(III) complexes. Experimental and DFT studies.

    PubMed

    San Nacianceno, Virginia; Azpeitia, Susan; Ibarlucea, Lourdes; Mendicute-Fierro, Claudio; Rodrguez-Diguez, Antonio; Seco, Jos M; San Sebastian, Eider; Garralda, Mara A

    2015-08-01

    The reaction of [{RhCl(COD)}2] (COD = 1,5-cyclooctadiene) with L = pyrazole (Hpz), 3(5)-methylpyrazole (Hmpz) or 3,5-dimethylpyrazole (Hdmpz) and PPh2(o-C6H4CHO) (Rh?:?L?:?P = 1?:?2?:?1) gives hydridoacyl complexes [RhHCl{PPh2(o-C6H4CO)}(L)2] (). Stereoselective formation of and with pyrazoles trans to hydrido and phosphorus and hydrogen bond formation with O-acyl and chlorido occur. is a mixture of two linkage isomers in a 9?:?1 ratio, with two 5-methylpyrazole ligands or with one 3- and one 5-methylpyrazole ligand, respectively. Fluxional undergoes metallotropic tautomerization and is a mixture of equal amounts of and , with hydrido trans to pyrazole or chlorido, respectively. Complexes readily exchange hydrido by chlorido to afford [RhCl2{PPh2(o-C6H4CO)}(L)2] (, and ) as single isomers with cis chloridos and two N-HCl hydrogen bonds. The reaction of with PPh3 or PPh2OH affords static [RhHCl{PPh2(o-C6H4CO)}(PPh3)L] () or [RhHCl{PPh2(o-C6H4CO)}(PPh2OH)L] () respectively with trans P-atoms and pyrazoles forming N-HCl hydrogen bonds. and contain single species with hydrido cis to chlorido, while is a mixture of equal amounts of and . Complexes , with an additional O-HO hydrogen bond, selectively contain only the cis-H,Cl species with all the three ligands. The reaction of [{RhCl(COD)}2] with L and PPh2(o-C6H4CHO) (Rh?:?L?:?P = 1?:?1?:?2) led to complexes with trans P-atoms, [RhHCl{PPh2(o-C6H4CO)}{PPh2(o-C6H4CHO)-?P}L] (, and ), at room temperature, and to [RhCl{PPh2(o-C6H4CO)}{PPh2(o-C6H4CHOH)}(Hmpz)] () or [RhCl{PPh2(o-C6H4CO)}2L] () with hydrogen evolution in refluxing benzene. DFT calculations were used to predict the correct isomers, their ratios and the particular intramolecular hydrogen bonds in these complexes. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis was performed on , and . Complexes are efficient homogeneous catalysts (0.5 mol% loading) in the hydrolysis of amine- or ammonia-borane (AB) to generate up to 3 equivalents of hydrogen in the presence of air. PMID:26107554

  7. Simplified Representation of Partial and Total Rate Constants of Complex-Forming Bimolecular Reactions.

    PubMed

    Troe, J

    2015-12-17

    The temperature and pressure dependence of partial and total rate constants of complex-forming bimolecular reactions are investigated with the goal to obtain simplified and compact rate constant expressions suitable for data compilations. The transition of the reactions from low pressure chemical activation to high pressure association character is analyzed. The two processes are modeled separately first by solving master equations, leading to "inverse" and "normal" falloff curves, respectively, and allowing for a compact representation of the separated rate constants. It is shown that broadening factors of the two falloff curves are different, and those of chemical activation often approaching unity. Coupling of the two separate processes then is modeled in a simplified manner. Finally, thermal redissociation of the adducts formed by association is accounted for. PMID:26334454

  8. Probing Complex Free-Radical Reaction Pathways of Fuel Model Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan III, A C; Kidder, Michelle; Beste, Ariana; Britt, Phillip F

    2012-01-01

    Fossil (e.g. coal) and renewable (e.g. woody biomass) organic energy resources have received considerable attention as possible sources of liquid transportation fuels and commodity chemicals. Knowledge of the reactivity of these complex materials has been advanced through fundamental studies of organic compounds that model constituent substructures. In particular, an improved understanding of thermochemical reaction pathways involving free-radical intermediates has arisen from detailed experimental kinetic studies and, more recently, advanced computational investigations. In this presentation, we will discuss our recent investigations of the fundamental pyrolysis pathways of model compounds that represent key substructures in the lignin component of woody biomass with a focus on molecules representative of the dominant beta-O-4 aryl ether linkages. Additional mechanistic insights gleaned from DFT calculations on the kinetics of key elementary reaction steps will also be presented, as well as a few thoughts on the significant contributions of Jim Franz to this area of free radical chemistry.

  9. Carbon-carbon bond cleavage and formation reactions in drug metabolism and the role of metabolic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Bolleddula, Jayaprakasam; Chowdhury, Swapan K

    2015-11-01

    Elimination of xenobiotics from the human body is often facilitated by a transformation to highly water soluble and more ionizable molecules. In general, oxidation-reduction, hydrolysis, and conjugation reactions are common biotransformation reactions that are catalyzed by various metabolic enzymes including cytochrome P450s (CYPs), non-CYPs, and conjugative enzymes. Although carbon-carbon (C-C) bond formation and cleavage reactions are known to exist in plant secondary metabolism, these reactions are relatively rare in mammalian metabolism and are considered exceptions. However, various reactions such as demethylation, dealkylation, dearylation, reduction of alkyl chain, ring expansion, ring contraction, oxidative elimination of a nitrile through C-C bond cleavage, and dimerization, and glucuronidation through C-C bond formation have been reported for drug molecules. Carbon-carbon bond cleavage reactions for drug molecules are primarily catalyzed by CYP enzymes, dimerization is mediated by peroxidases, and C-glucuronidation is catalyzed by UGT1A9. This review provides an overview of C-C bond cleavage and formation reactions in drug metabolism and the metabolic enzymes associated with these reactions. PMID:26390887

  10. Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation in Aerosol Water by Photochemical Reactions of Gaseous Mixture of Monoterpene and Hydrogen Peroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, H.; Yi, S.; Park, J.; Cho, H.; Jung, K.

    2011-12-01

    There exist large uncertainties in model predictions for climate change and regional air quality. It could be caused by incomplete integration of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in atmospheric chemical models. Recent laboratory studies have found SOA formation through chemical reactions on aerosol surface and in aerosol water. Water soluble organics formed by photochemical degradation of biogenic organics including isoprene and anthropogenic aromatics are predicted to form substantial amount of SOA through the newly found pathways. Although SOA formation in bulk aqueous solution was reported for laboratory experiments of various precursors (e.g., water soluble carbonyls and phenols), little is known for SOA formation in real aerosol water. In this study, photochemical reactions of the gaseous mixture of monoterpene and hydrogen peroxide were examined to investigate SOA formation through reactions in real aerosol phase water. SOA formation was conducted using a flow tube reactor (ID 30 cm x L 150 cm, FEP) and a smog chamber using FEP film in the presence of dry and wet seed particles. Acidity and chemical composition of seed aerosol were also controlled as important parameters influencing SOA formation. Particle size distribution and aerosol composition were analyzed to account for differences in SOA formation mechanisms and yields for dry and wet particles. The differences might be mainly associated with SOA formation in aerosol phase water. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MEST) (No. 2011-0000221).

  11. Reactions of heteroatom and carbon nucleophiles with the cationic bridging methylidyne complex

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, C.P.; Crocker, M.; Vosejpka, P.C.; Fagan, P.J.; Marder, S.R.; Gohdes, M.A.

    1988-03-01

    The reaction of the ..mu..-methylidyne complex /((C/sub 5/H/sub 5/)(CO)Fe)/sub 2/(..mu..-CO)(..mu..-CH)//sup +/PF/sub 6//sup -/ (1) with NMe/sub 3/ and (C/sub 6/H/sub 5/)/sub 2/C=NH gave the cationic 1:1 adducts /((C/sub 5/H/sub 5/)(CO)Fe)/sub 2/(..mu..-CO)(..mu..-CHNMe/sub 3/)//sup +/PF/sub 6//sup -/ (3) and /((C/sub 5/H/sub 5/)(CO)Fe)/sub 2/(..mu..-CHNH=C(C/sub 6/H/sub 5/)/sub 2/)//sup +/PF/sub 6//sup -/ (9), respectively, arising from attack of nitrogen on the methylidyne carbon. The reaction of 1 with KOC(CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/ gave the neutral ..mu..-carbene complex ((C/sub 5/H/sub 5/)(CO)Fe)/sub 2/(..mu..-CO)(..mu..-CHOC(CH/sub 3/)P/sub 3/) (4). Reaction of 1 with water afforded a 1:1 mixture of ..mu..methylene complex ((C/sub 5/H/sub 5/)(CO)Fe)/sub 2/(..mu..-CO)(..mu..-CH/sub 2/) (2) and ((C/sub 5/H/sub 5/)(CO)Fe)/sub 2/(..mu..-CO)/sub 2/; these products are proposed to arise from disproportionation of an initially formed hydroxy carbene species. Reaction of 1 with Et/sub 4/N/sup +/Br/sup -/ gave the unstable /sup +/-carbene complex ((C/sub 5/H/sub 5/)(CO)Fe)/sub 2/(..mu..-CO)(..mu..-CHBr) (6). Reaction of 1 with the carbon nucleophiles CH/sub 3/Li and Li(C/sub 6/H/sub 5/CuCN) gave the ..mu..-carbene complexes ((C/sub 5/H/sub 5/)(CO)Fe/sub 2/(..mu..-CO)(..mu..-CHCH/sub 3/) (11) and ((C/sub 5/H/sub 5/)(CO)Fe)/sub 2/(..mu..-CO)(..mu..-CHC/sub 6/H/sub 5/ (12), while reaction of 1 with HFe(CO)/sub 4//sup -/ afforded 2. 1 reacted with acetone via nucleophilic addition of the enol affording the neutral ..mu..-carbene complex (C/sub 5/H/sub 5/)-(CO)Fe)/sub 2/(..mu..-CO)(..mu..-CHCH/sub 2/COCH/sub 3/)) (13). 1 also reacted with cyclohexanone, 2-butanone, 4-methyl-2-pentanone, 2,4-pentanedione, 5,5-dimethyl-1,3-cyclohexanedione, ethyl acetoacetate, and the sodium salt of diethyl malonate to give similar ..mu..-carbene products.

  12. Cleavage and formation of molecular dinitrogen in a single system assisted by molybdenum complexes bearing ferrocenyldiphosphine.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Takamasa; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Tanabe, Yoshiaki; Yuki, Masahiro; Nakajima, Kazunari; Yoshizawa, Kazunari; Nishibayashi, Yoshiaki

    2014-10-20

    The N≡N bond of molecular dinitrogen bridging two molybdenum atoms in the pentamethylcyclopentadienyl molybdenum complexes that bear ferrocenyldiphosphine as an auxiliary ligand is homolytically cleaved under visible light irradiation at room temperature to afford two molar molybdenum nitride complexes. Conversely, the bridging molecular dinitrogen is reformed by the oxidation of the molybdenum nitride complex at room temperature. This result provides a successful example of the cleavage and formation of molecular dinitrogen induced by a pair of two different external stimuli using a single system assisted by molybdenum complexes bearing ferrocenyldiphosphine under ambient conditions. PMID:25214300

  13. Understanding the Mechanism of the Divergent Reactivity of Non-Heteroatom-Stabilized Chromium Carbene Complexes with Furfural Imines: Formation of Benzofurans and Azetines.

    PubMed

    Funes-Ardoiz, Ignacio; González, Jairo; Santamaría, Javier; Sampedro, Diego

    2016-02-19

    The mechanisms of the reaction between non-heteroatom-stabilized alkynyl chromium carbene complexes prepared in situ and furfural imines to yield benzofurans and/or azetines have been explored by means of density functional theory method calculations. The reaction proceeds through a complex cascade of steps triggered by a nucleophilic addition of the imine nitrogen atom. The formation of two benzofuran regioisomers has been explained in terms of competitive nucleophilic attacks to different positions of the carbene complex. Each of these regioisomers can be obtained as the major product depending on the starting materials. The overall sequence could be controlled to yield benzofurans or azetines by adjusting the substituents present in the initial carbene complex. This mechanistic information allowed for the preparation of new benzofurans and azetinylcarbenes in good yields. PMID:26799934

  14. '(eta(6)-arene)Ru(bis-NHC)' complexes for the reduction of CO(2) to formate with hydrogen and by transfer hydrogenation with iPrOH.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Sergio; Azua, Arturo; Peris, Eduardo

    2010-07-21

    A series of bis-NHC-complexes of Ru and Ir have been tested in the reduction of carbon dioxide to formate. The use of one of the '(eta(6)-arene)Ru(bis-NHC)' complexes (labeled as 1 in the text) in the reduction of carbon dioxide with hydrogen affords a maximum TON value of 23000 at 200 degrees C. The same complexes were used in the reduction of carbon dioxide with iPrOH by the transfer hydrogenation methodology. For this reaction, a maximum TON value of 874 was achieved, the highest reported to date for this type of process. The activity of the catalyst is highly dependent on its stability because the complex has to stand the severe reaction conditions used in the process (200 degrees C). PMID:20520869

  15. Origin of the synchronicity in bond formation in polar Diels-Alder reactions: an ELF analysis of the reaction between cyclopentadiene and tetracyanoethylene.

    PubMed

    Domingo, Luis R; Prez, Patricia; Sez, Jose A

    2012-05-21

    The origin of the synchronicity in C-C bond formation in polar Diels-Alder (P-DA) reactions involving symmetrically substituted electrophilic ethylenes has been studied by an ELF analysis of the electron reorganization along the P-DA reaction of cyclopentadiene (Cp) with tetracyanoethylene (TCE) at the B3LYP/6-31G* level. The present study makes it possible to establish that the synchronicity in C-C bond formation in P-DA reactions is controlled by the symmetric distribution of the electron-density excess reached in the electrophile through the charge transfer process, which can be anticipated by an analysis of the spin electron-density at the corresponding radical anion. The ELF comparative analysis of bonding along the DA reactions of Cp with ethylene and with TCE asserts that these DA reactions, which have a symmetric electron reorganization, do not have a cyclic electron reorganization as the pericyclic mechanism states. Due to the very limited number of cases of symmetrically substituted ethylenes, we can conclude that the synchronous mechanism is an exception of DA reactions. PMID:22527420

  16. Uranyl triazolate formation via an in situ Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Knope, Karah E.; Cahill, Christopher L.

    2011-01-01

    A two dimensional UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} coordination polymer, (UO{sub 2}){sub 3}(C{sub 10}H{sub 5}N{sub 3}O{sub 4}){sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}, has been synthesized under solvothermal conditions. The triazolate ligand, 1-(4-carboxyphenyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4-carboxylic acid (CPTAZ) has been generated via a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of 4-azidobenzoic acid and propiolic acid. Reactions of the UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} cation with both the in situ generated triazolate ligand and the presynthesized ligand have been explored. The structure, fluorescent and thermal behaviour of this material are presented, as is a discussion of the utility of in situ ligand formation versus direct assembly.

  17. Geranic Acid Formation, an Initial Reaction of Anaerobic Monoterpene Metabolism in Denitrifying Alcaligenes defragrans

    PubMed Central

    Heyen, Udo; Harder, Jens

    2000-01-01

    Monoterpenes with an unsaturated hydrocarbon structure are mineralized anaerobically by the denitrifying ?-proteobacterium Alcaligenes defragrans. Organic acids occurring in cells of A. defragrans and culture medium were characterized to identify potential products of the monoterpene activation reaction. Geranic acid (E,E-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienoic acid) accumulated to 0.5 mM in cells grown on ?-phellandrene under nitrate limitation. Cell suspensions of A. defragrans 65Phen synthesized geranic acid in the presence of ?-myrcene, ?-phellandrene, limonene, or ?-pinene. Myrcene yielded the highest transformation rates. The alicyclic acid was consumed by cell suspensions during carbon limitation. Heat-labile substances present in cytosolic extracts catalyzed the formation of geranic acid from myrcene. These results indicated that a novel monoterpene degradation pathway must be present in A. defragrans. PMID:10877798

  18. Hydrolysis of Guanosine Triphosphate (GTP) by the RasGAP Protein Complex: Reaction Mechanism and Kinetic Scheme.

    PubMed

    Khrenova, Maria G; Grigorenko, Bella L; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B; Nemukhin, Alexander V

    2015-10-01

    Molecular mechanisms of the hydrolysis of guanosine triphosphate (GTP) to guanosine diphosphate (GDP) and inorganic phosphate (Pi) by the RasGAP protein complex are fully investigated by using modern modeling tools. The previously hypothesized stages of the cleavage of the phosphorus-oxygen bond in GTP and the formation of the imide form of catalytic Gln61 from Ras upon creation of Pi are confirmed by using the higher-level quantum-based calculations. The steps of the enzyme regeneration are modeled for the first time, providing a comprehensive description of the catalytic cycle. It is found that for the reaction RasGAPGTPH2O ? RasGAPGDPPi, the highest barriers correspond to the process of regeneration of the active site but not to the process of substrate cleavage. The specific shape of the energy profile is responsible for an interesting kinetic mechanism of the GTP hydrolysis. The analysis of the process using the first-passage approach and consideration of kinetic equations suggest that the overall reaction rate is a result of the balance between relatively fast transitions and low probability of states from which these transitions are taking place. Our theoretical predictions are in excellent agreement with available experimental observations on GTP hydrolysis rates. PMID:26374425

  19. URDME: a modular framework for stochastic simulation of reaction-transport processes in complex geometries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Experiments in silico using stochastic reaction-diffusion models have emerged as an important tool in molecular systems biology. Designing computational software for such applications poses several challenges. Firstly, realistic lattice-based modeling for biological applications requires a consistent way of handling complex geometries, including curved inner- and outer boundaries. Secondly, spatiotemporal stochastic simulations are computationally expensive due to the fast time scales of individual reaction- and diffusion events when compared to the biological phenomena of actual interest. We therefore argue that simulation software needs to be both computationally efficient, employing sophisticated algorithms, yet in the same time flexible in order to meet present and future needs of increasingly complex biological modeling. Results We have developed URDME, a flexible software framework for general stochastic reaction-transport modeling and simulation. URDME uses Unstructured triangular and tetrahedral meshes to resolve general geometries, and relies on the Reaction-Diffusion Master Equation formalism to model the processes under study. An interface to a mature geometry and mesh handling external software (Comsol Multiphysics) provides for a stable and interactive environment for model construction. The core simulation routines are logically separated from the model building interface and written in a low-level language for computational efficiency. The connection to the geometry handling software is realized via a Matlab interface which facilitates script computing, data management, and post-processing. For practitioners, the software therefore behaves much as an interactive Matlab toolbox. At the same time, it is possible to modify and extend URDME with newly developed simulation routines. Since the overall design effectively hides the complexity of managing the geometry and meshes, this means that newly developed methods may be tested in a realistic setting already at an early stage of development. Conclusions In this paper we demonstrate, in a series of examples with high relevance to the molecular systems biology community, that the proposed software framework is a useful tool for both practitioners and developers of spatial stochastic simulation algorithms. Through the combined efforts of algorithm development and improved modeling accuracy, increasingly complex biological models become feasible to study through computational methods. URDME is freely available at http://www.urdme.org. PMID:22727185

  20. H2SO4 and SO3 transfer reactions in a sulfopeptide-basic peptide complex.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Amanda L; Polfer, Nicolas C

    2015-10-01

    We report on the intermolecular transfer of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and sulfur trioxide (SO3) from an acidic sulfopeptide (sSE) to a basic peptide (R3); this is achieved by subjecting a noncovalent complex of sSE + R3 to collisional activation in a quadrupole ion trap. The product ions resulting from the sulfo-group transfers were characterized by MS(3) experiments. Peak assignments were additionally supported by isotope-labeling and energy-resolved collision induced dissiciation (CID) experiments. The observed reactions and their potential implications for proteomics and post-translational modification discovery experiments are discussed. PMID:26335182

  1. A common intermediate for N2 formation in enzymes and zeolites: side-on Cu-nitrosyl complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Kwak, Ja Hun; Lee, Jong H.; Burton, Sarah D.; Lipton, Andrew S.; Peden, Charles HF; Szanyi, Janos

    2013-09-16

    Understanding the mechanisms of catalytic processes requires the identification of reaction centers and key intermediates, both of which are often achieved by the use of spectroscopic characterization tools. Due to the heterogeneity of active centers in heterogeneous catalysts, it is frequently difficult to identify the specific sites that are responsible for the overall activity. Furthermore, the simultaneous presence of a large number of surface species on the catalyst surface often poses a great challenge for the unambiguous determination of the relevant species in the reaction mechanism. In contrast, enzymes possess catalytically active centers with precisely defined coordination environments that are only able to accommodate intermediates relevant to the specific catalytic process. Here we show that side-on Cu+-NO+ complexes characterized by high magnetic field solid state magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies are the key intermediates in the selective catalytic reduction of NO over Cu-SSZ-13 zeolite catalysts. Analogous intermediates have been observed and characterized in nitrite reductase enzymes, and shown to be the critical intermediates in the formation of N2 for anaerobic ammonium oxidation reactions.[1] The identification of this key reaction intermediate, combined with the results of our prior kinetic studies, allows us to propose a new reaction mechanism for the selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH3 under oxygen-rich environments over Cu-SSZ-13 zeolites, a key reaction in automotive emission control. The authors acknowledge the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy/Vehicle Technologies Program for the support of this work. The research described in this paper was performed at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOEs Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated for the US DOE by Battelle Memorial Institute.

  2. The elementary reactions of the pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. A study of the inhibition by phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Walsh, D A; Cooper, R H; Denton, R M; Bridges, B J; Randle, P J

    1976-07-01

    1. A method was devised for preparing pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase free of thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP), permitting studies of the binding of [35S]TPP to pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate. The Kd of TPP for pyruvate dehydrogenase was in the range 6.2-8.2 muM, whereas that for pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate was approximately 15 muM; both forms of the complex contained about the same total number of binding sites (500 pmol/unit of enzyme). EDTA completely inhibited binding of TPP; sodium pyrophosphate, adenylyl imidodiphosphate and GTP, which are inhibitors (competitive with TPP) of the overall pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction, did not appreciably affect TPP binding. 2. Initial-velocity patterns of the overall pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction obtained with varying TPP, CoA and NAD+ concentrations at a fixed pyruvate concentration were consistent with a sequential three-site Ping Pong mechanism; in the presence of oxaloacetate and citrate synthase to remove acetyl-CoA (an inhibitor of the overall reaction) the values of Km for NAD+ and CoA were 53+/- 5 muM and 1.9+/-0.2 muM respectively. Initial-velocity patterns observed with varying TPP concentrations at various fixed concentrations of pyruvate were indicative of either a compulsory order of addition of substrates to form a ternary complex (pyruvate-Enz-TPP) or a random-sequence mechanism in which interconversion of ternary intermediates is rate-limiting; values of Km for pyruvate and TPP were 25+/-4 muM and 50+/-10 nM respectively. The Kia-TPP (the dissociation constant for Enz-TPP complex calculated from kinetic plots) was close to the value of Kd-TPP (determined by direct binding studies). 3. Inhibition of the overall pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction by pyrophosphate was mixed non-competitive versus pyruvate and competitive versus TPP; however, pyrophosphate did not alter the calculated value for Kia-TPP, consistent with the lack of effect of pyrophosphate on the Kd for TPP. 4. Pyruvate dehydrogenase catalysed a TPP-dependent production of 14CO2 from [1-14C]pyruvate in the absence of NAD+ and CoA at approximately 0.35% of the overall reaction rate; this was substantially inhibited by phosphorylation of the enzyme both in the presence and absence of acetaldehyde (which stimulates the rate of 14CO2 production two- or three-fold). 5. Pyruvate dehydrogenase catalysed a partial back-reaction in the presence of TPP, acetyl-CoA and NADH. The Km for TPP was 4.1+/-0.5 muM. The partial back-reaction was stimulated by acetaldehyde, inhibited by pyrophosphate and abolished by phosphorylation. 6. Formation of enzyme-bound [14C]acetylhydrolipoate from [3-14C]pyruvate but not from [1-14C]acetyl-CoA was inhibited by phosphorylation. Phosphorylation also substantially inhibited the transfer of [14C]acetyl groups from enzyme-bound [14C]acetylhydrolipoate to TPP in the presence of NADH. 7... PMID:183746

  3. Nearside-farside, local angular momentum and resummation theories: Useful tools for understanding the dynamics of complex-mode reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankel, Marlies; Connor, J. N. L.

    2015-07-01

    A valuable tool for understanding the dynamics of direct reactions is Nearside-Farside (NF) scattering theory. It makes a decomposition of the (resummed) partial wave series for the scattering amplitude, both for the differential cross section (DCS) and the Local Angular Momentum (LAM). This paper makes the first combined application of these techniques to complex-mode reactions. We ask if NF theory is a useful tool for their identification, in particular, can it distinguish complex-mode from direct-mode reactions? We also ask whether NF theory can identify NF interference oscillations in the full DCSs of complex-mode reactions. Our investigation exploits the fact that accurate quantum scattering matrix elements have recently become available for complex-mode reactions. We first apply NF theory to two simple models for the scattering amplitude of a complex-mode reaction: One involves a single Legendre polynomial; the other involves a single Legendre function of the first kind, whose form is suggested by complex angular momentum theory. We then study, at fixed translational energies, four state-to-state complex-mode reactions. They are: S(1D) + HD ? SH + D, S(1D) + DH ? SD + H, N(2D) +H2 ? NH + H, and H+ + D2 ? HD + D+. We compare the NF results for the DCSs and LAMs with those for a state-to-state direct reaction, namely, F + H2 ? FH + H. We demonstrate that NF theory is a valuable tool for identifying and analyzing the dynamics of complex-mode reactions.

  4. Characterization of self-propagating formation reactions in Ni/Zr multilayered foils using reaction heats, velocities, and temperature-time profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Barron, S. C.; Knepper, R.; Walker, N.; Weihs, T. P.

    2011-01-11

    We report on intermetallic formation reactions in vapor-deposited multilayered foils of Ni/Zr with 70 nm bilayers and overall atomic ratios of Ni:Zr, 2 Ni:Zr, and 7 Ni:2 Zr. The sequence of alloy phase formation and the stored energy is evaluated at slow heating rates (~1 K/s) using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) traces to 725ºC. All three chemistries initially form a Ni-Zr amorphous phase which crystallizes first to the intermetallic NiZr. The heat of reaction to the final phase is 34-36 kJ/mol atom for all chemistries. Intermetallic formation reactions are also studied at rapid heating rates (greater than 105 K/s) in high temperature, self-propagating reactions which can be ignited in these foils by an electric spark. We find that reaction velocities and maximum reaction temperatures (Tmax) are largely independent of foil chemistry at 0.6 ± 0.1 m/s and 1220 ± 50 K, respectively, and that the measured Tmax is more than 200 K lower than predicted adiabatic temperatures (Tad). The difference between Tmax and Tad is explained by the prediction that transformation to the final intermetallic phases occurs after Tmax and results in the release of 20-30 % of the total heat of reaction and a delay in rapid cooling.

  5. Inhibitory mechanism of pancreatic amyloid fibril formation: formation of the complex between tea catechins and the fragment of residues 22-27.

    PubMed

    Kamihira-Ishijima, Miya; Nakazawa, Hiromi; Kira, Atsushi; Naito, Akira; Nakayama, Tsutomu

    2012-12-21

    Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) is a major component of pancreatic amyloid deposits associated with type 2 diabetes. Polyphenols contained in plant foods have been found to inhibit amyloid fibril formation of proteins and/or peptides. However, the inhibition mechanism is not clear for a variety of systems. Here the inhibition mechanism of green tea polyphenols, catechins, on amyloid fibril formation of the IAPP fragment (IAPP22-27), which is of sufficient length for formation of ?-sheet-containing amyloid fibrils, was investigated by means of kinetic analysis. A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) determined that the association constants of gallate-type catechins [epicatechin 3-gallate (ECg) and epigallocatechin 3-gallate] for binding to IAPP22-27 immobilized on the gold plate in QCM were 1 order of magnitude larger than those of the free IAPP22-27 peptide, and also those of epicatechin and epigallocatechin. Kinetic analysis using a two-step autocatalytic reaction mechanism revealed that ECg significantly reduced the rate constants of the first nucleation step of amyloid fibril formation, while the rate of autocatalytic growth was less retarded. (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance studies clarified that a IAPP22-27/ECg complex clearly forms as viewed from the (1)H chemical shift changes and line broadening. Our study suggests that tea catechins specifically inhibit the early stages of amyloid fibril formation to form amyloid nuclei by interacting with the unstructured peptide and that this inhibition mechanism is of great therapeutic value because stabilization of the native state could delay the pathogenesis of amyloid diseases and also the toxicity of the small oligomer (protofibril) is reported to be greater than that of the mature fibril. PMID:23205879

  6. DNA Polymerase α Subunit Residues and Interactions Required for Efficient Initiation Complex Formation Identified by a Genetic Selection.

    PubMed

    Lindow, Janet C; Dohrmann, Paul R; McHenry, Charles S

    2015-07-01

    Biophysical and structural studies have defined many of the interactions that occur between individual components or subassemblies of the bacterial replicase, DNA polymerase III holoenzyme (Pol III HE). Here, we extended our knowledge of residues and interactions that are important for the first step of the replicase reaction: the ATP-dependent formation of an initiation complex between the Pol III HE and primed DNA. We exploited a genetic selection using a dominant negative variant of the polymerase catalytic subunit that can effectively compete with wild-type Pol III α and form initiation complexes, but cannot elongate. Suppression of the dominant negative phenotype was achieved by secondary mutations that were ineffective in initiation complex formation. The corresponding proteins were purified and characterized. One class of mutant mapped to the PHP domain of Pol III α, ablating interaction with the ϵ proofreading subunit and distorting the polymerase active site in the adjacent polymerase domain. Another class of mutation, found near the C terminus, interfered with τ binding. A third class mapped within the known β-binding domain, decreasing interaction with the β2 processivity factor. Surprisingly, mutations within the β binding domain also ablated interaction with τ, suggesting a larger τ