Science.gov

Sample records for complex humanitarian emergency

  1. Globalisation, complex humanitarian emergencies and health.

    PubMed

    O'Dempsey, T J D; Munslow, B

    2006-01-01

    A new political economy of conflict has emerged in the aftermath of colonialism and the Cold War. Complex political emergencies have been simmering in the post-colonial world for more than three decades. Intra-country armed conflict, often combined with natural disasters, at present contributes to the displacement of over 20 million people world-wide. The international community remains profoundly uncomfortable with the complex political emergencies of the new era, torn between the respect for national sovereignty upon which the international political system of the United Nations and other agencies is built, and the growth of concern with human rights and a burgeoning International Humanitarian Law. Globalisation may have brought many benefits to some but there are also many losers. The Word Bank and the International Monetary Fund imposed structural adjustment policies to ensure debt repayment and economic restructuring that have resulted in a net reduction in expenditure on health, education and development. A downward spiral has been created of debt, disease, malnutrition, missed education, economic entrapment, poverty, powerlessness, marginalization, migration and instability. Africa's complex political emergencies are particularly virulent and tenacious. Three examples that are among the most serious humanitarian emergencies to have faced the world in recent times--those in Angola, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Sudan--are reviewed here in detail. The political evolution of these emergencies and their impact on the health of the affected populations are also explored. PMID:16899151

  2. Neonatal survival in complex humanitarian emergencies: setting an evidence-based research agenda

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Over 40% of all deaths among children under 5 are neonatal deaths (0–28 days), and this proportion is increasing. In 2012, 2.9 million newborns died, with 99% occurring in low- and middle-income countries. Many of the countries with the highest neonatal mortality rates globally are currently or have recently been affected by complex humanitarian emergencies. Despite the global burden of neonatal morbidity and mortality and risks inherent in complex emergency situations, research investments are not commensurate to burden and little is known about the epidemiology or best practices for neonatal survival in these settings. Methods We used the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) methodology to prioritize research questions on neonatal health in complex humanitarian emergencies. Experts evaluated 35 questions using four criteria (answerability, feasibility, relevance, equity) with three subcomponents per criterion. Using SAS 9.2, a research prioritization score (RPS) and average expert agreement score (AEA) were calculated for each question. Results Twenty-eight experts evaluated all 35 questions. RPS ranged from 0.846 to 0.679 and the AEA ranged from 0.667 to 0.411. The top ten research priorities covered a range of issues but generally fell into two categories– epidemiologic and programmatic components of neonatal health. The highest ranked question in this survey was “What strategies are effective in increasing demand for, and use of skilled attendance?” Conclusions In this study, a diverse group of experts used the CHRNI methodology to systematically identify and determine research priorities for neonatal health and survival in complex humanitarian emergencies. The priorities included the need to better understand the magnitude of the disease burden and interventions to improve neonatal health in complex humanitarian emergencies. The findings from this study will provide guidance to researchers and program implementers in

  3. Vaccine-preventable disease and the under-utilization of immunizations in complex humanitarian emergencies.

    PubMed

    Close, Ryan M; Pearson, Catherine; Cohn, Jennifer

    2016-09-01

    Complex humanitarian emergencies affect 40-60 million people annually and are a growing public health concern worldwide. Despite efforts to provide medical and public health services to populations affected by complex emergencies, significant morbidity and mortality persist. Measles is a major communicable disease threat, but through vaccination of broader target age groups beyond the traditional immunization schedule, measles-related mortality has been significantly reduced during crises. Yet, a limited number of vaccine-preventable diseases continue to contribute disproportionately to morbidity and mortality in complex emergencies. The literature suggests that Streptococcus pneumoniae, Rotavirus, and Haemophilus influenzae type-b should be key targets for vaccination programs. Because of the significant contribution of these three pathogens to complex humanitarian emergencies in low and middle-income countries regardless of disaster type, geography, or population, their vaccines should be considered essential components of the standard emergency response effort. We discuss the barriers to vaccine distribution and provide evidence for strategies to improve distribution, including expanded target age-range and reduced dose schedules. Our review includes specific recommendations for the expanded use of these three vaccines in complex emergencies in low and middle-income countries as a way to guide future policy discussions. PMID:27527818

  4. Availability and Diversity of Training Programs for Responders to International Disasters and Complex Humanitarian Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Jacquet, Gabrielle A.; Obi, Chioma C.; Chang, Mary P.; Bayram, Jamil D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Volunteers and members of relief organizations increasingly seek formal training prior to international field deployment. This paper identifies training programs for personnel responding to international disasters and complex humanitarian emergencies, and provides concise information – if available- regarding the founding organization, year established, location, cost, duration of training, participants targeted, and the content of each program. Methods: An environmental scan was conducted through a combination of a peer-reviewed literature search and an open Internet search for the training programs. Literature search engines included EMBASE, Cochrane, Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science databases using the search terms “international,” “disaster,” “complex humanitarian emergencies,” “training,” and “humanitarian response”. Both searches were conducted between January 2, 2013 and September 12, 2013. Results: 14 peer-reviewed articles mentioned or described eight training programs, while open Internet search revealed 13 additional programs. In total, twenty-one training programs were identified as currently available for responders to international disasters and CHE. Each of the programs identified has different goals and objectives, duration, expenses, targeted trainees and modules. Each of the programs identified has different goals and objectives, duration, expenses, targeted trainees and modules. Seven programs (33%) are free of charge and four programs (19%) focus on the mental aspects of disasters. The mean duration for each training program is 5 to 7 days. Fourteen of the trainings are conducted in multiple locations (66%), two in Cuba (9%) and two in Australia (9%). The cost-reported in US dollars- ranges from $100 to $2,400 with a mean cost of $480 and a median cost of $135. Most of the programs are open to the public, but some are only available by invitation only, such as the International Mobilization Preparation for

  5. Nursing and complex humanitarian emergencies: Ebola is more than a disease.

    PubMed

    Downes, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    To effectively address the Ebola outbreak in West Africa, it must be viewed in terms of the connections between health, politics, security, the environment, and poverty. For the people in the countries involved and those responding, it is more than the viral illness. Although the medical management of the disease is far from simple, it is really only the proximal event of much greater social upheaval in the region, creating what is known as a complex humanitarian emergency (CHE). This article describes a course to introduce nursing students to CHEs and the role of nurses in the field of global response. CHEs are becoming more frequent with high death and disease rates. Nurses must become familiar with their complexity and multifaceted response. Although the planning for the course predated the current epidemic, the Ebola outbreak in West Africa served as an excellent exemplar for the health sector response in CHEs. PMID:25645474

  6. The academic health center in complex humanitarian emergencies: lessons learned from the 2010 Haiti earthquake.

    PubMed

    Babcock, Christine; Theodosis, Christian; Bills, Corey; Kim, Jimin; Kinet, Melodie; Turner, Madeleine; Millis, Michael; Olopade, Olufunmilayo; Olopade, Christopher

    2012-11-01

    On January 12, 2010, a 7.0-magnitude earthquake struck Haiti. The event disrupted infrastructure and was marked by extreme morbidity and mortality. The global response to the disaster was rapid and immense, comprising multiple actors-including academic health centers (AHCs)-that provided assistance in the field and from home. The authors retrospectively examine the multidisciplinary approach that the University of Chicago Medicine (UCM) applied to postearthquake Haiti, which included the application of institutional structure and strategy, systematic deployment of teams tailored to evolving needs, and the actual response and recovery. The university mobilized significant human and material resources for deployment within 48 hours and sustained the effort for over four months. In partnership with international and local nongovernmental organizations as well as other AHCs, the UCM operated one of the largest and more efficient acute field hospitals in the country. The UCM's efforts in postearthquake Haiti provide insight into the role AHCs can play, including their strengths and limitations, in complex disasters. AHCs can provide necessary intellectual and material resources as well as technical expertise, but the cost and speed required for responding to an emergency, and ongoing domestic responsibilities, may limit the response of a large university and hospital system. The authors describe the strong institutional backing, the detailed predeployment planning and logistical support UCM provided, the engagement of faculty and staff who had previous experience in complex humanitarian emergencies, and the help of volunteers fluent in the local language which, together, made UCM's mission in postearthquake Haiti successful. PMID:23018336

  7. The symphony of the damned: racial discourse, complex political emergencies and humanitarian aid.

    PubMed

    Duffield, M

    1996-09-01

    This paper concerns the manner in which the West is responding to protracted political crises beyond its borders. It examines the conceptual world-view that aid agencies bring to complex emergencies and which shapes action. The paper provides an analysis of developmentalism. That is, the currently dominant idea of development which is an adapted form of multiculturalism. It is based on the empowerment of cultural differences and the relativisation of progress. As a variant of multiculturalism, developmentalism is part of Western racial discourse. In terms of understanding conflict, it establishes a mirror-image relationship with new rascist ideas premised on cultural pluralism inevitably leading to social breakdown, violence and anarchy. To the contrary, with its functional view of social harmony, libertine developmentalism claims that even unresolved political crisis constitutes a development opportunity. Developmentalism, like culturalism generally, is incapable of analysing power. It therefore cannot understand the effects and significance of its own organisational forms. Moreover, since the absence of power translates into operational neutrality in a war zone, it is also unable to analyse the nature of new political formations emerging in the global periphery. That is, the so-called weak or failed states, warlords and so on. This functional ignorance has allowed a widespread incorporation of humanitarian aid into the fabric of political violence. Developmentalism is an essential underpinning for the growing organisational accommodation to ongoing conflict and eroding standards of justice and accountability. PMID:8854455

  8. The Prevalence of Sexual Violence among Female Refugees in Complex Humanitarian Emergencies: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Alexander; Adam, Atif; Wirtz, Andrea; Pham, Kiemanh; Rubenstein, Leonard; Glass, Nancy; Beyrer, Chris; Singh, Sonal

    2014-01-01

    Importance: Refugees and internally displaced persons are highly vulnerable to sexual violence during conflict and subsequent displacement. However, accurate estimates of the prevalence of sexual violence among in these populations remain uncertain. Objective: Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of sexual violence among refugees and displaced persons in complex humanitarian emergencies. Data Source: We conducted systematic review of relevant literature in multiple databases (EMBASE, CINAHL, and MEDLINE) through February 2013 to identify studies. We also reviewed reference lists of included articles to identify any missing sources. Study Selection: Inclusion criteria required identification of sexual violence among refugees and internally displaced persons or those displaced by conflict in complex humanitarian settings. Studies were excluded if they did not provide female sexual violence prevalence, or that included only single case reports, anecdotes, and those that focused on displacement associated with natural disasters. After a review of 1175 citations 19 unique studies were selected. Data Extraction: Two reviewers worked independently to identify final selection and a third reviewer adjudicated any differences. Descriptive and quantitative information was extracted; prevalence estimates were synthesized. Heterogeneity was assessed using I2. Main Outcomes: The main outcome of interest was sexual violence among female refugees and internally displaced persons in complex humanitarian settings. Results: The prevalence of sexual violence was estimated at 21.4% (95% CI, 14.9-28.7; I2=98.3%), using a random effects model. Statistical heterogeneity was noted with studies using probability sampling designs reporting lower prevalence of sexual violence (21.0%, 95% CI, 13.2-30.1; I2=98.6%), compared to lower quality studies (21.7%, 95% CI, 11.5-34.2; I2=97.4%). We could not rule out the presence of publication bias. Conclusions: The findings suggest that

  9. Disaster Metrics: A Proposed Quantitative Assessment Tool in Complex Humanitarian Emergencies - The Public Health Impact Severity Scale (PHISS)

    PubMed Central

    Bayram, Jamil D.; Kysia, Rashid; Kirsch, Thomas D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Complex Humanitarian Emergencies (CHE) result in rapid degradation of population health and quickly overwhelm indigenous health resources. Numerous governmental, non-governmental, national and international organizations and agencies are involved in the assessment of post-CHE affected populations. To date, there is no entirely quantitative assessment tool conceptualized to measure the public health impact of CHE. Methods: Essential public health parameters in CHE were identified based on the Sphere Project "Minimum Standards", and scoring rubrics were proposed based on the prevailing evidence when applicable. Results: 12 quantitative parameters were identified, representing the four categories of “Minimum Standards for Disaster Response” according to the Sphere Project; health, shelter, food and nutrition, in addition to water and sanitation. The cumulative tool constitutes a quantitative scale, referred to as the Public Health Impact Severity Scale (PHISS), and the score on this scale ranges from a minimum of 0 to a maximum of 100. Conclusion: Quantitative measurement of the public health impact of CHE is germane to accurate assessment, in order to identify the scale and scope of the critical response required for the relief efforts of the affected populations. PHISS is a new conceptual metric tool, proposed to add an objective quantitative dimension to the post-CHE assessment arsenal. PHISS has not yet been validated, and studies are needed with prospective data collection to test its validity, feasibility and reliability. Citation: Bayram JD, Kysia R, Kirsch TD. Disaster Metrics: A Proposed Quantitative Assessment Tool in Complex Humanitarian Emergencies – The Public Health Impact Severity Scale (PHISS). PLOS Currents Disasters. 2012 Aug 21. doi: 10.1371/4f7b4bab0d1a3. PMID:22984643

  10. Landscape of WASH-relevant Training for Humanitarian Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Dorea, Caetano

    2015-01-01

    Background: Both employed humanitarian personnel as well as those seeking to start a career as an aid worker are often provided with or seek training on the theme of humanitarian water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). The objective of this study was to conduct a landscaping exercise of the available WASH-relevant training for humanitarian emergencies. Methods: An open internet search was performed with specific terms related to humanitarian WASH. Retained search results included those training opportunities (including past ones) that were themed around or with a mentioned relevance to humanitarian WASH. Results and Discussion: A total of 42 training courses relevant to humanitarian emergency WASH were retained. In addition to the more generic/introductory trainings, some provided thematic variations such as coordination of WASH responses, project management, risk reduction, information, education and communication (IEC), and complex emergencies. Timely topics such as urban WASH, Ebola, and WASH innovations were also observed indicating the responsiveness of the training providers to the changing needs of humanitarian WASH response programmes. This survey also revealed a large variety in terms of target audience, duration, fees, location, and language of courses. There was no centralised listing of courses available on the Internet. Limitations of this exercise were also discussed. PMID:26064781

  11. Ethical codes in humanitarian emergencies: from practice to research?

    PubMed

    Black, Richard

    2003-06-01

    Notable strides have been made in recent years to develop codes of conduct for humanitarian intervention in conflicts on the part of international NGOs and UN organisations. Yet engagement by the academic and broader research communities with humanitarian crises and ongoing complex political emergencies remains relatively ad hoc and unregulated beyond the basic ethical guidelines and norms developed within universities for research in general, and within the governing and representative bodies of particular academic disciplines. This paper draws on a case study of research on humanitarian assistance to Liberia during that country's civil war from 1989 to 1996. The difficulties faced by humanitarian agencies in Liberia led to the development of two key sets of ethical guidelines for humanitarian intervention: the Joint Policy of Operations (JPO) and Principles and Policies of Humanitarian Operations (PPHO). This paper seeks to address what lessons, if any, these ethical guidelines, together with different experiences of conducting research in war-torn Liberia, can provide in terms of the role of academic researchers--and research itself--in humanitarian crises. PMID:12825434

  12. Health information systems in humanitarian emergencies.

    PubMed Central

    Thieren, Michel

    2005-01-01

    Health information systems (HIS) in emergencies face a double dilemma: the information necessary to understand and respond to humanitarian crises must be timely and detailed, whereas the circumstances of these crises makes it challenging to collect it. Building on the technical work of the Health Metrics Network on HIS and starting with a systemic definition of HIS in emergencies, this paper reviews the various data-collection platforms in these contexts, looking at their respective contributions to providing what humanitarian actors need to know to target their intervention to where the needs really are. Although reporting or sampling errors are unavoidable, it is important to identify them and acknowledge the limitations inherent in generalizing data that were collected in highly heterogeneous environments. To perform well in emergencies, HIS require integration and participation. In spite of notable efforts to coordinate data collection and dissemination practices among humanitarian agencies, it is noted that coordination on the ground depends on the strengths and presence of a lead agency, often WHO, and on the commitment of humanitarian agencies to investing resources in data production. Poorly integrated HIS generate fragmented, incomplete and often contradictory statistics, a situation that leads to a misuse of numbers with negative consequences on humanitarian interventions. As a means to avoid confusion regarding humanitarian health statistics, this paper stresses the importance of submitting statistics to a rigorous and coordinated auditing process prior to their publication. The audit trail should describe the various steps of the data production chains both technically and operationally, and indicate the limits and assumptions under which each number can be used. Finally emphasis is placed on the ethical obligation for humanitarian agencies to ensure that the necessary safeguards on data are in place to protect the confidentiality of victims and

  13. Community-based assessment of human rights in a complex humanitarian emergency: the Emergency Assistance Teams-Burma and Cyclone Nargis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    remain unaddressed in official assessments conducted in partnership with the SPDC. Private, community-based relief organizations like EAT are well positioned and able to independently assess human rights conditions in response to complex humanitarian emergencies such as Cyclone Nargis; efforts of this nature must be encouraged, particularly in settings where human rights abuses have been documented and censorship is widespread. PMID:20403200

  14. Vaccine-preventable diseases in humanitarian emergencies among refugee and internally-displaced populations.

    PubMed

    Lam, Eugene; McCarthy, Amanda; Brennan, Muireann

    2015-01-01

    Humanitarian emergencies may result in breakdown of regular health services including routine vaccination programs. Displaced populations including refugees and internally displaced persons are particularly susceptible to outbreaks of communicable diseases such as vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs). Common VPDs encountered in humanitarian emergencies include measles, polio, and depending on geographical location, meningococcal meningitis, yellow fever, hepatitis A, and cholera. We conducted a review of 50 published articles from 2000 to 2015 concerning VPDs in humanitarian emergencies. This article provides an update on the available literature regarding vaccinations among this highly vulnerable population and describes the unique challenges of VPDs during humanitarian emergencies. Humanitarian emergencies place affected populations at risk for elevated morbidity and mortality from VPDs due to creation or exacerbation of factors associated with disease transmission such as mass population movements, overcrowding, malnutrition, and poor water and sanitation conditions. Vaccination is one of the most basic and critical health interventions for protecting vulnerable populations during emergencies. Growing insecurity, as seen in the increasing number of targeted attacks on health workers in recent years, as well as destruction of cold chain and infrastructure for transportation of supplies, are creating new challenges in provision of life saving vaccines in conflict settings. Population displacement can also threaten global VPD eradication and elimination efforts. While highly effective vaccines and guidelines to combat VPDs are available, the trend of increasing number of humanitarian emergencies globally poses new and emerging challenges in providing vaccination among displaced populations. PMID:26406333

  15. Research ethics in the context of humanitarian emergencies.

    PubMed

    O'Mathúna, Dónal

    2015-02-01

    Research is needed to make responses to disasters and humanitarian emergencies more evidence-based. Such research must also adhere to the generally accepted principles of research ethics. While research into health interventions used in disasters raises distinctive ethical concerns, seven ethical principles developed for clinical research are applied here to disaster research. Practical examples from disaster settings are used to demonstrate how these ethical principles can be applied. This reveals that research ethics needs to be seen as much more than a mechanism to obtain ethical approval for research. Research ethics involves ethical principles and governance frameworks, but must also consider the role of ethical virtues in research. Virtues are essential to ensure that researchers do what they believe is ethically right and resist what is unethical. Research ethics that truly protects participants and promotes respect needs to include training in ethical virtues to ensure disaster research is carried out to the highest ethical standards. This article is based on a presentation at the Evidence Aid Symposium on 20 September 2014, in Hyderabad, India. PMID:25594722

  16. Data collection tools for maternal and child health in humanitarian emergencies: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Fiona; Kerr, Robbie; Boschi-Pinto, Cynthia; Mathai, Matthews; van den Broek, Nynke

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe tools used for the assessment of maternal and child health issues in humanitarian emergency settings. Methods We systematically searched MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge and POPLINE databases for studies published between January 2000 and June 2014. We also searched the websites of organizations active in humanitarian emergencies. We included studies reporting the development or use of data collection tools concerning the health of women and children in humanitarian emergencies. We used narrative synthesis to summarize the studies. Findings We identified 100 studies: 80 reported on conflict situations and 20 followed natural disasters. Most studies (76/100) focused on the health status of the affected population while 24 focused on the availability and coverage of health services. Of 17 different data collection tools identified, 14 focused on sexual and reproductive health, nine concerned maternal, newborn and child health and four were used to collect information on sexual or gender-based violence. Sixty-nine studies were done for monitoring and evaluation purposes, 18 for advocacy, seven for operational research and six for needs assessment. Conclusion Practical and effective means of data collection are needed to inform life-saving actions in humanitarian emergencies. There are a wide variety of tools available, not all of which have been used in the field. A simplified, standardized tool should be developed for assessment of health issues in the early stages of humanitarian emergencies. A cluster approach is recommended, in partnership with operational researchers and humanitarian agencies, coordinated by the World Health Organization. PMID:26478629

  17. Complex emergencies in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Bradt, D A; Drummond, C M; Richman, M

    2001-01-01

    Recently, Indonesia has experienced six major provincial, civil, armed conflicts. Underlying causes include the transmigration policy, sectarian disputes, the Asian economic crisis, fall of authoritarian rule, and a backlash against civil and military abuses. The public health impact involves the displacement nationwide of > 1.2 million persons. Violence in the Malukus, Timor, and Kalimantan has sparked the greatest population movements such that five provinces in Indonesia each now harbor > 100,000 internally displaced persons. With a background of government instability, hyperinflation, macroeconomic collapse, and elusive political solutions, these civil armed conflicts are ripe for persistence as complex emergencies. Indonesia has made substantial progress in domestic disaster management with the establishment of central administrative authority, strategic planning, and training programs. Nevertheless, the Indonesian experience reveals recurrent issues in international humanitarian health assistance. Clinical care remains complicated by absences of treatment protocols, inappropriate drug use, high procedural complication rates, and variable referral practices. Epidemiological surveillance remains complicated by unsettled clinical case definitions, non-standardized case management of diseases with epidemic potential, variable outbreak management protocols, and inadequate epidemiological analytic capacity. International donor support has been semi-selective, insufficient, and late. The militia murders of three UN staff in West Timor prompted the withdrawal of UN international staff from West Timor for nearly a year to date. Re-establishing rules of engagement for humanitarian health workers must address security, public health, and clinical threats. PMID:12090212

  18. Child Protection Assessment in Humanitarian Emergencies: Case Studies from Georgia, Gaza, Haiti and Yemen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ager, Alastair; Blake, Courtney; Stark, Lindsay; Daniel, Tsufit

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The paper reviews the experiences of conducting child protection assessments across four humanitarian emergencies where violence and insecurity, directly or indirectly, posed a major threat to children. We seek to identify common themes emerging from these experiences and propose ways to guide the planning and implementation of…

  19. Apples, pears and porridge: the origins and impact of the search for 'coherence' between humanitarian and political responses to chronic political emergencies.

    PubMed

    Macrae, J; Leader, N

    2001-12-01

    During the 1990s a consensus emerged within the international humanitarian system that there was a need to enhance the 'coherence' between humanitarian and political responses to complex political emergencies. Closer integration between aid and political responses was seen to be necessary in order to address the root causes of conflict-induced crises, and to ensure that aid did not exacerbate political tensions. This paper explores the theory and practice of coherence over the past decade. It argues that, by sleight of hand, the coherence agenda has been reinterpreted such that humanitarian action has become the primary form of political action, rather than merely a substitute for it. The coherence agenda has been driven by geopolitical events, domestic policy considerations in donor countries and the more parochial concerns of aid policy, and is reflected in a number of substantive changes in the humanitarian architecture. Many of the tenets of this 'new humanitarianism' have been embraced by the majority of relief agencies, and thus legitimised it. The paper concludes that political humanitarianism, as opposed to active engagement by political and military actors, is flawed ethically and technically. It will provide neither an effective palliative for the ill effects of war, nor address its causes. PMID:11780855

  20. History and Principles of Humanitarian Action.

    PubMed

    Rysaback-Smith, Heather

    2015-10-01

    Humanitarian aid has been present in some form throughout human history, yet the modern concept of humanitarian aid has only truly emerged since the later half of the 20th century. Through a complex progression of world events and largely brought about in response to armed conflict, modern humanitarian aid is provided by a multitude of organizations and actors. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a brief overview of the history of humanitarian action, a review of the principles of humanitarian aid and an overview of the major documents which delineate those principles. PMID:27437525

  1. The Development and Psychometric Properties of the Humanitarian Emergency Settings Perceived Needs (HESPER) Scale

    PubMed Central

    Semrau, Maya; van Ommeren, Mark; Blagescu, Monica; Griekspoor, Andre; Howard, Louise M.; Jordans, Mark; Lempp, Heidi; Marini, Anita; Pedersen, Jon; Pilotte, Isabelle; Slade, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We developed the Humanitarian Emergency Settings Perceived Needs (HESPER) Scale, a valid and reliable scale to rapidly assess perceived needs of populations in humanitarian settings in low- and middle-income countries. Methods. We generated items through a literature review; reduced the number of items on the basis of a survey with humanitarian experts; pilot-tested the scale in Gaza, Jordan, Sudan, and the United Kingdom; and field-tested it in Haiti, Jordan, and Nepal. Results. During field-testing, intraclass correlation coefficients (absolute agreement) for the total number of unmet needs were 0.998 in Jordan, 0.986 in Haiti, and 0.995 in Nepal (interrater reliability), and 0.961 in Jordan and 0.773 in Nepal (test–retest reliability). Cohen’s κ for the 26 individual HESPER items ranged between 0.66 and 1.0 (interrater reliability) and between 0.07 and 1.0 (test–retest reliability) across sites. Most HESPER items correlated as predicted with related questions of the World Health Organization Quality of Life-100 (WHOQOL-100), and participants found items comprehensive and relevant, suggesting criterion (concurrent) validity and content validity. Conclusions. The HESPER Scale rapidly provides valid and reliable population-based data on perceived needs in humanitarian settings. PMID:22897533

  2. Mental health and psychosocial support in humanitarian emergencies.

    PubMed

    van Ommeren, M; Hanna, F; Weissbecker, I; Ventevogel, P

    2015-07-01

    Armed conflicts and natural disasters impact negatively on the mental health and well-being of affected populations in the short- and long-term and affect the care of people with pre-existing mental health conditions. This paper outlines specific actions for mental health and psychosocial support by the health sector in the preparedness, response and recovery phases of emergencies. Broad recommendations for ministries of health are to: (1) embed mental health and psychosocial support in national health and emergency preparedness plans; (2) put in place national guidelines, standards and supporting tools for the provision of mental health and psychosocial support during emergencies; (3) strengthen the capacity of health professionals to identify and manage priority mental disorders during emergencies; and (4) utilize opportunities generated by the emergency response to contribute to development of sustainable mental health-care services. PMID:26442890

  3. Assistance, protection, and governance networks in complex emergencies.

    PubMed

    Lautze, Sue; Leaning, Jennifer; Raven-Roberts, Angela; Kent, Randolph; Mazurana, Dyan

    This article presents an introduction to the causes and characteristics of armed conflicts. It reviews some of the key humanitarian crises that broke new ground in terms of the technologies and practices that developed at the field level in response to each new complex emergency, with particular focus on the health sector. It introduces the concept of humanitarian governance as a framework for addressing the consequences and implications of the failure of worldwide governance for the protection of civilians in armed conflict. Here, we term humanitarian governance to include the use of international humanitarian law and human rights instruments to govern the behaviour of state and non-state organisations in conflict zones in a way that protects the lives and livelihoods of affected populations. We note, however, that terrorist concerns appear to be replacing humanitarian logic in the network of worldwide governance. PMID:15589312

  4. Humanitarian Politics. Headline Series No. 304.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minear, Larry; Weiss, Thomas G.

    This booklet examines the issue of humanitarian aid in times of crises and how the political and military conditions that generate the need for humanitarian action have changed in the post-cold-war era. There are different faces of civil war, changes in international assistance, and complex emergencies that demand new world responses to help those…

  5. Burden of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality following humanitarian emergencies: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Hayman, Kaitlin G.; Sharma, Davina; Wardlow, Robert D.; Singh, Sonal

    2016-01-01

    Background The global burden of cardiovascular mortality is increasing, as is the number of large-scale humanitarian emergencies. The interaction between these phenomena is not well understood. This review aims to clarify the relationship between humanitarian emergencies and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Methods With assistance from a research librarian, electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, Global Health) were searched in January 2014. Findings were supplemented by reviewing citations of included trials. Observational studies reporting the effect of natural disasters and conflict events on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in adults since 1997 were included. Studies without a comparison group were not included. Double-data extraction was utilized to abstract information on acute coronary syndrome (ACS), acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF), and cardiac death (SCD). Review Manager 5.0 was used to create figures for qualitative synthesis (Version 5.2, Copenhagen Denmark, The Nordic Cochrane Centre). Results The search retrieved 1697 unique records; 24 studies were included (17 studies of natural disasters, 7 studies of conflict). These studies involved 14,583 cardiac events. All studies utilized retrospective designs: 4 were population-based, 15 were single-center, and 5 were multicenter studies. 23 studies utilized historical controls in the primary analysis, and 1 utilized primarily geographical controls. Conflicts are associated with an increase in long-term morbidity from ACS; the short-term effects of conflict vary by study. Natural disasters exhibit heterogeneous effects including increased occurrence of ACS, ADHF, and SCD. Conclusions In certain settings, humanitarian emergencies are associated with increased cardiac morbidity and mortality that may persist for years following the event. Humanitarian aid organizations should consider morbidity from non-communicable disease when planning relief and recuperation projects. PMID

  6. From war on terror to war on weather? Rethinking humanitarianism in a new era of chronic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Munslow, Barry; O'Dempsey, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This special issue of Third World Quarterly makes a case for redirecting attention and resources away from the 'war on terror' and focussing as a matter of urgency on the causes and consequences of global climate change. Global climate change must be recognised as an issue of national and international security. Increased competition for scarce resources and migration are key factors in the propagation of many of today's chronic complex humanitarian emergencies. The relentless growth of megacities in natural disaster hotspots places unprecedented numbers of vulnerable people at risk of disease and death. The Earth's fragile ecosystem has reached a critical tipping point. Today's most urgent need is for a collective endeavour on the part of the international community to redirect resources, enterprise and creativity away from the war on terror and to earnestly redeploy these in seeking solutions to the far greater and increasingly imminent threats that confront us as a consequence of global climate change. PMID:21495286

  7. States of fragility: stabilisation and its implications for humanitarian action.

    PubMed

    Collinson, Sarah; Elhawary, Samir; Muggah, Robert

    2010-10-01

    This paper explores the evolution of international stabilisation agendas and their significance for humanitarian action. Stabilisation includes a combination of military, humanitarian, political and economic activities to control, contain and manage areas affected by armed conflict and complex emergencies. Encompassing narrow security objectives and broader peace-building efforts, stabilisation is both a conservative and potentially transformative, comprehensive and long-term agenda. The open-ended approach allows for widely varying interpretations and applications in different circumstances and by different actors with an assortment of implications for humanitarian action. The relationship between the two is highly uncertain and contentious, due not only to the controversies surrounding stabilisation policies, but also to deep-seated ambiguities at the heart of humanitarianism. While humanitarian actors are preoccupied with the growing involvement of the military in the humanitarian sphere, the paper argues that it is trends in the humanitarian-political interface that represent the more fundamental dilemma. PMID:20846346

  8. Ethics of emergent information and communication technology applications in humanitarian medical assistance.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Matthew; Pringle, John; Christen, Markus; Eckenwiler, Lisa; Schwartz, Lisa; Davé, Anushree

    2016-07-01

    New applications of information and communication technology (ICT) are shaping the way we understand and provide humanitarian medical assistance in situations of disaster, disease outbreak or conflict. Each new crisis appears to be accompanied by advancements in humanitarian technology, leading to significant improvements in the humanitarian aid sector. However, ICTs raise ethical questions that warrant attention. Focusing on the context of humanitarian medical assistance, we review key domains of ICT innovation. We then discuss ethical challenges and uncertainties associated with the development and application of new ICTs in humanitarian medical assistance, including avoiding harm, ensuring privacy and security, responding to inequalities, demonstrating respect, protecting relationships, and addressing expectations. In doing so, we emphasize the centrality of ethics in humanitarian ICT design, application and evaluation. PMID:27481835

  9. Improving the performance of community health workers in humanitarian emergencies: a realist evaluation protocol for the PIECES programme

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Brynne; Adams, Ben Jack; Bartoloni, Alex; Alhaydar, Bana; McAuliffe, Eilish; Raven, Joanna; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; Vallières, Frédérique

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Understanding what enhances the motivation and performance of community health workers (CHWs) in humanitarian emergencies represents a key research gap within the field of human resources for health. This paper presents the research protocol for the Performance ImprovEment of CHWs in Emergency Settings (PIECES) research programme. Enhancing Learning and Research in Humanitarian Action (ELRHA) funded the development of this protocol as part of their Health in Humanitarian Crises (R2HC) call (No.19839). PIECES aims to understand what factors improve the performance of CHWs in level III humanitarian emergencies. Methods and analysis The suggested protocol uses a realist evaluation with multiple cases across the 3 country sites: Turkey, Iraq and Lebanon. Working with International Medical Corps (IMC), an initial programme theory was elicited through literature and document reviews, semistructured interviews and focus groups with IMC programme managers and CHWs. Based on this initial theory, this protocol proposes a combination of semistructured interviews, life histories and critical incident narratives, surveys and latent variable modelling of key constructs to explain how contextual factors work to trigger mechanisms for specific outcomes relating to IMC's 300+ CHWs' performance. Participants will also include programme staff, CHWs and programme beneficiaries. Realist approaches will be used to better understand ‘what works, for whom and under what conditions’ for improving CHW performance within humanitarian contexts. Ethics and dissemination Trinity College Dublin's Health Policy and Management/Centre for Global Health Research Ethics Committee gave ethical approval for the protocol development phase. For the full research project, additional ethical approval will be sought from: Université St. Joseph (Lebanon), the Ethics Committee of the Ministry of Health in Baghdad (Iraq) and the Middle East Technical University (Turkey). Dissemination

  10. [Humanitarian transition].

    PubMed

    Mattei, Jean-François; Troit, Virginie

    2016-02-01

    In two centuries, modern humanitarian action has experienced several fractures often linked to crises. Although its professionalism and intervention force remain indisputable, it faces, since the 2000s, a new context that limits its ability to act and confronts it with new dilemmas, even though it must deal with needs for aid of unprecedented scale. These difficulties reveal a humanitarian transition period that was not anticipated. This transition period reflects the change from a dominant paradigm of North-South solidarity of Western origin to a much more complex model. This article provides a summary of the current mutations that are dominated by the States' assertion of sovereignty. Among the possible solutions, it argues for an ethical approach and a better integration of the research carried out in the Global South, prerequisites for building a true partnership and placing the victims at the heart of the operations which involve them. PMID:26936180

  11. A public health approach to address the mental health burden of youth in situations of political violence and humanitarian emergencies.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Joop T V M; Berckmoes, Lidewyde H; Kohrt, Brandon A; Song, Suzan J; Tol, Wietse A; Reis, Ria

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes how socio-ecological theory and a syndemic health systems and public health approach may help address the plight of youth in situations of political violence and humanitarian emergencies. We describe the treatment gap caused by discrepancies in epidemiological prevalence rates, individual and family needs, and available human and material resources. We propose four strategies to develop a participatory public health approach for these youth, based on principles of equity, feasibility, and a balance between prevention and treatment. The first strategy uses ecological and transgenerational resilience as a theoretical framework to facilitate a systems approach to the plight of youth and families. This theoretical base helps to engage health care professionals in a multisectoral analysis and a collaborative public health strategy. The second strategy is to translate pre-program assessment into mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) priorities. Defining priorities helps to develop programs and policies that align with preventive and curative interventions in multiple tiers of the public health system. The third is a realistic budgetary framework as a condition for the development of sustainable institutional capacity including a monitoring system. The fourth strategy is to direct research to address the knowledge gap about effective practices for youth mental health in humanitarian settings. PMID:26021862

  12. Emergent Complex Network Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhihao; Menichetti, Giulia; Rahmede, Christoph; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2015-05-01

    Networks are mathematical structures that are universally used to describe a large variety of complex systems such as the brain or the Internet. Characterizing the geometrical properties of these networks has become increasingly relevant for routing problems, inference and data mining. In real growing networks, topological, structural and geometrical properties emerge spontaneously from their dynamical rules. Nevertheless we still miss a model in which networks develop an emergent complex geometry. Here we show that a single two parameter network model, the growing geometrical network, can generate complex network geometries with non-trivial distribution of curvatures, combining exponential growth and small-world properties with finite spectral dimensionality. In one limit, the non-equilibrium dynamical rules of these networks can generate scale-free networks with clustering and communities, in another limit planar random geometries with non-trivial modularity. Finally we find that these properties of the geometrical growing networks are present in a large set of real networks describing biological, social and technological systems.

  13. Emergent Complex Network Geometry

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhihao; Menichetti, Giulia; Rahmede, Christoph; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2015-01-01

    Networks are mathematical structures that are universally used to describe a large variety of complex systems such as the brain or the Internet. Characterizing the geometrical properties of these networks has become increasingly relevant for routing problems, inference and data mining. In real growing networks, topological, structural and geometrical properties emerge spontaneously from their dynamical rules. Nevertheless we still miss a model in which networks develop an emergent complex geometry. Here we show that a single two parameter network model, the growing geometrical network, can generate complex network geometries with non-trivial distribution of curvatures, combining exponential growth and small-world properties with finite spectral dimensionality. In one limit, the non-equilibrium dynamical rules of these networks can generate scale-free networks with clustering and communities, in another limit planar random geometries with non-trivial modularity. Finally we find that these properties of the geometrical growing networks are present in a large set of real networks describing biological, social and technological systems. PMID:25985280

  14. Emergent complex neural dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chialvo, Dante R.

    2010-10-01

    A large repertoire of spatiotemporal activity patterns in the brain is the basis for adaptive behaviour. Understanding the mechanism by which the brain's hundred billion neurons and hundred trillion synapses manage to produce such a range of cortical configurations in a flexible manner remains a fundamental problem in neuroscience. One plausible solution is the involvement of universal mechanisms of emergent complex phenomena evident in dynamical systems poised near a critical point of a second-order phase transition. We review recent theoretical and empirical results supporting the notion that the brain is naturally poised near criticality, as well as its implications for better understanding of the brain.

  15. Military assistance in complex emergencies: what have we learned since the Kurdish relief effort?

    PubMed

    Sharp, T W; Wightman, J M; Davis, M J; Sherman, S S; Burkle, F M

    2001-01-01

    After the success of relief efforts to the displaced Kurdish population in northern Iraq following the Gulf War, many in the US military and the international relief community saw military forces as critical partners in the response to future complex emergencies (CEs). However, successes in subsequent military involvement in Somalia, Rwanda, the former Yugoslavia, and other CEs proved more elusive and raised many difficult issues. A review of these operations reinforces some basic lessons that must be heeded if the use of military forces in humanitarian relief is to be successful. Each CE is unique, thus, each military mission must be clearly defined and articulated. Armed forces struggle to provide both security and humanitarian relief, particularly when aggressive peace enforcement is required. Significant political and public support is necessary for military involvement and success. Military forces cannot execute humanitarian assistance missions on an ad hoc basis, but must continue to develop doctrine, policy and procedures in this area and adequately train, supply, and equip the units that will be involved in humanitarian relief. Militaries not only must cooperate and coordinate extensively with each other, but also with the governmental and non-governmental humanitarian relief organizations that will be engaged for the long term. PMID:12090199

  16. Food and Shelter Standards in Humanitarian Action.

    PubMed

    Pothiawala, Sohil

    2015-10-01

    The number of disasters, both natural as well as man-made, has been increasing in frequency in the recent years. This leads to short as well as long-term effects on food security and shelter, requiring humanitarian assistance. This article aims to identify the principles and standards that are applicable to food and shelter related aid that needs to be provided by the co-operation of the local government as well as the relevant supporting organizations. Also, food and shelter security during a disaster response is achieved through better preparedness. The level of preparedness must include risk assessment, contingency planning, stockpiling of equipment and supplies, emergency services and stand-by arrangements, communications, information management and coordination arrangements between various agencies involved. Discussing these issues would contribute to a better understanding of the implications of the right to adequate food and shelter, which in complex humanitarian emergencies, is one of the key necessities of the affected population. PMID:27437530

  17. Protective Environments and Quality Education in Humanitarian Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Pilar; Retamal, Gonzalo

    2009-01-01

    This paper reflects the experience of the authors working in the field of humanitarian education during the last two decades. Important changes have been witnessed since the Central American crises of the seventies, the refugee focus of the eighties and the new UN vision of the complex emergency crisis of the nineties resulting from the post Cold…

  18. Public health and complex emergencies: new issues, new conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Waldman, R; Martone, G

    1999-01-01

    Public health practice in complex emergencies has become increasingly sophisticated and well informed over the course of the past quarter century. Humanitarian relief organizations have learned many lessons in the areas of food, water and sanitation, shelter, and primary health. However, closer scrutiny from the media and funding agencies, together with changing conditions and an increasingly insecure environment, will require that changes be made. First and foremost, nongovernmental organizations must recognize that an increasing proportion of morbidity and mortality is the consequence of widespread human rights abuses. These organizations should become more familiar with international human rights and humanitarian law, and their personnel should receive clear guidance as to how to recognize and report violations. At the same time, nongovernmental organizations will have to work more closely with military forces that have a very different organizational culture. In addition, as emergencies become more complex, nongovernmental organizations should do more to attract and retain seasoned professionals. Finally, advances in both technical and operational areas will occur only through carefully designed and implemented research. PMID:10511827

  19. Evaluating the co-production of a near real time Earthquake Aftershock forecasting tool for humanitarian risk assessment and emergency planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Keira; Hope, Max; McCloskey, John; NicBhloscaidh, Mairead; Jimenez, Abigail; Dunlop, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Concern Worldwide and the University of Ulster Geophysics Research Group are engaged in a project to co-produce a suite of software and mapping tools to assess aftershock hazard in near real-time during the emergency response phase of earthquake disaster, and inform humanitarian emergency planning and response activities. This paper uses a social learning approach to evaluate this co-production process. Following Wenger (1999) we differentiate between the earthquake science and humanitarian communities of practice (CoP) along three dimensions: enterprise (the purpose of CoPs and the problems participants are working to address), repertoire (knowledge, skills, language), and identity (values and boundaries). We examine the effectiveness of learning between CoP, focusing on boundary work and objects, and various organisational structures and aspects of the wider political economy of learning that enable and hinder the co-production process. We conclude by identifying a number of ways to more effectively integrate earthquake science into humanitarian decision-making, policy development and programme design.

  20. [Hygiene is not cleanliness. For a new definition of hygiene promotion in emergency humanitarian aid].

    PubMed

    Larose, L

    2001-03-01

    Following the Kosovo crisis, this paper questions the contents of hygiene kits to be distributed to refugees, the definition of hygiene and the hygiene promotion practises in emergency aid work. Hygiene promotion cannot be reduced to cleanness promotion. We have to consider refugees' psychosocial needs and trauma as well as the problems of refugees settlement as a community and of community mobilisation to conceive programmes meeting population's needs and demands. Hygiene promotion should include systematic attempts to implement community services by volunteer refugees. One has to be careful also that the financial mechanisms of aid do not pervert programmation. PMID:11525045

  1. The supply of pharmaceuticals in humanitarian assistance missions: implications for military operations.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Maysaa; Riley, Kevin; Bennett, David; Anderson, Warner

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we provide an overview of key international guidelines governing the supply of pharmaceuticals during disasters and complex emergencies. We review the World Health Organization?s guidelines on pharmaceutical supply chain management and highlight their relevance for military humanitarian assistance missions. Given the important role of pharmaceuticals in addressing population health needs during humanitarian emergencies, a good understanding of how pharmaceuticals are supplied at the local level in different countries can help military health personnel identify the most appropriate supply options. Familiarity with international guidelines involved in cross-border movement of pharmaceuticals can improve the ability of military personnel to communicate more effectively with other actors involved in humanitarian and development spheres. Enhancing the knowledge base available to military personnel in terms of existing supply models and funding procedures can improve the effectiveness of humanitarian military operations and invite policy changes necessary to establish more flexible acquisition and funding regulations. PMID:22113725

  2. The supply of pharmaceuticals in humanitarian assistance missions: implications for military operations.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Maysaa; Riley, Kevin; Bennett, David; Anderson, Warner

    2011-08-01

    In this article, we provide an overview of key international guidelines governing the supply of pharmaceuticals during disasters and complex emergencies. We review the World Health Organization's guidelines on pharmaceutical supply chain management and highlight their relevance for military humanitarian assistance missions. Given the important role of pharmaceuticals in addressing population health needs during humanitarian emergencies, a good understanding of how pharmaceuticals are supplied at the local level in different countries can help military health personnel identify the most appropriate supply options. Familiarity with international guidelines involved in cross-border movement of pharmaceuticals can improve the ability of military personnel to communicate more effectively with other actors involved in humanitarian and development spheres. Enhancing the knowledge base available to military personnel in terms of existing supply models and funding procedures can improve the effectiveness of humanitarian military operations and invite policy changes necessary to establish more flexible acquisition and funding regulations. PMID:21882772

  3. The 1999 international emergency humanitarian evacuation of the Kosovars to Canada: A qualitative study of service providers' perspectives at the international, national and local levels

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Nancy; Redwood-Campbell, Lynda; Molinaro, Elizabeth; Howard, Michelle; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Jafarpour, Morteza; Robinson, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Background In response to the Kosovo crisis, Canada received 5,500 Albanian Kosovar refugees in 1999 as part of the emergency humanitarian evacuation and settlement effort. This study attempts to describe the experiences of service providers at the international, national, and local levels, involved in the organization and delivery of health and settlement services in Canada for the Kosovar refugees. Methods A qualitative case study design using key informant interviews was used. Nominated sampling was used to identify 17 individuals involved in the organization and delivery of health and settlement. Key themes were identified and recommendations made to provide a framework for the development of policy to guide response to future humanitarian emergencies. Results Six themes emerged: (1) A sense of being overwhelmed, (2) A multitude of health issues, (3) critical challenges in providing health care, (4) access to health and settlement services, (5) overall successes and (6) need for a coordinated approach to migration health. Conclusions For those involved, the experience was overwhelming but rewarding. Interviewees' major concerns were the need for a more comprehensive and coordinated approach to the flow of medical information and handling of specific health problems. PMID:15647108

  4. A research note about military-civilian humanitarianism: more questions than answers.

    PubMed

    Weiss, T G

    1997-06-01

    'Military-civilian humanitarianism'--or the coming together of military forces and civilian aid agencies to deal with the human suffering from complex emergencies--has numerous forms, but disenchantment has resulted from the Somalia and Bosnia syndromes. There is little political will at present, but evidence from the immediate post-Cold War era suggests how multilateral military operations could expand or contract in future to the benefit or peril of war victims. Partly a literature review but more importantly a framework for interpreting recent publications, this essay seeks to move beyond exchanging assertions. There is a contextualisation of recent literature; a definition of military-civilian humanitarianism; a discussion of possible military contributions to humanitarian action; a framework to assess the effectiveness of military-civilian humanitarianism; and a preliminary analysis of experience from northern Iraq, Somalia, Bosnia, Rwanda and Haiti. Caveat lector: At this point in time, there are still 'more questions than answers'. PMID:9235222

  5. Users' guides to the medical literature: how to use an article about mortality in a humanitarian emergency

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Edward J; Checchi, Francesco; Orbinski, James J; Schull, Michael J; Burkle, Frederick M; Beyrer, Chris; Cooper, Curtis; Hardy, Colleen; Singh, Sonal; Garfield, Richard; Woodruff, Bradley A; Guyatt, Gordon H

    2008-01-01

    The accurate interpretation of mortality surveys in humanitarian crises is useful for both public health responses and security responses. Recent examples suggest that few medical personnel and researchers can accurately interpret the validity of a mortality survey in these settings. Using an example of a mortality survey from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), we demonstrate important methodological considerations that readers should keep in mind when reading a mortality survey to determine the validity of the study and the applicability of the findings to their settings. PMID:18826636

  6. Emergence: Complexity Pedagogy in Action

    PubMed Central

    Jonas-Simpson, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Many educators are looking for new ways to engage students and each other in order to enrich curriculum and the teaching-learning process. We describe an example of how we enacted teaching-learning approaches through the insights of complexity thinking, an approach that supports the emergence of new possibilities for teaching-learning in the classroom and online. Our story begins with an occasion to meet with 10 nursing colleagues in a three-hour workshop using four activities that engaged learning about complexity thinking and pedagogy. Guiding concepts for the collaborative workshop were nonlinearity, distributed decision-making, divergent thinking, self-organization, emergence, and creative exploration. The workshop approach considered critical questions to spark our collective inquiry. We asked, “What is emergent learning?” and “How do we, as educators and learners, engage a community so that new learning surfaces?” We integrated the arts, creative play, and perturbations within a complexity approach. PMID:25838945

  7. Child health in complex emergencies.

    PubMed Central

    Moss, William J.; Ramakrishnan, Meenakshi; Storms, Dory; Henderson Siegle, Anne; Weiss, William M.; Lejnev, Ivan; Muhe, Lulu

    2006-01-01

    Coordinated and effective interventions are critical for relief efforts to be successful in addressing the health needs of children in situations of armed conflict, population displacement, and/or food insecurity. We reviewed published literature and surveyed international relief organizations engaged in child health activities in complex emergencies. Our aim was to identify research needs and improve guidelines for the care of children. Much of the literature details the burden of disease and the causes of morbidity and mortality; few interventional studies have been published. Surveys of international relief organizations showed that most use World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and ministry of health guidelines designed for use in stable situations. Organizations were least likely to have formal guidelines on the management of asphyxia, prematurity, and infection in neonates; diagnosis and management of children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection; active case-finding and treatment of tuberculosis; paediatric trauma; and the diagnosis and management of mental-health problems in children. Guidelines often are not adapted to the different types of health-care workers who provide care in complex emergencies. Evidence-based, locally adapted guidelines for the care of children in complex emergencies should be adopted by ministries of health, supported by WHO and UNICEF, and disseminated to international relief organizations to ensure appropriate, effective, and uniform care. PMID:16501716

  8. Challenges in humanitarian information management and exchange: evidence from Haiti.

    PubMed

    Altay, Nezih; Labonte, Melissa

    2014-04-01

    There is a growing recognition of the critical role information management can play in shaping effective humanitarian response, coordination and decision-making. Quality information, reaching more humanitarian actors, will result in better coordination and better decision-making, thus improving the response to beneficiaries as well as accountability to donors. The humanitarian response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake marked a watershed moment for humanitarian information management. Yet the fragmented nature of the response and the use of hierarchical models of information management, along with other factors, have led some observers to label the Haiti response a failure. Using an analytical framework often found in humanitarian emergencies, this study analyses challenges to information flow in the Haiti case and the implications for effective humanitarian response. It concludes by offering possible paths for overcoming such challenges, and for restoring the value and utility of humanitarian information management and exchange in humanitarian relief settings. PMID:24601932

  9. HIV surveillance in complex emergencies.

    PubMed

    Salama, P; Dondero, T J

    2001-04-01

    Many studies have shown a positive association between both migration and temporary expatriation and HIV risk. This association is likely to be similar or even more pronounced for forced migrants. In general, HIV transmission in host-migrant or host-forced-migrant interactions depends on the maturity of the HIV epidemic in both the host and the migrant population, the relative seroprevalence of HIV in the host and the migrant population, the prevalence of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) that may facilitate transmission, and the level of sexual interaction between the two communities. Complex emergencies are the major cause of mass population movement today. In complex emergencies, additional factors such as sexual interaction between forced-migrant populations and the military; sexual violence; increasing commercial sex work; psychological trauma; and disruption of preventive and curative health services may increase the risk for HIV transmission. Despite recent success in preventing HIV infection in stable populations in selected developing countries, internally displaced persons and refugees (or forced migrants) have not been systematically included in HIV surveillance systems, nor consequently in prevention activities. Standard surveillance systems that rely on functioning health services may not provide useful data in many complex emergency settings. Secondary sources can provide some information in these settings. Little attempt has been made, however, to develop innovative HIV surveillance systems in countries affected by complex emergencies. Consequently, data on the HIV epidemic in these countries are scarce and HIV prevention programs are either not implemented or interventions are not effectively targeted. Second generation surveillance methods such as cross-sectional, population-based surveys can provide rapid information on HIV, STIs, and sexual behavior. The risks for stigmatization and breaches of confidentiality must be recognized

  10. An Analysis of Cesarean Section and Emergency Hernia Ratios as Markers of Surgical Capacity in Low-Income Countries Affected by Humanitarian Emergencies from 2008 – 2014 at Médecins sans Frontières Operations Centre Brussels Projects

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Barclay; Wong, Evan; Papillon-Smith, Jessica; Trelles Centurion, Miguel Antonio; Dominguez, Lynette; Ao, Supongmeren; Jean-Paul, Basimuoneye Kahutsi; Kamal, Mustafa; Helmand, Rahmatullah; Naseer, Aamer; Kushner, Adam L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Surgical capacity assessments in low-income countries have demonstrated critical deficiencies. Though vital for planning capacity improvements, these assessments are resource intensive and impractical during the planning phase of a humanitarian crisis. This study aimed to determine cesarean sections to total operations performed (CSR) and emergency herniorrhaphies to all herniorrhaphies performed (EHR) ratios from Médecins Sans Frontières Operations Centre Brussels (MSF-OCB) projects and examine if these established metrics are useful proxies for surgical capacity in low-income countries affected by crisis. Methods: All procedures performed in MSF-OCB operating theatres from July 2008 through June 2014 were reviewed. Projects providing only specialty care, not fully operational or not offering elective surgeries were excluded. Annual CSRs and EHRs were calculated for each project. Their relationship was assessed with linear regression. Results: After applying the exclusion criteria, there were 47,472 cases performed at 13 sites in 8 countries. There were 13,939 CS performed (29% of total cases). Of the 4,632 herniorrhaphies performed (10% of total cases), 30% were emergency procedures. CSRs ranged from 0.06 to 0.65 and EHRs ranged from 0.03 to 1.0. Linear regression of annual ratios at each project did not demonstrate statistical evidence for the CSR to predict EHR [F(2,30)=2.34, p=0.11, R2=0.11]. The regression equation was: EHR = 0.25 + 0.52(CSR) + 0.10(reason for MSF-OCB assistance). Conclusion: Surgical humanitarian assistance projects operate in areas with critical surgical capacity deficiencies that are further disrupted by crisis. Rapid, accurate assessments of surgical capacity are necessary to plan cost- and clinically-effective humanitarian responses to baseline and acute unmet surgical needs in LICs affected by crisis. Though CSR and EHR may meet these criteria in ‘steady-state’ healthcare systems, they may not be useful during

  11. The public health aspects of complex emergencies and refugee situations.

    PubMed

    Toole, M J; Waldman, R J

    1997-01-01

    Populations affected by armed conflict have experienced severe public health consequences mediated by population displacement, food scarcity, and the collapse of basic health services, giving rise to the term complex humanitarian emergencies. These public health effects have been most severe in underdeveloped countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Refugees and internally displaced persons have experienced high mortality rates during the period immediately following their migration. In Africa, crude mortality rates have been as high as 80 times baseline rates. The most common causes of death have been diarrheal diseases, measles, acute respiratory infections, and malaria. High prevalences of acute malnutrition have contributed to high case fatality rates. In conflict-affected European countries, such as the former Yugoslavia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Chechnya, war-related injuries have been the most common cause of death among civilian populations; however, increased incidence of communicable diseases, neonatal health problems, and nutritional deficiencies (especially among the elderly) have been documented. The most effective measures to prevent mortality and morbidity in complex emergencies include protection from violence; the provision of adequate food rations, clean water and sanitation; diarrheal disease control; measles immunization; maternal and child health care, including the case management of common endemic communicable diseases; and selective feeding programs, when indicated. PMID:9143721

  12. Earth Science Data and Models for Improved Targeting of Humanitarian Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.

    2011-01-01

    Humanitarian assistance to developing countries has long focused on countries that have political, economic and strategic interest to the United States. Recent changes in global security concerns have heightened the perception that humanitarian action is becoming increasingly politicized. This is seen to be largely driven by the 'global war on terror' along with a push by donors and the United Nations for closer integration between humanitarian action and diplomatic, military and other spheres of engagement in conflict and crisis-affected states (HPG 2010). As we enter an era of rising commodity prices and increasing uncertainty in global food production due to a changing climate, scientific data and analysis will be increasingly important to improve the targeting of humanitarian assistance. Earth science data enables appropriate humanitarian response to complex food emergencies that arise in regions outside the areas of current strategic and security focus. As the climate changes, new places will become vulnerable to food insecurity and will need emergency assistance. Earth science data and multidisciplinary models will enable an information-based comparison of need that goes beyond strategic and political considerations to identify new hotspots of food insecurity as they emerge. These analyses will improve aid targeting and timeliness while reducing strategic risk by highlighting new regions at risk of crisis in a rapidly changing world. Improved targeting with respect to timing and location could reduce cost while increasing the likelihood that those who need aid get it.

  13. Tackling the Global Challenge: Humanitarian Catastrophes

    PubMed Central

    Iserson, Kenneth V.

    2014-01-01

    Humanitarian catastrophes,” conflicts and calamities generating both widespread human suffering and destructive events, require a wide range of emergency resources. This paper answers a number of questions that humanitarian catastrophes generate: Why and how do the most-developed countries—those with the resources, capabilities, and willingness to help—intervene in specific types of disasters? What ethical and legal guidelines shape our interventions? How well do we achieve our goals? It then suggests a number of changes to improve humanitarian responses, including better NGO-government cooperation, increased research on the best disaster response methods, clarification of the criteria and roles for humanitarian (military) interventions, and development of post-2015 Millennium Development Goals with more accurate progress measures. PMID:24672618

  14. Cracking the humanitarian logistic coordination challenge: lessons from the urban search and rescue community.

    PubMed

    Tatham, Peter; Spens, Karen

    2016-04-01

    The challenges of achieving successful inter-agency logistic coordination in preparing for and responding to natural disasters and complex emergencies are both well understood and well documented. However, although many of these challenges remain unresolved, the literature reveals that the organisations that form the urban search and rescue (USAR) community have attained a high level of coherence and interoperability that results in a highly efficient and effective response. Therefore, this paper uses the idea of 'borrowing' from other fields as it explores how the processes and procedures used by the USAR community might be applied to improve humanitarian logistic operations. The paper analyses the USAR model and explores how the resultant challenges might be addressed in a humanitarian logistic context. The paper recommends that further research be undertaken in order to develop a modified USAR model that could be operationalised by the international community of humanitarian logisticians. PMID:26283578

  15. The co-construction of medical humanitarianism: analysis of personal, organizationally condoned narratives from an agency website.

    PubMed

    Ager, Alastair; Iacovou, Melina

    2014-11-01

    Recent years have seen significant growth in both the size and profile of the humanitarian sector. However, little research has focused upon the constructions of humanitarian practice negotiated by agencies and their workers that serve to sustain engagement in the face personal challenges and critique of the humanitarian enterprise. This study used the public narrative of 129 website postings by humanitarian workers deployed with the health-focused international humanitarian organization Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) to identify recurrent themes in personal, organizationally-condoned, public discourse regarding humanitarian practice. Data represented all eligible postings from a feature on the agency's UK website from May 2002 to April 2012. The text of postings was analysed with respect to emergent themes on an iterative basis. Comprehensive coding of material was achieved through a thematic structure that reflected the core domains of project details, the working environment, characteristics of beneficiaries and recurrent motivational sub-texts. Features of the co-construction of narratives include language serving to neutralize complex political contexts; the specification of barriers as substantive but surmountable; the dominance of the construct of national-international in understanding the operation of teams; intense personal identification with organization values; and the use of resilience as a framing of beneficiary adaptation and perseverance in conditions that--from an external perspective--warrant despair and withdrawal. Recurrent motivational sub-texts include 'making a difference' and contrasts with 'past professional constraints' and 'ordinary life back home.' The prominence of these sub-texts not only highlights key personal agendas but also suggests--notwithstanding policy initiatives regarding stronger contextual rooting and professionalism--continuing organizational emphasis on externality and volunteerism. Overall, postings illustrate a

  16. Humanitarian response: improving logistics to save lives.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Each year, millions of people worldwide are affected by disasters, underscoring the importance of effective relief efforts. Many highly visible disaster responses have been inefficient and ineffective. Humanitarian agencies typically play a key role in disaster response (eg, procuring and distributing relief items to an affected population, assisting with evacuation, providing healthcare, assisting in the development of long-term shelter), and thus their efficiency is critical for a successful disaster response. The field of disaster and emergency response modeling is well established, but the application of such techniques to humanitarian logistics is relatively recent. This article surveys models of humanitarian response logistics and identifies promising opportunities for future work. Existing models analyze a variety of preparation and response decisions (eg, warehouse location and the distribution of relief supplies), consider both natural and manmade disasters, and typically seek to minimize cost or unmet demand. Opportunities to enhance the logistics of humanitarian response include the adaptation of models developed for general disaster response; the use of existing models, techniques, and insights from the literature on commercial supply chain management; the development of working partnerships between humanitarian aid organizations and private companies with expertise in logistics; and the consideration of behavioral factors relevant to a response. Implementable, realistic models that support the logistics of humanitarian relief can improve the preparation for and the response to disasters, which in turn can save lives. PMID:19069032

  17. The far side: the meta functions of humanitarianism in a globalised world.

    PubMed

    Donini, Antonio

    2010-04-01

    This paper explores the meta functions of humanitarianism--that is, the functions that, as an ideology, a movement and a profession, it performs, wittingly or unwittingly, in the early twenty-first century. The term humanitarianism is used as shorthand to encompass a complex set of currents of thought, actions and institutions of which the boundaries are unclear. The focus is on mainstream humanitarianism, the dominant Northern/Western enterprise. The paper first discusses the relationship between humanitarianism and globalised power. It goes on to examine three types of functions that humanitarianism and humanitarian action perform: 'macro' functions--the deep undercurrents, power relations and values that humanitarianism articulates and transmits; 'meso' functions--those that relate to the political economy of humanitarian action and to the mechanics (rather than to the ideology) of globalisation; and 'micro' functions that relate to the motivations of the individuals who devote their energies to humanitarianism. PMID:20132266

  18. Cancer in refugees in Jordan and Syria between 2009 and 2012: challenges and the way forward in humanitarian emergencies.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, Paul; Khalifa, Adam; Mateen, Farrah J

    2014-06-01

    Treatment of non-communicable diseases such as cancer in refugees is neglected in low-income and middle-income countries, but is of increasing importance because the number of refugees is growing. The UNHCR, through exceptional care committees (ECCs), has developed standard operating procedures to address expensive medical treatment for refugees in host countries, to decide on eligibility and amount of payment. We present data from funding applications for cancer treatments for refugees in Jordan between 2010 and 2012, and in Syria between 2009 and 2011. Cancer in refugees causes a substantial burden on the health systems of the host countries. Recommendations to improve prevention and treatment include improvement of health systems through standard operating procedures and innovative financing schemes, balance of primary and emergency care with expensive referral care, development of electronic cancer registries, and securement of sustainable funding sources. Analysis of cancer care in low-income refugee settings, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, is needed to inform future responses. PMID:24872112

  19. Model describing the effect of employment of the United States military in a complex emergency.

    PubMed

    MacMillan, Donald S

    2005-01-01

    The end of the Cold War vastly altered the worldwide political landscape. With the loss of a main competitor, the United States (US) military has had to adapt its strategic, operational, and tactical doctrines to an ever-increasing variety of non-traditional missions, including humanitarian operations. Complex emergencies (CEs) are defined in this paper from a political and military perspective, various factors that contribute to their development are described, and issues resulting from the employment of US military forces are discussed. A model was developed to illustrate the course of a humanitarian emergency and the potential impact of a military response. The US intervention in Haiti, Northern Iraq, Kosovo, Somalia, Bosnia, and Rwanda serve as examples. A CE develops when there is civil conflict, loss of national governmental authority, a mass population movement, and massive economic failure, each leading to a general decline in food security. The military can alleviate a CE in four ways: (1) provide security for relief efforts; (2) enforce negotiated settlements; (3) provide security for non-combatants; and/or (4) employ logistical capabilities. The model incorporates Norton and Miskel's taxonomy of identifying failing states and helps illustrate the factors that lead to a CE. The model can be used to determine if and when military intervention will have the greatest impact. The model demonstrates that early military intervention and mission assignment within the core competencies of the forces can reverse the course of a CE. Further study will be needed to verify the model. PMID:16295164

  20. The military physician and contested medical humanitarianism: a dueling identity?

    PubMed

    Gordon, Stuart

    2014-11-01

    A critical issue in the study of humanitarianism is who counts as a medical humanitarian. Military physicians are often characterized as caught between the potentially incompatible roles of physician and military professional. Medical NGOs, such as Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), have also vociferously rejected military medical humanitarianism: questioning the mandate, skills, and appropriateness of military involvement in humanitarian medicine as well as the potential impact on 'humanitarian space'. Yet many military doctors contest this. Consequently this study examines the ways in which primarily British military physicians identify and manage their identities as both medical humanitarians and soldiers. The research utilized a mixed method, grounded theory approach involving systematic document searches/expert identification of a core literature of 300 policy and peer reviewed documents, plus grey literature and 53 formal medical post operational reports from units serving in Iraq and Afghanistan between 2004 and 2012. Semi structured interviews involved purposive sampling (34 respondents) ranging from a former Surgeon General to more junior staff. Methods also included an analysis of the original data and literature from the 2003 Medical Services Delphi study (involving an additional 40 experts and an extensive literature review) on military medical identity/future roles as well as direct observation of military doctors in Iraq and Afghanistan (two, 2 month research trips). The research concluded that military physicians conceived of themselves as autonomous medical humanitarians with an individual morality rooted in civilian medical ethics that facilitated resistance to the potentially hegemonic military identity. Nevertheless military physicians were part of a medical organization with fundamentally different priorities from those of civilian humanitarian physicians. Furthermore, the perceived emergence of multiple civilian 'humanitarianisms' has

  1. International Humanitarian Award: Michael G. Wessells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Michael G. Wessells, recipient of the International Humanitarian Award, is cited for his pioneering and sustained contributions to the protection of children affected by armed conflict and to the development of international guidelines for the provision of community-based, culturally responsive psychosocial support in emergencies. Wessells has…

  2. [Humanitarian ethics and the concept of justice].

    PubMed

    Quadrelli, Silvia; Colt, Henri; Garcia, Camilo

    2011-01-01

    The bases of humanitarian assistance, beyond a legal norm--which appears to be essential given the inalienable obligations that result for all participating bodies--are influenced by philosophical and political conceptualizations framed in an ethics of justice. Actors in the humanitarian field who adhere to the Rawlsian social contract model their actions based on a philosophy that assistance is a noble and desirable option that remains in the hands of those who offer aid, and who can freely choose to not offer such assistance. Peter Singer and Thomas Pogge propose nuances to the understanding of the duty of assistance. Not assisting would be bad, basically tantamount to killing. Assistance is no longer a caring act deserving of praise, but rather a moral obligation. The financial imperatives of associations, the growing complexity of activities and the development of an important element of communication lead to a professionalization of humanitarian medicine. A modern vision of humanitarian assistance requires an understanding of justice and solidarity and global outreach. We believe that ethics need to be embedded firmly in humanitarian actions that have clear political implications. PMID:21717666

  3. 31 CFR 575.330 - Humanitarian activities, humanitarian purposes, and humanitarian support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Security Council Resolutions on Iraq, humanitarian relief, educational, cultural, recreational, and human rights-related activities, and activities to ameliorate the effects of or to investigate war crimes....

  4. Humanitarian demining technology toolbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joynt, Vernon P.

    2003-09-01

    This is a keynote address surveying the field of Humanitarian Demining (HD) from the viewpoint of a participating company. The controlling bodies, funding structures and some of the important sources of R&D relevant to HD are identified. The various techniques and technologies in common use as also technologies freshly put into field use are mentioned. The way in which they all fit into the demining toolbox is explained. Finally a view of future technologies that are potentially able to change HD efficiency and safety is discussed.

  5. A 'principled' approach to complex emergencies: testing a new aid delivery model in the Nuba mountains.

    PubMed

    Pantuliano, Sara

    2005-06-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the Nuba Mountains Programme Advancing Conflict Trans-formation (NMPACT) as an example of an operational response in a complex emergency that innovatively addressed an incipient food security crisis. NMPACT is notable for having brought together an array of actors around a common principled agenda and for being the only operational programme in the Sudan to which both warring parties subscribed during the conflict. The key features of the programme are presented and the main innovative elements are reviewed, including the role of the principles of engagement and the 'political humanitarianism' of NMPACT. The paper looks at how NMPACT broke from traditional externally driven responses to food insecurity, and, drawing on lessons from Operation Lifeline Sudan, adopted an approach that focuses on capacity building, sustainable agriculture and market revitalisation, alongside conflict transformation and peace-building. The limitations of the model are also assessed, and preliminary lessons regarding its replication in other complex emergency contexts are presented. PMID:15910677

  6. Ritual dynamics in humanitarian assistance.

    PubMed

    Richards, Paul

    2010-04-01

    Those who intervene in crises must take care to ensure that assistance does not undermine the processes through which social cohesion is generated or restored. From a neo-Durkheimian analytical perspective, feeding creates social loyalties as well as saves lives. Humanitarian agencies provide practical assistance to livelihoods, but they need also to create space for the ritual agency on which social cohesion depends. Attention to the rituals of food distribution helps humanitarian actors to address a potentially damaging dissociation between social and material facts. A post-war food security project in Sierra Leone is used to illustrate the point. The lessons of this intervention have implications for the organisation of humanitarian assistance at all levels, both international and local. The paper argues that establishing space for ritualisation within humanitarian programmes is an obligation for those who wish to do no harm. PMID:20132271

  7. A Research Agenda for Humanitarian Health Ethics

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Matthew; Schwartz, Lisa; Pringle, John; Boulanger, Renaud; Nouvet, Elysée; O'Mathúna, Dónal; Arya, Neil; Bernard, Carrie; Beukeboom, Carolyn; Calain, Philippe; de Laat, Sonya; Eckenwiler, Lisa; Elit, Laurie; Fraser, Veronique; Gillespie, Leigh-Anne; Johnson, Kirsten; Meagher, Rachel; Nixon, Stephanie; Olivier, Catherine; Pakes, Barry; Redwood-Campbell, Lynda; Reis, Andreas; Renaldi, Teuku; Singh, Jerome; Smith, Maxwell; Von Schreeb, Johan

    2014-01-01

    This paper maps key research questions for humanitarian health ethics: the ethical dimensions of healthcare provision and public health activities during international responses to situations of humanitarian crisis. Development of this research agenda was initiated at the Humanitarian Health Ethics Forum (HHE Forum) convened in Hamilton, Canada in November 2012. The HHE Forum identified priority avenues for advancing policy and practice for ethics in humanitarian health action. The main topic areas examined were: experiences and perceptions of humanitarian health ethics; training and professional development initiatives for humanitarian health ethics; ethics support for humanitarian health workers; impact of policies and project structures on humanitarian health ethics; and theoretical frameworks and ethics lenses. Key research questions for each topic area are presented, as well as proposed strategies for advancing this research agenda. Pursuing the research agenda will help strengthen the ethical foundations of humanitarian health action. PMID:25687273

  8. Rape in war: the humanitarian response

    PubMed Central

    Shanks, Leslie; Schull, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Women and children are vulnerable to sexual violence in times of conflict, and the risk persists even after they have escaped the conflict area. The impact of rape goes far beyond the immediate effects of the physical attack and has long-lasting consequences. We describe the humanitarian community's response to sexual violence and rape in times of war and civil unrest by drawing on the experiences of Médecins Sans Frontières/Doctors Without Borders and other humanitarian agencies. Health care workers must have a keen awareness of the problem and be prepared to respond appropriately. This requires a comprehensive intervention protocol, including antibiotic prophylaxis, emergency contraception, referral for psychological support, and proper documentation and reporting procedures. Preventing widespread sexual violence requires increasing the security in refugee camps. It also requires speaking out and holding states accountable when violations of international law occur. The challenge is to remain alert to these often hidden, but extremely destructive, crimes in the midst of a chaotic emergency relief setting. PMID:11079062

  9. Complexity measures, emergence, and multiparticle correlations.

    PubMed

    Galla, Tobias; Gühne, Otfried

    2012-04-01

    We study correlation measures for complex systems. First, we investigate some recently proposed measures based on information geometry. We show that these measures can increase under local transformations as well as under discarding particles, thereby questioning their interpretation as a quantifier for complexity or correlations. We then propose a refined definition of these measures, investigate its properties, and discuss its numerical evaluation. As an example, we study coupled logistic maps and study the behavior of the different measures for that case. Finally, we investigate other local effects during the coarse graining of the complex system. PMID:22680558

  10. Complexity measures, emergence, and multiparticle correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galla, Tobias; Gühne, Otfried

    2012-04-01

    We study correlation measures for complex systems. First, we investigate some recently proposed measures based on information geometry. We show that these measures can increase under local transformations as well as under discarding particles, thereby questioning their interpretation as a quantifier for complexity or correlations. We then propose a refined definition of these measures, investigate its properties, and discuss its numerical evaluation. As an example, we study coupled logistic maps and study the behavior of the different measures for that case. Finally, we investigate other local effects during the coarse graining of the complex system.

  11. An affordable humanitarian mine detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, David J.; Curtis, Paul; Amin, Rajan; Dittmer, Jon

    2004-09-01

    This paper describes the further development of the MINETECT affordable humanitarian mine detector produced by ERA Technology with sponsorship from the UK Department for International Development. Using a radically different patented approach from conventional ground penetrating radar (GPR) designs in terms of the man machine interface, MINETECT offers simplicity of use and affordability, both key factors in humanitarian demining operations. Following trials in 2002 and reported at SPIE 2002, further development work including research on classifying mines, based on data from planned trials in the United Kingdom, is presented. MINETECT has the capability of detecting completely non-metallic mines and offers a considerable improvement in hand-held mine detection.

  12. 31 CFR 515.575 - Humanitarian projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Humanitarian projects. 515.575..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.575 Humanitarian projects. Specific licenses may be... such additional transactions as are directly incident to certain humanitarian projects in or related...

  13. 31 CFR 515.575 - Humanitarian projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Humanitarian projects. 515.575 Section..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.575 Humanitarian projects. Specific licenses may be... such additional transactions as are directly incident to certain humanitarian projects in or related...

  14. 31 CFR 515.575 - Humanitarian projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Humanitarian projects. 515.575 Section..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.575 Humanitarian projects. Specific licenses may be... such additional transactions as are directly incident to certain humanitarian projects in or related...

  15. 31 CFR 515.575 - Humanitarian projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Humanitarian projects. 515.575 Section..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.575 Humanitarian projects. Specific licenses may be... such additional transactions as are directly incident to certain humanitarian projects in or related...

  16. 31 CFR 515.575 - Humanitarian projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Humanitarian projects. 515.575 Section..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.575 Humanitarian projects. Specific licenses may be... such additional transactions as are directly incident to certain humanitarian projects in or related...

  17. Social and trauma-related pathways leading to psychological distress and functional limitations four years after the humanitarian emergency in Timor-Leste.

    PubMed

    Silove, D; Brooks, R; Bateman, C Steel; Steel, Z; Amaral, Z Fonseca C; Rodger, J; Soosay, I

    2010-02-01

    There is growing acknowledgment that research in the postconflict field needs to include a focus on social conditions. The authors applied structural equation modeling to epidemiologic data obtained from postconflict Timor-Leste, to examine for links involving potentially traumatic events and sociodemographic factors (age, gender, educational levels, and unemployment) with psychological symptoms and functioning. Exposure to trauma and lack of education emerged as most relevant with psychological distress impacting on education in the urban area. Age and gender exerted influences at different points in the model consistent with the known history of Timor. Although based on cross-sectional data, the model supports the relevance of past trauma, posttraumatic distress, and postconflict social conditions to functioning in societies such as Timor-Leste. PMID:20146257

  18. Inflammasome Complexes: Emerging Mechanisms and Effector Functions.

    PubMed

    Rathinam, Vijay A K; Fitzgerald, Katherine A

    2016-05-01

    Canonical activation of the inflammasome is critical to promote caspase-1-dependent maturation of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18, as well as to induce pyroptotic cell death in response to pathogens and endogenous danger signals. Recent discoveries, however, are beginning to unveil new components of the inflammasome machinery as well as the full spectrum of inflammasome functions, extending their influence beyond canonical functions to regulation of eicosanoid storm, autophagy, and metabolism. In addition, the receptor components of the inflammasome can also regulate diverse biological processes, such as cellular proliferation, gene transcription, and tumorigenesis, all of which are independent of their inflammasome complex-forming capabilities. Here, we review these recent advances that are shaping our understanding of the complex biology of the inflammasome and its constituents. PMID:27153493

  19. Emerging Complexities in Adipocyte Origins and Identity.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Gurmaches, Joan; Hung, Chien-Min; Guertin, David A

    2016-05-01

    The global incidence of obesity and its comorbidities continues to rise along with a demand for novel therapeutic interventions. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is attracting attention as a therapeutic target because of its presence in adult humans and high capacity to dissipate energy as heat, and thus burn excess calories, when stimulated. Another potential avenue for therapeutic intervention is to induce, within white adipose tissue (WAT), the formation of brown-like adipocytes called brite (brown-like-in-white) or beige adipocytes. However, understanding how to harness the potential of these thermogenic cells requires a deep understanding of their developmental origins and regulation. Recent cell-labeling and lineage-tracing experiments are beginning to shed light on this emerging area of adipocyte biology. We review here adipocyte development, giving particular attention to thermogenic adipocytes. PMID:26874575

  20. [Humanitarian plastic surgery in question].

    PubMed

    Montandon, D; Quinodoz, P; Pittet, B

    2004-06-01

    Humanitarian plastic surgery has become very fashionable and more and more surgeons are attracted by this type of commitment. The authors remind here of the necessary conditions and limitations of these actions. The communicative action according to J. Habermas, which means a true partnership with the local health care specialists should be the only valid engagement. PMID:15276263

  1. Nonlinear Emergent Complexity during Cosmological Symmetry Breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamatopoulos, Nikitas

    In this thesis, the dynamics of long-lived, time-dependent, coherent field configurations, known as oscillons, are investigated in the presence of an expanding background. In a (1+1)-dimensional expanding spacetime, scalar-field oscillon lifetimes are shown to be exponentially large compared to the natural time scales of the system. Moreover, a numerical investigation starting from (quasi) thermal initial conditions, indicates that a large fraction of the energy density of the Universe is taken up by oscillons, suggesting that they could play a role during various non-linear processes in the early Universe. Moving to (3+1) dimensions, a similar analysis is carried out in a symmetry breaking scenario in de Sitter space to examine how the rate of expansion affects oscillon lifetimes in a spherically symmetric model. Starting with thermal initial conditions similar to the (1+1)-dimensional case, oscillons are still found to occupy a significant fraction of the final energy density. Finally, a new class of two-field oscillons is studied which exhibit lifetimes as much as four times larger than the single-field oscillon solutions. Using parameters consistent with WMAP 7-year data, their emergence after hybrid inflation is investigated to reveal that oscillons end up contributing up to 20% to the final energy density of a matter-dominated Universe.

  2. Emergent “quantum” theory in complex adaptive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minic, Djordje; Pajevic, Sinisa

    2016-03-01

    Motivated by the question of stability, in this paper we argue that an effective quantum-like theory can emerge in complex adaptive systems. In the concrete example of stochastic Lotka-Volterra dynamics, the relevant effective “Planck constant” associated with such emergent “quantum” theory has the dimensions of the square of the unit of time. Such an emergent quantum-like theory has inherently nonclassical stability as well as coherent properties that are not, in principle, endangered by thermal fluctuations and therefore might be of crucial importance in complex adaptive systems.

  3. EMERGENT SYLLABLE COMPLEXITY IN COLLOQUIAL BAMANA&

    PubMed Central

    Green, Christopher R.; Diakite, Boubacar

    2010-01-01

    Data from two varieties of Bamanankan, or Bambara, a Mande language spoken in Mali and surrounding nations, illustrate differences in permissible syllable shapes between the variants. A comparison of the Classic variety of the language spoken in Ségou and that spoken by a younger cohort of individuals in the Malian capital reveals that the latter variety is synchronically developing complex CCV and CVC syllable shapes primarily through vocalic syncope, whereas the classical variety permits only maximal CV syllables. Data presented in this study show that this complexification of syllables in Bamako Bamana is one manifestation of the overall drive towards word minimization in this variety of the language. These data illustrate that this variety of Bamana has preferential patterns of deletion that are largely dependent on phonotactic constraints and permissible syllable contact that results from syncope. Additionally, other processes that interact with syncope or prevent it from occurring are explored. PMID:21037929

  4. Complex networks as an emerging property of hierarchical preferential attachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hébert-Dufresne, Laurent; Laurence, Edward; Allard, Antoine; Young, Jean-Gabriel; Dubé, Louis J.

    2015-12-01

    Real complex systems are not rigidly structured; no clear rules or blueprints exist for their construction. Yet, amidst their apparent randomness, complex structural properties universally emerge. We propose that an important class of complex systems can be modeled as an organization of many embedded levels (potentially infinite in number), all of them following the same universal growth principle known as preferential attachment. We give examples of such hierarchy in real systems, for instance, in the pyramid of production entities of the film industry. More importantly, we show how real complex networks can be interpreted as a projection of our model, from which their scale independence, their clustering, their hierarchy, their fractality, and their navigability naturally emerge. Our results suggest that complex networks, viewed as growing systems, can be quite simple, and that the apparent complexity of their structure is largely a reflection of their unobserved hierarchical nature.

  5. Rapid response: email, immediacy, and medical humanitarianism in Aceh, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Grayman, Jesse Hession

    2014-11-01

    After more than 20 years of sporadic separatist insurgency, the Free Aceh Movement and the Indonesian government signed an internationally brokered peace agreement in August 2005, just eight months after the Indian Ocean tsunami devastated Aceh's coastal communities. This article presents a medical humanitarian case study based on ethnographic data I collected while working for a large aid agency in post-conflict Aceh from 2005 to 2007. In December 2005, the agency faced the first test of its medical and negotiation capacities to provide psychiatric care to a recently amnestied political prisoner whose erratic behavior upon returning home led to his re-arrest and detention at a district police station. I juxtapose two methodological approaches-an ethnographic content analysis of the agency's email archive and field-based participant-observation-to recount contrasting narrative versions of the event. I use this contrast to illustrate and critique the immediacy of the humanitarian imperative that characterizes the industry. Immediacy is explored as both an urgent moral impulse to assist in a crisis and a form of mediation that seemingly projects neutral and transparent transmission of content. I argue that the sense of immediacy afforded by email enacts and amplifies the humanitarian imperative at the cost of abstracting elite humanitarian actors out of local and moral context. As a result, the management and mediation of this psychiatric case by email produced a bureaucratic model of care that failed to account for complex conditions of chronic political and medical instability on the ground. PMID:24788052

  6. The emergence of complexity in prosody and syntax

    PubMed Central

    Meir, Irit; Dachkovsky, Svetlana; Padden, Carol; Aronoff, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The relation between prosody and syntax is investigated here by tracing the emergence of each in a new language, Al-Sayyid Bedouin Sign Language. We analyze the structure of narratives of four signers of this language: two older second generation signers, and two about 15 years younger. We find that younger signers produce prosodic cues to dependency between semantically related constituents, e.g., the two clauses of conditionals, revealing a type and degree of complexity in their language that is not frequent in that of the older pair. In these younger signers, several rhythmic and (facial) intonational cues are aligned at constituent boundaries, indicating the emergence of a grammatical system. There are no overt syntactic markers (such as complementizers) to relate clauses; prosody is the only clue. But this prosodic complexity is matched by syntactic complexity inside propositions in the younger signers, who are more likely to use pronouns as abstract grammatical markers of arguments, and to combine predicates with their arguments within in a constituent. As the prosodic means emerge for identifying constituent types and signaling dependency relations between them, the constituents themselves become increasingly complex. Finally, our study shows that the emergence of grammatical complexity is gradual. PMID:23087486

  7. The Challenges and Recommendations of Accessing to Affected Population for Humanitarian Assistance: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Moslehi, Shandiz; Fatemi, Farin; Mahboubi, Mohammad; Mozafarsaadati, Hossein; Karami, Shirzad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Access to affected people pays an important role in United Nation Organization for Coordination and Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). The aim of this article is to identify the main obstacles of humanitarian access and the humanitarian organization responses to these obstacles and finally suggest some recommendations and strategies. Methods: In this narrative study the researchers searched in different databases. This study focused on the data from five countries in the following areas: access challenges and constraints to affected population and response strategies selected for operations in the affected countries by humanitarian organizations. Results: Three main issues were studied: security threats, bureaucratic restrictions and indirect constraint, which each of them divided to three subcategories. Finally, nine related subcategories emerged from this analysis. Conclusion: Most of these constraints relate to political issues. Changes in policy structures, negotiations and advocacy can be recommended to solve most of the problems in access issues. PMID:25948440

  8. Lessons learned from complex emergencies over past decade.

    PubMed

    Salama, Peter; Spiegel, Paul; Talley, Leisel; Waldman, Ronald

    Major advances have been made during the past decade in the way the international community responds to the health and nutrition consequences of complex emergencies. The public health and clinical response to diseases of acute epidemic potential has improved, especially in camps. Case-fatality rates for severely malnourished children have plummeted because of better protocols and products. Renewed focus is required on the major causes of death in conflict-affected societies--particularly acute respiratory infections, diarrhoea, malaria, measles, neonatal causes, and malnutrition--outside camps and often across regions and even political boundaries. In emergencies in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly southern Africa, HIV/AIDS is also an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Stronger coordination, increased accountability, and a more strategic positioning of non-governmental organisations and UN agencies are crucial to achieving lower maternal and child morbidity and mortality rates in complex emergencies and therefore for reaching the UN's Millennium Development Goals. PMID:15541455

  9. Relevance or Excellence? Setting Research Priorities for Mental Health and Psychosocial Support in Humanitarian Settings

    PubMed Central

    Tol, Wietse A; Patel, Vikram; Tomlinson, Mark; Baingana, Florence; Galappatti, Ananda; Silove, Derrick; Sondorp, Egbert; van Ommeren, Mark; Wessells, Michael G; Catherine, Panter-Brick

    2012-01-01

    Background: Humanitarian crises are associated with an increase in mental disorders and psychological distress. Despite the emerging consensus on intervention strategies in humanitarian settings, the field of mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) in humanitarian settings lacks a consensus-based research agenda. Methods: From August 2009 to February 2010, we contacted policymakers, academic researchers, and humanitarian aid workers, and conducted nine semistructured focus group discussions with 114 participants in three locations (Peru, Uganda, and Nepal), in both the capitals and remote humanitarian settings. Local stakeholders representing a range of academic expertise (psychiatry, psychology, social work, child protection, and medical anthropology) and organizations (governments, universities, nongovernmental organizations, and UN agencies) were asked to identify priority questions for MHPSS research in humanitarian settings, and to discuss factors that hamper and facilitate research. Results: Thematic analyses of transcripts show that participants broadly agreed on prioritized research themes in the following order: (1) the prevalence and burden of mental health and psychosocial difficulties in humanitarian settings, (2) how MHPSS implementation can be improved, (3) evaluation of specific MHPSS interventions, (4) the determinants of mental health and psychological distress, and (5) improved research methods and processes. Rather than differences in research themes across countries, what emerged was a disconnect between different groups of stakeholders regarding research processes: the perceived lack of translation of research findings into actual policy and programs; misunderstanding of research methods by aid workers; different appreciation of the time needed to conduct research; and disputed universality of research constructs. Conclusions: To advance a collaborative research agenda, actors in this field need to bridge the perceived disconnect between

  10. Emergence of complexity in controlling simple regular networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xin-Dong; Shen, Zhesi; Wang, Wen-Xu

    2016-06-01

    Quantifying the capacity of a given node or a bunch of nodes in maintaining a system's controllability is a crucial problem in complex networks and control theory. We give a systematic analysis of the ability of a single node or a pairs of nodes to control an undirected unweighted chain and ring. By combining algebraic theory and graph spectrum analysis, we derive analytic expressions for the control range of some given control inputs and find that complex phenomena emerge even from these simplest graph structures. Specifically, the control range is sensitive to the location of driver nodes and shows complex periodic behaviors. Our findings have implications for evaluating the control range and practically controlling complex networks.

  11. Experimental econophysics: Complexity, self-organization, and emergent properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J. P.

    2015-03-01

    Experimental econophysics is concerned with statistical physics of humans in the laboratory, and it is based on controlled human experiments developed by physicists to study some problems related to economics or finance. It relies on controlled human experiments in the laboratory together with agent-based modeling (for computer simulations and/or analytical theory), with an attempt to reveal the general cause-effect relationship between specific conditions and emergent properties of real economic/financial markets (a kind of complex adaptive systems). Here I review the latest progress in the field, namely, stylized facts, herd behavior, contrarian behavior, spontaneous cooperation, partial information, and risk management. Also, I highlight the connections between such progress and other topics of traditional statistical physics. The main theme of the review is to show diverse emergent properties of the laboratory markets, originating from self-organization due to the nonlinear interactions among heterogeneous humans or agents (complexity).

  12. Zebrafish as an emerging model for studying complex brain disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kalueff, Allan V.; Stewart, Adam Michael; Gerlai, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is rapidly becoming a popular model organism in pharmacogenetics and neuropharmacology. Both larval and adult zebrafish are currently used to increase our understanding of brain function, dysfunction, and their genetic and pharmacological modulation. Here we review the developing utility of zebrafish in the analysis of complex brain disorders (including, for example, depression, autism, psychoses, drug abuse and cognitive disorders), also covering zebrafish applications towards the goal of modeling major human neuropsychiatric and drug-induced syndromes. We argue that zebrafish models of complex brain disorders and drug-induced conditions have become a rapidly emerging critical field in translational neuropharmacology research. PMID:24412421

  13. Understanding Complexity: Pattern Recognitions, Emergent Phenomena and Causal Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raia, F.

    2010-12-01

    In teaching and learning complex systems we face a fundamental issue: Simultaneity of causal interactions -where effects are at the same time causes of systems’ behavior. Complex systems’ behavior and evolution are controlled by negative and positive feedback processes, continually changing boundary conditions and complex interaction between systems levels (emergence). These processes cannot be described and understood in a mechanistic framework where causality is conceived of being mostly of cause-effect nature or a linear chain of causes and effects. Mechanist causality by definition is characterized by the assumption that an earlier phenomenon A has a causal effect on the development of a phenomenon B. Since this concept also assumes unidirectional time, B cannot have an effect on A. Since students study science mostly in the lingering mechanistic framework, they have problems understanding complex systems. Specifically, our research on students understanding of complexity indicates that our students seem to have great difficulties in explaining mechanisms underlying natural processes within the current paradigm. Students tend to utilize simple linear model of causality and establish a one-to-one correspondence between cause and effect describing phenomena such as emergence and self-organization as being mechanistically caused. Contrary to experts, when presented with data distribution -spatial and/or temporal-, students first consider or search for a unique cause without describing the distribution or a recognized pattern. Our research suggests that students do not consider a pattern observed as an emergent phenomenon and therefore a causal determinant influencing and controlling the evolution of the system. Changes in reasoning have been observed when students 1) are iteratively asked to recognize and describe patterns in data distribution and 2) subsequently learn to identify these patterns as emergent phenomena and as fundamental causal controls over

  14. Strengthening the evidence base for health programming in humanitarian crises.

    PubMed

    Ager, A; Burnham, G; Checchi, F; Gayer, M; Grais, R F; Henkens, M; Massaquoi, M B F; Nandy, R; Navarro-Colorado, C; Spiegel, P

    2014-09-12

    Given the growing scale and complexity of responses to humanitarian crises, it is important to develop a stronger evidence base for health interventions in such contexts. Humanitarian crises present unique challenges to rigorous and effective research, but there are substantial opportunities for scientific advance. Studies need to focus where the translation of evidence from noncrisis scenarios is not viable and on ethical ways of determining what happens in the absence of an intervention. Robust methodologies suited to crisis settings have to be developed and used to assess interventions with potential for delivery at scale. Strengthening research capacity in the low- to middle-income countries that are vulnerable to crises is also crucial. PMID:25214616

  15. Comment on ``Emergence of Complex Societies After Sea Level Stabilized''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washington, Paul A.

    2007-10-01

    Day et al. [2007] made a provocative proposal: that complex societies evolved in response to the increased productivity of coastal marine ecosystems following sea level stabilization (SLS). Although the known record of complex societies does roughly coincide with SLS, neither the linkage to increased marine productivity nor the assertion that complex societies emerged at that time is warranted. Although increased marine productivity would have influenced coastal societies, the most prominent early societies (e.g., Nile, Mesopotamia, Indus, Yellow) relied primarily on riparian grain production. Coeval Mississippi Valley society was centered more than 300 kilometers inland and relied on riverine resources (freshwater fish and so forth) [Saunders et al., 2005]. These are the societies that apparently first constructed permanent structures (temples, permanent buildings, mound systems).

  16. Emergent complexity of the cytoskeleton: from single filaments to tissue

    PubMed Central

    Huber, F.; Schnauß, J.; Rönicke, S.; Rauch, P.; Müller, K.; Fütterer, C.; Käs, J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite their overwhelming complexity, living cells display a high degree of internal mechanical and functional organization which can largely be attributed to the intracellular biopolymer scaffold, the cytoskeleton. Being a very complex system far from thermodynamic equilibrium, the cytoskeleton's ability to organize is at the same time challenging and fascinating. The extensive amounts of frequently interacting cellular building blocks and their inherent multifunctionality permits highly adaptive behavior and obstructs a purely reductionist approach. Nevertheless (and despite the field's relative novelty), the physics approach has already proved to be extremely successful in revealing very fundamental concepts of cytoskeleton organization and behavior. This review aims at introducing the physics of the cytoskeleton ranging from single biopolymer filaments to multicellular organisms. Throughout this wide range of phenomena, the focus is set on the intertwined nature of the different physical scales (levels of complexity) that give rise to numerous emergent properties by means of self-organization or self-assembly. PMID:24748680

  17. Humanitarian Surgical Missions: Planning for Success.

    PubMed

    Boston, Mark; Horlbeck, Drew

    2015-09-01

    Humanitarian surgical missions can provide much needed care for those who are otherwise unable to receive such care because of limited local health care resources and cost. These missions also offer excellent training opportunities and can be life-changing experiences for those who participate in them. A successful humanitarian surgical mission requires careful planning and coordination and can be challenging for those tasked with the responsibilities to organize and lead these missions. This article addresses many of the issues and challenges encountered when planning and leading humanitarian surgical missions and offers a template to be used by those who take on these challenges. PMID:26059533

  18. Understanding complexity in neurodegenerative diseases: in silico reconstruction of emergence

    PubMed Central

    Kolodkin, Alexey; Simeonidis, Evangelos; Balling, Rudi; Westerhoff, Hans V.

    2012-01-01

    Healthy functioning is an emergent property of the network of interacting biomolecules that comprise an organism. It follows that disease (a network shift that causes malfunction) is also an emergent property, emerging from a perturbation of the network. On the one hand, the biomolecular network of every individual is unique and this is evident when similar disease-producing agents cause different individual pathologies. Consequently, a personalized model and approach for every patient may be required for therapies to become effective across mankind. On the other hand, diverse combinations of internal and external perturbation factors may cause a similar shift in network functioning. We offer this as an explanation for the multi-factorial nature of most diseases: they are “systems biology diseases,” or “network diseases.” Here we use neurodegenerative diseases, like Parkinson's disease (PD), as an example to show that due to the inherent complexity of these networks, it is difficult to understand multi-factorial diseases with simply our “naked brain.” When describing interactions between biomolecules through mathematical equations and integrating those equations into a mathematical model, we try to reconstruct the emergent properties of the system in silico. The reconstruction of emergence from interactions between huge numbers of macromolecules is one of the aims of systems biology. Systems biology approaches enable us to break through the limitation of the human brain to perceive the extraordinarily large number of interactions, but this also means that we delegate the understanding of reality to the computer. We no longer recognize all those essences in the system's design crucial for important physiological behavior (the so-called “design principles” of the system). In this paper we review evidence that by using more abstract approaches and by experimenting in silico, one may still be able to discover and understand the design principles that

  19. How complexity emerges in urban systems: Theory of urban morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goh, Segun; Choi, M. Y.; Lee, Keumsook; Kim, Kyung-min

    2016-05-01

    Human beings develop the land and transform land use patterns, constructing artificial structures. Among them, the city is a representative system and its morphology has attracted much attention. While most existing studies have been devoted to individual dynamics and focused on the proximity of specific areas of a city, we here pay attention to the city as a complex system, where interactions between individuals give rise to emergent properties. Specifically, analyzing the big data on every building in Seoul City, we specify the relevant interactions among constituents and probe the emergence of complex land use patterns. In particular, based on the empirical observations, we illustrate that interactions between land uses are frustrated, which serves as a basic postulate of the theory of urban morphology. We examine this conjecture with the help of a layered Ising-type model and disclose that the actual land use pattern emerges at the criticality of the system in the presence of heterogeneously distributed fields. It is also remarked that our model, allowing quantitative predictions, can easily be applied to other cities around the world.

  20. How complexity emerges in urban systems: Theory of urban morphology.

    PubMed

    Goh, Segun; Choi, M Y; Lee, Keumsook; Kim, Kyung-Min

    2016-05-01

    Human beings develop the land and transform land use patterns, constructing artificial structures. Among them, the city is a representative system and its morphology has attracted much attention. While most existing studies have been devoted to individual dynamics and focused on the proximity of specific areas of a city, we here pay attention to the city as a complex system, where interactions between individuals give rise to emergent properties. Specifically, analyzing the big data on every building in Seoul City, we specify the relevant interactions among constituents and probe the emergence of complex land use patterns. In particular, based on the empirical observations, we illustrate that interactions between land uses are frustrated, which serves as a basic postulate of the theory of urban morphology. We examine this conjecture with the help of a layered Ising-type model and disclose that the actual land use pattern emerges at the criticality of the system in the presence of heterogeneously distributed fields. It is also remarked that our model, allowing quantitative predictions, can easily be applied to other cities around the world. PMID:27300912

  1. Emergent sensing of complex environments by mobile animal groups.

    PubMed

    Berdahl, Andrew; Torney, Colin J; Ioannou, Christos C; Faria, Jolyon J; Couzin, Iain D

    2013-02-01

    The capacity for groups to exhibit collective intelligence is an often-cited advantage of group living. Previous studies have shown that social organisms frequently benefit from pooling imperfect individual estimates. However, in principle, collective intelligence may also emerge from interactions between individuals, rather than from the enhancement of personal estimates. Here, we reveal that this emergent problem solving is the predominant mechanism by which a mobile animal group responds to complex environmental gradients. Robust collective sensing arises at the group level from individuals modulating their speed in response to local, scalar, measurements of light and through social interaction with others. This distributed sensing requires only rudimentary cognition and thus could be widespread across biological taxa, in addition to being appropriate and cost-effective for robotic agents. PMID:23372013

  2. 3D characterization of stromatolites and the emergence of complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storrie-Lombardi, Michael C.; Awramik, Stanley M.; Nesson, John

    2008-08-01

    Stromatolites offer a unique fossil record across 3.5 Ga of microbial community evolution within the context of an evolving Earth. Our interest is in developing quantitative metrics to follow the evolution of stromatolite morphological complexity. Adopting the canonical definition of complexity as the emergence of previously unseen properties in a dynamic phenomenon, we have previously proposed in these proceedings that laminations are the defining emergent property of stromatolites and we have employed a set of statistical information metrics to quantify laminae complexity in two spatial dimensions. We now demonstrate computer x-ray tomography of stromatolites and discuss the advantages of this 3D volume density distribution technique for characterizing stromatolite samples. CT imaging makes it possible to create a virtual stromatolite, enabling both research and educational efforts previously hampered by the costs of obtaining, preparing, and distributing precious Archean stromatolite fossils. We discuss recent advances in instrument miniaturization making it feasible to provide nondestructive 3D density and elemental abundance information on endolithic geobiological targets during future manned and unmanned missions to Mars.

  3. Humanitarian aid in the archives: introduction.

    PubMed

    Davey, Eleanor; Scriven, Kim

    2015-10-01

    How might historical perspectives assist the goal of improving humanitarian responses? This introduction to a special issue of Disasters on the history of humanitarian action explores this question and outlines how the other submissions to the edition, each with its own approach and focus area from the nineteenth-century to the present today, make different contributions to understanding of humanitarian action. The paper argues that the value of history lies not so much in the information it might offer, but in the challenges it can pose to habitual ways of thinking and in the skills of investigation and interpretation it fosters. These attributes make historical perspectives a potentially valuable addition to the critical questioning of humanitarian practitioners and policymakers. The paper advocates integrating history into a more reflective attitude to change and a more adventurous and holistic approach to innovation, as opposed to simply using it to 'learn lessons'. PMID:26395104

  4. 77 FR 6544 - Humanitarian Awards Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... Incentivizing Humanitarian Technologies and Licensing Through the Intellectual Property System, 75 FR 57261... following considerations in mind: (1) Recognized subject matter expertise in science, engineering, economics... considered in four categories: Medical Technology, Food & Nutrition, Clean Technology, and...

  5. Medical humanitarianism: anthropologists speak out on policy and practice.

    PubMed

    Abramowitz, Sharon; Marten, Meredith; Panter-Brick, Catherine

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, anthropologists have become increasingly present in medical humanitarian situations as scholars, consultants, and humanitarian practitioners and have acquired insight into medical humanitarian policy and practice. In 2012, we implemented a poll on anthropology, health, and humanitarian practice in which 75 anthropologists discussed their experiences in medical humanitarianism. Our goal was to move beyond the existing anarchy of individual voices in anthropological writing and gain an aggregate view of the perspective of anthropologists working in medical humanitarian contexts. Responses lead to six inductively derived thematic priorities. The findings illustrate how anthropologists perceive medical humanitarian practice; which aspects of medical humanitarianism should be seen as priorities for anthropological research; and how anthropologists use ethnography in humanitarian contexts. PMID:25345372

  6. Who Is Worst Off? Developing a Severity-scoring Model of Complex Emergency Affected Countries in Order to Ensure Needs Based Funding

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Anneli; Ohlsén, Ylva Kristina; Garfield, Richard; von Schreeb, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Disasters affect close to 400 million people each year. Complex Emergencies (CE) are a category of disaster that affects nearly half of the 400 million and often last for several years. To support the people affected by CE, humanitarian assistance is provided with the aim of saving lives and alleviating suffering. It is widely agreed that funding for this assistance should be needs-based. However, to date, there is no model or set of indicators that quantify and compare needs from one CE to another. In an effort to support needs-based and transparent funding of humanitarian assistance, the aim of this study is to develop a model that distinguishes between levels of severity among countries affected by CE. Methods: In this study, severity serves as a predictor for level of need. The study focuses on two components of severity: vulnerability and exposure. In a literature and Internet search we identified indicators that characterize vulnerability and exposure to CE. Among the more than 100 indicators identified, a core set of six was selected in an expert ratings exercise. Selection was made based on indicator availability and their ability to characterize preexisting or underlying vulnerabilities (four indicators) or to quantify exposure to a CE (two indicators). CE from 50 countries were then scored using a 3-tiered score (Low-Moderate, High, Critical).  Results: The developed model builds on the logic of the Utstein template. It scores severity based on the readily available value of four vulnerability and four exposure indicators. These are 1) GNI per capita, PPP, 2) Under-five mortality rate, per 1 000 live births, 3) Adult literacy rate, % of people ages 15 and above, 4) Underweight, % of population under 5 years, and 5) number of persons and proportion of population affected, and 6) number of uprooted persons and proportion of population uprooted. Conclusion: The model can be used to derive support for transparent, needs-based funding of

  7. Perceptions of work in humanitarian assistance: interviews with returning Swedish health professionals.

    PubMed

    Bjerneld, Magdalena; Lindmark, Gunilla; Diskett, Patricia; Garrett, Martha J

    2004-01-01

    Health personnel volunteering for humanitarian assistance assignments work in increasingly dangerous situations and increasingly complex roles. A qualitative analysis of interviews with returning Swedish aid workers, who collectively had been on 74 missions in 32 different countries, revealed that they felt positive about their contribution, but experienced high levels of stress and frustration. They were also surprised and inadequately prepared for tasks that fell outside their professional health care training, including ones demanding pedagogic and management skills. The volunteers perceived their success on humanitarian assistance assignments as being affected not only by their own professional competence and special preparatory training, but also by many other factors. In particular, recruiting organizations could improve volunteer performance by accepting only experienced professionals, requiring special preparatory training, clarifying the exact nature of the work, and providing better support during the assignment. Further analysis of humanitarian assistance as a complex and dynamic system involving multiple 'actors' could lead to improved understanding and better performance. PMID:15448624

  8. Emergent Science: Solving complex science problems via collaborations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Ramachandran, R.; Wilson, B. D.; Lynnes, C.; Conover, H.

    2009-12-01

    The recent advances in Cyberinfrastructure have democratized the use of computational and data resources. These resources together with new social networking and collaboration technologies, present an unprecedented opportunity to impact the science process. These advances can move the science process from “circumspect science” -- where scientists publish only when the project is complete, publish only the final results, seldom publish things that did not work, and communicate results with each other using paper technology -- to “open science” -- where scientists can share and publish every element in their research, from the data used as input, workflows used to analyze these data sets, possibly failed experiments, and the final results. Open science can foster novel ways of social collaboration in science. We are already seeing the impact of social collaboration in our daily lives. A simple example is the use of reviews posted online by other consumers while evaluating whether to buy a product or not. This phenomenon has been well documented and is referred by many names such as Smart Mobs, Wisdom of Crowds, Wikinomics, Crowd sourcing, We-Think and swarm collaboration. Similar social collaborations during the science process can lead to “emergent science”. We define "emergent science" as way complex science problems can be solved and new research directions forged out of a multiplicity of relatively simple collaborative interactions. There are, however, barriers that prevent social collaboration within the science process. Some of these barriers are technical such as lack of science collaboration platforms and the others are social. The success of any collaborative platform has to take into account the incentives or motivation for the scientists to participate. This presentation will address obstacles facing emergent science and will suggest possible solutions required to build a critical mass.

  9. Cruel wars and safe havens: humanitarian aid in Liberia 1989-1996.

    PubMed

    Outram, Q

    1997-09-01

    This article considers the role of military intervention by peace-keeping and peace-enforcement troops in the provision of humanitarian aid to Liberia during the armed conflicts of the past seven years. The article focuses on the role of the de facto safe haven which peace-keeping and enforcing troops protected in Liberia between 1990 and 1996 and puts the Liberian case in the context of the growing debate about the usefulness of military interventions in humanitarian emergencies. It argues that the safe haven has enabled significant humanitarian achievements but has also demonstrated fundamental failures. Central to these failures have been the absence of consent, under-resourcing and a loss of control of the safe haven to factional interests. PMID:9301136

  10. Three legacies of humanitarianism in China.

    PubMed

    Hirono, Miwa

    2013-10-01

    The rise of China has altered the context of the international humanitarian community of donors and aid agencies. China is becoming one of the key actors in this grouping, undertaking infrastructure projects in areas in which paramount humanitarian challenges exist. The literature discusses how the Chinese approach differs from that of Western donors, but it does not pay much attention to why China concentrates on its state-centric and infrastructure-based approach. This paper seeks to shed some light on this subject by examining the historical evolution of the concept of humanitarianism in China. This evolution has produced three legacies: (i) the ideal of a well-ordered state; (ii) anti-Western sentiment; and (iii) the notion of comprehensive development based on a human-oriented approach. China's policies and discourses on assistance in humanitarian crises today rest on these three legacies. Traditional donors would be well advised to consider carefully the implications of the Chinese understanding of humanitarianism when engaging with the country. PMID:23876108

  11. Fractal variability: An emergent property of complex dissipative systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seely, Andrew J. E.; Macklem, Peter

    2012-03-01

    The patterns of variation of physiologic parameters, such as heart and respiratory rate, and their alteration with age and illness have long been under investigation; however, the origin and significance of scale-invariant fractal temporal structures that characterize healthy biologic variability remain unknown. Quite independently, atmospheric and planetary scientists have led breakthroughs in the science of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. In this paper, we aim to provide two novel hypotheses regarding the origin and etiology of both the degree of variability and its fractal properties. In a complex dissipative system, we hypothesize that the degree of variability reflects the adaptability of the system and is proportional to maximum work output possible divided by resting work output. Reductions in maximal work output (and oxygen consumption) or elevation in resting work output (or oxygen consumption) will thus reduce overall degree of variability. Second, we hypothesize that the fractal nature of variability is a self-organizing emergent property of complex dissipative systems, precisely because it enables the system's ability to optimally dissipate energy gradients and maximize entropy production. In physiologic terms, fractal patterns in space (e.g., fractal vasculature) or time (e.g., cardiopulmonary variability) optimize the ability to deliver oxygen and clear carbon dioxide and waste. Examples of falsifiability are discussed, along with the need to further define necessary boundary conditions. Last, as our focus is bedside utility, potential clinical applications of this understanding are briefly discussed. The hypotheses are clinically relevant and have potential widespread scientific relevance.

  12. Fractal variability: an emergent property of complex dissipative systems.

    PubMed

    Seely, Andrew J E; Macklem, Peter

    2012-03-01

    The patterns of variation of physiologic parameters, such as heart and respiratory rate, and their alteration with age and illness have long been under investigation; however, the origin and significance of scale-invariant fractal temporal structures that characterize healthy biologic variability remain unknown. Quite independently, atmospheric and planetary scientists have led breakthroughs in the science of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. In this paper, we aim to provide two novel hypotheses regarding the origin and etiology of both the degree of variability and its fractal properties. In a complex dissipative system, we hypothesize that the degree of variability reflects the adaptability of the system and is proportional to maximum work output possible divided by resting work output. Reductions in maximal work output (and oxygen consumption) or elevation in resting work output (or oxygen consumption) will thus reduce overall degree of variability. Second, we hypothesize that the fractal nature of variability is a self-organizing emergent property of complex dissipative systems, precisely because it enables the system's ability to optimally dissipate energy gradients and maximize entropy production. In physiologic terms, fractal patterns in space (e.g., fractal vasculature) or time (e.g., cardiopulmonary variability) optimize the ability to deliver oxygen and clear carbon dioxide and waste. Examples of falsifiability are discussed, along with the need to further define necessary boundary conditions. Last, as our focus is bedside utility, potential clinical applications of this understanding are briefly discussed. The hypotheses are clinically relevant and have potential widespread scientific relevance. PMID:22462984

  13. Gnawing Pains, Festering Ulcers, and Nightmare Suffering: Selling Leprosy as a Humanitarian Cause in the British Empire, c. 1890-1960

    PubMed Central

    Vongsathorn, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    When British attention was drawn to the issue of leprosy in the Empire, humanitarian organisations rose to take on responsibility for the ‘fight against leprosy’. In an effort to fundraise for a distant cause at a time when hundreds of charities competed for the financial support of British citizens, fundraisers developed propaganda to set leprosy apart from all other humanitarian causes. They drew on leprosy’s relationship with Christianity, its debilitating symptoms, and the supposed vulnerability of leprosy sufferers in order to mobilise Britain’s sense of humanitarian, Christian, and patriotic duty. This article traces the emergence of leprosy as a popular imperial humanitarian cause in modern Britain and analyses the narratives of religion, suffering, and disease that they created and employed in order to fuel their growth and sell leprosy as a British humanitarian cause. PMID:24932060

  14. Food security and humanitarian assistance among displaced Iraqi populations in Jordan and Syria.

    PubMed

    Doocy, Shannon; Sirois, Adam; Anderson, Jamie; Tileva, Margarita; Biermann, Elizabeth; Storey, J Douglas; Burnham, Gilbert

    2011-01-01

    The Iraq conflict resulted in the largest displacement in the Middle East in recent history, and provision of health services to the displaced population presents a critical challenge. With an increase in the number of people affected by complex emergencies and the number of people displaced in urban settings, the international community must adapt intervention strategies to meet the specific demands and contexts of this population. The study aimed to provide information on food security and livelihoods for Iraqi refugees in Syria and Jordan to inform humanitarian assistance planning. National cross-sectional cluster sample surveys of displaced Iraqi populations displaced were conducted in Jordan (October 2008) and Syria (March 2009). Clusters of ten households were randomly selected using probability-based sampling; a total of 1200 and 813 Iraqi households in Jordan and Syria, respectively, were interviewed about food security and receipt of humanitarian assistance. In Syria, 60% of households reported the household food situation had declined since the arrival period as compared to 46% in Jordan. Food aid receipt was reported by 18.0% of households in Jordan and 90.3% of households in Syria. In Jordan, 10.2% of households received cash assistance and in Syria 25.3% of households received cash assistance. In Jordan, cash assistance was associated with low socioeconomic status, large household size, and UNHCR registration. In Syria, female headed households, Damascus residents, families with children, and those registered with UNHCR were more likely to receive cash assistance. Food insecurity remains a concern among displaced Iraqi households in both Jordan and Syria. Improved targeting of both food and cash assistance and the expansion of cash-based programs could lead to a more effective use of funds and facilitate the implementation of assistance programs that are sustainable in the context of declining funding availability. PMID:21168249

  15. Procedural Effectiveness of International Humanitarian Assistance.

    PubMed

    Moslehi, Shandiz; Ardalan, Ali; Tirone, Daniel C; Waugh, William L; Akbarisari, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Procedural effectiveness relates to the impact assessment; so, the objective of this study is to identify the procedural effectiveness indicators and develop a conceptual mapping of existing impact indicators in the field of International Humanitarian Assistance (IHA). We conducted a literature review and searched the websites of humanitarian assistance organizations. Documents were included if they focused on IHA procedural effectiveness or impact evaluations. Reviewers identified the eligible studies and extracted data. A conceptual framework was used to categorize the indicators of secured (protection, good health and food security) and avoided (illness, death and malnutrition) issues. 10 documents were included and categorized based on the framework. It was found that there is no agreed and unique methodology and indicators to assess the impact of humanitarian assistance projects. This study could be the step toward understanding of IHA procedural effectiveness indicators and also the findings can make a base line to start more research. PMID:27241416

  16. Optimizing detector trials for humanitarian demining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaal, Mate; Baer, Sylke; Bloodworth, Thomas J.; Guelle, Dieter; Lewis, Adam M.; Mueller, Christina; Scharmach, Martina

    2004-09-01

    The performance of mine detecting instruments is embedded in the behavior of a complex system. The total reliability is always composed of the intrinsic physical detection capability of the sensor, application/environmental influences and human factors. The intrinsic capability and some application factors can be investigated in laboratory measurements. Human factors, other application factors and the overall reliability, can only be evaluated in blind field trials in which the probability of detection (PoD) and false alarm rate (FAR) are measured statistically. Both of these approaches are included in CEN Workshop Agreement CWA 14747:2003, which standardizes detector testing in Humanitarian Demining. We report here the results of a study to investigate how to optimize such testing. For efficient and statistically valid field trials, the number, types and burial depths of targets, and the number of test lanes, soil types, repetitions and operators need to be carefully chosen. Laboratory results should be used to help construct field trial protocols and also to help distinguish the different contributions to the PoD and FAR, to determine where to improve insufficient performance. In this study, four models of metal detector were tested in three field trials and in the laboratory. The repeatability of the field trials is assessed, taking into account operator training and experience. Results of the laboratory tests are compared with results of the field trials and used to construct a "modular model" of the system, as used in nondestructive testing. The conclusions are, in principle, applicable to trials of other types of sensor.

  17. Rice Sheath Rot: An Emerging Ubiquitous Destructive Disease Complex

    PubMed Central

    Bigirimana, Vincent de P.; Hua, Gia K. H.; Nyamangyoku, Obedi I.; Höfte, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Around one century ago, a rice disease characterized mainly by rotting of sheaths was reported in Taiwan. The causal agent was identified as Acrocylindrium oryzae, later known as Sarocladium oryzae. Since then it has become clear that various other organisms can cause similar disease symptoms, including Fusarium sp. and fluorescent pseudomonads. These organisms have in common that they produce a range of phytotoxins that induce necrosis in plants. The same agents also cause grain discoloration, chaffiness, and sterility and are all seed-transmitted. Rice sheath rot disease symptoms are found in all rice-growing areas of the world. The disease is now getting momentum and is considered as an important emerging rice production threat. The disease can lead to variable yield losses, which can be as high as 85%. This review aims at improving our understanding of the disease etiology of rice sheath rot and mainly deals with the three most reported rice sheath rot pathogens: S. oryzae, the Fusarium fujikuroi complex, and Pseudomonas fuscovaginae. Causal agents, pathogenicity determinants, interactions among the various pathogens, epidemiology, geographical distribution, and control options will be discussed. PMID:26697031

  18. The Emergence of Environmental Homeostasis in Complex Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Dyke, James G.; Weaver, Iain S.

    2013-01-01

    The Earth, with its core-driven magnetic field, convective mantle, mobile lid tectonics, oceans of liquid water, dynamic climate and abundant life is arguably the most complex system in the known universe. This system has exhibited stability in the sense of, bar a number of notable exceptions, surface temperature remaining within the bounds required for liquid water and so a significant biosphere. Explanations for this range from anthropic principles in which the Earth was essentially lucky, to homeostatic Gaia in which the abiotic and biotic components of the Earth system self-organise into homeostatic states that are robust to a wide range of external perturbations. Here we present results from a conceptual model that demonstrates the emergence of homeostasis as a consequence of the feedback loop operating between life and its environment. Formulating the model in terms of Gaussian processes allows the development of novel computational methods in order to provide solutions. We find that the stability of this system will typically increase then remain constant with an increase in biological diversity and that the number of attractors within the phase space exponentially increases with the number of environmental variables while the probability of the system being in an attractor that lies within prescribed boundaries decreases approximately linearly. We argue that the cybernetic concept of rein control provides insights into how this model system, and potentially any system that is comprised of biological to environmental feedback loops, self-organises into homeostatic states. PMID:23696719

  19. Complex auditory behaviour emerges from simple reactive steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedwig, Berthold; Poulet, James F. A.

    2004-08-01

    The recognition and localization of sound signals is fundamental to acoustic communication. Complex neural mechanisms are thought to underlie the processing of species-specific sound patterns even in animals with simple auditory pathways. In female crickets, which orient towards the male's calling song, current models propose pattern recognition mechanisms based on the temporal structure of the song. Furthermore, it is thought that localization is achieved by comparing the output of the left and right recognition networks, which then directs the female to the pattern that most closely resembles the species-specific song. Here we show, using a highly sensitive method for measuring the movements of female crickets, that when walking and flying each sound pulse of the communication signal releases a rapid steering response. Thus auditory orientation emerges from reactive motor responses to individual sound pulses. Although the reactive motor responses are not based on the song structure, a pattern recognition process may modulate the gain of the responses on a longer timescale. These findings are relevant to concepts of insect auditory behaviour and to the development of biologically inspired robots performing cricket-like auditory orientation.

  20. Humanitarian aid is never a crime”: humanitarianism and illegality in migrant advocacy.

    PubMed

    Cook, Maria Lorena

    2011-01-01

    I analyze the case of humanitarian pro-migrant activists in southern Arizona between 2000 and 2010 to explore how contending groups wield law and legality claims in a dynamic policy environment. Humanitarian activists both evade and engage the law. They appeal to a higher law to elude charges that they are acting illegally, while seeking assurances that their actions are within the law. Law enforcement agents rely on the authority and technical neutrality of the law in redefining humanitarian aid as illegal, while expanding their own claims to carry out humanitarian work. This case study of advocacy on behalf of “illegal” migrants highlights how both activists and those who enforce the law redefine legality in strategic ways. PMID:22165426

  1. Violence against children in humanitarian settings: A literature review of population-based approaches.

    PubMed

    Stark, Lindsay; Landis, Debbie

    2016-03-01

    Children in humanitarian settings are thought to experience increased exposure to violence, which can impair their physical, emotional, and social development. Violence against children has important economic and social consequences for nations as a whole. The purpose of this review is to examine population-based approaches measuring violence against children in humanitarian settings. The authors reviewed prevalence studies of violence against children in humanitarian contexts appearing in peer-reviewed journals within the past twenty years. A Boolean search procedure was conducted in October 2014 of the electronic databases PubMed/Medline and PsychInfo. If abstracts contained evidence of the study's four primary themes--violence, children, humanitarian contexts and population-based measurement--a full document review was undertaken to confirm relevance. Out of 2634 identified articles, 22 met the final inclusion criteria. Across studies, there was varying quality and no standardization in measurement approach. Nine out of 22 studies demonstrated a relationship between conflict exposure and adverse health or mental health outcomes. Among studies that compared rates of violence between boys and girls, boys reported higher rates of physical violence, while girls reported higher rates of sexual violence. Children in infancy and early childhood were found to be among the most under-researched. Ultimately, the body of evidence in this review offers an incomplete picture regarding the prevalence, nature and impact of violence against children in emergencies, demonstrating a weak evidence base for some of the basic assumptions underpinning humanitarian practice. The development of standardized approaches to more rigorously measure violence against children is urgently needed in order to understand trends of violence against children in humanitarian contexts, and to promote children's healthy development and well-being. PMID:26854623

  2. The Development and Maturation of Humanitarian Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Gerard A.

    2007-01-01

    Humanitarian psychological support as an organized field is relatively young. Pioneers in the field were involved primarily in providing psychological support to refugees and internally displaced persons in conflict and nonconflict situations. This article describes basic principles for the design of psychological support programs and…

  3. John W. Thoburn: International Humanitarian Award

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of the winner of the American Psychological Association's International Humanitarian Award. The 2012 winner, John W. Thoburn, is an extraordinary psychologist who devotes himself consistently to service to underserved populations, especially in the aftermath of natural or human-induced disasters. He exemplifies a genuine…

  4. A deployable telemedicine capability in support of humanitarian operations.

    PubMed

    Meade, Kenneth; Lam, David M

    2007-06-01

    This paper describes how a military concept for telemedicine support in humanitarian crisis, the Medical Command, Control, Communication and Telemedicine Special Medical Augmentation Team (MC3T SMART TEAM), was transitioned from a theoretical concept into a functioning, operational entity. The European Regional Medical Command (ERMC) MC3T SMART TEAM successfully tested its capabilities during a military training exercise with the 212th mobile army surgical hospital (MASH). This was followed by successful real-life telemedicine support missions during a planned humanitarian support mission in Africa and then an emergency disaster support mission in Pakistan. While on these missions, the SMART team provided access to the Internet and e-mail by means of limited bandwidth mobile satellite equipment, established a working telemedicine process by introducing the staff to the United States Army's "Army Knowledge Online (AKO) Remote Consultation Program," and established a successful connection of the 212th's digital radiography system to the "Tri-Service Global Encrypted Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) and Teleradiology Network." PMID:17603836

  5. Emergence of Clonal Complex 17 Enterococcus faecium in The Netherlands▿

    PubMed Central

    Top, Janetta; Willems, Rob; van der Velden, Saskia; Asbroek, Miranda; Bonten, Marc

    2008-01-01

    The global emergence of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium has been characterized as the clonal spread of clonal complex 17 (CC17) E. faecium. CC17 was defined upon multilocus sequence typing and is characterized by resistance to quinolones and ampicillin and the presence of the enterococcal surface protein (Esp) in the majority of isolates. The recently noticed increased incidence of vancomycin-susceptible CC17 E. faecium infections in our hospital initiated a nationwide study to determine ecological changes among enterococcal infections. The data and strain collections were obtained from 26 (38%) and 9 (14%) of 66 microbiology laboratories in The Netherlands. E. faecium and E. faecalis were distinguished by multiplex PCR; all E. faecium isolates were genotyped by multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA), and the presence of esp was identified by PCR. Average numbers of ampicillin-resistant enterococcal isolates from normally sterile body sites per hospital increased from 5 ± 1 in 1994 to 25 ± 21 in 2005. Among all enterococcal bloodstream infections, the proportions of ampicillin-resistant E. faecium (AREF) increased from 4% in 1994 to 20% in 2005 (P < 0.001). All E. faecalis isolates were susceptible to ampicillin, whereas 78% of the E. faecium isolates were resistant (49% of these contained esp). Genotyping revealed that 86% of AREF isolates belonged to CC17, including four dominant MLVA types found in ≥3 hospitals, accounting for 64% of the AREF isolates. Infections caused by CC17 E. faecium has increased nationwide, especially in university hospitals due to the clonal spread of four MLVA types, and seems associated with acquisition of the esp gene. PMID:17977983

  6. Emergence of Complexity in Protein Functions and Metabolic Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andzej

    2009-01-01

    In modern organisms proteins perform a majority of cellular functions, such as chemical catalysis, energy transduction and transport of material across cell walls. Although great strides have been made towards understanding protein evolution, a meaningful extrapolation from contemporary proteins to their earliest ancestors is virtually impossible. In an alternative approach, the origin of water-soluble proteins was probed through the synthesis of very large libraries of random amino acid sequences and subsequently subjecting them to in vitro evolution. In combination with computer modeling and simulations, these experiments allow us to address a number of fundamental questions about the origins of proteins. Can functionality emerge from random sequences of proteins? How did the initial repertoire of functional proteins diversify to facilitate new functions? Did this diversification proceed primarily through drawing novel functionalities from random sequences or through evolution of already existing proto-enzymes? Did protein evolution start from a pool of proteins defined by a frozen accident and other collections of proteins could start a different evolutionary pathway? Although we do not have definitive answers to these questions, important clues have been uncovered. Considerable progress has been also achieved in understanding the origins of membrane proteins. We will address this issue in the example of ion channels - proteins that mediate transport of ions across cell walls. Remarkably, despite overall complexity of these proteins in contemporary cells, their structural motifs are quite simple, with -helices being most common. By combining results of experimental and computer simulation studies on synthetic models and simple, natural channels, I will show that, even though architectures of membrane proteins are not nearly as diverse as those of water-soluble proteins, they are sufficiently flexible to adapt readily to the functional demands arising during

  7. [Humanitarian surgery of the hand. Our experience in Vietnam].

    PubMed

    Voche, P; Valenti, P

    1999-02-01

    After a general presentation of the geographical and social aspects of Vietnam, the authors describe the conditions of their surgical work during short time humanitarian hand surgery missions. These missions, lasting 7 to 10 days are dedicated to the care of children, and a half-day of teaching for Vietnamese corresponding surgeons. The technical and material limits, the constraints for the patients to travel to the hospital, to pay for care and the difficulties of follow-up, require the selection of patients in whom the disease can be treated in a single stage procedure. Three types of diseases were treated: congenital anomalies, post-burn and post-trauma sequelae. Typical cases of these diseases are described and shown. Due to the absence of hand rehabilitation, reconstructive tendon surgery is inadvisable to avoid disappointing poor results and discredit this part of hand surgery. For reason of complexity and unreliability of electromyographic examination, brachial plexus injuries cannot be treated, except the simplest cases needing one or two tendon transfers. Concerning skin coverage and reconstructive surgery, our experience has shown that pedicled local and locoregional flaps, and even microsurgical transfers are adapted and reliable techniques due to the imperative of single stage procedure. The education and teaching of young surgeons in European teams and regular relation-ships with corresponding surgeons from developing countries are certainly the best way to promote humanitarian hand surgery. PMID:10188295

  8. Humanitarian responses to mass violence perpetrated against vulnerable populations.

    PubMed Central

    Gellert, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    This multidisciplinary review links three areas of legitimate inquiry for practitioners of medicine and public health. The first is occurrences of mass violence or genocide perpetrated against vulnerable populations, with a focus on the failure of national and international mechanisms to prevent or predict such violence. The second is evolving concepts of national sovereignty and an emerging framework in which the imperative to assist vulnerable populations supersedes a state's right to self determination. The last is how medical, public health, and other systems of surveillance and rapid assessment of mass violence can accelerate public awareness and facilitate structured, consistent political decision making to prevent mass violence and to provide international humanitarian assistance. Images p1000-a PMID:7580643

  9. The practice of humanitarianism: a village birthing clinic in Palestine.

    PubMed

    Wick, Livia

    2011-01-01

    Discourses and practices surrounding humanitarian organisations have changed over time. This is certainly the case for Palestinian non-governmental organisations, which have followed the structural and ideological transformations observed in local, regional and international contexts. There have been three successive but interlocking generations of groups active in health in Palestine: charitable societies, popular committees, and donor-based entities. Against this background, a village clinic in the West Bank is seen to have gone through various incarnations in the context of an emerging neo-liberal economic, administrative and political environment. Despite the critiques justifiably addressed towards them, non-governmental organisations may in some cases be functionally fluid. Communities and people continue to use them strategically in their relations with states, political groups, individuals and receivers of aid, making them potential networking sites in the context of an ongoing occupation. PMID:24735467

  10. Cost-effectiveness analysis of humanitarian relief interventions: visceral leishmaniasis treatment in the Sudan.

    PubMed

    Griekspoor, A; Sondorp, E; Vos, T

    1999-03-01

    Spending by aid agencies on emergencies has quadrupled over the last decade, to over US$6 billion. To date, cost-effectiveness has seldom been considered in the prioritization and evaluation of emergency interventions. The sheer volume of resources spent on humanitarian aid and the chronicity of many humanitarian interventions call for more attention to be paid to the issue of 'value for money'. In this paper we present data from a major humanitarian crisis, an epidemic of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in war-torn Sudan. The special circumstances provided us, in retrospect, with unusually accurate data on excess mortality, costs of the intervention and its effects, thus allowing us to express cost-effectiveness as the cost per Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY) averted. The cost-effectiveness ratio, of US$18.40 per DALY (uncertainty range between US$13.53 and US$27.63), places the treatment of VL in Sudan among health interventions considered 'very good value for money' (interventions of less than US$25 per DALY). We discuss the usefulness of this analysis to the internal management of the VL programme, the procurement of funds for the programme, and more generally, to priority setting in humanitarian relief interventions. We feel that in evaluations of emergency interventions attempts could be made more often to perform cost-effectiveness analyses, including the use of DALYs, provided that the outcomes of these analyses are seen in the broad context of the emergency situation and its consequences on the affected population. This paper provides a first contribution to what is hoped to become an international database of cost-effectiveness studies of health interventions during relief operations, which use a comparable measure of health outcome such as the DALY. PMID:10351471

  11. Engendering care: HIV, humanitarian assistance in Africa, and the reproduction of gender stereotypes

    PubMed Central

    Mindry, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    This paper takes as starting point research conducted in Durban, South Africa to unravel the complexities of care ethics in the context of humanitarian aid. It investigates how the gendering of care shapes humanitarian aid in the context of the HIV/AIDS epidemics in Africa constructing an image of “virile” and “violent” African masculinity. Humanitarian organizations construct imagined relations of caring invoking notions of a shared humanity as informing the imperative to facilitate change. This paper draws on varied examples of research and NGO activity to illustrate how these relations of care are gendered. Humanitarian interventions which invoke universalizing conceptions of need could instead draw on feminist care ethics that seeks to balance rights, justice and care in ways that attend to the webs of relationships through which specific lived realities are shaped. Essentialising, feminized discourses on care result in a skewed analysis of international crises that invariably invoke women (and children) as victims in need of care and, at best, ignore the lived experiences of men, and at worst, cast men as virile and violent vectors of disease and social disorder. PMID:20432080

  12. Trauma-related mental health problems among national humanitarian staff: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Strohmeier, Hannah; Scholte, Willem F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Working in humanitarian crisis situations is dangerous. National humanitarian staff in particular face the risk of primary and secondary trauma exposure which can lead to mental health problems. Despite this, research on the mental health of national staff is scarce, and a systematic analysis of up-to-date findings has not been undertaken yet. Objective This article reviews the available literature on trauma-related mental health problems among national humanitarian staff. It focuses on the prevalence of selected mental health problems in relation to reference groups; sex and/or gender as predictive factors of mental health problems; and the influence of organization types on mental health problems. Method Three databases were systematically searched for relevant studies published in the English language in peer-reviewed journals. Results Fourteen articles matched the inclusion criteria. Findings suggest that national staff experience mental health problems and the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety among this occupation group is mostly similar to or higher than among reference groups. Research on both substance use disorder and suicidal behavior among national staff is particularly scarce. The relation between sex and/or gender and mental health problems among national staff appears to be complex, and organizational staff support seems to be an important determinant for mental health. Conclusion All findings call for increased attention from the humanitarian community and further research on the topic. PMID:26589256

  13. Coevolution Drives the Emergence of Complex Traits and Promotes Evolvability

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Luis; Meyer, Justin R.; Devangam, Suhas; Bryson, David M.; Lenski, Richard E.; Ofria, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of complex organismal traits is obvious as a historical fact, but the underlying causes—including the role of natural selection—are contested. Gould argued that a random walk from a necessarily simple beginning would produce the appearance of increasing complexity over time. Others contend that selection, including coevolutionary arms races, can systematically push organisms toward more complex traits. Methodological challenges have largely precluded experimental tests of these hypotheses. Using the Avida platform for digital evolution, we show that coevolution of hosts and parasites greatly increases organismal complexity relative to that otherwise achieved. As parasites evolve to counter the rise of resistant hosts, parasite populations retain a genetic record of past coevolutionary states. As a consequence, hosts differentially escape by performing progressively more complex functions. We show that coevolution's unique feedback between host and parasite frequencies is a key process in the evolution of complexity. Strikingly, the hosts evolve genomes that are also more phenotypically evolvable, similar to the phenomenon of contingency loci observed in bacterial pathogens. Because coevolution is ubiquitous in nature, our results support a general model whereby antagonistic interactions and natural selection together favor both increased complexity and evolvability. PMID:25514332

  14. Designing for Multiple Stakeholder Interests within the Humanitarian Market: The Case of Off-Grid Energy Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Brita Fladvad; Rodrigues Santos, Ana Laura

    2013-01-01

    A "humanitarian market" for off-grid renewable energy technologies for displaced populations in remote areas has emerged. Within this market, there are multiple stakeholder agendas. End-user needs and sustainable development goals are currently not considered through the customer-enterprise relationship and the applied product and…

  15. Emergence of complex wave patterns in primate cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Rory G; Solomon, Selina S; Chen, Spencer C; Pietersen, Alexander N J; Martin, Paul R; Solomon, Samuel G; Gong, Pulin

    2015-03-18

    Slow brain rhythms are attributed to near-simultaneous (synchronous) changes in activity in neuron populations in the brain. Because they are slow and widespread, synchronous rhythms have not been considered crucial for information processing in the waking state. Here we adapted methods from turbulence physics to analyze δ-band (1-4 Hz) rhythms in local field potential (LFP) activity, in multielectrode recordings from cerebral cortex in anesthetized marmoset monkeys. We found that synchrony contributes only a small fraction (less than one-fourth) to the local spatiotemporal structure of δ-band signals. Rather, δ-band activity is dominated by propagating plane waves and spatiotemporal structures, which we call complex waves. Complex waves are manifest at submillimeter spatial scales, and millisecond-range temporal scales. We show that complex waves can be characterized by their relation to phase singularities within local nerve cell networks. We validate the biological relevance of complex waves by showing that nerve cell spike rates are higher in presence of complex waves than in the presence of synchrony and that there are nonrandom patterns of evolution from one type of complex wave to another. We conclude that slow brain rhythms predominantly indicate spatiotemporally organized activity in local nerve cell circuits, not synchronous activity within and across brain regions. PMID:25788682

  16. Emergence of Complex Wave Patterns in Primate Cerebral Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Rory G.; Solomon, Selina S.; Chen, Spencer C.; Pietersen, Alexander N.J.; Solomon, Samuel G.

    2015-01-01

    Slow brain rhythms are attributed to near-simultaneous (synchronous) changes in activity in neuron populations in the brain. Because they are slow and widespread, synchronous rhythms have not been considered crucial for information processing in the waking state. Here we adapted methods from turbulence physics to analyze δ-band (1–4 Hz) rhythms in local field potential (LFP) activity, in multielectrode recordings from cerebral cortex in anesthetized marmoset monkeys. We found that synchrony contributes only a small fraction (less than one-fourth) to the local spatiotemporal structure of δ-band signals. Rather, δ-band activity is dominated by propagating plane waves and spatiotemporal structures, which we call complex waves. Complex waves are manifest at submillimeter spatial scales, and millisecond-range temporal scales. We show that complex waves can be characterized by their relation to phase singularities within local nerve cell networks. We validate the biological relevance of complex waves by showing that nerve cell spike rates are higher in presence of complex waves than in the presence of synchrony and that there are nonrandom patterns of evolution from one type of complex wave to another. We conclude that slow brain rhythms predominantly indicate spatiotemporally organized activity in local nerve cell circuits, not synchronous activity within and across brain regions. PMID:25788682

  17. Development of a thermal neutron sensor for Humanitarian Demining.

    PubMed

    Cinausero, M; Lunardon, M; Nebbia, G; Pesente, S; Viesti, G; Filippini, V

    2004-07-01

    A thermal neutron sensor prototype for Humanitarian Demining has been developed, trying to minimize cost and complexity of the system as required in such application. A (252)Cf source or a sealed-tube neutron generator is employed to produce primary fast neutrons that are thermalized in a moderator designed to optimize the neutron capture reaction yield in buried samples. A description of the sensor, including the performances of the acquisition system based on a Flash ADC card and final tests with explosive simulants are reported. A comparison of the sensor performance when using a radioactive source to that when employing a sealed-tube neutron generator is presented. Limitations and possible applications of this technique are discussed. PMID:15145439

  18. Dopamine receptor heteromeric complexes and their emerging functions.

    PubMed

    George, Susan R; Kern, Andras; Smith, Roy G; Franco, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine neurotransmission is traditionally accepted as occurring through the five dopamine receptors that transduce its signal. Recent evidence has demonstrated that the range of physiologically relevant dopamine signaling complexes is greatly expanded by the ability of dopamine receptors to interact with other dopamine receptors and with receptors of other endogenous signaling ligands. These novel heteromeric complexes have functional properties distinct from the component receptors or are able to modulate the canonical signaling and function of the cognate receptors. These dopamine receptor heteromers provide new insight into physiological mechanisms and pathophysiological processes involving dopamine. PMID:24968781

  19. Emerging Possibilities: A Complex Account of Learning to Teach Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuitty, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    In order to prepare effective writing teachers, teacher educators need an understanding of how preservice preparation programs, inservice professional development, and the policies and practices of K-12 schools work together to influence teachers' writing instruction. This qualitative case study uses complexity theory (Davis & Sumara, 2006) to…

  20. Emergence of social complexity among coastal hunter-gatherers in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile

    PubMed Central

    Marquet, Pablo A.; Santoro, Calogero M.; Latorre, Claudio; Standen, Vivien G.; Abades, Sebastián R.; Rivadeneira, Marcelo M.; Arriaza, Bernardo; Hochberg, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of complex cultural practices in simple hunter-gatherer groups poses interesting questions on what drives social complexity and what causes the emergence and disappearance of cultural innovations. Here we analyze the conditions that underlie the emergence of artificial mummification in the Chinchorro culture in the coastal Atacama Desert in northern Chile and southern Peru. We provide empirical and theoretical evidence that artificial mummification appeared during a period of increased coastal freshwater availability and marine productivity, which caused an increase in human population size and accelerated the emergence of cultural innovations, as predicted by recent models of cultural and technological evolution. Under a scenario of increasing population size and extreme aridity (with little or no decomposition of corpses) a simple demographic model shows that dead individuals may have become a significant part of the landscape, creating the conditions for the manipulation of the dead that led to the emergence of complex mortuary practices. PMID:22891345

  1. Collaborative Educational Leadership: The Emergence of Human Interactional Sense-Making Process as a Complex System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jäppinen, Aini-Kristiina

    2014-01-01

    The article aims at explicating the emergence of human interactional sense-making process within educational leadership as a complex system. The kind of leadership is understood as a holistic entity called collaborative leadership. There, sense-making emerges across interdependent domains, called attributes of collaborative leadership. The…

  2. Tumor Microenvironment Complexity: Emerging Roles in Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Melody A.; Iida, Noriho; Roberts, Edward W.; Sangaletti, Sabina; Wong, Melissa H.; Yull, Fiona E.; Coussens, Lisa M.; DeClerck, Yves A.

    2013-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment (TME) consists of cells, soluble factors, signaling molecules, extracellular matrix, and mechanical cues that can promote neoplastic transformation, support tumor growth and invasion, protect the tumor from host immunity, foster therapeutic resistance, and provide niches for dormant metastases to thrive. An American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) special conference held on November 3–6, 2011, addressed five emerging concepts in our understanding of the TME: its dynamic evolution, how it is educated by tumor cells, pathways of communication between stromal and tumor cells, immunomodulatory roles of the lymphatic system, and contribution of the intestinal microbiota. These discussions raised critical questions on how to include the analysis of the TME in personalized cancer diagnosis and treatment. PMID:22414581

  3. Books vs bombs? Humanitarian development and the narrative of terror in Northern Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nosheen

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the role of humanitarian discourse and development in reconfiguring the contemporary culture of empire and its war on terror. It takes as its point of entry the immensely popular biographical tale, Three Cups of Tea, which details how the American mountaineer Greg Mortenson has struggled to counter terrorism in Northern Pakistan through the creation of schools. Even as this text appears to provide a self-critical and humane perspective on terrorism, the article argues that it constructs a misleading narrative of terror in which the realities of Northern Pakistan and Muslim life-worlds are distorted through simplistic tropes of ignorance, backwardness and extremism, while histories of US geopolitics and violence are erased. The text has further facilitated the emergence of a participatory militarism, whereby humanitarian work helps to reinvent the military as a culturally sensitive and caring institution in order to justify and service the project of empire. PMID:20607902

  4. Introduction to the issue of state sovereignty and humanitarian action.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Clea; Cunningham, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    There has been greater discussion among humanitarians in recent years about the rise in the number of 'strong states', and the suggestion has been made that states are increasingly reasserting their sovereignty. This introduction to this special issue of Disasters on 'State Sovereignty and Humanitarian Action' contends that it is not states that have changed, but rather the international framework that surrounds humanitarian action. The latter has altered so substantially that a fundamental gap has developed between states and international humanitarian actors in terms of describing what sovereignty entails and how it is expressed. At the heart of this dilemma are the urgent needs of people caught up in crises, whose well-being becomes the contested ground on which states and humanitarian actors clash. This paper explores the current and historical dimensions of these shifts, and provides a conceptual overview for this special issue. PMID:23875977

  5. Needs for new tools in humanitarian Demining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieber, Alois J.

    2000-12-01

    Humanitarian demining is interdisciplinary, encompassing subjects that span from Engineering, Chemistry, and Physics to the Social Sciences. Partners in this field are not only the suffering community and the deminers, but also researchers, industrial developers, Non Governmental Organisations, policymakers, etc. There is common agreement, that the present approach in demining, means by making use of dogs, prodders, metal detectors and mechanical devices will not allow the global scourge of landmines to be overcome within the next 10 to 15 years, as requested by the Ottawa convention. New tools are needed. Especially in the domains of minefield survey, of close-in mine detection, of quality assurance after finishing clearance and last but not least for the verification of the adherence with the Ottawa Convention. The aim of the talk is to introduce experts in remote sensing sensor systems of different kinds, make them aware about the need for advanced tools for humanitarian demining, and to invite an active brainstorming in order to find new solutions. Furthermore, the presentation will focus on the assessment of the potential of air- and space-borne systems for mine field survey.

  6. Biopsychosocial Health Care Needs at the Emergency Room: Challenge of Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Matzer, Franziska; Wisiak, Ursula V.; Graninger, Monika; Söllner, Wolfgang; Stilling, Hans Peter; Glawischnig-Goschnik, Monika; Lueger, Andreas; Fazekas, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Background In an emergency room of internal medicine, triage and treatment of patients deserve first priority. However, biopsychosocial case complexity may also affect patient health outcome but has not yet been explored in this setting. Therefore, the aims of the study are (1) to estimate prevalence rates of complex patients in the emergency room (ER), (2) to describe biopsychosocial complexity in this population and (3) to evaluate possible correlations between patient profiles regarding case complexity and further clinical treatment. Methods During a study period of one week, all patients of an emergency room of internal medicine who were triaged to Manchester levels three to five were invited to participate in the study. Biopsychosocial case complexity was assessed by the INTERMED method. Psychosocial interventions were evaluated based on all documented interventions and recommendations given at the emergency room and during inpatient treatment. Results Study participants consisted of 167 patients with a subgroup of 19% (n = 32) receiving subsequent inpatient-treatment at the department. High biopsychosocial case complexity was found in 12% (n = 20) of the total sample (INTERMED score >20). This finding was paralleled by a cluster analysis suggesting three clusters with one highly complex patient group of 14%. These highly complex patients differed significantly from the other clusters as they had visited the emergency room more often within the last year and lived alone more frequently. In addition, admission rates were highest in this group. During ER treatment and subsequent inpatient treatment, 21% of highly complex patients received interventions addressing psychosocial factors as compared to 6% and 7%, respectively, in the other clusters. Conclusions A standardized screening of biopsychosocial case complexity among ‘frequent utilizers’ of the ER would be helpful to detect specific multidisciplinary health care needs among this particularly

  7. Humanitarian engineering in the engineering curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandersteen, Jonathan Daniel James

    There are many opportunities to use engineering skills to improve the conditions for marginalized communities, but our current engineering education praxis does not instruct on how engineering can be a force for human development. In a time of great inequality and exploitation, the desire to work with the impoverished is prevalent, and it has been proposed to adjust the engineering curriculum to include a larger focus on human needs. This proposed curriculum philosophy is called humanitarian engineering. Professional engineers have played an important role in the modern history of power, wealth, economic development, war, and industrialization; they have also contributed to infrastructure, sanitation, and energy sources necessary to meet human need. Engineers are currently at an important point in time when they must look back on their history in order to be more clear about how to move forward. The changing role of the engineer in history puts into context the call for a more balanced, community-centred engineering curriculum. Qualitative, phenomenographic research was conducted in order to understand the need, opportunity, benefits, and limitations of a proposed humanitarian engineering curriculum. The potential role of the engineer in marginalized communities and details regarding what a humanitarian engineering program could look like were also investigated. Thirty-two semi-structured research interviews were conducted in Canada and Ghana in order to collect a pool of understanding before a phenomenographic analysis resulted in five distinct outcome spaces. The data suggests that an effective curriculum design will include teaching technical skills in conjunction with instructing about issues of social justice, social location, cultural awareness, root causes of marginalization, a broader understanding of technology, and unlearning many elements about the role of the engineer and the dominant economic/political ideology. Cross-cultural engineering development

  8. Medical Humanitarianism Under Atmospheric Violence: Health Professionals in the 2013 Gezi Protests in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aciksoz, Salih Can

    2016-06-01

    During the 2013 Gezi protests in Turkey, volunteering health professionals provided on-site medical assistance to protesters faced with police violence characterized by the extensive use of riot control agents. This led to a government crackdown on the medical community and the criminalization of "unauthorized" first aid amidst international criticisms over violations of medical neutrality. Drawing from ethnographic observations, in-depth interviews with health care professionals, and archival research, this article ethnographically analyzes the polarized encounter between the Turkish government and medical professionals aligned with social protest. I demonstrate how the context of "atmospheric violence"-the extensive use of riot control agents like tear gas-brings about new politico-ethical spaces and dilemmas for healthcare professionals. I then analyze how Turkish health professionals framed their provision of health services to protestors in the language of medical humanitarianism, and how the state dismissed their claims to humanitarian neutrality by criminalizing emergency care. Exploring the vexed role that health workers and medical organizations played in the Gezi protests and the consequent political contestations over doctors' ethical, professional, and political responsibilities, this article examines challenges to medical humanitarianism and neutrality at times of social protest in and beyond the Middle East. PMID:26246184

  9. Microwave radiometry for humanitarian demining: experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Joel T.; Kim, Hyunjin; Wiggins, David R.; Cheon, Yonghun

    2002-08-01

    Previous modeling studies have indicated that a multi-frequency radiometer could prove advantageous for humanitarian demining due to the oscillatory patterns in brightness temperature versus frequency that would be observed in the presence of a sub-surface target. Initial experimental results are reported in this paper from a multi-frequency radiometer (MFRAD) system operating at 19 frequencies in the 2.1-6.5 GHz band. The basic design of MFRAD is reviewed, and the calibration and noise background removal procedures discussed. Experimental results with sub-surface metallic and styrofoam targets are then provided that demonstrate the predicted oscillatory behavior. An FFT-based detection algorithm is also described and applied to measured data. Further plans for experiments and tests with this system are also detailed.

  10. [Child care management in maxillofacial humanitarian mission].

    PubMed

    Bénateau, H; Traoré, H; Chatellier, A; Caillot, A; Ambroise, B; Veyssière, A

    2015-09-01

    Our practice in a humanitarian (or crisis) context differs from what we experience in daily practice. There are several reasons for this. First, the diseases encountered are sometimes unfamiliar, such as sequelae of noma, or the presentation of familiar diseases may be unusual, such as facial malformations seen at a late stage. Secondly, these missions take place in developing countries, and consequently, evaluation and anticipation of possible malnutrition should be considered, especially because facial diseases themselves may be responsible for nutritional problems. Lastly, conditions are often difficult, occurring in an unusual environment, and we sometimes have to face communication and equipment problems. The goal of our work, based on a 15-year experience (in Bamako and Mopti with the Association "Santé et Développement", and in Ouagadougou with the organization "Les enfants du noma") and the analysis of literature, is to point out these features and maybe to be helpful to others. PMID:26190394

  11. Humanitarian mine detection by acoustic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Kercel, S.W.

    1998-03-01

    The JASON Committee at MITRE Corp. was tasked by DARPA to inquire into suitable technologies for humanitarian mine detection. Acoustic resonance was one of the very few technologies that the JASONs determined might be promising for the task, but was as yet unexplored at the time that they conducted their inquiry. The objective of this Seed Money investigation into acoustic resonance was to determine if it would be feasible to use acoustic resonance to provide an improvement to present methods for humanitarian mine detection. As detailed in this report, acoustic resonance methods do not appear to be feasible for this task. Although acoustic resonant responses are relatively easy to detect when they exist, they are very difficult to excite by the non-contact means that must be used for buried objects. Despite many different attempts, this research did not discover any practical means of using sound to excite resonant responses in objects known to have strong resonances. The shaker table experiments did see an effect that might be attributable to the resonance of the object under test, but the effect was weak, and exploited the a priori knowledge of the resonant frequency of the object under test to distinguish it from the background. If experiments that used objects known to have strong acoustic resonances produced such marginal results, this does not seem to be a practical method to detect objects with weak resonances or non-existent resonances. The results of this work contribute to the ORNL countermine initiative. ORNL is exploring several unconventional mine detection technologies, and is proposed to explore others. Since this research has discovered some major pitfalls in non-metallic mine detection, this experience will add realism to other strategies proposed for mine detection technologies. The experiment provided hands-on experience with inert plastic mines under field conditions, and gives ORNL additional insight into the problems of developing practical

  12. The professional humanitarian and the downsides of professionalisation.

    PubMed

    James, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Criticisms lodged at humanitarian relief often include the belief that professionalisation is needed. The problems associated with humanitarianism would end, it is assumed, if the delivery of aid, and relief workers themselves, were more professional and 'business like'. To explore this further, the paper asks what comprises a profession, and offers four criteria: (1) specialisation of knowledge; (2) establishment of the profession as a livelihood; (3) organisation and institutionalisation; and (4) legitimacy and authority. A model for understanding professionalisation, as developed by the author, is then presented. The analysis compares six other professions against the same criteria to argue that the humanitarian community already constitutes a profession. Finally, three potential downsides of professionalisation are offered: the distance of the relief worker from the beneficiary, barriers to entry into the humanitarian sector, and adding to risk aversion and a decline in innovation. Based on these findings, professionalisation should be approached with some caution. PMID:26283645

  13. Differentiating Types of Wide-Complex Tachycardia to Determine Appropriate Treatment in the Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    deSouza, Ian S; Peterson, Alanna C; Marill, Keith A

    2015-07-01

    Wide-complex tachycardia is a rare disease entity among patients presenting to the emergency department. However, due to its potential life-threatening nature, emergency clinicians must know how to assess and manage this condition. Wide-complex tachycardia encompasses a range of cardiac dysrhythmias, some of which can be difficult to distinguish and may require specific treatment approaches. This review summarizes the etiology and pathophysiology of wide-complex tachycardia, describes the differential diagnosis, and presents an evidence-based approach to identification of the different types of tachycardias through the use of a thorough history and physical examination, vagal maneuvers, electrocardiography, and adenosine. The treatment options and disposition for patients with various wide-complex tachycardias are also discussed, with attention to special circumstances and select controversial/contemporary topics. PMID:26308484

  14. Ethics and images of suffering bodies in humanitarian medicine.

    PubMed

    Calain, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    Media representations of suffering bodies from medical humanitarian organisations raise ethical questions, which deserve critical attention for at least three reasons. Firstly, there is a normative vacuum at the intersection of medical ethics, humanitarian ethics and the ethics of photojournalism. Secondly, the perpetuation of stereotypes of illness, famine or disasters, and their political derivations are a source of moral criticism, to which humanitarian medicine is not immune. Thirdly, accidental encounters between members of the health professions and members of the press in the humanitarian arena can result in misunderstandings and moral tension. From an ethics perspective the problem can be specified and better understood through two successive stages of reasoning. Firstly, by applying criteria of medical ethics to the concrete example of an advertising poster from a medical humanitarian organisation, I observe that media representations of suffering bodies would generally not meet ethical standards commonly applied in medical practice. Secondly, I try to identify what overriding humanitarian imperatives could outweigh such reservations. The possibility of action and the expression of moral outrage are two relevant humanitarian values which can further be spelt out through a semantic analysis of 'témoignage' (testimony). While the exact balance between the opposing sets of considerations (medical ethics and humanitarian perspectives) is difficult to appraise, awareness of all values at stake is an important initial standpoint for ethical deliberations of media representations of suffering bodies. Future pragmatic approaches to the issue should include: exploring ethical values endorsed by photojournalism, questioning current social norms about the display of suffering, collecting empirical data from past or potential victims of disasters in diverse cultural settings, and developing new canons with more creative or less problematic representations of

  15. Refugees, humanitarian aid and the right to decline vaccinations.

    PubMed

    Caplan, A L; Curry, David R

    2015-03-01

    Recent instances of governments and others refusing humanitarian assistance to refugees and IDPs (internally-displaced persons) unless they agreed to polio immunization for their children raise difficult ethical challenges. The authors argue that states have the right and a responsibility to require such vaccinations in instances where the serious vaccine-preventable disease(s) at issue threaten others, including local populations, humanitarian workers, and others in camps or support settings. PMID:25135799

  16. Non-conventional humanitarian interventions on Ebola outbreak crisis in West Africa: health, ethics and legal implications.

    PubMed

    Tambo, Ernest

    2014-01-01

    Due to the lack of Ebola outbreak early warning alert, preparedness, surveillance and response systems, the most deadly, complex and largest ever seen Ebola war has been devastating West African communities. The unparalleled Ebola tsunami has prompted interrogations into, and uncertainties about, the effectiveness and efficiency of national, regional and international community's illed- responses using conventional humanitarian control and containment approaches and methods. The late humanitarian and local non-government organisations emergency responses and challenges to curb transmission dynamics and stop the ongoing spread in the Ebola outbreak in West Africa have led to an unprecedented toll of 14,413 reported Ebola cases in eight countries since the outbreak began, with 5,177 reported deaths including 571 health-care workers and 325 died as 14 November 2014. These indications the need of further evaluation of monitoring as substantial proportion of infections outside the context of Ebola epicentres, Ebola health centres treatment and care, infection prevention and control quality assurance checks in these countries. At the same time, exhaustive efforts should target ensuring an sufficient supply of optimal personal protective equipment (PPE) to all Ebola treatment facilities, along with the provision of training and relevant guidelines to limit to the minimum possible level of risk. The continent hosts a big proportion of the world's wealth, yet its people live in abject poverty, with governments unable to feed and govern them effectively, and who are condemned to endure even darker moments with the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. Institutionalisation of practical and operational non-conventional emergency response models efficient health systems, and tailored programmes can clearly support to prevent, control and eventually stamp out Ebola geo-distribution in addition to population mental health services that are requisite to address the massive range of the

  17. Emergence and Dissolvence in the Self-organisation of Complex Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testa, Bernard; Kier, Lemont B.

    2000-03-01

    The formation of complex systems is accompanied by the emergence of properties that are non-existent in the components. But what of the properties and behaviour of such components caught up in the formation of a system of a higher level of complexity? In this assay, we use a large variety of examples, from molecules to organisms and beyond, to show that systems merging into a complex system of higher order experience constraints with a partial loss of choice, options and independence. In other words, emergence in a complex system often implies reduction in the number of probable states of its components, a phenomenon we term dissolvence. This is seen in atoms when they merge to form molecules, in biomolecules when they form macromolecules such as proteins, and in macromolecules when they form aggregates such as molecular machines or membranes. At higher biological levels, dissolvence occurs for example in components of cells (e.g. organelles), tissues (cells), organs (tissues), organisms (organs) and societies (individuals). Far from being a destruction, dissolvence is understood here as a creative process in which information is generated to fuel the process of self-organisation of complex systems, allowing them to appear and evolve to higher states of organisation and emergence. Questions are raised about the relationship of dissolvence and adaptability; the interrelation with top-down causation; the reversibility of dissolvence; and the connection between dissolvence and anticipation.

  18. Humanitarian assistance: technical assessment and public health support for coordinated relief in the former Yugoslavia.

    PubMed

    Leus, X; Watson, F; Forte, G

    1993-01-01

    Since July 1992, the WHO Regional Office for Europe has been using epidemiological and public health assessment techniques to guide its interventions in the crisis in the former Yugoslavia. WHO field operations have evolved into the largest emergency relief operation ever undertaken in the European Region. The WHO programme of humanitarian assistance focuses on five major areas: public health, equipment, supplies and logistic support, support to war victims, primary health care for refugees and rehabilitation of the health care system. The main thrust of the programme is to implement the public health measures required for survival. The first step is to provide health intelligence for international humanitarian assistance programmes through health and nutrition monitoring. This leads to targeted intervention. While involved in all aspects of relief, WHO clearly justifies its presence by its technical focus, bringing its network of expertise and experience to bear on the assessment of need and the coordination of intervention. Three examples of this approach are given: the nutrition programme, which includes emergency food aid and health and nutrition monitoring, the winter protection programme in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the medical kit programme, involving the design and use of special kits to cover basic emergency needs for medical supplies to the maximum number of people. In the former Yugoslavia, the WHO Regional Office for Europe has concentrated on technical situation analysis and sound public health grounding to guide and direct intervention. PMID:8017078

  19. Market for advanced humanitarian mine detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newnham, Peter; Daniels, David J.

    2001-10-01

    Uncleared landmines and unexploded ordnance remain a major humanitarian and economic threat in over 60 countries. It is estimated that world wide over US 60 million was spent on mien clearance in 1999. Most of this funding is provided by government aid, often channeled via the UN or European Community. The minefield threat is very varied, with many different types of mien, UXO, terrain and climate type. To cope with this variety a range of demining techniques are used: mechanical techniques such as flails are used for vegetation clearance, however the majority of demining work is still carried out by manual deminers using metal detectors and prodders. Over the last 5 years there has been considerable interest within the scientific and engineering communities in the application of advanced technologies to improve the safety and efficiency of this work. Nevertheless few new products have been introduced into, and accepted by, the demining community. Despite the high political profile of the landmine problem very little e hard dat is available on the real characteristics of the demining equipment market. As part of a European Union supported program to evacuate a multi-sensor handheld mien detector concept, Thales and ERA Technology Ltd have carried out an in-depth assessment of this market. This paper describes the cost- benefits that could accrue to the demining community associated with use of advanced equipment under appropriate conditions and the equipment requirements that result. The dynamics of the demining equipment market and the barriers to entry are discussed.

  20. A Simple Behavioral Model Predicts the Emergence of Complex Animal Hierarchies.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Takao; Penick, Clint A; Shaffer, Zachary; Haight, Kevin L; Pratt, Stephen C; Liebig, Jürgen

    2016-06-01

    Social dominance hierarchies are widespread, but little is known about the mechanisms that produce nonlinear structures. In addition to despotic hierarchies, where a single individual dominates, shared hierarchies exist, where multiple individuals occupy a single rank. In vertebrates, these complex dominance relationships are thought to develop from interactions that require higher cognition, but similar cases of shared dominance have been found in social insects. Combining empirical observations with a modeling approach, we show that all three hierarchy structures-linear, despotic, and shared-can emerge from different combinations of simple interactions present in social insects. Our model shows that a linear hierarchy emerges when a typical winner-loser interaction (dominance biting) is present. A despotic hierarchy emerges when a policing interaction is added that results in the complete loss of dominance status for an attacked individual (physical policing). Finally, a shared hierarchy emerges with the addition of a winner-winner interaction that results in a positive outcome for both interactors (antennal dueling). Antennal dueling is an enigmatic ant behavior that has previously lacked a functional explanation. These results show how complex social traits can emerge from simple behaviors without requiring advanced cognition. PMID:27172595

  1. Management of disasters and complex emergencies in Africa: The challenges and constraints.

    PubMed

    Aliyu, Alhaji

    2015-01-01

    Natural and man-made catastrophes have caused significant destruction and loss of lives throughout human history. Disasters accompany a wide variety of events with multiple causes and consequences often leading to a cascade of related events. African continent has not been spared of these events. A new phenomenon in the continent is terrorism that is fuelled by globalization of arms trade and has contributed significantly to escalation of conflicts in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) resulting in complex emergencies and destruction of socioeconomic structures. The aim of this paper is to review relevant papers on management of disasters and complex emergencies in Africa and the challenges and constraints against the background of a weakened health system. Systematic search of published literature was conducted between 1990 and 2013. Grey literature (technical reports, government documents), published peer review journals, abstracts, relevant books and internet articles were reviewed. The review revealed that the frequency of both natural and man-made disasters in Africa is escalating. Complex emergencies are also on the increase since the Rwandan crisis in 1994. The impact of these events has overstretched and overwhelmed the health care system that is least prepared to handle and cope with the surge capacity and also render normal services. In conclusion, there is an urgent need for national emergency agencies/departments across Africa to develop a robust emergency preparedness and response plan. Every hospital most have a disaster management committee with flexible disaster management plan to respond to these catastrophes. There is a need for curriculum review in tertiary institutions across SSA to introduce and or expand training in disaster management. PMID:26021392

  2. A Case of Hyperventilation Syndrome Mimicking Complex Partial Seizure: Usefulness of EEG Monitoring in Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Bong Su

    2015-01-01

    Acute hyperventilation syndrome not only can be clinically misdiagnosed as epileptic seizures, but also complex partial seizures may involve hyperventilation as a part of aura. Although electrography (EEG) monitoring is one of the most important procedure to differentiate these conditions, it could not be widely used in emergency department. Variety forms of epileptic attack, mainly idiopathic generalized epilepsy, are provoked by voluntary hyperventilation. In contrast, it is not clear whether hyperventilation can activate the partial seizures. We reported a case of acute hyperventilation syndrome (HSV) mimicking first onset complex partial seizure, impending non-convulsive status epilepticus, which was diagnosed by EEG in the emergency department. The electrographic seizure was provoked again by voluntary hyperventilation after clinical improvement. PMID:26157670

  3. Quintessence and phantom emerging from the split-complex field and the split-quaternion field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Changjun; Chen, Xuelei; Shen, You-Gen

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the mathematic theory of split-complex numbers (or hyperbolic numbers, also perplex numbers) and the split-quaternion numbers (or coquaternion numbers), we define the notion of split-complex scalar field and the split-quaternion scalar field. Then we explore the cosmic evolution of these scalar fields in the background of spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Universe. We find that both the quintessence field and the phantom field could naturally emerge in these scalar fields. Introducing the metric of field space, these theories fall into a subclass of the multi-field theories which have been extensively studied in inflationary cosmology.

  4. Using mLearning and MOOCs to Understand Chaos, Emergence, and Complexity in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deWaard, Inge; Abajian, Sean; Gallagher, Michael Sean; Hogue, Rebecca; Keskin, Nilgun; Koutropoulos, Apostolos; Rodriguez, Osvaldo C.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we look at how the massive open online course (MOOC) format developed by connectivist researchers and enthusiasts can help analyze the complexity, emergence, and chaos at work in the field of education today. We do this through the prism of a MobiMOOC, a six-week course focusing on mLearning that ran from April to May 2011. MobiMOOC…

  5. Eating disorder emergencies: understanding the medical complexities of the hospitalized eating disordered patient.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Martina M

    2004-12-01

    Eating disorders are maladaptive eating behaviors that typically develop in adolescence and early adulthood. Psychiatric maladies and comorbid conditions, especially insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, frequently co-exist with eating disorders. Serious medical complications affecting all organs and tissues can develop and result in numerous emergent hospitalizations. This article reviews the pathophysiologies of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and orthorexia nervosa and discusses the complexities associated with the treatment of medical complications seen in these patients. PMID:15571940

  6. Developing Institutional Capacity for Reproductive Health in Humanitarian Settings: A Descriptive Study

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Nguyen-Toan; Dawson, Angela; Meyers, Janet; Krause, Sandra; Hickling, Carina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Institutions play a central role in advancing the field of reproductive health in humanitarian settings (RHHS), yet little is known about organizational capacity to deliver RHHS and how this has developed over the past decade. This study aimed to document the current institutional experiences and capacities related to RHHS. Materials and Methods Descriptive study using an online questionnaire tool. Results Respondents represented 82 institutions from 48 countries, of which two-thirds originated from low-and middle-income countries. RHHS work was found not to be restricted to humanitarian agencies (25%), but was also embraced by development organizations (25%) and institutions with dual humanitarian and development mandates (50%). Agencies reported working with refugees (81%), internally-displaced (87%) and stateless persons (20%), in camp-based settings (78%), and in urban (83%) and rural settings (78%). Sixty-eight percent of represented institutions indicated having an RHHS-related policy, 79% an accountability mechanism including humanitarian work, and 90% formal partnerships with other institutions. Seventy-three percent reported routinely appointing RH focal points to ensure coordination of RHHS implementation. There was reported progress in RHHS-related disaster risk reduction (DRR), emergency management and coordination, delivery of the Minimum Initial Services Package (MISP) for RH, comprehensive RH services in post-crisis/recovery situations, gender mainstreaming, and community-based programming. Other reported institutional areas of work included capacity development, program delivery, advocacy/policy work, followed by research and donor activities. Except for abortion-related services, respondents cited improved efforts in advocacy, capacity development and technical support in their institutions for RHHS to address clinical services, including maternal and newborn health, sexual violence prevention and response, HIV prevention, management

  7. On the use of evidence in humanitarian logistics research.

    PubMed

    Pedraza-Martinez, Alfonso J; Stapleton, Orla; Van Wassenhove, Luk N

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents the reflections of the authors on the differences between the language and the approach of practitioners and academics to humanitarian logistics problems. Based on a long-term project on fleet management in the humanitarian sector, involving both large international humanitarian organisations and academics, it discusses how differences in language and approach to such problems may create a lacuna that impedes trust. In addition, the paper provides insights into how academic research evidence adapted to practitioner language can be used to bridge the gap. When it is communicated appropriately, evidence strengthens trust between practitioners and academics, which is critical for long-term projects. Once practitioners understand the main trade-offs included in academic research, they can supply valuable feedback to motivate new academic research. Novel research problems promote innovation in the use of traditional academic methods, which should result in a win-win situation: relevant solutions for practice and advances in academic knowledge. PMID:23905767

  8. Humanitarian action and military intervention: temptations and possibilities.

    PubMed

    Weissman, Fabrice

    2004-06-01

    Although the war in Liberia in July 2003 claimed hundreds of lives, the international community was reluctant to intervene. In this article, the author debates the question: does international military intervention equal protection of populations? The role of humanitarian organisations in military intervention is considered. Aid organisations cannot call for deployment of a protection force without renouncing their autonomy or appealing to references outside their own practices. Such organisations provide victims with vital assistance and contribute to ensuring that their fate becomes a stake in political debate by exposing the violence that engulfs them, without substituting their own voices for those of the victims. The political content of humanitarian action is also outlined and military intervention in the context of genocide is discussed. The author concludes that the latter is one of the rare situations in which humanitarian actors can consider calling for an armed intervention without renouncing their own logic. PMID:15186365

  9. Variations in task constraints shape emergent performance outcomes and complexity levels in balancing.

    PubMed

    Caballero Sánchez, Carla; Barbado Murillo, David; Davids, Keith; Moreno Hernández, Francisco J

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the extent to which specific interacting constraints of performance might increase or decrease the emergent complexity in a movement system, and whether this could affect the relationship between observed movement variability and the central nervous system's capacity to adapt to perturbations during balancing. Fifty-two healthy volunteers performed eight trials where different performance constraints were manipulated: task difficulty (three levels) and visual biofeedback conditions (with and without the center of pressure (COP) displacement and a target displayed). Balance performance was assessed using COP-based measures: mean velocity magnitude (MVM) and bivariate variable error (BVE). To assess the complexity of COP, fuzzy entropy (FE) and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) were computed. ANOVAs showed that MVM and BVE increased when task difficulty increased. During biofeedback conditions, individuals showed higher MVM but lower BVE at the easiest level of task difficulty. Overall, higher FE and lower DFA values were observed when biofeedback was available. On the other hand, FE reduced and DFA increased as difficulty level increased, in the presence of biofeedback. However, when biofeedback was not available, the opposite trend in FE and DFA values was observed. Regardless of changes to task constraints and the variable investigated, balance performance was positively related to complexity in every condition. Data revealed how specificity of task constraints can result in an increase or decrease in complexity emerging in a neurobiological system during balance performance. PMID:26838357

  10. Progress and gaps in reproductive health services in three humanitarian settings: mixed-methods case studies

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Reproductive health (RH) care is an essential component of humanitarian response. Women and girls living in humanitarian settings often face high maternal mortality and are vulnerable to unwanted pregnancy, unsafe abortion, and sexual violence. This study explored the availability and quality of, and access barriers to RH services in three humanitarian settings in Burkina Faso, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and South Sudan. Methods Data collection was conducted between July and October 2013. In total, 63 purposively selected health facilities were assessed: 28 in Burkina Faso, 25 in DRC, and nine in South Sudan, and 42 providers completed a questionnaire to assess RH knowledge and attitudes. Thirty-four focus group discussions were conducted with 29 members of the host communities and 273 displaced married and unmarried women and men to understand access barriers. Results All facilities reported providing some RH services in the prior three months. Five health facilities in Burkina Faso, six in DRC, and none in South Sudan met the criteria as a family planning service delivery point. Two health facilities in Burkina Faso, one in DRC, and two in South Sudan met the criteria as an emergency obstetric and newborn care service delivery point. Across settings, three facilities in DRC adequately provided selected elements of clinical management of rape. Safe abortion was unavailable. Many providers lacked essential knowledge and skills. Focus groups revealed limited knowledge of available RH services and socio-cultural barriers to accessing them, although participants reported a remarkable increase in use of facility-based delivery services. Conclusion Although RH services are being provided, the availability of good quality RH services was inconsistent across settings. Commodity management and security must be prioritized to ensure consistent availability of essential supplies. It is critical to improve the attitudes, managerial and technical

  11. Small Cofactors May Assist Protein Emergence from RNA World: Clues from RNA-Protein Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Liang; Ji, Hong-Fang

    2011-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that at an early stage in the evolution of life an RNA world arose, in which RNAs both served as the genetic material and catalyzed diverse biochemical reactions. Then, proteins have gradually replaced RNAs because of their superior catalytic properties in catalysis over time. Therefore, it is important to investigate how primitive functional proteins emerged from RNA world, which can shed light on the evolutionary pathway of life from RNA world to the modern world. In this work, we proposed that the emergence of most primitive functional proteins are assisted by the early primitive nucleotide cofactors, while only a minority are induced directly by RNAs based on the analysis of RNA-protein complexes. Furthermore, the present findings have significant implication for exploring the composition of primitive RNA, i.e., adenine base as principal building blocks. PMID:21789260

  12. Burkholderia cepacia Complex: Emerging Multihost Pathogens Equipped with a Wide Range of Virulence Factors and Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Sílvia A.; Ramos, Christian G.; Leitão, Jorge H.

    2011-01-01

    The Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) comprises at least 17 closely-related species of the β-proteobacteria subdivision, widely distributed in natural and man-made inhabitats. Bcc bacteria are endowed with an extraordinary metabolic diversity and emerged in the 1980s as life-threatening and difficult-to-treat pathogens among patients suffering from cystic fibrosis. More recently, these bacteria became recognized as a threat to hospitalized patients suffering from other diseases, in particular oncological patients. In the present paper, we review these and other traits of Bcc bacteria, as well as some of the strategies used to identify and validate the virulence factors and determinants used by these bacteria. The identification and characterization of these virulence factors is expected to lead to the design of novel therapeutic strategies to fight the infections caused by these emergent multidrug resistant human pathogens. PMID:20811541

  13. 77 FR 14766 - Patents for Humanity Program (Formerly Humanitarian Program)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents for Humanity Program (Formerly Humanitarian Program) ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office...- 0066 Patents for Humanity Program comment'' in the subject line of the message. Mail: Susan K....

  14. Some simple improvements to an emergency response model for use in complex coastal terrain

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N.L.

    1992-06-01

    The MACHWIND model (Meyers 1989) is one of a group of models used to compute regional wind fields from tower wind data and/or vertical wind profiles. The wind fields are in turn used to calculate atmospheric diffusion, to guide emergency responses. MACHWIND has performed acceptably in uniform terrain under steady, well mixed conditions. However, extension of the model to more complex situations is problematic. In coastal, hilly terrain like that near Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) in southern California, calculations of the wind field can be enhanced significantly by several modifications to the original code. This report highlights the structure of MACHWIND and details the enhancements that were implemented.

  15. Slalom in complex time: Emergence of low-energy structures in tunnel ionization via complex-time contours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisanty, Emilio; Ivanov, Misha

    2016-04-01

    The ionization of atoms by strong, low-frequency fields can generally be described well by assuming that the photoelectron is, after the ionization step, completely at the mercy of the laser field. However, certain phenomena, like the recent discovery of low-energy structures (LESs) in the long-wavelength regime, require the inclusion of the Coulomb interaction with the ion once the electron is in the continuum. We explore the first-principles inclusion of this interaction, known as analytical R -matrix theory, and its consequences on the corresponding quantum orbits. We show that the trajectory must have an imaginary component, and that this causes branch cuts in the complex time plane when the real trajectory revisits the neighborhood of the ionic core. We provide a framework for consistently navigating these branch cuts based on closest-approach times, which satisfy the equation r (t ).v (t )=0 in the complex plane. We explore the geometry of these roots and describe the geometrical structures underlying the emergence of LESs in both the classical and quantum domains.

  16. Uncertainty, Case Complexity and the Content of Verbal Handoffs at the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Horsky, Jan; Suh, Edward H.; Sayan, Osman; Patel, Vimla

    2015-01-01

    Handoffs are known to increase the risk of medical error and adverse events. Few electronic tools can support this process effectively, however. Our objective was to describe the relationship between clinical complexity, diagnostic uncertainty, fit with illness script and the content of case presentations by physicians. We observed the handoff of care for150 patients during eleven shift changes at a large urban emergency department (ED). Results indicate that as uncertainty about diagnosis and perceived illness script increased, more descriptive detail was conveyed to the incoming physicians. Physicians were concerned primarily with creating a shared mental model of a patient’s clinical state and with describing the expected path to disposition rather than simply passing on data and findings. Electronic tools for ED handoffs should allow adjustment of structure and content to capture complexity and uncertainty appropriately without requiring extra effort for more routine cases that better fit to more standard narratives. PMID:26958198

  17. Humanitarian Interventions: Western Imperialism or a Responsibility to Protect?--An Analysis of the Humanitarian Interventions in Darfur

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damboeck, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to provide an analysis of the features that have shaped the state's decision-making process in the United Nations, with regard to the humanitarian intervention in Darfur from 2003 onwards. Design/methodology/approach: The methodological approach to the study is a review of political statement papers grounded in…

  18. What is Life? Defining Life in the Context of Emergent Complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Bruce H.

    2010-04-01

    Erwin Schrödinger defined life not only as a “self-reproducing” aperiodic crystal of DNA coding for proteins but within the context of living entities increasing their order by dissipating matter/energy gradients to maintain themselves away from equilibirium. Since then most definitions of life have focused on the former. But living cells do more than replicate their DNA. Cells also have membrane barriers across which metabolites must move, via which energy transduction as well as information processing occurs, and within which metabolic transformation occurs. An approach of complex systems dynamics, including nonequilibrium thermodynamics, may provide a more robust approach for defining life than a “naked replicator” at the origin of life. The crucial issue becomes the process of emergence of life from pre-biotic chemistry, concomitant with the emergence of function, information, and semiosis. Living entities can be viewed as bounded, informed autocatalytic cycles feeding off matter/energy gradients, exhibiting agency, capable of growth, reproduction, and evolution. Understanding how life might have emerged should sharpen our definition of what life is.

  19. What is life? Defining life in the context of emergent complexity.

    PubMed

    Weber, Bruce H

    2010-04-01

    Erwin Schrödinger defined life not only as a "self-reproducing" aperiodic crystal of DNA coding for proteins but within the context of living entities increasing their order by dissipating matter/energy gradients to maintain themselves away from equilibirium. Since then most definitions of life have focused on the former. But living cells do more than replicate their DNA. Cells also have membrane barriers across which metabolites must move, via which energy transduction as well as information processing occurs, and within which metabolic transformation occurs. An approach of complex systems dynamics, including nonequilibrium thermodynamics, may provide a more robust approach for defining life than a "naked replicator" at the origin of life. The crucial issue becomes the process of emergence of life from pre-biotic chemistry, concomitant with the emergence of function, information, and semiosis. Living entities can be viewed as bounded, informed autocatalytic cycles feeding off matter/energy gradients, exhibiting agency, capable of growth, reproduction, and evolution. Understanding how life might have emerged should sharpen our definition of what life is. PMID:20169412

  20. The emergence of complexity: science coming of age or science growing old?

    PubMed

    Mikulecky, D C

    2001-07-01

    The emergence of a new field of science called complexity theory has made an impact on the community of scientists as well as the general public. This brief tutorial takes a very special view of this. The thesis is that complexity science has grown out of a general lack of satisfaction with traditional scientific practices and their failure to find a way of capturing anything but a shadow of complex reality. In spite of the many impressive advances from science and technology, it is clear that the picture delivered of the world is that of a surrogate world populated by machines and mechanisms. The nature of the real world demands more than traditional science can deliver. Yet traditional science has constraints and bounds on its universe of discourse. Complexity science, as presented here, demands that the barriers and constraints be removed in order to gain a more complete view of nature. This tutorial presents a summary of what is entailed by this new methodology. PMID:11459350

  1. Frustrated hierarchical synchronization and emergent complexity in the human connectome network

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, Pablo; Moretti, Paolo; Muñoz, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    The spontaneous emergence of coherent behavior through synchronization plays a key role in neural function, and its anomalies often lie at the basis of pathologies. Here we employ a parsimonious (mesoscopic) approach to study analytically and computationally the synchronization (Kuramoto) dynamics on the actual human-brain connectome network. We elucidate the existence of a so-far-uncovered intermediate phase, placed between the standard synchronous and asynchronous phases, i.e. between order and disorder. This novel phase stems from the hierarchical modular organization of the connectome. Where one would expect a hierarchical synchronization process, we show that the interplay between structural bottlenecks and quenched intrinsic frequency heterogeneities at many different scales, gives rise to frustrated synchronization, metastability, and chimera-like states, resulting in a very rich and complex phenomenology. We uncover the origin of the dynamic freezing behind these features by using spectral graph theory and discuss how the emerging complex synchronization patterns relate to the need for the brain to access –in a robust though flexible way– a large variety of functional attractors and dynamical repertoires without ad hoc fine-tuning to a critical point. PMID:25103684

  2. Frustrated hierarchical synchronization and emergent complexity in the human connectome network.

    PubMed

    Villegas, Pablo; Moretti, Paolo; Muñoz, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    The spontaneous emergence of coherent behavior through synchronization plays a key role in neural function, and its anomalies often lie at the basis of pathologies. Here we employ a parsimonious (mesoscopic) approach to study analytically and computationally the synchronization (Kuramoto) dynamics on the actual human-brain connectome network. We elucidate the existence of a so-far-uncovered intermediate phase, placed between the standard synchronous and asynchronous phases, i.e. between order and disorder. This novel phase stems from the hierarchical modular organization of the connectome. Where one would expect a hierarchical synchronization process, we show that the interplay between structural bottlenecks and quenched intrinsic frequency heterogeneities at many different scales, gives rise to frustrated synchronization, metastability, and chimera-like states, resulting in a very rich and complex phenomenology. We uncover the origin of the dynamic freezing behind these features by using spectral graph theory and discuss how the emerging complex synchronization patterns relate to the need for the brain to access -in a robust though flexible way- a large variety of functional attractors and dynamical repertoires without ad hoc fine-tuning to a critical point. PMID:25103684

  3. End-directed evolution and the emergence of energy-seeking behavior in a complex system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondepudi, Dilip; Kay, Bruce; Dixon, James

    2015-05-01

    Self-organization in a voltage-driven nonequilibrium system, consisting of conducting beads immersed in a viscous medium, gives rise to a dynamic tree structure that exhibits wormlike motion. The complex motion of the beads driven by the applied field, the dipole-dipole interaction between the beads and the hydrodynamic flow of the viscous medium, results in a time evolution of the tree structure towards states of lower resistance or higher dissipation and thus higher rates of entropy production. Thus emerges a remarkably organismlike energy-seeking behavior. The dynamic tree structure draws the energy needed to form and maintain its structure, moves to positions at which it receives more energy, and avoids conditions that lower available energy. It also is able to restore its structure when damaged, i.e., it is self-healing. The emergence of energy-seeking behavior in a nonliving complex system that is extremely simple in its construct is unexpected. Along with the property of self-healing, this system, in a rudimentary way, exhibits properties that are analogous to those we observe in living organisms. Thermodynamically, the observed diverse behavior can be characterized as end-directed evolution to states of higher rates of entropy production.

  4. Soil information requirements for humanitarian demining: the case for a soil properties database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Yogadhish; McFee, John E.; Russell, Kevin L.; Cross, Guy; Katsube, T. John

    2003-09-01

    Landmines are buried typically in the top 30 cm of soil. A number of physical, chemical and electromagnetic properties of this near-surface layer of ground will potentially affect the wide range of technologies under development worldwide for landmine detection and neutralization. Although standard soil survey information, as related to conventional soil classification, is directed toward agricultural and environmental applications, little or no information seems to exist in a form that is directly useful to humanitarian demining and the related R&D community. Thus, there is a general need for an information database devoted specifically to relevant soil properties, their geographic distribution and climate-driven variability. A brief description of the various detection technologies is used to introduce the full range of related soil properties. Following a general description of the need to establish a comprehensive soil property database, the discussion is then narrowed to soil properties affecting electromagnetic induction metal detectors - a problem of much restricted scope but of immediate and direct relevance to humanitarian demining. In particular, the complex magnetic susceptibility and, to a lesser degree, electrical conductivity of the host soil influence the performance of these widely used tools, and in the extreme instance, can render detectors unusable. A database comprising these properties for soils of landmine-affected countries would assist in predicting local detector performance, planning demining operations, designing and developing improved detectors and establishing realistic and representative test-evaluation facilities. The status of efforts made towards developing a database involving soil electromagnetic properties is reported.

  5. Coarse-graining of cellular automata, emergence, and the predictability of complex systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Israeli, Navot; Goldenfeld, Nigel

    2006-02-01

    We study the predictability of emergent phenomena in complex systems. Using nearest-neighbor, one-dimensional cellular automata (CA) as an example, we show how to construct local coarse-grained descriptions of CA in all classes of Wolfram’s classification. The resulting coarse-grained CA that we construct are capable of emulating the large-scale behavior of the original systems without accounting for small-scale details. Several CA that can be coarse-grained by this construction are known to be universal Turing machines; they can emulate any CA or other computing devices and are therefore undecidable. We thus show that because in practice one only seeks coarse-grained information, complex physical systems can be predictable and even decidable at some level of description. The renormalization group flows that we construct induce a hierarchy of CA rules. This hierarchy agrees well with apparent rule complexity and is therefore a good candidate for a complexity measure and a classification method. Finally we argue that the large-scale dynamics of CA can be very simple, at least when measured by the Kolmogorov complexity of the large-scale update rule, and moreover exhibits a novel scaling law. We show that because of this large-scale simplicity, the probability of finding a coarse-grained description of CA approaches unity as one goes to increasingly coarser scales. We interpret this large-scale simplicity as a pattern formation mechanism in which large-scale patterns are forced upon the system by the simplicity of the rules that govern the large-scale dynamics.

  6. Burden of injury during the complex political emergency in northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Lett, Ronald R.; Kobusingye, Olive Chifefe; Ekwaru, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Background War injury is a public health problem that warrants global attention. This study aims to determine the burden of injury during a complex emergency in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods To determine the magnitude, causes, distribution, risk factors and cumulative burden of injury in a population experiencing armed conflict in northern Uganda since 1986 and to evaluate the living conditions and access to care for injury victims, we took a multistage, stratified, random sampling from the Gulu district to determine the rates of injury from 1994 to 1999. The Gulu district is endemic for malaria, tuberculosis, HIV and malnutrition and has a high maternal death rate. It is 1 of 3 districts in northern Uganda affected by war since 1986. The study participants included 8595 people from 1475 households. Of these, 73.0% lived in temporary housing, 46.0% were internally displaced and 81.0% were under 35 years of age. Trained interviewers administered a 3-part household survey in the local language. Quantitative data on injury, household environment, health care and demography were analyzed. Qualitative data from part 3 of the survey will be reported elsewhere. A similar rural district (Mukono) not affected by war was used for comparison. We studied injury risk factors, mortality and disability rates, accumulated deaths, access to care and living conditions. Results Of the study population, 14% were injured annually: gunshot injuries were the leading cause of death. The annual death rate from war injury was 7.8/1000 (95% confidence interval [CI] 7.0–8.5) and the disability rate was 11.3/1000 (95% CI 10.4–12.2). The annual excess injury mortality was 6.85/1000. Only 4.5% of the injured were combatants. Fifty percent of the injured received first aid, but only 13.0% of those who died reached hospital. The injury mortality in Gulu was 8.35-fold greater than that for Mukono. Conclusions The crisis in Gulu can be considered a complex political emergency. Protracted conflicts

  7. Complex Networks in Different Languages: A Study of an Emergent Multilingual Encyclopedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pembe, F. Canan; Bingol, Haluk

    There is an increasing interest to the study of complex networks in an interdisciplinary way. Language, as a complex network, has been a part of this study due to its importance in human life. Moreover, the Internet has also been at the center of this study by making access to large amounts of information possible. With these ideas in mind, this work aims to evaluate conceptual networks in different languages with the data from a large and open source of information in the Internet, namely Wikipedia. As an evolving multilingual encyclopedia that can be edited by any Internet user, Wikipedia is a good example of an emergent complex system. In this paper, different from previous work on conceptual networks which usually concentrated on single languages, we concentrate on possible ways to compare the usages of different languages and possibly the underlying cultures. This also involves the analysis of local network properties around certain coneepts in different languages. For an initial evaluation, the concept "family" is used to compare the English and German Wikipedias. Although, the work is currently at the beginning, the results are promising.

  8. Emergencies, disasters, and catastrophic events: the role of rehabilitation nurses in preparedness, response, and recovery.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lisa M; Hickling, Edward J; Frahm, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Rehabilitation nurses play an integral role in helping patients and communities plan for, respond to, and recover from disasters. This article provides an overview of various types of disasters, the terminology used by planners and responders, and the structure that governs the delivery of services, resources, and patient care. Information about specialized training in disaster response and volunteer opportunities through national and state humanitarian relief programs are provided. Although each nursing specialty lends expertise to emergency and disaster situations, rehabilitation nurses are particularly well-suited to help during times of complex, multifaceted medical and emotional responses. PMID:21140717

  9. Legal issues of humanitarian assistance after the 2007 earthquake in Pisco, Peru.

    PubMed

    Bambarén, Celso

    2010-01-01

    The earthquake that struck the central coast of Peru on 15 August 2007 was a disaster that mobilized international humanitarian assistance to address the needs of the affected people in the regions of Huancavelica, Ica, and Lima. It also was an opportunity to prove the effectiveness of regulations and procedures to facilitate the entry and distribution of donations and medical goods during a major emergency. In the first month after the earthquake, the national government approved new regulations that aimed to reduce waiting time while reducing the number of requisites required by customs. More than 5,500 tons of international donations arrived in Peru in a short period of time. Many donated medicines arrived unsorted, without an international non-proprietary (generic) name on the label, and some medicines did not have any relationship with the diseases that would appear in the aftermath of the event. PMID:20586009

  10. The United Kingdom's stabilisation model and Afghanistan: the impact on humanitarian actors.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Stuart

    2010-10-01

    'Stabilisation' has emerged as a powerful policy framework since 2004. The United Kingdom has been at the forefront of states adopting and developing a 'stabilisation' model and has adapted government policy, processes and structures in its efforts to deliver 'stability' in Afghanistan's Helmand Province and Iraq--as well as elsewhere, such as in Nepal and Sudan. The experience acquired in Helmand in particular is likely to shape both future UK approaches and those of other donor states. The paper argues that the UK's model has evolved significantly since 2006, from a reconstruction strategy towards one that is based on supporting host-nation governance arrangements. Consequently, this paper addresses three principal themes: the origins and conceptualisation of the stabilisation discourse (and its relationship with state-building and early recovery concepts); the role of the UK's experience in Helmand in shaping the British approach; and the impact of the stabilisation model on the humanitarian community. PMID:20846350

  11. Topology of feather melanocyte progenitor niche allows complex pigment patterns to emerge.

    PubMed

    Lin, S J; Foley, J; Jiang, T X; Yeh, C Y; Wu, P; Foley, A; Yen, C M; Huang, Y C; Cheng, H C; Chen, C F; Reeder, B; Jee, S H; Widelitz, R B; Chuong, C M

    2013-06-21

    Color patterns of bird plumage affect animal behavior and speciation. Diverse patterns are present in different species and within the individual. Here, we study the cellular and molecular basis of feather pigment pattern formation. Melanocyte progenitors are distributed as a horizontal ring in the proximal follicle, sending melanocytes vertically up into the epithelial cylinder, which gradually emerges as feathers grow. Different pigment patterns form by modulating the presence, arrangement, or differentiation of melanocytes. A layer of peripheral pulp further regulates pigmentation via patterned agouti expression. Lifetime feather cyclic regeneration resets pigment patterns for physiological needs. Thus, the evolution of stem cell niche topology allows complex pigment patterning through combinatorial co-option of simple regulatory mechanisms. PMID:23618762

  12. Towards a better management of complex emergencies through crisis management meta-modelling.

    PubMed

    Lauras, Matthieu; Truptil, Sébastien; Bénaben, Frédérick

    2015-10-01

    Managing complex emergency situations is a challenging task, mainly due to the heterogeneity of the partners involved and the critical nature of such events. Whatever approach is adopted to support this objective, one unavoidable issue is knowledge management. In the context of our research project, gathering, formalising and exploiting all the knowledge and information about a given crisis situation is a critical requirement. This paper presents some research results concerning this specific topic: from a theoretical point of view, the generic dimensions of crisis characterisation are defined, while from a technical point of view, we describe a software solution able to collect that knowledge (based on meta-models and ontologies). This is used to confront the characteristics of the situation (context) with characteristics of the resources (relief system) in order to design a suitable response. Finally, an illustrative example concerning a crash between a tanker truck and a train is described. PMID:25754216

  13. On the Structure and Evolution of Complexity in Sigmoids: A Flux Emergence Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archontis, V.; Hood, A. W.; Savcheva, A.; Golub, L.; Deluca, E.

    2009-02-01

    Sigmoids are structures with a forward or inverse S-shape, generally observed in the solar corona in soft X-ray emission. It is believed that the appearance of a sigmoid in an active region is an important factor in eruptive activity. The association of sigmoids with dynamic phenomena such as flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) make the study of sigmoids important. Recent observations of a coronal sigmoid, obtained with the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) on board Hinode, showed the formation and eruption phase with high spatial resolution. These observations revealed that the topological structure of the sigmoid is complex: it consists of many differently oriented loops that all together form two opposite J-like bundles or an overall S-shaped structure. A series of theoretical and numerical models have been proposed, over the past years, to explain the nature of sigmoids but there is no explanation on how the aforementioned complexity in sigmoids is built up. In this paper, we present a flux emergence model that leads to the formation of a sigmoid, whose structure and evolution of complexity are in good qualitative agreement with the recent observations. For the initial state of the experiment a twisted flux tube is placed below the photosphere. A density deficit along the axis of the tube makes the system buoyant in the middle and it adopts an Ω-shape as it rises toward the outer atmosphere. During the evolution of the system, expanding field lines that touch the photosphere at bald-patches (BPs) form two seperatrix surfaces where dissipation is enhanced and current sheets are formed. Originally, each of the BP seperatrix surfaces has a J-like shape. Each one of the J's consist of reconnected field lines with different shapes and different relative orientation. The further dynamical evolution of the emerging flux tube results in the occurrence of many sites that resemble rotational discontinuities. Thus, additional current layers are formed inside the rising

  14. Efficacy of prothrombin complex concentrates for the emergency reversal of dabigatran-induced anticoagulation.

    PubMed

    Grottke, Oliver; Aisenberg, James; Bernstein, Richard; Goldstein, Patrick; Huisman, Menno V; Jamieson, Dara G; Levy, Jerrold H; Pollack, Charles V; Spyropoulos, Alex C; Steiner, Thorsten; Del Zoppo, Gregory J; Eikelboom, John

    2016-01-01

    Dabigatran is effective in decreasing the risk of ischaemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. However, like all anticoagulants, it is associated with a risk of bleeding. In cases of trauma or emergency surgery, emergency reversal of dabigatran-induced anticoagulation may be required. A specific reversal agent for dabigatran, idarucizumab, has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Alternative reversal agents are available, such as prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs) and activated PCCs (aPCCs). In this review we evaluate the role of PCCs and aPCCs in the reversal of dabigatran anticoagulation and consider which tests are appropriate for monitoring coagulation in this setting. Pre-clinical studies, small clinical studies and case reports indicate that PCCs and aPCCs may be able to reverse dabigatran-induced anticoagulation in a dose-dependent manner. However, dosing based on coagulation parameters can be difficult because available assays may not provide adequate sensitivity and specificity for measuring anticoagulation induced by dabigatran or the countering effects of PCCs/aPCCs. In addition, PCCs or aPCCs can potentially provoke thromboembolic complications. Despite these limitations and the fact that PCCs and aPCCs are not yet licensed for dabigatran reversal, their use appears to be warranted in patients with life-threatening haemorrhage if idarucizumab is not available. PMID:27125504

  15. A systematic review of prevalence studies of gender-based violence in complex emergencies.

    PubMed

    Stark, Lindsay; Ager, Alastair

    2011-07-01

    Current methods to estimate the incidence of gender-based violence in complex emergencies tend to rely on nonprobability samples. Population-based monitoring is undertaken relatively infrequently. This article provides a systematic review of published literature that represents attempts to quantify the magnitude of gender-based violence in emergency settings. Searches adopted a Boolean procedure, which led to initial selection of material that was then reviewed against set criteria. Only 10 studies met the final criteria for inclusion. Intimate partner violence, physical violence, and rape were the three categories of violence most frequently measured. Rates of intimate partner violence tended to be quite high across all of the studies-much higher than most of the rates of wartime rape and sexual violence perpetrated by individuals outside of the home. Direct comparisons of rates of violence were hindered by different case definitions, recall periods, and other methodological features. Recommendations for future studies are offered based on lessons learned from the studies reviewed. PMID:21511685

  16. The Role of Biomacromolecular Crowding, Ionic Strength, and Physicochemical Gradients in the Complexities of Life's Emergence

    PubMed Central

    Spitzer, Jan; Poolman, Bert

    2009-01-01

    Summary: We have developed a general scenario of prebiotic physicochemical evolution during the Earth's Hadean eon and reviewed the relevant literature. We suggest that prebiotic chemical evolution started in microspaces with membranous walls, where external temperature and osmotic gradients were coupled to free-energy gradients of potential chemical reactions. The key feature of this scenario is the onset of an emergent evolutionary transition within the microspaces that is described by the model of complex vectorial chemistry. This transition occurs at average macromolecular crowding of 20 to 30% of the cell volume, when the ranges of action of stabilizing colloidal forces (screened electrostatic forces, hydration, and excluded volume forces) become commensurate. Under these conditions, the macromolecules divide the interior of microspaces into dynamically crowded macromolecular regions and topologically complementary electrolyte pools. Small ions and ionic metabolites are transported vectorially between the electrolyte pools and through the (semiconducting) electrolyte pathways of the crowded macromolecular regions from their high electrochemical potential (where they are biochemically produced) to their lower electrochemical potential (where they are consumed). We suggest a sequence of tentative transitions between major evolutionary periods during the Hadean eon as follows: (i) the early water world, (ii) the appearance of land masses, (iii) the pre-RNA world, (iv) the onset of complex vectorial chemistry, and (v) the RNA world and evolution toward Darwinian thresholds. We stress the importance of high ionic strength of the Hadean ocean (short Debye's lengths) and screened electrostatic interactions that enabled the onset of the vectorial structure of the cytoplasm and the possibility of life's emergence. PMID:19487732

  17. Invitation withdrawn: humanitarian action, United Nations peacekeeping, and state sovereignty in Chad.

    PubMed

    Karlsrud, John; Felix da Costa, Diana

    2013-10-01

    This paper looks at the three-way relationship between the Government of Chad, humanitarians, and the United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad (MINURCAT) from 2004 until June 2011. Chad was never comfortable with the international presence of either humanitarians or peacekeepers and asserted its sovereignty increasingly during this period. MINURCAT was deployed in 2008 to protect humanitarian workers and to facilitate the provision of humanitarian assistance in eastern Chad. This association between the UN mission and humanitarian agencies contributed to making the latter the target of repressive practices by the government, such as the imposition of armed escorts. Facing a steep learning curve, Chad and its state officials gradually appropriated the discourse of the humanitarian and international community and ultimately, in 2010, requested the departure of MINURCAT, claiming that they could meet the protection needs of vulnerable populations in eastern Chad on their own. PMID:23876051

  18. Biological evidence supports an early and complex emergence of the Isthmus of Panama

    PubMed Central

    Bacon, Christine D.; Silvestro, Daniele; Jaramillo, Carlos; Smith, Brian Tilston; Chakrabarty, Prosanta; Antonelli, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    The linking of North and South America by the Isthmus of Panama had major impacts on global climate, oceanic and atmospheric currents, and biodiversity, yet the timing of this critical event remains contentious. The Isthmus is traditionally understood to have fully closed by ca. 3.5 million years ago (Ma), and this date has been used as a benchmark for oceanographic, climatic, and evolutionary research, but recent evidence suggests a more complex geological formation. Here, we analyze both molecular and fossil data to evaluate the tempo of biotic exchange across the Americas in light of geological evidence. We demonstrate significant waves of dispersal of terrestrial organisms at approximately ca. 20 and 6 Ma and corresponding events separating marine organisms in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans at ca. 23 and 7 Ma. The direction of dispersal and their rates were symmetrical until the last ca. 6 Ma, when northern migration of South American lineages increased significantly. Variability among taxa in their timing of dispersal or vicariance across the Isthmus is not explained by the ecological factors tested in these analyses, including biome type, dispersal ability, and elevation preference. Migration was therefore not generally regulated by intrinsic traits but more likely reflects the presence of emergent terrain several millions of years earlier than commonly assumed. These results indicate that the dramatic biotic turnover associated with the Great American Biotic Interchange was a long and complex process that began as early as the Oligocene–Miocene transition. PMID:25918375

  19. Emergence, institutionalization and renewal: Rhythms of adaptive governance in complex social-ecological systems.

    PubMed

    Chaffin, Brian C; Gunderson, Lance H

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive governance provides the capacity for environmental managers and decision makers to confront variable degrees of uncertainty inherent to complex social-ecological systems. Current theoretical conceptualizations of adaptive governance represent a series of structures and processes best suited for either adapting or transforming existing environmental governance regimes towards forms flexible enough to confront rapid ecological change. As the number of empirical examples of adaptive governance described in the literature grows, the conceptual basis of adaptive governance remains largely under theorized. We argue that reconnecting adaptive governance with foundational concepts of ecological resilience-specifically Panarchy and the adaptive cycle of complex systems-highlights the importance of episodic disturbances and cross-scale interactions in triggering reorganizations in governance. By envisioning the processes of adaptive governance through the lens of Panarchy, scholars and practitioners alike will be better able to identify the emergence of adaptive governance, as well as take advantage of opportunities to institutionalize this type of governance in pursuit of sustainability outcomes. The synergistic analysis of adaptive governance and Panarchy can provide critical insight for analyzing the role of social dynamics during oscillating periods of stability and instability in social-ecological systems. A deeper understanding of the potential for cross-scale interactions to shape adaptive governance regimes may be useful as society faces the challenge of mitigating the impacts of global environmental change. PMID:26426283

  20. PREFACE: DICE 2008 - From Quantum Mechanics through Complexity to Spacetime: the role of emergent dynamical structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diósi, Lajos; Elze, Hans-Thomas; Fronzoni, Leone; Halliwell, Jonathan; Vitiello, Giuseppe

    2009-07-01

    These proceedings present the Invited Lectures and Contributed Papers of the Fourth International Workshop on Decoherence, Information, Complexity and Entropy - DICE 2008, held at Castello Pasquini, Castiglioncello (Tuscany), 22-26 September 2008. We deliver these proceedings as a means to document to the interested public, to the wider scientific community, and to the participants themselves the stimulating exchange of ideas at this conference. The steadily growing number of participants, among them acclaimed scientists in their respective fields, show its increasing attraction and a fruitful concept, based on bringing leading researchers together and in contact with a mix of advanced students and scholars. Thus, this series of meetings successfully continued from the beginning with DICE 2002, (Decoherence and Entropy in Complex Systems ed H-T Elze Lecture Notes in Physics 633 (Berlin: Springer, 2004)) followed by DICE 2004 (Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Decoherence, Information, Complexity and Entropy - DICE 2004 ed H-T Elze Braz. Journ. Phys. 35, 2A & 2B (2005) pp 205-529 free access at: www.sbfisica.org.br/bjp) and by DICE 2006, (Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Decoherence, Information, Complexity and Entropy - DICE 2006 eds H-T Elze, L Diósi and G Vitiello Journal of Physics: Conference Series 67 (2007); free access at: http://www.iop.org/EJ/toc/1742-6596/67/1) uniting about one hundred participants from more than twenty different countries worldwide this time. It has been a great honour and inspiration for all of us to have Professor Sir Roger Penrose from the Mathematical Institute at the University of Oxford with us, who presented the lecture ``Black holes, quantum theory and cosmology'' (included in this volume). Discussions under the wider theme ``From Quantum Mechanics through Complexity to Spacetime: the role of emergent dynamical structures'' took place in the very pleasant and inspiring atmosphere of Castello

  1. Estimation of Leak Rate from the Emergency Pump Well in L-Area Complex Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, A

    2005-12-19

    This report provides an estimate of the leak rate from the emergency pump well in L-basin that is to be expected during an off-normal event. This estimate is based on expected shrinkage of the engineered grout (i.e., controlled low strength material) used to fill the emergency pump well and the header pipes that provide the dominant leak path from the basin to the lower levels of the L-Area Complex. The estimate will be used to provide input into the operating safety basis to ensure that the water level in the basin will remain above a certain minimum level. The minimum basin water level is specified to ensure adequate shielding for personnel and maintain the ''as low as reasonably achievable'' concept of radiological exposure. The need for the leak rate estimation is the existence of a gap between the fill material and the header pipes, which penetrate the basin wall and would be the primary leak path in the event of a breach in those pipes. The gap between the pipe and fill material was estimated based on a full scale demonstration pour that was performed and examined. Leak tests were performed on full scale pipes as a part of this examination. Leak rates were measured to be on the order of 0.01 gallons/minute for completely filled pipe (vertically positioned) and 0.25 gallons/minute for partially filled pipe (horizontally positioned). This measurement was for water at 16 feet head pressure and with minimal corrosion or biofilm present. The effect of the grout fill on the inside surface biofilm of the pipes is the subject of a previous memorandum.

  2. Changing tracks as situations change: humanitarian and health response along the Liberia-Côte d'Ivoire border.

    PubMed

    Derderian, Katharine

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, protracted crises and fragile post-conflict settings have challenged the co-existence, and even the linear continuum, of relief and development aid. Forced migration has tested humanitarian and development paradigms where sudden-onset emergencies, violence and displacement arise alongside ongoing development work. Drawing on Médecins Sans Frontières interventions in the region from December 2010 to May 2011, this paper examines aid and healthcare responses to displacement in Côte d'Ivoire and Liberia; it focuses on challenges to the maintenance of preparedness for such foreseeable emergencies and to adaptation in response to changing situations of displacement and insecurity. This 'backsliding' from development to emergency remains a substantial challenge to aid; yet, in exactly such cases, it also presents the opportunity to ensure access to medical care that is much more urgently needed in times of crisis, including the suspension of user fees for medical care. PMID:25196331

  3. Role Bending: Complex Relationships Between Viruses, Hosts, and Vectors Related to Citrus Leprosis, an Emerging Disease.

    PubMed

    Roy, Avijit; Hartung, John S; Schneider, William L; Shao, Jonathan; Leon, Guillermo; Melzer, Michael J; Beard, Jennifer J; Otero-Colina, Gabriel; Bauchan, Gary R; Ochoa, Ronald; Brlansky, Ronald H

    2015-07-01

    Citrus leprosis complex is an emerging disease in the Americas, associated with two unrelated taxa of viruses distributed in South, Central, and North America. The cytoplasmic viruses are Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C), Citrus leprosis virus C2 (CiLV-C2), and Hibiscus green spot virus 2, and the nuclear viruses are Citrus leprosis virus N (CiLV-N) and Citrus necrotic spot virus. These viruses cause local lesion infections in all known hosts, with no natural systemic host identified to date. All leprosis viruses were believed to be transmitted by one species of mite, Brevipalpus phoenicis. However, mites collected from CiLV-C and CiLV-N infected citrus groves in Mexico were identified as B. yothersi and B. californicus sensu lato, respectively, and only B. yothersi was detected from CiLV-C2 and CiLV-N mixed infections in the Orinoco regions of Colombia. Phylogenetic analysis of the helicase, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 2 domains and p24 gene amino acid sequences of cytoplasmic leprosis viruses showed a close relationship with recently deposited mosquito-borne negevirus sequences. Here, we present evidence that both cytoplasmic and nuclear viruses seem to replicate in viruliferous Brevipalpus species. The possible replication in the mite vector and the close relationship with mosquito borne negeviruses are consistent with the concept that members of the genus Cilevirus and Higrevirus originated in mites and citrus may play the role of mite virus vector. PMID:25775106

  4. Holonic Rationale and Bio-inspiration on Design of Complex Emergent and Evolvable Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitao, Paulo

    Traditional centralized and rigid control structures are becoming inflexible to face the requirements of reconfigurability, responsiveness and robustness, imposed by customer demands in the current global economy. The Holonic Manufacturing Systems (HMS) paradigm, which was pointed out as a suitable solution to face these requirements, translates the concepts inherited from social organizations and biology to the manufacturing world. It offers an alternative way of designing adaptive systems where the traditional centralized control is replaced by decentralization over distributed and autonomous entities organized in hierarchical structures formed by intermediate stable forms. In spite of its enormous potential, methods regarding the self-adaptation and self-organization of complex systems are still missing. This paper discusses how the insights from biology in connection with new fields of computer science can be useful to enhance the holonic design aiming to achieve more self-adaptive and evolvable systems. Special attention is devoted to the discussion of emergent behavior and self-organization concepts, and the way they can be combined with the holonic rationale.

  5. Emergent criticality in complex turing B-type atomic switch networks.

    PubMed

    Stieg, Adam Z; Avizienis, Audrius V; Sillin, Henry O; Martin-Olmos, Cristina; Aono, Masakazu; Gimzewski, James K

    2012-01-10

    Recent advances in the neuromorphic operation of atomic switches as individual synapse-like devices demonstrate the ability to process information with both short-term and long-term memorization in a single two terminal junction. Here it is shown that atomic switches can be self-assembled within a highly interconnected network of silver nanowires similar in structure to Turing’s “B-Type unorganized machine”, originally proposed as a randomly connected network of NAND logic gates. In these experimental embodiments,complex networks of coupled atomic switches exhibit emergent criticality similar in nature to previously reported electrical activity of biological brains and neuron assemblies. Rapid fluctuations in electrical conductance display metastability and power law scaling of temporal correlation lengths that are attributed to dynamic reorganization of the interconnected electro-ionic network resulting from induced non-equilibrium thermodynamic instabilities. These collective properties indicate a potential utility for realtime,multi-input processing of distributed sensory data through reservoir computation. We propose these highly coupled, nonlinear electronic networks as an implementable hardware-based platform toward the creation of physically intelligent machines. PMID:22329003

  6. 31 CFR 538.532 - Humanitarian transshipments to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the Specified Areas of Sudan. 538.532 Section 538.532 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating... Humanitarian transshipments to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan. The transit or transshipment to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan of goods, technology, or services intended for humanitarian...

  7. 31 CFR 538.532 - Humanitarian transshipments to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the Specified Areas of Sudan. 538.532 Section 538.532 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating... Humanitarian transshipments to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan. The transit or transshipment to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan of goods, technology, or services intended for humanitarian...

  8. 31 CFR 538.532 - Humanitarian transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized. 538.532 Section 538.532 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Humanitarian transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized. The transit or transshipment to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur of goods, technology, or services intended for humanitarian...

  9. 31 CFR 538.532 - Humanitarian transshipments to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the Specified Areas of Sudan. 538.532 Section 538.532 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating... Humanitarian transshipments to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan. The transit or transshipment to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan of goods, technology, or services intended for humanitarian...

  10. 77 FR 49782 - Extension of the Application Deadline for Humanitarian Awards Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... Pilot'', also known as Patents for Humanity). See Humanitarian Awards Pilot Program, 77 FR 6544 (Feb. 8... response to stakeholder feedback, the USPTO is extending the deadline for applications to the Humanitarian... complete their applications. DATES: Effective Date: August 17, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  11. Humanitarian Information Management Network Effectiveness: An Analysis at the Organizational and Network Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngamassi Tchouakeu, Louis-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Massive international response to humanitarian crises such as the South Asian Tsunami in 2004, the Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the Haiti earthquake in 2010 highlights the importance of humanitarian inter-organizational collaboration networks, especially in information management and exchange. Despite more than a decade old call for more research…

  12. Historical Frames and the Politics of Humanitarian Intervention: From Ethiopia, Somalia to Rwanda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Ibrahim Seaga

    2007-01-01

    This article argues that historical frames we often find in news media discourse can skew the way we perceive distant wars, and that this can have a knock-on effect on international humanitarian response within a cosmopolitan framework of global justice. Drawing on an empirical exploration of recent "humanitarian interventions" in Ethiopia,…

  13. Structural Vulnerability Among Migrating Women and Children Fleeing Central America and Mexico: The Public Health Impact of "Humanitarian Parole".

    PubMed

    Valdez, Elizabeth Salerno; Valdez, Luis A; Sabo, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    Since October 2013, US Customs and Border Patrol has apprehended 15,979 families on the Southwest Border of the US. Daily, migrating women and children from Mexico and Central America that qualify for humanitarian parole are released from immigration detention to a humanitarian aid organization in Southern Arizona. After several days in detention facilities, these families arrive tired, hungry, dehydrated, and with minimal direction regarding their final destination, and adherence to the parameters of their parole. Project helping hands (PHHs) utilizes a network of volunteers to provide the women and children with food, water, clothing, hygiene products, hospitality, and legal orientation. The aim of this assessment was to document the experiences of families granted humanitarian parole through the lens of structural vulnerability. Here, we apply qualitative methods to elicit PHH lead volunteer perspectives regarding the migration experience of migrating families. Using inductive analysis, we found six major themes emerged from the qualitative data: reasons for leaving, experience on the journey, dehumanization in detention, family separation, vulnerability, and resiliency. These findings elucidate the different physical and psychological distresses that migrating families from Mexico and Central America experience before, during and after their arrival at the US-Mexico border. We posit that these distresses are a result of, or exacerbated by, structural vulnerability. Structural vulnerability has life-long health implications for a sub-population of young mothers and their children. The number of migrating families who have experienced traumatic events before and during their migration experience continues to expand and thus warrants consideration of mental health surveillance and intervention efforts for these families. More public health research is needed to better understand and combat the health challenges of this growing population. PMID:26157791

  14. Internally displaced women as knowledge producers and users in humanitarian action: the view from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; Lemaitre, Julieta

    2013-07-01

    The literature on evidence-based action in humanitarian crises commonly focuses on how inter-and non-governmental organisations can produce better knowledge and how this can be translated into improved programming. Yet, there is little recorded experience of, or concern about, how the beneficiaries of humanitarian relief can produce and use knowledge of their predicament. This paper is based on a case study of how the Liga de Mujeres Desplazadas, an internally displaced women's organisation in northern Colombia, employs proactively research-generated data to advance its own agenda in its interactions with donor bodies and the government. The paper finds that beneficiaries of humanitarian aid can, and do, use participatory research to advance their own ends in the legal and political spaces created around humanitarian crisis. However, their agency is limited by poverty, violence, and local balances of power. The paper concludes that beneficiaries' priorities in the production of data about humanitarian crises warrant further study. PMID:23905766

  15. Humanitarian presence and urban development: new opportunities and contrasts in Goma, DRC.

    PubMed

    Büscher, Karen; Vlassenroot, Koen

    2010-04-01

    This paper examines the impact of the presence of international humanitarian organisations on local urban transformation processes in the city of Goma, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Rather than evaluating the direct effects of humanitarian interventions and strategies, it focuses on the indirect but profound effects of the presence of this 'humanitarian sector'. It argues that the international humanitarian presence became a significant factor in the recent shaping and reshaping of the city's profile and has reinforced competition over the urban political and socioeconomic space. The paper evaluates the direct and indirect impact of the international humanitarian presence on the local urban economy and the larger political economy of war in eastern DRC. It analyses how this presence has reinforced processes of spatial reconfiguration, how it has influenced urban planning, and how it has affected dynamics of gentrification and marginalisation on the urban spatial level. PMID:20132264

  16. Save the Children, the humanitarian project, and the politics of solidarity: reviving Dorothy Buxton's vision.

    PubMed

    Baughan, Emily; Fiori, Juliano

    2015-10-01

    This paper reflects on the foundational years of Save the Children, one of the oldest and largest Western humanitarian agencies and a mainstay of the humanitarian project. In doing so, it considers how and why, at an early stage, the organisation depoliticised its activities, centring its narrative on the innocent, pre-political child-the image of unsullied humanity. In addition, it seeks to recover the internationalist vision of Save the Children's 'forgotten founder', Dorothy Buxton. Save the Children's turn to non-politics is indicative of the broader depoliticisation of Western humanitarian action. Given the intensely contested spaces in which Western humanitarian non-governmental organisations (NGOs) operate, these entities cannot escape politics. This paper argues that Buxton's efforts to build an international solidarity network through humanitarian action after the end of the First World War in 1918 provide an instructive basis on which these NGOs can pursue a politics of solidarity in the present day. PMID:26395105

  17. PREFACE: DICE 2008 - From Quantum Mechanics through Complexity to Spacetime: the role of emergent dynamical structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diósi, Lajos; Elze, Hans-Thomas; Fronzoni, Leone; Halliwell, Jonathan; Vitiello, Giuseppe

    2009-07-01

    These proceedings present the Invited Lectures and Contributed Papers of the Fourth International Workshop on Decoherence, Information, Complexity and Entropy - DICE 2008, held at Castello Pasquini, Castiglioncello (Tuscany), 22-26 September 2008. We deliver these proceedings as a means to document to the interested public, to the wider scientific community, and to the participants themselves the stimulating exchange of ideas at this conference. The steadily growing number of participants, among them acclaimed scientists in their respective fields, show its increasing attraction and a fruitful concept, based on bringing leading researchers together and in contact with a mix of advanced students and scholars. Thus, this series of meetings successfully continued from the beginning with DICE 2002, (Decoherence and Entropy in Complex Systems ed H-T Elze Lecture Notes in Physics 633 (Berlin: Springer, 2004)) followed by DICE 2004 (Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Decoherence, Information, Complexity and Entropy - DICE 2004 ed H-T Elze Braz. Journ. Phys. 35, 2A & 2B (2005) pp 205-529 free access at: www.sbfisica.org.br/bjp) and by DICE 2006, (Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Decoherence, Information, Complexity and Entropy - DICE 2006 eds H-T Elze, L Diósi and G Vitiello Journal of Physics: Conference Series 67 (2007); free access at: http://www.iop.org/EJ/toc/1742-6596/67/1) uniting about one hundred participants from more than twenty different countries worldwide this time. It has been a great honour and inspiration for all of us to have Professor Sir Roger Penrose from the Mathematical Institute at the University of Oxford with us, who presented the lecture ``Black holes, quantum theory and cosmology'' (included in this volume). Discussions under the wider theme ``From Quantum Mechanics through Complexity to Spacetime: the role of emergent dynamical structures'' took place in the very pleasant and inspiring atmosphere of Castello

  18. Use of imagery and GIS for humanitarian demining management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentile, Jack; Gustafson, Glen C.; Kimsey, Mary; Kraenzle, Helmut; Wilson, James; Wright, Stephen

    1997-11-01

    In the Fall of 1996, the Center for Geographic Information Science at James Madison University became involved in a project for the Department of Defense evaluating the data needs and data management systems for humanitarian demining in the Third World. In particular, the effort focused on the information needs of demining in Cambodia and in Bosnia. In the first phase of the project one team attempted to identify all sources of unclassified country data, image data and map data. Parallel with this, another group collected information and evaluations on most of the commercial off-the-shelf computer software packages for the management of such geographic information. The result was a design for the kinds of data and the kinds of systems necessary to establish and maintain such a database as a humanitarian demining management tool. The second phase of the work involved acquiring the recommended data and systems, integrating the two, and producing a demonstration of the system. In general, the configuration involves ruggedized portable computers for field use with a greatly simplified graphical user interface, supported by a more capable central facility based on Pentium workstations and appropriate technical expertise.

  19. Humanitarian assistance and disaster relief: changing the face of defense.

    PubMed

    Laraby, Patrick R; Bourdeaux, Margaret; Casscells, S Ward; Smith, David J; Lawry, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    The US Department of Defense (DOD) is evolving to meet new security challenges in the twenty-first century. Today's challenges result from growing political, environmental, and economic instability in important areas of the globe that threaten national and global security. Immediate outreach to foreign nations in times of violent instability or natural disaster fosters security and stability both for the affected country and for the United States. Foreign humanitarian assistance (FHA) is a rapidly evolving military mission that addresses conflict prevention, conflict, postconflict, and natural disasters. With DOD's extensive global medical resources, it is often uniquely qualified to execute a critical role in relief and/or public health efforts. When and how the American military will act in FHA and disaster relief is a still evolving doctrine with three issues deserving particular attention: aligning operations with host government leadership, preserving humanitarian space, and tailoring the US military's unique resources to the specific political and medical situation at hand. The DOD's response to a large-scale earthquake in Peru suggests useful approaches to these three issues, provides a template for future FHA mission, and points to strategic decisions and operational capabilities that need further development to establish the FHA mission firmly within DOD's repertoire of security engagement activities. PMID:19378667

  20. Emergent Complex Behavior in Social Networks: Examples from the Ktunaxa Speech Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsethief, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Language serves as a primary tool for structuring identity and loss of language represents the loss of that identity. This study utilizes a social network analysis of Ktunaxa speech community activities for evidence of internally generated revitalization efforts. These behaviors include instances of self-organized emergence. Such emergent behavior…

  1. Tracking humanitarian funding for reproductive health: a systematic analysis of health and protection proposals from 2002-2013

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The Inter-agency Working Group on Reproductive Health in Crises conducted a ten-year global evaluation of reproductive health in humanitarian settings. This paper examines proposals for reproductive health activities under humanitarian health and protection funding mechanisms for 2002-2013, and the level at which these reproductive health proposals were funded. Methods The study used English and French health and protection proposal data for 2002-2013, extracted from the Financial Tracking Service (FTS) database managed by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Every project was reviewed for relevance against pre-determined reproductive health definitions for 2002-2008. An in-depth analysis was additionally conducted for 2009-2013 through systematically reviewing proposals via a key word search and subsequently classifying them under designated reproductive health categories. Among the relevant reproductive health proposals, counts and proportions were calculated in Excel based on their reproductive health components, primarily by year. Contributions, requests, and unfunded requests were calculated based on the data provided by FTS. Results Among the 11,347 health and protection proposals issued from 345 emergencies between 2002 and 2013, 3,912 were relevant to reproductive health (34.5%). The number of proposals containing reproductive health activities increased by an average of 21.9% per year, while the proportion of health and protection sector appeals containing reproductive health activities increased by an average of 10.1% per year. The total funding request over the 12 years amounted to $4.720 billion USD, of which $2.031 billion USD was received. Among reproductive health components for 2009-2013 proposals, maternal newborn health comprised the largest proportion (56.4%), followed by reproductive health-related gender-based violence (45.9%), HIV/sexually transmitted infections (37.5%), general reproductive health

  2. 38 CFR 17.165 - Emergency outpatient dental treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... dental treatment. 17.165 Section 17.165 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Dental Services § 17.165 Emergency outpatient dental treatment. When outpatient emergency dental care is provided, as a humanitarian service, to individuals who have no established...

  3. 38 CFR 17.165 - Emergency outpatient dental treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... dental treatment. 17.165 Section 17.165 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Dental Services § 17.165 Emergency outpatient dental treatment. When outpatient emergency dental care is provided, as a humanitarian service, to individuals who have no established...

  4. 38 CFR 17.165 - Emergency outpatient dental treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... dental treatment. 17.165 Section 17.165 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Dental Services § 17.165 Emergency outpatient dental treatment. When outpatient emergency dental care is provided, as a humanitarian service, to individuals who have no established...

  5. 38 CFR 17.165 - Emergency outpatient dental treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... dental treatment. 17.165 Section 17.165 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Dental Services § 17.165 Emergency outpatient dental treatment. When outpatient emergency dental care is provided, as a humanitarian service, to individuals who have no established...

  6. 38 CFR 17.165 - Emergency outpatient dental treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... dental treatment. 17.165 Section 17.165 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Dental Services § 17.165 Emergency outpatient dental treatment. When outpatient emergency dental care is provided, as a humanitarian service, to individuals who have no established...

  7. Evaluation test of ALIS in Cambodia for humanitarian demining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Motoyuki

    2010-04-01

    ALIS is a hand-held dual sensor developed by Tohoku University, Japan since 2002. Dual sensor is a general name of sensor for humanitarian demining, which are equipped with metal detector and GPR. ALIS is only one hand-held dual sensor, which can record the sensor position with sensor signals. Therefore, the data can be processed after data acquisition, and can increase the imaging capability. ALIS has been tested in some mine affected courtiers including Afghanistan (2004), Egypt(2005), Croatia(2006-) and Cambodia(2007-). Mine fields at each country has different conditions and soil types. Therefore testes at the real mine fields are very important. ALIS has detected more than 30 AP-Mines in evaluation test in Cambodia held in 2009.

  8. Dynamics of soil parameters relevant for humanitarian demining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obhođaš, Jasmina; Vdović, Neda; Valković, Vlado

    2005-12-01

    In this paper we analyzed characteristics of 6 different soils from the test field at the Ruđer Bošković Institute. Many soil properties relevant for the performance of humanitarian demining tools strongly depend on water content. This is an effort to understand better the soil moisture variability and to find soil parameters that can predict the water content regarding the weather conditions. Such knowledge will allow to optimize demining operations. To gather the main parameters like field capacity, rate and delay of water infiltration and soil water retention which are all related to soil texture, daily time-series of soil moisture from August to November 2001, where analyzed.

  9. Intelligent Multisensor Prodder for Training Operators in Humanitarian Demining

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Roemi; Montes, Héctor; Armada, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Manual prodding is still one of the most utilized procedures for identifying buried landmines during humanitarian demining activities. However, due to the high number of accidents reported during its practice, it is considered an outmoded and risky procedure and there is a general consensus about the need of introducing upgrades for enhancing the safety of human operators. With the aim of contributing to reduce the number of demining accidents, this paper presents an intelligent multisensory system for training operators in the use of prodders. The proposed tool is able to provide to deminers useful information in two critical issues: (a) the amount of force exerted on the target and if it is greater than the safe limit and, (b) to alert them when the angle of insertion of the prodder is approaching or exceeding a certain dangerous limit. Results of preliminary tests show the feasibility and reliability of the proposed design and highlight the potential benefits of the tool. PMID:27347963

  10. Characteristics of an Effective International Humanitarian Assistance: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Moslehi, Shandiz; Ardalan, Ali; Waugh, William; Tirone, Daniel C.; Akbarisari, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study is to identify the effectiveness characteristics, review the definition of them, and develop a conceptual mapping of existing domains in the field of International Humanitarian Assistance (IHA). Methods: We conducted a systematic review and searched the major databases (Science Direct, Scopus, Springer and Pubmed) and grey literature, including references of potentially eligible articles and conference proceedings through March 2015. Articles were included if they focused on IHA effectiveness. Reviewers independently identified the eligible studies and extracted data. Results: 10 studies were included and 48 characteristics were identified. There is a lack of scientific studies and agreement on the characteristics of IHA effectiveness.  Conclusion: This study could be the step toward an understanding of IHA effectiveness characteristics and its definitions with the findings making a base line for more research in this area.  PMID:26981325

  11. Intelligent Multisensor Prodder for Training Operators in Humanitarian Demining.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Roemi; Montes, Héctor; Armada, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Manual prodding is still one of the most utilized procedures for identifying buried landmines during humanitarian demining activities. However, due to the high number of accidents reported during its practice, it is considered an outmoded and risky procedure and there is a general consensus about the need of introducing upgrades for enhancing the safety of human operators. With the aim of contributing to reduce the number of demining accidents, this paper presents an intelligent multisensory system for training operators in the use of prodders. The proposed tool is able to provide to deminers useful information in two critical issues: (a) the amount of force exerted on the target and if it is greater than the safe limit and, (b) to alert them when the angle of insertion of the prodder is approaching or exceeding a certain dangerous limit. Results of preliminary tests show the feasibility and reliability of the proposed design and highlight the potential benefits of the tool. PMID:27347963

  12. Conflict and Emerging Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Legros, Dominique; Formenty, Pierre; Connolly, Maire A.

    2007-01-01

    Detection and control of emerging infectious diseases in conflict situations are major challenges due to multiple risk factors known to enhance emergence and transmission of infectious diseases. These include inadequate surveillance and response systems, destroyed infrastructure, collapsed health systems and disruption of disease control programs, and infection control practices even more inadequate than those in resource-poor settings, as well as ongoing insecurity and poor coordination among humanitarian agencies. This article outlines factors that potentiate emergence and transmission of infectious diseases in conflict situations and highlights several priority actions for their containment and control. PMID:18217543

  13. Narrative Skill and Syntactic Complexity in School-Age Children with and without Late Language Emergence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domsch, Celeste; Richels, Corrin; Saldana, Michelle; Coleman, Cardin; Wimberly, Clayton; Maxwell, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Background: Children who do not produce single words by the expected age have been described as "late talkers" or as demonstrating "late language emergence" (LLE). Although their short-term growth in vocabulary is often strong, longer-term consequences of LLE remain in dispute. It has been argued that the majority of school-age children who had…

  14. The Emergent Curriculum: Navigating a Complex Course between Unguided Learning and Planned Enculturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osberg, Deborah; Biesta, Gert

    2008-01-01

    This study uses the "logic" of emergence to rethink the practice and purposes of modern Western schooling which, conventionally, is organized around a representational epistemology and aims to enculture the student into a particular way of being. The idea of "planned enculturation" is, however, problematic for contemporary multicultural societies…

  15. African American Preschoolers' Language, Emergent Literacy Skills, and Use of African American English: A Complex Relation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Craig, Holly K.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relation between African American preschoolers' use of African American English (AAE) and their language and emergent literacy skills in an effort to better understand the perplexing and persistent difficulties many African American children experience learning to read proficiently. Method: African American…

  16. Developing Training Programs to Save Lives: Serving Students with Complex or Emergency Healthcare Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urso, Annmarie; Rozalski, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The number of students with special health care needs (SHCN; McPherson, Arango & Fox, 1998) and the frequency of life-threatening health emergencies in schools (e.g., asthma, diabetes, severe allergic reactions, cardiac arrest, seizure disorders), continues to increase. It has become increasingly important for teachers to be trained in…

  17. "Nationals" and "expatriates": challenges of fulfilling "sans frontières" ("without borders") ideals in international humanitarian action.

    PubMed

    Shevchenko, Olga; Fox, Renée C

    2008-01-01

    The international humanitarian organization, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), is strongly committed to principles of universalism, egalitarianism, and equity, in both its internal and external relations. Nevertheless, the organization distinguishes between so-called "national" staff members (those who are indigenous to the countries where MSF projects are located), and "expatriate" staff (those who are involved in projects outside their countries of residence), in certain ways that it has self-critically termed "discriminatory", "colonialist", and even "racist". It has resolved to remedy such practices. Through a first-hand case study of MSF activities in Russia, this article demonstrates that the dynamics of the "nationals"/ "expatriates" divide is a more complex phenomenon than MSF's self-accusatory diagnosis implies; that a fuller recognition and utilization of nationals' local knowledge would mitigate some of the conditions of inequality and inequity that they experience; but that it would not necessarily be desirable to expunge all differences between the two groups of staff Furthermore, because they are intrinsic to the structure and conditions of international humanitarian action, some of these differences could not easily be elminated by MSF, or by any other organization engaged in this kind of action. PMID:20845834

  18. 31 CFR 545.511 - Registration of nongovernmental organizations for humanitarian or religious activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Department of Commerce (15 CFR parts 730-774). ... TREASURY TALIBAN (AFGHANISTAN) SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations and Statements of Licensing... nongovernmental organizations involved in humanitarian or religious activities in the territory of...

  19. Reason, emotion, compassion: can altruism survive professionalisation in the humanitarian sector?

    PubMed

    Carbonnier, Gilles

    2015-04-01

    The humanitarian sector has grown enormously over the past two decades. Some fear that professionalisation comes at the expense of altruistic volunteering. This may be a valid concern if altruism is the product of organisational culture and individual experiences rather than an innate trait. This paper examines advances in evolutionary biology and neurology that provide evidence in support of both the nature and nurture arguments, echoing earlier insights from social sciences. It then questions to what extent humanitarian principles build on altruistic impulses or instead seek to constrain them, and reviews recruitment profiles of selected humanitarian organisations and applicants' letters accordingly. This initial investigation warrants further research to identify how altruism as a personal trait and an organisational principle has influenced diverse humanitarian actors and traditions. This paper outlines how training curricula and organisational reward systems can build on-rather than stifle-natural altruism to nurture critical, reflexive practitioners. PMID:25439560

  20. 76 FR 34639 - Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance; Office of Food for Peace...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ...; ] AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance; Office... the Office of Food for Peace, U.S. Agency for International Development, RRB 7.06- 085,...

  1. 75 FR 74678 - Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance; Office of Food for Peace Announcement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ...; ] AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance; Office... Office of Food for Peace, U.S. Agency for International Development, RRB 7.06- 152, 1300...

  2. How sex- and age-disaggregated data and gender and generational analyses can improve humanitarian response.

    PubMed

    Mazurana, Dyan; Benelli, Prisca; Walker, Peter

    2013-07-01

    Humanitarian aid remains largely driven by anecdote rather than by evidence. The contemporary humanitarian system has significant weaknesses with regard to data collection, analysis, and action at all stages of response to crises involving armed conflict or natural disaster. This paper argues that humanitarian actors can best determine and respond to vulnerabilities and needs if they use sex- and age-disaggregated data (SADD) and gender and generational analyses to help shape their assessments of crises-affected populations. Through case studies, the paper shows how gaps in information on sex and age limit the effectiveness of humanitarian response in all phases of a crisis. The case studies serve to show how proper collection, use, and analysis of SADD enable operational agencies to deliver assistance more effectively and efficiently. The evidence suggests that the employment of SADD and gender and generational analyses assists in saving lives and livelihoods in a crisis. PMID:23905768

  3. Emergence of complex and spinor wave functions in scale relativity. II. Lorentz invariance and bi-spinors

    SciTech Connect

    Célérier, Marie-Noëlle; Nottale, Laurent E-mail: laurent.nottale@obspm.fr

    2014-05-15

    Owing to the non-differentiable nature of the theory of Scale Relativity, the emergence of complex wave functions, then of spinors and bi-spinors occurs naturally in its framework. The wave function is here a manifestation of the velocity field of geodesics of a continuous and non-differentiable (therefore fractal) space-time. In a first paper (Paper I), we have presented the general argument which leads to this result using an elaborate and more detailed derivation than previously displayed. We have therefore been able to show how the complex wave function emerges naturally from the doubling of the velocity field and to revisit the derivation of the non-relativistic Schrödinger equation of motion. In the present paper (Paper II), we deal with relativistic motion and detail the natural emergence of the bi-spinors from such first principles of the theory. Moreover, while Lorentz invariance has been up to now inferred from mathematical results obtained in stochastic mechanics, we display here a new and detailed derivation of the way one can obtain a Lorentz invariant expression for the expectation value of the product of two independent fractal fluctuation fields in the sole framework of the theory of Scale Relativity. These new results allow us to enhance the robustness of our derivation of the two main equations of motion of relativistic quantum mechanics (the Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations) which we revisit here at length.

  4. Characteristics, determinants and perspectives of experienced medical humanitarians: a qualitative approach

    PubMed Central

    Asgary, Ramin; Lawrence, Katharine

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the characteristics, motivations, ideologies, experience and perspectives of experienced medical humanitarian workers. Design We applied a qualitative descriptive approach and conducted in-depth semistructured interviews, containing open-ended questions with directing probes, with 44 experienced international medical aid workers from a wide range of humanitarian organisations. Interviews were coded and analysed, and themes were developed. Setting International non-governmental organisations (INGOs) and United Nations (UN). Results 61% of participants were female; mean age was 41.8 years with an average of 11.8 years of humanitarian work experience with diverse major INGOs. Significant core themes included: population's rights to assistance, altruism and solidarity as motives; self-identification with the mission and directives of INGOs; shared personal and professional morals fostering collegiality; accountability towards beneficiaries in areas of programme planning and funding; burnout and emotional burdens; uncertainties in job safety and security; and uneasiness over changing humanitarian principles with increasing professionalisation of aid and shrinking humanitarian access. While dissatisfied with overall aid operations, participants were generally satisfied with their work and believed that they were well-received by, and had strong relationships with, intended beneficiaries. Conclusions Despite regular use of language and ideology of rights, solidarity and concepts of accountability, tension exists between the philosophy and practical incorporation of accountability into operations. To maintain a humanitarian corps and improve aid worker retention, strategies are needed regarding management of psychosocial stresses, proactively addressing militarisation and neo-humanitarianism, and nurturing individuals’ and organisations’ growth with emphasis on humanitarian principles and ethical practices, and a culture of internal debate

  5. Complex Interplay of Physiology and Selection in the Emergence of Antibiotic Resistance.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei-Hsiang; Kussell, Edo

    2016-06-01

    Emergence of antibiotic resistance, an evolutionary process of major importance for human health [1], often occurs under changing levels of antibiotics. Selective sweeps, in which resistant cells become dominant in the population, are a critical step in this process [2]. While resistance emergence has been studied in laboratory experiments [3-8], the full progression of selective sweeps under fluctuating stress, from stochastic events in single cells to fixation in populations, has not been characterized. Here, we study fluctuating selection using Escherichia coli populations engineered with a stochastic switch controlling tetracycline resistance. Using microfluidics and live-cell imaging, we treat multiple E. coli populations with the same total amount of tetracycline but administered in different temporal patterns. We find that populations exposed to either short or long antibiotic pulses are likely to develop resistance through selective sweeps, whereas intermediate pulses allow higher growth rates but suppress selective sweeps. On the basis of single-cell measurements and a dynamic growth model, we identify the major determinants of population growth and show that both physiological memory and environmental durations can strongly modulate the emergence of resistance. Our detailed quantification in a model synthetic system provides key lessons on the interaction between single-cell physiology and selection that should inform the design of treatment regimens [9-12] and the analysis of phenotypically diverse populations adapting under fluctuating selection [13-17]. PMID:27212408

  6. Emergency ground-water supplies in the Seattle-Tacoma urban complex and adjacent areas, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foxworthy, B.L.

    1972-01-01

    Urban areas that are supplied from surface-water sources are especially vulnerable to major disruption of their water supplies. Such disruption could result from natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods, or landslides or from such other causes as dam failures fallout of radioactive material or other toxic substance from the atmosphere or other toxic substances from the atmosphere or direct introduction (either accidental or deliberate) of any substance that would render the water unfit for use. Prolonged disruption of public water supplies not only causes personal hardships but also endangers health and safety unless suitable alternative emergency supplies can be provided. The degree of hardship and danger generally increases in direct relation to the population density. Ground water because it occurs beneath protective soil and rock materials is less subject to sudden major contamination than are surface-water bodies. For this reason and also because of its widespread availability in the Puget Sound region ground water is especially desireable as a sources of emergency supplies for drinking or other uses requiring water of good quality. In much of the area existing wells would be suitable as safe sources of emergency supplies.

  7. Emergent complexity matching in interpersonal coordination: Local dynamics and global variability.

    PubMed

    Fine, Justin M; Likens, Aaron D; Amazeen, Eric L; Amazeen, Polemnia G

    2015-06-01

    Rhythmic coordination with stimuli and other people's movements containing variable or unpredictable fluctuations might involve distinct processes: detecting the fluctuation structure and tuning to or matching the structure's temporal complexity. This framework predicts that global tuning and local parameter adjustments (e.g., position, velocity or phase) can operate independently during coordination (Marmelat & Delignières, 2012). Alternatively, we propose that complexity matching is a result of local phase adjustments during coordination (Delignières & Marmelat, 2014; Torre, Varlet, & Marmelat, 2013). The current study examined this relationship in a rhythmic interpersonal coordination task. Dyads coordinated swinging pendulums that differed in their uncoupled frequencies (detuning). We predicted that frequency detuning would require increased local corrections to maintain the intended phase pattern (in phase). This was expected to yield a relative phase shift accompanied by a change in period complexity and matching. Experimental data and numerical modeling of the pendulum dynamics confirmed our predictions. Increased relative phase shifts occurred simultaneously with increased dissociation between individuals' movement period complexity. This provided evidence that global complexity matching is intricately linked to local movement adjustments and is not a distinct coordination mechanism. These findings are considered with respect to dynamical and computational approaches to interpersonal coordination. PMID:25798782

  8. Endoglucanase Peripheral Loops Facilitate Complexation of Glucan Chains on Cellulose via Adaptive Coupling to the Emergent Substrate Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yuchun; Beckham, Gregg T.; Himmel, Michael E.; Crowley, Michael F.; Chu, Jhih-wei

    2013-09-19

    We examine how the catalytic domain of a glycoside hydrolase family 7 endoglucanase catalytic domain (Cel7B CD) facilitates complexation of cellulose chains from a crystal surface. With direct relevance to the science of biofuel production, this problem also represents a model system of biopolymer processing by proteins in Nature. Interactions of Cel7B CD with a cellulose microfibril along different paths of complexation are characterized by mapping the atomistic fluctuations recorded in free-energy simulations onto the parameters of a coarse-grain model. The resulting patterns of protein-biopolymer couplings also uncover the sequence signatures of the enzyme in peeling off glucan chains from the microfibril substrate. We show that the semiopen active site of Cel7B CD exhibits similar barriers and free energies of complexation over two distinct routes; namely, scooping of a chain into the active-site cleft and threading from the chain end into the channel. On the other hand, the complexation energetics strongly depends on the surface packing of the targeted chain and the resulting interaction sites with the enzyme. A revealed principle is that Cel7B CD facilitates cellulose deconstruction via adaptive coupling to the emergent substrate. The flexible, peripheral segments of the protein outside of the active-site cleft are able to accommodate the varying features of cellulose along the simulated paths of complexation. The general strategy of linking physics-based molecular interactions to protein sequence could also be helpful in elucidating how other protein machines process biopolymers.

  9. A Stroop effect emerges in the processing of complex Chinese characters that contain a color-related radical.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chunming; Proctor, Robert W; Weng, Xuchu

    2015-03-01

    Three experiments examined whether a Stroop effect emerges in the processing of complex Chinese characters that contain a color-related radical. In Experiment 1, a Stroop effect occurred when participants responded to the black or white color of the simple characters [Chinese character: see text] (black) and [Chinese character: see text] (white) by making a left or right keypress. For Experiment 2, in which the stimuli were complex characters whose meanings were unrelated to color but that contained [Chinese character: see text] or [Chinese character: see text] as a radical, a Stroop effect also occurred, although it was smaller than in Experiment 1. Furthermore, this Stroop effect as a function of radical meaning was shown again in Experiment 3 for low-frequency complex characters but not high-frequency ones. These results suggest that the semantic representations of the complex characters’ color-related radicals are accessed in the context of a Stroop color word task, especially for low-frequency characters. Reduction of the Stroop effect in complex characters composed of one radical with color meaning and one without is similar to dilution of the Stroop effect that occurs when a color word is accompanied by a neutral word. Possible implications of the results for accounts of Stroop dilution are discussed. PMID:24659213

  10. Emergence of Simple Patterns in Complex Atomic Nuclei from First Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dytrych, T.; Launey, K. D.; Draayer, J. P.; Maris, P.; Vary, J. P.; Langr, D.; Oberhuber, T.

    2015-09-01

    We study the structure of low-lying states in 6Li, 6He, 8Be, 8B, 12C, and 16O, using ab initio symmetry-adapted no-core shell model. The results of our study demonstrate that collective modes in light nuclei emerge from first principles. We investigate the impact of the symmetry-adapted model space on spectroscopic properties and, in the case of the ground state of 6Li, on elastic electron scattering charge form factor. The results confirm that only a small symmetry-adapted subspace of the complete model space is needed to accurately reproduce complete-space observables and the form factor momentum dependence.

  11. Literacy and Complexity: On Using Technology within Emergent Learning Structures with Young Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laidlaw, Linda; Wong, Suzanna So-Har

    2016-01-01

    This article presents and describes how we have used notions and structures informed by complexity thinking to shape new descriptions and approaches to understanding "new literacy" practices with young learners. Using data from two studies: a two year project working with kindergarten children using drama and digital tools to develop…

  12. Theorizing the relationship between NGOs and the state in medical humanitarian development projects.

    PubMed

    Asad, Asad L; Kay, Tamara

    2014-11-01

    Social scientists have fiercely debated the relationship between non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and the state in NGO-led development projects. However, this research often carries an implicit, and often explicit, anti-state bias, suggesting that when NGOs collaborate with states, they cease to be a progressive force. This literature thus fails to recognize the state as a complex, heterogeneous, and fragmented entity. In particular, the unique political context within which an NGO operates is likely to influence how it carries out its work. In this article, we ask: how do NGOs work and build relationships with different types of states and--of particular relevance to practitioners--what kinds of relationship building lead to more successful development outcomes on the ground? Drawing on 29 in-depth interviews with members of Partners in Health and Oxfam America conducted between September 2010 and February 2014, we argue that NGOs and their medical humanitarian projects are more likely to succeed when they adjust how they interact with different types of states through processes of interest harmonization and negotiation. We offer a theoretical model for understanding how these processes occur across organizational fields. Specifically, we utilize field overlap theory to illuminate how successful outcomes depend on NGOs' ability to leverage resources--alliances and networks; political, financial, and cultural resources; and frames--across state and non-state fields. By identifying how NGOs can increase the likelihood of project success, our research should be of interest to activists, practitioners, and scholars. PMID:24852816

  13. Development of low cost composite plates for humanitarian demining operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabet, L.; Scheppers, J.; Verpoest, I.; Pirlot, M.; Desmet, B.; Gilson, L.; Pirard, P.

    2006-08-01

    Composite plates using flax fabrics and maleic anhydride modified polypropylene were fabricated on laboratory scale. The aim of the current research was to develop a low cost composite plate or a hybrid structure based on those plates and steel sheet, for making humanitarian demining clothes protecting against secondary fragmentation caused by anti-personnel blast mines. Ballistic impact tests according to STANAG 2920 were carried out for determining the v{50}-limit. So called field tests were performed by means of simulated anti-personnel mines using M112 explosive; the repeatability and the spatial distribution of the projected fragments were checked before fixing the final experimental setup. The performance of the bare composite plate was compared with the hybrid structures in terms of v{50} and in terms of damage mechanisms. All tested configurations performed amazingly well during the field tests, which was not the case for the ballistic impact tests. This led to the conclusion that v{50} might not be the best criterion to characterize protective clothing. This conclusion is sustained by energetic considerations and by field tests on plates with half the thickness of the initial plates.

  14. Humanitarian Outreach in Cardiothoracic Surgery: From Setup to Sustainability.

    PubMed

    Dearani, Joseph A; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Bolman, R Morton; Swain, JaBaris D; Vricella, Luca A; Weinstein, Samuel; Farkas, Emily A; Calhoon, John H

    2016-09-01

    Noncommunicable diseases account for 38 million deaths each year, and approximately 75% of these deaths occur in the developing world. The most common causes include cardiovascular diseases, cancer, respiratory diseases, and diabetes mellitus. Many adults with acquired cardiothoracic disease around the world have limited access to health care. In addition, congenital heart disease is present in approximately 1% of live births and is therefore the most common congenital abnormality. More than one million children in the world are born with congenital heart disease each year, and approximately 90% of these children receive suboptimal care or have no access to care. Furthermore, many children affected by noncongenital cardiac conditions also require prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Medical and surgical volunteerism can help facilitate improvement in cardiothoracic health care in developing countries. As we move into the future, it is essential for physicians and surgeons to be actively involved in political, economic, and social aspects of society to serve health care interests of the underprivileged around the world. Consequently, in developing countries, a critical need exists to establish an increased number of reputable cardiothoracic programs and to enhance many of the programs that already exist. The optimal strategy is usually based on a long-term educational and technical model of support so that as case volumes increase, quality improves and mortality and morbidity decrease. Humanitarian outreach activities should focus on education and sustainability, and surgical tourism should be limited to those countries that will never have the capability to have free-standing cardiothoracic programs. PMID:27319988

  15. Monitoring and Evaluating Psychosocial Intervention Outcomes in Humanitarian Aid

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Kaz; Ariti, Cono; van der Kam, Saskia; Mooren, Trudy; Shanks, Leslie; Pintaldi, Giovanni; Kleber, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Existing tools for evaluating psychosocial interventions (un-validated self-reporting questionnaires) are not ideal for use in non-Western conflict settings. We implement a generic method of treatment evaluation, using client and counsellor feedback, in 18 projects in non-Western humanitarian settings. We discuss our findings from the perspective of validity and suggestions for future research. A retrospective analysis is executed using data gathered from psychosocial projects. Clients (n = 7,058) complete two (complaints and functioning) rating scales each session and counsellors rate the client’s status at exit. The client-completed pre- and post-intervention rating scales show substantial changes. Counsellor evaluation of the clients’ status shows a similar trend in improvement. All three multivariable models for each separate scale have similar associations between the scales and the investigated variables despite different cultural settings. The validity is good. Limitations are: ratings give only a general impression and clinical risk factors are not measured. Potential ceiling effects may influence change of scales. The intra and inter-rater reliability of the counsellors’ rating is not assessed. The focus on client and counsellor perspectives to evaluate treatment outcome seems a strong alternative for evaluation instruments frequently used in psychosocial programming. The session client rated scales helps client and counsellor to set mutual treatment objectives and reduce drop-out risk. Further research should test the scales against a cross-cultural valid gold standard to obtain insight into their clinical relevance. PMID:27315263

  16. Geoengineering: re-making climate for profit or humanitarian intervention?

    PubMed

    Buck, Holly Jean

    2012-01-01

    Climate engineering, or geoengineering, refers to large-scale climate interventions to lower the earth's temperature, either by blocking incoming sunlight or removing carbon dioxide from the biosphere. Regarded as ‘technofixes’ by critics, these strategies have evoked concern that they would extend the shelf life of fossil-fuel driven socio-ecological systems for far longer than they otherwise would, or should, endure. A critical reading views geoengineering as a class project that is designed to keep the climate system stable enough for existing production systems to continue operating. This article first examines these concerns, and then goes on to envision a regime driven by humanitarian agendas and concern for vulnerable populations, implemented through international development and aid institutions. The motivations of those who fund research and implement geoengineering techniques are important, as the rationale for developing geoengineering strategies will determine which techniques are pursued, and hence which ecologies are produced. The logic that shapes the geoengineering research process could potentially influence social ecologies centuries from now. PMID:22662349

  17. Monitoring and Evaluating Psychosocial Intervention Outcomes in Humanitarian Aid.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Kaz; Ariti, Cono; van der Kam, Saskia; Mooren, Trudy; Shanks, Leslie; Pintaldi, Giovanni; Kleber, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Existing tools for evaluating psychosocial interventions (un-validated self-reporting questionnaires) are not ideal for use in non-Western conflict settings. We implement a generic method of treatment evaluation, using client and counsellor feedback, in 18 projects in non-Western humanitarian settings. We discuss our findings from the perspective of validity and suggestions for future research. A retrospective analysis is executed using data gathered from psychosocial projects. Clients (n = 7,058) complete two (complaints and functioning) rating scales each session and counsellors rate the client's status at exit. The client-completed pre- and post-intervention rating scales show substantial changes. Counsellor evaluation of the clients' status shows a similar trend in improvement. All three multivariable models for each separate scale have similar associations between the scales and the investigated variables despite different cultural settings. The validity is good. Limitations are: ratings give only a general impression and clinical risk factors are not measured. Potential ceiling effects may influence change of scales. The intra and inter-rater reliability of the counsellors' rating is not assessed. The focus on client and counsellor perspectives to evaluate treatment outcome seems a strong alternative for evaluation instruments frequently used in psychosocial programming. The session client rated scales helps client and counsellor to set mutual treatment objectives and reduce drop-out risk. Further research should test the scales against a cross-cultural valid gold standard to obtain insight into their clinical relevance. PMID:27315263

  18. Emergence of complex and spinor wave functions in scale relativity. I. Nature of scale variables

    SciTech Connect

    Nottale, Laurent; Célérier, Marie-Noëlle

    2013-11-15

    One of the main results of scale relativity as regards the foundation of quantum mechanics is its explanation of the origin of the complex nature of the wave function. The scale relativity theory introduces an explicit dependence of physical quantities on scale variables, founding itself on the theorem according to which a continuous and non-differentiable space-time is fractal (i.e., scale-divergent). In the present paper, the nature of the scale variables and their relations to resolutions and differential elements are specified in the non-relativistic case (fractal space). We show that, owing to the scale-dependence which it induces, non-differentiability involves a fundamental two-valuedness of the mean derivatives. Since, in the scale relativity framework, the wave function is a manifestation of the velocity field of fractal space-time geodesics, the two-valuedness of velocities leads to write them in terms of complex numbers, and yields therefore the complex nature of the wave function, from which the usual expression of the Schrödinger equation can be derived.

  19. Evidence for complex, collective dynamics and emergent, distributed computation in plants.

    PubMed

    Peak, David; West, Jevin D; Messinger, Susanna M; Mott, Keith A

    2004-01-27

    It has been suggested that some biological processes are equivalent to computation, but quantitative evidence for that view is weak. Plants must solve the problem of adjusting stomatal apertures to allow sufficient CO(2) uptake for photosynthesis while preventing excessive water loss. Under some conditions, stomatal apertures become synchronized into patches that exhibit richly complicated dynamics, similar to behaviors found in cellular automata that perform computational tasks. Using sequences of chlorophyll fluorescence images from leaves of Xanthium strumarium L. (cocklebur), we quantified spatial and temporal correlations in stomatal dynamics. Our values are statistically indistinguishable from those of the same correlations found in the dynamics of automata that compute. These results are consistent with the proposition that a plant solves its optimal gas exchange problem through an emergent, distributed computation performed by its leaves. PMID:14732685

  20. Emergence of a New Population of Rathayibacter toxicus: An Ecologically Complex, Geographically Isolated Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Arif, Mohammad; Busot, Grethel Y.; Mann, Rachel; Rodoni, Brendan; Liu, Sanzhen; Stack, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Rathayibacter toxicus is a gram-positive bacterium that infects the floral parts of several Poaceae species in Australia. Bacterial ooze is often produced on the surface of infected plants and bacterial galls are produced in place of seed. R. toxicus is a regulated plant pathogen in the U.S. yet reliable detection and diagnostic tools are lacking. To better understand this geographically-isolated plant pathogen, genetic variation as a function of geographic location, host species, and date of isolation was determined for isolates collected over a forty-year period. Discriminant analyses of recently collected and archived isolates using Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) and Inter-Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) identified three populations of R. toxicus; RT-I and RT-II from South Australia and RT-III from Western Australia. Population RT-I, detected in 2013 and 2014 from the Yorke Peninsula in South Australia, is a newly emerged population of R. toxicus not previously reported. Commonly used housekeeping genes failed to discriminate among the R. toxicus isolates. However, strategically selected and genome-dispersed MLST genes representing an array of cellular functions from chromosome replication, antibiotic resistance and biosynthetic pathways to bacterial acquired immunity were discriminative. Genetic variation among isolates within the RT-I population was less than the within-population variation for the previously reported RT-II and RT-III populations. The lower relative genetic variation within the RT-I population and its absence from sampling over the past 40 years suggest its recent emergence. RT-I was the dominant population on the Yorke Peninsula during the 2013–2014 sampling period perhaps indicating a competitive advantage over the previously detected RT-II population. The potential for introduction of this bacterial plant pathogen into new geographic areas provide a rationale for understanding the ecological and evolutionary trajectories of R. toxicus

  1. Emergence of a New Population of Rathayibacter toxicus: An Ecologically Complex, Geographically Isolated Bacterium.

    PubMed

    Arif, Mohammad; Busot, Grethel Y; Mann, Rachel; Rodoni, Brendan; Liu, Sanzhen; Stack, James P

    2016-01-01

    Rathayibacter toxicus is a gram-positive bacterium that infects the floral parts of several Poaceae species in Australia. Bacterial ooze is often produced on the surface of infected plants and bacterial galls are produced in place of seed. R. toxicus is a regulated plant pathogen in the U.S. yet reliable detection and diagnostic tools are lacking. To better understand this geographically-isolated plant pathogen, genetic variation as a function of geographic location, host species, and date of isolation was determined for isolates collected over a forty-year period. Discriminant analyses of recently collected and archived isolates using Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) and Inter-Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) identified three populations of R. toxicus; RT-I and RT-II from South Australia and RT-III from Western Australia. Population RT-I, detected in 2013 and 2014 from the Yorke Peninsula in South Australia, is a newly emerged population of R. toxicus not previously reported. Commonly used housekeeping genes failed to discriminate among the R. toxicus isolates. However, strategically selected and genome-dispersed MLST genes representing an array of cellular functions from chromosome replication, antibiotic resistance and biosynthetic pathways to bacterial acquired immunity were discriminative. Genetic variation among isolates within the RT-I population was less than the within-population variation for the previously reported RT-II and RT-III populations. The lower relative genetic variation within the RT-I population and its absence from sampling over the past 40 years suggest its recent emergence. RT-I was the dominant population on the Yorke Peninsula during the 2013-2014 sampling period perhaps indicating a competitive advantage over the previously detected RT-II population. The potential for introduction of this bacterial plant pathogen into new geographic areas provide a rationale for understanding the ecological and evolutionary trajectories of R. toxicus

  2. Challenging Operations: An Ethical Framework to Assist Humanitarian Aid Workers in their Decision-making Processes

    PubMed Central

    Clarinval, Caroline; Biller-Andorno, Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper aims to raise awareness regarding ethical issues in the context of humanitarian action, and to offer a framework for systematically and effectively addressing such issues. Methods: Several cases highlight ethical issues that humanitarian aid workers are confronted with at different levels over the course of their deployments. The first case discusses a situation at a macro-level concerning decisions being made at the headquarters of a humanitarian organization. The second case looks at meso-level issues that need to be solved at a country or regional level. The third case proposes an ethical dilemma at the micro-level of the individual patient-provider relationship. Discussion: These real-life cases have been selected to illustrate the ethical dimension of conflicts within the context of humanitarian action that might remain unrecognized in everyday practice. In addition, we propose an ethical framework to assist humanitarian aid workers in their decision-making process. The framework draws on the principles and values that guide humanitarian action and public health ethics more generally. Beyond identifying substantive core values, the framework also includes a ten-step process modelled on tools used in the clinical setting that promotes a transparent and clear decision-making process and improves the monitoring and evaluation of aid interventions. Finally, we recommend organizational measures to implement the framework effectively. Conclusion: This paper uses a combination of public health/clinical ethics concepts and practices and applies them to the decision-making challenges encountered in relief operations in the humanitarian aid context. PMID:24987575

  3. Chemical Imaging and Dynamical Studies of Reactivity and Emergent Behavior in Complex Interfacial Systems. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sibener, Steven J.

    2014-03-11

    This research program explored the efficacy of using molecular-level manipulation, imaging and scanning tunneling spectroscopy in conjunction with supersonic molecular beam gas-surface scattering to significantly enhance our understanding of chemical processes occurring on well-characterized interfaces. One program focus was on the spatially-resolved emergent behavior of complex reaction systems as a function of the local geometry and density of adsorbate-substrate systems under reaction conditions. Another focus was on elucidating the emergent electronic and related reactivity characteristics of intentionally constructed single and multicomponent atom- and nanoparticle-based materials. We also examined emergent chirality and self-organization in adsorbed molecular systems where collective interactions between adsorbates and the supporting interface lead to spatial symmetry breaking. In many of these studies we combined the advantages of scanning tunneling (STM) and atomic force (AFM) imaging, scanning tunneling local electronic spectroscopy (STS), and reactive supersonic molecular beams to elucidate precise details of interfacial reactivity that had not been observed by more traditional surface science methods. Using these methods, it was possible to examine, for example, the differential reactivity of molecules adsorbed at different bonding sites in conjunction with how reactivity is modified by the local configuration of nearby adsorbates. At the core of this effort was the goal of significantly extending our understanding of interfacial atomic-scale interactions to create, with intent, molecular assemblies and materials with advanced chemical and physical properties. This ambitious program addressed several key topics in DOE Grand Challenge Science, including emergent chemical and physical properties in condensed phase systems, novel uses of chemical imaging, and the development of advanced reactivity concepts in combustion and catalysis including carbon

  4. Complex regional pain syndrome: diagnostic controversies, psychological dysfunction, and emerging concepts.

    PubMed

    Grabow, Theodore S; Christo, Paul J; Raja, Srinivasa N

    2004-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndromes (CRPS) types I and II are neuropathic pain disorders that involve dysfunction of the peripheral and central nervous system. CRPS type I and type II were known formerly as reflex sympathetic dystrophy and causalgia, respectively. Most experts believe that a multidisciplinary approach including pharmacotherapy, physiotherapy, and psychotherapy is warranted. Historically, there has been considerable controversy regarding this disease entity. In particular, the precise mechanism of the sympathetic dysfunction as well as the nature of the psychological dysfunction commonly observed in patients with CRPS has been the subject of considerable debate. Current strides in our understanding of the pathophysiology of this disease have improved treatment options. PMID:15248369

  5. Exciton Transfer and Emergent Excitonic States in Oppositely-Charged Conjugated Polyelectrolyte Complexes.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, William R; Segura, Carmen; Balderrama, Jonathan; Lopez, Nathaniel; Schleissner, Pamela; Ayzner, Alexander L

    2016-08-11

    Photosynthetic organisms have mastered the use of "soft" macromolecular assemblies for light absorption and concentration of electronic excitation energy. Nature's design centers on an optically inactive protein-based backbone that acts as a host matrix for an array of light-harvesting pigment molecules. The pigments are organized in space such that excited states can migrate between molecules, ultimately delivering the energy to the reaction center. Here we report our investigation of an artificial light-harvesting energy transfer antenna based on complexes of oppositely charged conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPEs). The conjugated backbone and the charged side chains of the CPE lead to an architecture that simultaneously functions as a structural scaffold and an electronic energy "highway". We find that the process of ionic complex formation leads to a remarkable change in the excitonic wavefunction of the energy acceptor, which manifests in a dramatic increase in the fluorescence quantum yield. We argue that the extended backbone of the donor CPE effectively templates a planarized acceptor polymer, leading to excited states that are highly delocalized along the polymer backbone. PMID:27428604

  6. Implications of an Anthropic Model of Evolution for Emergence of Complex Life and Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Andrew J.

    2008-02-01

    Structurally complex life and intelligence evolved late on Earth; models for the evolution of global temperature suggest that, due to the increasing solar luminosity, the future life span of the (eukaryote) biosphere will be only about another billion years, a short time compared to the 4 Ga since life began. A simple stochastic model (Carter, 1983) suggests that this timing might be governed by the necessity to pass a small number, n, of very difficult evolutionary steps, with n < 10 and a best guess of n 4, in order for intelligent observers like ourselves to evolve. Here I extend the model analysis to derive probability distributions for each step. Past steps should tend to be evenly spaced through Earth's history, and this is consistent with identification of the steps with some of the major transitions in the evolution of life on Earth. A complementary approach, identifying the critical steps with major reorganizations in Earth's biogeochemical cycles, suggests that the Archean-Proterozoic and Proterozoic-Phanerozoic transitions might be identified with critical steps. The success of the model lends support to a Rare Earth hypothesis (Ward and Brownlee, 2000): structurally complex life is separated from prokaryotes by several very unlikely steps and, hence, will be much less common than prokaryotes. Intelligence is one further unlikely step, so it is much less common still.

  7. Emergency Management of High-Energy Shell Fragment Midface Complex Injuries.

    PubMed

    Shuker, Sabri T

    2016-07-01

    Distinctive mechanisms of heavy artillery and improvised explosive device detonation result in a blast and "spray" of high-energy fragments of diverse shapes, sizes, and characteristics. Associated midface complex injuries differ in both severity and complexity of the anatomical structures involved. Management challenges begin with lifesaving, which is complicated by airway compromise, severe hemorrhage, and unique injuries of the maxillae, nose, and naso-orbitoethmoid.The patients presented fragment impact on the face lateral side directed to other side leads to tissues blown away at the point of high-energy exits, while no survival seen of enface shrapnel hit directed antroposterior toward "cervical spine, intracranial, internal and external carotid arteries and internal jugular vein."Twenty-two patients were selected from unquantified patients who had sustained massive midface shell fragment injuries. To preserve midface architecture, healing, and function, iodoform paste on ribbon gauze packs were utilized successfully. An iodoform paste on ribbon gauze pack serves the dual purpose of preserving the shape and scaffolding of the crushed maxillary sinus wall and buttresses fragments in position for healing. It also acts as a wet pack dressing for denuded bone fragments, stopping bleeding and having antimicrobial properties for severely lacerated wounds. For total or partial nasal tissue loss, a successful procedure consists of definitive early scaffolding stabilization using an intranasal, modified portex tracheostomy tube stent to preserve the internal shape of the nasal pyramid. PMID:27380580

  8. Emergent quasi-one-dimensionality in a kagome magnet: A simple route to complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Shou-Shu; Zhu, Wei; Yang, Kun; Starykh, Oleg A.; Sheng, D. N.; Balents, Leon

    2016-07-01

    We study the ground-state phase diagram of the quantum spin-1 /2 Heisenberg model on the kagome lattice with first- (J1<0 ) , second- (J2<0 ) , and third-neighbor interactions (Jd>0 ) by means of analytical low-energy field theory and numerical density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) studies. The results offer a consistent picture of the Jd-dominant regime in terms of three sets of spin chains weakly coupled by the ferromagnetic interchain interactions J1 ,2. When either J1 or J2 is much stronger than the other one, the model is found to support one of two cuboctohedral phases, cuboc1, and cuboc2. These cuboc states host noncoplanar long-ranged magnetic order and possess finite scalar spin chirality. However, in the compensated regime J1≃J2 , a valence bond crystal phase emerges between the two cuboc phases. We find excellent agreement between an analytical theory based on coupled spin chains and unbiased DMRG calculations, including at a very detailed level of comparison of the structure of the valence bond crystal state. To our knowledge, this is the first such comprehensive understanding of a highly frustrated two-dimensional quantum antiferromagnet. We find no evidence of either the one-dimensional gapless spin liquid or the chiral spin liquids, which were previously suggested by parton mean-field theories.

  9. Fisher’s Geometrical Model Emerges as a Property of Complex Integrated Phenotypic Networks

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Models relating phenotype space to fitness (phenotype–fitness landscapes) have seen important developments recently. They can roughly be divided into mechanistic models (e.g., metabolic networks) and more heuristic models like Fisher’s geometrical model. Each has its own drawbacks, but both yield testable predictions on how the context (genomic background or environment) affects the distribution of mutation effects on fitness and thus adaptation. Both have received some empirical validation. This article aims at bridging the gap between these approaches. A derivation of the Fisher model “from first principles” is proposed, where the basic assumptions emerge from a more general model, inspired by mechanistic networks. I start from a general phenotypic network relating unspecified phenotypic traits and fitness. A limited set of qualitative assumptions is then imposed, mostly corresponding to known features of phenotypic networks: a large set of traits is pleiotropically affected by mutations and determines a much smaller set of traits under optimizing selection. Otherwise, the model remains fairly general regarding the phenotypic processes involved or the distribution of mutation effects affecting the network. A statistical treatment and a local approximation close to a fitness optimum yield a landscape that is effectively the isotropic Fisher model or its extension with a single dominant phenotypic direction. The fit of the resulting alternative distributions is illustrated in an empirical data set. These results bear implications on the validity of Fisher’s model’s assumptions and on which features of mutation fitness effects may vary (or not) across genomic or environmental contexts. PMID:24583582

  10. Integration of different data bodies for humanitarian decision support: an example from mine action.

    PubMed

    Benini, Aldo A; Conley, Charles E; Shdeed, Richard; Spurway, Kim; Yarmoshuk, Mark

    2003-12-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) are increasingly used for integrating data from different sources and substantive areas, including in humanitarian action. The challenges of integration are particularly well illustrated by humanitarian mine action. The informational requirements of mine action are expensive, with socio-economic impact surveys costing over US$1.5 million per country, and are feeding a continuous debate on the merits of considering more factors or 'keeping it simple'. National census offices could, in theory, contribute relevant data, but in practice surveys have rarely overcome institutional obstacles to external data acquisition. A positive exception occurred in Lebanon, where the landmine impact survey had access to agricultural census data. The challenges, costs and benefits of this data integration exercise are analysed in a detailed case study. The benefits are considerable, but so are the costs, particularly the hidden ones. The Lebanon experience prompts some wider reflections. In the humanitarian community, data integration has been fostered not only by the diffusion of GIS technology, but also by institutional changes such as the creation of UN-led Humanitarian Information Centres. There is a question whether the analytic capacity is in step with aggressive data acquisition. Humanitarian action may yet have to build the kind of strong analytic tradition that public health and poverty alleviation have accomplished. PMID:14725088

  11. International humanitarian actors and governments in areas of conflict: challenges, obligations, and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Paul

    2013-10-01

    For too long international humanitarian aid has neglected the primary responsibility of the state to assist and protect its citizens in times of disaster. A focus on the role of the state in contexts where governments are active parties to a conflict and are failing to live up to these responsibilities is difficult and underpins many of the recurring dilemmas of humanitarian action. The fundamental principles of humanitarian action should offer a framework for principled engagement with governments in situations of conflict but too often they are still interpreted as shorthand for ignoring governments. Using principles to inform engagement with both states and other international actors engaged in crises could provide a way forward. However, this would need to be a humanitarian agenda that engages with developing country governments, with non-OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) donors, and with the stabilisation and security agendas of Western governments, and not one that attempts to ring-fence an ever-shrinking isolationist humanitarian space. PMID:23876011

  12. Dividing disasters in Aceh, Indonesia: separatist conflict and tsunami, human rights and humanitarianism.

    PubMed

    Zeccola, Paul

    2011-04-01

    This paper examines the interface between human rights and humanitarian action in the context of the conflict and tsunami in Aceh, Indonesia, between 1998 and 2007. It looks at the challenges international humanitarian non-governmental organisations (NGOs) faced as they engaged in human rights work in the conflict period and in conflict-related activities in the post-tsunami period. The paper argues that many large NGOs may have compromised what some would hold to be essential principles for humanitarian action because of domestic political concerns, donor restrictions and resistance among certain NGO chiefs. In contrast with the pre-tsunami period, in which NGOs worked for years amid military operations, in the post-tsunami period NGOs were decidedly apolitical, neglecting the conflict in their tsunami response--despite significant developments that permitted greater political engagement in Aceh's post-conflict transformation. The evidence suggests that NGOs are challenged in contextualising humanitarian responses and that there is a need to underscore donor flexibility and independence in humanitarian action. PMID:21054497

  13. Insights from GWAS: emerging landscape of mechanisms underlying complex trait disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background There are now over 2000 loci in the human genome where genome wide association studies (GWAS) have found one or more SNPs to be associated with altered risk of a complex trait disease. At each of these loci, there must be some molecular level mechanism relevant to the disease. What are these mechanisms and how do they contribute to disease? Results Here we consider the roles of three primary mechanism classes: changes that directly alter protein function (missense SNPs), changes that alter transcript abundance as a consequence of variants close-by in sequence, and changes that affect splicing. Missense SNPs are divided into those predicted to have a high impact on in vivo protein function, and those with a low impact. Splicing is divided into SNPs with a direct impact on splice sites, and those with a predicted effect on auxiliary splicing signals. The analysis was based on associations found for seven complex trait diseases in the classic Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC1) GWA study and subsequent studies and meta-analyses, collected from the GWAS catalog. Linkage disequilibrium information was used to identify possible candidate SNPs for involvement in disease mechanism in each of the 356 loci associated with these seven diseases. With the parameters used, we find that 76% of loci have at least of these mechanisms. Overall, except for the low incidence of direct impact on splice sites, the mechanisms are found at similar frequencies, with changes in transcript abundance the most common. But the distribution of mechanisms over diseases varies markedly, as does the fraction of loci with assigned mechanisms. Many of the implicated proteins have previously been suggested as relevant, but the specific mechanism assignments are new. In addition, a number of new disease relevant proteins are proposed. Conclusions The high fraction of GWAS loci with proposed mechanisms suggests that these classes of mechanism play a major role. Other mechanism

  14. Early procurement of scarlet macaws and the emergence of social complexity in Chaco Canyon, NM.

    PubMed

    Watson, Adam S; Plog, Stephen; Culleton, Brendan J; Gilman, Patricia A; LeBlanc, Steven A; Whiteley, Peter M; Claramunt, Santiago; Kennett, Douglas J

    2015-07-01

    High-precision accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) (14)C dates of scarlet macaw (Ara macao) skeletal remains provide the first direct evidence from Chaco Canyon in northwestern New Mexico that these Neotropical birds were procured from Mesoamerica by Pueblo people as early as ∼ A.D. 900-975. Chaco was a prominent prehistoric Pueblo center with a dense concentration of multistoried great houses constructed from the 9th through early 12th centuries. At the best known great house of Pueblo Bonito, unusual burial crypts and significant quantities of exotic and symbolically important materials, including scarlet macaws, turquoise, marine shell, and cacao, suggest societal complexity unprecedented elsewhere in the Puebloan world. Scarlet macaws are known markers of social and political status among the Pueblos. New AMS (14)C-dated scarlet macaw remains from Pueblo Bonito demonstrate that these birds were acquired persistently from Mesoamerica between A.D. 900 and 1150. Most of the macaws date before the hypothesized apogeal Chacoan period (A.D. 1040-1110) to which they are commonly attributed. The 10th century acquisition of these birds is consistent with the hypothesis that more formalized status hierarchies developed with significant connections to Mesoamerica before the post-A.D. 1040 architectural florescence in Chaco Canyon. PMID:26100874

  15. Early procurement of scarlet macaws and the emergence of social complexity in Chaco Canyon, NM

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Adam S.; Plog, Stephen; Culleton, Brendan J.; Gilman, Patricia A.; LeBlanc, Steven A.; Whiteley, Peter M.; Claramunt, Santiago; Kennett, Douglas J.

    2015-01-01

    High-precision accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) 14C dates of scarlet macaw (Ara macao) skeletal remains provide the first direct evidence from Chaco Canyon in northwestern New Mexico that these Neotropical birds were procured from Mesoamerica by Pueblo people as early as ∼A.D. 900–975. Chaco was a prominent prehistoric Pueblo center with a dense concentration of multistoried great houses constructed from the 9th through early 12th centuries. At the best known great house of Pueblo Bonito, unusual burial crypts and significant quantities of exotic and symbolically important materials, including scarlet macaws, turquoise, marine shell, and cacao, suggest societal complexity unprecedented elsewhere in the Puebloan world. Scarlet macaws are known markers of social and political status among the Pueblos. New AMS 14C-dated scarlet macaw remains from Pueblo Bonito demonstrate that these birds were acquired persistently from Mesoamerica between A.D. 900 and 1150. Most of the macaws date before the hypothesized apogeal Chacoan period (A.D. 1040–1110) to which they are commonly attributed. The 10th century acquisition of these birds is consistent with the hypothesis that more formalized status hierarchies developed with significant connections to Mesoamerica before the post-A.D. 1040 architectural florescence in Chaco Canyon. PMID:26100874

  16. Holocene Demographic Changes and the Emergence of Complex Societies in Prehistoric Australia.

    PubMed

    Williams, Alan N; Ulm, Sean; Turney, Chris S M; Rohde, David; White, Gentry

    2015-01-01

    A continental-scale model of Holocene Australian hunter-gatherer demography and mobility is generated using radiocarbon data and geospatial techniques. Results show a delayed expansion and settlement of much of Australia following the termination of the late Pleistocene until after 9,000 years ago (or 9ka). The onset of the Holocene climatic optimum (9-6ka) coincides with rapid expansion, growth and establishment of regional populations across ~75% of Australia, including much of the arid zone. This diffusion from isolated Pleistocene refugia provides a mechanism for the synchronous spread of pan-continental archaeological and linguistic attributes at this time (e.g. Pama-Nyungan language, Panaramitee art style, backed artefacts). We argue longer patch residence times were possible at the end of the optimum, resulting in a shift to more sedentary lifestyles and establishment of low-level food production in some parts of the continent. The onset of El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO; 4.5-2ka) restricted low-level food production, and resulted in population fragmentation, abandonment of marginal areas, and reduction in ranging territory of ~26%. Importantly, climate amelioration brought about by more pervasive La Niña conditions (post-2ka), resulted in an intensification of the mobility strategies and technological innovations that were developed in the early- to mid-Holocene. These changes resulted in population expansion and utilization of the entire continent. We propose that it was under these demographically packed conditions that the complex social and religious societies observed at colonial contact were formed. PMID:26083101

  17. Holocene Demographic Changes and the Emergence of Complex Societies in Prehistoric Australia

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Alan N.; Ulm, Sean; Turney, Chris S. M.; Rohde, David; White, Gentry

    2015-01-01

    A continental-scale model of Holocene Australian hunter-gatherer demography and mobility is generated using radiocarbon data and geospatial techniques. Results show a delayed expansion and settlement of much of Australia following the termination of the late Pleistocene until after 9,000 years ago (or 9ka). The onset of the Holocene climatic optimum (9-6ka) coincides with rapid expansion, growth and establishment of regional populations across ~75% of Australia, including much of the arid zone. This diffusion from isolated Pleistocene refugia provides a mechanism for the synchronous spread of pan-continental archaeological and linguistic attributes at this time (e.g. Pama-Nyungan language, Panaramitee art style, backed artefacts). We argue longer patch residence times were possible at the end of the optimum, resulting in a shift to more sedentary lifestyles and establishment of low-level food production in some parts of the continent. The onset of El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO; 4.5-2ka) restricted low-level food production, and resulted in population fragmentation, abandonment of marginal areas, and reduction in ranging territory of ~26%. Importantly, climate amelioration brought about by more pervasive La Niña conditions (post-2ka), resulted in an intensification of the mobility strategies and technological innovations that were developed in the early- to mid-Holocene. These changes resulted in population expansion and utilization of the entire continent. We propose that it was under these demographically packed conditions that the complex social and religious societies observed at colonial contact were formed. PMID:26083101

  18. Humanitarian accountability, bureaucracy, and self-regulation: the view from the archive.

    PubMed

    Roddy, Sarah; Strange, Julie-Marie; Taithe, Bertrand

    2015-10-01

    This paper contains a systematic exploration of local and national archives and sources relevant to charities and humanitarian fund appeals of the late Victorian and Edwardian eras (1870-1912) in Great Britain. It shows that the charitable world and humanitarian work share the same matrix and originate from the same roots, with considerable overlap between fundraising for domestic charity and overseas relief. These campaigns engaged in crucial self-regulatory processes very early on that involved concepts such as formal accountability and the close monitoring of delivery. Far from lagging behind in terms of formal practices of auditing and accounts, charities and humanitarian funds often were in the pioneering group as compared with mainstream businesses of the period. The charitable sector, notably through the Charity Organisation Society in cooperation with the press, developed and delivered accountability and monitoring, while the state and the Charity Commission played a negligible role in this process. PMID:26395108

  19. THE LOSS OF MALAYSIA AIRLINES FLIGHT MH17: A FORENSIC AND HUMANITARIAN TASK.

    PubMed

    Ranson, David

    2015-06-01

    While forensic medical tasks are usually associated with supporting the criminal justice system, there are a range of forensic medical skills that can be brought to bear on addressing humanitarian activities. Disaster victim identification is a procedure that has achieved international standardisation through the work of a multinational Interpol Standing Committee. While part of a police organisation, it includes forensic pathologists, anthropologists, odontologists and molecular biologists who provide most of the specialist scientific input regarding identification that is integrated with police processes such as document examination and fingerprinting. The loss of Malaysian Airlines Flight MH17 represented a major activation of these procedures in an environment that had both humanitarian and forensic criminal investigation components. The information that is derived from the processes involved in disaster victim identification has a value that goes far beyond the determination of identity. It has an important humanitarian role in supporting the family and friends of the victims in their bereavement journey. PMID:26349375

  20. Combining Dedicated Online Training and Apprenticeships in the Field to Assist in Professionalization of Humanitarian Aid Workers: a 2-year Pilot Project for Anesthesia and Intensive Care Residents Working in Resource Constrained and Low-income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Foletti, Marco; Ingrassia, Pier Luigi; Ragazzoni, Luca; Djalali, Ahmadreza; Ripoll Gallardo, Alba; Burkle, Frederick M.; Della Corte, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: As a result of the gaps in humanitarian response highlighted by several reports, the international community called for an increased professionalization of humanitarian aid workers. This paper describes a pilot project by an Italian university and a non-profit, non-governmental organization to implement a medical apprenticeship in low-income countries during Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine residencies. Methods: Before deployment, participants were required to complete a dedicated online training course about safety and security in the field, principles of anesthesia at the district hospital level, emergency and essential surgical care, essentials of medical treatment in resource-constrained environments and psychological support in emergencies. Results: At the end of the program, a qualitative self-evaluation questionnaire administered to participants highlighted how the project allowed the participants to advance their professional skills when working in a low-resource environment, while also mastering their adapting skills and the ability to interact and cooperate with local healthcare personnel. The project also proved to be a means for personal growth, making these experiences a recommendation for all residents as a necessary step for the professionalization of healthcare personnel involved in humanitarian aid. PMID:25642362

  1. 75 FR 26344 - Temporary Exclusion of the Assessment of Overflight Fees for Humanitarian Flights Related to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... Humanitarian Flights Related to the January 12, 2010, Earthquake in Haiti AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Fees for humanitarian flights in response to the earthquake in Haiti. SUMMARY: On January 12, 2010, the nation of Haiti was hit by a devastating earthquake near the heaviest populated part of the country,...

  2. Structural Vulnerability Among Migrating Women and Children Fleeing Central America and Mexico: The Public Health Impact of “Humanitarian Parole”

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Elizabeth Salerno; Valdez, Luis A.; Sabo, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    Since October 2013, US Customs and Border Patrol has apprehended 15,979 families on the Southwest Border of the US. Daily, migrating women and children from Mexico and Central America that qualify for humanitarian parole are released from immigration detention to a humanitarian aid organization in Southern Arizona. After several days in detention facilities, these families arrive tired, hungry, dehydrated, and with minimal direction regarding their final destination, and adherence to the parameters of their parole. Project helping hands (PHHs) utilizes a network of volunteers to provide the women and children with food, water, clothing, hygiene products, hospitality, and legal orientation. The aim of this assessment was to document the experiences of families granted humanitarian parole through the lens of structural vulnerability. Here, we apply qualitative methods to elicit PHH lead volunteer perspectives regarding the migration experience of migrating families. Using inductive analysis, we found six major themes emerged from the qualitative data: reasons for leaving, experience on the journey, dehumanization in detention, family separation, vulnerability, and resiliency. These findings elucidate the different physical and psychological distresses that migrating families from Mexico and Central America experience before, during and after their arrival at the US–Mexico border. We posit that these distresses are a result of, or exacerbated by, structural vulnerability. Structural vulnerability has life-long health implications for a sub-population of young mothers and their children. The number of migrating families who have experienced traumatic events before and during their migration experience continues to expand and thus warrants consideration of mental health surveillance and intervention efforts for these families. More public health research is needed to better understand and combat the health challenges of this growing population. PMID:26157791

  3. Food aid in emergencies: a case for wheat?

    PubMed

    Landman, J

    1999-05-01

    As disasters and conflict increase, a higher proportion of total food aid is given as humanitarian aid. Most food aid is in the form of cereals, primarily wheat. The main donors are the USA and the EU, but there is an increase in the numbers of donors, including non-governmental organizations, buying food rather than using surpluses. Alongside the greater diversity and complexity of food aid, there is more controversy about policy and practice. If disasters are development failures, emergency food aid must be a step in the continuum from relief to rehabilitation. Comparisons of the seventeen countries that were major recipients of food aid (> 10,000 t) in 1997, show diversity in social development, dietary pattern, number of refugees, relative food inadequacy and wasting (i.e. % standard weight-for-height > 2 SD). In the absence of information of consistent quality, what influences the scale of emergency aid is unclear and susceptible to politicization, so that need and supply may not be matched. Local considerations seem to be as important as external food aid for the nutrition of the recipients. Challenges for the future include assuring the nutritional quality of rations to solve deficiency problems. The implications for the professional public health nutritionist working on emergency food provision include continuing professional development to enhance the technical expertise necessary to design appropriate feeds or rations. These public health nutritionists, more than others, require a grounding in social science theories that underpin management, ethics of professionalism and the politics of food aid. PMID:10466177

  4. Occurrence and overlap of natural disasters, complex emergencies and epidemics during the past decade (1995–2004)

    PubMed Central

    Spiegel, Paul B; Le, Phuoc; Ververs, Mija-Tesse; Salama, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Background The fields of expertise of natural disasters and complex emergencies (CEs) are quite distinct, with different tools for mitigation and response as well as different types of competent organizations and qualified professionals who respond. However, natural disasters and CEs can occur concurrently in the same geographic location, and epidemics can occur during or following either event. The occurrence and overlap of these three types of events have not been well studied. Methods All natural disasters, CEs and epidemics occurring within the past decade (1995–2004) that met the inclusion criteria were included. The largest 30 events in each category were based on the total number of deaths recorded. The main databases used were the Emergency Events Database for natural disasters, the Uppsala Conflict Database Program for CEs and the World Health Organization outbreaks archive for epidemics. Analysis During the past decade, 63% of the largest CEs had ≥1 epidemic compared with 23% of the largest natural disasters. Twenty-seven percent of the largest natural disasters occurred in areas with ≥1 ongoing CE while 87% of the largest CEs had ≥1 natural disaster. Conclusion Epidemics commonly occur during CEs. The data presented in this article do not support the often-repeated assertion that epidemics, especially large-scale epidemics, commonly occur following large-scale natural disasters. This observation has important policy and programmatic implications when preparing and responding to epidemics. There is an important and previously unrecognized overlap between natural disasters and CEs. Training and tools are needed to help bridge the gap between the different type of organizations and professionals who respond to natural disasters and CEs to ensure an integrated and coordinated response. PMID:17411460

  5. Complex Controls on Groundwater Quality in Growing Mid-sized Cities: A Case Study Focused on Nitrate and Emerging Contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohr, C. A.; Godsey, S.; Welhan, J. A.; Larson, D. M.; Lohse, K. A.; Finney, B.; Derryberry, D.

    2015-12-01

    Many regions rely on quality groundwater to support urban growth. Groundwater quality often responds in a complex manner to stressors such as land use change, climate change, or policy decisions. Urban growth patterns in mid-sized cities, especially ones that are growing urban centers in water-limited regions in the western US, control and are controlled by water availability and its quality. We present a case study from southeastern Idaho where urban growth over the past 20 years has included significant ex-urban expansion of houses that rely on septic systems rather than city sewer lines for their wastewater treatment. Septic systems are designed to mitigate some contaminants, but not others. In particular, nitrates and emerging contaminants, such as pharmaceuticals, are not removed by most septic systems. Thus, even well-maintained septic systems at sufficiently high densities can impact down gradient water quality. Here we present patterns of nitrate concentrations over the period from 1985-2015 from the Lower Portneuf River Valley in southeastern Idaho. Concentrations vary from 0.03 to 27.09 nitrate-nitrogen mg/L, with average values increasing significantly over the 30 year time period from 3.15 +/- 0.065 to 3.57 +/- 0.43 mg/L. We examine temporal changes in locations of nitrate hotspots, and present pilot data on emerging contaminants of concern. Initial results suggest that high nitrate levels are generally associated with higher septic densities, but that this pattern is influenced by legacy agricultural uses and strongly controlled by underlying aquifer properties. Future work will include more detailed hydrological modeling to predict changes in hotspot locations under potential climate change scenarios.

  6. 31 CFR 560.536 - Humanitarian activities in and around Iraq.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Iraq. (a) A nongovernmental organization specifically licensed pursuant to 31 CFR part 575 or otherwise authorized pursuant to 31 CFR 575.527 to conduct certain humanitarian activities in and around Iraq is... organization pursuant to 31 CFR 575.527 and the terms of its license or registration. This section does...

  7. 31 CFR 560.536 - Humanitarian activities in and around Iraq.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Iraq. (a) A nongovernmental organization specifically licensed pursuant to 31 CFR part 575 or otherwise authorized pursuant to 31 CFR 575.527 to conduct certain humanitarian activities in and around Iraq is... organization pursuant to 31 CFR 575.527 and the terms of its license or registration. This section does...

  8. 31 CFR 560.536 - Humanitarian activities in and around Iraq.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Iraq. (a) A nongovernmental organization specifically licensed pursuant to 31 CFR part 575 or otherwise authorized pursuant to 31 CFR 575.527 to conduct certain humanitarian activities in and around Iraq is... organization pursuant to 31 CFR 575.527 and the terms of its license or registration. This section does...

  9. 31 CFR 538.521 - Registration of nongovernmental organizations for humanitarian or religious activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Applicants for registration numbers must comply with the requirements of § 501.801(c), 31 CFR chapter V. (b... Administration Regulations administered by the U.S. Department of Commerce (15 CFR parts 730-774). ... organizations involved in humanitarian or religious activities in Sudan, authorizing transactions by...

  10. 31 CFR 538.521 - Registration of nongovernmental organizations for humanitarian or religious activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Applicants for registration numbers must comply with the requirements of § 501.801(c), 31 CFR chapter V. (b... Administration Regulations administered by the U.S. Department of Commerce (15 CFR parts 730-774). ... organizations involved in humanitarian or religious activities in Sudan, authorizing transactions by...

  11. 31 CFR 538.521 - Registration of nongovernmental organizations for humanitarian or religious activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Applicants for registration numbers must comply with the requirements of § 501.801(c), 31 CFR chapter V. (b... Administration Regulations administered by the U.S. Department of Commerce (15 CFR parts 730-774). ... organizations involved in humanitarian or religious activities in Sudan, authorizing transactions by...

  12. 31 CFR 538.532 - Humanitarian transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized. 538.532 Section 538.532 Money and Finance: Treasury....532 Humanitarian transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized. The transit or transshipment to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur of goods, technology, or services intended for...

  13. 31 CFR 538.521 - Registration of nongovernmental organizations for humanitarian or religious activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Applicants for registration numbers must comply with the requirements of § 501.801(c), 31 CFR chapter V. (b... Administration Regulations administered by the U.S. Department of Commerce (15 CFR parts 730-774). ... organizations involved in humanitarian or religious activities in Sudan, authorizing transactions by...

  14. Using Contests to Provide Business Students Project-Based Learning in Humanitarian Logistics: PSAid Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özpolat, Koray; Chen, Yuwen; Hales, Doug; Yu, Degan; Yalcin, Mehmet G.

    2014-01-01

    Business students appreciate working on classroom projects that are both enjoyable and useful in preparing them for future careers. Promoting competition among project teams is also used as a method to motivate students. The Humanitarian Logistics Project (HLP) teaches undergraduate students the logistical implications of unsolicited material…

  15. 31 CFR 537.523 - Authorization of nongovernmental organizations to engage in humanitarian or religious activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations administered by the U.S. Department of Commerce (15 CFR parts 730-774). ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authorization of nongovernmental organizations to engage in humanitarian or religious activities. 537.523 Section 537.523 Money and...

  16. 75 FR 51749 - Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance Office of Food for Peace Announcement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance Office of Food for Peace Announcement... Programs by contacting the Office of Food for Peace, U.S. Agency for International Development, RRB...

  17. 75 FR 4526 - Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance; Office of Food for Peace...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance; Office of Food for Peace; Announcement... International Development, RRB 7.06-152, 1300 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20523-7600. Juli...

  18. 15 CFR 740.12 - Gift parcels and humanitarian donations (GFT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Gift parcels and humanitarian donations (GFT). 740.12 Section 740.12 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS LICENSE EXCEPTIONS § 740.12...

  19. 15 CFR 740.12 - Gift parcels and humanitarian donations (GFT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Gift parcels and humanitarian donations (GFT). 740.12 Section 740.12 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS LICENSE EXCEPTIONS § 740.12...

  20. 75 FR 39263 - Guidance for Humanitarian Device Exemption Holders, Institutional Review Boards, Clinical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... their device. In the Federal Register of August 5, 2008 (73 FR 45460), FDA published a 60-day notice... September 30, 2009 (74 FR 50214), but republished a 30-day notice on February 18, 2010 (75 FR 7270), to..., Institutional Review Boards, Clinical Investigators, and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Humanitarian...

  1. Interns at an International, Humanitarian Organization: Career Pathways and Meaning Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Peter C.

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the career shaping experiences and related meaning making processes of 12 interns at The Carter Center, an international, humanitarian organization. Experiences shaping participants' careers were grouped into the following themes--academics and intellectual curiosity; travel abroad; religion; relationships--family,…

  2. A solution from hell: the United States and the rise of humanitarian interventionism, 1991-2003.

    PubMed

    Wertheim, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This article traces the rise of humanitarian interventionist ideas in the US from 1991 to 2003. Until 1997, humanitarian intervention was a relatively limited affair, conceived ad hoc more than systematically, prioritized below multilateralism, aiming to relieve suffering without transforming foreign polities. For this reason, US leaders and citizens scarcely contemplated armed intervention in the Rwandan genocide of 1994: the US 'duty to stop genocide' was a norm still under development. It flourished only in the late 1990s, when humanitarian interventionism, like neoconservatism, became popular in the US establishment and enthusiastic in urging military invasion to remake societies. Now inaction in Rwanda looked outrageous. Stopping the genocide seemed, in retrospect, easily achieved by 5,000 troops, a projection that ignored serious obstacles. On the whole, humanitarian interventionists tended to understate difficulties of halting ethnic conflict, ignore challenges of postconflict reconstruction, discount constraints imposed by public opinion, and override multilateral procedures. These assumptions primed politicians and the public to regard the Iraq war of 2003 as virtuous at best and unworthy of strenuous dissent at worst. The normative commitment to stop mass killing outstripped US or international capabilities—a formula for dashed hopes and dangerous deployments that lives on in the 'responsibility to protect'. PMID:21280380

  3. Motivations, concerns, and expectations of Scandinavian health professionals volunteering for humanitarian assignments.

    PubMed

    Bjerneld, Magdalena; Lindmark, Gunilla; McSpadden, Lucia Ann; Garrett, Martha J

    2006-01-01

    International nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) involved in humanitarian assistance employ millions of volunteers. One of the major challenges for the organizations is the high turnover rate among their personnel. Another is recruiting the right persons. As part of a series of studies investigating factors that affect the recruitment process and the success of assignment, this qualitative study examined health professionals' motivations for volunteering, their various concerns, and their expectations about themselves and the organizations for which they would work. The findings from focus group interviews with potential humanitarian volunteers were considered within the framework of Hertzberg's theory of motivations and Maslow's hierarchy of needs. The study has significant implications for personnel policy and practice in the humanitarian sector. Recruitment officers should have the self-actualized person, as described by Maslow, in mind when interviewing candidates. This perspective would make it easier for them to understand the candidates' thoughts and concerns and would lead to more effective interventions. Program officers should have satisfiers and dissatisfiers, as identified by Herzberg, in mind when planning programs. The probability that personnel will leave humanitarian work is lower if they perceive working conditions as good. PMID:16580984

  4. 15 CFR 740.12 - Gift parcels and humanitarian donations (GFT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Gift parcels and humanitarian donations (GFT). 740.12 Section 740.12 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS LICENSE EXCEPTIONS § 740.12...

  5. Helping Hands: A Cost-Effectiveness Study of a Humanitarian Hand Surgery Mission

    PubMed Central

    Tadisina, Kashyap K.; Chopra, Karan; Tangredi, John; Thomson, J. Grant; Singh, Devinder P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Congenital anomalies and injuries of the hand are often undertreated in low-middle income countries (LMICs). Humanitarian missions to LMICs are commonplace, but few exclusively hand surgery missions have been reported and none have attempted to demonstrate their cost-effectiveness. We present the first study evaluating the cost-effectiveness of a humanitarian hand surgery mission to Honduras as a method of reducing the global burden of surgically treatable disease. Methods. Data were collected from a hand surgery mission to San Pedro Sula, Honduras. Costs were estimated for local and volunteer services. The total burden of disease averted from patients receiving surgical reconstruction was derived using the previously described disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) system. Results. After adjusting for likelihood of disability associated with the diagnosis and likelihood of the surgery's success, DALYs averted totaled 104.6. The total cost for the mission was $45,779 (USD). The cost per DALY averted was calculated to be $437.80 (USD), which is significantly below the accepted threshold of two times the per capita gross national income of Honduras. Conclusions. This hand surgery humanitarian mission trip to Honduras was found to be cost-effective. This model and analysis should help in guiding healthcare professionals to organize future plastic surgery humanitarian missions. PMID:25225616

  6. Challenges and Psychosocial Growth for Older Volunteers Giving Intensive Humanitarian Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piercy, Kathleen W.; Cheek, Cheryl; Teemant, Boyd

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the study: We conducted a qualitative study of 38 mid-late life volunteers in intensive humanitarian service to ascertain the challenges, personal changes, and benefits they experienced from their volunteer activities. Intensive volunteering was defined as service done on a 24-hr a day basis at a location away from home. Design and…

  7. Emergency time: caring in Congo.

    PubMed

    Reading, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Midwifery practice in rural central Africa is full of joys (an abundance of twins, births by candlelight and resilience and stoicism that would leave even the very experienced birth practitioner speechless), but also a lot of challenges (every obstetric emergency in your wildest nightmares and worse) that are compounded by a lack of access to a skilled birth attendant. Women here have a strong culture of traditional practices and remedies, and hospital is often not the first port of call. Caring for women who cannot, themselves, consent to emergency life-saving caesarean sections, is a cultural aspect that we accept and respect as medical professionals working in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). In a busy maternity ward in a low-resource setting, in a hospital supported by emergency humanitarian medical organisation Médecins sans Frontières (MSF), just how are obstetric emergencies managed--and are the outcomes what you would expect? PMID:26975127

  8. New care model targets high-utilizing, complex patients, frees up emergency providers to focus on acute care concerns.

    PubMed

    2013-11-01

    Hennepin County Medical Center in Minneapolis, MN, has developed a new model of care, designed to meet the needs of high-utilizing hospital and ED patients with complex medical, social, and behavioral needs.The Coordinated Care Center (CCC) provides easy access to patients with a history of high utilization, and delivers multidisciplinary care in a one-stop-shop format. In one year, the approach has slashed ED visits by 37%, freeing up emergency providers to focus on patients with acute needs. In-patient care stays are down by 25%. The CCC focuses on patients with diagnoses that are primarily medical, such as CHF [congestive heart failure], COPD [chronic obstructive pulmonary disease], or diabetes. ED-based clinical coordinators keep an eye out for patients who world be good candidates for the CCC, and facilitate quick transitions when their needs would be better served in that setting. Administrators describe CCC as an ambulatory intensive care unit, with an on-site pharmacist, social worker, psychologist, and chemical health counselor as well as physicians, nurse practitioners, LPNs, and patient navigators--enough personnel to comprise two full care teams. While the model does not pay for itself under current payment models, administrators anticipate that the approach will work well under future payment reforms that focus on total cost of care. PMID:24195142

  9. Elastic Frustration Causing Two-Step and Multistep Transitions in Spin-Crossover Solids: Emergence of Complex Antiferroelastic Structures.

    PubMed

    Paez-Espejo, Miguel; Sy, Mouhamadou; Boukheddaden, Kamel

    2016-03-01

    Two-step and multistep spin transitions are frequently observed in switchable cooperative molecular solids. They present the advantage to open the way for three- or several-bit electronics. Despite extensive experimental studies, their theoretical description was to date only phenomenological, based on Ising models including competing ferro- and antiferro-magnetic interactions, even though it is recognized that the elastic interactions are at the heart of the spin transition phenomenon, due to the volume change between the low- and high-temperature phases. To remedy this shortcoming, we designed the first consistent elastic model, taking into account both volume change upon spin transition and elastic frustration. This ingredient was revealed to be powerful, since it was able to obtain all observed experimental configurations in a consistent way. Thus, according to the strength of the elastic frustration, the system may undergo first-order transition with hysteresis, gradual, hysteretic two-step or multistep transitions, and incomplete transitions. Furthermore, the analysis of the spatial organization of the HS and LS species in the plateau regions revealed the emergence of complex antiferro-elastic patterns going from simple antiferro-magnetic-like order to long-range spatial modulations of the high-spin fraction. These results enabled us to identify the elastic frustration as the fundamental mechanism at the origin of the very recent experimental observations showing the existence of organized spatial modulations of the high-spin fraction inside the plateau of two-step spin transitions. PMID:26860531

  10. The Effectiveness of Interventions for Non-Communicable Diseases in Humanitarian Crises: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ruby, Alexander; Knight, Abigail; Perel, Pablo; Blanchet, Karl; Roberts, Bayard

    2015-01-01

    Background Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are of increasing concern in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) affected humanitarian crises. Humanitarian agencies and governments are increasingly challenged with how to effectively tackle NCDs. Reviewing the evidence of interventions for NCDs in humanitarian crises can help guide future policies and research by identifying effective interventions and evidence gaps. The aim of this paper is to systematically review evidence on the effectiveness of interventions targeting NCDs during humanitarian crises in LMICs. Methods A systematic review methodology was followed using PRISMA standards. Studies were selected on NCD interventions with civilian populations affected by humanitarian crises in low- and middle-income countries. Five bibliographic databases and a range of grey literature sources were searched. Descriptive analysis was applied and a quality assessment conducted using the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale for observational studies and the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool for experimental studies. Results The search yielded 4919 references of which 8 studies met inclusion criteria. Seven of the 8 studies were observational, and one study was a non-blinded randomised-controlled trial. Diseases examined included hypertension, heart failure, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, thalassaemia, and arthritis. Study settings included locations in the Middle East, Eastern Europe, and South Asia. Interventions featuring disease-management protocols and/or cohort monitoring demonstrated the strongest evidence of effectiveness. No studies examined intervention costs. The quality of studies was limited, with a reliance on observational study designs, limited use of control groups, biases associated with missing data and inadequate patient-follow-up, and confounding was poorly addressed. Conclusions The review highlights the extremely limited quantity and quality of evidence on this topic. Interventions that

  11. Emergency medicine systems advancement through community-based development.

    PubMed

    Bloem, Martha M; Bloem, Christina M; Rosentsveyg, Juliana; Arquilla, Bonnie

    2014-02-01

    Humanitarian health programs frequently focus on immediate relief and are supply side oriented or donor driven. More emphasis should be placed on long-term development projects that engage local community leaders to ensure sustainable change in health care systems. With the Emergency Medicine Educational Exchange (EMEDEX) International Rescue, Recover, Rebuild initiative in Northeast Haiti as a model, this paper discusses the opportunities and challenges in using community-based development to establish emergency medical systems in resource-limited settings. PMID:24429185

  12. The role of gravity in the evolutionary emergence of multicellular complexity: microgravity effects on arthropod development and aging.

    PubMed

    Marco, R; Diaz, C; Benguria, A; Mateos, J; Mas, J; de Juan, E

    1999-01-01

    While experiments carried out in Space with isolated cells have shown that eucaryotic cells are able to sense and respond to the absence of gravity by modifying their reactions, experiments in which more complex processes have been investigated, such as Biological Systems undergoing development under Microgravity, have been surprisingly unaffected by the space environment. This can be considered a curious result since all organisms are evolutionarily adapted to the current level of the gravity force in our planet and should eventually change if this parameter will vary in a permanent manner. In fact, the small effects of the modifications in gravity on development in short term experiments may be equivalent to the difficulties in detecting the involvement of other basic physical processes such as diffusion-controled auto-organizative reactions in currently developing biological systems. An apparent exception to this lack of effect is experiments where brine shrimp dormant gastrulae directly exposed to the space environment accumulate developmental defects as a consequence of cosmic irradiation. In this article we discuss the idea that at a certain stage during the evolutionary emergence of multicellular organisms the cues laid by generic forces such as gravity were involved in the evolutionary organization of these primitive organisms. As evolution proceed, these early mechanisms may have been obscured and/or made redundant by the appearance of new internal, environment-independent biological regulatory mechanisms. On the other hand, behavioral responses that may be important, for example, in setting the life-spans of organisms may still be more readily susceptible to manipulation by external cues as experiments carried out by our group in Space and on the ground with Drosophila melanogaster indicate. Grant Numbers: ESP-1775. PMID:11712551

  13. The role of gravity in the evolutionary emergence of multicellular complexity: microgravity effects on arthropod development and aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco, R.; Díaz, C.; Benguría, A.; Mateos, J.; Mas, J.; de Juan, E.

    1999-01-01

    While experiments carried out in Space with isolated cells have shown that eucaryotic cells are able to sense and respond to the absence of gravity by modifying their reactions, experiments in which more complex processes have been investigated, such as Biological Systems undergoing development under Microgravity, have been surprisingly unaffected by the space environment. This can be considered a curious result since all organisms are evolutionarily adapted to the current level of the gravity force in our planet and should eventually change if this parameter will vary in a permanent manner. In fact, the small effects of the modifications in gravity on development in short term experiments may be equivalent to the difficulties in detecting the involvement of other basic physical processes such as diffusion-controled auto-organizative reactions in currently developing biological systems. An apparent exception to this lack of effect is experiments where brine shrimp dormant gastrulae directly exposed to the space environment accumulate developmental defects as a consequence of cosmic irradiation. In this article we discuss the idea that at a certain stage during the evolutionary emergence of multicellular organisms the cues laid by generic forces such as gravity were involved in the evolutionary organization of these primitive organisms. As evolution proceed, these early mechanisms may have been obscured and/or made redundant by the appearance of new internal, environment-independent biological regulatory mechanisms. On the other hand, behavioral responses that may be important, for example, in setting the life-spans of organisms may still be more readily susceptible to manipulation by external cues as experiments carried out by our group in Space and on the ground with Drosophila melanogaster indicate.

  14. Using Airborne Remote Sensing to Increase Situational Awareness in Civil Protection and Humanitarian Relief - the Importance of User Involvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Römer, H.; Kiefl, R.; Henkel, F.; Wenxi, C.; Nippold, R.; Kurz, F.; Kippnich, U.

    2016-06-01

    Enhancing situational awareness in real-time (RT) civil protection and emergency response scenarios requires the development of comprehensive monitoring concepts combining classical remote sensing disciplines with geospatial information science. In the VABENE++ project of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) monitoring tools are being developed by which innovative data acquisition approaches are combined with information extraction as well as the generation and dissemination of information products to a specific user. DLR's 3K and 4k camera system which allow for a RT acquisition and pre-processing of high resolution aerial imagery are applied in two application examples conducted with end users: a civil protection exercise with humanitarian relief organisations and a large open-air music festival in cooperation with a festival organising company. This study discusses how airborne remote sensing can significantly contribute to both, situational assessment and awareness, focussing on the downstream processes required for extracting information from imagery and for visualising and disseminating imagery in combination with other geospatial information. Valuable user feedback and impetus for further developments has been obtained from both applications, referring to innovations in thematic image analysis (supporting festival site management) and product dissemination (editable web services). Thus, this study emphasises the important role of user involvement in application-related research, i.e. by aligning it closer to user's requirements.

  15. Leadership within Emergent Events in Complex Systems: Micro-Enactments and the Mechanisms of Organisational Learning and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazy, James K.; Silberstang, Joyce

    2009-01-01

    One tradition within the complexity paradigm considers organisations as complex adaptive systems in which autonomous individuals interact, often in complex ways with difficult to predict, non-linear outcomes. Building upon this tradition, and more specifically following the complex systems leadership theory approach, we describe the ways in which…

  16. Refugee flow or brain-drain? The humanitarian policy and post-Tiananmen mainland Chinese immigration to Canada.

    PubMed

    Liu X-f

    1997-03-01

    "The humanitarian policy that the Canadian government implemented in response to the 1989 Tiananmen Square crackdown changed a migration system primarily based on personal networks into a brain drain. Post-Tiananmen mainland Chinese immigrants (MCIs) were better educated than those arriving in Canada previously. Among the post-Tiananmen MCIs, those who landed under the policy were better educated than those landing in other categories. The analysis suggests that post-Tiananmen MCIs represented a brain-drain rather than a refugee flow, that the humanitarian policy implicitly contained ideological and human capital concerns in addition to humanitarian concerns, and that Canada benefited from the policy by obtaining human capital as well as satisfying its humanitarian obligations and ideological aspirations." PMID:12321147

  17. The humanitarian situation in syria: a snapshot in the third year of the crisis.

    PubMed

    Doocy, Shannon; Delbiso, Tefera D; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2015-01-01

    Between April and June 2014, International Orthodox Christian Charities (IOCC), an International NGO, and the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East (GOPA) conducted a needs assessment of Syrians affected by the crisis with the objective of gaining a better understanding of humanitarian needs and assistance priorities. Findings suggest that interventions that increase access to non-food items, food, medication and education should be prioritized where cost was the primary barrier to accessing goods and services. Cash transfer programs and direct provision of material assistance should be considered, though the most appropriate assistance modality is likely to vary by sector, location and the preferences and prior experience of donors and implementing organizations. Renewed international commitment to funding humanitarian assistance efforts in Syria and neighboring countries where the burden of refugees is greatest is essential from both a human rights perspective and in terms of maintaining stability in the region. PMID:25821647

  18. Humanitarian Medical Response to the Syrian Arab Republic (April 7, 2013 to April 23, 2013).

    PubMed

    Mahomed, Zeyn; Motara, Feroza; Bham, Ahmed

    2016-02-01

    The Syrian Arab Republic is entrenched in a deadly civil war, plunging the country into a state of chaos. With 3.2 million refugees abroad, 7.6 million internally displaced persons, and more than 200,000 killed, humanitarian assistance and international intervention are in dire need. This report outlines the response to the Syrian humanitarian crisis by a South African-based nongovernmental organization (NGO). It describes the experiences of a health care worker, the patient profiles, and the lessons learned in a war zone. Responding to a nation in need is of paramount importance. In order to maximize the benefit conferred, the team should always attempt to implement measures that leave a lasting legacy. PMID:26674667

  19. Human Rights, Humanitarianism, and State Violence: Medical Documentation of Torture in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Can, Başak

    2016-09-01

    State authorities invested in developing official expert discourses and practices to deny torture in post-1980 coup d'état Turkey. Documentation of torture was therefore crucial for the incipient human rights movement there in the 1980s. Human rights physicians used their expertise not only to treat torture victims but also to document torture and eventually found the Human Rights Foundation of Turkey (HRFT) in 1990. Drawing on an ethnographic and archival research at the HRFT, this article examines the genealogy of anti-torture struggles in Turkey and argues that locally mediated intimacies and/or hostilities between victims of state violence, human rights physicians, and official forensics reveal the limitations of certain universal humanitarian and human rights principles. It also shows that locally mediated long-term humanitarian encounters around the question of political violence challenge forensic denial of violence and remake the legitimate levels of state violence. PMID:26435482

  20. Ethnicity, politics and inequality: post-tsunami humanitarian aid delivery in Ampara District, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Amarasiri de Silva, M W

    2009-04-01

    The provision of humanitarian aid at times of disaster in multi-ethnic community settings may lead to conflict, tension and even the widening of the distance between various ethnic groups. That aid agencies distribute humanitarian aid directly to affected communities, to speed up recovery, may often lead to chaos and the intensification of ethnic sentiments. The new distribution mechanisms introduced for the delivery of tsunami aid in Ampara District, Sri Lanka, did not recognise local networks and the culture of the ethnically mixed community setting. This paper analyses post-tsunami aid distribution in Ampara and shows how such an extemporised effort in an ethnically cognisant context increased ethnic division, inequality and disorder, while marginalising the poor segments of the affected population. It recommends the inclusion of local networks in aid dissemination as a measure for improving ethnic neutrality and social harmony in disaster-hit multi-ethnic communities. PMID:18717702

  1. The Humanitarian Situation in Syria: A Snapshot in the Third Year of the Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Doocy, Shannon; Delbiso, Tefera D.; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2015-01-01

    Between April and June 2014, International Orthodox Christian Charities (IOCC), an International NGO, and the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East (GOPA) conducted a needs assessment of Syrians affected by the crisis with the objective of gaining a better understanding of humanitarian needs and assistance priorities. Findings suggest that interventions that increase access to non-food items, food, medication and education should be prioritized where cost was the primary barrier to accessing goods and services. Cash transfer programs and direct provision of material assistance should be considered, though the most appropriate assistance modality is likely to vary by sector, location and the preferences and prior experience of donors and implementing organizations. Renewed international commitment to funding humanitarian assistance efforts in Syria and neighboring countries where the burden of refugees is greatest is essential from both a human rights perspective and in terms of maintaining stability in the region. PMID:25821647

  2. Stabilising a victor's peace? Humanitarian action and reconstruction in eastern Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Goodhand, Jonathan

    2010-10-01

    This paper focuses on the 'Sri Lankan model' of counter-insurgency and stabilisation and its implications for humanitarian and development actors. The Sri Lanka case shows that discourses, policies and practices associated with 'stabilisation' are not confined to 'fragile state' contexts in which there is heavy (and often militarised) international engagement--even though exemplars such as Afghanistan and Iraq have tended to dominate debates on this issue. Rather than being a single template, the 'stabilisation agenda' takes on very different guises in different contexts, presenting quite specific challenges to humanitarian and development actors. This is particularly true in settings like Sri Lanka, where there is a strong state, which seeks to make aid 'coherent' with its own vision of a militarily imposed political settlement. Working in such environments involves navigating a highly-charged domestic political arena, shaped by concerns about sovereignty, nationalism and struggles for legitimacy. PMID:20846349

  3. Does need matter? Needs assessments and decision-making among major humanitarian health agencies.

    PubMed

    Gerdin, Martin; Chataigner, Patrice; Tax, Leonie; Kubai, Anne; von Schreeb, Johan

    2014-07-01

    Disasters of physical origin, including earthquakes, floods, landslides, tidal waves, tropical storms, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions, have affected millions of people globally over the past 100 years. Proportionately, there is far greater likelihood of being affected by such disasters in low-income countries than in high-income countries. Furthermore, low-income countries are in need of international assistance following disasters more often than high-income countries. The funding of international humanitarian assistance has increased from USD 12.9 billion in 2006 to an estimated USD 16.7 billion in 2010. The majority of this funding is channelled through humanitarian agencies and is supposed to be distributed based on the need of those affected, as assessed using needs assessments. Such needs assessments may be used to inform decisions internally, to influence others, to justify response decisions, and to obtain funding. Little is known about the quality of needs assessments in practical applications. Consequently, this paper reports on and analyses the views of operational decision-makers in major health-related humanitarian agencies on needs assessments. PMID:24905705

  4. Trauma and humanitarian translation in Liberia: the tale of open mole.

    PubMed

    Abramowitz, Sharon Alane

    2010-06-01

    The focus of this paper is the intercultural process through which Open Mole and trauma-related mental illnesses are brought together in the postconflict mental health encounter. In this paper, I explore the historical dimension of this process by reviewing the history of Open Mole, and the ways in which it has been interpreted, acted on, and objectified by external observers over the last half-century. Moving into Liberia's recent war and postconflict period, I examine the process by which Open Mole is transformed from a culture-bound disorder into a local idiom of trauma, and how it has become a gateway diagnosis of PTSD-related mental illnesses, and consider how it is produced as an objectified experience of psychiatric disorder in clinical humanitarian contexts. By studying how Open Mole is transformed in the humanitarian encounter, I address the structure and teleology of the humanitarian encounter and challenge some of the foundational assumptions about cultural sensitivity and community-based mental health care in postconflict settings that are prevalent in scholarship and practice today. PMID:20401629

  5. Educational, personal, and cultural attributes of dental students' humanitarian trips to Latin America.

    PubMed

    Bimstein, Enrique; Gardner, Quinton W; Riley, Joseph L; Gibson, Robert W

    2008-12-01

    This article evaluates the educational, personal, and cultural attributes that motivate or inhibit dental students' participation in humanitarian and educational trips to underserved communities in Latin America. Interviews, concentrating on students' expectations and experiences, were conducted with students who participated in the trips and with those who did not. A survey of a larger group of students (including those interviewed) was also conducted; the survey included demographic data, ethnic affiliation, cultural competence, motivators and inhibitors to attend trips, and trip attributes. One hundred and seventy-four students at one dental school completed the survey; the group interviews were conducted with twenty-three students who attended humanitarian and educational trips and nine students who did not. This research found that skill development, educational opportunity, and philanthropy were the most important motivators for trip participation. Cost and time commitments were the strongest inhibitors to participate. Exposure to infectious diseases, substandard working and living conditions, threat of crime, and language barriers were mostly considered as "not important." However, female dental students were more concerned than males about crime, living conditions, and infectious diseases during the trips. Cultural education, increased knowledge, cross-cultural professional relationships, increased self-confidence, and public health awareness were the most important attributes of the trips. This study indicates that the undergraduate humanitarian educational trips to underserved Latin American communities have a most significant personal, professional, and social impact on dental students. PMID:19056629

  6. Perspectives from Ethiopia regarding U.S. military humanitarian assistance: how to build a better medical civil action project (MEDCAP).

    PubMed

    Miles, Shana; Malone, Joseph L

    2013-12-01

    Assuming that budgetary constraints continue over the next several years, the U.S. military's overseas medical activities including medical civic action projects (MEDCAPs) and humanitarian assistance projects could comprise an increasing proportion of the contributions of U.S. government (USG) to improving global health. We have identified several issues with MEDCAPs in Ethiopia since 2009 that resulted in delays or project cancellations. These were mostly related to lack of a plan to develop sustainable capacities. Although there are many obvious medical needs for civilian populations in Ethiopia, the provision of sustainable development assistance involving these Ethiopian populations on behalf of the USG is a complex undertaking involving coordination with many partners and coordination with several other USG agencies. Military medical professionals planning MEDCAPs and other cooperative global health projects would benefit from consultation and close coordination with U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and U.S. Agency of International Development (USAID) experts who are involved in supporting medium- and long-term health projects in Ethiopia. The establishment of durable military medical academic relationships and involvement of overseas military medical research units could also help promote sustainable projects and build robust professional relationships in global health. PMID:24306018

  7. Collaborative Research. Damage and Burst Dynamics in Failure of Complex Geomaterials. A Statistical Physics Approach to Understanding the Complex Emergent Dynamics in Near Mean-Field Geological Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Rundle, John B.; Klein, William

    2015-09-29

    We have carried out research to determine the dynamics of failure in complex geomaterials, specifically focusing on the role of defects, damage and asperities in the catastrophic failure processes (now popularly termed “Black Swan events”). We have examined fracture branching and flow processes using models for invasion percolation, focusing particularly on the dynamics of bursts in the branching process. We have achieved a fundamental understanding of the dynamics of nucleation in complex geomaterials, specifically in the presence of inhomogeneous structures.

  8. Use of low orbital satellite communications systems for humanitarian programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlasov, Vladimir N.; Gorkovoy, Vladimir

    1991-01-01

    Communication and information exchange play a decisive role in progress and social development. However, in many parts of the world the communication infrastructure is inadequate and the capacity for on-line exchange of information may not exist. This is true of underdeveloped countries, remote and relatively inaccessible regions, sites of natural disasters, and of all cases where the resources needed to create complex communication systems are limited. The creation of an inexpensive space communications system to service such areas is therefore a high priority task. In addition to a relatively low-cost space segment, an inexpensive space communications systems requires a large number of ground terminals, which must be relatively inexpensive, energy efficient (using power generated by storage batteries, or solar arrays, etc.), small in size, and must not require highly expert maintenance. The ground terminals must be portable, and readily deployable. Communications satellites in geostationary orbit at altitudes of about 36,000 km are very expensive and require complex and expensive ground stations and launch vehicles. Given current technology, it is categorically impossible to develop inexpensive satellite systems with portable ground terminals using such satellites. To solve the problem of developing an inexpensive satellite communications system that can operate with relatively small ground stations, including portable terminals, we propose to use a system with satellites in low Earth orbit, at an altitude of 900-1500 km. Because low orbital satellites are much closer to the Earth than geostationary ones and require vastly less energy expenditure by the satellite and ground terminals for transmission of messages, a system using them is relatively inexpensive. Such a system could use portable ground terminals no more complex than ordinary mobile police radios.

  9. Emerging patterns in the reconstruction of conflict-affected countries.

    PubMed

    Jacoby, Tim; James, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the five other contributions that make up this special edition of Disasters. It presents some background on the general issues that surround the reconstruction of conflict-affected countries, before going on to comment on some of the more prominent concerns that have emerged within the sphere of humanitarianism over the past decade or so. To contextualise the overall theme of this special edition, it then points to three areas of commonality among the five substantive papers-namely, issues of 'marketisation', 'politicisation', and 'securitisation'. These, this paper proposes, represent emerging patterns in the reconstruction of conflict-affected countries generally. The focus of this special edition thus has a broader resonance and, as such, it might be considered to be representative of wider geopolitical trends. It is, in sum, argued that these three patterns have combined to narrow the space in which humanitarian and reconstructive interventions into conflict-affected countries are organised and undertaken. PMID:19341432

  10. Standardizing Chaos: A Neo-Institutional Analysis of the INEE Minimum Standards for Education in Emergencies, Chronic Crises and Early Reconstruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, Patricia; Andina, Marina

    2010-01-01

    Violent conflict and humanitarian disasters such as floods, famines, or tsunamis, have existed since the start of human history. However, it is only recently that education in these emergency situations has emerged as a visible organizational field. We aim to use a unique theoretical application of sociological neo-institutionalism to explain the…

  11. Learning lessons from field surveys in humanitarian contexts: a case study of field surveys conducted in North Kivu, DRC 2006-2008

    PubMed Central

    Grais, Rebecca F; Luquero, Francisco J; Grellety, Emmanuel; Pham, Heloise; Coghlan, Benjamin; Salignon, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Survey estimates of mortality and malnutrition are commonly used to guide humanitarian decision-making. Currently, different methods of conducting field surveys are the subject of debate among epidemiologists. Beyond the technical arguments, decision makers may find it difficult to conceptualize what the estimates actually mean. For instance, what makes this particular situation an emergency? And how should the operational response be adapted accordingly. This brings into question not only the quality of the survey methodology, but also the difficulties epidemiologists face in interpreting results and selecting the most important information to guide operations. As a case study, we reviewed mortality and nutritional surveys conducted in North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) published from January 2006 to January 2009. We performed a PubMed/Medline search for published articles and scanned publicly available humanitarian databases and clearinghouses for grey literature. To evaluate the surveys, we developed minimum reporting criteria based on available guidelines and selected peer-review articles. We identified 38 reports through our search strategy; three surveys met our inclusion criteria. The surveys varied in methodological quality. Reporting against minimum criteria was generally good, but presentation of ethical procedures, raw data and survey limitations were missed in all surveys. All surveys also failed to consider contextual factors important for data interpretation. From this review, we conclude that mechanisms to ensure sound survey design and conduct must be implemented by operational organisations to improve data quality and reporting. Training in data interpretation would also be useful. Novel survey methods should be trialled and prospective data gathering (surveillance) employed wherever feasible. PMID:19744319

  12. The League of Nations' rescue of Armenian genocide survivors and the making of modern humanitarianism, 1920-1927.

    PubMed

    Watenpaugh, Keith David

    2010-01-01

    The essay centers of the efforts by the League of Nations to rescue women and children survivors of the 1915 Armenian Genocide. This rescue -- a seemingly unambiguous good -- was at once a constitutive act in drawing the boundaries of the international community, a key moment in the definition of humanitarianism, and a site of resistance to the colonial presence in the post-Ottoman Eastern Mediterranean. Drawing from a wide range of source materials in a number of languages, including Turkish, Armenian, and Arabic, the essay brings the intellectual and social context of humanitarianism in initiating societies together with the lived experience of humanitarianism in the places where the act took form. In so doing, it draws our attention to the proper place of the Eastern mediterranean, and its women and children, in the global history of humanitarianism. The prevailing narrative of the history of human rights places much of its emphasis on the post-World War II era, the international reaction to the Holocaust, and the founding of the United Nations. yet contemporary human rights thinking also took place within practices of humanitarianism in the interwar period, and is necessarily inseparable from the histories of refugees, colonialism, and the non-West. PMID:21246885

  13. Emergency reversal of anticoagulation with a three-factor prothrombin complex concentrate in patients with intracranial haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Imberti, Davide; Barillari, Giovanni; Biasioli, Chiara; Bianchi, Marina; Contino, Laura; Duce, Rita; D’Incà, Marco; Gnani, Maria Cristina; Mari, Elisa; Ageno, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Background Intracranial haemorrhage is a serious and potentially fatal complication of oral anticoagulant therapy. Prothrombin complex concentrates can substantially shorten the time needed to reverse the effects of oral anticoagulants. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of a prothrombin complex concentrate for rapid reversal of oral anticoagulant therapy in patients with intracranial haemorrhage. Methods Patients receiving oral anticoagulant therapy and suffering from acute intracranial haemorrhage were eligible for this prospective cohort study if their International Normalised Ratio (INR) was higher than or equal to 2.0. The prothrombin complex concentrate was infused at doses of 35–50 IU/kg, stratified according to the initial INR. Results Forty-six patients (25 males; mean age: 75 years; range 38–92 years) were enrolled. The median INR at presentation was 3.5 (range, 2–9). At 30 minutes after administration of the prothrombin complex concentrate, the median INR was 1.3 (range, 0.9–3), and the INR then declined to less than or equal to 1.5 in 75% of patients. The benefit of the prothrombin complex concentrate was maintained for a long time, since the median INR remained lower than or equal to 1.5 (median, 1.16; range, 0.9–2.2) at 96% of all post-infusion time-points up to 96 hours. No thrombotic complications or significant adverse events were observed during hospitalisation; six patients (13%) died, but none of these deaths was judged to be related to administration of the prothrombin complex concentrate. Conclusions Prothrombin complex concentrates are an effective, rapid and safe treatment for the urgent reversal of oral anticoagulation in patients with intracranial haemorrhage. Broader use of prothrombin complex concentrates in this clinical setting appears to be appropriate. PMID:21251465

  14. Can potentially useful dynamics to solve complex problems emerge from constrained chaos and/or chaotic itinerancy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nara, Shigetoshi

    2003-09-01

    Complex dynamics including chaos in systems with large but finite degrees of freedom are considered from the viewpoint that they would play important roles in complex functioning and controlling of biological systems including the brain, also in complex structure formations in nature. As an example of them, the computer experiments of complex dynamics occurring in a recurrent neural network model are shown. Instabilities, itinerancies, or localization in state space are investigated by means of numerical analysis, for instance by calculating correlation functions between neurons, basin visiting measures of chaotic dynamics, etc. As an example of functional experiments with use of such complex dynamics, we show the results of executing a memory search task which is set in a typical ill-posed context. We call such useful dynamics "constrained chaos," which might be called "chaotic itinerancy" as well. These results indicate that constrained chaos could be potentially useful in complex functioning and controlling for systems with large but finite degrees of freedom typically observed in biological systems and may be such that working in a delicate balance between converging dynamics and diverging dynamics in high dimensional state space depending on given situation, environment and context to be controlled or to be processed.

  15. The Complexity and Challenges of the ICD-9-CM to ICD-10-CM Transition in Emergency Departments

    PubMed Central

    Krive, Jacob; Patel, Mahatkumar; Gehm, Lisa; Mackey, Mark; Kulstad, Erik; Li, Jianrong ‘John’; Lussier, Yves A.; Boyd, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Beginning October 2015, the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) will require medical providers to utilize the vastly expanded ICD-10-CM system. Despite wide availability of information and mapping tools for the next generation of the ICD classification system, some of the challenges associated with transition from ICD-9-CM to ICD-10-CM are not well understood. To quantify the challenges faced by emergency physicians, we analyzed a subset of a 2010 Illinois Medicaid database of emergency department ICD-9-CM codes, seeking to determine the accuracy of existing mapping tools in order to better prepare emergency physicians for the change to the expanded ICD-10-CM system. We found that 27% of 1,830 codes represented convoluted multidirectional mappings. We then analyzed the convoluted transitions and found 8% of total visit encounters (23% of the convoluted transitions) were clinically incorrect. The ambiguity and inaccuracy of these mappings may impact the work flow associated with the translation process and affect the potential mapping between ICD codes and CPT (Current Procedural Codes) codes, which determine physician reimbursement. PMID:25863652

  16. State humanitarian verticalism versus universal health coverage: a century of French international health assistance revisited.

    PubMed

    Atlani-Duault, Laëtitia; Dozon, Jean-Pierre; Wilson, Andrew; Delfraissy, Jean-François; Moatti, Jean-Paul

    2016-05-28

    The French contribution to global public health over the past two centuries has been marked by a fundamental tension between two approaches: State-provided universal free health care and what we propose to call State humanitarian verticalism. Both approaches have historical roots in French colonialism and have led to successes and failures that continue until the present day. In this paper, the second in The Lancet's Series on France, we look at how this tension has evolved. During the French colonial period (1890s to 1950s), the Indigenous Medical Assistance structure was supposed to bring metropolitan France's model of universal and free public health care to the colonies, and French State imperial humanitarianism crystallised in vertical programmes inspired by Louis Pasteur, while vying with early private humanitarian activism in health represented by Albert Schweitzer. From decolonisation to the end of the Cold War (1960-99), French assistance to newly independent states was affected by sans frontièrisme, Health for All, and the AIDS pandemic. Since 2000, France has had an active role in development of global health initiatives and favoured multilateral action for health assistance. Today, with adoption of the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals and the challenges of non-communicable diseases, economic inequality, and climate change, French international health assistance needs new direction. In the context of current debate over global health as a universal goal, understanding and acknowledging France's history could help strengthen advocacy in favour of universal health coverage and contribute to advancing global equity through income redistribution, from healthy populations to people who are sick and from wealthy individuals to those who are poor. PMID:27145710

  17. Employing moderate resolution sensors in human rights and international humanitarian law monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Andrew J.

    Organizations concerned with human rights are increasingly using remote sensing as a tool to improve their detection of human rights and international humanitarian law violations. However, as these organizations have transitioned to human rights monitoring campaigns conducted over large regions and extended periods of time, current methods of using fine- resolution sensors and manpower-intensive analyses have become cost- prohibitive. To support the continued growth of remote sensing in human rights and international humanitarian law monitoring campaigns, this study researches how moderate resolution land observatories can provide complementary data to operational human rights monitoring efforts. This study demonstrates the capacity of moderate resolutions to provide data to monitoring efforts by developing an approach that uses Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) as part of a system for the detection of village destruction in Darfur, Sudan. Village destruction is an indicator of a human rights or international humanitarian law violations in Darfur during the 2004 study period. This analysis approach capitalizes on Landsat's historical archive and systematic observations by constructing a historic spectral baseline for each village in the study area that supports automated detection of a potentially destroyed village with each new overpass of the sensor. Using Landsat's near-infrared band, the approach demonstrates high levels of accuracy when compared with a U.S. government database documenting destroyed villages. This approach is then applied to the Darfur conflict from 2002 to 2008, providing new data on when and where villages were destroyed in this widespread and long-lasting conflict. This application to the duration of a real-world conflict illustrates the abilities and shortcomings of moderate resolution sensors in human rights monitoring efforts. This study demonstrates that moderate resolution satellites have the capacity to contribute

  18. Evaluations of reproductive health programs in humanitarian settings: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Provision of reproductive health (RH) services is a minimum standard of health care in humanitarian settings; however access to these services is often limited. This systematic review, one component of a global evaluation of RH in humanitarian settings, sought to explore the evidence regarding RH services provided in humanitarian settings and to determine if programs are being evaluated. In addition, the review explored which RH services receive more attention based on program evaluations and descriptive data. Peer-reviewed papers published between 2004 and 2013 were identified via the Ovid MEDLINE database, followed by a PubMed search. Papers on quantitative evaluations of RH programs, including experimental and non-experimental designs that reported outcome data, implemented in conflict and natural disaster settings, were included. Of 5,669 papers identified in the initial search, 36 papers describing 30 programs met inclusion criteria. Twenty-five papers described programs in sub-Saharan Africa, six in Asia, two in Haiti and three reported data from multiple countries. Some RH technical areas were better represented than others: seven papers reported on maternal and newborn health (including two that also covered family planning), six on family planning, three on sexual violence, 20 on HIV and other sexually transmitted infections and two on general RH topics. In comparison to the program evaluation papers identified, three times as many papers were found that reported RH descriptive or prevalence data in humanitarian settings. While data demonstrating the magnitude of the problem are crucial and were previously lacking, the need for RH services and for evaluations to measure their effectiveness is clear. Program evaluation and implementation science should be incorporated into more programs to determine the best ways to serve the RH needs of people affected by conflict or natural disaster. Standard program design should include rigorous program evaluation, and

  19. Mobile computing in the humanitarian assistance setting: an introduction and some first steps.

    PubMed

    Selanikio, Joel D; Kemmer, Teresa M; Bovill, Maria; Geisler, Karen

    2002-04-01

    We developed a Palm operating system-based handheld computer system for admin istering nutrition questionnaires and used it to gather nutritional information among the Burmese refugees in the Mae La refugee camp on the Thai-Burma border Our experience demonstrated that such technology can be easily adapted for such an austere setting and used to great advantage. Further, the technology showed tremendous potential to reduce both time required and errors commonly encountered when field staff collect information in the humanitarian setting. We also identified several areas needing further development. PMID:11993568

  20. Reconsidering the emergence of social complexity in early Saharan pastoral societies, 5000 – 2500 B.C.

    PubMed Central

    Brass, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Summary Debates on the subject of cultural complexity and its material manifestations are situated at the centre of research on prehistoric pastoralism in North Africa. Employing already published databases, this article integrates raw data from archaeological sites across the Sahara with ethnography to generate a framework of analysis in which changes in material culture can be interpreted. It attempts to establish a relationship between the analysis of human and cattle remains in order to study (a) the relations between modes of interment of animals and of humans, and social changes, and (b) the processes responsible for the appearance of a symbolism of power in the mid- and late Holocene funerary rituals. Their integration with landscape systems results in a conclusion of complex patterns of cultural diversity which question previous dismissals of early Saharan pastoral-is is as the progenitors of social complexity. PMID:24089595

  1. Short-term emergency response planning and risk assessment via an integrated modeling system for nuclear power plants in complex terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Weng, Yu-Chi

    2013-03-01

    Short-term predictions of potential impacts from accidental release of various radionuclides at nuclear power plants are acutely needed, especially after the Fukushima accident in Japan. An integrated modeling system that provides expert services to assess the consequences of accidental or intentional releases of radioactive materials to the atmosphere has received wide attention. These scenarios can be initiated either by accident due to human, software, or mechanical failures, or from intentional acts such as sabotage and radiological dispersal devices. Stringent action might be required just minutes after the occurrence of accidental or intentional release. To fulfill the basic functions of emergency preparedness and response systems, previous studies seldom consider the suitability of air pollutant dispersion models or the connectivity between source term, dispersion, and exposure assessment models in a holistic context for decision support. Therefore, the Gaussian plume and puff models, which are only suitable for illustrating neutral air pollutants in flat terrain conditional to limited meteorological situations, are frequently used to predict the impact from accidental release of industrial sources. In situations with complex terrain or special meteorological conditions, the proposing emergency response actions might be questionable and even intractable to decisionmakers responsible for maintaining public health and environmental quality. This study is a preliminary effort to integrate the source term, dispersion, and exposure assessment models into a Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) to tackle the complex issues for short-term emergency response planning and risk assessment at nuclear power plants. Through a series model screening procedures, we found that the diagnostic (objective) wind field model with the aid of sufficient on-site meteorological monitoring data was the most applicable model to promptly address the trend of local wind field patterns

  2. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 740 - Items That May Be Donated To Meet Basic Human Needs Under the Humanitarian License Exception

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS LICENSE EXCEPTIONS Pt. 740, Supp. 2 Supplement No. 2 to Part 740—Items That May Be Donated To Meet Basic Human Needs Under the Humanitarian... Basic Human Needs Under the Humanitarian License Exception No. Supplement No. 2 to Part 740 Commerce...

  3. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 740 - Items That May Be Donated To Meet Basic Human Needs Under the Humanitarian License Exception

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS LICENSE EXCEPTIONS Pt. 740, Supp. 2 Supplement No. 2 to Part 740—Items That May Be Donated To Meet Basic Human Needs Under the Humanitarian... Basic Human Needs Under the Humanitarian License Exception No. Supplement No. 2 to Part 740 Commerce...

  4. Evidence on the Effectiveness of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) Interventions on Health Outcomes in Humanitarian Crises: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Anita; Blanchet, Karl; Ensink, Jeroen H. J.; Roberts, Bayard

    2015-01-01

    Background Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions are amongst the most crucial in humanitarian crises, although the impact of the different WASH interventions on health outcomes remains unclear. Aim To examine the quantity and quality of evidence on WASH interventions on health outcomes in humanitarian crises, as well as evaluate current evidence on their effectiveness against health outcomes in these contexts. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted of primary and grey quantitative literature on WASH interventions measured against health outcomes in humanitarian crises occurring from 1980–2014. Populations of interest were those in resident in humanitarian settings, with a focus on acute crisis and early recovery stages of humanitarian crises in low and middle-income countries. Interventions of interest were WASH-related, while outcomes of interest were health-related. Study quality was assessed via STROBE/CONSORT criteria. Results were analyzed descriptively, and PRISMA reporting was followed. Results Of 3963 studies initially retrieved, only 6 published studies measured a statistically significant change in health outcome as a result of a WASH intervention. All 6 studies employed point-of-use (POU) water quality interventions, with 50% using safe water storage (SWS) and 35% using household water treatment (HWT). All 6 studies used self-reported diarrhea outcomes, 2 studies also reported laboratory confirmed outcomes, and 2 studies reported health treatment outcomes (e.g. clinical admissions). 1 study measured WASH intervention success in relation to both health and water quality outcomes; 1 study recorded uptake (use of soap) as well as health outcomes. 2 studies were unblinded randomized-controlled trials, while 4 were uncontrolled longitudinal studies. 2 studies were graded as providing high quality evidence; 3 studies provided moderate and 1 study low quality evidence. Conclusion The current evidence base on the impact of WASH

  5. Harnessing complex emergent metaphors for effective communication in palliative care: a multimodal perceptual analysis of hospice patients' reports of transcendence experiences.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Bruce L; Lloyd, Linda S

    2014-05-01

    Terminally ill patients can have unexpected, enigmatic, and profound cognitive shifts that significantly alter their perception of themselves, thereby eliminating their fear of death and dying. However, there are no systematic studies into these remarkable yet ineffable transcendence experiences. They therefore remain easily overlooked or viewed as isolated anomalies and therefore excluded from quality-of-life patient considerations. We use a multimodal methodology for identifying the prevalence and thematic properties of complex emergent metaphors patients use to report these experiences. Although previous research has pioneered the importance of understanding conventional or primary metaphors at the end of life, our findings indicate the considerable potential of more complex metaphors for reducing barriers to effective communication in palliative care. PMID:23713131

  6. Can we better use existing and emerging computing hardware to embed activity coefficient predictions in complex atmospheric aerosol models?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topping, David; Alibay, Irfan; Ruske, Simon; Hindriksen, Vincent; Noisternig, Michael

    2016-04-01

    To predict the evolving concentration, chemical composition and ability of aerosol particles to act as cloud droplets, we rely on numerical modeling. Mechanistic models attempt to account for the movement of compounds between the gaseous and condensed phases at a molecular level. This 'bottom up' approach is designed to increase our fundamental understanding. However, such models rely on predicting the properties of molecules and subsequent mixtures. For partitioning between the gaseous and condensed phases this includes: saturation vapour pressures; Henrys law coefficients; activity coefficients; diffusion coefficients and reaction rates. Current gas phase chemical mechanisms predict the existence of potentially millions of individual species. Within a dynamic ensemble model, this can often be used as justification for neglecting computationally expensive process descriptions. Indeed, on whether we can quantify the true sensitivity to uncertainties in molecular properties, even at the single aerosol particle level it has been impossible to embed fully coupled representations of process level knowledge with all possible compounds, typically relying on heavily parameterised descriptions. Relying on emerging numerical frameworks, and designed for the changing landscape of high-performance computing (HPC), in this study we show that comprehensive microphysical models from single particle to larger scales can be developed to encompass a complete state-of-the-art knowledge of aerosol chemical and process diversity. We focus specifically on the ability to capture activity coefficients in liquid solutions using the UNIFAC method, profiling traditional coding strategies and those that exploit emerging hardware.

  7. "Hypothesis for the Modern RNA World": A pervasive Non-coding RNA-Based Genetic Regulation is a Prerequisite for the Emergence of Multicellular Complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozada-Chávez, Irma; Stadler, Peter F.; Prohaska, Sonja J.

    2011-12-01

    The transitions to multicellularity mark the most pivotal and distinctive events in life's history on Earth. Although several transitions to "simple" multicellularity (SM) have been recorded in both bacterial and eukaryotic clades, transitions to complex multicellularity (CM) have only happened a few times in eukaryotes. A large number of cell types (associated with large body size), increased energy consumption per gene expressed, and an increment of non-protein-coding DNA positively correlate with CM. These three factors can indeed be understood as the causes and consequences of the regulation of gene expression. Here, we discuss how a vast expansion of non-protein-coding RNA (ncRNAs) regulators rather than large numbers of novel protein regulators can easily contribute to the emergence of CM. We also propose that the evolutionary advantage of RNA-based gene regulation derives from the robustness of the RNA structure that makes it easy to combine genetic drift with functional exploration. We describe a model which aims to explain how the evolutionary dynamic of ncRNAs becomes dominated by the accessibility of advantageous mutations to innovate regulation in complex multicellular organisms. The information and models discussed here outline the hypothesis that pervasive ncRNA-based regulatory systems, only capable of being expanded and explored in higher eukaryotes, are prerequisite to complex multicellularity. Thereby, regulatory RNA molecules in Eukarya have allowed intensification of morphological complexity by stabilizing critical phenotypes and controlling developmental precision. Although the origin of RNA on early Earth is still controversial, it is becoming clear that once RNA emerged into a protocellular system, its relevance within the evolution of biological systems has been greater than we previously thought.

  8. Fluid technologies: The Bush Pump, the LifeStraw and microworlds of humanitarian design.

    PubMed

    Redfield, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Over the past decade, many ingenious, small-scale gadgets have appeared in response to problems of disaster and extreme poverty. Focusing on the LifeStraw, a water filtration device invented by the company Vestergaard Frandsen, I situate this wave of humanitarian design relative to Marianne de Laet and Annemarie Mol's classic article on the Zimbabwe Bush Pump. The LifeStraw shares the Bush Pump's principle of technical minimalism, as well as its ethical desire to improve the lives of communities. Unlike the pump, however, the straw defines itself through rather than against market logic, accepting the premise that one can 'do well while doing good'. Moreover, it does not share the assumed framework of de Laet and Mol's Zimbabwean socio-technical landscape: a postcolonial state happily en route to national self-definition. Nonetheless, it clearly embodies moral affect, if in the idiom of humanitarian concern rather than development. My aim is to open up three interrelated lines of inquiry for discussion. First, I consider aspects of a postcolonial condition at the micro-level of immediate needs, including assumptions about nation-state politics and markets. Second, I emphasize science and technology in the form of infrastructure, the material frontline of norms. Third, I return reflexively to love, and the complicated allure of engagement in academic work. PMID:27263235

  9. The impact of humanitarian context conditions and individual characteristics on aid worker retention.

    PubMed

    Korff, Valeska P; Balbo, Nicoletta; Mills, Melinda; Heyse, Liesbet; Wittek, Rafael

    2015-07-01

    High employee turnover rates constitute a major challenge to effective aid provision. This study examines how features of humanitarian work and aid workers' individual characteristics affect retention within one humanitarian organisation, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) Holland. The study extends existing research by providing new theoretical explanations of employment opportunities and constraints and by engaging in the first large-scale quantitative analysis of aid worker retention. Using a database of field staff (N=1,955), a logistic regression is performed of the likelihood of reenlistment after a first mission. The findings demonstrate that only 40 per cent of employees reenlist for a second mission with MSF Holland, and that workplace location and security situation, age, and gender have no significant effect. Individuals are less likely to reenlist if they returned early from the first mission for a personal reason, are in a relationship, are medical doctors, or if they come from highly developed countries. The paper reflects on the findings in the light of policy. PMID:25581498

  10. [Ebola: the unexpected emerging disease].

    PubMed

    Vetter, P; Schibler, M; Dayer, J A; Kaiser, L

    2015-04-15

    In one year, Ebola virus disease has already been responsible of around 10000 deaths. 24 patients have been medically evacuated in different University Hospitals in Europe or in the United States. One medical doctor, infected during a humanitarian mission in the field has been treated in Geneva at the end of 2014. This review aims to summarize the epidemiology of the current outbreak, to describe the main virological and clinical characteristics of Ebola virus disease, and to address the most important experimental treatments available. Although the number of cases has fallen the last two months, the outbreak is not over. A safe and proctective vaccine is still needed in the race to fight this emerging viral disease. PMID:26050306

  11. Ethical dilemmas in medical humanitarian practice: cases for reflection from Médecins Sans Frontières.

    PubMed

    Sheather, Julian; Shah, Tejshri

    2011-03-01

    Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) is an independent medical humanitarian organisation working in over 70 countries. It has provided medical assistance for over 35 years to populations vulnerable through conflict, disease and inadequate health systems. Medical ethics define the starting point of the relationship between medical staff and patients. The ethics of humanitarian interventions and of research in conflict settings are much debated. However, less is known about the ethical dilemmas faced by medical humanitarian staff in their daily work. Ethical dilemmas can be intensified in humanitarian contexts by insecure environments, lack of optimum care, language barriers, potentially heightened power discrepancies between care providers and patients, differing cultural values and perceptions of patients, communities and medical staff. Time constraints, stressful conditions and lack of familiarity with ethical frameworks can prevent reflection on these dilemmas, as can frustration that such reflection does not necessarily provide instant solutions. Lack of reflection, however, can be distressing for medical practitioners and can reduce the quality of care. Ethical reflection has a central role in MSF, and the organisation uses ethical frameworks to help with clinical and programmatic decisions as well as in deliberations over operational research. We illustrate and discuss some real ethical dilemmas facing MSF teams. Only by sharing and seeking guidance can MSF and similar actors make more thoughtful and appropriate decisions. Our aim in sharing these cases is to invite discussion and dialogue in the wider medical community working in crisis, conflict or with severe resource limitations. PMID:21084354

  12. Evidence for cultivar adoption and emerging complexity during the mid-Holocene in the La Plata basin.

    PubMed

    Iriarte, José; Holst, Irene; Marozzi, Oscar; Listopad, Claudia; Alonso, Eduardo; Rinderknecht, Andrés; Montaña, Juan

    2004-12-01

    Multidisciplinary investigations at the Los Ajos archaeological mound complex in the wetlands of southeastern Uruguay challenge the traditional view that the La Plata basin was inhabited by simple groups of hunters and gatherers for much of the pre-Hispanic era. Here we report new archaeological, palaeoecological and botanical data indicating that during an increasingly drier mid-Holocene, at around 4,190 radiocarbon (14C) years before present (bp), Los Ajos became a permanent circular plaza village, and its inhabitants adopted the earliest cultivars known in southern South America. The architectural plan of Los Ajos during the following Ceramic Mound Period (around 3,000-500 14C yr bp) is similar to, but earlier than, settlement patterns demonstrated in Amazonia, revealing a new and independent architectural tradition for South America. PMID:15577908

  13. Lung Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergencies Cardiac Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Lung Emergencies People with Marfan syndrome can be at ... should be considered an emergency. Symptoms of sudden lung collapse (pneumothorax) Symptoms of a sudden lung collapse ...

  14. El Niño-Flood Predictability for Early Humanitarian Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emerton, Rebecca; Stephens, Liz; Cloke, Hannah; Woolnough, Steve; Zsoter, Ervin

    2016-04-01

    El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), a mode of variability which sees anomalously high or low sea surface temperatures in the Pacific, is known to have a significant impact on both hydrology and meteorology across the globe. One significant influence is that of El Niño, the warm phase of ENSO, on flooding in the Piura region of Peru. The anticipation and forecasting of floods is crucial for flood preparedness, and the link between El Niño and flooding in Peru, alongside the predictive skill of El Niño up to seasons ahead, may provide an early indication of upcoming severe flood events. The Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS) has been used to create the first 110-year global reanalysis dataset of river discharge, using the ECMWF ERA-20C atmospheric reanalysis. These datasets are being used to analyse the predictability of flood events in Peru in relation to ENSO, using both hydrological and meteorological approaches; with the aim of providing early indicators of potential flood events and thresholds for early humanitarian action in the region. In particular, this research also aims to determine the causes of the most extreme flood events, such as those observed in 1982/83 and 1997/98, through investigation of the changes in atmospheric circulation during these events. Forecast-based Financing (FbF) is an initiative of the German Red Cross, for disbursing humanitarian funding as soon as a forecast threshold is crossed, prior to a severe event. Collaboration with the Peruvian Red Cross and SENAHMI during 2015 led to the use of such research to define thresholds for action in Piura during an El Niño, as part of an FbF pilot study. We will present here the link between El Niño and flooding, with a focus on the Piura region of Peru, and how this El Niño-flood predictability may be used for flood preparedness and early humanitarian action in regions across the globe.

  15. Geoscientists Without Borders: a new SEG Foundation program sponsoring humanitarian applications of geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beasley, C. J.

    2008-12-01

    Despite the depth of knowledge and technology in the geosciences today, it is unfortunate that direct impact from the geosciences on improving the lives of the world's underserved people still is lacking - particularly in the case of the geoscientists and technology residing in the energy sector. This somewhat abstract concept took on real meaning when, as President of the Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) in 2004 - 2005, I was accountable for the response of the SEG to the terrible 2004 Tsunami. This event proved to be a catalyst and as a result of the continuing efforts of many, at the beginning of 2008, the SEG Foundation accepted a 1,000,000 donation from Schlumberger to found Geoscientists without Borders. This program will make grants on the order of 100,000 per year over the next five years for projects involving humanitarian applications of geophysics. The distinguishing characteristics of this program are that proposed projects must involve the application of geophysics to humanitarian needs and must include geoscience students and institutions in a significant way. Thus, the program seeks not only to accomplish significant humanitarian goals, but also to plant seeds for the future by involving next-generation scientists in worthy causes and to foster communications on this topic among all geoscientists. Moreover, cultural and other types of diversity are highly valued. In this talk I will illustrate the issues involved in developing such a program and discuss ways in which it could be strengthened by collaboration. Already, the program has made two project awards and has received more worthwhile proposals than can be funded at this time. Although it is early days, I will discuss briefly the funded projects as an indication of what can happen in a very short time period. We hope and expect that by demonstrating the value of this program with early successes, it will attract significant funding to continue beyond its initial five year funding, with

  16. Agent-based spin model for financial markets on complex networks: Emergence of two-phase phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yup; Kim, Hong-Joo; Yook, Soon-Hyung

    2008-09-01

    We study a microscopic model for financial markets on complex networks, motivated by the dynamics of agents and their structure of interaction. The model consists of interacting agents (spins) with local ferromagnetic coupling and global antiferromagnetic coupling. In order to incorporate more realistic situations, we also introduce an external field which changes in time. From numerical simulations, we find that the model shows two-phase phenomena. When the local ferromagnetic interaction is balanced with the global antiferromagnetic interaction, the resulting return distribution satisfies a power law having a single peak at zero values of return, which corresponds to the market equilibrium phase. On the other hand, if local ferromagnetic interaction is dominant, then the return distribution becomes double peaked at nonzero values of return, which characterizes the out-of-equilibrium phase. On random networks, the crossover between two phases comes from the competition between two different interactions. However, on scale-free networks, not only the competition between the different interactions but also the heterogeneity of underlying topology causes the two-phase phenomena. Possible relationships between the critical phenomena of spin system and the two-phase phenomena are discussed.

  17. Variable-Selection Emerges on Top in Empirical Comparison of Whole-Genome Complex-Trait Prediction Methods

    PubMed Central

    Haws, David C.; Rish, Irina; Teyssedre, Simon; He, Dan; Lozano, Aurelie C.; Kambadur, Prabhanjan; Karaman, Zivan; Parida, Laxmi

    2015-01-01

    Accurate prediction of complex traits based on whole-genome data is a computational problem of paramount importance, particularly to plant and animal breeders. However, the number of genetic markers is typically orders of magnitude larger than the number of samples (p >> n), amongst other challenges. We assessed the effectiveness of a diverse set of state-of-the-art methods on publicly accessible real data. The most surprising finding was that approaches with feature selection performed better than others on average, in contrast to the expectation in the community that variable selection is mostly ineffective, i.e. that it does not improve accuracy of prediction, in spite of p >> n. We observed superior performance despite a somewhat simplistic approach to variable selection, possibly suggesting an inherent robustness. This bodes well in general since the variable selection methods usually improve interpretability without loss of prediction power. Apart from identifying a set of benchmark data sets (including one simulated data), we also discuss the performance analysis for each data set in terms of the input characteristics. PMID:26439851

  18. Factors influencing hospital admissions and emergency department visits among children with complex chronic conditions: a qualitative study of parents' and providers' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Shannon M; Newman, Susan D; Hester, William H; Magwood, Gayenell S; Mueller, Martina; Laken, Marilyn A

    2014-03-01

    Children with complex chronic conditions (CCC) have greater health care needs and use rates than children in general. Elevated health care use includes more frequent hospital admissions, longer hospital stays, and greater health care expenses. Prior studies have examined population characteristics associated with increased hospital admissions, emergency department (ED) use, and general healthcare use, yet few studies have investigated these events from the parents' or health care providers' point of view. The purpose of this study was to explore parents/caregivers' and health care providers' perceptions of the factors placing infants and young children with CCC at risk for or protecting them against hospital admissions and ED visits. Parents or primary caregivers participated in interviews, and health care providers in pediatric acute care, pediatric primary care, and emergency care participated in focus groups. Interview and focus group data were analyzed using directed content analysis and an ecological risk and protective factors model. The analysis revealed that parents/caregivers and health care providers described risk factors and protective factors on multiple ecological levels surrounding the child with CCC. This article presents these findings, which add to current knowledge of factors influencing hospital admissions and ED visits and may be used to inform interventions addressing high health care utilization in this population. This article concludes with the implications of the findings for future research and nursing practice. PMID:24423943

  19. The humanitarian and scientific interests of Thomas Hodgkin (1798-1866), discoverer of a disease.

    PubMed

    Dubovsky, H

    1996-05-01

    Thomas Hodgkin is generally famous for the discovery of a lymphoma in 1837, but not for his remarkable relationship as physician and friend with the philanthropist, Sir Moses Montefiore (1784-1885), and their six shared journeys to Europe, the Near East and North Africa to alleviate the plight of religious and ethnic minorities. Also less well known are Hodgkin's humanitarian activities, inspired by his being a Quaker: his assistance of freed slaves, and his involvement in the movement for the abolition of capital punishment and in mental hospital and prison reform. His wide range of scientific interests included medical education, geography, ethnology and social anthropology. He is buried in Jaffa, Israel, where he died of dysentery while on a trip with Montefiore. PMID:8711558

  20. Mandated to fail? Humanitarian agencies and the protection of Palestinian children.

    PubMed

    Hart, Jason; Forte, Claudia Lo

    2013-10-01

    This paper considers the efforts of United Nations and international agencies to address the threats to Palestinian children arising from Israeli occupation. It contains an account of the reasons why agencies have failed, over many years, to prevent systematic violations by the Israeli authorities and settlers. The discussion is organised around two inter-related domains: institutional and political. The paper argues that, in the occupied Palestinian territory (oPt), limitations to the ways in which child protection has been conceptualised and pursued in practice are abundantly evident. Nevertheless, political pressure by Western donor governments serves to constrain an approach to child protection that is more preventative in nature, that addresses more explicitly Israeli violations of international law, and that reflects the experience and aspirations of Palestinian children themselves. Ultimately, therefore, the failure to protect Palestinian children must be seen not only as a result of humanitarian miscalculation but also as a consequence of political strategy. PMID:24007521

  1. Addressing symptoms but not causes: stabilisation and humanitarian action in Timor-Leste.

    PubMed

    Lothe, Elisabeth; Peake, Gordon

    2010-10-01

    Asia's newest nation--Timor-Leste--has an unenviable track record of two Australian-led military stabilisation missions, five United Nations (UN) missions, and a vast humanitarian and international response over the course of the past decade. Two distinct approaches to stabilisation can be observed on this small half-island. The first is a 'security-first' approach, where development activities are complementary and serve to support security sector assistance, while the second emphasises traditional development activities and institution-building as the foundation for a stable country. Whereas these different approaches highlight various interpretations of the underlying problems and the task at hand, efforts aimed at stabilisation have crystallised the challenges of coordinating and integrating activities that are clearly interlinked and interdependent, whether within a UN integrated mission or implemented by bilateral actors. Consequently, the question of whether, or how, to measure progress towards this shared objective has gone largely unaddressed. PMID:20846353

  2. Too complicated for the field? Measuring quality of care in humanitarian aid settings

    PubMed Central

    Kersten, Roland; Bosse, Götz; Dörner, Frank; Slavuckij, Andrej; Fernandez, Gustavo; Marx, Michael

    2013-01-01

    While quality of care is a major concern in the western world, not many studies investigate this topic in low-income countries. Even less is known about the quality of care in humanitarian aid settings, where additional challenges from natural or manmade disasters contribute to additional challenges. This study tried to address this gap by introducing a new approach to systematically measure quality of care in a project of Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in Agok area, between South Sudan and Sudan. Our objective was to obtain a valid snapshot of quality of care for a MSF project in three weeks that has the potential to serve as a baseline for quality improvement strategies. The evaluation followed a cross-sectional study design to assess structural, process and outcome quality according to Donabedian's criteria of quality of care. A bundle of well-established methods for collection of quantitative and qualitative data was used to assess the project by following a triangulated mixed-methods approach. Mean structural quality scored 73% of expected performance level and mean process quality 59%. The overall mortality rate for the hospital was 3.6%. On average, less complicated cases got a better level of care than patients who were seriously ill. Significant motivational issues were discovered in staff interviews potentially affecting quality of care. The tool appeared to be quick, feasible and effective in judging quality of care in the selected project. To tap the whole potential of the approach a re-evaluation should be carried out to assess the effectiveness of implemented improvement strategies in Agok. To confirm the usefulness of the approach, more studies are needed covering the variety of different humanitarian aid settings. PMID:23683715

  3. Militarized humanitarianism meets carceral feminism: the politics of sex, rights, and freedom in contemporary antitrafficking campaigns.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, abolitionist feminist and evangelical Christian activists have directed increasing attention toward the “traffic in women” as a dangerous manifestation of global gender inequalities. Despite renowned disagreements around the politics of sex and gender, these groups have come together to advocate for harsher penalties against traffickers, prostitutes’ customers, and nations deemed to be taking insufficient steps to stem the flow of trafficked women. In this essay, I argue that what has served to unite this coalition of "strange bedfellows" is not simply an underlying commitment to conservative ideals of sexuality, as previous commentators have offered, but an equally significant commitment to carceral paradigms of justice and to militarized humanitarianism as the preeminent mode of engagement by the state. I draw upon my ongoing ethnographic research with feminist and evangelical antitrafficking movement leaders to argue that the alliance that has been so efficacious in framing contemporary antitrafficking politics is the product of two historically unique and intersecting trends: a rightward shift on the part of many mainstream feminists and other secular liberals away from a redistributive model of justice and toward a politics of incarceration, coincident with a leftward sweep on the part of many younger evangelicals toward a globally oriented social justice theology. In the final section of this essay, I consider the resilience of these trends given a newly installed and more progressive Obama administration, positing that they are likely to continue even as the terrain of militarized humanitarian action shifts in accordance with new sets of geopolitical interests. PMID:20827852

  4. Long-running telemedicine networks delivering humanitarian services: experience, performance and scientific output

    PubMed Central

    Geissbuhler, Antoine; Jethwani, Kamal; Kovarik, Carrie; Person, Donald A; Vladzymyrskyy, Anton; Zanaboni, Paolo; Zolfo, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To summarize the experience, performance and scientific output of long-running telemedicine networks delivering humanitarian services. Methods Nine long-running networks – those operating for five years or more– were identified and seven provided detailed information about their activities, including performance and scientific output. Information was extracted from peer-reviewed papers describing the networks’ study design, effectiveness, quality, economics, provision of access to care and sustainability. The strength of the evidence was scored as none, poor, average or good. Findings The seven networks had been operating for a median of 11 years (range: 5–15). All networks provided clinical tele-consultations for humanitarian purposes using store-and-forward methods and five were also involved in some form of education. The smallest network had 15 experts and the largest had more than 500. The clinical caseload was 50 to 500 cases a year. A total of 59 papers had been published by the networks, and 44 were listed in Medline. Based on study design, the strength of the evidence was generally poor by conventional standards (e.g. 29 papers described non-controlled clinical series). Over half of the papers provided evidence of sustainability and improved access to care. Uncertain funding was a common risk factor. Conclusion Improved collaboration between networks could help attenuate the lack of resources reported by some networks and improve sustainability. Although the evidence base is weak, the networks appear to offer sustainable and clinically useful services. These findings may interest decision-makers in developing countries considering starting, supporting or joining similar telemedicine networks. PMID:22589567

  5. Coordinating the Provision of Health Services in Humanitarian Crises: a Systematic Review of Suggested Models

    PubMed Central

    Lotfi, Tamara; Bou-Karroum, Lama; Darzi, Andrea; Hajjar, Rayan; El Rahyel, Ahmed; El Eid, Jamale; Itani, Mira; Brax, Hneine; Akik, Chaza; Osman, Mona; Hassan, Ghayda; El-Jardali, Fadi; Akl, Elie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Our objective was to identify published models of coordination between entities funding or delivering health services in humanitarian crises, whether the coordination took place during or after the crises. Methods: We included reports describing models of coordination in sufficient detail to allow reproducibility. We also included reports describing implementation of identified models, as case studies. We searched Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the WHO Global Health Library. We also searched websites of relevant organizations. We followed standard systematic review methodology. Results: Our search captured 14,309 citations. The screening process identified 34 eligible papers describing five models of coordination of delivering health services: the “Cluster Approach” (with 16 case studies), the 4Ws “Who is Where, When, doing What” mapping tool (with four case studies), the “Sphere Project” (with two case studies), the “5x5” model (with one case study), and the “model of information coordination” (with one case study). The 4Ws and the 5x5 focus on coordination of services for mental health, the remaining models do not focus on a specific health topic. The Cluster approach appears to be the most widely used. One case study was a mixed implementation of the Cluster approach and the Sphere model. We identified no model of coordination for funding of health service. Conclusion: This systematic review identified five proposed coordination models that have been implemented by entities funding or delivering health service in humanitarian crises. There is a need to compare the effect of these different models on outcomes such as availability of and access to health services. PMID:27617167

  6. Public nutrition in emergencies: an overview of debates, dilemmas and decision-making.

    PubMed

    Young, H

    1999-12-01

    This paper introduces and discusses the main themes and issues arising from the workshop 'International Public Nutrition in Emergencies: The Potential for Improving Practice'. Good co-ordination within the nutrition sector of the international humanitarian response system has led to a range of achievements in recent years. Major constraints to improving programme impact remain, however, including misconceptions about the scope of nutrition among the wider humanitarian system, which tends to give it a narrow focus on malnutrition and feeding people. In contrast to this limited view, the Public Nutrition approach brings a more broad-based emphasis to assessing and responding to nutritional problems in emergencies, and takes into account the wider social, economic and political causes of malnutrition. Six case study presentations illustrated the various components of a Public Nutrition approach, including in-depth assessment, analysis and tailoring programmes accordingly. Additional presentations considered the nature of vulnerability, the concept of Public Nutrition, the responsibilities for addressing nutritional problems and some of the operational tools and frameworks in current use. Participants agreed on the necessity of raising levels of awareness and understanding among all actors in the humanitarian sphere about the impact of their actions on nutrition. Strategies for achieving this included developing better multi-sectorial working relationships and also strengthening relationships with donors and key decision-makers in the humanitarian system. Other related strategies included institutional learning, training and capacity building, particularly in relation to institutions based in developing countries and building upon initiatives such as the Sphere Project, which has successfully brought together the various actors within the humanitarian system in order to improve quality of response. PMID:10643105

  7. Eye Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergencies Cardiac Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Eye Emergencies Marfan syndrome significantly increases your risk of ... light-sensitive membrane in the back of the eye (the retina) from its supporting layers. It is ...

  8. Achievements and bottlenecks in humanitarian demining EU-funded research: final results from the EC DELVE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahli, Hichem; Bruschini, Claudio; Van Kempen, Luc; Schleijpen, Ric; den Breejen, Eric

    2008-04-01

    The EC DELVE Support Action project has analyzed the bottlenecks in the transfer of Humanitarian Demining (HD) technology from technology development to the use in the field, and drawn some lessons learned, basing itself on the assessment of the European Humanitarian Demining Research and Technology Development (RTD) situation from early 1990 until 2006. The situation at the European level was analyzed with emphasis on activities sponsored by the European Commission (EC). This was also done for four European countries and Japan, with emphasis on national activities. The developments in HD during the last 10 years underline the fact that in a number of cases demining related developments have been terminated or at least put on hold. The study also showed that the funding provided by the EC under the Framework Program for RTD has led directly to the creation of an extensive portfolio of Humanitarian Demining technology development projects. The latter provided a range of research and supporting measures addressing the critical issues identified as a result of the regulatory policies developed in the field of Humanitarian Demining over the last ten years. However, the range of instruments available to the EC to finance the necessary research and development were limited, to pre-competitive research. The EC had no tools or programs to directly fund actual product development. As a first consequence, the EC funding program for development of technology for Humanitarian Demining unfortunately proved to be largely unsuitable for the small-scale development needed in a field where there is only a very limited market. As a second consequence, most of the research has been demonstrator-oriented. Moreover, the timeframe for RTD in Humanitarian Demining has not been sufficiently synchronized with the timeframe of the EC policies and regulations. The separation of the Mine Action and RTD funding streams in the EC did also negatively affect the take-up of new technologies. As a

  9. Sign me up: rules of the road for humanitarian volunteers during the Ebola outbreak.

    PubMed

    Wildes, Ryan; Kayden, Stephanie; Goralnick, Eric; Niescierenko, Michelle; Aschkenasy, Miriam; Kemen, Katherine M; Vanrooyen, Michael; Biddinger, Paul; Cranmer, Hilarie

    2015-02-01

    The current Ebola outbreak is the worst global public health emergency of our generation, and our global health care community must and will rise to serve those affected. Aid organizations participating in the Ebola response must carefully plan to carry out their responsibility to ensure the health, safety, and security of their responders. At the same time, individual health care workers and their employers must evaluate the ability of an aid organization to protect its workers in the complex environment of this unheralded Ebola outbreak. We present a minimum set of operational standards developed by a consortium of Boston-based hospitals that a professional organization should have in place to ensure the health, safety, and security of its staff in response to the Ebola virus disease outbreak. PMID:25343427

  10. Systematic review of the evidence on the effectiveness of sexual and reproductive health interventions in humanitarian crises

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Emily; Post, Nathan; Hossain, Mazeda; Blanchet, Karl; Roberts, Bayard

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This systematic review aims to evaluate evidence on the effectiveness of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) interventions delivered in humanitarian crises. Setting Crisis affected low-income or middle-income countries. Participants Crisis-affected populations in low-income or middle-income countries. Method Peer-reviewed and grey literature sources were systematically searched for relevant papers detailing interventions from 1 January 1980 until the search date on 30 April 2013. Data from included studies were then extracted, and the papers’ quality evaluated using criteria based on modified STROBE and CONSORT checklists. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcomes include, but are not limited to, changes in morbidity, mortality, sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnosis or gender-based violence. Secondary outcomes include, but are not limited to, reported condom use or skilled attendance at birth. Primary outputs include, but are not limited to, condoms distributed or education courses taught. Results Of 7149 returned citations, 15 studies met the inclusion criteria. Only one randomised controlled trial was identified. The remaining observational studies were of moderate quality, demonstrating limited use of controls and inadequate attempts to address bias. Evidence of effectiveness was available for the following interventions: impregnated bed nets for pregnant women, subsidised refugee healthcare, female community health workers, and tiered community reproductive health services. Conclusions The limited evidence base for SRH interventions highlights the need for improved research on the effectiveness of public health interventions in humanitarian crises. While interventions proven efficacious in stable settings are being used in humanitarian efforts, more evidence is required to demonstrate the effectiveness of delivering and scaling-up such interventions in humanitarian crises. PMID:26685020

  11. Active-Duty Physicians' Perceptions and Satisfaction with Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief Missions: Implications for the Field

    PubMed Central

    Oravec, Geoffrey J.; Artino, Anthony R.; Hickey, Patrick W.

    2013-01-01

    Background The United States Department of Defense participates in more than 500 missions every year, including humanitarian assistance and disaster relief, as part of medical stability operations. This study assessed perceptions of active-duty physicians regarding these activities and related these findings to the retention and overall satisfaction of healthcare professionals. Methods and Findings An Internet-based survey was developed and validated. Of the 667 physicians who responded to the survey, 47% had participated in at least one mission. On a 7-point, Likert-type response scale, physicians reported favorable overall satisfaction with their participation in these missions (mean  = 5.74). Perceived benefit was greatest for the United States (mean  = 5.56) and self (mean  = 5.39) compared to the target population (mean  = 4.82). These perceptions were related to participants' intentions to extend their military medical service (total model R2  = .37), with the strongest predictors being perceived benefit to self (β = .21, p<.01), the U.S. (β = .19, p<.01), and satisfaction (β = .18, p<.05). In addition, Air Force physicians reported higher levels of satisfaction (mean  = 6.10) than either Army (mean  = 5.27, Cohen's d = 0.75, p<.001) or Navy (mean  = 5.60, Cohen's d  = 0.46, p<.01) physicians. Conclusions Military physicians are largely satisfied with humanitarian missions, reporting the greatest benefit of such activities for themselves and the United States. Elucidation of factors that may increase the perceived benefit to the target populations is warranted. Satisfaction and perceived benefits of humanitarian missions were positively correlated with intentions to extend time in service. These findings could inform the larger humanitarian community as well as military medical practices for both recruiting and retaining medical professionals. PMID:23555564

  12. The International Space Station: New Capabilities for Disaster Response and Humanitarian Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanov, William

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has been acquiring Earth imagery since 2000, primarily in the form of astronaut photography using hand-held film and digital cameras. Recent additions of more sophisticated multispectral and hyperspectral sensor systems have expanded both the capabilities and relevance of the ISS to basic research, applied Earth science, and development of new sensor technologies. Funding opportunities established within NASA, the US National Laboratories and the international partner organizations have generated instrument proposals that will further enhance these capabilities. With both internal and external sensor location options, and the availability of both automated and human-tended operational environments, the ISS is a unique platform within the constellation of Earth-observing satellites currently in orbit. Current progress and challenges associated with development of ISS terrestrial remote sensing capabilities in the area of disaster response and support of relief efforts will be presented. The ISS orbit allows for imaging of the Earth's surface at varying times of day and night, providing opportunities for data collection over approximately 95% of the populated regions. These opportunities are distinct from--yet augment--the data collection windows for the majority of sensors on polar-orbiting satellites. In addition to this potential for "being in the right place at the right time" to collect critical information on an evolving disaster, the presence of a human crew also allows for immediate recognition of an event from orbit, notification of relevant organizations on the ground, and re-tasking of available remote sensing resources to support humanitarian response and relief efforts. Challenges to establishing an integrated response capability are both technical (coordination of sensor targeting and data collection, rapid downlink and posting of data to a central accessible hub, timely generation and distribution of relevant data

  13. Camel milk, amoxicillin, and a prayer: medical pluralism and medical humanitarian aid in the Somali Region of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Carruth, Lauren

    2014-11-01

    This paper details how exposure to new clinics, diagnostic technologies, and pharmaceuticals during humanitarian relief operations in the Somali Region of Ethiopia shaped local pluralistic health systems and altered the ways in which residents subsequently conceived of and treated illness and disease. Despite rising demand for pharmaceuticals and diagnostic technologies among Somalis in Ethiopia, local ethnophysiologies continued to draw upon popular ideas about humoral flows, divine action, and spirit possession. Demands for therapeutic camel milk, Qur'anic spiritual healing, herbal remedies, and other historically popular therapies persisted, but were shaped by concurrent demands for and understandings of diagnostic biotechnologies and pharmaceutical medications. The reverse was also true: contemporary understandings and uses of non-biomedical healing modalities among Somalis shaped evaluations of clinical care, including healthcare during humanitarian responses. To illustrate these phenomena, based on ethnographic research in eastern Ethiopia between 2007 and 2009, this paper explores three topics vital to Somalis' pluralistic healthcare systems: camel milk and the management of digestive bile; women's experiences and clinical presentations with pain and disorder in their reproductive systems; and the rising popularity of high-tech diagnostic tests. I conclude that medical humanitarian aid never happens in a vacuum or among truly treatment-naïve populations. Instead, aid unfolds within ever-changing and pluralistic health cultures, and it permanently alters and is altered by the frames within which people evaluate and make future decisions about healthcare. PMID:24673888

  14. Maternal psychosocial well-being in Eritrea: application of participatory methods and tools of investigation and analysis in complex emergency settings.

    PubMed Central

    Almedom, Astier M.; Tesfamichael, Berhe; Yacob, Abdu; Debretsion, Zaïd; Teklehaimanot, Kidane; Beyene, Teshome; Kuhn, Kira; Alemu, Zemui

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To establish the context in which maternal psychosocial well-being is understood in war-affected settings in Eritrea. METHOD: Pretested and validated participatory methods and tools of investigation and analysis were employed to allow participants to engage in processes of qualitative data collection, on-site analysis, and interpretation. FINDINGS: Maternal psychosocial well-being in Eritrea is maintained primarily by traditional systems of social support that are mostly outside the domain of statutory primary care. Traditional birth attendants provide a vital link between the two. Formal training and regular supplies of sterile delivery kits appear to be worthwhile options for health policy and practice in the face of the post-conflict challenges of ruined infrastructure and an overstretched and/or ill-mannered workforce in the maternity health service. CONCLUSION: Methodological advances in health research and the dearth of data on maternal psychosocial well-being in complex emergency settings call for scholars and practitioners to collaborate in creative searches for sound evidence on which to base maternity, mental health and social care policy and practice. Participatory methods facilitate the meaningful engagement of key stakeholders and enhance data quality, reliability and usability. PMID:12856054

  15. A Social-Learning Approach to Hazard-Related Knowledge Exchange: Boundary Workers at the Geoscience-Humanitarian Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Keira; Hope, Max; McCloskey, John

    2014-05-01

    A Social-Learning Approach to Hazard-Related Knowledge Exchange: Boundary Workers at the Geoscience-Humanitarian Interface Keira Quinn (1), Dr Max Hope (1), Professor John McCloskey (1). (1)University of Ulster Peer-reviewed science has the potential to guide policy-makers and practitioners in developing robust responses to social problems and issues. Despite advances in hazard-related science, it can often be a challenge to translate findings into useful social applications. With natural hazards affecting 2.9 billion people between 2000 and 2012 the need for hazard science to be effectively communicated is undeniable. This is particularly so in humanitarian contexts as non-governmental organisations (NGOs) play a key role in the poorer nations most affected by natural disasters. Past methods of 'knowledge transfer' have tended to lead to misinterpretations and misrepresentations of science to the extent that it is often used incorrectly or not at all. 'Knowledge exchange' is currently heralded as a more effective means of bringing about successful communication and understanding, and is characterised by the presence of shared learning. Central to a knowledge exchange approach is an understanding of the social and organisational contexts within which learning takes place. Here we use Etienne Wenger's social-learning approach to analyse selected aspects of the social context influencing knowledge exchange across the geoscience-humanitarian interface. For Wenger (2000) Communities of Practice (CoP) are bounded organisational and social groups united by their own distinct values, goals and ways of working. The boundaries surrounding CoPs can act as barriers to knowledge exchange but can also create opportunities for new shared learning by challenging existing perspectives and practice. Drawing on the findings of ongoing qualitative research into communication and learning between earthquake scientists and humanitarian NGOs in UK/Ireland, this paper outlines a number

  16. Ebola virus disease in a humanitarian aid worker - New York City, October 2014.

    PubMed

    Yacisin, Kari; Balter, Sharon; Fine, Annie; Weiss, Don; Ackelsberg, Joel; Prezant, David; Wilson, Ross; Starr, David; Rakeman, Jennifer; Raphael, Marisa; Quinn, Celia; Toprani, Amita; Clark, Nancy; Link, Nathan; Daskalakis, Demetre; Maybank, Aletha; Layton, Marcelle; Varma, Jay K

    2015-04-01

    In late October 2014, Ebola virus disease (Ebola) was diagnosed in a humanitarian aid worker who recently returned from West Africa to New York City (NYC). The NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) actively monitored three close contacts of the patient and 114 health care personnel. No secondary cases of Ebola were detected. In collaboration with local and state partners, DOHMH had developed protocols to respond to such an event beginning in July 2014. These protocols included safely transporting a person at the first report of symptoms to a local hospital prepared to treat a patient with Ebola, laboratory testing for Ebola, and monitoring of contacts. In response to this single case of Ebola, initial health care worker active monitoring protocols needed modification to improve clarity about what types of exposure should be monitored. The response costs were high in both human resources and money: DOHMH alone spent $4.3 million. However, preparedness activities that include planning and practice in effectively monitoring the health of workers involved in Ebola patient care can help prevent transmission of Ebola. PMID:25837242

  17. Subsurface Imaging by UWB Radar: Application to Humanitarian Demining in Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Motoyuki

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) has been widely used applications which include detection of subsurface facilities, concrete inspection and archaeology. Among these applications, humanitarian demining is still difficult task. Since 2002, we have developed a new hand-held land mine detection dual-sensor ALIS. ALIS is equipped with a metal detector and a GPR, and it has a sensor tracking system, which can record the GPR and Metal detector signal with its location. ALIS can process the data and is used for image re-construction by migration processing. ALIS is the only one mine detection system in the world which can visualize the GPR image by hand scanning. We found that the migration processing can reduce the clutter and gives us clear images of buried mines. After several tests of ALIS in mine affected courtiers, operation of ALIS in mine fields in Cambodia started in summer 2009. Two sets of ALIS have been operated in Cambodia and more than 77 antipersonnel mines have been detected and 137,000m2 farmland was cleaned.

  18. Measuring and Increasing Adoption Rates of Cookstoves in a Humanitarian Crisis.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Daniel L; Coyle, Jeremy; Kirk, Angeli; Rosa, Javier; Abbas, Omnia; Adam, Mohammed Idris; Gadgil, Ashok J

    2016-08-01

    Traditional smoky cooking fires are one of today's greatest environmental threats to human life. These fires, used by 40% of the global population, cause 3.9 million annual premature deaths. "Clean cookstoves" have potential to improve this situation; however, most cookstove programs do not employ objective measurement of adoption to inform design, marketing, subsidies, finance, or dissemination practices. Lack of data prevents insights and may contribute to consistently low adoption rates. In this study, we used sensors and surveys to measure objective versus self-reported adoption of freely-distributed cookstoves in an internally displaced persons camp in Darfur, Sudan. Our data insights demonstrate how to effectively measure and promote adoption, especially in a humanitarian crisis. With sensors, we measured that 71% of participants were cookstove "users" compared to 95% of respondents reporting the improved cookstove was their "primary cookstove." No line of survey questioning, whether direct or indirect, predicted sensor-measured usage. For participants who rarely or never used their cookstoves after initial dissemination ("non-users"), we found significant increases in adoption after a simple followup survey (p = 0.001). The followup converted 83% of prior "non-users" to "users" with average daily adoption of 1.7 cooking hours over 2.2 meals. This increased adoption, which we posit resulted from cookstove familiarization and social conformity, was sustained for a 2-week observation period post intervention. PMID:27435285

  19. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Recommendations for reducing risk during travel for healthcare and humanitarian work.

    PubMed

    Seaworth, Barbara J; Armitige, Lisa Y; Aronson, Naomi E; Hoft, Daniel F; Fleenor, Michael E; Gardner, Adrian F; Harris, Drew A; Stricof, Rachel L; Nardell, Edward A

    2014-03-01

    Healthcare and humanitarian workers who travel to work where the incidence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) is high and potential transmission may occur are at risk of infection and disease due to these resistant strains. Transmission occurs due to inadequate transmission control practices and the inability to provide timely and accurate diagnosis and treatment of persons with MDR TB. Patients risk exposure if active TB is unrecognized in workers after they return to lower-risk settings. Guidance for risk reduction measures for workers in high-risk areas is limited, and no studies confirm the efficacy of treatment regimens for latent TB infection due to MDR TB. Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination decreases the risk of active TB and possibly latent infection. IFN-γ release assays differentiate TB infection from BCG vaccination effect. A series of risk reduction measures are provided as a potential strategy. These measures include risk reductions before travel, including risk assessment, TB screening, education, respirator fit testing, and BCG vaccination. Measures during travel include use of respirators in settings where this may not be common practice, transmission control practices, triaging of patients with consistent symptoms, providing education for good cough etiquette, and provision of care in well-ventilated areas, including open air areas. Risk reduction measures after return include TB screening 8 to 10 weeks later and recommendations for management of latent TB infection in areas where the likelihood of MDR TB exposure is high. PMID:24673692

  20. Providing more than health care: the dynamics of humanitarian surgery efforts on the local microeconomy.

    PubMed

    Nagengast, Eric S; Caterson, E J; Magee, William P; Hatcher, Kristin; Ramos, Margarita S; Campbell, Alex

    2014-09-01

    Humanitarian cleft surgery has long been provided by teams from resource-rich countries traveling for short-term missions to resource-poor countries. After identifying an area of durable unmet need through surgical missions, Operation Smile constructed a permanent center for cleft care in Northeast India. The Operation Smile Guwahati Comprehensive Cleft Care Center (GCCCC) uses a high-volume subspecialized institution to provide safe, quality, comprehensive, and cost-effective cleft care to a highly vulnerable patient population in Assam, India. The purpose of this study was to profile the expenses of several cleft missions carried out in Assam and to compare these to the expenditures of the permanent comprehensive cleft care center. We reviewed financial data from 4 Operation Smile missions in Assam between December 2009 and February 2011 and from the GCCCC for the 2012-2013 fiscal year. Expenses from the 2 models were categorized and compared. In the studied period, 33% of the mission expenses were spent locally compared to 94% of those of the center. The largest expenses in the mission model were air travel (48.8%) and hotel expenses (21.6%) for the team, whereas salaries (46.3%) and infrastructure costs (19.8%) made up the largest fractions of expenses in the center model. The evolution from mission-based care to a specialty hospital model in Guwahati incorporated a transition from vertical inputs to investments in infrastructure and human capital to create a sustainable local care delivery system. PMID:25162554

  1. Needs, Acceptability, and Value of Humanitarian Medical Assistance in Remote Peruvian Amazon Riverine Communities

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Juan F.; Halsey, Eric S.; Bayer, Angela M.; Beltran, Martin; Razuri, Hugo R.; Velasquez, Daniel E.; Cama, Vitaliano A.; Graf, Paul C. F.; Quispe, Antonio M.; Maves, Ryan C.; Montgomery, Joel M.; Sanders, John W.; Lescano, Andres G.

    2015-01-01

    Much debate exists regarding the need, acceptability, and value of humanitarian medical assistance. We conducted a cross-sectional study on 457 children under 5 years from four remote riverine communities in the Peruvian Amazon and collected anthropometric measures, blood samples (1–4 years), and stool samples. Focus groups and key informant interviews assessed perspectives regarding medical aid delivered by foreigners. The prevalence of stunting, anemia, and intestinal parasites was 20%, 37%, and 62%, respectively. Infection with multiple parasites, usually geohelminths, was detected in 41% of children. The prevalence of intestinal parasites both individual and polyparasitism increased with age. Participants from smaller communities less exposed to foreigners expressed lack of trust and fear of them. However, participants from all communities were positive about foreigners visiting to provide health support. Prevalent health needs such as parasitic infections and anemia may be addressed by short-term medical interventions. There is a perceived openness to and acceptability of medical assistance delivered by foreign personnel. PMID:25846293

  2. Needs, acceptability, and value of humanitarian medical assistance in remote Peruvian Amazon riverine communities.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Juan F; Halsey, Eric S; Bayer, Angela M; Beltran, Martin; Razuri, Hugo R; Velasquez, Daniel E; Cama, Vitaliano A; Graf, Paul C F; Quispe, Antonio M; Maves, Ryan C; Montgomery, Joel M; Sanders, John W; Lescano, Andres G

    2015-06-01

    Much debate exists regarding the need, acceptability, and value of humanitarian medical assistance. We conducted a cross-sectional study on 457 children under 5 years from four remote riverine communities in the Peruvian Amazon and collected anthropometric measures, blood samples (1-4 years), and stool samples. Focus groups and key informant interviews assessed perspectives regarding medical aid delivered by foreigners. The prevalence of stunting, anemia, and intestinal parasites was 20%, 37%, and 62%, respectively. Infection with multiple parasites, usually geohelminths, was detected in 41% of children. The prevalence of intestinal parasites both individual and polyparasitism increased with age. Participants from smaller communities less exposed to foreigners expressed lack of trust and fear of them. However, participants from all communities were positive about foreigners visiting to provide health support. Prevalent health needs such as parasitic infections and anemia may be addressed by short-term medical interventions. There is a perceived openness to and acceptability of medical assistance delivered by foreign personnel. PMID:25846293

  3. Brachypodium as an emerging model for cereal–pathogen interactions

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Timothy L.; Powell, Jonathan J.; Schneebeli, Katharina; Hsia, M. Mandy; Gardiner, Donald M.; Bragg, Jennifer N.; McIntyre, C. Lynne; Manners, John M.; Ayliffe, Mick; Watt, Michelle; Vogel, John P.; Henry, Robert J.; Kazan, Kemal

    2015-01-01

    Background Cereal diseases cause tens of billions of dollars of losses annually and have devastating humanitarian consequences in the developing world. Increased understanding of the molecular basis of cereal host–pathogen interactions should facilitate development of novel resistance strategies. However, achieving this in most cereals can be challenging due to large and complex genomes, long generation times and large plant size, as well as quarantine and intellectual property issues that may constrain the development and use of community resources. Brachypodium distachyon (brachypodium) with its small, diploid and sequenced genome, short generation time, high transformability and rapidly expanding community resources is emerging as a tractable cereal model. Scope Recent research reviewed here has demonstrated that brachypodium is either susceptible or partially susceptible to many of the major cereal pathogens. Thus, the study of brachypodium–pathogen interactions appears to hold great potential to improve understanding of cereal disease resistance, and to guide approaches to enhance this resistance. This paper reviews brachypodium experimental pathosystems for the study of fungal, bacterial and viral cereal pathogens; the current status of the use of brachypodium for functional analysis of cereal disease resistance; and comparative genomic approaches undertaken using brachypodium to assist characterization of cereal resistance genes. Additionally, it explores future prospects for brachypodium as a model to study cereal–pathogen interactions. Conclusions The study of brachypodium–pathogen interactions appears to be a productive strategy for understanding mechanisms of disease resistance in cereal species. Knowledge obtained from this model interaction has strong potential to be exploited for crop improvement. PMID:25808446

  4. How do emergency managers use social media platforms?

    PubMed

    Bennett, DeeDee M

    2014-01-01

    Social media platforms are increasingly becoming a useful tool for victims, humanitarians, volunteers, and the general public to communicate during disasters. Research has shown that there are multiple advantages to using social media and the applicability of these platforms crosses several different types of disasters (human-caused, natural, and terrorist) here in the United States and abroad. However, some emergency management agencies have been reluctant to use social media as one of their many communications tools. In this study, the usefulness of social media for emergency management was examined over a 30-day period following a series of tornadoes. Using an observational approach, the public posts disseminated from an emergency management agency were analyzed to determine how two social media platforms were used. The findings show how emergency management agencies could leverage the connectedness of social media to reach victims and make unlikely partnerships. PMID:25062826

  5. Emerging and re-emerging infections.

    PubMed

    Lim, V K

    1999-06-01

    An emerging infection is defined as an infection which has newly appeared in a population while a re-emerging infection is one which has existed in the past but its incidence is rapidly increasing. The reasons for the emergence and re-emergence of infections are not well understood but appear to be associated with factors that involve the pathogen, the host and the environment. These factors are often inter-related and act together in a complex manner to bring about changes in patterns of infection. Pathogens are extremely resourceful and possess mechanisms to adapt to new hosts and environments as well as to acquire new virulence traits. Host factors include herd immunity, social behaviour and demographics. Environmental factors like the climate, deforestation and new technologies have an impact on the emergence of infections. The challenge is to contain an infection when it emerges but more importantly to prevent its emergence in the first place. As the emergence of an infection is complex and multifactorial, a multidisciplinary approach is required. Health based strategies alone are insufficient. Social, economic and environmental measures and the political will to implement appropriate policies are equally important. PMID:10972048

  6. Emergency Medical Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Lewis Research Center helped design the complex EMS Communication System, originating from space operated telemetry, including the telemetry link between ambulances and hospitals for advanced life support services. In emergency medical use telemetry links ambulances and hospitals for advanced life support services and allows transmission of physiological data -- an electrocardiogram from an ambulance to a hospital emergency room where a physician reads the telemetered message and prescribes emergency procedures to ambulance attendants.

  7. Emergency Notification Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsouros, Mark

    2014-01-01

    In higher education, the IT department is often the service provider for the institution's emergency notification system (ENS). For many institutions, the complexity of providing emergency notification to students, faculty, and staff makes using a local, on-premise solution unrealistic. But finding the right commercially hosted technical solution…

  8. Lifelong Learning: Emergent Enactments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This article represents four emergences through which to explore the significance of lifelong learning. Drawing in particular on complexity theory and actor-network theory, it seeks to develop an understanding of the reductions and emergences, and purifications and translations to which lifelong learning is subject. To do this, the article also…

  9. A humanitarian preparedness toolbox: estimating flood affected figures and exposure of livelihoods to future floods events, using freely available datasets.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paron, Paolo; von Hagen, Craig; Peppino Disperati, Stefano; Hermansyah, Budi; Shaheen, Imra; Jan, Qasim; Berloffa, Andrea; Khan, Ruby; Fakhre, Alam

    2013-04-01

    Pakistan is highly disaster-prone, with three major flood disasters occurred in the past three years, yet major losses are not inevitable. Farming-based families still struggling to recover from 2010 and 2011 floods have again faced another bad monsoon season in 2012. Meanwhile, the likelihood of yet more natural disasters in the future is high as the phenomenon of climate change is increasing the prevalence of extreme weather conditions. Even with less rainfall, the risk of flooding this year remains high, while many villages have not fully recovered from the 2011-2012 floods. It is of utmost importance to support the most vulnerable rural communities to recover their flood-affected livelihoods. In the meantime, prioritizing disaster preparedness through flood hazard and population mapping is crucial to ensure that realistic contingency plans are in place to deliver an effective and timely response and reduce the impact of floods before they strike. To increase preparedness in future floods, an integrated approach that builds the resilience of flood affected community and enhances emergency preparedness based on reliable data is critical. We present here the innovative methodology developed for estimating population and livelihood that could potentially be affected by a future flood scenario, as well as a methodology for knowing where these people are located, along with an overview of their livelihood pattern. This project has used only freely available dataset, due to the urgency of providing a toolbox to the humanitarian community and the absence of readily available detailed information on natural hazards and exposure in Pakistan. The estimated figures resulting from this project, would provide the Food Security stakeholders with adequate information and data for programming a tailored response in case of floods during future monsoon season. For the purpose of preparedness, understanding the risks, and its potential magnitude, is crucial to provide decision

  10. Quantifying the humanitarian and economic impact of earthquakes on South American capital cities (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoback, M. L.; Cabrera, C.; Pomonis, A.; Baca, A.; Brunner, I.; Cheung, G.; Chen, A.; Nagel, B.; Carrasco, S.

    2009-12-01

    By 2000, an estimated 80% of South America’s population lived in urban areas (Veblen et al., The Physical Geography of South America, Oxford University Press, 2007). A significant fraction of those urban dwellers resides in the capital cities which are major economic centers and act as magnets for rural poor and refugees. This population concentration includes many residents living in extreme poverty in substandard and informal housing, often on the margins of these capital cities and sometimes on steep slopes, greatly compounding the vulnerability to natural hazards. We are analyzing the humanitarian and economic risk for six of the seismically most-at-risk South American capitals along the northern and western plate boundaries of South America: Caracas, Venezuela; Bogotá, Colombia; Quito, Ecuador; Lima, Perú; La Paz, Bolivia; and Santiago, Chile. Impacts are provided in the form of expected losses for a specific “likely” scenario earthquake and in a probabilistic format using exceedance probability curves (probability of exceeding a given loss in different return periods). Impacts to be quantified include: total economic losses, potential fatalities, potential serious injuries, and the number of displaced households. Probabilistic seismic hazard was developed in collaboration with numerous South American experts and includes subduction interface, intraslab, background crustal and, where available, active fault sources. A significant challenge for this study is to accurately account for the exposure and vulnerability of populations living in the informal, shanty areas. Combining analysis of aerial imagery and on-the-ground reconnaissance, we define between 20-30 “inventory districts” of relatively uniform construction styles within each capital. Statistical distributions of the different construction types and their characteristics (height, occupancy, year built, average value) are estimated for each district. In addition, working with local graduate

  11. Factors Associated with Nursing Activities in Humanitarian Aid and Disaster Relief

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Norihito; Inoue, Satoshi; Shimanoe, Chisato; Shibayama, Kaoru; Shinchi, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Background Although nurses play an important role in humanitarian aid and disaster relief (HA/DR), little is known about the nursing activities that are performed in HA/DR. We aimed to clarify the nursing activities performed by Japanese nurses in HA/DR and to examine the factors associated with the frequency of nursing activities. Methods A self-administered questionnaire survey was completed by 147 nurses with HA/DR experience. The survey extracted information on demographic characteristics, past experience (e.g., disaster medical training experience, HA/DR experience), circumstances surrounding their dispatched to HA/DR (e.g., team size, disaster type, post-disaster phase, mission term), and the frequency of nursing activities performed under HA/DR. The frequency of nursing activities was rated on a 5-point Likert scale. Evaluation of nursing activities was conducted based on the “nursing activity score”, which represents the frequency of each nursing activity. Factors related to the nursing activity score were evaluated by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results Nurses were involved in 27 nursing activities in HA/DR, 10 of which were performed frequently. On analysis, factors significantly associated with nursing activity score were nursing license as a registered nurse (OR 7.79, 95% CI 2.95–20.57), two or more experiences with disaster medical training (OR 2.90 95%, CI 1.12–7.49) and a post-disaster phase of three weeks or longer (OR 8.77, 95% CI 2.59–29.67). Conclusions These results will contribute to the design of evidence-based disaster medical training that improves the quality of nursing activities. PMID:26959351

  12. The Malaysian Orthopaedic Association humanitarian mission to Indonesia and Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Sharaf, I; Saw, A; Hyzan, Y; Sivananthan, K S

    2005-07-01

    The tsunami which occurred off the west coast of North Sumatra on December 26, 2004 devastated the coastal areas of North Sumatra, South-West Thailand, South-East India and Sri Lanka killing more than a quarter of a million people. The destruction was enormous with many coastal villages destroyed. The other countries affected were Malaysia, Myanmar, Maldives, Bangladesh, Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania and the Seychelles. In January 2005, volunteers went in weekly rotation to Banda Aceh in collaboration with Global Peace Mission. These were Dr Hyzan Yusof, Dr Suryasmi Duski, Dr Sharaf Ibrahim, Dr Saw Aik, Dr Kamariah Nor and Dr Nor Azlin. In Banda Aceh, the surgical procedures that we could do were limited to external fixation of open fractures and debriding infected wounds at the Indonesian Red Crescent field hospital. In February, a team comprising Dato Dr K S Sivananthan, Dr T Kumar and Dr S Vasan spent a week in Sri Lanka. In Sri Lanka, Dato Sivananthan and his team were able to perform elective orthopaedic operations in Dr Poonambalam Memorial Hospital. We appealed for national and international aid and received support from local hospitals and the orthopaedic industry. International aid bound for Banda Aceh arrived in Kuala Lumpur from the Philippine Orthopaedic Association, the Chiba Children's Hospital in Japan and the Chinese Orthopaedic Association. The COA donated 1.5 tons of orthopaedic equipments. A special handing over ceremony from the COA to the Indonesian Orthopaedic Association was held in Putrajaya in March. Malaysia Airlines flew in the donated equipment to Kuala Lumpur while the onward flight to Aceh was provided by the Royal Malaysian Air Force. In April, Dr Saw Aik and Dr Yong Su Mei joined the Tsu-Chi International Medical Association for volunteer services on Batam Island, Indonesia. The MOA acknowledges the many individuals and organizations, both governmental and non-governmental, for their contributions in the humanitarian efforts. PMID

  13. Mental health and psychosocial support in humanitarian settings: linking practice and research

    PubMed Central

    Tol, Wietse A; Barbui, Corrado; Galappatti, Ananda; Silove, Derrick; Betancourt, Theresa S; Souza, Renato; Golaz, Anne; van Ommeren, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This review links practice, funding, and evidence for interventions for mental health and psychosocial wellbeing in humanitarian settings. We studied practice by reviewing reports of mental health and psychosocial support activities (2007–10); funding by analysis of the financial tracking service and the creditor reporting system (2007–09); and interventions by systematic review and meta-analysis. In 160 reports, the five most commonly reported activities were basic counselling for individuals (39%); facilitation of community support of vulnerable individuals (23%); provision of child-friendly spaces (21%); support of community-initiated social support (21%); and basic counselling for groups and families (20%). Most interventions took place and were funded outside national mental health and protection systems. 32 controlled studies of interventions were identified, 13 of which were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that met the criteria for meta-analysis. Two studies showed promising effects for strengthening community and family supports. Psychosocial wellbeing was not included as an outcome in the meta-analysis, because its definition varied across studies. In adults with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), meta-analysis of seven RCTs showed beneficial effects for several interventions (psychotherapy and psychosocial supports) compared with usual care or waiting list (standardised mean difference [SMD] −0.38, 95% CI −0.55 to −0.20). In children, meta-analysis of four RCTs failed to show an effect for symptoms of PTSD (−0.36, −0.83 to 0.10), but showed a beneficial effect of interventions (group psychotherapy, school-based support, and other psychosocial support) for internalising symptoms (six RCTs; SMD −0.24, −0.40 to −0.09). Overall, research and evidence focuses on interventions that are infrequently implemented, whereas the most commonly used interventions have had little rigorous scrutiny. PMID:22008428

  14. Mental health and psychosocial support in humanitarian settings: linking practice and research.

    PubMed

    Tol, Wietse A; Barbui, Corrado; Galappatti, Ananda; Silove, Derrick; Betancourt, Theresa S; Souza, Renato; Golaz, Anne; van Ommeren, Mark

    2011-10-29

    This review links practice, funding, and evidence for interventions for mental health and psychosocial wellbeing in humanitarian settings. We studied practice by reviewing reports of mental health and psychosocial support activities (2007-10); funding by analysis of the financial tracking service and the creditor reporting system (2007-09); and interventions by systematic review and meta-analysis. In 160 reports, the five most commonly reported activities were basic counselling for individuals (39%); facilitation of community support of vulnerable individuals (23%); provision of child-friendly spaces (21%); support of community-initiated social support (21%); and basic counselling for groups and families (20%). Most interventions took place and were funded outside national mental health and protection systems. 32 controlled studies of interventions were identified, 13 of which were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that met the criteria for meta-analysis. Two studies showed promising effects for strengthening community and family supports. Psychosocial wellbeing was not included as an outcome in the meta-analysis, because its definition varied across studies. In adults with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), meta-analysis of seven RCTs showed beneficial effects for several interventions (psychotherapy and psychosocial supports) compared with usual care or waiting list (standardised mean difference [SMD] -0·38, 95% CI -0·55 to -0·20). In children, meta-analysis of four RCTs failed to show an effect for symptoms of PTSD (-0·36, -0·83 to 0·10), but showed a beneficial effect of interventions (group psychotherapy, school-based support, and other psychosocial support) for internalising symptoms (six RCTs; SMD -0·24, -0·40 to -0·09). Overall, research and evidence focuses on interventions that are infrequently implemented, whereas the most commonly used interventions have had little rigorous scrutiny. PMID:22008428

  15. Chemical Emergency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency App Find our Emergency App in the Apple Store or Google Play Aplicación de Emergencias - ahora ... Lifesaving Blood Get Assistance Types of Emergencies Be Red Cross Ready Mobile Apps Workplaces & Organizations Resources For ...

  16. Emergency Contraception

    MedlinePlus

    ... contraception are available: emergency contraceptive pills and the copper-containing intrauterine device (IUD). Emergency contraceptive pills include ... for emergency use, talk to your doctor. The copper-containing IUD (brand name: Paragard) is a small, ...

  17. Molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in nosocomial infections in a tertiary-care facility: emergence of new clonal complexes in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Senok, A; Ehricht, R; Monecke, S; Al-Saedan, R; Somily, A

    2016-11-01

    Changes in the molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) continue to be reported. This study was carried out to characterize MRSA isolates in Saudi Arabia. MRSA isolates causing nosocomial infections (n = 117) obtained from 2009-2015 at a tertiary-care facility in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were studied. Molecular characterization of isolates was carried out using the StaphyType DNA microarray (Alere Technologies, Jena, Germany). Fourteen clonal complexes (CC) were identified, with the most common being CC80 (n = 35), CC6 (n = 15), CC5 (n = 13) and CC22 (n = 12). With the exception of nine ST239 MRSA-III isolates, all others were of community-associated MRSA lineages. The following strains are identified for the first time in Saudi Arabia: ST8-MRSA-IV [PVL(+)/ACME(+)], USA300 (n = 1); ST72-MRSA-IV USA700 (n = 1); CC5-MRSA-IV, [PVL(+)/edinA(+)], WA MRSA-121 (n = 1); CC5-MRSA-V+SCCfus, WA MRSA-14/109 (n = 2), CC97-MRSA-IV, WA MRSA-54/63; CC2250/2277-MRSA-IV and WA MRSA-114. CC15-MRSA (n = 3) was identified for the first time in clinical infection in Saudi Arabia. None of the isolates harboured vancomycin resistance genes, while genes for resistance to mupirocin and quaternary ammonium compounds were found in one and nine isolates respectively. Fifty-seven isolates (48.7%) were positive for Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes. While the staphylokinase (sak) and staphylococcal complement inhibitor (scn) genes were present in over 95% of the isolates, only 37.6% had the chemotaxis-inhibiting protein (chp) gene. Increasing occurrence of community-acquired MRSA lineages plus emergence of pandemic and rare MRSA strains is occurring in our setting. Strict infection control practices are important to limit the dissemination of these MRSA strains. PMID:27621823

  18. Center for Victims of Torture--Guinea 2004-2005 International Mental Health Team: international humanitarian award.

    PubMed

    2006-11-01

    Presents the citation for the Center for Victims of Torture--Guinea 2004-2005 International Mental Health Team, who received the International Humanitarian Award "for their outstanding commitment to the healing of torture victims and to educating the world community about torture and war trauma." A brief profile of the Center is presented, as well as the Center's award address, entitled Trauma Healing in Refugee Camps in Guinea: A Psychosocial Program for Liberian and Sierra Leonean Survivors of Torture and War. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:17115851

  19. Complex derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiston, Stefano; Caldarelli, Guido; Georg, Co-Pierre; May, Robert; Stiglitz, Joseph

    2013-03-01

    The intrinsic complexity of the financial derivatives market has emerged as both an incentive to engage in it, and a key source of its inherent instability. Regulators now faced with the challenge of taming this beast may find inspiration in the budding science of complex systems.

  20. Medical emergency rescue in disaster: the international emergency response to the Haiyan typhoon in Philippines.

    PubMed

    Ling, Feng; Ye, Zhen; Cai, Wenwei; Lu, Ye; Xia, Shichang; Chen, Zhiping; Chen, Enfu; Wang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Zhen; Lv, Huakun; Gong, Zhenyu

    2014-12-01

    Following Typhoon Haiyan, the World Health Organization (WHO) has been supporting the Government of the Philippines in coordinating the incoming relief supplies from more than 30 international humanitarian health organizations. During the 10 days in Abuyong, Philippines, the Chinese medical rescue team consisting of 50 experts specialized in clinical medicine and disease prevention and control action was taken including, medical treatment, environmental disinfection and health education. A total of 1,831 cases and 2,144 outpatients were treated, blood tests, B-ultrasound, electrocardiogram (ECG) and other laboratory examinations were carried out for more than 615 patients; a cumulative 90,000 square meters in external environment were disinfected, and more than 500 health education materials were handed out. Besides, measures of purifying drinking water, and rebuilding the local hospital have also been carried out. The international emergency response to the Haiyan typhoon in Philippines contributed to reconstruct the local disaster health system by the activities from international medical emergency rescue. To improve the capacity of international medical emergency rescue in disaster, the special project of foreign medical emergency rescue should be set in countries' medical emergency rescue, and disaster emergency medical rescue should be reserved as a conventional capacity. PMID:25641183

  1. Fourth-Grade Emergent Bilingual Learners' Scientific Reasoning Complexity, Controlled Experiment Practices, and Content Knowledge When Discussing School, Home, and Play Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buxton, Cory A.; Salinas, Ale; Mahotiere, Margarette; Lee, Okhee; Secada, Walter G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In exploring how emergent bilingual learners' prior knowledge from home and play contexts might influence their scientific reasoning, this study drew upon two distinct research traditions: (a) experimental research from the developmental and cognitive psychology tradition, and (b) research on culturally and linguistically diverse…

  2. Emergency contraception

    MedlinePlus

    Morning-after pill; Postcoital contraception; Birth control - emergency; Plan B ... Emergency contraception most likely prevents pregnancy in the same way as regular birth control pills: By preventing or delaying ...

  3. Emergency Contraception

    MedlinePlus

    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ114 CONTRACEPTION Emergency Contraception • What is emergency contraception (EC)? • How does EC work? • What are the different types of EC? • What is the most ...

  4. Radiation Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... day from sources such as sunlight. A radiation emergency would involve larger amounts of radiation and could ... are no guarantees of safety during a radiation emergency, you can take actions to protect yourself. You ...

  5. Heat emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    Heat emergencies or illnesses are caused by exposure to extreme heat and sun. Heat illnesses can be prevented by ... to regulate the temperature, and make a heat emergency more likely: Drinking alcohol before or during exposure ...

  6. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 740 - Items That May Be Donated To Meet Basic Human Needs Under the Humanitarian License Exception

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Items That May Be Donated To Meet Basic Human Needs Under the Humanitarian License Exception No. Supplement No. 2 to Part 740 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY...

  7. Strange but common bedfellows: the relationship between humanitarians and the military in developing psychosocial interventions for civilian populations affected by armed conflict.

    PubMed

    Kienzler, Hanna; Pedersen, Duncan

    2012-07-01

    This essay analyses how the relationships between Cold War and post-Cold War politics, military psychiatry, humanitarian aid and mental health interventions in war and post-war contexts have transformed over time. It focuses on the restrictions imposed on humanitarian interventions and aid during the Cold War; the politics leading to the transfer of the PTSD diagnosis and its treatment from the military to civilian populations; humanitarian intervention campaigns in the post-Cold War era; and the development of psychosocial intervention programs and standards of care for civilian populations affected by armed conflict. Viewing these developments in their broader historical, political and social contexts reveals the politics behind mental health interventions conducted in countries and populations affected by warfare. In such militarized contexts, the work of NGOs providing assistance to people suffering from trauma-related health problems is far from neutral as it depends on the support of the military and plays an important role in the shaping of international politics and humanitarian aid programs. PMID:22722981

  8. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 740 - Items That May Be Donated To Meet Basic Human Needs Under the Humanitarian License Exception

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Items That May Be Donated To Meet Basic Human Needs Under the Humanitarian License Exception No. Supplement No. 2 to Part 740 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...

  9. Emergent Expertise?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGivern, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The concept of emergence appears in various places within the literature on expertise and expert practice. Here, I examine some of these applications of emergence in the light of two prominent accounts of emergence from the philosophy of science and philosophy of mind. I evaluate these accounts with respect to several specific contexts in which…

  10. Childhood Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fitness Tracker Save Your Life in the ER? Abdominal Pain Resources Home Safety Checklist ACEP Coloring Book Download the Coloring Book » Emergency Care For You American College of Emergency Phycisians Copyright © American College of Emergency Physicians 2016 Privacy Policy Terms of Use

  11. Disaster preparedness in a complex urban system: the case of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Samuel; Grünewald, François

    2016-07-01

    The city is a growing centre of humanitarian concern. Yet, aid agencies, governments and donors are only beginning to comprehend the scale and, importantly, the complexity of the humanitarian challenge in urban areas. Using the case study of the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, this paper examines the analytical utility of recent research on complex urban systems in strengthening scholarly understanding of urban disaster risk management, and outlines its operational relevance to disaster preparedness. Drawing on a literature review and 26 interviews with actors from across the Government of Nepal, the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, non-governmental organisations, United Nations agencies, and at-risk communities, the study argues that complexity can be seen as a defining feature of urban systems and the risks that confront them. To manage risk in these systems effectively, preparedness efforts must be based on adaptive and agile approaches, incorporating the use of network analysis, partnerships, and new technologies. PMID:26578230

  12. Epidemic neuropathy in Cuba: a plea to end the United States economic embargo on a humanitarian basis.

    PubMed

    Román, G C

    1994-10-01

    During 1992-1993, an epidemic of neurologic disease in Cuba affected 50,862 patients with optic neuropathy, sensorineural deafness, predominantly sensory peripheral neuropathy, and dorsolateral myelopathy. The clinical syndromes were identical to those of prisoners of war subjected to nutritional restriction in tropical prison camps during World War II (Strachan's disease). A dietary deficiency of group B vitamins and sulfur-containing amino acids appears to have been the primary cause of the epidemic. This was a consequence of economic and political events in Cuba linked to the collapse of the Soviet Union and socialist countries. The recently toughened 30-year-old US economic embargo on Cuba contributed to these problems and hampered the investigation, treatment, and prevention of the epidemic. A plea is made to the neurologic community to request the lifting of the trade blockade on a humanitarian basis. PMID:7936221

  13. Direct killing of patients in humanitarian situations and armed conflicts: the profession of medicine is losing its meaning.

    PubMed

    Asgary, Ramin

    2015-04-01

    During armed conflicts over the past several years, attacks on humanitarian workers and patients have increased, including the most recent overt killing of patients in their hospital beds in South Sudan and Central African Republic, and bombardments of hospitals in Iraq, Syria, and other countries. Direct attacks on patients inside hospitals, as well as social structural dynamics that undermine patient safety and security, are met with apparent indifference by international and medical communities. How can the medical profession remain silent and stand by while these factors render its core mission futile? In this article, I aim to shed light on this issue, and its implications for the future of the neutral and impartial provision of medical care; provide an analysis of underlying and contributing factors; discuss current international strategies; reflect on the responsibility of health providers; explore ways to strengthen our roles as physician advocates; and call for the medical profession to do more to protect medicine's core values. PMID:25646255

  14. Results of the Development of Humanitarian Landmine Detection System by a Compact Fusion Neutron Source and Dual Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi; Masuda, Kai; Takamatsu, Teruhisa; Yamamoto, Yasushi; Toku, Hisayuki; Fujimoto, Takashi; Hotta, Eiki; Yamauchi, Kunihito; Ohnishi, Masami; Osawa, Hodaka; Shiroya, Seiji; Misawa, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Kubo, Yoshikazu; Doi, Toshiro

    2009-03-10

    A 5-year task is described on the research and development of the advanced humanitarian landmine detection system by using a compact discharge-type fusion neutron source called IECF (Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement Fusion) device and 3 dual sensors made of BGO and NaI(Tl). With 10{sup 7} D-D neutrons/s stably produced in steady-state mode, H-2.2 MeV, N-5.3, 10.8 MeV {gamma} rays from (n,{gamma}) reaction with hydrogen and nitrogen atoms in the explosives are measured for two kinds of explosives (TNT, RDX), under the conditions of three different buried depths, and soil moistures each. Final probabilities of detection for arid soil are found to be 100% in the present tests. The neutron backscattering method is also found to be efficient.

  15. Direct Killing of Patients in Humanitarian Situations and Armed Conflicts: The Profession of Medicine Is Losing Its Meaning

    PubMed Central

    Asgary, Ramin

    2015-01-01

    During armed conflicts over the past several years, attacks on humanitarian workers and patients have increased, including the most recent overt killing of patients in their hospital beds in South Sudan and Central African Republic, and bombardments of hospitals in Iraq, Syria, and other countries. Direct attacks on patients inside hospitals, as well as social structural dynamics that undermine patient safety and security, are met with apparent indifference by international and medical communities. How can the medical profession remain silent and stand by while these factors render its core mission futile? In this article, I aim to shed light on this issue, and its implications for the future of the neutral and impartial provision of medical care; provide an analysis of underlying and contributing factors; discuss current international strategies; reflect on the responsibility of health providers; explore ways to strengthen our roles as physician advocates; and call for the medical profession to do more to protect medicine's core values. PMID:25646255

  16. Brief report: Assessing youth well-being in global emergency settings: Early results from the Emergency Developmental Assets Profile.

    PubMed

    Scales, Peter C; Roehlkepartain, Eugene C; Wallace, Teresa; Inselman, Ashley; Stephenson, Paul; Rodriguez, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The 13-item Emergency Developmental Assets Profile measures the well-being of children and youth in emergency settings such as refugee camps and armed conflict zones, assessing whether young people are experiencing adequate positive relationships and opportunities, and developing positive values, skills, and self-perceptions, despite being in crisis circumstances. The instrument was found to have acceptable and nearly identical internal consistency reliability in 22 administrations in non-emergency samples in 15 countries (.75), and in 4 samples of youth ages 10-18 (n = 1550) in the emergency settings (war refugees and typhoon victims, .74) that are the measure's focus, and evidence of convergent validity. Confirmatory Factor Analysis showed acceptable model fit among those youth in emergency settings. Measures of model fit showed that the Em-DAP has configural and metric invariance across all emergency contexts and scalar invariance across some. The Em-DAP is a promising brief cross-cultural tool for assessing the developmental quality of life as reported by samples of youth in a current humanitarian crisis situation. The results can help to inform international relief program decisions about services and activities to be provided for children, youth, and families in emergency settings. PMID:26426457

  17. Should mortality data for the elderly be collected routinely in emergencies? The practical challenges of age-disaggregated surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    du Cros, Philipp; Venis, Sarah; Karunakara, Unni

    2013-11-01

    Data on the elderly are rarely collected in humanitarian emergencies. During a refugee crisis in South Sudan, Médecins Sans Frontières developed a prospective mortality surveillance system collecting data for those aged ≥50 years and found that the elderly were dying at five times the rate of those aged 5-49 years. Practical and ethical issues arose. Were reported ages accurate? Since no baseline exists, what does the mortality rate mean? Should programmatic changes be made without evidence that these would reduce the elderly mortality rate? We outline issues to be addressed to enable informed decisions on response to elderly populations in emergency settings. PMID:24114674

  18. Should mortality data for the elderly be collected routinely in emergencies? The practical challenges of age-disaggregated surveillance systems

    PubMed Central

    du Cros, Philipp; Venis, Sarah; Karunakara, Unni

    2013-01-01

    Data on the elderly are rarely collected in humanitarian emergencies. During a refugee crisis in South Sudan, Médecins Sans Frontières developed a prospective mortality surveillance system collecting data for those aged ≥50 years and found that the elderly were dying at five times the rate of those aged 5–49 years. Practical and ethical issues arose. Were reported ages accurate? Since no baseline exists, what does the mortality rate mean? Should programmatic changes be made without evidence that these would reduce the elderly mortality rate? We outline issues to be addressed to enable informed decisions on response to elderly populations in emergency settings. PMID:24114674

  19. Fire Department Emergency Response

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.; Bell, K.; Kelly, J.; Hudson, J.

    1997-09-01

    In 1995 the SRS Fire Department published the initial Operations Basis Document (OBD). This document was one of the first of its kind in the DOE complex and was widely distributed and reviewed. This plan described a multi-mission Fire Department which provided fire, emergency medical, hazardous material spill, and technical rescue services.

  20. Complex interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Régules, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    Complexity science – which describes phenomena such as collective and emergent behaviour – is the focus of a new centre where researchers are examining everything from the spread of influenza to what a healthy heartbeat looks like. Sergio de Régules reports.

  1. Contextual Emergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atmanspacher, Harald

    The concept of contextual emergence has been proposed as a nonreductive, yet well-defined relation between different levels of description of physical and other systems. It yields a formally sound and empirically applicable procedure to translate between descriptive levels in an overall consistent fashion. This will be discussed for the contextual emergence of mental states from a neural level of description.

  2. Characterizing emergency departments to improve understanding of emergency care systems

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    International emergency medicine aims to understand different systems of emergency care across the globe. To date, however, international emergency medicine lacks common descriptors that can encompass the wide variety of emergency care systems in different countries. The frequent use of general, system-wide indicators (e.g. the status of emergency medicine as a medical specialty or the presence of emergency medicine training programs) does not account for the diverse methods that contribute to the delivery of emergency care both within and between countries. Such indicators suggest that a uniform approach to the development and structure of emergency care is both feasible and desirable. One solution to this complex problem is to shift the focus of international studies away from system-wide characteristics of emergency care. We propose such an alternative methodology, in which studies would examine emergency department-specific characteristics to inventory the various methods by which emergency care is delivered. Such characteristics include: emergency department location, layout, time period open to patients, and patient type served. There are many more ways to describe emergency departments, but these characteristics are particularly suited to describe with common terms a wide range of sites. When combined, these four characteristics give a concise but detailed picture of how emergency care is delivered at a specific emergency department. This approach embraces the diversity of emergency care as well as the variety of individual emergency departments that deliver it, while still allowing for the aggregation of broad similarities that might help characterize a system of emergency care. PMID:21756328

  3. Alpha-Particle-Induced Complex Chromosome Exchanges Transmitted through Extra-Thymic Lymphopoiesis In Vitro Show Evidence of Emerging Genomic Instability

    PubMed Central

    Sumption, Natalia; Goodhead, Dudley T.; Anderson, Rhona M.

    2015-01-01

    Human exposure to high-linear energy transfer α-particles includes environmental (e.g. radon gas and its decay progeny), medical (e.g. radiopharmaceuticals) and occupational (nuclear industry) sources. The associated health risks of α-particle exposure for lung cancer are well documented however the risk estimates for leukaemia remain uncertain. To further our understanding of α-particle effects in target cells for leukaemogenesis and also to seek general markers of individual exposure to α-particles, this study assessed the transmission of chromosomal damage initially-induced in human haemopoietic stem and progenitor cells after exposure to high-LET α-particles. Cells surviving exposure were differentiated into mature T-cells by extra-thymic T-cell differentiation in vitro. Multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridisation (M-FISH) analysis of naïve T-cell populations showed the occurrence of stable (clonal) complex chromosome aberrations consistent with those that are characteristically induced in spherical cells by the traversal of a single α-particle track. Additionally, complex chromosome exchanges were observed in the progeny of irradiated mature T-cell populations. In addition to this, newly arising de novo chromosome aberrations were detected in cells which possessed clonal markers of α-particle exposure and also in cells which did not show any evidence of previous exposure, suggesting ongoing genomic instability in these populations. Our findings support the usefulness and reliability of employing complex chromosome exchanges as indicators of past or ongoing exposure to high-LET radiation and demonstrate the potential applicability to evaluate health risks associated with α-particle exposure. PMID:26252014

  4. Urologic Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Ludvigson, Adam E; Beaule, Lisa T

    2016-06-01

    The diagnosis and management of urologic emergencies are incorporated into the basic training of all urology residents. In institutions without access to urologic services, it is usually left to the General Surgeon or Emergency Medicine physician to provide timely care. This article discusses diagnoses that are important to recognize and treatment that is practically meaningful for the non-Urologist to identify and treat. The non-Urology provider, after reading this article, will have a better understanding and a higher comfort level with treating patients with urologic emergencies. PMID:27261785

  5. Perspective: Emergent magnetic phenomena at interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Yuri

    2015-06-01

    The discovery of emergent magnetic phenomena is of fundamental and technological interest. This perspective highlights recent promising examples of emergent ferromagnetism at complex oxide interfaces in the context of spin based electronics.

  6. [Emergency contraception].

    PubMed

    Bastianelli, C; Farris, M; Di Miscia, A

    2006-06-01

    A specific formulation has been approved for use in Italy for emergency contraception (EC) in 2000. As expected, marketing of this levonorgestrel (LNG) only formulation has been accompanied by an increased interest and, often, controversies leading to even strong opposition on the part of those ethically opposed to the use of any method that may act after fertilization. At present, several trials on the exact mechanism of action and safety have been conducted, giving good reason for simplifying access, providing it free or over the counter, in several European countries. EC, also known as ''the morning after pill'' or postcoital contraception, is a modality of preventing the establishment of an unwanted pregnancy after unprotected intercourse and thus, probably, of reducing the number of voluntary pregnancy terminations. Two different forms are available: the hormonal and the intrauterine. Hormonal estrogen only EC was first proposed in the 60s and in 1974 Yuzpe following his studies proposed for the first time his combined regimen, that showed better efficacy and lower side effects. More recently, a new regimen, consisting of LNG, administered alone at the dose of 1.5 mg, was introduced and found in clinical trials to be more effective than the Yuzpe regimen, if taken as early as possible, within 72 h, thereby replacing the latter in common use. Mechanism of action of both hormonal preparations used for EC is inhibiting or delaying ovulation, therefore a prefertilization action. No effect has been reported on the process of implantation nor on an ongoing pregnancy. The WHO have developed a third regimen based on the use of the selective progesterone receptor modulator (antiprogestin) Mifepristone and conducted trials with different dosages, reporting similar efficacy and safety compared to LNG. Intrauterine EC was first proposed by Lippes in 1976. It has the advantage of being effective if inserted within 5 days after unprotected intercourse and the disadvantage

  7. Effectiveness of Mechanisms and Models of Coordination between Organizations, Agencies and Bodies Providing or Financing Health Services in Humanitarian Crises: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Akl, Elie A.; El-Jardali, Fadi; Bou Karroum, Lama; El-Eid, Jamale; Brax, Hneine; Akik, Chaza; Osman, Mona; Hassan, Ghayda; Itani, Mira; Farha, Aida; Pottie, Kevin; Oliver, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    Background Effective coordination between organizations, agencies and bodies providing or financing health services in humanitarian crises is required to ensure efficiency of services, avoid duplication, and improve equity. The objective of this review was to assess how, during and after humanitarian crises, different mechanisms and models of coordination between organizations, agencies and bodies providing or financing health services compare in terms of access to health services and health outcomes. Methods We registered a protocol for this review in PROSPERO International prospective register of systematic reviews under number PROSPERO2014:CRD42014009267. Eligible studies included randomized and nonrandomized designs, process evaluations and qualitative methods. We electronically searched Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the WHO Global Health Library and websites of relevant organizations. We followed standard systematic review methodology for the selection, data abstraction, and risk of bias assessment. We assessed the quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. Results Of 14,309 identified citations from databases and organizations' websites, we identified four eligible studies. Two studies used mixed-methods, one used quantitative methods, and one used qualitative methods. The available evidence suggests that information coordination between bodies providing health services in humanitarian crises settings may be effective in improving health systems inputs. There is additional evidence suggesting that management/directive coordination such as the cluster model may improve health system inputs in addition to access to health services. None of the included studies assessed coordination through common representation and framework coordination. The evidence was judged to be of very low quality. Conclusion This systematic review provides evidence of possible effectiveness of information coordination

  8. Rheumatologic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-González, Luis Arturo

    2015-12-01

    Rheumatological conditions can sometimes present as emergencies. These can occur due to the disease process or infection; contrary to what many people think, rheumatologic emergencies like a pain, rheumatic crisis, or attack gout do not compromise the patient's life. This article mentioned only true emergencies: catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (cAPS), kidney-lung syndrome, central nervous system (CNS) vasculitis, anti-Ro syndrome (neonatal lupus), and macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). The management of above emergencies includes critical care, immunosuppression when indicated, and use of a diagnostic flowchart as well as fast laboratory profile for making decisions. Anticoagulants have to be used in the management of antiphospholipid syndrome. A good understanding of these conditions is of paramount importance for proper management. PMID:26099604

  9. Ear emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... from an explosion, blow to the head, flying, scuba diving, falling while water skiing, or being slapped on ... Byyny RL, Shockley LW. Scuba diving and dysbarism. In: Marx JA, ... Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ...

  10. Thoracic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Worrell, Stephanie G; Demeester, Steven R

    2014-02-01

    This article discusses thoracic emergencies, including the anatomy, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, examination, diagnosis, technique, management, and treatment of acute upper airway obstruction, massive hemoptysis, spontaneous pneumothorax, and pulmonary empyema. PMID:24267505

  11. Six-month outcomes following an emergency hospital admission for older adults with co-morbid mental health problems indicate complexity of care needs

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, Lucy E.; Goldberg, Sarah E.; Lewis, Sarah A.; Whittamore, Kathy; Gladman, John R. F.; Jones, Rob G.; Harwood, Rowan H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: two-thirds of older patients admitted as an emergency to a general hospital have co-existing mental health problems including delirium, dementia and depression. This study describes the outcomes of older adults with co-morbid mental health problems after an acute hospital admission. Methods: a follow-up study of 250 patients aged over 70 admitted to 1 of 12 wards (geriatric, medical or orthopaedic) of an English acute general hospital with a co-morbid mental health problem and followed up at 180 days. Results: twenty-seven per cent did not return to their original place of residence after the hospital admission. After 180 days 31% had died, 42% had been readmitted and 24% of community residents had moved to a care home. Only 31% survived without being readmitted or moving to a care home. However, 16% spent >170 of the 180 days at home. Significant predictors for poor outcomes were co-morbidity, nutrition, cognitive function, reduction in activities of daily living ability prior to admission, behavioural and psychiatric problems and depression. Only 42% of survivors recovered to their pre-acute illness level of function. Clinically significant behavioural and psychiatric symptoms were present at follow-up in 71% of survivors with baseline cognitive impairment, and new symptoms developed frequently in this group. Conclusions: the variable, but often adverse, outcomes in this group implies a wide range of health and social care needs. Community and acute services to meet these needs should be anticipated and provided for. PMID:23800454

  12. Counselling in humanitarian settings: a retrospective analysis of 18 individual-focused non-specialised counselling programmes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) provides individual counselling interventions in medical humanitarian programmes in contexts affected by conflict and violence. Although mental health and psychosocial interventions are a common part of the humanitarian response, little is known about how the profile and outcomes for individuals seeking care differs across contexts. We did a retrospective analysis of routine programme data to determine who accessed MSF counselling services and why, and the individual and programmatic risk factors for poor outcomes. Methods We analysed data from 18 mental health projects run by MSF in 2009 in eight countries. Outcome measures were client-rating scores (1–10 scale; 1 worst) for complaint severity and functioning and counsellor assessment. The effect of client and programme factors on outcomes was assessed by multiple regression analysis. Logistic regression was used to assess binary outcome variables. Results 48704 counselling sessions were held with 14963 individuals. Excluding women-focused projects, 66.8% of patients were women. Mean (SD) age was 33.3 (14.1) years. Anxiety-related complaints were the most common (35.0%), followed by family-related problems (15.7%), mood-related problems (14.1%) and physical complaints (13.7%). Only 2.0% presented with a serious mental health condition. 27.2% did not identify a traumatic precipitating event. 24.6% identified domestic discord or violence and 17.5% psychological violence as the precipitating event. 6244 (43.9%) had only one session. For 91% of 7837 who returned, the counsellor reported the problem had decreased or resolved. The mean (SD) complaint rating improved by 4.7 (2.4) points (p < 0.001) and by 4.2 (2.3, p < 0.001) for functional rating. Risk factors for poorer outcomes were few sessions, non-conflict setting (stable or societal violence settings), serious mental health condition, or attending a large, recently opened project. Conclusions The majority of

  13. Anorectal emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Lohsiriwat, Varut

    2016-01-01

    Anorectal emergencies refer to anorectal disorders presenting with some alarming symptoms such as acute anal pain and bleeding which might require an immediate management. This article deals with the diagnosis and management of common anorectal emergencies such as acutely thrombosed external hemorrhoid, thrombosed or strangulated internal hemorrhoid, bleeding hemorrhoid, bleeding anorectal varices, anal fissure, irreducible or strangulated rectal prolapse, anorectal abscess, perineal necrotizing fasciitis (Fournier gangrene), retained anorectal foreign bodies and obstructing rectal cancer. Sexually transmitted diseases as anorectal non-surgical emergencies and some anorectal emergencies in neonates are also discussed. The last part of this review dedicates to the management of early complications following common anorectal procedures that may present as an emergency including acute urinary retention, bleeding, fecal impaction and anorectal sepsis. Although many of anorectal disorders presenting in an emergency setting are not life-threatening and may be successfully treated in an outpatient clinic, an accurate diagnosis and proper management remains a challenging problem for clinicians. A detailed history taking and a careful physical examination, including digital rectal examination and anoscopy, is essential for correct diagnosis and plan of treatment. In some cases, some imaging examinations, such as endoanal ultrasonography and computerized tomography scan of whole abdomen, are required. If in doubt, the attending physicians should not hesitate to consult an expert e.g., colorectal surgeon about the diagnosis, proper management and appropriate follow-up. PMID:27468181

  14. Anorectal emergencies.

    PubMed

    Lohsiriwat, Varut

    2016-07-14

    Anorectal emergencies refer to anorectal disorders presenting with some alarming symptoms such as acute anal pain and bleeding which might require an immediate management. This article deals with the diagnosis and management of common anorectal emergencies such as acutely thrombosed external hemorrhoid, thrombosed or strangulated internal hemorrhoid, bleeding hemorrhoid, bleeding anorectal varices, anal fissure, irreducible or strangulated rectal prolapse, anorectal abscess, perineal necrotizing fasciitis (Fournier gangrene), retained anorectal foreign bodies and obstructing rectal cancer. Sexually transmitted diseases as anorectal non-surgical emergencies and some anorectal emergencies in neonates are also discussed. The last part of this review dedicates to the management of early complications following common anorectal procedures that may present as an emergency including acute urinary retention, bleeding, fecal impaction and anorectal sepsis. Although many of anorectal disorders presenting in an emergency setting are not life-threatening and may be successfully treated in an outpatient clinic, an accurate diagnosis and proper management remains a challenging problem for clinicians. A detailed history taking and a careful physical examination, including digital rectal examination and anoscopy, is essential for correct diagnosis and plan of treatment. In some cases, some imaging examinations, such as endoanal ultrasonography and computerized tomography scan of whole abdomen, are required. If in doubt, the attending physicians should not hesitate to consult an expert e.g., colorectal surgeon about the diagnosis, proper management and appropriate follow-up. PMID:27468181

  15. Emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    Grimes, David A; Raymond, Elizabeth G

    2002-08-01

    Emergency contraception is used to prevent pregnancy after a coital act not adequately protected by a regular method of contraception. In contrast to early medical abortion, emergency contraception prevents a pregnancy from starting and does not disrupt an established pregnancy. The most commonly used approaches consist of two oral doses of contraceptive steroids. The levonorgestrel-only regimen (levonorgestrel, 0.75 mg, repeated in 12 hours) appears to be more effective and better tolerated than the Yuzpe regimen (ethinyl estradiol, 100 microg, and levonorgestrel, 0.5 mg, repeated in 12 hours). In the largest randomized, controlled trial to date, levonorgestrel prevented about 85% of pregnancies that would have occurred without its use. Hormonal emergency contraception has no known medical contraindications, although it is not indicated for suspected or confirmed pregnancy. However, if hormonal emergency contraception is inadvertently taken in early pregnancy, neither the woman nor the fetus will be harmed. Nausea and vomiting associated with the Yuzpe regimen can be reduced by prophylactic use of meclizine. A strong medical and legal case exists for making hormonal emergency contraception available over the counter, as has happened in countries other than the United States. Easier access to and wider use of emergency contraception could dramatically lower the high rates of unintended pregnancy and induced abortion in the United States. PMID:12160366

  16. Expansion of Voltage-dependent Na+ Channel Gene Family in Early Tetrapods Coincided with the Emergence of Terrestriality and Increased Brain Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Zakon, Harold H.; Jost, Manda C.; Lu, Ying

    2011-01-01

    Mammals have ten voltage-dependent sodium (Nav) channel genes. Nav channels are expressed in different cell types with different subcellular distributions and are critical for many aspects of neuronal processing. The last common ancestor of teleosts and tetrapods had four Nav channel genes, presumably on four different chromosomes. In the lineage leading to mammals, a series of tandem duplications on two of these chromosomes more than doubled the number of Nav channel genes. It is unknown when these duplications occurred and whether they occurred against a backdrop of duplication of flanking genes on their chromosomes or as an expansion of ion channel genes in general. We estimated key dates of the Nav channel gene family expansion by phylogenetic analysis using teleost, elasmobranch, lungfish, amphibian, avian, lizard, and mammalian Nav channel sequences, as well as chromosomal synteny for tetrapod genes. We tested, and exclude, the null hypothesis that Nav channel genes reside in regions of chromosomes prone to duplication by demonstrating the lack of duplication or duplicate retention of surrounding genes. We also find no comparable expansion in other voltage-dependent ion channel gene families of tetrapods following the teleost–tetrapod divergence. We posit a specific expansion of the Nav channel gene family in the Devonian and Carboniferous periods when tetrapods evolved, diversified, and invaded the terrestrial habitat. During this time, the amniote forebrain evolved greater anatomical complexity and novel tactile sensory receptors appeared. The duplication of Nav channel genes allowed for greater regional specialization in Nav channel expression, variation in subcellular localization, and enhanced processing of somatosensory input. PMID:21148285

  17. Expansion of voltage-dependent Na+ channel gene family in early tetrapods coincided with the emergence of terrestriality and increased brain complexity.

    PubMed

    Zakon, Harold H; Jost, Manda C; Lu, Ying

    2011-04-01

    Mammals have ten voltage-dependent sodium (Nav) channel genes. Nav channels are expressed in different cell types with different subcellular distributions and are critical for many aspects of neuronal processing. The last common ancestor of teleosts and tetrapods had four Nav channel genes, presumably on four different chromosomes. In the lineage leading to mammals, a series of tandem duplications on two of these chromosomes more than doubled the number of Nav channel genes. It is unknown when these duplications occurred and whether they occurred against a backdrop of duplication of flanking genes on their chromosomes or as an expansion of ion channel genes in general. We estimated key dates of the Nav channel gene family expansion by phylogenetic analysis using teleost, elasmobranch, lungfish, amphibian, avian, lizard, and mammalian Nav channel sequences, as well as chromosomal synteny for tetrapod genes. We tested, and exclude, the null hypothesis that Nav channel genes reside in regions of chromosomes prone to duplication by demonstrating the lack of duplication or duplicate retention of surrounding genes. We also find no comparable expansion in other voltage-dependent ion channel gene families of tetrapods following the teleost-tetrapod divergence. We posit a specific expansion of the Nav channel gene family in the Devonian and Carboniferous periods when tetrapods evolved, diversified, and invaded the terrestrial habitat. During this time, the amniote forebrain evolved greater anatomical complexity and novel tactile sensory receptors appeared. The duplication of Nav channel genes allowed for greater regional specialization in Nav channel expression, variation in subcellular localization, and enhanced processing of somatosensory input. PMID:21148285

  18. Matching humanitarian norms with cold, hard interests: the making of refugee policies in Mexico and Honduras, 1980-89.

    PubMed

    Hartigan, K

    1992-01-01

    Humanitarian norms and institutions should be considered when analyzing the development and state of national policy. Mexico and Honduras, for example, have provided physical security, health care, and education to most Guatemalans and Salvadorans seeking asylum. In neither case, however, are Mexico's and Honduras' economic and political interests being best served. National interest initially forced the deportation or massacre of these refugees, in the case of Honduras, in the early 1980s. In the absence of change in neither national interests nor attitude, these refugees owe their current treatment to the Office of United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. These cases support this paper's argument that national policy is shaped over time by interaction with international norm-promoting institutions. In the interest of minimizing costs and risk, policymakers and governments tend to adapt institutionally developed and internationally accepted policies to suit their needs. National policy is not developed solely on the basis of calculations of national interest outside of internationally accepted norms. This paper demonstrates the ability to empirically test the nature of forces guiding the development of national policy. PMID:12343989

  19. Emergency Communications Console

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    NASA has applied its communications equipment expertise to development of a communications console that provides, in a compact package only slightly larger than an electric typewriter, all the emergency medical services communications functions needed for a regional hospital. A prototype unit, built by Johnson Space Center, has been installed in the Odessa (Texas) Medical Center Hospital. The hospital is the medical control center for the 17-county Permian Basin Emergency Medical System in west Texas. The console project originated in response to a request to NASA from the Texas governor's office, which sought a better way of providing emergency medical care in rural areas. Because ambulance travel time is frequently long in remote areas of west Texas, it is important that treatment begin at the scene of the emergency rather than at the hospital emergency room. A radio and telephone system linking ambulance emergency technicians and hospital staff makes this possible. But earlier equipment was complex, requiring specialized operators. A highly reliable system was needed to minimize breakdowns and provide controls of utmost simplicity, so that the system could be operated by physicians and nurses rather than by communications specialists. The resulting console has both radio and telephone sections. With the radio equipment, hospital personnel can communicate with ambulance drivers and paramedics, receive incoming electrocardiagrams, consult with other hospitals, page hospital staff and set up a radio-to-telephone "patch." The telephone portion of the system includes a hotline from the Permian Basin Emergency Medical Service's resource control center, an automatic dialer for contacting special care facilities in the Permian Basin network, a hospital intercom terminal and a means of relaying cardioscope displays and other data between hospitals. The integrated system also provides links with local disaster and civil defense organizations and with emergency "Dial 911

  20. Emerging phleboviruses☆

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Richard M; Brennan, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    The Bunyavidae family is the largest grouping of RNA viruses and arguably the most diverse. Bunyaviruses have a truly global distribution and can infect vertebrates, invertebrates and plants. The majority of bunyaviruses are vectored by arthropods and thus have the remarkable capability to replicate in hosts of disparate phylogeny. The family has provided many examples of emerging viruses including Sin Nombre and related viruses responsible for hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in the Americas, first identified in 1993, and Schmallenberg virus which emerged in Europe in 2011, causing foetal malformations in ruminants. In addition, some well-known bunyaviruses like Rift Valley fever and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever viruses continue to emerge in new geographical locations. In this short review we focus on newly identified viruses associated with severe haemorrhagic disease in humans in China and the US. PMID:24607799

  1. Emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    Gold, M A

    2000-01-01

    High rates of adolescent pregnancy remain a challenge for health care providers. For most sexually active adolescents, pregnancy is unintended. Emergency contraception, also called the "morning-after-pill" or postcoital contraception, is a way to prevent pregnancy after unprotected intercourse. In the United States, three forms of emergency contraception currently are available: high-dose combination estrogen and progestin pills, high-dose progestin-only pills, and postcoital insertion of a copper intrauterine device. The postcoital intrauterine device is used infrequently. When emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) are taken within 72 hours of unprotected intercourse, they reduce the risk of pregnancy by at least 75%. However, they are most effective if taken within 24 hours of coitus. Eleven brands of pills currently are marketed in the United States that conform to the regimens approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for this indication. Recently, two prepackaged ECPs were approved by the FDA. The only medical contraindication to prescribing ECPs is pregnancy. The most common side effects are nausea and vomiting, followed by menstrual disturbances, breast tenderness, abdominal cramping, dizziness, headache, and mood changes. Because vomiting can compromise the efficacy of ECPs, routine pretreatment with an antiemetic is recommended. Primary care providers can reduce unintended adolescent pregnancy by routinely counseling adolescents at all office visits about the existence of emergency contraception and by prescribing it in advance and over the telephone. PMID:10959448

  2. Emerging Scholars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyaso, Hilary Hurd; Rolo, Mark Anthony; Roach, Ronald; Delos, Robin Chen; Branch-Brioso, Karen; Miranda, Maria Eugenia; Seymour, Add, Jr.; Grossman, Wendy; Nealy, Michelle J.; Lum, Lydia

    2009-01-01

    This year's group of "emerging scholars" is a force to be reckoned with. This diverse group of young (under-40) crusaders is pushing the boundaries of research, technology and public policy in ways never imagined and reaching new heights of accomplishments. The Class of 2009 includes a physiologist who devised an artificial pancreas to produce the…

  3. Radiation Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... over a short period can cause burns or radiation sickness. If the exposure is large enough, it can cause premature aging or even death. Although there are no guarantees of safety during a radiation emergency, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...

  4. Chemical Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... agents such as sarin and VX. Many hazardous chemicals are used in industry - for example, chlorine, ammonia, and benzene. Some can be made from everyday items such as household cleaners. Although there are no guarantees of safety during a chemical emergency, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...

  5. Emerging Options for Emergency Contraception

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Atsuko; Hagopian, Laura; Linden, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Emergency post-coital contraception (EC) is an effective method of preventing pregnancy when used appropriately. EC has been available since the 1970s, and its availability and use have become widespread. Options for EC are broad and include the copper intrauterine device (IUD) and emergency contraceptive pills such as levonorgestrel, ulipristal acetate, combined oral contraceptive pills (Yuzpe method), and less commonly, mifepristone. Some options are available over-the-counter, while others require provider prescription or placement. There are no absolute contraindications to the use of emergency contraceptive pills, with the exception of ulipristal acetate and mifepristone. This article reviews the mechanisms of action, efficacy, safety, side effects, clinical considerations, and patient preferences with respect to EC usage. The decision of which regimen to use is influenced by local availability, cost, and patient preference. PMID:24453516

  6. UAV Deployment Exercise for Mapping Purposes: Evaluation of Emergency Response Applications.

    PubMed

    Boccardo, Piero; Chiabrando, Filiberto; Dutto, Furio; Tonolo, Fabio Giulio; Lingua, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Exploiting the decrease of costs related to UAV technology, the humanitarian community started piloting the use of similar systems in humanitarian crises several years ago in different application fields, i.e., disaster mapping and information gathering, community capacity building, logistics and even transportation of goods. Part of the author's group, composed of researchers in the field of applied geomatics, has been piloting the use of UAVs since 2006, with a specific focus on disaster management application. In the framework of such activities, a UAV deployment exercise was jointly organized with the Regional Civil Protection authority, mainly aimed at assessing the operational procedures to deploy UAVs for mapping purposes and the usability of the acquired data in an emergency response context. In the paper the technical features of the UAV platforms will be described, comparing the main advantages/disadvantages of fixed-wing versus rotor platforms. The main phases of the adopted operational procedure will be discussed and assessed especially in terms of time required to carry out each step, highlighting potential bottlenecks and in view of the national regulation framework, which is rapidly evolving. Different methodologies for the processing of the acquired data will be described and discussed, evaluating the fitness for emergency response applications. PMID:26147728

  7. UAV Deployment Exercise for Mapping Purposes: Evaluation of Emergency Response Applications

    PubMed Central

    Boccardo, Piero; Chiabrando, Filiberto; Dutto, Furio; Giulio Tonolo, Fabio; Lingua, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Exploiting the decrease of costs related to UAV technology, the humanitarian community started piloting the use of similar systems in humanitarian crises several years ago in different application fields, i.e., disaster mapping and information gathering, community capacity building, logistics and even transportation of goods. Part of the author’s group, composed of researchers in the field of applied geomatics, has been piloting the use of UAVs since 2006, with a specific focus on disaster management application. In the framework of such activities, a UAV deployment exercise was jointly organized with the Regional Civil Protection authority, mainly aimed at assessing the operational procedures to deploy UAVs for mapping purposes and the usability of the acquired data in an emergency response context. In the paper the technical features of the UAV platforms will be described, comparing the main advantages/disadvantages of fixed-wing versus rotor platforms. The main phases of the adopted operational procedure will be discussed and assessed especially in terms of time required to carry out each step, highlighting potential bottlenecks and in view of the national regulation framework, which is rapidly evolving. Different methodologies for the processing of the acquired data will be described and discussed, evaluating the fitness for emergency response applications. PMID:26147728

  8. Thyroid Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Leung, Angela M

    2016-01-01

    Myxedema coma and thyroid storm are thyroid emergencies associated with increased mortality. Prompt recognition of these states-which represent the severe, life-threatening conditions of extremely reduced or elevated circulating thyroid hormone concentrations, respectively-is necessary to initiate treatment. Management of myxedema coma and thyroid storm requires both medical and supportive therapies and should be treated in an intensive care unit setting. PMID:27598067

  9. Bounded agency in humanitarian settings: a qualitative study of adherence to antiretroviral therapy among refugees situated in Kenya and Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mendelsohn, Joshua B; Rhodes, Tim; Spiegel, Paul; Schilperoord, Marian; Burton, John Wagacha; Balasundaram, Susheela; Wong, Chunting; Ross, David A

    2014-11-01

    HIV-positive refugees confront a variety of challenges in accessing and adhering to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and attaining durable viral suppression; however, there is little understanding of what these challenges are, how they are navigated, or how they may differ across humanitarian settings. We sought to document and examine accounts of the threats, barriers and facilitators experienced in relation to HIV treatment and care and to conduct comparisons across settings. We conducted semi-structured interviews among a purposive sample of 14 refugees attending a public, urban HIV clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (July-September 2010), and 12 refugees attending a camp-based HIV clinic in Kakuma, Kenya (February-March 2011). We used framework methods and between-case comparison to analyze and interpret the data, identifying social and environmental factors that influenced adherence. The multiple issues that threatened adherence to antiretroviral therapy or precipitated actual adherence lapses clustered into three themes: "migration", "insecurity", and "resilience". The migration theme included issues related to crossing borders and integrating into treatment systems upon arrival in a host country. Challenges related to crossing borders were reported in both settings, but threats pertaining to integration into, and navigation of, a new health system were exclusive to the Malaysian setting. The insecurity theme included food insecurity, which was most commonly reported in the Kenyan setting; health systems insecurity, reported in both settings; and emotional insecurity, which was most common in the Kenyan setting. Resilient processes were reported in both settings. We drew on the concept of "bounded agency" to argue that, despite evidence of personal and community resilience, these processes were sometimes insufficient for overcoming social and environmental barriers to adherence. In general, interventions might aim to bolster individuals' range of action with

  10. Emerging jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwaller, Pedro; Stolarski, Daniel; Weiler, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilities for discovery at LHCb are also discussed.

  11. Hypertensive emergencies.

    PubMed

    Murphy, C

    1995-11-01

    Hypertensive emergencies are uncommon and physiologically diverse. Consequently, it is difficult for most physicians to develop a familiarity with all the different hypertensive crises and with all drugs available for treating them (Table 4). Clinicians should not agonize over which is the perfect therapeutic agent for a particular emergency, but instead, they should focus on scrupulous monitoring and familiarize themselves with a few agents that will serve in most situations. Generally, these agents will be sodium nitroprusside and nitroglycerin. Vigilant neurologic monitoring is mandatory in all hypertensive emergencies. The early symptoms and signs of cerebral hypoperfusion can be vague and subtle, but if recognized, serious complications of therapy can be avoided. Remember, the patient may still be hypertensive. Avoid acute (during the first hour) reductions in MAP of more than 20% whenever possible; subsequent reductions should be gradual. In patients known to have markedly elevated ICP and who need acute reductions in their BP, serious consideration should be given to direct monitoring of the ICP so that CPP can be maintained within safe limits. In general, oral agents should not be used for the treatment of hypertensive emergencies. Intravenous Labetalol and intravenous nicardipine are not suitable for general use in hypertensive emergencies. In special situations (e.g., perioperative hypertension and subarachnoid hemorrhage), however, they may be employed. Their role may expand with further study. Trimethaphan may be superior to nitroprusside for hypertension complicated by elevated ICP or cerebral dysfunction. Realistically, most physicians will continue to use nitroprusside. Intense neurologic monitoring is more important than the specific agent used. Nitroglycerin is the agent of choice for acute ischemic heart disease complicated by severe hypertension; if it fails, use nitroprusside. For aortic dissection, the combination of nitroprusside and IV

  12. Participatory and action research as a transformative praxis: responding to humanitarian crises from the margins.

    PubMed

    Lykes, M Brinton

    2013-11-01

    This article reports on a small set of community-based participatory projects designed collaboratively by and for survivors directly affected by armed conflict in Guatemala and some of their family members in the North (i.e., in New Orleans, Louisiana, and New England). Local protagonists deeply scarred by war and gross violations of human rights drew on indigenous beliefs and practices, creativity, visual performance arts, and participatory and action research strategies to develop and perform collaborative community-based actions. These initiatives constitute a people's psychosocial praxis. Through their individual and collective narratives and actions, Mayan and African American women and Latinas perform a psychology from the "two-thirds world," one that draws on postcolonial theory and methodology to retheorize trauma and resilience. These voices, creative representations, and actions of women from the Global South transform earlier, partial efforts to decenter EuroAmerican epistemologies underlying dominant models of trauma that reduce complex collective phenomena to individual pathology, refer to continuous trauma as past, are ahistorical, and universalize culturally particular realities. PMID:24320677

  13. Emergence of Complexity in Financial Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldarelli, Guido; Battiston, Stefano; Garlaschelli, Diego; Catanzaro, Michele

    We present here a brief summary of the various possible applications of network theory in the field of finance. Since we want to characterize different systems by means of simple and universal features, graph theory could represent a rather powerful methodology. In the following we report our activity in three different subfields, namely the board and director networks, the networks formed by prices correlations and the stock ownership networks. In most of the cases these three kind of networks display scale-free properties making them interesting in their own. Nevertheless, we want to stress here that the main utility of this methodology is to provide new measures of the real data sets in order to validate the different models.

  14. What Evidence Exists for Initiatives to Reduce Risk and Incidence of Sexual Violence in Armed Conflict and Other Humanitarian Crises? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Spangaro, Jo; Adogu, Chinelo; Ranmuthugala, Geetha; Powell Davies, Gawaine; Steinacker, Léa; Zwi, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Sexual violence is highly prevalent in armed conflict and other humanitarian crises and attracting increasing policy and practice attention. This systematic review aimed to canvas the extent and impact of initiatives to reduce incidence, risk and harm from sexual violence in conflict, post-conflict and other humanitarian crises, in low and middle income countries. Twenty three bibliographic databases and 26 websites were searched, covering publications from 1990 to September 2011 using database-specific keywords for sexual violence and conflict or humanitarian crisis. The 40 included studies reported on seven strategy types: i) survivor care; ii) livelihood initiatives; iii) community mobilisation; iv) personnel initiatives; v) systems and security responses; vi) legal interventions and vii) multiple component interventions. Conducted in 26 countries, the majority of interventions were offered in African countries. Despite the extensive literature on sexual violence by combatants, most interventions addressed opportunistic forms of sexual violence committed in post-conflict settings. Only one study specifically addressed the disaster setting. Actual implementation of initiatives appeared to be limited as was the quality of outcome studies. No studies prospectively measured incidence of sexual violence, although three studies provided some evidence of reductions in association with firewood distribution to reduce women's exposure, as did one program to prevent sexual exploitation and abuse by peacekeeping forces. Apparent increases to risk resulted from lack of protection, stigma and retaliation associated with interventions. Multiple-component interventions and sensitive community engagement appeared to contribute to positive outcomes. Significant obstacles prevent women seeking help following sexual violence, pointing to the need to protect anonymity and preventive strategies. This review contributes a conceptual framework for understanding the forms, settings

  15. What evidence exists for initiatives to reduce risk and incidence of sexual violence in armed conflict and other humanitarian crises? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Spangaro, Jo; Adogu, Chinelo; Ranmuthugala, Geetha; Powell Davies, Gawaine; Steinacker, Léa; Zwi, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Sexual violence is highly prevalent in armed conflict and other humanitarian crises and attracting increasing policy and practice attention. This systematic review aimed to canvas the extent and impact of initiatives to reduce incidence, risk and harm from sexual violence in conflict, post-conflict and other humanitarian crises, in low and middle income countries. Twenty three bibliographic databases and 26 websites were searched, covering publications from 1990 to September 2011 using database-specific keywords for sexual violence and conflict or humanitarian crisis. The 40 included studies reported on seven strategy types: i) survivor care; ii) livelihood initiatives; iii) community mobilisation; iv) personnel initiatives; v) systems and security responses; vi) legal interventions and vii) multiple component interventions. Conducted in 26 countries, the majority of interventions were offered in African countries. Despite the extensive literature on sexual violence by combatants, most interventions addressed opportunistic forms of sexual violence committed in post-conflict settings. Only one study specifically addressed the disaster setting. Actual implementation of initiatives appeared to be limited as was the quality of outcome studies. No studies prospectively measured incidence of sexual violence, although three studies provided some evidence of reductions in association with firewood distribution to reduce women's exposure, as did one program to prevent sexual exploitation and abuse by peacekeeping forces. Apparent increases to risk resulted from lack of protection, stigma and retaliation associated with interventions. Multiple-component interventions and sensitive community engagement appeared to contribute to positive outcomes. Significant obstacles prevent women seeking help following sexual violence, pointing to the need to protect anonymity and preventive strategies. This review contributes a conceptual framework for understanding the forms, settings

  16. Perceptions of oral cholera vaccine and reasons for full, partial and non-acceptance during a humanitarian crisis in South Sudan.

    PubMed

    Peprah, Dorothy; Palmer, Jennifer J; Rubin, G James; Abubakar, Abdinasir; Costa, Alejandro; Martin, Stephen; Perea, William; Larson, Heidi J

    2016-07-19

    Oral cholera vaccination (OCV) campaigns were conducted from February to April 2014 among internally displaced persons (IDPs) in the midst of a humanitarian crisis in Juba, South Sudan. IDPs were predominantly members of the Nuer ethnic group who had taken refuge in United Nations bases following the eruption of violence in December 2013. The OCV campaigns, which were conducted by United Nations and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) at the request of the Ministry of Health, reached an estimated 85-96% of the target population. As no previous studies on OCV acceptance have been conducted in the context of an on-going humanitarian crisis, semi-structured interviews were completed with 49 IDPs in the months after the campaigns to better understand perceptions of cholera and reasons for full, partial or non-acceptance of the OCV. Heightened fears of disease and political danger contributed to camp residents' perception of cholera as a serious illness and increased trust in United Nations and NGOs providing the vaccine to IDPs. Reasons for partial and non-acceptance of the vaccination included lack of time and fear of side effects, similar to reasons found in OCV campaigns in non-crisis settings. In addition, distrust in national institutions in a context of fears of ethnic persecution was an important reason for hesitancy and refusal. Other reasons included fear of taking the vaccine alongside other medication or with alcohol. The findings highlight the importance of considering the target populations' perceptions of institutions in the delivery of OCV interventions in humanitarian contexts. They also suggest a need for better communication about the vaccine, its side effects and interactions with other substances. PMID:27265459

  17. Psychiatric Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Wheat, Santina; Dschida, Dorothy; Talen, Mary R

    2016-06-01

    Psychiatric emergencies are acute disturbances in thought, behavior, mood, or social relationship that require immediate intervention as defined by the patient, family, or social unit to save the patient and/or others from imminent danger. Ensuring the safety of the patient, surrounding persons, and the medical team is the first step of evaluation. Treatment focuses on stabilization of the patient, then on specific symptoms and ultimately the cause of symptoms. There are important legal considerations, particularly regarding involuntary admissions. It is important to debrief with the patient, surrounding family, and the health care team to ensure a continued therapeutic alliance and the emotional health of all involved. PMID:27262012

  18. Emergency Lighting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A lighting system originally developed for NASA's Apollo and Skylab manned spacecraft resulted in a industrial spinoff and creation of a whole new company to produce and market the product line. The company is UDEC Corp., Waltham, Mass. UDEC's "Multi-Mode" electronic lighting systems are designed for plant emergency and supplemental use, such as night lighting, "always-on" stairwell lights and illuminated exit signs. Their advantages stem from the qualities demanded for spacecraft installation: extremely high fight output with very low energy drain, compactness, light weight, and high reliability. The Multi-Mode system includes long-life fluorescent lamps operated by electronic circuitry, a sealed battery that needs no maintenance for 10 years, and a solid-state battery charger. A typical emergency installation consists of a master module with battery and an eight watt lamp, together with four remote "Satellight" modules powered by the master's battery. As a night lighting system for maintenance or I security, UDEC fixtures can bypass the battery and 1 operate on normal current at a fraction of the energy 1 demand of conventional night lighting. Industrial customers have realized savings of better than ninety percent with UDEC night lights. UDEC started as a basement industry in 1972 but the company has already sold more than 1,000 lighting systems to building operators.

  19. Emergency Response Synchronization Matrix

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-06-01

    An emergency response to a disaster is complex, requiring the rapid integration, coordination, and synchronization of multiple levels of governmental and non-governmental organizations from numerous jurisdictions into a unified community response. For example, a community’s response actions to a fixed site hazardous materials incident could occur in an area extending from an on-site storage location to points 25 or more miles away. Response actions are directed and controlled by local governments and agencies situated withinmore » the response area, as well as by state and federal operaticns centers quite removed from the area of impact. Time is critical and the protective action decision-making process is greatly compressed. The response community must carefully plan and coordinate response operations in order to have confidence that they will be effectively implemented when faced with the potentially catastrophic nature of such releases. A graphical depiction of the entire response process via an emergency response synchronization matrix is an effective tool in optimizing the planning, exercising, and implementation of emergency plans. This system—based approach to emergency planning depicts how a community organizes its response tasks across space and time in relation to hazard actions. It provides the opportunity to make real—time adjustments as necessary for maximizing the often limited resources in protecting area residents. A response must involve the entire community and must not be limited by individual jurisdictions and organizations acting on their own without coordination, integration, and synchronization.« less

  20. Emerging Foodborne Trematodiasis

    PubMed Central

    Utzinger, Jürg

    2005-01-01

    Foodborne trematodiasis is an emerging public health problem, particularly in Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific region. We summarize the complex life cycle of foodborne trematodes and discuss its contextual determinants. Currently, 601.0, 293.8, 91.1, and 79.8 million people are at risk for infection with Clonorchis sinensis, Paragonimus spp., Fasciola spp., and Opisthorchis spp., respectively. The relationship between diseases caused by trematodes and proximity of human habitation to suitable freshwater bodies is examined. Residents living near freshwater bodies have a 2.15-fold higher risk (95% confidence interval 1.38–3.36) for infections than persons living farther from the water. Exponential growth of aquaculture may be the most important risk factor for the emergence of foodborne trematodiasis. This is supported by reviewing aquaculture development in countries endemic for foodborne trematodiasis over the past 10–50 years. Future and sustainable control of foodborne trematodiasis is discussed. PMID:16318688

  1. Incidence, Etiology and Risk Factors for Travelers’ Diarrhea during a Hospital Ship-Based Military Humanitarian Mission: Continuing Promise 2011

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Andrea; Brannock, Tracy; Martin, Gregory J.; Scouten, William T.; Brooks, Krista; Putnam, Shannon D.; Riddle, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    Travelers’ diarrhea (TD) is the most common ailment affecting travelers, including deployed U.S. military. Continuing Promise 2011 was a 5-month humanitarian assistance/disaster response (HA/DR) military and non-governmental organization training mission aboard the hospital ship USNS Comfort, which deployed to Central and South America and the Caribbean between April and September 2011. Enhanced TD surveillance was undertaken during this mission for public health purposes. Passive surveillance (clinic visits), active surveillance (self-reported questionnaires), and stool samples were collected weekly from shipboard personnel. Descriptive statistics and multivariate-logistic regression methods were used to estimate disease burden and risk factor identification. Two polymerase chain reaction methods on frozen stool were used for microbiological identification. TD was the primary complaint for all clinic visits (20%) and the leading cause of lost duties days due to bed rest confinement (62%), though underreported, as the active self-reported incidence was 3.5 times higher than the passive clinic-reported incidence. Vomiting (p = 0.002), feeling lightheaded or weak (p = 0.005), and being a food handler (p = 0.017) were associated with increased odds of lost duty days. Thirty-eight percent of self-reported cases reported some amount of performance impact. Based on the epidemiological curve, country of exercise and liberty appeared to be temporally associated with increased risk. From the weekly self-reported questionnaire risk factor analysis, eating off ship in the prior week was strongly associated (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.4, p<0.001). Consumption of seafood increased risk (aOR 1.7, p = 0.03), though consumption of ice appeared protective (aOR 0.3, p = 0.01). Etiology was bacterial (48%), with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli as the predominant pathogen (35%). Norovirus was identified as a sole pathogen in 12%, though found as a copathogen in an additional 6

  2. Incidence, Etiology and Risk Factors for Travelers' Diarrhea during a Hospital Ship-Based Military Humanitarian Mission: Continuing Promise 2011.

    PubMed

    Hameed, Jessica M; McCaffrey, Ramona L; McCoy, Andrea; Brannock, Tracy; Martin, Gregory J; Scouten, William T; Brooks, Krista; Putnam, Shannon D; Riddle, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Travelers' diarrhea (TD) is the most common ailment affecting travelers, including deployed U.S. military. Continuing Promise 2011 was a 5-month humanitarian assistance/disaster response (HA/DR) military and non-governmental organization training mission aboard the hospital ship USNS Comfort, which deployed to Central and South America and the Caribbean between April and September 2011. Enhanced TD surveillance was undertaken during this mission for public health purposes. Passive surveillance (clinic visits), active surveillance (self-reported questionnaires), and stool samples were collected weekly from shipboard personnel. Descriptive statistics and multivariate-logistic regression methods were used to estimate disease burden and risk factor identification. Two polymerase chain reaction methods on frozen stool were used for microbiological identification. TD was the primary complaint for all clinic visits (20%) and the leading cause of lost duties days due to bed rest confinement (62%), though underreported, as the active self-reported incidence was 3.5 times higher than the passive clinic-reported incidence. Vomiting (p = 0.002), feeling lightheaded or weak (p = 0.005), and being a food handler (p = 0.017) were associated with increased odds of lost duty days. Thirty-eight percent of self-reported cases reported some amount of performance impact. Based on the epidemiological curve, country of exercise and liberty appeared to be temporally associated with increased risk. From the weekly self-reported questionnaire risk factor analysis, eating off ship in the prior week was strongly associated (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.4, p<0.001). Consumption of seafood increased risk (aOR 1.7, p = 0.03), though consumption of ice appeared protective (aOR 0.3, p = 0.01). Etiology was bacterial (48%), with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli as the predominant pathogen (35%). Norovirus was identified as a sole pathogen in 12%, though found as a copathogen in an additional 6

  3. Emergent spin

    SciTech Connect

    Creutz, Michael

    2014-03-15

    Quantum mechanics and relativity in the continuum imply the well known spin–statistics connection. However for particles hopping on a lattice, there is no such constraint. If a lattice model yields a relativistic field theory in a continuum limit, this constraint must “emerge” for physical excitations. We discuss a few models where a spin-less fermion hopping on a lattice gives excitations which satisfy the continuum Dirac equation. This includes such well known systems such as graphene and staggered fermions. -- Highlights: •The spin–statistics theorem is not required for particles on a lattice. •Spin emerges dynamically when spinless fermions have a relativistic continuum limit. •Graphene and staggered fermions are examples of this phenomenon. •The phenomenon is intimately tied to chiral symmetry and fermion doubling. •Anomaly cancellation is a crucial feature of any valid lattice fermion action.

  4. Severe acute malnutrition during emergencies: burden management, and gaps.

    PubMed

    Bahwere, Paluku

    2014-06-01

    Natural and man-made disasters, including floods, droughts, earthquakes, and armed conflicts, create nutrition crises. Unfortunately, the frequency and severity of such disasters have been increasing since the beginning of the 20th century, and their contribution to the burden of acute malnutrition is increasing every year. However, their contribution to the burden of acute malnutrition is underrecognized due to the ways in which global statistics are built and causes of death are reported. Fortunately, the success of the current protocol for treatment of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) and the integrated approach to treatment has created a momentum allowing expanded coverage of treatment of SAM, especially in humanitarian emergency contexts. For this progress to be maintained and accelerated, changes in nutrition information systems at the national and global levels are needed, and the persisting barriers to the expansion and integration of treatment of SAM into routine health systems need to be removed. Emergency funding approaches and objectives have to include sustaining and amplifying the achievements of the short-term palliative interventions. Nutrition programs implemented in emergency contexts have the capacity to contribute to answering priority research questions, and this capacity should be more optimally utilized. PMID:25069293

  5. Social pediatric emergencies.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, J

    1978-01-01

    A social pediatric emergency invokes the concept of a crisis situation, which often reflects an acute temporary state, the culmination of problems of long duration. The needs demonstrated in child abuse, neglect and deprivation, sexual abuse, the handling of the crisis of birth, pregnancy and abnormality, death and dying, adoption and learning disabilities are related to the family psychodynamic relationships and the doctor team approach. The social pediatrician can play his role as the physician, advocate, activist and educationalist in the many complex situations revealed within family, community and society. PMID:569270

  6. Aspects of emergent symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Pedro R. S.

    2016-03-01

    These are intended to be review notes on emergent symmetries, i.e. symmetries which manifest themselves in specific sectors of energy in many systems. The emphasis is on the physical aspects rather than computation methods. We include some background material and go through more recent problems in field theory, statistical mechanics and condensed matter. These problems illustrate how some important symmetries, such as Lorentz invariance and supersymmetry, usually believed to be fundamental, can arise naturally in low-energy regimes of systems involving a large number of degrees of freedom. The aim is to discuss how these examples could help us to face other complex and fundamental problems.

  7. Human Freedom ``Emergence''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newsome, William T.

    Whether free will is a reality is an increasingly urgent problem, both from a scientific and a social point of view. An ability to make judgments and take actions that are "free" in some meaningful sense would seem a prerequisite for the process of scientific reasoning and for our ability to behave morally. How are we to reconcile the "autonomy" of a reasoning intellect with our scientific conviction that all behavior is mediated by mechanistic interactions between cells of the central nervous system? It seems that answers will ultimately lie in a deeper understanding of emergent phenomena in complex systems. This will help enrich our impoverished standard notions of causation in physical systems.

  8. Complex Systems

    PubMed Central

    Goldberger, Ary L.

    2006-01-01

    Physiologic systems in health and disease display an extraordinary range of temporal behaviors and structural patterns that defy understanding based on linear constructs, reductionist strategies, and classical homeostasis. Application of concepts and computational tools derived from the contemporary study of complex systems, including nonlinear dynamics, fractals and “chaos theory,” is having an increasing impact on biology and medicine. This presentation provides a brief overview of an emerging area of biomedical research, including recent applications to cardiopulmonary medicine and chronic obstructive lung disease. PMID:16921107

  9. Psychiatric emergencies.

    PubMed

    Cavanaugh, S V

    1986-09-01

    Psychiatric disorders are common in medical inpatient and outpatient populations. As a result, internists commonly are the first to see psychiatric emergencies. As with all medical problems, a good history, including a collateral history from relatives and friends, physical and mental status examination, and appropriate laboratory tests help establish a preliminary diagnosis and treatment plan. Patients with suicidal ideation usually have multiple stressors in the environment and/or a psychiatric disorder (i.e., a major affective disorder, dysthymic disorder, anxiety or panic disorder, psychotic disorder, alcohol or drug abuse, a personality disorder, and/or an adjustment disorder). Of all patients who commit suicide, 70% have a major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, psychotic organic mental disorder, alcoholism, drug abuse, and borderline personality disorder. Patients who are at great risk have minimal supports, a history of previous suicide attempts, a plan with high lethality, hopelessness, psychosis, paranoia, and/or command self-destructive hallucinations. Treatment is directed toward placing the patient in a protected environment and providing psychotropic medication and/or psychotherapy for the underlying psychiatric problem. Other psychiatric emergencies include psychotic and violent patients. Psychotic disorders fall into two categories etiologically: those that have an identifiable organic factor causing the psychosis and those that have an underlying psychiatric disorder. Initially, it is essential to rule out organic pathology that is life-threatening or could cause irreversible brain damage. After such organic causes are ruled out, neuroleptic medication is indicated. If the patient is not agitated or combative, he or she may be placed on oral divided doses of neuroleptics in the antipsychotic range. Patients who are agitated or psychotic need rapid tranquilization with an intramuscular neuroleptic every half hour to 1 hour until the agitation and

  10. Managing Complexity

    SciTech Connect

    Chassin, David P.; Posse, Christian; Malard, Joel M.

    2004-08-01

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today’s most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically-based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This paper explores the state of the art in the use physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and to deriving stable and robust control strategies for them. In particular we review and discussion applications of some analytic methods based on the thermodynamic metaphor according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood.

  11. Emerging technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Hodson, C.O.; Williams, D.

    1996-07-01

    Among the emerging technologies for air, hazardous waste and water come new ways of looking at pollution, in both the figurative and quite literal sense. The use of microbes for remediation and pollution control is a component in many of the technologies in this report and is the focus of environmental research at many university and industry labs. Bacteria are the engines driving one featured emissions control technology: the air biofilter. Biofilters are probably more acceptable to most engineers as a soil remediation technology--such as the innovative method described in the hazardous waste section--rather than as means of cleaning off-gases, but in many cases bugs can perform the function inexpensively. The authors give the basics on this available technology. A more experimental application of microbes is being investigated as a potential quantum leap in heavy metals removal technology: bio-engineered, metal consuming plants. The effort to genetically engineer a green remediation tool is detailed in the hazardous waste section.

  12. Emerging technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shin-yee

    1993-03-01

    The mission of the Emerging Technologies thrust area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is to help individuals establish technology areas that have national and commercial impact, and are outside the scope of the existing thrust areas. We continue to encourage innovative ideas that bring quality results to existing programs. We also take as our mission the encouragement of investment in new technology areas that are important to the economic competitiveness of this nation. In fiscal year 1992, we have focused on nine projects, summarized in this report: (1) Tire, Accident, Handling, and Roadway Safety; (2) EXTRANSYT: An Expert System for Advanced Traffic Management; (3) Odin: A High-Power, Underwater, Acoustic Transmitter for Surveillance Applications; (4) Passive Seismic Reservoir Monitoring: Signal Processing Innovations; (5) Paste Extrudable Explosive Aft Charge for Multi-Stage Munitions; (6) A Continuum Model for Reinforced Concrete at High Pressures and Strain Rates: Interim Report; (7) Benchmarking of the Criticality Evaluation Code COG; (8) Fast Algorithm for Large-Scale Consensus DNA Sequence Assembly; and (9) Using Electrical Heating to Enhance the Extraction of Volatile Organic Compounds from Soil.

  13. Agriculture and the energy-complexity spiral.

    PubMed

    Tainter, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    The study of cultural complexity is entwined with ancestors myths from contemporary cosmology. Gowdy & Krall expose this mythology by arguing that complexity emerged from economic changes following cultivation. There is more, however, to the development of cultural complexity. Complexity can emerge from abundant energy or from addressing societal problems, which compels still further energy production. PMID:27562534

  14. Emergency Contraception.

    PubMed

    Batur, Pelin; Kransdorf, Lisa N; Casey, Petra M

    2016-06-01

    Emergency contraception (EC) may help prevent pregnancy in various circumstances, such as contraceptive method failure, unprotected sexual intercourse, or sexual assault, yet it remains underused. There are 4 approved EC options in the United States. Although ulipristal acetate requires a provider's prescription, oral levonorgestrel (LNG) is available over the counter for women of all ages. The most effective method of EC is the copper intrauterine device, which can be left in place for up to 10 years for efficacious, cost-effective, hormone-free, and convenient long-term primary contraception. Ulipristal acetate tends to be more efficacious in pregnancy prevention than is LNG, especially when taken later than 72 hours postcoitus. The mechanism of action of oral EC is delay of ovulation, and current evidence reveals that it is ineffective postovulation. Women who weigh more than 75 kg or have a body mass index greater than 25 kg/m(2) may have a higher risk of unintended pregnancy when using oral LNG EC; therefore, ulipristal acetate or copper intrauterine devices are preferable in this setting. Providers are often unaware of the range of EC options or are unsure of how to counsel patients regarding the access and use of EC. This article critically reviews current EC literature, summarizes recommendations, and provides guidance for counseling women about EC. Useful tips for health care providers are provided, with a focus on special populations, including breast-feeding women and those transitioning to long-term contraception after EC use. When treating women of reproductive age, clinicians should be prepared to counsel them about EC options, provide EC appropriately, and, if needed, refer for EC in a timely manner. PMID:27261868

  15. Emergency contraception

    PubMed Central

    Langille, Donald B.; Allen, Michael; Whelan, Anne Marie

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the extent to which Nova Scotian FPs prescribe and provide emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) and to explore their knowledge of and attitudes toward ECPs. Design Survey of Nova Scotian FPs using a modified Dillman method. Setting All regions of Nova Scotia. Participants Family physicians registered with Dalhousie University’s Division of Continuing Medical Education. Main outcome measures Sex differences in the provision of ECPs and knowledge and attitudes about the ECP Plan B. Results Of 913 eligible FPs, 155 (17.0%) participated in the survey. Respondents resembled the sampling frame closely. Most physicians (64.0%) had prescribed ECPs in the previous year (mean number of prescriptions, 4.92); only 12.9% provided ECPs in advance of need. Knowledge about Plan B was quite good, except for knowledge of the time frame for potential effectiveness; only 29.2% of respondents answered that question correctly. Respondents generally supported nonprescription availability of ECPs, but 25.0% of FPs were concerned that this could lead to less use of more effective methods of contraception, and 39.2% believed that it would encourage repeat use. Younger FPs provided ECPs more often than their older colleagues, while female respondents had better knowledge about Plan B. In multivariate analysis being younger than 40 years was marginally associated with prescribing Plan B and with prescribing any form of ECP. Conclusion Most Nova Scotian FPs provided ECPs and had generally good knowledge about and attitudes toward providing such contraception without prescription. However, FPs were poorly informed about the length of time that Plan B can be effective, which could potentially affect use when patients consult several days after unprotected sex. There were some concerns about nonprescription availability of ECPs, which could have implications for recommending it to patients. Rarely were ECPs prescribed for advance use, which might represent a lost

  16. Cockpit emergency safety system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Leo

    2000-06-01

    A comprehensive safety concept is proposed for aircraft's experiencing an incident to the development of fire and smoke in the cockpit. Fire or excessive heat development caused by malfunctioning electrical appliance may produce toxic smoke, may reduce the clear vision to the instrument panel and may cause health-critical respiration conditions. Immediate reaction of the crew, safe respiration conditions and a clear undisturbed view to critical flight information data can be assumed to be the prerequisites for a safe emergency landing. The personal safety equipment of the aircraft has to be effective in supporting the crew to divert the aircraft to an alternate airport in the shortest possible amount of time. Many other elements in the cause-and-effect context of the emergence of fire, such as fire prevention, fire detection, the fire extinguishing concept, systematic redundancy, the wiring concept, the design of the power supplying system and concise emergency checklist procedures are briefly reviewed, because only a comprehensive and complete approach will avoid fatal accidents of complex aircraft in the future.

  17. Complexity and Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, Jeanette Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    A central feature of complexity is that it is based on non-linear, recursive relations. However, in most current accounts of complexity such relations, while non-linear, are based on the reductive relations of a Newtonian onto-epistemological framework. This means that the systems that are emergent from the workings of such relations are a…

  18. Value-Based Emergency Management.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Zachary; Winslow, Walter; Miramonti, Charlie; Stephens, Tim

    2016-02-01

    This article touches on the complex and decentralized network that is the US health care system and how important it is to include emergency management in this network. By aligning the overarching incentives of opposing health care organizations, emergency management can become resilient to up-and-coming changes in reimbursement, staffing, and network ownership. Coalitions must grasp the opportunity created by changes in value-based purchasing and impending Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services emergency management rules to engage payers, physicians, and executives. Hope and faith in doing good is no longer enough for preparedness and health care coalitions; understanding how physicians are employed and health care is delivered and paid for is now necessary. Incentivizing preparedness through value-based compensation systems will become the new standard for emergency management. PMID:26878308

  19. 77 FR 25180 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... Research on Moderate Acute Malnutrition in Humanitarian Emergencies, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA... Malnutrition in Humanitarian Emergencies, FOA GH12-006, initial review.'' Contact Person for More...

  20. The Use of Cellular Automata in the Learning of Emergence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faraco, G.; Pantano, P.; Servidio, R.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, research efforts on complex systems have contributed to improve our ability in investigating, at different levels of complexity, the emergent behaviour shown by a system in the course of its evolution. The study of emergence, an intrinsic property of a large number of complex systems, can be tackled by making use of Cellular…

  1. Emergent properties in experiments with active microparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacci, Jeremie

    Self-propelled micro-particles are intrinsically out-of-equilibrium. This renders their physics far richer than passive colloids and give rise to the emergence of complex phenomena e.g. collective behavior, swarming... I will present experimental demonstration of emergent properties beyond equilibrium.

  2. The emergent neural modeling system.

    PubMed

    Aisa, Brad; Mingus, Brian; O'Reilly, Randy

    2008-10-01

    Emergent (http://grey.colorado.edu/emergent) is a powerful tool for the simulation of biologically plausible, complex neural systems that was released in August 2007. Inheriting decades of research and experience in network algorithms and modeling principles from its predecessors, PDP++ and PDP, Emergent has been redesigned as an efficient workspace for academic research and an engaging, easy-to-navigate environment for students. The system provides a modern and intuitive interface for programming and visualization centered around hierarchical, tree-based navigation and drag-and-drop reorganization. Emergent contains familiar, high-level simulation constructs such as Layers and Projections, a wide variety of algorithms, general-purpose data handling and analysis facilities and an integrated virtual environment for developing closed-loop cognitive agents. For students, the traditional role of a textbook has been enhanced by wikis embedded in every project that serve to explain, document, and help newcomers engage the interface and step through models using familiar hyperlinks. For advanced users, the software is easily extensible in all respects via runtime plugins, has a powerful shell with an integrated debugger, and a scripting language that is fully symmetric with the interface. Emergent strikes a balance between detailed, computationally expensive spiking neuron models and abstract, Bayesian or symbolic systems. This middle level of detail allows for the rapid development and successful execution of complex cognitive models while maintaining biological plausibility. PMID:18684591

  3. Emergency Contraception Website

    MedlinePlus

    Text Only Full media Version Get Emergency Contraception NOW INFO about Emergency Contraception Q&A about Emergency Contraception Español | Arabic Find a Morning After Pill Provider Near You This website is ...

  4. Emergency Medical Services

    MedlinePlus

    ... need help right away, you should use emergency medical services. These services use specially trained people and ... emergencies, you need help where you are. Emergency medical technicians, or EMTs, do specific rescue jobs. They ...

  5. Emergency airway puncture

    MedlinePlus

    Emergency airway puncture is the placement of a hollow needle through the throat into the airway. It ... Emergency airway puncture is done in an emergency situation, when someone is choking and all other efforts ...

  6. Emergency Medical Services

    MedlinePlus

    ... and need help right away, you should use emergency medical services. These services use specially trained people ... facilities. You may need care in the hospital emergency room (ER). Doctors and nurses there treat emergencies, ...

  7. Why did life emerge?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annila, Arto; Annila, Erkki

    2008-10-01

    Many mechanisms, functions and structures of life have been unraveled. However, the fundamental driving force that propelled chemical evolution and led to life has remained obscure. The second law of thermodynamics, written as an equation of motion, reveals that elemental abiotic matter evolves from the equilibrium via chemical reactions that couple to external energy towards complex biotic non-equilibrium systems. Each time a new mechanism of energy transduction emerges, e.g., by random variation in syntheses, evolution prompts by punctuation and settles to a stasis when the accessed free energy has been consumed. The evolutionary course towards an increasingly larger energy transduction system accumulates a diversity of energy transduction mechanisms, i.e. species. The rate of entropy increase is identified as the fitness criterion among the diverse mechanisms, which places the theory of evolution by natural selection on the fundamental thermodynamic principle with no demarcation line between inanimate and animate.

  8. Emerging Technologies and MOUT

    SciTech Connect

    YONAS,GEROLD; MOY,TIMOTHY DAVID

    2000-11-15

    Operating in a potentially hostile city is every soldier's nightmare. The staggering complexity of the urban environment means that deadly threats--or non-combatants-may lurk behind every corner, doorway, or window. Urban operations present an almost unparalleled challenge to the modern professional military. The complexity of urban operations is further amplified by the diversity of missions that the military will be called upon to conduct in urban terrain. Peace-making and peace-keeping missions, urban raids to seize airports or WMD sites or to rescue hostages, and extended urban combat operations all present different sorts of challenges for planners and troops on the ground. Technology almost never serves as a magic bullet, and past predictions of technological miracles pile high on the ash heap of history. At the same time, it is a vital element of planning in the modern age to consider and, if possible, take advantage of emerging technologies. We believe that technologies can assist military operations in urbanized terrain (MOUT) in three primary areas, which are discussed.

  9. Development of a screening tool to identify female survivors of gender-based violence in a humanitarian setting: qualitative evidence from research among refugees in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High levels of gender-based violence (GBV) persist among conflict-affected populations and within humanitarian settings and are paralleled by under-reporting and low service utilization. Novel and evidence-based approaches are necessary to change the current state of GBV amongst these populations. We present the findings of qualitative research, which were used to inform the development of a screening tool as one potential strategy to identify and respond to GBV for females in humanitarian settings. Methods Qualitative research methods were conducted from January-February 2011 to explore the range of experiences of GBV and barriers to reporting GBV among female refugees. Individual interview participants (n=37) included female refugees (≥15 years), who were survivors of GBV, living in urban or one of three camps settings in Ethiopia, and originating from six conflict countries. Focus group discussion participants (11 groups; 77 participants) included health, protection and community service staff working in the urban or camp settings. Interviews and discussions were conducted in the language of preference, with assistance by interpreters when needed, and transcribed for analysis by grounded-theory technique. Results Single and multiple counts of GBV were reported and ranged from psychological and social violence; rape, gang rape, sexual coercion, and other sexual violence; abduction; and physical violence. Domestic violence was predominantly reported to occur when participants were living in the host country. Opportunistic violence, often manifested by rape, occurred during transit when women depended on others to reach their destination. Abduction within the host country, and often across borders, highlighted the constant state of vulnerability of refugees. Barriers to reporting included perceived and experienced stigma in health settings and in the wider community, lack of awareness of services, and inability to protect children while mothers sought

  10. Emerging standards for testing of multisensor mine detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dibsdall, Ian M.

    2005-06-01

    The standards relating to testing of metal detectors for demining operations are developing well, including (but not limited to) CEN Working Agreement CWA14747:2003, UNMAS Mine Action Standards and others. However, for developing multisensor mine detectors there is no agreed standard method of testing. ITEP, the International Test and Evaluation Program for Humanitarian Demining, is currently drawing together several nation's experience of testing multisensor mine detectors into a "best practice" document that could be used as the basis for standardised testing. This paper outlines the test methodology used during recent multisensor mine detector tests and discusses the issues that have arisen and lessons learned. In particular, the requirements for suitable targets, careful site preparation, measurement of appropriate environmental factors and methods of maximising useful results with limited resources are highlighted. Most recent tests have used a combined Metal Detector (MD) and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), but other sensor systems will be considered. An emerging test methodology is presented, along with an invitation for feedback from other researchers for inclusion into the "best practice" document.

  11. Emergency management of disasters involving livestock in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Heath, S E; Kenyon, S J; Zepeda Sein, C A

    1999-04-01

    Different disasters have similar consequence on the health and welfare of livestock. Numerous geophysical disasters can exacerbate epizootics, resulting in the deaths of many animals and the reduction of production efficiency. These disasters also present a considerable threat of spoilage of processed foods, endangering public health. Furthermore, large-scale disasters involving animals can modify the long-term stability of national economies, the environment and social structures. The authors discuss the vulnerability of the livestock industry to natural disasters and the impact of floods, droughts and transboundary diseases and pests on national economies. Examples are given on how some losses can be avoided, evaluated and compensated. The role of the veterinarian is presented in relation to work conducted by other relief organisations in cases of emergency. In developing countries, mitigation programmes should focus on strengthening global animal health services. Preparedness needs to be community based, with education provided in a timely manner. Effective recovery from disasters should be based on mitigation programmes, including international trade and mutual aid agreements between neighbouring countries to supply appropriate goods and environmentally and culturally appropriate breeds of livestock. Disaster relief for the care of livestock should be recognised as a form of humanitarian assistance, given the benefits to be derived for public health and the socio-economic implications of successful intervention. PMID:10190219

  12. Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene joint meeting with Médecins Sans Frontières at Manson House, London, 20 March 2003: field research in humanitarian medical programmes. Médecins Sans Frontières interventions against kala-azar in the Sudan, 1989-2003.

    PubMed

    Ritmeijer, K; Davidson, R N

    2003-01-01

    Since 1989, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) has provided medical humanitarian assistance during outbreaks of visceral leishmaniasis (VL; kala-azar) in Sudan. First, in western Upper Nile in southern Sudan, where a VL epidemic occurred after the resumption of the civil war in Sudan in 1983, with an estimated 100,000 deaths. Later, MSF started interventions in eastern Upper Nile and Gedaref State. In these two endemic regions VL incidence has risen markedly since 2001, which could be the start of a new epidemic cycle. Outbreaks of VL in Sudan remain unpredictable, and access to affected populations in war-torn southern Sudan is often hampered by insecurity. Therefore, MSF takes a flexible approach, establishing treatment centres where patients can be accessed. From 1989 to 2002, MSF treated >51,000 VL cases in Sudan. Despite very basic field conditions, high cure rates of 95% are being achieved. Lack of diagnostics is a major obstacle to treatment, especially during epidemic situations. Therefore, development of simple and rapid technologies is required, allowing reliable diagnosis under field conditions. For treatment of VL there is a limited choice of effective, affordable drugs. There are strong indications of an emerging resistance to antimonials in Malakal. Introduction of combination therapies is urgently needed to prevent the further emergence and spread of resistance to antimonials, which are still the mainstay of VL treatment in eastern Africa. Experience with combination therapy with sodium stibogluconate (SSG) and paromomycin is promising, and combinations of SSg with liposomal amphotericin B and miltefosine are currently being explored. PMID:16134257

  13. A decade of emerging indications: deep brain stimulation in the United States.

    PubMed

    Youngerman, Brett E; Chan, Andrew K; Mikell, Charles B; McKhann, Guy M; Sheth, Sameer A

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an emerging treatment option for an expanding set of neurological and psychiatric diseases. Despite growing enthusiasm, the patterns and implications of this rapid adoption are largely unknown. National trends in DBS surgery performed for all indications between 2002 and 2011 are reported. METHODS Using a national database of hospital discharges, admissions for DBS for 14 indications were identified and categorized as either FDA approved, humanitarian device exempt (HDE), or emerging. Trends over time were examined, differences were analyzed by univariate analyses, and outcomes were analyzed by hierarchical regression analyses. RESULTS Between 2002 and 2011, there were an estimated 30,490 discharges following DBS for approved indications, 1647 for HDE indications, and 2014 for emerging indications. The volume for HDE and emerging indications grew at 36.1% annually in comparison with 7.0% for approved indications. DBS for emerging indications occurred at hospitals with more neurosurgeons and neurologists locally, but not necessarily at those with the highest DBS caseloads. Patients treated for HDE and emerging indications were younger with lower comorbidity scores. HDE and emerging indications were associated with greater rates of reported complications, longer lengths of stay, and greater total costs. CONCLUSIONS DBS for HDE and emerging indications underwent rapid growth in the last decade, and it is not exclusively the most experienced DBS practitioners leading the charge to treat the newest indications. Surgeons may be selecting younger and healthier patients for their early experiences. Differences in reported complication rates warrant further attention and additional costs should be anticipated as surgeons gain experience with new patient populations and targets. PMID:26722851

  14. Developing emergency nursing competence.

    PubMed

    Proehl, Jean A

    2002-03-01

    Developing and maintaining the competence emergency nurses need is an important function of emergency clinical nurse specialists (CNS), educators, and other members of the emergency department (ED) leadership team. A thorough orientation is the first and most important step in developing the competence of emergency nurses. After orientation, the challenge is to maintain currency of practice in the face of incessant change such as new medications, new equipment, and new therapies in emergency care. This article focuses on the orientation of emergency nurses. A related article in this issue addresses assessment of competency. PMID:11818264

  15. Modeling the Complexities of Water and Hygiene in Limpopo Province South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellor, J. E.; Smith, J. A.; Learmonth, G.; Netshandama, V.; Dillingham, R.

    2012-12-01

    the results of those interventions become available. Our model accurately reproduces current pathogen transport through the communities and child growth stunting. An intensive sensitivity analysis found that biological regrowth, biofilm layers and collection habits are all factors in pathogen transmission. We also report on the effects of multiple interventions and our exploration of emergent behavior. Our results indicate that the dominant source of fecal-oral transmission is through the contamination of drinking water after collection, but before consumption. Furthermore sub-optimal interventions such as improved, but still inconsistent water treatment have little protective effect against ECD. Finally, interventions such as the introduction of point-of-use water treatment technologies or improved water-storage practices are the best ECD prevention strategies. The complexities of the causes and prevention strategies of pathogen loading and ECD in the developing world are poorly understood. This project goes beyond previous studies through its ability to model the complex engineered/natural/social pathogen transmission chain using an ABM informed by field data. We hope that this and similar tools may be used by scientists, policy-makers and humanitarian organizations when designing community-level interventions to prevent ECD in similar settings around the world.

  16. Pre-Travel Preparation of US Travelers Going Abroad to Provide Humanitarian Service, Global TravEpiNet 2009–2011

    PubMed Central

    Stoney, Rhett J.; Jentes, Emily S.; Sotir, Mark J.; Kozarsky, Phyllis; Rao, Sowmya R.; LaRocque, Regina C.; Ryan, Edward T.

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed characteristics of humanitarian service workers (HSWs) seen pre-travel at Global TravEpiNet (GTEN) practices during 2009–2011. Of 23,264 travelers, 3,663 (16%) travelers were classified as HSWs. Among HSWs, 1,269 (35%) travelers were medical workers, 1,298 (35%) travelers were non-medical service workers, and 990 (27%) travelers were missionaries. Median age was 29 years, and 63% of travelers were female. Almost one-half (49%) traveled to 1 of 10 countries; the most frequent destinations were Haiti (14%), Honduras (8%), and Kenya (6%). Over 90% of travelers were vaccinated for or considered immune to hepatitis A, typhoid, and yellow fever. However, for hepatitis B, 292 (29%) of 990 missionaries, 228 (18%) of 1,298 non-medical service workers, and 76 (6%) of 1,269 medical workers were not vaccinated or considered immune. Of HSWs traveling to Haiti during 2010, 5% of travelers did not receive malaria chemoprophylaxis. Coordinated efforts from HSWs, HSW agencies, and clinicians could reduce vaccine coverage gaps and improve use of malaria chemoprophylaxis. PMID:24445203

  17. Emerging and re-emerging arboviral diseases in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Dash, A P; Bhatia, Rajesh; Sunyoto, Temmy; Mourya, D T

    2013-01-01

    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) have become significant public health problems, with the emergence and re-emergence of arboviral diseases nearly worldwide. The most populated Southeast Asia region is particularly vulnerable. The arboviral diseases such as dengue (DEN), Japanese encephalitis (JE), West Nile virus (WNV), chikungunya fever (CHIK), hemorrhagic fevers such as Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic (CCHF) fever, Kyasanur forest disease virus (KFDV), etc. are on the rise and have spread unprecedentedly, causing considerable burden of disease. The emergence/re-emergence of these diseases is associated with complex factors, such as viral recombination and mutation, leading to more virulent and adaptive strains, urbanization and human activities creating more permissive environment for vector-host interaction, and increased air travel and commerce. Climate is a major factor in determining the geographic and temporal distribution of arthropods, the characteristics of arthropod life cycles, the consequent dispersal patterns of associated arboviruses, the evolution of arboviruses; and the efficiency with which they are transmitted from arthropods to vertebrate hosts. The present and future arboviral threats must be mitigated by priority actions such as improving surveillance and outbreak response, establishing collaboration and communication intersectorally, and strengthening the prevention and control programmes along with improving biosafety aspects with regards to highly infectious nature of these arboviral diseases. Evidence from research needs to be generated and priority areas for research defined. PMID:23995308

  18. Emergency preparedness and planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouvier, Kenneth

    1993-01-01

    Monsanto's emergency response plan in dealing with hazardous materials at their facilities is presented. Topics discussed include the following: CPR training; emergency medial training; incident reports; contractor injuries; hazardous materials transport; evacuation; and other industrial safety concerns.

  19. Natural Gas Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... by the Cass (ND) and Clay (MN) Emergency Planning Partnerships. Adapted with funding provided by Fargo Cass Public Health through the Cities Readiness Initiative (CRI) English – Natural Gas Emergencies - Last ...

  20. Adaptive planning of emergency aerial photogrammetric mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Fuqiang; Zhu, Qing; Zhang, Junxiao; Miao, Shuangxi; Zhou, Xingxia; Cao, Zhenyu

    2015-12-01

    Aiming at the diversity of emergency aerial photogrammetric mission requirements, complex ground and air environmental constraints make the planning mission time-consuming. This paper presents a fast adaptation for the UAV aerial photogrammetric mission planning. First, Building emergency aerial UAVs mission the unified expression of UAVs model and mechanical model of performance parameters in the semantic space make the integrated expression of mission requirements and low altitude environment. Proposed match assessment method which based on resource and mission efficiency. Made the Adaptive match of UAV aerial resources and mission. According to the emergency aerial resource properties, considering complex air-ground environment and mission requirements constraints. Made accurate design of UAV route. Experimental results show, the method scientific and efficient, greatly enhanced the emergency response rate.