Science.gov

Sample records for complex object processing

  1. Simulating complex intracellular processes using object-oriented computational modelling.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Colin G; Goldman, Jacki P; Gullick, William J

    2004-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to give an overview of computer modelling and simulation in cellular biology, in particular as applied to complex biochemical processes within the cell. This is illustrated by the use of the techniques of object-oriented modelling, where the computer is used to construct abstractions of objects in the domain being modelled, and these objects then interact within the computer to simulate the system and allow emergent properties to be observed. The paper also discusses the role of computer simulation in understanding complexity in biological systems, and the kinds of information which can be obtained about biology via simulation. PMID:15302205

  2. Reducing the complexity of the software design process with object-oriented design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuler, M. P.

    1991-01-01

    Designing software is a complex process. How object-oriented design (OOD), coupled with formalized documentation and tailored object diagraming techniques, can reduce the complexity of the software design process is described and illustrated. The described OOD methodology uses a hierarchical decomposition approach in which parent objects are decomposed into layers of lower level child objects. A method of tracking the assignment of requirements to design components is also included. Increases in the reusability, portability, and maintainability of the resulting products are also discussed. This method was built on a combination of existing technology, teaching experience, consulting experience, and feedback from design method users. The discussed concepts are applicable to hierarchal OOD processes in general. Emphasis is placed on improving the design process by documenting the details of the procedures involved and incorporating improvements into those procedures as they are developed.

  3. Processing simultaneous auditory objects: infants' ability to detect mistuning in harmonic complexes.

    PubMed

    Folland, Nicole A; Butler, Blake E; Smith, Nicholas A; Trainor, Laurel J

    2012-01-01

    The ability to separate simultaneous auditory objects is crucial to infant auditory development. Music in particular relies on the ability to separate musical notes, chords, and melodic lines. Little research addresses how infants process simultaneous sounds. The present study used a conditioned head-turn procedure to examine whether 6-month-old infants are able to discriminate a complex tone (240 Hz, 500 ms, six harmonics in random phase with a 6 dB roll-off per octave) from a version with the third harmonic mistuned. Adults perceive such stimuli as containing two auditory objects, one with the pitch of the mistuned harmonic and the other with pitch corresponding to the fundamental of the complex tone. Adult thresholds were between 1% and 2% mistuning. Infants performed above chance levels for 8%, 6%, and 4% mistunings, with no significant difference between conditions. However, performance was not significantly different from chance for 2% mistuning and significantly worse for 2% compared to all larger mistunings. These results indicate that 6-month-old infants are sensitive to violations of harmonic structure and suggest that they are able to separate two simultaneously sounding objects. PMID:22280722

  4. The Human Medial Temporal Lobe Processes Online Representations of Complex Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barense, Morgan D.; Gaffan, David; Graham, Kim S.

    2007-01-01

    There has been considerable debate as to whether structures in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) support both memory and perception, in particular whether the perirhinal cortex may be involved in the perceptual discrimination of complex objects with a large number of overlapping features. Similar experiments testing the discrimination of blended…

  5. A flexible object-based software framework for modeling complex systems with interacting natural and societal processes.

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, J. H.

    2000-06-15

    The Dynamic Information Architecture System (DIAS) is a flexible, extensible, object-based framework for developing and maintaining complex multidisciplinary simulations. The DIAS infrastructure makes it feasible to build and manipulate complex simulation scenarios in which many thousands of objects can interact via dozens to hundreds of concurrent dynamic processes. The flexibility and extensibility of the DIAS software infrastructure stem mainly from (1) the abstraction of object behaviors, (2) the encapsulation and formalization of model functionality, and (3) the mutability of domain object contents. DIAS simulation objects are inherently capable of highly flexible and heterogeneous spatial realizations. Geospatial graphical representation of DIAS simulation objects is addressed via the GeoViewer, an object-based GIS toolkit application developed at ANL. DIAS simulation capabilities have been extended by inclusion of societal process models generated by the Framework for Addressing Cooperative Extended Transactions (FACET), another object-based framework developed at Argonne National Laboratory. By using FACET models to implement societal behaviors of individuals and organizations within larger DIAS-based natural systems simulations, it has become possible to conveniently address a broad range of issues involving interaction and feedback among natural and societal processes. Example DIAS application areas discussed in this paper include a dynamic virtual oceanic environment, detailed simulation of clinical, physiological, and logistical aspects of health care delivery, and studies of agricultural sustainability of urban centers under environmental stress in ancient Mesopotamia.

  6. Modelling and prediction of complex non-linear processes by using Pareto multi-objective genetic programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamali, A.; Khaleghi, E.; Gholaminezhad, I.; Nariman-zadeh, N.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a new multi-objective genetic programming (GP) with a diversity preserving mechanism and a real number alteration operator is presented and successfully used for Pareto optimal modelling of some complex non-linear systems using some input-output data. In this study, two different input-output data-sets of a non-linear mathematical model and of an explosive cutting process are considered separately in three-objective optimisation processes. The pertinent conflicting objective functions that have been considered for such Pareto optimisations are namely, training error (TE), prediction error (PE), and the length of tree (complexity of the network) (TL) of the GP models. Such three-objective optimisation implementations leads to some non-dominated choices of GP-type models for both cases representing the trade-offs among those objective functions. Therefore, optimal Pareto fronts of such GP models exhibit the trade-off among the corresponding conflicting objectives and, thus, provide different non-dominated optimal choices of GP-type models. Moreover, the results show that no significant optimality in TE and PE may occur when the TL of the corresponding GP model exceeds some values.

  7. Recurrent Processing during Object Recognition

    PubMed Central

    O’Reilly, Randall C.; Wyatte, Dean; Herd, Seth; Mingus, Brian; Jilk, David J.

    2013-01-01

    How does the brain learn to recognize objects visually, and perform this difficult feat robustly in the face of many sources of ambiguity and variability? We present a computational model based on the biology of the relevant visual pathways that learns to reliably recognize 100 different object categories in the face of naturally occurring variability in location, rotation, size, and lighting. The model exhibits robustness to highly ambiguous, partially occluded inputs. Both the unified, biologically plausible learning mechanism and the robustness to occlusion derive from the role that recurrent connectivity and recurrent processing mechanisms play in the model. Furthermore, this interaction of recurrent connectivity and learning predicts that high-level visual representations should be shaped by error signals from nearby, associated brain areas over the course of visual learning. Consistent with this prediction, we show how semantic knowledge about object categories changes the nature of their learned visual representations, as well as how this representational shift supports the mapping between perceptual and conceptual knowledge. Altogether, these findings support the potential importance of ongoing recurrent processing throughout the brain’s visual system and suggest ways in which object recognition can be understood in terms of interactions within and between processes over time. PMID:23554596

  8. Reduction of Subjective and Objective System Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Occam's razor is often used in science to define the minimum criteria to establish a physical or philosophical idea or relationship. Albert Einstein is attributed the saying "everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler". These heuristic ideas are based on a belief that there is a minimum state or set of states for a given system or phenomena. In looking at system complexity, these heuristics point us to an idea that complexity can be reduced to a minimum. How then, do we approach a reduction in complexity? Complexity has been described as a subjective concept and an objective measure of a system. Subjective complexity is based on human cognitive comprehension of the functions and inter relationships of a system. Subjective complexity is defined by the ability to fully comprehend the system. Simplifying complexity, in a subjective sense, is thus gaining a deeper understanding of the system. As Apple's Jonathon Ive has stated," It's not just minimalism or the absence of clutter. It involves digging through the depth of complexity. To be truly simple, you have to go really deep". Simplicity is not the absence of complexity but a deeper understanding of complexity. Subjective complexity, based on this human comprehension, cannot then be discerned from the sociological concept of ignorance. The inability to comprehend a system can be either a lack of knowledge, an inability to understand the intricacies of a system, or both. Reduction in this sense is based purely on a cognitive ability to understand the system and no system then may be truly complex. From this view, education and experience seem to be the keys to reduction or eliminating complexity. Objective complexity, is the measure of the systems functions and interrelationships which exist independent of human comprehension. Jonathon Ive's statement does not say that complexity is removed, only that the complexity is understood. From this standpoint, reduction of complexity can be approached

  9. Modeling Electromagnetic Scattering From Complex Inhomogeneous Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, Manohar; Reddy, C. J.

    2011-01-01

    This software innovation is designed to develop a mathematical formulation to estimate the electromagnetic scattering characteristics of complex, inhomogeneous objects using the finite-element-method (FEM) and method-of-moments (MoM) concepts, as well as to develop a FORTRAN code called FEMOM3DS (Finite Element Method and Method of Moments for 3-Dimensional Scattering), which will implement the steps that are described in the mathematical formulation. Very complex objects can be easily modeled, and the operator of the code is not required to know the details of electromagnetic theory to study electromagnetic scattering.

  10. Building Complex Reference Objects from Dual Sets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patson, Nikole D.; Warren, Tessa

    2011-01-01

    There has been considerable psycholinguistic investigation into the conditions that allow separately introduced individuals to be joined into a plural set and represented as a complex reference object (e.g., Eschenbach et al., 1989; Garrod & Sanford, 1982; Koh & Clifton, 2002; Koh et al., 2008; Moxey, Sanford, Sturt, & Morrow, 2004; Sanford &…

  11. Building complex reference objects from dual sets

    PubMed Central

    Patson, Nikole D.; Warren, Tessa

    2011-01-01

    There has been considerable psycholinguistic investigation into the conditions that allow separately introduced individuals to be joined into a plural set and represented as a complex reference object (e.g., Eschenbach, et al., 1989; Garrod & Sanford, 1982; Koh & Clifton, 2002; Koh et al., 2008; Moxey et al., 2004; Sanford & Lockhart, 1990). The current paper reports three eye-tracking experiments that investigate the less-well understood question of what conditions allow pointers to be assigned to the individuals within a previously undifferentiated set, turning it into a complex reference object. The experiments made use of a methodology used in Patson and Ferreira (2009) to distinguish between complex reference objects and undifferentiated sets. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that assigning different properties to the members of an undifferentiated dual set via a conjoined modifier or a comparative modifier transformed it into a complex reference object. Experiment 3 indicated that assigning a property to only one member of an undifferentiated dual set introduced pointers to both members. These results demonstrate that pointers can be established to referents within a plural set without picking them out via anaphors; they set boundaries on the kinds of implicit contrasts between referents that establish pointers; and they illustrate that extremely subtle properties of the semantic and referential context can affect early parsing decisions. PMID:21666836

  12. Segmentation of moving object in complex environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Yang; Wang, Jingru; Zhang, Qiheng

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents a new automatic image segmentation method for segmenting moving object in complex environment by combining the motion information with edge information. We propose an adaptive optical flow method based on the Horn-Schunck algorithm to estimate the optical flow field. Our method puts different smoothness constraints on different directions and optical flow constraint is used according to the gradient magnitude. Canny edge detector can obtain the most edge information but miss some pixels. In order to restore these missing pixels the edge has a growing based on the continuity of optical flow field. Next, by remaining the block that has the longest edge could delete the noise in the background, and then the last segmentation result is obtained. The experimental result demonstrates that this method can segment the moving object in complex environment precisely.

  13. SYSTEMATIC PROCEDURE FOR DESIGNING PROCESSES WITH MULTIPLE ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of multiple objectives is very important in designing environmentally benign processes. It requires a systematic procedure for solving multiobjective decision-making problems, due to the complex nature of the problems, the need for complex assessments, and complicated ...

  14. A SYSTEMATIC PROCEDURE FOR DESIGNING PROCESSES WITH MULTIPLE ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation and analysis of multiple objectives are very important in designing environmentally benign processes. They require a systematic procedure for solving multi-objective decision-making problems due to the complex nature of the problems and the need for complex assessment....

  15. Object-oriented models of cognitive processing.

    PubMed

    Mather, G

    2001-05-01

    Information-processing models of vision and cognition are inspired by procedural programming languages. Models that emphasize object-based representations are closely related to object-oriented programming languages. The concepts underlying object-oriented languages provide a theoretical framework for cognitive processing that differs markedly from that offered by procedural languages. This framework is well-suited to a system designed to deal flexibly with discrete objects and unpredictable events in the world. PMID:11323249

  16. Emotion and Object Processing in Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Henri; Gagne, Marie-Helene; Hess, Ursula; Pourcher, Emmanuelle

    2010-01-01

    The neuropsychological literature on the processing of emotions in Parkinson's disease (PD) reveals conflicting evidence about the role of the basal ganglia in the recognition of facial emotions. Hence, the present study had two objectives. One was to determine the extent to which the visual processing of emotions and objects differs in PD. The…

  17. Remembering complex objects in visual working memory: do capacity limits restrict objects or features?

    PubMed

    Hardman, Kyle O; Cowan, Nelson

    2015-03-01

    Visual working memory stores stimuli from our environment as representations that can be accessed by high-level control processes. This study addresses a longstanding debate in the literature about whether storage limits in visual working memory include a limit to the complexity of discrete items. We examined the issue with a number of change-detection experiments that used complex stimuli that possessed multiple features per stimulus item. We manipulated the number of relevant features of the stimulus objects in order to vary feature load. In all of our experiments, we found that increased feature load led to a reduction in change-detection accuracy. However, we found that feature load alone could not account for the results but that a consideration of the number of relevant objects was also required. This study supports capacity limits for both feature and object storage in visual working memory. PMID:25089739

  18. Crossmodal Object-Based Attention: Auditory Objects Affect Visual Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turatto, M.; Mazza, V.; Umilta, C.

    2005-01-01

    According to the object-based view, visual attention can be deployed to ''objects'' or perceptual units, regardless of spatial locations. Recently, however, the notion of object has also been extended to the auditory domain, with some authors suggesting possible interactions between visual and auditory objects. Here we show that task-irrelevant…

  19. Pan-STARRS Moving Object Processing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedicke, R.; Denneau, L.; Grav, T.; Heasley, J.; Kubica, Jeremy; Pan-STARRS Team

    2005-12-01

    The Institute for Astronomy at the University of Hawaii is developing a large optical astronomical surveying system - the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS). The Moving Object Processing System (MOPS) client of the Pan-STARRS image processing pipeline is developing software to automatically discover and identify >90% of near-Earth objects (NEOs) 300m in diameter and >80% of other classes of asteroids and comets. In developing its software, MOPS has created a synthetic solar system model (SSM) with over 10 million objects whose distributions of orbital characteristics matches those expected for objects that Pan-STARRS will observe. MOPS verifies its correct operation by simulating the survey and subsequent discovery of synthetically generated objects. MOPS also employs novel techniques in handling the computationally difficult problem of linking large numbers of unknown asteroids in a field of detections. We will describe the creation and verification of the Pan-STARRS MOPS SSM, demonstrate synthetic detections and observations by the MOPS, describe the MOPS asteroid linking techniques, describe accuracy and throughput of the entire MOPS system, and provide predictions regarding the numbers and kinds of objects, including as yet undiscovered "extreme objects", that the MOPS expects to find over its 10-year lifetime. Pan-STARRS is funded under a grant from the U.S. Air Force.

  20. Development of Three-Dimensional Completion of Complex Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soska, Kasey C.; Johnson, Scott P.

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) object completion, the ability to perceive the backs of objects seen from a single viewpoint, emerges at around 6 months of age. Yet, only relatively simple 3D objects have been used in assessing its development. This study examined infants' 3D object completion when presented with more complex stimuli. Infants…

  1. Optical apparatus for laser scattering by objects having complex shapes

    DOEpatents

    Ellingson, William A.; Visher, Robert J.

    2006-11-14

    Apparatus for observing and measuring in realtime surface and subsurface characteristics of objects having complex shapes includes an optical fiber bundle having first and second opposed ends. The first end includes a linear array of fibers, where the ends of adjacent fibers are in contact and are aligned perpendicular to the surface of the object being studied. The second ends of some of the fibers are in the form of a polished ferrule forming a multi-fiber optical waveguide for receiving laser light. The second ends of the remaining fibers are formed into a linear array suitable for direct connection to a detector, such as a linear CMOS-based optical detector. The output data is analyzed using digital signal processing for the detection of anomalies such as cracks, voids, inclusions and other defects.

  2. Atmospheric processes over complex terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banta, Robert M.; Berri, G.; Blumen, William; Carruthers, David J.; Dalu, G. A.; Durran, Dale R.; Egger, Joseph; Garratt, J. R.; Hanna, Steven R.; Hunt, J. C. R.

    1990-06-01

    A workshop on atmospheric processes over complex terrain, sponsored by the American Meteorological Society, was convened in Park City, Utah from 24 vto 28 October 1988. The overall objective of the workshop was one of interaction and synthesis--interaction among atmospheric scientists carrying out research on a variety of orographic flow problems, and a synthesis of their results and points of view into an assessment of the current status of topical research problems. The final day of the workshop was devoted to an open discussion on the research directions that could be anticipated in the next decade because of new and planned instrumentation and observational networks, the recent emphasis on development of mesoscale numerical models, and continual theoretical investigations of thermally forced flows, orographic waves, and stratified turbulence. This monograph represents an outgrowth of the Park City Workshop. The authors have contributed chapters based on their lecture material. Workshop discussions indicated interest in both the remote sensing and predictability of orographic flows. These chapters were solicited following the workshop in order to provide a more balanced view of current progress and future directions in research on atmospheric processes over complex terrain.

  3. Phase-retrieval ghost imaging of complex-valued objects

    SciTech Connect

    Gong Wenlin; Han Shensheng

    2010-08-15

    An imaging approach, based on ghost imaging, is reported to recover a pure-phase object or a complex-valued object. Our analytical results, which are backed up by numerical simulations, demonstrate that both the complex-valued object and its amplitude-dependent part can be separately and nonlocally reconstructed using this approach. Both effects influencing the quality of reconstructed images and methods to further improve the imaging quality are also discussed.

  4. Method and system for producing complex-shape objects

    DOEpatents

    Jeantette, Francisco P.; Keicher, David M.; Romero, Joseph A.; Schanwald, Lee P.

    2000-01-01

    A method and system are provided for producing complex, three-dimensional, net shape objects from a variety of powdered materials. The system includes unique components to ensure a uniform and continuous flow of powdered materials as well as to focus and locate the flow of powdered materials with respect to a laser beam which results in the melting of the powdered material. The system also includes a controller so that the flow of molten powdered materials can map out and form complex, three-dimensional, net-shape objects by layering the molten powdered material. Advantageously, such complex, three-dimensional net-shape objects can be produced having material densities varying from 90% of theoretical to fully dense, as well as a variety of controlled physical properties. Additionally, such complex, three-dimensional objects can be produced from two or more different materials so that the composition of the object can be transitioned from one material to another.

  5. Color Image Processing and Object Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimek, Robert B.; Wright, Ted W.; Sielken, Robert S.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes a personal computer based system for automatic and semiautomatic tracking of objects on film or video tape, developed to meet the needs of the Microgravity Combustion and Fluids Science Research Programs at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The system consists of individual hardware components working under computer control to achieve a high degree of automation. The most important hardware components include 16-mm and 35-mm film transports, a high resolution digital camera mounted on a x-y-z micro-positioning stage, an S-VHS tapedeck, an Hi8 tapedeck, video laserdisk, and a framegrabber. All of the image input devices are remotely controlled by a computer. Software was developed to integrate the overall operation of the system including device frame incrementation, grabbing of image frames, image processing of the object's neighborhood, locating the position of the object being tracked, and storing the coordinates in a file. This process is performed repeatedly until the last frame is reached. Several different tracking methods are supported. To illustrate the process, two representative applications of the system are described. These applications represent typical uses of the system and include tracking the propagation of a flame front and tracking the movement of a liquid-gas interface with extremely poor visibility.

  6. Object Processing in the Infant: Lessons from Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Teresa; Biondi, Marisa

    2015-01-01

    Object identification is a fundamental cognitive capacity that forms the basis for more complex thought and behavior. The adult cortex is organized into functionally distinct visual object-processing pathways that mediate this ability. Insights into the origin of these pathways have begun to emerge through the use of neuroimaging techniques with infant populations. The outcome of this work supports the view that, from the early days of life, object-processing pathways are organized in a way that resembles that of the adult. At the same time, theoretically important changes in patterns of cortical activation are observed during the first year. These findings lead to a new understanding of the cognitive and neural architecture that supports infants’ emerging object-processing capacities. PMID:26008625

  7. Stereo Vision Tracking of Multiple Objects in Complex Indoor Environments

    PubMed Central

    Marrón-Romera, Marta; García, Juan C.; Sotelo, Miguel A.; Pizarro, Daniel; Mazo, Manuel; Cañas, José M.; Losada, Cristina; Marcos, Álvaro

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a novel system capable of solving the problem of tracking multiple targets in a crowded, complex and dynamic indoor environment, like those typical of mobile robot applications. The proposed solution is based on a stereo vision set in the acquisition step and a probabilistic algorithm in the obstacles position estimation process. The system obtains 3D position and speed information related to each object in the robot’s environment; then it achieves a classification between building elements (ceiling, walls, columns and so on) and the rest of items in robot surroundings. All objects in robot surroundings, both dynamic and static, are considered to be obstacles but the structure of the environment itself. A combination of a Bayesian algorithm and a deterministic clustering process is used in order to obtain a multimodal representation of speed and position of detected obstacles. Performance of the final system has been tested against state of the art proposals; test results validate the authors’ proposal. The designed algorithms and procedures provide a solution to those applications where similar multimodal data structures are found. PMID:22163385

  8. Topicality and Complexity in the Acquisition of Norwegian Object Shift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderssen, Merete; Bentzen, Kristine; Rodina, Yulia

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the acquisition of object shift in Norwegian child language. We show that object shift is complex derivationally, distributionally, and referentially, and propose a new analysis in terms of IP-internal topicalization. The results of an elicited production study with 27 monolingual Norwegian-speaking children (ages…

  9. Objects and categories: Feature statistics and object processing in the ventral stream

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Lorraine K.; Chiu, Shannon; Zhuang, Jie; Randall, Billi; Devereux, Barry J.; Wright, Paul; Clarke, Alex; Taylor, Kirsten I.

    2013-01-01

    Recognising an object involves more than just visual analyses; its meaning must also be decoded. Extensive research has shown that processing the visual properties of objects relies on a hierarchically organised stream in ventral occipitotemporal cortex, with increasingly more complex visual features being coded from posterior to anterior sites culminating in the perirhinal cortex (PRC) in the anteromedial temporal lobe (aMTL). The neurobiological principles of the conceptual analysis of objects remain more controversial. Much research has focussed on two neural regions - the fusiform gyrus and aMTL, both of which show semantic category differences, but of different types. fMRI studies show category differentiation in the fusiform gyrus, based on clusters of semantically similar objects, whereas category-specific deficits, specifically for living things, are associated with damage to the aMTL. These category-specific deficits for living things have been attributed to problems in differentiating between highly similar objects, a process which involves the PRC. To determine whether the PRC and the fusiform gyri contribute to different aspects of an object’s meaning, with differentiation between confusable objects in the PRC and categorisation based on object similarity in the fusiform, we carried out an fMRI study of object processing based on a feature-based model which characterises the degree of semantic similarity and difference between objects and object categories. Participants saw 388 objects for which feature statistic information was available, and named the objects at the basic-level while undergoing fMRI scanning. After controlling for the effects of visual information, we found that feature statistics that capture similarity between objects formed category clusters in fusiform gyri, such that objects with many shared features (typical of living things) were associated with activity in the lateral fusiform gyri while objects with fewer shared features

  10. Color image processing and object tracking workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimek, Robert B.; Paulick, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    A system is described for automatic and semiautomatic tracking of objects on film or video tape which was developed to meet the needs of the microgravity combustion and fluid science experiments at NASA Lewis. The system consists of individual hardware parts working under computer control to achieve a high degree of automation. The most important hardware parts include 16 mm film projector, a lens system, a video camera, an S-VHS tapedeck, a frame grabber, and some storage and output devices. Both the projector and tapedeck have a computer interface enabling remote control. Tracking software was developed to control the overall operation. In the automatic mode, the main tracking program controls the projector or the tapedeck frame incrementation, grabs a frame, processes it, locates the edge of the objects being tracked, and stores the coordinates in a file. This process is performed repeatedly until the last frame is reached. Three representative applications are described. These applications represent typical uses and include tracking the propagation of a flame front, tracking the movement of a liquid-gas interface with extremely poor visibility, and characterizing a diffusion flame according to color and shape.

  11. Process Architecture for Managing Digital Object Identifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanchoo, L.; James, N.; Stolte, E.

    2014-12-01

    In 2010, NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project implemented a process for registering Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) for data products distributed by Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS). For the first 3 years, ESDIS evolved the process involving the data provider community in the development of processes for creating and assigning DOIs, and guidelines for the landing page. To accomplish this, ESDIS established two DOI User Working Groups: one for reviewing the DOI process whose recommendations were submitted to ESDIS in February 2014; and the other recently tasked to review and further develop DOI landing page guidelines for ESDIS approval by end of 2014. ESDIS has recently upgraded the DOI system from a manually-driven system to one that largely automates the DOI process. The new automated feature include: a) reviewing the DOI metadata, b) assigning of opaque DOI name if data provider chooses, and c) reserving, registering, and updating the DOIs. The flexibility of reserving the DOI allows data providers to embed and test the DOI in the data product metadata before formally registering with EZID. The DOI update process allows the changing of any DOI metadata except the DOI name unless the name has not been registered. Currently, ESDIS has processed a total of 557 DOIs of which 379 DOIs are registered with EZID and 178 are reserved with ESDIS. The DOI incorporates several metadata elements that effectively identify the data product and the source of availability. Of these elements, the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) attribute has the very important function of identifying the landing page which describes the data product. ESDIS in consultation with data providers in the Earth Science community is currently developing landing page guidelines that specify the key data product descriptive elements to be included on each data product's landing page. This poster will describe in detail the unique automated process and

  12. The limits of feedforward vision: recurrent processing promotes robust object recognition when objects are degraded.

    PubMed

    Wyatte, Dean; Curran, Tim; O'Reilly, Randall

    2012-11-01

    Everyday vision requires robustness to a myriad of environmental factors that degrade stimuli. Foreground clutter can occlude objects of interest, and complex lighting and shadows can decrease the contrast of items. How does the brain recognize visual objects despite these low-quality inputs? On the basis of predictions from a model of object recognition that contains excitatory feedback, we hypothesized that recurrent processing would promote robust recognition when objects were degraded by strengthening bottom-up signals that were weakened because of occlusion and contrast reduction. To test this hypothesis, we used backward masking to interrupt the processing of partially occluded and contrast reduced images during a categorization experiment. As predicted by the model, we found significant interactions between the mask and occlusion and the mask and contrast, such that the recognition of heavily degraded stimuli was differentially impaired by masking. The model provided a close fit of these results in an isomorphic version of the experiment with identical stimuli. The model also provided an intuitive explanation of the interactions between the mask and degradations, indicating that masking interfered specifically with the extensive recurrent processing necessary to amplify and resolve highly degraded inputs, whereas less degraded inputs did not require much amplification and could be rapidly resolved, making them less susceptible to masking. Together, the results of the experiment and the accompanying model simulations illustrate the limits of feedforward vision and suggest that object recognition is better characterized as a highly interactive, dynamic process that depends on the coordination of multiple brain areas. PMID:22905822

  13. Environmental Aspects, Objectives and Targets Identification Process

    SciTech Connect

    R. Green

    2002-07-29

    The purpose of this report is to document the environmental aspects and associated environmental impacts of the Bechtel SAIC Company (BSC) scope of work, evaluate the significance of those environmental aspects based on established criteria, and establish environmental objectives and targets for specific environmental aspects. This report is intended to be used by environmental staff in the evaluation of BSC work packages during the annual risk-based planning process. This report shall be fully reviewed and revised annually during the annual work planning process to reflect changes in BSC operations, facilities, and scope of work. Planned BSC work will be evaluated to determine if the work is covered by a previously defined activity, product or service (see Table 2); if work activities require redefinition or addition of a new activity; and if the significant evaluation for each environment aspect is still valid based on scope of planned work. New workscope initiated during the fiscal year through the Baseline Change Proposal process (i.e., not as part of the annual work plan) also will be reviewed for new environmental aspects and determination of whether the new workscope would change the significance rating of any environmental aspect. If a new environmental aspect is identified in a new work activity, product, or service but the aspect is not determined to be significant (see Section 4), then this report can be changed through an interim change notice (ICN). This report can be changed five times through an ICN before a full revision is required. However, if new workscope causes an environmental aspect to be graded as significant using the evaluation process in Section 4, this report shall be revised though a full review and revision.

  14. Complex molecule formation around massive young stellar objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öberg, Karin I.; Fayolle, Edith C.; Reiter, John B.; Cyganowski, Claudia

    2014-02-01

    Interstellar complex organic molecules were first identified in the hot inner regions of massive young stellar objects (MYSOs), but have more recently been found in many colder sources, indicating that complex molecules can form at a range of temperatures. However, individually these observations provide limited constraints on how complex molecules form, and whether the same formation pathways dominate in cold, warm and hot environments. To address these questions, we use spatially resolved observations from the Submillimeter Array of three MYSOs together with mostly unresolved literature data to explore how molecular ratios depend on environmental parameters, especially temperature. Towards the three MYSOs, we find multiple complex organic emission peaks characterized by different molecular compositions and temperatures. In particular, CH3CCH and CH3CN seem to always trace a lukewarm (T ≈ 60 K) and a hot (T > 100 K) complex chemistry, respectively. These spatial trends are consistent with abundance-temperature correlations of four representative complex organics - CH3CCH, CH3CN, CH3OCH3 and CH3CHO - in a large sample of complex molecule hosts mined from the literature. Together, these results indicate a general chemical evolution with temperature, i.e. that new complex molecule formation pathways are activated as a MYSO heats up. This is qualitatively consistent with model predictions. Furthermore, these results suggest that ratios of complex molecules may be developed into a powerful probe of the evolutionary stage of a MYSO, and may provide information about its formation history.

  15. Complex molecule formation around massive young stellar objects.

    PubMed

    Oberg, Karin I; Fayolle, Edith C; Reiter, John B; Cyganowski, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Interstellar complex organic molecules were first identified in the hot inner regions of massive young stellar objects (MYSOs), but have more recently been found in many colder sources, indicating that complex molecules can form at a range of temperatures. However, individually these observations provide limited constraints on how complex molecules form, and whether the same formation pathways dominate in cold, warm and hot environments. To address these questions, we use spatially resolved observations from the Submillimeter Array of three MYSOs together with mostly unresolved literature data to explore how molecular ratios depend on environmental parameters, especially temperature. Towards the three MYSOs, we find multiple complex organic emission peaks characterized by different molecular compositions and temperatures. In particular, CH3CCH and CH3CN seem to always trace a lukewarm (T = 60 K) and a hot (T > 100 K) complex chemistry, respectively. These spatial trends are consistent with abundance-temperature correlations of four representative complex organics--CH3CCH, CH3CN, CH3OCH3 and CH3CHO--in a large sample of complex molecule hosts mined from the literature. Together, these results indicate a general chemical evolution with temperature, i.e. that new complex molecule formation pathways are activated as a MYSO heats up. This is qualitatively consistent with model predictions. Furthermore, these results suggest that ratios of complex molecules may be developed into a powerful probe of the evolutionary stage of a MYSO, and may provide information about its formation history. PMID:25302375

  16. Exploration of complex visual feature spaces for object perception

    PubMed Central

    Leeds, Daniel D.; Pyles, John A.; Tarr, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The mid- and high-level visual properties supporting object perception in the ventral visual pathway are poorly understood. In the absence of well-specified theory, many groups have adopted a data-driven approach in which they progressively interrogate neural units to establish each unit's selectivity. Such methods are challenging in that they require search through a wide space of feature models and stimuli using a limited number of samples. To more rapidly identify higher-level features underlying human cortical object perception, we implemented a novel functional magnetic resonance imaging method in which visual stimuli are selected in real-time based on BOLD responses to recently shown stimuli. This work was inspired by earlier primate physiology work, in which neural selectivity for mid-level features in IT was characterized using a simple parametric approach (Hung et al., 2012). To extend such work to human neuroimaging, we used natural and synthetic object stimuli embedded in feature spaces constructed on the basis of the complex visual properties of the objects themselves. During fMRI scanning, we employed a real-time search method to control continuous stimulus selection within each image space. This search was designed to maximize neural responses across a pre-determined 1 cm3 brain region within ventral cortex. To assess the value of this method for understanding object encoding, we examined both the behavior of the method itself and the complex visual properties the method identified as reliably activating selected brain regions. We observed: (1) Regions selective for both holistic and component object features and for a variety of surface properties; (2) Object stimulus pairs near one another in feature space that produce responses at the opposite extremes of the measured activity range. Together, these results suggest that real-time fMRI methods may yield more widely informative measures of selectivity within the broad classes of visual features

  17. A Survey of Complex Object Technologies for Digital Libraries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Argue, Brad; Efron, Miles; Denn, Sheila; Pattuelli, Maria Cristina

    2001-01-01

    Many early web-based digital libraries (DLs) had implicit assumptions reflected in their architecture that the unit of focus in the DL (frequently "reports" or "e-prints") would only be manifested in a single, or at most a few, common file formats such as PDF or PostScript. DLs have now matured to the point where their contents are commonly no longer simple files. Complex objects in DLs have emerged from in response to various requirements, including: simple aggregation of formats and supporting files, bundling additional information to aid digital preservation, creating opaque digital objects for e-commerce applications, and the incorporation of dynamic services with the traditional data files. We examine a representative (but not necessarily exhaustive) number of current and recent historical web-based complex object technologies and projects that are applicable to DLs: Aurora, Buckets, ComMentor, Cryptolopes, Digibox, Document Management Alliance, FEDORA, Kahn-Wilensky Framework Digital Objects, Metadata Encoding & Transmission Standard, Multivalent Documents, Open eBooks, VERS Encapsulated Objects, and the Warwick Framework.

  18. Epidemic processes in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Castellano, Claudio; Van Mieghem, Piet; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2015-07-01

    In recent years the research community has accumulated overwhelming evidence for the emergence of complex and heterogeneous connectivity patterns in a wide range of biological and sociotechnical systems. The complex properties of real-world networks have a profound impact on the behavior of equilibrium and nonequilibrium phenomena occurring in various systems, and the study of epidemic spreading is central to our understanding of the unfolding of dynamical processes in complex networks. The theoretical analysis of epidemic spreading in heterogeneous networks requires the development of novel analytical frameworks, and it has produced results of conceptual and practical relevance. A coherent and comprehensive review of the vast research activity concerning epidemic processes is presented, detailing the successful theoretical approaches as well as making their limits and assumptions clear. Physicists, mathematicians, epidemiologists, computer, and social scientists share a common interest in studying epidemic spreading and rely on similar models for the description of the diffusion of pathogens, knowledge, and innovation. For this reason, while focusing on the main results and the paradigmatic models in infectious disease modeling, the major results concerning generalized social contagion processes are also presented. Finally, the research activity at the forefront in the study of epidemic spreading in coevolving, coupled, and time-varying networks is reported.

  19. OBJECTIVES AND PROCESSES OF SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SIZEMORE, MAMIE

    THE OBJECTIVES OF SECOND LANGUAGE TEACHING, AND SPECIFIC DIRECTIONS FOR PRESENTING AND DRILLING STRUCTURES BY THE USE OF CERTAIN GESTURES, WERE PRESENTED. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CONCENTRATING EFFORTS ON THE ESSENTIALS OF LANGUAGE LEARNING REVOLVED AROUND AN EMPHASIS ON THE TEACHING OF THE LANGUAGE ITSELF RATHER THAN ABOUT ITS HISTORY, VOCABULARY,…

  20. Parallel Processing of Objects in a Naming Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Antje S.; Ouellet, Marc; Hacker, Christine

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigated whether speakers who named several objects processed them sequentially or in parallel. Speakers named object triplets, arranged in a triangle, in the order left, right, and bottom object. The left object was easy or difficult to identify and name. During the saccade from the left to the right object, the right object shown…

  1. 36 CFR 218.10 - Objection time periods and process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Objection time periods and... Objection time periods and process. (a) Time to file an objection. Written objections, including any... of objectors to ensure that their objection is received in a timely manner. (b) Computation of...

  2. 36 CFR 219.56 - Objection time periods and process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Objection time periods and process. 219.56 Section 219.56 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PLANNING Pre-Decisional Administrative Review Process § 219.56 Objection time periods and process. (a) Time to file an objection. For a...

  3. Rhythmic Manipulation of Objects with Complex Dynamics: Predictability over Chaos

    PubMed Central

    Nasseroleslami, Bahman; Hasson, Christopher J.; Sternad, Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    The study of object manipulation has been largely confined to discrete tasks, where accuracy, mechanical effort, or smoothness were examined to explain subjects' preferred movements. This study investigated a rhythmic manipulation task, which involved continuous interaction with a nonlinear object that led to unpredictable object behavior. Using a simplified virtual version of the task of carrying a cup of coffee, we studied how this unpredictable object behavior affected the selected strategies. The experiment was conducted in a virtual set-up, where subjects moved a cup with a ball inside, modeled by cart-and-pendulum dynamics. Inverse dynamics calculations of the system showed that performing the task with different amplitudes and relative phases required different force profiles and rendered the object's dynamics with different degrees of predictability (quantified by Mutual Information between the applied force and the cup kinematics and its sensitivity). Subjects (n = 8) oscillated the virtual cup between two targets via a robotic manipulandum, paced by a metronome at 1 Hz for 50 trials, each lasting 45 s. They were free to choose their movement amplitude and relative phase between the ball and cup. Experimental results showed that subjects increased their movement amplitudes, which rendered the interactions with the object more predictable and with lower sensitivity to the execution variables. These solutions were associated with higher average exerted force and lower object smoothness, contradicting common expectations from studies on discrete object manipulation and unrestrained movements. Instead, the findings showed that humans selected strategies with higher predictability of interaction dynamics. This finding expressed that humans seek movement strategies where force and kinematics synchronize to repeatable patterns that may require less sensorimotor information processing. PMID:25340581

  4. Processible Polyaniline Copolymers and Complexes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yun-Hsin

    1995-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) is an intractable polymer due to the difficulty of melt processing or dissolving it in common solvents. The purpose of the present investigation was to prepare a new class of conducting polyanilines with better solubility both in base and dope forms by (1) adding external salt to break aggregated chains, (2) introducing ring substituted units onto the backbone without disturbing the coplanar structure, and (3) complexing with polymeric dopants to form a soluble polymer complex. Aggregation of PANI chains in dilute solution was investigated in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) by light scattering, gel permeation chromatography, and viscosity measurements. The aggregation of chains resulted in a negative second virial coefficient in light scattering measurement, a bimodal molecular weight distribution in gel permeation chromatography, and concave reduced viscosity curves. The aggregates can be broken by adding external salt, which resulting in a higher reduced viscosity. The driving force for aggregation is assumed to be a combination of hydrogen bonding between the imine and amine groups, and the rigidity of backbone. The aggregation was modeled to occur via side-on packing of PANI chains. The ring substituted PANI copolymers, poly(aniline -co-phenetidine) were synthesized by chemical oxidation copolymerization using ammonium persulfate as an oxidant. The degree of copolymerization declined with an increasing feed of o-phenetidine in the reaction mixture. The o-phenetidine had a higher reactivity than aniline in copolymerization resulting in a higher content of o-phenetidine in copolymers. The resulting copolymers can be readily dissolved in NMP up to 20% (w/w), and other common solvents, and solutions possess a longer gelation time. The highly soluble copolymer with 20 mole % o-phenetidine in the backbone has same order of conductivity as the unsubstituted PANI after it is doped by HCl. Complexation of PANI and polymeric dopant, poly

  5. A Digital Preservation Ingest Parsing Agent for Complex Data Objects

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, Don F.

    2006-01-05

    Digital preservation systems are being researched and studied in academia and government-funded efforts all over the world. However, the actual release of a proven production system is still yet to happen. Some efforts have broken ground and present great potential, but major roadblocks still exist. One such obstacle is the complex data object, similar to what is produced by the DOE2000 Electronic Laboratory Notebook (ELN). This research effort will focus on determining a methodology for extracting a complex data object from the ELN, and transforming that into a standard digital preservation ingest file. This standard file type will be based on the Library of Congress Metadata Encoding & Transmission Standard (METS) . A METS file serves as a Submission Information Package (SIP) as defined by the Open Archive Information System (OAIS). In addition to the content information, a complete set of Preservation Description Information (PDI) for the content conformation needs to be collected as well in order to create an Archival Information Package (AIP) which will be used for preservation.

  6. Using Perspective to Model Complex Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, R.L.; Bisset, K.R.

    1999-04-04

    The notion of perspective, when supported in an object-based knowledge representation, can facilitate better abstractions of reality for modeling and simulation. The object modeling of complex physical and chemical processes is made more difficult in part due to the poor abstractions of state and phase changes available in these models. The notion of perspective can be used to create different views to represent the different states of matter in a process. These techniques can lead to a more understandable model. Additionally, the ability to record the progress of a process from start to finish is problematic. It is desirable to have a historic record of the entire process, not just the end result of the process. A historic record should facilitate backtracking and re-start of a process at different points in time. The same representation structures and techniques can be used to create a sequence of process markers to represent a historic record. By using perspective, the sequence of markers can have multiple and varying views tailored for a particular user's context of interest.

  7. 36 CFR 219.56 - Objection time periods and process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Objection time periods and... AGRICULTURE PLANNING Pre-Decisional Administrative Review Process § 219.56 Objection time periods and process. (a) Time to file an objection. For a new plan, plan amendment, or plan revision for which...

  8. 36 CFR 219.56 - Objection time periods and process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Objection time periods and... AGRICULTURE PLANNING Pre-Decisional Administrative Review Process § 219.56 Objection time periods and process. (a) Time to file an objection. For a new plan, plan amendment, or plan revision for which...

  9. 33 CFR 279.6 - Overview of objective setting process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overview of objective setting..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE RESOURCE USE: ESTABLISHMENT OF OBJECTIVES § 279.6 Overview of objective setting process... three main sets of data. Figure 1 presents an overview of this process. EC31OC91.024...

  10. Teacher Trainees as Learning Object Designers: Problems and Issues in Learning Object Development Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guler, Cetin; Altun, Arif

    2010-01-01

    Learning objects (LOs) can be defined as resources that are reusable, digital with the aim of fulfilling learning objectives (or expectations). Educators, both at the individual and institutional levels, are cautioned about the fact that LOs are to be processed through a proper development process. Who should be involved in the LO development…

  11. How the gaze of others influences object processing.

    PubMed

    Becchio, Cristina; Bertone, Cesare; Castiello, Umberto

    2008-07-01

    An aspect of gaze processing, which so far has been given little attention, is the influence that intentional gaze processing can have on object processing. Converging evidence from behavioural neuroscience and developmental psychology strongly suggests that objects falling under the gaze of others acquire properties that they would not display if not looked at. Specifically, observing another person gazing at an object enriches that object of motor, affective and status properties that go beyond its chemical or physical structure. A conceptual analysis of available evidence leads to the conclusion that gaze has the potency to transfer to the object the intentionality of the person looking at it. PMID:18555735

  12. Distinct cognitive mechanisms involved in the processing of single objects and object ensembles

    PubMed Central

    Cant, Jonathan S.; Sun, Sol Z.; Xu, Yaoda

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral research has demonstrated that the shape and texture of single objects can be processed independently. Similarly, neuroimaging results have shown that an object's shape and texture are processed in distinct brain regions with shape in the lateral occipital area and texture in parahippocampal cortex. Meanwhile, objects are not always seen in isolation and are often grouped together as an ensemble. We recently showed that the processing of ensembles also involves parahippocampal cortex and that the shape and texture of ensemble elements are processed together within this region. These neural data suggest that the independence seen between shape and texture in single-object perception would not be observed in object-ensemble perception. Here we tested this prediction by examining whether observers could attend to the shape of ensemble elements while ignoring changes in an unattended texture feature and vice versa. Across six behavioral experiments, we replicated previous findings of independence between shape and texture in single-object perception. In contrast, we observed that changes in an unattended ensemble feature negatively impacted the processing of an attended ensemble feature only when ensemble features were attended globally. When they were attended locally, thereby making ensemble processing similar to single-object processing, interference was abolished. Overall, these findings confirm previous neuroimaging results and suggest that distinct cognitive mechanisms may be involved in single-object and object-ensemble perception. Additionally, they show that the scope of visual attention plays a critical role in determining which type of object processing (ensemble or single object) is engaged by the visual system. PMID:26360156

  13. Data Quality Objectives Process for Designation of K Basins Debris

    SciTech Connect

    WESTCOTT, J.L.

    2000-05-22

    The U.S. Department of Energy has developed a schedule and approach for the removal of spent fuels, sludge, and debris from the K East (KE) and K West (KW) Basins, located in the 100 Area at the Hanford Site. The project that is the subject of this data quality objective (DQO) process is focused on the removal of debris from the K Basins and onsite disposal of the debris at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). This material previously has been dispositioned at the Hanford Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBGs) or Central Waste Complex (CWC). The goal of this DQO process and the resulting Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) is to provide the strategy for characterizing and designating the K-Basin debris to determine if it meets the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), Revision 3 (BHI 1998). A critical part of the DQO process is to agree on regulatory and WAC interpretation, to support preparation of the DQO workbook and SAP.

  14. Statistical characterization of complex object structure by dynamic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillack, Gerd-Rüdiger; Goebbels, Jürgen; Illerhaus, Bernhard; Artemiev, Valentin; Naumov, Alexander

    2002-05-01

    Considering modern materials like reinforced plastics or metal foams the mechanical properties of the component are not determined by every single structural element like a single fiber in a composite. Moreover the ensemble mean and correlation properties of all structural elements form the mechanical properties of the component. Accordingly a statistical description of material properties on a macroscopic scale allow to characterize its mechanical behavior or aging. State of the art tomographic techniques assign a measure of material properties to a volume element. The discretization, i.e., the volume or size of a single element, is limited mainly by the physical mechanisms and the equipment used for the data acquisition. In any case the result of reconstruction yields a statistical average within the considered volume element. To evaluate the integrity of the component the determined measures have to be correlated with the mechanical properties of the component. Special reconstruction algorithms are investigated that allow the statistical description of complex object structures including its dynamics. The algorithm is based on the Kalman filter using statistical prior. The prior includes knowledge about the covariance matrix as well as a prior assumption about the probability density distribution function. The resulting algorithm is recursive yielding a quasi-optimal solution at every reconstruction step. The applicability of the developed algorithm is discussed for the investigation of a specimen made from aluminum foam.

  15. Face and object processing in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Simon; Coleman, Michael; Bailey, Anthony

    2008-02-01

    The nature and extent of face-processing impairments in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) remain contentious. The aim of this research study is to assess the face- and object-processing performance of individuals with ASD compared with typically developing controls. Our hypothesis was that individuals with ASD would be significantly impaired on tests of face processing but show intact object processing. More specifically, we tested two competing hypotheses to explain face-processing deficits: holistic hypothesis; second-order configural hypothesis. Twenty-six able adults with ASD and 26 intelligence quotient-matched typically developing controls completed two computerized tests of face and object discrimination. In task 1, the first picture (faces or cars) in a pair was presented as quickly as 40 msec to test holistic processing. In task 2, the decision was whether pairs of faces or houses had been altered in terms of the features or the distance between the features (the second-order configural properties). Individuals with ASD were impaired on all tests of face processing but showed intact object processing and the pattern of findings favored the holistic hypothesis. The heterogeneous pattern of performance in the clinical group showed that some individuals with ASD perform similarly to typically developing individuals in their face-processing skills, whereas others are more accurate in object processing compared with face processing. PMID:19360649

  16. 36 CFR 218.10 - Objection time periods and process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Objection time periods and process. 218.10 Section 218.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PREDECISIONAL ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW PROCESSES Predecisional Administrative Review Process for Hazardous Fuel Reduction Projects Authorized...

  17. The Effects of Three Levels of Visual Complexity on the Information Processing of Field-Dependents and Field-Independents When Acquiring Instructional Information for Performance on Three Types of Educational Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canelos, James J.

    This study examines the effects of three levels of visual complexity upon the learning of an instructional slide tape program about the functions of a human heart. The three levels of complexity were a simple line drawing in color, an illustration in color, and a realistic color photograph. The effects of visual stimulus complexity upon…

  18. Modeling the simulation execution process with digital objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubert, Robert M.; Fishwick, Paul A.

    1999-06-01

    Object Oriented Physical Modeling (OOPM), formerly known as MOOSE, and its implementation of behavior multimodels provide an ability to manage arbitrarily complex patterns of behavioral abstraction in web-friendly simulation modeling. In an OOPM mode, one object stands as surrogate for another object, and these surrogates cognitively map to the real world. This `physical object' principle mitigates impact of incomplete knowledge and ambiguity because its real-world metaphors enable model authors to draw on intuition, facilitating reuse and integration, as well as consistency in collaborative efforts. A 3D interface for modeling and simulation visualization, under construction to augment the existing 2D GUI, obeys the physical object principle, providing a means to create, change, reuse, and integrate digital worlds made of digital objects. Implementation includes Distributed Simulation Executive, Digital object MultiModel Language, Digital Object Warehouse, and multimodel Translator. This approach is powerful and its capabilities have steadily grown; however, it has lacked a formal basis which we now provide: we define multimodels, represent digital objects as multimodels, transform multimodels to simulations, demonstrate the correctness of execution sequence of the simulations, and closure under coupling of digital objects. These theoretical results complement and enhance the practical aspects of physical multimodeling.

  19. Detecting moving objects under a moving camera in complex environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Genyuan; Yu, Qin; Yang, Sisi; Zhou, Hong

    2015-03-01

    Robust detection of moving objects in image sequences is an essential part of many vision applications. However, it is not easily achievable with a moving camera since the camera and moving objects motions are mixed together. In this paper we propose a method to detect moving objects under a moving camera. The camera ego-motion is compensated by the corresponding feature sets. The difference image between two consecutive images that ego-motion is compensated is transformed into a binary image using k-means algorithm. According to the clustering results, the region of interest where moving objects are likely to exist is searched by the projection approach. Then local threshold and contour filling methods are applied to detect the accurate moving objects. Experimental results on real image sequences demonstrate that our method can get intact moving objects in the case of a moving camera efficiently.

  20. The role of local feature processing in object perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Hyejean

    One of the outstanding questions in the study of human visual perception of objects is how local feature processing affects object perception. In this thesis, we addressed this fundamental question by examining human perceptual performance on images containing whole objects or partial images of objects (containing one, two or three features) for two perceptual tasks: detection ("something" vs. random dot noise) and classification (perception of the object category, e.g., car vs. other objects). Images were embedded in visual noise and we measured human subjects' performance in a range of noise levels close to subjects' perceptual threshold. First, we found that human detection performance increases when more object area (A) is revealed and when the noise variance (N) decreases. The contribution of these factors can be characterized as a function of Ln(A/N), which we will refer to as the Area-to-Noise ratio (ANR). When the ANR was equated in the subsequent experiments, comparison of detection performance on partial vs. whole images of objects revealed the dynamic role of local feature processing in object detection: (i) detection based on a single useful feature was better than detection based on a whole object suggesting the effectiveness of local feature processing, (ii) however, detection of a whole object did not require detection of its features and (iii) detection performance varied across features; useful features (such as eyes for faces and wheels for cars) yielded better performance than suboptimal features (such as nose and mouth for faces). This pattern of results did not significantly vary across two methods we used to select features (features based on semantic judgments and a computer algorithm), and two object categories (faces and cars). For classification, results were largely similar, except that in low ANR levels (below the level sufficient for successful detection of a whole object) classification performance was better on a single useful feature

  1. Artifact reduction scheme for objects with complex geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayee, Sobia; Basart, John P.

    2000-05-01

    The technique of laminography is used to image different planes of interest in an object. A laminograph is obtained by shifting and aligning several radiographs. Boundaries of features at different focal planes are used for alignment. Hence the degree of accuracy of alignment depends on better edge or boundary detection of features. Since real radiographs always contain noise, therefore some kind of noise removal technique also has to be employed. The most common noise removal procedure of low-pass filtering results in the loss of important edge information. Hence to form a precise laminograph a noise reduction technique is required that reduces noise as well as preserves, if not enhances, edges. Nonlinear diffusion filtering provides such a technique. Nonlinear diffusion filtering is the solution of the nonlinear diffusion equation in which the diffusion coefficient is chosen such that it minimizes diffusion across the edges hence preserving them while the diffusion process in the interior of regions reduces noise. Usually, the numerical implementation of the nonlinear diffusion equation is done using explicit schemes. Such schemes impose strict restrictions on the time step-size for stability, and hence require numerous iterations, which leads to poor efficiency. If the semi-implicit scheme is used for the numerical solution of the nonlinear diffusion equation, the results are good and stable for all time step-sizes. The application of the nonlinear diffusion equation using the semi-implicit scheme on a radiograph results in noise reduction and edge enhancement, which in turn means a more precise laminograph. The effect of this technique on real images is shown in comparison to the conventional methods of noise reduction and edge detection.

  2. Spontaneous Object Recognition Memory in Aged Rats: Complexity versus Similarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamiz, Fernando; Gallo, Milagros

    2012-01-01

    Previous work on the effect of aging on spontaneous object recognition (SOR) memory tasks in rats has yielded controversial results. Although the results at long-retention intervals are consistent, conflicting results have been reported at shorter delays. We have assessed the potential relevance of the type of object used in the performance of…

  3. Object {open_quotes}request{close_quotes} based clustering for method processing in object-oriented database system

    SciTech Connect

    Goel, S.; Bhargava, B.

    1996-12-31

    Static grouping (clustering) of component objects in a complex object at the server has been an active area of research in client/server based object oriented database systems. We present a client-driven object grouping approach. A client executing a method makes dynamic decisions and groups objects for a request to the server. The client requires run-time and statically analyzed information for the method to make its decisions. Complex object skeletons are used for navigating the complex object. We have conducted experimental studies to evaluate our approach. We have used a prototype object-oriented database system called O-Raid for our experiments.

  4. Saloplastics: processing compact polyelectrolyte complexes.

    PubMed

    Schaaf, Pierre; Schlenoff, Joseph B

    2015-04-17

    Polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) are prepared by mixing solutions of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes. These diffuse, amorphous precipitates may be compacted into dense materials, CoPECs, by ultracentrifugation (ucPECs) or extrusion (exPECs). The presence of salt water is essential in plasticizing PECs to allow them to be reformed and fused. When hydrated, CoPECs are versatile, rugged, biocompatible, elastic materials with applications including bioinspired materials, supports for enzymes and (nano)composites. In this review, various methods for making CoPECs are described, as well as fundamental responses of CoPEC mechanical properties to salt concentration. Possible applications as synthetic cartilage, enzymatically active biocomposites, self-healing materials, and magnetic nanocomposites are presented. PMID:25771881

  5. Nonrational Processes and Ethical Complexities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogerson, Mark D.; Gottlieb, Michael C.; Handelsman, Mitchell M.; Knapp, Samuel; Younggren, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Responds to the comments by Pomerantz and Sisti and Baum-Baicker on the current authors' original article, "Nonrational processes in ethical decision making". Pomerantz (2012) further explicated one interpersonal and contextual factor--the perceived characteristics of the recipient of any act. He cited evidence that these characteristics affect…

  6. Object silhouettes and surface directions through stereo matching image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, Akira; Kumagai, Hideo

    2015-09-01

    We have studied the object silhouettes and surface direction through the stereo matching image processing to recognize the position, size and surface direction of the object. For this study we construct the pixel number change distribution of the HSI color component level, the binary component level image by the standard deviation threshold, the 4 directional pixels connectivity filter, the surface elements correspondence by the stereo matching and the projection rule relation. We note that the HSI color component level change tendency of the object image near the focus position is more stable than the HSI color component level change tendency of the object image over the unfocused range. We use the HSI color component level images near the fine focused position to extract the object silhouette. We extract the object silhouette properly. We find the surface direction of the object by the pixel numbers of the correspondence surface areas and the projection cosine rule after the stereo matching image processing by the characteristic areas and the synthesized colors. The epipolar geometry is used in this study because a pair of imager is arranged on the same epipolar plane. The surface direction detection results in the proper angle calculation. The construction of the object silhouettes and the surface direction detection of the object are realized.

  7. Constructing Mental Representations of Complex Three-Dimensional Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aust, Ronald

    This exploratory study investigated whether there are differences between males and females in the strategies used to construct mental representations from three-dimensional objects in a dimensional travel display. A Silicon Graphics IRIS computer was used to create the travel displays and mathematical models were created for each of the objects…

  8. A novel multi-view object recognition in complex background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yongxin; Yu, Huapeng; Xu, Zhiyong; Fu, Chengyu; Gao, Chunming

    2015-02-01

    Recognizing objects from arbitrary aspects is always a highly challenging problem in computer vision, and most existing algorithms mainly focus on a specific viewpoint research. Hence, in this paper we present a novel recognizing framework based on hierarchical representation, part-based method and learning in order to recognize objects from different viewpoints. The learning evaluates the model's mistakes and feeds it back the detector to avid the same mistakes in the future. The principal idea is to extract intrinsic viewpoint invariant features from the unseen poses of object, and then to take advantage of these shared appearance features to support recognition combining with the improved multiple view model. Compared with other recognition models, the proposed approach can efficiently tackle multi-view problem and promote the recognition versatility of our system. For an quantitative valuation The novel algorithm has been tested on several benchmark datasets such as Caltech 101 and PASCAL VOC 2010. The experimental results validate that our approach can recognize objects more precisely and the performance outperforms others single view recognition methods.

  9. Causality and complexity: the myth of objectivity in science.

    PubMed

    Mikulecky, Donald C

    2007-10-01

    Two distinctly different worldviews dominate today's thinking in science and in the world of ideas outside of science. Using the approach advocated by Robert M. Hutchins, it is possible to see a pattern of interaction between ideas in science and in other spheres such as philosophy, religion, and politics. Instead of compartmentalizing these intellectual activities, it is worthwhile to look for common threads of mutual influence. Robert Rosen has created an approach to scientific epistemology that might seem radical to some. However, it has characteristics that resemble ideas in other fields, in particular in the writings of George Lakoff, Leo Strauss, and George Soros. Historically, the atmosphere at the University of Chicago during Hutchins' presidency gave rise to Rashevsky's relational biology, which Rosen carried forward. Strauss was writing his political philosophy there at the same time. One idea is paramount in all this, and it is Lakoff who gives us the most insight into how the worldviews differ using this idea. The central difference has to do with causality, the fundamental concept that we use to build a worldview. Causal entailment has two distinct forms in Lakoff 's analysis: direct causality and complex causality. Rosen's writings on complexity create a picture of complex causality that is extremely useful in its detail, grounding in the ideas of Aristotle. Strauss asks for a return to the ancients to put philosophy back on track. Lakoff sees the weaknesses in Western philosophy in a similar way, and Rosen provides tools for dealing with the problem. This introduction to the relationships between the thinking of these authors is meant to stimulate further discourse on the role of complex causal entailment in all areas of thought, and how it brings them together in a holistic worldview. The worldview built on complex causality is clearly distinct from that built around simple, direct causality. One important difference is that the impoverished causal

  10. Multi-Objective Optimization for Alumina Laser Sintering Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fayed, E. M.; Elmesalamy, A. S.; Sobih, M.; Elshaer, Y.

    2016-09-01

    Selective laser sintering processes has become one of the most popular additive manufacturing processes due to its flexibility in creation of complex components. This process has many interacting parameters, which have a significant influence on the process output. In this work, high purity alumina is sintered through a pulsed Nd:YAG laser sintering process. The aim of this work is to understand the effect of relevant sintering process parameters (laser power and laser scanning speed) on the quality of the sintered layer (layer surface roughness, layer thickness and vector/line width, and density). Design of experiments and statistical modeling techniques are employed to optimize the process control factors and to establish a relationship between these factors and output responses. Model results have been verified through experimental work and show reasonable prediction of process responses within the limits of sintering parameters.

  11. Thermodynamic depth of causal states: Objective complexity via minimal representations

    SciTech Connect

    Crutchfield, J.P. |; Shalizi, C.R. |

    1999-01-01

    Thermodynamic depth is an appealing but flawed structural complexity measure. It depends on a set of macroscopic states for a system, but neither its original introduction by Lloyd and Pagels nor any follow-up work has considered how to select these states. Depth, therefore, is at root arbitrary. Computational mechanics, an alternative approach to structural complexity, provides a definition for a system{close_quote}s minimal, necessary causal states and a procedure for finding them. We show that the rate of increase in thermodynamic depth, or {ital dive}, is the system{close_quote}s reverse-time Shannon entropy rate, and so depth only measures degrees of macroscopic randomness, not structure. To fix this, we redefine the depth in terms of the causal state representation{emdash}{epsilon}-machines{emdash}and show that this representation gives the minimum dive consistent with accurate prediction. Thus, {epsilon}-machines are optimally shallow. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  12. Research on recognition methods of aphid objects in complex backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hui-Yan; Zhang, Ji-Hong

    2009-07-01

    In order to improve the recognition accuracy among the kinds of aphids in the complex backgrounds, the recognition method among kinds of aphids based on Dual-Tree Complex Wavelet Transform (DT-CWT) and Support Vector Machine (Libsvm) is proposed. Firstly the image is pretreated; secondly the aphid images' texture feature of three crops are extracted by DT-CWT in order to get the training parameters of training model; finally the training model could recognize aphids among the three kinds of crops. By contrasting to Gabor wavelet transform and the traditional extracting texture's methods based on Gray-Level Co-Occurrence Matrix (GLCM), the experiment result shows that the method has a certain practicality and feasibility and provides basic for aphids' recognition between the identification among same kind aphid.

  13. Incorporating manufacturability constraints into the design process of heterogeneous objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yuna; Blouin, Vincent Y.; Fadel, Georges M.

    2004-11-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) technology, such as Laser Engineering Net Shaping (LENSTM), can be used to fabricate heterogeneous objects with gradient variations in material composition. These objects are generally characterized by enhanced functional performance. Past research on the design of such objects has focused on representation, modeling, and functional performance. However, the inherent constraints in RP processes, such as system capability and processing time, lead to heterogeneous objects that may not meet the designer's original intent. To overcome this situation, the research presented in this paper focuses on the identification and implementation of manufacturing constraints into the design process. A node-based finite element modeling technique is used for the representation and analysis and the multicriteria design problem corresponds to finding the nodal material compositions that minimize structural weight and maximize thermal performance. The optimizer used in this research is a real-valued Evolutionary Strategies (ES), which is well suited for this type of multi-modal problem. Two limitations of the LENS manufacturing process, which have an impact on the design process, are identified and implemented. One of them is related to the manufacturing time, which is considered as an additional criterion to be minimized in the design problem for a preselected tool path. A brake disc rotor made of two materials, aluminum for lightweight and steel for superior thermal characteristics, is used to illustrate the tradeoff between manufacturability and functionality.

  14. Overture: Object-Oriented Tools for Application with Complex Geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.; Henshaw, B.; Quinlan, D.

    1999-05-31

    The Overture framework is an object-oriented environment for solving partial differential equations in two and three space dimensions. It is a collection of C++ libraries that enables the use of finite difference and finite volume methods at a level that hides the details of the associated data structures. Overture can be used to solve problems in complicated, moving geometries using the method of overlapping grids. It has support for grid generation, difference operators, boundary conditions, data-base access and graphics. Short sample code segments are presented to show the power of this approach.

  15. Laser-assisted morphing of complex three dimensional objects.

    PubMed

    Drs, Jakub; Kishi, Tetsuo; Bellouard, Yves

    2015-06-29

    Morphing refers to the smooth transition from a specific shape into another one, in which the initial and final shapes can be significantly different. A typical illustration is to turn a cube into a sphere by continuous change of shape curvatures. Here, we demonstrate a process of laser-induced morphing, driven by surface tension and thermally-controlled viscosity. As a proof-of-concept, we turn 3D glass structures fabricated by a femtosecond laser into other shapes by locally heating up the structure with a feedback-controlled CO2 laser. We further show that this laser morphing process can be accurately modelled and predicted. PMID:26191745

  16. Invariant visual object recognition and shape processing in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zoccolan, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Invariant visual object recognition is the ability to recognize visual objects despite the vastly different images that each object can project onto the retina during natural vision, depending on its position and size within the visual field, its orientation relative to the viewer, etc. Achieving invariant recognition represents such a formidable computational challenge that is often assumed to be a unique hallmark of primate vision. Historically, this has limited the invasive investigation of its neuronal underpinnings to monkey studies, in spite of the narrow range of experimental approaches that these animal models allow. Meanwhile, rodents have been largely neglected as models of object vision, because of the widespread belief that they are incapable of advanced visual processing. However, the powerful array of experimental tools that have been developed to dissect neuronal circuits in rodents has made these species very attractive to vision scientists too, promoting a new tide of studies that have started to systematically explore visual functions in rats and mice. Rats, in particular, have been the subjects of several behavioral studies, aimed at assessing how advanced object recognition and shape processing is in this species. Here, I review these recent investigations, as well as earlier studies of rat pattern vision, to provide an historical overview and a critical summary of the status of the knowledge about rat object vision. The picture emerging from this survey is very encouraging with regard to the possibility of using rats as complementary models to monkeys in the study of higher-level vision. PMID:25561421

  17. Laser-assisted morphing of complex three dimensional objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drs, Jakub; Kishi, Tetsuo; Bellouard, Yves

    2016-03-01

    Morphing commonly refers to the smooth transition from a specific shape into another one, in which the initial and final shapes can be significantly different. In this study, we show that the concept of morphing applied to laser micromanufacturing offers an opportunity to change the topology of an initial shape, and to turn it into something more complex, like for instance for creating self-sealed cavities. Such cavities could be filled with various gases, while also achieving an optical surface quality since being shaped by surface tension. Furthermore, we demonstrate that laser morphing can be accurately modelled and predicted. Finally, we illustrate the possible use of `laser-morphed' shape to achieve high-quality resonators that can find applications, for instance, in ultra-small quantities molecules label-free detection through whispering gallery mode resonances.

  18. The processing of object identity information by women and men.

    PubMed

    Tlauka, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The study examined whether women excel at tasks which require processing the identity of objects information as has been suggested in the context of the well-known object location memory task. In a computer-simulated task, university students were shown simulated indoor and outdoor house scenes. After studying a scene the students were presented with two images. One was the original image and the other a modified version in which one object was either rotated by ninety degrees or substituted with a similar looking object. The participants were asked to indicate the original image. The main finding was that no sex effect was obtained in this task. The female and male students did not differ on a verbal ability test, and their 2D:4D ratios were found to be comparable. PMID:25756200

  19. A Subjective and Objective Process for Athletic Training Student Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Jeremy R.; McLoda, Todd A.; Stanek, Justin M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Admission decisions are made annually concerning whom to accept into athletic training programs. Objective: To present an approach used to make admissions decisions at an undergraduate athletic training program and to corroborate this information by comparing each aspect to nursing program admission processes. Background: Annually,…

  20. Lateralization of Object-Shape Information in Semantic Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwaan, Rolf A.; Yaxley, Richard H.

    2004-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine whether perceptual information, specifically the shape of objects, is activated during semantic processing. Subjects judged whether a target word was related to a prime word. Prime-target pairs that were not associated, but whose referents had similar shapes (e.g. LADDER-RAILROAD) yielded longer ''no''…

  1. 36 CFR 218.10 - Objection time periods and process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Objection time periods and process. 218.10 Section 218.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Hazardous Fuel Reduction Projects Authorized by the Healthy Forests Restoration Act of 2003 §...

  2. The σ-Capricornids complex of near-Earth objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babadzhanov, P. B.; Kokhirova, G. I.; Khamroev, U. Kh.

    2015-04-01

    The Earth-crossing asteroids 2008BO16, 2011EC41, and 2013CT36 have very similar orbits according to the Southworth and Hawkins DSH criterion. Their orbits are additionally classified as comet-like based on using the Tisserand parameter which is a standard tool used to distinction between asteroids and comets. The orbital evolution research shows that they cross the Earth's orbit four times over one cycle of the perihelion argument variations. Consequently, a meteoroid stream, possibly associated with them, may produce four meteor showers. Theoretic parameters of the predicted showers were calculated and identified with the observable nighttime σ-Capricornids and χ-Sagittariids, and daytime χ-Capricornids and Capricornids-Sagittariids meteor showers. The similar comet-like orbits and the linkage with the same meteoroid stream producing four active showers provide strong evidence that these asteroids have a common cometary origin. Earlier, it was demonstrated that the Earth-crossing asteroids (2101) Adonis and 1995CS, being a potentially hazardous asteroid (PHA), were recognized as dormant comets because of their linkage with the σ-Capricornids meteoroid stream. Thus, a conclusion was made, that either the considered objects are large pieces of the Adonis, or all five objects are extinct or dormant fragments of a larger comet that was the parent body of the σ-Capricornids meteoroid stream, and whose break-up occurred several tens of thousands years ago. During 2010-2011, three σ-Capricornids fireballs were captured by the Tajikistan fireball network. Taking into account the observations in Canada and the USA, the dynamic and physical properties of the σ-Capricornid meteoroids were identified. According to the estimated meteoroids bulk density a non-homogeneous compound of the σ-Capricornids shower comet-progenitor was suggested.

  3. Oil recovery process using polymer microemulsion complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.G.; Canter, N.H.; Robbins, M.L.

    1982-11-23

    A process for the enhanced recovery of oil from a subterranean formation using a polymer-microemulsion complex is disclosed. The polymer is polyethylene oxide or polyvinyl pyrrolidone which interacts with the surfactant of the microemulsion to form a physical association. The resulting complex is characterized by a complexation energy of at least 2 kcal/mole. Slugs containing the present polymer-microemulsion complexes are stable at high salinity, show reduced destabilization due to surfactant adsorption and retention by the formation, have low interfacial tensions and achieve an early banking, as well as increased displacement of crude oil.

  4. The COGs (context, object, and goals) in multisensory processing.

    PubMed

    Ten Oever, Sanne; Romei, Vincenzo; van Atteveldt, Nienke; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Murray, Micah M; Matusz, Pawel J

    2016-05-01

    Our understanding of how perception operates in real-world environments has been substantially advanced by studying both multisensory processes and "top-down" control processes influencing sensory processing via activity from higher-order brain areas, such as attention, memory, and expectations. As the two topics have been traditionally studied separately, the mechanisms orchestrating real-world multisensory processing remain unclear. Past work has revealed that the observer's goals gate the influence of many multisensory processes on brain and behavioural responses, whereas some other multisensory processes might occur independently of these goals. Consequently, other forms of top-down control beyond goal dependence are necessary to explain the full range of multisensory effects currently reported at the brain and the cognitive level. These forms of control include sensitivity to stimulus context as well as the detection of matches (or lack thereof) between a multisensory stimulus and categorical attributes of naturalistic objects (e.g. tools, animals). In this review we discuss and integrate the existing findings that demonstrate the importance of such goal-, object- and context-based top-down control over multisensory processing. We then put forward a few principles emerging from this literature review with respect to the mechanisms underlying multisensory processing and discuss their possible broader implications. PMID:26931340

  5. Simple, Affordable and Sustainable Borehole Observatories for Complex Monitoring Objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopf, A.; Hammerschmidt, S.; Davis, E.; Saffer, D.; Wheat, G.; LaBonte, A.; Meldrum, R.; Heesemann, M.; Villinger, H.; Freudenthal, T.; Ratmeyer, V.; Renken, J.; Bergenthal, M.; Wefer, G.

    2012-04-01

    Around 20 years ago, the scientific community started to use borehole observatories, so-called CORKs or Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kits, which are installed inside submarine boreholes, and which allow the re-establishment and monitoring of in situ conditions. From the first CORKs which allowed only rudimentary fluid pressure and temperature measurements, the instruments evolved to multi-functional and multi-level subseafloor laboratories, including, for example, long-term fluid sampling devices, in situ microbiological experiments or strainmeter. Nonetheless, most boreholes are still left uninstrumented, which is a major loss for the scientific community. In-stallation of CORKs usually requires a drillship and subsequent ROV assignments for data download and instru-ment maintenance, which is a major logistic and financial effort. Moreover, the increasing complexity of the CORK systems increased not only the expenses but led also to longer installation times and a higher sensitivity of the in-struments to environmental constraints. Here, we present three types of Mini-CORKs, which evolved back to more simple systems yet providing a wide range of possible in situ measurements. As a regional example the Nankai Trough is chosen, where repeated subduction thrust earthquakes with M8+ occurred. The area has been investigated by several drilling campaigns of the DSDP, ODP and IODP, where boreholes were already instrumented by different CORKs. Unfortunately, some of the more complex systems showed incomplete functionality, and moreover, the increased ship time forced IODP to rely on third party funds for the observatories. Consequently, the need for more affordable CORKs arose, which may be satisfied by the systems presented here. The first type, the so-called SmartPlug, provides two pressure transducers and four temperature sensors, and monitors a hydrostatic reference section and an isolated zone of interest. It was already installed at the Nankai Trough accretionary

  6. Design and Use of a Learning Object for Finding Complex Polynomial Roots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benitez, Julio; Gimenez, Marcos H.; Hueso, Jose L.; Martinez, Eulalia; Riera, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Complex numbers are essential in many fields of engineering, but students often fail to have a natural insight of them. We present a learning object for the study of complex polynomials that graphically shows that any complex polynomials has a root and, furthermore, is useful to find the approximate roots of a complex polynomial. Moreover, we…

  7. Electrophysiological Advances on Multiple Object Processing in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Mazza, Veronica; Brignani, Debora

    2016-01-01

    EEG research conducted in the past 5 years on multiple object processing has begun to define how the aging brain tracks the numerosity of the objects presented in the visual field for different goals. We review the recent EEG findings in healthy older individuals (age range: 65–75 years approximately) on perceptual, attentional and memory mechanisms-reflected in the N1, N2pc and contralateral delayed activity (CDA) components of the EEG, respectively-during the execution of a variety of cognitive tasks requiring simultaneous processing of multiple elements. The findings point to multiple loci of neural changes in multi-object analysis, and suggest the involvement of early perceptual mechanisms, attentive individuation and working memory (WM) operations in the neural and cognitive modification due to aging. However, the findings do not simply reflect early impairments with a cascade effect over subsequent stages of stimulus processing, but in fact highlight interesting dissociations between the effects occurring at the various stages of stimulus processing. Finally, the results on older adults indicate the occurrence of neural overactivation in association to good levels of performance in easy perceptual contexts, thus providing some hints on the existence of compensatory phenomena that are associated with the functioning of early perceptual mechanisms. PMID:26973520

  8. Process for coating an object with silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, Harry (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A process for coating a carbon or graphite object with silicon carbide by contacting it with silicon liquid and vapor over various lengths of contact time. In the process, a stream of silicon-containing precursor material in gaseous phase below the decomposition temperature of said gas and a co-reactant, carrier or diluent gas such as hydrogen is passed through a hole within a high emissivity, thin, insulating septum into a reaction chamber above the melting point of silicon. The thin septum has one face below the decomposition temperature of the gas and an opposite face exposed to the reaction chamber. The precursor gas is decomposed directly to silicon in the reaction chamber. A stream of any decomposition gas and any unreacted precursor gas from said reaction chamber is removed. The object within the reaction chamber is then contacted with silicon, and recovered after it has been coated with silicon carbide.

  9. Data processing of the multi-object fiber spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao-tong; Chu, Yao-quan; Chen, Jian-sheng

    2002-01-01

    With data obtained by the multi-object fiber spectrograph (MOFS) of the Russian SAO 6-meter telescope, the general procedures of observation and data processing of the MOFS spectra are described. The main error sources are analyzed. Towards a better sky subtraction, factors such as scattered light, relative fiber transmittance, wavelength and flux calibrations are discussed and modifications suggested according to the conditions of the instruments and software.

  10. ERPs Differentially Reflect Automatic and Deliberate Processing of the Functional Manipulability of Objects.

    PubMed

    Madan, Christopher R; Chen, Yvonne Y; Singhal, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    It is known that the functional properties of an object can interact with perceptual, cognitive, and motor processes. Previously we have found that a between-subjects manipulation of judgment instructions resulted in different manipulability-related memory biases in an incidental memory test. To better understand this effect we recorded electroencephalography (EEG) while participants made judgments about images of objects that were either high or low in functional manipulability (e.g., hammer vs. ladder). Using a between-subjects design, participants judged whether they had seen the object recently (Personal Experience), or could manipulate the object using their hand (Functionality). We focused on the P300 and slow-wave event-related potentials (ERPs) as reflections of attentional allocation. In both groups, we observed higher P300 and slow wave amplitudes for high-manipulability objects at electrodes Pz and C3. As P300 is thought to reflect bottom-up attentional processes, this may suggest that the processing of high-manipulability objects recruited more attentional resources. Additionally, the P300 effect was greater in the Functionality group. A more complex pattern was observed at electrode C3 during slow wave: processing the high-manipulability objects in the Functionality instruction evoked a more positive slow wave than in the other three conditions, likely related to motor simulation processes. These data provide neural evidence that effects of manipulability on stimulus processing are further mediated by automatic vs. deliberate motor-related processing. PMID:27536224

  11. ERPs Differentially Reflect Automatic and Deliberate Processing of the Functional Manipulability of Objects

    PubMed Central

    Madan, Christopher R.; Chen, Yvonne Y.; Singhal, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    It is known that the functional properties of an object can interact with perceptual, cognitive, and motor processes. Previously we have found that a between-subjects manipulation of judgment instructions resulted in different manipulability-related memory biases in an incidental memory test. To better understand this effect we recorded electroencephalography (EEG) while participants made judgments about images of objects that were either high or low in functional manipulability (e.g., hammer vs. ladder). Using a between-subjects design, participants judged whether they had seen the object recently (Personal Experience), or could manipulate the object using their hand (Functionality). We focused on the P300 and slow-wave event-related potentials (ERPs) as reflections of attentional allocation. In both groups, we observed higher P300 and slow wave amplitudes for high-manipulability objects at electrodes Pz and C3. As P300 is thought to reflect bottom-up attentional processes, this may suggest that the processing of high-manipulability objects recruited more attentional resources. Additionally, the P300 effect was greater in the Functionality group. A more complex pattern was observed at electrode C3 during slow wave: processing the high-manipulability objects in the Functionality instruction evoked a more positive slow wave than in the other three conditions, likely related to motor simulation processes. These data provide neural evidence that effects of manipulability on stimulus processing are further mediated by automatic vs. deliberate motor-related processing. PMID:27536224

  12. The Pan-STARRS Moving Object Processing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denneau, Larry; Jedicke, Robert; Grav, Tommy; Granvik, Mikael; Kubica, Jeremy; Milani, Andrea; Vereš, Peter; Wainscoat, Richard; Chang, Daniel; Pierfederici, Francesco; Kaiser, N.; Chambers, K. C.; Heasley, J. N.; Magnier, Eugene A.; Price, P. A.; Myers, Jonathan; Kleyna, Jan; Hsieh, Henry; Farnocchia, Davide; Waters, Chris; Sweeney, W. H.; Green, Denver; Bolin, Bryce; Burgett, W. S.; Morgan, J. S.; Tonry, John L.; Hodapp, K. W.; Chastel, Serge; Chesley, Steve; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Holman, Matthew; Spahr, Tim; Tholen, David; Williams, Gareth V.; Abe, Shinsuke; Armstrong, J. D.; Bressi, Terry H.; Holmes, Robert; Lister, Tim; McMillan, Robert S.; Micheli, Marco; Ryan, Eileen V.; Ryan, William H.; Scotti, James V.

    2013-04-01

    We describe the Pan-STARRS Moving Object Processing System (MOPS), a modern software package that produces automatic asteroid discoveries and identifications from catalogs of transient detections from next-generation astronomical survey telescopes. MOPS achieves >99.5% efficiency in producing orbits from a synthetic but realistic population of asteroids whose measurements were simulated for a Pan-STARRS4-class telescope. Additionally, using a nonphysical grid population, we demonstrate that MOPS can detect populations of currently unknown objects such as interstellar asteroids. MOPS has been adapted successfully to the prototype Pan-STARRS1 telescope despite differences in expected false detection rates, fill-factor loss, and relatively sparse observing cadence compared to a hypothetical Pan-STARRS4 telescope and survey. MOPS remains highly efficient at detecting objects but drops to 80% efficiency at producing orbits. This loss is primarily due to configurable MOPS processing limits that are not yet tuned for the Pan-STARRS1 mission. The core MOPS software package is the product of more than 15 person-years of software development and incorporates countless additional years of effort in third-party software to perform lower-level functions such as spatial searching or orbit determination. We describe the high-level design of MOPS and essential subcomponents, the suitability of MOPS for other survey programs, and suggest a road map for future MOPS development.

  13. Thematic roles, markedness alignment and processing complexity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoonhyoung; Kwon, Youan; Gordon, Peter C

    2015-06-01

    Two experiments used eye-tracking during reading to investigate the role of the consistency of the relative markedness alignment of noun phrases (NPs) in the processing of complex sentences in Korean. To do so, the animacy of the first NP was varied in both experiments to manipulate the relative markedness of NPs. In addition, case markings of the second NP (nominative vs. accusative) were manipulated in the first experiment and the markings of the first NP (nominative vs. topic) were manipulated in the second experiment. Results revealed that the animacy manipulation and the nominative-topicality manipulation showed measurable influence on the participants' reading of the complex sentences. Also, the effect of the prominence misalignment caused by animacy seems to have a stronger effect on reading than the effect caused by the nominative-topicality manipulation. The experiments suggested that on-line processing of Korean complex sentences are affected by the consistency of the relative markedness alignment of NPs. PMID:25341491

  14. Thematic Roles, Markedness Alignment and Processing Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yoonhyoung; Kwon, Youan; Gordon, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments used eye-tracking during reading to investigate the role of the consistency of the relative markedness alignment of noun phrases (NPs) in the processing of complex sentences in Korean. To do so, the animacy of the first NP was varied in both experiments to manipulate the relative markedness of NPs. In addition, case markings of the…

  15. Optimal graph search based image segmentation for objects with complex topologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaomin; Chen, Danny Z.; Wu, Xiaodong; Sonka, Milan

    2009-02-01

    Segmenting objects with complicated topologies in 3D images is a challenging problem in medical image processing, especially for objects with multiple interrelated surfaces. In this paper, we extend a graph search based technique to simultaneously identifying multiple interrelated surfaces for objects that have complex topologies (e.g., with tree-like structures) in 3D. We first perform a pre-segmentation on the input image to obtain basic information of the objects' topologies. Based on the initial pre-segmentation, the original image is resampled along judiciously determined directions to produce a set of vectors of voxels (called voxel columns). The resampling process utilizes medial axes to ensure that voxel columns of appropriate lengths are used to capture the sought object surfaces. Then a geometric graph is constructed whose edges connect voxels in the resampled voxel columns and enforce the smoothness constraint and separation constraint on the sought surfaces. Validation of our algorithm was performed on the segmentation of airway trees and lung vascular trees in human in-vivo CT scans. Cost functions with directional information are applied to distinguish the airway inner wall and outer wall. We succeed in extracting the outer airway wall and optimizing the location of the inner wall in all cases, while the vascular trees are optimized as well. Comparing with the pre-segmentation results, our approach captures the wall surfaces more accurately, especially across bifurcations. The statistical evaluation on a double wall phantom derived from in-vivo CT images yields highly accurate results of the wall thickness measurement on the whole tree (with mean unsigned error 0.16 +/- 0.16mm).

  16. Reentrant processing mediates object substitution masking: comment on Põder (2013).

    PubMed

    Di Lollo, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Object-substitution masking (OSM) occurs when a target stimulus and a surrounding mask are displayed briefly together, and the display then continues with the mask alone. Target identification is accurate when the stimuli co-terminate but is progressively impaired as the duration of the trailing mask is increased. In reentrant accounts, OSM is said to arise from iterative exchanges between brain regions connected by two-way pathways. In an alternative account, OSM is explained on the basis of exclusively feed-forward processes, without recourse to reentry. Here I show that the feed-forward account runs afoul of the extant phenomenological, behavioral, brain-imaging, and electrophysiological evidence. Further, the feed-forward assumption that masking occurs when attention finds a degraded target is shown to be entirely ad hoc. In contrast, the evidence is uniformly consistent with a reentrant-processing account of OSM. PMID:25136322

  17. Intentional control of visual processing benefits from referential objects.

    PubMed

    Murchison, Nicole M; Proctor, Robert W

    2016-08-01

    Arguments have been made that enhanced visual processing occurs in the area of the palms of the hands due to greater density of bimodal neurons. An alternative is that the hands serve as reference objects relative to which attentional resources are allocated. Two experiments were conducted to determine whether the palms are unique in speeding responses in an Eriksen flanker-type task compared with other parts of the hands and objects used as barriers. In Experiment 1, the hands were crossed and positioned so that the palms faced outward toward letters located in the outer positions. Trial blocks differed in whether the centrally located letter or outer letters were designated as the target for responding. Results yielded reductions in flanker interference much as obtained when the palms face inward. This reduction occurred regardless of whether the center or outer positions of the letters were designated as the target. Experiment 2 replicated these results using as reference objects wooden blocks that mimicked the hands' physical contours, positioned with a curve-edge facing outwards. The results lend support to the referential coding account of the reduction of flanker interference. PMID:26704924

  18. Giordano Bruno, the June 1975 meteoroid storm, Encke, and other Taurid Complex objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartung, Jack B.

    1993-08-01

    The possibility that the Giordano Bruno and Tunguska events, and the June 1975 meteoroid storm all had a common source is explored. These events are argued to be part of a larger complex of objects that range in size from millimeters to kilometers in diameters. Smaller objects may be derived from Taurid Complex objects, but tend to lose their identity as their orbits change in response to forces related to the Poynting-Robertson effect, solar wind pressure, and other nongravitational effects. Objects which produce fireballs and airwaves in the earth's atmosphere, impact flashes on the moon, and most meteorite falls do not occur in late June and are, therefore, not members of the Taurid Complex. The Taurid Complex has been derived from low-strength and low-density objects, i.e., comets, but inclusions or crusts of higher density cannot be ruled out.

  19. Using the data quality objectives process in risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency`s Quality Assurance Management Staff has developed a systematic process, the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process, as an important tool for assisting project managers and planners in determining the type, quantity, and quality of environmental data sufficient for environmental decision-making. This information brief presents the basic concepts of, and information requirements for using the DQO process to plan the collection of the necessary environmental data, to support the performance of human health risk assessments under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. The goal of the DQO process is to identify the type, quality, and quantity of data required to support remedial action decisions which are based on risk assessment and its associated uncertainties. The DQO process consists of a number of discrete steps. These steps include a statement of the problem and the decision to be made, identifying inputs to the decision, developing a decision rule, and optimizing the design for data collection. In defining the data for input into the decision, a Site Conceptual Exposure Model should be developed to identify the existing or potential complete exposure pathways. To determine the data quality for use din the risk assessment, the DQO team must assist the decision-maker to define the acceptable level of uncertainty for making site-specific decisions. To determine the quantity of data needed, the DQO team utilizes the established target cleanup level, previously collected data and variability, and the acceptable errors. The results of the DQO process are qualitative and quantitative statements that define the scope of risk assessment data to be collected to support a defensible site risk management decision.

  20. Gradation of complexity and predictability of hydrological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, Yan-Fang; Singh, Vijay P.; Wen, Jun; Liu, Changming

    2015-06-01

    Quantification of the complexity and predictability of hydrological systems is important for evaluating the impact of climate change on hydrological processes, and for guiding water activities. In the literature, the focus seems to have been on describing the complexity of spatiotemporal distribution of hydrological variables, but little attention has been paid to the study of complexity gradation, because the degree of absolute complexity of hydrological systems cannot be objectively evaluated. Here we show that complexity and predictability of hydrological processes can be graded into three ranks (low, middle, and high). The gradation is based on the difference in the energy distribution of hydrological series and that of white noise under multitemporal scales. It reflects different energy concentration levels and contents of deterministic components of the hydrological series in the three ranks. Higher energy concentration level reflects lower complexity and higher predictability, but scattered energy distribution being similar to white noise has the highest complexity and is almost unpredictable. We conclude that the three ranks (low, middle, and high) approximately correspond to deterministic, stochastic, and random hydrological systems, respectively. The result of complexity gradation can guide hydrological observations and modeling, and identification of similarity patterns among different hydrological systems.

  1. Tracker: Image-Processing and Object-Tracking System Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimek, Robert B.; Wright, Theodore W.

    1999-01-01

    Tracker is an object-tracking and image-processing program designed and developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center to help with the analysis of images generated by microgravity combustion and fluid physics experiments. Experiments are often recorded on film or videotape for analysis later. Tracker automates the process of examining each frame of the recorded experiment, performing image-processing operations to bring out the desired detail, and recording the positions of the objects of interest. It can load sequences of images from disk files or acquire images (via a frame grabber) from film transports, videotape, laser disks, or a live camera. Tracker controls the image source to automatically advance to the next frame. It can employ a large array of image-processing operations to enhance the detail of the acquired images and can analyze an arbitrarily large number of objects simultaneously. Several different tracking algorithms are available, including conventional threshold and correlation-based techniques, and more esoteric procedures such as "snake" tracking and automated recognition of character data in the image. The Tracker software was written to be operated by researchers, thus every attempt was made to make the software as user friendly and self-explanatory as possible. Tracker is used by most of the microgravity combustion and fluid physics experiments performed by Lewis, and by visiting researchers. This includes experiments performed on the space shuttles, Mir, sounding rockets, zero-g research airplanes, drop towers, and ground-based laboratories. This software automates the analysis of the flame or liquid s physical parameters such as position, velocity, acceleration, size, shape, intensity characteristics, color, and centroid, as well as a number of other measurements. It can perform these operations on multiple objects simultaneously. Another key feature of Tracker is that it performs optical character recognition (OCR). This feature is useful in

  2. Building phenomenological models of complex biological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, Bryan; Nemenman, Ilya

    2009-11-01

    A central goal of any modeling effort is to make predictions regarding experimental conditions that have not yet been observed. Overly simple models will not be able to fit the original data well, but overly complex models are likely to overfit the data and thus produce bad predictions. Modern quantitative biology modeling efforts often err on the complexity side of this balance, using myriads of microscopic biochemical reaction processes with a priori unknown kinetic parameters to model relatively simple biological phenomena. In this work, we show how Bayesian model selection (which is mathematically similar to low temperature expansion in statistical physics) can be used to build coarse-grained, phenomenological models of complex dynamical biological processes, which have better predictive powers than microscopically correct, but poorely constrained mechanistic molecular models. We illustrate this on the example of a multiply-modifiable protein molecule, which is a simplified description of multiple biological systems, such as an immune receptors and an RNA polymerase complex. Our approach is similar in spirit to the phenomenological Landau expansion for the free energy in the theory of critical phenomena.

  3. Sorting of Streptomyces Cell Pellets Using a Complex Object Parametric Analyzer and Sorter

    PubMed Central

    Petrus, Marloes L. C.; van Veluw, G. Jerre; Wösten, Han A. B.; Claessen, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Streptomycetes are filamentous soil bacteria that are used in industry for the production of enzymes and antibiotics. When grown in bioreactors, these organisms form networks of interconnected hyphae, known as pellets, which are heterogeneous in size. Here we describe a method to analyze and sort mycelial pellets using a Complex Object Parametric Analyzer and Sorter (COPAS). Detailed instructions are given for the use of the instrument and the basic statistical analysis of the data. We furthermore describe how pellets can be sorted according to user-defined settings, which enables downstream processing such as the analysis of the RNA or protein content. Using this methodology the mechanism underlying heterogeneous growth can be tackled. This will be instrumental for improving streptomycetes as a cell factory, considering the fact that productivity correlates with pellet size. PMID:24561666

  4. The effect of object state-changes on event processing: do objects compete with themselves?

    PubMed

    Hindy, Nicholas C; Altmann, Gerry T M; Kalenik, Emily; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L

    2012-04-25

    When an object is described as changing state during an event, do the representations of those states compete? The distinct states they represent cannot coexist at any one moment in time, yet each representation must be retrievable at the cost of suppressing the other possible object states. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging of human participants to test whether such competition does occur, and whether this competition between object states recruits brain areas sensitive to other forms of conflict. In Experiment 1, the same object was changed either substantially or minimally by one of two actions. In Experiment 2, the same action either substantially or minimally changed one of two objects. On a subject-specific basis, we identified voxels most responsive to conflict in a Stroop color-word interference task. Voxels in left posterior ventrolateral prefrontal cortex most responsive to Stroop conflict were also responsive to our object state-change manipulation, and were not responsive to the imageability of the described action. In contrast, voxels in left middle frontal gyrus responsive to Stroop conflict were not responsive even to language, and voxels in left middle temporal gyrus that were responsive to language and imageability were not responsive to object state-change. Results suggest that, when representing object state-change, multiple incompatible representations of an object compete, and the greater the difference between the initial state and the end state of an object, the greater the conflict. PMID:22539841

  5. The highs and lows of object impossibility: effects of spatial frequency on holistic processing of impossible objects.

    PubMed

    Freud, Erez; Avidan, Galia; Ganel, Tzvi

    2015-02-01

    Holistic processing, the decoding of a stimulus as a unified whole, is a basic characteristic of object perception. Recent research using Garner's speeded classification task has shown that this processing style is utilized even for impossible objects that contain an inherent spatial ambiguity. In particular, similar Garner interference effects were found for possible and impossible objects, indicating similar holistic processing styles for the two object categories. In the present study, we further investigated the perceptual mechanisms that mediate such holistic representation of impossible objects. We relied on the notion that, whereas information embedded in the high-spatial-frequency (HSF) content supports fine-detailed processing of object features, the information conveyed by low spatial frequencies (LSF) is more crucial for the emergence of a holistic shape representation. To test the effects of image frequency on the holistic processing of impossible objects, participants performed the Garner speeded classification task on images of possible and impossible cubes filtered for their LSF and HSF information. For images containing only LSF, similar interference effects were observed for possible and impossible objects, indicating that the two object categories were processed in a holistic manner. In contrast, for the HSF images, Garner interference was obtained only for possible, but not for impossible objects. Importantly, we provided evidence to show that this effect could not be attributed to a lack of sensitivity to object possibility in the LSF images. Particularly, even for full-spectrum images, Garner interference was still observed for both possible and impossible objects. Additionally, performance in an object classification task revealed high sensitivity to object possibility, even for LSF images. Taken together, these findings suggest that the visual system can tolerate the spatial ambiguity typical to impossible objects by relying on information

  6. The influence of degree of expertise and objective task complexity on perceived task complexity and performance.

    PubMed

    Haerem, Thorvald; Rau, Devaki

    2007-09-01

    Research on expertise has shown that nonexperts may sometimes outperform experts. Some researchers have suggested that superior performance by experts depends on the match between the experts' cognition and the demands of the task. The authors explored this issue using a quasi-experiment set in an organization. They examined how 3 sets of similar tasks that differ in their type of complexity can lead to differences in task perceptions and performance among experts, intermediates, and novices. The results suggest that experts and novices pay attention to different aspects of a task and that this affects both their perceptions of task complexity (i.e., task analyzability and variability) and their performance on the task. PMID:17845088

  7. On the existence of near-Earth-object meteoroid complexes producing meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo-Rodriguez, J.; Madiedo, J.; Williams, I.

    2014-07-01

    It is generally thought that meteorites are formed as a result of collisions within the main belt of asteroids [1]. They are delivered onto Earth-crossing orbits because of the effects of orbital resonances, primarily with Jupiter. About 15 meteorites are known where their passage through the atmosphere was observed and recorded, allowing the parameters of the pre-encounter orbit to be derived [2]. The cosmic-ray-exposure ages (CREAs) are suggesting that most meteorites have been exposed to cosmic rays for tens of millions of years (Myrs) [3], re-enforcing the belief that the process of modifying the orbit from being near-circular in the main belt to highly elliptical as an Earth-crossing orbit was a gradual process like the effects of resonance. However, there is growing evidence that some meteorite could originate directly from the near-Earth-object (NEO) population. A good example of this is the recent discovery of rare primitive groups in the Antarctic, an example being Elephant Moraine (EET) 96026: a C4/5 carbonaceous chondrite with a measured cosmic ray exposure age of only 0.28 Ma [4]. Here, we focus on recent dynamic links that have been established between meteorite-dropping bolides and NEOs that support the idea of short-life meteoroid streams that can generate meteoroids on Earth. The fact that such streams can exist allows rocky material from potentially-hazardous asteroids (PHA) to be sampled and investigated in the laboratory. The existence of meteoroid streams capable of producing meteorites has been proposed following the determination of accurate meteoroid orbits of fireballs obtained by the Canadian Meteorite Observation and Recovery Project (MORP) [5]. Some asteroids in the Earth's vicinity are undergoing both dynamical and collisional evolution on very short timescales [6]. Many of these objects are crumbly bodies that originated from the collisions between main-belt asteroids during their life-time. An obvious method of forming these complexes

  8. Supercritical separation process for complex organic mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Chum, Helena L.; Filardo, Giuseppe

    1990-01-01

    A process is disclosed for separating low molecular weight components from complex aqueous organic mixtures. The process includes preparing a separation solution of supercritical carbon dioxide with an effective amount of an entrainer to modify the solvation power of the supercritical carbon dioxide and extract preselected low molecular weight components. The separation solution is maintained at a temperature of at least about 70.degree. C. and a pressure of at least about 1,500 psi. The separation solution is then contacted with the organic mixtures while maintaining the temperature and pressure as above until the mixtures and solution reach equilibrium to extract the preselected low molecular weight components from the organic mixtures. Finally, the entrainer/extracted components portion of the equilibrium mixture is isolated from the separation solution.

  9. Supercritical separation process for complex organic mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Chum, H.L.; Filardo, G.

    1990-10-23

    A process is disclosed for separating low molecular weight components from complex aqueous organic mixtures. The process includes preparing a separation solution of supercritical carbon dioxide with an effective amount of an entrainer to modify the solvation power of the supercritical carbon dioxide and extract preselected low molecular weight components. The separation solution is maintained at a temperature of at least about 70 C and a pressure of at least about 1,500 psi. The separation solution is then contacted with the organic mixtures while maintaining the temperature and pressure as above until the mixtures and solution reach equilibrium to extract the preselected low molecular weight components from the organic mixtures. Finally, the entrainer/extracted components portion of the equilibrium mixture is isolated from the separation solution. 1 fig.

  10. Exploratory study of complexant concentrate waste processing

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, G.J.; Bray, L.A.; Kurath, D.E.; Morrey, J.R.; Swanson, J.L.; Wester, D.W.

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study, conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for Westinghouse Hanford Company, was to determine the effect of applying advanced chemical separations technologies to the processing and disposal of high-level wastes (HLW) stored in underground tanks. The major goals of this study were to determine (1) if the wastes can be partitioned into a small volume of HLW plus a large volume of low-level waste (LLW), and (2) if the activity in the LLW can be lowered enough to meet NRC Class LLW criteria. This report presents the results obtained in a brief scouting study of various processes for separating radionuclides from Hanford complexant concentrate (CC) waste.

  11. Improved multi-objective ant colony optimization algorithm and its application in complex reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinqing; Zhao, Yang; Wang, Dong; Zhu, Huijie; Zhang, Qing

    2013-09-01

    The problem of fault reasoning has aroused great concern in scientific and engineering fields. However, fault investigation and reasoning of complex system is not a simple reasoning decision-making problem. It has become a typical multi-constraint and multi-objective reticulate optimization decision-making problem under many influencing factors and constraints. So far, little research has been carried out in this field. This paper transforms the fault reasoning problem of complex system into a paths-searching problem starting from known symptoms to fault causes. Three optimization objectives are considered simultaneously: maximum probability of average fault, maximum average importance, and minimum average complexity of test. Under the constraints of both known symptoms and the causal relationship among different components, a multi-objective optimization mathematical model is set up, taking minimizing cost of fault reasoning as the target function. Since the problem is non-deterministic polynomial-hard(NP-hard), a modified multi-objective ant colony algorithm is proposed, in which a reachability matrix is set up to constrain the feasible search nodes of the ants and a new pseudo-random-proportional rule and a pheromone adjustment mechinism are constructed to balance conflicts between the optimization objectives. At last, a Pareto optimal set is acquired. Evaluation functions based on validity and tendency of reasoning paths are defined to optimize noninferior set, through which the final fault causes can be identified according to decision-making demands, thus realize fault reasoning of the multi-constraint and multi-objective complex system. Reasoning results demonstrate that the improved multi-objective ant colony optimization(IMACO) can realize reasoning and locating fault positions precisely by solving the multi-objective fault diagnosis model, which provides a new method to solve the problem of multi-constraint and multi-objective fault diagnosis and

  12. Using near-infrared spectroscopy to assess neural activation during object processing in infants.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Teresa; Bortfeld, Heather; Woods, Rebecca; Wruck, Eric; Boas, David A

    2005-01-01

    The capacity to represent the world in terms of numerically distinct objects (i.e., object individuation) is a milestone in early cognitive development and forms the foundation for more complex thought and behavior. Over the past 10 to 15 yr, infant researchers have expended a great deal of effort to identify the origins and development of this capacity. In contrast, relatively little is known about the neural mechanisms that underlie the ability to individuate objects, in large part because there are a limited number of noninvasive techniques available to measure brain functioning in human infants. Recent research suggests that near-IR spectroscopy (NIRS), an optical imaging technique that uses relative changes in total hemoglobin concentration and oxygenation as an indicator of neural activation, may be a viable procedure for assessing the relation between object processing and brain function in human infants. We examine the extent to which increased neural activation, as measured by NIRS, could be observed in two neural areas known to be involved in object processing, the primary visual cortex and the inferior temporal cortex, during an object processing task. Infants aged 6.5 months are presented with a visual event in which two featurally distinct objects emerge successively to opposite sides of an occluder and neuroimaging data are collected. As predicted, increased neural activation is observed in both the primary visual and inferior cortex during the visual event, suggesting that these neural areas support object processing in the young infant. The outcome has important implications for research in cognitive development, developmental neuroscience, and optical imaging. PMID:15847576

  13. Visual Short-Term Memory for Complex Objects in 6- and 8-month-old Infants

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Mee-Kyoung; Luck, Steven J.; Oakes, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Infants’ visual short-term memory (VSTM) for simple objects undergoes dramatic development: 6-month-old infants can store in VSTM information about only a simple object presented in isolation, whereas 8-month-old infants can store information about simple objects presented in multiple-item arrays. The present study extended this work to examine the development of infants’ VSTM for complex objects during this same period (N= 105). Using the simultaneous streams change detection paradigm, Experiment 1 confirmed the previous developmental trajectory between 6 and 8 months. Experiment 2 showed that doubling the exposure time did not enhance 6-month-old infants’ change detection, demonstrating that the developmental change is not due to encoding speed. Thus, VSTM for simple and complex objects appears to follow the same developmental trajectory. PMID:24003841

  14. Software Process Assurance for Complex Electronics (SPACE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plastow, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    Complex Electronics (CE) are now programmed to perform tasks that were previously handled in software, such as communication protocols. Many of the methods used to develop software bare a close resemblance to CE development. For instance, Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) can have over a million logic gates while system-on-chip (SOC) devices can combine a microprocessor, input and output channels, and sometimes an FPGA for programmability. With this increased intricacy, the possibility of software-like bugs such as incorrect design, logic, and unexpected interactions within the logic is great. Since CE devices are obscuring the hardware/software boundary, we propose that mature software methodologies may be utilized with slight modifications in the development of these devices. Software Process Assurance for Complex Electronics (SPACE) is a research project that looks at using standardized S/W Assurance/Engineering practices to provide an assurance framework for development activities. Tools such as checklists, best practices and techniques can be used to detect missing requirements and bugs earlier in the development cycle creating a development process for CE that will be more easily maintained, consistent and configurable based on the device used.

  15. Software Process Assurance for Complex Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plastow, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    Complex Electronics (CE) now perform tasks that were previously handled in software, such as communication protocols. Many methods used to develop software bare a close resemblance to CE development. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) can have over a million logic gates while system-on-chip (SOC) devices can combine a microprocessor, input and output channels, and sometimes an FPGA for programmability. With this increased intricacy, the possibility of software-like bugs such as incorrect design, logic, and unexpected interactions within the logic is great. With CE devices obscuring the hardware/software boundary, we propose that mature software methodologies may be utilized with slight modifications in the development of these devices. Software Process Assurance for Complex Electronics (SPACE) is a research project that used standardized S/W Assurance/Engineering practices to provide an assurance framework for development activities. Tools such as checklists, best practices and techniques were used to detect missing requirements and bugs earlier in the development cycle creating a development process for CE that was more easily maintained, consistent and configurable based on the device used.

  16. Faster than the speed of rejection: Object identification processes during visual search for multiple targets.

    PubMed

    Godwin, Hayward J; Walenchok, Stephen C; Houpt, Joseph W; Hout, Michael C; Goldinger, Stephen D

    2015-08-01

    When engaged in a visual search for two targets, participants are slower and less accurate in their responses, relative to their performance when searching for singular targets. Previous work on this "dual-target cost" has primarily focused on the breakdown of attentional guidance when looking for two items. Here, we investigated how object identification processes are affected by dual-target search. Our goal was to chart the speed at which distractors could be rejected, to assess whether dual-target search impairs object identification. To do so, we examined the capacity coefficient, which measures the speed at which decisions can be made, and provides a baseline of parallel performance against which to compare. We found that participants could search at or above this baseline, suggesting that dual-target search does not impair object identification abilities. We also found substantial differences in performance when participants were asked to search for simple versus complex images. Somewhat paradoxically, participants were able to reject complex images more rapidly than simple images. We suggest that this reflects the greater number of features that can be used to identify complex images, a finding that has important consequences for understanding object identification in visual search more generally. PMID:25938253

  17. Faster than the speed of rejection: Object identification processes during visual search for multiple targets

    PubMed Central

    Godwin, Hayward J.; Walenchok, Stephen C.; Houpt, Joseph W.; Hout, Michael C.; Goldinger, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    When engaged in a visual search for two targets, participants are slower and less accurate in their responses, relative to their performance when searching for singular targets. Previous work on this “dual-target cost” has primarily focused on the breakdown of attention guidance when looking for two items. Here, we investigated how object identification processes are affected by dual-target search. Our goal was to chart the speed at which distractors could be rejected, in order to assess whether dual-target search impairs object identification. To do so, we examined the capacity coefficient, which measures the speed at which decisions can be made, and provides a baseline of parallel performance against which to compare. We found that participants could search at or above this baseline, suggesting that dual-target search does not impair object identification abilities. We also found substantial differences in performance when participants were asked to search for simple versus complex images. Somewhat paradoxically, participants were able to reject complex images more rapidly than simple images. We suggest that this reflects the greater number of features that can be used to identify complex images, a finding that has important consequences for understanding object identification in visual search more generally. PMID:25938253

  18. A Comparison of Two Objective Measures of Binaural Processing

    PubMed Central

    Undurraga, Jaime A.; Marquardt, Torsten; McAlpine, David

    2015-01-01

    There has been continued interest in clinical objective measures of binaural processing. One commonly proposed measure is the binaural interaction component (BIC), which is obtained typically by recording auditory brainstem responses (ABRs)—the BIC reflects the difference between the binaural ABR and the sum of the monaural ABRs (i.e., binaural − (left + right)). We have recently developed an alternative, direct measure of sensitivity to interaural time differences, namely, a following response to modulations in interaural phase difference (the interaural phase modulation following response; IPM-FR). To obtain this measure, an ongoing diotically amplitude-modulated signal is presented, and the interaural phase difference of the carrier is switched periodically at minima in the modulation cycle. Such periodic modulations to interaural phase difference can evoke a steady state following response. BIC and IPM-FR measurements were compared from 10 normal-hearing subjects using a 16-channel electroencephalographic system. Both ABRs and IPM-FRs were observed most clearly from similar electrode locations—differential recordings taken from electrodes near the ear (e.g., mastoid) in reference to a vertex electrode (Cz). Although all subjects displayed clear ABRs, the BIC was not reliably observed. In contrast, the IPM-FR typically elicited a robust and significant response. In addition, the IPM-FR measure required a considerably shorter recording session. As the IPM-FR magnitude varied with interaural phase difference modulation depth, it could potentially serve as a correlate of perceptual salience. Overall, the IPM-FR appears a more suitable clinical measure than the BIC. PMID:26721925

  19. No Evidence for a Fixed Object Limit in Working Memory: Spatial Ensemble Representations Inflate Estimates of Working Memory Capacity for Complex Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Timothy F.; Alvarez, George A.

    2015-01-01

    A central question for models of visual working memory is whether the number of objects people can remember depends on object complexity. Some influential "slot" models of working memory capacity suggest that people always represent 3-4 objects and that only the fidelity with which these objects are represented is affected by object…

  20. Interpolation Processes in Object Perception: Reply to Anderson (2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellman, Philip J.; Garrigan, Patrick; Shipley, Thomas F.; Keane, Brian P.

    2007-01-01

    P. J. Kellman, P. Garrigan, & T. F. Shipley presented a theory of 3-D interpolation in object perception. Along with results from many researchers, this work supports an emerging picture of how the visual system connects separate visible fragments to form objects. In his commentary, B. L. Anderson challenges parts of that view, especially the idea…

  1. Digital image processing in the SECURE concealed-object detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Steven W.

    1993-04-01

    A new technology has been developed for detecting explosives and other dangerous objects concealed under persons' clothing. The 'Subambient Exposure, Computer Utilized Reflected Energy' (SECURE) method uses a very low level of back-scattered x-rays in conjunction with digital image processing to produce an image of the person and any concealed objects. Image processing algorithms, used in the system are directed at presenting information to a human operator in the best possible manner for foreign object detection. These algorithms are viewed as being near optimum, and additional development is probably not justified. Algorithm development is needed in the area of automatic threat detection. This has the potential of reducing the invasion of privacy associated with having a security operator view each image. It also has the potential of reducing the serious problem of operator complacency. In one approach, the new algorithm must (1) recognize and isolate objects in the image, (2) discriminate between concealed objects and human anatomy, and (3) discriminate between dangerous and benign concealed objects. The images produced with the SECURE technology are extremely noisy due to the low levels of radiation used. Any algorithm developed must perform well in this noisy environment. Execution of the algorithm must be accomplished in less than a few seconds. Hardware to implement the algorithm must be of a complexity and cost compatible with the commercial SECURE system.

  2. The perception of odor objects in everyday life: a review on the processing of odor mixtures.

    PubMed

    Thomas-Danguin, Thierry; Sinding, Charlotte; Romagny, Sébastien; El Mountassir, Fouzia; Atanasova, Boriana; Le Berre, Elodie; Le Bon, Anne-Marie; Coureaud, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    Smelling monomolecular odors hardly ever occurs in everyday life, and the daily functioning of the sense of smell relies primarily on the processing of complex mixtures of volatiles that are present in the environment (e.g., emanating from food or conspecifics). Such processing allows for the instantaneous recognition and categorization of smells and also for the discrimination of odors among others to extract relevant information and to adapt efficiently in different contexts. The neurophysiological mechanisms underpinning this highly efficient analysis of complex mixtures of odorants is beginning to be unraveled and support the idea that olfaction, as vision and audition, relies on odor-objects encoding. This configural processing of odor mixtures, which is empirically subject to important applications in our societies (e.g., the art of perfumers, flavorists, and wine makers), has been scientifically studied only during the last decades. This processing depends on many individual factors, among which are the developmental stage, lifestyle, physiological and mood state, and cognitive skills; this processing also presents striking similarities between species. The present review gathers the recent findings, as observed in animals, healthy subjects, and/or individuals with affective disorders, supporting the perception of complex odor stimuli as odor objects. It also discusses peripheral to central processing, and cognitive and behavioral significance. Finally, this review highlights that the study of odor mixtures is an original window allowing for the investigation of daily olfaction and emphasizes the need for knowledge about the underlying biological processes, which appear to be crucial for our representation and adaptation to the chemical environment. PMID:24917831

  3. The perception of odor objects in everyday life: a review on the processing of odor mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Thomas-Danguin, Thierry; Sinding, Charlotte; Romagny, Sébastien; El Mountassir, Fouzia; Atanasova, Boriana; Le Berre, Elodie; Le Bon, Anne-Marie; Coureaud, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    Smelling monomolecular odors hardly ever occurs in everyday life, and the daily functioning of the sense of smell relies primarily on the processing of complex mixtures of volatiles that are present in the environment (e.g., emanating from food or conspecifics). Such processing allows for the instantaneous recognition and categorization of smells and also for the discrimination of odors among others to extract relevant information and to adapt efficiently in different contexts. The neurophysiological mechanisms underpinning this highly efficient analysis of complex mixtures of odorants is beginning to be unraveled and support the idea that olfaction, as vision and audition, relies on odor-objects encoding. This configural processing of odor mixtures, which is empirically subject to important applications in our societies (e.g., the art of perfumers, flavorists, and wine makers), has been scientifically studied only during the last decades. This processing depends on many individual factors, among which are the developmental stage, lifestyle, physiological and mood state, and cognitive skills; this processing also presents striking similarities between species. The present review gathers the recent findings, as observed in animals, healthy subjects, and/or individuals with affective disorders, supporting the perception of complex odor stimuli as odor objects. It also discusses peripheral to central processing, and cognitive and behavioral significance. Finally, this review highlights that the study of odor mixtures is an original window allowing for the investigation of daily olfaction and emphasizes the need for knowledge about the underlying biological processes, which appear to be crucial for our representation and adaptation to the chemical environment. PMID:24917831

  4. Auditory scene analysis and sonified visual images. Does consonance negatively impact on object formation when using complex sonified stimuli?

    PubMed Central

    Brown, David J.; Simpson, Andrew J. R.; Proulx, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    A critical task for the brain is the sensory representation and identification of perceptual objects in the world. When the visual sense is impaired, hearing and touch must take primary roles and in recent times compensatory techniques have been developed that employ the tactile or auditory system as a substitute for the visual system. Visual-to-auditory sonifications provide a complex, feature-based auditory representation that must be decoded and integrated into an object-based representation by the listener. However, we don’t yet know what role the auditory system plays in the object integration stage and whether the principles of auditory scene analysis apply. Here we used coarse sonified images in a two-tone discrimination task to test whether auditory feature-based representations of visual objects would be confounded when their features conflicted with the principles of auditory consonance. We found that listeners (N = 36) performed worse in an object recognition task when the auditory feature-based representation was harmonically consonant. We also found that this conflict was not negated with the provision of congruent audio–visual information. The findings suggest that early auditory processes of harmonic grouping dominate the object formation process and that the complexity of the signal, and additional sensory information have limited effect on this. PMID:26528202

  5. Auditory scene analysis and sonified visual images. Does consonance negatively impact on object formation when using complex sonified stimuli?

    PubMed

    Brown, David J; Simpson, Andrew J R; Proulx, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    A critical task for the brain is the sensory representation and identification of perceptual objects in the world. When the visual sense is impaired, hearing and touch must take primary roles and in recent times compensatory techniques have been developed that employ the tactile or auditory system as a substitute for the visual system. Visual-to-auditory sonifications provide a complex, feature-based auditory representation that must be decoded and integrated into an object-based representation by the listener. However, we don't yet know what role the auditory system plays in the object integration stage and whether the principles of auditory scene analysis apply. Here we used coarse sonified images in a two-tone discrimination task to test whether auditory feature-based representations of visual objects would be confounded when their features conflicted with the principles of auditory consonance. We found that listeners (N = 36) performed worse in an object recognition task when the auditory feature-based representation was harmonically consonant. We also found that this conflict was not negated with the provision of congruent audio-visual information. The findings suggest that early auditory processes of harmonic grouping dominate the object formation process and that the complexity of the signal, and additional sensory information have limited effect on this. PMID:26528202

  6. Improvement of the F-Perceptory Approach Through Management of Fuzzy Complex Geographic Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalfi, B.; de Runz, C.; Faiz, S.; Akdag, H.

    2015-08-01

    In the real world, data is imperfect and in various ways such as imprecision, vagueness, uncertainty, ambiguity and inconsistency. For geographic data, the fuzzy aspect is mainly manifested in time, space and the function of objects and is due to a lack of precision. Therefore, the researchers in the domain emphasize the importance of modeling data structures in GIS but also their lack of adaptation to fuzzy data. The F-Perceptory approachh manages the modeling of imperfect geographic information with UML. This management is essential to maintain faithfulness to reality and to better guide the user in his decision-making. However, this approach does not manage fuzzy complex geographic objects. The latter presents a multiple object with similar or different geographic shapes. So, in this paper, we propose to improve the F-Perceptory approach by proposing to handle fuzzy complex geographic objects modeling. In a second step, we propose its transformation to the UML modeling.

  7. Specificity, promiscuity, and the structure of complex information processing networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Christopher

    2006-03-01

    Both the top-down designs of engineered systems and the bottom-up serendipities of biological evolution must negotiate tradeoffs between specificity and control: overly specific interactions between components can make systems brittle and unevolvable, while more generic interactions can require elaborate control in order to aggregate specificity from distributed pieces. Complex information processing systems reveal network organizations that navigate this landscape of constraints: regulatory and signaling networks in cells involve the coordination of molecular interactions that are surprisingly promiscuous, and object-oriented design in software systems emphasizes the polymorphic composition of objects of minimal necessary specificity [C.R. Myers, Phys Rev E 68, 046116 (2003)]. Models of information processing arising both in systems biology and engineered computation are explored to better understand how particular network organizations can coordinate the activity of promiscuous components to achieve robust and evolvable function.

  8. Aridity and decomposition processes in complex landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ossola, Alessandro; Nyman, Petter

    2015-04-01

    Decomposition of organic matter is a key biogeochemical process contributing to nutrient cycles, carbon fluxes and soil development. The activity of decomposers depends on microclimate, with temperature and rainfall being major drivers. In complex terrain the fine-scale variation in microclimate (and hence water availability) as a result of slope orientation is caused by differences in incoming radiation and surface temperature. Aridity, measured as the long-term balance between net radiation and rainfall, is a metric that can be used to represent variations in water availability within the landscape. Since aridity metrics can be obtained at fine spatial scales, they could theoretically be used to investigate how decomposition processes vary across complex landscapes. In this study, four research sites were selected in tall open sclerophyll forest along a aridity gradient (Budyko dryness index ranging from 1.56 -2.22) where microclimate, litter moisture and soil moisture were monitored continuously for one year. Litter bags were packed to estimate decomposition rates (k) using leaves of a tree species not present in the study area (Eucalyptus globulus) in order to avoid home-field advantage effects. Litter mass loss was measured to assess the activity of macro-decomposers (6mm litter bag mesh size), meso-decomposers (1 mm mesh), microbes above-ground (0.2 mm mesh) and microbes below-ground (2 cm depth, 0.2 mm mesh). Four replicates for each set of bags were installed at each site and bags were collected at 1, 2, 4, 7 and 12 months since installation. We first tested whether differences in microclimate due to slope orientation have significant effects on decomposition processes. Then the dryness index was related to decomposition rates to evaluate if small-scale variation in decomposition can be predicted using readily available information on rainfall and radiation. Decomposition rates (k), calculated fitting single pool negative exponential models, generally

  9. Distinct Visual Processing of Real Objects and Pictures of Those Objects in 7- to 9-month-old Infants

    PubMed Central

    Gerhard, Theresa M.; Culham, Jody C.; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined 7- and 9-month-old infants’ visual habituation to real objects and pictures of the same objects and their preferences between real and pictorial versions of the same objects following habituation. Different hypotheses would predict that infants may habituate faster to pictures than real objects (based on proposed theoretical links between behavioral habituation in infants and neuroimaging adaptation in adults) or to real objects vs. pictures (based on past infant electrophysiology data). Sixty-one 7-month-old infants and fifty-nine 9-month-old infants were habituated to either a real object or a picture of the same object and afterward preference tested with the habituation object paired with either the novel real object or its picture counterpart. Infants of both age groups showed basic information-processing advantages for real objects. Specifically, during the initial presentations, 9-month-old infants looked longer at stimuli in both formats than the 7-month olds but more importantly both age groups looked longer at real objects than pictures, though with repeated presentations, they habituated faster for real objects such that at the end of habituation, they looked equally at both types of stimuli. Surprisingly, even after habituation, infants preferred to look at the real objects, regardless of whether they had habituated to photos or real objects. Our findings suggest that from as early as 7-months of age, infants show strong preferences for real objects, perhaps because real objects are visually richer and/or enable the potential for genuine interactions. PMID:27378962

  10. Effect of tDCS on task relevant and irrelevant perceptual learning of complex objects.

    PubMed

    Van Meel, Chayenne; Daniels, Nicky; de Beeck, Hans Op; Baeck, Annelies

    2016-01-01

    During perceptual learning the visual representations in the brain are altered, but these changes' causal role has not yet been fully characterized. We used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to investigate the role of higher visual regions in lateral occipital cortex (LO) in perceptual learning with complex objects. We also investigated whether object learning is dependent on the relevance of the objects for the learning task. Participants were trained in two tasks: object recognition using a backward masking paradigm and an orientation judgment task. During both tasks, an object with a red line on top of it were presented in each trial. The crucial difference between both tasks was the relevance of the object: the object was relevant for the object recognition task, but not for the orientation judgment task. During training, half of the participants received anodal tDCS stimulation targeted at the lateral occipital cortex (LO). Afterwards, participants were tested on how well they recognized the trained objects, the irrelevant objects presented during the orientation judgment task and a set of completely new objects. Participants stimulated with tDCS during training showed larger improvements of performance compared to participants in the sham condition. No learning effect was found for the objects presented during the orientation judgment task. To conclude, this study suggests a causal role of LO in relevant object learning, but given the rather low spatial resolution of tDCS, more research on the specificity of this effect is needed. Further, mere exposure is not sufficient to train object recognition in our paradigm. PMID:27096945

  11. The Perception of Concurrent Sound Objects in Harmonic Complexes Impairs Gap Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Ada W. S.; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Vachon, Francois; Alain, Claude

    2011-01-01

    Since the introduction of the concept of auditory scene analysis, there has been a paucity of work focusing on the theoretical explanation of how attention is allocated within a complex auditory scene. Here we examined signal detection in situations that promote either the fusion of tonal elements into a single sound object or the segregation of a…

  12. A Pedagogical Approach to the Design of Learning Objects for Complex Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busetti, Emanuela; Dettori, Giuliana; Forcheri, Paola; Ierardi, Maria Grazia

    2007-01-01

    In this article we describe an approach to the design of learning objects (LOs) suitable to support learning in complex domains. We briefly discuss, from an educational point of view, the methodological choices underlying the design of LOs to be used as didactical materials in a distributed Web-based environment, presently under development,…

  13. Plastic modifications induced by object recognition memory processing

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Julia Rosauro; Cammarota, Martín; Gruart, Agnès; Izquierdo, Iván; Delgado-García, José María

    2010-01-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) phenomenon is widely accepted as a cellular model of memory consolidation. Object recognition (OR) is a particularly useful way of studying declarative memory in rodents because it makes use of their innate preference for novel over familiar objects. In this study, mice had electrodes implanted in the hippocampal Schaffer collaterals–pyramidal CA1 pathway and were trained for OR. Field EPSPs evoked at the CA3-CA1 synapse were recorded at the moment of training and at different times thereafter. LTP-like synaptic enhancement was found 6 h posttraining. A testing session was conducted 24 h after training, in the presence of one familiar and one novel object. Hippocampal synaptic facilitation was observed during exploration of familiar and novel objects. A short depotentiation period was observed early after the test and was followed by a later phase of synaptic efficacy enhancement. Here, we show that OR memory consolidation is accompanied by transient potentiation in the hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses, while reconsolidation of this memory requires a short-lasting phase of depotentiation that could account for its well described vulnerability. The late synaptic enhancement phase, on the other hand, would be a consequence of memory restabilization. PMID:20133798

  14. Eye Movements and Processing Difficulty in Object Relative Clauses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staub, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that sentences containing object-extracted relative clauses (e.g., "The reporter that the senator attacked admitted the error") are more difficult to comprehend than sentences containing subject-extracted relative clauses (e.g., "The reporter that attacked the senator admitted the error"). Two major accounts of this phenomenon…

  15. Examining Complexity across Domains: Relating Subjective and Objective Measures of Affective Environmental Scenes, Paintings and Music

    PubMed Central

    Marin, Manuela M.; Leder, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Subjective complexity has been found to be related to hedonic measures of preference, pleasantness and beauty, but there is no consensus about the nature of this relationship in the visual and musical domains. Moreover, the affective content of stimuli has been largely neglected so far in the study of complexity but is crucial in many everyday contexts and in aesthetic experiences. We thus propose a cross-domain approach that acknowledges the multidimensional nature of complexity and that uses a wide range of objective complexity measures combined with subjective ratings. In four experiments, we employed pictures of affective environmental scenes, representational paintings, and Romantic solo and chamber music excerpts. Stimuli were pre-selected to vary in emotional content (pleasantness and arousal) and complexity (low versus high number of elements). For each set of stimuli, in a between-subjects design, ratings of familiarity, complexity, pleasantness and arousal were obtained for a presentation time of 25 s from 152 participants. In line with Berlyne’s collative-motivation model, statistical analyses controlling for familiarity revealed a positive relationship between subjective complexity and arousal, and the highest correlations were observed for musical stimuli. Evidence for a mediating role of arousal in the complexity-pleasantness relationship was demonstrated in all experiments, but was only significant for females with regard to music. The direction and strength of the linear relationship between complexity and pleasantness depended on the stimulus type and gender. For environmental scenes, the root mean square contrast measures and measures of compressed file size correlated best with subjective complexity, whereas only edge detection based on phase congruency yielded equivalent results for representational paintings. Measures of compressed file size and event density also showed positive correlations with complexity and arousal in music, which is

  16. Examining complexity across domains: relating subjective and objective measures of affective environmental scenes, paintings and music.

    PubMed

    Marin, Manuela M; Leder, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Subjective complexity has been found to be related to hedonic measures of preference, pleasantness and beauty, but there is no consensus about the nature of this relationship in the visual and musical domains. Moreover, the affective content of stimuli has been largely neglected so far in the study of complexity but is crucial in many everyday contexts and in aesthetic experiences. We thus propose a cross-domain approach that acknowledges the multidimensional nature of complexity and that uses a wide range of objective complexity measures combined with subjective ratings. In four experiments, we employed pictures of affective environmental scenes, representational paintings, and Romantic solo and chamber music excerpts. Stimuli were pre-selected to vary in emotional content (pleasantness and arousal) and complexity (low versus high number of elements). For each set of stimuli, in a between-subjects design, ratings of familiarity, complexity, pleasantness and arousal were obtained for a presentation time of 25 s from 152 participants. In line with Berlyne's collative-motivation model, statistical analyses controlling for familiarity revealed a positive relationship between subjective complexity and arousal, and the highest correlations were observed for musical stimuli. Evidence for a mediating role of arousal in the complexity-pleasantness relationship was demonstrated in all experiments, but was only significant for females with regard to music. The direction and strength of the linear relationship between complexity and pleasantness depended on the stimulus type and gender. For environmental scenes, the root mean square contrast measures and measures of compressed file size correlated best with subjective complexity, whereas only edge detection based on phase congruency yielded equivalent results for representational paintings. Measures of compressed file size and event density also showed positive correlations with complexity and arousal in music, which is

  17. Computational issues in complex water-energy optimization problems: Time scales, parameterizations, objectives and algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efstratiadis, Andreas; Tsoukalas, Ioannis; Kossieris, Panayiotis; Karavokiros, George; Christofides, Antonis; Siskos, Alexandros; Mamassis, Nikos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2015-04-01

    Modelling of large-scale hybrid renewable energy systems (HRES) is a challenging task, for which several open computational issues exist. HRES comprise typical components of hydrosystems (reservoirs, boreholes, conveyance networks, hydropower stations, pumps, water demand nodes, etc.), which are dynamically linked with renewables (e.g., wind turbines, solar parks) and energy demand nodes. In such systems, apart from the well-known shortcomings of water resources modelling (nonlinear dynamics, unknown future inflows, large number of variables and constraints, conflicting criteria, etc.), additional complexities and uncertainties arise due to the introduction of energy components and associated fluxes. A major difficulty is the need for coupling two different temporal scales, given that in hydrosystem modeling, monthly simulation steps are typically adopted, yet for a faithful representation of the energy balance (i.e. energy production vs. demand) a much finer resolution (e.g. hourly) is required. Another drawback is the increase of control variables, constraints and objectives, due to the simultaneous modelling of the two parallel fluxes (i.e. water and energy) and their interactions. Finally, since the driving hydrometeorological processes of the integrated system are inherently uncertain, it is often essential to use synthetically generated input time series of large length, in order to assess the system performance in terms of reliability and risk, with satisfactory accuracy. To address these issues, we propose an effective and efficient modeling framework, key objectives of which are: (a) the substantial reduction of control variables, through parsimonious yet consistent parameterizations; (b) the substantial decrease of computational burden of simulation, by linearizing the combined water and energy allocation problem of each individual time step, and solve each local sub-problem through very fast linear network programming algorithms, and (c) the substantial

  18. Formation of complex organic molecules in cold objects: the role of gas-phase reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balucani, Nadia; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Taquet, Vianney

    2015-04-01

    While astrochemical models are successful in reproducing many of the observed interstellar species, they have been struggling to explain the observed abundances of complex organic molecules. Current models tend to privilege grain surface over gas-phase chemistry in their formation. One key assumption of those models is that radicals trapped in the grain mantles gain mobility and react on lukewarm ( ≳ 30 K) dust grains. Thus, the recent detections of methyl formate (MF) and dimethyl ether (DME) in cold objects represent a challenge and may clarify the respective role of grain-surface and gas-phase chemistry. We propose here a new model to form DME and MF with gas-phase reactions in cold environments, where DME is the precursor of MF via an efficient reaction overlooked by previous models. Furthermore, methoxy, a precursor of DME, is also synthesized in the gas phase from methanol, which is desorbed by a non-thermal process from the ices. Our new model reproduces fairly well the observations towards L1544. It also explains, in a natural way, the observed correlation between DME and MF. We conclude that gas-phase reactions are major actors in the formation of MF, DME and methoxy in cold gas. This challenges the exclusive role of grain-surface chemistry and favours a combined grain-gas chemistry.

  19. Objects and processes: Two notions for understanding biological information.

    PubMed

    Mercado-Reyes, Agustín; Padilla-Longoria, Pablo; Arroyo-Santos, Alfonso

    2015-09-01

    In spite of being ubiquitous in life sciences, the concept of information is harshly criticized. Uses of the concept other than those derived from Shannon׳s theory are denounced as metaphoric. We perform a computational experiment to explore whether Shannon׳s information is adequate to describe the uses of said concept in commonplace scientific practice. Our results show that semantic sequences do not have unique complexity values different from the value of meaningless sequences. This result suggests that quantitative theoretical frameworks do not account fully for the complex phenomenon that the term "information" refers to. We propose a restructuring of the concept into two related, but independent notions, and conclude that a complete theory of biological information must account completely not only for both notions, but also for the relationship between them. PMID:26026831

  20. Cognitive Process Modeling of Spatial Ability: The Assembling Objects Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivie, Jennifer L.; Embretson, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    Spatial ability tasks appear on many intelligence and aptitude tests. Although the construct validity of spatial ability tests has often been studied through traditional correlational methods, such as factor analysis, less is known about the cognitive processes involved in solving test items. This study examines the cognitive processes involved in…

  1. Learning Objects: A User-Centered Design Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branon, Rovy F., III

    2011-01-01

    Design research systematically creates or improves processes, products, and programs through an iterative progression connecting practice and theory (Reinking, 2008; van den Akker, 2006). Developing a new instructional systems design (ISD) processes through design research is necessary when new technologies emerge that challenge existing practices…

  2. Diffusive capture process on complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungmin; Yook, Soon-Hyung; Kim, Yup

    2006-10-01

    We study the dynamical properties of a diffusing lamb captured by a diffusing lion on the complex networks with various sizes of N . We find that the lifetime ⟨T⟩ of a lamb scales as ⟨T⟩˜N and the survival probability S(N→∞,t) becomes finite on scale-free networks with degree exponent γ>3 . However, S(N,t) for γ<3 has a long-living tail on tree-structured scale-free networks and decays exponentially on looped scale-free networks. This suggests that the second moment of degree distribution ⟨k2⟩ is the relevant factor for the dynamical properties in the diffusive capture process. We numerically find that the normalized number of capture events at a node with degree k , n(k) , decreases as n(k)˜k-σ . When γ<3 , n(k) still increases anomalously for k≈kmax , where kmax is the maximum value of k of given networks with size N . We analytically show that n(k) satisfies the relation n(k)˜k2P(k) for any degree distribution P(k) and the total number of capture events Ntot is proportional to ⟨k2⟩ , which causes the γ -dependent behavior of S(N,t) and ⟨T⟩ .

  3. Sliding processes monitoring of objects of high environmental risk in Moscow.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, V. A.; Moiseenko, S. A.; Kalinina, A. V.; Ammosov, S. M.; Volkov, N. V.; Dubovskoj, V. B.

    2009-04-01

    Study of sliding processes on objects of high environmental risk requires special precision and reliability of engineering survey. Thus it is necessary to extend the ordinary used complex of engineering investigations with new technologies. The authors present the results of complex geological - geophysical monitoring of active landslides in Moscow in the area of high bank of Moskva River. The monitoring complex includes following investigations: 1) geological engineering survey (exploratory boring and test of rock characteristic); 2) prospecting seismology, common-depth-point method using reflected transverse waves and vertical seismic profiling in boreholes; 3) microseismic survey method; 4) high-precision inclinometer measurements in boreholes; 5) strain measurements in boreholes; 6) geodetic measurements of vertical displacements of reference points by differential leveling method; 7) geodetic measurements of horizontal displacements of reference points by GPS and land line-angular methods. In the investigation area landslides destroyed sewage collector construction several times till 2002, after 2002 landslide collector operation was stopped. The aim of complex investigations was the finding the most safe collector runs in 3-D environment. Sewage collector developer worked over two possible options of collector paths running deeply under the sliding surfaces. The results received during complex geological-geophysical monitoring help to estimate the stability the different parts of landslide and find the most safe and efficient variant of sewage collector run.

  4. Application of Complex Fluids in Lignocellulose Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrillo Lugo, Carlos A.

    Complex fluids such as emulsions, microemulsions and foams, have been used for different applications due to the multiplicity of properties they possess. In the present work, such fluids are introduced as effective media for processing lignocellulosic biomass. A demonstration of the generic benefits of complex fluids is presented to enhance biomass impregnation, to facilitate pretreatment for fiber deconstruction and to make compatible cellulose fibrils with hydrophobic polymers during composite manufacture. An improved impregnation of woody biomass was accomplished by application of water-continuous microemulsions. Microemulsions with high water content, > 85%, were formulated and wood samples were impregnated by wicking and capillary flooding at atmospheric pressure and temperature. Formulations were designed to effectively impregnate different wood species during shorter times and to a larger extent compared to the single components of the microemulsions (water, oil or surfactant solutions). The viscosity of the microemulsions and their interactions with cell wall constituents in fibers were critical to define the extent of impregnation and solubilization. The relation between composition and formulation variables and the extent of microemulsion penetration in different woody substrates was studied. Formulation variables such as salinity content of the aqueous phase and type of surfactant were elucidated. Likewise, composition variables such as the water-to-oil ratio and surfactant concentration were investigated. These variables affected the characteristics of the microemulsion and determined their effectiveness in wood treatment. Also, the interactions between the surfactant and the substrate had an important contribution in defining microemulsion penetration in the capillary structure of wood. Microemulsions as an alternative pretreatment for the manufacture of cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) was also studied. Microemulsions were applied to pretreat lignin

  5. Background complexity affects response of a looming-sensitive neuron to object motion.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ana C; McMillan, Glyn A; Santos, Cristina P; Gray, John R

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of studies show how stimulus complexity affects the responses of looming-sensitive neurons across multiple animal taxa. Locusts contain a well-described, descending motion-sensitive pathway that is preferentially looming sensitive. However, the lobula giant movement detector/descending contralateral movement detector (LGMD/DCMD) pathway responds to more than simple objects approaching at constant, predictable trajectories. In this study, we presented Locusta migratoria with a series of complex three-dimensional visual stimuli presented while simultaneously recording DCMD activity extracellularly. In addition to a frontal looming stimulus, we used a combination of compound trajectories (nonlooming transitioning to looming) presented at different velocities and onto a simple, scattered, or progressive flow field background. Regardless of stimulus background, DCMD responses to looming were characteristic and related to previously described effects of azimuthal approach angle and velocity of object expansion. However, increasing background complexity caused reduced firing rates, delayed peaks, shorter rise phases, and longer fall phases. DCMD responded to transitions to looming with a characteristic drop in a firing rate that was relatively invariant across most stimulus combinations and occurred regardless of stimulus background. Spike numbers were higher in the presence of the scattered background and reduced in the flow field background. We show that DCMD response time to a transition depends on unique expansion parameters of the moving stimulus irrespective of background complexity. Our results show how background complexity shapes DCMD responses to looming stimuli, which is explained within a behavioral context. PMID:25274344

  6. Cost-Efficient Methods and Processes for Safety Relevant Embedded Systems (CESAR) - An Objective Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolliffe, Graham

    For developing embedded safety critical systems, industrial companies have to face increasing complexity and variety coupled with increasing regulatory constraints, while costs, performances and time to market are constantly challenged. This has led to a profusion of enablers (new processes, methods and tools), which are neither integrated nor interoperable because they have been developed more or less independently (addressing only a part of the complexity: e.g. Safety) in the absence of internationally recognized open standards. CESAR has been established under ARTEMIS, the European Union's Joint Technology Initiative for research in embedded systems, with the aim to improve this situation and this pa-per will explain what CESAR's objectives are, how they are expected to be achieved and, in particular, how current best practice can ensure that safety engineering requirements can be met.

  7. An analysis of packaging formats for complex digtal objects: review of principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekaert, Jeroen L.; Hochstenbach, Patrick; De Kooning, Emiel; Van de Walle, Rik

    2003-11-01

    During recent years, the number of organizations making digital information available has massively increased. This evolution encouraged the development of standards for packaging and encoding digital representations of complex objects (such as a digital music albums or digitized books and photograph albums). The primary goal of this article is to offer a method to compare these packaging standards and best practices tailored to the needs of the digital library community and the rising digital preservation programs. The contribution of this paper is the definition of an integrated reference model, based on both the OAIS framework and some additional significant properties that affect the quality, usability, encoding and behavior of the digital objects.

  8. Method and system for nanoscale plasma processing of objects

    DOEpatents

    Oehrlein, Gottlieb S.; Hua, Xuefeng; Stolz, Christian

    2008-12-30

    A plasma processing system includes a source of plasma, a substrate and a shutter positioned in close proximity to the substrate. The substrate/shutter relative disposition is changed for precise control of substrate/plasma interaction. This way, the substrate interacts only with a fully established, stable plasma for short times required for nanoscale processing of materials. The shutter includes an opening of a predetermined width, and preferably is patterned to form an array of slits with dimensions that are smaller than the Debye screening length. This enables control of the substrate/plasma interaction time while avoiding the ion bombardment of the substrate in an undesirable fashion. The relative disposition between the shutter and the substrate can be made either by moving the shutter or by moving the substrate.

  9. Fast laser systems for measuring the geometry of complex-shaped objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galiulin, Ravil M.; Galiulin, Rishat M.; Bakirov, J. M.; Vorontsov, A. V.; Ponomarenko, I. V.

    1999-01-01

    The technical characteristics, advantages and applications of an automated optoelectronic measuring system designed by 'Optel' company, State Aviation University of Ufa, are presented in this paper. The measuring apparatus can be applied for industrial development and research, for example, in rapid prototyping, and for obtaining geometrical parameters in medicine and criminalistics. It essentially is a non-contact and rapid scanning system, allowing measurements of complex shaped objects like metal and plastic workpieces or parts of human body.

  10. Framework for dynamic background modeling and shadow suppression for moving object segmentation in complex wavelet domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushwaha, Alok Kumar Singh; Srivastava, Rajeev

    2015-09-01

    Moving object segmentation using change detection in wavelet domain under continuous variations of lighting condition is a challenging problem in video surveillance systems. There are several methods proposed in the literature for change detection in wavelet domain for moving object segmentation having static backgrounds, but it has not been addressed effectively for dynamic background changes. The methods proposed in the literature suffer from various problems, such as ghostlike appearance, object shadows, and noise. To deal with these issues, a framework for dynamic background modeling and shadow suppression under rapidly changing illumination conditions for moving object segmentation in complex wavelet domain is proposed. The proposed method consists of eight steps applied on given video frames, which include wavelet decomposition of frame using complex wavelet transform; use of change detection on detail coefficients (LH, HL, and HH), use of improved Gaussian mixture-based dynamic background modeling on approximate coefficient (LL subband); cast shadow suppression; use of soft thresholding for noise removal; strong edge detection; inverse wavelet transformation for reconstruction; and finally using closing morphology operator. A comparative analysis of the proposed method is presented both qualitatively and quantitatively with other standard methods available in the literature for six datasets in terms of various performance measures. Experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method.

  11. The Lateral Occipital Complex shows no net response to object familiarity.

    PubMed

    Margalit, Eshed; Shah, Manan P; Tjan, Bosco S; Biederman, Irving; Keller, Brenton; Brenner, Rorry

    2016-09-01

    In 1995, Malach et al. discovered an area whose fMRI BOLD response was greater when viewing intact, familiar objects than when viewing their scrambled versions (resembling texture). Since then hundreds of studies have explored this late visual region termed the Lateral Occipital Complex (LOC), which is now known to be critical for shape perception (James, Culham, Humphrey, Milner, & Goodale, 2003). Malach et al. (1995) discounted a role of familiarity by showing that "abstract" Henry Moore sculptures, unfamiliar to the subjects, also activated this region. This characterization of LOC as a region that responds to shape independently of familiarity has been accepted but never tested with control of the same low-level features. We assessed LOC's response to objects that had identical parts in two different arrangements, one familiar and the other novel. Malach was correct: There is no net effect of familiarity in LOC. However, a multivoxel correlation analysis showed that LOC does distinguish familiar from novel objects. PMID:27599373

  12. Decontamination processes for low level radioactive waste metal objects

    SciTech Connect

    Longnecker, E.F.; Ichikawa, Sekigo; Kanamori, Osamu

    1996-12-31

    Disposal and safe storage of contaminated nuclear waste is a problem of international scope. Although the greatest volume of such waste is concentrated in the USA and former Soviet Union, Western Europe and Japan have contaminated nuclear waste requiring attention. Japan`s radioactive nuclear waste is principally generated at nuclear power plants since it has no nuclear weapons production. However, their waste reduction, storage and disposal problems may be comparable to that of the USA on an inhabited area basis when consideration is given to population density where Japan`s population, half that of the USA, lives in an area slightly smaller than that of California`s. If everyone`s backyard was in California, the USA might have insoluble radioactive waste reduction, storage and disposal problems. Viewing Japan`s contaminated nuclear waste as a national problem requiring solutions, as well as an economic opportunity, Morikawa began research and development for decontaminating low level radioactive nuclear waste seven years ago. As engineers and manufacturers of special machinery for many years Morikawa brings special electro/mechanical/pneumatic Skills and knowledge to solving these unique problems. Genden Engineering Services and Construction Company (GESC), an affiliate of Japan Atomic Power Company, recently joined with Morikawa in this R&D effort to decontaminate low level radioactive nuclear waste (LLW) and to substantially reduce the volume of such nuclear waste requiring long term storage. This paper will present equipment with both mechanical and chemical processes developed over these several years by Morikawa and most recently in cooperation with GESC.

  13. Intercalation processes of copper complexes in DNA

    PubMed Central

    Galindo-Murillo, Rodrigo; García-Ramos, Juan Carlos; Ruiz-Azuara, Lena; Cheatham, Thomas E.; Cortés-Guzmán, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The family of anticancer complexes that include the transition metal copper known as Casiopeínas® shows promising results. Two of these complexes are currently in clinical trials. The interaction of these compounds with DNA has been observed experimentally and several hypotheses regarding the mechanism of action have been developed, and these include the generation of reactive oxygen species, phosphate hydrolysis and/or base-pair intercalation. To advance in the understanding on how these ligands interact with DNA, we present a molecular dynamics study of 21 Casiopeínas with a DNA dodecamer using 10 μs of simulation time for each compound. All the complexes were manually inserted into the minor groove as the starting point of the simulations. The binding energy of each complex and the observed representative type of interaction between the ligand and the DNA is reported. With this extended sampling time, we found that four of the compounds spontaneously flipped open a base pair and moved inside the resulting cavity and four compounds formed stacking interactions with the terminal base pairs. The complexes that formed the intercalation pocket led to more stable interactions. PMID:25958394

  14. RNA assemblages orchestrate complex cellular processes.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Hansen, Heidi Theil; Christiansen, Jan

    2016-07-01

    Eukaryotic mRNAs are monocistronic, and therefore mechanisms exist that coordinate the synthesis of multiprotein complexes in order to obtain proper stoichiometry at the appropriate intracellular locations. RNA-binding proteins containing low-complexity sequences are prone to generate liquid droplets via liquid-liquid phase separation, and in this way create cytoplasmic assemblages of functionally related mRNAs. In a recent iCLIP study, we showed that the Drosophila RNA-binding protein Imp, which exhibits a C-terminal low-complexity sequence, increases the formation of F-actin by binding to 3' untranslated regions of mRNAs encoding components participating in F-actin biogenesis. We hypothesize that phase transition is a mechanism the cell employs to increase the local mRNA concentration considerably, and in this way synchronize protein production in cytoplasmic territories, as discussed in the present review. PMID:27172226

  15. Complex organic molecules in organic-poor massive young stellar objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fayolle, Edith C.; Öberg, Karin I.; Garrod, Robin T.; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Bisschop, Suzanne E.

    2015-04-01

    Context. Massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) with hot cores are classic sources of complex organic molecules. The origins of these molecules in such sources, as well as the small- and large-scale differentiation between nitrogen- and oxygen-bearing complex species, are poorly understood. Aims: We aim to use complex molecule abundances toward a chemically less explored class of MYSOs with weak hot organic emission lines to constrain the impact of hot molecular cores and initial ice conditions on the chemical composition toward MYSOs. Methods: We use the IRAM 30 m and the Submillimeter Array to search for complex organic molecules over 8-16 GHz in the 1 mm atmospheric window toward three MYSOs with known ice abundances, but without luminous molecular hot cores. Results: Complex molecules are detected toward all three sources at comparable abundances with respect to CH3OH to classical hot core sources. The relative importance of CH3CHO, CH3CCH, CH3OCH3, CH3CN, and HNCO differ between the organic-poor MYSOs and hot cores, however. Furthermore, the N-bearing molecules are generally concentrated toward the source centers, while most O- and C-bearing molecules are present both in the center and in the colder envelope. Gas-phase HNCO/CH3OH ratios are tentatively correlated with the ratios of NH3 ice over CH3OH ice in the same lines of sight, which is consistent with new gas-grain model predictions. Conclusions: Hot cores are not required to form complex organic molecules, and source temperature and initial ice composition both seem to affect complex organic distributions toward MYSOs. To quantify the relative impact of temperature and initial conditions requires, however, a larger spatially resolved survey of MYSOs with ice detections.

  16. Multi-frequency color-marked fringe projection profilometry for fast 3D shape measurement of complex objects.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chao; Jia, Shuhai; Dong, Jun; Bao, Qingchen; Yang, Jia; Lian, Qin; Li, Dichen

    2015-09-21

    We propose a novel multi-frequency color-marked fringe projection profilometry approach to measure the 3D shape of objects with depth discontinuities. A digital micromirror device projector is used to project a color map consisting of a series of different-frequency color-marked fringe patterns onto the target object. We use a chromaticity curve to calculate the color change caused by the height of the object. The related algorithm to measure the height is also described in this paper. To improve the measurement accuracy, a chromaticity curve correction method is presented. This correction method greatly reduces the influence of color fluctuations and measurement error on the chromaticity curve and the calculation of the object height. The simulation and experimental results validate the utility of our method. Our method avoids the conventional phase shifting and unwrapping process, as well as the independent calculation of the object height required by existing techniques. Thus, it can be used to measure complex and dynamic objects with depth discontinuities. These advantages are particularly promising for industrial applications. PMID:26406621

  17. TOR and ageing: a complex pathway for a complex process.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Mark A; Tsai, Shih-Yin; Kennedy, Brian K

    2011-01-12

    Studies in invertebrate model organisms have led to a wealth of knowledge concerning the ageing process. But which of these discoveries will apply to ageing in humans? Recently, an assessment of the degree of conservation of ageing pathways between two of the leading invertebrate model organisms, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Caenorhabditis elegans, was completed. The results (i) quantitatively indicated that pathways were conserved between evolutionarily disparate invertebrate species and (ii) emphasized the importance of the TOR kinase pathway in ageing. With recent findings that deletion of the mTOR substrate S6K1 or exposure of mice to the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin result in lifespan extension, mTOR signalling has become a major focus of ageing research. Here, we address downstream targets of mTOR signalling and their possible links to ageing. We also briefly cover other ageing genes identified by comparing worms and yeast, addressing the likelihood that their mammalian counterparts will affect longevity. PMID:21115526

  18. Meshing complex macro-scale objects into self-assembling bricks

    PubMed Central

    Hacohen, Adar; Hanniel, Iddo; Nikulshin, Yasha; Wolfus, Shuki; Abu-Horowitz, Almogit; Bachelet, Ido

    2015-01-01

    Self-assembly provides an information-economical route to the fabrication of objects at virtually all scales. However, there is no known algorithm to program self-assembly in macro-scale, solid, complex 3D objects. Here such an algorithm is described, which is inspired by the molecular assembly of DNA, and based on bricks designed by tetrahedral meshing of arbitrary objects. Assembly rules are encoded by topographic cues imprinted on brick faces while attraction between bricks is provided by embedded magnets. The bricks can then be mixed in a container and agitated, leading to properly assembled objects at high yields and zero errors. The system and its assembly dynamics were characterized by video and audio analysis, enabling the precise time- and space-resolved characterization of its performance and accuracy. Improved designs inspired by our system could lead to successful implementation of self-assembly at the macro-scale, allowing rapid, on-demand fabrication of objects without the need for assembly lines. PMID:26226488

  19. Meshing complex macro-scale objects into self-assembling bricks.

    PubMed

    Hacohen, Adar; Hanniel, Iddo; Nikulshin, Yasha; Wolfus, Shuki; Abu-Horowitz, Almogit; Bachelet, Ido

    2015-01-01

    Self-assembly provides an information-economical route to the fabrication of objects at virtually all scales. However, there is no known algorithm to program self-assembly in macro-scale, solid, complex 3D objects. Here such an algorithm is described, which is inspired by the molecular assembly of DNA, and based on bricks designed by tetrahedral meshing of arbitrary objects. Assembly rules are encoded by topographic cues imprinted on brick faces while attraction between bricks is provided by embedded magnets. The bricks can then be mixed in a container and agitated, leading to properly assembled objects at high yields and zero errors. The system and its assembly dynamics were characterized by video and audio analysis, enabling the precise time- and space-resolved characterization of its performance and accuracy. Improved designs inspired by our system could lead to successful implementation of self-assembly at the macro-scale, allowing rapid, on-demand fabrication of objects without the need for assembly lines. PMID:26226488

  20. Meshing complex macro-scale objects into self-assembling bricks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacohen, Adar; Hanniel, Iddo; Nikulshin, Yasha; Wolfus, Shuki; Abu-Horowitz, Almogit; Bachelet, Ido

    2015-07-01

    Self-assembly provides an information-economical route to the fabrication of objects at virtually all scales. However, there is no known algorithm to program self-assembly in macro-scale, solid, complex 3D objects. Here such an algorithm is described, which is inspired by the molecular assembly of DNA, and based on bricks designed by tetrahedral meshing of arbitrary objects. Assembly rules are encoded by topographic cues imprinted on brick faces while attraction between bricks is provided by embedded magnets. The bricks can then be mixed in a container and agitated, leading to properly assembled objects at high yields and zero errors. The system and its assembly dynamics were characterized by video and audio analysis, enabling the precise time- and space-resolved characterization of its performance and accuracy. Improved designs inspired by our system could lead to successful implementation of self-assembly at the macro-scale, allowing rapid, on-demand fabrication of objects without the need for assembly lines.

  1. Phonemic Awareness: A Complex Developmental Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Janet A.; Hoffman, Paul R.

    2002-01-01

    This article uses a developmental model of language (Situational- Discourse-Semantics or SDS), along with a constellation or neuro-network model, to describe the developmental emergence of phonemic awareness. Ten sources of phonemic awareness are profiled along with developmental continuum, providing an integrated view of this complex development.…

  2. Verbal Labels Modulate Perceptual Object Processing in 1-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gliga, Teodora; Volein, Agnes; Csibra, Gergely

    2010-01-01

    Whether verbal labels help infants visually process and categorize objects is a contentious issue. Using electroencephalography, we investigated whether possessing familiar or novel labels for objects directly enhances 1-year-old children's neural processes underlying the perception of those objects. We found enhanced gamma-band (20-60 Hz)…

  3. Object-Child Relations: A Co-Constructive Perspective of Learning Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renninger, K. Ann

    What children do in play is simultaneously influenced by the properties of the play object and the skills of the child. Properties of objects lend themselves to re-engagement in investigative play or support for shared action. Repeated play with particular objects increases the number of actions possible with these objects. The process of…

  4. Sensory Processing Relates to Attachment to Childhood Comfort Objects of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalpidou, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The author tested the hypothesis that attachment to comfort objects is based on the sensory processing characteristics of the individual. Fifty-two undergraduate students with and without a childhood comfort object reported sensory responses and performed a tactile threshold task. Those with a comfort object described their object and rated their…

  5. Applications of the COG multiparticle Monte Carlo transport code to simulated imaging of complex objects

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, R M; Hall, J M

    1999-06-01

    COG is a major multiparticle simulation code in the LLNL Monte Carlo radiation transport toolkit. It was designed to solve deep-penetration radiation shielding problems in arbitrarily complex 3D geometries, involving coupled transport of photons, neutrons, and electrons. COG was written to provide as much accuracy as the underlying cross-sections will allow, and has a number of variance-reduction features to speed computations. Recently COG has been applied to the simulation of high- resolution radiographs of complex objects and the evaluation of contraband detection schemes. In this paper we will give a brief description of the capabilities of the COG transport code and show several examples of neutron and gamma-ray imaging simulations. Keywords: Monte Carlo, radiation transport, simulated radiography, nonintrusive inspection, neutron imaging.

  6. Complexity analysis of dual-channel game model with different managers' business objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ting; Ma, Junhai

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers dual-channel game model with bounded rationality, using the theory of bifurcations of dynamical system. The business objectives of retailers are assumed to be different, which is closer to reality than previous studies. We study the local stable region of Nash equilibrium point and find that business objectives can expand the stable region and play an important role in price strategy. One interesting finding is that a fiercer competition tends to stabilize the Nash equilibrium. Simulation shows the complex behavior of two dimensional dynamic system, we find period doubling bifurcation and chaos phenomenon. We measure performances of the model in different period by using the index of average profit. The results show that unstable behavior in economic system is often an unfavorable outcome. So this paper discusses the application of adaptive adjustment mechanism when the model exhibits chaotic behavior and then allows the retailers to eliminate the negative effects.

  7. Complex banded structures in directional solidification processes.

    PubMed

    Korzhenevskii, A L; Rozas, R E; Horbach, J

    2016-01-27

    A combination of theory and numerical simulation is used to investigate impurity superstructures that form in rapid directional solidification (RDS) processes in the presence of a temperature gradient and a pulling velocity with an oscillatory component. Based on a capillary wave model, we show that the RDS processes are associated with a rich morphology of banded structures, including frequency locking and the transition to chaos. PMID:26704726

  8. Fingerprints of Learned Object Recognition Seen in the fMRI Activation Patterns of Lateral Occipital Complex.

    PubMed

    Roth, Zvi N; Zohary, Ehud

    2015-09-01

    One feature of visual processing in the ventral stream is that cortical responses gradually depart from the physical aspects of the visual stimulus and become correlated with perceptual experience. Thus, unlike early retinotopic areas, the responses in the object-related lateral occipital complex (LOC) are typically immune to parameter changes (e.g., contrast, location, etc.) when these do not affect recognition. Here, we use a complementary approach to highlight changes in brain activity following a shift in the perceptual state (in the absence of any alteration in the physical image). Specifically, we focus on LOC and early visual cortex (EVC) and compare their functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) responses to degraded object images, before and after fast perceptual learning that renders initially unrecognized objects identifiable. Using 3 complementary analyses, we find that, in LOC, unlike EVC, learned recognition is associated with a change in the multivoxel response pattern to degraded object images, such that the response becomes significantly more correlated with that evoked by the intact version of the same image. This provides further evidence that the coding in LOC reflects the recognition of visual objects. PMID:24692511

  9. Deconvolution of Complex 1D NMR Spectra Using Objective Model Selection.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Travis S; Wilson, Henry D; de Vera, Ian Mitchelle S; Kojetin, Douglas J

    2015-01-01

    Fluorine (19F) NMR has emerged as a useful tool for characterization of slow dynamics in 19F-labeled proteins. One-dimensional (1D) 19F NMR spectra of proteins can be broad, irregular and complex, due to exchange of probe nuclei between distinct electrostatic environments; and therefore cannot be deconvoluted and analyzed in an objective way using currently available software. We have developed a Python-based deconvolution program, decon1d, which uses Bayesian information criteria (BIC) to objectively determine which model (number of peaks) would most likely produce the experimentally obtained data. The method also allows for fitting of intermediate exchange spectra, which is not supported by current software in the absence of a specific kinetic model. In current methods, determination of the deconvolution model best supported by the data is done manually through comparison of residual error values, which can be time consuming and requires model selection by the user. In contrast, the BIC method used by decond1d provides a quantitative method for model comparison that penalizes for model complexity helping to prevent over-fitting of the data and allows identification of the most parsimonious model. The decon1d program is freely available as a downloadable Python script at the project website (https://github.com/hughests/decon1d/). PMID:26241959

  10. Synthesis gas generation complex and process

    SciTech Connect

    Doering, E.L.

    1989-01-17

    A synthesis gas generation complex is described including: (a) a coal gasification plant, including at least one gasifier for the gasification of coal to produce synthesis gas at a temperature of about 2000/sup 0/F to 3000/sup 0/F, the gasifier having heat exchange surfaces adapted for indirect heat exchange with steam and water; (b) a heat exchange section comprising at least one heat exchanger in gas flow communication with the gasifier, the heat exchanger comprising at least one segment adapted to generate superheated steam, and lower temperature heat exchange segments; (c) a gas cleanup section in flow communication with the heat exchanger, the cleanup section comprising means for removing particulates and H/sub 2/S from the synthesis gas; (d) a steam turbine adapted to receive and utilize superheated steam and to produce a low temperature vapor, the steam turbine driving an electrical generator.

  11. Simulation and fitting of complex reaction network TPR: The key is the objective function

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Savara, Aditya Ashi

    2016-07-07

    In this research, a method has been developed for finding improved fits during simulation and fitting of data from complex reaction network temperature programmed reactions (CRN-TPR). It was found that simulation and fitting of CRN-TPR presents additional challenges relative to simulation and fitting of simpler TPR systems. The method used here can enable checking the plausibility of proposed chemical mechanisms and kinetic models. The most important finding was that when choosing an objective function, use of an objective function that is based on integrated production provides more utility in finding improved fits when compared to an objective function based onmore » the rate of production. The response surface produced by using the integrated production is monotonic, suppresses effects from experimental noise, requires fewer points to capture the response behavior, and can be simulated numerically with smaller errors. For CRN-TPR, there is increased importance (relative to simple reaction network TPR) in resolving of peaks prior to fitting, as well as from weighting of experimental data points. Using an implicit ordinary differential equation solver was found to be inadequate for simulating CRN-TPR. Lastly, the method employed here was capable of attaining improved fits in simulation and fitting of CRN-TPR when starting with a postulated mechanism and physically realistic initial guesses for the kinetic parameters.« less

  12. FACET: an object-oriented software framework for modeling complex social behavior patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Dolph, J. E.; Christiansen, J. H.; Sydelko, P. J.

    2000-06-30

    The Framework for Addressing Cooperative Extended Transactions (FACET) is a flexible, object-oriented architecture for implementing models of dynamic behavior of multiple individuals, or agents, in a simulation. These agents can be human (individuals or organizations) or animal and may exhibit any type of organized social behavior that can be logically articulated. FACET was developed by Argonne National Laboratory's (ANL) Decision and Information Sciences Division (DIS) out of the need to integrate societal processes into natural system simulations. The FACET architecture includes generic software components that provide the agents with various mechanisms for interaction, such as step sequencing and logic, resource management, conflict resolution, and preemptive event handling. FACET components provide a rich environment within which patterns of behavior can be captured in a highly expressive manner. Interactions among agents in FACET are represented by Course of Action (COA) object-based models. Each COA contains a directed graph of individual actions, which represents any known pattern of social behavior. The agents' behavior in a FACET COA, in turn, influences the natural landscape objects in a simulation (i.e., vegetation, soil, and habitat) by updating their states. The modular design of the FACET architecture provides the flexibility to create multiple and varied simulation scenarios by changing social behavior patterns, without disrupting the natural process models. This paper describes the FACET architecture and presents several examples of FACET models that have been developed to assess the effects of anthropogenic influences on the dynamics of the natural environment.

  13. Processing Motion Signals in Complex Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verghese, Preeti

    2000-01-01

    Motion information is critical for human locomotion and scene segmentation. Currently we have excellent neurophysiological models that are able to predict human detection and discrimination of local signals. Local motion signals are insufficient by themselves to guide human locomotion and to provide information about depth, object boundaries and surface structure. My research is aimed at understanding the mechanisms underlying the combination of motion signals across space and time. A target moving on an extended trajectory amidst noise dots in Brownian motion is much more detectable than the sum of signals generated by independent motion energy units responding to the trajectory segments. This result suggests that facilitation occurs between motion units tuned to similar directions, lying along the trajectory path. We investigated whether the interaction between local motion units along the motion direction is mediated by contrast. One possibility is that contrast-driven signals from motion units early in the trajectory sequence are added to signals in subsequent units. If this were the case, then units later in the sequence would have a larger signal than those earlier in the sequence. To test this possibility, we compared contrast discrimination thresholds for the first and third patches of a triplet of sequentially presented Gabor patches, aligned along the motion direction. According to this simple additive model, contrast increment thresholds for the third patch should be higher than thresholds for the first patch.The lack of a measurable effect on contrast thresholds for these various manipulations suggests that the pooling of signals along a trajectory is not mediated by contrast-driven signals. Instead, these results are consistent with models that propose that the facilitation of trajectory signals is achieved by a second-level network that chooses the strongest local motion signals and combines them if they occur in a spatio-temporal sequence consistent

  14. Combination of optically measured coordinates and displacements for quantitative investigation of complex objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrae, Peter; Beeck, Manfred-Andreas; Jueptner, Werner P. O.; Nadeborn, Werner; Osten, Wolfgang

    1996-09-01

    Holographic interferometry makes it possible to measure high precision displacement data in the range of the wavelength of the used laser light. However, the determination of 3D- displacement vectors of objects with complex surfaces requires the measurement of 3D-object coordinates not only to consider local sensitivities but to distinguish between in-plane deformation, i.e. strains, and out-of-plane components, i.e. shears, too. To this purpose both the surface displacement and coordinates have to be combined and it is advantageous to make the data available for CAE- systems. The object surface has to be approximated analytically from the measured point cloud to generate a surface mesh. The displacement vectors can be assigned to the nodes of this surface mesh for visualization of the deformation of the object under test. They also can be compared to the results of FEM-calculations or can be used as boundary conditions for further numerical investigations. Here the 3D-object coordinates are measured in a separate topometric set-up using a modified fringe projection technique to acquire absolute phase values and a sophisticated geometrical model to map these phase data onto coordinates precisely. The determination of 3D-displacement vectors requires the measurement of several interference phase distributions for at least three independent sensitivity directions depending on the observation and illumination directions as well as the 3D-position of each measuring point. These geometric quantities have to be transformed into a reference coordinate system of the interferometric set-up in order to calculate the geometric matrix. The necessary transformation can be realized by means of a detection of object features in both data sets and a subsequent determination of the external camera orientation. This paper presents a consistent solution for the measurement and combination of shape and displacement data including their transformation into simulation systems. The

  15. Complexity of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Signal Processing

    PubMed Central

    Volinsky, Natalia; Kholodenko, Boris N.

    2013-01-01

    Our knowledge of molecular mechanisms of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling advances with ever-increasing pace. Yet our understanding of how the spatiotemporal dynamics of RTK signaling control specific cellular outcomes has lagged behind. Systems-centered experimental and computational approaches can help reveal how overlapping networks of signal transducers downstream of RTKs orchestrate specific cell-fate decisions. We discuss how RTK network regulatory structures, which involve the immediate posttranslational and delayed transcriptional controls by multiple feed forward and feedback loops together with pathway cross talk, adapt cells to the combinatorial variety of external cues and conditions. This intricate network circuitry endows cells with emerging capabilities for RTK signal processing and decoding. We illustrate how mathematical modeling facilitates our understanding of RTK network behaviors by unraveling specific systems properties, including bistability, oscillations, excitable responses, and generation of intricate landscapes of signaling activities. PMID:23906711

  16. Effects of Local and Global Context on Processing Sentences with Subject and Object Relative Clauses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Fang; Mo, Lun; Louwerse, Max M.

    2013-01-01

    An eye tracking study investigated the effects of local and global discourse context on the processing of subject and object relative clauses, whereby the contexts favored either a subject relative clause interpretation or an object relative clause interpretation. The fixation data replicated previous studies showing that object relative clause…

  17. Experimental Evaluation of Processing Time for the Synchronization of XML-Based Business Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameling, Michael; Wolf, Bernhard; Springer, Thomas; Schill, Alexander

    Business objects (BOs) are data containers for complex data structures used in business applications such as Supply Chain Management and Customer Relationship Management. Due to the replication of application logic, multiple copies of BOs are created which have to be synchronized and updated. This is a complex and time consuming task because BOs rigorously vary in their structure according to the distribution, number and size of elements. Since BOs are internally represented as XML documents, the parsing of XML is one major cost factor which has to be considered for minimizing the processing time during synchronization. The prediction of the parsing time for BOs is an significant property for the selection of an efficient synchronization mechanism. In this paper, we present a method to evaluate the influence of the structure of BOs on their parsing time. The results of our experimental evaluation incorporating four different XML parsers examine the dependencies between the distribution of elements and the parsing time. Finally, a general cost model will be validated and simplified according to the results of the experimental setup.

  18. Electromagnetic Scattering by a Morphologically Complex Object: Fundamental Concepts and Common Misconceptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mischenko, Michael I.; Travis, Larry D.; Cairns, Brian; Tishkovets, Victor P.; Dlugach, Janna M.; Rosenbush, Vera K.; Kiselev, Nikolai N.

    2011-01-01

    Following Keller(Proc Symp Appl Math 1962;13:227:46), we classify all theoretical treatments of electromagnetic scattering by a morphologically complex object into first- principle (or "honest" in Keller s terminology) and phenomenological (or "dishonest") categories. This helps us identify, analyze, and dispel several profound misconceptions widespread in the discipline of electromagnetic scattering by solitary particles and discrete random media. Our goal is not to call for a complete renunciation of phenomenological approaches but rather to encourage a critical and careful evaluation of their actual origin, virtues, and limitations. In other words, we do not intend to deter creative thinking in terms of phenomenological short-cuts, but we do want to raise awareness when we stray (often for practical reasons) from the fundamentals. The main results and conclusions are illustrated by numerically-exact data based on direct numerical solutions of the macroscopic Maxwell equations.

  19. Minimized state complexity of quantum-encoded cryptic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riechers, Paul M.; Mahoney, John R.; Aghamohammadi, Cina; Crutchfield, James P.

    2016-05-01

    The predictive information required for proper trajectory sampling of a stochastic process can be more efficiently transmitted via a quantum channel than a classical one. This recent discovery allows quantum information processing to drastically reduce the memory necessary to simulate complex classical stochastic processes. It also points to a new perspective on the intrinsic complexity that nature must employ in generating the processes we observe. The quantum advantage increases with codeword length: the length of process sequences used in constructing the quantum communication scheme. In analogy with the classical complexity measure, statistical complexity, we use this reduced communication cost as an entropic measure of state complexity in the quantum representation. Previously difficult to compute, the quantum advantage is expressed here in closed form using spectral decomposition. This allows for efficient numerical computation of the quantum-reduced state complexity at all encoding lengths, including infinite. Additionally, it makes clear how finite-codeword reduction in state complexity is controlled by the classical process's cryptic order, and it allows asymptotic analysis of infinite-cryptic-order processes.

  20. A Case for Inhibition: Visual Attention Suppresses the Processing of Irrelevant Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wuhr, Peter; Frings, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the ability to inhibit the processing of an irrelevant visual object while processing a relevant one. Participants were presented with 2 overlapping shapes (e.g., circle and square) in different colors. The task was to name the color of the relevant object designated by shape. Congruent or incongruent color words…

  1. Functional Dissociations within the Ventral Object Processing Pathway: Cognitive Modules or a Hierarchical Continuum?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowell, Rosemary A.; Bussey, Timothy J.; Saksida, Lisa M.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the organization and function of the ventral object processing pathway. The prevailing theoretical approach in this field holds that the ventral object processing stream has a modular organization, in which visual perception is carried out in posterior regions and visual memory is carried out, independently, in the anterior temporal…

  2. Dynamic information processing states revealed through neurocognitive models of object semantics

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Recognising objects relies on highly dynamic, interactive brain networks to process multiple aspects of object information. To fully understand how different forms of information about objects are represented and processed in the brain requires a neurocognitive account of visual object recognition that combines a detailed cognitive model of semantic knowledge with a neurobiological model of visual object processing. Here we ask how specific cognitive factors are instantiated in our mental processes and how they dynamically evolve over time. We suggest that coarse semantic information, based on generic shared semantic knowledge, is rapidly extracted from visual inputs and is sufficient to drive rapid category decisions. Subsequent recurrent neural activity between the anterior temporal lobe and posterior fusiform supports the formation of object-specific semantic representations – a conjunctive process primarily driven by the perirhinal cortex. These object-specific representations require the integration of shared and distinguishing object properties and support the unique recognition of objects. We conclude that a valuable way of understanding the cognitive activity of the brain is though testing the relationship between specific cognitive measures and dynamic neural activity. This kind of approach allows us to move towards uncovering the information processing states of the brain and how they evolve over time. PMID:25745632

  3. A robust and representative lower bound on object processing speed in humans.

    PubMed

    Bieniek, Magdalena M; Bennett, Patrick J; Sekuler, Allison B; Rousselet, Guillaume A

    2016-07-01

    How early does the brain decode object categories? Addressing this question is critical to constrain the type of neuronal architecture supporting object categorization. In this context, much effort has been devoted to estimating face processing speed. With onsets estimated from 50 to 150 ms, the timing of the first face-sensitive responses in humans remains controversial. This controversy is due partially to the susceptibility of dynamic brain measurements to filtering distortions and analysis issues. Here, using distributions of single-trial event-related potentials (ERPs), causal filtering, statistical analyses at all electrodes and time points, and effective correction for multiple comparisons, we present evidence that the earliest categorical differences start around 90 ms following stimulus presentation. These results were obtained from a representative group of 120 participants, aged 18-81, who categorized images of faces and noise textures. The results were reliable across testing days, as determined by test-retest assessment in 74 of the participants. Furthermore, a control experiment showed similar ERP onsets for contrasts involving images of houses or white noise. Face onsets did not change with age, suggesting that face sensitivity occurs within 100 ms across the adult lifespan. Finally, the simplicity of the face-texture contrast, and the dominant midline distribution of the effects, suggest the face responses were evoked by relatively simple image properties and are not face specific. Our results provide a new lower benchmark for the earliest neuronal responses to complex objects in the human visual system. PMID:26469359

  4. Unraveling the complexity of mitochondrial complex I assembly: A dynamic process.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Caballero, Laura; Guerrero-Castillo, Sergio; Nijtmans, Leo

    2016-07-01

    Mammalian complex I is composed of 44 different subunits and its assembly requires at least 13 specific assembly factors. Proper function of the mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme is of crucial importance for cell survival due to its major participation in energy production and cell signaling. Complex I assembly depends on the coordination of several crucial processes that need to be tightly interconnected and orchestrated by a number of assembly factors. The understanding of complex I assembly evolved from simple sequential concept to the more sophisticated modular assembly model describing a convoluted process. According to this model, the different modules assemble independently and associate afterwards with each other to form the final enzyme. In this review, we aim to unravel the complexity of complex I assembly and provide the latest insights in this fundamental and fascinating process. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt. PMID:27040506

  5. Understanding the Complexity of Social Issues through Process Drama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Mara, Joanne

    2002-01-01

    Attempts to capture the process of understanding and questioning deforestation through process drama (in which students and teacher work both in and out of role to explore a problem, situation, or theme). Notes that moving topics such as the destruction of a rainforest into process drama introduces complexity into social issues. Considers how…

  6. Complexity, Methodology and Method: Crafting a Critical Process of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhadeff-Jones, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper defines a theoretical framework aiming to support the actions and reflections of researchers looking for a "method" in order to critically conceive the complexity of a scientific process of research. First, it starts with a brief overview of the core assumptions framing Morin's "paradigm of complexity" and Le…

  7. Organization of the Euclid Data Processing: Dealing with Complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasian, F.; Dabin, C.; Sauvage, M.; Mansutti, O.; Vuerli, C.; Gregorio, A.

    2015-09-01

    The data processing development and operations for the Euclid mission (part of the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Plan) is distributed within a Consortium composed of 14 countries and 1300+ persons: this imposes a high degree of complexity to the design and implementation of the data processing facilities. The focus of this paper is on the efforts to define an organisational structure capable of handling in manageable terms such a complexity.

  8. A multi-objective optimization framework to model 3D river and landscape evolution processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizzi, Simone; Castelletti, Andrea; Cominola, Andrea; Mason, Emanuele; Paik, Kyungrock

    2013-04-01

    Water and sediment interactions shape hillslopes, regulate soil erosion and sedimentation, and organize river networks. Landscape evolution and river organization occur at various spatial and temporal scale and the understanding and modelling of them is highly complex. The idea of a least action principle governing river networks evolution has been proposed many times as a simpler approach among the ones existing in the literature. These theories assume that river networks, as observed in nature, self-organize and act on soil transportation in order to satisfy a particular "optimality" criterion. Accordingly, river and landscape weathering can be simulated by solving an optimization problem, where the choice of the criterion to be optimized becomes the initial assumption. The comparison between natural river networks and optimized ones verifies the correctness of this initial assumption. Yet, various criteria have been proposed in literature and there is no consensus on which is better able to explain river network features observed in nature like network branching and river bed profile: each one is able to reproduce some river features through simplified modelling of the natural processes, but it fails to characterize the whole complexity (3D and its dynamic) of the natural processes. Some of the criteria formulated in the literature partly conflict: the reason is that their formulation rely on mathematical and theoretical simplifications of the natural system that are suitable for specific spatial and temporal scale but fails to represent the whole processes characterizing landscape evolution. In an attempt to address some of these scientific questions, we tested the suitability of using a multi-objective optimization framework to describe river and landscape evolution in a 3D spatial domain. A synthetic landscape is used to this purpose. Multiple, alternative river network evolutions, corresponding to as many tradeoffs between the different and partly

  9. Optimization of multi-objective integrated process planning and scheduling problem using a priority based optimization algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ausaf, Muhammad Farhan; Gao, Liang; Li, Xinyu

    2015-12-01

    For increasing the overall performance of modern manufacturing systems, effective integration of process planning and scheduling functions has been an important area of consideration among researchers. Owing to the complexity of handling process planning and scheduling simultaneously, most of the research work has been limited to solving the integrated process planning and scheduling (IPPS) problem for a single objective function. As there are many conflicting objectives when dealing with process planning and scheduling, real world problems cannot be fully captured considering only a single objective for optimization. Therefore considering multi-objective IPPS (MOIPPS) problem is inevitable. Unfortunately, only a handful of research papers are available on solving MOIPPS problem. In this paper, an optimization algorithm for solving MOIPPS problem is presented. The proposed algorithm uses a set of dispatching rules coupled with priority assignment to optimize the IPPS problem for various objectives like makespan, total machine load, total tardiness, etc. A fixed sized external archive coupled with a crowding distance mechanism is used to store and maintain the non-dominated solutions. To compare the results with other algorithms, a C-matric based method has been used. Instances from four recent papers have been solved to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. The experimental results show that the proposed method is an efficient approach for solving the MOIPPS problem.

  10. Net shape complex preforms for liquid composite molding processes

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, D.T.

    1995-10-01

    The author will present information, slides and a video showing breakthroughs in the critical steps necessary to automate the manufacture of net shape complex reinforcement preforms in high volumes. Complex preforms can now be ultrasonically cut to net shapes, prior to the liquid composite molding process (LCM, RTM, SRIM, etc.), via CNC type controlled multiaxis machinery. In high volume applications, it is not cost effective to do this after molding the composite. The CompForm process provides methodology for the production of complex preforms. Complex preforms are engineered with laminate schedules that provide anisotropic properties in the structural composite article. Complex preforms typically have non homogeneous wall sections, use engineering materials located strategically for maximum performance, and include core materials, fasteners and inserts in the preform.

  11. Ecologically and economically conscious design of the injected pultrusion process via multi-objective optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasagupta, Deepak; Kardos, John L.

    2004-05-01

    Injected pultrusion (IP) is an environmentally benign continuous process for low-cost manufacture of prismatic polymer composites. IP has been of recent regulatory interest as an option to achieve significant vapour emissions reduction. This work describes the design of the IP process with multiple design objectives. In our previous work (Srinivasagupta D et al 2003 J. Compos. Mater. at press), an algorithm for economic design using a validated three-dimensional physical model of the IP process was developed, subject to controllability considerations. In this work, this algorithm was used in a multi-objective optimization approach to simultaneously meet economic, quality related, and environmental objectives. The retrofit design of a bench-scale set-up was considered, and the concept of exergy loss in the process, as well as in vapour emission, was introduced. The multi-objective approach was able to determine the optimal values of the processing parameters such as heating zone temperatures and resin injection pressure, as well as the equipment specifications (die dimensions, heater, puller and pump ratings) that satisfy the various objectives in a weighted sense, and result in enhanced throughput rates. The economic objective did not coincide with the environmental objective, and a compromise became necessary. It was seen that most of the exergy loss is in the conversion of electric power into process heating. Vapour exergy loss was observed to be negligible for the most part.

  12. Beyond Faces and Expertise: Facelike Holistic Processing of Nonface Objects in the Absence of Expertise.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mintao; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Bülthoff, Isabelle

    2016-02-01

    Holistic processing-the tendency to perceive objects as indecomposable wholes-has long been viewed as a process specific to faces or objects of expertise. Although current theories differ in what causes holistic processing, they share a fundamental constraint for its generalization: Nonface objects cannot elicit facelike holistic processing in the absence of expertise. Contrary to this prevailing view, here we show that line patterns with salient Gestalt information (i.e., connectedness, closure, and continuity between parts) can be processed as holistically as faces without any training. Moreover, weakening the saliency of Gestalt information in these patterns reduced holistic processing of them, which indicates that Gestalt information plays a crucial role in holistic processing. Therefore, holistic processing can be achieved not only via a top-down route based on expertise, but also via a bottom-up route relying merely on object-based information. The finding that facelike holistic processing can extend beyond the domains of faces and objects of expertise poses a challenge to current dominant theories. PMID:26674129

  13. Top-down modulation of visual processing and knowledge after 250 ms supports object constancy of category decisions

    PubMed Central

    Schendan, Haline E.; Ganis, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    People categorize objects more slowly when visual input is highly impoverished instead of optimal. While bottom-up models may explain a decision with optimal input, perceptual hypothesis testing (PHT) theories implicate top-down processes with impoverished input. Brain mechanisms and the time course of PHT are largely unknown. This event-related potential study used a neuroimaging paradigm that implicated prefrontal cortex in top-down modulation of occipitotemporal cortex. Subjects categorized more impoverished and less impoverished real and pseudo objects. PHT theories predict larger impoverishment effects for real than pseudo objects because top-down processes modulate knowledge only for real objects, but different PHT variants predict different timing. Consistent with parietal-prefrontal PHT variants, around 250 ms, the earliest impoverished real object interaction started on an N3 complex, which reflects interactive cortical activity for object cognition. N3 impoverishment effects localized to both prefrontal and occipitotemporal cortex for real objects only. The N3 also showed knowledge effects by 230 ms that localized to occipitotemporal cortex. Later effects reflected (a) word meaning in temporal cortex during the N400, (b) internal evaluation of prior decision and memory processes and secondary higher-order memory involving anterotemporal parts of a default mode network during posterior positivity (P600), and (c) response related activity in posterior cingulate during an anterior slow wave (SW) after 700 ms. Finally, response activity in supplementary motor area during a posterior SW after 900 ms showed impoverishment effects that correlated with RTs. Convergent evidence from studies of vision, memory, and mental imagery which reflects purely top-down inputs, indicates that the N3 reflects the critical top-down processes of PHT. A hybrid multiple-state interactive, PHT and decision theory best explains the visual constancy of object cognition. PMID:26441701

  14. Mirror-Image Confusions: Implications for Representation and Processing of Object Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Emma; McCloskey, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Perceiving the orientation of objects is important for interacting with the world, yet little is known about the mental representation or processing of object orientation information. The tendency of humans and other species to confuse mirror images provides a potential clue. However, the appropriate characterization of this phenomenon is not…

  15. The Effects of Syntactic Complexity on Processing Sentences in Noise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Rebecca; Ruigendijk, Esther

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the influence of stationary (non-fluctuating) noise on processing and understanding of sentences, which vary in their syntactic complexity (with the factors canonicity, embedding, ambiguity). It presents data from two RT-studies with 44 participants testing processing of German sentences in silence and in noise. Results show a…

  16. The Complexity of Developmental Predictions from Dual Process Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanovich, Keith E.; West, Richard F.; Toplak, Maggie E.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing developmental predictions from dual-process theories is more complex than is commonly realized. Overly simplified predictions drawn from such models may lead to premature rejection of the dual process approach as one of many tools for understanding cognitive development. Misleading predictions can be avoided by paying attention to several…

  17. A Conceptual Schema of the Programming Process in the Complex Adult Education Organization with Special Emphasis on Its Sociological Aspects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, Edgar J.; And Others

    Objectives of this paper were to define the concept of programing, to discuss programing in a complex adult education organization, and to point out aspects of programing of a sociological nature. Programing is a decision-making process. In a complex adult education organization, the process can be divided into eight phases: formulating the…

  18. Discourse accessibility constraints in children’s processing of object relative clauses

    PubMed Central

    Haendler, Yair; Kliegl, Reinhold; Adani, Flavia

    2015-01-01

    Children’s poor performance on object relative clauses has been explained in terms of intervention locality. This approach predicts that object relatives with a full DP head and an embedded pronominal subject are easier than object relatives in which both the head noun and the embedded subject are full DPs. This prediction is shared by other accounts formulated to explain processing mechanisms. We conducted a visual-world study designed to test the off-line comprehension and on-line processing of object relatives in German-speaking 5-year-olds. Children were tested on three types of object relatives, all having a full DP head noun and differing with respect to the type of nominal phrase that appeared in the embedded subject position: another full DP, a 1st- or a 3rd-person pronoun. Grammatical skills and memory capacity were also assessed in order to see whether and how they affect children’s performance. Most accurately processed were object relatives with 1st-person pronoun, independently of children’s language and memory skills. Performance on object relatives with two full DPs was overall more accurate than on object relatives with 3rd-person pronoun. In the former condition, children with stronger grammatical skills accurately processed the structure and their memory abilities determined how fast they were; in the latter condition, children only processed accurately the structure if they were strong both in their grammatical skills and in their memory capacity. The results are discussed in the light of accounts that predict different pronoun effects like the ones we find, which depend on the referential properties of the pronouns. We then discuss which role language and memory abilities might have in processing object relatives with various embedded nominal phrases. PMID:26157410

  19. Space-time finite-element objects: Efficiently modeling physically complex flows

    SciTech Connect

    Dilts, G.A.

    1996-03-28

    Accurate modeling of high-explosive systems requires detailed consideration of many different physical properties and processes: These diverse processes generally occur in localized regions of the problem. Thus the very partial differential equations used to mathematically model the problem change from one region of space and time to another. The numerical algorithms generally used to solve these equations are frequently conceived in terms of data values for physical field variables u{sup i} defined at a number of spatial points indexed by multi-integer subscripts x{sub J}, resulting in a number of discrete state variables u{sup i}{sub J}. Instead of using as the fundamental object a physical field, which naturally maps to an array, the authors imagine a small piece of space modeled for a small amount of time, a space-time ``element``. Within it, various physical processes occur at various times. Self-contained, it gives account of what happens within its borders. It cooperates with a set of neighbors that organize into meshes, which organize into problems. The authors achieve in the software model a decoupling between the where and the how and the what, lack of which historically has been the source of a great deal of the software overhead of modelling continuum systems, and which is a necessary consequence of writing down u{sup i}{sub J}. An efficient implementation of this idea requires a reformulation of the discretization and solution of systems of conservation laws, and careful class design. A working prototype for systems in one space dimension using Mathematica and C++ is provided.

  20. Rapid and accurate processing of multiple objects in briefly presented scenes.

    PubMed

    Railo, Henry; Karhu, Veli-Matti; Mast, Jeremy; Pesonen, Henri; Koivisto, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Humans can detect multiple objects in briefly presented natural visual scenes, but the mechanisms through which the objects are segmented from the background and consciously accessed remain open. By asking participants to report how many humans natural photos presented for 50 ms contain, we show that up to three items can be rapidly enumerated from natural scenes without compromising speed or accuracy. In contrast to standard parallel and serial models of object selection, our results revealed that the participants were fastest in enumerating two objects; even enumerating one single item required additional processing time. Also enumeration accuracy slightly increased in the subitizing range as number increased. Our results suggest that the visual system is tuned to process multiple items, which may underlie spatial and numerical cognition, and be beneficial in real-world situations that often require dealing with more than one object at a time. PMID:26849070

  1. Phosphene object perception employs holistic processing during early visual processing stage.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hong; Yang, Yuan; Gu, Guan; Zhu, Yisheng; Qiu, Yihong

    2013-04-01

    Psychophysical studies have verified the possibility of recovering the visual ability by the form of low-resolution format of images, that is, phosphene-based representations. Our previous study has found that early visual processing for phosphene patterns is configuration based. This study further investigated the configural processing mechanisms of prosthetic vision by analyzing the event-related potential components (P1 and N170) in response to phosphene face and non-face stimuli. The results reveal that the coarse processing of phosphenes involves phosphene-specific holistic processing that recovers separated phosphenes into a gestalt; low-level feature processing of phosphenes is also enhanced compared with that of normal stimuli due to increased contrast borders introduced by phosphenes; while fine processing of phosphene stimuli is impaired reflected by reduced N170 amplitude because of the degraded detailed features in the low-resolution format representations. Therefore, we suggest that strategies that can facilitate the specific holistic processing stages of prosthetic vision should be considered in order to improve the performance when designing the visual prosthesis system. PMID:23489114

  2. Objective Distributed-parameter Estimation Methods For Simulating Meteorological and Hydrological Processes In Mountainous Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leavesley, G.; Hay, L.; Viger, R.; de Jong, C.

    The use of distributed-parameter models in mountainous terrain requires the ability to define the spatial and temporal distributions of input meteorological variables and the physical basin characteristics that affect the processes being simulated. Application of these models to complex problems, such as assessing the impacts of land-use and climate change, limits one's ability to calibrate model parameters and necessitates the use of parameter-estimation methods that rely on measurable climate and basin char- acteristics. The increasing availability of high-resolution spatial and temporal data sets now enables the development and evaluation of a variety of parameter-estimation methods over a wide range of climatic and physiographic regions. For example, pa- rameters related to basin characteristics can be estimated from digital soils, vegetation, and topographic databases. Parameters related to the temporal and spatial distribution of meteorological variables, such as precipitation and temperature, can be estimated from multiple linear regression relations using latitude, longitude, and elevation of measurement stations and basin subareas. This approach also supports the use of sta- tistical and dynamical downscaling of atmospheric model output for use in distributed hydrological model applications. A set of tools to objectively apply and evaluate distributed meteorological and hydro- logical parameter-estimation methods, and process models, is being developed using the U.S. Geological Survey's Modular Modeling System (MMS). Tools include meth- ods to analyze model parameters and evaluate the extent to which uncertainty in model parameters affects uncertainty in simulation results. Methodologies that integrate re- motely sensed information with the distributed-model results are being incorporated in the tool set to facilitate the assessment of the spatial and temporal accuracy of model results. An application of selected models and parameter-estimation methods is

  3. Single Molecule Electron Transfer Process of Ruthenium Complexes.

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Dehong; Lu, H PETER.

    2006-03-01

    Transition metal complexes such as ruthenium complexes, having metal-to-ligand charge transfer states, are extensively used in solar energy conversion and electron transfer in biological systems and at interfaces. The dynamics of metal-to-ligand charge transfer and subsequent intermolecular, intramolecular, and interfacial electron transfer processes can be highly complex and inhomogeneous, especially when molecules are involved in interactions and perturbations from heterogeneous local environments and gated by conformation fluctuations. We have employed the single-molecule spectroscopy, a powerful approach for inhomogeneous systems to study the electron transfer dynamics of ruthenium complexes. We have applied a range of statistical analysis methods to reveal nonclassical photon emission behavior of the single ruthenium complex, i.e., photon antibunching, and photophysical ground-state recovering dynamics on a microsecond time scale. The use of photon antibunching to measure phosphorescence lifetimes and single-molecule electron transfer dynamics at room temperature is demonstrated.

  4. Visual Short-Term Memory for Complex Objects in 6- and 8-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Mee-Kyoung; Luck, Steven J.; Oakes, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    Infants' visual short-term memory (VSTM) for simple objects undergoes dramatic development: Six-month-old infants can store in VSTM information about only a simple object presented in isolation, whereas 8-month-old infants can store information about simple objects presented in multiple-item arrays. This study extended this work to examine…

  5. Possible Overlapping Time Frames of Acquisition and Consolidation Phases in Object Memory Processes: A Pharmacological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akkerman, Sven; Blokland, Arjan; Prickaerts, Jos

    2016-01-01

    In previous studies, we have shown that acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDE-Is) are able to improve object memory by enhancing acquisition processes. On the other hand, only PDE-Is improve consolidation processes. Here we show that the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil also improves memory performance when…

  6. Validating Processes for Using Curriculum Objectives as Standards in Curriculum Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frye, Ann W.; Szauter, Karen M.; Litwins, Stephanie D.; Ofoegbu, Esther N.

    This paper describes the processes for collecting information about the objectives of a medical school curriculum and the validation studies of those processes. Major revisions were implemented in the curriculum of the first 2 years at the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB) in 1998. In the 2000-2001 academic year, student and faculty groups…

  7. Inversion effects reveal dissociations in facial expression of emotion, gender, and object processing

    PubMed Central

    Pallett, Pamela M.; Meng, Ming

    2015-01-01

    To distinguish between high-level visual processing mechanisms, the degree to which holistic processing is involved in facial identity, facial expression, and object perception is often examined through measuring inversion effects. However, participants may be biased by different experimental paradigms to use more or less holistic processing. Here we take a novel psychophysical approach to directly compare human face and object processing in the same experiment, with face processing broken into two categories: variant properties and invariant properties as they were tested using facial expressions of emotion and gender, respectively. Specifically, participants completed two different perceptual discrimination tasks. One involved making judgments of stimulus similarity and the other tested the ability to detect differences between stimuli. Each task was completed for both upright and inverted stimuli. Results show significant inversion effects for the detection of differences in facial expressions of emotion and gender, but not for objects. More interestingly, participants exhibited a selective inversion deficit when making similarity judgments between different facial expressions of emotion, but not for gender or objects. These results suggest a three-way dissociation between facial expression of emotion, gender, and object processing. PMID:26283983

  8. Brain dynamics of upstream perceptual processes leading to visual object recognition: a high density ERP topographic mapping study.

    PubMed

    Schettino, Antonio; Loeys, Tom; Delplanque, Sylvain; Pourtois, Gilles

    2011-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that visual object recognition is a proactive process through which perceptual evidence accumulates over time before a decision can be made about the object. However, the exact electrophysiological correlates and time-course of this complex process remain unclear. In addition, the potential influence of emotion on this process has not been investigated yet. We recorded high density EEG in healthy adult participants performing a novel perceptual recognition task. For each trial, an initial blurred visual scene was first shown, before the actual content of the stimulus was gradually revealed by progressively adding diagnostic high spatial frequency information. Participants were asked to stop this stimulus sequence as soon as they could correctly perform an animacy judgment task. Behavioral results showed that participants reliably gathered perceptual evidence before recognition. Furthermore, prolonged exploration times were observed for pleasant, relative to either neutral or unpleasant scenes. ERP results showed distinct effects starting at 280 ms post-stimulus onset in distant brain regions during stimulus processing, mainly characterized by: (i) a monotonic accumulation of evidence, involving regions of the posterior cingulate cortex/parahippocampal gyrus, and (ii) true categorical recognition effects in medial frontal regions, including the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. These findings provide evidence for the early involvement, following stimulus onset, of non-overlapping brain networks during proactive processes eventually leading to visual object recognition. PMID:21237274

  9. The five elements process: designing optimal landscapes to meet bird conservation objectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Will, T.C.; Ruth, J.M.; Rosenberg, K.V.; Krueper, D.; Hahn, D.; Fitzgerald, J.; Dettmers, R.; Beardmore, C.J.

    2005-01-01

    In February 2004 at Port Aransas, Texas, Partners in Flight (PIF) and representatives from the other NABCI bird initiative met to discuss the process of stepping down PIF continental population objectives (Rich et al. 2004) to regional and local scales. Participants also discussed rolling up local population estimates and targets to assess the feasibility of the landscape changes necessary to meet continental objectives. Since the process of stepping-down/rolling-up population objectives shifts focus from identifying priority species to formulating quantitative estimates of how much habitat was needed, where, and by when the Port Aransas group called the stepping-down/rolling-up process a??stepping forward.a?? Participants agreed that stepping forward objectives was the beginning of an inevitably iterative dialog necessary to evaluate the assumptions of PIF population estimates and objectives as well as the methods used to monitor local implementation. To facilitate the translation of continental population objectives into biologically sound, measurable regional and local population-based habitat targets the Port Aransas group recommended a process no commonly referred to as the Five Elements Processa?|

  10. Neural Androgen Receptor Deletion Impairs the Temporal Processing of Objects and Hippocampal CA1-Dependent Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Picot, Marie; Billard, Jean-Marie; Dombret, Carlos; Albac, Christelle; Karameh, Nida; Daumas, Stéphanie; Hardin-Pouzet, Hélène; Mhaouty-Kodja, Sakina

    2016-01-01

    We studied the role of testosterone, mediated by the androgen receptor (AR), in modulating temporal order memory for visual objects. For this purpose, we used male mice lacking AR specifically in the nervous system. Control and mutant males were gonadectomized at adulthood and supplemented with equivalent amounts of testosterone in order to normalize their hormonal levels. We found that neural AR deletion selectively impaired the processing of temporal information for visual objects, without affecting classical object recognition or anxiety-like behavior and circulating corticosterone levels, which remained similar to those in control males. Thus, mutant males were unable to discriminate between the most recently seen object and previously seen objects, whereas their control littermates showed more interest in exploring previously seen objects. Because the hippocampal CA1 area has been associated with temporal memory for visual objects, we investigated whether neural AR deletion altered the functionality of this region. Electrophysiological analysis showed that neural AR deletion affected basal glutamate synaptic transmission and decreased the magnitude of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activation and high-frequency stimulation-induced long-term potentiation. The impairment of NMDAR function was not due to changes in protein levels of receptor. These results provide the first evidence for the modulation of temporal processing of information for visual objects by androgens, via AR activation, possibly through regulation of NMDAR signaling in the CA1 area in male mice. PMID:26849367

  11. Neural Androgen Receptor Deletion Impairs the Temporal Processing of Objects and Hippocampal CA1-Dependent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Dombret, Carlos; Albac, Christelle; Karameh, Nida; Daumas, Stéphanie; Hardin-Pouzet, Hélène; Mhaouty-Kodja, Sakina

    2016-01-01

    We studied the role of testosterone, mediated by the androgen receptor (AR), in modulating temporal order memory for visual objects. For this purpose, we used male mice lacking AR specifically in the nervous system. Control and mutant males were gonadectomized at adulthood and supplemented with equivalent amounts of testosterone in order to normalize their hormonal levels. We found that neural AR deletion selectively impaired the processing of temporal information for visual objects, without affecting classical object recognition or anxiety-like behavior and circulating corticosterone levels, which remained similar to those in control males. Thus, mutant males were unable to discriminate between the most recently seen object and previously seen objects, whereas their control littermates showed more interest in exploring previously seen objects. Because the hippocampal CA1 area has been associated with temporal memory for visual objects, we investigated whether neural AR deletion altered the functionality of this region. Electrophysiological analysis showed that neural AR deletion affected basal glutamate synaptic transmission and decreased the magnitude of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activation and high-frequency stimulation-induced long-term potentiation. The impairment of NMDAR function was not due to changes in protein levels of receptor. These results provide the first evidence for the modulation of temporal processing of information for visual objects by androgens, via AR activation, possibly through regulation of NMDAR signaling in the CA1 area in male mice. PMID:26849367

  12. Flying triangulation - A motion-robust optical 3D sensor for the real-time shape acquisition of complex objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willomitzer, Florian; Ettl, Svenja; Arold, Oliver; Häusler, Gerd

    2013-05-01

    The three-dimensional shape acquisition of objects has become more and more important in the last years. Up to now, there are several well-established methods which already yield impressive results. However, even under quite common conditions like object movement or a complex shaping, most methods become unsatisfying. Thus, the 3D shape acquisition is still a difficult and non-trivial task. We present our measurement principle "Flying Triangulation" which enables a motion-robust 3D acquisition of complex-shaped object surfaces by a freely movable handheld sensor. Since "Flying Triangulation" is scalable, a whole sensor-zoo for different object sizes is presented. Concluding, an overview of current and future fields of investigation is given.

  13. Petri net model for analysis of concurrently processed complex algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoughton, John W.; Mielke, Roland R.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents a Petri-net model suitable for analyzing the concurrent processing of computationally complex algorithms. The decomposed operations are to be processed in a multiple processor, data driven architecture. Of particular interest is the application of the model to both the description of the data/control flow of a particular algorithm, and to the general specification of the data driven architecture. A candidate architecture is also presented.

  14. Unit for the processing of wastes from stock breeding complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Semenko, I.V.; Tkach, G.A.

    1987-09-01

    One of the most efficient and promising methods for the biochemical processing of wastes from stock breeding complexes is anaerobic fermentation. The biogas obtained in the fermentation process has a significant energetic potential and can be used as an energy source. In this paper, the authors describe a unit designed and constructed for the utilization and decontamination of wastes from pig farms. The technical characteristics of this fermenter are shown, and the scheme of the unit is presented.

  15. Model-based object recognition by wave-oriented data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carin, Lawrence; Felsen, Leopold B.; Tran, Chi

    1995-07-01

    Object recognition can be parametrized systematically through physically robust wave objects by linking features (observables) in scattered field data with features on the object (target) giving rise to the data. The wave objects are broadly separated into global (mode) and local (wavefront) categories. Their parametrization requires different wave-oriented signal- processing algorithms which are implemented conveniently in relevant subdomains of the configuration (space-time) spectrum (wavenumber-frequency) phase space. Projection of scattering data onto the phase space is achieved via Gaussian-windowed Fourier transforms, wavelet transforms, and windowed model-based (superresolution) algorithms. Example results are presented here for time-domain modes excited by an open cavity as well as by periodic and quasi-periodic structures, with data processed in the time-frequency phase space. Additionally, we consider frequency-domain modes (leaky modes supported by a dielectric slab) which are processed in the space-wavenumber phase space. For some situations, it is more appropriate to process the entire database simultaneously (without windowing), and we have used such techniques for certain modal and wavefront parametrizations. Concerning modal 'footprinting', results are presented for superresolution processing of measured short-pulse scattering data from resonant targets embedded in foliage (foliage penetrating radar); in these examples we extract late-time target resonant frequencies. We have also applied superresolution algorithms to wavefront-based processing, and results are presented here for model targets.

  16. Do aqueous ternary complexes influence the TALSPEAK process?

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, C. j.; Liu, G.; Jensen, M. P.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

    2010-01-01

    The aqueous speciation of trivalent lanthanide and actinide cations in solutions containing DTPA (diethylenetriamine-N,N,N',N',N'-pentaacetic acid) and lactic acid were studied under conditions representative of the TALSPEAK process. Spectrophotometric titrations, fluorescence spectroscopy, and thermometric titrations were used to search for indications of ternary metal-DTPA-lactate complexes. The addition of lactate anions to metal-DTPA complexes was undetectable by any of these techniques, even at free lactate concentrations of 0.75 M. Although lactic acid is necessary for the optimal performance of the TALSPEAK process, we find that the fractions of aqueous ternary Ln3+/An3+-DTPA-lactate complexes are far too low to account for the observed acid dependence of TALSPEAK metal extraction.

  17. Assessing processes in uncertain, complex physical phenomena and manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, J. M.; Kerscher, W. J. III; Smith, R. E.

    2002-01-01

    PREDICT (Performance and Reliability Evaluation with Diverse Information Combination and Tracking) is a set of structured quantitative approaches for the evaluation of system performance based on multiple information sources. The methodology integrates diverse types and sources of information, and their associated uncertainties, to develop full distributions for performance metrics, such as reliability. The successful application of PREDICT has involved system performance assessment in automotive product development, aging nuclear weapons, and fatigued turbine jet engines. In each of these applications, complex physical, mechanical and materials processes affect performance, safety and reliability assessments. Processes also include the physical actions taken during manufacturing, quality control, inspections, assembly, etc. and the steps involved in product design, development and certification. In this paper, we will examine the various types of processes involved in the decision making leading to production in an automotive system reliability example. Analysis of these processes includes not only understanding their impact on performance and reliability, but also the uncertainties associated with them. The automotive example demonstrates some of the tools used in tackling the complex problem of understanding processes. While some tools and methods exist for understanding processes (man made and natural) and the uncertainties associated with them, many of the complex issues discussed are open for continued research efforts.

  18. Tool Manipulation Knowledge is Retrieved by way of the Ventral Visual Object Processing Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Jorge; Fintzi, Anat R.; Mahon, Bradford Z.

    2013-01-01

    Here we find, using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), that object manipulation knowledge is accessed by way of the ventral object processing pathway. We exploit the fact that parvocellular channels project to the ventral but not the dorsal stream, and show that increased neural responses for tool stimuli are observed in the inferior parietal lobule when those stimuli are visible only to the ventral object processing stream. In a control condition, tool-preferences were observed in a superior and posterior parietal region for stimuli titrated so as to be visible by the dorsal visual pathway. Functional connectivity analyses confirm the dissociation between sub-regions of parietal cortex according to whether their principal afferent input is via the ventral or dorsal visual pathway. These results challenge the ‘Embodied Hypothesis of Tool Recognition’, according to which tool identification critically depends on simulation of object manipulation knowledge. Instead, these data indicate that retrieval of object-associated manipulation knowledge is contingent on accessing the identity of the object, a process that is subserved by the ventral visual pathway. PMID:23810714

  19. Cueing Complex Animations: Does Direction of Attention Foster Learning Processes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Richard; Boucheix, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    The time course of learners' processing of a complex animation was studied using a dynamic diagram of a piano mechanism. Over successive repetitions of the material, two forms of cueing (standard colour cueing and anti-cueing) were administered either before or during the animated segment of the presentation. An uncued group and two other control…

  20. Modeling Cognitive Strategies during Complex Task Performing Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazman, Sacide Guzin; Altun, Arif

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine individuals' computer based complex task performing processes and strategies in order to determine the reasons of failure by cognitive task analysis method and cued retrospective think aloud with eye movement data. Study group was five senior students from Computer Education and Instructional Technologies…

  1. Orientation Sensitivity at Different Stages of Object Processing: Evidence from Repetition Priming and Naming

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Irina M.; Dux, Paul E.; Benito, Claire T.; Leek, E. Charles

    2008-01-01

    Background An ongoing debate in the object recognition literature centers on whether the shape representations used in recognition are coded in an orientation-dependent or orientation-invariant manner. In this study, we asked whether the nature of the object representation (orientation-dependent vs orientation-invariant) depends on the information-processing stages tapped by the task. Methodology/ Findings We employed a repetition priming paradigm in which briefly presented masked objects (primes) were followed by an upright target object which had to be named as rapidly as possible. The primes were presented for variable durations (ranging from 16 to 350 ms) and in various image-plane orientations (from 0° to 180°, in 30° steps). Significant priming was obtained for prime durations above 70 ms, but not for prime durations of 16 ms and 47 ms, and did not vary as a function of prime orientation. In contrast, naming the same objects that served as primes resulted in orientation-dependent reaction time costs. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that initial processing of object identity is mediated by orientation-independent information and that orientation costs in performance arise when objects are consolidated in visual short-term memory in order to be reported. PMID:18509451

  2. Multi-cue object detection and tracking for security in complex environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahsan, Unaiza; Sattar, Sohail Abdul; Noor, Humera; Zafar, Munzir

    2012-05-01

    Efficient moving object tracking requires near flawless detection results to establish correct correspondences between frames. This is especially true in the defense sector where accuracy and speed are critical factors of success. However, problems such as camera motion, lighting and weather changes, texture variation and inter-object occlusions result in misdetections or false positive detections which in turn, lead to broken tracks. In this paper, we propose to use background subtraction and an optimized version of Horn & Schunk's optical flow algorithm in order to boost detection response. We use the frame differencing method, followed by morphological operations to show that it works in many scenarios and the optimized optical flow technique serves to complement the detector results. The Horn & Schunk's method yields color-coded motion vectors for each frame pixel. To segment the moving regions in the frame, we apply color thresholding to distinguish the blobs. Next, we extract appearance-based features from the detected object and establish the correspondences between objects' features, in our case, the object's centroid. We have used the Euclidean distance measure to compute the minimum distances between the centroids. The centroids are matched by using Hungarian algorithm, thus obtaining point correspondences. The Hungarian algorithm's output matrix dictates the objects' associations with each other. We have tested the algorithm to detect people in corridor, mall and field sequences and our early results with an accuracy of 86.4% indicate that this system has the ability to detect and track objects in video sequences robustly.

  3. Unconscious Processing of Negative Animals and Objects: Role of the Amygdala Revealed by fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Zhiyong; Li, Han; Chen, Gang; Yang, JiongJiong

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that emotional stimuli can be processed through the amygdala without conscious awareness. The amygdala is also involved in processing animate and social information. However, it is unclear whether different categories of pictures (e.g., animals, objects) elicit different activity in the amygdale and other regions without conscious awareness. The objective of this study was to explore whether the factors of category, emotion and picture context modulate brain activation for unconscious processing. Pictures denoting different nonhuman animals and objects in negative and neutral emotional valences were presented using a sandwich-masking paradigm. Half of them were presented with human-related information in the contexts, and half were not. Our results showed significant interaction among category, emotion and context in the amygdala and subcortical regions. Specifically, negative animals elicited stronger activation in these regions than negative objects, especially with human contexts. In addition, there were different correlation patterns between the amygdala and cortical regions according to whether they included human context. There were limited activations in cortical category-related networks. These results suggest that the amygdala and subcortical regions dominantly process negative animals, and contextual information modulates their activities, making threatening stimuli that are most relevant to human survival preferentially processed without conscious awareness. PMID:27092067

  4. P3b, consciousness, and complex unconscious processing.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Brian H; Snodgrass, Michael; Shevrin, Howard; Kushwaha, Ramesh

    2015-12-01

    How can perceptual consciousness be indexed in humans? Recent work with ERPs suggests that P3b, a relatively late component, may be a neural correlate of consciousness (NCC). This proposal dovetails with currently prevailing cognitive theory regarding the nature of conscious versus unconscious processes, which holds that the latter are simple and very brief, whereas consciousness is ostensibly required for more durable, complex cognitive processing. Using a P3b oddball paradigm, we instead show that P3b and even later, related slow wave activity occur under rigorously subliminal conditions. Additional principal component analysis (PCA) further differentiated the presence of both P3a and P3b components, demonstrating that the latter indeed occurred subliminally. Collectively, our results suggest that complex, sustained cognitive processing can occur unconsciously and that P3b is not an NCC after all. PMID:26474391

  5. Functional Activation in the Ventral Object Processing Pathway during the First Year

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Teresa; Biondi, Marisa

    2016-01-01

    Infants' capacity to represent objects in visual working memory changes substantially during the first year of life. There is a growing body of research focused on identifying neural mechanisms that support this emerging capacity, and the extent to which visual object processing elicits different patterns of cortical activation in the infant as compared to the adult. Recent studies have identified areas in temporal and occipital cortex that mediate infants' developing capacity to track objects on the basis of their featural properties. The current research (Experiments 1 and 2) assessed patterns of activation in posterior temporal cortex and occipital cortex using fNIRS in infants 3–13 months of age as they viewed occlusion events. In the occlusion events, either the same object or featurally distinct objects emerged to each side of a screen. The outcome of these studies, combined, revealed that in infants 3–6 months, posterior temporal cortex was activated to all events, regardless of the featural properties of the objects and whether the event involved one object or two (featurally distinct) objects. Infants 7–8 infants months showed a waning posterior temporal response and by 10–13 months this response was negligible. Additional analysis showed that the age groups did not differ in their visual attention to the events and that changes in HbO were better explained by age in days than head circumference. In contrast to posterior temporal cortex, robust activation was obtained in occipital cortex across all ages tested. One interpretation of these results is that they reflect pruning of the visual object-processing network during the first year. The functional contribution of occipital and posterior temporal cortex, along with higher-level temporal areas, to infants' capacity to keep track of distinct entities in visual working memory is discussed. PMID:26778979

  6. Complex density of a suspension in an oscillatiory wave process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedotovskii, V. S.; Orlov, A. I.; Lunina, S. V.; Pil'shchikova, E. A.

    2014-03-01

    The effective viscous inertia properties exhibited by suspensions in the presence of oscillatory wave processes are considered. A cell model of a concentrated suspension is used to derive the dependence for the complex density, whose real and imaginary parts characterize the effective inertia and the bulk viscous resistance to oscillatory motion, respectively. From hydrodynamic models of low-frequency and high-frequency translatory oscillations of spherical inclusions in the host liquid, estimates are obtained for the internal dynamic parameters of the suspension, namely, the apparent mass factor and the inclusion relaxation time, which specify the general formulas for the complex density.

  7. A cultural side effect: learning to read interferes with identity processing of familiar objects

    PubMed Central

    Kolinsky, Régine; Fernandes, Tânia

    2014-01-01

    Based on the neuronal recycling hypothesis (Dehaene and Cohen, 2007), we examined whether reading acquisition has a cost for the recognition of non-linguistic visual materials. More specifically, we checked whether the ability to discriminate between mirror images, which develops through literacy acquisition, interferes with object identity judgments, and whether interference strength varies as a function of the nature of the non-linguistic material. To these aims we presented illiterate, late literate (who learned to read at adult age), and early literate adults with an orientation-independent, identity-based same-different comparison task in which they had to respond “same” to both physically identical and mirrored or plane-rotated images of pictures of familiar objects (Experiment 1) or of geometric shapes (Experiment 2). Interference from irrelevant orientation variations was stronger with plane rotations than with mirror images, and stronger with geometric shapes than with objects. Illiterates were the only participants almost immune to mirror variations, but only for familiar objects. Thus, the process of unlearning mirror-image generalization, necessary to acquire literacy in the Latin alphabet, has a cost for a basic function of the visual ventral object recognition stream, i.e., identification of familiar objects. This demonstrates that neural recycling is not just an adaptation to multi-use but a process of at least partial exaptation. PMID:25400605

  8. Task and spatial frequency modulations of object processing: an EEG study.

    PubMed

    Craddock, Matt; Martinovic, Jasna; Müller, Matthias M

    2013-01-01

    Visual object processing may follow a coarse-to-fine sequence imposed by fast processing of low spatial frequencies (LSF) and slow processing of high spatial frequencies (HSF). Objects can be categorized at varying levels of specificity: the superordinate (e.g. animal), the basic (e.g. dog), or the subordinate (e.g. Border Collie). We tested whether superordinate and more specific categorization depend on different spatial frequency ranges, and whether any such dependencies might be revealed by or influence signals recorded using EEG. We used event-related potentials (ERPs) and time-frequency (TF) analysis to examine the time course of object processing while participants performed either a grammatical gender-classification task (which generally forces basic-level categorization) or a living/non-living judgement (superordinate categorization) on everyday, real-life objects. Objects were filtered to contain only HSF or LSF. We found a greater positivity and greater negativity for HSF than for LSF pictures in the P1 and N1 respectively, but no effects of task on either component. A later, fronto-central negativity (N350) was more negative in the gender-classification task than the superordinate categorization task, which may indicate that this component relates to semantic or syntactic processing. We found no significant effects of task or spatial frequency on evoked or total gamma band responses. Our results demonstrate early differences in processing of HSF and LSF content that were not modulated by categorization task, with later responses reflecting such higher-level cognitive factors. PMID:23936181

  9. Real-time computational processing and implementation for concealed object detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong-Su; Yeom, Seokwon; Chang, YuShin; Lee, Mun-Kyo; Jung, Sang-Won

    2012-07-01

    Millimeter wave (MMW) readily penetrates fabrics, thus it can be used to detect objects concealed under clothing. A passive MMW imaging system can operate as a stand-off type sensor that scans people both indoors and outdoors. However, because of the diffraction limit and low signal level, the imaging system often suffers from low image quality. Therefore, suitable computational processing would be required for automatic analysis of the images. The authors present statistical and computational algorithms and their implementations for real-time concealed object detection. The histogram of the image is modeled as a Gaussian mixture distribution, and hidden object areas are segmented by a multilevel scheme involving the expectation-maximization algorithm. The complete algorithm has been implemented in both MATLAB and C++. Experimental and simulation results confirm that the implemented system can achieve real-time detection of concealed objects.

  10. Effects of Information Processing Objectives on Judgments of Deception following Perjury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deTurck, Mark A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examines mock jurors processing testimony under impression-set and memory-set conditions to determine under which condition they rate a witness to be more deceptive. Finds that under impression-set objectives subjects formed stronger judgments of the witness's deceptiveness, while the pattern was reversed under memory-set conditions. (MS)

  11. Integration of a three-dimensional process-based hydrological model into the Object Modeling System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The integration of a spatial process model into an environmental modelling framework can enhance the model’s capabilities. We present the integration of the GEOtop model into the Object Modeling System (OMS) version 3.0 and illustrate its application in a small watershed. GEOtop is a physically base...

  12. The Processing of Subject-Object Ambiguities in Native and Near-Native Mexican Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jegerski, Jill

    2012-01-01

    This self-paced reading study first tested the prediction that the garden path effect previously observed during the processing of subject-object ambiguities in native English would not obtain in a null subject language like Spanish. The investigation then further explored whether the effect would be evident among near-native readers of Spanish…

  13. [Method of receiving differential images of objects autofluorescence in the process of photobleaching].

    PubMed

    Klimov, A A; Klimov, D A

    2012-01-01

    The microscope with a high sensitive video camera and laser illumination was used to study autofluorescence changes of different structures in the photo bleached region with a different speed. The work with images using the ImageJ program is described in application how to receive differential images of objects autofluorescence in the process of photobleaching. PMID:23136785

  14. The Benefits of Sensorimotor Knowledge: Body-Object Interaction Facilitates Semantic Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siakaluk, Paul D.; Pexman, Penny M.; Sears, Christopher R.; Wilson, Kim; Locheed, Keri; Owen, William J.

    2008-01-01

    This article examined the effects of body-object interaction (BOI) on semantic processing. BOI measures perceptions of the ease with which a human body can physically interact with a word's referent. In Experiment 1, BOI effects were examined in 2 semantic categorization tasks (SCT) in which participants decided if words are easily imageable.…

  15. Analyzing Preschoolers' Overgeneralizations of Object Labeling in the Process of Mother-Tongue Acquisition in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabadayi, Abdulkadir

    2006-01-01

    Language, as is known, is acquired under certain conditions: rapid and sequential brain maturation and cognitive development, the need to exchange information and to control others' actions, and an exposure to appropriate speech input. This research aims at analyzing preschoolers' overgeneralizations of the object labeling process in different…

  16. Frequency Affects Object Relative Clause Processing: Some Evidence in Favor of Usage-Based Accounts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reali, Florencia

    2014-01-01

    The processing difficulty of nested grammatical structure has been explained by different psycholinguistic theories. Here I provide corpus and behavioral evidence in favor of usage-based models, focusing on the case of object relative clauses in Spanish as a first language. A corpus analysis of spoken Spanish reveals that, as in English, the…

  17. Action and Object Processing in Aphasia: From Nouns and Verbs to the Effect of Manipulability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arevalo, A.; Perani, D.; Cappa, S. F.; Butler, A.; Bates, E.; Dronkers, N.

    2007-01-01

    The processing of words and pictures representing actions and objects was tested in 21 aphasic patients and 20 healthy controls across three word production tasks: picture-naming (PN), single word reading (WR) and word repetition (WRP). Analysis (1) targeted task and lexical category (noun-verb), revealing worse performance on PN and verb items…

  18. An ERP Study of the Processing of Subject and Object Relative Clauses in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueno, Mieko; Garnsey, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    Using reading times and event-related brain potentials (ERPs), we investigated the processing of Japanese subject and object relative clauses (SRs/ORs). Previous research on English relative clauses shows that ORs take longer to read (King & Just, 1991) and elicit anterior negativity between fillers and gaps (King & Kutas, 1995), which is…

  19. Cortical plasticity for visuospatial processing and object recognition in deaf and hearing signers.

    PubMed

    Weisberg, Jill; Koo, Daniel S; Crain, Kelly L; Eden, Guinevere F

    2012-03-01

    Experience-dependent plasticity in deaf participants has been shown in a variety of studies focused on either the dorsal or ventral aspects of the visual system, but both systems have never been investigated in concert. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated functional plasticity for spatial processing (a dorsal visual pathway function) and for object processing (a ventral visual pathway function) concurrently, in the context of differing sensory (auditory deprivation) and language (use of a signed language) experience. During scanning, deaf native users of American Sign Language (ASL), hearing native ASL users, and hearing participants without ASL experience attended to either the spatial arrangement of frames containing objects or the identity of the objects themselves. These two tasks revealed the expected dorsal/ventral dichotomy for spatial versus object processing in all groups. In addition, the object identity matching task contained both face and house stimuli, allowing us to examine category-selectivity in the ventral pathway in all three participant groups. When contrasting the groups we found that deaf signers differed from the two hearing groups in dorsal pathway parietal regions involved in spatial cognition, suggesting sensory experience-driven plasticity. Group differences in the object processing system indicated that responses in the face-selective right lateral fusiform gyrus and anterior superior temporal cortex were sensitive to a combination of altered sensory and language experience, whereas responses in the amygdala were more closely tied to sensory experience. By selectively engaging the dorsal and ventral visual pathways within participants in groups with different sensory and language experiences, we have demonstrated that these experiences affect the function of both of these systems, and that certain changes are more closely tied to sensory experience, while others are driven by the combination of sensory and

  20. Cortical plasticity for visuospatial processing and object recognition in deaf and hearing signers

    PubMed Central

    Weisberg, Jill; Koo, Daniel S.; Crain, Kelly L.; Eden, Guinevere F.

    2012-01-01

    Experience-dependent plasticity in deaf participants has been shown in a variety of studies focused on either the dorsal or ventral aspects of the visual system, but both systems have never been investigated in concert. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated functional plasticity for spatial processing (a dorsal visual pathway function) and for object processing (a ventral visual pathway function) concurrently, in the context of differing sensory (auditory deprivation) and language (use of a signed language) experience. During scanning, deaf native users of American Sign Language (ASL), hearing native ASL users, and hearing participants without ASL experience attended to either the spatial arrangement of frames containing objects or the identity of the objects themselves. These two tasks revealed the expected dorsal/ventral dichotomy for spatial versus object processing in all groups. In addition, the object identity matching task contained both face and house stimuli, allowing us to examine category-selectivity in the ventral pathway in all three participant groups. When contrasting the groups we found that deaf signers differed from the two hearing groups in dorsal pathway parietal regions involved in spatial cognition, suggesting sensory experience-driven plasticity. Group differences in the object processing system indicated that responses in the face-selective right lateral fusiform gyrus and anterior superior temporal cortex were sensitive to a combination of altered sensory and language experience, whereas responses in the amygdala were more closely tied to sensory experience. By selectively engaging the dorsal and ventral visual pathways within participants in groups with different sensory and language experiences, we have demonstrated that these experiences affect the function of both of these systems, and that certain changes are more closely tied to sensory experience, while others are driven by the combination of sensory and

  1. Memory for Complex Visual Objects but Not for Allocentric Locations during the First Year of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupierrix, Eve; Hillairet de Boisferon, Anne; Barbeau, Emmanuel; Pascalis, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Although human infants demonstrate early competence to retain visual information, memory capacities during infancy remain largely undocumented. In three experiments, we used a Visual Paired Comparison (VPC) task to examine abilities to encode identity (Experiment 1) and spatial properties (Experiments 2a and 2b) of unfamiliar complex visual…

  2. Energetic Processing of Interstellar Ices: A Route to Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Marla H.; Hudson, Reggie L.

    2009-01-01

    More than 140 gas-phase molecules have been detected in the interstellar (IS) medium or in circumstellar environments including inorganics, organics, ions, and radicals. The significant abundance of large, complex organic molecules, and families of isomers in these regions makes the origin and formation history of these species the subject of debate. Observationally determined condensed-phase species are H2O, CO, CO2, NH3 and CH30H, with CH4, HCOOH, OCS, OCN-, H2CO and NH4(+) present at trace levels. These ices can undergo energetic processing with cosmic rays or far-UV photons to form larger complex organics with abundance levels that make them undetectable in icy mantles. Once warmed, however, it is likely that these complex species would enter the gas-phase where they might be detected by Herschel or Alma. Understanding the role of radiation chemistry and thermal processing of ices and identifying new products are the goals of our laboratory research. In the Cosmic lee Laboratory at NASA Goddard Space Plight Center, we can study both the photo-and radiation chemistries of ices from 8 -- 300 K. Using dear- and mid-IR spectroscopy we can follow the destruction of primary molecules and the formation of radicals and secondary products as a function of energetic processing. During warming we can monitor the trapping of species and the results of any thermal chemistry. An overview of recent and past work will focus on complex secondary radiation products from small condensed-phase IS species. Likely reactions include dimerization, isomerization, H-addition and H-elimination. Another focus of our work is the development of reaction schemes for the formation of complex molecules and the use of such schemes to predict new molecules awaiting detection by Herschel and Alma.

  3. Image Processing Strategies Based on a Visual Saliency Model for Object Recognition Under Simulated Prosthetic Vision.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Li, Heng; Fu, Weizhen; Chen, Yao; Li, Liming; Lyu, Qing; Han, Tingting; Chai, Xinyu

    2016-01-01

    Retinal prostheses have the potential to restore partial vision. Object recognition in scenes of daily life is one of the essential tasks for implant wearers. Still limited by the low-resolution visual percepts provided by retinal prostheses, it is important to investigate and apply image processing methods to convey more useful visual information to the wearers. We proposed two image processing strategies based on Itti's visual saliency map, region of interest (ROI) extraction, and image segmentation. Itti's saliency model generated a saliency map from the original image, in which salient regions were grouped into ROI by the fuzzy c-means clustering. Then Grabcut generated a proto-object from the ROI labeled image which was recombined with background and enhanced in two ways--8-4 separated pixelization (8-4 SP) and background edge extraction (BEE). Results showed that both 8-4 SP and BEE had significantly higher recognition accuracy in comparison with direct pixelization (DP). Each saliency-based image processing strategy was subject to the performance of image segmentation. Under good and perfect segmentation conditions, BEE and 8-4 SP obtained noticeably higher recognition accuracy than DP, and under bad segmentation condition, only BEE boosted the performance. The application of saliency-based image processing strategies was verified to be beneficial to object recognition in daily scenes under simulated prosthetic vision. They are hoped to help the development of the image processing module for future retinal prostheses, and thus provide more benefit for the patients. PMID:25981202

  4. A single-rate context-dependent learning process underlies rapid adaptation to familiar object dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ingram, James N; Howard, Ian S; Flanagan, J Randall; Wolpert, Daniel M

    2011-09-01

    Motor learning has been extensively studied using dynamic (force-field) perturbations. These induce movement errors that result in adaptive changes to the motor commands. Several state-space models have been developed to explain how trial-by-trial errors drive the progressive adaptation observed in such studies. These models have been applied to adaptation involving novel dynamics, which typically occurs over tens to hundreds of trials, and which appears to be mediated by a dual-rate adaptation process. In contrast, when manipulating objects with familiar dynamics, subjects adapt rapidly within a few trials. Here, we apply state-space models to familiar dynamics, asking whether adaptation is mediated by a single-rate or dual-rate process. Previously, we reported a task in which subjects rotate an object with known dynamics. By presenting the object at different visual orientations, adaptation was shown to be context-specific, with limited generalization to novel orientations. Here we show that a multiple-context state-space model, with a generalization function tuned to visual object orientation, can reproduce the time-course of adaptation and de-adaptation as well as the observed context-dependent behavior. In contrast to the dual-rate process associated with novel dynamics, we show that a single-rate process mediates adaptation to familiar object dynamics. The model predicts that during exposure to the object across multiple orientations, there will be a degree of independence for adaptation and de-adaptation within each context, and that the states associated with all contexts will slowly de-adapt during exposure in one particular context. We confirm these predictions in two new experiments. Results of the current study thus highlight similarities and differences in the processes engaged during exposure to novel versus familiar dynamics. In both cases, adaptation is mediated by multiple context-specific representations. In the case of familiar object dynamics

  5. Primary process thinking, primitive defensive operations and object relationships in borderline and neurotic patients.

    PubMed

    Leichsenring, F

    1991-01-01

    In the present paper Kernberg's hypothesis concerning the connection between primary process thinking on the one hand and primitive defense mechanisms and modes of object relationships on the other hand were tested empirically in a sample of 30 hospitalized borderline and 30 hospitalized neurotic patients. The diagnoses of the patients were given according to the 'Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines' of Gunderson and Kolb, the functions mentioned above were assessed on the basis of the Holtzman Inkblot Technique applying scoring systems of Lerner and coworkers for primitive defense mechanisms and of Urist for the scoring of object relationships to the Holtzman Inkblot Technique. According to the results the hypothesis derived from assumptions of Kernberg could be corroborated. Primary process thinking in borderline patients seems to be closely connected with high levels of anxiety and hostility, projective identification/projection, primitive denial and sadomasochistic relationships. A model for the coming about of primary process thinking in borderline patients is proposed. PMID:2023983

  6. Investigations of charge-separation processes in metal complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Crosby, G.A.

    1991-02-18

    The major thrust of the research has been the quantification of the excited states of inorganic complexes that display potential for mediating charge-separation processes. Investigations of copper(1) mixed-ligand complexes have been completed. Non-equilibrated emitting states have been assigned. Chemical tuning of the emission energy by modifying the basicity of the donor ligand on the metal has been achieved. Structure-property relationships have been defined for crystalline complexes of zinc containing both diimine and monothiol ligands. Correlation of the spectral shifts with the rotations of the thiol phenyl rings in different crystal phases has been shown by comparing with extended Huckel calculations and x-ray structures. Complexes of zinc containing diimine and dithiol ligands are shown to be polynuclear species. A trinuclear species can be forced to assume a binuclear structure by incorporating other non-coordinating ligands into the lattice. The transformation is accompanied by substantial photophysical changes. Syntheses and x-ray structure determinations of platinum(2) complexes containing diimine ligands only, both diimine and dithiol ligands, and dithiol ligands only have been completed. An unusual platinum(3) bis(dithiol) species has been obtained and its structure determined. Investigations of the emission spectra of bis(bipyridine)platinum(2) have revealed the existence of multiple emitting states with both ligand-localized and charge- transfer characteristics.

  7. Ferric and cobaltous hydroacid complexes for forward osmosis (FO) processes.

    PubMed

    Ge, Qingchun; Fu, Fengjiang; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2014-07-01

    Cupric and ferric hydroacid complexes have proven their advantages as draw solutes in forward osmosis in terms of high water fluxes, negligible reverse solute fluxes and easy recovery (Ge and Chung, 2013. Hydroacid complexes: A new class of draw solutes to promote forward osmosis (FO) processes. Chemical Communications 49, 8471-8473.). In this study, cobaltous hydroacid complexes were explored as draw solutes and compared with the ferric hydroacid complex to study the factors influencing their FO performance. The solutions of the cobaltous complexes produce high osmotic pressures due to the presence of abundant hydrophilic groups. These solutes are able to dissociate and form a multi-charged anion and Na(+) cations in water. In addition, these complexes have expanded structures which lead to negligible reverse solute fluxes and provide relatively easy approaches in regeneration. These characteristics make the newly synthesized cobaltous complexes appropriate as draw solutes. The FO performance of the cobaltous and ferric-citric acid (Fe-CA) complexes were evaluated respectively through cellulose acetate membranes, thin-film composite membranes fabricated on polyethersulfone supports (referred as TFC-PES), and polybenzimidazole and PES dual-layer (referred as PBI/PES) hollow fiber membranes. Under the conditions of DI water as the feed and facing the support layer of TFC-PES FO membranes (PRO mode), draw solutions at 2.0 M produced relatively high water fluxes of 39-48 LMH (L m(-2) hr(-1)) with negligible reverse solute fluxes. A water flux of 17.4 LMH was achieved when model seawater of 3.5 wt.% NaCl replaced DI water as the feed and 2.0 M Fe-CA as the draw solution under the same conditions. The performance of these hydroacid complexes surpasses those of the synthetic draw solutes developed in recent years. This observation, along with the relatively easy regeneration, makes these complexes very promising as a novel class of draw solutes. PMID:24768702

  8. A split-optimization approach for obtaining multiple solutions in single-objective process parameter optimization.

    PubMed

    Rajora, Manik; Zou, Pan; Yang, Yao Guang; Fan, Zhi Wen; Chen, Hung Yi; Wu, Wen Chieh; Li, Beizhi; Liang, Steven Y

    2016-01-01

    It can be observed from the experimental data of different processes that different process parameter combinations can lead to the same performance indicators, but during the optimization of process parameters, using current techniques, only one of these combinations can be found when a given objective function is specified. The combination of process parameters obtained after optimization may not always be applicable in actual production or may lead to undesired experimental conditions. In this paper, a split-optimization approach is proposed for obtaining multiple solutions in a single-objective process parameter optimization problem. This is accomplished by splitting the original search space into smaller sub-search spaces and using GA in each sub-search space to optimize the process parameters. Two different methods, i.e., cluster centers and hill and valley splitting strategy, were used to split the original search space, and their efficiency was measured against a method in which the original search space is split into equal smaller sub-search spaces. The proposed approach was used to obtain multiple optimal process parameter combinations for electrochemical micro-machining. The result obtained from the case study showed that the cluster centers and hill and valley splitting strategies were more efficient in splitting the original search space than the method in which the original search space is divided into smaller equal sub-search spaces. PMID:27625978

  9. On Having Complex Representations of Things: Preschoolers Use Multiple Words for Objects and People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deak, Gedeon O.; Maratsos, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Two experiments examined preschoolers' ability to apply multiple labels to representational objects and to people. Found that preschoolers reliably produced or accepted several words per entity and accepted a high percentage of class-inclusive and overlapping word pairs. The mean number of words produced in labeling task was related to receptive…

  10. Information processing in neural networks with the complex dynamic thresholds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillov, S. Yu.; Nekorkin, V. I.

    2016-06-01

    A control mechanism of the information processing in neural networks is investigated, based on the complex dynamic threshold of the neural excitation. The threshold properties are controlled by the slowly varying synaptic current. The dynamic threshold shows high sensitivity to the rate of the synaptic current variation. It allows both to realize flexible selective tuning of the network elements and to provide nontrivial regimes of neural coding.