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Sample records for complex symmetric linear

  1. Linearization of Moffat's Symmetric Complex Metric Gravity

    E-print Network

    Joakim Munkhammar

    2009-09-19

    In this paper we investigate a complex symmetric generalization of general relativity and in particular we investigate its linearized field equations. We begin by reviewing some basic definitions and structures in Moffat's symmetric complex metric field theory of gravity. We then move on to derive the linearized retarded complex field equations. In addition to this we also derive a linearization of Moffat's field equations based on the more rigorous Fermi coordinate approach. In conclusion it is shown that the linearized symmetric complex field equations leads to a complex form of gravitomagnetism. We also briefly review the gravitational wave equation from the source less linearized symmetric complex field equations and discuss some open problems.

  2. Complex geometric optics for symmetric hyperbolic systems I: linear theory

    E-print Network

    Omar Maj

    2008-02-12

    We obtain an asymptotic solution for $\\ep \\to 0$ of the Cauchy problem for linear first-order symmetric hyperbolic systems with oscillatory initial values written in the eikonal form of geometric optics with frequency $1/\\ep$, but with complex phases. For the most common linear wave propagation models, this kind on Cauchy problems are well-known in the applied literature and their asymptotic theory, referred to as complex geometric optics, is attracting interest for applications. In this work, which is the first of a series of papers dedicated to complex geometric optics for nonlinear symmetric hyperbolic systems, we develop a rigorous linear theory and set the basis for the subsequent nonlinear analysis.

  3. Conjugate gradient type methods for linear systems with complex symmetric coefficient matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Roland

    1989-01-01

    We consider conjugate gradient type methods for the solution of large sparse linear system Ax equals b with complex symmetric coefficient matrices A equals A(T). Such linear systems arise in important applications, such as the numerical solution of the complex Helmholtz equation. Furthermore, most complex non-Hermitian linear systems which occur in practice are actually complex symmetric. We investigate conjugate gradient type iterations which are based on a variant of the nonsymmetric Lanczos algorithm for complex symmetric matrices. We propose a new approach with iterates defined by a quasi-minimal residual property. The resulting algorithm presents several advantages over the standard biconjugate gradient method. We also include some remarks on the obvious approach to general complex linear systems by solving equivalent real linear systems for the real and imaginary parts of x. Finally, numerical experiments for linear systems arising from the complex Helmholtz equation are reported.

  4. Complex Geometry Bounded Symmetric Domains

    E-print Network

    Mok, Ngaiming

    ;· By a holomorphic metric' we mean a holo- morphic bilinear symmetric form on a com- plex manifold which conformal structure is de- fined locally by isomorphism classes of holo- morphic metrics up to complex of the holomorphic tangent bundle T = U V into the tensor product of holo- morphic vector bundles of rank 2. 4 #12

  5. PARTITION COMPLEXES, TITS BUILDINGS AND SYMMETRIC PRODUCTS

    E-print Network

    PARTITION COMPLEXES, TITS BUILDINGS AND SYMMETRIC PRODUCTS- tition complex, and identify it as the Tits building. This gives a homological relationship of equivalence relations on a finite set; a Tits building is a geometric object associated to the poset

  6. 2d PDE Linear Symmetric Matrix Solver

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1983-10-01

    ICCG2 (Incomplete Cholesky factorized Conjugate Gradient algorithm for 2d symmetric problems) was developed to solve a linear symmetric matrix system arising from a 9-point discretization of two-dimensional elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations found in plasma physics applications, such as resistive MHD, spatial diffusive transport, and phase space transport (Fokker-Planck equation) problems. These problems share the common feature of being stiff and requiring implicit solution techniques. When these parabolic or elliptic PDE''s are discretized withmore »finite-difference or finite-element methods,the resulting matrix system is frequently of block-tridiagonal form. To use ICCG2, the discretization of the two-dimensional partial differential equation and its boundary conditions must result in a block-tridiagonal supermatrix composed of elementary tridiagonal matrices. The incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient algorithm is used to solve the linear symmetric matrix equation. Loops are arranged to vectorize on the Cray1 with the CFT compiler, wherever possible. Recursive loops, which cannot be vectorized, are written for optimum scalar speed. For matrices lacking symmetry, ILUCG2 should be used. Similar methods in three dimensions are available in ICCG3 and ILUCG3. A general source containing extensions and macros, which must be processed by a pre-compiler to obtain the standard FORTRAN source, is provided along with the standard FORTRAN source because it is believed to be more readable. The pre-compiler is not included, but pre-compilation may be performed by a text editor as described in the UCRL-88746 Preprint.« less

  7. PARTITION COMPLEXES, TITS BUILDINGS AND SYMMETRIC PRODUCTS

    E-print Network

    PARTITION COMPLEXES, TITS BUILDINGS AND SYMMETRIC PRODUCTS G. Z. ARONE AND W. G. DWYER Abstract. We construct a homological approximation to the par- tition complex, and identify it as the Tits building on a finite set; a Tits building is a geometric object associated to the poset of subspaces of a vector space

  8. Invisibility in PT-symmetric complex crystals

    E-print Network

    Stefano Longhi

    2011-11-15

    Bragg scattering in sinusoidal PT-symmetric complex crystals of finite thickness is theoretically investigated by the derivation of exact analytical expressions for reflection and transmission coefficients in terms of modified Bessel functions of first kind. The analytical results indicate that unidirectional invisibility, recently predicted for such crystals by coupled-mode theory [Z. Lin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 213901 (2011)], breaks down for crystals containing a large number of unit cells. In particular, for a given modulation depth in a shallow sinusoidal potential, three regimes are encountered as the crystal thickness is increased. At short lengths the crystal is reflectionless and invisible when probed from one side (unidirectional invisibility), whereas at intermediate lengths the crystal remains reflectionless but not invisible; for longer crystals both unidirectional reflectionless and invisibility properties are broken.

  9. Passive PT -symmetric couplers without complex optical potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yi-Chan; Liu, Jibing; Chuang, You-Lin; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu; Lee, Ray-Kuang

    2015-11-01

    In addition to the implementation of parity-time-(PT -) symmetric optical systems by carefully and actively controlling the gain and loss, we show that a 2 ×2 PT -symmetric Hamiltonian has a unitarily equivalent representation without complex optical potentials in the resulting optical coupler. Through the Naimark dilation in operator algebra, passive PT -symmetric couplers can thus be implemented with a refractive index of real values and asymmetric coupling coefficients. This opens up the possibility to implement general PT -symmetric systems with state-of-the-art asymmetric slab waveguides, dissimilar optical fibers, or cavities with chiral mirrors.

  10. Passive $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric couplers without complex optical potentials

    E-print Network

    Lee, Yi-Chan; Chuang, You-Lin; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu; Lee, Ray-Kuang

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the implementation of parity-time ($\\mathcal{PT}$)-symmetric optical systems by carefully and actively controlling the gain and loss, we show that a $2\\times 2$ $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric Hamiltonian has a unitarily equivalent representation without complex optical potentials in the resulting optical coupler. Through the Naimark dilation in operator algebra, passive $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric couplers can thus be implemented with a refractive index of real values and asymmetric coupling coefficients. This opens up the possibility to implement general $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric systems with state-of-the-art asymmetric slab waveguides, dissimilar optical fibers, or cavities with chiral mirrors.

  11. Passive $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric couplers without complex optical potentials

    E-print Network

    Yi-Chan Lee; Jibing Liu; You-Lin Chuang; Min-Hsiu Hsieh; Ray-Kuang Lee

    2015-10-16

    In addition to the implementation of parity-time ($\\mathcal{PT}$)-symmetric optical systems by carefully and actively controlling the gain and loss, we show that a $2\\times 2$ $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric Hamiltonian has a unitarily equivalent representation without complex optical potentials in the resulting optical coupler. Through the Naimark dilation in operator algebra, passive $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric couplers can thus be implemented with a refractive index of real values and asymmetric coupling coefficients. This opens up the possibility to implement general $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric systems with state-of-the-art asymmetric slab waveguides, dissimilar optical fibers, or cavities with chiral mirrors.

  12. T-algebras and linear optimization over symmetric cones CHEK BENG CHUA

    E-print Network

    Chua, Chek Beng

    -algebra, on the other hand, has rarely been used in symmetric cone programming. In this paper, we use both alge- braic-algebra is a commonly used tool in designing interior- point algorithms for symmetric cone programs. T characterizations of symmetric cones to extend the target-following framework of linear programming to symmetric

  13. Covariant discretization of axis-symmetric linear optical systems.

    PubMed

    Atakishiyev, N M; Nagiyev, S M; Vicent, L E; Wolf, K B

    2000-12-01

    We propose a discretization strategy for systems with axial symmetry. This strategy replaces the continuous position coordinates by a discrete set of sensor points, on which the discrete wave fields transform covariantly with the group of 2 x 2 symplectic matrices. We examine polar arrays of sensors (i.e., numbered by radius and angle) and find the complete, orthonormal sets of discrete-waveguide Meixner functions; when the sensors come closer together, these tend to the Laguerre eigenmodes of the continuous waveguide. In particular, the fractional Hankel transforms are discretized in order to define the fractional Hankel-Meixner transforms and similarly for all axis-symmetric linear optical maps. Coherent states appear in the discrete cylindrical waveguide. Covariant discretization leads to the same Wigner phase-space function for both the discrete and the continuum cases. This reinforces a Lie-theoretical model for the phase space of discrete systems. PMID:11140490

  14. Non-symmetric pincer ligands: complexes and applications in catalysis.

    PubMed

    Asay, Matthew; Morales-Morales, David

    2015-10-28

    Pincer ligands have become ubiquitous in organometallic chemistry and homogeneous catalysis. Recently, new varieties of pincer ligands with non-symmetrical backbones and/or ligating groups have been reported and their application in transition metal complexes has been exploited in a variety of catalytic transformations. This non-symmetric approach vastly increases the structural and electronic diversity of this class of ligand. This approach has proven beneficial in a variety of ways, such as the use of a single weakly coordinating moiety, which can dissociate and thereby create a vacant coordination site to increase the catalyst activity. Additionally, this provides further access to chiral ligands and complexes for asymmetric induction. This perspective highlights recent, important examples of non-symmetric pincer ligands, which feature aryl or pyridine backbones, and the synthesis and use of subsequent complexes in catalytic transformations, and discusses the future potential of this type of ligand system. PMID:26396037

  15. A study of PT-symmetric Non-linear Schroedinger Equation

    E-print Network

    K. Nireekshan Reddy; Subhrajit Modak; Kumar Abhinav; Prasanta K. Panigrahi

    2015-05-20

    Systems governed by the Non-linear Schroedinger Equation (NLSE) with various external PT-symmetric potentials are considered. Exact solutions have been obtained for the same through the method of ansatz, some of them being solitonic in nature. It is found that only the unbroken PT-symmetric phase is realized in these systems, characterized by real energies.

  16. Transparency of PT-symmetric complex potentials for coherent injection

    E-print Network

    Zafar Ahmed; Joseph Amal Nathan

    2015-08-03

    Two port s-matrix for a complex PT-symmetric potential may have uni-modular eigenvalues. If this happens for all energies, there occurs a perfect emission of waves at both ends. We call this phenomenon transparency which is distinctly different from coherent perfect absorption with or without lasing. Using the versatile PT-Symmetric complex Scarf II potential, we demonstrate analytically that the transparency occurs when the potential has real discrete spectrum i.e., when PT-symmetry is exact(unbroken). Next, we find that exactness of PT-symmetry is only sufficient but not necessary for the transparency. Two other PT-symmetric domains of Scarf II reveal transparency without the PT-symmetry being exact. In these two cases there exist only scattering states. In one case the real part of the potential is a well, devoid of real discrete spectrum and in the other, the real part is a barrier. Other numerically solved models also support our findings.

  17. Bounds for axially symmetric linear perturbations for the extreme Kerr black hole

    E-print Network

    Sergio Dain; Ivan Gentile de Austria

    2015-01-15

    We obtain remarkably simple integral bounds for axially symmetric linear perturbations for the extreme Kerr black hole in terms of conserved energies. From these estimates we deduce pointwise bounds for the perturbations outside the horizon.

  18. Inducing chimera-synchronization in symmetric complex networks

    E-print Network

    Weijie Lin; Huiyan Li; Heping Ying; Xingang Wang

    2015-12-29

    In a recent study of chaos synchronization in symmetric complex networks [Pecora \\textit{et al}., Nat. Commun. {\\bf 5}, 4079 (2014)], it is found that stable synchronous clusters may coexist with many non-synchronous nodes in the asynchronous regime, resembling the chimera state observed in regular networks of non-locally coupled periodic oscillators. Although of practical significance, this new type of state, namely the chimera-synchronization state, is hardly generated for the general complex networks, due to either the topological instabilities or the weak coupling strength. Here, based on the strategy of pinning coupling, we propose an effective method for inducing chimera-synchronization in symmetric complex network of coupled chaotic oscillators. We are able to argue mathematically that, by pinning a group of nodes satisfying permutation symmetry, there always exits a critical pinning strength beyond which the unstable chimera-synchronization states can be successfully induced. The feasibility and efficiency of the control method are verified by numerical simulations of both artificial and real-world complex networks, with the numerical results well fitted by the theoretical predictions.

  19. Long-Term Stability of Symmetric Partitioned Linear Multistep Methods

    E-print Network

    Hairer, Ernst

    ­ for example the planetary motion in astronomy or simulations in molecular dynamics. Symplectic and symmetric into the long-time behavior is obtained by a backward error analysis, where the underlying one-step method equations. Adams-type methods are frequently used for the integration of nonstiff differential equations

  20. Algorithm 937: MINRES-QLP for Symmetric and Hermitian Linear Equations and Least-Squares Problems

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sou-Cheng T.; Saunders, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    We describe algorithm MINRES-QLP and its FORTRAN 90 implementation for solving symmetric or Hermitian linear systems or least-squares problems. If the system is singular, MINRES-QLP computes the unique minimum-length solution (also known as the pseudoinverse solution), which generally eludes MINRES. In all cases, it overcomes a potential instability in the original MINRES algorithm. A positive-definite pre-conditioner may be supplied. Our FORTRAN 90 implementation illustrates a design pattern that allows users to make problem data known to the solver but hidden and secure from other program units. In particular, we circumvent the need for reverse communication. Example test programs input and solve real or complex problems specified in Matrix Market format. While we focus here on a FORTRAN 90 implementation, we also provide and maintain MATLAB versions of MINRES and MINRES-QLP. PMID:25328255

  1. A new solvable complex PT-symmetric potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Zafar; Ghosh, Dona; Nathan, Joseph Amal

    2015-08-01

    We propose a new solvable one-dimensional complex PT-symmetric potential as V (x) = igsgn (x) | 1 - exp ? (2 | x | / a) | and study the spectrum of H = -d2 / dx2 + V (x). For smaller values of a , g < 1, there is a finite number of real discrete eigenvalues. As a and g increase, there exist exceptional points (EPs), gn (for fixed values of a), causing a scarcity of real discrete eigenvalues, but there exists at least one. We also show these real discrete eigenvalues as poles of reflection coefficient. We find that the energy-eigenstates ?n (x) satisfy (1): PT?n (x) = 1?n (x) and (2): PT?En (x) =? E n * (x), for real and complex energy eigenvalues, respectively.

  2. Symmetric linear systems - An application of algebraic systems theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazewinkel, M.; Martin, C.

    1983-01-01

    Dynamical systems which contain several identical subsystems occur in a variety of applications ranging from command and control systems and discretization of partial differential equations, to the stability augmentation of pairs of helicopters lifting a large mass. Linear models for such systems display certain obvious symmetries. In this paper, we discuss how these symmetries can be incorporated into a mathematical model that utilizes the modern theory of algebraic systems. Such systems are inherently related to the representation theory of algebras over fields. We will show that any control scheme which respects the dynamical structure either implicitly or explicitly uses the underlying algebra.

  3. Bath Institute for Complex Systems On Landau theory and symmetric energy landscapes for phase

    E-print Network

    Zimmer, Johannes

    BICS Bath Institute for Complex Systems On Landau theory and symmetric energy landscapes for phase://www.bath.ac.uk/math-sci/BICS #12;On Landau theory and symmetric energy landscapes for phase transitions Kai Hormann and Johannes complex energy landscapes of phase transitions. For the sake of clarity and brevity the exposition

  4. Spherically symmetric analysis on open FLRW solution in non-linear massive gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Chien-I; Izumi, Keisuke; Chen, Pisin E-mail: izumi@phys.ntu.edu.tw

    2012-12-01

    We study non-linear massive gravity in the spherically symmetric context. Our main motivation is to investigate the effect of helicity-0 mode which remains elusive after analysis of cosmological perturbation around an open Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) universe. The non-linear form of the effective energy-momentum tensor stemming from the mass term is derived for the spherically symmetric case. Only in the special case where the area of the two sphere is not deviated away from the FLRW universe, the effective energy momentum tensor becomes completely the same as that of cosmological constant. This opens a window for discriminating the non-linear massive gravity from general relativity (GR). Indeed, by further solving these spherically symmetric gravitational equations of motion in vacuum to the linear order, we obtain a solution which has an arbitrary time-dependent parameter. In GR, this parameter is a constant and corresponds to the mass of a star. Our result means that Birkhoff's theorem no longer holds in the non-linear massive gravity and suggests that energy can probably be emitted superluminously (with infinite speed) on the self-accelerating background by the helicity-0 mode, which could be a potential plague of this theory.

  5. Observation of Bloch oscillations in complex PT-symmetric photonic lattices

    PubMed Central

    Wimmer, Martin; Miri, Mohammed-Ali; Christodoulides, Demetrios; Peschel, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Light propagation in periodic environments is often associated with a number of interesting and potentially useful processes. If a crystalline optical potential is also linearly ramped, light can undergo periodic Bloch oscillations, a direct outcome of localized Wannier-Stark states and their equidistant eigenvalue spectrum. Even though these effects have been extensively explored in conservative settings, this is by no means the case in non-Hermitian photonic lattices encompassing both amplification and attenuation. Quite recently, Bloch oscillations have been predicted in parity-time-symmetric structures involving gain and loss in a balanced fashion. While in a complex bulk medium, one intuitively expects that light will typically follow the path of highest amplification, in a periodic system this behavior can be substantially altered by the underlying band structure. Here, we report the first experimental observation of Bloch oscillations in parity-time-symmetric mesh lattices. We show that these revivals exhibit unusual properties like secondary emissions and resonant restoration of PT symmetry. In addition, we present a versatile method for reconstructing the real and imaginary components of the band structure by directly monitoring the light evolution during a cycle of these oscillations. PMID:26639941

  6. Observation of Bloch oscillations in complex PT-symmetric photonic lattices.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, Martin; Miri, Mohammed-Ali; Christodoulides, Demetrios; Peschel, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Light propagation in periodic environments is often associated with a number of interesting and potentially useful processes. If a crystalline optical potential is also linearly ramped, light can undergo periodic Bloch oscillations, a direct outcome of localized Wannier-Stark states and their equidistant eigenvalue spectrum. Even though these effects have been extensively explored in conservative settings, this is by no means the case in non-Hermitian photonic lattices encompassing both amplification and attenuation. Quite recently, Bloch oscillations have been predicted in parity-time-symmetric structures involving gain and loss in a balanced fashion. While in a complex bulk medium, one intuitively expects that light will typically follow the path of highest amplification, in a periodic system this behavior can be substantially altered by the underlying band structure. Here, we report the first experimental observation of Bloch oscillations in parity-time-symmetric mesh lattices. We show that these revivals exhibit unusual properties like secondary emissions and resonant restoration of PT symmetry. In addition, we present a versatile method for reconstructing the real and imaginary components of the band structure by directly monitoring the light evolution during a cycle of these oscillations. PMID:26639941

  7. The Real Anatomy of Complex Linear Superfields

    E-print Network

    S. J. Gates Jr; J. Hallett; T. Hubsch; K. Stiffler

    2012-02-20

    Recent work on classicication of off-shell representations of N-extended worldline supersymmetry without central charges has uncovered an unexpectedly vast number--trillions of even just (chromo)topology types--of so called adinkraic supermultiplets. Herein, we show by explicit analysis that a long-known but rarely used representation, the complex linear supermultiplet, is not adinkraic, cannot be decomposed locally, but may be reduced by means of a Wess-Zumino type gauge. This then indicates that the already unexpectedly vast number of adinkraic off-shell supersymmetry representations is but the proverbial tip of the iceberg.

  8. The Real Anatomy of Complex Linear Superfields

    E-print Network

    Gates, S J; Hubsch, T; Stiffler, K

    2012-01-01

    Recent work on classicication of off-shell representations of N-extended worldline supersymmetry without central charges has uncovered an unexpectedly vast number--trillions of even just (chromo)topology types--of so called adinkraic supermultiplets. Herein, we show by explicit analysis that a long-known but rarely used representation, the complex linear supermultiplet, is not adinkraic, cannot be decomposed locally, but may be reduced by means of a Wess-Zumino type gauge. This then indicates that the already unexpectedly vast number of adinkraic off-shell supersymmetry representations is but the proverbial tip of the iceberg.

  9. Hierarchical Morse-Smale Complexes for Piecewise Linear 2-Manifolds

    E-print Network

    Edelsbrunner, Herbert

    Hierarchical Morse-Smale Complexes for Piecewise Linear 2-Manifolds Herbert Edelsbrunner ¡, John- creasingly coarse Morse-Smale complexes that decompose a piecewise linear 2-manifold. While these complexes by ensuring structural integrity and simulating differentiability. We then simplify Morse-Smale complexes

  10. Preconditioning the bidomain model with almost linear complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The bidomain model is widely used in electro-cardiology to simulate spreading of excitation in the myocardium and electrocardiograms. It consists of a system of two parabolic reaction diffusion equations coupled with an ODE system. Its discretisation displays an ill-conditioned system matrix to be inverted at each time step: simulations based on the bidomain model therefore are associated with high computational costs. In this paper we propose a preconditioning for the bidomain model either for an isolated heart or in an extended framework including a coupling with the surrounding tissues (the torso). The preconditioning is based on a formulation of the discrete problem that is shown to be symmetric positive semi-definite. A block LU decomposition of the system together with a heuristic approximation (referred to as the monodomain approximation) are the key ingredients for the preconditioning definition. Numerical results are provided for two test cases: a 2D test case on a realistic slice of the thorax based on a segmented heart medical image geometry, a 3D test case involving a small cubic slab of tissue with orthotropic anisotropy. The analysis of the resulting computational cost (both in terms of CPU time and of iteration number) shows an almost linear complexity with the problem size, i.e. of type nlog ?( n) (for some constant ?) which is optimal complexity for such problems.

  11. Hierarchical Morse Complexes for Piecewise Linear 2Manifolds \\Lambda

    E-print Network

    Zomorodian, Afra

    Hierarchical Morse Complexes for Piecewise Linear 2­Manifolds \\Lambda Herbert Edelsbrunner Dept for constructing a hierarchy of in­ creasingly coarse Morse complexes that decompose a piece­ wise linear 2­manifold. While Morse complexes are defined only in the smooth category, we extend the construction

  12. Complex Spectrum of a Spontaneously Unbroken PT Symmetric Hamiltonian

    E-print Network

    C. Yuce

    2007-03-25

    It is believed that unbroken PT symmetry is sufficient to guarantee that the spectrum of a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian is real. We prove that this is not true. We study a Hamiltonian with complex spectrum for which PT symmetry is not spontaneously broken.

  13. Improved Seed Methods for Symmetric Positive Definite Linear Equations with Multiple Right-hand Sides

    E-print Network

    Abdou M. Abdel-Rehim; Ronald B. Morgan; Walter Wilcox

    2008-10-02

    We consider symmetric positive definite systems of linear equations with multiple right-hand sides. The seed conjugate gradient method solves one right-hand side with the conjugate gradient method and simultaneously projects over the Krylov subspace thus developed for the other right-hand sides. Then the next system is solved and used to seed the remaining ones. Rounding error in the conjugate gradient method limits how much the seeding can improve convergence. We propose three changes to the seed conjugate gradient method: only the first right-hand side is used for seeding, this system is solved past convergence, and the roundoff error is controlled with some reorthogonalization. We will show that results are actually better with only one seeding, even in the case of related right-hand sides. Controlling rounding error gives the potential for rapid convergence for the second and subsequent right-hand sides.

  14. High-pulse-energy, linear optical parametric oscillator with narrow and symmetrical far field.

    PubMed

    Farsund, Øystein; Rustad, Gunnar

    2013-08-26

    A new method to obtain a narrow and symmetrical far field from a high-pulse-energy optical parametric oscillator (OPO) with a linear resonator has been tested. The OPO employs two identical nonlinear crystals that are cut for type II phase matching, rotated such that their walk-off planes are orthogonal, and separated by a broadband half-wave plate. The OPO has a simple geometry, can be double-pass pumped, is wavelength tunable and operates stably with high conversion efficiency. The method has been demonstrated in a KTP-based OPO pumped at 1064 nm and a BBO-based OPO pumped at 532 nm, with output pulse energies up to 60 mJ and 75 mJ, respectively. PMID:24105562

  15. On mixed products of complex characters of the double covers of the symmetric groups

    E-print Network

    Bessenrodt, Christine

    On mixed products of complex characters of the double covers of the symmetric groups Christine Abstract In this article, two families of (almost) homogeneous mixed Kronecker products of non to classify the irreducible mixed products, thus completing the classification of all irreducible Kronecker

  16. Symmetrized complex amplitudes for He double photoionization from the time-dependent close coupling and exterior complex scaling methods

    SciTech Connect

    Horner, D.A.; Colgan, J.; Martin, F.; McCurdy, C.W.; Pindzola, M.S.; Rescigno, T.N.

    2004-06-01

    Symmetrized complex amplitudes for the double photoionization of helium are computed by the time-dependent close-coupling and exterior complex scaling methods, and it is demonstrated that both methods are capable of the direct calculation of these amplitudes. The results are found to be in excellent agreement with each other and in very good agreement with results of other ab initio methods and experiment.

  17. Linear stability of spherically symmetric and wormhole solutions supported by the sine-Gordon ghost scalar field

    SciTech Connect

    Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir; Folomeev, Vladimir; Singleton, Douglas; Myrzakulov, Ratbay

    2010-08-15

    In this paper we investigate wormhole and spherically symmetric solutions in four-dimensional gravity plus a matter source consisting of a ghost scalar field with a sine-Gordon potential. For the wormhole solutions we also include the possibility of electric and/or magnetic charges. For both types of solutions we perform a linear stability analysis and show that the wormhole solutions are stable and that when one turns on the electric and/or magnetic field the solution remains stable. The linear stability analysis of the spherically symmetric solutions indicates that they can be stable or unstable depending on one of the parameters of the system. This result for the spherically symmetric solution is nontrivial since a previous investigation of four-dimensional gravity plus a ghost scalar field with a {lambda}{phi}{sup 4} interaction found only unstable spherically symmetric solutions. Both the wormhole and spherically symmetric solutions presented here asymptotically go to anti-de Sitter space-time.

  18. Deflated and restarted symmetric Lanczos methods for eigenvalues and linear equations with multiple right-hand sides

    E-print Network

    Abdou M. Abdel-Rehim; Ronald B. Morgan; Dywayne A. Nicely; Walter Wilcox

    2008-06-20

    A deflated restarted Lanczos algorithm is given for both solving symmetric linear equations and computing eigenvalues and eigenvectors. The restarting limits the storage so that finding eigenvectors is practical. Meanwhile, the deflating from the presence of the eigenvectors allows the linear equations to generally have good convergence in spite of the restarting. Some reorthogonalization is necessary to control roundoff error, and several approaches are discussed. The eigenvectors generated while solving the linear equations can be used to help solve systems with multiple right-hand sides. Experiments are given with large matrices from quantum chromodynamics that have many right-hand sides.

  19. Complex geometric optics for symmetric hyperbolic systems II: nonlinear theory in one space dimension

    E-print Network

    Omar Maj

    2008-02-12

    This is the second part of a work aimed to study complex-phase oscillatory solutions of nonlinear symmetric hyperbolic systems. We consider, in particular, the case of one space dimension. That is a remarkable case, since one can always satisfy the \\emph{naive} coherence condition on the complex phases, which is required in the construction of the approximate solution. Formally the theory applies also in several space dimensions, but the \\emph{naive} coherence condition appears to be too restrictive; the identification of the optimal coherence condition is still an open problem.

  20. A variant of the linear isotropic indeterminate couple stress model with symmetric local force-stress, symmetric nonlocal force-stress, symmetric couple-stresses and complete traction boundary conditions

    E-print Network

    Ionel-Dumitrel Ghiba; Patrizio Neff; Angela Madeo; Ingo Münch

    2015-04-03

    In this paper we venture a new look at the linear isotropic indeterminate couple stress model in the general framework of second gradient elasticity and we propose a new alternative formulation which obeys Cauchy-Boltzmann's axiom of the symmetry of the force stress tensor. For this model we prove the existence of solutions for the equilibrium problem. Relations with other gradient elastic theories and the possibility to switch from a {4th order} (gradient elastic) problem to a 2nd order micromorphic model are also discussed with a view of obtaining symmetric force-stress tensors. It is shown that the indeterminate couple stress model can be written entirely with symmetric force-stress and symmetric couple-stress. The difference of the alternative models rests in specifying traction boundary conditions of either rotational type or strain type. If rotational type boundary conditions are used in the partial integration, the classical anti-symmetric nonlocal force stress tensor formulation is obtained. Otherwise, the difference in both formulations is only a divergence--free second order stress field such that the field equations are the same, but the traction boundary conditions are different. For these results we employ a novel integrability condition, connecting the infinitesimal continuum rotation and the infinitesimal continuum strain. Moreover, we provide the complete, consistent traction boundary conditions for both models.

  1. A Family of Symmetric Linear Multistep Methods for the Numerical Solution of the Schroedinger Equation and Related Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Anastassi, Z. A.; Simos, T. E.

    2010-09-30

    We develop a new family of explicit symmetric linear multistep methods for the efficient numerical solution of the Schroedinger equation and related problems with oscillatory solution. The new methods are trigonometrically fitted and have improved intervals of periodicity as compared to the corresponding classical method with constant coefficients and other methods from the literature. We also apply the methods along with other known methods to real periodic problems, in order to measure their efficiency.

  2. A Symmetrical Tetramer for S. aureus Pyruvate Carboxylase in Complex with Coenzyme A

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, L.; Xiang, S; Lasso, G; Gil, D; Valle, M; Tong, L

    2009-01-01

    Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) is a conserved metabolic enzyme with important cellular functions. We report crystallographic and cryo-electron microscopy (EM) studies of Staphylococcus aureus PC (SaPC) in complex with acetyl-CoA, an allosteric activator, and mutagenesis, biochemical, and structural studies of the biotin binding site of its carboxyltransferase (CT) domain. The disease-causing A610T mutation abolishes catalytic activity by blocking biotin binding to the CT active site, and Thr908 might play a catalytic role in the CT reaction. The crystal structure of SaPC in complex with CoA reveals a symmetrical tetramer, with one CoA molecule bound to each monomer, and cryo-EM studies confirm the symmetrical nature of the tetramer. These observations are in sharp contrast to the highly asymmetrical tetramer of Rhizobium etli PC in complex with ethyl-CoA. Our structural information suggests that acetyl-CoA promotes a conformation for the dimer of the biotin carboxylase domain of PC that might be catalytically more competent.

  3. Complex Plane and Parameter Plane Linear System Design Methods

    E-print Network

    Moore, John Barratt

    Complex Plane and Parameter Plane Linear System Design Methods J. B. MOORE* Summary Constraint in a control system design. The Siljak parameter plane methodl, 2 gives relative stability information(~ lmrameter plane, thus enabli~g the designer to select values for the two adjufitab]e parameters which give

  4. Rogue events in complex linear and nonlinear photonic media

    E-print Network

    Mattheakis, M; Tsironis, G P; Tzortzakis, S

    2015-01-01

    Ocean rogue waves (RW) -huge solitary waves- have for long triggered the interest of scientists. RWs emerge in a complex environment and it is still dubious the importance of linear versus nonlinear processes. Recent works have demonstrated that RWs appear in various other physical systems such as microwaves, nonlinear crystals, cold atoms, etc. In this work we investigate optical wave propagation in strongly scattering random lattices embedded in the bulk of transparent glasses. In the linear regime we observe the appearance of RWs that depend solely on the scattering properties of the medium. Interestingly, the addition of nonlinearity does not modify the RW statistics, while as the nonlinearities are increased multiple-filamentation and intensity clamping destroy the RW statistics. Numerical simulations agree nicely with the experimental findings and altogether prove that optical rogue waves are generated through the linear strong scattering in such complex environments.

  5. Simulation of complexes between linear polyelectrolyte and charged dendrimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandav, Gunja; Ganesan, Venkat

    2014-03-01

    Complexes formed by electrostatic interactions between dendrimer having cationic terminal groups and anionic linear polyelectrolyte are studied using hybrid Monte Carlo simulations. The excluded volume interactions are modeled using a self-consistent field and the electrostatic interactions are computed by solving Poisson equation. Such framework facilitates simulating large scale three-dimensional systems. We primarily focus on the effect of dendrimer generation number, stiffness of polyelectrolyte chain and systematically study its effect on change in shape and size of complexes. Our results suggest that the dendrimer structure and charge distribution has a significant impact on the complex formation.

  6. Solving complex-valued linear systems via equivalent real formulations

    SciTech Connect

    DAY,DAVID M.; HEROUX,MICHAEL A.

    2000-05-22

    Most algorithms used in preconditioned iterative methods are generally applicable to complex valued linear systems, with real valued linear systems simply being a special case. However, most iterative solver packages available today focus exclusively on real valued systems, or deal with complex valued systems as an afterthought. One obvious approach to addressing this problem is to recast the complex problem into one of a several equivalent real forms and then use a real valued solver to solve the related system. However, well-known theoretical results showing unfavorable spectral properties for the equivalent real forms have diminished enthusiasm for this approach. At the same time, experience has shown that there are situations where using an equivalent real form can be very effective. In this paper, the authors explore this approach, giving both theoretical and experimental evidence that an equivalent real form can be useful for a number of practical situations. Furthermore, they show that by making good use of some of the advance features of modem solver packages, they can easily generate equivalent real form preconditioners that are computationally efficient and mathematically identical to their complex counterparts. Using their techniques, they are able to solve very ill-conditioned complex valued linear systems for a variety of large scale applications. However, more importantly, they shed more light on the effectiveness of equivalent real forms and more clearly delineate how and when they should be used.

  7. Reducing the complexity of perturbation based nonlinearity pre-compensation using symmetric EDC and pulse shaping.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ying; Cartledge, John C; Karar, Abdullah S; Yam, Scott S-H; O'Sullivan, Maurice; Laperle, Charles; Borowiec, Andrzej; Roberts, Kim

    2014-01-27

    Perturbation based nonlinearity pre-compensation has been performed for a 128 Gbit/s single-carrier dual-polarization 16-ary quadrature-amplitude-modulation (DP 16-QAM) signal. Without any performance degradation, a complexity reduction factor of 6.8 has been demonstrated for a transmission distance of 3600 km by combining symmetric electronic dispersion compensation and root-raised-cosine pulse shaping with a roll-off factor of 0.1. Transmission over 4200 km of standard single-mode fiber with EDFA amplification was achieved for the 128 Gbit/s DP 16-QAM signals with a forward error correction (FEC) threshold of 2 × 10(-2). PMID:24515126

  8. Near consensus complex linear and nonlinear social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Bingo Wing-Kuen; Ho, Charlotte Yuk-Fan; Wang, Lidong; Teo, Kok-Lay; Tse, Chi K.; Dai, Qingyun

    2014-05-01

    Some of the nodes of complex social networks may support for a given proposal, while the rest of the nodes may be against the given proposal. Even though all the nodes support for or are against the given proposal, the decision certitudes of individual nodes may be different. In this case, the steady state values of the decision certitudes of the majority of the nodes are either higher than or lower than a threshold value. Deriving the near consensus property is a key to the analysis of the behaviors of complex social networks. So far, no result on the behaviors of the complex social networks satisfying the near consensus property has been reported. Hence, it is useful to extend the definition of the exact consensus property to that of a near consensus property and investigate the behaviors of the complex social networks satisfying the near consensus property. This paper extends the definition of exact consensus complex social networks to that of near consensus complex social networks. For complex linear social networks, this paper investigates the relationships among the vectors representing the steady state values of the decision certitudes of the nodes, the influence weight matrix and the set of vectors representing the initial state values of the decision certitudes of the nodes under a given near consensus specification. The above analysis is based on the Eigen theory. For complex nonlinear social networks with certain types of nonlinearities, the relationship between the influence weight matrix and the vectors representing the steady state values of the decision certitudes of the nodes is studied. When a complex nonlinear social network does not achieve the exact consensus property, the optimal near consensus condition that the complex social network can achieve is derived. This problem is formulated as an optimization problem. The total number of nodes that the decision certitudes of the nodes are either higher than or lower than a threshold value is maximized subject to the corresponding near consensus specification. The optimization problem is a nonsmooth optimization problem. The nonsmooth constraints are first approximated by smooth constraints. Then, the approximated optimization problem is solved via a conventional smooth optimization approach. Computer numerical simulation results as well as the comparisons of the behaviors of complex nonlinear social networks to those of the complex linear social networks are presented. The obtained results demonstrate that some complex social networks can satisfy the near consensus property but not the exact consensus property. Also, the conditions for the near consensus property are dependent on the types of nonlinearities, the influence weight matrix and the vectors representing the initial state values of the decision certitudes of the nodes.

  9. Malachite green mediates homodimerization of antibody VL domains to form a fluorescent ternary complex with singular symmetric interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Szent-Gyorgyi, Chris; Stanfield, Robyn L.; Andreko, Susan; Dempsey, Alison; Ahmed, Mushtaq; Capek, Sara; Waggoner, Alan; Wilson, Ian A.; Bruchez, Marcel P.

    2013-01-01

    We report that a symmetric small molecule ligand mediates the assembly of antibody light chain variable domains (VLs) into a correspondent symmetric ternary complex with novel interfaces. The L5* Fluorogen Activating Protein (FAP) is a VL domain that binds malachite green dye (MG) to activate intense fluorescence. Crystallography of liganded L5* reveals a 2:1 protein:ligand complex with inclusive C2 symmetry, where MG is almost entirely encapsulated between an antiparallel arrangement of the two VL domains. Unliganded L5* VL domains crystallize as a similar antiparallel VL/VL homodimer. The complementarity determining regions (CDRs) are spatially oriented to form novel VL/VL and VL/ligand interfaces that tightly constrain a propeller conformer of MG. Binding equilibrium analysis suggests highly cooperative assembly to form a very stable VL/MG/VL complex, such that MG behaves as a strong chemical inducer of dimerization. Fusion of two VL domains into a single protein tightens MG binding over 1,000-fold to low picomolar affinity without altering the large binding enthalpy, suggesting that bonding interactions with ligand and restriction of domain movements make independent contributions to binding. Fluorescence activation of a symmetrical fluorogen provides a selection mechanism for the isolation and directed evolution of ternary complexes where unnatural symmetric binding interfaces are favored over canonical antibody interfaces. As exemplified by L5*, these self-reporting complexes may be useful as modulators of protein association or as high affinity protein tags and capture reagents. PMID:23978698

  10. A ubiquitin ligase complex assembles linear polyubiquitin chains

    PubMed Central

    Kirisako, Takayoshi; Kamei, Kiyoko; Murata, Shigeo; Kato, Michiko; Fukumoto, Hiromi; Kanie, Masato; Sano, Soichi; Tokunaga, Fuminori; Tanaka, Keiji; Iwai, Kazuhiro

    2006-01-01

    The ubiquitin system plays important roles in the regulation of numerous cellular processes by conjugating ubiquitin to target proteins. In most cases, conjugation of polyubiquitin to target proteins regulates their function. In the polyubiquitin chains reported to date, ubiquitin monomers are linked via isopeptide bonds between an internal Lys and a C-terminal Gly. Here, we report that a protein complex consisting of two RING finger proteins, HOIL-1L and HOIP, exhibits ubiquitin polymerization activity by recognizing ubiquitin moieties of proteins. The polyubiquitin chain generated by the complex is not formed by Lys linkages, but by linkages between the C- and N-termini of ubiquitin, indicating that the ligase complex possesses a unique feature to assemble a novel head-to-tail linear polyubiquitin chain. Moreover, the complex regulates the stability of Ub-GFP (a GFP fusion protein with an N-terminal ubiquitin). The linear polyubiquitin chain generated post-translationally may function as a new modulator of proteins. PMID:17006537

  11. Trellis complexity bounds for decoding linear block codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiely, A. B.; Dolinar, S.; Ekroot, L.; Mceliece, R. J.; Lin, W.

    1995-01-01

    We consider the problem of finding a trellis for a linear block code that minimizes one or more measures of trellis complexity. The domain of optimization may be different permutations of the same code or different codes with the same parameters. Constraints on trellises, including relationships between the minimal trellis of a code and that of the dual code, are used to derive bounds on complexity. We define a partial ordering on trellises: If a trellis is optimum with respect to this partial ordering, if has the desirable property that it simultaneously minimizes all of the complexity measures examined. We examine properties of such optimal trellises and give examples of optimal permutations of codes, most notably the (48,24,12) quadratic residue code.

  12. The asymmetric solitons in two-dimensional parity-time-symmetric potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Haibo; Hu, Sumei

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the properties in two-dimensional (2D) special parity-time (PT) symmetric complex potentials. The linear case of this special 2D PT-symmetric complex potential and self-focusing nonlinear cases are discussed. For linear case, the eigenvalues and eigenfunction for different loss or gain level of the PT-symmetric complex potentials are obtained numerically. For nonlinear cases, the existence of asymmetric solitons and PT-symmetric solitons is studied in this PT symmetric system. The eigenvalue for linear case is equal to the critical propagation constant bc of existing PT-symmetric solitons. When the PT-symmetric soliton's propagation constant reaches a certain threshold bc1, a branch of asymmetric solitons can bifurcate out from the branch of PT-symmetric solitons.

  13. Infinitely many solutions to a linearly coupled Schrödinger system with non-symmetric potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunhua; Yang, Jing

    2015-05-01

    We study a linearly coupled Schrödinger system in ?N(N ? 3). Assume that the potentials in the system are continuous functions satisfying suitable decay assumptions, but without any symmetry properties, and the parameters in the system satisfy some suitable restrictions. Using the Liapunov-Schmidt reduction methods two times and combining localized energy method, we prove that the problem has infinitely many positive synchronized solutions, which extends result Theorem 1.2 about nonlinearly coupled Schrödinger equations in Ao and Wei [Calculus Var. Partial Differ. Equations 51, 761-798 (2014)] to our linearly coupled problem.

  14. Infinitely many solutions to linearly coupled Schrödinger equations with non-symmetric potential

    E-print Network

    Chunhua Wang; Jing Yang

    2015-04-06

    We study a linearly coupled Schr\\"{o}dinger system in $\\R^N(N\\leq3).$ Assume that the potentials in the system are continuous functions satisfying suitable decay assumptions, but without any symmetry properties and the parameters in the system satisfy some suitable restrictions. Using the Liapunov-Schmidt reduction methods two times and combing localized energy method, we prove that the problem has infinitely many positive synchronized solutions, which extends the result Theorem 1.2 about nonlinearly coupled Schr\\"{o}dinger equations in \\cite{aw} to our linearly coupled problem.

  15. Non-linear resonances in the forced responses of plates. I - Symmetric responses of circular plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, S.; Mook, D. T.; Nayfeh, A. H.

    1975-01-01

    The dynamic analogue of the von Karman equations is used to study the symmetric response of a circular plate to a harmonic excitation when the frequency of the excitation is near one of the natural frequencies. It is shown that, in general, when there is no internal resonance (i.e., the natural frequencies are not commensurable), only the mode having a frequency near that of the excitation is strongly excited (i.e., is needed to represent the response in the first approximation). A clamped, circular plate is used as a numerical example to show that, when there is an internal resonance, more than one of the modes involved in this resonance can be strongly excited; moreover, when more than one mode is strongly excited, the lower modes can dominate the response, even when the frequency of the excitation is near that of the highest mode. This possibility was not revealed by any of the earlier studies which were based on the same governing equations.

  16. Complex linear effective theory and supersymmetry breaking vacua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farakos, Fotis; von Unge, Rikard

    2015-02-01

    We calculate the low-energy effective action of massless and massive complex linear superfields coupled to a massive U(1) vector multiplet. Our calculations include superspace higher-derivative corrections and therefore go beyond previous results. Among the superspace higher derivatives, we find that terms that lead to a deformation of the auxiliary field potential and may break supersymmetry are also generated. We show that the supersymmetry breaking vacua can only be trusted if there exists a hierarchy between the higher-order terms. A renormalization group analysis shows that generically a hierarchy is not generated by the quantum corrections.

  17. Trajectories of probe spheres in generalized linear viscoelastic complex fluids.

    PubMed

    Khan, Manas; Mason, Thomas G

    2014-12-01

    We have developed a fast simulation that generates a random walk of an isolated probe sphere in a generalized linear viscoelastic complex fluid over a highly extended dynamic range. We introduce a coupled harmonically bound Brownian particle (c-HBBP) model, in which the relaxation modes of the viscoelastic medium are treated as harmonic wells. These wells are coupled to the probe sphere and perform Brownian motion in bound harmonic potentials corresponding to the next-longer relaxation mode, according to the relaxation spectrum of the viscoelastic material. We implement this c-HBBP model by generating variable temporal step sizes that have a uniform distribution in logarithmic time. We create and analyze trajectories for several different viscoelastic complex fluids: a polymer system at its gel point, a dense emulsion system, a blend of two monodisperse polystyrene polymers for which the relaxation spectrum has been measured, and a model anisotropic soft system that shows dense emulsion-like and gel-point behaviors along two orthogonal directions. Except for unusual viscoelastic materials, such as the polymer system at its gel point, the generated trajectories are neither self-similar nor self-affine. The resulting mean square displacements predicted by the c-HBBP model are consistent with the single-particle generalized Stokes-Einstein relation of linear passive microrheology. PMID:25259775

  18. Extending the eigCG algorithm to non-symmetric linear systems with multiple right-hand sides

    E-print Network

    Abdou Abdel-Rehim; Kostas Orginos; Andreas Stathopoulos

    2009-11-12

    For Hermitian positive definite linear systems and eigenvalue problems, the eigCG algorithm is a memory efficient algorithm that solves the linear system and simultaneously computes some of its eigenvalues. The algorithm is based on the Conjugate-Gradient (CG) algorithm, however, it uses only a window of the vectors generated by the CG algorithm to compute approximate eigenvalues. The number and accuracy of the eigenvectors can be increased by solving more right-hand sides. For Hermitian systems with multiple right-hand sides, the computed eigenvectors can be used to speed up the solution of subsequent systems. The algorithm was tested on Lattice QCD problems by solving the normal equations and was shown to give large speed up factors and to remove the critical slowing down as we approach light quark masses. Here, an extension to the non-symmetric case based on the two-sided Lanczos algorithm is given. The new algorithm is tested on Lattice QCD problems and is shown to give promising results. We also study the removal of the critical slowing down and compare results with those of the eigCG algorithm. We also discuss the case when the system is gamma5-Hermitian.

  19. Extending the eigCG algorithm to non-symmetric linear systems with multiple right-hand sides

    SciTech Connect

    Abdou Abdel-Rehim, Kostas Orginos, Andreas Stathopoulos

    2009-11-01

    For Hermitian positive definite linear systems and eigenvalue problems, the eigCG algorithm is a memory efficient algorithm that solves the linear system and simultaneously computes some of its eigenvalues. The algorithm is based on the Conjugate-Gradient (CG) algorithm, however, it uses only a window of the vectors generated by the CG algorithm to compute approximate eigenvalues. The number and accuracy of the eigenvectors can be increased by solving more right-hand sides. For Hermitian systems with multiple right-hand sides, the computed eigenvectors can be used to speed up the solution of subsequent systems. The algorithm was tested on Lattice QCD problems by solving the normal equations and was shown to give large speed up factors and to remove the critical slowing down as we approach light quark masses. Here, an extension to the non-symmetric case based on the two-sided Lanczos algorithm is given. The new algorithm is tested on Lattice QCD problems and is shown to give promising results. We also study the removal of the critical slowing down and compare results with those of the eigCG algorithm. We also discuss the case when the system is gamma5-Hermitian.

  20. Internal pilots for a class of linear mixed models with Gaussian and compound symmetric data.

    PubMed

    Gurka, Matthew J; Coffey, Christopher S; Muller, Keith E

    2007-09-30

    An internal pilot design uses interim sample size analysis, without interim data analysis, to adjust the final number of observations. The approach helps to choose a sample size sufficiently large (to achieve the statistical power desired), but not too large (which would waste money and time). We report on recent research in cerebral vascular tortuosity (curvature in three dimensions) which would benefit greatly from internal pilots due to uncertainty in the parameters of the covariance matrix used for study planning. Unfortunately, observations correlated across the four regions of the brain and small sample sizes preclude using existing methods. However, as in a wide range of medical imaging studies, tortuosity data have no missing or mistimed data, a factorial within-subject design, the same between-subject design for all responses, and a Gaussian distribution with compound symmetry. For such restricted models, we extend exact, small sample univariate methods for internal pilots to linear mixed models with any between-subject design (not just two groups). Planning a new tortuosity study illustrates how the new methods help to avoid sample sizes that are too small or too large while still controlling the type I error rate. PMID:17318914

  1. S-matrix poles for chaotic quantum systems as eigenvalues of complex symmetric random matrices: from isolated to overlapping resonances

    E-print Network

    H. -J. Sommers; Yan V. Fyodorov; M. Titov

    1998-07-09

    We study complex eigenvalues of large $N\\times N$ symmetric random matrices of the form ${\\cal H}=\\hat{H}-i\\hat{\\Gamma}$, where both $\\hat{H}$ and $\\hat{\\Gamma}$ are real symmetric, $\\hat{H}$ is random Gaussian and $\\hat{\\Gamma}$ is such that $NTr \\hat{\\Gamma}^2_2\\sim Tr \\hat{H}_1^2$ when $N\\to \\infty$. When $\\hat{\\Gamma}\\ge 0$ the model can be used to describe the universal statistics of S-matrix poles (resonances) in the complex energy plane. We derive the ensuing distribution of the resonance widths which generalizes the well-known $\\chi^2$ distribution to the case of overlapping resonances. We also consider a different class of "almost real" matrices when $\\hat{\\Gamma}$ is random and uncorrelated with $\\hat{H}$.

  2. Equivalence of a Complex $\\cP\\cT$-Symmetric Quartic Hamiltonian and a Hermitian Quartic Hamiltonian with an Anomaly

    E-print Network

    Carl M. Bender; Dorje C. Brody; Jun-Hua Chen; Hugh F. Jones; Kimball A. Milton; Michael C. Ogilvie

    2006-05-08

    In a recent paper Jones and Mateo used operator techniques to show that the non-Hermitian $\\cP\\cT$-symmetric wrong-sign quartic Hamiltonian $H=\\half p^2-gx^4$ has the same spectrum as the conventional Hermitian Hamiltonian $\\tilde H=\\half p^2+4g x^4-\\sqrt{2g} x$. Here, this equivalence is demonstrated very simply by means of differential-equation techniques and, more importantly, by means of functional-integration techniques. It is shown that the linear term in the Hermitian Hamiltonian is anomalous; that is, this linear term has no classical analog. The anomaly arises because of the broken parity symmetry of the original non-Hermitian $\\cP\\cT$-symmetric Hamiltonian. This anomaly in the Hermitian form of a $\\cP\\cT$-symmetric quartic Hamiltonian is unchanged if a harmonic term is introduced into $H$. When there is a harmonic term, an immediate physical consequence of the anomaly is the appearance of bound states; if there were no anomaly term, there would be no bound states. Possible extensions of this work to $-\\phi^4$ quantum field theory in higher-dimensional space-time are discussed.

  3. Parity-time-symmetric solitons in trapped Bose-Einstein condensates and the influence of varying complex potentials: A variational approach.

    PubMed

    Devassy, Lini; Jisha, Chandroth P; Alberucci, Alessandro; Kuriakose, V C

    2015-08-01

    Dynamics and properties of nonlinear matter waves in a trapped BEC subject to a PT-symmetric linear potential, with the trap in the form of a super-Gaussian potential, are investigated via a variational approach accounting for the complex nature of the soliton. In the process, we address how the shape of the imaginary part of the potential, that is, a gain-loss mechanism, affects the self-localization and the stability of the condensate. Variational results are found to be in good agreement with full numerical simulations for predicting the shape, width, and chemical potential of the condensate until the PT breaking point. Variational computation also predicts the existence of solitary solution only above a threshold in the particle number as the gain-loss is increased, in agreement with numerical simulations. PMID:26382483

  4. Non-linear dynamics for clinicians: chaos theory, fractals, and complexity at the bedside

    E-print Network

    of terms and concepts, such as non-linearity, fractals, periodic oscillations, bifurcations, and complexity the components of a non-linear network interact-ie, they are coupled. Examples include the interaction of abrupt, non-linear transitions is called a bifurcation.1,4 This term describes situations in which a very

  5. Spreading of infectious diseases on complex networks with non-symmetric transmission probabilities

    E-print Network

    Britta Daudert; Bai-Lian Li

    2006-11-23

    We model the spread of a SIS infection on Small World and random networks using weighted graphs. The entry $w_{ij}$ in the weight matrix W holds information about the transmission probability along the edge joining node $v_i$ and node $v_j$. We use the analogy between the spread of a disease on a network and a random walk performed on this network to derive a master equation describing the dynamics of the process. We find conditions under which an epidemic does not break out and investigate numerically the effect of a non-symmetric weight distribution of the initially infected individual on the dynamics of the disease spread.

  6. Symmetric bi-pyridyl banana-shaped molecule and its intermolecular hydrogen bonding liquid-crystalline complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Dan; Hou, Qiufei; Chai, Jia; Ye, Ling; Zhao, Liyan; Li, Min; Jiang, Shimei

    2008-11-01

    A new symmetric bi-pyridyl banana-shaped molecule 1,3-phenylene diisonicotinate (PDI) was designed and synthesized. Its molecular structure was confirmed by FTIR, Elemental analysis and 1H NMR. X-ray crystallographic study reveals that there is an angle of approximate 118° among the centroids of the three rings (pyridyl-phenyl-pyridyl) in each PDI molecule indicating a desired banana shape. In addition, a series of liquid crystal complexes nBA:PDI:nBA induced by intermolecular hydrogen bonding between PDI (proton acceptor) and 4-alkoxybenzoic acids (nBA, proton donor) were synthesized and characterized. The mesomorphism properties and optical textures of the complex of nBA:PDI:nBA were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, polarizing optical microscope and X-ray diffraction.

  7. On the Solutions of Some Linear Complex Quaternionic Equations

    PubMed Central

    ?pek, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Some complex quaternionic equations in the type AX ? XB = C are investigated. For convenience, these equations were called generalized Sylvester-quaternion equations, which include the Sylvester equation as special cases. By the real matrix representations of complex quaternions, the necessary and sufficient conditions for the solvability and the general expressions of the solutions are obtained. PMID:25101318

  8. [Factors modulating ageing and longevity: Linear or more complex relationships?].

    PubMed

    Le Bourg, Éric

    2015-10-01

    It is often accepted that various factors modulate ageing and longevity in a linear way, a higher/lower level of the factor delaying ageing and/or increasing longevity. However, many examples (e.g. the effects of diet restriction or antioxidants and of telomere attrition) show that this view can be wrong. For instance, mild stress has often positive effects on ageing and longevity, and severe stress opposite effects. The dose-response relationship is thus not linear but has an inverted U-shape. Therefore, in many cases, the concept of factors modulating ageing and longevity in a linear way should be rejected, and this has consequences for physicians' guidance. PMID:26358675

  9. Critical coupling and coherent perfect absorption for ranges of energies due to a complex gain and loss symmetric system

    SciTech Connect

    Hasan, Mohammad; Ghatak, Ananya; Mandal, Bhabani Prasad

    2014-05-15

    We consider a non-Hermitian medium with a gain and loss symmetric, exponentially damped potential distribution to demonstrate different scattering features analytically. The condition for critical coupling (CC) for unidirectional wave and coherent perfect absorption (CPA) for bidirectional waves are obtained analytically for this system. The energy points at which total absorption occurs are shown to be the spectral singular points for the time reversed system. The possible energies at which CC occurs for left and right incidence are different. We further obtain periodic intervals with increasing periodicity of energy for CC and CPA to occur in this system. -- Highlights: •Energy ranges for CC and CPA are obtained explicitly for complex WS potential. •Analytical conditions for CC and CPA for PT symmetric WS potential are obtained. •Conditions for left and right CC are shown to be different. •Conditions for CC and CPA are shown to be that of SS for the time reversed system. •Our model shows the great flexibility of frequencies for CC and CPA.

  10. The linear and nonlinear rheology of multiscale complex fluids

    E-print Network

    Jaishankar, Aditya

    2014-01-01

    The microstructures of many complex fluids are typically characterized by a broad distribution of internal length scales. Examples of such multiscale materials include physically and chemically cross-linked gels, emulsions, ...

  11. Active form of the protein kinase CK2 ?2?2 holoenzyme is a strong complex with symmetric architecture.

    PubMed

    Lolli, Graziano; Ranchio, Alessandro; Battistutta, Roberto

    2014-02-21

    CK2 is a protein kinase essential for cell viability whose activity is altered in several cancers. Its mechanisms of regulation differ from those common to other eukaryotic protein kinases and are not entirely established yet. Here we present crystal structures of the monomeric form of the ?2?2 holoenzyme that allow refining a formerly proposed structural model for activity regulation by oligomerization. Previous crystal structures of the CK2 holoenzyme show an asymmetric arrangement of the two ? catalytic subunits around the obligate ?2 regulatory subunits. Asymmetric ?2?2 tetramers are organized in trimeric rings that correspond to inactive forms of the enzyme. The new crystal structures presented here reveal the symmetric architecture of the isolated active tetramers. The dimension and the nature of the ?/? interfaces configure the holoenzyme as a strong complex that does not spontaneously dissociate in solution, in accordance with the low dissociation constant (?4 nM). PMID:24175891

  12. SOD activity and DNA binding properties of a new symmetric porphyrin Schiff base ligand and its metal complexes.

    PubMed

    Çay, Sevim; Köse, Muhammet; Tümer, Ferhan; Gölcü, Ay?egül; Tümer, Mehmet

    2015-12-01

    4-Methoxy-2,6-bis(hydroxymethyl)phenol (1) was prepared from the reaction of 4-methoxyphenol and formaldehyde. The compound (1) was then oxidized to the 4-methoxy-2,6-diformylphenol (2) compound. Molecular structure of compound (2) was determined by X-ray diffraction method. A new symmetric porphyrin Schiff base ligand 4-methoxy-2,6-bis[5-(4-iminophenyl)-10,15,20-triphenylporphyrin]phenol (L) was prepared from the reaction of the 5-(4-aminophenyl)-10,15,20-triphenylporphyrin (TTP-NH2) and the compound (2) in the toluene solution. The metal complexes (Cu(II), Fe(III), Mn(III), Pt(II) and Zn(II)) of the ligand (L) were synthesized and characterized by the spectroscopic and analytical methods. The DNA (fish sperm FSdsDNA) binding studies of the ligand and its complexes were performed using UV-vis spectroscopy. Additionally, superoxide dismutase activities of the porphyrin Schiff base metal complexes were investigated. Additionally, electrochemical, photoluminescence and thermal properties of the compounds were investigated. PMID:26172470

  13. Evaluation of out-of-core computer programs for the solution of symmetric banded linear equations. [simultaneous equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, R. S.

    1976-01-01

    FORTRAN coded out-of-core equation solvers that solve using direct methods symmetric banded systems of simultaneous algebraic equations. Banded, frontal and column (skyline) solvers were studied as well as solvers that can partition the working area and thus could fit into any available core. Comparison timings are presented for several typical two dimensional and three dimensional continuum type grids of elements with and without midside nodes. Extensive conclusions are also given.

  14. Morse-Smale Complexes for Piecewise Linear 3-Manifolds Herbert Edelsbrunner

    E-print Network

    Edelsbrunner, Herbert

    Morse-Smale Complexes for Piecewise Linear 3-Manifolds Herbert Edelsbrunner ¡ John Harer ¢ , Vijay Natarajan £ and Valerio Pascucci ¤ Abstract We define the Morse-Smale complex of a Morse function. Keywords. Computational geometry and topology, Morse theory, densities, triangulations, combinatorial

  15. Morse-Smale Complexes for Piecewise Linear 3-Manifolds Herbert Edelsbrunner

    E-print Network

    Pascucci, Valerio

    Morse-Smale Complexes for Piecewise Linear 3-Manifolds £ Herbert EdelsbrunnerÝ John Harer� , Vijay Natarajan� and Valerio Pascucci� Abstract We define the Morse-Smale complex of a Morse function over a 3. Keywords. Computational geometry and topology, Morse theory, densities, triangulations, combinatorial

  16. Stability of the complex symmetric Lanczos algorithm for computing photodissociation cross sections using smooth exterior scaling or absorbing potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlsson, Hans O.

    2009-06-01

    The stability of the Lanczos algorithm for computing photodissociation cross sections is studied. The system is discretized on a grid and the discrete variable representation (DVR) is used to represent system operators. The Hamiltonian is augmented with an absorbing potential (AP) or smooth exterior scaling (SES), to enforce outgoing boundary conditions, making it complex symmetric. The main difference between the AP and the SES is that the former adds to the potential energy whereas the latter modifies the kinetic energy operator. Grozdanov et al (2004 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 31 173) observed the fact that the Lanczos recursions could slow down and even stagnate for certain choices of parameters in the AP or SES. Here we show that for the SES, it is important that the maximum kinetic energy of the DVR is adapted to the physical problem or else the Lanczos recursions might be unstable. A similar result was found for the AP; that is, the Lanczos algorithm in order to converge the strength of the absorbing potential should be of the order of the scattering energy of interest. It is shown that with a discretization adopted to the physical problem at hand and a proper choice of parameters, the Lanczos recursions converge and provide accurate results for both the absorbing potential and the smooth exterior scaling.

  17. Some comparisons of complexity in dictionary-based and linear computational models.

    PubMed

    Gnecco, Giorgio; K?rková, V?ra; Sanguineti, Marcello

    2011-03-01

    Neural networks provide a more flexible approximation of functions than traditional linear regression. In the latter, one can only adjust the coefficients in linear combinations of fixed sets of functions, such as orthogonal polynomials or Hermite functions, while for neural networks, one may also adjust the parameters of the functions which are being combined. However, some useful properties of linear approximators (such as uniqueness, homogeneity, and continuity of best approximation operators) are not satisfied by neural networks. Moreover, optimization of parameters in neural networks becomes more difficult than in linear regression. Experimental results suggest that these drawbacks of neural networks are offset by substantially lower model complexity, allowing accuracy of approximation even in high-dimensional cases. We give some theoretical results comparing requirements on model complexity for two types of approximators, the traditional linear ones and so called variable-basis types, which include neural networks, radial, and kernel models. We compare upper bounds on worst-case errors in variable-basis approximation with lower bounds on such errors for any linear approximator. Using methods from nonlinear approximation and integral representations tailored to computational units, we describe some cases where neural networks outperform any linear approximator. PMID:21094023

  18. Almost Linear Complexity Methods for Delay-Doppler Channel Alexander Fish and Shamgar Gurevich

    E-print Network

    Sydney, University of

    provide a striking improvement over current methods in the presence of a substantial Doppler effect1 Almost Linear Complexity Methods for Delay-Doppler Channel Estimation Alexander Fish and Shamgar of delay-Doppler channel, i.e., a signal undergoes only delay and Doppler shifts, a widely used method

  19. Local Genealogies in a Linear Mixed Model for Genome-Wide Association Mapping in Complex

    E-print Network

    Schierup, Mikkel Heide

    Local Genealogies in a Linear Mixed Model for Genome-Wide Association Mapping in Complex Pedigreed fashion. Here, we present a complementary approach, called `GENMIX (genealogy based mixed model)' which combines advantages from two powerful GWAS methods: genealogy-based haplotype grouping and MMA. Subjects

  20. A numerical study of the Schrodinger-Newton equation 1: Perturbing the spherically-symmetric stationary states

    E-print Network

    R. Harrison; I. Moroz; K. P. Tod

    2002-08-30

    We consider the linear stability of the spherically-symmetric stationary solutions of the Schrodinger-Newton equations. We find that the ground state is linearly stable, with only imaginary eigenvalues, while the n-th excited state has n quadruples of complex eigenvalues as well as purely imaginary ones and so is linearly unstable.

  1. PT-symmetric strings

    SciTech Connect

    Amore, Paolo; Fernández, Francisco M.; Garcia, Javier; Gutierrez, German

    2014-04-15

    We study both analytically and numerically the spectrum of inhomogeneous strings with PT-symmetric density. We discuss an exactly solvable model of PT-symmetric string which is isospectral to the uniform string; for more general strings, we calculate exactly the sum rules Z(p)??{sub n=1}{sup ?}1/E{sub n}{sup p}, with p=1,2,… and find explicit expressions which can be used to obtain bounds on the lowest eigenvalue. A detailed numerical calculation is carried out for two non-solvable models depending on a parameter, obtaining precise estimates of the critical values where pair of real eigenvalues become complex. -- Highlights: •PT-symmetric Hamiltonians exhibit real eigenvalues when PT symmetry is unbroken. •We study PT-symmetric strings with complex density. •They exhibit regions of unbroken PT symmetry. •We calculate the critical parameters at the boundaries of those regions. •There are exact real sum rules for some particular complex densities.

  2. Generalized Vibrational Perturbation Theory for Rotovibrational Energies of Linear, Symmetric and Asymmetric Tops: Theory, Approximations, and Automated Approaches to Deal with Medium-to-Large Molecular Systems

    PubMed Central

    Piccardo, Matteo; Bloino, Julien; Barone, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Models going beyond the rigid-rotor and the harmonic oscillator levels are mandatory for providing accurate theoretical predictions for several spectroscopic properties. Different strategies have been devised for this purpose. Among them, the treatment by perturbation theory of the molecular Hamiltonian after its expansion in power series of products of vibrational and rotational operators, also referred to as vibrational perturbation theory (VPT), is particularly appealing for its computational efficiency to treat medium-to-large systems. Moreover, generalized (GVPT) strategies combining the use of perturbative and variational formalisms can be adopted to further improve the accuracy of the results, with the first approach used for weakly coupled terms, and the second one to handle tightly coupled ones. In this context, the GVPT formulation for asymmetric, symmetric, and linear tops is revisited and fully generalized to both minima and first-order saddle points of the molecular potential energy surface. The computational strategies and approximations that can be adopted in dealing with GVPT computations are pointed out, with a particular attention devoted to the treatment of symmetry and degeneracies. A number of tests and applications are discussed, to show the possibilities of the developments, as regards both the variety of treatable systems and eligible methods. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26345131

  3. Infrared diode laser spectroscopy of O2—N2O van der Waals complex in the ?1 symmetric stretch region of N2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Song; Zheng, Rui; Duan, Chuan-Xi

    2014-12-01

    The rovibrational spectrum of O2—N2O van der Waals complex is measured in the ?1 symmetric stretch region of N2O monomer using a tunable diode laser spectrometer. The complex is generated by a slit-pulsed supersonic expansion with gas mixtures of O2, N2O, and He. Both a- and b-type transitions are observed. The effective Hamiltonian for an open-shell complex consisting of a diatomic molecule in a 3? electronic state and a closed-shell partner is used to analyze the observed spectrum. Molecular constants in the vibrationally excited state are determined accurately. The band-origin of the spectrum is determined to be 1284.7504(25) cm-1, red-shifted from that of the N2O monomer by ~ 0.1529 cm-1.

  4. Synthesis, spectral characterization, DNA binding ability and antibacterial screening of copper(II) complexes of symmetrical NOON tetradentate Schiff bases bearing different bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahaffi, Saleh O.; Abdel Aziz, Ayman A.; El-Naggar, Maher M.

    2012-08-01

    A novel series of four copper(II) complexes were synthesized by thermal reaction of copper acetate salt with symmetrical tetradentate Schiff bases, N,N'bis(o-vanillin)4,5-dimethyl-l,2-phenylenediamine (H2L1), N,N'bis(salicylaldehyde)4,5-dimethyl-1,2-phenylenediamine (H2L2), N,N'bis(o-vanillin)4,5-dichloro-1,2-phenylenediamine (H2L3) and N,N'bis(salicylaldehyde)4,5-dichloro-1,2-phenylenediamine (H2L4), respectively. All the new synthesized complexes were characterized by using of microanalysis, FT-IR, UV-Vis, magnetic measurements, ESR, and conductance measurements, respectively. The data revealed that all the Schiff bases (H2L1-4) coordinate in their deprotonated forms and behave as tetradentate NOON coordinated ligands. Moreover, their copper(II) complexes have square planar geometry with general formula [CuL1-4]. The binding of the complexes with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was investigated by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, fluorescence quenching and viscosity measurements. The results indicated that the complexes bind to CT-DNA through an intercalative mode. From the biological activity view, the copper(II) complexes and their parent ligands were screened for their in vitro antibacterial activity against the bacterial species Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosai by well diffusion method. The complexes showed an increased activity in comparison to some standard drugs.

  5. Surface chemistry of the linear chromium chain complex on GaN(0001)

    SciTech Connect

    Lung, C.-H.; Peng, S.-M.; Chang, C.-C.

    2004-09-01

    Better understanding about the chemistry of the organometallic chain complexes reacting on the solid surface can foster concepts of nanowire fabrication which are central to the continued advance of the electronic and optoelectronic industries. In this study, the adsorption and thermal reactivity of a trinuclear chromium chain complex, tetrakis (2,2{sup '}-dipyridylamino)chromium(VI) chloride, on the GaN(0001) surface were investigated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, temperature-programmed desorption, and static secondary ion mass spectrometry in order to obtain some insight into the bonding changes involved in the reaction of the linear metal chain complex on the compound semiconductor surface. One of the two terminal Cr-Cl bonds of the complex may be cleaved upon adsorption at 110 K, leading to the formation of the Ga-Cl bonds on the surface, although some complexes remained intact upon adsorption and bonded strongly to the surface. No ligand was dissociated from the chromium chain complex during the adsorption. The Cl-cleaved complex residue preserved its original chemical configuration. Both the Cl-cleaved and the intact complexes in the first layer were stable on the surface in the substrate temperature range between 110 and 260 K. A partial decomposition in which some ligands were dissociated from the adsorbed complex took place before the substrate temperature reaching 400 K. Additional Cr-Cl bonds were disrupted, resulting in a larger population of Ga-Cl bonds on the surface. Further thermal reaction at higher temperatures led to the dominance of the Ga-Cl bonding for the Cl presence on the surface. Surface etching of Ga by the dissociated Cl atoms started at a substrate temperature of {approx}525 K and the etching rate reached its maximum at {approx}590 K.

  6. Gliotoxin suppresses NF-?B activation by selectively inhibiting linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC).

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Hiroki; Egashira, Shinichiro; Saito, Nae; Kirisako, Takayoshi; Miller, Simon; Sasaki, Yoshiteru; Matsumoto, Tadahiko; Shimonishi, Manabu; Komatsu, Toru; Terai, Takuya; Ueno, Tasuku; Hanaoka, Kenjiro; Kojima, Hirotatsu; Okabe, Takayoshi; Wakatsuki, Soichi; Iwai, Kazuhiro; Nagano, Tetsuo

    2015-03-20

    A linear ubiquitin chain, which consists of ubiquitin molecules linked via their N- and C-termini, is formed by a linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC) composed of HOIP, HOIL-1L, and SHARPIN, and conjugation of a linear ubiquitin chain on the NF-?B essential modulator (NEMO) is deeply involved in NF-?B activation induced by various signals. Since abnormal activation of NF-?B is associated with inflammatory disease and malignancy, we searched for an inhibitor of LUBAC by high-throughput screening (HTS) with a Tb(3+)-fluorescein FRET system. As a result, we found that the fungal metabolite gliotoxin inhibits LUBAC selectively by binding to the RING-IBR-RING domain of HOIP, the catalytic center of LUBAC. Gliotoxin has been well-known as an inhibitor of NF-?B activation, though its action mechanism has remained elusive. Here, we show that gliotoxin inhibits signal-induced NF-?B activation by selectively inhibiting LUBAC-mediated linear ubiquitin chain formation. PMID:25494483

  7. Up-converted fluorescence from photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes linearly dependent on excitation intensity.

    PubMed

    Leiger, Kristjan; Freiberg, Arvi

    2016-01-01

    Weak up-converted fluorescence related to bacteriochlorophyll a was recorded from various detergent-isolated and membrane-embedded light-harvesting pigment-protein complexes as well as from the functional membranes of photosynthetic purple bacteria under continuous-wave infrared laser excitation at 1064 nm, far outside the optically allowed singlet absorption bands of the chromophore. The fluorescence increases linearly with the excitation power, distinguishing it from the previously observed two-photon excited fluorescence upon femtosecond pulse excitation. Possible mechanisms of this excitation are discussed. PMID:25764015

  8. Linear Superposition and Prediction of Bacterial Promoter Activity Dynamics in Complex Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rothschild, Daphna; Dekel, Erez; Hausser, Jean; Bren, Anat; Aidelberg, Guy; Szekely, Pablo; Alon, Uri

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria often face complex environments. We asked how gene expression in complex conditions relates to expression in simpler conditions. To address this, we obtained accurate promoter activity dynamical measurements on 94 genes in E. coli in environments made up of all possible combinations of four nutrients and stresses. We find that the dynamics across conditions is well described by two principal component curves specific to each promoter. As a result, the promoter activity dynamics in a combination of conditions is a weighted average of the dynamics in each condition alone. The weights tend to sum up to approximately one. This weighted-average property, called linear superposition, allows predicting the promoter activity dynamics in a combination of conditions based on measurements of pairs of conditions. If these findings apply more generally, they can vastly reduce the number of experiments needed to understand how E. coli responds to the combinatorially huge space of possible environments. PMID:24809350

  9. Essential Role of the Linear Ubiquitin Chain Assembly Complex in Lymphoma Revealed by Rare Germline Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yibin; Schmitz, Roland; Mitala, Joseph; Whiting, Amanda; Xiao, Wenming; Ceribelli, Michele; Wright, George W.; Zhao, Hong; Yang, Yandan; Xu, Weihong; Rosenwald, Andreas; Ott, German; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Connors, Joseph M.; Rimsza, Lisa M.; Campo, Elias; Jaffe, Elaine S.; Delabie, Jan; Smeland, Erlend B.; Braziel, Rita M.; Tubbs, Raymond R.; Cook, James. R.; Weisenburger, Dennis D.; Chan, Wing C.; Wiestner, Adrian; Kruhlak, Michael J.; Iwai, Kazuhiro; Bernal, Federico; Staudt, Louis M.

    2014-01-01

    Constitutive activation of NF-?B is a hallmark of the activated B cell-like (ABC) subtype of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), owing to upstream signals from the B cell receptor (BCR) and MyD88 pathways. The linear polyubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC) attaches linear polyubiquitin chains to I?B kinase ?, a necessary event in some pathways that engage NF-?B. Two germ line polymorphisms affecting the LUBAC subunit RNF31 are rare among healthy individuals (~1%) but enriched in ABC DLBCL (7.8%). These polymorphisms alter RNF31 ? helices that mediate binding to the LUBAC subunit RBCK1, thereby increasing RNF31-RBCK1 association, LUBAC enzymatic activity, and NF-?B engagement. In the BCR pathway, LUBAC associates with the CARD11/MALT1/BCL10 adapter complex and is required for ABC DLBCL viability. A stapled RNF31 ?-helical peptide based on the ABC DLBCL-associated Q622L polymorphism inhibited RFN31-RBCK1 binding, decreased NF-?B and killed ABC DLBCL cells, credentialing this protein-protein interface as a therapeutic target. PMID:24491438

  10. Distress propagation in complex networks: the case of non-linear DebtRank

    E-print Network

    Bardoscia, Marco; Perotti, Juan Ignacio; Vivaldo, Gianna; Caldarelli, Guido

    2015-01-01

    We consider a dynamical model of distress propagation on complex networks, which we apply to the study of financial contagion in networks of banks connected to each other by direct exposures. The model that we consider is an extension of the DebtRank algorithm, recently introduced in the literature. The mechanics of distress propagation is very simple: When a bank suffers a loss, distress propagates to its creditors, who in turn suffer losses, and so on. The original DebtRank assumes that losses are propagated linearly between connected banks. Here we relax this assumption and introduce a one-parameter family of non-linear propagation functions. As a case study, we apply this algorithm to a data-set of 183 European banks, and we study how the stability of the system depends on the non-linearity parameter under different stress-test scenarios. We find that the system is characterized by a transition between a regime where small shocks can be amplified and a regime where shocks do not propagate, and that the ov...

  11. Nonlinear {PT}-symmetric plaquettes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kai; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Malomed, Boris A.; Günther, Uwe

    2012-11-01

    We introduce four basic two-dimensional (2D) plaquette configurations with onsite cubic nonlinearities, which may be used as building blocks for 2D {PT}-symmetric lattices. For each configuration, we develop a dynamical model and examine its {P} {T}symmetry. The corresponding nonlinear modes are analyzed starting from the Hamiltonian limit, with zero value of the gain-loss coefficient, ?. Once the relevant waveforms have been identified (chiefly, in an analytical form), their stability is examined by means of linearization in the vicinity of stationary points. This reveals diverse and, occasionally, fairly complex bifurcations. The evolution of unstable modes is explored by means of direct simulations. In particular, stable localized modes are found in these systems, although the majority of identified solutions are unstable. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Quantum physics with non-Hermitian operators’.

  12. Linear assembly of a porphyrin-C60 complex confined in vertical nanocylinders of amphiphilic block copolymer films.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Takuya; Komura, Motonori; Komiyama, Hideaki; Iyoda, Tomokazu; Tani, Fumito

    2015-01-31

    Linear assemblies of a 1?:?1 porphyrin-fullerene C60 complex were formed in vertical cylindrical polyether nanodomains of amphiphilic block copolymer films by a simple spin coating-annealing method. The nanocylinder structures were retained even with high contents of the complex in the polymer films. PMID:25512950

  13. Mixed Linear Model Approaches of Association Mapping for Complex Traits Based on Omics Variants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fu-Tao; Zhu, Zhi-Hong; Tong, Xiao-Ran; Zhu, Zhi-Xiang; Qi, Ting; Zhu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Precise prediction for genetic architecture of complex traits is impeded by the limited understanding on genetic effects of complex traits, especially on gene-by-gene (GxG) and gene-by-environment (GxE) interaction. In the past decades, an explosion of high throughput technologies enables omics studies at multiple levels (such as genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics). The analyses of large omics data, especially two-loci interaction analysis, are very time intensive. Integrating the diverse omics data and environmental effects in the analyses also remain challenges. We proposed mixed linear model approaches using GPU (Graphic Processing Unit) computation to simultaneously dissect various genetic effects. Analyses can be performed for estimating genetic main effects, GxG epistasis effects, and GxE environment interaction effects on large-scale omics data for complex traits, and for estimating heritability of specific genetic effects. Both mouse data analyses and Monte Carlo simulations demonstrated that genetic effects and environment interaction effects could be unbiasedly estimated with high statistical power by using the proposed approaches. PMID:26223539

  14. Waste management under multiple complexities: Inexact piecewise-linearization-based fuzzy flexible programming

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Wei; Huang, Guo H.; Lv Ying; Li Gongchen

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inexact piecewise-linearization-based fuzzy flexible programming is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It's the first application to waste management under multiple complexities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It tackles nonlinear economies-of-scale effects in interval-parameter constraints. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It estimates costs more accurately than the linear-regression-based model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Uncertainties are decreased and more satisfactory interval solutions are obtained. - Abstract: To tackle nonlinear economies-of-scale (EOS) effects in interval-parameter constraints for a representative waste management problem, an inexact piecewise-linearization-based fuzzy flexible programming (IPFP) model is developed. In IPFP, interval parameters for waste amounts and transportation/operation costs can be quantified; aspiration levels for net system costs, as well as tolerance intervals for both capacities of waste treatment facilities and waste generation rates can be reflected; and the nonlinear EOS effects transformed from objective function to constraints can be approximated. An interactive algorithm is proposed for solving the IPFP model, which in nature is an interval-parameter mixed-integer quadratically constrained programming model. To demonstrate the IPFP's advantages, two alternative models are developed to compare their performances. One is a conventional linear-regression-based inexact fuzzy programming model (IPFP2) and the other is an IPFP model with all right-hand-sides of fussy constraints being the corresponding interval numbers (IPFP3). The comparison results between IPFP and IPFP2 indicate that the optimized waste amounts would have the similar patterns in both models. However, when dealing with EOS effects in constraints, the IPFP2 may underestimate the net system costs while the IPFP can estimate the costs more accurately. The comparison results between IPFP and IPFP3 indicate that their solutions would be significantly different. The decreased system uncertainties in IPFP's solutions demonstrate its effectiveness for providing more satisfactory interval solutions than IPFP3. Following its first application to waste management, the IPFP can be potentially applied to other environmental problems under multiple complexities.

  15. Modelling the Burstiness of Complex Space Plasmas Using Linear Fractional Stable Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, N. W.; Rosenberg, S. J.; Chapman, S. C.; Sanchez, R.; Credgington, D.

    2009-12-01

    The Earth's magnetosphere is quite clearly “complex" in the everyday sense of the word. However, in the last 15 to 20 years there has been a growing thread in space physics (e.g. Freeman & Watkins [Science, 2002] , Chapman & Watkins [Space Science Reviews, 2001]) using and developing some of the emerging science of complex systems (e.g. Sornette, 2nd Edition, 2004). A particularly well-studied set of system properties has been derived from those used in the study of critical phenomena, notably correlation functions, power spectra, distributions of bursts above a threshold, and so on (e.g. Watkins [Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics, 2002]). These have revealed behaviours familiar from many other complex systems, such as burstiness, long range dependence, heavy tailed probability distributions and so forth. The results of these studies are typically interpreted within existing paradigms, most notably self-organised criticality. However, just as in other developing areas of complexity science (Sornette, op. cit.; Watkins & Freeman [Science, 2008]), it is increasingly being realised that the diagnostics in use have not been extensively studied outside the context in which they were originally proposed. This means that, for example, it is not well established what the expected distribution of bursts above a fixed threshold will be for time series other than Brownian (or fractional Brownian) motion. We will describe some preliminary investigations (Watkins et al [Physical Review E, 2009]) into the burst distribution problem, using Linear Fractional Stable Motion as a controllable toy model of a process exhibiting both long-range dependence and heavy tails. A by product of the work was a differential equation for LFSM (Watkins et al, op cit), which we also briefly discuss. Current and future work will also focus on the thorny problem of distinguishing turbulence from SOC in natural datasets (Watkins et al; Uritsky et al [Physical Review Letters, 2009]) with limited dynamic range, an area which will also be briefly discussed.

  16. Preparation, linear and NLO properties of DNA-CTMA-SBE complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manea, Ana-Maria; Rau, Ileana; Kajzar, Francois; Meghea, Aurelia

    2013-10-01

    Synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) - was cetyltrimethylammonium (CTMA) - sea buckthorn extract (SBE) at different concentrations is decribed. The complexes were processed into good optical quality thin films by spin coating on different substrates such as: glass, silica and ITO covered glass substrates. SBE contains many bioactive substances that can be used in the treatment of several diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, and acute mountain sickness. The obtained thin films were characterized for their spectroscopic, fluorescent, linear and nonlinear optical properties as function of SBE concentration. The third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of thin films were determined by the optical third-harmonic generation technique at 1 064.2 nm fundamental wavelength.

  17. Linear-algebraic bath transformation for simulating complex open quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Joonsuk; Mostame, Sarah; Fujita, Takatoshi; Yung, Man-Hong; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2014-12-01

    In studying open quantum systems, the environment is often approximated as a collection of non-interacting harmonic oscillators, a configuration also known as the star-bath model. It is also well known that the star-bath can be transformed into a nearest-neighbor interacting chain of oscillators. The chain-bath model has been widely used in renormalization group approaches. The transformation can be obtained by recursion relations or orthogonal polynomials. Based on a simple linear algebraic approach, we propose a bath partition strategy to reduce the system-bath coupling strength. As a result, the non-interacting star-bath is transformed into a set of weakly coupled multiple parallel chains. The transformed bath model allows complex problems to be practically implemented on quantum simulators, and it can also be employed in various numerical simulations of open quantum dynamics.

  18. FORTRAN subroutines for out-of-core solutions of large complex linear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yip, E. L.

    1979-01-01

    The design and usage of two main subprograms using direct methods to solve large linear complex systems, of the form Ax = b, whose coeffficient matrices are too large to be stored in core are described. The first main subprogram is for systems whose coefficient matrices are of a particular sparse structure, namely, the matrix A can be written in the form B + D, where B is a block-banded system, and D has only a few columns of nonzeros. Key elements of the algorithms used in the subprograms include: the data structure, the strategy for preserving numerical stability, the adaptability of the algorithms for dense systems as well as for block-profile systems.

  19. Massive parallelization of serial inference algorithms for a complex generalized linear model

    PubMed Central

    Suchard, Marc A.; Simpson, Shawn E.; Zorych, Ivan; Ryan, Patrick; Madigan, David

    2014-01-01

    Following a series of high-profile drug safety disasters in recent years, many countries are redoubling their efforts to ensure the safety of licensed medical products. Large-scale observational databases such as claims databases or electronic health record systems are attracting particular attention in this regard, but present significant methodological and computational concerns. In this paper we show how high-performance statistical computation, including graphics processing units, relatively inexpensive highly parallel computing devices, can enable complex methods in large databases. We focus on optimization and massive parallelization of cyclic coordinate descent approaches to fit a conditioned generalized linear model involving tens of millions of observations and thousands of predictors in a Bayesian context. We find orders-of-magnitude improvement in overall run-time. Coordinate descent approaches are ubiquitous in high-dimensional statistics and the algorithms we propose open up exciting new methodological possibilities with the potential to significantly improve drug safety. PMID:25328363

  20. Solitons supported by two-dimensional mixed linear-nonlinear complex optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Xiaoping; Wang, Hong; Li, Zhen; Wang, Hongcheng

    2015-12-01

    The evolution of solitons in the two-dimensional mixed linear-nonlinear complex optical lattices is investigated. It is found that the nonlinearity-modulation depth plays a significant role on the existence of solitons. Both the nonlinearity-modulation depth and amplitude of the imaginary part of nonlinear lattice have a great effect on the stability of solitons. Moreover, the period of nonlinear lattice can influence the properties of solitons dramatically. In addition, we also study the mobility of solitons and find that the soliton can maintain its original shape while the mass center of solitons will oscillate periodically in a certain tilt angle range. However, if the tilt angle is large enough, the soliton will be distorted and its mass center oscillates irregularly.

  1. 1. Mono([8]annulene)Uranium(4) half-sandwich complexes, 2. Novel syntheses of symmetrically substituted cyclooctatetetraenes

    SciTech Connect

    Boussie, T.R.

    1991-10-01

    A reproducible, high-yield synthesis of mono([8]annulene)uranium(4)dichloride (1) is reported, along with the X-ray crystal structural of the bis(pyridine) adduct. Metathesis reactions of the half-sandwich complex 1 with a variety of simple alkyl and alkoxy reagents failed to generate any isolable mono-ring complexes. Reactions of 1 with polydentate, delocalized anions did produce stable derivatives, including mono([8]annulene)uranium(4)bis(acetylacetonate) (4). An X-ray crystal structure of 4 is reported.

  2. 1. Mono((8)annulene)Uranium(4) half-sandwich complexes, 2. Novel syntheses of symmetrically substituted cyclooctatetetraenes

    SciTech Connect

    Boussie, T.R.

    1991-10-01

    A reproducible, high-yield synthesis of mono((8)annulene)uranium(4)dichloride (1) is reported, along with the X-ray crystal structural of the bis(pyridine) adduct. Metathesis reactions of the half-sandwich complex 1 with a variety of simple alkyl and alkoxy reagents failed to generate any isolable mono-ring complexes. Reactions of 1 with polydentate, delocalized anions did produce stable derivatives, including mono((8)annulene)uranium(4)bis(acetylacetonate) (4). An X-ray crystal structure of 4 is reported.

  3. Slow magnetic relaxation of light lanthanide-based linear LnZn2 trinuclear complexes.

    PubMed

    Takehara, Chika; Then, Poh Ling; Kataoka, Yumiko; Nakano, Motohiro; Yamamura, Tomoo; Kajiwara, Takashi

    2015-11-01

    Four isostructural LnZn2 trinuclear complexes, [Ln(NO3){Zn(L)(SCN)}2] (H2L is a Schiff base ligand derived from o-vanillin and ethylenediamine), were synthesized, which include light lanthanide ions as spin carriers (Ln = Ce 1, Pr 2, Nd 3, and Sm 4). These complexes involve a linear Zn(ii)-Ln(iii)-Zn(ii) array, which leads to an axially stressed ligand field and can also cause single-moleluce magnet (SMM) behavior in oblate-type electronic distributions of ground sublevels found in Ce(iii), Pr(iii), and Nd(iii). Slow magnetic relaxation behavior was observed in 1 and 3 under an applied bias dc field of 1000 Oe, whereas such a slow relaxation was not observed in 2 and 4. The appearance of field-induced SMM behavior in 1 and 3 was correlated with the even-numbered Jz sublevels of Ce(iii) and Nd(iii) ions known as the Kramers system. PMID:26435181

  4. Synthesis and characterization of a series of transition metal complexes with a new symmetrical polyoxaaza macroacyclic Schiff base ligand: X-ray crystal structure of cobalt(II) and nickel(II) complexes and their antibacterial properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keypour, Hassan; Shayesteh, Maryam; Rezaeivala, Majid; Chalabian, Firoozeh; Valencia, Laura

    2013-01-01

    A new symmetrical [N4O2] hexadentate Schiff base ligand, (E)-N-(pyridin-2-ylmethylene)-2-(3-(2-((E)-pyridin-2-lmethyleneamino)phenoxy)naphthalen-2-yloxy)benzenamine, abbreviated to L, and its complexes of Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Co(II), Cd(II) and Mn(II) have been synthesized in the presence of metal ions. The complexes were structurally characterized by elemental analyses, IR, UV-Vis, NMR and molar conductivity. The crystal structures of two complexes, [NiL(ONO2)2]·2H2O and [CoLCl2]CH3OH·0.5H2O, have been determined by a single crystal X-ray diffraction study. In these complexes, the ligand is coordinated in a neutral form via pyridine and azomethine nitrogen atoms. The metal ions complete their six coordination with two coordinated nitrate or chloride ions, forming a distorted octahedral geometry. The synthesized compounds have antibacterial activity against the three Gram-positive bacteria: Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus epid and also against the three Gram-negative bacteria: Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter aerogenes and Salmonella typhi. The activity data show that the complexes are more potent antibacterials than the parent Schiff base.

  5. Symmetric Skyrmions

    SciTech Connect

    Battye, R.A.; Sutcliffe, P.M.

    1997-07-01

    We present candidates for the global minimum energy solitons of charge 5 to 9 in the Skyrme model generated using sophisticated numerical algorithms. The solitons found are particularly symmetric; for example, the charge seven skyrmion has icosahedral symmetry, and the shapes are shown to fit a remarkable sequence defined by a geometric energy minimization (GEM) rule. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  6. Theoretical investigation on switchable second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of novel cyclopentadienylcobalt linear [4]phenylene complexes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Yong; Du, Xiao-Feng; Ma, Na-Na; Sun, Shi-Ling; Qiu, Yong-Qing

    2013-04-01

    As a kind of novel organometallic complexes, the cyclopentadienylcobalt (CpCo) linear [4]phenylene complexes (4 = number of benzene rings) display efficient switchable nonlinear optical (NLO) response when CpCo reversibly migrates along the linear [4]phenylene triggered by heating or lighting. In this paper, the second-order NLO properties for CpCo linear [4]phenylene complexes were calculated by using the density functional theory (DFT) methods with four functionals. All of the functionals yield the same order of ? tot values: 1<2<4<3. The effect of solvent on second-order NLO properties has been studied using polarized continuum model (PCM) in the tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution. The solvent leads to a slight enhancement of the NLO responses for the studied complexes relevant to their NLO responses in vacuo. The electronic absorption spectra were investigated by the TDDFT methods. The TDDFT calculations indicate that the maximum absorption peaks of complexes 2-4 in the near-infrared spectrum area show the bathochromic shift together with a decreasing intensity compared to complex 1. We have also found that the cobalt (Co) atom acts as a donor in all the organometallic complexes and the d ? ?* and ? ? ?* charge transfer (CT) transitions contribute to the enhancement of second-order NLO response. Furthermore, two experimentally existing complexes 1 and 3 are found to have a large difference in ? tot values. It is our expectation that this difference may stimulate the search for a new type of switchable NLO material based on CpCo linear [4]phenylene complexes. PMID:23306734

  7. Crystallization and structure determination of a symmetrical ‘football’ complex of the mammalian mitochondrial Hsp60–Hsp10 chaperonins

    PubMed Central

    Nisemblat, Shahar; Parnas, Avital; Yaniv, Oren; Azem, Abdussalam; Frolow, Felix

    2014-01-01

    The mitochondrial Hsp60–Hsp10 complex assists the folding of various proteins impelled by ATP hydrolysis, similar to the bacterial chaperonins GroEL and GroES. The near-atomic structural details of the mitochondrial chaperonins are not known, despite the fact that almost two decades have passed since the structures of the bacterial chaperonins became available. Here, the crystallization procedure, diffraction experiments and structure determination by molecular replacement of the mammalian mitochondrial chaperonin HSP60 (E321K mutant) and its co-chaperonin Hsp10 are reported. PMID:24419632

  8. Uranium-nitrogen multiple bonding: isostructural anionic, neutral, and cationic uranium nitride complexes featuring a linear U=N=U core.

    PubMed

    Fox, Alexander R; Arnold, Polly L; Cummins, Christopher C

    2010-03-17

    Reaction of the uranium(III) tris(anilide) complex (THF)U(N[t-Bu]Ar)(3) (1, THF = tetrahydrofuran; Ar = 3,5-Me(2)C(6)H(3)) with MN(3) (M = Na, [N(n-Bu)(4)]) results in the formation of the bimetallic diuranium(IV/IV) complexes M[(mu-N)(U(N[t-Bu]Ar)(3))(2)] (M[3]), which feature a single nitride ligand engaged as a linear, symmetric bridge between two uranium centers. The stability of the U=N=U core across multiple charge states is illustrated by stepwise chemical oxidation of Na[3] to the diuranium(IV/V) complex (mu-N)(U(N[t-Bu]Ar)(3))(2) (3) and the diuranium(V/V) complex [(mu-N)(U(N[t-Bu]Ar)(3))(2)][B(Ar(F))(4)] {[3][B(Ar(F))(4)]; Ar(F) = 3,5-(CF(3))(2)C(6)H(3)}. M[3], 3, and [3][B(Ar(F))(4)] were characterized by NMR spectroscopy, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and elemental analysis. The cyclic voltammogram of 3 reveals two clean, reversible one-electron electrochemical events at E(1/2) = -1.69 and -0.67 V, assigned to the [3](-)/3 and 3/[3](+) redox couples, respectively. The X-ray crystal structures of [N(n-Bu)(4)][3], 3, and [3][B(Ar(F))(4)] reveal a linear U=N=U core that contracts by only approximately 0.03 A across the [3](n) (n = -1, 0, +1) series, an effect that is rationalized as being primarily electrostatic in origin. [3][B(Ar(F))(4)] reacts with NaCN, eliminating Na[B(Ar(F))(4)] and forming the known diuranium(IV/IV) cyanoimide complex (mu-NCN)(U(N[t-Bu]Ar)(3))(2), suggesting that the U=N=U core has metallonitrene-like character. PMID:20178384

  9. T-Matrix Modeling of Linear Depolarization by Morphologically Complex Soot and Soot-Containing Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Liu, Li; Mackowski, Daniel W.

    2013-01-01

    We use state-of-the-art public-domain Fortran codes based on the T-matrix method to calculate orientation and ensemble averaged scattering matrix elements for a variety of morphologically complex black carbon (BC) and BC-containing aerosol particles, with a special emphasis on the linear depolarization ratio (LDR). We explain theoretically the quasi-Rayleigh LDR peak at side-scattering angles typical of low-density soot fractals and conclude that the measurement of this feature enables one to evaluate the compactness state of BC clusters and trace the evolution of low-density fluffy fractals into densely packed aggregates. We show that small backscattering LDRs measured with groundbased, airborne, and spaceborne lidars for fresh smoke generally agree with the values predicted theoretically for fluffy BC fractals and densely packed near-spheroidal BC aggregates. To reproduce higher lidar LDRs observed for aged smoke, one needs alternative particle models such as shape mixtures of BC spheroids or cylinders.

  10. Soliton beam dynamics in parity-time symmetric nonlinear coupler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aysha Muhsina, K.; Subha, P. A.

    2015-07-01

    This work analyzes the propagation of soliton beam in (1 + 1) D dimensional Parity-Time symmetric linear and nonlinear coupled systems. The beam dynamics in the coupled systems has been studied variationally and numerically. The beam propagation is stable when the gain/loss coefficient is less than or equal to the coupling constant. Above the phase transition point, the eigen modes become complex, which result in unstable beam propagation. The stability of the solution against small perturbation has been analyzed using linear stability analysis.

  11. Two-dimensional linear modes and solitons in parity-time symmetry bessel complex-valued potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Haibo; Hu, Sumei

    2015-11-01

    We study the optical properties of two-dimensional linear modes and solitons in parity-time (PT) symmetry Bessel complex-valued potential. The PT-breaking points, the eigenvalues and eigenfunction for different modulated depths of two-dimensional PT symmetry Bessel complex potential are obtained numerically. The PT-breaking points increase linearly with increasing the real part of the modulated depths of PT potential. The existence of fundamental and dipole solitons are studied in self-focusing and self-defocusing media. The eigenvalue for linear case is equal to the critical propagation constant bc of the existing soliton. The fundamental solitons are stable in both the self-focusing and self-defocusing media, and the dipole solitons are stable in the self-defocusing media but unstable in the self-focusing media.

  12. Symmetric Cryptography Asymmetric Cryptography

    E-print Network

    Ramkumar, Mahalingam

    Outline Symmetric Cryptography Asymmetric Cryptography Key Management Network Security Cryptography Symmetric Cryptography Asymmetric Cryptography Key Management Network Security 1 Symmetric Cryptography Symmetric Cryptography Overview Block Cipher Modes Multiple Encryption Hash Functions Message Authentication

  13. The linear and non-linear characterization of dust ion acoustic mode in complex plasma in presence of dynamical charging of dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Saurav; Das, Nilakshi

    2015-10-01

    A systematic theoretical investigation has been carried out on the role of dust charging dynamics on the nature and stability of DIA (Dust Ion Acoustic) mode in complex plasma. The study has been made for both linear and non-linear scale regime of DIA mode. The observed results have been characterized in terms of background plasma responses towards dust surface responsible for dust charge fluctuation, invoking important dusty plasma parameters, especially the ion flow speed and dust size. The linear analyses confirm the nature of instability in DIA mode in presence of dust charge fluctuation. The instability shows a damping of DIA mode in subsonic flow regime followed by a gradual growth in instability in supersonic limit of ion flow. The strength of non-linearity and their existence domain is found to be driven by different dusty plasma parameters. As dust is ubiquitous in interstellar medium with plasma background, the study also addresses the possible effect of dust charging dynamics in gravito-electrostatic characterization and the stability of dust molecular clouds especially in proto-planetary disc. The observations are influential and interesting towards the understanding of dust settling mechanism and formation of dust environments in different regions in space.

  14. Variational theory of complex rays applied to shell structures: in-plane inertia, quasi-symmetric ray distribution, and orthotropic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattabiani, Alessandro; Barbarulo, Andrea; Riou, Hervé; Ladevèze, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    Recently, interest of aerospace and automotive industries on medium-frequency vibrational behavior of composite shell structures has grown due to their high specific stiffness and fatigue resistance. Conventional methods such as the finite element method and the statistical energy analysis are not suitable for the medium-frequency bandwidth. Conversely, the variational theory of complex rays (VTCR) is taking place as an ad-hoc technique to tackle such frequency band. It is a Trefftz method based on a weak variational formulation. Equilibrium equations are met using exact solutions as shape functions. The variational problem imposes boundary conditions in weak form. The present paper extends VTCR to orthotropic shell structures. Moreover, several new enhancements are introduced. Now, we use a quasi-symmetric ray distribution which can greatly reduce computational costs, and addresses in-plane inertia which was neglected in previous works. Some relevant numerical examples are presented to show the strategy and results are compared with a FEM reference to study performances.

  15. Efficient spectral simulations of complex non-linear and time-dependent flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitropoulos, Costas Dimitrios

    2000-06-01

    In this work we developed highly accurate and efficient (linearly scalable with the number of unknowns) spectral methods with applications in multidimensional time-dependent flows of complex fluids in various geometries, such as free-surface flows with surfactants, turbulent flows and viscoelastic flows. A pseudospectral method was developed for incompressible flow simulations in two-dimensional channels with significant boundary deformations, utilizing pseudoconformal mapping, second-order explicit/implicit time-splitting, the influence matrix method to enforce continuity and a spectrally preconditioned biconjugate gradient iterative solver for nonseparable elliptic equations. It was further extended for time-dependent free-surface flows in the presence of an insoluble surfactant, using fully implicit time-integration to accommodate the highly nonlinear free-surface motion. Transverse wave simulations are in excellent agreement with linear theory. Furthermore, longitudinal waves simulated with the specific flow conditions in this work showed sensitivity to the initial guess, evolving at long times to superimposed longitudinal and transverse waves. The implicit time-integration scheme is also advantageous in direct numerical simulation (DNS) of turbulent channel flow of fluids with internal microstructure, where highly nonlinear constitutive equations are utilized. DNS were used to study polymer-induced drag reduction using the FENE-P and Giesekus models. All results for different values of the molecular extensibility and the solvent viscosity ratio are consistent with experiments and proposed mechanisms for drag reduction based on a substantially increased extensional viscosity compared to the shear viscosity. Large magnitudes of drag reduction were observed with increasing extensional viscosity and all flow statistics show consistent trends. A critical range of the onset Weissenberg number, independent of the model and the chain extensibility, was identified. Giesekus model simulations demonstrate that the second normal-stress coefficient induces additional drag reduction. Reynolds stress, turbulent kinetic energy and streamwise enstrophy budgets for the FENE-P fluid demonstrated that as the extensional viscosity increases all components of the production of Reynolds stress, the pressure-velocity gradient, as well as other terms in the budgets decrease. The decrease in streamwise enstrophy production is consistent with the inhibition of vortex stretching by a large extensional viscosity.

  16. Light propagation in periodically modulated complex waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nixon, Sean; Yang, Jianke

    2015-03-01

    Light propagation in optical waveguides with periodically modulated index of refraction and alternating gain and loss are investigated for linear and nonlinear systems. Based on a multiscale perturbation analysis, it is shown that for many non-parity-time- (PT -) symmetric waveguides, their linear spectrum is partially complex; thus light exponentially grows or decays upon propagation, and this growth or decay is not altered by nonlinearity. However, several classes of non-PT -symmetric waveguides are also identified to possess all-real linear spectrum. For PT -symmetric waveguides, phase transition is predicted analytically. In the nonlinear regime longitudinally periodic and transversely quasilocalized modes are found for PT -symmetric waveguides both above and below phase transition. These nonlinear modes are stable under evolution and can develop from initially weak initial conditions.

  17. Normalized linear variance decay dimension density and its application of dynamical complexity detection in physiological (fMRI) time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xiaoping; Zhao, Xiaohu; Fang, Youtong; Cao, Zhitong; He, Guoguang

    2011-04-01

    The upper and lower bounds of the linear variance decay (LVD) dimension density are analytically deduced using multivariate series with uncorrelated and perfectly correlated component series. Then, the normalized LVD dimension density ( ?) is introduced. In order to measure the complexity of a scalar series with ?, a pseudo-multivariate series was constructed from the scalar time series using time-delay embedding. Thus, ? is used to characterize the complexity of the pseudo-multivariate series. The results from the model systems and fMRI data of anxiety subjects reveal that this method can be used to analyze short and noisy time series.

  18. Transmission of linear regression patterns between time series: From relationship in time series to complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiangyun; An, Haizhong; Fang, Wei; Huang, Xuan; Li, Huajiao; Zhong, Weiqiong; Ding, Yinghui

    2014-07-01

    The linear regression parameters between two time series can be different under different lengths of observation period. If we study the whole period by the sliding window of a short period, the change of the linear regression parameters is a process of dynamic transmission over time. We tackle fundamental research that presents a simple and efficient computational scheme: a linear regression patterns transmission algorithm, which transforms linear regression patterns into directed and weighted networks. The linear regression patterns (nodes) are defined by the combination of intervals of the linear regression parameters and the results of the significance testing under different sizes of the sliding window. The transmissions between adjacent patterns are defined as edges, and the weights of the edges are the frequency of the transmissions. The major patterns, the distance, and the medium in the process of the transmission can be captured. The statistical results of weighted out-degree and betweenness centrality are mapped on timelines, which shows the features of the distribution of the results. Many measurements in different areas that involve two related time series variables could take advantage of this algorithm to characterize the dynamic relationships between the time series from a new perspective.

  19. Simply Symmetric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Villiers, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Symmetry is found in the visual arts, architecture and design of artefacts since the earliest time. Many natural objects, both organic and inorganic, display symmetry: from microscopic crystals and sub-atomic particles to macro-cosmic galaxies. Today it features strongly in higher mathematics such as Linear and Abstract Algebra, Projective and…

  20. Linear Motif-Mediated Interactions Have Contributed to the Evolution of Modularity in Complex Protein Interaction Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Inhae; Lee, Heetak; Han, Seong Kyu; Kim, Sanguk

    2014-01-01

    The modular architecture of protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks is evident in diverse species with a wide range of complexity. However, the molecular components that lead to the evolution of modularity in PPI networks have not been clearly identified. Here, we show that weak domain-linear motif interactions (DLIs) are more likely to connect different biological modules than strong domain-domain interactions (DDIs). This molecular division of labor is essential for the evolution of modularity in the complex PPI networks of diverse eukaryotic species. In particular, DLIs may compensate for the reduction in module boundaries that originate from increased connections between different modules in complex PPI networks. In addition, we show that the identification of biological modules can be greatly improved by including molecular characteristics of protein interactions. Our findings suggest that transient interactions have played a unique role in shaping the architecture and modularity of biological networks over the course of evolution. PMID:25299147

  1. Probabilistic cloning of three symmetric states

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, O.; Bergou, J.; Delgado, A.

    2010-12-15

    We study the probabilistic cloning of three symmetric states. These states are defined by a single complex quantity, the inner product among them. We show that three different probabilistic cloning machines are necessary to optimally clone all possible families of three symmetric states. We also show that the optimal cloning probability of generating M copies out of one original can be cast as the quotient between the success probability of unambiguously discriminating one and M copies of symmetric states.

  2. Estimation of Complex Generalized Linear Mixed Models for Measurement and Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Minjeong

    2012-01-01

    Maximum likelihood (ML) estimation of generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) is technically challenging because of the intractable likelihoods that involve high dimensional integrations over random effects. The problem is magnified when the random effects have a crossed design and thus the data cannot be reduced to small independent clusters. A…

  3. A low-complexity linear and iterative receiver architecture for multi-antenna communication systems

    E-print Network

    Milliner, David Louis, 1981-

    2004-01-01

    Multi-antenna systems have been shown to significantly improve channel capacity in wireless environments. The focus of this thesis is on the design of low-complexity multi-antenna receiver architectures for communication ...

  4. Mechanistic studies on the formation of linear polyethylene chain catalyzed by palladium phosphine-sulfonate complexes: experiment and theoretical studies.

    PubMed

    Noda, Shusuke; Nakamura, Akifumi; Kochi, Takuya; Chung, Lung Wa; Morokuma, Keiji; Nozaki, Kyoko

    2009-10-01

    Linear polyethylene propagation starting from Pd phosphine-sulfonate complexes, Pd(CH(3))(L)(Ar(2)PC(6)H(4)SO(3)) (L = 2,6-lutidine, Ar = o-MeOC(6)H(4) (2a) and L = pyridine, Ar = Ph (2b)), was studied both experimentally and theoretically. Experimentally, highly linear polyethylene was obtained with Pd(CH(3))(L)(Ar(2)PC(6)H(4)SO(3)) complexes 2a and 2b. Formation of a long alkyl-substituted palladium complex (3) was detected as a result of ethylene oligomerization on a palladium center starting from methylpalladium complex. Additionally, well-defined ethyl and propyl complexes (6(Et) and 6(Pr)) were synthesized as stable n-alkyl palladium complexes. In spite of the existence of beta-hydrogens, the beta-hydride elimination to give 1-alkenes was very slow or negligible in all cases. On the other hand, isomerization of 1-hexene in the presence of a methylpalladium/phosphine-sulfonate complex 2a indicated that this catalyst system actually undergoes beta-hydride elimination and reinsertion to release internal alkenes. On the theoretical side, the relative energies were calculated for intermediates and transition states for chain-growth, chain-walking, and chain-transfer on the basis of the starting model complex Pd(n-C(3)H(7))(pyridine)(o-Me(2)PC(6)H(4)SO(3)) (8). First, cis/trans isomerization process via the Berry's pseudorotation was proposed for the Pd/phosphine-sulfonate system. The second oxygen atom of sulfonate group is involved in the isomerization process as the associative ligand, which is one of the most unique natures of the sulfonate group. Chain propagation was suggested to take place from the less stable alkylPd(ethylene) complex 10' with the TS of 27.4/27.7 ((E+ZPC)/G) kcal/mol. Possible beta-hydride elimination was suggested to occur under low concentration of ethylene: the highest-energy transition state to override for beta-hydride elimination was either >37.4/25.3 kcal/mol (TS(9-12)) or 29.1/27.4 kcal/mol (TS(8'-9') to reach 12'). The ethylene insertion to the iso-alkylpalladium species (14') is allowed via a TS of 28.6/29.1 kcal/mol (TS(14'-15')), slightly higher in energy than that for the normal-alkylpalladium species (TS(10'-11')). Easy chain transfer was suggested to proceed from the more stable PdH(olefin) complex 12' if beta-hydride elimination to 12' does take place. Thus, the production of linear polyethylene with high molecular weight under ethylene pressure suggests that the cis and trans PdH(alkene)(phosphine-sulfonate) complexes (12 and 12') are merely accessible in the presence of excess amount of ethylene. PMID:19746977

  5. Two dimensional symmetric correlation functions of the S-circumflex operator and two dimensional Fourier transforms: Considering the line coupling for P and R lines of linear molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Q.; Tipping, R. H.

    2014-03-14

    The refinement of the Robert-Bonamy (RB) formalism by considering the line coupling for isotropic Raman Q lines of linear molecules developed in our previous study [Q. Ma, C. Boulet, and R. H. Tipping, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 034305 (2013)] has been extended to infrared P and R lines. In these calculations, the main task is to derive diagonal and off-diagonal matrix elements of the Liouville operator iS{sub 1} ? S{sub 2} introduced in the formalism. When one considers the line coupling for isotropic Raman Q lines where their initial and final rotational quantum numbers are identical, the derivations of off-diagonal elements do not require extra correlation functions of the S-circumflex operator and their Fourier transforms except for those used in deriving diagonal elements. In contrast, the derivations for infrared P and R lines become more difficult because they require a lot of new correlation functions and their Fourier transforms. By introducing two dimensional correlation functions labeled by two tensor ranks and making variable changes to become even functions, the derivations only require the latters’ two dimensional Fourier transforms evaluated at two modulation frequencies characterizing the averaged energy gap and the frequency detuning between the two coupled transitions. With the coordinate representation, it is easy to accurately derive these two dimensional correlation functions. Meanwhile, by using the sampling theory one is able to effectively evaluate their two dimensional Fourier transforms. Thus, the obstacles in considering the line coupling for P and R lines have been overcome. Numerical calculations have been carried out for the half-widths of both the isotropic Raman Q lines and the infrared P and R lines of C{sub 2}H{sub 2} broadened by N{sub 2}. In comparison with values derived from the RB formalism, new calculated values are significantly reduced and become closer to measurements.

  6. Two Dimensional Symmetric Correlation Functions of the S Operator and Two Dimensional Fourier Transforms: Considering the Line Coupling for P and R Lines of Linear Molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Q.; Boulet, C.; Tipping, R. H.

    2014-01-01

    The refinement of the Robert-Bonamy (RB) formalism by considering the line coupling for isotropic Raman Q lines of linear molecules developed in our previous study [Q. Ma, C. Boulet, and R. H. Tipping, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 034305 (2013)] has been extended to infrared P and R lines. In these calculations, the main task is to derive diagonal and off-diagonal matrix elements of the Liouville operator iS1 - S2 introduced in the formalism. When one considers the line coupling for isotropic Raman Q lines where their initial and final rotational quantum numbers are identical, the derivations of off-diagonal elements do not require extra correlation functions of the ^S operator and their Fourier transforms except for those used in deriving diagonal elements. In contrast, the derivations for infrared P and R lines become more difficult because they require a lot of new correlation functions and their Fourier transforms. By introducing two dimensional correlation functions labeled by two tensor ranks and making variable changes to become even functions, the derivations only require the latters' two dimensional Fourier transforms evaluated at two modulation frequencies characterizing the averaged energy gap and the frequency detuning between the two coupled transitions. With the coordinate representation, it is easy to accurately derive these two dimensional correlation functions. Meanwhile, by using the sampling theory one is able to effectively evaluate their two dimensional Fourier transforms. Thus, the obstacles in considering the line coupling for P and R lines have been overcome. Numerical calculations have been carried out for the half-widths of both the isotropic Raman Q lines and the infrared P and R lines of C2H2 broadened by N2. In comparison with values derived from the RB formalism, new calculated values are significantly reduced and become closer to measurements.

  7. Three PT-symmetric Hamiltonians with completely different spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Francisco M.; Garcia, Javier

    2015-12-01

    We discuss three Hamiltonians, each with a central-field part H0 and a PT-symmetric perturbation igz. When H0 is the isotropic Harmonic oscillator the spectrum is real for all g because H is isospectral to H0 +g2 / 2. When H0 is the Hydrogen atom then infinitely many eigenvalues are complex for all g. If the potential in H0 is linear in the radial variable r then the spectrum of H exhibits real eigenvalues for 0 < g

  8. Modern Symmetric Cryptography methodologies and its applications

    E-print Network

    Malayeri, Amin Daneshmand

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, using cryptographic systems play an effective role in security and safety technologies. One of the most applied kind of cryptography is Symmetric Cryptography and its applications. New aspects of symmetric Cryptography methodologies and applications has been presented by this paper. Security-based networks and some complex technologies such as RFID and parallel security settings has been intro-duced by using Symmetric Cryptography is the main base of discussion in this paper. Designing an unique protocol for Symmetric Cryptography in security networks elements is our focus. Reviewing benefits of using these methodologies has been pre-sented and discussed in this paper.

  9. Linear filtering of image subbands for low complexity postprocessing of decoded color images

    E-print Network

    Bayazit, Ulug

    design and application of LMMSE filters on the subbands of a color image as a low complexity solution the statistical dependencies among them for the color palette design problem. In [3] and [4], the initial palette was designed by assigning more quantization levels to the regions of the color space with larger numbers

  10. Prediction of rheometrical and complex flows of entangled linear polymers using the double-convection-

    E-print Network

    Keunings, Roland

    found that the DCR model with stretch predicts the rheometrical shear behavior of the fluid well in simulations of complex flow reveal anomalous or questionable behavior, namely, shear thickening over in the modest experimental range of deformation rates. Our calculations for the higher shear rates reached

  11. Minimally symmetric Higgs boson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, Ian

    2015-06-01

    Models addressing the naturalness of a light Higgs boson typically employ symmetries, either bosonic or fermionic, to stabilize the Higgs mass. We consider a setup with the minimal amount of symmetries: four shift symmetries acting on the four components of the Higgs doublet, subject to the constraints of linearly realized S U (2 )L×U (1 )Y electroweak symmetry. Up to terms that explicitly violate the shift symmetries, the effective Lagrangian can be derived, irrespective of the spontaneously broken group G in the ultraviolet, and is universal among all models where the Higgs arises as a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson. Very high energy scatterings of vector bosons could provide smoking gun signals of a minimally symmetric Higgs boson.

  12. Complexation Between Weakly Basic Dendrimers and Linear Polyelectrolytes: Effects of Chain Stiffness, Grafts, and pOH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Thomas; Pandav, Gunja; Omar, Ahmad; Ganesan, Venkat

    2013-03-01

    The unique architecture and high charge density of dendrimer molecules have attracted interest for their utilization in gene delivery applications. The strong binding affinity of cationic dendrimers to genetic materials make them effective gene delivery vectors not only by shielding the nucleic acid (NA) material from degradative enzymes in the blood stream, but also by reducing the overall negative charge of the dendrimer-NA material complex, which in turn creates more favorable interaction with the anionic cell membrane. However, the high cytotoxicities of cationic dendrimers have motivated the development of polyethylene glycol (PEG) conjugated dendrimer molecules, which have been shown to reduce dendrimer cytotoxicity while still retaining transfection ability. In order to gain insight into how the addition of neutral grafts affects the binding affinity and conformations of dendrimer-NA material complexes, we have developed and numerically solved a Self-Consistent Field Theory approach for both grafted and non-grafted annealed charged dendrimer molecules in the presence of linear polyelectrolyte molecules. Specifically, this work examines the effect of linear polyelectrolyte stiffness, grafting chain length, and solution pOH.

  13. Spectral and electron paramagnetic resonance investigations of copper (II) complexes linear-chain fatty diacids.

    PubMed

    Sharrock, P; Dartiguenave, M; Dartiguenave, Y

    1978-07-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of polycrystalline copper complexes of butanedioic, pentanedioic, hexanedioic, heptanedioic, and decanedioic acids are presented, together with 77 K electronic spectra. The complexes are formulated as dimeric copper carboxylate units linked into infinite chains. Monomer impurities are also present and increase in quantity with the length of the diacid. The monomer and dimer signals occur at very different field strengths, but the g values calculated from the S = 1/2 spectra are similar to those calculated from the S = 1 spectra. The EPR method can thus be used to locate copper ions in possible biological frameworks and to study the geometry around the metal sites. The distortion from axial symmetry around the copper increases with the length of the diacid, as shown by the observed zero-field splitting parameters. Gaussian analysis of the optical absorptions yields information used with EPR data to calculate covalency and Fermi contact terms. Sodium, potassium, and lithium salts transform the dimeric polymers into monomeric polymers. The presence of magnetic exchange interactions in copper dicarboxylates is discussed and thereby shown to be of interest in the study of copper ions in molecules of biological importance containing carboxylate groups. PMID:210845

  14. Linear oxygen-sensing response from a rhenium complex induced by heavy atom: Synthesis, characterization, photophysical study and sensing performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Wan; Lun, Zhao; Lisha, Wang; Guangyang, Xu

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, we synthesized a Br-containing ligand of 2-(4-bromophenyl)-5-(pyridin-2-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole and its corresponding Re(I) complex. Their synthesis, characterization, single crystal structure, electronic transitions and photophysical property were presented and discussed in detail. This Re(I) complex was found to be a yellow emitter with slim ? ? ?* radiative decay contribution, and its emission was also found to be sensitive towards O2. By doping this Re(I) complex into a polymer matrix, the oxygen-sensing performance of the resulted composite nanofibers was also investigated. Owing to the porous structure of the supporting matrix, the optimal sample gave the highest sensitivity of 3.91 with short response time of only 9 s. In addition, the linearity of the Stern-Volmer plots was greatly improved due to the highly pure emissive center triggered by heavy-atom turbulence effect from Br atom, as indicted by theoretical calculation result.

  15. Linear free energy relationships for metal-ligand complexation: Bidentate binding to negatively-charged oxygen donor atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonaro, Richard F.; Atalay, Yasemin B.; Di Toro, Dominic M.

    2011-05-01

    Stability constants for metal complexation to bidentate ligands containing negatively-charged oxygen donor atoms can be estimated from the following linear free energy relationship (LFER): log KML = ?OO( ?O log KHL,1 + ?O log KHL,2) where KML is the metal-ligand stability constant for a 1:1 complex, KHL,1 and KHL,2 are the proton-ligand stability constants (the ligand p Ka values), and ?O is the Irving-Rossotti slope. The parameter ?OO is metal specific and has slightly different values for five and six membered chelate rings. LFERs are presented for 21 different metal ions and are accurate to within approximately 0.30 log units in predictions of log KML values. Ligands selected for use in LFER development include dicarboxylic acids, carboxyphenols, and ortho-diphenols. For ortho-hydroxybenzaldehydes, ?-hydroxycarboxylic acids, and ?-ketocarboxylic acids, a modification of the LFER where log KHL,2 is set equal to zero is required. The chemical interpretation of ?OO is that it accounts for the extra stability afforded to metal complexes by the chelate effect. Cu-NOM binding constants calculated from the bidentate LFERs are similar in magnitude to those used in WHAM 6. This LFER can be used to make log KML predictions for small organic molecules. Since natural organic matter (NOM) contains many of the same functional groups (i.e. carboxylic acids, phenols, alcohols), the LFER log KML predictions shed light on the range of appropriate values for use in modeling metal partitioning in natural systems.

  16. Different molecular complexity of linear-isomaltomegalosaccharides and ?-cyclodextrin on enhancing solubility of azo dye ethyl red: towards dye biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Lang, Weeranuch; Kumagai, Yuya; Sadahiro, Juri; Maneesan, Janjira; Okuyama, Masayuki; Mori, Haruhide; Sakairi, Nobuo; Kimura, Atsuo

    2014-10-01

    Intermolecular interaction of linear-type ?-(1 ? 6)-glucosyl megalosaccharide rich (L-IMS) and water-insoluble anionic ethyl red was firstly characterized in a comparison with inclusion complexation by cyclodextrins (CDs) to overcome the problem of poor solubility and bioavailability. Phase solubility studies indicated an enhancement of 3- and 9-fold over the solubility in water upon the presence of L-IMS and ?-CD, respectively. (1)H NMR and circular dichrosim spectra revealed the dye forms consisted of 1:1 stoichiometric inclusion complex within the ?-CD cavity, whereas they exhibited non-specific hydrophobic interaction, identified by solvent polarity changes, with L-IMS. The inclusion complex delivered by ?-CD showed an uncompetitive inhibitory-type effect to azoreductase, particularly with high water content that did not promote dye liberation. Addition of the solid dye dispersed into coupled-enzyme reaction system supplied by L-IMS as the dye solubilizer provided usual degradation rate. The dye intermission in series exhibited successful removal with at least 5 cycles was economically feasible. PMID:25087215

  17. Spectral, morphological, linear and nonlinear optical properties of nanostructured benzimidazole metal complex thin films.

    PubMed

    Praveen, P A; Ramesh Babu, R; Jothivenkatachalam, K; Ramamurthi, K

    2015-11-01

    Metal organic materials are widely investigated to find their suitability for nonlinear optical applications due to the advantage of combined organic and inorganic properties. In this work benzimidazole based metal organic thin films of dichlorobis (1H-Benzimidazole) Co(II) and dichlorobis (1H-Benzimidazole) Cu(II) were deposited by chemical bath deposition method. The deposited films were annealed at 100, 150 and 200 °C to investigate the effect of annealing on the properties of thin films. Surface homogeneity of the films was increased with the annealing temperature due to the surface diffusion of the films and the same was evidently shown by Raman spectroscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy studies. But annealing the films at 200 °C yielded bulk patches on the surface due to the distortion of molecules. Linear and nonlinear optical properties of the films annealed at 150 °C showed relatively higher transmittance and improved nonlinear optical properties than the other as prepared and annealed samples. PMID:26056978

  18. A HLL-Rankine-Hugoniot Riemann solver for complex non-linear hyperbolic problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guy, Capdeville

    2013-10-01

    We present a new HLL-type approximate Riemann solver that aims at capturing any isolated discontinuity without necessitating extensive characteristic analysis of governing partial differential equations. This property is especially attractive for complex hyperbolic systems with more than two equations. Following Linde's (2002) approach [6], we introduce a generic middle wave into the classical two-state HLL solver. The property of this third wave is typified by the way of a "strength indicator" that is derived from polynomial considerations. The polynomial that constitutes the basis of the procedure is made non-oscillatory by an adapted fourth-order WENO algorithm (CWENO4). This algorithm makes it possible to derive an expression for the strength indicator. According to the size of this latter parameter, the resulting solver (HLL-RH), either computes the multi-dimensional Rankine-Hugoniot equations if an isolated discontinuity appears in the Riemann fan, or asymptotically tends towards the two-state HLL solver if the solution is locally smooth. The asymptotic version of the HLL-RH solver is demonstrated to be positively conservative and entropy satisfying in its first-order multi-dimensional form provided that a relevant and not too restrictive CFL condition is considered; specific limitations of the conservative increments of the numerical solution and a suited entropy condition enable to maintain these properties in its high-order version. With a monotonicity-preserving algorithm for the time integration, the numerical method so generated, is third order in time and fourth-order accurate in space for the smooth part of the solution; moreover, the scheme is stable and accurate when capturing a shock wave, whatever the complexity of the underlying differential system. Extensive numerical tests for the one- and two-dimensional Euler equation of gas dynamics and comparisons with classical Godunov-type methods help to point out the potentialities and insufficiencies of the method.

  19. Optimal symmetric flight studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weston, A. R.; Menon, P. K. A.; Bilimoria, K. D.; Cliff, E. M.; Kelley, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    Several topics in optimal symmetric flight of airbreathing vehicles are examined. In one study, an approximation scheme designed for onboard real-time energy management of climb-dash is developed and calculations for a high-performance aircraft presented. In another, a vehicle model intermediate in complexity between energy and point-mass models is explored and some quirks in optimal flight characteristics peculiar to the model uncovered. In yet another study, energy-modelling procedures are re-examined with a view to stretching the range of validity of zeroth-order approximation by special choice of state variables. In a final study, time-fuel tradeoffs in cruise-dash are examined for the consequences of nonconvexities appearing in the classical steady cruise-dash model. Two appendices provide retrospective looks at two early publications on energy modelling and related optimal control theory.

  20. Complexation and release of DNA in polyplexes formed with reducible linear poly(?-amino esters).

    PubMed

    Rata-Aguilar, Azahara; Segovia-Ramos, Nathaly; Jódar-Reyes, Ana Belén; Ramos-Pérez, Víctor; Borrós, Salvador; Martín-Rodríguez, Antonio; Ortega-Vinuesa, Juan Luis

    2015-09-01

    Designing nanocarriers for gene delivery is a multidisciplinary challenge that involves not only DNA condensation with biocompatible polymers, but also DNA-release processes. Once the genetic material is introduced into the cell, the rupture of degradable bonds permits the unpacking and release of the load. In this work, a dual-degradable polycation - composed by a linear poly(?-amino ester) chain in which ester and disulfide bonds coexist - has been used to condense a DNA plasmid. The goal was to reinforce the spontaneous hydrolysis of the ester groups with the intracellular break-up of the disulfide bonds, since these reducible bonds are degraded in the reductive intracellular environment. For a comparative study, two poly(?-amino ester) molecules differing only in the presence (or absence) of some SS bonds have been tested. DNA condensation, physico-chemical characterization of the polyplexes formed, and degradation studies have been carried out at pH 5 and pH 7. The acidic conditions gave the best nanoparticles, due to a better solubilization of both polymers and to a higher stability of the ester bonds. Despite the synthesis and storage of polyplexes were much more appropriate at pH 5, transfection efficiency in HeLa cells was similar irrespective the original pH used. Only in those polyplexes formed at low polymer:DNA ratios (i.e. 5 and 10 (w/w)) was transfection more effective when the plasmid was condensed at an acidic pH. With regard to the DNA-release efficiency in the intracellular medium, degradation of the polymers was practically governed by the rapid hydrolysis of the ester groups, this spontaneous and rapid process masking, unfortunately, any potential contribution associated with the breakup of the disulfide bonds. PMID:26125487

  1. Exponential solutions of euler-lagrange equations for fields of complex linear frames on real space-time manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godlewski, Piotr

    2010-08-01

    We investigate a model of the field of complex linear frames on the product manifold M = ? × G, where G is a real semisimple Lie group. The model is invariant under the natural action of the group GL( n, ?) ( n = dim M). It results in a modified Born-Infeld-type nonlinearity of field equations. We find a family of solutions of the Euler-Lagrange equations. These solutions are bases for the Lie algebra of left-invariant vector fields on ? × G "deformed" by a GL( n, ?)-valued mapping of the exponential form. Each solution induces a pseudo-Riemannian metric on M = ? × G. The normal-hyperbolic signature (in the physical case where n = 4) of this metric is not something aprioric and absolute, introduced "by hand" into our model but it is an intrinsic feature of solutions we found.

  2. Resonances and instabilities in symmetric multistep methods

    E-print Network

    Gerald D. Quinlan

    1999-01-12

    The symmetric multistep methods developed by Quinlan and Tremaine (1990) are shown to suffer from resonances and instabilities at special stepsizes when used to integrate nonlinear equations. This property of symmetric multistep methods was missed in previous studies that considered only the linear stability of the methods. The resonances and instabilities are worse for high-order methods than for low-order methods, and the number of bad stepsizes increases with the number frequencies present in the solution. Symmetric methods are still recommended for some problems, including long-term integrations of planetary orbits, but the high-order methods must be used with caution.

  3. The complex viewpoint for transverse impasse points of quasi-linear differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to show that the singularities called impasse points of real implicit ordinary differential equations are generically branch points of the solution, using a complex viewpoint. This research starts from a result asserting that the real solution in most cases behaves like ±?{ x -x0 } at an impasse point (x0, y0). We extend the notion of regular impasse point defined in previous works, and consider instead transverse impasse point, where the underlying vector field is transverse to the singular locus, even in the case when this hypersurface is not a manifold locally. Here we make use of Puiseux expansions and we show that, under generic hypotheses, the solution is multivalued at such a point. We prove that the Puiseux exponent is related simply to the multiplicity of the impasse point in the singular locus: if M is the total multiplicity of the singularity (z0, y0), there is a unique solution at this point and it is M + 1-valued.

  4. Symmetric Cryptography Asymmetric Cryptography

    E-print Network

    Ramkumar, Mahalingam

    Outline Trust Symmetric Cryptography Asymmetric Cryptography Key Management Network Security Cryptography - A Review Mahalingam Ramkumar Mississippi State University, MS September 22, 2006 Ramkumar Review #12;Outline Trust Symmetric Cryptography Asymmetric Cryptography Key Management Network Security 1

  5. Energy of gravitational radiation in plane-symmetric space-times

    E-print Network

    Sean A. Hayward

    2008-05-19

    Gravitational radiation in plane-symmetric space-times can be encoded in a complex potential, satisfying a non-linear wave equation. An effective energy tensor for the radiation is given, taking a scalar-field form in terms of the potential, entering the field equations in the same way as the matter energy tensor. It reduces to the Isaacson energy tensor in the linearized, high-frequency approximation. An energy conservation equation is derived for a quasi-local energy, essentially the Hawking energy. A transverse pressure exerted by interacting low-frequency gravitational radiation is predicted.

  6. Reactive desorption electrospray ionization linear ion trap mass spectrometry of latest-generation counterfeit antimalarials via noncovalent complex formation.

    PubMed

    Nyadong, Leonard; Green, Michael D; De Jesus, Victor R; Newton, Paul N; Fernández, Facundo M

    2007-03-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI MS) is rapidly becoming accepted as a powerful surface characterization tool for a wide variety of samples in the open air. Besides its well-established high-throughput capabilities, a unique feature of DESI is that chemical reactions between the charged spray microdroplets and surface molecules can be exploited to enhance ionization. Here, we present a rapid screening assay for artesunate antimalarials based on reactive DESI. Artesunate is a vital therapy for Plasmodium falciparum malaria, but artesunate tablets have been counterfeited on a very large scale in SE Asia, and more recently in Africa. For this reason, faster and more sensitive screening tests are urgently needed. The proposed DESI assay is based on the formation of stable noncovalent complexes between linear alkylamines dissolved in the DESI spray solution and artesunate molecules exposed on the tablet surface. We found that, depending on amine type and concentration, a sensitivity gain of up to 170x can be obtained, in comparison to reagent-less DESI. Hexylamine (Hex), dodecylamine (DDA), and octadecylamine (ODA) produced proton-bound noncovalent complexes with gas-phase stabilities, increasing in the order [M + Hex + H]+ < [M + DDA + H]+ < [M + ODA + H]+. Tandem MS experiments revealed that complex formation occurred by hydrogen bonding between the amine nitrogen and the ether-like moieties within the artesunate lactone ring. After the reactive DESI assay was fully characterized, it was applied to a set of recently collected suspicious artesunate tablets purchased in shops and pharmacies in SE Asia. Not only did we find that these samples were counterfeits, but we also detected the presence of several wrong active ingredients. Of particular concern was the positive detection of artesunate traces in the surface of one of the samples, which we quantified with standard chromatographic techniques. PMID:17269655

  7. Some linear algebra Recall the convention that, for us, all vectors are column vectors.

    E-print Network

    Khoshnevisan, Davar

    Some linear algebra Recall the convention that, for us, all vectors are column vectors. 1. Symmetric matrices Let A be a real Ã? matrix. Recall that a complex number is an eigenvalue. The following important theorem is the start- ing point of our discussion. It might help to recall that vectors

  8. Highly Effective Non-Viral Antitumor Gene Therapy System Comprised of Biocompatible Small Plasmid Complex Particles Consisting of pDNA, Anionic Polysaccharide, and Fully Deprotected Linear Polyethylenimine

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Yoshiyuki; Sugiura, Kikuya; Yoshihara, Chieko; Inaba, Toshio; Ito, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    We have reported that ternary complexes of plasmid DNA with conventional linear polyethylenimine (l-PEI) and certain polyanions were very stably dispersed, and, with no cryoprotectant, they could be freeze-dried and re-hydrated without the loss of transfection ability. These properties enabled the preparation of a concentrated suspension of very small pDNA complex, by preparing the complexes at highly diluted conditions, followed by condensation via lyophilization-and-rehydration procedure. Recently, a high potency linear polyethylenimine having no residual protective groups, i.e., Polyethylenimine “Max” (PEI “Max”), is available, which has been reported to induce much higher gene expression than conventional l-PEI. We tried to prepare the small DNA/PEI “Max”/polyanion complexes by a similar freeze-drying method. Small complex particles could be obtained without apparent aggregation, but transfection activity of the rehydrated complexes was severely reduced. Complex-preparation conditions were investigated in details to achieve the freeze-dried DNA/PEI “Max”/polyanion small ternary complexes with high transfection efficiency. DNA/PEI “Max”/polyanion complexes containing cytokine-coding plasmids were then prepared, and their anti-tumor therapeutic efficacy was examined in tumor-bearing mice. PMID:26213961

  9. Ligand field influence on the electronic and magnetic properties of quasi-linear two-coordinate iron(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Chilton, Nicholas F; Lei, Hao; Bryan, Aimee M; Grandjean, Fernande; Long, Gary J; Power, Philip P

    2015-06-28

    The 2 to 300 K magnetic susceptibilities of Fe{N(SiMe2Ph)2}2, 1, Fe{N(SiMePh2)2}2, 2, and the diaryl complex Fe(Ar(Pr(i)4))2, 3, where Ar(Pr(i)4) is C6H3-2,6(C6H3-2,6-Pr(i)2)2 have been measured. Initial fits of these properties in the absence of an independent knowledge of their ligand field splitting have proven problematic. Ab initio calculations of the CASSCF/RASSI/SINGLE-ANISO type have indicated that the orbital energies of the complexes, as well as those of Fe(Ar(Me6))2, 4, where Ar(Me6) is C6H3-2,6(C6H2-2,4,6-Me3)2), are in the order d(xy)? d(x(2)-y(2)) < d(xz) ? d(yz) < d(z(2)), and the iron(II) complexes in this ligand field have the (d(xy), d(x(2)-y(2)))(3)(d(xz), d(yz))(2)(d(z(2)))(1) ground electronic configuration with a substantial orbital contribution to their effective magnetic moments. An ab initio-derived ligand field and spin-orbit model is found to yield an excellent simulation of the observed magnetic properties of 1-3. The calculated ligand field strengths of these ligands are placed in the broader context of common coordination ligands in hypothetical two-coordinate linear iron(ii) complexes. This yields the ordering I(-) < H(-) < Br(-)? PMe3 < CH3(-) < Cl(-)? C(SiMe3)3(-) < CN(-)? SAr(Pr(i)6-) < Ar(Pr(i)4-) < Ar(Me6-)? N3(-) < NCS(-)? NCSe(-)? NCBH3(-)? MeCN ? H2O ? NH3 < NO3(-)? THF ? CO ? N(SiMe2Ph)2(-)? N(SiMePh2)2(-) < F(-)? N(H)Ar(Pr(i)6-)? N(SiMe3)Dipp(-) < OAr(Pr(i)4-). The magnetic susceptibility of the bridged dimer, [Fe{N(SiMe3)2}2]2, 5, has also been measured between 2 and 300 K and a fit of ?MT with the isotropic Heisenberg Hamiltonian, ? = -2J?1·?2 yields an antiferromagnetic exchange coupling constant, J, of -131(2) cm(-1). PMID:26006177

  10. Isospecific polymerization of 1-hexene by C1-symmetric half-metallocene dimethyl complexes of group 4 metals with bidentate N-substituted iminomethylpyrrolyl ligands.

    PubMed

    Yasumoto, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Keishi; Tsurugi, Hayato; Mashima, Kazushi

    2013-07-01

    Non-bridged half-metallocene dimethyl complexes of group 4 metals 2a-4a with an N-4-methoxyphenyl(iminomethyl)pyrrolyl ligand 1a were synthesized and characterized by NMR spectroscopy and X-ray analysis. Upon activation with [Ph3C][B(C6F5)4], these complexes became active catalysts for the polymerization of 1-hexene. A series of hafnium complexes with various N-substituents on the imine group of ligands 1b-1g were also prepared and applied as catalysts for 1-hexene polymerization. The activation parameters for the exchange process between the two methyl groups bound to the metal for Cp*MMe2(R-pyr) complexes were estimated by NMR shape analysis at various temperatures. The findings indicated that the transition state of the ligand flipping process might be associated with the isoselectivity of the polymerization reaction. PMID:23235804

  11. Conformally symmetric traversable wormholes

    SciTech Connect

    Boehmer, Christian G.; Harko, Tiberiu; Lobo, Francisco S. N.

    2007-10-15

    Exact solutions of traversable wormholes are found under the assumption of spherical symmetry and the existence of a nonstatic conformal symmetry, which presents a more systematic approach in searching for exact wormhole solutions. In this work, a wide variety of solutions are deduced by considering choices for the form function, a specific linear equation of state relating the energy density and the pressure anisotropy, and various phantom wormhole geometries are explored. A large class of solutions impose that the spatial distribution of the exotic matter is restricted to the throat neighborhood, with a cutoff of the stress-energy tensor at a finite junction interface, although asymptotically flat exact solutions are also found. Using the 'volume integral quantifier', it is found that the conformally symmetric phantom wormhole geometries may, in principle, be constructed by infinitesimally small amounts of averaged null energy condition violating matter. Considering the tidal acceleration traversability conditions for the phantom wormhole geometry, specific wormhole dimensions and the traversal velocity are also deduced.

  12. Control of linear modes in cylindrical resistive magnetohydrodynamics with a resistive wall, plasma rotation, and complex gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, D. P.; Finn, J. M.

    2014-10-01

    Feedback stabilization of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes in a tokamak is studied in a cylindrical model with a resistive wall, plasma resistivity, viscosity, and toroidal rotation. The control is based on a linear combination of the normal and tangential components of the magnetic field just inside the resistive wall. The feedback includes complex gain, for both the normal and for the tangential components, and it is known that the imaginary part of the feedback for the former is equivalent to plasma rotation [J. M. Finn and L. Chacon, Phys. Plasmas 11, 1866 (2004)]. The work includes (1) analysis with a reduced resistive MHD model for a tokamak with finite ? and with stepfunction current density and pressure profiles, and (2) computations with a full compressible visco-resistive MHD model with smooth decreasing profiles of current density and pressure. The equilibria are stable for ? = 0 and the marginal stability values ?rp,rw < ?rp,iw < ?ip,rw < ?ip,iw (resistive plasma, resistive wall; resistive plasma, ideal wall; ideal plasma, resistive wall; and ideal plasma, ideal wall) are computed for both models. The main results are: (a) imaginary gain with normal sensors or plasma rotation stabilizes below ?rp,iw because rotation suppresses the diffusion of flux from the plasma out through the wall and, more surprisingly, (b) rotation or imaginary gain with normal sensors destabilizes above ?rp,iw because it prevents the feedback flux from entering the plasma through the resistive wall to form a virtual wall. A method of using complex gain Gi to optimize in the presence of rotation in this regime with ? > ?rp,iw is presented. The effect of imaginary gain with tangential sensors is more complicated but essentially destabilizes above and below ?rp,iw.

  13. Control of linear modes in cylindrical resistive magnetohydrodynamics with a resistive wall, plasma rotation, and complex gain

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, D. P.; Finn, J. M.

    2014-10-15

    Feedback stabilization of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes in a tokamak is studied in a cylindrical model with a resistive wall, plasma resistivity, viscosity, and toroidal rotation. The control is based on a linear combination of the normal and tangential components of the magnetic field just inside the resistive wall. The feedback includes complex gain, for both the normal and for the tangential components, and it is known that the imaginary part of the feedback for the former is equivalent to plasma rotation [J. M. Finn and L. Chacon, Phys. Plasmas 11, 1866 (2004)]. The work includes (1) analysis with a reduced resistive MHD model for a tokamak with finite ? and with stepfunction current density and pressure profiles, and (2) computations with a full compressible visco-resistive MHD model with smooth decreasing profiles of current density and pressure. The equilibria are stable for ??=?0 and the marginal stability values ?{sub rp,rw}?complex gain G{sub i} to optimize in the presence of rotation in this regime with ??>??{sub rp,iw} is presented. The effect of imaginary gain with tangential sensors is more complicated but essentially destabilizes above and below ?{sub rp,iw}.

  14. Transition metal(II) complexes of a novel symmetrical benzothiazole-based ligand: synthesis, spectral/structural characterization and fluorescence properties.

    PubMed

    Gulcan, Mehmet; Karata?, Ya?ar; I??k, Sema; Öztürk, Gülsiye; Akba?, Esvet; ?ahin, Ertan

    2014-11-01

    2,6-bis (benzothiazol-2-yl)-4-(tert-butyl) phenol ligand (HL) derived from o-aminothiophenol and 4-tert-butyl-2,6-diformylphenol was synthesized and characterized by using elemental analysis, FTIR, X-ray crystallographic analysis, (1)H and (13)C-NMR and UV-vis spectra. Its complexes with Cu (II), Ni (II) and Co (II) were prepared and isolated as solid products and characterized by elemental analysis, spectral techniques as well as magnetic susceptibility. The FTIR spectra showed that the benzothiazole-based ligand under investigation behaves as a bidentate ligand. The UV-vis spectra and magnetic moment data suggested an octahedral geometry around Ni (II) and Co (II) complexes, and tetragonal geometry for Cu (II) complex. Moreover, the evaluation of absorption and emission properties of the ligand and its complexes were carried out in different solvents. The ligand and its complexes showed absorption maxima in the range of 275 - 432 nm, and emission maxima from 367 to 581 nm in toluene, tetrahydrofuran and ethyl acetate. PMID:25212791

  15. High tacticity control in organolanthanide polymerization catalysis: formation of isotactic poly(alpha-alkenes) with a chiral C3-symmetric thulium complex.

    PubMed

    Lukesová, Lenka; Ward, Benjamin D; Bellemin-Laponnaz, Stéphane; Wadepohl, Hubert; Gade, Lutz H

    2007-03-01

    The thulium complexes [Tm((i)Pr-trisox)(CH(2)SiMe(2)R)(3)] (R = Me , Ph ) were synthesized from the thulium trialkyl precursors [Tm(CH(2)SiMe(2)R)(3)(thf)(2)]; reaction of with two equivalents of [Ph(3)C][B(C(6)F(5))(4)] gave a cationic complex 1c, which was found to polymerize 1-hexene, 1-heptene and 1-octene to give the corresponding polyolefins with moderate to good activities and with minimum isotacticity of 90%, 83% and 95%, respectively. PMID:17308670

  16. Viscosity in spherically symmetric accretion

    E-print Network

    Arnab K. Ray

    2004-09-27

    The influence of viscosity on the flow behaviour in spherically symmetric accretion, has been studied here. The governing equation chosen has been the Navier-Stokes equation. It has been found that at least for the transonic solution, viscosity acts as a mechanism that detracts from the effectiveness of gravity. This has been conjectured to set up a limiting scale of length for gravity to bring about accretion, and the physical interpretation of such a length-scale has been compared with the conventional understanding of the so-called "accretion radius" for spherically symmetric accretion. For a perturbative presence of viscosity, it has also been pointed out that the critical points for inflows and outflows are not identical, which is a consequence of the fact that under the Navier-Stokes prescription, there is a breakdown of the invariance of the stationary inflow and outflow solutions -- an invariance that holds good under inviscid conditions. For inflows, the critical point gets shifted deeper within the gravitational potential well. Finally, a linear stability analysis of the stationary inflow solutions, under the influence of a perturbation that is in the nature of a standing wave, has indicated that the presence of viscosity induces greater stability in the system, than has been seen for the case of inviscid spherically symmetric inflows.

  17. Organometallic complexes of bulky, optically active, C3-symmetric tris(4S-isopropyl-5,5-dimethyl-2-oxazolinyl)phenylborate (ToP *)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Xu, Songchen; Magoon, Yitzhak; Reinig, Regina R.; Schmidt, Bradley M.; Ellern, Arkady; Sadow, Aaron D.

    2015-07-16

    A bulky, optically active monoanionic scorpionate ligand, tris(4S-isopropyl-5,5-dimethyl-2-oxazolinyl)phenylborate (ToP*), is synthesized from the naturally occurring amino acid l-valine as its lithium salt, Li[ToP*] (1). That compound is readily converted to the thallium complex Tl[ToP*] (2) and to the acid derivative H[ToP*] (3). Group 7 tricarbonyl complexes ToP*M(CO)3 (M = Mn (4), Re (5)) are synthesized by the reaction of MBr(CO)5 and Li[ToP*] and are crystallographically characterized. The ?CO bands in their infrared spectra indicate that ? back-donation in the rhenium compounds is greater with ToP* than with non-methylated tris(4S-isopropyl-2-oxazolinyl)phenylborate (ToP). The reaction of H[ToP*] and ZnEt2 gives ToP*ZnEt (6), whilemore »ToP*ZnCl (7) is synthesized from Li[ToP*] and ZnCl2. The reaction of ToP*ZnCl and KOtBu followed by addition of PhSiH3 provides the zinc hydride complex ToP*ZnH (8). In this study, compound 8 is the first example of a crystallographically characterized optically active zinc hydride. We tested its catalytic reactivity in the cross-dehydrocoupling of silanes and alcohols, which provided Si-chiral silanes with moderate enantioselectivity.« less

  18. Systems of Differential Equations with Skew-Symmetric, Orthogonal Matrices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaister, P.

    2008-01-01

    The solution of a system of linear, inhomogeneous differential equations is discussed. The particular class considered is where the coefficient matrix is skew-symmetric and orthogonal, and where the forcing terms are sinusoidal. More general matrices are also considered.

  19. Linear optimal control of tokamak fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Kessel, C.E.; Firestone, M.A.; Conn, R.W.

    1989-05-01

    The control of plasma position, shape and current in a tokamak fusion reactor is examined using linear optimal control. These advanced tokamaks are characterized by non up-down symmetric coils and structure, thick structure surrounding the plasma, eddy currents, shaped plasmas, superconducting coils, vertically unstable plasmas, and hybrid function coils providing ohmic heating, vertical field, radial field, and shaping field. Models of the electromagnetic environment in a tokamak are derived and used to construct control gains that are tested in nonlinear simulations with initial perturbations. The issues of applying linear optimal control to advanced tokamaks are addressed, including complex equilibrium control, choice of cost functional weights, the coil voltage limit, discrete control, and order reduction. Results indicate that the linear optimal control is a feasible technique for controlling advanced tokamaks where the more common classical control will be severely strained or will not work. 28 refs., 13 figs.

  20. Symmetric image registration.

    PubMed

    Rogelj, Peter; Kovacic, Stanislav

    2006-06-01

    This paper presents an original non-rigid image registration approach, which tends to improve the registration by establishing a symmetric image interdependence. In order to gather more information about the image transformation it measures the image similarity in both registration directions. The presented solution is based on the interaction between the images involved in the registration process. Images interact through forces, which according to Newton's action-reaction law form a symmetric relationship. These forces may transform both of the images, although in our implementation one of the images remains fixed. The experiments performed to demonstrate the advantages of the symmetric registration approach involve the registration of simple objects, the recovery of synthetic deformation, and the inter-patient registration of real images of the head. The results show that the symmetric approach improves both the registration consistency and the registration correctness. PMID:15896998

  1. Symmetrical gait descriptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunajewski, Adam; Dusza, Jacek J.; Rosado Muñoz, Alfredo

    2014-11-01

    The article presents a proposal for the description of human gait as a periodic and symmetric process. Firstly, the data for researches was obtained in the Laboratory of Group SATI in the School of Engineering of University of Valencia. Then, the periodical model - Mean Double Step (MDS) was made. Finally, on the basis of MDS, the symmetrical models - Left Mean Double Step and Right Mean Double Step (LMDS and RMDS) could be created. The method of various functional extensions was used. Symmetrical gait models can be used to calculate the coefficients of asymmetry at any time or phase of the gait. In this way it is possible to create asymmetry, function which better describes human gait dysfunction. The paper also describes an algorithm for calculating symmetric models, and shows exemplary results based on the experimental data.

  2. A Non-Linear Mixed Spectral Finite-Difference 3-D model for planetary boundary-layer flow over complex terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, W.; Taylor, P. A.

    2011-04-01

    The Non-Linear Mixed Spectral Finite-Difference (NLMSFD) model for surface boundary-layer flow over complex terrain has been extended to planetary boundary-layer flow over topography. Comparisons are made between this new version and the surface layer model. The model is also applied to simulate an Askervein experimental case. The results are discussed and compared with the observed field data.

  3. Noncommutative spherically symmetric spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, Sean; Govaerts, Jan

    2011-01-15

    We examine some noncommutative spherically symmetric spaces in three space dimensions. A generalization of Snyder's noncommutative (Euclidean) space allows the inclusion of the generator of dilations into the defining algebra of the coordinate and rotation operators. We then construct a spherically symmetric noncommutative Laplacian on this space having the correct limiting spectrum. This is presented via a creation and annihilation operator realization of the algebra, which may lend itself to a truncation of the Hilbert space.

  4. Symmetric continued fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Panprasitwech, Oranit; Laohakosol, Vichian; Chaichana, Tuangrat

    2010-11-11

    Explicit formulae for continued fractions with symmetric patterns in their partial quotients are constructed in the field of formal power series. Similar to the work of Cohn in 1996, which generalized the so-called folding lemma to {kappa}-fold symmetry, the notion of {kappa}-duplicating symmetric continued fractions is investigated using a modification of the 1995 technique due to Clemens, Merrill and Roeder.

  5. A Non-Linear Mixed Spectral Finite-Difference 3-D Model of Planetary Boundary-Layer Flow over Complex Terrain and Its Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, W.; Taylor, P. A.

    2010-09-01

    Based on the early linear and Non-Linear Mixed Spectral Finite-Difference (MSFD and NLMSFD) models, a 3-D non-linear model of planetary boundary-layer flow (NLMSFD-PBL) was developed to study neutral PBL flow over complex terrain. The model assumes upwind or zero-order profiles of mean and turbulence variables about which perturbation quantities are calculated due to the effects of the terrain. In early models, the mean zero-order wind profile was assumed to be a simple logarithmic surface-layer profile and Reynolds stresses were constant throughout the depth of the model domain. This formally limits the applications of model to the surface-layer flow. The new model utilizes the results of early 1-D planetary boundary layer model of Weng and Taylor as the zero-order or upstream profiles of mean and turbulent quantities. The limitations associated with the original MSFD/NLMSFD model (e.g. logarithmic wind profile and constant shear stress layer) are relaxed. The effect of earth's rotation is also included in the model. Model results for planetary boundary-layer flow over complex terrain are discussed, particularly, the flow over Askervein hill - the site of a detailed and much referenced field study of flow over hills in the 1980s. This type of modelling of flow over complex terrain has important applications for wind energy resource assessment and wind farm design.

  6. Split Photosystem Protein, Linear-Mapping Topology, and Growth of Structural Complexity in the Plastid Genome of

    E-print Network

    Keeling, Patrick

    of zooxanthellae in Australian coral reefs (Moore et al. 2008). The dominant reef symbionts are dino- flagellates architecture and function. Key words: plastid genome evolution, Chromera velia, split protein, linear

  7. THE INFINITE SYMMETRIC PRODUCT AND HOMOLOGY ANDREW VILLADSEN

    E-print Network

    May, J. Peter

    THE INFINITE SYMMETRIC PRODUCT AND HOMOLOGY THEORY ANDREW VILLADSEN Abstract. Following the work. The infinite symmetric product allows the construction of a reduced homology theory on CW com- plexes in terms generated Abelian groups of CW complexes which are Moore spaces. Contents 1. Introduction 1 2. The infinite

  8. Experimental characterization of qutrits using symmetric informationally complete positive operator-valued measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Medendorp, Z. E. D.; Shalm, L. K.; Steinberg, A. M.; Torres-Ruiz, F. A.; Tabia, G. N. M.; Fuchs, C. A.

    2011-05-15

    Generalized quantum measurements [also known as positive operator-valued measures (POVMs)] are of great importance in quantum information and quantum foundations but are often difficult to perform. We present an experimental approach which can in principle be used to perform arbitrary POVMs in a linear-optical context. One of the most interesting POVMs, the symmetric informationally complete (SIC) POVM, is the most compact set of measurements that can be used to fully describe a quantum state. We use our technique to carry out the first experimental characterization of the state of a qutrit using SIC POVMs. Because of the highly symmetric nature of this measurement, such a representation has the unique property that it permits all other measurement outcomes to be predicted by a simple extension of the classical Bayesian sum rule, making no use of complex amplitudes or Hilbert-space operators. We demonstrate this approach on several qutrit states encoded in single photons.

  9. DFT calculations on the cyclic ethers hydrogen-bonded complexes: Molecular parameters and the non-linearity of the hydrogen bond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, B. G.; Araujo, R. C. M. U.; Carvalho, A. B.; Ramos, M. N.

    2007-11-01

    B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) calculations were used to explore the geometry, intermolecular energy and the vibrational harmonic spectrum of heterocyclic complexes formed between 2,5-dihydrofuran and thiophene cyclic ethers and the HCl and HF acids. The simulated structures of these hydrogen complexes are discussed in terms of the linearity deviation of the n⋯HX hydrogen bond. Theoretical results are satisfactory as compared to the experimental equilibrium structure. The energies of the hydrogen bonds were determinate through the difference between the complex and its correspondent isolated monomers. Moreover, to obtain the correct energies of the hydrogen bonds, it was included the values of the zero point vibrational energy and the basis set superposition error. The infrared spectra reveal the direct relationship between the distance of the hydrogen bond and its stretching frequencies, as well as a good interpretation of the bathochromic effect of the HCl and HF stretching modes from intermolecular charge transfer.

  10. A Minimally Symmetric Higgs Boson

    E-print Network

    Ian Low

    2015-06-10

    Models addressing the naturalness of a light Higgs boson typically employ symmetries, either bosonic or fermionic, to stabilize the Higgs mass. We consider a setup with the minimal amount of symmetries: four shift symmetries acting on the four components of the Higgs doublet, subject to the constraints of linearly realized SU(2)xU(1) electroweak symmetry. Up to terms that explicitly violate the shift symmetries, the effective lagrangian can be derived, irrespective of the spontaneously broken group G in the ultraviolet, and is universal in all models where the Higgs arises as a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson (PNGB). Very high energy scatterings of vector bosons could provide smoking gun signals of a minimally symmetric Higgs boson.

  11. Determination of the interaction parameter and topological scaling features of symmetric star polymers in dilute solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Durgesh K.; Beaucage, Gregory; Ratkanthwar, Kedar; Beaucage, Peter; Ramachandran, Ramnath; Hadjichristidis, Nikos

    2015-07-01

    Star polymers provide model architectures to understand the dynamic and rheological effects of chain confinement for a range of complex topological structures like branched polymers, colloids, and micelles. It is important to describe the structure of such macromolecular topologies using small-angle neutron and x-ray scattering to facilitate understanding of their structure-property relationships. Modeling of scattering from linear, Gaussian polymers, such as in the melt, has applied the random phase approximation using the Debye polymer scattering function. The Flory-Huggins interaction parameter can be obtained using neutron scattering by this method. Gaussian scaling no longer applies for more complicated chain topologies or when chains are in good solvents. For symmetric star polymers, chain scaling can differ from ? =0.5 (df=2 ) due to excluded volume, steric interaction between arms, and enhanced density due to branching. Further, correlation between arms in a symmetric star leads to an interference term in the scattering function first described by Benoit for Gaussian chains. In this work, a scattering function is derived which accounts for interarm correlations in symmetric star polymers as well as the polymer-solvent interaction parameter for chains of arbitrary scaling dimension using a hybrid Unified scattering function. The approach is demonstrated for linear, four-arm and eight-arm polyisoprene stars in deuterated p -xylene.

  12. Determination of the interaction parameter and topological scaling features of symmetric star polymers in dilute solution.

    PubMed

    Rai, Durgesh K; Beaucage, Gregory; Ratkanthwar, Kedar; Beaucage, Peter; Ramachandran, Ramnath; Hadjichristidis, Nikos

    2015-07-01

    Star polymers provide model architectures to understand the dynamic and rheological effects of chain confinement for a range of complex topological structures like branched polymers, colloids, and micelles. It is important to describe the structure of such macromolecular topologies using small-angle neutron and x-ray scattering to facilitate understanding of their structure-property relationships. Modeling of scattering from linear, Gaussian polymers, such as in the melt, has applied the random phase approximation using the Debye polymer scattering function. The Flory-Huggins interaction parameter can be obtained using neutron scattering by this method. Gaussian scaling no longer applies for more complicated chain topologies or when chains are in good solvents. For symmetric star polymers, chain scaling can differ from ?=0.5(d(f)=2) due to excluded volume, steric interaction between arms, and enhanced density due to branching. Further, correlation between arms in a symmetric star leads to an interference term in the scattering function first described by Benoit for Gaussian chains. In this work, a scattering function is derived which accounts for interarm correlations in symmetric star polymers as well as the polymer-solvent interaction parameter for chains of arbitrary scaling dimension using a hybrid Unified scattering function. The approach is demonstrated for linear, four-arm and eight-arm polyisoprene stars in deuterated p-xylene. PMID:26274195

  13. Young—Capelli symmetrizers in superalgebras†

    PubMed Central

    Brini, Andrea; Teolis, Antonio G. B.

    1989-01-01

    Let Supern[U [unk] V] be the nth homogeneous subspace of the supersymmetric algebra of U [unk] V, where U and V are Z2-graded vector spaces over a field K of characteristic zero. The actions of the general linear Lie superalgebras pl(U) and pl(V) span two finite-dimensional K-subalgebras B and [unk] of EndK(Supern[U [unk] V]) that are the centralizers of each other. Young—Capelli symmetrizers and Young—Capelli *-symmetrizers give rise to K-linear bases of B and [unk] containing orthogonal systems of idempotents; thus they yield complete decompositions of B and [unk] into minimal left and right ideals, respectively. PMID:16594014

  14. Synthesis, structure, catalytic and calculated non-linear optical properties of cis- and trans-, mer-chlorobis(triphenyl phosphine/triphenyl arsine)-dipicolinato ruthenium III complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trivedi, Manoj; Nagarajan, R.; Kumar, Abhinav; Singh, Narendra K.; Rath, Nigam P.

    2011-05-01

    The new mononuclear Ru III complexes cis-, mer-[Ru( k3-dipic)(EPh 3) 2Cl]·2H 2O (E = P ( 1), As ( 2)), (L = 2,6-pyridyldicarboxylate; dipic) have been synthesized and characterized. The X-ray crystal structure of 1 reveals that the coordination geometry around the Ru III center is distorted octahedral in which three sites are occupied by tridentate dipic ligand and remaining three sites are occupied by two mutually cis triphenyl phosphine ligands and one chloride ions. In chloroform solvent, cis-, mer-[Ru( k3-dipic)(EPh 3) 2Cl]·2H 2O (E = P ( 1), As ( 2)) complexes undergoes thermal rearrangement to more stable trans-, mer-[Ru( k3-dipic)(EPh 3) 2Cl] (E = P( 3), As( 4)) complexes. Complexes 1 and 2 show rhombic EPR spectral features, while complex 3 and 4 show tetragonal distortion. The new Ru III complexes 1 and 2 display both Ru III-Ru II reduction and Ru III-Ru IV oxidation processes. These geometric isomers exhibit textbook differences both in spectroscopic as well as structural properties in the solid state. The new complexes 1 and 2 were found to catalyze the oxidation of alcohols to carbonyl derivatives using N-methyl morpholine- N-oxide as co-oxidant. The first static hyperpolarizability ( ?) for all of the complexes have been investigated by density functional theory (DFT) which suggests ? value increases from trans to cis form. Also, the solvent-induced effects on the non-linear optical properties (NLO) were studied by using self-consistent reaction field (SCRF) method. As the solvent polarity increases, the ? value increases monotonically. The electronic absorption bands of 1 have been assigned by time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT).

  15. Synthesis and spectral studies on metal complexes of s-triazine based ligand and non linear optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanmugakala, R.; Tharmaraj, P.; Sheela, C. D.

    2014-11-01

    A series of transition metal complexes of type [ML] and [ML2]Cl2 (where M = Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II) have synthesized from 2-phenylamino-4,6-dichloro-s-triazine and 3,5-dimethyl pyrazole; their characteristics have been investigated by means of elemental analyses, magnetic susceptibility, molar conductance, IR, UV-Vis, Mass, NMR and ESR spectra. The electrochemical behavior of copper(II) complexes we have studied, by using cyclic voltammetry. The ESR spectra of copper(II) complexes are recorded at 300 K and 77 K and their salient features are appropriately reported. Spectral datas, we found, show that the ligand acts as a neutral tridentate, and coordinates through the triazine ring nitrogen and pyrazolyl ring nitrogen atoms to the metal ion. Evident from our findings, the metal(II) complexes of [ML] type exhibit square pyramidal geometry, and that of [ML2]Cl2 exhibit octahedral geometry. The in vitro antimicrobial activities of the ligand and its complexes are evaluated against Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus mutans, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Cryptococcus neoformans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Serratia marcescens, Shigella flexneri, Vibrio cholera, Vibris parahaemolyticus, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans and Penicillium oxalicum by well-diffusion method. The second harmonic generation efficiency of the ligand and its complexes are determined and compared with urea and KDP.

  16. A free-knot spline modeling framework for piecewise linear logistic regression in complex samples with body mass index and mortality as an example

    PubMed Central

    Keith, Scott W.; Allison, David B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper details the design, evaluation, and implementation of a framework for detecting and modeling nonlinearity between a binary outcome and a continuous predictor variable adjusted for covariates in complex samples. The framework provides familiar-looking parameterizations of output in terms of linear slope coefficients and odds ratios. Estimation methods focus on maximum likelihood optimization of piecewise linear free-knot splines formulated as B-splines. Correctly specifying the optimal number and positions of the knots improves the model, but is marked by computational intensity and numerical instability. Our inference methods utilize both parametric and nonparametric bootstrapping. Unlike other nonlinear modeling packages, this framework is designed to incorporate multistage survey sample designs common to nationally representative datasets. We illustrate the approach and evaluate its performance in specifying the correct number of knots under various conditions with an example using body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) and the complex multi-stage sampling design from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to simulate binary mortality outcomes data having realistic nonlinear sample-weighted risk associations with BMI. BMI and mortality data provide a particularly apt example and area of application since BMI is commonly recorded in large health surveys with complex designs, often categorized for modeling, and nonlinearly related to mortality. When complex sample design considerations were ignored, our method was generally similar to or more accurate than two common model selection procedures, Schwarz’s Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) and Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC), in terms of correctly selecting the correct number of knots. Our approach provided accurate knot selections when complex sampling weights were incorporated, while AIC and BIC were not effective under these conditions. PMID:25610831

  17. Yangian symmetric correlators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicherin, D.; Kirschner, R.

    2013-12-01

    Similarity transformations and eigenvalue relations of monodromy operators composed of Jordan-Schwinger type L matrices are considered and used to define Yangian symmetric correlators of n-dimensional theories. Explicit expressions are obtained and relations are formulated. In this way basic notions of the Quantum inverse scattering method provide a convenient formulation for high symmetry and integrability not only in lower dimensions.

  18. PT-symmetric kinks

    SciTech Connect

    Souza Dutra, A. de; Santos, V. G. C. S. dos; Amaro de Faria, A. C. Jr.

    2007-06-15

    Some kinks for non-Hermitian quantum field theories in 1+1 dimensions are constructed. A class of models where the soliton energies are stable and real are found. Although these kinks are not Hermitian, they are symmetric under PT transformations.

  19. Controlled release of ?-tocopherol, quercetin, and their cyclodextrin inclusion complexes from linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) films into a coconut oil model food system.

    PubMed

    Koontz, J L; Moffitt, R D; Marcy, J E; O'Keefe, S F; Duncan, S E; Long, T E

    2010-11-01

    Polymer additive migration into a food product is dependent upon numerous factors including the original concentration of the additive in the polymer, its solubility in the food, its diffusion coefficient in the polymer, its partition coefficient between the polymer and food, temperature, and time. The limited solubility of quercetin in linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) did not allow release from the film due to phase segregation of the quercetin in the bulk polymer. Increasing the molecular weight of ?-tocopherol by ?-cyclodextrin inclusion complexation can greatly reduce its diffusion coefficient in LLDPE. Ziegler-Natta and metallocene LLDPE contain different crystalline structure morphologies and diffusion path networking arrangements that allow for differences in additive release rates. Effective controlled-release packaging should combine ?-cyclodextrin complexation of additives and polymer morphology control to target delivery of an optimal antioxidant concentration to achieve prolonged activity, resulting in extended shelf life foods. PMID:20672204

  20. Two-component relativistic density functional method for computing nonsingular complex linear response of molecules based on the zeroth order regular approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devarajan, Ajitha; Gaenko, Alexander; Autschbach, Jochen

    2009-05-01

    We report the implementation of a frequency-dependent two-component relativistic density functional theory method based on the zeroth order regular approximation (ZORA) for computations of complex linear response of molecules including spin-orbit coupling. The implementation is based on Slater-type atomic orbital basis functions and makes extensive use of density fitting techniques. The complex response is obtained by applying damping in the computations. The method is validated by computations of the real and imaginary part of the static and dynamic polarizability of group 12 atoms, of a number of heavy-atom diatomic molecules, of a range of two- and three-dimensional gold clusters, and of group 8 oxides and metallocenes. Simulated spectra—a plot of extinction coefficient as a function of frequency—obtained from the isotropic imaginary polarizability are compared to broadened spectra obtained from two-component ZORA excitation energies and oscillator strengths.

  1. Temporal linear mode complexity as a surrogate measure of the effect of remifentanil on the central nervous system in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Byung-Moon; Shin, Da-Huin; Noh, Moon-Ho; Kim, Young-Hac; Jeong, Yong-Bo; Lee, Soo-Han; Lee, Eun-Kyung; Noh, Gyu-Jeong

    2011-01-01

    AIMS Previously, electroencephalographic approximate entropy (ApEn) effectively described both depression of central nervous system (CNS) activity and rebound during and after remifentanil infusion. ApEn is heavily dependent on the record length. Linear mode complexity, which is algorithmatically independent of the record length, was investigated to characterize the effect of remifentanil on the CNS using the combined effect and tolerance, feedback and sigmoid Emax models. METHODS The remifentanil blood concentrations and electroencephalographic data obtained in our previous study were used. With the recording of the electroencephalogram, remifentanil was infused at a rate of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8 µg kg?1 min?1 for 15–20 min. The areas below (AUCeffect) or above (AACrebound) the effect vs. time curve of temporal linear mode complexity (TLMC) and ApEn were calculated to quantitate the decrease of the CNS activity and rebound. The coefficients of variation (CV) of median baseline (E0), maximal (Emax), and individual median E0 minus Emaxvalues of TLMC were compared with those of ApEn. The concentration–TLMC relationship was characterized by population analysis using non-linear mixed effects modelling. RESULTS Median AUCeffectand AACreboundwere 1016 and 5.3 (TLMC), 787 and 4.5 (ApEn). The CVs of individual median E0 minus Emax were 35.6, 32.5% (TLMC, ApEn). The combined effect and tolerance model demonstrated the lowest Akaike information criteria value and the highest positive predictive value of rebound in tolerance. CONCLUSIONS The combined effect and tolerance model effectively characterized the time course of TLMC as a surrogate measure of the effect of remifentanil on the CNS. PMID:21223358

  2. Linear coding of complex sound spectra by discharge rate in neurons of the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) and its inputs

    PubMed Central

    Koka, Kanthaiah; Tollin, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    The interaural level difference (ILD) cue to sound location is first encoded in the lateral superior olive (LSO). ILD sensitivity results because the LSO receives excitatory input from the ipsilateral cochlear nucleus and inhibitory input indirectly from the contralateral cochlear nucleus via glycinergic neurons of the ipsilateral medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB). It is hypothesized that in order for LSO neurons to encode ILDs, the sound spectra at both ears must be accurately encoded via spike rate by their afferents. This spectral-coding hypothesis has not been directly tested in MNTB, likely because MNTB neurons have been mostly described and studied recently in regards to their abilities to encode temporal aspects of sounds, not spectral. Here, we test the hypothesis that MNTB neurons and their inputs from the cochlear nucleus and auditory nerve code sound spectra via discharge rate. The Random Spectral Shape (RSS) method was used to estimate how the levels of 100-ms duration spectrally stationary stimuli were weighted, both linearly and non-linearly, across a wide band of frequencies. In general, MNTB neurons, and their globular bushy cell inputs, were found to be well-modeled by a linear weighting of spectra demonstrating that the pathways through the MNTB can accurately encode sound spectra including those resulting from the acoustical cues to sound location provided by head-related directional transfer functions (DTFs). Together with the anatomical and biophysical specializations for timing in the MNTB-LSO complex, these mechanisms may allow ILDs to be computed for complex stimuli with rapid spectrotemporally-modulated envelopes such as speech and animal vocalizations and moving sound sources. PMID:25565971

  3. Quantum symmetric spaces

    E-print Network

    Donin, J; Donin, J; Shnider, S

    1994-01-01

    Let G be a semisimple Lie group, {\\frak g} its Lie algebra. For any symmetric space M over G we construct a new (deformed) multiplication in the space A of smooth functions on M. This multiplication is invariant under the action of the Drinfeld--Jimbo quantum group U_h{\\frak g} and is commutative with respect to an involutive operator \\tilde{S}: A\\otimes A \\to A\\otimes A. Such a multiplication is unique. Let M be a k\\"{a}hlerian symmetric space with the canonical Poisson structure. Then we construct a U_h{\\frak g}-invariant multiplication in A which depends on two parameters and is a quantization of that structure.

  4. Symmetric modular torsatron

    DOEpatents

    Rome, J.A.; Harris, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    A fusion reactor device is provided in which the magnetic fields for plasma confinement in a toroidal configuration is produced by a plurality of symmetrical modular coils arranged to form a symmetric modular torsatron referred to as a symmotron. Each of the identical modular coils is helically deformed and comprise one field period of the torsatron. Helical segments of each coil are connected by means of toroidally directed windbacks which may also provide part of the vertical field required for positioning the plasma. The stray fields of the windback segments may be compensated by toroidal coils. A variety of magnetic confinement flux surface configurations may be produced by proper modulation of the winding pitch of the helical segments of the coils, as in a conventional torsatron, winding the helix on a noncircular cross section and varying the poloidal and radial location of the windbacks and the compensating toroidal ring coils.

  5. Static cylindrically symmetric spacetimes

    E-print Network

    Mikael Fjallborg

    2007-03-04

    We prove existence of static solutions to the cylindrically symmetric Einstein-Vlasov system, and we show that the matter cylinder has finite extension. The same results are also proved for a quite general class of equations of state for perfect fluids coupled to the Einstein equations, extending the class of equations of state considered in \\cite{BL}. We also obtain this result for the Vlasov-Poisson system.

  6. N>=2 symmetric superpolynomials

    E-print Network

    L. Alarie-Vézina; L. Lapointe; P. Mathieu

    2015-11-16

    The theory of symmetric functions has been extended to the case where each variable is paired with an anticommuting one. The resulting expressions, dubbed superpolynomials, provide the natural N=1 supersymmetric version of the classical bases of symmetric functions. Here we consider the case where two independent anticommuting variables are attached to each ordinary variable. The N=2 super-version of the monomial, elementary, homogeneous symmetric functions, as well as the power sums, are then constructed systematically (using an exterior-differential formalism for the multiplicative bases), these functions being now indexed by a novel type of superpartitions. Moreover, the scalar product of power sums turns out to have a natural N=2 generalization which preserves the duality between the monomial and homogeneous bases. All these results are then generalized to an arbitrary value of N. Finally, for N=2, the scalar product and the homogenous functions are shown to have a one-parameter deformation, a result that prepares the ground for the yet-to-be-defined N=2 Jack superpolynomials.

  7. PT-Symmetric Quantum Liouvillean Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosen, Tomaž

    2012-08-01

    We discuss a combination of unitary and antiunitary symmetry of quantum Liouvillean dynamics, in the context of open quantum systems, which implies a D2 symmetry of the complex Liouvillean spectrum. For sufficiently weak system-bath coupling, it implies a uniform decay rate for all coherences, i.e., off-diagonal elements of the system’s density matrix taken in the eigenbasis of the Hamiltonian. As an example, we discuss symmetrically boundary driven open XXZ spin 1/2 chains.

  8. Complex degree of mutual anisotropy of linear birefringence and optical activity of biological tissues in diagnostics of prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushenko, V. A.; Gorsky, M. P.

    2013-08-01

    We present theoretical fundamentals of polarization and correlation analysis of the optical anisotropy of biological tissues. Results of measurements of coordinate distributions of the complex degree of mutual anisotropy (CDMA) that are formed by birefringent structures of the prostate tissue with benign and malignant changes are compared. Magnitudes and ranges of variation of statistical (the firstto fourth-order distribution moments) and correlation (excess of autocorrelation functions) parameters of the coordinate CDMA distributions of histological sections of the prostate postoperative bioptic material are studied. Objective criteria of the diagnostics of the appearance of pathology and of the differentiation of the degree of its severity are determined.

  9. Plane Symmetric, Cylindrically Symmetric and Spherically Symmetric Black Holes Solutions of Einstein Field Equations

    E-print Network

    Farhad Ali

    2014-12-30

    In this paper we present Plane symmetric, Cylindrically Symmetric and Spherically Symmetric Black hole or Vacuum solutions of Einstein Field Equations(EFEs). Some of these solutions are new which we have not seen in the literature. This calculation will help us in understanding the gravitational wave and gravitational wave spacetimes.

  10. Reversible Switching between Nonquenched and Quenched States in Nanoscale Linear Arrays of Plant Light-Harvesting Antenna Complexes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A simple and robust nanolithographic method that allows sub-100 nm chemical patterning on a range of oxide surfaces was developed in order to fabricate nanoarrays of plant light-harvesting LHCII complexes. The site-specific immobilization and the preserved functionality of the LHCII complexes were confirmed by fluorescence emission spectroscopy. Nanopatterned LHCII trimers could be reversibly switched between fluorescent and quenched states by controlling the detergent concentration in the imaging buffer. A 3-fold quenching of the average fluorescence intensity was accompanied by a decrease in the average (amplitude-weighted) fluorescence lifetime from approximately 2.24 ns to approximately 0.4 ns, attributed to the intrinsic ability of LHCII to switch between fluorescent and quenched states upon changes in its conformational state. The nanopatterning methodology was extended by immobilizing a second protein, the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), onto LHCII-free areas of the chemically patterned surfaces. This very simple surface chemistry, which allows simultaneous selective immobilization and therefore sorting of the two types of protein molecules on the surface, is a key underpinning step toward the integration of LHCII into switchable biohybrid antenna constructs. PMID:24988144

  11. Homogeneous solvation controlled photoreduction of cobalt(III) complexes in aqueous 2-methyl-2-propanol solutions linear solvation energy relationship and cyclic voltammetric analyses.

    PubMed

    Anbalagan, K; Lydia, I Sharmila

    2008-03-01

    The effect of solvent participation on the ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT, L-->Co(III)) reduction of the of Co(III)(en)(2)Br(RC(6)H(4)NH(2))(2+) where R=m-OCH(3), p-F, H, m-CH(3), p-CH(3,)p-OC(2)H(5) and p-OCH(3) were examined in aqueous 2-methyl-2-propanol (Bu(t)OH) solutions. The change in the reduction behavior of Co(III) centre was also examined through cyclic voltammetric studies. The observed reduction in quantum yield due to LMCT excitation can mainly be accounted using linear solvation energy relationship (LSER) comprising model correlation equations. These consist of empirical parameters such as Grunwald-Winstein's solvent ionizing power, Y, Dimroth-Richardt's solvent micro-polarity parameter, E(T)(N), Gutmann's donor number, DN(N), along with Kamlet-Taft's solvatochromic parameters (hydrogen bond acceptor acidity/basicity alpha/beta and solvent dipolarity/polarizability, pi*). The origin of solvent effect is found to be due to microscopic interaction between the solvent donor and the nitrogen-bound hydrogen of the ligand. Cyclic voltammograms show an irreversible reduction of Co(III) in DMF using Glassy Carbon Electrode, GCE, the redox peaks for the aniline complexes appear at -0.20 and 0.525V. Irradiation of the complexes with UV light (lambda=254nm) in binary mixtures produce Co(II)(aq) and the concentration of this species are highly dependent on x(alc) (x(alc)=mole fraction of alcohol). The observed quantum yield (logPhi(Co(II))) is found to be linearly related to mole fraction of organic co-solvent added in the mixture, therefore, logPhi(Co(II))=26.41 x 10(-2) when x(2)=0.0094 and 43.75 x 10(-2) when x(2)=0.076 for a typical complex Co(III)(en)(2)Br(p-OCH(3)C(6)H(4)NH(2))(2+) in aqueous 2-methyl-2-propanol at 300K. Cyclic voltammetry and LSER analyses illustrate the variation of reduction property of Co(III) by the aryl ligand and homogeneous solvation of the excited state of the complex Co(III)(en)(2)Br(RC(6)H(4)NH(2))(2+) in H(2)O/Bu(t)OH mixtures. PMID:17698408

  12. Homogeneous solvation controlled photoreduction of cobalt(III) complexes in aqueous 2-methyl-2-propanol solutions. Linear solvation energy relationship and cyclic voltammetric analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbalagan, K.; Lydia, I. Sharmila

    2008-03-01

    The effect of solvent participation on the ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT, L ? Co III) reduction of the of Co III(en) 2Br(RC 6H 4NH 2) 2+ where R = m-OCH 3, p-F, H, m-CH 3, p-CH 3,p-OC 2H 5 and p-OCH 3 were examined in aqueous 2-methyl-2-propanol (Bu tOH) solutions. The change in the reduction behavior of Co III centre was also examined through cyclic voltammetric studies. The observed reduction in quantum yield due to LMCT excitation can mainly be accounted using linear solvation energy relationship (LSER) comprising model correlation equations. These consist of empirical parameters such as Grunwald-Winstein's solvent ionizing power, Y, Dimroth-Richardt's solvent micro-polarity parameter, ETN, Gutmann's donor number, DN N, along with Kamlet-Taft's solvatochromic parameters (hydrogen bond acceptor acidity/basicity ?/ ? and solvent dipolarity/polarizability, ?*). The origin of solvent effect is found to be due to microscopic interaction between the solvent donor and the nitrogen-bound hydrogen of the ligand. Cyclic voltammograms show an irreversible reduction of Co III in DMF using Glassy Carbon Electrode, GCE, the redox peaks for the aniline complexes appear at -0.20 and 0.525 V. Irradiation of the complexes with UV light ( ? = 254 nm) in binary mixtures produce Co IIaq and the concentration of this species are highly dependent on xalc ( xalc = mole fraction of alcohol). The observed quantum yield (log ?Co(II)) is found to be linearly related to mole fraction of organic co-solvent added in the mixture, therefore, log ?Co(II) = 26.41 × 10 -2 when x2 = 0.0094 and 43.75 × 10 -2 when x2 = 0.076 for a typical complex Co III(en) 2Br( p-OCH 3C 6H 4NH 2) 2+ in aqueous 2-methyl-2-propanol at 300 K. Cyclic voltammetry and LSER analyses illustrate the variation of reduction property of Co(III) by the aryl ligand and homogeneous solvation of the excited state of the complex Co III(en) 2Br(RC 6H 4NH 2) 2+ in H 2O/Bu tOH mixtures.

  13. On the complex non-linear interaction between bacteria and redox dynamics in sediments and its effects on water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Vila, X.; Rubol, S.; Fernandez-Garcia, D.

    2011-12-01

    Despite the fact that the prognoses on the availability of resources related to different climate scenarios have been already formulated, the complex hydrological and biogeochemical reactions taking place in different compartments in natural environmental media are poorly understood, especially regarding the interactions between water bodies, and the reactions taking place at soil-water interfaces. Amongst them, the inter-relationship between hydrology, chemistry and biology has important implications in natural (rivers, lakes) and man-made water facilities (lagoons, artificial recharge pounds, reservoirs, slow infiltration systems, etc). The consequences involve environment, economic, social and health-risk aspects. At the current stage, only limited explanations are available to understand the implications of these relationships on ecosystem services, water quality and water quantity. Therefore, there is an urgent need to seek a full understanding of these physical-biogeochemical processes in water-bodies, sediments and biota and its implications in ecological and health risk. We present a soil column experiment and a mathematical model which aim to study the mutual interplay between water and bacteria activity in porous media, the corresponding dynamics and the feedback on nutrient cycling by using a multidisciplinary approach.

  14. Support graph preconditioners for sparse linear systems 

    E-print Network

    Gupta, Radhika

    2005-02-17

    Elliptic partial differential equations that are used to model physical phenomena give rise to large sparse linear systems. Such systems can be symmetric positive de?nite and can be solved by the preconditioned conjugate gradients method...

  15. LUBAC-Recruited CYLD and A20 Regulate Gene Activation and Cell Death by Exerting Opposing Effects on Linear Ubiquitin in Signaling Complexes.

    PubMed

    Draber, Peter; Kupka, Sebastian; Reichert, Matthias; Draberova, Helena; Lafont, Elodie; de Miguel, Diego; Spilgies, Lisanne; Surinova, Silvia; Taraborrelli, Lucia; Hartwig, Torsten; Rieser, Eva; Martino, Luigi; Rittinger, Katrin; Walczak, Henning

    2015-12-15

    Ubiquitination and deubiquitination are crucial for assembly and disassembly of signaling complexes. LUBAC-generated linear (M1) ubiquitin is important for signaling via various immune receptors. We show here that the deubiquitinases CYLD and A20, but not OTULIN, are recruited to the TNFR1- and NOD2-associated signaling complexes (TNF-RSC and NOD2-SC), at which they cooperate to limit gene activation. Whereas CYLD recruitment depends on its interaction with LUBAC, but not on LUBAC's M1-chain-forming capacity, A20 recruitment requires this activity. Intriguingly, CYLD and A20 exert opposing effects on M1 chain stability in the TNF-RSC and NOD2-SC. While CYLD cleaves M1 chains, and thereby sensitizes cells to TNF-induced death, A20 binding to them prevents their removal and, consequently, inhibits cell death. Thus, CYLD and A20 cooperatively restrict gene activation and regulate cell death via their respective activities on M1 chains. Hence, the interplay between LUBAC, M1-ubiquitin, CYLD, and A20 is central for physiological signaling through innate immune receptors. PMID:26670046

  16. Sequential karyotyping in Burkitt lymphoma reveals a linear clonal evolution with increase in karyotype complexity and a high frequency of recurrent secondary aberrations.

    PubMed

    Aukema, Sietse M; Theil, Laura; Rohde, Marius; Bauer, Benedikt; Bradtke, Jutta; Burkhardt, Birgit; Bonn, Bettina R; Claviez, Alexander; Gattenlöhner, Stefan; Makarova, Olga; Nagel, Inga; Oschlies, Ilske; Pott, Christiane; Szczepanowski, Monika; Traulsen, Arne; Kluin, Philip M; Klapper, Wolfram; Siebert, Reiner; Murga Penas, Eva M

    2015-09-01

    Typical Burkitt lymphoma is characterized by an IG-MYC translocation and overall low genomic complexity. Clinically, Burkitt lymphoma has a favourable prognosis with very few relapses. However, the few patients experiencing disease progression and/or relapse have a dismal outcome. Here we report cytogenetic findings of seven cases of Burkitt lymphoma in which sequential karyotyping was performed at time of diagnosis and/or disease progression/relapse(s). After case selection, karyotype re-review and additional molecular analyses were performed in six paediatric cases, treated in Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster-Non-Hodgkin lymphoma study group trials, and one additional adult patient. Moreover, we analysed 18 cases of Burkitt lymphoma from the Mitelman database in which sequential karyotyping was performed. Our findings show secondary karyotypes to have a significant increase in load of cytogenetic aberrations with a mean number of 2, 5 and 8 aberrations for primary, secondary and third investigations. Importantly, this increase in karyotype complexity seemed to result from recurrent secondary chromosomal changes involving mainly trisomy 21, gains of 1q and 7q, losses of 6q, 11q, 13q, and 17p. In addition, our findings indicate a linear clonal evolution to be the predominant manner of cytogenetic evolution. Our data may provide a biological framework for the dismal outcome of progressive and relapsing Burkitt lymphoma. PMID:26104998

  17. Stability Analysis of Axial Reflection Symmetric Spacetime

    E-print Network

    M. Sharif; M. Zaeem Ul Haq Bhatti

    2015-12-08

    In this paper, we explore instability regions of non-static axial reflection symmetric spacetime with anisotropic source in the interior. We impose linear perturbation on the Einstein field equations and dynamical equations to establish the collapse equation. The effects of different physical factors like energy density and anisotropic stresses on the instability regions are studied under Newtonian and post-Newtonian limits. We conclude that stiffness parameter has a significant role in this analysis while the reflection terms increase instability ranges of non-static axial collapse.

  18. Stability of Reflection Symmetric Collapsing Structures

    E-print Network

    M. Sharif; M. Zaeem Ul Haq Bhatti

    2015-05-25

    In this paper, we explore instability regions of non-static axial reflection symmetric spacetime with anisotropic source in the interior. We impose linear perturbation on the Einstein field equations and dynamical equations to establish the collapse equation. The effects of different physical factors like energy density and anisotropic stresses on the instability regions are studied under Newtonian and post-Newtonian limits. We conclude that stiffness parameter has a significant role in this analysis while the reflection terms increase instability ranges of non-static axial collapse.

  19. Stability analysis of axial reflection symmetric spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif, M.; Bhatti, M. Zaeem Ul Haq

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explore instability regions of non-static axial reflection symmetric spacetime with anisotropic source in the interior. We impose linear perturbation on the Einstein field equations and dynamical equations to establish the collapse equation. The effects of different physical factors like energy density and anisotropic stresses on the instability regions are studied under Newtonian and post-Newtonian limits. We conclude that stiffness parameter has a significant role in this analysis while the reflection terms increase instability ranges of non-static axial collapse.

  20. Thin-shell wormholes: Linearization stability

    SciTech Connect

    Poisson, E.; Visser, M.

    1995-12-15

    The class of spherically symmetric thin-shell wormholes provides a particularly elegant collection of exemplars for the study of traversable Lorentzian wormholes. In the present paper we consider linearized (spherically symmetric) perturbations around some assumed static solution of the Einstein field equations. This permits us to relate stability issues to the (linearized) equation of state of the exotic matter which is located at the wormhole throat. {copyright} 1995 The American Physical Society.

  1. Ferromagnetic coupling in d(1)-d(3) linear oxido-bridged heterometallic complexes: ground-state models of metal-to-metal charge transfer excited states.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tao; Wu, Xinyuan; Song, Xiao; Xu, Hao; Smirnova, Tatyana I; Weare, Walter W; Sommer, Roger D

    2015-10-27

    Convenient strategies have been developed to synthesize heterobi/trimetallic oxido complexes containing V(iv)-O-Cr(iii), V(iv)-O-Cr(iii)-O-Ti(iv) and V(iv)-O-Cr(iii)-O-V(iv) cores. These compounds can serve as ground state models for probing the magnetic properties of metal-to-metal charge transfer excited states. Each of these complexes represents the first experimental demonstration of ferromagnetic coupling in a d(1)-d(3) oxido bridged compound, which confirms a long standing theoretical prediction for such a linkage. Structural characterization reveals a similar structure for each of the bi/trimetallic complexes with identical V[double bond, length as m-dash]O bond lengths (?1.644 Å) and a linear V-O-Cr geometry. The Cr-O distances (1.943-1.964 Å) are significantly influenced by the ligands in the trans axial positions. Ferromagnetic coupling between the V(iv) and Cr(iii) of V-O-Cr is measured by temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility, showing J = +42.5 to +50.7 cm(-1) (H = -2J?V?Cr). This is further supported by variable temperature X-band EPR. The values of J are found to be consistent with the function J = Ae(?r) (A = 9.221 × 10(8) and ? = 8.607 Å(-1)), where r is the Cr-O bond distance. We propose a model that links either ferromagnetic or antiferromagentic exchange coupling with long excited state lifetimes in metal-to-metal charge transfer (MMCT) chromophores. PMID:26466862

  2. Mutations in NDUFB11, encoding a complex I component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, cause microphthalmia with linear skin defects syndrome.

    PubMed

    van Rahden, Vanessa A; Fernandez-Vizarra, Erika; Alawi, Malik; Brand, Kristina; Fellmann, Florence; Horn, Denise; Zeviani, Massimo; Kutsche, Kerstin

    2015-04-01

    Microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome is an X-linked male-lethal disorder also known as MIDAS (microphthalmia, dermal aplasia, and sclerocornea). Additional clinical features include neurological and cardiac abnormalities. MLS syndrome is genetically heterogeneous given that heterozygous mutations in HCCS or COX7B have been identified in MLS-affected females. Both genes encode proteins involved in the structure and function of complexes III and IV, which form the terminal segment of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC). However, not all individuals with MLS syndrome carry a mutation in either HCCS or COX7B. The majority of MLS-affected females have severe skewing of X chromosome inactivation, suggesting that mutations in HCCS, COX7B, and other as-yet-unidentified X-linked gene(s) cause selective loss of cells in which the mutated X chromosome is active. By applying whole-exome sequencing and filtering for X-chromosomal variants, we identified a de novo nonsense mutation in NDUFB11 (Xp11.23) in one female individual and a heterozygous 1-bp deletion in a second individual, her asymptomatic mother, and an affected aborted fetus of the subject's mother. NDUFB11 encodes one of 30 poorly characterized supernumerary subunits of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, known as complex I (cI), the first and largest enzyme of the MRC. By shRNA-mediated NDUFB11 knockdown in HeLa cells, we demonstrate that NDUFB11 is essential for cI assembly and activity as well as cell growth and survival. These results demonstrate that X-linked genetic defects leading to the complete inactivation of complex I, III, or IV underlie MLS syndrome. Our data reveal an unexpected role of cI dysfunction in a developmental phenotype, further underscoring the existence of a group of mitochondrial diseases associated with neurocutaneous manifestations. PMID:25772934

  3. Mutations in NDUFB11, Encoding a Complex I Component of the Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain, Cause Microphthalmia with Linear Skin Defects Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    van Rahden, Vanessa A.; Fernandez-Vizarra, Erika; Alawi, Malik; Brand, Kristina; Fellmann, Florence; Horn, Denise; Zeviani, Massimo; Kutsche, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome is an X-linked male-lethal disorder also known as MIDAS (microphthalmia, dermal aplasia, and sclerocornea). Additional clinical features include neurological and cardiac abnormalities. MLS syndrome is genetically heterogeneous given that heterozygous mutations in HCCS or COX7B have been identified in MLS-affected females. Both genes encode proteins involved in the structure and function of complexes III and IV, which form the terminal segment of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC). However, not all individuals with MLS syndrome carry a mutation in either HCCS or COX7B. The majority of MLS-affected females have severe skewing of X chromosome inactivation, suggesting that mutations in HCCS, COX7B, and other as-yet-unidentified X-linked gene(s) cause selective loss of cells in which the mutated X chromosome is active. By applying whole-exome sequencing and filtering for X-chromosomal variants, we identified a de novo nonsense mutation in NDUFB11 (Xp11.23) in one female individual and a heterozygous 1-bp deletion in a second individual, her asymptomatic mother, and an affected aborted fetus of the subject’s mother. NDUFB11 encodes one of 30 poorly characterized supernumerary subunits of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, known as complex I (cI), the first and largest enzyme of the MRC. By shRNA-mediated NDUFB11 knockdown in HeLa cells, we demonstrate that NDUFB11 is essential for cI assembly and activity as well as cell growth and survival. These results demonstrate that X-linked genetic defects leading to the complete inactivation of complex I, III, or IV underlie MLS syndrome. Our data reveal an unexpected role of cI dysfunction in a developmental phenotype, further underscoring the existence of a group of mitochondrial diseases associated with neurocutaneous manifestations. PMID:25772934

  4. Weyl symmetric structure of QCD vacuum

    E-print Network

    Y. M. Cho; D. G. Pak; P. M. Zhang; L. P. Zou

    2012-09-12

    We consider Weyl symmetric structure of the classical vacuum in quantum chromodynamics. In the framework of formalism of gauge invariant Abelian projection we show that classical vacuums can be constructed in terms of Killing vector fields on the group SU(3). Consequently, homotopic classes of Killing vector fields determine the topological structure of the vacuum. In particular, the second homotopy group \\pi_2(SU(3)/U(1)\\times U(1)) describes all topologically non-equivalent vacuums which are classified by two topological numbers. For each given Killing vector field one can construct six vacuums forming Weyl sextet representation. An interesting feature of SU(3) gauge theory is that it admits a Weyl symmetric vacuum represented by a linear superposition of the six vacuums from the Weyl vacuum sextet. A non-trivial manifestation of Weyl symmetry is demonstrated on monopole solutions. We construct a family of finite energy monopole solutions in Yang-Mills-Higgs theory which includes Weyl monopole sextet. From the analysis of the classical vacuum structure and monopole solutions we conjecture that a similar Weyl symmetric vacuum structure can be realized in quantum theory.

  5. Symmetric chains, Gelfand-Tsetlin chains, and the Terwilliger algebra of the binary Hamming scheme

    E-print Network

    Srinivasan, Murali K.

    of Mobi Abstract The de Bruijn-Tengbergen-Kruyswijk (BTK) construction is a simple algo- rithm that produces an explicit symmetric chain decomposition of a product of chains. We linearize the BTK algorithm) symmetric Gelfand-Tsetlin basis. 1 Introduction The de Bruijn-Tengbergen-Kruyswijk (BTK) construction

  6. Decay Structure for Symmetric Hyperbolic Systems with Non-Symmetric Relaxation and its Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Yoshihiro; Duan, Renjun; Kawashima, Shuichi

    2012-07-01

    This paper is concerned with the decay structure for linear symmetric hyperbolic systems with relaxation. When the relaxation matrix is symmetric, the dissipative structure of the systems is completely characterized by the Kawashima-Shizuta stability condition formulated in Umeda et al. (Jpn J Appl Math 1:435-457, 1984) and Shizuta and Kawashima (Hokkaido Math J 14:249-275, 1985) and we obtain the asymptotic stability result together with the explicit time-decay rate under that stability condition. However, some physical models which satisfy the stability condition have non-symmetric relaxation term (for example, the Timoshenko system and the Euler-Maxwell system). Moreover, it had been already known that the dissipative structure of such systems is weaker than the standard type and is of the regularity-loss type (see Duan in J Hyperbolic Differ Equ 8:375-413, 2011; Ide et al. in Math Models Meth Appl Sci 18:647-667, 2008; Ide and Kawashima in Math Models Meth Appl Sci 18:1001-1025, 2008; Ueda et al. in SIAM J Math Anal 2012; Ueda and Kawashima in Methods Appl Anal 2012). Therefore our purpose in this paper is to formulate a new structural condition which includes the Kawashima-Shizuta condition, and to analyze the weak dissipative structure for general systems with non-symmetric relaxation.

  7. Asymmetric intermolecular Pauson-Khand reaction of symmetrically substituted alkynes.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yining; Riera, Antoni; Verdaguer, Xavier

    2009-10-01

    The asymmetric intermolecular Pauson-Khand reaction of symmetric alkynes has been accomplished for the first time. N-Phosphino-p-tolylsulfinamide (PNSO) ligands have been identified as efficient ligands in this process. The chirality of the cobalt S-bonded sulfinyl moiety was found to direct olefin insertion into one of the two possible cobalt-carbon bonds in the alkyne complex. Reaction of symmetric alkynes allows for a simplified experimental protocol since there is no need for separation of diastereomeric complexes. PMID:19739661

  8. A theoretical investigation of the energetics and spectroscopic properties of the gas-phase linear proton-bound cation-molecule complexes, XCH(+)-N2 (X = O, S).

    PubMed

    Begum, Samiyara; Subramanian, Ranga

    2016-01-01

    The structural features, spectroscopic properties, and interaction energies of the linear proton-bound complexes of OCH(+) and its sulfur analog SCH(+) with N2 were investigated using the high-level ab initio methods MP2 and CCSD(T) as well as density functional theory with the aug-cc-pVXZ (X = D, T) basis sets. The rotational constants along with the vibrational frequencies of the cation-molecule complexes are reported here. A comparison of the interaction energies of the OCH(+)-N2 and SCH(+)-N2 complexes with those of the OCH(+)-CO and OCH(+)-OC complexes was also performed. The energies of all the complexes were determined at the complete basis set (CBS) limit. CS shows higher proton affinity at the C site than CO does, so the complex OCH(+)-N2 is relatively strongly bound and has a higher interaction energy than the SCH(+)-N2 complex. Symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) was used to decompose the total interaction energies of the complexes into the attractive electrostatic interaction energy (E elst), induction energy (E ind), dispersion energy (E disp), and repulsive exchange energy (E exch). We found that the ratio of E ind to E disp is large for these linear proton-bound complexes, meaning that inductive effects are favored in these complexes. The bonding characteristics of the linear complexes were elucidated using natural bond orbital (NBO) theory. NBO analysis showed that the attractive interaction is caused by NBO charge transfer from the lone pair on N to the ?*(C-H) antibonding orbital in XCH(+)-N2 (X = O, S). The quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) was used to analyze the strengths of the various bonds within and between the cation and molecule in each of these proton-bound complexes in terms of the electron density at bond critical points (BCP). Graphical Abstract Linear proton-bound complexes of OCH(+)-N2 and SCH(+)-N2. In these complexes, inductive effect is favored over dispersive effect. The attractive interaction is the NBO charge transfer from N-lone pair of N2 to CH ?* antibonding orbital of XCH(+) (X = O, S). PMID:26645810

  9. Some symmetric boundary value problems and non-symmetric solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arioli, Gianni; Koch, Hans

    2015-07-01

    We consider the equation - ?u = wf? (u) on a symmetric bounded domain in Rn with Dirichlet boundary conditions. Here w is a positive function or measure that is invariant under the (Euclidean) symmetries of the domain. We focus on solutions u that are positive and/or have a low Morse index. Our results are concerned with the existence of non-symmetric solutions and the non-existence of symmetric solutions. In particular, we construct a solution u for the disk in R2 that has index 2 and whose modulus | u | has only one reflection symmetry. We also provide a corrected proof of [12, Theorem 1].

  10. The linear-ordered collagen scaffold-BDNF complex significantly promotes functional recovery after completely transected spinal cord injury in canine.

    PubMed

    Han, Sufang; Wang, Bin; Jin, Wei; Xiao, Zhifeng; Li, Xing; Ding, Wenyong; Kapur, Meghan; Chen, Bing; Yuan, Baoyu; Zhu, Tiansheng; Wang, Handong; Wang, Jing; Dong, Qun; Liang, Weibang; Dai, Jianwu

    2015-02-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is still a worldwide clinical challenge for which there is no viable therapeutic method. We focused on developing combinatorial methods targeting the complex pathological process of SCI. In this study, we implanted linear-ordered collagen scaffold (LOCS) fibers with collagen binding brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) by tagging a collagen-binding domain (CBD) (LOCS + CBD-BDNF) in completely transected canine SCI with multisystem rehabilitation to validate its potential therapeutic effect through a long-term (38 weeks) observation. We found that LOCS + CBD-BDNF implants strikingly promoted locomotion and functional sensory recovery, with some dogs standing unassisted and transiently moving. Further histological analysis showed that administration of LOCS + CBD-BDNF reduced lesion volume, decreased collagen deposits, promoted axon regeneration and improved myelination, leading to functional recovery. Collectively, LOCS + CBD-BDNF showed striking therapeutic effect on completely transected canine SCI model and it is the first time to report such breakthrough in the war with SCI. Undoubtedly, it is a potentially promising therapeutic method for SCI paralysis or other movement disorders caused by neurological diseases in the future. PMID:25522968

  11. Linear electric field mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    McComas, David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Nordholt, Jane E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01

    A mass spectrometer and methods for mass spectrometry. The apparatus is compact and of low weight and has a low power requirement, making it suitable for use on a space satellite and as a portable detector for the presence of substances. High mass resolution measurements are made by timing ions moving through a gridless cylindrically symmetric linear electric field.

  12. Linear electric field mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    McComas, D.J.; Nordholt, J.E.

    1992-12-01

    A mass spectrometer and methods for mass spectrometry are described. The apparatus is compact and of low weight and has a low power requirement, making it suitable for use on a space satellite and as a portable detector for the presence of substances. High mass resolution measurements are made by timing ions moving through a gridless cylindrically symmetric linear electric field. 8 figs.

  13. Spatiotemporal localized modes in PT-symmetric optical media

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yue-Yue; Dai, Chao-Qing Wang, Xiao-Gang

    2014-09-15

    We firstly obtain spatiotemporal localized mode solutions of a (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation in PT-symmetric potentials, and then discuss the linear stability of LMs, which are also tested by means of direct simulations. Moreover, phase switches and transverse power-flow density associated with these localized modes have also been examined. At last, we investigate the dynamical behaviors of spatiotemporal LMs in three kinds of inhomogeneous media. - Highlights: • Spatiotemporal LMs of a (3+1)-dimensional NLSE in PT-symmetric potentials are obtained. • Phase switches and transverse power-flow density of LM are examined. • Dynamical behaviors of LMs in three kinds of inhomogeneous media are studied.

  14. A new axis-symmetric, multigrid based Stokes solver for compressible flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weismüller, J.; Mohr, M.; Bunge, H.-P.

    2012-04-01

    Mantle convection is governed by the conservation of momentum and mass, yielding the Stokes equations, and the conservation of energy. We solve these equations for a compressible Newtonian fluid with infinite Prandtl number, using finite elements on a 2d annulus. A Conjugate Gradient method together with a Multigrid solver is used to solve the resulting linear system of equations. Parallelization for symmetric multiprocessing architectures enables fast calculations at the resolutions necessary to resolve convection patterns at earth-like Rayleigh numbers. Mathematical formulations that are similar to those of the 3d mantle convection code TERRA together with a modular design enable us to use the code as a framework to test various discretization approaches. Also, different Multigrid designs can be selected, yielding distinctive cycling patterns and smoothers. These can be applied to several levels of complexity in the original problem, currently ranging from the Poisson equation to compressible Stokes flow.

  15. Integrability and Vesture for Axially Symmetric Harmonic Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beheshti, Shabnam; Tahvildar-Zadeh, Shadi

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the interrelationship between integrability, inverse-scattering (ISM), and vesture for harmonic maps into symmetric spaces. Motivated by the application of ISM to the Einstein Equations in the case of stationary, axisymmetric metrics, we show that the equations for an axially symmetric harmonic map of R3 into a symmetric space G/K are completely integrable. Furthermore, new solutions for these equations can be generated starting from a given seed solution. As an application to General Relativity, we consider the problem of finding N-solitonic harmonic maps into the noncompact Grassmann manifolds SU(p, q)/S(U(p) × U(q)) and find it is completely reducible via dressing to a problem in linear algebra. We indicate directions for further investigation.

  16. The Generalized Sidelobe Canceller Based on Quaternion Widely Linear Processing

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Jian-wu; Chang, Wen-xiu

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the problem of quaternion beamforming based on widely linear processing. First, a quaternion model of linear symmetric array with two-component electromagnetic (EM) vector sensors is presented. Based on array's quaternion model, we propose the general expression of a quaternion semiwidely linear (QSWL) beamformer. Unlike the complex widely linear beamformer, the QSWL beamformer is based on the simultaneous operation on the quaternion vector, which is composed of two jointly proper complex vectors, and its involution counterpart. Second, we propose a useful implementation of QSWL beamformer, that is, QSWL generalized sidelobe canceller (GSC), and derive the simple expressions of the weight vectors. The QSWL GSC consists of two-stage beamformers. By designing the weight vectors of two-stage beamformers, the interference is completely canceled in the output of QSWL GSC and the desired signal is not distorted. We derive the array's gain expression and analyze the performance of the QSWL GSC in the presence of one type of interference. The advantage of QSWL GSC is that the main beam can always point to the desired signal's direction and the robustness to DOA mismatch is improved. Finally, simulations are used to verify the performance of the proposed QSWL GSC. PMID:24955425

  17. Integrable deformations of strings on symmetric spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollowood, Timothy J.; Miramontes, J. Luis; Schmidtt, David M.

    2014-11-01

    A general class of deformations of integrable sigma-models with symmetric space F/G target-spaces are found. These deformations involve defining the non-abelian T dual of the sigma-model and then replacing the coupling of the Lagrange multiplier imposing flatness with a gauged F/F WZW model. The original sigma-model is obtained in the limit of large level. The resulting deformed theories are shown to preserve both integrability and the equations-of-motion, but involve a deformation of the symplectic structure. It is shown that this deformed symplectic structure involves a linear combination of the original Poisson bracket and a generalization of the Faddeev-Reshetikhin Poisson bracket which we show can be re-expressed as two decoupled F current algebras. It is then shown that the deformation can be incorporated into the classical model of strings on via a generalization of the Pohlmeyer reduction. In this case, in the limit of large sigma-model coupling it is shown that the theory becomes the relativistic symmetric space sine-Gordon theory. These results point to the existence of a deformation of this kind for the full Green-Schwarz superstring on AdS5 × S 5.

  18. Rotationally symmetric operators for surface interpolation

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, M.; Horn, B.K.P.

    1982-01-01

    The use of rotationally symmetric operators in vision is reviewed and conditions for rotational symmetry are derived for linear and quadratic forms in the first and second partial directional derivatives of a function f(x,y). Surface interpolation is considered to be the process of computing the most conservative solution consistent with boundary conditions. The 'most conservative' solution is modelled using the calculus of variations to find the minimum function that satisfies a given performance index. To guarantee the existence of a minimum function, Grimson has recently suggested that the performance index should be a seminorm. It is shown that all quadratic forms in the second partial derivatives of the surface satisfy this criterion. The seminorms that are, in addition, rotationally symmetric form a vector space whose basis is the square Laplacian and the quadratic variation. Whereas both seminorms give rise to the same Euler condition in the interior, the quadratic variation offers the tighter constraint at the boundary and is to be preferred for surface interpolation.

  19. Powers of Symmetric Differential Operators I

    E-print Network

    Bruce K. Driver; Pun Wai Tong

    2015-10-30

    Let $L$ be a linear symmetric differential operators on $L^{2}\\left( \\mathbb{R}\\right) $ whose domain is the Schwartz test function space, $\\mathcal{S}.$ For the majority of this paper, it is assumed that the coefficient of $L$ are polynomial functions on $\\mathbb{R}.$ We will give criteria on the polynomial coefficients of $L$ which guarantees that $L$ is essentially self-adjoint, $\\bar{L}\\geq-CI$ for some $C0,$ in the coefficients is used to provide a large class of operators satisfying the hypotheses in our another paper "On the classical limit of quantum mechanics" (will be submitted very soon) where a strong form of the classical limit of quantum mechanics is shown to hold.

  20. Bunch-Kaufman factorization for real symmetric indefinite banded matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Mark T.; Patrick, Merrell L.

    1989-01-01

    The Bunch-Kaufman algorithm for factoring symmetric indefinite matrices was rejected for banded matrices because it destroys the banded structure of the matrix. Herein, it is shown that for a subclass of real symmetric matrices which arise in solving the generalized eigenvalue problem using Lanczos's method, the Bunch-Kaufman algorithm does not result in major destruction of the bandwidth. Space time complexities of the algorithm are given and used to show that the Bunch-Kaufman algorithm is a significant improvement over LU factorization.

  1. Universal symmetric cloning: No-signalling and nonlinear quantum mechanics

    E-print Network

    Gedik, Z

    2012-01-01

    We present a pseudo-spin representation for universal symmetric 1-to-M cloning of qubits, including both linear and nonlinear evolutions. We derive a set of equations to be satisfied by the cloning transformation under the no-signalling condition, and find an expression for the fidelity. We further introduce the linearity constraint, and obtain the unique universal symmetric quantum cloning machine for "an arbitrary" fidelity. No-signalling condition alone leads to fidelities higher than those of the quantum machines, and the maximum value converges to 3/4 rather than the optimal quantum limit of 2/3. We introduce the "prime cloners" whose fidelities have multiplicative property and show that the infinite copy limit of the prime cloners is 1/2.

  2. The Symmetric Chiral Field Equation

    E-print Network

    Yaron Hadad

    2013-09-24

    The reduction problem of the chiral field equation on symmetric spaces is studied. It is shown that the symmetric chiral field has infinitely many local conservation laws. A recursive formula for these conservation laws is derived and the first associated integral of motion are given explicitly. Furthermore, the Zakharov-Mikhailov (inverse scattering) transform is used to derive explicit formulas for the N-soliton solution on arbitrary diagonal background. The solitons' properties and interactions are analyzed. Such solitons are naturally related to gravitational solitons of Einstein's field equations, and this result is used to clarify why the latter do not have fixed amplitude and velocities (unlike `classical' solitons). Finally, it is proven that the symmetric chiral field (matrix) equation is equivalent to a single scalar equation, which in turn, is equivalent to the Sine-Gordon equation.

  3. A linear Hf isotope-age array despite different granitoid sources and complex Archean geodynamics: Example from the Pietersburg block (South Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Oscar; Zeh, Armin

    2015-11-01

    Combined U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope data from zircon populations are widely used to constrain Hadean-Archean crustal evolution. Linear Hf isotope-age arrays are interpreted to reflect the protracted, internal reworking of crust derived from the (depleted) mantle during a short-lived magmatic event, and related 176Lu/177Hf ratios are used to constrain the composition of the reworked crustal reservoir. Results of this study, however, indicate that Hf isotope-age arrays can also result from complex geodynamic processes and crust-mantle interactions, as shown by U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope analyses of zircons from well characterized granitoids of the Pietersburg Block (PB), northern Kaapvaal Craton (South Africa). Apart from scarce remnants of Paleoarchean crust, most granitoids of the PB with ages between 2.94 and 2.05 Ga (n = 32) define a straight Hf isotope-age array with low 176Lu/177Hf of 0.0022, although they show a wide compositional range, were derived from various sources and emplaced successively in different geodynamic settings. The crustal evolution occurred in five stages: (I) predominately mafic crust formation in an intra-oceanic environment (3.4-3.0 Ga); (II) voluminous TTG crust formation in an early accretionary orogen (3.0-2.92 Ga); (III) internal TTG crust reworking and subduction of TTG-derived sediments in an Andean-type setting (2.89-2.75 Ga); (IV) (post-)collisional high-K magmatism from both mantle and crustal sources (2.71-2.67 Ga); and (V) alkaline magmatism in an intra-cratonic environment (2.05-2.03 Ga). The inferred array results from voluminous TTG crust formation during stage II, and involvement of this crust during all subsequent stages by two different processes: (i) internal crust reworking through both partial melting and assimilation at 2.89-2.75 Ga, leading to the formation of biotite granites coeval with minor TTGs, and (ii) subduction of TTG-derived sediments underneath the PB, causing enrichment of the mantle that subsequently became source for high-K granitoids and mafic rocks at 2.68 and 2.05 Ga. Some scatter along the array might have resulted either from significant assimilation of ancient crust, intracrustal Lu/Hf fractionation or melting of heterogeneous mantle sources. Those results show that without any information about the nature and composition of zircon-hosting granitoids, Hf isotope-age data are of limited use to constrain Hadean-Archean magmatogenesis and geodynamics.

  4. Looking for symmetric Bell inequalities

    E-print Network

    Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Pironio, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Finding all Bell inequalities for a given number of parties, measurement settings, and measurement outcomes is in general a computationally hard task. We show that all Bell inequalities which are symmetric under the exchange of parties can be found by examining a symmetrized polytope which is simpler than the full Bell polytope. As an illustration of our method, we generate 238885 new Bell inequalities and 1085 new Svetlichny inequalities. We find, in particular, facet inequalities for Bell experiments involving two parties and two measurement settings that are not of the Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu type.

  5. Duality in linearized gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Henneaux, Marc; Teitelboim, Claudio

    2005-01-15

    We show that duality transformations of linearized gravity in four dimensions, i.e., rotations of the linearized Riemann tensor and its dual into each other, can be extended to the dynamical fields of the theory so as to be symmetries of the action and not just symmetries of the equations of motion. Our approach relies on the introduction of two superpotentials, one for the spatial components of the spin-2 field and the other for their canonically conjugate momenta. These superpotentials are two-index, symmetric tensors. They can be taken to be the basic dynamical fields and appear locally in the action. They are simply rotated into each other under duality. In terms of the superpotentials, the canonical generator of duality rotations is found to have a Chern-Simons-like structure, as in the Maxwell case.

  6. Ordinary versus PT-symmetric ?³ quantum field theory

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bender, Carl M.; Branchina, Vincenzo; Messina, Emanuele

    2012-04-02

    A quantum-mechanical theory is PT-symmetric if it is described by a Hamiltonian that commutes with PT, where the operator P performs space reflection and the operator T performs time reversal. A PT-symmetric Hamiltonian often has a parametric region of unbroken PT symmetry in which the energy eigenvalues are all real. There may also be a region of broken PT symmetry in which some of the eigenvalues are complex. These regions are separated by a phase transition that has been repeatedly observed in laboratory experiments. This paper focuses on the properties of a PT-symmetric ig?³ quantum field theory. This quantum fieldmore »theory is the analog of the PT-symmetric quantum-mechanical theory described by the Hamiltonian H=p²+ix³, whose eigenvalues have been rigorously shown to be all real. This paper compares the renormalization group properties of a conventional Hermitian g?³ quantum field theory with those of the PT-symmetric ig?³ quantum field theory. It is shown that while the conventional g?³ theory in d=6 dimensions is asymptotically free, the ig?³ theory is like a g?? theory in d=4 dimensions; it is energetically stable, perturbatively renormalizable, and trivial.« less

  7. Ordinary versus PT-symmetric ?³ quantum field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, Carl M.; Branchina, Vincenzo; Messina, Emanuele

    2012-04-02

    A quantum-mechanical theory is PT-symmetric if it is described by a Hamiltonian that commutes with PT, where the operator P performs space reflection and the operator T performs time reversal. A PT-symmetric Hamiltonian often has a parametric region of unbroken PT symmetry in which the energy eigenvalues are all real. There may also be a region of broken PT symmetry in which some of the eigenvalues are complex. These regions are separated by a phase transition that has been repeatedly observed in laboratory experiments. This paper focuses on the properties of a PT-symmetric ig?³ quantum field theory. This quantum field theory is the analog of the PT-symmetric quantum-mechanical theory described by the Hamiltonian H=p²+ix³, whose eigenvalues have been rigorously shown to be all real. This paper compares the renormalization group properties of a conventional Hermitian g?³ quantum field theory with those of the PT-symmetric ig?³ quantum field theory. It is shown that while the conventional g?³ theory in d=6 dimensions is asymptotically free, the ig?³ theory is like a g?? theory in d=4 dimensions; it is energetically stable, perturbatively renormalizable, and trivial.

  8. Prior Distributions on Symmetric Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Jayanti; Damien, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Fully and partially ranked data arise in a variety of contexts. From a Bayesian perspective, attention has focused on distance-based models; in particular, the Mallows model and extensions thereof. In this paper, a class of prior distributions, the "Binary Tree," is developed on the symmetric group. The attractive features of the class are: it…

  9. Secure Symmetrical Multilevel Diversity Coding 

    E-print Network

    Li, Shuo

    2012-07-16

    Secure symmetrical multilevel diversity coding (S-SMDC) is a source coding problem, where a total of L - N discrete memoryless sources (S1,...,S_L-N) are to be encoded by a total of L encoders. This thesis considers a natural generalization of SMDC...

  10. Experimental demonstration of optimal universal asymmetric quantum cloning of polarization states of single photons by partial symmetrization

    E-print Network

    Dusek, Miloslav

    Experimental demonstration of optimal universal asymmetric quantum cloning of polarization states asymmetric 12 quantum cloning machine for qubits encoded into polarization states of single photons. Our linear-optical machine performs asymmetric cloning by partially symmetrizing the input polarization state

  11. Explosive condensation in symmetric mass transport models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, Yu-Xi; Connaughton, Colm; Grosskinsky, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    We study the dynamics of condensation in a misanthrope process with nonlinear jump rates and factorized stationary states. For large enough density, it is known that such models have a phase separated state, with a non-zero fraction of the total mass concentrating in a single lattice site. It has been established in [B Waclaw and M R Evans, Phys. Rev. Lett., 108(7):070601, 2012] for asymmetric dynamics that such processes exhibit explosive condensation, where the time to reach the stationary state vanishes with increasing system size. This constitutes a spatially extended version of instantaneous gelation which has previously been studied only in mean-field coagulation models. We show that this phenomenon also occurs for symmetric dynamics in one dimension if the non-linearity is strong enough, and we find a coarsening regime where the time to stationarity diverges with the system size for weak non-linearity. In higher space dimensions explosive condensation is expected to be generic for all parameter values. Our results are based on heuristic mean field arguments which are confirmed by simulation data.

  12. Organometallic complexes of bulky, optically active, C3-symmetric tris(4S-isopropyl-5,5-dimethyl-2-oxazolinyl)phenylborate (ToP *)

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Songchen; Magoon, Yitzhak; Reinig, Regina R.; Schmidt, Bradley M.; Ellern, Arkady; Sadow, Aaron D.

    2015-07-16

    A bulky, optically active monoanionic scorpionate ligand, tris(4S-isopropyl-5,5-dimethyl-2-oxazolinyl)phenylborate (ToP*), is synthesized from the naturally occurring amino acid l-valine as its lithium salt, Li[ToP*] (1). That compound is readily converted to the thallium complex Tl[ToP*] (2) and to the acid derivative H[ToP*] (3). Group 7 tricarbonyl complexes ToP*M(CO)3 (M = Mn (4), Re (5)) are synthesized by the reaction of MBr(CO)5 and Li[ToP*] and are crystallographically characterized. The ?CO bands in their infrared spectra indicate that ? back-donation in the rhenium compounds is greater with ToP* than with non-methylated tris(4S-isopropyl-2-oxazolinyl)phenylborate (ToP). The reaction of H[ToP*] and ZnEt2 gives ToP*ZnEt (6), while ToP*ZnCl (7) is synthesized from Li[ToP*] and ZnCl2. The reaction of ToP*ZnCl and KOtBu followed by addition of PhSiH3 provides the zinc hydride complex ToP*ZnH (8). In this study, compound 8 is the first example of a crystallographically characterized optically active zinc hydride. We tested its catalytic reactivity in the cross-dehydrocoupling of silanes and alcohols, which provided Si-chiral silanes with moderate enantioselectivity.

  13. Linear Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Sidorin, Anatoly

    2010-01-05

    In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.

  14. The first near-linear bis(amide) f-block complex: a blueprint for a high temperature single molecule magnet.

    PubMed

    Chilton, Nicholas F; Goodwin, Conrad A P; Mills, David P; Winpenny, Richard E P

    2015-01-01

    We report the first near-linear bis(amide) 4f-block compound and show that this novel structure, if implemented with dysprosium(III), would have unprecedented single molecule magnet (SMM) properties with an energy barrier, Ueff, for reorientation of magnetization of 1800 cm(-1). PMID:25384179

  15. Distinguishability of the symmetric states

    E-print Network

    M. A. Jafarizadeh; P. Sadeghi; d. Akhgar; P. Mahmoudi

    2015-03-20

    In this paper, the distinguishability of multipartite geometrically uniform quantum states obtained from a single reference state is studied in the symmetric subspace. We specially focus our attention on the unitary transformation in a way that the produced states remain in the symmetric subspace, so rotation group with Jy as the generator of rotation is applied. The optimal probability and measurements are obtained for the pure and some special mixed separable states and the results are compared with those obtained at the previous articles for the special cases. The results are valid for lin- early dependent states. The discrimination of these states is also investigated using the separable measurement. We introduce appropriate transformation to gain the optimal separable measurements equivalent to the optimal global measurements with the same optimal probability.

  16. PT-symmetric phase in kagome photonic lattices

    E-print Network

    Chern, Gia-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Kagome lattice is a two-dimensional network of corner-sharing triangles and is often associated with geometrical frustration. In particular, the frustrated coupling between waveguide modes in a kagome array leads to a dispersionless flat band consisting of spatially localized modes. Here we propose a complex photonic lattice by placing $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric dimers at the kagome lattice points. Each dimer corresponds to a pair of strongly coupled waveguides. With balanced arrangement of gain and loss on individual dimers, the system exhibits a $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric phase for finite gain/loss parameter up to a critical value. The beam evolution in this complex kagome waveguide array exhibits a novel oscillatory rotation of optical power along the propagation distance. Long-lived local chiral structures originating from the nearly flat bands of the kagome structure are observed when the lattice is subject to a narrow beam excitation.

  17. Boson sampling with displaced single-photon Fock states versus single-photon-added coherent states---The quantum-classical divide and computational-complexity transitions in linear optics

    E-print Network

    Kaushik P. Seshadreesan; Jonathan P. Olson; Keith R. Motes; Peter P. Rohde; Jonathan P. Dowling

    2015-02-27

    Boson sampling is a specific quantum computation, which is likely hard to implement efficiently on a classical computer. The task is to sample the output photon number distribution of a linear optical interferometric network, which is fed with single-photon Fock state inputs. A question that has been asked is if the sampling problems associated with any other input quantum states of light (other than the Fock states) to a linear optical network and suitable output detection strategies are also of similar computational complexity as boson sampling. We consider the states that differ from the Fock states by a displacement operation, namely the displaced Fock states and the photon-added coherent states. It is easy to show that the sampling problem associated with displaced single-photon Fock states and a displaced photon number detection scheme is in the same complexity class as boson sampling for all values of displacement. On the other hand, we show that the sampling problem associated with single-photon-added coherent states and the same displaced photon number detection scheme demonstrates a computational complexity transition. It transitions from being just as hard as boson sampling when the input coherent amplitudes are sufficiently small, to a classically simulatable problem in the limit of large coherent amplitudes.

  18. Dust Static Spherically Symmetric Solution in $f(R)$ Gravity

    E-print Network

    Muhammad Sharif; Hafiza Rizwana Kausar

    2011-02-21

    In this paper, we take dust matter and investigate static spherically symmetric solution of the field equations in metric f(R) gravity. The solution is found with constant Ricci scalar curvature and its energy distribution is evaluated by using Landau-Lifshitz energy-momentum complex. We also discuss the stability condition and constant scalar curvature condition for some specific popular choices of f(R) models in addition to their energy distribution.

  19. Real-time detection of DNA cleavage induced by [M(2,2'-bipyridine)2(NO3)](NO3) (M=Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II)) complexes using linear dichroism technique.

    PubMed

    Park, Hee-Jin; Kwon, Ji Hye; Cho, Tae-Sub; Kim, Jong Moon; Hwang, In Hong; Kim, Cheal; Kim, Soojin; Kim, Jinheung; Kim, Seog K

    2013-10-01

    The catalytic effect of [M(2,2'-bipyridine)2(NO3)](NO3) (M(bpy)2, M=Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II)) on the super-coiled and double stranded DNA (scDNA and dsDNA) was examined by electrophoresis and a real-time detection linear dichroism (LD) technique. Although the Cu(bpy)2 complex effectively cleaved both types of DNA, the other two complexes were inactive. This was explained by the electrochemical properties of the metal complexes. The Cu(bpy)2 complex exhibited a redox potential at -0.222V with a peak to peak separation of 0.201V, whereas the other two metal complexes did not undergo any redox reaction. Both electrophoresis and LD measurements revealed the superoxide radical, ·O2(-), to be responsible for DNA cleavage. A kinetic study using the LD technique showed that the cleavage of dsDNA consisted of two first order reactions. The fast reaction is believed to reflect the cleavage of one strand, whereas the slow reaction involves the cleavage of the complementary strand at or near the first cleaved site. PMID:23850668

  20. Molecular structure and tautomerization of the 1:1 complex of luteoskyrin and rugulosin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guang-Xiong; Mo, Shun-Yan; He, Hui-Xiao; Shi, Jian-Gong; Ye, Wen-Cai; Liu, Zhong; Jiang, Ren-Wang

    2010-08-01

    A novel 1:1 natural product complex ( 1) containing luteoskyrin ( 2) and rugulosin ( 3) was isolated from the acetone extract of culture broth of Myrothecium sp. In DMSO solution, the 1H and 13C NMR spectra showed only half proton and carbon signals indicating that both compounds exist as a symmetric enol-enol form. In contrast, in the solid state, X-ray analysis revealed that 2 bound 3 with high specificity through intermolecular hydrogen bonds and ?-? interactions, and both 2 and 3 tautomerized to a non-symmetric enol-ketone form due to the strong linear hydrogen bonding between the ketone group and the alcoholic hydroxyl group. In addition, complex 1 showed potent cytotoxic activity against cell lines KB (human epidermoid carcinoma cell), HT-29 (human colon cancer cell) and 3T3 (mouse embryonic fibroblast cell) with IC 50 values of 0.57, 3.11 and 5.83 ?M, respectively.

  1. Differential complexes and exterior calculus

    E-print Network

    Jenny Harrison

    2006-06-07

    In this paper we present a new theory of calculus over $k$-dimensional domains in a smooth $n$-manifold, unifying the discrete, exterior, and continuum theories. The calculus begins at a single point and is extended to chains of finitely many points by linearity, or superposition. It converges to the smooth continuum with respect to a norm on the space of ``pointed chains,'' culminating in the chainlet complex. Through this complex, we discover a broad theory of coordinate free, multivector analysis in smooth manifolds for which both the classical Newtonian calculus and the Cartan exterior calculus become special cases. The chainlet operators, products and integrals apply to both symmetric and antisymmetric tensor cochains. As corollaries, we obtain the full calculus on Euclidean space, cell complexes, bilayer structures (e.g., soap films) and nonsmooth domains, with equal ease. The power comes from the recently discovered prederivative and preintegral that are antecedent to the Newtonian theory. These lead to new models for the continuum of space and time, and permit analysis of domains that may not be locally Euclidean, or locally connected, or with locally finite mass.

  2. Perturbation theory of a symmetric center within Liénard equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Françoise, Jean-Pierre; Xiao, Dongmei

    2015-09-01

    In this article, we introduce the use of Lambert function to develop further the global perturbation theory of an integrable Liénard equation which displays a symmetric center. We prove a global Morse lemma for the first integral and deduce the existence of an associated Picard-Fuchs system. We revisit previous contributions to first-order perturbation theory with the help of these new analytic techniques and in particular, we check that the fundamental integrals are linearly independent. The Lambert function allows to find an expansion formula for these integrals. We also study the possibility to develop a higher-order perturbation theory. The algorithm of the successive derivatives works in general in the class of analytic functions on the domain D where the level sets of the first integral are ovals. We end the article with some results on the first integral of a symmetric Liénard equation deduced from the algorithm of successive derivatives.

  3. Strong orientational coordinates and orientational order parameters for symmetric objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haji-Akbari, Amir; Glotzer, Sharon C.

    2015-12-01

    Recent advancements in the synthesis of anisotropic macromolecules and nanoparticles have spurred an immense interest in theoretical and computational studies of self-assembly. The cornerstone of such studies is the role of shape in self-assembly and in inducing complex order. The problem of identifying different types of order that can emerge in such systems can, however, be challenging. Here, we revisit the problem of quantifying orientational order in systems of building blocks with non-trivial rotational symmetries. We first propose a systematic way of constructing orientational coordinates for such symmetric building blocks. We call the arising tensorial coordinates strong orientational coordinates (SOCs) as they fully and exclusively specify the orientation of a symmetric object. We then use SOCs to describe and quantify local and global orientational order, and spatiotemporal orientational correlations in systems of symmetric building blocks. The SOCs and the orientational order parameters developed in this work are not only useful in performing and analyzing computer simulations of symmetric molecules or particles, but can also be utilized for the efficient storage of rotational information in long trajectories of evolving many-body systems.

  4. Propagation Effects on the Breakdown of a Linear Amplifier Model: Complex-Mass Schrodinger Equation Driven by the Square of a Gaussian Field

    E-print Network

    Philippe Mounaix; Pierre Collet; Joel L. Lebowitz

    2006-05-02

    Solutions to the equation $\\partial_t{\\cal E}(x,t)-\\frac{i}{2m}\\Delta {\\cal E}(x,t)=\\lambda| S(x,t)|^2{\\cal E}(x,t)$ are investigated, where $S(x,t)$ is a complex Gaussian field with zero mean and specified covariance, and $m\

  5. The effects of linear assembly of two carbazole groups on acid-base and DNA-binding properties of a ruthenium(II) complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi; Xue, Long-Xin; Ju, Chun-Chuan; Wang, Ke-Zhi

    2013-07-01

    A novel Ru(II) complex of [Ru(bpy)2(Hbcpip)](ClO4)2 {where bpy = 2,2-bipyridine, Hbcpip = 2-(4-(9H-3,9'-bicarbazol-9-yl)phenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline} is synthesized and characterized. Calf-thymus DNA-binding properties of the complex were studied by UV-vis absorption and luminescence titrations, steady-state emission quenching by [Fe(CN)6]4-, DNA competitive binding with ethidium bromide, thermal denaturation and DNA viscosity measurements. The results indicate that the complex partially intercalated into the DNA with a binding constant of (5.5 ± 1.4) × 105 M-1 in buffered 50 mM NaCl. The acid-base properties of the complex were also studied by UV-visible and luminescence spectrophotometric pH titrations, and ground- and excited-state acidity ionization constant values were derived.

  6. The Stark Effect in Linear Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinett, R. W.

    2010-01-01

    We examine the Stark effect (the second-order shifts in the energy spectrum due to an external constant force) for two one-dimensional model quantum mechanical systems described by linear potentials, the so-called quantum bouncer (defined by V(z) = Fz for z greater than 0 and V(z) = [infinity] for z less than 0) and the symmetric linear potential…

  7. Spherically symmetric canonical quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahma, Suddhasattwa

    2015-06-01

    Canonical quantization of spherically symmetric space-times is carried out, using real-valued densitized triads and extrinsic curvature components, with specific factor-ordering choices ensuring in an anomaly free quantum constraint algebra. Comparison with previous work [Nucl. Phys. B399, 211 (1993)] reveals that the resulting physical Hilbert space has the same form, although the basic canonical variables are different in the two approaches. As an extension, holonomy modifications from loop quantum gravity are shown to deform the Dirac space-time algebra, while going beyond "effective" calculations.

  8. Dibaryons as axially symmetric skyrmions

    E-print Network

    Thomas, G L; Wirzba, A

    1994-01-01

    Dibaryons configurations are studied in the framework of the bound state soliton model. A generalized axially symmetric ansatz is used to determine the soliton background. We show that once the constraints imposed by the symmetries of the lowest energy torus configuration are satisfied all spurious states are removed from the dibaryon spectrum. In particular, we show that the lowest allowed state in the $S=-2$ channel carries the quantum numbers of the H particle. We find that, within our approximations, this particle is slightly bound in the model. We discuss, however, that vacuum effects neglected in the present calculation are very likely to unbind the H.

  9. Linear Collisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walkiewicz, T. A.; Newby, N. D., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A discussion of linear collisions between two or three objects is related to a junior-level course in analytical mechanics. The theoretical discussion uses a geometrical approach that treats elastic and inelastic collisions from a unified point of view. Experiments with a linear air track are described. (Author/TS)

  10. Drift waves in helically symmetric stellarators

    SciTech Connect

    Rafiq, T.; Hegna, C.

    2005-11-15

    The local linear stability of electron drift waves and ion temperature gradient modes (ITG) is investigated in a quasihelically symmetric (QHS) stellarator and a conventional asymmetric (Mirror) stellarator. The geometric details of the different equilibria are emphasized. Eigenvalue equations for the models are derived using the ballooning mode formalism and solved numerically using a standard shooting technique in a fully three-dimensional stellarator configuration. While the eigenfunctions have a similar shape in both magnetic geometries, they are slightly more localized along the field line in the QHS case. The most unstable electron drift modes are strongly localized at the symmetry points (where stellarator symmetry is present) and in the regions where normal curvature is unfavorable and magnitude of the local magnetic shear and magnetic field is minimum. The presence of a large positive local magnetic shear in the bad curvature region is found to be destabilizing. Electron drift modes are found to be more affected by the normal curvature than by the geodesic curvature. The threshold of stability of the ITG modes in terms of {eta}{sub i} is found to be 2/3 in this fluid model consistent with the smallest threshold for toroidal geometry with adiabatic electrons. Optimization to favorable drift wave stability has small field line curvature, short connection lengths, the proper combination of geodesic curvature and local magnetic shear, large values of local magnetic shear, and the compression of flux surfaces in the unfavorable curvature region.

  11. Calculating vibrational spectra without determining excited eigenstates: Solving the complex linear equations of damped response theory for vibrational configuration interaction and vibrational coupled cluster states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godtliebsen, Ian H.; Christiansen, Ove

    2015-10-01

    It is demonstrated how vibrational IR and Raman spectra can be calculated from damped response functions using anharmonic vibrational wave function calculations, without determining the potentially very many eigenstates of the system. We present an implementation for vibrational configuration interaction and vibrational coupled cluster, and describe how the complex equations can be solved using iterative techniques employing only real trial vectors and real matrix-vector transformations. Using this algorithm, arbitrary frequency intervals can be scanned independent of the number of excited states. Sample calculations are presented for the IR-spectrum of water, Raman spectra of pyridine and a pyridine-silver complex, as well as for the infra-red spectrum of oxazole, and vibrational corrections to the polarizability of formaldehyde.

  12. Calculating vibrational spectra without determining excited eigenstates: Solving the complex linear equations of damped response theory for vibrational configuration interaction and vibrational coupled cluster states.

    PubMed

    Godtliebsen, Ian H; Christiansen, Ove

    2015-10-01

    It is demonstrated how vibrational IR and Raman spectra can be calculated from damped response functions using anharmonic vibrational wave function calculations, without determining the potentially very many eigenstates of the system. We present an implementation for vibrational configuration interaction and vibrational coupled cluster, and describe how the complex equations can be solved using iterative techniques employing only real trial vectors and real matrix-vector transformations. Using this algorithm, arbitrary frequency intervals can be scanned independent of the number of excited states. Sample calculations are presented for the IR-spectrum of water, Raman spectra of pyridine and a pyridine-silver complex, as well as for the infra-red spectrum of oxazole, and vibrational corrections to the polarizability of formaldehyde. PMID:26450293

  13. Geometrodynamics in a spherically symmetric, static crossflow of null dust

    E-print Network

    Zsolt Horváth; Zoltán Kovács; László Á. Gergely

    2006-10-12

    The spherically symmetric, static spacetime generated by a crossflow of non-interacting radiation streams, treated in the geometrical optics limit (null dust) is equivalent to an anisotropic fluid forming a radiation atmosphere of a star. This reference fluid provides a preferred / internal time, which is employed as a canonical coordinate. Among the advantages we encounter a new Hamiltonian constraint, which becomes linear in the momentum conjugate to the internal time (therefore yielding a functional Schr\\"{o}dinger equation after quantization), and a strongly commuting algebra of the new constraints.

  14. Using scaling to compute moments of inertia of symmetric objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricardo, Bernard

    2015-09-01

    Moment of inertia is a very important property in the study of rotational mechanics. The concept of moment of inertia is analogous to mass in the linear motion, and its calculation is routinely done through integration. This paper provides an alternative way to compute moments of inertia of rigid bodies of regular shape using their symmetrical property. This approach will be very useful and preferred for teaching rotational mechanics at the undergraduate level, as it does not require the knowledge or the application of calculus. The seven examples provided in this paper will help readers to understand clearly how to use the method.

  15. Geometrodynamics in a spherically symmetric, static crossflow of null dust

    SciTech Connect

    Horvath, Zsolt; Kovacs, Zoltan; Gergely, Laszlo A.

    2006-10-15

    The spherically symmetric, static space-time generated by a crossflow of noninteracting radiation streams, treated in the geometrical optics limit (null dust), is equivalent to an anisotropic fluid forming a radiation atmosphere of a star. This reference fluid provides a preferred/internal time, which is employed as a canonical coordinate. Among the advantages we encounter a new Hamiltonian constraint, which becomes linear in the momentum conjugate to the internal time (therefore yielding a functional Schroedinger equation after quantization), and a strongly commuting algebra of the new constraints.

  16. Nonlinearly PT-symmetric systems: Spontaneous symmetry breaking and transmission resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Miroshnichenko, Andrey E.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Malomed, Boris A.

    2011-07-15

    We consider a class of PT-symmetric systems which include mutually matched nonlinear loss and gain (in other words, a class of PT-invariant Hamiltonians in which both the harmonic and anharmonic parts are non-Hermitian). For a basic system in the form of a dimer, symmetric and asymmetric eigenstates, including multistable ones, are found analytically. We demonstrate that, if coupled to a linear chain, such a nonlinear PT-symmetric dimer generates previously unexplored types of nonlinear Fano resonances, with completely suppressed or greatly amplified transmission, as well as a regime similar to the electromagnetically induced transparency. The implementation of the systems is possible in various media admitting controllable linear and nonlinear amplification of waves.

  17. Observation of optical solitons in PT-symmetric lattices.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, Martin; Regensburger, Alois; Miri, Mohammad-Ali; Bersch, Christoph; Christodoulides, Demetrios N; Peschel, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Controlling light transport in nonlinear active environments is a topic of considerable interest in the field of optics. In such complex arrangements, of particular importance is to devise strategies to subdue chaotic behaviour even in the presence of gain/loss and nonlinearity, which often assume adversarial roles. Quite recently, notions of parity-time (PT) symmetry have been suggested in photonic settings as a means to enforce stable energy flow in platforms that simultaneously employ both amplification and attenuation. Here we report the experimental observation of optical solitons in PT-symmetric lattices. Unlike other non-conservative nonlinear arrangements where self-trapped states appear as fixed points in the parameter space of the governing equations, discrete PT solitons form a continuous parametric family of solutions. The possibility of synthesizing PT-symmetric saturable absorbers, where a nonlinear wave finds a lossless path through an otherwise absorptive system is also demonstrated. PMID:26215165

  18. Observation of optical solitons in PT-symmetric lattices

    PubMed Central

    Wimmer, Martin; Regensburger, Alois; Miri, Mohammad-Ali; Bersch, Christoph; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.; Peschel, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Controlling light transport in nonlinear active environments is a topic of considerable interest in the field of optics. In such complex arrangements, of particular importance is to devise strategies to subdue chaotic behaviour even in the presence of gain/loss and nonlinearity, which often assume adversarial roles. Quite recently, notions of parity-time (PT) symmetry have been suggested in photonic settings as a means to enforce stable energy flow in platforms that simultaneously employ both amplification and attenuation. Here we report the experimental observation of optical solitons in PT-symmetric lattices. Unlike other non-conservative nonlinear arrangements where self-trapped states appear as fixed points in the parameter space of the governing equations, discrete PT solitons form a continuous parametric family of solutions. The possibility of synthesizing PT-symmetric saturable absorbers, where a nonlinear wave finds a lossless path through an otherwise absorptive system is also demonstrated. PMID:26215165

  19. Clay content analysis across landscape by means of linear and non-linear empirical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langella, G.; Minieri, L.; Terribile, F.

    2009-04-01

    In soil science literature there exist many applications that deals with the spatial prediction of soil features by means of a set of statistical techniques. In this work the amount of clay content at level of soil horizon was put in a spatial framework and analyzed using four alternative models for describing its variability in a geopedological complex landscape such as Telese valley (Campania, South Italy) study area. Three statistical models were involved, that is (i) the multiple linear regression (MLR), (ii) the multicollocated ordinary cokriging (MOCOK), and (iii) a two-layers FFBP (FeedForward Back-Propagation) neural network with topology 6 : 1 (ANN). Apart from these technologies (neurocomputing, and multivariate regression and geostatistics) a polygonal soil map (UDP) was also used for the sake of comparing complex and sometimes cumbersome models with the standard approach of representing the soil spatial distribution. Clay data was splitted in calibration/validation subsets in order to unbiasedly compare the four models (in order of complexity UDP, MLR, MOCOK, ANN). Comparison was based on multi-criteria assessment using six measures of performance: RMSE (root mean square error), MBE (mean bias error), Pearson's correlation (r), an efficiency index (eff), SMAPE (symmetrical mean absolute percent error), and Wilmott's agreement index (D). Generally all indicators seem to demonstrate that the more complex (from UDP to ANN) the models the better their performance in representing the spatial variability of some pedological parameters. Despite such statement much endeavour should be spent in model comparison by considering also the cost/profit trade off incorporating a cost function.

  20. Continuous-time symmetric Hopfield nets are computationally universal.

    PubMed

    Síma, Jirí; Orponen, Pekka

    2003-03-01

    We establish a fundamental result in the theory of computation by continuous-time dynamical systems by showing that systems corresponding to so-called continuous-time symmetric Hopfield nets are capable of general computation. As is well known, such networks have very constrained Lyapunov-function controlled dynamics. Nevertheless, we show that they are universal and efficient computational devices, in the sense that any convergent synchronous fully parallel computation by a recurrent network of n discrete-time binary neurons, with in general asymmetric coupling weights, can be simulated by a symmetric continuous-time Hopfield net containing only 18n + 7 units employing the saturated-linear activation function. Moreover, if the asymmetric network has maximum integer weight size w(max) and converges in discrete time t*, then the corresponding Hopfield net can be designed to operate in continuous time Theta(t*/epsilon) for any epsilon > 0 such that w(max)2(12n) symmetric Hopfield nets. PMID:12620163

  1. Maximum-confidence discrimination among symmetric qudit states

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, O.; Solis-Prosser, M. A.; Delgado, A.; Neves, L.

    2011-12-15

    We study the maximum-confidence (MC) measurement strategy for discriminating among nonorthogonal symmetric qudit states. Restricting to linearly dependent and equally likely pure states, we find the optimal positive operator valued measure (POVM) that maximizes our confidence in identifying each state in the set and minimizes the probability of obtaining inconclusive results. The physical realization of this POVM is completely determined and it is shown that after an inconclusive outcome, the input states may be mapped into a new set of equiprobable symmetric states, restricted, however, to a subspace of the original qudit Hilbert space. By applying the MC measurement again onto this new set, we can still gain some information about the input states, although with less confidence than before. This leads us to introduce the concept of sequential maximum-confidence (SMC) measurements, where the optimized MC strategy is iterated in as many stages as allowed by the input set, until no further information can be extracted from an inconclusive result. Within each stage of this measurement our confidence in identifying the input states is the highest possible, although it decreases from one stage to the next. In addition, the more stages we accomplish within the maximum allowed, the higher will be the probability of correct identification. We will discuss an explicit example of the optimal SMC measurement applied in the discrimination among four symmetric qutrit states and propose an optical network to implement it.

  2. On the Immunity of Rotation Symmetric Boolean Functions Against Fast Algebraic

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    On the Immunity of Rotation Symmetric Boolean Functions Against Fast Algebraic Attacks Yin Zhang attacks obtain equations of small degree by linear combination. Thus algebraic immunity, the minimum.liu@gmail.com. 1 #12;is maximum algebraic immunity of n-variable Boolean functions. The identification

  3. Infrared linear dichroism studies of DNA-drug complexes: quantitative determination of the drug-induced restriction of the B-A transition.

    PubMed Central

    Fritzsche, H

    1994-01-01

    The B-A transition of films or fibers of NaDNA occurs at a relative humidity of 75-85%. The fraction of DNA that changed the conformation from B to A form can be determined quantitatively by infrared linear dichroism. DNA-binding drugs can 'freeze' a fraction of DNA in the B form. This fraction of DNA is in the B form and cannot be converted to A-DNA even at a reduced relative humidity of 54%. The 'freezing' potentiality of various drugs can be described by the 'freezing' index, FI, expressed in base pairs per added drug. Drugs with a high value of FI (more than eight base pairs per drug) were observed among both intercalating and groove-binding drugs. High values of FI imply restriction of the conformational flexibility of DNA significantly going beyond the binding site of the drug. This long-range effect of drugs on the conformational flexibility of DNA may be connected with the molecular mechanism of drug action. The freezing index FI is a new quantitative parameter of drug-DNA interaction that should be considered as a valuable tool for drug design. PMID:8139919

  4. Towards an exact theory of linear absorbance and circular dichroism of pigment-protein complexes: Importance of non-secular contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinh, Thanh-Chung; Renger, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A challenge for the theory of optical spectra of pigment-protein complexes is the equal strength of the pigment-pigment and the pigment-protein couplings. Treating both on an equal footing so far can only be managed by numerically costly approaches. Here, we exploit recent results on a normal mode analysis derived spectral density that revealed the dominance of the diagonal matrix elements of the exciton-vibrational coupling in the exciton state representation. We use a cumulant expansion technique that treats the diagonal parts exactly, includes an infinite summation of the off-diagonal parts in secular and Markov approximations, and provides a systematic perturbative way to include non-secular and non-Markov corrections. The theory is applied to a model dimer and to chlorophyll (Chl) a and Chl b homodimers of the reconstituted water-soluble chlorophyll-binding protein (WSCP) from cauliflower. The model calculations reveal that the non-secular/non-Markov effects redistribute oscillator strength from the strong to the weak exciton transition in absorbance and they diminish the rotational strength of the exciton transitions in circular dichroism. The magnitude of these corrections is in a few percent range of the overall signal, providing a quantitative explanation of the success of time-local convolution-less density matrix theory applied earlier. A close examination of the optical spectra of Chl a and Chl b homodimers in WSCP suggests that the opening angle between Qy transition dipole moments in Chl b homodimers is larger by about 9? than for Chl a homodimers for which a crystal structure of a related WSCP complex exists. It remains to be investigated whether this change is due to a different mutual geometry of the pigments or due to the different electronic structures of Chl a and Chl b.

  5. Four-coordinate nickel(ii) and copper(ii) complex based ONO tridentate Schiff base ligands: synthesis, molecular structure, electrochemical, linear and nonlinear properties, and computational study.

    PubMed

    Novoa, Néstor; Roisnel, Thierry; Hamon, Paul; Kahlal, Samia; Manzur, Carolina; Ngo, Hoang Minh; Ledoux-Rak, Isabelle; Saillard, Jean-Yves; Carrillo, David; Hamon, Jean-René

    2015-11-01

    We report the synthesis, characterization, crystal structures, nonlinear-optical (NLO) properties, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations of nickel(ii) and copper(ii) complex based ONO tridentate Schiff base ligands: two mononuclear compounds, [Ni(An-ONO)(NC5H5)] (5) and [Cu(An-ONO)(4-NC5H4C(CH3)3)] (6), and two heterobimetallic species, [M(Fc-ONO)(NC5H5)] (M = Ni, 7; Cu, 8), where An-ONOH2 (3) and Fc-ONOH2 (4) are the 1?:?1 condensation products of 2-aminophenol and p-anisoylacetone and ferrocenoylacetone, respectively. These compounds were characterised by microanalysis, FT-IR and X-ray crystallography in the solid state and in solution by UV-vis and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The crystal structures of 3-5, 7 and 8 have been determined and show for Schiff base complexes 5, 7 and 8 a four-coordinated square-planar environment for nickel and copper ions. The electrochemical behavior of all derivatives 3-8 was investigated by cyclic voltammetry in dichloromethane, and discussed on the basis of DFT-computed electronic structures of the neutral and oxidized forms of the compounds. The second-order NLO responses of 3-8 have been determined by harmonic light scattering measurements using a 10(-2) M solution of dichloromethane and working with a 1.91 ?m incident wavelength, giving rather high ?1.91 values of 350 and 290 × 10(-30) esu for the mononuclear species 5 and 6, respectively. The assignment and the nature of the electronic transitions observed in the UV-vis spectra were analyzed using time-dependent (TD) DFT calculations. They are dominated by LMCT, MLCT and ?-?* transitions. PMID:26412689

  6. Towards an exact theory of linear absorbance and circular dichroism of pigment-protein complexes: importance of non-secular contributions.

    PubMed

    Dinh, Thanh-Chung; Renger, Thomas

    2015-01-21

    A challenge for the theory of optical spectra of pigment-protein complexes is the equal strength of the pigment-pigment and the pigment-protein couplings. Treating both on an equal footing so far can only be managed by numerically costly approaches. Here, we exploit recent results on a normal mode analysis derived spectral density that revealed the dominance of the diagonal matrix elements of the exciton-vibrational coupling in the exciton state representation. We use a cumulant expansion technique that treats the diagonal parts exactly, includes an infinite summation of the off-diagonal parts in secular and Markov approximations, and provides a systematic perturbative way to include non-secular and non-Markov corrections. The theory is applied to a model dimer and to chlorophyll (Chl) a and Chl b homodimers of the reconstituted water-soluble chlorophyll-binding protein (WSCP) from cauliflower. The model calculations reveal that the non-secular/non-Markov effects redistribute oscillator strength from the strong to the weak exciton transition in absorbance and they diminish the rotational strength of the exciton transitions in circular dichroism. The magnitude of these corrections is in a few percent range of the overall signal, providing a quantitative explanation of the success of time-local convolution-less density matrix theory applied earlier. A close examination of the optical spectra of Chl a and Chl b homodimers in WSCP suggests that the opening angle between Qy transition dipole moments in Chl b homodimers is larger by about 9(?) than for Chl a homodimers for which a crystal structure of a related WSCP complex exists. It remains to be investigated whether this change is due to a different mutual geometry of the pigments or due to the different electronic structures of Chl a and Chl b. PMID:25612686

  7. Towards an exact theory of linear absorbance and circular dichroism of pigment-protein complexes: Importance of non-secular contributions

    SciTech Connect

    Dinh, Thanh-Chung; Renger, Thomas

    2015-01-21

    A challenge for the theory of optical spectra of pigment-protein complexes is the equal strength of the pigment-pigment and the pigment-protein couplings. Treating both on an equal footing so far can only be managed by numerically costly approaches. Here, we exploit recent results on a normal mode analysis derived spectral density that revealed the dominance of the diagonal matrix elements of the exciton-vibrational coupling in the exciton state representation. We use a cumulant expansion technique that treats the diagonal parts exactly, includes an infinite summation of the off-diagonal parts in secular and Markov approximations, and provides a systematic perturbative way to include non-secular and non-Markov corrections. The theory is applied to a model dimer and to chlorophyll (Chl) a and Chl b homodimers of the reconstituted water-soluble chlorophyll-binding protein (WSCP) from cauliflower. The model calculations reveal that the non-secular/non-Markov effects redistribute oscillator strength from the strong to the weak exciton transition in absorbance and they diminish the rotational strength of the exciton transitions in circular dichroism. The magnitude of these corrections is in a few percent range of the overall signal, providing a quantitative explanation of the success of time-local convolution-less density matrix theory applied earlier. A close examination of the optical spectra of Chl a and Chl b homodimers in WSCP suggests that the opening angle between Q{sub y} transition dipole moments in Chl b homodimers is larger by about 9{sup ?} than for Chl a homodimers for which a crystal structure of a related WSCP complex exists. It remains to be investigated whether this change is due to a different mutual geometry of the pigments or due to the different electronic structures of Chl a and Chl b.

  8. Complexity and Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, Jeanette Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    A central feature of complexity is that it is based on non-linear, recursive relations. However, in most current accounts of complexity such relations, while non-linear, are based on the reductive relations of a Newtonian onto-epistemological framework. This means that the systems that are emergent from the workings of such relations are a…

  9. KOSZUL COMPLEXES AND SYMMETRIC FORMS OVER THE PUNCTURED AFFINE SPACE

    E-print Network

    that the total Witt ring W tot (U n X ) of U n X is a free W tot (X)-module with two generators : the Witt classes of and of the above (E (n) X ; ' (n) X ). We describe W tot (U n X ) similarly when n is even. Introduction Let X be scheme. We are studying the (total) graded Witt ring W tot (X) := M i2Z W i

  10. KOSZUL COMPLEXES AND SYMMETRIC FORMS OVER THE PUNCTURED AFFINE SPACE

    E-print Network

    _2and is of finite Krull* * dimension, we show that the total Witt ring W tot(UnX) of UnXis a free W tot(X)-mod* *ule with two generators : the Witt classes of and of the above (E(n)X,* * '(n)X). We describe W tot(UnX) similarly when n is even

  11. KOSZUL COMPLEXES AND SYMMETRIC FORMS OVER THE PUNCTURED AFFINE SPACE

    E-print Network

    Balmer, Paul

    be the punctured aÆne n-space over X. We show that the total graded Witt ring W tot (U n X ) is a free W tot (X when n #21; 2. Introduction Let X be scheme. We are studying the (total) graded Witt ring W tot (X dimension, there is a decomposition W tot (U n X ) = W tot (X) #8;W tot (X) #1; " for some Witt class

  12. KOSZUL COMPLEXES AND SYMMETRIC FORMS OVER THE PUNCTURED AFFINE SPACE

    E-print Network

    Balmer, Paul

    M W tot(X) := W i(X) i2Z where dimension, there is a decomposition W tot(UXn) = W tot(X) W tot(X) . " for some Witt class " = "(n)* *Xin tot(X) ["] W tot(UXn) ~= W_________"2 of graded rings, with the generator

  13. Cylindrically symmetric electrohydrodynamic patterning Paru Deshpande,1,

    E-print Network

    Cylindrically symmetric electrohydrodynamic patterning Paru Deshpande,1, * Leonard F. Pease III,2; published 21 October 2004) Cylindrically symmetric structures such as concentric rings and rosettes arise rings and theory capable of explaining these and other cylindrical structures are presented. These rings

  14. Continuity and Separation in Symmetric Topologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, J.; Lynch, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this note, it is shown that in a symmetric topological space, the pairs of sets separated by the topology determine the topology itself. It is then shown that when the codomain is symmetric, functions which separate only those pairs of sets that are already separated are continuous, generalizing a result found by M. Lynch.

  15. Generalized geometry and non-symmetric gravity

    E-print Network

    Jurco, Branislav; Schupp, Peter; Vysoky, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Generalized geometry provides the framework for a systematic approach to non-symmetric metric gravity theory and naturally leads to an Einstein-Kalb-Ramond gravity theory with totally anti-symmetric contortion. The approach is related to the study of the low-energy effective closed string gravity actions.

  16. Trapped Particles in $PT$ Symmetric Theories

    E-print Network

    C. Yuce; A. Kurt; A. Kucukaslan

    2006-02-13

    $PT$ symmetric quantum mechanics for a particle trapped by the generalized non-Hermitian harmonic oscillator potential is studied. It is shown that energy and the expectation value of the position operator $x$ can not be real simultaneously, if the particle is trapped. Non-vanishing boundary conditions for the trapped particle in $PT$ symmetric theory are also discussed.

  17. An application of eigenspace methods to symmetric flutter suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fennell, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    An eigenspace assignment approach to the design of parameter insensitive control laws for linear multivariable systems is presented. The control design scheme utilizes flexibility in eigenvector assignments to reduce control system sensitivity to changes in system parameters. The methods involve use of the singular value decomposition to provide an exact description of allowable eigenvectors in terms of a minimum number of design parameters. In a design example, the methods are applied to the problem of symmetric flutter suppression in an aeroelastic vehicle. In this example the flutter mode is sensitive to changes in dynamic pressure and eigenspace methods are used to enhance the performance of a stabilizing minimum energy/linear quadratic regulator controller and associated observer. Results indicate that the methods provide feedback control laws that make stability of the nominal closed loop systems insensitive to changes in dynamic pressure.

  18. The free-electron laser in a symmetrical confocal resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozcan, Meric; Pantell, Richard H.

    1993-01-01

    A tapered wiggler is used in a FEL oscillator to improve the saturation efficiency. During signal buildup the tapered wiggler does not provide optimum phase synchronism between the electron beam and the electromagnetic wave, resulting in an appreciable loss in small-signal gain. This problem can be ameliorated by using a multicomponent wiggler, which is a combination of a uniform wiggler and a tapered section. During buildup, gain is primarily contributed by the linear element, and at high power levels the gain and efficiency are enhanced by the taper. Ideally, one would like to have the optical waist location near the linear section at small-signal levels and at near the tapered section at high power levels. Placing the FEL in a symmetrical confocal resonator approaches this desired effect automatically since it has the unique characteristic that a stable mode exists for all locations of the waist of a Gaussian beam along the axis of the interferometer.

  19. Chiral-symmetric technicolor with standard model Higgs boson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasechnik, Roman; Beylin, Vitaly; Kuksa, Vladimir; Vereshkov, Grigory

    2013-10-01

    Most of the traditional technicolor-based models are known to be in a strong tension with the electroweak precision tests. We show that this serious issue is naturally cured in strongly coupled sectors with chiral-symmetric vectorlike gauge interactions in the framework of the gauged linear ? model. We discuss possible phenomenological implications of such a nonstandard chiral-symmetric technicolor scenario in its simplest formulation preserving the standard model (SM) Higgs mechanism. For this purpose, we assume the existence of an extra technifermion sector confined under extra SU(3)TC at the energy scales reachable at the LHC, ?TC˜0.1-1TeV and interacting with the SM gauge bosons in a chiral-symmetric (vectorlike) way. In the framework of this scenario, the SM Higgs vacuum expectation value acquires a natural interpretation in terms of the condensate of technifermions in confinement in the nearly conformal limit. We study the influence of the lowest-lying composite physical states, namely, technipions, technisigma, and constituent technifermions, on the Higgs sector properties in the SM and other observables at the LHC. We find that the predicted Higgs boson signal strengths in ??, vector-boson VV*, and fermion ff¯ decay channels can be sensitive to the new strongly coupled dynamics and are consistent with the current SM-like Higgs boson observations in the limit of relatively small Higgs-technisigma mixing. At the same time, the chiral-symmetric technicolor provides us with rich technipion phenomenology at the LHC, and its major implications are discussed in detail.

  20. Communication complexity and information complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratov, Denis

    Information complexity enables the use of information-theoretic tools in communication complexity theory. Prior to the results presented in this thesis, information complexity was mainly used for proving lower bounds and direct-sum theorems in the setting of communication complexity. We present three results that demonstrate new connections between information complexity and communication complexity. In the first contribution we thoroughly study the information complexity of the smallest nontrivial two-party function: the AND function. While computing the communication complexity of AND is trivial, computing its exact information complexity presents a major technical challenge. In overcoming this challenge, we reveal that information complexity gives rise to rich geometrical structures. Our analysis of information complexity relies on new analytic techniques and new characterizations of communication protocols. We also uncover a connection of information complexity to the theory of elliptic partial differential equations. Once we compute the exact information complexity of AND, we can compute exact communication complexity of several related functions on n-bit inputs with some additional technical work. Previous combinatorial and algebraic techniques could only prove bounds of the form theta( n). Interestingly, this level of precision is typical in the area of information theory, so our result demonstrates that this meta-property of precise bounds carries over to information complexity and in certain cases even to communication complexity. Our result does not only strengthen the lower bound on communication complexity of disjointness by making it more exact, but it also shows that information complexity provides the exact upper bound on communication complexity. In fact, this result is more general and applies to a whole class of communication problems. In the second contribution, we use self-reduction methods to prove strong lower bounds on the information complexity of two of the most studied functions in the communication complexity literature: Gap Hamming Distance (GHD) and Inner Product mod 2 (IP). In our first result we affirm the conjecture that the information complexity of GHD is linear even under the uniform distribution. This strengthens the O(n) bound shown by Kerenidis et al. (2012) and answers an open problem by Chakrabarti et al. (2012). We also prove that the information complexity of IP is arbitrarily close to the trivial upper bound n as the permitted error tends to zero, again strengthening the O(n) lower bound proved by Braverman and Weinstein (2011). More importantly, our proofs demonstrate that self-reducibility makes the connection between information complexity and communication complexity lower bounds a two-way connection. Whereas numerous results in the past used information complexity techniques to derive new communication complexity lower bounds, we explore a generic way, in which communication complexity lower bounds imply information complexity lower bounds in a black-box manner. In the third contribution we consider the roles that private and public randomness play in the definition of information complexity. In communication complexity, private randomness can be trivially simulated by public randomness. Moreover, the communication cost of simulating public randomness with private randomness is well understood due to Newman's theorem (1991). In information complexity, the roles of public and private randomness are reversed: public randomness can be trivially simulated by private randomness. However, the information cost of simulating private randomness with public randomness is not understood. We show that protocols that use only public randomness admit a rather strong compression. In particular, efficient simulation of private randomness by public randomness would imply a version of a direct sum theorem in the setting of communication complexity. This establishes a yet another connection between the two areas. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  1. Spatial-frequency Fourier polarimetry of the complex degree of mutual anisotropy of linear and circular birefringence in the diagnostics of oncological changes in morphological structure of biological tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Ushenko, Yu A; Gorskii, M P; Dubolazov, A V; Motrich, A V; Ushenko, V A; Sidor, M I

    2012-08-31

    Theory of polarisation-correlation analysis of laser images of histological sections of biopsy material from cervix tissue based on spatial frequency selection of linear and circular birefringence mechanisms is formulated. Comparative results of measuring the coordinate distributions of the complex degree of mutual anisotropy (CDMA), produced by fibrillar networks formed by myosin and collagen fibres of cervix tissue in different pathological conditions, namely, pre-cancer (dysplasia) and cancer (adenocarcinoma), are presented. The values and variation ranges of statistical (moments of the first - fourth order), correlation (excess-autocorrelation functions), and fractal (slopes of approximating curves and dispersion of extrema of logarithmic dependences of power spectra) parameters of the CDMA coordinate distributions are studied. Objective criteria for pathology diagnostics and differentiation of its severity degree are determined. (image processing)

  2. Spherically symmetric charged compact stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurya, S. K.; Gupta, Y. K.; Ray, Saibal; Chowdhury, Sourav Roy

    2015-08-01

    In this article we consider the static spherically symmetric metric of embedding class 1. When solving the Einstein-Maxwell field equations we take into account the presence of ordinary baryonic matter together with the electric charge. Specific new charged stellar models are obtained where the solutions are entirely dependent on the electromagnetic field, such that the physical parameters, like density, pressure etc. do vanish for the vanishing charge. We systematically analyze altogether the three sets of Solutions I, II, and III of the stellar models for a suitable functional relation of . However, it is observed that only the Solution I provides a physically valid and well-behaved situation, whereas the Solutions II and III are not well behaved and hence not included in the study. Thereafter it is exclusively shown that the Solution I can pass through several standard physical tests performed by us. To validate the solution set presented here a comparison has also been made with that of the compact stars, like , , , , and , and we have shown the feasibility of the models.

  3. PT-symmetric laser absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Longhi, Stefano

    2010-09-15

    In a recent work, Y. D. Chong et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053901 (2010)] proposed the idea of a coherent perfect absorber (CPA) as the time-reversed counterpart of a laser, in which a purely incoming radiation pattern is completely absorbed by a lossy medium. The optical medium that realizes CPA is obtained by reversing the gain with absorption, and thus it generally differs from the lasing medium. Here it is shown that a laser with an optical medium that satisfies the parity-time (PT) symmetry condition {epsilon}(-r)={epsilon}*(r) for the dielectric constant behaves simultaneously as a laser oscillator (i.e., it can emit outgoing coherent waves) and as a CPA (i.e., it can fully absorb incoming coherent waves with appropriate amplitudes and phases). Such a device can thus be referred to as a PT-symmetric CPA laser. The general amplification or absorption features of the PT CPA laser below lasing threshold driven by two fields are determined.

  4. Baryon symmetric big bang cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1978-01-01

    Both the quantum theory and Einsteins theory of special relativity lead to the supposition that matter and antimatter were produced in equal quantities during the big bang. It is noted that local matter/antimatter asymmetries may be reconciled with universal symmetry by assuming (1) a slight imbalance of matter over antimatter in the early universe, annihilation, and a subsequent remainder of matter; (2) localized regions of excess for one or the other type of matter as an initial condition; and (3) an extremely dense, high temperature state with zero net baryon number; i.e., matter/antimatter symmetry. Attention is given to the third assumption, which is the simplest and the most in keeping with current knowledge of the cosmos, especially as pertains the universality of 3 K background radiation. Mechanisms of galaxy formation are discussed, whereby matter and antimatter might have collided and annihilated each other, or have coexisted (and continue to coexist) at vast distances. It is pointed out that baryon symmetric big bang cosmology could probably be proved if an antinucleus could be detected in cosmic radiation.

  5. Symmetric Tensor Decomposition Description of Fermionic Many-Body Wavefunctions

    E-print Network

    Uemura, Wataru

    2012-01-01

    The configuration interaction (CI) is a versatile wavefunction theory for interacting fermions but it involves an extremely long CI series. Using a symmetric tensor decomposition (STD) method, we convert the CI series into a compact and numerically tractable form. The converted series encompasses the Hartree-Fock state in the first term and rapidly converges to the full-CI state, as numerically tested using small molecules. Provided that the length of the STD-CI series grows only moderately with the increasing complexity of the system, the new method will serve as one of the alternative variational methods to achieve full-CI with enhanced practicability.

  6. The Topology of Three-Dimensional Symmetric Tensor Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavin, Yingmei; Levy, Yuval; Hesselink, Lambertus

    1994-01-01

    We study the topology of 3-D symmetric tensor fields. The goal is to represent their complex structure by a simple set of carefully chosen points and lines analogous to vector field topology. The basic constituents of tensor topology are the degenerate points, or points where eigenvalues are equal to each other. First, we introduce a new method for locating 3-D degenerate points. We then extract the topological skeletons of the eigenvector fields and use them for a compact, comprehensive description of the tensor field. Finally, we demonstrate the use of tensor field topology for the interpretation of the two-force Boussinesq problem.

  7. An accurate Fourier splitting scheme for solving the cubic quintic complex Ginzburg-Landau equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammedi, Tidjani; Aissat, Abdelkader

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we present a splitting scheme for the pseudo-spectral numerical method namely the Split-Step Fourier method (SSFM), in our approach we expand the exponential term in a manner that a succession of linear and nonlinear terms are distributed uniformly along one step size, the splitting will be performed symmetrically, this new scheme will be tested on one of the most used nonlinear partial deferential equation in optics, namely the cubic quintic complex Ginzburg-Landau (CQCGL) equation, in this work we demonstrate that the accuracy of the Split Step Fourier method scheme can be improved by expanding and distributing it in small parts within one step.

  8. Self-gravitating spherically symmetric solutions in scalar-torsion theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kofinas, Georgios; Papantonopoulos, Eleftherios; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.

    2015-05-01

    We study spherically symmetric solutions in scalar-torsion gravity theories in which a scalar field is coupled to torsion with a derivative coupling. We obtain the general field equations from which we extract a decoupled master equation, the solution of which leads to the specification of all other unknown functions. We first obtain an exact solution which represents a new wormholelike solution dressed with a regular scalar field. Then, we find large distance linearized spherically symmetric solutions in which the space asymptotically is anti-de Sitter.

  9. Replication of avocado sunblotch viroid: evidence for a symmetric pathway with two rolling circles and hammerhead ribozyme processing.

    PubMed Central

    Daròs, J A; Marcos, J F; Hernández, C; Flores, R

    1994-01-01

    The structure of a series of RNAs extracted from avocado infected by the 247-nt avocado sunblotch viroid (ASBVd) was investigated. The identification of multistranded complexes containing circular ASBVd RNAs of (+) and (-) polarity suggests that replication of ASBVd proceeds through a symmetric pathway with two rolling circles where these two circular RNAs are the templates. This is in contrast to the replication of potato spindle tuber viroid and probably of most of its related viroids, which proceeds via an asymmetric pathway where circular (+)-strand and linear multimeric (-)-strand RNAs are the two templates. Linear (+) and (-) ASBVd RNAs of subgenomic length (137 nt and about 148 nt, respectively) and one linear (+)-strand ASBVd RNA of supragenomic length (383-384 nt) were also found in viroid-infected tissue. The two linear (+)-strand RNAs have the same 5'- and 3'-terminal sequences, with the supragenomic species being a fusion product of the monomeric and subgenomic (+)-strand ASBVd RNAs. The 3' termini of these two (+)-strand molecules, which at least in the subgenomic RNA has an extra nontemplate cytidylate residue, could represent sites of either premature termination of the (+)-strands or specific initiation of the (-)-strands. The 5' termini of sub- and supragenomic (+)-strand and the 5' terminus of the subgenomic (-)-strand ASBVd RNA are identical to those produced in the in vitro self-cleavage reactions of (+) and (-) dimeric ASBVd RNAs, respectively. These observations strongly suggest that the hammerhead structures which mediate the in vitro self-cleavage reactions are also operative in vivo. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7809126

  10. Grasping Complexity

    E-print Network

    A. N. Gorban; G. S. Yablonsky

    2013-03-15

    The century of complexity has come. The face of science has changed. Surprisingly, when we start asking about the essence of these changes and then critically analyse the answers, the result are mostly discouraging. Most of the answers are related to the properties that have been in the focus of scientific research already for more than a century (like non-linearity). This paper is Preface to the special issue "Grasping Complexity" of the journal "Computers and Mathematics with Applications". We analyse the change of era in science, its reasons and main changes in scientific activity and give a brief review of the papers in the issue.

  11. Complex Trajectories of a Simple Pendulum

    E-print Network

    Carl M. Bender; Darryl D. Holm; Daniel W. Hook

    2006-09-25

    The motion of a classical pendulum in a gravitational field of strength g is explored. The complex trajectories as well as the real ones are determined. If g is taken to be imaginary, the Hamiltonian that describes the pendulum becomes PT-symmetric. The classical motion for this PT-symmetric Hamiltonian is examined in detail. The complex motion of this pendulum in the presence of an external periodic forcing term is also studied.

  12. Time-Symmetric Quantum Theory of Smoothing

    E-print Network

    Tsang, Mankei

    Smoothing is an estimation technique that takes into account both past and future observations and can be more accurate than filtering alone. In this Letter, a quantum theory of smoothing is constructed using a time-symmetric ...

  13. Multiple Symmetric Lipomatosis: A Diagnostic Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Mimica, Mladen; Pravdic, Danijel; Nakas-Icindic, Emina; Karin, Maja; Babic, Emil; Tomic, Monika; Bevanda, Milenko

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Multiple symmetric lipomatosis, or Madelung's disease, is a rare condition which is characterized with large symmetrical accumulation of noncapsulated fat tissue in upper arms, neck, and shoulder areas. The disease etiology is unknown, with the highest incidence in the Mediterranean region. Case Presentation. Here, we present the case of Madelung's disease with symmetric fat distribution throughout the neck and history of alcoholism. The patient was treated from several diseases associated with alcoholism and hospitalized several times, but the diagnosis of Madelung's disease was omitted. The thyroid gland disease was excluded, while enlargement of the neck adipose tissue was attributed to obesity. Conclusions. This study points out possible diagnostic mistakes when a physician is not aware of a differentiation diagnosis of symmetrically enlarged neck masses, especially in geographic regions with high incidence of this disease. PMID:23983713

  14. Martingale Rosenthal inequalities in symmetric spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Astashkin, S V

    2014-12-31

    We establish inequalities similar to the classical Rosenthal inequalities for sequences of martingale differences in general symmetric spaces; a central role is played here by the predictable quadratic characteristic of a martingale. Bibliography: 26 titles.

  15. Quantum Differential and Linear Cryptanalysis

    E-print Network

    Marc Kaplan; Gaëtan Leurent; Anthony Leverrier; María Naya-Plasencia

    2015-10-20

    Quantum computers, that may become available one day, will impact many scientific fields. Cryptography is certainly one of them since many asymmetric primitives would become insecure against an adversary with quantum capabilities. Cryptographers are already anticipating this threat by proposing and studying a number of potentially quantum-safe alternatives for those primitives. On the other hand, the situation of symmetric primitives which seem less vulnerable against quantum computing, has received much less attention. We need to prepare symmetric cryptography for the eventual arrival of the post-quantum world, as it is done with other cryptography branches. Cryptanalysis and security analysis are the only proper way to evaluate the security of symmetric primitives: our trust in specific ciphers relies on their ability to resist all known cryptanalysis tools. This requires a proper investigation of the toolkit of quantum cryptanalysis, that might include radically new attacks. This toolkit has not been much developed so far. In this paper, we study how some of the main cryptanalytic attacks behave in the post-quantum world. More specifically, we consider here quantum versions of differential and linear cryptanalysis. While running Grover's search algorithm on a quantum computer brings a quadratic speedup for brute-force attacks, we show that the situation is more subtle when considering specific cryptanalysis techniques. In particular, we give the quantum version of various classes of differential and linear attacks and show that the best attacks in the classical world do not necessarily lead to the best quantum ones. Some non-intuitive examples of application on ciphers LAC and KLEIN are provided.

  16. Image registration under symmetric conditions: novel approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duraisamy, Prakash; Yousef, Amr; Buckles, Bill; Jackson, Steve

    2015-03-01

    Registering the 2D images is one of the important pre-processing steps in many computer vision applications like 3D reconstruction, building panoramic images. Contemporary registration algorithm like SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature transform) was not quite success in registering the images under symmetric conditions and under poor illuminations using DoF (Difference of Gaussian) features. In this paper, we introduced a novel approach for registering the images under symmetric conditions.

  17. Symmetric states: Their nonlocality and entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zizhu; Markham, Damian

    2014-12-04

    The nonlocality of permutation symmetric states of qubits is shown via an extension of the Hardy paradox and the extension of the associated inequality. This is achieved by using the Majorana representation, which is also a powerful tool in the study of entanglement properties of symmetric states. Through the Majorana representation, different nonlocal properties can be linked to different entanglement properties of a state, which is useful in determining the usefulness of different states in different quantum information processing tasks.

  18. Is the quark- mixing matrix moduli symmetric?

    E-print Network

    S. Chaturvedi; Virendra Gupta

    2003-11-15

    If the unitary quark- mixing matrix, $V$, is moduli symmetric then it depends on three real parameters. This means that there is a relation between the four parameters needed to parametrize a general $V$. It is shown that there exists a very simple relation involving $|V_{11}|^2, |V_{33}|^2,\\orh $ and $\\oet$. This relation is compared with the present experimental data. It is concluded that a moduli symmetric $V$ is not ruled out.

  19. Advances in Interior Point Methods for Large-Scale Linear Programming 

    E-print Network

    Colombo, Marco

    2007-01-01

    This research studies two computational techniques that improve the practical performance of existing implementations of interior point methods for linear programming. Both are based on the concept of symmetric neighbourhood ...

  20. {P}{T}-Symmetric Dimer in a Generalized Model of Coupled Nonlinear Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuevas-Maraver, Jesús; Khare, Avinash; Kevrekidis, Panayotis G.; Xu, Haitao; Saxena, Avadh

    2015-11-01

    In the present work, we explore the case of a general {P}{T}-symmetric dimer in the context of two both linearly and nonlinearly coupled cubic oscillators. To obtain an analytical handle on the system, we first explore the rotating wave approximation converting it into a discrete nonlinear Schrödinger type dimer. In the latter context, the stationary solutions and their stability are identified numerically but also wherever possible analytically. Solutions stemming from both symmetric and anti-symmetric special limits are identified. A number of special cases are explored regarding the ratio of coefficients of nonlinearity between oscillators over the intrinsic one of each oscillator. Finally, the considerations are extended to the original oscillator model, where periodic orbits and their stability are obtained. When the solutions are found to be unstable their dynamics is monitored by means of direct numerical simulations.

  1. Three Main Subsystems: I. Centerpiece (Linear Actuation)

    E-print Network

    van den Berg, Jur

    Systems Two Main Subsystems: I. Solar Panels Four 100 W high efficiency solar panels were installed- Monocrystalline-Solar-Panel-4-Pack-GS-S-250- Fab5x4/202960000?N=8p9Z5yc1v Left Bottom: Wind Blue Power LLC. (2014 was designed to create an interesting, symmetric path. The linear actuator utilizes an internal power screw. II

  2. Construction of an enterobactin analogue with symmetrically arranged monomer subunits of ferritin.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Hiroshi; Kondo, Mio; Nakane, Taiki; Abe, Satoshi; Nakao, Takahiro; Watanabe, Yoshihito; Ueno, Takafumi

    2015-12-01

    A set of three catecholamide ligands mimicking the structure of enterobactin was constructed on ferritin, where the 3-fold symmetric arrangement of the monomer subunits served as a foundation to form a coordination space. Similar to enterobactin, the ligands showed strong affinity for the ferric ion and formed a tris-catechoyl complex. Crystallography revealed that the complex was embedded in the entrance of the 3-fold axis channel. PMID:26404005

  3. Symmetric generation of Coxeter groups Ben Fairbairn and Jurgen Muller

    E-print Network

    Mueller, Jürgen

    Symmetric generation of Coxeter groups Ben Fairbairn and J¨urgen M¨uller Abstract. We provide involutory symmetric generating sets of finitely gener- ated Coxeter groups, fulfilling a suitable finiteness. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000). 20F55, 20F05. Keywords. symmetric generation, symmetric

  4. Symmetric generation of Coxeter groups Ben Fairbairn and Jurgen Muller

    E-print Network

    Mueller, Jürgen

    Symmetric generation of Coxeter groups Ben Fairbairn and JË?urgen MË?uller Abstract. We provide involutory symmetric generating sets of finitely gener­ ated Coxeter groups, fulfilling a suitable finiteness Subject Classification (2000). 20F55, 20F05. Keywords. symmetric generation, symmetric presentation

  5. Mutual Private Set Intersection with Linear Complexity

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    for [19, 5, 11, 7] is focused on solving the unilateral PSI problem.1 In this problem, two players the state- of-the-art in the computation overhead. To the best of our knowledge, our construction Intersection, Prime Representation 1 Introduction The mutual Private Set Intersection (PSI) problem

  6. Symmetric Galerkin boundary formulations employing curved elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kane, J. H.; Balakrishna, C.

    1993-01-01

    Accounts of the symmetric Galerkin approach to boundary element analysis (BEA) have recently been published. This paper attempts to add to the understanding of this method by addressing a series of fundamental issues associated with its potential computational efficiency. A new symmetric Galerkin theoretical formulation for both the (harmonic) heat conduction and the (biharmonic) elasticity problem that employs regularized singular and hypersingular boundary integral equations (BIEs) is presented. The novel use of regularized BIEs in the Galerkin context is shown to allow straightforward incorporation of curved, isoparametric elements. A symmetric reusable intrinsic sample point (RISP) numerical integration algorithm is shown to produce a Galerkin (i.e., double) integration strategy that is competitive with its counterpart (i.e., singular) integration procedure in the collocation BEA approach when the time saved in the symmetric equation solution phase is also taken into account. This new formulation is shown to be capable of employing hypersingular BIEs while obviating the requirement of C 1 continuity, a fact that allows the employment of the popular continuous element technology. The behavior of the symmetric Galerkin BEA method with regard to both direct and iterative equation solution operations is also addressed. A series of example problems are presented to quantify the performance of this symmetric approach, relative to the more conventional unsymmetric BEA, in terms of both accuracy and efficiency. It is concluded that appropriate implementations of the symmetric Galerkin approach to BEA indeed have the potential to be competitive with, if not superior to, collocation-based BEA, for large-scale problems.

  7. An almost symmetric Strang splitting scheme for nonlinear evolution equations?

    PubMed Central

    Einkemmer, Lukas; Ostermann, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we consider splitting methods for the time integration of parabolic and certain classes of hyperbolic partial differential equations, where one partial flow cannot be computed exactly. Instead, we use a numerical approximation based on the linearization of the vector field. This is of interest in applications as it allows us to apply splitting methods to a wider class of problems from the sciences. However, in the situation described, the classic Strang splitting scheme, while still being a method of second order, is not longer symmetric. This, in turn, implies that the construction of higher order methods by composition is limited to order three only. To remedy this situation, based on previous work in the context of ordinary differential equations, we construct a class of Strang splitting schemes that are symmetric up to a desired order. We show rigorously that, under suitable assumptions on the nonlinearity, these methods are of second order and can then be used to construct higher order methods by composition. In addition, we illustrate the theoretical results by conducting numerical experiments for the Brusselator system and the KdV equation. PMID:25844017

  8. Synthesis and physical properties of symmetrical and non-symmetrical triacylglycerols containing two palmitic fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both the amounts of and specific structures of the triacylglycerols (TAG) present in the oil phase of a margarine or spread are considered responsible for such properties as its spreadability, resistance to water/oil loss, and melting characteristics. A series of symmetrical and non-symmetrical TAG...

  9. Accommodation of a highly symmetric core within a symmetric protein superfold

    E-print Network

    Blaber, Michael

    Accommodation of a highly symmetric core within a symmetric protein superfold STEPHEN R. BRYCH An alternative core packing group, involving a set of five positions, has been introduced into human acidic FGF-1. This alternative group was designed so as to constrain the primary structure within the core region to the same

  10. Deflection of Rotating Symmetric Molecules by Inhomogeneous Fields

    E-print Network

    Erez Gershnabel; Ilya Sh. Averbukh

    2011-05-16

    We consider deflection of rotating symmetric molecules by inhomogeneous optical and static electric fields, compare results with the case of linear molecules, and find new singularities in the distribution of the scattering angle. Scattering of the prolate/oblate molecules is analyzed in detail, and it is shown that the process can be efficiently controlled by means of short and strong femtosecond laser pulses. In particular, the angular dispersion of the deflected molecules may be dramatically reduced by laser-induced molecular pre-alignment. We first study the problem by using a simple classical model, and then find similar results by means of more sophisticated methods, including the formalism of adiabatic invariants and direct numerical simulation of the Euler-Lagrange equations of motion. The suggested control scheme opens new ways for many applications involving molecular focusing, guiding, and trapping by optical and static fields.

  11. Deflection of Rotating Symmetric Molecules by Inhomogeneous Fields

    E-print Network

    Gershnabel, Erez

    2011-01-01

    We consider deflection of rotating symmetric molecules by inhomogeneous optical and static electric fields, compare results with the case of linear molecules, and find new singularities in the distribution of the scattering angle. Scattering of the prolate/oblate molecules is analyzed in detail, and it is shown that the process can be efficiently controlled by means of short and strong femtosecond laser pulses. In particular, the angular dispersion of the deflected molecules may be dramatically reduced by laser-induced molecular pre-alignment. We first study the problem by using a simple classical model, and then find similar results by means of more sophisticated methods, including the formalism of adiabatic invariants and direct numerical simulation of the Euler-Lagrange equations of motion. The suggested control scheme opens new ways for many applications involving molecular focusing, guiding, and trapping by optical and static fields.

  12. Trajectories in a space with a spherically symmetric dislocation

    E-print Network

    Alcides F. Andrade; Guilherme de Berredo-Peixoto

    2012-03-24

    We consider a new type of defect in the scope of linear elasticity theory, using geometrical methods. This defect is produced by a spherically symmetric dislocation, or ball dislocation. We derive the induced metric as well as the affine connections and curvature tensors. Since the induced metric is discontinuous, one can expect ambiguity coming from these quantities, due to products between delta functions or its derivatives, plaguing a description of ball dislocations based on the Geometric Theory of Defects. However, exactly as in the previous case of cylindric defect, one can obtain some well-defined physical predictions of the induced geometry. In particular, we explore some properties of test particle trajectories around the defect and show that these trajectories are curved but can not be circular orbits.

  13. Symmetric and asymmetric charge transport in interacting asymmetric quantum impurities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Dibyendu

    2010-02-01

    We study steady-state charge transfer across an interacting resonance-level model connected asymmetrically to two leads. For a linear energy dispersion relation of the leads, we calculate current-voltage characteristics of the model exactly employing the scattering Bethe ansatz of Mehta-Andrei and find symmetric transport showing the absence of diode effect. Next we study a lattice version of this model with a nonlinear dispersion for the leads using the Lippmann-Schwinger scattering theory. We find that the inclusion of nonlinearity in the leads’ dispersion causes rectification for asymmetric junctions but does not rectify for asymmetric interactions and perfect junctions. The model in the latter case can be mapped into a model of a single noninteracting electron in higher dimensions.

  14. Spherically symmetric cosmological spacetimes with dust and radiation — numerical implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Woei Chet; Regis, Marco; Clarkson, Chris E-mail: regis@to.infn.it

    2013-10-01

    We present new numerical cosmological solutions of the Einstein Field Equations. The spacetime is spherically symmetric with a source of dust and radiation approximated as a perfect fluid. The dust and radiation are necessarily non-comoving due to the inhomogeneity of the spacetime. Such a model can be used to investigate non-linear general relativistic effects present during decoupling or big-bang nucleosynthesis, as well as for investigating void models of dark energy with isocurvature degrees of freedom. We describe the full evolution of the spacetime as well as the redshift and luminosity distance for a central observer. After demonstrating accuracy of the code, we consider a few example models, and demonstrate the sensitivity of the late time model to the degree of inhomogeneity of the initial radiation contrast.

  15. Two loop QCD vertices at the symmetric point

    SciTech Connect

    Gracey, J. A.

    2011-10-15

    We compute the triple gluon, quark-gluon and ghost-gluon vertices of QCD at the symmetric subtraction point at two loops in the MS scheme. In addition we renormalize each of the three vertices in their respective momentum subtraction schemes, MOMggg, MOMq and MOMh. The conversion functions of all the wave functions, coupling constant and gauge parameter renormalization constants of each of the schemes relative to MS are determined analytically. These are then used to derive the three loop anomalous dimensions of the gluon, quark, Faddeev-Popov ghost and gauge parameter as well as the {beta} function in an arbitrary linear covariant gauge for each MOM scheme. There is good agreement of the latter with earlier Landau gauge numerical estimates of Chetyrkin and Seidensticker.

  16. On symmetric and upwind TVD schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, H. C.

    1985-01-01

    A class of explicit and implicit total variation diminishing (TVD) schemes for the compressible Euler and Navier-Stokes equations was developed. They do not generate spurious oscillations across shocks and contact discontinuities. In general, shocks can be captured within 1 to 2 grid points. For the inviscid case, these schemes are divided into upwind TVD schemes and symmetric (nonupwind) TVD schemes. The upwind TVD scheme is based on the second-order TVD scheme. The symmetric TVD scheme is a generalization of Roe's and Davis' TVD Lax-Wendroff scheme. The performance of these schemes on some viscous and inviscid airfoil steady-state calculations is investigated. The symmetric and upwind TVD schemes are compared.

  17. CAST: Contraction Algorithm for Symmetric Tensors

    SciTech Connect

    Rajbhandari, Samyam; NIkam, Akshay; Lai, Pai-Wei; Stock, Kevin; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Sadayappan, Ponnuswamy

    2014-09-22

    Tensor contractions represent the most compute-intensive core kernels in ab initio computational quantum chemistry and nuclear physics. Symmetries in these tensor contractions makes them difficult to load balance and scale to large distributed systems. In this paper, we develop an efficient and scalable algorithm to contract symmetric tensors. We introduce a novel approach that avoids data redistribution in contracting symmetric tensors while also avoiding redundant storage and maintaining load balance. We present experimental results on two parallel supercomputers for several symmetric contractions that appear in the CCSD quantum chemistry method. We also present a novel approach to tensor redistribution that can take advantage of parallel hyperplanes when the initial distribution has replicated dimensions, and use collective broadcast when the final distribution has replicated dimensions, making the algorithm very efficient.

  18. Instability of hairy black holes in shift-symmetric Horndeski theories

    E-print Network

    Ogawa, Hiromu; Suyama, Teruaki

    2015-01-01

    Recently it was pointed out that in shift-symmetric scalar-tensor theories a black hole can have nontrivial scalar hair which depends linearly on time. We develop black hole perturbation theory for such solutions and compute the quadratic action of odd-parity perturbations. We show that around all the solutions known so far with such time-dependent scalar hair the perturbations trigger instabilities or are presumably strongly coupled.

  19. Thermodynamic Analysis of Non-Linear Reissner-Nordström Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cembranos, Jose; Cruz-Dombriz, Álvaro; Jarillo, Javier

    2015-11-01

    In the present article we study the Inverse Electrodynamics Model. This model is a gauge and parity invariant non-linear Electrodynamics theory, which respects the conformal invariance of standard Electrodynamics. This modified Electrodynamics model, when minimally coupled to General Relativity, is compatible with static and spherically symmetric Reissner-Nordstrom-like black-hole solutions. However, these black-hole solutions present more complex thermodynamic properties than their Reissner-Nordstrom black-hole solutions counterparts in standard Electrodynamics. In particular, in the Inverse Model a new stability region, with both the heat capacity and the free energy negative, arises. Moreover, unlike the scenario in standard Electrodynamics, a sole transition phase is possible for a suitable choice in the set of parameters of these solutions.

  20. All-optical symmetric ternary logic gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay

    2010-09-01

    Symmetric ternary number (radix=3) has three logical states (1¯, 0, 1). It is very much useful in carry free arithmetical operation. Beside this, the logical operation using this type of number system is also effective in high speed computation and communication in multi-valued logic. In this literature all-optical circuits for three basic symmetrical ternary logical operations (inversion, MIN and MAX) are proposed and described. Numerical simulation verifies the theoretical model. In this present scheme the different ternary logical states are represented by different polarized state of light. Terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) based interferometric switch has been used categorically in this manuscript.

  1. Observational tests of Baryon symmetric cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1982-01-01

    Observational evidence for Baryon symmetric (matter/antimatter) cosmology and future observational tests are reviewed. The most significant consequences of Baryon symmetric cosmology lie in the prediction of an observable cosmic background of gamma radiation from the decay of pi(0)-mesons produced in nucleon-antinucleon annihilations. Equations for the prediction of the amma ray background spectrum for the case of high redshifts are presented. The theoretical and observational plots of the background spectrum are shown to be in good agreement. Measurement of cosmic ray antiprotons and the use of high energy neutrino astronomy to look for antimatter elsewhere in the universe are also addressed.

  2. Explicit form of spatially linear Navier-Stokes velocity fields

    E-print Network

    Langlois, Gabriel Provencher

    2015-01-01

    We show that a smooth linear unsteady velocity field $u(x,t)=A(t)x+f(t)$ solves the incompressible Navier--Stokes equation if and only if the matrix $A(t)$ has zero trace, and $\\dot{{A}}(t)+A^{2}(t)$ is symmetric. In two dimensions, these constraints imply that $A(t)$ is the sum of an arbitrary time-dependent traceless symmetric matrix and an arbitrary constant skew-symmetric matrix. One can, therefore, verify by inspection if an unsteady spatially linear vector field is a Navier--Stokes solution. In three dimensions, we obtain a simple ordinary differential equation that $A(t)$ must solve. Our formulas enable the construction of simple yet unsteady and dynamically consistent flows for testing numerical schemes and verifying coherent structure criteria.

  3. Explicit form of spatially linear Navier-Stokes velocity fields

    E-print Network

    Gabriel Provencher Langlois; George Haller

    2015-09-15

    We show that a smooth linear unsteady velocity field $u(x,t)=A(t)x+f(t)$ solves the incompressible Navier--Stokes equation if and only if the matrix $A(t)$ has zero trace, and $\\dot{{A}}(t)+A^{2}(t)$ is symmetric. In two dimensions, these constraints imply that $A(t)$ is the sum of an arbitrary time-dependent traceless symmetric matrix and an arbitrary constant skew-symmetric matrix. One can, therefore, verify by inspection if an unsteady spatially linear vector field is a Navier--Stokes solution. In three dimensions, we obtain a simple ordinary differential equation that $A(t)$ must solve. Our formulas enable the construction of simple yet unsteady and dynamically consistent flows for testing numerical schemes and verifying coherent structure criteria.

  4. Universal Linear Optics

    E-print Network

    Jacques Carolan; Chris Harrold; Chris Sparrow; Enrique Martín-López; Nicholas J. Russell; Joshua W. Silverstone; Peter J. Shadbolt; Nobuyuki Matsuda; Manabu Oguma; Mikitaka Itoh; Graham D. Marshall; Mark G. Thompson; Jonathan C. F. Matthews; Toshikazu Hashimoto; Jeremy L. O'Brien; Anthony Laing

    2015-05-05

    Linear optics underpins tests of fundamental quantum mechanics and computer science, as well as quantum technologies. Here we experimentally demonstrate the longstanding goal of a single reprogrammable optical circuit that is sufficient to implement all possible linear optical protocols up to the size of that circuit. Our six-mode universal system consists of a cascade of 15 Mach-Zehnder interferometers with 30 thermo-optic phase shifters integrated into a single photonic chip that is electrically and optically interfaced for arbitrary setting of all phase shifters, input of up to six photons and their measurement with a 12 single-photon detector system. We programmed this system to implement heralded quantum logic and entangling gates, boson sampling with verification tests, and six-dimensional complex Hadamards. We implemented 100 Haar random unitaries with average fidelity 0.999 $\\pm$ 0.001. Our system is capable of switching between these and any other linear optical protocol in seconds. These results point the way to applications across fundamental science and quantum technologies.

  5. Group Lifting Structures For Multirate Filter Banks, II: Linear Phase Filter Banks

    SciTech Connect

    Brislawn, Christopher M

    2008-01-01

    The theory of group lifting structures is applied to linear phase lifting factorizations for the two nontrivial classes of two-channel linear phase perfect reconstruction filter banks, the whole-and half-sample symmetric classes. Group lifting structures defined for the reversible and irreversible classes of whole-and half-sample symmetric filter banks are shown to satisfy the hypotheses of the uniqueness theorem for group lifting structures. It follows that linear phase lifting factorizations of whole-and half-sample symmetric filter banks are therefore independent of the factorization methods used to compute them. These results cover the specification of user-defined whole-sample symmetric filter banks in Part 2 of the ISO JPEG 2000 standard.

  6. Tunneling control using classical non-linear oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Kar, Susmita; Bhattacharyya, S. P.

    2014-04-24

    A quantum particle is placed in symmetric double well potential which is coupled to a classical non-linear oscillator via a coupling function. With different spatial symmetry of the coupling and under various controlling fashions, the tunneling of the quantum particle can be enhanced or suppressed, or totally destroyed.

  7. ASSOCIATIVE GEOMETRIES. I: GROUDS, LINEAR RELATIONS AND GRASSMANNIANS

    E-print Network

    ASSOCIATIVE GEOMETRIES. I: GROUDS, LINEAR RELATIONS AND GRASSMANNIANS WOLFGANG BERTRAM AND MICHAEL to the Lie product of an associative algebra and the latter to its Jordan product. A further develop­ ment­symmetric parts. The sym­ metric part is a Jordan algebra, and the additional structure will be related

  8. Electron beams of cylindrically symmetric spin polarization

    E-print Network

    Yan Wang; Chun-Fang Li

    2011-04-24

    Cylindrically symmetric electron beams in spin polarization are reported for the first time. They are shown to be the eigen states of total angular momentum in the $z$ direction. But they are neither the eigen states of spin nor the eigen states of orbital angular momentum in that direction.

  9. Super-symmetric informationally complete measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Huangjun

    2015-11-01

    Symmetric informationally complete measurements (SICs in short) are highly symmetric structures in the Hilbert space. They possess many nice properties which render them an ideal candidate for fiducial measurements. The symmetry of SICs is intimately connected with the geometry of the quantum state space and also has profound implications for foundational studies. Here we explore those SICs that are most symmetric according to a natural criterion and show that all of them are covariant with respect to the Heisenberg-Weyl groups, which are characterized by the discrete analog of the canonical commutation relation. Moreover, their symmetry groups are subgroups of the Clifford groups. In particular, we prove that the SIC in dimension 2, the Hesse SIC in dimension 3, and the set of Hoggar lines in dimension 8 are the only three SICs up to unitary equivalence whose symmetry groups act transitively on pairs of SIC projectors. Our work not only provides valuable insight about SICs, Heisenberg-Weyl groups, and Clifford groups, but also offers a new approach and perspective for studying many other discrete symmetric structures behind finite state quantum mechanics, such as mutually unbiased bases and discrete Wigner functions.

  10. Conformal motions in plane symmetric static spacetimes

    E-print Network

    K. Saifullah; Shair-e-Yazdan

    2009-04-22

    In this paper, conformal motions are studied in plane symmetric static spacetimes. The general solution of conformal Killing equations and the general form of the conformal Killing vector for these spacetimes are presented. All possibilities for the existence of conformal motions in these spacetimes are exhausted.

  11. Models of helically symmetric binary systems

    E-print Network

    Shin'ichirou Yoshida; Benjamin C. Bromley; Jocelyn S. Read; Koji Uryu; John L. Friedman

    2006-05-05

    Results from helically symmetric scalar field models and first results from a convergent helically symmetric binary neutron star code are reported here; these are models stationary in the rotating frame of a source with constant angular velocity omega. In the scalar field models and the neutron star code, helical symmetry leads to a system of mixed elliptic-hyperbolic character. The scalar field models involve nonlinear terms that mimic nonlinear terms of the Einstein equation. Convergence is strikingly different for different signs of each nonlinear term; it is typically insensitive to the iterative method used; and it improves with an outer boundary in the near zone. In the neutron star code, one has no control on the sign of the source, and convergence has been achieved only for an outer boundary less than approximately 1 wavelength from the source or for a code that imposes helical symmetry only inside a near zone of that size. The inaccuracy of helically symmetric solutions with appropriate boundary conditions should be comparable to the inaccuracy of a waveless formalism that neglects gravitational waves; and the (near zone) solutions we obtain for waveless and helically symmetric BNS codes with the same boundary conditions nearly coincide.

  12. Entanglement of completely symmetric quantum Hans Maassen

    E-print Network

    Maassen, Hans

    Entanglement of completely symmetric quantum states Hans Maassen Mark Kac Seminar, October 7, 2011 they ever will). #12;Motivation Entanglement is a central issue in quantum information theory. For example, it is the engine that will make quantum computers work (if they ever will). The study of n party-entanglement

  13. Platonic Beasts: Spherically Symmetric Multilimbed Robots

    E-print Network

    Pai, Dinesh

    of the Platonic solids, with identical multi-purpose limbs attached to its vertices. The symmetry and regularity vertex of a spherically symmetric polyhedron. The polyhedron can be one of the five Platonic solids1 -- hence the 1 Platonic solids are the only five possible regular convex polyhedra in three dimensions

  14. Miniaturized symmetrization optics for junction laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, Jacob M. (Inventor); Kaiser, Charlie J. (Inventor); Neil, Clyde C. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    Miniaturized optics comprising transverse and lateral cylindrical lenses composed of millimeter-sized rods with diameters, indices-of-refraction and spacing such that substantially all the light emitted as an asymmetrical beam from the emitting junction of the laser is collected and translated to a symmetrical beam.

  15. Cylindrically symmetric solutions in conformal gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Brihaye, Y.; Verbin, Y.

    2010-06-15

    Cylindrically symmetric solutions in conformal gravity are investigated and several new solutions are presented and discussed, among them a family of vacuum solutions, generalizations of the Melvin solution, and cosmic strings of the Abelian Higgs model. The Melvin-like solutions have finite energy per unit length, while the stringlike solutions do not.

  16. Vacuum energy for static, cylindrically symmetric systems 

    E-print Network

    Trendafilova, Cynthia

    2012-04-18

    , cylindrically symmetric system in the case of locally flat space. I then took these components and expressed them in terms of the known cylinder kernel in cylindrical coordinates. Using these results, I examine the vacuum energy density and pressure in some...

  17. Unidirectional nonlinear PT-symmetric optical structures

    SciTech Connect

    Ramezani, Hamidreza; Kottos, Tsampikos; El-Ganainy, Ramy; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.

    2010-10-15

    We show that nonlinear optical structures involving a balanced gain-loss profile can act as unidirectional optical valves. This is made possible by exploiting the interplay between the fundamental symmetries of parity (P) and time (T), with optical nonlinear effects. This unidirectional dynamics is specifically demonstrated for the case of an integrable PT-symmetric nonlinear system.

  18. Symmetric irrotational water waves are traveling waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogelbauer, Florian

    2015-11-01

    We show that a spatially periodic solution to the irrotational two-dimensional gravity water wave problem, with the property that the horizontal velocity component at the surface, as well as the wave profile is symmetric, necessarily defines a traveling wave. The proof makes use of maximum principles for harmonic functions and structural properties of the governing equations for nonlinear water waves.

  19. The deuterium puzzle in the symmetric universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leroy, B.; Nicolle, J. P.; Schatzman, E.

    1973-01-01

    An attempt was made to use deuterium abundance in the symmetric universe to prove that no nucleosynthesis takes place during annihilation and therefore neutrons were loss before nucleosynthesis. Data cover nucleosynthesis during the radiative era, cross section estimates, maximum abundance of He-4 at the end of nucleosynthesis area, and loss rate.

  20. Conformal cylindrically symmetric spacetimes in modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Türkog˜lu, Murat Metehan; Dog˜ru, Melis Ulu

    2015-11-01

    We investigate cylindrically symmetric spacetimes in the context of f(R) gravity. We firstly attain conformal symmetry of the cylindrically symmetric spacetime. We obtain solutions to use features of the conformal symmetry, field equations and their solutions for cylindrically symmetric spacetime filled with various cosmic matters such as vacuum state, perfect fluid, anisotropic fluid, massive scalar field and their combinations. With the vacuum state solutions, we show that source of the spacetime curvature is considered as Casimir effect. Casimir force for given spacetime is found using Wald’s axiomatic analysis. We expose that the Casimir force for Boulware, Hartle-Hawking and Unruh vacuum states could have attractive, repulsive and ineffective features. In the perfect fluid state, we show that matter form of the perfect fluid in given spacetime must only be dark energy. Also, we offer that potential of massive and massless scalar field are developed as an exact solution from the modified field equations. All solutions of field equations for vacuum case, perfect fluid and scalar field give a special f(R) function convenient to ?-CDM model. In addition to these solutions, we introduce conformal cylindrical symmetric solutions in the cases of different f(R) models. Finally, geometrical and physical results of the solutions are discussed.

  1. On integrability of strings on symmetric spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulff, Linus

    2015-09-01

    In the absence of NSNS three-form flux the bosonic string on a symmetric space is described by a symmetric space coset sigma-model. Such models are known to be classically integrable. We show that the integrability extends also to cases with non-zero NSNS flux (respecting the isometries) provided that the flux satisfies a condition of the form H abc H cde ˜ R abde . We then turn our attention to the type II Green-Schwarz superstring on a symmetric space. We prove that if the space preserves some supersymmetry there exists a truncation of the full superspace to a supercoset space and derive the general form of the superisometry algebra. In the case of vanishing NSNS flux the corresponding supercoset sigma-model for the string is known to be integrable. We prove that the integrability extends to the full string by augmenting the supercoset Lax connection with terms involving the fermions which are not captured by the supercoset model. The construction is carried out to quadratic order in these fermions. This proves the integrability of strings on symmetric spaces supported by RR flux which preserve any non-zero amount of supersymmetry. Finally we also construct Lax connections for some supercoset models with non-zero NSNS flux describing strings in AdS 2,3 × S 2,3 × S 2,3 × T 2,3,4 backgrounds preserving eight supersymmetries.

  2. GENERALIZED BLOCKS FOR SYMMETRIC GROUPS BURKHARD K

    E-print Network

    characters into p-blocks in terms of a combinatorial condition on the partitions labelling them. More speci of the second main theorem of blocks. Then in section 4 we construct \\basic sets", i.e. integral basesGENERALIZED BLOCKS FOR SYMMETRIC GROUPS BURKHARD K  ULSHAMMER, J#31;RN B. OLSSON, AND GEOFFREY R

  3. Applications of the method of complex characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Connie Kangyan

    1997-11-01

    Computational fluid dynamics has proved to be an exceptionally effective method for analyzing flow problems. In particular, the method of complex characteristics can be used to analyze transonic flows in two-dimensions. It has served to design supercritical wing sections that reduce the wave drag significantly on modern aircraft, and it is an excellent tool for the numerical construction of shockless airfoils. The present research is devoted to applications of the method of complex characteristics. First, the method has been developed as a parallel algorithm to solve the Dirichlet problem for a linear elliptic partial differential equation with analytic coefficients in the plane. Numerical experiments have been performed to establish that this technique works well as a parallel algorithm on a cluster of computers. A second phase of the research has led to a robust engineering code for the design of shockless airfoils, either isolated or in cascade, that can be run on either large or small computers. The code has been applied to study uniqueness in transonic flow problems. It has led to the discovery of an exceptionally thick and smooth symmetric airfoil with several solutions so that a flow with lift is produced at zero angle of attack.

  4. A Bayesian Approach to Empirical Local Linearization For Robotics 

    E-print Network

    Ting, Jo-Anne; D'Souza, Aaron; Vijayakumar, Sethu; Schaal, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Local linearizations are ubiquitous in the control of robotic systems. Analytical methods, if available, can be used to obtain the linearization, but in complex robotics systems where the dynamics and kinematics are ...

  5. Symmetric Active/Active Replication for Dependent Services

    SciTech Connect

    Engelmann, Christian; Scott, Stephen L; Leangsuksun, Chokchai; He, X.

    2008-01-01

    During the last several years, we have established the symmetric active/active replication model for service-level high availability and implemented several proof-of-concept prototypes. One major deficiency of our model is its inability to deal with dependent services, since its original architecture is based on the client-service model. This paper extends our model to dependent services using its already existing mechanisms and features. The presented concept is based on the idea that a service may also be a client of another service, and multiple services may be clients of each other. A high-level abstraction is used to illustrate dependencies between clients and services, and to decompose dependencies between services into respective client-service dependencies. This abstraction may be used for providing high availability in distributed computing systems with complex service-oriented architectures.

  6. Invariant current approach to wave propagation in locally symmetric materials

    E-print Network

    V. E. Zambetakis; M. K. Diakonou; P. A. Kalozoumis; F. K. Diakonos; C. V. Morfonios; P. Schmelcher

    2015-07-19

    A theory for wave mechanical systems with local inversion and translation symmetries is developed employing the two-dimensional solution space of the stationary Schrodinger equation. The local symmetries of the potential are encoded into corresponding local basis vectors in terms ofsymmetry-induced two-point invariant currents which map the basis amplitudes between symmetry-related points. A universal wavefunction structure in locally symmetric materials is revealed, independently of the physical boundary conditions, by using special local bases which are adapted to the existing local symmetries. The local symmetry bases enable efficient computation of spatiallyresolved wave amplitudes in systems with arbitrary combinations of local inversion and translation symmetries. The approach opens the perspective of a flexible analysis and control of wave localization in structurally complex systems.

  7. A closed character formula for symmetric powers of irreducible representations

    E-print Network

    Kousidis, Stavros

    2009-01-01

    We prove a closed character formula for the symmetric powers \\(S^N V(\\lambda)\\) of a fixed irreducible representation \\(V(\\lambda)\\) of a complex semi-simple Lie algebra \\(\\mathfrak{g}\\) by means of partial fraction decomposition. The formula involves rational functions in rank of \\(\\mathfrak{g}\\) many variables which are easier to determine than the weight multiplicities of \\(S^N V(\\lambda)\\) themselves. We compute those rational functions in some interesting cases. Furthermore, we introduce a residue-type generating function for the weight multiplicities of \\(S^N V(\\lambda)\\) and explain the connections between our character formula, vector partition functions and iterated partial fraction decomposition.

  8. Linear Thermodynamics of Rodlike DNA Filtration

    E-print Network

    Li, Zirui

    Linear thermodynamics transportation theory is employed to study filtration of rodlike DNA molecules. Using the repeated nanoarray consisting of alternate deep and shallow regions, it is demonstrated that the complex ...

  9. An Approximate Solution and Master Curves for Buckling of Symmetrically Laminated Composite Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Nondimensional linear-bifurcation buckling equations for balanced, symmetrically laminated cylinders with negligible shell-wall anisotropies and subjected to uniform axial compression loads are presented. These equations are solved exactly for the practical case of simply supported ends. Nondimensional quantities are used to characterize the buckling behavior that consist of a stiffness-weighted length-to-radius parameter, a stiffness-weighted shell-thinness parameter, a shell-wall nonhomogeneity parameter, two orthotropy parameters, and a nondimensional buckling load. Ranges for the nondimensional parameters are established that encompass a wide range of laminated-wall constructions and numerous generic plots of nondimensional buckling load versus a stiffness-weighted length-to-radius ratio are presented for various combinations of the other parameters. These plots are expected to include many practical cases of interest to designers. Additionally, these plots show how the parameter values affect the distribution and size of the festoons forming each response curve and how they affect the attenuation of each response curve to the corresponding solution for an infinitely long cylinder. To aid in preliminary design studies, approximate formulas for the nondimensional buckling load are derived, and validated against the corresponding exact solution, that give the attenuated buckling response of an infinitely long cylinder in terms of the nondimensional parameters presented herein. A relatively small number of "master curves" are identified that give a nondimensional measure of the buckling load of an infinitely long cylinder as a function of the orthotropy and wall inhomogeneity parameters. These curves reduce greatly the complexity of the design-variable space as compared to representations that use dimensional quantities as design variables. As a result of their inherent simplicity, these master curves are anticipated to be useful in the ongoing development of buckling-design technology.

  10. An application of eigenspace methods to symmetric flutter suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fennell, Robert E.; Adams, William M., Jr.; Christhilf, David M.

    1988-01-01

    An eigenspace assignment approach to the design of parameter insensitive control laws for linear multivariable systems is presented. The control design scheme utilizes constrained optimization techniques to exploit the flexibility in eigenvector assignments to reduce control system sensitivity to changes in system parameters while maintaining performance requirements; it thus provides a systematic approach for choosing values for eigensystem design variables. The methods involve use of the singular value decomposition to provide an exact description of allowable eigenvectors in terms of a minimum number of design parameters. In a design example, the methods are applied to the problem of symmetric flutter suppression in an aeroelastic vehicle. In this example the flutter mode is sensitive to changes in dynamic pressure and eigenspace methods are used to enhance the performance of a stabilizing minimum energy/linear quadratic regulator controller and associated observer. Numerical results indicate that the methods provide feedback control laws that make the stability of the nominal closed loop systems less sensitive to changes in dynamic pressure, while maintaining acceptable control power and robustness constraints.

  11. Symmetric collective attacks for the eavesdropping of symmetric quantum key distribution

    E-print Network

    Stefano Pirandola

    2008-09-18

    We consider the collective eavesdropping of the BB84 and six-state protocols. Since these protocols are symmetric in the eigenstates of conjugate bases, we consider collective attacks having the same kind of symmetry. We then show how these symmetric collective attacks are sufficiently strong in order to minimize the Devetak-Winter rates. In fact, it is quite easy to construct simple examples able to reach the unconditionally-secure key-rates of these protocols.

  12. High performance Cholesky and symmetric indefinite factorizations with applications 

    E-print Network

    Hogg, Jonathan David

    2010-01-01

    The process of factorizing a symmetric matrix using the Cholesky (LLT ) or indefinite (LDLT ) factorization of A allows the efficient solution of systems Ax = b when A is symmetric. This thesis describes the development ...

  13. International Workshop on Linear Colliders 2010

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    IWLC2010 International Workshop on Linear Colliders 2010ECFA-CLIC-ILC joint meeting: Monday 18 October - Friday 22 October 2010Venue: CERN and CICG (International Conference Centre Geneva, Switzerland) This year, the International Workshop on Linear Colliders organized by the European Committee for Future Accelerators (ECFA) will study the physics, detectors and accelerator complex of a linear collider covering both CLIC and ILC options.Contact Workshop Secretariat  IWLC2010 is hosted by CERN

  14. Regularizing Linear Discriminant Analysis for Speech Recognition

    E-print Network

    Erdogan, Hakan

    Regularizing Linear Discriminant Analysis for Speech Recognition Hakan Erdogan Faculty in a pattern recognition system is the feature extractor. Feature extraction is an important step for speech recognition since the time-domain speech signal is highly variable, thus complex linear and nonlinear

  15. Mathematical Formalism for Isothermal Linear Irreversibility

    E-print Network

    Hong Qian

    2001-06-27

    We prove the equivalence among symmetricity, time reversibility, and zero entropy production of the stationary solutions of linear stochastic differential equations. A sufficient and necessary reversibility condition expressed in terms of the coefficients of the equations is given. The existence of a linear stationary irreversible process is established. Concerning reversibility, we show that there is a contradistinction between any 1-dimensional stationary Gaussian process and stationary Gaussian process of dimension $n>1$. A concrete criterion for differentiating stationarity and sweeping behavior is also obtained. The mathematical result is a natural generalization of Einstein's fluctuation-dissipation relation, and provides a rigorous basis for the isothermal irreversibility in a linear regime which is the basis for applying Onsager's theory to macromolecules in aqueous solution.

  16. Robustness of linear quadratic state feedback designs in the presence of system uncertainty. [application to Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft flare control autopilot design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, R. V.; Toda, M.; Sridhar, B.

    1977-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of expressing the robustness (stability) property of a linear quadratic state feedback (LQSF) design quantitatively in terms of bounds on the perturbations (modeling errors or parameter variations) in the system matrices so that the closed-loop system remains stable. Nonlinear time-varying and linear time-invariant perturbations are considered. The only computation required in obtaining a measure of the robustness of an LQSF design is to determine the eigenvalues of two symmetric matrices determined when solving the algebraic Riccati equation corresponding to the LQSF design problem. Results are applied to a complex dynamic system consisting of the flare control of a STOL aircraft. The design of the flare control is formulated as an LQSF tracking problem.

  17. Immunoblot analysis of linear polyubiquitination of NEMO.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Yoshiteru; Fujita, Hiroaki; Nakai, Misa; Iwai, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Stimulation with inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-? and IL-1 activates the canonical NF-?B pathway through the activation of the IKK complex. The mechanism underlying IKK activation has been extensively studied and the involvement of the ubiquitin system has been well documented. We have recently reported that a novel ubiquitin ligase complex, LUBAC is involved in the activation of the IKK complex. LUBAC consists of one catalytic subunit, HOIP and two accessory molecules, HOIL-1L and SHARPIN and activates the IKK complex by conjugating the linear polyubiquitin chains to NEMO (IKK?), the regulatory subunit of IKK complex. In this chapter, we describe the protocol for the detection of the linear polyubiquitination of NEMO by the immunoblotting using anti-linear ubiquitin antibody. PMID:25736756

  18. 14 CFR 23.331 - Symmetrical flight conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Symmetrical flight conditions. 23.331... Flight Loads § 23.331 Symmetrical flight conditions. (a) The appropriate balancing horizontal tail load... inertia loads corresponding to any of the symmetrical flight conditions specified in §§ 23.333 through...

  19. 14 CFR 23.331 - Symmetrical flight conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Symmetrical flight conditions. 23.331... Flight Loads § 23.331 Symmetrical flight conditions. (a) The appropriate balancing horizontal tail load... inertia loads corresponding to any of the symmetrical flight conditions specified in §§ 23.333 through...

  20. Pyramid diffraction in parity-time-symmetric optical lattices

    E-print Network

    Yang, Jianke

    Pyramid diffraction in parity-time-symmetric optical lattices Sean Nixon and Jianke Yang in two-dimensional parity-time-symmetric optical lattices near the phase tran- sition point of light beams in PT -symmetric optical lattices is taken as iz 2 Vx; y jj2 0; (1) where z

  1. Representation theory of symmetric groups, wreath products and related algebras.

    E-print Network

    Banaji,. Murad

    Representation theory of symmetric groups, wreath products and related algebras. The representation theory of symmetric groups has been studied for over a century. Although mathematicians have a good of the wreath product of two symmetric groups sometimes arise when studying the representation theory

  2. Error correction and symmetrization in quantum computers

    E-print Network

    Asher Peres

    1996-11-26

    Errors in quantum computers are of two kinds: sudden perturbations to isolated qubits, and slow random drifts of all the qubits. The latter may be reduced, but not eliminated, by means of symmetrization, namely by using many replicas of the computer, and forcing their joint quantum state to be completely symmetric. On the other hand, isolated errors can be corrected by quantum codewords that represent a logical qubit in a redundant way, by several physical qubits. If one of the physical qubits is perturbed, for example if it gets entangled with an unknown environment, there still is enough information encoded in the other physical qubits to restore the logical qubit, and disentangle it from the environment. The recovery procedure may consist of unitary operations, without the need of actually identifying the error.

  3. Nonlinear electrodynamics as a symmetric hyperbolic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abalos, Fernando; Carrasco, Federico; Goulart, Érico; Reula, Oscar

    2015-10-01

    Nonlinear theories generalizing Maxwell's electromagnetism and arising from a Lagrangian formalism have dispersion relations in which propagation planes factor into null planes corresponding to two effective metrics which depend on the pointwise values of the electromagnetic field. These effective Lorentzian metrics share the null (generically two) directions of the electromagnetic field. We show that the theory is symmetric hyperbolic if and only if the cones these metrics give rise to have a nonempty intersection, namely, that there exist families of symmetrizers in the sense of Geroch [26] which are positive definite for all covectors in the interior of the cones intersection. Thus, for these theories, the initial value problem is well posed. We illustrate the power of this approach with several nonlinear models of physical interest such as Born-Infeld, Gauss-Bonnet, and Euler-Heisenberg.

  4. Spherically Symmetric Solutions of Light Galileon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momeni, D.; Houndjo, M. J. S.; Güdekli, E.; Rodrigues, M. E.; Alvarenga, F. G.; Myrzakulov, R.

    2015-08-01

    We have been studied the model of light Galileon with translational shift symmetry ? ? ? + c. The matter Lagrangian is presented in the form L_{? }= -? (partial ? )2+? G^{? ? }partial _{? }? partial _{? }? . We have been addressed two issues: the first is that, we have been proven that, this type of Galileons belong to the modified matter-curvature models of gravity in type of f(R,R^{? ? }T_{? ? }m). Secondly, we have been investigated exact solution for spherically symmetric geometries in this model. We have been found an exact solution with singularity at r = 0 in null coordinates. We have been proven that the solution has also a non-divergence current vector norm. This solution can be considered as an special solution which has been investigated in literature before, in which the Galileon's field is non-static (time dependence). Our scalar-shift symmetrized Galileon has the simple form of ? = t, which it is remembered by us dilaton field.

  5. Binary switching in a ‘symmetric' potential landscape

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Kuntal; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo; Atulasimha, Jayasimha

    2013-01-01

    A binary switch is the basic building block for information processing. The potential energy profile of a bistable binary switch is a ‘symmetric' double well. The traditional method of switching it from one state (one well) to the other is to tilt the profile towards the desired state. Here, we present a case, where no such tilting is necessary to switch successfully, even in the presence of thermal noise. This happens because of the built-in dynamics inside the switch itself. It differs from the general perception on binary switching that in a ‘symmetric' potential landscape, the switching probability is 50% in the presence of thermal noise. Our results, considering the complete three-dimensional potential landscape, demonstrate intriguing phenomena on binary switching mechanism. With experimentally feasible parameters, we theoretically demonstrate such intriguing possibility in electric field induced magnetization switching of a shape-anisotropic single-domain magnetostrictive nanomagnet with two stable states at room-temperature. PMID:24154561

  6. Nonthermal and geometric effects on the symmetric and anti-symmetric surface waves in a Lorentzian dusty plasma slab

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Myoung-Jae; Jung, Young-Dae

    2015-02-15

    The nonthermal and geometric effects on the propagation of the surface dust acoustic waves are investigated in a Lorentzian dusty plasma slab. The symmetric and anti-symmetric dispersion modes of the dust acoustic waves are obtained by the plasma dielectric function with the spectral reflection conditions the slab geometry. The variation of the nonthermal and geometric effects on the symmetric and the anti-symmetric modes of the surface plasma waves is also discussed.

  7. Tilted Cylindrically Symmetric Self-Similar Solutions

    E-print Network

    M. Sharif; Sajid Sultan

    2009-05-16

    This paper is devoted to explore tilted kinematic self-similar solutions of the the general cylindrical symmetric spacetimes. These solutions are of the first, zeroth, second and infinite kinds for the perfect fluid and dust cases. Three different equations of state are used to obtain these solutions. We obtain a total of five independent solutions. The correspondence of these solutions with those already available in the literature is also given.

  8. Expansion-free Cylindrically Symmetric Models

    E-print Network

    M. Sharif; Z. Yousaf

    2013-10-30

    This paper investigates cylindrically symmetric distribution of an-isotropic fluid under the expansion-free condition, which requires the existence of vacuum cavity within the fluid distribution. We have discussed two family of solutions which further provide two exact models in each family. Some of these solutions satisfy Darmois junction condition while some show the presence of thin shell on both boundary surfaces. We also formulate a relation between the Weyl tensor and energy density.

  9. Yangian symmetric correlators, R operators and amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschner, R.

    2014-11-01

    Yangian symmetric correlators can be constructed by the action of Yang-Baxter R operators on trivial basic correlators. The example of a four-point correlator is given in two representations and the construction of the completely connected N point correlator is described. The helicity representation is dicussed and the relation of the four-point correlator to tree-level scattering amplitudes is shown.

  10. Wave equation on spherically symmetric Lorentzian metrics

    SciTech Connect

    Bokhari, Ashfaque H.; Al-Dweik, Ahmad Y.; Zaman, F. D.; Kara, A. H.; Karim, M.

    2011-06-15

    Wave equation on a general spherically symmetric spacetime metric is constructed. Noether symmetries of the equation in terms of explicit functions of {theta} and {phi} are derived subject to certain differential constraints. By restricting the metric to flat Friedman case the Noether symmetries of the wave equation are presented. Invertible transformations are constructed from a specific subalgebra of these Noether symmetries to convert the wave equation with variable coefficients to the one with constant coefficients.

  11. LINEAR DIFFUSION Erkut Erdem

    E-print Network

    Erdem, Erkut

    LINEAR DIFFUSION Erkut Erdem Hacettepe University February 24th, 2012 CONTENTS 1 Linear Diffusion 1 2 Appendix - The Calculus of Variations 5 References 6 1 LINEAR DIFFUSION The linear diffusion (heat (noisy) input image and u(x, t) be initialized with u(x, 0) = u0(x) = f (x). Then, the linear diffusion

  12. Spherically symmetric thick branes cosmological evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardini, A. E.; Cavalcanti, R. T.; da Rocha, Roldão

    2015-01-01

    Spherically symmetric time-dependent solutions for the 5D system of a scalar field canonically coupled to gravity are obtained and identified as an extension of recent results obtained by Ahmed et al. (JHEP 1404:061. arXiv:1312.3576 [hep-th], 2014). The corresponding cosmology of models with regularized branes generated by such a 5D scalar field scenario is also investigated. It has been shown that the anisotropic evolution of the warp factor and consequently the Hubble like parameter are both driven by the radial coordinate on the brane, which leads to an emergent thick brane-world scenario with spherically symmetric time dependent warp factor. Meanwhile, the separability of variables depending on fifth dimension, , which is exhibited by the equations of motion, allows one to recover the extra dimensional profiles obtained in Ahmed et al. (2014), namely the extra dimensional part of the scale (warp) factor and the scalar field dependence on . Therefore, our results are mainly concerned with the time dependence of a spherically symmetric warp factor. Besides evincing possibilities for obtaining asymmetric stable brane-world scenarios, the extra dimensional profiles here obtained can also be reduced to those ones investigated in Ahmed et al. (2014).

  13. Electronic coherence and the kinetics of inter-complex energy transfer in light-harvesting systems.

    PubMed

    Huo, Pengfei; Miller Iii, Thomas F

    2015-11-18

    We apply real-time path-integral dynamics simulations to characterize the role of electronic coherence in inter-complex excitation energy transfer (EET) processes. The analysis is performed using a system-bath model that exhibits the essential features of light-harvesting networks, including strong intra-complex electronic coupling and weak inter-complex coupling. Strong intra-complex coupling is known to generate both static and dynamic electron coherences, which delocalize the exciton over multiple chromophores and potentially influence the inter-complex EET dynamics. With numerical results from partial linearized density matrix (PLDM) real-time path-integral calculations, it is found that both static and dynamic coherence are correlated with the rate of inter-complex EET. To distinguish the impact of these two types of intra-complex coherence on the rate of inter-complex EET, we use Multi-Chromophore Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (MC-FRET) theory to map the original parameterization of the system-bath model to an alternative parameterization for which the effects of static coherence are preserved while the effects of dynamic coherence are largely eliminated. It is then shown that both parameterizations of the model (i.e., the original that supports dynamic coherence and the alternative that eliminates it), exhibit nearly identical EET kinetics and population dynamics over a wide range of parameters. These observations are found to hold for cases in which either the EET donor or acceptor is a dimeric complex and for cases in which the dimeric complex is either symmetric or asymmetric. The results from this study suggest that dynamic coherence plays only a minor role in the actual kinetics of inter-complex EET, whereas static coherence largely governs the kinetics of incoherent inter-complex EET in light-harvesting networks. PMID:26073739

  14. The ``complex trick'' in five-dimensional relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lessner, G.

    2008-10-01

    The generation method developed by Newman et al. which creates from spherically symmetric solutions of the field equations by a complex coordinate transformation axisymmetric solutions is extended to five-dimensional relativity.

  15. Zero-Energy Fields on Complex Projective Space

    E-print Network

    Eastwood, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We consider complex projective space with its Fubini-Study metric and the X-ray transform defined by integration over its geodesics. We identify the kernel of this transform acting on symmetric tensor fields.

  16. Not so Complex: Iteration in the Complex Plane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dell, Robin S.

    2014-01-01

    The simple process of iteration can produce complex and beautiful figures. In this article, Robin O'Dell presents a set of tasks requiring students to use the geometric interpretation of complex number multiplication to construct linear iteration rules. When the outputs are plotted in the complex plane, the graphs trace pleasing designs…

  17. Complex coacervation: A field theoretic simulation study of polyelectrolyte complexation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jonghoon; Popov, Yuri O.; Fredrickson, Glenn H.

    2008-06-01

    Using the complex Langevin sampling strategy, field theoretic simulations are performed to study the equilibrium phase behavior and structure of symmetric polycation-polyanion mixtures without salt in good solvents. Static structure factors for the segment density and charge density are calculated and used to study the role of fluctuations in the electrostatic and chemical potential fields beyond the random phase approximation. We specifically focus on the role of charge density and molecular weight on the structure and complexation behavior of polycation-polyanion solutions. A demixing phase transition to form a ``complex coacervate'' is observed in strongly charged systems, and the corresponding spinodal and binodal boundaries of the phase diagram are investigated.

  18. Surface-Bound Ruthenium Diimine Organometallic Complexes: Excited-State Properties

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ruthenium complexes of the general formula [Ru(CO)(H)(L2)(L?2)][PF6] (L2 = trans-2PPh3, L? = ?2-4,4?-dicarboxybipyridine (1); L2 =trans-2Ph2PCH2CH2COOH, L?2 = bipyridine (2); L2 = Ph2PCHCHPPh2, L? = ?2-5-amino-1,10-phenanthroline (3); L2 = trans-2PPh3, L?2 = ?2-4-carboxaldehyde-4?-methylbipyridine (4)) have been shown to have longer emission lifetimes and higher quantum yields in solution compared with more symmetrical molecules such as [Ru(bpy)3][Cl]2. Compound 4 is obtained as a mixture with the corresponding acetal, 4?. These less symmetrical complexes have been covalently immobilized on the surface of silica polyamine composites, and their photophysical properties have been studied. The surface-bound complexes have been characterized by solid-state CPMAS 13C, 31P, and 29Si NMR, UV–vis, and FT-IR spectroscopies. Excited-state lifetime studies revealed that, in general, the lifetimes of the immobilized complexes are 1.4 to 8 times longer than in solution and are dependent on particle size (300–500 ?m versus 10–20 nm average diameter silica gels), polymer structure (linear poly(allylamine) versus branched poly(ethylenimine)), and the type of surface tether. One exception to this trend is the previously reported complex [Ru(bpy)2(5-amino-1,10-phenanthroline)][PF6]2 (5), where only a slight increase in lifetime is observed. Only minor changes in emission wavelength are observed for all the complexes. This opens up the possibility for enhanced heterogeneous electron transfer in photocatalytic reactions. PMID:24891753

  19. QUANTUM OPTICS. Universal linear optics.

    PubMed

    Carolan, Jacques; Harrold, Christopher; Sparrow, Chris; Martín-López, Enrique; Russell, Nicholas J; Silverstone, Joshua W; Shadbolt, Peter J; Matsuda, Nobuyuki; Oguma, Manabu; Itoh, Mikitaka; Marshall, Graham D; Thompson, Mark G; Matthews, Jonathan C F; Hashimoto, Toshikazu; O'Brien, Jeremy L; Laing, Anthony

    2015-08-14

    Linear optics underpins fundamental tests of quantum mechanics and quantum technologies. We demonstrate a single reprogrammable optical circuit that is sufficient to implement all possible linear optical protocols up to the size of that circuit. Our six-mode universal system consists of a cascade of 15 Mach-Zehnder interferometers with 30 thermo-optic phase shifters integrated into a single photonic chip that is electrically and optically interfaced for arbitrary setting of all phase shifters, input of up to six photons, and their measurement with a 12-single-photon detector system. We programmed this system to implement heralded quantum logic and entangling gates, boson sampling with verification tests, and six-dimensional complex Hadamards. We implemented 100 Haar random unitaries with an average fidelity of 0.999 ± 0.001. Our system can be rapidly reprogrammed to implement these and any other linear optical protocol, pointing the way to applications across fundamental science and quantum technologies. PMID:26160375

  20. Microfabricated linear Paul-Straubel ion trap

    DOEpatents

    Mangan, Michael A. (Albuquerque, NM); Blain, Matthew G. (Albuquerque, NM); Tigges, Chris P. (Albuquerque, NM); Linker, Kevin L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-04-19

    An array of microfabricated linear Paul-Straubel ion traps can be used for mass spectrometric applications. Each ion trap comprises two parallel inner RF electrodes and two parallel outer DC control electrodes symmetric about a central trap axis and suspended over an opening in a substrate. Neighboring ion traps in the array can share a common outer DC control electrode. The ions confined transversely by an RF quadrupole electric field potential well on the ion trap axis. The array can trap a wide array of ions.

  1. A microscopic derivation of nuclear collective rotation-vibration model, axially symmetric case

    E-print Network

    Parviz Gulshani

    2015-05-12

    We derive a microscopic version of the successful phenomenological hydrodynamic model of Bohr-Davydov-Faessler-Greiner for collective rotation-vibration motion of an axially symmetric deformed nucleus. The derivation is not limited to small oscillation amplitude. The nuclear Schrodinger equation is canonically transformed the to collective co-ordinates, which is then linearized using a constrained variational method. The associated constraints are imposed on the wavefunction rather than on the particle co-ordinates. The approach yields three self-consistent, time-reversal invariant, cranking-type Schrodinger equations for the rotation-vibration and intrinsic motions, and a self-consistency equation. For harmonic oscillator mean-field potentials, these equations are solved in closed forms and applied to the ground-state rotational bands in some axially-symmetric nuclei. The results are compared with the measured data.

  2. Cutting Force Predication Based on Integration of Symmetric Fuzzy Number and Finite Element Method

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhanli; Hu, Yanjuan; Wang, Yao; Dong, Chao; Pang, Zaixiang

    2014-01-01

    In the process of turning, pointing at the uncertain phenomenon of cutting which is caused by the disturbance of random factors, for determining the uncertain scope of cutting force, the integrated symmetric fuzzy number and the finite element method (FEM) are used in the prediction of cutting force. The method used symmetric fuzzy number to establish fuzzy function between cutting force and three factors and obtained the uncertain interval of cutting force by linear programming. At the same time, the change curve of cutting force with time was directly simulated by using thermal-mechanical coupling FEM; also the nonuniform stress field and temperature distribution of workpiece, tool, and chip under the action of thermal-mechanical coupling were simulated. The experimental result shows that the method is effective for the uncertain prediction of cutting force. PMID:24790556

  3. Adsorption of symmetric random copolymer onto symmetric random surface: the annealed case

    E-print Network

    A. A. Polotsky

    2015-06-12

    Adsorption of a symmetric (AB) random copolymer (RC) onto a symmetric (ab) random heterogeneous surface (RS) is studied in the annealed approximation by using a two-dimensional partially directed walk model of the polymer. We show that in the symmetric case, the expected a posteriori compositions of the RC and the RS have correct values (corresponding to their a priori probabilities) and do not change with the temperature, whereas second moments of monomers and sites distributions in the RC and RS change. This indicates that monomers and sites do not interconvert but only rearrange in order to provide better matching between them and, as a result, a stronger adsorption of the RC on the RS. However, any violation of the system symmetry shifts equilibrium towards the major component and/or more favorable contacts and leads to interconversion of monomers and sites.

  4. BioClips of symmetric and asymmetric cell division.

    PubMed

    Lu, Fong-Mei; Eliceiri, Kevin W; White, John G

    2007-05-01

    Animations have long been used as tools to illustrate complex processes in such diverse fields as mechanical engineering, astronomy, bacteriology and physics. Animations in biology hold particular educational promise for depicting complex dynamic processes, such as photosynthesis, motility, viral replication and cellular respiration, which cannot be easily explained using static two-dimensional images. However, these animations have often been restrictive in scope, having been created for a specific classroom or research audience. In recent years, a new type of animation has emerged called the BioClip (http://www.bioclips.com) that strives to present science in an interactive multimedia format, which is, at once, informative and entertaining, by combining animations, text descriptions and music in one portable cross-platform document. In the present article, we illustrate the educational value of this new electronic resource by reviewing in depth two BioClips our group has created which describe the processes of symmetric and asymmetric cell division (http://www.wormclassroom.org/cb/bioclip). PMID:17437407

  5. Linearity and linear operators 1 Elements of linear algebra

    E-print Network

    Glasner, Karl B.

    important properties. The first is the ability to define the sum of elements in the set and scalar multiplication. For functions and vectors, the way of defining these are obvious. A linear combination are elements of a vector space S, then a linear operator L is a map- ping from S to some other vector space

  6. Supersymmetric Model of a Bose-Einstein Condensate in a 𝓟𝓣-Symmetric Double-delta Trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abt, Nikolas; Cartarius, Holger; Wunner, Günter

    2015-11-01

    The most important properties of a Bose-Einstein condensate subject to balanced gain and loss can be modelled by a Gross-Pitaevskii equation with an external 𝓟𝓣-symmetric double-delta potential. We study its linear variant with a supersymmetric extension. It is shown that both in the 𝓟𝓣-symmetric as well as in the 𝓟𝓣-broken phase arbitrary stationary states can be removed in a supersymmetric partner potential without changing the energy eigenvalues of the other state. The characteristic structure of the singular delta potential in the supersymmetry formalism is discussed, and the applicability of the formalism to the nonlinear Gross-Pitaevskii equation is analysed. In the latter case the formalism could be used to remove 𝓟𝓣-broken states introducing an instability to the stationary 𝓟𝓣-symmetric states.

  7. A Hamiltonian-Entropy Production Connection in the Skew-symmetric Part of a Stochastic Dynamics

    E-print Network

    Hong Qian

    2013-04-06

    The infinitesimal transition probability operator for a continuous-time discrete-state Markov process, $\\mathcal{Q}$, can be decomposed into a symmetric and a skew-symmetric parts. As recently shown for the case of diffusion processes, while the symmetric part corresponding to a gradient system stands for a reversible Markov process, the skew-symmetric part, $\\frac{d}{dt}u(t)=\\mcA u$, is mathematically equivalent to a linear Hamiltonian dynamics with Hamiltonian $H=1/2u^T\\big(\\mcA^T\\mcA)^{1/2}u$. It can also be transformed into a Schr\\"{o}dinger-like equation $\\frac{d}{dt}u=i\\mathcal{H}u$ where the "Hamiltonian" operator $\\mathcal{H}=-i\\mcA$ is Hermitian. In fact, these two representations of a skew-symmetric dynamics emerge natually through singular-value and eigen-value decompositions, respectively. The stationary probability of the Markov process can be expressed as $\\|u^s_i\\|^2$. The motion can be viewed as "harmonic" since $\\frac{d}{dt}\\|u(t)-\\vec{c}\\|^2=0$ where $\\vec{c}=(c,c,...,c)$ with $c$ being a constant. More interestingly, we discover that $\\textrm{Tr}(\\mcA^T\\mcA)=\\sum_{j,\\ell=1}^n \\frac{(q_{j\\ell}\\pi_\\ell-q_{\\ell j}\\pi_j)^2}{\\pi_j\\pi_{\\ell}}$, whose right-hand-side is intimately related to the entropy production rate of the Markov process in a nonequilibrium steady state with stationary distribution $\\{\\pi_j\\}$. The physical implication of this intriguing connection between conservative Hamiltonian dynamics and dissipative entropy production remains to be further explored.

  8. Spectral singularities and Bragg scattering in complex crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Longhi, S.

    2010-02-15

    Spectral singularities that spoil the completeness of Bloch-Floquet states may occur in non-Hermitian Hamiltonians with complex periodic potentials. Here an equivalence is established between spectral singularities in complex crystals and secularities that arise in Bragg diffraction patterns. Signatures of spectral singularities in a scattering process with wave packets are elucidated for a PT-symmetric complex crystal.

  9. Spectral singularities and Bragg scattering in complex crystals

    E-print Network

    S. Longhi

    2010-01-06

    Spectral singularities that spoil the completeness of Bloch-Floquet states may occur in non-Hermitian Hamiltonians with complex periodic potentials. Here an equivalence is established between spectral singularities in complex crystals and secularities that arise in Bragg diffraction patterns. Signatures of spectral singularities in a scattering process with wave packets are elucidated for a PT-symmetric complex crystal.

  10. Various scattering properties of a new PT-symmetric non-Hermitian potential

    SciTech Connect

    Ghatak, Ananya; Mandal, Raka Dona Ray; Mandal, Bhabani Prasad

    2013-09-15

    We complexify a 1-d potential V(x)=V{sub 0}cosh{sup 2}?(tanh[(x??d)/d]+tanh(?)){sup 2} which exhibits bound, reflecting and free states to study various properties of a non-Hermitian system. This potential turns out a PT-symmetric non-Hermitian potential when one of the parameters (?,d) becomes imaginary. For the case of ??i?, we have an entire real bound state spectrum. Explicit scattering states are constructed to show reciprocity at certain discrete values of energy even though the potential is not parity symmetric. Coexistence of deep energy minima of transmissivity with the multiple spectral singularities (MSS) is observed. We further show that this potential becomes invisible from the left (or right) at certain discrete energies. The penetrating states in the other case (d?id) are always reciprocal even though it is PT-invariant and no spectral singularity (SS) is present in this case. The presence of MSS and reflectionlessness is also discussed for the free states in the later case. -- Highlights: •Existence of multiple spectral singularities (MSS) in PT-symmetric non-Hermitian system is shown. •Reciprocity is restored at discrete positive energies even for parity non-invariant complex system. •Co-existence of MSS with deep energy minima of transitivity is obtained. •Possibilities of both unidirectional and bidirectional invisibility are explored for a non-Hermitian system. •Penetrating states are shown to be reciprocal for all energies for PT-symmetric system.

  11. Symmetrical and anti-symmetrical coherent perfect absorption for acoustic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Pengjiang; Croënne, Charles; Tak Chu, Sai; Li, Jensen

    2014-03-24

    We investigate tunable acoustic absorption enabled by the coherent control of input waves. It relies on coherent perfect absorption originally proposed in optics. By designing appropriate acoustic metamaterial structures with resonating effective bulk modulus or density, we show that complete absorption of incident waves impinging on the metamaterial can be achieved for either symmetrical or anti-symmetrical inputs in the forward and backward directions. By adjusting the relative phase between the two incident beams, absorption can be tuned effectively from unity to zero, making coherent control useful in applications like acoustic modulators, noise controllers, transducers, and switches.

  12. Symmetrical band-pass loudspeaker systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matusiak, Grzegorz Piotr

    2001-12-01

    Loudspeaker systems are analyzed in a doctoral dissertation. The dissertation concerns loudspeaker systems, which are known as subwoofers or band-pass loudspeaker systems. Their advantages include: high- quality sound reproduction in the low-frequency range, small dimensions, small nonlinear distortions and the fact that they can be placed anywhere in a room or car. Band-pass loudspeaker systems are used widely in the so- called Home Theatre as well as to provide sound in cinema, theatre, concert, discotheque, opera, operetta, philharmonic and amphitheater halls, at open-air concerts, and so on. Various designs are mass-produced by a large number of manufacturers. The study covers an analysis of band-pass loudspeaker systems to which the frequency transformation, i.e. the reactance transformation, has been applied. Since this is a symmetrical transformation, amplitude frequency responses of the studied band-pass systems are also symmetrical (logarithmic scale of a frequency). As a result, the high-pass loudspeaker system design method, known as the Thiele-Small, Benson analysis, can be employed. The investigations include the formulation of band-pass system equations (fourth, sixth and eighth-order polynomials) and the subsequent derivation of relations for the calculation of system parameters. The obtained results enable the calculation of optimum designs for prescribed alignments, e.g. (Chebyshev) equal-ripple, (Butterworth) maximally flat, or quasi-maximally flat (QB). The analysis covers fourth, sixth and eighth-order symmetrical systems. Eighth-order systems have been divided into three kinds according to three ways of physical realization. The doctoral dissertation includes band-pass loudspeaker systems, which can be designed with active or passive filters or without the filter. Designed systems consist of a loudspeaker whose front of a diaphragm is loaded with a Helmholtz resonator, i.e. an enclosure with a vent, which radiates sound outwards. The back is loaded with a closed-box or the Helmholtz resonator.

  13. Conformal totally symmetric arbitrary spin fermionic fields

    E-print Network

    R. R. Metsaev

    2012-11-19

    Conformal totally symmetric arbitrary spin fermionic fields in flat space-time of even dimension greater than or equal to four are studied. First-derivative formulation involving Fang-Fronsdal kinetic operator for such fields is developed. Gauge invariant Lagrangian and the corresponding gauge transformations are obtained. Gauge symmetries are realized by involving the Stueckelberg and auxiliary fields. Realization of conformal algebra symmetries on the space of conformal gauge fermionic fields is obtained. On-shell degrees of freedom of the arbitrary spin conformal fermionic field are also discussed.

  14. Entanglement of bosonic modes in symmetric graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asoudeh, M.; Karimipour, V.

    2005-09-01

    The ground and thermal states of a quadratic Hamiltonian representing the interaction of bosonic modes or particles are always Gaussian states. We investigate the entanglement properties of these states for the case where the interactions are represented by harmonic forces acting along the edges of symmetric graphs—i.e., one-, two-, and three-dimensional rectangular lattices, mean-field clusters, and platonic solids. We determine the entanglement of formation (EOF) as a function of the interaction strength, calculate the maximum EOF in each case, and compare these values with the bounds found previously for quadratic Hamiltonians.

  15. Quantum exchange interaction of spherically symmetric plasmoids

    E-print Network

    Maxim Dvornikov

    2012-08-24

    We study nano-sized spherically symmetric plasma structures which are radial nonlinear oscillations of electrons in plasma. The effective interaction of these plasmoids via quantum exchange forces between ions is described. We calculate the energy of this interaction for the case of a dense plasma. The conditions when the exchange interaction is attractive are examined and it is shown that separate plasmoids can form a single object. The application of our results to the theoretical description of stable atmospheric plasma structures is considered.

  16. Symmetric Toeplitz-Structured Compressed Sensing Matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Tao; Fan, Yi-Zheng; Zhu, Ming

    2015-11-01

    How to construct a suitable measurement matrix is an important topic in compressed sensing. A significant part of the recent work is that the measurement matrices are not completely random on the entries but exhibit some considerable structures. In this paper, we proved that a symmetric Toeplitz matrix and its variant can be used as measurement matrices and recovery signal with high probability. Compared with random matrices (e.g. Gaussian and Bernoulli matrices) and some structured matrices (e.g. Toeplitz and circulant matrices), we need to generate fewer independent entries to obtain the measurement matrix while the effectiveness of the recovery keeps good.

  17. Scalar resonances in axially symmetric spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranea-Sandoval, Ignacio F.; Vucetich, Héctor

    2015-03-01

    We study properties of resonant solutions to the scalar wave equation in several axially symmetric spacetimes. We prove that nonaxial resonant modes do not exist neither in the Lanczos dust cylinder, the extreme (2 + 1) dimensional Bañados-Taitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) spacetime nor in a class of simple rotating wormhole solutions. Moreover, we find unstable solutions to the wave equation in the Lanczos dust cylinder and in the r2 < 0 region of the extreme (2 + 1) dimensional BTZ spacetime, two solutions that possess closed timelike curves. Similarities with previous results obtained for the Kerr spacetime are explored.

  18. Communities and classes in symmetric fractals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawczyk, Ma?gorzata J.

    2015-07-01

    Two aspects of fractal networks are considered: the community structure and the class structure, where classes of nodes appear as a consequence of a local symmetry of nodes. The analyzed systems are the networks constructed for two selected symmetric fractals: the Sierpinski triangle and the Koch curve. Communities are searched for by means of a set of differential equations. Overlapping nodes which belong to two different communities are identified by adding some noise to the initial connectivity matrix. Then, a node can be characterized by a spectrum of probabilities of belonging to different communities. Our main goal is that the overlapping nodes with the same spectra belong to the same class.

  19. Quantum asymmetric cryptography with symmetric keys

    E-print Network

    Fei Gao; Qiao-Yan Wen; Su-Juan Qin; Fu-Chen Zhu

    2008-10-16

    Based on quantum encryption, we present a new idea for quantum public-key cryptography (QPKC) and construct a whole theoretical framework of a QPKC system. We show that the quantum-mechanical nature renders it feasible and reasonable to use symmetric keys in such a scheme, which is quite different from that in conventional public-key cryptography. The security of our scheme is analyzed and some features are discussed. Furthermore, the state-estimation attack to a prior QPKC scheme is demonstrated.

  20. [The dimension of the paradigm of complexity in health systems].

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Ortiz, Guillermo; Fernández-Ortega, Miguel Ángel; Ortiz-Montalvo, Armando; Olivares-Santos, Roberto Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This article presents elements to better understand health systems from the complety paradigm, innovative perspective that offers other ways in the conception of the scientific knowledge prevalent away from linear, characterized by the arise of emerging dissociative and behaviors, based on the intra and trans-disciplinarity concepts such knowledges explain and understand in a different way what happens in the health systems with a view to efficiency and effectiveness. The complexity paradigm means another way of conceptualizing the knowledge, is different from the prevalent epistemology, is still under construction does not separate, not isolated, is not reductionist, or fixed, does not solve the problems, but gives other bases to know them and study them, is a different strategy, a perspective that has basis in the systems theory, informatics and cybernetics beyond traditional knowledge, the positive logics, the newtonian physics and symmetric mathematics, in which everything is centered and balanced, joint the "soft sciences and hard sciences", it has present the Social Determinants of Health and organizational culture. Under the complexity paradigm the health systems are identified with the following concepts: entropy, neguentropy, the thermodynamic second law, attractors, chaos theory, fractals, selfmanagement and self-organization, emerging behaviors, percolation, uncertainty, networks and robusteness; such expressions open new possibilities to improve the management and better understanding of the health systems, giving rise to consider health systems as complex adaptive systems. PMID:25982615

  1. Cylindrically symmetric solitons in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory

    E-print Network

    Dmitri V. Gal'tsov; Evgeny A. Davydov

    2006-12-26

    Recently new Einstein-Yang-Mills (EYM) soliton solutions were presented which describe superconducting strings with Kasner asymptotic (hep-th/0610183). Here we study the static cylindrically symmetric SU(2) EYM system in more detail. The ansatz for the gauge field corresponds to superposition of the azimuthal $B_\\phi$ and the longitudinal $B_z$ components of the color magnetic field. We derive sum rules relating data on the symmetry axis to asymptotic data and show that generic asymptotic structure of regular solutions is Kasner. Solutions starting with vacuum data on the axis generically are divergent. Regular solutions correspond to some bifurcation manifold in the space of parameters which has the low-energy limiting point corresponding to string solutions in flat space (with the divergent total energy) and the high-curvature point where gravity is crucial. Some analytical results are presented for the low energy limit, and numerical bifurcation curves are constructed in the gravitating case. Depending on the parameters, the solution looks like a straight string or a pair of straight and circular strings. The existence of such non-linear superposition of two strings becomes possible due to self-interaction terms in the Yang-Mills action which suppress contribution of the circular string near the polar axis.

  2. Painlevé transcendents and {P}{T}-symmetric Hamiltonians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Carl M.; Komijani, Javad

    2015-11-01

    Unstable separatrix solutions for the first and second Painlevé transcendents are studied both numerically and analytically. For a fixed initial condition, say y(0)=0, there is a discrete set of initial slopes y\\prime (0)={b}n that give rise to separatrix solutions. Similarly, for a fixed initial slope, say y’(0) = 0, there is a discrete set of initial values y(0)={c}n that give rise to separatrix solutions. For Painlevé I the large-n asymptotic behavior of b n is {b}n? {B}{{I}}{n}3/5 (n\\to ? ) and that of c n is {c}n? {C}{{I}}{n}2/5 (n\\to ? ), and for Painlevé II the large-n asymptotic behavior of b n is {b}n? {B}{{II}}{n}2/3 (n\\to ? ) and that of c n is {c}n? {C}{{II}}{n}1/3 (n\\to ? ). The constants {B}{{I}}, {C}{{I}}, {B}{{II}}, and {C}{{II}}, which are the coefficients in these asymptotic behaviors, are first determined numerically. Then, by using asymptotic methods, they are found analytically by reducing the nonlinear equations to the linear eigenvalue problems associated with the cubic and quartic {P}{T}-symmetric Hamiltonians H=\\frac{1}{2}{p}2+2{{i}}{x}3 and H=\\frac{1}{2}{p}2-\\frac{1}{2}{x}4.

  3. Local Polynomial Regression for Symmetric Positive Definite Matrices.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ying; Zhu, Hongtu; Lin, Weili; Marron, J S

    2012-09-01

    Local polynomial regression has received extensive attention for the nonparametric estimation of regression functions when both the response and the covariate are in Euclidean space. However, little has been done when the response is in a Riemannian manifold. We develop an intrinsic local polynomial regression estimate for the analysis of symmetric positive definite (SPD) matrices as responses that lie in a Riemannian manifold with covariate in Euclidean space. The primary motivation and application of the proposed methodology is in computer vision and medical imaging. We examine two commonly used metrics, including the trace metric and the Log-Euclidean metric on the space of SPD matrices. For each metric, we develop a cross-validation bandwidth selection method, derive the asymptotic bias, variance, and normality of the intrinsic local constant and local linear estimators, and compare their asymptotic mean square errors. Simulation studies are further used to compare the estimators under the two metrics and to examine their finite sample performance. We use our method to detect diagnostic differences between diffusion tensors along fiber tracts in a study of human immunodeficiency virus. PMID:23008683

  4. Cooperative activity of DNA methyltransferases for maintenance of symmetrical and non-symmetrical cytosine

    E-print Network

    Meyer, Peter

    Cooperative activity of DNA methyltransferases for maintenance of symmetrical and non of cytosine methylation in plants is controlled by three DNA methyltransferases. MET1 maintains CG methylation cooperative activity of all three DNA methyltransferases is therefore required for maintenance of both CG

  5. Fast numerical determination of symmetric sparsity patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.G.

    1994-08-01

    The author considers a function g: {Re}{sup n} {yields} {Re}{sup n} for which the Jacobian is symmetric and sparse. Such functions often arise, for instance, in numerical optimization, where g is the gradient of some objective function f so that the Jacobian of g is the Hessian of f. In many such applications one can generate extremely efficient algorithms by taking advantage of the sparsity structure of the problem if this pattern is known a priori. Unfortunately, determining such sparsity structures by hand is often difficult and prone to error. If one suspects a mistake has been made, or if g is a {open_quotes}black box{close_quotes} so that the true structure is completely unknown, one often has no alternative but to compute the entire matrix by finite differences - a prohibitively expensive task for large problems. The author shows that it is possible to numerically determine symmetric sparsity patterns using a relatively small number of g evaluations. Numerical results are shown for n up to 100,000 in which all nonzeros in the Jacobian are correctly identified in about one-hundredth of the time required to estimate the sparsity structure by a full finite difference calculation. When a good initial guess for the sparsity structure is available, numerical results are presented for n up to 500,000, in which all missing nonzeros are correctly located almost five-thousand times faster than would be possible with a full finite difference calculation.

  6. Electroweak Baryogenesis in R-symmetric Supersymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Fok, R.; Kribs, Graham D.; Martin, Adam; Tsai, Yuhsin

    2013-03-01

    We demonstrate that electroweak baryogenesis can occur in a supersymmetric model with an exact R-symmetry. The minimal R-symmetric supersymmetric model contains chiral superfields in the adjoint representation, giving Dirac gaugino masses, and an additional set of "R-partner" Higgs superfields, giving R-symmetric \\mu-terms. New superpotential couplings between the adjoints and the Higgs fields can simultaneously increase the strength of the electroweak phase transition and provide additional tree-level contributions to the lightest Higgs mass. Notably, no light stop is present in this framework, and in fact, we require both stops to be above a few TeV to provide sufficient radiative corrections to the lightest Higgs mass to bring it up to 125 GeV. Large CP-violating phases in the gaugino/higgsino sector allow us to match the baryon asymmetry of the Universe with no constraints from electric dipole moments due to R-symmetry. We briefly discuss some of the more interesting phenomenology, particularly of the of the lightest CP-odd scalar.

  7. Symmetric and nonsymmetric vortices for the Ginzburg-Landau equations

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Steady-state Ginzburg-Landau equations with arbitrary parameter lambda > 0 in two-dimensional Euclidean space were studied. The existence of finite-energy symmetric and nonsymmetric solutions with arbitrary vortex number is demonstrated by direct method of the calculus of variations via a Sobolev space argument. Moreover, the important properties of symmetric solutions are determined, and it is proved that as lambda ..-->.. infinity, nonlinear desingularization occurs for the symmetric solutions.

  8. On the spectral stability of kinks in 2D Klein-Gordon model with parity-time-symmetric perturbation

    E-print Network

    Denis I. Borisov; Sergey V. Dmitriev

    2015-12-03

    In a series of recent works by Demirkaya et al. stability analysis for the static kink solutions to the 1D continuous and discrete Klein-Gordon equations with a $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric perturbation has been analysed. We consider the linear stability problem for the static kink in 2D Klein-Gordon field taking into account spatially localized $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric perturbation. The perturbation is in the form of viscous friction, which does not affect the static solutions to the unperturbed Klein-Gordon equation. Small dynamic perturbation around the static kink solution is considered to formulate the linear stability problem. The effect of the small perturbation on the solutions to the corresponding eigenvalue problem is analysed. The main result is presented in the form of a theorem describing the behavior of the eigenvalues corresponding to the extended and localised eigenmodes as the functions of the perturbation parameter.

  9. Particle-Hole Symmetric Luttinger Liquids in a Quantum Hall Circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roddaro, Stefano; Pellegrini, Vittorio; Beltram, Fabio; Pfeiffer, Loren N.; West, Ken W.

    2005-10-01

    We report current transmission data through a split-gate constriction fabricated onto a two-dimensional electron system in the integer quantum Hall (QH) regime. Split-gate biasing drives interedge backscattering and is shown to lead to suppressed or enhanced transmission, in marked contrast to the expected linear Fermi-liquid behavior. This evolution is described in terms of particle-hole symmetry and allows us to conclude that an unexpected class of gate-controlled particle-hole-symmetric chiral Luttinger liquids (CLLs) can exist at the edges of our QH circuit. These results highlight the role of particle-hole symmetry on the properties of CLL edge states.

  10. Molecular-dynamic investigation of the interaction of vacancies with symmetrical tilt grain boundaries in aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weckman, A. V.; Demyanov, B. F.; Dragunov, A. S.

    2015-06-01

    The molecular-dynamic method has been used to study the interaction of lattice vacancies with symmetrical grain boundaries (GBs) in aluminum. The fraction of trapped vacancies has been found to depend linearly on the distance to the GB plane. The average velocity of the vacancy migration toward the boundary decreases exponentially with an increase in the distance between the GB plane and vacancy. The radius of the region of trapping of a vacancy by the boundary is limited to two to three lattice parameters and grows with an increase in temperature. Four types of boundaries, which are characterized by different capability for the trapping of vacancies, have been determined.

  11. On conjugate gradient type methods and polynomial preconditioners for a class of complex non-Hermitian matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Roland

    1988-01-01

    Conjugate gradient type methods are considered for the solution of large linear systems Ax = b with complex coefficient matrices of the type A = T + i(sigma)I where T is Hermitian and sigma, a real scalar. Three different conjugate gradient type approaches with iterates defined by a minimal residual property, a Galerkin type condition, and an Euclidian error minimization, respectively, are investigated. In particular, numerically stable implementations based on the ideas behind Paige and Saunder's SYMMLQ and MINRES for real symmetric matrices are proposed. Error bounds for all three methods are derived. It is shown how the special shift structure of A can be preserved by using polynomial preconditioning. Results on the optimal choice of the polynomial preconditioner are given. Also, some numerical experiments for matrices arising from finite difference approximations to the complex Helmholtz equation are reported.

  12. Nonlinear dynamic analysis of quasi-symmetric anisotropic structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Peters, Jeanne M.

    1987-01-01

    An efficient computational method for the nonlinear dynamic analysis of quasi-symmetric anisotropic structures is proposed. The application of mixed models simplifies the analytical development and improves the accuracy of the response predictions, and operator splitting allows the reduction of the analysis model of the quasi-symmetric structure to that of the corresponding symmetric structure. The preconditoned conjugate gradient provides a stable and effective technique for generating the unsymmetric response of the structure as the sum of a symmetrized response plus correction modes. The effectiveness of the strategy is demonstrated with the example of a laminated anisotropic shallow shell of quadrilateral planform subjected to uniform normal loading.

  13. Entanglement equivalence of N-qubit symmetric states

    SciTech Connect

    Mathonet, P.; Krins, S.; Bastin, T.; Godefroid, M.; Solano, E.

    2010-05-15

    We study the interconversion of multipartite symmetric N-qubit states under stochastic local operations and classical communication (SLOCC). We demonstrate that if two symmetric states can be connected with a nonsymmetric invertible local operation (ILO), then they belong necessarily to the separable, W, or Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entanglement class, establishing a practical method of discriminating subsets of entanglement classes. Furthermore, we prove that there always exists a symmetric ILO connecting any pair of symmetric N-qubit states equivalent under SLOCC, simplifying the requirements for experimental implementations of local interconversion of those states.

  14. Amending the anisotropy barrier and luminescence behavior of heterometallic trinuclear linear [M(II) -Ln(III) -M(II) ] (Ln(III) =Gd, Tb, Dy; M(II) =Mg/Zn) complexes by change from divalent paramagnetic to diamagnetic metal ions.

    PubMed

    Das, Sourav; Bejoymohandas, K S; Dey, Atanu; Biswas, Sourav; Reddy, M L P; Morales, Roser; Ruiz, Eliseo; Titos-Padilla, Silvia; Colacio, Enrique; Chandrasekhar, Vadapalli

    2015-04-20

    The sequential reaction of a multisite coordinating compartmental ligand [2-(2-hydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)-5-methylbenzylideneamino)-2-methylpropane-1,3-diol] (LH4 ) with appropriate lanthanide salts followed by the addition of [Mg(NO3 )2 ]?6?H2 O or [Zn(NO3 )2 ]?6?H2 O in a 4:1:2 stoichiometric ratio in the presence of triethylamine affords a series of isostructural heterometallic trinuclear complexes containing [Mg2 Ln](3+) (Ln=Dy, Gd, and Tb) and [Zn2 Ln](3+) (Ln=Dy, Gd, and Tb) cores. The formation of these complexes is demonstrated by X-ray crystallography as well as ESI-MS spectra. All complexes are isostructural possessing a linear trimetallic core with a central lanthanide ion. The comprehensive studies discussed involve the synthesis, structure, magnetism, and photophysical properties on this family of trinuclear [Mg2 Ln](3+) and [Zn2 Ln](3+) heterometallic complexes. [Mg2 Dy](3+) and [Zn2 Dy](3+) show slow relaxation of the magnetization below 12 K under zero applied direct current (dc) field, but without reaching a neat maximum, which is due to the overlapping with a faster quantum tunneling relaxation mediated through dipole-dipole and hyperfine interactions. Under a small applied dc field of 1000 Oe, the quantum tunneling is almost suppressed and temperature and frequency dependent peaks are observed, thus confirming the single-molecule magnet behavior of complexes [Mg2 Dy](3+) and [Zn2 Dy](3+) . PMID:25772122

  15. Using Hill's Equation to Solve PT-Symmetric Periodic Differential Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Kevin

    2003-04-01

    Quantum mechanics is considered a scientific triumph of the twentieth century. It is a major hurdle to our application of this theory that there are so few analytically-solvable problems. However, using the ideas and techniques of supersymmetry (SUSY)---a method that factors the one-dimensional Schrodinger equation---many systems have been recently discovered and successfully solved. In addition, there is increasing interest in a class of problems involving complex, PT-symmetric potentials since they yield real energy spectra. We have constructed PT-symmetric periodic potentials with Jacobi Elliptic functions because they have a periodicity parameter that provides a tunable potential that can be tailored to a specific application. In solving for the states of these potentials, we realized that 19th century mathematicians have already solved many periodic differential equations, some involving Jacobi Elliptic functions.

  16. Interactions of bright and dark solitons with localized PT-symmetric potentials.

    PubMed

    Karjanto, N; Hanif, W; Malomed, B A; Susanto, H

    2015-02-01

    We study collisions of moving nonlinear-Schrödinger solitons with a PT-symmetric dipole embedded into the one-dimensional self-focusing or defocusing medium. Accurate analytical results are produced for bright solitons, and, in a more qualitative form, for dark ones. In the former case, an essential aspect of the approximation is that it must take into regard the intrinsic chirp of the soliton, thus going beyond the framework of the simplest quasi-particle description of the soliton's dynamics. Critical velocities separating reflection and transmission of the incident bright solitons are found by means of numerical simulations, and in the approximate semi-analytical form. An exact solution for the dark soliton pinned by the complex PT-symmetric dipole is produced too. PMID:25725648

  17. Finite element Calculations of {P}{T}-Symmetric Bose-Einstein Condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haag, Daniel; Dast, Dennis; Cartarius, Holger; Wunner, Günter

    2015-11-01

    {P}{T}-symmetric systems have been intensively studied in optical waveguides, where the {P}{T} symmetry is achieved by pumping and absorption processes. In such systems the {P}{T} symmetry leads to a wide range of effects promising technical and scientific applications. By analogy, balanced gain and loss of particles in Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) can be described by introducing a {P}{T}-symmetric imaginary potential into the Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE). This equation can be solved numerically by various methods including the finite element approach. We apply this method to the GPE with arbitrary complex potentials and explicitly solve a double-well potential with shifted barriers.

  18. Symmetric instability in the Gulf Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Leif N.; Taylor, John R.; Ferrari, Raffaele; Joyce, Terrence M.

    2013-07-01

    Analyses of wintertime surveys of the Gulf Stream (GS) conducted as part of the CLIvar MOde water Dynamic Experiment (CLIMODE) reveal that water with negative potential vorticity (PV) is commonly found within the surface boundary layer (SBL) of the current. The lowest values of PV are found within the North Wall of the GS on the isopycnal layer occupied by Eighteen Degree Water, suggesting that processes within the GS may contribute to the formation of this low-PV water mass. In spite of large heat loss, the generation of negative PV was primarily attributable to cross-front advection of dense water over light by Ekman flow driven by winds with a down-front component. Beneath a critical depth, the SBL was stably stratified yet the PV remained negative due to the strong baroclinicity of the current, suggesting that the flow was symmetrically unstable. A large eddy simulation configured with forcing and flow parameters based on the observations confirms that the observed structure of the SBL is consistent with the dynamics of symmetric instability (SI) forced by wind and surface cooling. The simulation shows that both strong turbulence and vertical gradients in density, momentum, and tracers coexist in the SBL of symmetrically unstable fronts. SI is a shear instability that draws its energy from geostrophic flows. A parameterization for the rate of kinetic energy (KE) extraction by SI applied to the observations suggests that SI could result in a net dissipation of 33 mW m-2 and 1 mW m-2 for surveys with strong and weak fronts, respectively. The surveys also showed signs of baroclinic instability (BCI) in the SBL, namely thermally direct vertical circulations that advect biomass and PV. The vertical circulation was inferred using the omega equation and used to estimate the rate of release of available potential energy (APE) by BCI. The rate of APE release was found to be comparable in magnitude to the net dissipation associated with SI. This result points to an energy pathway where the GS's reservoir of APE is drained by BCI, converted to KE, and then dissipated by SI and its secondary instabilities. Similar dynamics are likely to be found at other strong fronts forced by winds and/or cooling and could play an important role in the energy balance of the ocean circulation.

  19. Quantum tests for the linearity and permutation invariance of Boolean functions

    SciTech Connect

    Hillery, Mark; Andersson, Erika

    2011-12-15

    The goal in function property testing is to determine whether a black-box Boolean function has a certain property or is {epsilon}-far from having that property. The performance of the algorithm is judged by how many calls need to be made to the black box in order to determine, with high probability, which of the two alternatives is the case. Here we present two quantum algorithms, the first to determine whether the function is linear and the second to determine whether it is symmetric (invariant under permutations of the arguments). Both require order {epsilon}{sup -2/3} calls to the oracle, which is better than known classical algorithms. In addition, in the case of linearity testing, if the function is linear, the quantum algorithm identifies which linear function it is. The linearity test combines the Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm and amplitude amplification, while the test to determine whether a function is symmetric uses projective measurements and amplitude amplification.

  20. LINEAR INDEPENDENCE OF CLUSTER MONOMIALS FOR SKEW-SYMMETRIC CLUSTER ALGEBRAS

    E-print Network

    Keller, Bernhard - Institut de Mathématiques de Jussieu, Université Paris 7

    on the occasion of her seventieth birthday. Abstract. Fomin-Zelevinsky conjectured that in any cluster algebra, . . . , xn. Definition 2.1. A seed is a pair (B, u), where · B is a matrix as above, and · u = (u1). Definition 2.2. Let i {1, . . . , r}. The mutation of the seed (B, u) at vertex i is the seed (B , u

  1. Vibration control of large linear quadratic symmetric systems. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeon, G. J.

    1983-01-01

    Some unique properties on a class of the second order lambda matrices were found and applied to determine a damping matrix of the decoupled subsystem in such a way that the damped system would have preassigned eigenvalues without disturbing the stiffness matrix. The resulting system was realized as a time invariant velocity only feedback control system with desired poles. Another approach using optimal control theory was also applied to the decoupled system in such a way that the mode spillover problem could be eliminated. The procedures were tested successfully by numerical examples.

  2. Differences in the effects of rounding errors in Krylov solvers for symmetric indefinite linear systems

    E-print Network

    Sleijpen, Gerard

    of Mathematics, Medical University of L¨ubeck, Wallstraße 40, 23560 L¨ubeck, Germany. E­mail: sleijpen that in finite precision arithmetic, the Lanczos process can be imple­ mented so that the computed V k+1 and T kAj k 2 ) u (u is the machine precision, m 1 denotes the maximum number of nonzeros in any row of A

  3. Analytic solution during an infusion test of the linear unsteady poroelastic equations in a spherically symmetric

    E-print Network

    Bebendorf, Mario

    in the lum- bar region of the spinal column. This happens at a constant rate and--for communicating, embracing parenchyma and spinal cord. This subarachnoid space is the site of CSF absorption into the venous the vol- ume of the spinal cavity (whereas an enlargement of the cranial volume is prevented by the skull

  4. On the statistical mechanics of fluids adsorbed in chemically non-symmetric linear wedges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, J. R.

    2005-11-01

    Recent work has seen models of fluids adsorbed in a wedge, or at an edge, emerge as a useful addition to our knowledge of inhomogeneous fluid phenomena, directly relevant to current interest on adsorption at structured substrates (so-called intelligent surfaces). The statistical mechanics of wedge/edge models has led to the identification of wall-fluid virial theorems, linking the thermodynamic properties of adsorbed fluids (surface tensions, line tensions, solvation torques) to integrals over moments of an exact representation of Derjaguin's disjoining pressure. These sum rules have proved particularly interesting for the consideration of capillarity (two-phase coexistence) within wedge geometry. This paper considers, instead, the geometric detail needed to fully define and utilise a wedge/edge model. Subtle issues arise concerning the choice of coordinate system and the choice of boundary condition far from the apex. Surprisingly, a significant body of useful results follow from analytic evaluation of the sum rules in the limit of low density (an ideal gas in a wedge). The lessons learnt are particularly relevant to computer simulators wishing to make use of these one-body sum rules and related statistical mechanics. In particular, how to evaluate the sum rule integrals for specific classes of models and what consequences to expect for generalizations to models possessing atomic detail.

  5. On the properness condition for modal analysis of non-symmetric second-order systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouisse, Morvan; Foltête, Emmanuel

    2011-02-01

    Non-symmetric second-order systems can be found in several engineering contexts, including vibroacoustics, rotordynamics, or active control. In this paper, the notion of properness for complex modes is extended to the case of non-self-adjoint problems. The properness condition is related to the ability of a set of complex modes to represent in an exact way the behavior of a physical second-order system, meaning that the modes are the solutions of a quadratic eigenvalue problem whose matrices are those of a physical system. This property can be used to identify the damping matrices which may be difficult to obtain with mathematical modeling techniques. The first part of the paper demonstrates the properness condition for non symmetric systems in general. In the second part, the authors propose a methodology to enforce that condition in order to perform an optimal reconstruction of the "closest" physical system starting from a given basis complex modes. The last part is dedicated to numerical and experimental illustrations of the proposed methodology. A simulated academic test case is first used to investigate the numerical aspects of the method. A physical application is then considered in the context of rotordynamics. Finally, an experimental test case is presented using a structure with an active control feedback. An extension of the LSCF identification technique is also introduced to identify both left and right complex mode shapes from measured frequency response functions.

  6. Numerical experiments with a symmetric high-resolution shock-capturing scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, H. C.

    1986-01-01

    Characteristic-based explicit and implicit total variation diminishing (TVD) schemes for the two-dimensional compressible Euler equations have recently been developed. This is a generalization of recent work of Roe and Davis to a wider class of symmetric (non-upwind) TVD schemes other than Lax-Wendroff. The Roe and Davis schemes can be viewed as a subset of the class of explicit methods. The main properties of the present class of schemes are that they can be implicit, and, when steady-state calculations are sought, the numerical solution is independent of the time step. In a recent paper, a comparison of a linearized form of the present implicit symmetric TVD scheme with an implicit upwind TVD scheme originally developed by Harten and modified by Yee was given. Results favored the symmetric method. It was found that the latter is just as accurate as the upwind method while requiring less computational effort. Currently, more numerical experiments are being conducted on time-accurate calculations and on the effect of grid topology, numerical boundary condition procedures, and different flow conditions on the behavior of the method for steady-state applications. The purpose here is to report experiences with this type of scheme and give guidelines for its use.

  7. SL(2,R) duality-symmetric action for electromagnetic theory with electric and magnetic sources

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Choonkyu; School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul 130-722 ; Min, Hyunsoo

    2013-12-15

    For the SL(2,R) duality-invariant generalization of Maxwell electrodynamics in the presence of both electric and magnetic sources, we formulate a local, manifestly duality-symmetric, Zwanziger-type action by introducing a pair of four-potentials A{sup ?} and B{sup ?} in a judicious way. On the two potentials A{sup ?} and B{sup ?} the SL(2,R) duality transformation acts in a simple linear manner. In quantum theory including charged source fields, this action can be recast as a SL(2,Z)-invariant action. Also given is a Zwanziger-type action for SL(2,R) duality-invariant Born–Infeld electrodynamics which can be important for D-brane dynamics in string theory. -- Highlights: •We formulate a local, manifestly duality-symmetric, Zwanziger-type action. •Maxwell electrodynamics is generalized to include dilaton and axion fields. •SL(2,R) symmetry is manifest. •We formulate a local, manifestly duality-symmetric, nonlinear Born–Infeld action with SL(2,R) symmetry.

  8. Can entanglement efficiently be weakend by symmetrization?

    E-print Network

    Keiji Matsumoto

    2005-12-09

    Consider a quantum system with $m$ subsystems with $n$ qubits each, and suppose the state of the system is living in the symmetric subspace. It is known that, in the limit of $m\\to\\infty$, entanglement between any two subsystems vanishes. In this paper we study asymptotic behavior of the entanglement as $m$ and $n$ grows. Our conjecture is that if $m$ is a polynomially bounded function in $n$, then the entanglement decreases polynomially. The motivation of this study is a study of quantum Merlin-Arthur game. If this conjecture is ture, we can prove that bipartite separable certificate does not increase the computational power of the proof system. protocol. In the paper, we provide two evidences which support the conjecture. First, if $m$ is an exponential function, then entanglement decreases exponentially fast. Second, in case of a maximally entangled state, our conjecture is true.

  9. Cracked shells under skew-symmetric loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lelale, F.

    1982-01-01

    A shell containing a through crack in one of the principal planes of curvature and under general skew-symmetric loading is considered. By employing a Reissner type shell theory which takes into account the effect of transverse shear strains, all boundary conditions on the crack surfaces are satisfied separately. Consequently, unlike those obtained from the classical shell theory, the angular distributions of the stress components around the crack tips are shown to be identical to the distributions obtained from the plane and antiplane elasticity solutions. Extensive results are given for axially and circumferentially cracked cylindrical shells, spherical shells, and toroidal shells under uniform inplane shearing, out of plane shearing, and torsion. The effect of orthotropy on the results is also studied.

  10. Acoustic horizons in axially symmetric relativistic accretion

    E-print Network

    Hrvoje Abraham; Neven Bilic; Tapas K. Das

    2006-04-26

    Transonic accretion onto astrophysical objects is a unique example of analogue black hole realized in nature. In the framework of acoustic geometry we study axially symmetric accretion and wind of a rotating astrophysical black hole or of a neutron star assuming isentropic flow of a fluid described by a polytropic equation of state. In particular we analyze the causal structure of multitransonic configurations with two sonic points and a shock. Retarded and advanced null curves clearly demonstrate the presence of the acoustic black hole at regular sonic points and of the white hole at the shock. We calculate the analogue surface gravity and the Hawking temperature for the inner and the outer acoustic horizons.

  11. Minimal Left-Right Symmetric Dark Matter.

    PubMed

    Heeck, Julian; Patra, Sudhanwa

    2015-09-18

    We show that left-right symmetric models can easily accommodate stable TeV-scale dark matter particles without the need for an ad hoc stabilizing symmetry. The stability of a newly introduced multiplet either arises accidentally as in the minimal dark matter framework or comes courtesy of the remaining unbroken Z_{2} subgroup of B-L. Only one new parameter is introduced: the mass of the new multiplet. As minimal examples, we study left-right fermion triplets and quintuplets and show that they can form viable two-component dark matter. This approach is, in particular, valid for SU(2)×SU(2)×U(1) models that explain the recent diboson excess at ATLAS in terms of a new charged gauge boson of mass 2 TeV. PMID:26430988

  12. Diagonal Markowitz scheme with local symmetrization

    SciTech Connect

    Amestoy, Patrick R.; Li, Xiaoye S.; Eg, Esmond G.

    2003-12-10

    It is well known that sparse matrix factorizations sufferfill. That is, there are often more nonzero entries in the triangularfactors than in the original matrix. One of the factors that affect thesparsity of the factorization is the sparsity structure of the originalmatrix, which can be changed by permuting the rows and columns of thematrix. In this paper we are concerned with the case when the matrix isnonsymmetric. In particular, we are interested in ordering algorithmsthat do not depend on the numerical values so that they can be computedusing structural information alone. Most such ordering algorithms arebased on some sort of symmetrization of the original matrix. We describein this paper an ordering algorithm that uses the nonsymmetric structureof the given matrix as much as possible. We will show that our algorithmcan be implemented in space bounded by the number of nonzero entries inthe original matrix. We will also provide numerical experimentsdemonstrating the quality of the orderings.

  13. VACUUM calculation in azimuthally symmetric geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Chance, M.S.

    1996-11-01

    A robustly accurate and effective method is presented to solve Laplace`s equation in general azimuthally symmetric geometry for the magnetic scalar potential in the region surrounding a plasma discharge which may or may not contain external conducting shells. These shells can be topologically toroidal or spherical, and may have toroidal gaps in them. The solution is incorporated into the various MHD stability codes either through the volume integrated perturbed magnetic energy in the vacuum region or through the continuity requirements for the normal component of the perturbed magnetic field and the total perturbed pressure across the unperturbed plasma-vacuum boundary. The method is based upon using Green`s second identity and the method of collocation. As useful byproducts, the eddy currents and the simulation of Mirnov loop measurements are calculated.

  14. Geometric inequalities for axially symmetric black holes

    E-print Network

    Sergio Dain

    2012-03-01

    A geometric inequality in General Relativity relates quantities that have both a physical interpretation and a geometrical definition. It is well known that the parameters that characterize the Kerr-Newman black hole satisfy several important geometric inequalities. Remarkably enough, some of these inequalities also hold for dynamical black holes. This kind of inequalities play an important role in the characterization of the gravitational collapse, they are closed related with the cosmic censorship conjecture. Axially symmetric black holes are the natural candidates to study these inequalities because the quasi-local angular momentum is well defined for them. We review recent results in this subject and we also describe the main ideas behind the proofs. Finally, a list of relevant open problem is presented.

  15. Pseudo-Z symmetric space-times

    SciTech Connect

    Mantica, Carlo Alberto; Suh, Young Jin

    2014-04-15

    In this paper, we investigate Pseudo-Z symmetric space-time manifolds. First, we deal with elementary properties showing that the associated form A{sub k} is closed: in the case the Ricci tensor results to be Weyl compatible. This notion was recently introduced by one of the present authors. The consequences of the Weyl compatibility on the magnetic part of the Weyl tensor are pointed out. This determines the Petrov types of such space times. Finally, we investigate some interesting properties of (PZS){sub 4} space-time; in particular, we take into consideration perfect fluid and scalar field space-time, and interesting properties are pointed out, including the Petrov classification. In the case of scalar field space-time, it is shown that the scalar field satisfies a generalized eikonal equation. Further, it is shown that the integral curves of the gradient field are geodesics. A classical method to find a general integral is presented.

  16. Cosmic ray antimatter and baryon symmetric cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.; Protheroe, R. J.; Kazanas, D.

    1982-01-01

    The relative merits and difficulties of the primary and secondary origin hypotheses for the observed cosmic-ray antiprotons, including the new low-energy measurement of Buffington, et al. We conclude that the cosmic-ray antiproton data may be evidence for antimatter galaxies and baryon symmetric cosmology. The present bar P data are consistent with a primary extragalactic component having /p=/equiv 1+/- 3.2/0.7x10 = to the -4 independent of energy. We propose that the primary extragalactic cosmic ray antiprotons are most likely from active galaxies and that expected disintegration of bar alpha/alpha ban alpha/alpha. We further predict a value for ban alpha/alpha =/equiv 10 to the -5, within range of future cosmic ray detectors.

  17. Cylindrically Symmetric Models of Anisotropic Compact Stars

    E-print Network

    G. Abbas; Sumara Nazeer; M. A. Meraj

    2014-12-16

    In this paper we have discussed the possibility of forming anisotropic compact stars from cosmological constant as one of the competent candidates of dark energy with cylindrical symmetry. For this purpose, we have applied the analytical solution of Krori and Barua metric to a particular cylindrically symmetric spacetime. The unknown constants in Krori and Barua metric have been determined by using masses and radii of class of compact stars like 4$U$1820-30, Her X-1, SAX J 1808-3658. The properties of these stars have been analyzed in detail. In this setting the cosmological constant has been taken as a variable which depends on the radial coordinates. We have checked all the regularity conditions, stability and surface redshift of the compact stars 4$U$1820-30, Her X-1, SAX J 1808-3658.

  18. Duality symmetric string and M-theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, David S.; Thompson, Daniel C.

    2015-03-01

    We review recent developments in duality symmetric string theory. We begin with the world-sheet doubled formalism which describes strings in an extended spacetime with extra coordinates conjugate to winding modes. This formalism is T-duality symmetric and can accommodate non-geometric T-fold backgrounds which are beyond the scope of Riemannian geometry. Vanishing of the conformal anomaly of this theory can be interpreted as a set of spacetime equations for the background fields. These equations follow from an action principle that has been dubbed Double Field Theory (DFT). We review the aspects of generalised geometry relevant for DFT. We outline recent extensions of DFT and explain how, by relaxing the so-called strong constraint with a Scherk-Schwarz ansatz, one can obtain backgrounds that simultaneously depend on both the regular and T-dual coordinates. This provides a purely geometric higher dimensional origin to gauged supergravities that arise from non-geometric compactification. We then turn to M-theory and describe recent progress in formulating an En(n) U-duality covariant description of the dynamics. We describe how spacetime may be extended to accommodate coordinates conjugate to brane wrapping modes and the construction of generalised metrics in this extended space that unite the bosonic fields of supergravity into a single object. We review the action principles for these theories and their novel gauge symmetries. We also describe how a Scherk-Schwarz reduction can be applied in the M-theory context and the resulting relationship to the embedding tensor formulation of maximal gauged supergravities.

  19. Linear cochlear mechanics.

    PubMed

    Zweig, George

    2015-08-01

    An active, three-dimensional, short-wavelength model of cochlear mechanics is derived from an older, one-dimensional, long-wavelength model containing time-delay forces. Remarkably, the long-wavelength model with nonlocal temporal interactions behaves like a short-wavelength model with instantaneous interactions. The cochlear oscillators are driven both by the pressure and its time derivative, the latter presumably a proxy for forces contributed by outer hair cells. The admittance in the short-wavelength region is used to find an integral representation of the transfer function valid for all wavelengths. There are only two free parameters: the pole position in the complex frequency plane of the admittance, and the slope of the transfer-function phase at low frequencies. The new model predicts a dip in amplitude and a corresponding rapid drop in phase, past the peak of the traveling wave. Linear models may be compared by their wavelengths, and if they have the same dimension, by the singularity structure of their admittances. PMID:26328725

  20. Global Linear Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theofilis, Vassilios

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews linear instability analysis of flows over or through complex two-dimensional (2D) and 3D geometries. In the three decades since it first appeared in the literature, global instability analysis, based on the solution of the multidimensional eigenvalue and/or initial value problem, is continuously broadening both in scope and in depth. To date it has dealt successfully with a wide range of applications arising in aerospace engineering, physiological flows, food processing, and nuclear-reactor safety. In recent years, nonmodal analysis has complemented the more traditional modal approach and increased knowledge of flow instability physics. Recent highlights delivered by the application of either modal or nonmodal global analysis are briefly discussed. A conscious effort is made to demystify both the tools currently utilized and the jargon employed to describe them, demonstrating the simplicity of the analysis. Hopefully this will provide new impulses for the creation of next-generation algorithms capable of coping with the main open research areas in which step-change progress can be expected by the application of the theory: instability analysis of fully inhomogeneous, 3D flows and control thereof.

  1. How (non-) linear is the hydrodynamics of heavy ion collisions?

    E-print Network

    Floerchinger, Stefan; Beraudo, Andrea; Del Zanna, Luca; Inghirami, Gabriele; Rolando, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    We provide evidence from full numerical solutions that the hydrodynamical evolution of initial density fluctuations in heavy ion collisions can be understood order-by-order in a perturbative series in deviations from a smooth and azimuthally symmetric background solution. To leading linear order, modes with different azimuthal wave numbers do not mix. Quadratic and higher order corrections are small and can be understood as overtones with corresponding wave numbers.

  2. A multi-level method for sparse linear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Shapira, Y.

    1997-09-01

    A multi-level method for the solution of sparse linear systems is introduced. The definition of the method is based on data from the coefficient matrix alone. An upper bound for the condition number is available for certain symmetric positive definite (SPD) problems. Numerical experiments confirm the analysis and illustrate the efficiency of the method for diffusion problems with discontinuous coefficients with discontinuities which are not aligned with the coarse meshes.

  3. Symmetric interactions and interference between pitch and timbre.

    PubMed

    Allen, Emily J; Oxenham, Andrew J

    2014-03-01

    Variations in the spectral shape of harmonic tone complexes are perceived as timbre changes and can lead to poorer fundamental frequency (F0) or pitch discrimination. Less is known about the effects of F0 variations on spectral shape discrimination. The aims of the study were to determine whether the interactions between pitch and timbre are symmetric, and to test whether musical training affects listeners' ability to ignore variations in irrelevant perceptual dimensions. Difference limens (DLs) for F0 were measured with and without random, concurrent, variations in spectral centroid, and vice versa. Additionally, sensitivity was measured as the target parameter and the interfering parameter varied by the same amount, in terms of individual DLs. Results showed significant and similar interference between pitch (F0) and timbre (spectral centroid) dimensions, with upward spectral motion often confused for upward F0 motion, and vice versa. Musicians had better F0DLs than non-musicians on average, but similar spectral centroid DLs. Both groups showed similar interference effects, in terms of decreased sensitivity, in both dimensions. Results reveal symmetry in the interference effects between pitch and timbre, once differences in sensitivity between dimensions and subjects are controlled. Musical training does not reliably help to overcome these effects. PMID:24606275

  4. Ballooning Stability of the Compact Quasiaxially Symmetric Stellarator

    SciTech Connect

    M.H. Redi; J. Canik; R.L. Dewar; J.L. Johnson; S. Klasky; W.A. Cooper; W. Kerbichler

    2001-09-19

    The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) ballooning stability of a compact, quasiaxially symmetric stellarator (QAS), expected to achieve good stability and particle confinement is examined with a method that can lead to estimates of global stability. Making use of fully 3D, ideal-MHD stability codes, the QAS beta is predicted to be limited above 4% by ballooning and high-n kink modes. Here MHD stability is analyzed through the calculation and examination of the ballooning mode eigenvalue isosurfaces in the 3-space [s, alpha, theta(subscript ''k'')]; s is the edge normalized toroidal flux, alpha is the field line variable, and theta(subscript ''k'') is the perpendicular wave vector or ballooning parameter. Broken symmetry, i.e., deviations from axisymmetry, in the stellarator magnetic field geometry causes localization of the ballooning mode eigenfunction, with new types of nonsymmetric, eigenvalue isosurfaces in both the stable and unstable spectrum. The isosurfaces around the most unstable points i n parameter space (well above marginal) are topologically spherical. In such cases, attempts to use ray tracing to construct global ballooning modes lead to a k-space runaway. Introduction of a reflecting cutoff in k(perpendicular) to model numerical truncation or finite Larmor radius (FLR) yields chaotic ray paths ergodically filling the allowed phase space, indicating that the global spectrum must be described using the language of quantum chaos theory. However, the isosurface for marginal stability in the cases studied are found to have a more complex topology, making estimation of FLR stabilization more difficult.

  5. Quantum and electromagnetic propagation with the conjugate symmetric Lanczos method

    SciTech Connect

    Acevedo, Ramiro; Lombardini, Richard; Turner, Matthew A.; Kinsey, James L.; Johnson, Bruce R.

    2008-02-14

    The conjugate symmetric Lanczos (CSL) method is introduced for the solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. This remarkably simple and efficient time-domain algorithm is a low-order polynomial expansion of the quantum propagator for time-independent Hamiltonians and derives from the time-reversal symmetry of the Schroedinger equation. The CSL algorithm gives forward solutions by simply complex conjugating backward polynomial expansion coefficients. Interestingly, the expansion coefficients are the same for each uniform time step, a fact that is only spoiled by basis incompleteness and finite precision. This is true for the Krylov basis and, with further investigation, is also found to be true for the Lanczos basis, important for efficient orthogonal projection-based algorithms. The CSL method errors roughly track those of the short iterative Lanczos method while requiring fewer matrix-vector products than the Chebyshev method. With the CSL method, only a few vectors need to be stored at a time, there is no need to estimate the Hamiltonian spectral range, and only matrix-vector and vector-vector products are required. Applications using localized wavelet bases are made to harmonic oscillator and anharmonic Morse oscillator systems as well as electrodynamic pulse propagation using the Hamiltonian form of Maxwell's equations. For gold with a Drude dielectric function, the latter is non-Hermitian, requiring consideration of corrections to the CSL algorithm.

  6. Nonlinear reversal of PT symmetric phase transition in a system of coupled semiconductor micro-ring resonators

    E-print Network

    Hassan, Absar U; Miri, Mohammad-Ali; Khajavikhan, Mercedeh; Christodoulides, Demetrios N

    2015-01-01

    A system of two coupled semiconductor-based resonators is studied when lasing around an exceptional point. We show that the presence of nonlinear saturation effects can have important ramifications on the transition behavior of this system. In sharp contrast with linear PT-symmetric configurations, nonlinear processes are capable of reversing the order in which the symmetry breaking occurs. Yet, even in the nonlinear regime, the resulting non-Hermitian states still retain the structural form of the corresponding linear eigenvectors expected above and below the phase transition point. The conclusions of our analysis are in agreement with experimental data.

  7. The Microscopic Linear Dynamics

    E-print Network

    Penny, Will

    The Microscopic Brain Will Penny Linear Dynamics Exponentials Matrix Exponential Eigendecomposition Dynamical Modes Nodes State Space Saddles Oscillations Spirals Centres Offsets Retinal Circuit Nullclines Stability Spiking Neurons Fitzhugh-Nagumo Nonlinear Dynamics Linearization Nonlinear Oscillation Excitable

  8. A linear programming manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuey, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Computer solutions of linear programming problems are outlined. Information covers vector spaces, convex sets, and matrix algebra elements for solving simultaneous linear equations. Dual problems, reduced cost analysis, ranges, and error analysis are illustrated.

  9. Generalized Linear Quadratic Control

    E-print Network

    Gattami, Ather Said

    We consider the problem of stochastic finite- and infinite-horizon linear quadratic control under power constraints. The calculations of the optimal control law can be done off-line as in the classical linear quadratic ...

  10. Accessibility in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travençolo, B. A. N.; da F. Costa, L.

    2008-12-01

    This Letter describes a method for the quantification of the diversity of non-linear dynamics in complex networks as a consequence of self-avoiding random walks. The methodology is analyzed in the context of theoretical models and illustrated with respect to the characterization of the accessibility in urban streets.

  11. Linear-Algebra Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, C. L.; Krogh, F. T.; Gold, S. S.; Kincaid, D. R.; Sullivan, J.; Williams, E.; Hanson, R. J.; Haskell, K.; Dongarra, J.; Moler, C. B.

    1982-01-01

    The Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS) library is a collection of 38 FORTRAN-callable routines for performing basic operations of numerical linear algebra. BLAS library is portable and efficient source of basic operations for designers of programs involving linear algebriac computations. BLAS library is supplied in portable FORTRAN and Assembler code versions for IBM 370, UNIVAC 1100 and CDC 6000 series computers.

  12. Bound states, scattering states, and resonant states in PT -symmetric open quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garmon, Savannah; Gianfreda, Mariagiovanna; Hatano, Naomichi

    2015-08-01

    We study a simple open quantum system with a PT -symmetric defect potential as a prototype in order to illustrate a number of general features of PT -symmetric open quantum systems; however, the potential itself could be mimicked by a number of PT systems that have been experimentally studied quite recently. One key feature is the resonance in continuum (RIC), which appears in both the discrete spectrum and the scattering spectrum of such systems. The RIC wave function forms a standing wave extending throughout the spatial extent of the system and in this sense represents a resonance between the open environment associated with the leads of our model and the central PT -symmetric potential. We also illustrate that as one deforms the system parameters, the RIC may exit the continuum by splitting into a bound state and a virtual bound state at the band edge, a process which should be experimentally observable. We also study the exceptional points appearing in the discrete spectrum at which two eigenvalues coalesce; we categorize these as either EP2As, at which two real-valued solutions coalesce before becoming complex-valued, and EP2Bs, for which the two solutions are complex on either side of the exceptional point. The EP2As are associated with PT -symmetry breaking; we argue that these are more stable against parameter perturbation than the EP2Bs. We also study complex-valued solutions of the discrete spectrum for which the wave function is nevertheless spatially localized, something that is not allowed in traditional open quantum systems; we illustrate that these may form quasibound states in continuum under some circumstances. We also study the scattering properties of the system, including states that support invisible propagation and some general features of perfect transmission states. We finally use our model as a prototype for the construction of scattering states that satisfy PT -symmetric boundary conditions; while these states do not conserve the traditional probability current, we introduce the PT current which is preserved. The perfect transmission states appear as a special case of the PT -symmetric scattering states.

  13. Construction of the noncommutative complex ball

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhituo

    2014-09-15

    We describe the construction of the noncommutative complex ball whose commutative analog is the Hermitian symmetric space D = SU(m, 1)/U(m), with the method of coherent state quantization. In the commutative limit, we obtain the standard manifold. We also consider a quantum field theory model on the noncommutative manifold.

  14. Linear Lumbar Localized Lysis of Elastic Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Tschen, Jaime A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The absence or loss of elastic fibers in the skin is referred to as dermal elastolysis. Purpose: This paper describes a woman with a distinctive clinical presentation of mid-dermal elastolysis characterized morphologically by multiple horizontal raised bands on the lower back. Methods: A 20-year-old Filipino woman presented with multiple asymptomatic, flesh-colored, raised, firm, linear, cord-like bands on the lumbar area of her back. There were neither similar lesions elsewhere nor a family member with this condition. Results: Microscopic examination of the raised band showed nearly complete absence of elastic fibers in the mid dermis. In contrast, a biopsy of symmetrically located normal-appearing skin showed a uniform distribution of elastic fibers throughout the dermis. Linear lumbar localized elastolysis is a descriptive designation that accurately reflects a correlation of the clinical and pathological changes of this condition. Conclusion: The clinical differential of raised horizontal cord-like bands on the lower back (without a family history of an inherited elastic fiber disorder, a prior history of trauma, or a significant change in weight or exercise habit) includes linear focal elastosis and linear lumbar localized elastolysis. Microscopic evaluation of a Verhoeff-van Gieson stained lesion specimen (which may be accompanied by a biopsy of normal-appearing skin for comparison) will readily differentiate these conditions. The former is usually characterized by increased elastic fibers, whereas the latter, as in this patient, shows a paucity or absence of elastic fibers in the mid dermis. PMID:23882313

  15. A Compositional Framework for Passive Linear Networks

    E-print Network

    John C. Baez; Brendan Fong

    2015-07-24

    Passive linear networks are used in a wide variety of engineering applications, but the best studied are electrical circuits made of resistors, inductors and capacitors. We describe a category where a morphism is a circuit of this sort with marked input and output terminals. In this category, composition describes the process of attaching the outputs of one circuit to the inputs of another. We construct a functor, dubbed the "black box functor", that takes a circuit, forgets its internal structure, and remembers only its external behavior. Two circuits have the same external behavior if and only if they impose same relation between currents and potentials at their terminals. The space of these currents and potentials naturally has the structure of a symplectic vector space, and the relation imposed by a circuit is a Lagrangian linear relation. Thus, the black box functor goes from our category of circuits to the category of symplectic vector spaces and Lagrangian linear relations. We prove that this functor is a symmetric monoidal dagger functor between dagger compact categories. We assume the reader has some familiarity with category theory, but none with circuit theory or symplectic linear algebra.

  16. ON THE BLOCK TRIANGULAR FORM OF SYMMETRIC MATRICES

    E-print Network

    Uçar, Bora

    ON THE BLOCK TRIANGULAR FORM OF SYMMETRIC MATRICES IAIN S. DUFF AND BORA UC¸AR§ Abstract. We present some observations on the block triangular form (btf) of structurally symmetric, square, sparse and one overdetermined block. We prove that these blocks are transposes of each other. We further prove

  17. Onesided Block Jacobi Methods for the Symmetric Eigenvalue Problem ?

    E-print Network

    Giménez, Domingo

    One­sided Block Jacobi Methods for the Symmetric Eigenvalue Problem ? D. Gim'enez 1 , J. Cuenca 1 theoretically two different one­sided block Jacobi algorithms for solving the Symmetric Eigenvalue Problem. Sequential and parallel versions of the algorithms are analized and com­ pared with a two­sided block Jacobi

  18. Four Interesting Types of Symmetric Two-Player Games

    E-print Network

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    Four Interesting Types of Symmetric Two-Player Games Leigh Tesfatsion Department of Economics Iowa-Player Game Player 2 C D C (R, R) (S, T) Player 1 D (T, S) (P, P) Action choices for each player: C or D Possible payoffs for each player: R, S, T, or P #12;Game Analysis The analysis of symmetric two

  19. RECIPROCITY ALGEBRAS AND BRANCHING FOR CLASSICAL SYMMETRIC PAIRS

    E-print Network

    Stephan, Frank

    , AND JEB F. WILLENBRING Abstract. We study branching laws for a classical group G and a symmetric sub- group H. Our approach is through the branching algebra, the algebra of covariants for H in the regular out that the ten classes of classical symmetric pairs (G, H) are associated in pairs, (G, H) and (H

  20. RECIPROCITY ALGEBRAS AND BRANCHING FOR CLASSICAL SYMMETRIC PAIRS

    E-print Network

    Willenbring, Jeb F.

    , AND JEB F. WILLENBRING Abstract. We study branching laws for a classical group G and a symmetric subgroup H. Our approach is by introducing the branching algebra, the algebra of covariants for H out that the ten classes of classical symmetric pairs (G, H) are associated in pairs, (G, H) and (H

  1. Polynomial Reproduction by Symmetric Subdivision Schemes School of Mathematical Sciences

    E-print Network

    Hormann, Kai

    Polynomial Reproduction by Symmetric Subdivision Schemes Nira Dyn School of Mathematical Sciences, uniform, and stationary sub- division scheme to have polynomial reproduction of degree d and thus of polynomial reproduction for two families of symmetric schemes, the family of pseudo-splines and a new family

  2. Symmetric Characterization of Finite State Markov Mohammad Rezaeian

    E-print Network

    Rezaeian, Mohammad-Jafar

    Symmetric Characterization of Finite State Markov Channels Mohammad Rezaeian Department state Markov chan- nels. We show that for symmetric Markov channels the noise process can, and for these cases direct formulae for computation of capacity exist. For finite state Markov channels [3

  3. SOUNDNESS AND COMPLETENESS OF FORMAL LOGICS OF SYMMETRIC Gergei Bana

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    SOUNDNESS AND COMPLETENESS OF FORMAL LOGICS OF SYMMETRIC ENCRYPTION Gergei Bana A DISSERTATION Harbater, Graduate Group Chairperson #12;COPYRIGHT Gergei Bana 2005 #12;Acknowledgements I would like;ABSTRACT SOUNDNESS AND COMPLETENESS OF FORMAL LOGICS OF SYMMETRIC ENCRYPTION Gergei Bana Supervisor: Andre

  4. Bilateral Symmetrical Congenital Giant Becker's Nevus: A Rare Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Angoori Gnaneshwar

    2015-01-01

    Becker's nevus is a focal epidermal hypermelanotic disorder. It morphologically presents as unilateral, hyperpigmented, hypertrichotic patch on upper trunk, proximal upper extremities and arms. However, Becker's nevus presenting as bilateral, symmetrical patches is rare. Herein, we report a rare case of giant Becker's nevus with bilateral symmetrical presentation in an adult male. PMID:26538733

  5. Symmetrical waveform generation based on temporal pulse shaping using

    E-print Network

    Yao, Jianping

    Symmetrical waveform generation based on temporal pulse shaping using amplitude-only modulator H. Chi and J. Yao Symmetrical waveform generation based on temporal pulse shaping using only an amplitude: Spatial light modulator (SLM)-based sub-picosecond pulse shaping for arbitrary waveform generation, which

  6. A symmetric surface micromachined gyroscope with decoupled oscillation modes

    E-print Network

    Akin, Tayfun

    A symmetric surface micromachined gyroscope with decoupled oscillation modes Said Emre Alper Abstract This paper reports a new symmetric gyroscope structure that allows both matched resonant beam design. The gyroscope structure is designed using a standard three-layer polysilicon surface

  7. SYMMETRIC UNIONS WITHOUT COSMETIC CROSSING CHANGES ALLISON H. MOORE

    E-print Network

    Harvey, Shelly

    SYMMETRIC UNIONS WITHOUT COSMETIC CROSSING CHANGES ALLISON H. MOORE Abstract. A symmetric union-known cosmetic crossing conjecture. This conjecture asserts that the only crossing changes which preserve the cosmetic crossing conjecture. An embedded disk D in S3 intersecting K twice with zero algebraic

  8. The hit problem for symmetric polynomials over the Steenrod algebra

    E-print Network

    Wood, Reginald M W

    The hit problem for symmetric polynomials over the Steenrod algebra A. S. Janfada and R. M. W. Wood January 2001 Dedicated to the memory of Frank Peterson We cite [18] for references to work on the hit investigates the hit problem for the A-submodule of symmetric polynomials B(n) = P(n) #6;n , where #6; n

  9. NUMERICAL LINEAR ALGEBRA WITH APPLICATIONS Numer. Linear Algebra Appl. 2000; 00:16 Prepared using nlaauth.cls [Version: 2002/09/18 v1.02

    E-print Network

    Kaufman, Linda

    matrix which go beyond the original bandwidth. Version D does not pivot for stability if the matrix University, Wayne, N.J.07074 SUMMARY Let A be an n Ã? n symmetric matrix of bandwidth 2m + 1. The matrix need a linear system with A as the coefficient matrix and determine the inertia of A, the number of positive

  10. On Stationary Axially Symmetric Solutions in Brans-Dicke Theory

    E-print Network

    Kirezli, P?nar

    2015-01-01

    Stationary axially symmetric Brans-Dicke-Maxwell solutions are re-examined in the framework of the Brans-Dicke theory. We see that, employing a particular parametrization of the standard axially symmetric metric simplifies the procedure of obtaining the Ernst equations for axially symmetric electro-vacuum space-times for this theory. This analysis also permit us to construct a two parameter extension in both Jordan and Einstein frames of an old solution generating technique frequently used to construct axially symmetric solutions for Brans-Dicke theory from a seed solution of General Relativity. As applications of this technique, several known and new solutions are constructed including a general axially symmetric BD-Maxwell solution of Plebanski-Demianski with vanishing cosmological constant, i.e. the Kinnersley solution and general magnetized Kerr-Newman type solutions. Some physical properties and circular motion of test particles for a particular subclass of Kinnersley solution, i.e. Kerr-Newman-NUT type ...

  11. Geometric Entanglement of Symmetric States and the Majorana Representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aulbach, Martin; Markham, Damian; Murao, Mio

    Permutation-symmetric quantum states appear in a variety of physical situations, and they have been proposed for quantum information tasks. This article builds upon the results of [New J. Phys. 12 (2010) 073025], where the maximally entangled symmetric states of up to twelve qubits were explored, and their amount of geometric entanglement determined by numeric and analytic means. For this the Majorana representation, a generalization of the Bloch sphere representation, can be employed to represent symmetric n qubit states by n points on the surface of a unit sphere. Symmetries of this point distribution simplify the determination of the entanglement, and enable the study of quantum states in novel ways. Here it is shown that the duality relationship of Platonic solids has a counterpart in the Majorana representation, and that in general maximally entangled symmetric states neither correspond to anticoherent spin states nor to spherical designs. The usability of symmetric states as resources for measurement-based quantum computing is also discussed.

  12. Color symmetrical superconductivity in a schematic nuclear quark model

    E-print Network

    Henrik Bohr; João da Providência

    2009-10-13

    In this note, a novel BCS-type formalism is constructed in the framework of a schematic QCD inspired quark model, having in mind the description of color symmetrical superconducting states. The physical properties of the BCS vacuum (average numbers of quarks of different colors) remain unchanged under an arbitrary color rotation. In the usual approach to color superconductivity, the pairing correlations affect only the quasi-particle states of two colors, the single particle states of the third color remaining unaffected by the pairing correlations. In the theory of color symmetrical superconductivity here proposed, the pairing correlations affect symmetrically the quasi-particle states of the three colors and vanishing net color-charge is automatically insured. It is found that the groundstate energy of the color symmetrical sector of the Bonn model is well approximated by the average energy of the color symmetrical superconducting state proposed here.

  13. Bicriterion seriation methods for skew-symmetric matrices.

    PubMed

    Brusco, Michael J; Stahl, Stephanie

    2005-11-01

    The decomposition of an asymmetric proximity matrix into its symmetric and skew-symmetric components is a well-known principle in combinatorial data analysis. The seriation of the skew-symmetric component can emphasize information corresponding to the sign or absolute magnitude of the matrix elements, and the choice of objective criterion can have a profound impact on the ordering. In this research note, we propose a bicriterion approach for seriation of a skew-symmetric matrix incorporating both sign and magnitude information. Two numerical demonstrations reveal that the bicriterion procedure is an effective alternative to direct seriation of the skew-symmetric matrix, facilitating favourable trade-offs among sign and magnitude information. PMID:16293204

  14. Hydrodynamic Evolution of Chirally Symmetric Nuclear Matter

    E-print Network

    F. Navarra; U. Ornik

    1994-12-15

    The equation of state of the linear sigma model in the mean field approximation is used as input in a relativistic hydrodynamical numerical routine. Longitudinal and transverse energy distributions are calculated and compared with those obtained from the QHD-I equation of state.

  15. Characterization of Non-Innocent Metal Complexes Using Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy: o-Dioxolene Vanadium Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Pabitra B.; Goncharov-Zapata, Olga; Quinn, Laurence L.; Hou, Guangjin; Hamaed, Hiyam; Schurko, Robert W.; Polenova, Tatyana; Crans, Debbie C.

    2012-01-01

    51V solid-state NMR (SSNMR) studies of a series of non-innocent vanadium(V) catechol complexes have been conducted to evaluate the possibility that 51V NMR observables, quadrupolar and chemical shift anisotropies, and electronic structures of such compounds can be used to characterize these compounds. The vanadium(V) catechol complexes described in these studies have relatively small quadrupolar coupling constants, which cover a surprisingly small range from 3.4 to 4.2 MHz. On the other hand, isotropic 51V NMR chemical shifts cover a wide range from ?200 ppm to 400 ppm in solution and from ?219 to 530 ppm in the solid state. A linear correlation of 51V NMR isotropic solution and solid-state chemical shifts of complexes containing non-innocent ligands is observed. These experimental results provide the information needed for the application of 51V SSNMR spectroscopy in characterizing the electronic properties of a wide variety of vanadium-containing systems, and in particular those containing non-innocent ligands and that have chemical shifts outside the populated range of ?300 ppm to ?700 ppm. The studies presented in this report demonstrate that the small quadrupolar couplings covering a narrow range of values reflect the symmetric electronic charge distribution, which is also similar across these complexes. These quadrupolar interaction parameters alone are not sufficient to capture the rich electronic structure of these complexes. In contrast, the chemical shift anisotropy tensor elements accessible from 51V SSNMR experiments are a highly sensitive probe of subtle differences in electronic distribution and orbital occupancy in these compounds. Quantum chemical (DFT) calculations of NMR parameters for [VO(hshed)(Cat)] yield 51V CSA tensor in reasonable agreement with the experimental results, but surprisingly, the calculated quadrupolar coupling constant is significantly greater than the experimental value. The studies demonstrate that substitution of the catechol ligand with electron donating groups results in an increase in the HOMO-LUMO gap and can be directly followed by an upfield shift for the vanadium catechol complex. In contrast, substitution of the catechol ligand with electron withdrawing groups results in a decrease in the HOMO-LUMO gap and can directly be followed by a downfield shift for the complex. The vanadium catechol complexes were used in this work because the 51V is a half-integer quadrupolar nucleus whose NMR observables are highly sensitive to the local environment. However, the results are general and could be extended to other redox active complexes that exhibit similar coordination chemistry as the vanadium catechol complexes. PMID:21842875

  16. Implementation of a symmetric boundary integral formulation for cohesive cracks in homogeneous media and at interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Tavara, Luis; Mantic, Vladislav; Salvadori, Alberto; Gray, Leonard J; Paris, Federico

    2009-01-01

    A symmetric boundary integral formulation for cohesive cracks growing in the interior of homogeneous linear elastic isotropic media and/or at interfaces between these media is developed and implemented in a numerical code. The solution of a problem that includes cohesive cracks depends on the cohesive law adopted. In the present work, models based on the concept of free energy density per unit undeformed area are considered. The corresponding constitutive cohesive equations present a softening branch which induces to the problem a potential instability. Thus, the development and implementation of a suitable solution algorithm capable of following the growth of the cohesive zone becomes an important issue. An arc-length control combined with a Newton-Raphson algorithm for iterative solution of nonlinear equations is used. The Boundary Element Method is very attractive for modeling cohesive crack problems as all nonlinearities are located on the boundaries (including the crack boundaries) of linear elastic domains. A Galerkin approximation scheme, applied to a suitable symmetric integral formulation, ensures an easy treatment of cracks in homogeneous media and excellent convergence behavior of the numerical solution. Numerical results for the wedge split test are presented and compared with experimental results available in the literature.

  17. A Possible Method for Non-Hermitian and Non-PT-Symmetric Hamiltonian Systems

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun-Qing; Miao, Yan-Gang; Xue, Zhao

    2014-01-01

    A possible method to investigate non-Hermitian Hamiltonians is suggested through finding a Hermitian operator ?+ and defining the annihilation and creation operators to be ?+ -pseudo-Hermitian adjoint to each other. The operator ?+ represents the ?+ -pseudo-Hermiticity of Hamiltonians. As an example, a non-Hermitian and non-PT-symmetric Hamiltonian with imaginary linear coordinate and linear momentum terms is constructed and analyzed in detail. The operator ?+ is found, based on which, a real spectrum and a positive-definite inner product, together with the probability explanation of wave functions, the orthogonality of eigenstates, and the unitarity of time evolution, are obtained for the non-Hermitian and non-PT-symmetric Hamiltonian. Moreover, this Hamiltonian turns out to be coupled when it is extended to the canonical noncommutative space with noncommutative spatial coordinate operators and noncommutative momentum operators as well. Our method is applicable to the coupled Hamiltonian. Then the first and second order noncommutative corrections of energy levels are calculated, and in particular the reality of energy spectra, the positive-definiteness of inner products, and the related properties (the probability explanation of wave functions, the orthogonality of eigenstates, and the unitarity of time evolution) are found not to be altered by the noncommutativity. PMID:24896084

  18. Symmetric Encryption The symmetric setting considers two parties who share a key and will use this key to imbue commu-

    E-print Network

    Bernstein, Daniel

    the encryption algorithm is invoked on inputs K, M, it computes a ciphertext based on K, M and the current stateChapter 5 Symmetric Encryption The symmetric setting considers two parties who share a key and will use this key to imbue commu- nicated data with various security attributes. The main security goals

  19. A higher order panel method for linearized supersonic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehlers, F. E.; Johnson, F. T.; Rubbert, P. E.

    1976-01-01

    A higher order panel method using linearly varying source and quadratically varying doublet distributions for computing linearized supersonic flow over arbitrary wings and bodies is described. With tangential mass flux boundary conditions on circular cones at angles of attack, the source panel method gave pressure distributions which are in excellent agreement with exact nonlinear theory. The numerical source panel method was demonstrated to be very stable by randomly panelling an axially symmetric body. For wings with thickness and camber, both the source and doublet panel methods yield excellent agreement with exact linearized solutions. Computational experiments indicate that the use of exact surface paneling in lieu of linearized boundary conditions for wings provides better agreement with higher order theory and with experiment.

  20. Leading healthcare in complexity.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Jeffrey

    2014-12-01

    Healthcare institutions and providers are in complexity. Networks of interconnections from relationships and technology create conditions in which interdependencies and non-linear dynamics lead to surprising, unpredictable outcomes. Previous effective approaches to leadership, focusing on top-down bureaucratic methods, are no longer effective. Leading in complexity requires leaders to accept the complexity, create an adaptive space in which innovation and creativity can flourish and then integrate the successful practices that emerge into the formal organizational structure. Several methods for doing adaptive space work will be discussed. Readers will be able to contrast traditional leadership approaches with leading in complexity. They will learn new behaviours that are required of complexity leaders, along with challenges they will face, often from other leaders within the organization. PMID:25815410

  1. Synchronization of fractional order complex dynamical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Li, Tianzeng

    2015-06-01

    In this letter the synchronization of complex dynamical networks with fractional order chaotic nodes is studied. A fractional order controller for synchronization of complex network is presented. Some new sufficient synchronization criteria are proposed based on the Lyapunov stability theory and the LaSalle invariance principle. These synchronization criteria can apply to an arbitrary fractional order complex network in which the coupling-configuration matrix and the inner-coupling matrix are not assumed to be symmetric or irreducible. It means that this method is more general and effective. Numerical simulations of two fractional order complex networks demonstrate the universality and the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. Structure and orientation of the oxygen-evolving manganese complex of green algae and higher plants investigated by X-ray absorption linear dichroism spectroscopy on oriented photosystem II membrane particles.

    PubMed

    Schiller, H; Dittmer, J; Iuzzolino, L; Dörner, W; Meyer-Klaucke, W; Solé, V A; Nolting, H; Dau, H

    1998-05-19

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Mn K-edge has been performed on multilayers of photosystem II-enriched fragments of the native thylakoid membrane prepared from a higher plant (spinach) and a unicellular green alga (Scenedesmus obliquus). Spectra collected for various angles between the prevailing orientation of the thylakoid membrane normal and the X-ray electric field vector contain information on the atomic structure of the tetranuclear manganese complex of photosystem II (PS II) and its orientation with respect to the membrane normal. The previously used approach for evaluation of the dichroism of extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra [George, G. N., et al. (1989) Science 243, 789-791] is modified, and the following results are obtained for PS II in its dark-stable state (S1-state): (1) structure and orientation of the PS II manganese complexes of green algae and higher plants are highly similiar or fully identical; (2) two 2.7-A vectors, which, most likely, connect the Mn nuclei of a planar Mn2(mu-O2) structure, are at an average angle of 80 degrees +/- 10 degrees with respect to the thylakoid normal; (3) the plane of the Mn2(mu-O2) structures is rather in parallel with the thylakoid plane than perpendicular. Structural models for the oxygen-evolving manganese complex and its orientation in the thylakoid membrane are discussed within the context of the presented results. PMID:9585548

  3. Mode competition of rotating waves in reflection-symmetric Taylor-Couette flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abshagen, J.; Lopez, J. M.; Marques, F.; Pfister, G.

    2005-09-01

    We report on the results of a combined experimental and numerical study on mode interactions of rotating waves in Taylor Couette flow. Our work shows that rotating waves which originate at a Hopf bifurcation from the steady axisymmetric Taylor vortex flow interact with this axisymmetric flow in a codimension-two fold-Hopf bifurcation. This interaction gives rise to an (unstable) low-frequency modulated wave via a subcritical Neimark Sacker bifurcation from the rotating wave. At higher Reynolds numbers, a complicated mode interation between stable modulated waves originating at a different Neimark Sacker bifurcation and a pair of symmetrically related rotating waves that originate at a cyclic pitchfork bifurcation is found to organize complex Z_2-symmetry breaking of rotating waves via global bifurcations. In addition to symmetry breaking of rotating waves via a (local) cyclic pitchfork bifurcation, we found symmetry breaking of modulated waves via a saddle-node-infinite-period (SNIP) global bifurcation. Tracing these local and global bifurcation curves in Reynolds number/aspect ratio parameter space toward their apparant merging point, unexpected complexity arises in the bifurcation structure involving non-symmetric two-tori undergoing saddle-loop homoclinic bifurcations. The close agreement between the numerics and the experiment is indicative of the robustness of the observed complex dynamics.

  4. Thermodynamic motivations of spherically symmetric static metrics

    E-print Network

    H. Moradpour; S. Nasirimoghadam

    2015-11-18

    Bearing the thermodynamic arguments together with the two definitions of mass in mind, we try to find metrics with spherical symmetry. We consider the adiabatic condition along with the Gong-Wang mass, and evaluate the $g_{rr}$ element which points to a null hypersurface. In addition, we generalize the thermodynamics laws to this hypersurface to find its temperature and thus the corresponding surface gravity which enables us to get a relation for the $g_{tt}$ element. Moreover, we investigate the mathematical and physical properties of the discovered metric in the Einstein relativity framework which shows that the primary mentioned null hypersurface is an event horizon. The obtained energy-momentum tensor equals the energy-momentum tensor of a polytropic black hole embedded into an anti-de Sitter background. We also show that if one considers the Misner-Sharp mass in the calculations, the Schwarzschild metric will be got. The relationship between the two mass definitions in each metric is studied. The results of considering the geometrical surface gravity are also addressed. Our investigation shows that the geometrical surface gravity's definition is not always compatible with the validity of the first law of thermodynamics on the horizons of spherically symmetric static metrics.

  5. Surface gravity in dynamical spherically symmetric spacetimes

    E-print Network

    Fodor, Gyula; Oshiro, Y; Tomimatsu, A

    1996-01-01

    A definition of surface gravity at the apparent horizon of dynamical spherically symmetric spacetimes is proposed. It is based on a unique foliation by ingoing null hypersurfaces. The function parametrizing the hypersurfaces can be interpreted as the phase of a light wave uniformly emitted by some far-away static observer. The definition gives back the accepted value of surface gravity in the static case by virtue of its nonlocal character. Although the definition is motivated by the behavior of outgoing null rays, it turns out that there is a simple connection between the generalized surface gravity, the acceleration of any radially moving observer, and the observed frequency change of the infalling light signal. In particular, this gives a practical and simple method of how any geodesic observer can determine surface gravity by measuring only the redshift of the infalling light wave. The surface gravity can be expressed as an integral of matter field quantities along an ingoing null line, which shows that i...

  6. Time-Symmetric Rolling Tachyon Profile

    E-print Network

    Matheson Longton

    2015-06-12

    We investigate the tachyon profile of a time-symmetric rolling tachyon solution to open string field theory. We algebraically construct the solution of [arXiv:0707.4472] at 6th order in the marginal parameter, and numerically evaluate the corresponding tachyon profile as well as the action and several correlation functions containing the equation of motion. We find that the marginal operator's singular self-OPE is properly regularized and all quantities we examine are finite. In contrast to the widely studied time-asymmetric case, the solution depends nontrivially on the strength of the deformation parameter. For example, we find that the number and period of oscillations of the tachyon field changes as the strength of the marginal deformation is increased. We use the recent renormalization scheme of [arXiv:1412.3466], which contains two free parameters. At finite deformation parameter the tachyon profile depends on these parameters, while when the deformation parameter is small, the solution becomes insensitive to them and behaves like previously studied time-asymmetric rolling tachyon solutions. We also show that convergence of perturbation series is not as straightforward as in the time-asymmetric case with regular OPE, and find evidence that it may depend on the renormalization constants.

  7. Time-symmetric rolling tachyon profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longton, Matheson

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the tachyon profile of a time-symmetric rolling tachyon solution to open string field theory. We algebraically construct the solution of [1] at 6th order in the marginal parameter, and numerically evaluate the corresponding tachyon profile as well as the action and several correlation functions containing the equation of motion. We find that the marginal operator's singular self-OPE is properly regularized and all quantities we examine are finite. In contrast to the widely studied time-asymmetric case, the solution depends nontrivially on the strength of the deformation parameter. For example, we find that the number and period of oscillations of the tachyon field changes as the strength of the marginal deformation is increased. We use the recent renormalization scheme of [2], which contains two free parameters. At finite deformation parameter the tachyon profile depends on these parameters, while when the deformation parameter is small, the solution becomes insensitive to them and behaves like previously studied time-asymmetric rolling tachyon solutions. We also show that convergence of perturbation series is not as straightforward as in the time-asymmetric case with regular OPE, and find evidence that it may depend on the renormalization constants.

  8. Spherically symmetric inhomogeneous model with Chaplygin gas

    SciTech Connect

    Panigrahi, D.; Chatterjee, S. E-mail: chat_sujit1@yahoo.com

    2011-10-01

    We investigate the late time acceleration with a Chaplygin type of gas in spherically symmetric inhomogeneous model. At the early phase we get Einstien-de Sitter type of solution generalised to inhomogeneous spacetime. But at late stage of the evolution our solutions admit the accelerating nature of the universe. For a large scale factor our model behaves like a ?CDM model. We calculate the deceleration parameter for this anisotropic model, which, unlike its homogeneous counterpart, shows that the flip is not synchronous occurring early at the outer shells. This is in line with other physical processes in any inhomogeneous models. Depending upon initial conditions our solution also gives bouncing universe. In the absence of inhomogeneity our solution reduces to wellknown solutions in homogeneous case. We have also calculated the effective deceleration parameter in terms of Hubble parameter. The whole situation is later discussed with the help of wellknown Raychaudhury equation and the results are compared with the previous case. This work is an extension of our recent communication where an attempt was made to see if the presence of extra dimensions and/or inhomogeneity can trigger an inflation in a matter dominated Lemaître Tolman Bondi model.

  9. A highly sensitive C3-symmetric Schiff-base fluorescent probe for Cd2+.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiu-Juan; Li, Min; Lu, Hong-Lin; Xu, Lin-Hua; Xu, Hong; Zang, Shuang-Quan; Tang, Ming-Sheng; Hou, Hong-Wei; Mak, Thomas C W

    2014-12-15

    A new C3-symmetric Schiff-base fluorescent probe (L) based on 8-hydroxy-2-methylquinoline has been developed. As expected, the probe L can display high fluorescent selectivity for Cd(2+) over Zn(2+) and most other common ions in neutral ethanol aqueous medium. Moreover, the mechanism of the L-Cd(2+) complex has been confirmed by X-ray crystallography and density functional theory calculation results. More importantly, L could be used to image Cd(2+) within living cells. PMID:25456106

  10. Electromagnetic perturbations of non-vacuum locally rotationally symmetric class II spacetimes

    E-print Network

    Raymond Burston; Anthony Lun

    2006-10-12

    We present a method that yields three decoupled covariant equations for three complex scalars, which completely govern electromagnetic perturbations of non-vacuum, locally rotationally symmetric class II spacetimes. One of these equations is equivalent to the previously established generalized Regge-Wheeler equation for electromagnetic fields. The remaining two equations are a direct generalization of the Bardeen-Press equations. The approach undertaken makes use of the well established 3+1 (and 2+1+1) formalism, and therefore, it is an ideal setting for specifying interpretable energy-momentum on an initial spacelike three-slice as the perturbation sources to the resultant electromagnetic radiation.

  11. Realizing PT-symmetric BEC subsystems in closed hermitian systems

    E-print Network

    Robin Gutöhrlein; Jan Schnabel; Ibrokhim Iskandarov; Holger Cartarius; Jörg Main; Günter Wunner

    2015-07-06

    In open double-well Bose-Einstein condensate systems which balance in- and outfluxes of atoms and which are effectively described by a non-hermitian PT-symmetric Hamiltonian PT-symmetric states have been shown to exist. PT-symmetric states obey parity and time reversal symmetry. We tackle the question of how the in- and outfluxes can be realized and introduce a hermitian system in which two PT-symmetric subsystems are embedded. This system no longer requires an in- and outcoupling to and from the environment. We show that the subsystems still have PT-symmetric states. In addition we examine what degree of detail is necessary to correctly model the PT-symmetric properties and the bifurcation structure of such a system. We examine a four-mode matrix model and a system described by the full Gross-Pitaevskii equation in one dimension. We see that a simple matrix model correctly describes the qualitative properties of the system. For sufficiently isolated wells there is also quantitative agreement with the more advanced system descriptions. We also investigate which properties the wave functions of a system must fulfil to allow for PT-symmetric states. In particular the requirements for the phase difference between different parts of the system are examined.

  12. Guided torsional wave generation of a linear in-plane shear piezoelectric array in metallic pipes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wensong; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo; Shi, Tonglu

    2016-02-01

    Cylindrical guided waves based techniques are effective and promising tools for damage detection in long pipes. The essential operations are generation and reception of guided waves in the structures utilizing transducers. A novel in-plane shear (d36 type) PMNT wafer is proposed to generate and receive the guided wave, especially the torsional waves, in metallic pipes. In contrast to the traditional wafer, this wafer will directly introduce in-plane shear deformation when electrical field is conveniently applied through its thickness direction. A single square d36 PMNT wafer is bonded on the surface of the pipe positioned collinearly with its axis, when actuated can predominantly generate torsional (T) waves along the axial direction, circumferential shear horizontal (C-SH) waves along circumferential direction, and other complex cylindrical Lamb-like wave modes along other helical directions simultaneously. While a linear array of finite square size d36 PMNT wafers was equally spaced circumferentially, when actuated simultaneously can nearly uniform axisymmetric torsional waves generate in pipes and non-symmetric wave modes can be suppressed greatly if the number of the d36 PMNT wafer is sufficiently large. This paper first presents the working mechanism of the linear d36 PMNT array from finite element analysis (FEA) by examining the constructive and destructive displacement wavefield phenomena in metallic pipes. Furthermore, since the amplitude of the received fundamental torsional wave signal strongly depends on frequency, a series of experiments are conducted to determine the frequency tuning curve for the torsional wave mode. All results indicate the linear d36 PMNT array has potential for efficiently generating uniform torsional wavefield of the fundamental torsional wave mode, which is more effective in monitoring structural health in metallic pipes. PMID:26548525

  13. Linear collider: a preview

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedemann, H.

    1981-11-01

    Since no linear colliders have been built yet it is difficult to know at what energy the linear cost scaling of linear colliders drops below the quadratic scaling of storage rings. There is, however, no doubt that a linear collider facility for a center of mass energy above say 500 GeV is significantly cheaper than an equivalent storage ring. In order to make the linear collider principle feasible at very high energies a number of problems have to be solved. There are two kinds of problems: one which is related to the feasibility of the principle and the other kind of problems is associated with minimizing the cost of constructing and operating such a facility. This lecture series describes the problems and possible solutions. Since the real test of a principle requires the construction of a prototype I will in the last chapter describe the SLC project at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.

  14. (M-theory-)Killing spinors on symmetric spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hustler, Noel; Lischewski, Andree

    2015-08-01

    We show how the theory of invariant principal bundle connections for reductive homogeneous spaces can be applied to determine the holonomy of generalised Killing spinor covariant derivatives of the form D = ? + ? in a purely algebraic and algorithmic way, where ? : TM ? ??(TM) is a left-invariant homomorphism. Specialising this to the case of symmetric M-theory backgrounds (i.e., (M, g, F) with (M, g) an eleven-dimensional Lorentzian (locally) symmetric space and F an invariant closed 4-form), we derive several criteria for such a background to preserve some supersymmetry and consequently find all supersymmetric symmetric M-theory backgrounds.

  15. Multiple Point-Symmetric Ejections in IC 4634

    E-print Network

    Martin A. Guerrero; Luis F. Miranda; You-Hua Chu

    2003-10-14

    We present a spatio-kinematical study of the planetary nebula (PN) IC 4634 which has experienced several episodes of point-symmetric ejections oriented at different directions. The nebula displays two S-shaped low-ionization arcs that are probably related to two relatively recent point-symmetric ejections, the outer S-shaped arc representing a beautiful example of a bow-shock resolved in a PN. We report here the discovery of an arc-like string of knots at larger distances from IC 4634 central star that represents a much earlier point-symmetric ejection.

  16. Geometric characteristics of aberrations of plane-symmetric optical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Lijun; Deng Zhiyong

    2009-12-20

    The geometric characteristics of aberrations of plane-symmetric optical systems are studied in detail with a wave-aberration theory. It is dealt with as an extension of the Seidel aberrations to realize a consistent aberration theory from axially symmetric to plane-symmetric systems. The aberration distribution is analyzed with the spot diagram of a ray and an aberration curve. Moreover, the root-mean-square value and the centroid of aberration distribution are discussed. The numerical results are obtained with the focusing optics of a toroidal mirror at grazing incidence.

  17. The Phosphatase PP4c Controls Spindle Orientation to Maintain Proliferative Symmetric Divisions in the Developing Neocortex

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yunli; Jüschke, Christoph; Esk, Christopher; Hirotsune, Shinji; Knoblich, Juergen A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary In the developing neocortex, progenitor cells expand through symmetric division before they generate cortical neurons through multiple rounds of asymmetric cell division. Here, we show that the orientation of the mitotic spindle plays a crucial role in regulating the transition between those two division modes. We demonstrate that the protein phosphatase PP4c regulates spindle orientation in early cortical progenitor cells. Upon removing PP4c, mitotic spindles fail to orient in parallel to the neuroepithelial surface and progenitors divide with random orientation. As a result, their divisions become asymmetric and neurogenesis starts prematurely. Biochemical and genetic experiments show that PP4c acts by dephosphorylating the microtubule binding protein Ndel1, thereby enabling complex formation with Lis1 to form a functional spindle orientation complex. Our results identify a key regulator of cortical development and demonstrate that changes in the orientation of progenitor division are responsible for the transition between symmetric and asymmetric cell division. PMID:23830831

  18. Symbolic Solution of Linear Differential Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, R. B.; Grooms, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    An algorithm for solving linear constant-coefficient ordinary differential equations is presented. The computational complexity of the algorithm is discussed and its implementation in the FORMAC system is described. A comparison is made between the algorithm and some classical algorithms for solving differential equations.

  19. Progressive Image Coding by Hierarchical Linear Approximation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Xiaolin; Fang, Yonggang

    1994-01-01

    Proposes a scheme of hierarchical piecewise linear approximation as an adaptive image pyramid. A progressive image coder comes naturally from the proposed image pyramid. The new pyramid is semantically more powerful than regular tessellation but syntactically simpler than free segmentation. This compromise between adaptability and complexity…

  20. Monolithic Op Amp--The Universal Linear

    E-print Network

    Lozano-Nieto, Albert

    Monolithic Op Amp--The Universal Linear Component Introduction Operational amplifiers to complex analog computation. The cost of monolithic amplifiers is now less than $2.00, in large quantities low cost is not the only attraction of monolithic amplifiers. Since all components are simultaneously