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Sample records for complex symmetric linear

  1. Conjugate gradient type methods for linear systems with complex symmetric coefficient matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Roland

    1989-01-01

    We consider conjugate gradient type methods for the solution of large sparse linear system Ax equals b with complex symmetric coefficient matrices A equals A(T). Such linear systems arise in important applications, such as the numerical solution of the complex Helmholtz equation. Furthermore, most complex non-Hermitian linear systems which occur in practice are actually complex symmetric. We investigate conjugate gradient type iterations which are based on a variant of the nonsymmetric Lanczos algorithm for complex symmetric matrices. We propose a new approach with iterates defined by a quasi-minimal residual property. The resulting algorithm presents several advantages over the standard biconjugate gradient method. We also include some remarks on the obvious approach to general complex linear systems by solving equivalent real linear systems for the real and imaginary parts of x. Finally, numerical experiments for linear systems arising from the complex Helmholtz equation are reported.

  2. 2d PDE Linear Symmetric Matrix Solver

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1983-10-01

    ICCG2 (Incomplete Cholesky factorized Conjugate Gradient algorithm for 2d symmetric problems) was developed to solve a linear symmetric matrix system arising from a 9-point discretization of two-dimensional elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations found in plasma physics applications, such as resistive MHD, spatial diffusive transport, and phase space transport (Fokker-Planck equation) problems. These problems share the common feature of being stiff and requiring implicit solution techniques. When these parabolic or elliptic PDE''s are discretized withmore » finite-difference or finite-element methods,the resulting matrix system is frequently of block-tridiagonal form. To use ICCG2, the discretization of the two-dimensional partial differential equation and its boundary conditions must result in a block-tridiagonal supermatrix composed of elementary tridiagonal matrices. The incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient algorithm is used to solve the linear symmetric matrix equation. Loops are arranged to vectorize on the Cray1 with the CFT compiler, wherever possible. Recursive loops, which cannot be vectorized, are written for optimum scalar speed. For matrices lacking symmetry, ILUCG2 should be used. Similar methods in three dimensions are available in ICCG3 and ILUCG3. A general source containing extensions and macros, which must be processed by a pre-compiler to obtain the standard FORTRAN source, is provided along with the standard FORTRAN source because it is believed to be more readable. The pre-compiler is not included, but pre-compilation may be performed by a text editor as described in the UCRL-88746 Preprint.« less

  3. Complex symmetric matrices with strongly stable iterates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tadmor, E.

    1985-01-01

    Complex-valued symmetric matrices are studied. A simple expression for the spectral norm of such matrices is obtained, by utilizing a unitarily congruent invariant form. A sharp criterion is provided for identifying those symmetric matrices whose spectral norm is not exceeding one: such strongly stable matrices are usually sought in connection with convergent difference approximations to partial differential equations. As an example, the derived criterion is applied to conclude the strong stability of a Lax-Wendroff scheme.

  4. Experimental scheme for unambiguous discrimination of linearly independent symmetric states

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, O.; Burgos-Inostroza, E.; Delgado, A.; Saavedra, C.; Sanchez-Lozano, X.

    2007-12-15

    We propose an experimental setup for discriminating four linearly independent nonorthogonal symmetric quantum states. The setup is based on linear optics only and can be configured to implement both optimal unambiguous state discrimination [Chefles and Barnett, Phys. Lett. A 250, 223 (1998)] and minimum error discrimination. In both cases, the setup is characterized by an optimal success probability. The experimental setup can be generalized to the case of discrimination among N linearly nonorthogonal symmetric quantum states. We also study the discrimination between two incoherent superpositions of symmetric states. In this case, the setup also achieves an optimal success probability in the case of unambiguous discrimination as well as minimum error discrimination.

  5. Complex PT-symmetric nonlinear Schrdinger equation and Burgers equation.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhenya

    2013-04-28

    The complex -symmetric nonlinear wave models have drawn much attention in recent years since the complex -symmetric extensions of the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation were presented in 2007. In this review, we focus on the study of the complex -symmetric nonlinear Schrdinger equation and Burgers equation. First of all, we briefly introduce the basic property of complex symmetry. We then report on exact solutions of one- and two-dimensional nonlinear Schrdinger equations (known as the Gross-Pitaevskii equation in Bose-Einstein condensates) with several complex -symmetric potentials. Finally, some complex -symmetric extension principles are used to generate some complex -symmetric nonlinear wave equations starting from both -symmetric (e.g. the KdV equation) and non- -symmetric (e.g. the Burgers equation) nonlinear wave equations. In particular, we discuss exact solutions of some representative ones of the complex -symmetric Burgers equation in detail. PMID:23509385

  6. Covariant discretization of axis-symmetric linear optical systems.

    PubMed

    Atakishiyev, N M; Nagiyev, S M; Vicent, L E; Wolf, K B

    2000-12-01

    We propose a discretization strategy for systems with axial symmetry. This strategy replaces the continuous position coordinates by a discrete set of sensor points, on which the discrete wave fields transform covariantly with the group of 2 x 2 symplectic matrices. We examine polar arrays of sensors (i.e., numbered by radius and angle) and find the complete, orthonormal sets of discrete-waveguide Meixner functions; when the sensors come closer together, these tend to the Laguerre eigenmodes of the continuous waveguide. In particular, the fractional Hankel transforms are discretized in order to define the fractional Hankel-Meixner transforms and similarly for all axis-symmetric linear optical maps. Coherent states appear in the discrete cylindrical waveguide. Covariant discretization leads to the same Wigner phase-space function for both the discrete and the continuum cases. This reinforces a Lie-theoretical model for the phase space of discrete systems. PMID:11140490

  7. Evolution of linear perturbations in spherically symmetric dust spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    February, S.; Larena, J.; Clarkson, C.; Pollney, D.

    2014-09-01

    We present results from a numerical code implementing a new method to solve the master equations describing the evolution of linear perturbations in a spherically symmetric but inhomogeneous background. This method can be used to simulate several configurations of physical interest, such as relativistic corrections to structure formation, the lensing of gravitational waves (GWs) and the evolution of perturbations in a cosmological void model. This paper focuses on the latter problem, i.e. structure formation in a Hubble scale void in the linear regime. This is considerably more complicated than linear perturbations of a homogeneous and isotropic background because the inhomogeneous background leads to coupling between density perturbations and rotational modes of the spacetime geometry, as well as GWs. Previous analyses of this problem ignored this coupling in the hope that the approximation does not affect the overall dynamics of structure formation in such models. We show that for a giga-parsec void, the evolution of the density contrast is well approximated by the previously studied decoupled evolution only for very large-scale modes. However, the evolution of the gravitational potentials within the void is inaccurate at more than the 10% level, and is even worse on small scales.

  8. Passive PT -symmetric couplers without complex optical potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yi-Chan; Liu, Jibing; Chuang, You-Lin; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu; Lee, Ray-Kuang

    2015-11-01

    In addition to the implementation of parity-time-(PT -) symmetric optical systems by carefully and actively controlling the gain and loss, we show that a 2 ×2 PT -symmetric Hamiltonian has a unitarily equivalent representation without complex optical potentials in the resulting optical coupler. Through the Naimark dilation in operator algebra, passive PT -symmetric couplers can thus be implemented with a refractive index of real values and asymmetric coupling coefficients. This opens up the possibility to implement general PT -symmetric systems with state-of-the-art asymmetric slab waveguides, dissimilar optical fibers, or cavities with chiral mirrors.

  9. Non-symmetric pincer ligands: complexes and applications in catalysis.

    PubMed

    Asay, Matthew; Morales-Morales, David

    2015-10-28

    Pincer ligands have become ubiquitous in organometallic chemistry and homogeneous catalysis. Recently, new varieties of pincer ligands with non-symmetrical backbones and/or ligating groups have been reported and their application in transition metal complexes has been exploited in a variety of catalytic transformations. This non-symmetric approach vastly increases the structural and electronic diversity of this class of ligand. This approach has proven beneficial in a variety of ways, such as the use of a single weakly coordinating moiety, which can dissociate and thereby create a vacant coordination site to increase the catalyst activity. Additionally, this provides further access to chiral ligands and complexes for asymmetric induction. This perspective highlights recent, important examples of non-symmetric pincer ligands, which feature aryl or pyridine backbones, and the synthesis and use of subsequent complexes in catalytic transformations, and discusses the future potential of this type of ligand system. PMID:26396037

  10. Model-size reduction for the non-linear dynamic analysis of quasi-symmetric structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Peters, Jeanne M.

    1987-01-01

    A numerical technique is developed to reduce the size of models describing the nonlinear dynamic response of quasi-symmetric structures (i.e., structures with unsymmetric geometry). The response vectors of the structure are approximated by a linear combination of the symmetric and antisymmetric vectors at each time step. The mathematical formulation and numerical implementation of the method are described in detail, and results for a shallow laminated anisotropic panel of quadrilateral planform are presented in graphs and normalized contour plots.

  11. Symmetric linear systems - An application of algebraic systems theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazewinkel, M.; Martin, C.

    1983-01-01

    Dynamical systems which contain several identical subsystems occur in a variety of applications ranging from command and control systems and discretization of partial differential equations, to the stability augmentation of pairs of helicopters lifting a large mass. Linear models for such systems display certain obvious symmetries. In this paper, we discuss how these symmetries can be incorporated into a mathematical model that utilizes the modern theory of algebraic systems. Such systems are inherently related to the representation theory of algebras over fields. We will show that any control scheme which respects the dynamical structure either implicitly or explicitly uses the underlying algebra.

  12. A new Krylov-subspace method for symmetric indefinite linear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Freund, R.W.; Nachtigal, N.M.

    1994-10-01

    Many important applications involve the solution of large linear systems with symmetric, but indefinite coefficient matrices. For example, such systems arise in incompressible flow computations and as subproblems in optimization algorithms for linear and nonlinear programs. Existing Krylov-subspace iterations for symmetric indefinite systems, such as SYMMLQ and MINRES, require the use of symmetric positive definite preconditioners, which is a rather unnatural restriction when the matrix itself is highly indefinite with both many positive and many negative eigenvalues. In this note, the authors describe a new Krylov-subspace iteration for solving symmetric indefinite linear systems that can be combined with arbitrary symmetric preconditioners. The algorithm can be interpreted as a special case of the quasi-minimal residual method for general non-Hermitian linear systems, and like the latter, it produces iterates defined by a quasi-minimal residual property. The proposed method has the same work and storage requirements per iteration as SYMMLQ or MINRES, however, it usually converges in considerably fewer iterations. Results of numerical experiments are reported.

  13. Spherically symmetric analysis on open FLRW solution in non-linear massive gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Chien-I; Izumi, Keisuke; Chen, Pisin E-mail: izumi@phys.ntu.edu.tw

    2012-12-01

    We study non-linear massive gravity in the spherically symmetric context. Our main motivation is to investigate the effect of helicity-0 mode which remains elusive after analysis of cosmological perturbation around an open Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) universe. The non-linear form of the effective energy-momentum tensor stemming from the mass term is derived for the spherically symmetric case. Only in the special case where the area of the two sphere is not deviated away from the FLRW universe, the effective energy momentum tensor becomes completely the same as that of cosmological constant. This opens a window for discriminating the non-linear massive gravity from general relativity (GR). Indeed, by further solving these spherically symmetric gravitational equations of motion in vacuum to the linear order, we obtain a solution which has an arbitrary time-dependent parameter. In GR, this parameter is a constant and corresponds to the mass of a star. Our result means that Birkhoff's theorem no longer holds in the non-linear massive gravity and suggests that energy can probably be emitted superluminously (with infinite speed) on the self-accelerating background by the helicity-0 mode, which could be a potential plague of this theory.

  14. Theoretical study of ignition reactions of linear symmetrical monoethers as potential diesel fuel additives: DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrouni, Karim El; Abou-Rachid, Hakima; Kaliaguine, Serge

    This work investigates the chemical reactivity of four linear symmetrical monoethers with molecular oxygen. Such oxygenated compounds may be considered as potential diesel fuel additives in order to reduce the ignition delay in diesel fuel engines. For this purpose, a kinetic study is proposed to clarify the relation between the molecular structure of the fuel molecule and its ignition properties. To this end, DFT calculations were performed for these reactions using B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) and BH&HLYP/6-311G(d,p) to determine structures, energies, and vibrational frequencies of stationary points as well as activated complexes involved in each gas-phase combustion initiation reaction of the monoethers CH3OCH3, C2H5OC2H5, C3H7OC3H7, or C4H9OC4H9 with molecular oxygen. This theoretical kinetic study was carried out using electronic structure results and the transition state theory, to assess the rate constants for all studied combustion reactions. As it has been shown in our previous work [Abou-Rachid et al., J Mol Struct (Theochem) 2003, 621, 293], the cetane number (CN) of a pure organic molecule depends on the initiation rate of its homogeneous gas-phase reaction with molecular oxygen. Indeed, the calculated initiation rate constants of the H-abstraction process of linear monoethers with O2 show a very good correlation with experimental CN data of these pure compounds at T D 1,000 K. This temperature is representative of the operating conditions of a diesel fuel engine.0

  15. Generation of Symmetric Dicke States of Remote Qubits with Linear Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Thiel, C.; Zanthier, J. von; Bastin, T.; Solano, E.; Agarwal, G. S.

    2007-11-09

    We propose a method for generating all symmetric Dicke states, either in the long-lived internal levels of N massive particles or in the polarization degrees of freedom of photonic qubits, using linear optical tools only. By means of a suitable multiphoton detection technique, erasing Welcher-Weg information, our proposed scheme allows the generation and measurement of an important class of entangled multiqubit states.

  16. Observation of Bloch oscillations in complex PT-symmetric photonic lattices

    PubMed Central

    Wimmer, Martin; Miri, Mohammed-Ali; Christodoulides, Demetrios; Peschel, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Light propagation in periodic environments is often associated with a number of interesting and potentially useful processes. If a crystalline optical potential is also linearly ramped, light can undergo periodic Bloch oscillations, a direct outcome of localized Wannier-Stark states and their equidistant eigenvalue spectrum. Even though these effects have been extensively explored in conservative settings, this is by no means the case in non-Hermitian photonic lattices encompassing both amplification and attenuation. Quite recently, Bloch oscillations have been predicted in parity-time-symmetric structures involving gain and loss in a balanced fashion. While in a complex bulk medium, one intuitively expects that light will typically follow the path of highest amplification, in a periodic system this behavior can be substantially altered by the underlying band structure. Here, we report the first experimental observation of Bloch oscillations in parity-time-symmetric mesh lattices. We show that these revivals exhibit unusual properties like secondary emissions and resonant restoration of PT symmetry. In addition, we present a versatile method for reconstructing the real and imaginary components of the band structure by directly monitoring the light evolution during a cycle of these oscillations. PMID:26639941

  17. Observation of Bloch oscillations in complex PT-symmetric photonic lattices.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, Martin; Miri, Mohammed-Ali; Christodoulides, Demetrios; Peschel, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Light propagation in periodic environments is often associated with a number of interesting and potentially useful processes. If a crystalline optical potential is also linearly ramped, light can undergo periodic Bloch oscillations, a direct outcome of localized Wannier-Stark states and their equidistant eigenvalue spectrum. Even though these effects have been extensively explored in conservative settings, this is by no means the case in non-Hermitian photonic lattices encompassing both amplification and attenuation. Quite recently, Bloch oscillations have been predicted in parity-time-symmetric structures involving gain and loss in a balanced fashion. While in a complex bulk medium, one intuitively expects that light will typically follow the path of highest amplification, in a periodic system this behavior can be substantially altered by the underlying band structure. Here, we report the first experimental observation of Bloch oscillations in parity-time-symmetric mesh lattices. We show that these revivals exhibit unusual properties like secondary emissions and resonant restoration of PT symmetry. In addition, we present a versatile method for reconstructing the real and imaginary components of the band structure by directly monitoring the light evolution during a cycle of these oscillations. PMID:26639941

  18. Observation of Bloch oscillations in complex PT-symmetric photonic lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wimmer, Martin; Miri, Mohammed-Ali; Christodoulides, Demetrios; Peschel, Ulf

    2015-12-01

    Light propagation in periodic environments is often associated with a number of interesting and potentially useful processes. If a crystalline optical potential is also linearly ramped, light can undergo periodic Bloch oscillations, a direct outcome of localized Wannier-Stark states and their equidistant eigenvalue spectrum. Even though these effects have been extensively explored in conservative settings, this is by no means the case in non-Hermitian photonic lattices encompassing both amplification and attenuation. Quite recently, Bloch oscillations have been predicted in parity-time-symmetric structures involving gain and loss in a balanced fashion. While in a complex bulk medium, one intuitively expects that light will typically follow the path of highest amplification, in a periodic system this behavior can be substantially altered by the underlying band structure. Here, we report the first experimental observation of Bloch oscillations in parity-time-symmetric mesh lattices. We show that these revivals exhibit unusual properties like secondary emissions and resonant restoration of PT symmetry. In addition, we present a versatile method for reconstructing the real and imaginary components of the band structure by directly monitoring the light evolution during a cycle of these oscillations.

  19. Buckling Behavior of Long Symmetrically Laminated Plates Subjected to Shear and Linearly Varying Axial Edge Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Michael P.

    1997-01-01

    A parametric study of the buckling behavior of infinitely long symmetrically laminated anisotropic plates that are subjected to linearly varying edge loads, uniform shear loads, or combinations of these loads is presented. The study focuses on the effects of the shape of linearly varying edge load distribution, plate orthotropy, and plate flexural anisotropy on plate buckling behavior. In addition, the study exmines the interaction of linearly varying edge loads and uniform shear loads with plate flexural anisotropy and orthotropy. Results obtained by using a special purpose nondimensional analysis that is well suited for parametric studies of clamped and simply supported plates are presented for [+/- theta](sub s), thin graphite-epoxy laminates that are representative of spacecraft structural components. Also, numerous generic buckling-design charts are presented for a wide range of nondimensional parameters that are applicable to a broad class of laminate constructions. These charts show explicitly the effects of flexural orthotropy and flexural anisotropy on plate buckling behavior for linearly varying edge loads, uniform shear loads, or combinations of these loads. The most important finding of the present study is that specially orthotropic and flexurally anisotropic plates that are subjected to an axial edge load distribution that is tension dominated can support shear loads that are larger in magnitude than the shear buckling load.

  20. Conformal geometry of symmetric spaces and generalized linear-fractional maps of Krein-Shmul'yan

    SciTech Connect

    Neretin, Yu A

    1999-02-28

    The matrix balls B{sub p,q} consisting of pxq-matrices of norm <1 over C are considered. These balls are one possible realization of the symmetric spaces B{sub p,q}=U(p,q)/U(p)xU(q). Generalized linear-fractional maps are maps B{sub p,q}{yields}B{sub r,s} of the form Z{yields}K+LZ(1-NZ){sup -1} (they are in general neither injective nor surjective). Characterizations of generalized linear-fractional maps in the spirit of the 'fundamental theorem of projective geometry' are obtained: for a certain family of submanifolds of B{sub p,q} ('quasilines') it is shown that maps taking quasilines to quasilines are generalized linear-fractional. In addition, for the standard field of cones on B{sub p,q} (described by the inequality rkdZ{<=}1) it is shown that maps taking cones to cones are generalized linear-fractional.

  1. Symmetric and asymmetric solitons in linearly coupled Bose-Einstein condensates trapped in optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Gubeskys, Arthur; Malomed, Boris A.

    2007-06-15

    We study spontaneous symmetry breaking in a system of two parallel quasi-one-dimensional traps (cores), equipped with optical lattices (OLs) and filled with a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). The cores are linearly coupled by tunneling (the model may also be interpreted in terms of spatial solitons in parallel planar optical waveguides with a periodic modulation of the refractive index). Analysis of the corresponding system of linearly coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations (GPEs) reveals that spectral band gaps of the single GPE split into subgaps. Symmetry breaking in two-component BEC solitons is studied in cases of the attractive (AA) and repulsive (RR) nonlinearity in both traps; the mixed situation, with repulsion in one trap and attraction in the other (RA), is considered too. In all the cases, stable asymmetric solitons are found, bifurcating from symmetric or antisymmetric ones (and destabilizing them), in the AA and RR systems, respectively. In either case, bistability is predicted, with a nonbifurcating stable branch, either antisymmetric or symmetric, coexisting with asymmetric ones. Solitons destabilized by the bifurcation tend to rearrange themselves into their stable asymmetric counterparts. In addition to the fundamental solitons, branches of twisted (odd) solitons in the AA system, and twisted bound states of fundamental solitons in both AA and RR systems, are found too. The impact of a phase mismatch, {delta}, between the OLs in the two cores is also studied. It is concluded that {delta}={pi}/2 only mildly deforms the picture, while {delta}={pi} changes it drastically, replacing the symmetry-breaking bifurcations by pseudobifurcations, with the branch of asymmetric solutions asymptotically approaching its symmetric or antisymmetric counterpart (in the AA and RR system, respectively), rather than splitting off from it. Also considered is a related model, for a binary BEC in a single-core trap with the OL, assuming that the two species (representing different spin states of the same atom) are coupled by linear interconversion. In that case, the symmetry-breaking bifurcations in the AA and RR models switch their character, if the interspecies nonlinear interaction becomes stronger than the intraspecies nonlinearity.

  2. An efficient EM-ICP algorithm for symmetric consistent non-linear registration of point sets

    PubMed Central

    Combs, Benoit; Prima, Sylvain

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new algorithm for non-linear registration of point sets. We estimate both forward and backward deformations fields best superposing the two point sets of interest and we make sure that they are consistent with each other by designing a symmetric cost function where they are coupled. Regularisation terms are included in this cost function to enforce deformation smoothness. Then we present a two-step iterative algorithm to optimise this cost function, where the two fields and the fuzzy matches between the two sets are estimated in turn. Building regularisers using the RKHS theory allows to obtain fast and efficient closed-form solutions for the optimal fields. The resulting algorithm is efficient and can deal with large point sets. PMID:20879364

  3. High-pulse-energy, linear optical parametric oscillator with narrow and symmetrical far field.

    PubMed

    Farsund, ystein; Rustad, Gunnar

    2013-08-26

    A new method to obtain a narrow and symmetrical far field from a high-pulse-energy optical parametric oscillator (OPO) with a linear resonator has been tested. The OPO employs two identical nonlinear crystals that are cut for type II phase matching, rotated such that their walk-off planes are orthogonal, and separated by a broadband half-wave plate. The OPO has a simple geometry, can be double-pass pumped, is wavelength tunable and operates stably with high conversion efficiency. The method has been demonstrated in a KTP-based OPO pumped at 1064 nm and a BBO-based OPO pumped at 532 nm, with output pulse energies up to 60 mJ and 75 mJ, respectively. PMID:24105562

  4. Spatial turning bands simulation of anisotropic non-linear models of coregionalization with symmetric cross-covariances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcotte, D.

    2016-04-01

    The turning bands method (TBM) is a commonly used method of simulation for large Gaussian fields, its O(N) complexity being unsurpassed (N denotes the number of points to simulate). TBM can be implemented either in the spatial or the spectral domains. In the multivariate anisotropic case, spatial versions of TBM are currently available only for the linear model of coregionalization (LMC). For anisotropic non-LMC with symmetrical covariances only the spectral version is currently available. The spectral domain approach can be slow in the case of non-differentiable covariances due to the numerous frequencies to sample. Here a derivation of the equations is provided for simulating the anisotropic non-LMC directly in the spatial domain and the method is illustrated with two synthetic examples. The approach allows the specification of many different direct and cross-covariance components, each with possibly different geometric anisotropies and different model types. The complexity of the new multivariate approach remains O(N). Hence, a case of two variables defining an anisotropic non-LMC is simulated over one billion points in less than one hour on a desktop computer. These results help enlarge the scope of application of the TBM. The method can be easily implemented in any existing TBM program.

  5. Collision-induced absorption in mixtures of symmetrical linear and tetrahedral molecules - Methane-nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birnbaum, G.; Borysow, A.; Buechele, A.

    1993-01-01

    The far infrared absorption of a CH4-N2 mixture was measured at 297, 195, and 162 K from 30 to 650/cm. The spectral invariants gamma1 and alpha1, proportional, respectively, to the zeroth and first spectral moments, due to bimolecular collisions between CH4 and N2 were obtained from these data and compared with theoretical values. The theory for collision-induced dipoles between a tetrahedral and a diatomic or symmetrical linear molecule includes contributions not previously considered. Whereas the theoretical values of gamma1 are only somewhat greater than experiment at all temperatures, the theoretical values of alpha1 are significantly lower than the experimental values. From the theoretical spectral moments for the various induced dipole components, the parameters of the BC shape were computed, and theoretical spectra were constructed. Good agreement was obtained at the lower frequencies, but with increasing frequencies the theoretical spectra were increasingly less intense than the experimental spectra. Although the accuracy of the theoretical results may suffer from the lack of a reliable potential function, it does not appear that this high frequency discrepancy can be removed by any conceivable modification in the potential.

  6. Accidental crossings of eigenvalues in the one-dimensional complex PT-symmetric Scarf-II potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Zafar; Ghosh, Dona; Nathan, Joseph Amal; Parkar, Gaurang

    2015-10-01

    So far, the well known two branches of real discrete spectrum of complex PT-symmetric Scarf-II potential are kept isolated. Here, we suggest that these two need to be brought together as doublets: En (?) with n = 0 , 1 , 2 . Then if strength (?) of the imaginary part of the potential is varied smoothly some pairs of real eigenvalue curves can intersect and cross each other at ? =?*; this is unlike one-dimensional Hermitian potentials. However, we show that the corresponding eigenstates at ? =?* are identical or linearly dependent denying degeneracy in one dimension, once again. Other pairs of eigenvalue curves coalesce to complex-conjugate pairs completing the scenario of spontaneous breaking of PT-symmetry at ? =?c. To re-emphasize, sharply at ? =?* and ?c, two real eigenvalues coincide, nevertheless their corresponding eigenfunctions become identical or linearly dependent and the Hamiltonian looses diagonalizability.

  7. Linear stability of spherically symmetric and wormhole solutions supported by the sine-Gordon ghost scalar field

    SciTech Connect

    Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir; Folomeev, Vladimir; Singleton, Douglas; Myrzakulov, Ratbay

    2010-08-15

    In this paper we investigate wormhole and spherically symmetric solutions in four-dimensional gravity plus a matter source consisting of a ghost scalar field with a sine-Gordon potential. For the wormhole solutions we also include the possibility of electric and/or magnetic charges. For both types of solutions we perform a linear stability analysis and show that the wormhole solutions are stable and that when one turns on the electric and/or magnetic field the solution remains stable. The linear stability analysis of the spherically symmetric solutions indicates that they can be stable or unstable depending on one of the parameters of the system. This result for the spherically symmetric solution is nontrivial since a previous investigation of four-dimensional gravity plus a ghost scalar field with a {lambda}{phi}{sup 4} interaction found only unstable spherically symmetric solutions. Both the wormhole and spherically symmetric solutions presented here asymptotically go to anti-de Sitter space-time.

  8. Electric field effect on the linear and nonlinear intersubband refractive index changes in asymmetrical semiparabolic and symmetrical parabolic quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li

    2005-04-01

    By using the displacement harmonic variant method and the compact density matrix approach, the linear and nonlinear intersubband refractive index changes (RICs) in a semiparabolic quantum well (QW) with applied electric field have been investigated in detail. The simple analytical formulae for the linear and nonlinear RICs in the system were also deduced. The symmetrical parabolic QWs with applied electric fields were taken into account for comparison. Numerical calculations on typical GaAs QWs were performed. The dependence of the linear and nonlinear RICs on the incident optical intensity, the frequencies of the confined potential of the QWs and the strength of the applied electric field were discussed. Results reveal that the RICs in the semiparabolic quantum well system sensitively depend on these factors. The calculation also shows that the semiparabolic QW is a more ideal nonlinear optical system relative to the symmetric parabolic QW systems.

  9. Preconditioning the bidomain model with almost linear complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The bidomain model is widely used in electro-cardiology to simulate spreading of excitation in the myocardium and electrocardiograms. It consists of a system of two parabolic reaction diffusion equations coupled with an ODE system. Its discretisation displays an ill-conditioned system matrix to be inverted at each time step: simulations based on the bidomain model therefore are associated with high computational costs. In this paper we propose a preconditioning for the bidomain model either for an isolated heart or in an extended framework including a coupling with the surrounding tissues (the torso). The preconditioning is based on a formulation of the discrete problem that is shown to be symmetric positive semi-definite. A block LU decomposition of the system together with a heuristic approximation (referred to as the monodomain approximation) are the key ingredients for the preconditioning definition. Numerical results are provided for two test cases: a 2D test case on a realistic slice of the thorax based on a segmented heart medical image geometry, a 3D test case involving a small cubic slab of tissue with orthotropic anisotropy. The analysis of the resulting computational cost (both in terms of CPU time and of iteration number) shows an almost linear complexity with the problem size, i.e. of type nlog α( n) (for some constant α) which is optimal complexity for such problems.

  10. A Family of Symmetric Linear Multistep Methods for the Numerical Solution of the Schroedinger Equation and Related Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Anastassi, Z. A.; Simos, T. E.

    2010-09-30

    We develop a new family of explicit symmetric linear multistep methods for the efficient numerical solution of the Schroedinger equation and related problems with oscillatory solution. The new methods are trigonometrically fitted and have improved intervals of periodicity as compared to the corresponding classical method with constant coefficients and other methods from the literature. We also apply the methods along with other known methods to real periodic problems, in order to measure their efficiency.

  11. Symmetrized complex amplitudes for He double photoionization from the time-dependent close coupling and exterior complex scaling methods

    SciTech Connect

    Horner, D.A.; Colgan, J.; Martin, F.; McCurdy, C.W.; Pindzola, M.S.; Rescigno, T.N.

    2004-06-01

    Symmetrized complex amplitudes for the double photoionization of helium are computed by the time-dependent close-coupling and exterior complex scaling methods, and it is demonstrated that both methods are capable of the direct calculation of these amplitudes. The results are found to be in excellent agreement with each other and in very good agreement with results of other ab initio methods and experiment.

  12. Krylov subspace methods for complex non-Hermitian linear systems. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Roland W.

    1991-01-01

    We consider Krylov subspace methods for the solution of large sparse linear systems Ax = b with complex non-Hermitian coefficient matrices. Such linear systems arise in important applications, such as inverse scattering, numerical solution of time-dependent Schrodinger equations, underwater acoustics, eddy current computations, numerical computations in quantum chromodynamics, and numerical conformal mapping. Typically, the resulting coefficient matrices A exhibit special structures, such as complex symmetry, or they are shifted Hermitian matrices. In this paper, we first describe a Krylov subspace approach with iterates defined by a quasi-minimal residual property, the QMR method, for solving general complex non-Hermitian linear systems. Then, we study special Krylov subspace methods designed for the two families of complex symmetric respectively shifted Hermitian linear systems. We also include some results concerning the obvious approach to general complex linear systems by solving equivalent real linear systems for the real and imaginary parts of x. Finally, numerical experiments for linear systems arising from the complex Helmholtz equation are reported.

  13. Transparency of the complex PT-symmetric potentials for coherent injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Zafar; Nathan, Joseph Amal; Ghosh, Dona

    2016-02-01

    Two port s-matrix for a complex PT-symmetric potential may have uni-modular eigenvalues. If this happens for all energies, there occurs a perfect emission of waves at both ends. We call this phenomenon transparency which is distinctly different from coherent perfect absorption with or without lasing. Using the versatile PT-symmetric complex Scarf II (scattering) potential, we demonstrate analytically that the transparency can occur regardless of whether PT-symmetry is unbroken or broken or if there are only scattering states. In these three cases, for a given value of the strength of the real part, the strength of the imaginary part |V2 | of the potential lies in (0 ,Vα) , (Vα ,Vβ) and (0 ,Vβ) respectively. Several other numerically solved potentials also support our findings.

  14. General theory of spherically symmetric boundary-value problems of the linear transport theory.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanal, M.

    1972-01-01

    A general theory of spherically symmetric boundary-value problems of the one-speed neutron transport theory is presented. The formulation is also applicable to the 'gray' problems of radiative transfer. The Green's function for the purely absorbing medium is utilized in obtaining the normal mode expansion of the angular densities for both interior and exterior problems. As the integral equations for unknown coefficients are regular, a general class of reduction operators is introduced to reduce such regular integral equations to singular ones with a Cauchy-type kernel. Such operators then permit one to solve the singular integral equations by the standard techniques due to Muskhelishvili. We discuss several spherically symmetric problems. However, the treatment is kept sufficiently general to deal with problems lacking azimuthal symmetry. In particular the procedure seems to work for regions whose boundary coincides with one of the coordinate surfaces for which the Helmholtz equation is separable.

  15. Single-molecule Observation of Protein Folding in Symmetric GroEL-(GroES)2 Complexes*

    PubMed Central

    Takei, Yodai; Iizuka, Ryo; Ueno, Taro; Funatsu, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    The chaperonin, GroEL, is an essential molecular chaperone that mediates protein folding together with its cofactor, GroES, in Escherichia coli. It is widely believed that the two rings of GroEL alternate between the folding active state coupled to GroES binding during the reaction cycle. In other words, an asymmetric GroEL-GroES complex (the bullet-shaped complex) is formed throughout the cycle, whereas a symmetric GroEL-(GroES)2 complex (the football-shaped complex) is not formed. We have recently shown that the football-shaped complex coexists with the bullet-shaped complex during the reaction cycle. However, how protein folding proceeds in the football-shaped complex remains poorly understood. Here, we used GFP as a substrate to visualize protein folding in the football-shaped complex by single-molecule fluorescence techniques. We directly showed that GFP folding occurs in both rings of the football-shaped complex. Remarkably, the folding was a sequential two-step reaction, and the kinetics were in excellent agreement with those in the bullet-shaped complex. These results demonstrate that the same reactions take place independently in both rings of the football-shaped complex to facilitate protein folding. PMID:23048033

  16. Slice-selective J-coupled coherence transfer using symmetric linear phase pulses: applications to localized GABA spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jun

    2003-07-01

    Symmetric, linear phase, slice-selective RF pulses were analyzed theoretically for performing slice-selective coherence transfer. It was shown using numerical simulations of product operators that, when a prefocusing gradient of the same area as that of the refocusing gradient is added, these pulses become slice-selective universal rotator pulses, therefore, capable of performing slice-selective coherence transfer. As an example, a slice-selective universal rotator pulse based on a seven-lobe hamming-filtered sinc pulse was applied to in vivo single-shot simultaneous spectral editing and spatial localization of neurotransmitter GABA in the human brain.

  17. Structural tailoring effects on the magnetic behavior of symmetric and asymmetric cubane-type Ni complexes.

    PubMed

    Ponomaryov, Alexey N; Kim, Namseok; Hwang, Jaewon; Nojiri, Hiroyuki; van Tol, Johan; Ozarowski, Andrew; Park, Jena; Jang, Zeehoon; Suh, Byoungjin; Yoon, Sungho; Choi, Kwang-Yong

    2013-06-01

    Using two kinds of carboxylate ligands with small but significant differences in steric size, symmetric and asymmetric Fe(II) and Ni(II) cubanes have been synthesized in a controlled fashion. Fast sweeping pulsed field measurements showed magnetization hysteresis loops for two cubane-type molecular complexes, [Ni4(?-OMe)4(O2CAr(4F-Ph))4(HOMe)8] and [Ni4(?-OMe)4(O2CAr(Tol))4(HOMe)6], thus suggesting single-molecule magnet behavior. To differentiate the magnetic properties between the symmetric and asymmetric cubanes, detailed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements were performed. From the EPR data, taken at various frequencies and temperatures, zero-field splitting parameters D, E, and other higher-order parameters for both cubane samples were extracted. Compared to the symmetric Ni-cubane, the asymmetric one shows an increase in the D and E values by about 20%, thereby suggesting structural engineering effects on the magnetic properties. By using the magnetic parameters determined by EPR, a static magnetization curve at 2?K and a temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility were simulated. A good agreement between theoretical and experimental data confirms the validity of the values obtained from EPR measurements. PMID:23509044

  18. A Symmetrical Tetramer for S. aureus Pyruvate Carboxylase in Complex with Coenzyme A

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, L.; Xiang, S; Lasso, G; Gil, D; Valle, M; Tong, L

    2009-01-01

    Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) is a conserved metabolic enzyme with important cellular functions. We report crystallographic and cryo-electron microscopy (EM) studies of Staphylococcus aureus PC (SaPC) in complex with acetyl-CoA, an allosteric activator, and mutagenesis, biochemical, and structural studies of the biotin binding site of its carboxyltransferase (CT) domain. The disease-causing A610T mutation abolishes catalytic activity by blocking biotin binding to the CT active site, and Thr908 might play a catalytic role in the CT reaction. The crystal structure of SaPC in complex with CoA reveals a symmetrical tetramer, with one CoA molecule bound to each monomer, and cryo-EM studies confirm the symmetrical nature of the tetramer. These observations are in sharp contrast to the highly asymmetrical tetramer of Rhizobium etli PC in complex with ethyl-CoA. Our structural information suggests that acetyl-CoA promotes a conformation for the dimer of the biotin carboxylase domain of PC that might be catalytically more competent.

  19. Non-linear resonances in the forced responses of plates. I - Symmetric responses of circular plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, S.; Mook, D. T.; Nayfeh, A. H.

    1975-01-01

    The dynamic analogue of the von Karman equations is used to study the symmetric response of a circular plate to a harmonic excitation when the frequency of the excitation is near one of the natural frequencies. It is shown that, in general, when there is no internal resonance (i.e., the natural frequencies are not commensurable), only the mode having a frequency near that of the excitation is strongly excited (i.e., is needed to represent the response in the first approximation). A clamped, circular plate is used as a numerical example to show that, when there is an internal resonance, more than one of the modes involved in this resonance can be strongly excited; moreover, when more than one mode is strongly excited, the lower modes can dominate the response, even when the frequency of the excitation is near that of the highest mode. This possibility was not revealed by any of the earlier studies which were based on the same governing equations.

  20. Reducing the complexity of perturbation based nonlinearity pre-compensation using symmetric EDC and pulse shaping.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ying; Cartledge, John C; Karar, Abdullah S; Yam, Scott S-H; O'Sullivan, Maurice; Laperle, Charles; Borowiec, Andrzej; Roberts, Kim

    2014-01-27

    Perturbation based nonlinearity pre-compensation has been performed for a 128 Gbit/s single-carrier dual-polarization 16-ary quadrature-amplitude-modulation (DP 16-QAM) signal. Without any performance degradation, a complexity reduction factor of 6.8 has been demonstrated for a transmission distance of 3600 km by combining symmetric electronic dispersion compensation and root-raised-cosine pulse shaping with a roll-off factor of 0.1. Transmission over 4200 km of standard single-mode fiber with EDFA amplification was achieved for the 128 Gbit/s DP 16-QAM signals with a forward error correction (FEC) threshold of 2 10(-2). PMID:24515126

  1. Tricarbonylrhenium(I) complexes of highly symmetric hexaazatrinaphthylene ligands (HATN): structural, electrochemical and spectroscopic properties.

    PubMed

    Roy, Sayak; Kubiak, Clifford P

    2010-12-01

    The new mononuclear and dinuclear tricarbonylrhenium(I) complexes [(HATN)Re(CO)(3)Cl] (1-Cl) and [(?-Me(6)-HATN)[Re(CO)(3)Cl](2)] (2-Cl(2)) of highly symmetric ligands HATN and Me(6)-HATN were synthesized and structurally characterized. X-Ray crystal structures reveal identical strained aromatic systems and out of the plane fac-Re(CO)(3)Cl units for both complexes. The packing geometry in the unit cell of 1 suggests intermolecular ?-? association. Infrared spectroelectrochemistry (SEC) experiments confirmed ligand-based reductions. To get more insight into the reduction mechanism the triflate salts, [(HATN)Re(CO)(3)](OTf) (1-OTf) and [(?-Me(6)HATN){Re(CO)(3)}(2)](OTf)(2) (2-OTf(2)), were synthesized. Their electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical behavior also exhibits reduction of the aromatic systems. The electronic absorption spectral features of the one electron reduced species were studied by UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy, which shows a broad shoulder at 1500 nm, confirming intra-ligand charge transfer (ILCT). Density functional theory (DFT) calculations on the complexes 1-Cl and 2-Cl(2) for structural optimization show good agreement with experimental bond lengths and bond angles. The spin density plot shows a metal based HOMO and HATN ligand centered LUMO. PMID:20957262

  2. Chaperonin-Assisted Protein Folding: Relative Population of Asymmetric and Symmetric GroEL:GroES Complexes.

    PubMed

    Haldar, Shubhasis; Gupta, Amit J; Yan, Xiao; Mili?i?, Goran; Hartl, F Ulrich; Hayer-Hartl, Manajit

    2015-06-19

    The chaperonin GroEL, a cylindrical complex consisting of two stacked heptameric rings, and its lid-like cofactor GroES form a nano-cage in which a single polypeptide chain is transiently enclosed and allowed to fold unimpaired by aggregation. GroEL and GroES undergo an ATP-regulated interaction cycle that serves to close and open the folding cage. Recent reports suggest that the presence of non-native substrate protein alters the GroEL/ES reaction by shifting it from asymmetric to symmetric complexes. In the asymmetric reaction mode, only one ring of GroEL is GroES bound and the two rings function sequentially, coupled by negative allostery. In the symmetric mode, both GroEL rings are GroES bound and are folding active simultaneously. Here, we find that the results of assays based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer recently used to quantify symmetric complexes depend strongly on the fluorophore pair used. We therefore developed a novel assay based on fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy to accurately measure GroEL:GroES stoichiometry. This assay avoids fluorophore labeling of GroEL and the use of GroEL cysteine mutants. Our results show that symmetric GroEL:GroES2 complexes are substantially populated only in the presence of non-foldable model proteins, such as ?-lactalbumin and ?-casein, which "over-stimulate" the GroEL ATPase and uncouple the negative GroEL inter-ring allostery. In contrast, asymmetric complexes are dominant both in the absence of substrate and in the presence of foldable substrate proteins. Moreover, uncoupling of the GroEL rings and formation of symmetric GroEL:GroES2 complexes is suppressed at physiological ATP:ADP concentration. We conclude that the asymmetric GroEL:GroES complex represents the main folding active form of the chaperonin. PMID:25912285

  3. Influence of composition fluctuations on the linear viscoelastic properties of symmetric diblock copolymers near the order-disorder transition

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, Robert J.; Gillard, Timothy M.; Lodge, Timothy P.; Bates, Frank S.

    2015-08-28

    Rheological evidence of composition fluctuations in disordered diblock copolymers near the order disorder transition (ODT) has been documented in the literature over the past three decades, characterized by a failure of time–temperature superposition (tTS) to reduce linear dynamic mechanical spectroscopy (DMS) data in the terminal viscoelastic regime to a temperature-independent form. However, for some materials, most notably poly(styrene-b-isoprene) (PS–PI), no signature of these rheological features has been found. We present small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) results on symmetric poly(cyclohexylethylene-b-ethylene) (PCHE–PE) diblock copolymers that confirm the presence of fluctuations in the disordered state and DMS measurements that also show no sign of the features ascribed to composition fluctuations. Assessment of DMS results published on five different diblock copolymer systems leads us to conclude that the effects of composition fluctuations can be masked by highly asymmetric block dynamics, thereby resolving a long-standing disagreement in the literature and reinforcing the importance of mechanical contrast in understanding the dynamics of ordered and disordered block polymers.

  4. Simulation of complexes between linear polyelectrolyte and charged dendrimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandav, Gunja; Ganesan, Venkat

    2014-03-01

    Complexes formed by electrostatic interactions between dendrimer having cationic terminal groups and anionic linear polyelectrolyte are studied using hybrid Monte Carlo simulations. The excluded volume interactions are modeled using a self-consistent field and the electrostatic interactions are computed by solving Poisson equation. Such framework facilitates simulating large scale three-dimensional systems. We primarily focus on the effect of dendrimer generation number, stiffness of polyelectrolyte chain and systematically study its effect on change in shape and size of complexes. Our results suggest that the dendrimer structure and charge distribution has a significant impact on the complex formation.

  5. The asymmetric solitons in two-dimensional parity-time-symmetric potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Haibo; Hu, Sumei

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the properties in two-dimensional (2D) special parity-time (PT) symmetric complex potentials. The linear case of this special 2D PT-symmetric complex potential and self-focusing nonlinear cases are discussed. For linear case, the eigenvalues and eigenfunction for different loss or gain level of the PT-symmetric complex potentials are obtained numerically. For nonlinear cases, the existence of asymmetric solitons and PT-symmetric solitons is studied in this PT symmetric system. The eigenvalue for linear case is equal to the critical propagation constant bc of existing PT-symmetric solitons. When the PT-symmetric soliton's propagation constant reaches a certain threshold bc1, a branch of asymmetric solitons can bifurcate out from the branch of PT-symmetric solitons.

  6. Solving complex-valued linear systems via equivalent real formulations

    SciTech Connect

    DAY,DAVID M.; HEROUX,MICHAEL A.

    2000-05-22

    Most algorithms used in preconditioned iterative methods are generally applicable to complex valued linear systems, with real valued linear systems simply being a special case. However, most iterative solver packages available today focus exclusively on real valued systems, or deal with complex valued systems as an afterthought. One obvious approach to addressing this problem is to recast the complex problem into one of a several equivalent real forms and then use a real valued solver to solve the related system. However, well-known theoretical results showing unfavorable spectral properties for the equivalent real forms have diminished enthusiasm for this approach. At the same time, experience has shown that there are situations where using an equivalent real form can be very effective. In this paper, the authors explore this approach, giving both theoretical and experimental evidence that an equivalent real form can be useful for a number of practical situations. Furthermore, they show that by making good use of some of the advance features of modem solver packages, they can easily generate equivalent real form preconditioners that are computationally efficient and mathematically identical to their complex counterparts. Using their techniques, they are able to solve very ill-conditioned complex valued linear systems for a variety of large scale applications. However, more importantly, they shed more light on the effectiveness of equivalent real forms and more clearly delineate how and when they should be used.

  7. Near consensus complex linear and nonlinear social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Bingo Wing-Kuen; Ho, Charlotte Yuk-Fan; Wang, Lidong; Teo, Kok-Lay; Tse, Chi K.; Dai, Qingyun

    2014-05-01

    Some of the nodes of complex social networks may support for a given proposal, while the rest of the nodes may be against the given proposal. Even though all the nodes support for or are against the given proposal, the decision certitudes of individual nodes may be different. In this case, the steady state values of the decision certitudes of the majority of the nodes are either higher than or lower than a threshold value. Deriving the near consensus property is a key to the analysis of the behaviors of complex social networks. So far, no result on the behaviors of the complex social networks satisfying the near consensus property has been reported. Hence, it is useful to extend the definition of the exact consensus property to that of a near consensus property and investigate the behaviors of the complex social networks satisfying the near consensus property. This paper extends the definition of exact consensus complex social networks to that of near consensus complex social networks. For complex linear social networks, this paper investigates the relationships among the vectors representing the steady state values of the decision certitudes of the nodes, the influence weight matrix and the set of vectors representing the initial state values of the decision certitudes of the nodes under a given near consensus specification. The above analysis is based on the Eigen theory. For complex nonlinear social networks with certain types of nonlinearities, the relationship between the influence weight matrix and the vectors representing the steady state values of the decision certitudes of the nodes is studied. When a complex nonlinear social network does not achieve the exact consensus property, the optimal near consensus condition that the complex social network can achieve is derived. This problem is formulated as an optimization problem. The total number of nodes that the decision certitudes of the nodes are either higher than or lower than a threshold value is maximized subject to the corresponding near consensus specification. The optimization problem is a nonsmooth optimization problem. The nonsmooth constraints are first approximated by smooth constraints. Then, the approximated optimization problem is solved via a conventional smooth optimization approach. Computer numerical simulation results as well as the comparisons of the behaviors of complex nonlinear social networks to those of the complex linear social networks are presented. The obtained results demonstrate that some complex social networks can satisfy the near consensus property but not the exact consensus property. Also, the conditions for the near consensus property are dependent on the types of nonlinearities, the influence weight matrix and the vectors representing the initial state values of the decision certitudes of the nodes.

  8. A ubiquitin ligase complex assembles linear polyubiquitin chains

    PubMed Central

    Kirisako, Takayoshi; Kamei, Kiyoko; Murata, Shigeo; Kato, Michiko; Fukumoto, Hiromi; Kanie, Masato; Sano, Soichi; Tokunaga, Fuminori; Tanaka, Keiji; Iwai, Kazuhiro

    2006-01-01

    The ubiquitin system plays important roles in the regulation of numerous cellular processes by conjugating ubiquitin to target proteins. In most cases, conjugation of polyubiquitin to target proteins regulates their function. In the polyubiquitin chains reported to date, ubiquitin monomers are linked via isopeptide bonds between an internal Lys and a C-terminal Gly. Here, we report that a protein complex consisting of two RING finger proteins, HOIL-1L and HOIP, exhibits ubiquitin polymerization activity by recognizing ubiquitin moieties of proteins. The polyubiquitin chain generated by the complex is not formed by Lys linkages, but by linkages between the C- and N-termini of ubiquitin, indicating that the ligase complex possesses a unique feature to assemble a novel head-to-tail linear polyubiquitin chain. Moreover, the complex regulates the stability of Ub-GFP (a GFP fusion protein with an N-terminal ubiquitin). The linear polyubiquitin chain generated post-translationally may function as a new modulator of proteins. PMID:17006537

  9. Trellis complexity bounds for decoding linear block codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiely, A. B.; Dolinar, S.; Ekroot, L.; Mceliece, R. J.; Lin, W.

    1995-01-01

    We consider the problem of finding a trellis for a linear block code that minimizes one or more measures of trellis complexity. The domain of optimization may be different permutations of the same code or different codes with the same parameters. Constraints on trellises, including relationships between the minimal trellis of a code and that of the dual code, are used to derive bounds on complexity. We define a partial ordering on trellises: If a trellis is optimum with respect to this partial ordering, if has the desirable property that it simultaneously minimizes all of the complexity measures examined. We examine properties of such optimal trellises and give examples of optimal permutations of codes, most notably the (48,24,12) quadratic residue code.

  10. A new four-dimensional potential energy surface of the Ar-CS2 complex: Dependence on the symmetric and antisymmetric stretching vibrations of CS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Jing; Yuan, Ting; Zhu, Hua

    2016-03-01

    A high quality four-dimensional intermolecular PES for Ar-CS2 involving the Q1 and Q3 normal modes for the ν1 symmetric stretching vibration and ν3 antisymmetric stretching vibration of CS2 is presented. Two vibrationally averaged potentials with CS2 at the vibrational ground and ν1 + ν3 excited states are generated from the four-dimensional potential. Each potential has a T-shaped global minimum and two equivalent linear minima. The radial DVR/angular FBR method and the Lanczos algorithm are applied to calculate the rovibrational energy levels and bound states. The predicted band origin shift of the complex is -0.0495 cm-1. The spectroscopic parameters are also predicted.

  11. Complex linear effective theory and supersymmetry breaking vacua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farakos, Fotis; von Unge, Rikard

    2015-02-01

    We calculate the low-energy effective action of massless and massive complex linear superfields coupled to a massive U(1) vector multiplet. Our calculations include superspace higher-derivative corrections and therefore go beyond previous results. Among the superspace higher derivatives, we find that terms that lead to a deformation of the auxiliary field potential and may break supersymmetry are also generated. We show that the supersymmetry breaking vacua can only be trusted if there exists a hierarchy between the higher-order terms. A renormalization group analysis shows that generically a hierarchy is not generated by the quantum corrections.

  12. A 2.5 mW 370 mV/pF high linearity stray-immune symmetrical readout circuit for capacitive sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaimin, Zhou; Ziqiang, Wang; Chun, Zhang; Zhihua, Wang

    2012-06-01

    A stray-insensitive symmetrical capacitance-to-voltage converter for capacitive sensors is presented. By introducing a reference branch, a symmetrical readout circuit is realized. The linear input range is increased, and the systematic offsets of two input op-amps are cancelled. The common-mode noise and even-order distortion are also rejected. A chopper stabilization technique is adopted to further reduce the offset and flicker noise of the op-amps, and a Verilog-A-based varactor is used to model the real variable sensing capacitor. Simulation results show that the output voltage of this proposed readout circuit responds correctly, while the under-test capacitance changes with a frequency of 1 kHz. A metal-insulator-metal capacitor array is designed on chip for measurement, and the measurement results show that this circuit achieves sensitivity of 370 mV/pF, linearity error below 1% and power consumption as low as 2.5 mW. This symmetrical readout circuit can respond to an FPGA controlled sensing capacitor array changed every 1 ms.

  13. Simple Linear Inverse for Complex Sources in Early Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakus, G.; Heaton, T. H.

    2012-12-01

    In this project we aim to determine a foreshock/mainshock pair in real time. That is, we are trying to determine the timing and amplitudes of events in a complex sequence (e.g. foreshock/mainshock pair) in an ongoing earthquake. We are assuming random phase in seismograms so that energy envelopes add linearly which provides the opportunity to pose the problem as a linear least squares inverse problem. We are working on a methodology to solve the least squares problem in real time. The advantage is that the inverse problem can be regularized (unlike traditional deconvolution). We parameterize earthquakes as moments in time windows. Then the problem becomes linear as the determination of the amplitude of the moment in each time window. We first construct the Green's functions for the energy envelopes derived from the predicted envelopes of channels of ground motion of the Virtual Seismologist (VS) (Cua, G. and Heaton, T. 2007). Then, these Green's functions are deconvolved (in a generalized way) from the energy envelopes of seismic records using a damped least-squares inversion in order to determine the amplitude of the moment in each time window. There is a positivity constraint that the amplitude of the moments be positive everywhere. Because the VS predicted envelopes are defined for earthquakes of magnitude 6.5 and below, this technique is not used for very large events.

  14. Evaluation of out-of-core computer programs for the solution of symmetric banded linear equations. [simultaneous equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, R. S.

    1976-01-01

    FORTRAN coded out-of-core equation solvers that solve using direct methods symmetric banded systems of simultaneous algebraic equations. Banded, frontal and column (skyline) solvers were studied as well as solvers that can partition the working area and thus could fit into any available core. Comparison timings are presented for several typical two dimensional and three dimensional continuum type grids of elements with and without midside nodes. Extensive conclusions are also given.

  15. On complexity of trellis structure of linear block codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Shu

    1990-01-01

    The trellis structure of linear block codes (LBCs) is discussed. The state and branch complexities of a trellis diagram (TD) for a LBC is investigated. The TD with the minimum number of states is said to be minimal. The branch complexity of a minimal TD for a LBC is expressed in terms of the dimensions of specific subcodes of the given code. Then upper and lower bounds are derived on the number of states of a minimal TD for a LBC, and it is shown that a cyclic (or shortened cyclic) code is the worst in terms of the state complexity among the LBCs of the same length and dimension. Furthermore, it is shown that the structural complexity of a minimal TD for a LBC depends on the order of its bit positions. This fact suggests that an appropriate permutation of the bit positions of a code may result in an equivalent code with a much simpler minimal TD. Boolean polynomial representation of codewords of a LBC is also considered. This representation helps in study of the trellis structure of the code. Boolean polynomial representation of a code is applied to construct its minimal TD. Particularly, the construction of minimal trellises for Reed-Muller codes and the extended and permuted binary primitive BCH codes which contain Reed-Muller as subcodes is emphasized. Finally, the structural complexity of minimal trellises for the extended and permuted, and double-error-correcting BCH codes is analyzed and presented. It is shown that these codes have relatively simple trellis structure and hence can be decoded with the Viterbi decoding algorithm.

  16. A C2-symmetric, basic Fe(III) carboxylate complex derived from a novel triptycene-based chelating carboxylate ligand.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Wilson, Justin J; Do, Loi H; Apfel, Ulf-Peter; Lippard, Stephen J

    2012-08-21

    A triptycene-based bis(benzoxazole) diacid ligand H(2)L2(Ph4) bearing sterically encumbering groups was synthesized. Treatment of H(2)L2(Ph4) with Fe(OTf)(3) afforded a C(2)-symmetric trinuclear iron(III) complex, [NaFe(3)(L2(Ph4))(2)(?(3)-O)(?-O(2)CCPh(3))(2)(H(2)O)(3)](OTf)(2) (8). The triiron core of this complex adopts the well known "basic iron acetate" structure where the heteroleptic carboxylates, comprising two Ph(3)CCO(2)(-) and two (L2(Ph4))(2-) ligands, donate the six carboxylate bridges. The (L2(Ph4))(2-) ligand undergoes only minor conformational changes upon formation of the complex. PMID:22751622

  17. Symmetric bi-pyridyl banana-shaped molecule and its intermolecular hydrogen bonding liquid-crystalline complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Dan; Hou, Qiufei; Chai, Jia; Ye, Ling; Zhao, Liyan; Li, Min; Jiang, Shimei

    2008-11-01

    A new symmetric bi-pyridyl banana-shaped molecule 1,3-phenylene diisonicotinate (PDI) was designed and synthesized. Its molecular structure was confirmed by FTIR, Elemental analysis and 1H NMR. X-ray crystallographic study reveals that there is an angle of approximate 118 among the centroids of the three rings (pyridyl-phenyl-pyridyl) in each PDI molecule indicating a desired banana shape. In addition, a series of liquid crystal complexes nBA:PDI:nBA induced by intermolecular hydrogen bonding between PDI (proton acceptor) and 4-alkoxybenzoic acids (nBA, proton donor) were synthesized and characterized. The mesomorphism properties and optical textures of the complex of nBA:PDI:nBA were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, polarizing optical microscope and X-ray diffraction.

  18. Critical coupling and coherent perfect absorption for ranges of energies due to a complex gain and loss symmetric system

    SciTech Connect

    Hasan, Mohammad; Ghatak, Ananya; Mandal, Bhabani Prasad

    2014-05-15

    We consider a non-Hermitian medium with a gain and loss symmetric, exponentially damped potential distribution to demonstrate different scattering features analytically. The condition for critical coupling (CC) for unidirectional wave and coherent perfect absorption (CPA) for bidirectional waves are obtained analytically for this system. The energy points at which total absorption occurs are shown to be the spectral singular points for the time reversed system. The possible energies at which CC occurs for left and right incidence are different. We further obtain periodic intervals with increasing periodicity of energy for CC and CPA to occur in this system. -- Highlights: Energy ranges for CC and CPA are obtained explicitly for complex WS potential. Analytical conditions for CC and CPA for PT symmetric WS potential are obtained. Conditions for left and right CC are shown to be different. Conditions for CC and CPA are shown to be that of SS for the time reversed system. Our model shows the great flexibility of frequencies for CC and CPA.

  19. Isomeric interconversion in the linear Cl--HD anion complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, R. L.; Loh, Z. M.; Wild, D. A.; Bieske, E. J.; Buchachenko, A. A.

    2004-08-01

    The rotationally resolved infrared photodissociation spectrum of Cl--HD is measured in the HD stretch region. Two Σ-Σ bands are observed, corresponding to transitions from the ground state [the (vHD=0, n=0) level] and first excited intermolecular bend state [the (vHD=0, n=1) level]. The (vHD=0, n=0) and (vHD=0, n=1) states are predominantly associated with the linear Cl-⋯DH and Cl-⋯HD geometries, respectively. The spectrum is complicated by perturbative interactions between levels of the (vHD=0, n=0) and (vHD=0, n=1) rotational manifolds and between levels of the (vHD=1, n=0) and (vHD=1, n=1) rotational manifolds. A global fit to the transition frequencies, taking the lower and upper state perturbations into account, yields zero-order rotational and centrifugal distortion constants and allows us to establish that the (vHD=0, n=1, J″=0) level lies 13.7 cm-1 above the (vHD=0, n=0, J″=0) level. Rovibrational energy level calculations performed using a recent ab initio potential energy surface confirm the picture emerging from the experimental data and provide good agreement with measured molecular parameters. The results emphasize the importance of quantum mechanical interconversion between two isomeric structures of a simple anion complex.

  20. Assembly of symmetrical and unsymmetrical platinum(II) rollover complexes with bidentate phosphine ligands.

    PubMed

    Maidich, Luca; Zuri, Giuseppina; Stoccoro, Sergio; Cinellu, Maria Agostina; Zucca, Antonio

    2014-10-21

    The reaction of the cyclometalated rollover complex [Pt(bpy-H)(Me)(DMSO)] (bpy-H = cyclometalated 2,2'-bipyridine) with two diphosphines, dppm (1,1-bis(diphenylphosphino)methane) and dppe (1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane), was investigated. According to the reaction conditions, dppm behaves as a monodentate, bridging or chelated ligand, whereas dppe gave only chelated species. Some aspects of the reactivity of the isolated species were studied, including protonation with [H3O18-crown-6][BF4] and coordination reactions of mononuclear complexes, obtaining, inter alia, rare examples of unsymmetrical organometallic species with bridging dppm. PMID:25162179

  1. Octakis(dimethylammonium) hexa-mu2-chlorido-hexachloridotrinickelate(II) dichloride: a linear trinickel complex with asymmetric bridging.

    PubMed

    Gerdes, Allison; Bond, Marcus R

    2009-10-01

    The title compound, (C2H8N)8[Ni3Cl12]Cl2, crystallizes as linear [Ni3Cl12]6- complex anions with inversion symmetry, separated from one another by dimethylammonium cations and noncoordinated chloride ions. The gross structural arrangement of the trinickel complex is as a segment of face-sharing NiCl6 octahedra similar to the (NiCl3)n chains of CsNiCl3-type compounds. On closer inspection, the regular coordination geometry of the complex consists of octahedral NiCl6 in the center linked by two symmetrically bridging chloride ions to square-pyramidal NiCl5 on each end. A long semicoordinate bond is formed by each of the terminal Ni(II) cations, to give a 5+1 coordination geometry and form an asymmetric bridge to the central Ni(II) cation. The dimethylammonium cations surround the complex with an extensive hydrogen-bonding network, linking the complex to the noncoordinated chloride ions. Asymmetric bridging in the complex arises from short hydrogen bonds from the same dimethylammonium cation to the apical and asymmetric bridging chloride ions, causing the complex to scissor outward. PMID:19805875

  2. Resonance raman spectra of metal II/IV dimer chain complexes of platinum and palladium. Analysis of the component structure to the band assigned to the symmetric XMX chain stretching mode (X = Cl or Br)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Robin J. H.; Michael, David J.

    1988-10-01

    Resonance Raman spectra of the linear-chain, mixed-valence, halogen-bridged complexes [Pt(pn) 2] [Pt(pn) 2X 2] (ClO 4) 4, where X = Cl or Br, and [Pd(pn) 2] [Pd(pn) 2Br 2] (ClO 4) 4 have been obtained over the range of excitation wavelengths 457.9 to 647.1 nm. Of particular interest is the symmetric metalhalogen stretch, ? 1, which has several components. The relative intensities of these components change with variation of the wavenumber of excitation within the intervalence electronic absorption. This effect and the origin of the different components are discussed.

  3. Asymmetric Michael addition of nitroalkanes to nitroalkenes catalyzed by C2-symmetric tridentate bis(oxazoline) and bis(thiazoline) zinc complexes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shao-Feng; Du, Da-Ming; Xu, Jiaxi; Zhang, Shi-Wei

    2006-06-14

    The first asymmetric synthesis of 1,3-dinitro compounds through Michael addition of nitroalkanes to nitroalkenes catalyzed by C2-symmetric chiral tridentate bis(oxazoline) and bis(thiazoline) zinc complexes was achieved with high enantioselectivities (up to 95% ee). PMID:16756277

  4. On the solutions of some linear complex quaternionic equations.

    PubMed

    Bolat, Cennet; İpek, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Some complex quaternionic equations in the type AX - XB = C are investigated. For convenience, these equations were called generalized Sylvester-quaternion equations, which include the Sylvester equation as special cases. By the real matrix representations of complex quaternions, the necessary and sufficient conditions for the solvability and the general expressions of the solutions are obtained. PMID:25101318

  5. On the Solutions of Some Linear Complex Quaternionic Equations

    PubMed Central

    ?pek, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Some complex quaternionic equations in the type AX ? XB = C are investigated. For convenience, these equations were called generalized Sylvester-quaternion equations, which include the Sylvester equation as special cases. By the real matrix representations of complex quaternions, the necessary and sufficient conditions for the solvability and the general expressions of the solutions are obtained. PMID:25101318

  6. Stability of the complex symmetric Lanczos algorithm for computing photodissociation cross sections using smooth exterior scaling or absorbing potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlsson, Hans O.

    2009-06-01

    The stability of the Lanczos algorithm for computing photodissociation cross sections is studied. The system is discretized on a grid and the discrete variable representation (DVR) is used to represent system operators. The Hamiltonian is augmented with an absorbing potential (AP) or smooth exterior scaling (SES), to enforce outgoing boundary conditions, making it complex symmetric. The main difference between the AP and the SES is that the former adds to the potential energy whereas the latter modifies the kinetic energy operator. Grozdanov et al (2004 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 31 173) observed the fact that the Lanczos recursions could slow down and even stagnate for certain choices of parameters in the AP or SES. Here we show that for the SES, it is important that the maximum kinetic energy of the DVR is adapted to the physical problem or else the Lanczos recursions might be unstable. A similar result was found for the AP; that is, the Lanczos algorithm in order to converge the strength of the absorbing potential should be of the order of the scattering energy of interest. It is shown that with a discretization adopted to the physical problem at hand and a proper choice of parameters, the Lanczos recursions converge and provide accurate results for both the absorbing potential and the smooth exterior scaling.

  7. Characterization of a potentially axially symmetric europium(III) complex of a tetraacetate,tetraaza, macrocyclic ligand by luminescence excitation, emission and lifetime spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albin, Michael; de, William; Horrocks, W., Jr.; Liotta, Frank J.

    1982-01-01

    The Eu(III) complex of the octadentate macrocyclic ligand, 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N'',N''' -tetraacetate, DOTA, has been examined by luminescence excitation, emission, and lifetime spectroscopy using pulsed dye laser techniques. The results confirm the expected axially symmetric nature of the major component in solution and reveal that 1.2 ± 0.4 water molecules arc coordinatcd to the Eu(III) ion in the complex.

  8. Complex Craniofacial Changes in Blind Cave-Dwelling Fish Are Mediated by Genetically Symmetric and Asymmetric Loci

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Joshua B.; Krutzler, Amanda J.; Carlson, Brian M.

    2014-01-01

    The genetic regulators of regressive craniofacial morphologies are poorly understood. To shed light on this problem, we examined the freshwater fish Astyanax mexicanus, a species with surface-dwelling and multiple independent eyeless cave-dwelling forms. Changes affecting the skull in cavefish include morphological alterations to the intramembranous circumorbital bones encircling the eye. Many of these modifications, however, have evolved separately from eye loss, such as fragmentation of the third suborbital bone. To understand the genetic architecture of these eye-independent craniofacial alterations, we developed and scored 33 phenotypes in the context of an F2 hybrid mapping pedigree bred from Pachn cavefish and surface fish. We discovered several individuals exhibiting dramatic leftright differences in bone formation, such as extensive fragmentation on the right side only. This observation, along with well-known eye size asymmetry in natural cave-dwelling animals, led us to further evaluate leftright genetic differences for the craniofacial complex. We discovered three phenotypes, inclusive of bone fragmentation and fusion, which demonstrated a directional heritable basis only on one side. Interestingly, the overall areas of affected bones were genetically symmetric. Phenotypic effect plots of these novel craniofacial QTL revealed that cave alleles are associated with abnormal conditions such as bony fusion and fragmentation. Moreover, many linked loci overlapped with other cave-associated traits, suggesting regressive craniofacial changes may evolve through linkage or as antagonistic pleiotropic consequences of cave-associated adaptations. These novel findings illuminate significant craniofacial changes accompanying evolution in complete darkness and reveal complex changes to the skull differentially influenced by genetic changes affecting the left and right sides. PMID:24496009

  9. PT-symmetric strings

    SciTech Connect

    Amore, Paolo; Fernndez, Francisco M.; Garcia, Javier; Gutierrez, German

    2014-04-15

    We study both analytically and numerically the spectrum of inhomogeneous strings with PT-symmetric density. We discuss an exactly solvable model of PT-symmetric string which is isospectral to the uniform string; for more general strings, we calculate exactly the sum rules Z(p)??{sub n=1}{sup ?}1/E{sub n}{sup p}, with p=1,2, and find explicit expressions which can be used to obtain bounds on the lowest eigenvalue. A detailed numerical calculation is carried out for two non-solvable models depending on a parameter, obtaining precise estimates of the critical values where pair of real eigenvalues become complex. -- Highlights: PT-symmetric Hamiltonians exhibit real eigenvalues when PT symmetry is unbroken. We study PT-symmetric strings with complex density. They exhibit regions of unbroken PT symmetry. We calculate the critical parameters at the boundaries of those regions. There are exact real sum rules for some particular complex densities.

  10. Generalized Vibrational Perturbation Theory for Rotovibrational Energies of Linear, Symmetric and Asymmetric Tops: Theory, Approximations, and Automated Approaches to Deal with Medium-to-Large Molecular Systems

    PubMed Central

    Piccardo, Matteo; Bloino, Julien; Barone, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Models going beyond the rigid-rotor and the harmonic oscillator levels are mandatory for providing accurate theoretical predictions for several spectroscopic properties. Different strategies have been devised for this purpose. Among them, the treatment by perturbation theory of the molecular Hamiltonian after its expansion in power series of products of vibrational and rotational operators, also referred to as vibrational perturbation theory (VPT), is particularly appealing for its computational efficiency to treat medium-to-large systems. Moreover, generalized (GVPT) strategies combining the use of perturbative and variational formalisms can be adopted to further improve the accuracy of the results, with the first approach used for weakly coupled terms, and the second one to handle tightly coupled ones. In this context, the GVPT formulation for asymmetric, symmetric, and linear tops is revisited and fully generalized to both minima and first-order saddle points of the molecular potential energy surface. The computational strategies and approximations that can be adopted in dealing with GVPT computations are pointed out, with a particular attention devoted to the treatment of symmetry and degeneracies. A number of tests and applications are discussed, to show the possibilities of the developments, as regards both the variety of treatable systems and eligible methods. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26345131

  11. Mechanism Underlying I?B Kinase Activation Mediated by the Linear Ubiquitin Chain Assembly Complex

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Hiroaki; Akita, Mariko; Kato, Ryuichi; Sasaki, Yoshiteru; Wakatsuki, Soichi

    2014-01-01

    The linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC) ligase, consisting of HOIL-1L, HOIP, and SHARPIN, specifically generates linear polyubiquitin chains. LUBAC-mediated linear polyubiquitination has been implicated in NF-?B activation. NEMO, a component of the I?B kinase (IKK) complex, is a substrate of LUBAC, but the precise molecular mechanism underlying linear chain-mediated NF-?B activation has not been fully elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that linearly polyubiquitinated NEMO activates IKK more potently than unanchored linear chains. In mutational analyses based on the crystal structure of the complex between the HOIP NZF1 and NEMO CC2-LZ domains, which are involved in the HOIP-NEMO interaction, NEMO mutations that impaired linear ubiquitin recognition activity and prevented recognition by LUBAC synergistically suppressed signal-induced NF-?B activation. HOIP NZF1 bound to NEMO and ubiquitin simultaneously, and HOIP NZF1 mutants defective in interaction with either NEMO or ubiquitin could not restore signal-induced NF-?B activation. Furthermore, linear chain-mediated activation of IKK2 involved homotypic interaction of the IKK2 kinase domain. Collectively, these results demonstrate that linear polyubiquitination of NEMO plays crucial roles in IKK activation and that this modification involves the HOIP NZF1 domain and recognition of NEMO-conjugated linear ubiquitin chains by NEMO on another IKK complex. PMID:24469399

  12. Symmetrized photoinitiated electron flow within the [myoglobin:cytochrome b?] complex on singlet and triplet time scales: energetics vs dynamics.

    PubMed

    Co, Nadia Petlakh; Young, Ryan M; Smeigh, Amanda L; Wasielewski, Michael R; Hoffman, Brian M

    2014-09-10

    We report here that photoinitiated electron flow involving a metal-substituted (M = Mg, Zn) myoglobin (Mb) and its physiological partner protein, cytochrome b5 (cyt b5) can be "symmetrized": the [Mb:cyt b5] complex stabilized by three D/E ? K mutations on Mb (D44K/D60K/E85K, denoted MMb) exhibits both oxidative and reductive ET quenching of both the singlet and triplet photoexcited MMb states, the direction of flow being determined by the oxidation state of the cyt b5 partner. The first-excited singlet state of MMb ((1)MMb) undergoes ns-time scale reductive ET quenching by Fe(2+)cyt b5 as well as ns-time scale oxidative ET quenching by Fe(3+)cyt b5, both processes involving an ensemble of structures that do not interconvert on this time scale. Despite a large disparity in driving force favoring photooxidation of (1)MMb relative to photoreduction (?(-?G(0)) ? 0.4 eV, M = Mg; ? 0.2 eV, M = Zn), for each M the average rate constants for the two reactions are the same within error, (1)k(f) > 10(8) s(-1). This surprising observation is explained by considering the driving-force dependence of the Franck-Condon factor in the Marcus equation. The triplet state of the myoglobin ((3)MMb) created by intersystem crossing from (1)MMb likewise undergoes reductive ET quenching by Fe(2+)cyt b5 as well as oxidative ET quenching by Fe(3+)cyt b5. As with singlet ET, the rate constants for oxidative ET quenching and reductive ET quenching on the triplet time scale are the same within error, (3)k(f) ? 10(5) s(-1), but here the equivalence is attributable to gating by intracomplex conversion among a conformational ensemble. PMID:25133915

  13. 1. 2-GeV damping-ring complex for the Stanford Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, G.E.; Davies-White, W.; Fieguth, T.; Wiedemann, H.

    1983-07-01

    The choice of parameters, the design, a 2-1/2 year consruction program and the early operation of a high field, high tune research and development damping ring complex for one of the two linear collider beams are described.

  14. Ruthenium(II)-catalyzed thioether oxidation. 3. Syntheses and structure of model complexes with the new linear tridentate ligand bis(3-(ethylsulfinyl)propyl) sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, D.P.; Oliver, J.D.

    1986-05-21

    In the first paper of this series the authors reported that an all-trans Ru(II) complex with the stoichiometry RuX/sub 2/(SR/sub 2/)/sub 2/(R/sub 2/SO)/sub 2/ (1) is the probable structure for the most oxygen-active species leading to catalysis in these thioether oxidation systems. In the second paper of this series the authors described their attempts to synthesis an all-trans-RuX/sub 2/(R/sub 2/S)/sub 2/(R/sub 2/SO)/sub 2/ complex from a symmetrical tridentate monosulfoxide ligand, 3-(ethylthio)-1-((3-(ethylthio)propyl)sulfinyl)propane (EESP). These attempts failed due to isomerization (possibly through a five-coordinate intermediate) to yield cis-halo complexes. In this paper the authors report the synthesis of a new symmetrical linear tridentate bis(sulfoxide) ligand containing the sulfoxide-sulfide-sulfoxide donor set. The synthesis and characterization of two isomeric Ru(II) complexes with this ligand are described. In order to structurally characterize these complexes, the crystal structure of minor product 9 of the reaction of trans-RuBr/sub 2/(S(CH/sub 2/)/sub 3/CH/sub 2/)/sub 4/ (2) with the ligand bis(3-ethylsulfinyl)propyl) sulfide (3; BEPS) was determined.

  15. Monte Carlo simulations of charged dendrimer-linear polyelectrolyte complexes and explicit counterions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    K?os, J. S.; Sommer, J.-U.

    2011-05-01

    We study complexes composed of one dendrimer of generation G = 4 (G4 dendrimer) with Nt = 32 charged terminal groups and an oppositely charged linear polyelectrolyte accompanied by neutralizing counterions in an athermal solvent using Monte Carlo simulations based on the bond fluctuation model. In our study both the full Coulomb potential and the excluded volume interactions are taken into account explicitly with the reduced temperature ? and the chain length Nch as the main simulation parameters. Our calculations indicate that there exist three temperature ranges that determine the behavior of such complexes. At ?complex stable charged dendrimer-linear polyelectrolyte complexes are formed first, which are subsequently accompanied by selective counterion localization within the complex interior at ?loc ? ?complex, and counterion condensation as temperature is further decreased below ?cond < ?loc. In particular, we observe that condensation takes place exclusively on the excess charges in the complex and thus no condensation is observed at the compensation point (Nch = Nt), irrespective of ?. For Nch ? Nt the complex is overally charged. Furthermore, we discuss the size and structure of the dendrimer and the linear polyelectrolyte within the complex, as well as spatial distributions of monomers and counterions. Conformations of the chain in the bound state are analysed in terms of loops, trains, and tails.

  16. Monte Carlo simulations of charged dendrimer-linear polyelectrolyte complexes and explicit counterions.

    PubMed

    K?os, J S; Sommer, J-U

    2011-05-28

    We study complexes composed of one dendrimer of generation G = 4 (G4 dendrimer) with N(t) = 32 charged terminal groups and an oppositely charged linear polyelectrolyte accompanied by neutralizing counterions in an athermal solvent using Monte Carlo simulations based on the bond fluctuation model. In our study both the full Coulomb potential and the excluded volume interactions are taken into account explicitly with the reduced temperature ? and the chain length N(ch) as the main simulation parameters. Our calculations indicate that there exist three temperature ranges that determine the behavior of such complexes. At ?(complex) stable charged dendrimer-linear polyelectrolyte complexes are formed first, which are subsequently accompanied by selective counterion localization within the complex interior at ?(loc) ? ?(complex), and counterion condensation as temperature is further decreased below ?(cond) < ?(loc). In particular, we observe that condensation takes place exclusively on the excess charges in the complex and thus no condensation is observed at the compensation point (N(ch) = N(t)), irrespective of ?. For N(ch) ? N(t) the complex is overally charged. Furthermore, we discuss the size and structure of the dendrimer and the linear polyelectrolyte within the complex, as well as spatial distributions of monomers and counterions. Conformations of the chain in the bound state are analysed in terms of loops, trains, and tails. PMID:21639472

  17. Synthesis, spectral characterization, DNA binding ability and antibacterial screening of copper(II) complexes of symmetrical NOON tetradentate Schiff bases bearing different bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahaffi, Saleh O.; Abdel Aziz, Ayman A.; El-Naggar, Maher M.

    2012-08-01

    A novel series of four copper(II) complexes were synthesized by thermal reaction of copper acetate salt with symmetrical tetradentate Schiff bases, N,N'bis(o-vanillin)4,5-dimethyl-l,2-phenylenediamine (H2L1), N,N'bis(salicylaldehyde)4,5-dimethyl-1,2-phenylenediamine (H2L2), N,N'bis(o-vanillin)4,5-dichloro-1,2-phenylenediamine (H2L3) and N,N'bis(salicylaldehyde)4,5-dichloro-1,2-phenylenediamine (H2L4), respectively. All the new synthesized complexes were characterized by using of microanalysis, FT-IR, UV-Vis, magnetic measurements, ESR, and conductance measurements, respectively. The data revealed that all the Schiff bases (H2L1-4) coordinate in their deprotonated forms and behave as tetradentate NOON coordinated ligands. Moreover, their copper(II) complexes have square planar geometry with general formula [CuL1-4]. The binding of the complexes with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was investigated by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, fluorescence quenching and viscosity measurements. The results indicated that the complexes bind to CT-DNA through an intercalative mode. From the biological activity view, the copper(II) complexes and their parent ligands were screened for their in vitro antibacterial activity against the bacterial species Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosai by well diffusion method. The complexes showed an increased activity in comparison to some standard drugs.

  18. Nonlinear {PT}-symmetric plaquettes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kai; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Malomed, Boris A.; Gnther, Uwe

    2012-11-01

    We introduce four basic two-dimensional (2D) plaquette configurations with onsite cubic nonlinearities, which may be used as building blocks for 2D {PT}-symmetric lattices. For each configuration, we develop a dynamical model and examine its {P} {T}symmetry. The corresponding nonlinear modes are analyzed starting from the Hamiltonian limit, with zero value of the gain-loss coefficient, ?. Once the relevant waveforms have been identified (chiefly, in an analytical form), their stability is examined by means of linearization in the vicinity of stationary points. This reveals diverse and, occasionally, fairly complex bifurcations. The evolution of unstable modes is explored by means of direct simulations. In particular, stable localized modes are found in these systems, although the majority of identified solutions are unstable. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to Quantum physics with non-Hermitian operators.

  19. Iron cyclopentadienone complexes derived from C2-symmetric bis-propargylic alcohols; preparation and applications to catalysis.

    PubMed

    Hodgkinson, Roy; Del Grosso, Alessandro; Clarkson, Guy; Wills, Martin

    2016-02-18

    A series of complexes containing the iron-cyclopentadienone structure were prepared by cyclising bis-propargylic alcohols and their derivatives with iron pentacarbonyl. The resulting complexes were characterised and tested in the catalysis of ketone reduction and alcohol oxidation. The complexes are competent catalysts for ketone reduction and alcohol oxidations. PMID:26837422

  20. Linear systems approach to analysis of complex dynamic behaviours in biochemical networks.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, H; Jacobsen, E W

    2004-06-01

    Central functions in the cell are often linked to complex dynamic behaviours, such as sustained oscillations and multistability, in a biochemical reaction network. Determination of the specific mechanisms underlying such behaviours is important, e.g. to determine sensitivity, robustness, and modelling requirements of given cell functions. In this work we adopt a systems approach to the analysis of complex behaviours in intracellular reaction networks, described by ordinary differential equations with known kinetic parameters. We propose to decompose the overall system into a number of low complexity subsystems, and consider the importance of interactions between these in generating specific behaviours. Rather than analysing the network in a state corresponding to the complex non-linear behaviour, we move the system to the underlying unstable steady state, and focus on the mechanisms causing destabilisation of this steady state. This is motivated by the fact that all complex behaviours in unforced systems can be traced to destabilisation (bifurcation) of some steady state, and hence enables us to use tools from linear system theory to qualitatively analyse the sources of given network behaviours. One important objective of the present study is to see how far one can come with a relatively simple approach to the analysis of highly complex biochemical networks. The proposed method is demonstrated by application to a model of mitotic control in Xenopus frog eggs, and to a model of circadian oscillations in Drosophila. In both examples we are able to identify the subsystems, and the related interactions, which are instrumental in generating the observed complex non-linear behaviours. PMID:17052125

  1. Highly Luminescent Linear Complex Arrays of up to Eight Cuprous Centers.

    PubMed

    Stollenz, Michael; Raymond, Jeffery E; Prez, Lisa M; Wiederkehr, Jessica; Bhuvanesh, Nattamai

    2016-02-01

    Linearly arranged metal atoms that are embedded in discrete molecules have fascinated scientists across various disciplines for decades; this is attributed to their potential use in microelectronic devices on a submicroscopic scale. Luminescent oligonuclear Group?11 metal complexes are of particular interest for applications in molecular light-emitting devices. Herein, we describe the synthesis and characterization of a rare, homoleptic, and neutral linearly arranged tetranuclear Cu(I) complex that is helically bent, thus representing a molecular coil in the solid state. This tetracuprous arrangement dimerizes into a unique octanuclear assembly bearing a linear array of six Cu(I) centers with two additional bridging cuprous ions that constitute a central pseudo-rhombic Cu(I) 4 cluster. The crystal structure determinations of both complexes reveal close d(10) ???d(10) contacts between all cuprous ions that are adjacent to each other. The dynamic behavior in solution, DFT calculations, and the luminescence properties of these remarkable complexes are also discussed. PMID:26762191

  2. Structures of KcsA in complex with symmetrical quaternary ammonium compounds reveal a hydrophobic binding site.

    PubMed

    Lenaeus, Michael J; Burdette, Dylan; Wagner, Tobias; Focia, Pamela J; Gross, Adrian

    2014-08-19

    Potassium channels allow for the passive movement of potassium ions across the cell membrane and are instrumental in controlling the membrane potential in all cell types. Quaternary ammonium (QA) compounds block potassium channels and have long been used to study the functional and structural properties of these channels. Here we describe the interaction between three symmetrical hydrophobic QAs and the prokaryotic potassium channel KcsA. The structures demonstrate the presence of a hydrophobic pocket between the inner helices of KcsA and provide insight into the binding site and blocking mechanism of hydrophobic QAs. The structures also reveal a structurally hidden pathway between the central cavity and the outside membrane environment reminiscent of the lateral fenestration observed in sodium channels that can be accessed through small conformational changes in the pore wall. We propose that the hydrophobic binding pocket stabilizes the alkyl chains of long-chain QA molecules and may play a key role in hydrophobic drug binding in general. PMID:25093676

  3. Structures of KcsA in Complex with Symmetrical Quaternary Ammonium Compounds Reveal a Hydrophobic Binding Site

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Potassium channels allow for the passive movement of potassium ions across the cell membrane and are instrumental in controlling the membrane potential in all cell types. Quaternary ammonium (QA) compounds block potassium channels and have long been used to study the functional and structural properties of these channels. Here we describe the interaction between three symmetrical hydrophobic QAs and the prokaryotic potassium channel KcsA. The structures demonstrate the presence of a hydrophobic pocket between the inner helices of KcsA and provide insight into the binding site and blocking mechanism of hydrophobic QAs. The structures also reveal a structurally hidden pathway between the central cavity and the outside membrane environment reminiscent of the lateral fenestration observed in sodium channels that can be accessed through small conformational changes in the pore wall. We propose that the hydrophobic binding pocket stabilizes the alkyl chains of long-chain QA molecules and may play a key role in hydrophobic drug binding in general. PMID:25093676

  4. Synthesis, crystal structure, DFT study and photocatalytic property of a new Ni(II) complex of a symmetric N2O4-donor bis-Schiff base ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hu; Meng, Xiangmin; Fan, Chuanbin; Fan, Yuhua; Bi, Caifeng

    2016-03-01

    A new complex, Ni(C22H26N2O10S2)·2CH3OH, with a sexidentate (N2O4) symmetric bis-Schiff base ligand (C22H26N2O10S2 = 1,2-bis(2-methoxy-6-formylphenoxy)ethane-2-aminoethane-sulfonic acid) has been synthesized and characterized by physico-chemical and spectroscopic methods. The X-ray crystal structure shows that the Ni(II) atom of the complex is six-coordinated by two nitrogens from Cdbnd N groups, two oxygens from ether groups and two hydroxyl oxygens from sulfonic acid groups in the mono-ligand, forming a distorted octahedral geometry. Theoretical study of the complex is carried out by density functional theory (DFT) method and the B3LYP method employing the 6-3l+G* basis set. Moreover, the complex proved to be good candidate for the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue.

  5. The linear ubiquitin assembly complex (LUBAC) is essential for NLRP3 inflammasome activation

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, Mary A.; Bowman, James W.; Fujita, Hiroaki; Orazio, Nicole; Shi, Mude; Liang, Qiming; Amatya, Rina; Kelly, Thomas J.; Iwai, Kazuhiro; Ting, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Linear ubiquitination is a newly discovered posttranslational modification that is currently restricted to a small number of known protein substrates. The linear ubiquitination assembly complex (LUBAC), consisting of HOIL-1L, HOIP, and Sharpin, has been reported to activate NF-κB–mediated transcription in response to receptor signaling by ligating linear ubiquitin chains to Nemo and Rip1. Despite recent advances, the detailed roles of LUBAC in immune cells remain elusive. We demonstrate a novel HOIL-1L function as an essential regulator of the activation of the NLRP3/ASC inflammasome in primary bone marrow–derived macrophages (BMDMs) independently of NF-κB activation. Mechanistically, HOIL-1L is required for assembly of the NLRP3/ASC inflammasome and the linear ubiquitination of ASC, which we identify as a novel LUBAC substrate. Consequently, we find that HOIL-1L−/− mice have reduced IL-1β secretion in response to in vivo NLRP3 stimulation and survive lethal challenge with LPS. Together, these data demonstrate that linear ubiquitination is required for NLRP3 inflammasome activation, defining the molecular events of NLRP3 inflammasome activation and expanding the role of LUBAC as an innate immune regulator. Furthermore, our observation is clinically relevant because patients lacking HOIL-1L expression suffer from pyogenic bacterial immunodeficiency, providing a potential new therapeutic target for enhancing inflammation in immunodeficient patients. PMID:24958845

  6. The linear ubiquitin assembly complex (LUBAC) is essential for NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Mary A; Bowman, James W; Fujita, Hiroaki; Orazio, Nicole; Shi, Mude; Liang, Qiming; Amatya, Rina; Kelly, Thomas J; Iwai, Kazuhiro; Ting, Jenny; Jung, Jae U

    2014-06-30

    Linear ubiquitination is a newly discovered posttranslational modification that is currently restricted to a small number of known protein substrates. The linear ubiquitination assembly complex (LUBAC), consisting of HOIL-1L, HOIP, and Sharpin, has been reported to activate NF-?B-mediated transcription in response to receptor signaling by ligating linear ubiquitin chains to Nemo and Rip1. Despite recent advances, the detailed roles of LUBAC in immune cells remain elusive. We demonstrate a novel HOIL-1L function as an essential regulator of the activation of the NLRP3/ASC inflammasome in primary bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) independently of NF-?B activation. Mechanistically, HOIL-1L is required for assembly of the NLRP3/ASC inflammasome and the linear ubiquitination of ASC, which we identify as a novel LUBAC substrate. Consequently, we find that HOIL-1L(-/-) mice have reduced IL-1? secretion in response to in vivo NLRP3 stimulation and survive lethal challenge with LPS. Together, these data demonstrate that linear ubiquitination is required for NLRP3 inflammasome activation, defining the molecular events of NLRP3 inflammasome activation and expanding the role of LUBAC as an innate immune regulator. Furthermore, our observation is clinically relevant because patients lacking HOIL-1L expression suffer from pyogenic bacterial immunodeficiency, providing a potential new therapeutic target for enhancing inflammation in immunodeficient patients. PMID:24958845

  7. Low-coverage surface diffusion in complex periodic energy landscapes: Analytical solution for systems with symmetric hops and application to intercalation in topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosálvez, Miguel A.; Otrokov, Mikhail M.; Ferrando, Nestor; Ryabishchenkova, Anastasia G.; Ayuela, Andres; Echenique, Pedro M.; Chulkov, Evgueni V.

    2016-02-01

    This is the first of two papers that introduce a general expression for the tracer diffusivity in complex, periodic energy landscapes with M distinct hop rates in one-, two-, and three-dimensional diluted systems (low-coverage, single-tracer limit). The present report focuses on the analysis of diffusion in systems where the end sites of the hops are located symmetrically with respect to the hop origins (symmetric hops), as encountered in many ideal surfaces and bulk materials. For diffusion in two dimensions, a number of formulas are presented for complex combinations of the different hops in systems with triangular, rectangular, and square symmetry. The formulas provide values in excellent agreement with kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, concluding that the diffusion coefficient can be directly determined from the proposed expressions without performing the simulations. Based on the diffusion barriers obtained from first-principles calculations and a physically meaningful estimate of the attempt frequencies, the proposed formulas are used to analyze the diffusion of Cu, Ag, and Rb adatoms on the surface and within the van der Waals (vdW) gap of a model topological insulator, Bi2Se3 . Considering the possibility of adsorbate intercalation from the terraces to the vdW gaps at morphological steps, we infer that, at low coverage and room temperature, (i) a majority of the Rb atoms bounce back at the steps and remain on the terraces, (ii) Cu atoms mostly intercalate into the vdW gap, the remaining fraction staying at the steps, and (iii) Ag atoms essentially accumulate at the steps and gradually intercalate into the vdW gap. These conclusions are in good qualitative agreement with previous experiments. The companion report (M. A. Gosálvez et al., Phys. Rev. B, submitted] extends the present study to the description of systems that contain asymmetric hops.

  8. 1. Mono([8]annulene)Uranium(4) half-sandwich complexes, 2. Novel syntheses of symmetrically substituted cyclooctatetetraenes

    SciTech Connect

    Boussie, T.R.

    1991-10-01

    A reproducible, high-yield synthesis of mono([8]annulene)uranium(4)dichloride (1) is reported, along with the X-ray crystal structural of the bis(pyridine) adduct. Metathesis reactions of the half-sandwich complex 1 with a variety of simple alkyl and alkoxy reagents failed to generate any isolable mono-ring complexes. Reactions of 1 with polydentate, delocalized anions did produce stable derivatives, including mono([8]annulene)uranium(4)bis(acetylacetonate) (4). An X-ray crystal structure of 4 is reported.

  9. 1. Mono((8)annulene)Uranium(4) half-sandwich complexes, 2. Novel syntheses of symmetrically substituted cyclooctatetetraenes

    SciTech Connect

    Boussie, T.R.

    1991-10-01

    A reproducible, high-yield synthesis of mono((8)annulene)uranium(4)dichloride (1) is reported, along with the X-ray crystal structural of the bis(pyridine) adduct. Metathesis reactions of the half-sandwich complex 1 with a variety of simple alkyl and alkoxy reagents failed to generate any isolable mono-ring complexes. Reactions of 1 with polydentate, delocalized anions did produce stable derivatives, including mono((8)annulene)uranium(4)bis(acetylacetonate) (4). An X-ray crystal structure of 4 is reported.

  10. The Symmetrical Quasi-Classical Model for Electronically Non-Adiabatic Processes Applied to Energy Transfer Dynamics in Site-Exciton Models of Light-Harvesting Complexes.

    PubMed

    Cotton, Stephen J; Miller, William H

    2016-03-01

    In a recent series of papers, it has been illustrated that a symmetrical quasi-classical (SQC) windowing model applied to the Meyer-Miller (MM) classical vibronic Hamiltonian provides an excellent description of a variety of electronically non-adiabatic benchmark model systems for which exact quantum results are available for comparison. In this paper, the SQC/MM approach is used to treat energy transfer dynamics in site-exciton models of light-harvesting complexes, and in particular, the well-known 7-state Fenna-Mathews-Olson (FMO) complex. Again, numerically "exact" results are available for comparison, here via the hierarchical equation of motion (HEOM) approach of Ishizaki and Fleming, and it is seen that the simple SQC/MM approach provides very reasonable agreement with the previous HEOM results. It is noted, however, that unlike most (if not all) simple approaches for treating these systems, because the SQC/MM approach presents a fully atomistic simulation based on classical trajectory simulation, it places no restrictions on the characteristics of the thermal baths coupled to each two-level site, e.g., bath spectral densities (SD) of any analytic functional form may be employed as well as discrete SD determined experimentally or from MD simulation (nor is there any restriction that the baths be harmonic), opening up the possibility of simulating more realistic variations on the basic site-exciton framework for describing the non-adiabatic dynamics of photosynthetic pigment complexes. PMID:26761191

  11. Simultaneous measurements of complex birefringence in azo dye doped polymer films induced by linearly polarized light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Hiroshi; Kowatari, Nozomu

    1998-07-01

    A complex birefringence originating in a photoinduced alignment of azo dye (4-[ N-(2-hydroxyethyl- N-ethyl]amino-0022-3727/31/13/003/img1-nitroazobenzene (disperse red 1)) molecules in the polymer matrix poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was determined with a Mach-Zehnder interferometric method. The complex birefringence was proportional to the intensity of the pump beam. The absolute value of the imaginary part was about half as large as the real part, although the imaginary part of the linear refractive index is negligibly small. The result suggested that the contributions of the real and imaginary parts of the complex birefringence should be observed separately even in the off-resonant case.

  12. Dual task performance in a healthy young adult population: results from a symmetric manipulation of task complexity and articulation.

    PubMed

    Armieri, Albert; Holmes, Jeffrey D; Spaulding, Sandi J; Jenkins, Mary E; Johnson, Andrew M

    2009-02-01

    The ability to execute and maintain gait while performing simultaneous cognitive, verbal, or motor tasks ('dual-tasking') is beneficial in many ways. It is well-documented, however, that dual-tasking can result in cognitive or motoric interference that results in diminished gait performance, and impaired secondary task performance. When manipulating cognitive load, it is common to have participants respond verbally to stimuli. While this is an ecologically valid way to measure the effects of cognitive load on gait, it ignores the additional demands inherent in the verbal aspect of the task. In the present study, we manipulated complexity and articulation within a single working memory task, in order to examine their relative impact on continuous spatiotemporal gait parameters. Fourteen healthy young adults (11 women) aged 18-30 (M=22.14, S.D.=2.28) were asked to memorize a random, non-repeating, sequence of three, five, or seven digits. Articulation was manipulated by either having participants rehearse the digits aloud, or rehearse the digits silently during the performance of the gait task. Gait parameters were quantified with a GAITRite instrumented carpet. Velocity, step time, swing time, and stance time demonstrated a significant (p<0.05) interaction between complexity and articulation, with articulation having a greater effect at higher levels of complexity. These results suggest that verbal secondary tasks may actually create a 'triple-task' in which the cognitive complexity of the task interacts with both the articulatory demands of the response modality, and the motoric demands of the gait task. PMID:18951799

  13. Simply Symmetric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Villiers, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Symmetry is found in the visual arts, architecture and design of artefacts since the earliest time. Many natural objects, both organic and inorganic, display symmetry: from microscopic crystals and sub-atomic particles to macro-cosmic galaxies. Today it features strongly in higher mathematics such as Linear and Abstract Algebra, Projective and…

  14. Simply Symmetric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Villiers, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Symmetry is found in the visual arts, architecture and design of artefacts since the earliest time. Many natural objects, both organic and inorganic, display symmetry: from microscopic crystals and sub-atomic particles to macro-cosmic galaxies. Today it features strongly in higher mathematics such as Linear and Abstract Algebra, Projective and

  15. Crystallization and structure determination of a symmetrical football complex of the mammalian mitochondrial Hsp60Hsp10 chaperonins

    PubMed Central

    Nisemblat, Shahar; Parnas, Avital; Yaniv, Oren; Azem, Abdussalam; Frolow, Felix

    2014-01-01

    The mitochondrial Hsp60Hsp10 complex assists the folding of various proteins impelled by ATP hydrolysis, similar to the bacterial chaperonins GroEL and GroES. The near-atomic structural details of the mitochondrial chaperonins are not known, despite the fact that almost two decades have passed since the structures of the bacterial chaperonins became available. Here, the crystallization procedure, diffraction experiments and structure determination by molecular replacement of the mammalian mitochondrial chaperonin HSP60 (E321K mutant) and its co-chaperonin Hsp10 are reported. PMID:24419632

  16. Spin depolarizing effect in collisions with neutral hydrogen. II. Application to simple/complex ions in spherically symmetric states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derouich, M.; Barklem, P. S.

    2007-02-01

    Aims: We develop an accurate and general semi-classical formalism that deals with the definition and the calculation of the collisional depolarizing constants of the levels of simple and complex singly-ionized atoms in arbitrary s-states perturbed by collisions with hydrogen atoms. The case of ions with hyperfine structure is investigated fully. Methods: We obtain potential energy curves based on the MSMA exchange perturbation theory by employing the Unsld approximation. These potentials enter the Schrdinger equation to determine the collisional T-matrix elements in a semi-classical description. We use the T-matrix elements for the calculation of the collisional depolarization rates of simple atoms. Then, we use these rates to calculate the collisional coefficients in cases of ions with hyperfine structure. Results: We evaluate the collisional depolarization and polarization transfer rates of the ground levels of the ionized alkaline earth metals Be II, Mg II, Ca II, Sr II, and Ba II. We study the variation of the collisional rates with effective principal quantum number n* characterizing an arbitrary s-state of a perturbed simple ion. We find that the collisional rates for simple ions obey simple power laws as a function of n^*. We present direct and indirect formulations of the problem of the calculation of the depolarization and polarization transfer rates of levels of complex atoms and hyperfine levels from those for simple atoms. In particular, the indirect method allows a quick and simple calculation with its simple power-law relations. For the state 4s ^2S{1/2} of Ca II, our computed rate of the destruction of orientation differs from existing quantum chemistry calculations by only 4% at T=5000 K.

  17. Symmetric manifold

    SciTech Connect

    Poulos, S.G.

    1987-05-12

    A high symmetry intake manifold is described for an internal combustion engine. The manifold comprises: an inlet plenum with a flat floor extending along an inlet plane and outlet means defining an outlet plane, the planes being spaced on a common axis normal to both; and equal length runners connecting inlet openings in the floor and lying along the inlet plane with linearly equidistant outlet openings in outlet means and lying along the outlet plane. The inlet openings are spaced in the floor on a circle centered on the axis and the outlet openings are linearly aligned in the outlet means with the outlet axis intersecting the plane at the midpoint between outer most ones of the outlet openings.

  18. A non-canonical UBAUBL interaction forms the linear-ubiquitin-chain assembly complex

    PubMed Central

    Yagi, Hirokazu; Ishimoto, Kazuhiro; Hiromoto, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroaki; Mizushima, Tsunehiro; Uekusa, Yoshinori; Yagi-Utsumi, Maho; Kurimoto, Eiji; Noda, Masanori; Uchiyama, Susumu; Tokunaga, Fuminori; Iwai, Kazuhiro; Kato, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    HOIL-1L and its binding partner HOIP are essential components of the E3-ligase complex that generates linear ubiquitin (Ub) chains, which are critical regulators of NF-?B activation. Using crystallographic and mutational approaches, we characterize the unexpected structural basis for the specific interaction between the Ub-like domain (UBL) of HOIL-1L and the Ub-associated domain (UBA) of HOIP. Our data indicate the functional significance of this non-canonical mode of UBAUBL interaction in E3 complex formation and subsequent NF-?B activation. This study highlights the versatility and specificity of proteinprotein interactions involving Ub/UBLs and their cognate proteins. PMID:22430200

  19. Linear Superposition and Prediction of Bacterial Promoter Activity Dynamics in Complex Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rothschild, Daphna; Dekel, Erez; Hausser, Jean; Bren, Anat; Aidelberg, Guy; Szekely, Pablo; Alon, Uri

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria often face complex environments. We asked how gene expression in complex conditions relates to expression in simpler conditions. To address this, we obtained accurate promoter activity dynamical measurements on 94 genes in E. coli in environments made up of all possible combinations of four nutrients and stresses. We find that the dynamics across conditions is well described by two principal component curves specific to each promoter. As a result, the promoter activity dynamics in a combination of conditions is a weighted average of the dynamics in each condition alone. The weights tend to sum up to approximately one. This weighted-average property, called linear superposition, allows predicting the promoter activity dynamics in a combination of conditions based on measurements of pairs of conditions. If these findings apply more generally, they can vastly reduce the number of experiments needed to understand how E. coli responds to the combinatorially huge space of possible environments. PMID:24809350

  20. Dual emission and excited-state mixed-valence in a quasi-symmetric dinuclear Ru-Ru complex.

    PubMed

    Kreitner, Christoph; Grabolle, Markus; Resch-Genger, Ute; Heinze, Katja

    2014-12-15

    The synthesis and characterization of the new dinuclear dipeptide [(EtOOC-tpy)Ru(tpy-NHCO-tpy)Ru(tpy-NHCOCH3)](4+) 3(4+) of the bis(terpyridine)ruthenium amino acid [(HOOC-tpy)Ru(tpy-NH2)](2+) 1(2+) are described, and the properties of the dipeptide are compared to those of the mononuclear complex [(EtOOC-tpy)Ru(tpy-NHCOCH3)](2+) 4(2+) carrying the same functional groups. 3(4+) is designed to serve a high electronic similarity of the two ruthenium sites despite the intrinsic asymmetry arising from the amide bridge. This is confirmed via UV-vis absorption and NMR spectroscopy as well as cyclic voltammetry. 4(2+) and 3(4+) are emissive at room temperature, as expected. Moreover, 3(4+) exhibits dual emission from two different triplet states with different energies and lifetimes at room temperature. This is ascribed to the presence of a unique thermal equilibrium between coexisting [Ru(II)(tpy-NHCO-tpy(-))Ru(III)] and [Ru(III)(tpy-NHCO-tpy(-))Ru(II)] states leading to an unprecedented excited-state Ru(II)Ru(III) mixed-valent system via the radical anion bridge tpy-NHCO-tpy(-). The mixed-valent cation 3(5+), on the other hand, shows no measurable interaction of the Ru(II)Ru(III) centers via the neutral bridge tpy-NHCO-tpy (Robin-Day class I). Reduction of 3(4+) to the radical cation 3(3+) by decamethylcobaltocene is bridge-centered as evidenced by rapid-freeze electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Interestingly, all attempts to observe 3(3+) via NMR and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy only led to the detection of the diamagnetic complex 3-H(3+) in which the bridging amide is deprotonated. Hence 3-H(3+) (and 4-H(+)) appear to reduce protons to dihydrogen. The ease of single and double deprotonation of 4(2+) and 3(4+) to 4-H(+), 3-H(3+), and 3-2H(2+) was demonstrated using a strong base and was studied using NMR and UV-vis absorption spectroscopies. The equilibrating excited triplet states of 3(4+) are reductively quenched by N,N-dimethylaniline assisted by hydrogen bonding to the bridging amide. PMID:25412276

  1. Schwarz Methods: To Symmetrize or not to Symmetrize

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holst, Michael; Vandewalle, Stefan

    1996-01-01

    A preconditioning theory for Schwarz methods is presented. The theory establishes sufficient conditions for multiplicative and additive Schwarz algorithms to yield self-adjoint positive definite preconditioners. It allows for the analysis and use of non-variational and non-convergent linear methods as preconditioners for conjugate gradient methods, and it is applied to domain decomposition and multigrid. This paper illustrates why symmetrizing may be a bad idea for linear methods. Numerical examples are presented for a test problem.

  2. Determination of stability constants for complexes from catalytic linear scan voltammetric currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muiz Alvarez, J. L.; Garca Calzn, J. A.; Lpez Fonseca, J. M.

    1998-05-01

    A linear scan voltammetric method for determining stability constants for complexes formed in the bulk solution between metal ions and ligands that catalyse their reduction is proposed. The method is based on the pure limiting kinetic current produced in the electrocatalytic process, which is recorded following preconcentration of ligands by convective transport on a hanging mercury drop electrode until surface excesses reach the values for adsorption equilibrium with the bulk solution. The stability constant for the Ni(o-phenylenediamine)2+ complex provided by the proposed method is reasonably consistent with reported values obtained from catalytic dc polarographic currents. Une mthode voltammtrique balayage linaire de potentiel a t dveloppe pour la dtermination des constants de stabilit des complexes des ions mtalliques avec des ligands capables de catalyser leur rduction. La mthode utilise le courant limite cintique produite par la raction lectrocatalytique. Cette courante est enregistre aprs une priode de prconcentration du ligand la surface de l'lectrode de goutte pendante de mercure jusqu' la concentration superficiale atteint la valeur correspondante l'quilibre d'adsorption avec la solution. La valeur de la constant de stabilit mesure avec cette mthode pour le complexe Ni(o-phnylndiamine) est d'accord avec les valeurs obtenues de la courant catalytique en polarographie de courant continu.

  3. Essential Role of the Linear Ubiquitin Chain Assembly Complex in Lymphoma Revealed by Rare Germline Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yibin; Schmitz, Roland; Mitala, Joseph; Whiting, Amanda; Xiao, Wenming; Ceribelli, Michele; Wright, George W.; Zhao, Hong; Yang, Yandan; Xu, Weihong; Rosenwald, Andreas; Ott, German; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Connors, Joseph M.; Rimsza, Lisa M.; Campo, Elias; Jaffe, Elaine S.; Delabie, Jan; Smeland, Erlend B.; Braziel, Rita M.; Tubbs, Raymond R.; Cook, James. R.; Weisenburger, Dennis D.; Chan, Wing C.; Wiestner, Adrian; Kruhlak, Michael J.; Iwai, Kazuhiro; Bernal, Federico; Staudt, Louis M.

    2014-01-01

    Constitutive activation of NF-?B is a hallmark of the activated B cell-like (ABC) subtype of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), owing to upstream signals from the B cell receptor (BCR) and MyD88 pathways. The linear polyubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC) attaches linear polyubiquitin chains to I?B kinase ?, a necessary event in some pathways that engage NF-?B. Two germ line polymorphisms affecting the LUBAC subunit RNF31 are rare among healthy individuals (~1%) but enriched in ABC DLBCL (7.8%). These polymorphisms alter RNF31 ? helices that mediate binding to the LUBAC subunit RBCK1, thereby increasing RNF31-RBCK1 association, LUBAC enzymatic activity, and NF-?B engagement. In the BCR pathway, LUBAC associates with the CARD11/MALT1/BCL10 adapter complex and is required for ABC DLBCL viability. A stapled RNF31 ?-helical peptide based on the ABC DLBCL-associated Q622L polymorphism inhibited RFN31-RBCK1 binding, decreased NF-?B and killed ABC DLBCL cells, credentialing this protein-protein interface as a therapeutic target. PMID:24491438

  4. Synthesis and characterization of a series of transition metal complexes with a new symmetrical polyoxaaza macroacyclic Schiff base ligand: X-ray crystal structure of cobalt(II) and nickel(II) complexes and their antibacterial properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keypour, Hassan; Shayesteh, Maryam; Rezaeivala, Majid; Chalabian, Firoozeh; Valencia, Laura

    2013-01-01

    A new symmetrical [N4O2] hexadentate Schiff base ligand, (E)-N-(pyridin-2-ylmethylene)-2-(3-(2-((E)-pyridin-2-lmethyleneamino)phenoxy)naphthalen-2-yloxy)benzenamine, abbreviated to L, and its complexes of Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Co(II), Cd(II) and Mn(II) have been synthesized in the presence of metal ions. The complexes were structurally characterized by elemental analyses, IR, UV-Vis, NMR and molar conductivity. The crystal structures of two complexes, [NiL(ONO2)2]·2H2O and [CoLCl2]CH3OH·0.5H2O, have been determined by a single crystal X-ray diffraction study. In these complexes, the ligand is coordinated in a neutral form via pyridine and azomethine nitrogen atoms. The metal ions complete their six coordination with two coordinated nitrate or chloride ions, forming a distorted octahedral geometry. The synthesized compounds have antibacterial activity against the three Gram-positive bacteria: Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus epid and also against the three Gram-negative bacteria: Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter aerogenes and Salmonella typhi. The activity data show that the complexes are more potent antibacterials than the parent Schiff base.

  5. Applicability of the linear {delta} expansion for the {lambda}{phi}{sup 4} field theory at finite temperature in the symmetric and broken phases

    SciTech Connect

    Farias, R. L. S.; Ramos, Rudnei O.; Krein, G.

    2008-09-15

    The thermodynamics of a scalar field with a quartic interaction is studied within the linear {delta} expansion (LDE) method. Using the imaginary-time formalism the free energy is evaluated up to second order in the LDE. The method generates nonperturbative results that are then used to obtain thermodynamic quantities like the pressure. The phase transition pattern of the model is fully studied, from the broken to the symmetry restored phase. The results are compared with those obtained with other nonperturbative methods and also with ordinary perturbation theory. The results coming from the two main optimization procedures used in conjunction with the LDE method, the principle of minimal sensitivity (PMS) and the fastest apparent convergence (FAC) are also compared with each other and studied in which cases they are applicable or not. The optimization procedures are applied directly to the free energy.

  6. Variational theory of complex rays applied to shell structures: in-plane inertia, quasi-symmetric ray distribution, and orthotropic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattabiani, Alessandro; Barbarulo, Andrea; Riou, Herv; Ladevze, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    Recently, interest of aerospace and automotive industries on medium-frequency vibrational behavior of composite shell structures has grown due to their high specific stiffness and fatigue resistance. Conventional methods such as the finite element method and the statistical energy analysis are not suitable for the medium-frequency bandwidth. Conversely, the variational theory of complex rays (VTCR) is taking place as an ad-hoc technique to tackle such frequency band. It is a Trefftz method based on a weak variational formulation. Equilibrium equations are met using exact solutions as shape functions. The variational problem imposes boundary conditions in weak form. The present paper extends VTCR to orthotropic shell structures. Moreover, several new enhancements are introduced. Now, we use a quasi-symmetric ray distribution which can greatly reduce computational costs, and addresses in-plane inertia which was neglected in previous works. Some relevant numerical examples are presented to show the strategy and results are compared with a FEM reference to study performances.

  7. Variational theory of complex rays applied to shell structures: in-plane inertia, quasi-symmetric ray distribution, and orthotropic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattabiani, Alessandro; Barbarulo, Andrea; Riou, Hervé; Ladevèze, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    Recently, interest of aerospace and automotive industries on medium-frequency vibrational behavior of composite shell structures has grown due to their high specific stiffness and fatigue resistance. Conventional methods such as the finite element method and the statistical energy analysis are not suitable for the medium-frequency bandwidth. Conversely, the variational theory of complex rays (VTCR) is taking place as an ad-hoc technique to tackle such frequency band. It is a Trefftz method based on a weak variational formulation. Equilibrium equations are met using exact solutions as shape functions. The variational problem imposes boundary conditions in weak form. The present paper extends VTCR to orthotropic shell structures. Moreover, several new enhancements are introduced. Now, we use a quasi-symmetric ray distribution which can greatly reduce computational costs, and addresses in-plane inertia which was neglected in previous works. Some relevant numerical examples are presented to show the strategy and results are compared with a FEM reference to study performances.

  8. Waste management under multiple complexities: Inexact piecewise-linearization-based fuzzy flexible programming

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Wei; Huang, Guo H.; Lv Ying; Li Gongchen

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inexact piecewise-linearization-based fuzzy flexible programming is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It's the first application to waste management under multiple complexities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It tackles nonlinear economies-of-scale effects in interval-parameter constraints. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It estimates costs more accurately than the linear-regression-based model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Uncertainties are decreased and more satisfactory interval solutions are obtained. - Abstract: To tackle nonlinear economies-of-scale (EOS) effects in interval-parameter constraints for a representative waste management problem, an inexact piecewise-linearization-based fuzzy flexible programming (IPFP) model is developed. In IPFP, interval parameters for waste amounts and transportation/operation costs can be quantified; aspiration levels for net system costs, as well as tolerance intervals for both capacities of waste treatment facilities and waste generation rates can be reflected; and the nonlinear EOS effects transformed from objective function to constraints can be approximated. An interactive algorithm is proposed for solving the IPFP model, which in nature is an interval-parameter mixed-integer quadratically constrained programming model. To demonstrate the IPFP's advantages, two alternative models are developed to compare their performances. One is a conventional linear-regression-based inexact fuzzy programming model (IPFP2) and the other is an IPFP model with all right-hand-sides of fussy constraints being the corresponding interval numbers (IPFP3). The comparison results between IPFP and IPFP2 indicate that the optimized waste amounts would have the similar patterns in both models. However, when dealing with EOS effects in constraints, the IPFP2 may underestimate the net system costs while the IPFP can estimate the costs more accurately. The comparison results between IPFP and IPFP3 indicate that their solutions would be significantly different. The decreased system uncertainties in IPFP's solutions demonstrate its effectiveness for providing more satisfactory interval solutions than IPFP3. Following its first application to waste management, the IPFP can be potentially applied to other environmental problems under multiple complexities.

  9. Self-Assembly of Reactive Linear Cu3 Building Blocks for Supramolecular Coordination Chemistry and Their Reactivity toward En Ligand Complexes.

    PubMed

    Fleischmann, Martin; Dütsch, Luis; Elsayed Moussa, Mehdi; Balázs, Gábor; Kremer, Werner; Lescop, Christophe; Scheer, Manfred

    2016-03-21

    This study describes the selective synthesis of linear, trinuclear, halide-bridged Cu(I) complexes [Cu3(μ-X)2(μ-dpmp)2(MeCN)2](+) (1a: X = Cl; 1b: X = Br; 1c: X = I) stabilized by the tridentate dpmp ligand obtained by self-assembly reactions in THF/MeCN. Upon drying, the MeCN ligands can be removed and the complexes are transformed to the reactive parent trinuclear [Cu3(μ-X)2(μ-dpmp)2](+) (2a-c) building blocks with two vacant coordination sites on the terminal Cu atoms. Another synthesis in CH2Cl2 directly yields 2a-c. Additionally, two related isomeric compounds, 2a* and 2c*, and two CH2Cl2-ligated complexes, [Cu3(μ-X)2(μ-dpmp)2(CH2Cl2)2](+) (X = Br (3b), I (3c)), were structurally characterized. The frameworks of the cationic [Cu3(μ-X)2(μ-dpmp)2](+) complexes are stable in solution at low temperatures and show dynamic coordination behavior at elevated temperatures, indicated by new signals arising in the (31)P{(1)H} NMR spectra. This evolution cannot be shifted back by decreasing the temperature again. However, cationic [Cu3(μ-X)2(μ-dpmp)2](+) (X = Cl, Br, I) complexes can be obtained selectively in the solid state upon crystallization. Although reactions of 2a-c with complexes [{CpMo(CO)2}2(μ,η(2):η(2)-E2)] (E = P (A1), As (A2)) led to unsymmetrically substituted [Cu3(μ-X)2(μ-dpmp)2(η(1)-L)](+) (4a-c: X = Cl-I, L = A1; 5: X = Cl, L = A2) complexes, reactions with the cyclo-P3 complex [CpMo(CO)2(η(3)-P3)] (B) afforded zigzag chain polymers [Cu3(μ-X)2(μ-dpmp)2(μ,η(1):η(1)-B)]n[BF4]n (6a: X = Cl; 6b: X = Br) and symmetrically substituted complex [Cu3(μ-I)2(μ-dpmp)2(η(1)-B)2](+) (7). Reactions of 2a-c with cyclo-E5 complexes [Cp*Fe(η(5)-E5)] (E = P (C1), As (C2)) led to the isolation of one-dimensional coordination polymers [Cu3(μ-X)2(μ-dpmp)2(μ,η(1):η(1)-L)]n[BF4]n (8a-b: X = Cl-Br, L = C1; 9: X = Cl, L = C2) and symmetrically substituted complex [Cu3(μ-I)2(μ-dpmp)2(η(1)-C1)2](+) (10). All products exhibit a trinuclear, cationic [Cu3(μ-X)2(μ-dpmp)2](+) complex as the central structural motif. Variation of the intramolecular Cu-Cu distances inside the Cu3 complexes is discussed, and supporting DFT computations for the model complex [Cu3(μ-Cl)2(dmmp)2{(η(1)-A1)}](+) (4a') are presented. PMID:26950219

  10. Complexity transitions in global algorithms for sparse linear systems over finite fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braunstein, A.; Leone, M.; Ricci-Tersenghi, F.; Zecchina, R.

    2002-09-01

    We study the computational complexity of a very basic problem, namely that of finding solutions to a very large set of random linear equations in a finite Galois field modulo q. Using tools from statistical mechanics we are able to identify phase transitions in the structure of the solution space and to connect them to the changes in the performance of a global algorithm, namely Gaussian elimination. Crossing phase boundaries produces a dramatic increase in memory and CPU requirements necessary for the algorithms. In turn, this causes the saturation of the upper bounds for the running time. We illustrate the results on the specific problem of integer factorization, which is of central interest for deciphering messages encrypted with the RSA cryptosystem.

  11. FORTRAN subroutines for out-of-core solutions of large complex linear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yip, E. L.

    1979-01-01

    The design and usage of two main subprograms using direct methods to solve large linear complex systems, of the form Ax = b, whose coeffficient matrices are too large to be stored in core are described. The first main subprogram is for systems whose coefficient matrices are of a particular sparse structure, namely, the matrix A can be written in the form B + D, where B is a block-banded system, and D has only a few columns of nonzeros. Key elements of the algorithms used in the subprograms include: the data structure, the strategy for preserving numerical stability, the adaptability of the algorithms for dense systems as well as for block-profile systems.

  12. Solitons supported by two-dimensional mixed linear-nonlinear complex optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Xiaoping; Wang, Hong; Li, Zhen; Wang, Hongcheng

    2015-12-01

    The evolution of solitons in the two-dimensional mixed linear-nonlinear complex optical lattices is investigated. It is found that the nonlinearity-modulation depth plays a significant role on the existence of solitons. Both the nonlinearity-modulation depth and amplitude of the imaginary part of nonlinear lattice have a great effect on the stability of solitons. Moreover, the period of nonlinear lattice can influence the properties of solitons dramatically. In addition, we also study the mobility of solitons and find that the soliton can maintain its original shape while the mass center of solitons will oscillate periodically in a certain tilt angle range. However, if the tilt angle is large enough, the soliton will be distorted and its mass center oscillates irregularly.

  13. Two dimensional symmetric correlation functions of the S-circumflex operator and two dimensional Fourier transforms: Considering the line coupling for P and R lines of linear molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Q.; Tipping, R. H.

    2014-03-14

    The refinement of the Robert-Bonamy (RB) formalism by considering the line coupling for isotropic Raman Q lines of linear molecules developed in our previous study [Q. Ma, C. Boulet, and R. H. Tipping, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 034305 (2013)] has been extended to infrared P and R lines. In these calculations, the main task is to derive diagonal and off-diagonal matrix elements of the Liouville operator iS{sub 1} ? S{sub 2} introduced in the formalism. When one considers the line coupling for isotropic Raman Q lines where their initial and final rotational quantum numbers are identical, the derivations of off-diagonal elements do not require extra correlation functions of the S-circumflex operator and their Fourier transforms except for those used in deriving diagonal elements. In contrast, the derivations for infrared P and R lines become more difficult because they require a lot of new correlation functions and their Fourier transforms. By introducing two dimensional correlation functions labeled by two tensor ranks and making variable changes to become even functions, the derivations only require the latters two dimensional Fourier transforms evaluated at two modulation frequencies characterizing the averaged energy gap and the frequency detuning between the two coupled transitions. With the coordinate representation, it is easy to accurately derive these two dimensional correlation functions. Meanwhile, by using the sampling theory one is able to effectively evaluate their two dimensional Fourier transforms. Thus, the obstacles in considering the line coupling for P and R lines have been overcome. Numerical calculations have been carried out for the half-widths of both the isotropic Raman Q lines and the infrared P and R lines of C{sub 2}H{sub 2} broadened by N{sub 2}. In comparison with values derived from the RB formalism, new calculated values are significantly reduced and become closer to measurements.

  14. Two Dimensional Symmetric Correlation Functions of the S Operator and Two Dimensional Fourier Transforms: Considering the Line Coupling for P and R Lines of Linear Molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Q.; Boulet, C.; Tipping, R. H.

    2014-01-01

    The refinement of the Robert-Bonamy (RB) formalism by considering the line coupling for isotropic Raman Q lines of linear molecules developed in our previous study [Q. Ma, C. Boulet, and R. H. Tipping, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 034305 (2013)] has been extended to infrared P and R lines. In these calculations, the main task is to derive diagonal and off-diagonal matrix elements of the Liouville operator iS1 - S2 introduced in the formalism. When one considers the line coupling for isotropic Raman Q lines where their initial and final rotational quantum numbers are identical, the derivations of off-diagonal elements do not require extra correlation functions of the ^S operator and their Fourier transforms except for those used in deriving diagonal elements. In contrast, the derivations for infrared P and R lines become more difficult because they require a lot of new correlation functions and their Fourier transforms. By introducing two dimensional correlation functions labeled by two tensor ranks and making variable changes to become even functions, the derivations only require the latters' two dimensional Fourier transforms evaluated at two modulation frequencies characterizing the averaged energy gap and the frequency detuning between the two coupled transitions. With the coordinate representation, it is easy to accurately derive these two dimensional correlation functions. Meanwhile, by using the sampling theory one is able to effectively evaluate their two dimensional Fourier transforms. Thus, the obstacles in considering the line coupling for P and R lines have been overcome. Numerical calculations have been carried out for the half-widths of both the isotropic Raman Q lines and the infrared P and R lines of C2H2 broadened by N2. In comparison with values derived from the RB formalism, new calculated values are significantly reduced and become closer to measurements.

  15. Slow magnetic relaxation of light lanthanide-based linear LnZn2 trinuclear complexes.

    PubMed

    Takehara, Chika; Then, Poh Ling; Kataoka, Yumiko; Nakano, Motohiro; Yamamura, Tomoo; Kajiwara, Takashi

    2015-11-01

    Four isostructural LnZn2 trinuclear complexes, [Ln(NO3){Zn(L)(SCN)}2] (H2L is a Schiff base ligand derived from o-vanillin and ethylenediamine), were synthesized, which include light lanthanide ions as spin carriers (Ln = Ce 1, Pr 2, Nd 3, and Sm 4). These complexes involve a linear Zn(ii)-Ln(iii)-Zn(ii) array, which leads to an axially stressed ligand field and can also cause single-moleluce magnet (SMM) behavior in oblate-type electronic distributions of ground sublevels found in Ce(iii), Pr(iii), and Nd(iii). Slow magnetic relaxation behavior was observed in 1 and 3 under an applied bias dc field of 1000 Oe, whereas such a slow relaxation was not observed in 2 and 4. The appearance of field-induced SMM behavior in 1 and 3 was correlated with the even-numbered Jz sublevels of Ce(iii) and Nd(iii) ions known as the Kramers system. PMID:26435181

  16. Probabilistic cloning of three symmetric states

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, O.; Bergou, J.; Delgado, A.

    2010-12-15

    We study the probabilistic cloning of three symmetric states. These states are defined by a single complex quantity, the inner product among them. We show that three different probabilistic cloning machines are necessary to optimally clone all possible families of three symmetric states. We also show that the optimal cloning probability of generating M copies out of one original can be cast as the quotient between the success probability of unambiguously discriminating one and M copies of symmetric states.

  17. Nonlinear symmetric stability of planetary atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, J.C.; Shepherd, T.G.

    1994-11-01

    The energy-Casimir method is applied to the problem of symmetric stability in the context of a compressible, hydrostatic planetary atmosphere with a general equation of state. Linear stability criteria for symmetric disturbances to a zonally symmetric baroclinic flow are obtained. In the special case of a perfect gas the results of Stevens (1983) are recovered. Nonlinear stability conditions are also obtained that, in addition to implying linear stability, provide an upper bound on a certain positive-definite measure of disturbance amplitude.

  18. Two C3 -symmetric Dy3III complexes with triple di-?-methoxo-?-phenoxo bridges, magnetic ground state, and single-molecule magnetic behavior.

    PubMed

    Hnninen, Mikko M; Mota, Antonio J; Aravena, Daniel; Ruiz, Eliseo; Sillanp, Reijo; Camn, Agustn; Evangelisti, Marco; Colacio, Enrique

    2014-07-01

    Two series of isostructural C(3)-symmetric Ln(3) complexes Ln(3)?[BPh(4)] and Ln(3)?0.33[Ln(NO(3))(6)] (in which Ln(III) =Gd and Dy) have been prepared from an amino-bis(phenol) ligand. X-ray studies reveal that Ln(III) ions are connected by one ?(2)-phenoxo and two ?(3)-methoxo bridges, thus leading to a hexagonal bipyramidal Ln(3)O(5) bridging core in which Ln(III) ions exhibit a biaugmented trigonal-prismatic geometry. Magnetic susceptibility studies and ab initio complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) calculations indicate that the magnetic coupling between the Dy(III) ions, which possess a high axial anisotropy in the ground state, is very weakly antiferromagnetic and mainly dipolar in nature. To reduce the electronic repulsion from the coordinating oxygen atom with the shortest Dy-O distance, the local magnetic moments are oriented almost perpendicular to the Dy(3) plane, thus leading to a paramagnetic ground state. CASSCF plus restricted active space state interaction (RASSI) calculations also show that the ground and first excited state of the Dy(III) ions are separated by approximately 150 and 177?cm(-1), for Dy(3)?[BPh(4)] and Dy(3)?0.33[Dy(NO(3))(6)], respectively. As expected for these large energy gaps, Dy(3)?[BPh(4)] and Dy(3)?0.33[Dy(NO(3)(6)] exhibit, under zero direct-current (dc) field, thermally activated slow relaxation of the magnetization, which overlap with a quantum tunneling relaxation process. Under an applied Hdc field of 1000?Oe, Dy(3)?[BPh(4)] exhibits two thermally activated processes with U(eff) values of 34.7 and 19.5?cm(-1), whereas Dy(3)?0.33[Dy(NO(3))(6)] shows only one activated process with Ueff =19.5?cm(-1). PMID:24890335

  19. Minimally symmetric Higgs boson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, Ian

    2015-06-01

    Models addressing the naturalness of a light Higgs boson typically employ symmetries, either bosonic or fermionic, to stabilize the Higgs mass. We consider a setup with the minimal amount of symmetries: four shift symmetries acting on the four components of the Higgs doublet, subject to the constraints of linearly realized S U (2 )LU (1 )Y electroweak symmetry. Up to terms that explicitly violate the shift symmetries, the effective Lagrangian can be derived, irrespective of the spontaneously broken group G in the ultraviolet, and is universal among all models where the Higgs arises as a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson. Very high energy scatterings of vector bosons could provide smoking gun signals of a minimally symmetric Higgs boson.

  20. Interpolation via symmetric exponential functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezubik, Agata; Pota, Severin

    2013-11-01

    Complex valued functions on the Euclidean space Bbb Rn, symmetric or antisymmetric with respect to the permutation group Sn, are often dealt with in various branches of physics, such as quantum theory or theory of integrable systems. One often needs to approximate such functions with series consisting of various special functions which satisfy nice properties. Questions of uniform convergence of such approximations are crucial for applications. In this article a family of special functions called the symmetric exponential functions are used for such approximation and the uniform convergence of their sums is considered.

  1. T-Matrix Modeling of Linear Depolarization by Morphologically Complex Soot and Soot-Containing Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Liu, Li; Mackowski, Daniel W.

    2013-01-01

    We use state-of-the-art public-domain Fortran codes based on the T-matrix method to calculate orientation and ensemble averaged scattering matrix elements for a variety of morphologically complex black carbon (BC) and BC-containing aerosol particles, with a special emphasis on the linear depolarization ratio (LDR). We explain theoretically the quasi-Rayleigh LDR peak at side-scattering angles typical of low-density soot fractals and conclude that the measurement of this feature enables one to evaluate the compactness state of BC clusters and trace the evolution of low-density fluffy fractals into densely packed aggregates. We show that small backscattering LDRs measured with groundbased, airborne, and spaceborne lidars for fresh smoke generally agree with the values predicted theoretically for fluffy BC fractals and densely packed near-spheroidal BC aggregates. To reproduce higher lidar LDRs observed for aged smoke, one needs alternative particle models such as shape mixtures of BC spheroids or cylinders.

  2. Theoretical investigation on switchable second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of novel cyclopentadienylcobalt linear [4]phenylene complexes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Yong; Du, Xiao-Feng; Ma, Na-Na; Sun, Shi-Ling; Qiu, Yong-Qing

    2013-04-01

    As a kind of novel organometallic complexes, the cyclopentadienylcobalt (CpCo) linear [4]phenylene complexes (4 = number of benzene rings) display efficient switchable nonlinear optical (NLO) response when CpCo reversibly migrates along the linear [4]phenylene triggered by heating or lighting. In this paper, the second-order NLO properties for CpCo linear [4]phenylene complexes were calculated by using the density functional theory (DFT) methods with four functionals. All of the functionals yield the same order of ? tot values: 1<2<4<3. The effect of solvent on second-order NLO properties has been studied using polarized continuum model (PCM) in the tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution. The solvent leads to a slight enhancement of the NLO responses for the studied complexes relevant to their NLO responses in vacuo. The electronic absorption spectra were investigated by the TDDFT methods. The TDDFT calculations indicate that the maximum absorption peaks of complexes 2-4 in the near-infrared spectrum area show the bathochromic shift together with a decreasing intensity compared to complex 1. We have also found that the cobalt (Co) atom acts as a donor in all the organometallic complexes and the d ? ?* and ? ? ?* charge transfer (CT) transitions contribute to the enhancement of second-order NLO response. Furthermore, two experimentally existing complexes 1 and 3 are found to have a large difference in ? tot values. It is our expectation that this difference may stimulate the search for a new type of switchable NLO material based on CpCo linear [4]phenylene complexes. PMID:23306734

  3. The linear and non-linear characterization of dust ion acoustic mode in complex plasma in presence of dynamical charging of dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Saurav; Das, Nilakshi

    2015-10-01

    A systematic theoretical investigation has been carried out on the role of dust charging dynamics on the nature and stability of DIA (Dust Ion Acoustic) mode in complex plasma. The study has been made for both linear and non-linear scale regime of DIA mode. The observed results have been characterized in terms of background plasma responses towards dust surface responsible for dust charge fluctuation, invoking important dusty plasma parameters, especially the ion flow speed and dust size. The linear analyses confirm the nature of instability in DIA mode in presence of dust charge fluctuation. The instability shows a damping of DIA mode in subsonic flow regime followed by a gradual growth in instability in supersonic limit of ion flow. The strength of non-linearity and their existence domain is found to be driven by different dusty plasma parameters. As dust is ubiquitous in interstellar medium with plasma background, the study also addresses the possible effect of dust charging dynamics in gravito-electrostatic characterization and the stability of dust molecular clouds especially in proto-planetary disc. The observations are influential and interesting towards the understanding of dust settling mechanism and formation of dust environments in different regions in space.

  4. Efficient spectral simulations of complex non-linear and time-dependent flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitropoulos, Costas Dimitrios

    2000-06-01

    In this work we developed highly accurate and efficient (linearly scalable with the number of unknowns) spectral methods with applications in multidimensional time-dependent flows of complex fluids in various geometries, such as free-surface flows with surfactants, turbulent flows and viscoelastic flows. A pseudospectral method was developed for incompressible flow simulations in two-dimensional channels with significant boundary deformations, utilizing pseudoconformal mapping, second-order explicit/implicit time-splitting, the influence matrix method to enforce continuity and a spectrally preconditioned biconjugate gradient iterative solver for nonseparable elliptic equations. It was further extended for time-dependent free-surface flows in the presence of an insoluble surfactant, using fully implicit time-integration to accommodate the highly nonlinear free-surface motion. Transverse wave simulations are in excellent agreement with linear theory. Furthermore, longitudinal waves simulated with the specific flow conditions in this work showed sensitivity to the initial guess, evolving at long times to superimposed longitudinal and transverse waves. The implicit time-integration scheme is also advantageous in direct numerical simulation (DNS) of turbulent channel flow of fluids with internal microstructure, where highly nonlinear constitutive equations are utilized. DNS were used to study polymer-induced drag reduction using the FENE-P and Giesekus models. All results for different values of the molecular extensibility and the solvent viscosity ratio are consistent with experiments and proposed mechanisms for drag reduction based on a substantially increased extensional viscosity compared to the shear viscosity. Large magnitudes of drag reduction were observed with increasing extensional viscosity and all flow statistics show consistent trends. A critical range of the onset Weissenberg number, independent of the model and the chain extensibility, was identified. Giesekus model simulations demonstrate that the second normal-stress coefficient induces additional drag reduction. Reynolds stress, turbulent kinetic energy and streamwise enstrophy budgets for the FENE-P fluid demonstrated that as the extensional viscosity increases all components of the production of Reynolds stress, the pressure-velocity gradient, as well as other terms in the budgets decrease. The decrease in streamwise enstrophy production is consistent with the inhibition of vortex stretching by a large extensional viscosity.

  5. Optimal symmetric flight studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weston, A. R.; Menon, P. K. A.; Bilimoria, K. D.; Cliff, E. M.; Kelley, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    Several topics in optimal symmetric flight of airbreathing vehicles are examined. In one study, an approximation scheme designed for onboard real-time energy management of climb-dash is developed and calculations for a high-performance aircraft presented. In another, a vehicle model intermediate in complexity between energy and point-mass models is explored and some quirks in optimal flight characteristics peculiar to the model uncovered. In yet another study, energy-modelling procedures are re-examined with a view to stretching the range of validity of zeroth-order approximation by special choice of state variables. In a final study, time-fuel tradeoffs in cruise-dash are examined for the consequences of nonconvexities appearing in the classical steady cruise-dash model. Two appendices provide retrospective looks at two early publications on energy modelling and related optimal control theory.

  6. EVALUATING PREDICTIVE ERRORS OF A COMPLEX ENVIRONMENTAL MODEL USING A GENERAL LINEAR MODEL AND LEAST SQUARE MEANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A General Linear Model (GLM) was used to evaluate the deviation of predicted values from expected values for a complex environmental model. For this demonstration, we used the default level interface of the Regional Mercury Cycling Model (R-MCM) to simulate epilimnetic total mer...

  7. Two-dimensional linear modes and solitons in parity-time symmetry bessel complex-valued potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Haibo; Hu, Sumei

    2015-11-01

    We study the optical properties of two-dimensional linear modes and solitons in parity-time (PT) symmetry Bessel complex-valued potential. The PT-breaking points, the eigenvalues and eigenfunction for different modulated depths of two-dimensional PT symmetry Bessel complex potential are obtained numerically. The PT-breaking points increase linearly with increasing the real part of the modulated depths of PT potential. The existence of fundamental and dipole solitons are studied in self-focusing and self-defocusing media. The eigenvalue for linear case is equal to the critical propagation constant bc of the existing soliton. The fundamental solitons are stable in both the self-focusing and self-defocusing media, and the dipole solitons are stable in the self-defocusing media but unstable in the self-focusing media.

  8. Three PT-symmetric Hamiltonians with completely different spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernndez, Francisco M.; Garcia, Javier

    2015-12-01

    We discuss three Hamiltonians, each with a central-field part H0 and a PT-symmetric perturbation igz. When H0 is the isotropic Harmonic oscillator the spectrum is real for all g because H is isospectral to H0 +g2 / 2. When H0 is the Hydrogen atom then infinitely many eigenvalues are complex for all g. If the potential in H0 is linear in the radial variable r then the spectrum of H exhibits real eigenvalues for 0 < g

  9. Meta-analysis of Complex Diseases at Gene Level with Generalized Functional Linear Models.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ruzong; Wang, Yifan; Chiu, Chi-Yang; Chen, Wei; Ren, Haobo; Li, Yun; Boehnke, Michael; Amos, Christopher I; Moore, Jason H; Xiong, Momiao

    2016-02-01

    We developed generalized functional linear models (GFLMs) to perform a meta-analysis of multiple case-control studies to evaluate the relationship of genetic data to dichotomous traits adjusting for covariates. Unlike the previously developed meta-analysis for sequence kernel association tests (MetaSKATs), which are based on mixed-effect models to make the contributions of major gene loci random, GFLMs are fixed models; i.e., genetic effects of multiple genetic variants are fixed. Based on GFLMs, we developed chi-squared-distributed Rao's efficient score test and likelihood-ratio test (LRT) statistics to test for an association between a complex dichotomous trait and multiple genetic variants. We then performed extensive simulations to evaluate the empirical type I error rates and power performance of the proposed tests. The Rao's efficient score test statistics of GFLMs are very conservative and have higher power than MetaSKATs when some causal variants are rare and some are common. When the causal variants are all rare [i.e., minor allele frequencies (MAF) < 0.03], the Rao's efficient score test statistics have similar or slightly lower power than MetaSKATs. The LRT statistics generate accurate type I error rates for homogeneous genetic-effect models and may inflate type I error rates for heterogeneous genetic-effect models owing to the large numbers of degrees of freedom and have similar or slightly higher power than the Rao's efficient score test statistics. GFLMs were applied to analyze genetic data of 22 gene regions of type 2 diabetes data from a meta-analysis of eight European studies and detected significant association for 18 genes (P < 3.10 10(-6)), tentative association for 2 genes (HHEX and HMGA2; P ? 10(-5)), and no association for 2 genes, while MetaSKATs detected none. In addition, the traditional additive-effect model detects association at gene HHEX. GFLMs and related tests can analyze rare or common variants or a combination of the two and can be useful in whole-genome and whole-exome association studies. PMID:26715663

  10. Transmission of linear regression patterns between time series: From relationship in time series to complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiangyun; An, Haizhong; Fang, Wei; Huang, Xuan; Li, Huajiao; Zhong, Weiqiong; Ding, Yinghui

    2014-07-01

    The linear regression parameters between two time series can be different under different lengths of observation period. If we study the whole period by the sliding window of a short period, the change of the linear regression parameters is a process of dynamic transmission over time. We tackle fundamental research that presents a simple and efficient computational scheme: a linear regression patterns transmission algorithm, which transforms linear regression patterns into directed and weighted networks. The linear regression patterns (nodes) are defined by the combination of intervals of the linear regression parameters and the results of the significance testing under different sizes of the sliding window. The transmissions between adjacent patterns are defined as edges, and the weights of the edges are the frequency of the transmissions. The major patterns, the distance, and the medium in the process of the transmission can be captured. The statistical results of weighted out-degree and betweenness centrality are mapped on timelines, which shows the features of the distribution of the results. Many measurements in different areas that involve two related time series variables could take advantage of this algorithm to characterize the dynamic relationships between the time series from a new perspective.

  11. Conformally symmetric traversable wormholes

    SciTech Connect

    Boehmer, Christian G.; Harko, Tiberiu; Lobo, Francisco S. N.

    2007-10-15

    Exact solutions of traversable wormholes are found under the assumption of spherical symmetry and the existence of a nonstatic conformal symmetry, which presents a more systematic approach in searching for exact wormhole solutions. In this work, a wide variety of solutions are deduced by considering choices for the form function, a specific linear equation of state relating the energy density and the pressure anisotropy, and various phantom wormhole geometries are explored. A large class of solutions impose that the spatial distribution of the exotic matter is restricted to the throat neighborhood, with a cutoff of the stress-energy tensor at a finite junction interface, although asymptotically flat exact solutions are also found. Using the 'volume integral quantifier', it is found that the conformally symmetric phantom wormhole geometries may, in principle, be constructed by infinitesimally small amounts of averaged null energy condition violating matter. Considering the tidal acceleration traversability conditions for the phantom wormhole geometry, specific wormhole dimensions and the traversal velocity are also deduced.

  12. A dense out-of-core solver (DOCS) for complex-valued linear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Cullen E.

    1998-09-01

    Dense systems of linear equations are quite common in many science and engineering applications. Such linear systems place extreme storage and computational demands on computer resources and, in many cases, may severely limit the subsequent analysis. A dense out-of-core solver (DOCS) that operates on a partitioned coefficient matrix can reduce the in-core storage requirements of the linear system while spreading the associated computational burden over multiple processors (which reduces run time as well). In this report, I describe a DOCS that operates on a partitioned coefficient matrix that maybe distributed over multiple external storage devices. I have implemented this solver using Message-Passing Interface (MPI) protocols. This report presents petiormance data from a series of run time trials that compare the run time of both sequential and parallel implementations of the DOCS.

  13. Linear trinuclear Zn(II)-Ce(III)-Zn(II) complex which behaves as a single-molecule magnet.

    PubMed

    Hino, Shiori; Maeda, Moe; Yamashita, Kei; Kataoka, Yumiko; Nakano, Motohiro; Yamamura, Tomoo; Nojiri, Hiroyuki; Kofu, Maiko; Yamamuro, Osamu; Kajiwara, Takashi

    2013-02-28

    Linear Zn(II)-Ce(III)-Zn(II) complex, which involves only one 4f electron as a spin source, behaves as an SMM. Easy-axis magnetic anisotropy for the ground (2)F(5/2) state of Ce(III) was achieved by a uni-axial crystal field, which is formed with four phenoxo oxygens as axial donors with the other five oxygens as equatorial donors. PMID:23303168

  14. Estimation of Complex Generalized Linear Mixed Models for Measurement and Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Minjeong

    2012-01-01

    Maximum likelihood (ML) estimation of generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) is technically challenging because of the intractable likelihoods that involve high dimensional integrations over random effects. The problem is magnified when the random effects have a crossed design and thus the data cannot be reduced to small independent clusters. A…

  15. Estimation of Complex Generalized Linear Mixed Models for Measurement and Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Minjeong

    2012-01-01

    Maximum likelihood (ML) estimation of generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) is technically challenging because of the intractable likelihoods that involve high dimensional integrations over random effects. The problem is magnified when the random effects have a crossed design and thus the data cannot be reduced to small independent clusters. A

  16. Linear Motif-Mediated Interactions Have Contributed to the Evolution of Modularity in Complex Protein Interaction Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Inhae; Lee, Heetak; Han, Seong Kyu; Kim, Sanguk

    2014-01-01

    The modular architecture of protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks is evident in diverse species with a wide range of complexity. However, the molecular components that lead to the evolution of modularity in PPI networks have not been clearly identified. Here, we show that weak domain-linear motif interactions (DLIs) are more likely to connect different biological modules than strong domain-domain interactions (DDIs). This molecular division of labor is essential for the evolution of modularity in the complex PPI networks of diverse eukaryotic species. In particular, DLIs may compensate for the reduction in module boundaries that originate from increased connections between different modules in complex PPI networks. In addition, we show that the identification of biological modules can be greatly improved by including molecular characteristics of protein interactions. Our findings suggest that transient interactions have played a unique role in shaping the architecture and modularity of biological networks over the course of evolution. PMID:25299147

  17. Infrared linear dichroism of oriented DNA-ligand complexes prepared with the wet-spinning method.

    PubMed Central

    Fritzsche, H; Rupprecht, A; Richter, M

    1984-01-01

    Oriented DNA films prepared by the wet-spinning technique have been complexed with several ligands: the anthracycline antibiotic violamycin BI, the dipeptide L-carnosine, and the oligopeptide antibiotic netropsin. The formation of the DNA-ligand complexes is accompanied by dramatic changes of the conformational flexibility of DNA. The B-A transition which occurs usually between 80% and 70% relative humidity (RH) is more or less suppressed by the ligands. Violamycin BI at a total ligand per DNA base pair ratio, rt, of approximately 0.03 and L-carnosine at rt approximately 1.5 inhibit the B-A transition of approximately 18 and approximately 0.25 base pairs per ligand molecule, respectively. Netropsin at rt = 0.2 induces a very stable B-DNA even at rather low RH (23%). The total hydration of this complex is significantly higher than for a drug-free DNA film. Netropsin-DNA complexes at rt of 0.02 and 0.01 result in an inhibition of approximately 45 base pairs per drug molecule with respect to the B-A transition. PMID:6096820

  18. Structure of an Antibody in Complex with Its Mucin Domain Linear Epitope That Is Protective against Ebola Virus

    PubMed Central

    Olal, Daniel; Kuehne, Ana I.; Bale, Shridhar; Halfmann, Peter; Hashiguchi, Takao; Fusco, Marnie L.; Lee, Jeffrey E.; King, Liam B.; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Dye, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Antibody 14G7 is protective against lethal Ebola virus challenge and recognizes a distinct linear epitope in the prominent mucin-like domain of the Ebola virus glycoprotein GP. The structure of 14G7 in complex with its linear peptide epitope has now been determined to 2.8 . The structure shows that this GP sequence forms a tandem ?-hairpin structure that binds deeply into a cleft in the antibody-combining site. A key threonine at the apex of one turn is critical for antibody interaction and is conserved among all Ebola viruses. This work provides further insight into the mechanism of protection by antibodies that target the protruding, highly accessible mucin-like domain of Ebola virus and the structural framework for understanding and characterizing candidate immunotherapeutics. PMID:22171276

  19. Symmetric image registration.

    PubMed

    Rogelj, Peter; Kovacic, Stanislav

    2006-06-01

    This paper presents an original non-rigid image registration approach, which tends to improve the registration by establishing a symmetric image interdependence. In order to gather more information about the image transformation it measures the image similarity in both registration directions. The presented solution is based on the interaction between the images involved in the registration process. Images interact through forces, which according to Newton's action-reaction law form a symmetric relationship. These forces may transform both of the images, although in our implementation one of the images remains fixed. The experiments performed to demonstrate the advantages of the symmetric registration approach involve the registration of simple objects, the recovery of synthetic deformation, and the inter-patient registration of real images of the head. The results show that the symmetric approach improves both the registration consistency and the registration correctness. PMID:15896998

  20. Symmetrical gait descriptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunajewski, Adam; Dusza, Jacek J.; Rosado Muoz, Alfredo

    2014-11-01

    The article presents a proposal for the description of human gait as a periodic and symmetric process. Firstly, the data for researches was obtained in the Laboratory of Group SATI in the School of Engineering of University of Valencia. Then, the periodical model - Mean Double Step (MDS) was made. Finally, on the basis of MDS, the symmetrical models - Left Mean Double Step and Right Mean Double Step (LMDS and RMDS) could be created. The method of various functional extensions was used. Symmetrical gait models can be used to calculate the coefficients of asymmetry at any time or phase of the gait. In this way it is possible to create asymmetry, function which better describes human gait dysfunction. The paper also describes an algorithm for calculating symmetric models, and shows exemplary results based on the experimental data.

  1. Symmetric continued fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Panprasitwech, Oranit; Laohakosol, Vichian; Chaichana, Tuangrat

    2010-11-11

    Explicit formulae for continued fractions with symmetric patterns in their partial quotients are constructed in the field of formal power series. Similar to the work of Cohn in 1996, which generalized the so-called folding lemma to {kappa}-fold symmetry, the notion of {kappa}-duplicating symmetric continued fractions is investigated using a modification of the 1995 technique due to Clemens, Merrill and Roeder.

  2. Mechanistic studies on the formation of linear polyethylene chain catalyzed by palladium phosphine-sulfonate complexes: experiment and theoretical studies.

    PubMed

    Noda, Shusuke; Nakamura, Akifumi; Kochi, Takuya; Chung, Lung Wa; Morokuma, Keiji; Nozaki, Kyoko

    2009-10-01

    Linear polyethylene propagation starting from Pd phosphine-sulfonate complexes, Pd(CH(3))(L)(Ar(2)PC(6)H(4)SO(3)) (L = 2,6-lutidine, Ar = o-MeOC(6)H(4) (2a) and L = pyridine, Ar = Ph (2b)), was studied both experimentally and theoretically. Experimentally, highly linear polyethylene was obtained with Pd(CH(3))(L)(Ar(2)PC(6)H(4)SO(3)) complexes 2a and 2b. Formation of a long alkyl-substituted palladium complex (3) was detected as a result of ethylene oligomerization on a palladium center starting from methylpalladium complex. Additionally, well-defined ethyl and propyl complexes (6(Et) and 6(Pr)) were synthesized as stable n-alkyl palladium complexes. In spite of the existence of beta-hydrogens, the beta-hydride elimination to give 1-alkenes was very slow or negligible in all cases. On the other hand, isomerization of 1-hexene in the presence of a methylpalladium/phosphine-sulfonate complex 2a indicated that this catalyst system actually undergoes beta-hydride elimination and reinsertion to release internal alkenes. On the theoretical side, the relative energies were calculated for intermediates and transition states for chain-growth, chain-walking, and chain-transfer on the basis of the starting model complex Pd(n-C(3)H(7))(pyridine)(o-Me(2)PC(6)H(4)SO(3)) (8). First, cis/trans isomerization process via the Berry's pseudorotation was proposed for the Pd/phosphine-sulfonate system. The second oxygen atom of sulfonate group is involved in the isomerization process as the associative ligand, which is one of the most unique natures of the sulfonate group. Chain propagation was suggested to take place from the less stable alkylPd(ethylene) complex 10' with the TS of 27.4/27.7 ((E+ZPC)/G) kcal/mol. Possible beta-hydride elimination was suggested to occur under low concentration of ethylene: the highest-energy transition state to override for beta-hydride elimination was either >37.4/25.3 kcal/mol (TS(9-12)) or 29.1/27.4 kcal/mol (TS(8'-9') to reach 12'). The ethylene insertion to the iso-alkylpalladium species (14') is allowed via a TS of 28.6/29.1 kcal/mol (TS(14'-15')), slightly higher in energy than that for the normal-alkylpalladium species (TS(10'-11')). Easy chain transfer was suggested to proceed from the more stable PdH(olefin) complex 12' if beta-hydride elimination to 12' does take place. Thus, the production of linear polyethylene with high molecular weight under ethylene pressure suggests that the cis and trans PdH(alkene)(phosphine-sulfonate) complexes (12 and 12') are merely accessible in the presence of excess amount of ethylene. PMID:19746977

  3. Octanuclear and nonanuclear supramolecular copper(II) complexes with linear "tritopic" ligands: structural and magnetic studies.

    PubMed

    Milway, Victoria A; Niel, Virginie; Abedin, Tareque S M; Xu, Zhiqiang; Thompson, Laurence K; Grove, Hilde; Miller, David O; Parsons, Stewart R

    2004-03-22

    The structures and magnetic properties of self-assembled copper(II) clusters and grids with the "tritopic" ligands 2poap (a), Cl2poap (b), m2poap (c), Cl2pomp (d), and 2pomp (e) are described [ligands derived by reaction of 4-R-2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic hydrazide (R = H, Cl, MeO) with 2-pyridinemethylimidate (a-c, respectively) or 2-acetylpyridine (d, R = Cl; e, R = H)]. Cl2poap and Cl2pomp self-assemble with Cu(NO(3))(2) to form octanuclear "pinwheel" cluster complexes [Cu(8)(Cl2poap-2H)(4)(NO(3))(8)].20H(2)O (1) and [Cu(8)(Cl2pomp-2H)(4)(NO(3))(8)].15H(2)O (2), built on a square [2 x 2] grid with four pendant copper arms, using "mild" reaction conditions. Similar reactions of Cl2pomp and 2pomp with Cu(ClO(4))(2) produce pinwheel clusters [Cu(8)(Cl2pomp-2H)(4)(H(2)O)(8)](ClO(4))(8).7H(2)O (3) and [Cu(8)(2pomp-2H)(4)(H(2)O)(8)](ClO(4))(8) (4), respectively. Heating a solution of 1 in MeOH/H(2)O produces a [3 x 3] nonanuclear square grid complex, [Cu(9)(Cl2poap-H)(3)(Cl2poap-2H)(3)](NO(3))(9).18H(2)O (5), which is also produced by direct reaction of the ligand and metal salt under similar conditions. Reaction of m2poap with Cu(NO(3))(2) produces only the [3 x 3] grid [Cu(9)(m2poap-H)(2)(m2poap-2H)(4)](NO(3))(8).17H(2)O (6) under similar conditions. Mixing the tritopic ligand 2poap with pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (picd) in the presence of Cu(NO(3))(2) produces a remarkable mixed ligand, nonanuclear grid complex [Cu(9)(2poap-H)(4)(picd-H)(3)(picd-2H)](NO(3))(9).9H(2)O (7), in which aromatic pi-stacking interactions are important in stabilizing the structure. Complexes 1-3 and 5-7 involve single oxygen atom (alkoxide) bridging connections between adjacent copper centers, while complex 4 has an unprecedented mixed micro-(N-N) and micro-O metal ion connectivity. Compound 1 (C(76)H(92)N(44)Cu(8)O(50)Cl(4)) crystallizes in the tetragonal system, space group I, with a = 21.645(1) A, c = 12.950(1) A, and Z = 2. Compound 2 (C(84)H(88)N(36)O(44)Cl(4)Cu(8)) crystallizes in the tetragonal system, space group I, with a = 21.2562(8) A, c = 12.7583(9) A, and Z = 2. Compound 4 (C(84)H(120)N(28)O(66)Cl(8)Cu(8)) crystallizes in the tetragonal system, space group I4(1)/a, with a = 20.7790(4) A, c = 32.561(1) A, and Z = 4. Compound 7(C(104)H(104)N(46)O(56)Cu(9)) crystallizes in the triclinic system, space group P, with a = 15.473(1) A, b = 19.869(2) A, c = 23.083(2) A, alpha = 88.890(2) degrees, beta = 81.511(2) degrees, gamma = 68.607(1) degrees, and Z = 2. All complexes exhibit dominant intramolecular ferromagnetic exchange coupling, resulting from an orthogonal bridging arrangement within each polynuclear structure. PMID:15018506

  4. Isospecific polymerization of 1-hexene by C1-symmetric half-metallocene dimethyl complexes of group 4 metals with bidentate N-substituted iminomethylpyrrolyl ligands.

    PubMed

    Yasumoto, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Keishi; Tsurugi, Hayato; Mashima, Kazushi

    2013-07-01

    Non-bridged half-metallocene dimethyl complexes of group 4 metals 2a-4a with an N-4-methoxyphenyl(iminomethyl)pyrrolyl ligand 1a were synthesized and characterized by NMR spectroscopy and X-ray analysis. Upon activation with [Ph3C][B(C6F5)4], these complexes became active catalysts for the polymerization of 1-hexene. A series of hafnium complexes with various N-substituents on the imine group of ligands 1b-1g were also prepared and applied as catalysts for 1-hexene polymerization. The activation parameters for the exchange process between the two methyl groups bound to the metal for Cp*MMe2(R-pyr) complexes were estimated by NMR shape analysis at various temperatures. The findings indicated that the transition state of the ligand flipping process might be associated with the isoselectivity of the polymerization reaction. PMID:23235804

  5. Multi-Party Privacy-Preserving Set Intersection with Quasi-Linear Complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheon, Jung Hee; Jarecki, Stanislaw; Seo, Jae Hong

    Secure computation of the set intersection functionality allows n parties to find the intersection between their datasets without revealing anything else about them. An efficient protocol for such a task could have multiple potential applications in commerce, health care, and security. However, all currently known secure set intersection protocols for n>2 parties have computational costs that are quadratic in the (maximum) number of entries in the dataset contributed by each party, making secure computation of the set intersection only practical for small datasets. In this paper, we describe the first multi-party protocol for securely computing the set intersection functionality with both the communication and the computation costs that are quasi-linear in the size of the datasets. For a fixed security parameter, our protocols require O(n2k) bits of communication and Õ(n2k) group multiplications per player in the malicious adversary setting, where k is the size of each dataset. Our protocol follows the basic idea of the protocol proposed by Kissner and Song, but we gain efficiency by using different representations of the polynomials associated with users' datasets and careful employment of algorithms that interpolate or evaluate polynomials on multiple points more efficiently. Moreover, the proposed protocol is robust. This means that the protocol outputs the desired result even if some corrupted players leave during the execution of the protocol.

  6. Complexation Between Weakly Basic Dendrimers and Linear Polyelectrolytes: Effects of Chain Stiffness, Grafts, and pOH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Thomas; Pandav, Gunja; Omar, Ahmad; Ganesan, Venkat

    2013-03-01

    The unique architecture and high charge density of dendrimer molecules have attracted interest for their utilization in gene delivery applications. The strong binding affinity of cationic dendrimers to genetic materials make them effective gene delivery vectors not only by shielding the nucleic acid (NA) material from degradative enzymes in the blood stream, but also by reducing the overall negative charge of the dendrimer-NA material complex, which in turn creates more favorable interaction with the anionic cell membrane. However, the high cytotoxicities of cationic dendrimers have motivated the development of polyethylene glycol (PEG) conjugated dendrimer molecules, which have been shown to reduce dendrimer cytotoxicity while still retaining transfection ability. In order to gain insight into how the addition of neutral grafts affects the binding affinity and conformations of dendrimer-NA material complexes, we have developed and numerically solved a Self-Consistent Field Theory approach for both grafted and non-grafted annealed charged dendrimer molecules in the presence of linear polyelectrolyte molecules. Specifically, this work examines the effect of linear polyelectrolyte stiffness, grafting chain length, and solution pOH.

  7. A HLL-Rankine-Hugoniot Riemann solver for complex non-linear hyperbolic problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guy, Capdeville

    2013-10-01

    We present a new HLL-type approximate Riemann solver that aims at capturing any isolated discontinuity without necessitating extensive characteristic analysis of governing partial differential equations. This property is especially attractive for complex hyperbolic systems with more than two equations. Following Linde's (2002) approach [6], we introduce a generic middle wave into the classical two-state HLL solver. The property of this third wave is typified by the way of a "strength indicator" that is derived from polynomial considerations. The polynomial that constitutes the basis of the procedure is made non-oscillatory by an adapted fourth-order WENO algorithm (CWENO4). This algorithm makes it possible to derive an expression for the strength indicator. According to the size of this latter parameter, the resulting solver (HLL-RH), either computes the multi-dimensional Rankine-Hugoniot equations if an isolated discontinuity appears in the Riemann fan, or asymptotically tends towards the two-state HLL solver if the solution is locally smooth. The asymptotic version of the HLL-RH solver is demonstrated to be positively conservative and entropy satisfying in its first-order multi-dimensional form provided that a relevant and not too restrictive CFL condition is considered; specific limitations of the conservative increments of the numerical solution and a suited entropy condition enable to maintain these properties in its high-order version. With a monotonicity-preserving algorithm for the time integration, the numerical method so generated, is third order in time and fourth-order accurate in space for the smooth part of the solution; moreover, the scheme is stable and accurate when capturing a shock wave, whatever the complexity of the underlying differential system. Extensive numerical tests for the one- and two-dimensional Euler equation of gas dynamics and comparisons with classical Godunov-type methods help to point out the potentialities and insufficiencies of the method.

  8. Systems of Differential Equations with Skew-Symmetric, Orthogonal Matrices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaister, P.

    2008-01-01

    The solution of a system of linear, inhomogeneous differential equations is discussed. The particular class considered is where the coefficient matrix is skew-symmetric and orthogonal, and where the forcing terms are sinusoidal. More general matrices are also considered.

  9. [Co5Tp*4(Me2bta)6]: A Highly Symmetrical Pentanuclear Kuratowski Complex Featuring Tris(pyrazolyl)borate and Benzotriazolate Ligands.

    PubMed

    Werner, Tamas W; Reschke, Stephan; Bunzen, Hana; von Nidda, Hans-Albrecht Krug; Deisenhofer, Joachim; Loidl, Alois; Volkmer, Dirk

    2016-02-01

    The pentanuclear Co(II) complex [Co5Tp*4(Me2bta)6] containing N-donor ligands (5,6-dimethyl benzotriazolate; Me2bta6) and N-donor capping ligands (tris(3,5-dimethyl-1-pyrazolyl)borate; Tp*) was prepared by a simple and efficient ligand exchange reaction from [Co5Cl4(Me2bta)6] and tetra-n-butyl ammonium tris(3,5-dimethyl-1-pyrazolyl)borate. Compared to the precursor complex [Co5Cl4(Me2bta)6], which contains one Co(II) ion in octahedral and four Co(II) ions in tetrahedral coordination geometry, the title compound features all five Co(II) ions in an octahedral coordination environment while keeping a high complex symmetry. This results in modified properties including improved solubility and distinct magnetic behavior as compared to the precursor complex. The molecular structure and phase purity of the compound was verified by XRPD, UV-vis, ESI-MS, IR, and NMR measurements. Thermal stability of the compound was determined via TGA. The magnetic properties of here reported novel complex [Co5Tp*4(Me2bta)6] as well as its precursor [Co5Cl4(Me2bta)6] were examined in detail via ESR and SQUID measurements, which indicated weak anti-ferromagnetic exchange interactions between high-spin Co(II) centers at T < 20 and 50 K, respectively. PMID:26828949

  10. A (Not Really) Complex Method for Finding Solutions to Linear Differential Equations. Modules and Monographs in Undergraduate Mathematics and Its Applications Project. UMAP Unit 497.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uebelacker, James W.

    This module considers ordinary linear differential equations with constant coefficients. The "complex method" used to find solutions is discussed, with numerous examples. The unit includes both problem sets and an exam, with answers provided for both. (MP)

  11. The complex viewpoint for transverse impasse points of quasi-linear differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to show that the singularities called impasse points of real implicit ordinary differential equations are generically branch points of the solution, using a complex viewpoint. This research starts from a result asserting that the real solution in most cases behaves like ±√{ x -x0 } at an impasse point (x0, y0). We extend the notion of regular impasse point defined in previous works, and consider instead transverse impasse point, where the underlying vector field is transverse to the singular locus, even in the case when this hypersurface is not a manifold locally. Here we make use of Puiseux expansions and we show that, under generic hypotheses, the solution is multivalued at such a point. We prove that the Puiseux exponent is related simply to the multiplicity of the impasse point in the singular locus: if M is the total multiplicity of the singularity (z0, y0), there is a unique solution at this point and it is M + 1-valued.

  12. Braids, shuffles and symmetrizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaev, A. P.; Ogievetsky, O. V.

    2009-07-01

    Multiplicative analogues of the shuffle elements of the braid group rings are introduced; in local representations they give rise to certain graded associative algebras (b-shuffle algebras). For the Hecke and BMW algebras, the (anti)-symmetrizers have simple expressions in terms of the multiplicative shuffles. The (anti)-symmetrizers can be expressed in terms of the highest multiplicative 1-shuffles (for the Hecke and BMW algebras) and in terms of the highest additive 1-shuffles (for the Hecke algebras). The spectra and multiplicities of eigenvalues of the operators of the multiplication by the multiplicative and additive 1-shuffles are examined. Dedicated to the memory of Aleosha Zamolodchikov.

  13. Different molecular complexity of linear-isomaltomegalosaccharides and ?-cyclodextrin on enhancing solubility of azo dye ethyl red: towards dye biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Lang, Weeranuch; Kumagai, Yuya; Sadahiro, Juri; Maneesan, Janjira; Okuyama, Masayuki; Mori, Haruhide; Sakairi, Nobuo; Kimura, Atsuo

    2014-10-01

    Intermolecular interaction of linear-type ?-(1 ? 6)-glucosyl megalosaccharide rich (L-IMS) and water-insoluble anionic ethyl red was firstly characterized in a comparison with inclusion complexation by cyclodextrins (CDs) to overcome the problem of poor solubility and bioavailability. Phase solubility studies indicated an enhancement of 3- and 9-fold over the solubility in water upon the presence of L-IMS and ?-CD, respectively. (1)H NMR and circular dichrosim spectra revealed the dye forms consisted of 1:1 stoichiometric inclusion complex within the ?-CD cavity, whereas they exhibited non-specific hydrophobic interaction, identified by solvent polarity changes, with L-IMS. The inclusion complex delivered by ?-CD showed an uncompetitive inhibitory-type effect to azoreductase, particularly with high water content that did not promote dye liberation. Addition of the solid dye dispersed into coupled-enzyme reaction system supplied by L-IMS as the dye solubilizer provided usual degradation rate. The dye intermission in series exhibited successful removal with at least 5 cycles was economically feasible. PMID:25087215

  14. Linear free energy relationships for metal-ligand complexation: Bidentate binding to negatively-charged oxygen donor atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonaro, Richard F.; Atalay, Yasemin B.; Di Toro, Dominic M.

    2011-05-01

    Stability constants for metal complexation to bidentate ligands containing negatively-charged oxygen donor atoms can be estimated from the following linear free energy relationship (LFER): log KML = ?OO( ?O log KHL,1 + ?O log KHL,2) where KML is the metal-ligand stability constant for a 1:1 complex, KHL,1 and KHL,2 are the proton-ligand stability constants (the ligand p Ka values), and ?O is the Irving-Rossotti slope. The parameter ?OO is metal specific and has slightly different values for five and six membered chelate rings. LFERs are presented for 21 different metal ions and are accurate to within approximately 0.30 log units in predictions of log KML values. Ligands selected for use in LFER development include dicarboxylic acids, carboxyphenols, and ortho-diphenols. For ortho-hydroxybenzaldehydes, ?-hydroxycarboxylic acids, and ?-ketocarboxylic acids, a modification of the LFER where log KHL,2 is set equal to zero is required. The chemical interpretation of ?OO is that it accounts for the extra stability afforded to metal complexes by the chelate effect. Cu-NOM binding constants calculated from the bidentate LFERs are similar in magnitude to those used in WHAM 6. This LFER can be used to make log KML predictions for small organic molecules. Since natural organic matter (NOM) contains many of the same functional groups (i.e. carboxylic acids, phenols, alcohols), the LFER log KML predictions shed light on the range of appropriate values for use in modeling metal partitioning in natural systems.

  15. PT-symmetric kinks

    SciTech Connect

    Souza Dutra, A. de; Santos, V. G. C. S. dos; Amaro de Faria, A. C. Jr.

    2007-06-15

    Some kinks for non-Hermitian quantum field theories in 1+1 dimensions are constructed. A class of models where the soliton energies are stable and real are found. Although these kinks are not Hermitian, they are symmetric under PT transformations.

  16. Exponential solutions of euler-lagrange equations for fields of complex linear frames on real space-time manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godlewski, Piotr

    2010-08-01

    We investigate a model of the field of complex linear frames on the product manifold M = ? G, where G is a real semisimple Lie group. The model is invariant under the natural action of the group GL( n, ?) ( n = dim M). It results in a modified Born-Infeld-type nonlinearity of field equations. We find a family of solutions of the Euler-Lagrange equations. These solutions are bases for the Lie algebra of left-invariant vector fields on ? G "deformed" by a GL( n, ?)-valued mapping of the exponential form. Each solution induces a pseudo-Riemannian metric on M = ? G. The normal-hyperbolic signature (in the physical case where n = 4) of this metric is not something aprioric and absolute, introduced "by hand" into our model but it is an intrinsic feature of solutions we found.

  17. Complexation of mercury(II) in soil organic matter: EXAFS evidence for linear two-coordination with reduced sulfur groups.

    PubMed

    Skyllberg, Ulf; Bloom, Paul R; Qian, Jin; Lin, Chung-Min; Bleam, William F

    2006-07-01

    The chemical speciation of inorganic mercury (Hg) is to a great extent controlling biologically mediated processes, such as mercury methylation, in soils, sediments, and surface waters. Of utmost importance are complexation reactions with functional groups of natural organic matter (NOM), indirectly determining concentrations of bioavailable, inorganic Hg species. Two previous extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopic studies have revealed that reduced organic sulfur (S) and oxygen/ nitrogen (O/N) groups are involved in the complexation of Hg(II) to humic substances extracted from organic soils. In this work, covering intact organic soils and extending to much lower concentrations of Hg than before, we show that Hg is complexed by two reduced organic S groups (likely thiols) at a distance of 2.33 A in a linear configuration. Furthermore, a third reduced S (likely an organic sulfide) was indicated to contribute with a weaker second shell attraction at a distance of 2.92-3.08 A. When all high-affinity S sites, corresponding to 20-30% of total reduced organic S, were saturated, a structure involving one carbonyl-O or amino-N at 2.07 A and one carboxyl-O at 2.84 A in the first shell, and two second shell C atoms at an average distance of 3.14 A, gave the best fit to data. Similar results were obtained for humic acid extracted from an organic wetland soil. We conclude that models that are in current use to describe the biogeochemistry of mercury and to calculate thermodynamic processes need to include a two-coordinated complexation of Hg(II) to reduced organic sulfur groups in NOM in soils and waters. PMID:16856732

  18. Organometallic complexes of bulky, optically active, C3-symmetric tris(4S-isopropyl-5,5-dimethyl-2-oxazolinyl)phenylborate (ToP*)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Xu, Songchen; Magoon, Yitzhak; Reinig, Regina R.; Schmidt, Bradley M.; Ellern, Arkady; Sadow, Aaron D.

    2015-07-16

    A bulky, optically active monoanionic scorpionate ligand, tris(4S-isopropyl-5,5-dimethyl-2-oxazolinyl)phenylborate (ToP*), is synthesized from the naturally occurring amino acid l-valine as its lithium salt, Li[ToP*] (1). That compound is readily converted to the thallium complex Tl[ToP*] (2) and to the acid derivative H[ToP*] (3). Group 7 tricarbonyl complexes ToP*M(CO)3 (M = Mn (4), Re (5)) are synthesized by the reaction of MBr(CO)5 and Li[ToP*] and are crystallographically characterized. The νCO bands in their infrared spectra indicate that π back-donation in the rhenium compounds is greater with ToP* than with non-methylated tris(4S-isopropyl-2-oxazolinyl)phenylborate (ToP). The reaction of H[ToP*] and ZnEt2 gives ToP*ZnEt (6), whilemore » ToP*ZnCl (7) is synthesized from Li[ToP*] and ZnCl2. The reaction of ToP*ZnCl and KOtBu followed by addition of PhSiH3 provides the zinc hydride complex ToP*ZnH (8). In this study, compound 8 is the first example of a crystallographically characterized optically active zinc hydride. We tested its catalytic reactivity in the cross-dehydrocoupling of silanes and alcohols, which provided Si-chiral silanes with moderate enantioselectivity.« less

  19. Linear Free Energy Relationships for Metal-Ligand Complexation: Bidentate Binding to Negatively-Charged Oxygen Donor Atoms

    PubMed Central

    Carbonaro, Richard F.; Atalay, Yasemin B.; Di Toro, Dominic M.

    2011-01-01

    Stability constants for metal complexation to bidentate ligands containing negatively-charged oxygen donor atoms can be estimated from the following linear free energy relationship (LFER): log KML = χOO(αO log KHL,1 + αO log KHL,2) where KML is the metal-ligand stability constant for a 1:1 complex, KHL,1 and KHL,2 are the proton-ligand stability constants (the ligand pKa values), and αO is the Irving-Rossotti slope. The parameter χOO is metal specific and has slightly different values for 5 and 6 membered chelate rings. LFERs are presented for 21 different metal ions and are accurate to within approximately 0.30 log units in predictions of log KML values. Ligands selected for use in LFER development include dicarboxylic acids, carboxyphenols, and ortho-diphenols. For ortho-hydroxybenzaldehydes, α-hydroxycarboxylic acids, and α-ketocarboxylic acids, a modification of the LFER where log KHL,2 is set equal to zero is required. The chemical interpretation of χOO is that it accounts for the extra stability afforded to metal complexes by the chelate effect. Cu-NOM binding constants calculated from the bidentate LFERs are similar in magnitude to those used in WHAM 6. This LFER can be used to make log KML predictions for small organic molecules. Since natural organic matter (NOM) contains many of the same functional groups (i.e. carboxylic acids, phenols, alcohols), the LFER log KML predictions shed light on the range of appropriate values for use in modeling metal partitioning in natural systems. PMID:21833149

  20. Symmetric and irregular aromatic silicon nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vach, Holger

    2014-10-01

    Based on first-principles calculations, we predict the existence of two classes of aromatic hydrogenated silicon nanoclusters. Despite their completely different structure, they both exhibit quite comparable physical and chemical properties due to the common presence of overcoordinated silicon atoms inducing extensive electron delocalization. Due to a complex interplay between strain relaxation and aromatic stabilization, apparently ill-defined nanoclusters might sometimes turn out to be more stable than their symmetric counterparts. Both symmetric and irregular aromatic silicon nanoclusters are extremely stable at ambient conditions and might readily find applications in future nano-technological devices.

  1. PT-symmetric scatterers (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miri, Mohammad-Ali; Nye, Nicholas; Khajavikhan, Mercedeh; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.

    2015-09-01

    Parity-time (PT) symmetric complex structures can exhibit peculiar properties which are otherwise unattainable in traditional Hermitian systems. This is achieved by judiciously involving balanced regions of gain and loss. Here we investigate the scattering properties of PT-symmetric diffraction gratings. The presence of the imaginary potential can modify the light transport properties in their far field. This is an outcome of a local power flow taking place between the gain and loss regions in the near field. We show that for a certain gain/loss contrast, all the negative diffraction orders can be eliminated while the positive diffraction orders can be amplified.

  2. Integrability of PT-symmetric dimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickton, J.; Susanto, H.

    2013-12-01

    The coupled discrete linear and Kerr nonlinear Schrödinger equations with gain and loss describing transport on dimers with parity-time (PT)-symmetric potentials are considered. The model is relevant among others to experiments in optical couplers and proposals on Bose-Einstein condensates in PT-symmetric double-well potentials. It is known that the models are integrable. Here, the integrability is exploited further to construct the phase portraits of the system. A pendulum equation with a linear potential and a constant force for the phase difference between the fields is obtained, which explains the presence of unbounded solutions above a critical threshold parameter. The behavior of all solutions of the system, including changes in the topological structure of the phase plane, is then discussed.

  3. YoungCapelli symmetrizers in superalgebras

    PubMed Central

    Brini, Andrea; Teolis, Antonio G. B.

    1989-01-01

    Let Supern[U [unk] V] be the nth homogeneous subspace of the supersymmetric algebra of U [unk] V, where U and V are Z2-graded vector spaces over a field K of characteristic zero. The actions of the general linear Lie superalgebras pl(U) and pl(V) span two finite-dimensional K-subalgebras B and [unk] of EndK(Supern[U [unk] V]) that are the centralizers of each other. YoungCapelli symmetrizers and YoungCapelli *-symmetrizers give rise to K-linear bases of B and [unk] containing orthogonal systems of idempotents; thus they yield complete decompositions of B and [unk] into minimal left and right ideals, respectively. PMID:16594014

  4. Symmetric modular torsatron

    DOEpatents

    Rome, J.A.; Harris, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    A fusion reactor device is provided in which the magnetic fields for plasma confinement in a toroidal configuration is produced by a plurality of symmetrical modular coils arranged to form a symmetric modular torsatron referred to as a symmotron. Each of the identical modular coils is helically deformed and comprise one field period of the torsatron. Helical segments of each coil are connected by means of toroidally directed windbacks which may also provide part of the vertical field required for positioning the plasma. The stray fields of the windback segments may be compensated by toroidal coils. A variety of magnetic confinement flux surface configurations may be produced by proper modulation of the winding pitch of the helical segments of the coils, as in a conventional torsatron, winding the helix on a noncircular cross section and varying the poloidal and radial location of the windbacks and the compensating toroidal ring coils.

  5. Static cylindrically symmetric spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fjllborg, Mikael

    2007-05-01

    We prove the existence of static solutions to the cylindrically symmetric Einstein Vlasov system, and we show that the matter cylinder has finite extension in two of the three spatial dimensions. The same results are also proved for a quite general class of equations of state for perfect fluids coupled to the Einstein equations, extending the class of equations of state considered by Bicak et al (2004 Class. Quantum Grav.21 1583). We also obtain this result for the Vlasov Poisson system.

  6. PT-symmetric electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, J.; Lin, Z.; Lee, J. M.; Ramezani, H.; Ellis, F. M.; Kottos, T.

    2012-11-01

    We show both theoretically and experimentally that a pair of inductively coupled active LRC circuits (dimer), one with amplification and another with an equivalent amount of attenuation, display all the features which characterize a wide class of non-Hermitian systems which commute with the joint parity-time PT operator: typical normal modes, temporal evolution, and scattering processes. Utilizing a Liouvilian formulation, we can define an underlying PT-symmetric Hamiltonian, which provides important insight for understanding the behavior of the system. When the PT-dimer is coupled to transmission lines, the resulting scattering signal reveals novel features which reflect the PT-symmetry of the scattering target. Specifically we show that the device can show two different behaviors simultaneously, an amplifier or an absorber, depending on the direction and phase relation of the interrogating waves. Having an exact theory, and due to its relative experimental simplicity, PT-symmetric electronics offers new insights into the properties of PT-symmetric systems which are at the forefront of the research in mathematical physics and related fields. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to Quantum physics with non-Hermitian operators.

  7. PT-symmetric quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, C.M.; Boettcher, S.; Meisinger, P.N.

    1999-05-01

    This paper proposes to broaden the canonical formulation of quantum mechanics. Ordinarily, one imposes the condition H{sup {dagger}}=H on the Hamiltonian, where {dagger} represents the mathematical operation of complex conjugation and matrix transposition. This conventional Hermiticity condition is sufficient to ensure that the Hamiltonian {ital H} has a real spectrum. However, replacing this mathematical condition by the weaker and more physical requirement H{sup {double_dagger}}=H, where {double_dagger} represents combined parity reflection and time reversal PT, one obtains new classes of complex Hamiltonians whose spectra are still real and positive. This generalization of Hermiticity is investigated using a complex deformation H=p{sup 2}+x{sup 2}(ix){sup {epsilon}} of the harmonic oscillator Hamiltonian, where {epsilon} is a real parameter. The system exhibits two phases: When {epsilon}{ge}0, the energy spectrum of {ital H} is real and positive as a consequence of PT symmetry. However, when {minus}1{lt}{epsilon}{lt}0, the spectrum contains an infinite number of complex eigenvalues and a finite number of real, positive eigenvalues because PT symmetry is spontaneously broken. The phase transition that occurs at {epsilon}=0 manifests itself in both the quantum-mechanical system and the underlying classical system. Similar qualitative features are exhibited by complex deformations of other standard real Hamiltonians H=p{sup 2}+x{sup 2N}(ix){sup {epsilon}} with {ital N} integer and {epsilon}{gt}{minus}N; each of these complex Hamiltonians exhibits a phase transition at {epsilon}=0. These PT-symmetric theories may be viewed as analytic continuations of conventional theories from real to complex phase space. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Ligand field influence on the electronic and magnetic properties of quasi-linear two-coordinate iron(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Chilton, Nicholas F; Lei, Hao; Bryan, Aimee M; Grandjean, Fernande; Long, Gary J; Power, Philip P

    2015-06-28

    The 2 to 300 K magnetic susceptibilities of Fe{N(SiMe2Ph)2}2, 1, Fe{N(SiMePh2)2}2, 2, and the diaryl complex Fe(Ar(Pr(i)4))2, 3, where Ar(Pr(i)4) is C6H3-2,6(C6H3-2,6-Pr(i)2)2 have been measured. Initial fits of these properties in the absence of an independent knowledge of their ligand field splitting have proven problematic. Ab initio calculations of the CASSCF/RASSI/SINGLE-ANISO type have indicated that the orbital energies of the complexes, as well as those of Fe(Ar(Me6))2, 4, where Ar(Me6) is C6H3-2,6(C6H2-2,4,6-Me3)2), are in the order d(xy)≈ d(x(2)-y(2)) < d(xz) ≈ d(yz) < d(z(2)), and the iron(II) complexes in this ligand field have the (d(xy), d(x(2)-y(2)))(3)(d(xz), d(yz))(2)(d(z(2)))(1) ground electronic configuration with a substantial orbital contribution to their effective magnetic moments. An ab initio-derived ligand field and spin-orbit model is found to yield an excellent simulation of the observed magnetic properties of 1-3. The calculated ligand field strengths of these ligands are placed in the broader context of common coordination ligands in hypothetical two-coordinate linear iron(ii) complexes. This yields the ordering I(-) < H(-) < Br(-)≈ PMe3 < CH3(-) < Cl(-)≈ C(SiMe3)3(-) < CN(-)≈ SAr(Pr(i)6-) < Ar(Pr(i)4-) < Ar(Me6-)≈ N3(-) < NCS(-)≈ NCSe(-)≈ NCBH3(-)≈ MeCN ≈ H2O ≈ NH3 < NO3(-)≈ THF ≈ CO ≈ N(SiMe2Ph)2(-)≈ N(SiMePh2)2(-) < F(-)≈ N(H)Ar(Pr(i)6-)≈ N(SiMe3)Dipp(-) < OAr(Pr(i)4-). The magnetic susceptibility of the bridged dimer, [Fe{N(SiMe3)2}2]2, 5, has also been measured between 2 and 300 K and a fit of χMT with the isotropic Heisenberg Hamiltonian, Ĥ = -2JŜ1·Ŝ2 yields an antiferromagnetic exchange coupling constant, J, of -131(2) cm(-1). PMID:26006177

  9. Synthesis of linear and cyclic peptide-PEG-lipids for stabilization and targeting of cationic liposome-DNA complexes.

    PubMed

    Ewert, Kai K; Kotamraju, Venkata Ramana; Majzoub, Ramsey N; Steffes, Victoria M; Wonder, Emily A; Teesalu, Tambet; Ruoslahti, Erkki; Safinya, Cyrus R

    2016-03-15

    Because nucleic acids (NAs) have immense potential value as therapeutics, the development of safe and effective synthetic NA vectors continues to attract much attention. In vivo applications of NA vectors require stabilized, nanometer-scale particles, but the commonly used approaches of steric stabilization with a polymer coat (e.g., PEGylation; PEG=poly(ethylene glycol)) interfere with attachment to cells, uptake, and endosomal escape. Conjugation of peptides to PEG-lipids can improve cell attachment and uptake for cationic liposome-DNA (CL-DNA) complexes. We present several synthetic approaches to peptide-PEG-lipids and discuss their merits and drawbacks. A lipid-PEG-amine building block served as the common key intermediate in all synthetic routes. Assembling the entire peptide-PEG-lipid by manual solid phase peptide synthesis (employing a lipid-PEG-carboxylic acid) allowed gram-scale synthesis but is mostly applicable to linear peptides connected via their N-terminus. Conjugation via thiol-maleimide or strain-promoted (copper-free) azide-alkyne cycloaddition chemistry is highly amenable to on-demand preparation of peptide-PEG-lipids, and the appropriate PEG-lipid precursors are available in a single chemical step from the lipid-PEG-amine building block. Azide-alkyne cycloaddition is especially suitable for disulfide-bridged peptides such as iRGD (cyclic CRGDKGPDC). Added at 10mol% of a cationic/neutral lipid mixture, the peptide-PEG-lipids stabilize the size of CL-DNA complexes. They also affect cell attachment and uptake of nanoparticles in a peptide-dependent manner, thereby providing a platform for preparing stabilized, affinity-targeted CL-DNA nanoparticles. PMID:26874401

  10. Control of linear modes in cylindrical resistive magnetohydrodynamics with a resistive wall, plasma rotation, and complex gain

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, D. P.; Finn, J. M.

    2014-10-15

    Feedback stabilization of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes in a tokamak is studied in a cylindrical model with a resistive wall, plasma resistivity, viscosity, and toroidal rotation. The control is based on a linear combination of the normal and tangential components of the magnetic field just inside the resistive wall. The feedback includes complex gain, for both the normal and for the tangential components, and it is known that the imaginary part of the feedback for the former is equivalent to plasma rotation [J. M. Finn and L. Chacon, Phys. Plasmas 11, 1866 (2004)]. The work includes (1) analysis with a reduced resistive MHD model for a tokamak with finite ? and with stepfunction current density and pressure profiles, and (2) computations with a full compressible visco-resistive MHD model with smooth decreasing profiles of current density and pressure. The equilibria are stable for ??=?0 and the marginal stability values ?{sub rp,rw}?complex gain G{sub i} to optimize in the presence of rotation in this regime with ??>??{sub rp,iw} is presented. The effect of imaginary gain with tangential sensors is more complicated but essentially destabilizes above and below ?{sub rp,iw}.

  11. Complex-? approach versus complex-k approach in description of gain-assisted surface plasmon-polariton propagation along linear chains of metallic nanospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udagedara, Indika B.; Rukhlenko, Ivan D.; Premaratne, Malin

    2011-03-01

    Propagation characteristics of surface plasmon-polaritons (SPPs) in linear chains of metallic nanospheres (LCMNs) can be found from a dispersion equation, by assuming that either frequency or wave number of a SPP is real. In this paper, we present a comparative study of SPP modes corresponding to the two types of complex solutions for an infinitely long LCMN embedded in a gain medium. We show that even though gain predominantly affects the SPP dispersion obtained with real frequency, both solutions result in the same dispersion and attenuation of SPP modes, when Ohmic losses are almost compensated by gain. In this regime, an analytic expression for the propagation length of SPPs exists, and the SPPs dispersion is determined by a real equation. We also demonstrate that for a given amount of gain (below the amplification limit of ~1000 cm-1), transversely polarized SPPs attenuate slower than longitudinally polarized SPPs and are, therefore, preferable for the purpose of energy transfer in gain-supplied LCMNs. The transmission windows for SPP modes of different polarizations do not overlap each other, which facilitates realization of LCMN-based plasmonic filters. Our results may prove useful in design optimization of all-optical chips for power-efficient optical supercomputers.

  12. Construction of dynamics and time-ordered exponential for unbounded non-symmetric Hamiltonians

    SciTech Connect

    Futakuchi, Shinichiro; Usui, Kouta

    2014-06-15

    We prove under certain assumptions that there exists a solution of the Schrdinger or the Heisenberg equation of motion generated by a linear operator H acting in some complex Hilbert space H, which may be unbounded, not symmetric, or not normal. We also prove that, under the same assumptions, there exists a time evolution operator in the interaction picture and that the evolution operator enjoys a useful series expansion formula. This expansion is considered to be one of the mathematically rigorous realizations of so-called time-ordered exponential, which is familiar in the physics literature. We apply the general theory to prove the existence of dynamics for the mathematical model of Quantum Electrodynamics quantized in the Lorenz gauge, the interaction Hamiltonian of which is not even symmetric or normal.

  13. Experimental characterization of qutrits using symmetric informationally complete positive operator-valued measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medendorp, Z. E. D.; Torres-Ruiz, F. A.; Shalm, L. K.; Tabia, G. N. M.; Fuchs, C. A.; Steinberg, A. M.

    2011-05-01

    Generalized quantum measurements [also known as positive operator-valued measures (POVMs)] are of great importance in quantum information and quantum foundations but are often difficult to perform. We present an experimental approach which can in principle be used to perform arbitrary POVMs in a linear-optical context. One of the most interesting POVMs, the symmetric informationally complete (SIC) POVM, is the most compact set of measurements that can be used to fully describe a quantum state. We use our technique to carry out the first experimental characterization of the state of a qutrit using SIC POVMs. Because of the highly symmetric nature of this measurement, such a representation has the unique property that it permits all other measurement outcomes to be predicted by a simple extension of the classical Bayesian sum rule, making no use of complex amplitudes or Hilbert-space operators. We demonstrate this approach on several qutrit states encoded in single photons.

  14. Experimental characterization of qutrits using symmetric, informationally complete positive operator-valued measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medendorp, Z. E. D.; Torres-Ruiz, F. A.; Shalm, L. K.; Tabia, G. N. M.; Fuchs, C. A.; Steinberg, A. M.

    2011-05-01

    Generalized quantum measurements (also known as positive operator-valued measures or POVMs) are of great importance in quantum information and quantum foundations, but often difficult to perform. We present an experimental approach which can in principle be used to perform arbitrary POVMs in a linear-optical context. One of the most interesting POVMs, the symmetric, informationally complete-POVM (or SIC-POVM), is the most compact set of measurements that can be used to fully describe a quantum state. We use our technique to carry out the first experimental characterization of the state of a qutrit using SIC-POVMs. Because of the highly symmetric nature of this measurement, such a representation has the unique property that it permits all other measurement outcomes to be predicted by a simple extension of the classical Bayesian sum rule, making no use of complex amplitudes or Hilbert-space operators. We demonstrate this approach on several qutrit states encoded in single photons.

  15. Experimental characterization of qutrits using symmetric informationally complete positive operator-valued measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Medendorp, Z. E. D.; Shalm, L. K.; Steinberg, A. M.; Torres-Ruiz, F. A.; Tabia, G. N. M.; Fuchs, C. A.

    2011-05-15

    Generalized quantum measurements [also known as positive operator-valued measures (POVMs)] are of great importance in quantum information and quantum foundations but are often difficult to perform. We present an experimental approach which can in principle be used to perform arbitrary POVMs in a linear-optical context. One of the most interesting POVMs, the symmetric informationally complete (SIC) POVM, is the most compact set of measurements that can be used to fully describe a quantum state. We use our technique to carry out the first experimental characterization of the state of a qutrit using SIC POVMs. Because of the highly symmetric nature of this measurement, such a representation has the unique property that it permits all other measurement outcomes to be predicted by a simple extension of the classical Bayesian sum rule, making no use of complex amplitudes or Hilbert-space operators. We demonstrate this approach on several qutrit states encoded in single photons.

  16. A novel malformation complex of bilateral and symmetric preaxial radial ray-thumb aplasia and lower limb defects with minimal facial dysmorphic features: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Al Kaissi, Ali; Klaushofer, Klaus; Krebs, Alexander; Grill, Franz

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Radial hemimelia is a congenital abnormality characterised by the partial or complete absence of the radius. The longitudinal hemimelia indicates the absence of one or more bones along the preaxial (medial) or postaxial (lateral) side of the limb. Preaxial limb defects occurred more frequently with a combination of microtia, esophageal atresia, anorectal atresia, heart defects, unilateral kidney dysgenesis, and some axial skeletal defects. Postaxial acrofacial dysostoses are characterised by distinctive facies and postaxial limb deficiencies, involving the 5th finger, metacarpal/ulnar/fibular/and metatarsal. Case presentation The patient, an 8-year-old-boy with minimal craniofacial dysmorphic features but with profound upper limb defects of bilateral and symmetrical absence of the radius and the thumbs respectively. In addition, there was a unilateral tibio-fibular hypoplasia (hemimelia) associated with hypoplasia of the terminal phalanges and malsegmentation of the upper thoracic vertebrae, causing effectively the development of thoracic kyphosis. Conclusion In the typical form of the preaxial acrofacial dysostosis, there are aberrations in the development of the first and second branchial arches and limb buds. The craniofacial dysmorphic features are characteristic such as micrognathia, zygomatic hypoplasia, cleft palate, and preaxial limb defects. Nager and de Reynier in 1948, who used the term acrofacial dysostosis (AFD) to distinguish the condition from mandibulofacial dysostosis. Neither the facial features nor the limb defects in our present patient appear to be absolutely typical with the previously reported cases of AFD. Our patient expands the phenotype of syndromic preaxial limb malformation complex. He might represent a new syndromic entity of mild naso-maxillary malformation in connection with axial and extra-axial malformation complex. PMID:18950501

  17. Highly Effective Non-Viral Antitumor Gene Therapy System Comprised of Biocompatible Small Plasmid Complex Particles Consisting of pDNA, Anionic Polysaccharide, and Fully Deprotected Linear Polyethylenimine

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Yoshiyuki; Sugiura, Kikuya; Yoshihara, Chieko; Inaba, Toshio; Ito, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    We have reported that ternary complexes of plasmid DNA with conventional linear polyethylenimine (l-PEI) and certain polyanions were very stably dispersed, and, with no cryoprotectant, they could be freeze-dried and re-hydrated without the loss of transfection ability. These properties enabled the preparation of a concentrated suspension of very small pDNA complex, by preparing the complexes at highly diluted conditions, followed by condensation via lyophilization-and-rehydration procedure. Recently, a high potency linear polyethylenimine having no residual protective groups, i.e., Polyethylenimine “Max” (PEI “Max”), is available, which has been reported to induce much higher gene expression than conventional l-PEI. We tried to prepare the small DNA/PEI “Max”/polyanion complexes by a similar freeze-drying method. Small complex particles could be obtained without apparent aggregation, but transfection activity of the rehydrated complexes was severely reduced. Complex-preparation conditions were investigated in details to achieve the freeze-dried DNA/PEI “Max”/polyanion small ternary complexes with high transfection efficiency. DNA/PEI “Max”/polyanion complexes containing cytokine-coding plasmids were then prepared, and their anti-tumor therapeutic efficacy was examined in tumor-bearing mice. PMID:26213961

  18. A Free-Knot Spline Modeling Framework for Piecewise Linear Logistic Regression in Complex Samples with Body Mass Index and Mortality as an Example

    PubMed Central

    Keith, Scott W.; Allison, David B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper details the design, evaluation, and implementation of a framework for detecting and modeling non-linearity between a binary outcome and a continuous predictor variable adjusted for covariates in complex samples. The framework provides familiar-looking parameterizations of output in terms of linear slope coefficients and odds ratios. Estimation methods focus on maximum likelihood optimization of piecewise linear free-knot splines formulated as B-splines. Correctly specifying the optimal number and positions of the knots improves the model, but is marked by computational intensity and numerical instability. Our inference methods utilize both parametric and non-parametric bootstrapping. Unlike other non-linear modeling packages, this framework is designed to incorporate multistage survey sample designs common to nationally representative datasets. We illustrate the approach and evaluate its performance in specifying the correct number of knots under various conditions with an example using body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and the complex multistage sampling design from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to simulate binary mortality outcomes data having realistic non-linear sample-weighted risk associations with BMI. BMI and mortality data provide a particularly apt example and area of application since BMI is commonly recorded in large health surveys with complex designs, often categorized for modeling, and non-linearly related to mortality. When complex sample design considerations were ignored, our method was generally similar to or more accurate than two common model selection procedures, Schwarzs Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) and Akaikes Information Criterion (AIC), in terms of correctly selecting the correct number of knots. Our approach provided accurate knot selections when complex sampling weights were incorporated, while AIC and BIC were not effective under these conditions. PMID:25610831

  19. Symmetrization for redundant channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tulplue, Bhalchandra R. (Inventor); Collins, Robert E. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A plurality of redundant channels in a system each contain a global image of all the configuration data bases in each of the channels in the system. Each global image is updated periodically from each of the other channels via cross channel data links. The global images of the local configuration data bases in each channel are separately symmetrized using a voting process to generate a system signal configuration data base which is not written into by any other routine and is available for indicating the status of the system within each channel. Equalization may be imposed on a suspect signal and a number of chances for that signal to heal itself are provided before excluding it from future votes. Reconfiguration is accomplished upon detecting a channel which is deemed invalid. A reset function is provided which permits an externally generated reset signal to permit a previously excluded channel to be reincluded within the system. The updating of global images and/or the symmetrization process may be accomplished at substantially the same time within a synchronized time frame common to all channels.

  20. Determination of the interaction parameter and topological scaling features of symmetric star polymers in dilute solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Durgesh K.; Beaucage, Gregory; Ratkanthwar, Kedar; Beaucage, Peter; Ramachandran, Ramnath; Hadjichristidis, Nikos

    2015-07-01

    Star polymers provide model architectures to understand the dynamic and rheological effects of chain confinement for a range of complex topological structures like branched polymers, colloids, and micelles. It is important to describe the structure of such macromolecular topologies using small-angle neutron and x-ray scattering to facilitate understanding of their structure-property relationships. Modeling of scattering from linear, Gaussian polymers, such as in the melt, has applied the random phase approximation using the Debye polymer scattering function. The Flory-Huggins interaction parameter can be obtained using neutron scattering by this method. Gaussian scaling no longer applies for more complicated chain topologies or when chains are in good solvents. For symmetric star polymers, chain scaling can differ from ? =0.5 (df=2 ) due to excluded volume, steric interaction between arms, and enhanced density due to branching. Further, correlation between arms in a symmetric star leads to an interference term in the scattering function first described by Benoit for Gaussian chains. In this work, a scattering function is derived which accounts for interarm correlations in symmetric star polymers as well as the polymer-solvent interaction parameter for chains of arbitrary scaling dimension using a hybrid Unified scattering function. The approach is demonstrated for linear, four-arm and eight-arm polyisoprene stars in deuterated p -xylene.

  1. Determination of the interaction parameter and topological scaling features of symmetric star polymers in dilute solution.

    PubMed

    Rai, Durgesh K; Beaucage, Gregory; Ratkanthwar, Kedar; Beaucage, Peter; Ramachandran, Ramnath; Hadjichristidis, Nikos

    2015-07-01

    Star polymers provide model architectures to understand the dynamic and rheological effects of chain confinement for a range of complex topological structures like branched polymers, colloids, and micelles. It is important to describe the structure of such macromolecular topologies using small-angle neutron and x-ray scattering to facilitate understanding of their structure-property relationships. Modeling of scattering from linear, Gaussian polymers, such as in the melt, has applied the random phase approximation using the Debye polymer scattering function. The Flory-Huggins interaction parameter can be obtained using neutron scattering by this method. Gaussian scaling no longer applies for more complicated chain topologies or when chains are in good solvents. For symmetric star polymers, chain scaling can differ from ν=0.5(d(f)=2) due to excluded volume, steric interaction between arms, and enhanced density due to branching. Further, correlation between arms in a symmetric star leads to an interference term in the scattering function first described by Benoit for Gaussian chains. In this work, a scattering function is derived which accounts for interarm correlations in symmetric star polymers as well as the polymer-solvent interaction parameter for chains of arbitrary scaling dimension using a hybrid Unified scattering function. The approach is demonstrated for linear, four-arm and eight-arm polyisoprene stars in deuterated p-xylene. PMID:26274195

  2. Synthesis, characterization and electrochemical behaviour of cobalt(II) and cobalt(III):O 2- complexes, respectively, with linear and tripodal tetradentate ligands derived from Schiff bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djebbar-Sid, S.; Benali-Baitich, O.; Deloume, J. P.

    2001-07-01

    New octahedral cobalt complexes with linear and tripodal tetradentate ligands derived from Schiff bases have been synthesized and characterized using elemental analysis, molar conductance, IR spectra, magnetic measurements, electronic and ESR spectra. The experimental results support the binding of linear ligands with two N and two O donor sites to cobalt ion. They show a square planar geometry and tripodal ligands coordinated to the metal ion by only one nitrogen atom, giving an arrangement of NO 3 donor groups, the other axial sites being occupied by the molecular oxygen and/or the aquo molecules. From the results of cyclic voltammetry it is shown that chelate structure and ligand geometry and electron donating effect of the ligand substituents are among the factors influencing the redox potentials of the complexes. Linear ligands lead to high-spin cobalt(II) complexes. They do not interact with dioxygen and stabilize the Co(II) state counter to their related Schiff-base complexes. The low-spin complexes with tripodal ligands are O 2 adducts and the configuration in these complexes is best formulated as [Co IIIO 2-].

  3. Energy of gravitational radiation in plane-symmetric space-times

    SciTech Connect

    Hayward, Sean A.

    2008-08-15

    Gravitational radiation in plane-symmetric space-times can be encoded in a complex potential, satisfying a nonlinear wave equation. An effective energy tensor for the radiation is given, taking a scalar-field form in terms of the potential, entering the field equations in the same way as the matter energy tensor. It reduces to the Isaacson energy tensor in the linearized, high-frequency approximation. An energy conservation equation is derived for a quasilocal energy, essentially the Hawking energy. A transverse pressure exerted by interacting low-frequency gravitational radiation is predicted.

  4. Linear optimal control of tokamak fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Kessel, C.E.; Firestone, M.A.; Conn, R.W.

    1989-05-01

    The control of plasma position, shape and current in a tokamak fusion reactor is examined using linear optimal control. These advanced tokamaks are characterized by non up-down symmetric coils and structure, thick structure surrounding the plasma, eddy currents, shaped plasmas, superconducting coils, vertically unstable plasmas, and hybrid function coils providing ohmic heating, vertical field, radial field, and shaping field. Models of the electromagnetic environment in a tokamak are derived and used to construct control gains that are tested in nonlinear simulations with initial perturbations. The issues of applying linear optimal control to advanced tokamaks are addressed, including complex equilibrium control, choice of cost functional weights, the coil voltage limit, discrete control, and order reduction. Results indicate that the linear optimal control is a feasible technique for controlling advanced tokamaks where the more common classical control will be severely strained or will not work. 28 refs., 13 figs.

  5. Impulsive synchronization of complex networks with non-delayed and delayed coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Song; Dong, Gaogao; Bi, Qinsheng

    2009-11-01

    This Letter investigates the impulsive synchronization between two complex networks with non-delayed and delayed coupling. Based on the stability analysis of impulsive differential equation, the criteria for the synchronization is derived, and a linear impulsive controller and the simple updated laws are designed. Particularly, the weight configuration matrix is not necessarily symmetric or irreducible, and the inner coupling matrix need not be symmetric. Numerical examples are presented to verify the effectiveness and correctness of the synchronization criteria.

  6. Solitonic dynamics and excitations of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with third-order dispersion in non-Hermitian PT-symmetric potentials.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Yan, Zhenya

    2016-01-01

    Solitons are of the important significant in many fields of nonlinear science such as nonlinear optics, Bose-Einstein condensates, plamas physics, biology, fluid mechanics, and etc. The stable solitons have been captured not only theoretically and experimentally in both linear and nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equations in the presence of non-Hermitian potentials since the concept of the parity-time -symmetry was introduced in 1998. In this paper, we present novel bright solitons of the NLS equation with third-order dispersion in some complex -symmetric potentials (e.g., physically relevant -symmetric Scarff-II-like and harmonic-Gaussian potentials). We find stable nonlinear modes even if the respective linear -symmetric phases are broken. Moreover, we also use the adiabatic changes of the control parameters to excite the initial modes related to exact solitons to reach stable nonlinear modes. The elastic interactions of two solitons are exhibited in the third-order NLS equation with -symmetric potentials. Our results predict the dynamical phenomena of soliton equations in the presence of third-order dispersion and -symmetric potentials arising in nonlinear fiber optics and other physically relevant fields. PMID:27002543

  7. Solitonic dynamics and excitations of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with third-order dispersion in non-Hermitian PT-symmetric potentials

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yong; Yan, Zhenya

    2016-01-01

    Solitons are of the important significant in many fields of nonlinear science such as nonlinear optics, Bose-Einstein condensates, plamas physics, biology, fluid mechanics, and etc. The stable solitons have been captured not only theoretically and experimentally in both linear and nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equations in the presence of non-Hermitian potentials since the concept of the parity-time -symmetry was introduced in 1998. In this paper, we present novel bright solitons of the NLS equation with third-order dispersion in some complex -symmetric potentials (e.g., physically relevant -symmetric Scarff-II-like and harmonic-Gaussian potentials). We find stable nonlinear modes even if the respective linear -symmetric phases are broken. Moreover, we also use the adiabatic changes of the control parameters to excite the initial modes related to exact solitons to reach stable nonlinear modes. The elastic interactions of two solitons are exhibited in the third-order NLS equation with -symmetric potentials. Our results predict the dynamical phenomena of soliton equations in the presence of third-order dispersion and -symmetric potentials arising in nonlinear fiber optics and other physically relevant fields. PMID:27002543

  8. Novel linear piezoelectric motor for precision position stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chao; Shi, Yunlai; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Junshan

    2016-03-01

    Conventional servomotor and stepping motor face challenges in nanometer positioning stages due to the complex structure, motion transformation mechanism, and slow dynamic response, especially directly driven by linear motor. A new butterfly-shaped linear piezoelectric motor for linear motion is presented. A two-degree precision position stage driven by the proposed linear ultrasonic motor possesses a simple and compact configuration, which makes the system obtain shorter driving chain. Firstly, the working principle of the linear ultrasonic motor is analyzed. The oscillation orbits of two driving feet on the stator are produced successively by using the anti-symmetric and symmetric vibration modes of the piezoelectric composite structure, and the slider pressed on the driving feet can be propelled twice in only one vibration cycle. Then with the derivation of the dynamic equation of the piezoelectric actuator and transient response model, start-upstart-up and settling state characteristics of the proposed linear actuator is investigated theoretically and experimentally, and is applicable to evaluate step resolution of the precision platform driven by the actuator. Moreover the structure of the two-degree position stage system is described and a special precision displacement measurement system is built. Finally, the characteristics of the two-degree position stage are studied. In the closed-loop condition the positioning accuracy of plus or minus <0.5 μm is experimentally obtained for the stage propelled by the piezoelectric motor. A precision position stage based the proposed butterfly-shaped linear piezoelectric is theoretically and experimentally investigated.

  9. Tensor species and symmetric functions.

    PubMed Central

    Mndez, M

    1991-01-01

    An equivariant representation of the symmetric group Sn (equivariant representation from here on) is defined as a particular type of tensor species. For any tensor species R the characteristic generating function of R is defined in a way that generalizes the Frobenius characters of representations of the symmetric groups. If R is an equivariant representation, then the characteristic is a homogeneous symmetric function. The combinatorial operations on equivariant representations correspond to formal operations on the respective characteristic functions. In particular, substitution of equivariant representations corresponds to plethysm of symmetric functions. Equivariant representations are constructed that have as characteristic the elementary, complete, and Schur functions. Bijective proofs are given for the formulas that connect them with the monomial symmetric functions. PMID:11607233

  10. Stability analysis of axial reflection symmetric spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif, M.; Bhatti, M. Zaeem Ul Haq

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explore instability regions of non-static axial reflection symmetric spacetime with anisotropic source in the interior. We impose linear perturbation on the Einstein field equations and dynamical equations to establish the collapse equation. The effects of different physical factors like energy density and anisotropic stresses on the instability regions are studied under Newtonian and post-Newtonian limits. We conclude that stiffness parameter has a significant role in this analysis while the reflection terms increase instability ranges of non-static axial collapse.

  11. Note on free symmetric rigid body motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragović, Vladimir; Gajić, Borislav; Jovanović, Božidar

    2015-05-01

    We consider the Euler equations of motion of a free symmetric rigid body around a fixed point, restricted to the invariant subspace given by the zero values of the corresponding linear Noether integrals. In the case of the SO( n - 2)-symmetry, we show that almost all trajectories are periodic and that the motion can be expressed in terms of elliptic functions. In the case of the SO( n - 3)-symmetry, we prove the solvability of the problem by using a recent Kozlov's result on the Euler-Jacobi-Lie theorem.

  12. Some symmetric boundary value problems and non-symmetric solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arioli, Gianni; Koch, Hans

    2015-07-01

    We consider the equation - ?u = wf? (u) on a symmetric bounded domain in Rn with Dirichlet boundary conditions. Here w is a positive function or measure that is invariant under the (Euclidean) symmetries of the domain. We focus on solutions u that are positive and/or have a low Morse index. Our results are concerned with the existence of non-symmetric solutions and the non-existence of symmetric solutions. In particular, we construct a solution u for the disk in R2 that has index 2 and whose modulus | u | has only one reflection symmetry. We also provide a corrected proof of [12, Theorem 1].

  13. Decay Structure for Symmetric Hyperbolic Systems with Non-Symmetric Relaxation and its Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Yoshihiro; Duan, Renjun; Kawashima, Shuichi

    2012-07-01

    This paper is concerned with the decay structure for linear symmetric hyperbolic systems with relaxation. When the relaxation matrix is symmetric, the dissipative structure of the systems is completely characterized by the Kawashima-Shizuta stability condition formulated in Umeda et al. (Jpn J Appl Math 1:435-457, 1984) and Shizuta and Kawashima (Hokkaido Math J 14:249-275, 1985) and we obtain the asymptotic stability result together with the explicit time-decay rate under that stability condition. However, some physical models which satisfy the stability condition have non-symmetric relaxation term (for example, the Timoshenko system and the Euler-Maxwell system). Moreover, it had been already known that the dissipative structure of such systems is weaker than the standard type and is of the regularity-loss type (see Duan in J Hyperbolic Differ Equ 8:375-413, 2011; Ide et al. in Math Models Meth Appl Sci 18:647-667, 2008; Ide and Kawashima in Math Models Meth Appl Sci 18:1001-1025, 2008; Ueda et al. in SIAM J Math Anal 2012; Ueda and Kawashima in Methods Appl Anal 2012). Therefore our purpose in this paper is to formulate a new structural condition which includes the Kawashima-Shizuta condition, and to analyze the weak dissipative structure for general systems with non-symmetric relaxation.

  14. Averaging in spherically symmetric cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Coley, A. A.; Pelavas, N.

    2007-02-15

    The averaging problem in cosmology is of fundamental importance. When applied to study cosmological evolution, the theory of macroscopic gravity (MG) can be regarded as a long-distance modification of general relativity. In the MG approach to the averaging problem in cosmology, the Einstein field equations on cosmological scales are modified by appropriate gravitational correlation terms. We study the averaging problem within the class of spherically symmetric cosmological models. That is, we shall take the microscopic equations and effect the averaging procedure to determine the precise form of the correlation tensor in this case. In particular, by working in volume-preserving coordinates, we calculate the form of the correlation tensor under some reasonable assumptions on the form for the inhomogeneous gravitational field and matter distribution. We find that the correlation tensor in a Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) background must be of the form of a spatial curvature. Inhomogeneities and spatial averaging, through this spatial curvature correction term, can have a very significant dynamical effect on the dynamics of the Universe and cosmological observations; in particular, we discuss whether spatial averaging might lead to a more conservative explanation of the observed acceleration of the Universe (without the introduction of exotic dark matter fields). We also find that the correlation tensor for a non-FLRW background can be interpreted as the sum of a spatial curvature and an anisotropic fluid. This may lead to interesting effects of averaging on astrophysical scales. We also discuss the results of averaging an inhomogeneous Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi solution as well as calculations of linear perturbations (that is, the backreaction) in an FLRW background, which support the main conclusions of the analysis.

  15. Achromatic axially symmetric wave plate.

    PubMed

    Wakayama, Toshitaka; Komaki, Kazuki; Otani, Yukitoshi; Yoshizawa, Toru

    2012-12-31

    An achromatic axially symmetric wave plate (AAS-WP) is proposed that is based on Fresnel reflections. The wave plate does not introduce spatial dispersion. It provides retardation in the wavelength domain with an axially symmetric azimuthal angle. The optical configuration, a numerical simulation, and the optical properties of the AAS-WP are described. It is composed of PMMA. A pair of them is manufactured on a lathe. In the numerical simulation, the achromatic angle is estimated and is used to design the devices. They generate an axially symmetric polarized beam. The birefringence distribution is measured in order to evaluate the AAS-WPs. PMID:23388751

  16. Sampling and error analysis of radial symmetric interpolation for fast hologram generation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seok; Chang, Hyunsung; Wey, Hocheon; Nam, Dongkyung

    2016-01-20

    In this paper, we present a fast hologram pattern generation method by radial symmetric interpolation, which exploits concentric redundancy of a point hologram pattern to reduce computational complexity in hologram pattern calculation, and analyze the quality degradation sources in the proposed method. Compared to the analytic method in which phase and amplitude information is directly calculated from a wave equation, in our method a Fresnel zone plate is periodically sampled along a diagonal line and the wave information of a point hologram is calculated by linear interpolation. During these sampling and interpolation processes, the wave information can be modified from the original signal and the reconstruction quality can be degraded compared to the analytic pattern calculation method. The effects of sampling and linear interpolation are investigated in spatial and frequency domains. PMID:26835941

  17. On the optimum bit orders with respect to the state complexity of trellis diagrams for binary linear codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasami, Tadao; Takata, Toyoo; Fujiwara, Toru; Lin, Shu

    1993-01-01

    It was shown earlier that for a punctured Reed-Muller (RM) code or a primitive BCH code, which contains a punctured RM code of the same minimum distance as a large subcode, the state complexity of the minimal trellis diagram is much greater than that for an equivalent code obtained by a proper permutation on the bit positions. To find a permutation on the bit positions for a given code that minimizes the state complexity of its minimal trellis diagram is an interesting and challenging problem. This permutation problem is related to the generalized Hamming weight hierarchy of a code, and is shown that for RM codes, the standard binary order of bit positions is optimum at every bit position with respect to the state complexity of a minimal trellis diagram by using a theorem due to Wei. The state complexity of trellis diagram for the extended and permuted (64, 24) BCH code is discussed.

  18. Synthesis and spectral studies on metal complexes of s-triazine based ligand and non linear optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanmugakala, R.; Tharmaraj, P.; Sheela, C. D.

    2014-11-01

    A series of transition metal complexes of type [ML] and [ML2]Cl2 (where M = Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II) have synthesized from 2-phenylamino-4,6-dichloro-s-triazine and 3,5-dimethyl pyrazole; their characteristics have been investigated by means of elemental analyses, magnetic susceptibility, molar conductance, IR, UV-Vis, Mass, NMR and ESR spectra. The electrochemical behavior of copper(II) complexes we have studied, by using cyclic voltammetry. The ESR spectra of copper(II) complexes are recorded at 300 K and 77 K and their salient features are appropriately reported. Spectral datas, we found, show that the ligand acts as a neutral tridentate, and coordinates through the triazine ring nitrogen and pyrazolyl ring nitrogen atoms to the metal ion. Evident from our findings, the metal(II) complexes of [ML] type exhibit square pyramidal geometry, and that of [ML2]Cl2 exhibit octahedral geometry. The in vitro antimicrobial activities of the ligand and its complexes are evaluated against Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus mutans, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Cryptococcus neoformans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Serratia marcescens, Shigella flexneri, Vibrio cholera, Vibris parahaemolyticus, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans and Penicillium oxalicum by well-diffusion method. The second harmonic generation efficiency of the ligand and its complexes are determined and compared with urea and KDP.

  19. Computational design of a self-assembling symmetrical ?-propeller protein

    PubMed Central

    Voet, Arnout R. D.; Noguchi, Hiroki; Addy, Christine; Simoncini, David; Terada, Daiki; Unzai, Satoru; Park, Sam-Yong; Zhang, Kam Y. J.; Tame, Jeremy R. H.

    2014-01-01

    The modular structure of many protein families, such as ?-propeller proteins, strongly implies that duplication played an important role in their evolution, leading to highly symmetrical intermediate forms. Previous attempts to create perfectly symmetrical propeller proteins have failed, however. We have therefore developed a new and rapid computational approach to design such proteins. As a test case, we have created a sixfold symmetrical ?-propeller protein and experimentally validated the structure using X-ray crystallography. Each blade consists of 42 residues. Proteins carrying 210 identical blades were also expressed and purified. Two or three tandem blades assemble to recreate the highly stable sixfold symmetrical architecture, consistent with the duplication and fusion theory. The other proteins produce different monodisperse complexes, up to 42 blades (180 kDa) in size, which self-assemble according to simple symmetry rules. Our procedure is suitable for creating nano-building blocks from different protein templates of desired symmetry. PMID:25288768

  20. Enzymatic nanoreactors for environmentally benign biotransformations. 1. Formation and catalytic activity of supramolecular complexes of laccase and linear-dendritic block copolymers.

    PubMed

    Gitsov, Ivan; Hamzik, James; Ryan, Joseph; Simonyan, Arsen; Nakas, James P; Omori, Shigetoshi; Krastanov, Albert; Cohen, Tomer; Tanenbaum, Stuart W

    2008-03-01

    We describe the construction of enzymatic nanoreactors through noncovalent envelopment of a glycoprotein by amphiphilic linear-dendritic AB or ABA copolymers. The synthetic procedure is based on the regioselective adsorption of dendritic poly(benzyl ether)-block-linear poly(ethylene glycol)-block-dendritic poly(benzyl ether) or linear poly(ethylene oxide)-block-dendritic poly(benzyl ether) copolymers onto the oxidative enzyme laccase from Trametes versicolor in aqueous medium. The complexes formed have improved catalytic activity compared with the native enzyme (77-85 nkat/mL vs 60 nkat/mL, respectively) and are more stable at elevated temperatures up to 70 degrees C. Experiments with deglycosylated laccase confirm that the glycoside fragments in the native enzyme serve as the anchor sites for the linear-dendritic copolymers. The enzymatic nanoreactors are able to effectively oxidize series of substrates: phenolic compounds (syringaldazine) and hydrophobic polyaromatic hydrocarbons (anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene) under "green" chemistry conditions. PMID:18257555

  1. Asymmetric intermolecular Pauson-Khand reaction of symmetrically substituted alkynes.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yining; Riera, Antoni; Verdaguer, Xavier

    2009-10-01

    The asymmetric intermolecular Pauson-Khand reaction of symmetric alkynes has been accomplished for the first time. N-Phosphino-p-tolylsulfinamide (PNSO) ligands have been identified as efficient ligands in this process. The chirality of the cobalt S-bonded sulfinyl moiety was found to direct olefin insertion into one of the two possible cobalt-carbon bonds in the alkyne complex. Reaction of symmetric alkynes allows for a simplified experimental protocol since there is no need for separation of diastereomeric complexes. PMID:19739661

  2. Hydrogen Bond Symmetrization in Glycinium Oxalate under Pressure.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Himal; Murli, Chitra; Mishra, A K; Verma, Ashok K; Garg, Nandini; Deo, M N; Chitra, R; Sharma, Surinder M

    2016-02-01

    The study of hydrogen bonds near symmetrization limit at high pressures is of importance to understand proton dynamics in complex bio-geological processes. We report here the evidence of hydrogen bond symmetrization in the simplest amino acid-carboxylic acid complex, glycinium oxalate, at moderate pressures of 8 GPa using in-situ infrared and Raman spectroscopic investigations combined with first-principles simulations. The dynamic proton sharing between semioxalate units results in covalent-like infinite oxalate chains. At pressures above 12 GPa, the glycine units systematically reorient with pressure to form hydrogen-bonded supramolecular assemblies held together by these chains. PMID:26730739

  3. Imaging with tilted surfaces: an efficient matrix method for the generalized Scheimpflug condition and its application to rotationally symmetric triangulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Peter

    2005-06-01

    An efficient two-dimensional matrix method is presented that facilitates the design of optical systems with tilted surfaces for which the requirement or knowledge of the orientation of the image plane is necessary, i.e., for which a generalized Scheimpflug condition is needed. In more general terms, the method results in imaging properties of second-order expansion, but the method is linear. Therefore the complexity of the design process is considerably reduced. The strength of the design method is demonstrated in detail for a novel application in which a reflective optical system of several surfaces is required for rotationally symmetric triangulation.

  4. Spatiotemporal localized modes in PT-symmetric optical media

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yue-Yue; Dai, Chao-Qing Wang, Xiao-Gang

    2014-09-15

    We firstly obtain spatiotemporal localized mode solutions of a (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schrdinger equation in PT-symmetric potentials, and then discuss the linear stability of LMs, which are also tested by means of direct simulations. Moreover, phase switches and transverse power-flow density associated with these localized modes have also been examined. At last, we investigate the dynamical behaviors of spatiotemporal LMs in three kinds of inhomogeneous media. - Highlights: Spatiotemporal LMs of a (3+1)-dimensional NLSE in PT-symmetric potentials are obtained. Phase switches and transverse power-flow density of LM are examined. Dynamical behaviors of LMs in three kinds of inhomogeneous media are studied.

  5. Controlled release of α-tocopherol, quercetin, and their cyclodextrin inclusion complexes from linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) films into a coconut oil model food system.

    PubMed

    Koontz, J L; Moffitt, R D; Marcy, J E; O'Keefe, S F; Duncan, S E; Long, T E

    2010-11-01

    Polymer additive migration into a food product is dependent upon numerous factors including the original concentration of the additive in the polymer, its solubility in the food, its diffusion coefficient in the polymer, its partition coefficient between the polymer and food, temperature, and time. The limited solubility of quercetin in linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) did not allow release from the film due to phase segregation of the quercetin in the bulk polymer. Increasing the molecular weight of α-tocopherol by β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexation can greatly reduce its diffusion coefficient in LLDPE. Ziegler-Natta and metallocene LLDPE contain different crystalline structure morphologies and diffusion path networking arrangements that allow for differences in additive release rates. Effective controlled-release packaging should combine β-cyclodextrin complexation of additives and polymer morphology control to target delivery of an optimal antioxidant concentration to achieve prolonged activity, resulting in extended shelf life foods. PMID:20672204

  6. Complementarity of infrared linear dichroism and X-ray diffraction analysis as demonstrated by the study of a DNA-drug complex.

    PubMed

    Pohle, W; Rim, T

    1989-01-01

    Infrared linear dichroism and X-ray diffraction analysis on oriented films and fibres, respectively, were used simultaneously to elucidate structural characteristics of a DNA-drug complex (the drug was the anticancer antibiotic violamycin BI, an anthracycline derivative). First, the parameters accessible by the two methods are briefly explained; then, attempts to inter-correlate the data from both lines of investigations are made, which demonstrate that they support and supplement each other favourably concerning several structural aspects. This holds, in particular, for results regarding the conformational flexibility of DNA in complexes and the relative amounts of intercalated and outside-bound drug molecules. Thus, the study represents an example for a successful combined application of two physical methods to one biochemical problem. PMID:2803279

  7. Complex degree of mutual anisotropy of linear birefringence and optical activity of biological tissues in diagnostics of prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushenko, V. A.; Gorsky, M. P.

    2013-08-01

    We present theoretical fundamentals of polarization and correlation analysis of the optical anisotropy of biological tissues. Results of measurements of coordinate distributions of the complex degree of mutual anisotropy (CDMA) that are formed by birefringent structures of the prostate tissue with benign and malignant changes are compared. Magnitudes and ranges of variation of statistical (the firstto fourth-order distribution moments) and correlation (excess of autocorrelation functions) parameters of the coordinate CDMA distributions of histological sections of the prostate postoperative bioptic material are studied. Objective criteria of the diagnostics of the appearance of pathology and of the differentiation of the degree of its severity are determined.

  8. Thin-shell wormholes: Linearization stability

    SciTech Connect

    Poisson, E.; Visser, M.

    1995-12-15

    The class of spherically symmetric thin-shell wormholes provides a particularly elegant collection of exemplars for the study of traversable Lorentzian wormholes. In the present paper we consider linearized (spherically symmetric) perturbations around some assumed static solution of the Einstein field equations. This permits us to relate stability issues to the (linearized) equation of state of the exotic matter which is located at the wormhole throat. {copyright} 1995 The American Physical Society.

  9. Symmetry breaking in linearly coupled Korteweg-de Vries systems.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Cern, A; Malomed, B A; Fujioka, J; Rodrguez, R F

    2012-09-01

    We consider solitons in a system of linearly coupled Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equations, which model two-layer settings in various physical media. We demonstrate that traveling symmetric solitons with identical components are stable at velocities lower than a certain threshold value. Above the threshold, which is found exactly, the symmetric modes are unstable against spontaneous symmetry breaking, which gives rise to stable asymmetric solitons. The shape of the asymmetric solitons is found by means of a variational approximation and in the numerical form. Simulations of the evolution of an unstable symmetric soliton sometimes produce its breakup into two different asymmetric modes. Collisions between moving stable solitons, symmetric and asymmetric ones, are studied numerically, featuring noteworthy features. In particular, collisions between asymmetric solitons with identical polarities are always elastic, while in the case of opposite polarities the collision leads to a switch of the polarities of both solitons. Three-soliton collisions are studied too, featuring quite complex interaction scenarios. PMID:23020484

  10. Reversible Switching between Nonquenched and Quenched States in Nanoscale Linear Arrays of Plant Light-Harvesting Antenna Complexes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A simple and robust nanolithographic method that allows sub-100 nm chemical patterning on a range of oxide surfaces was developed in order to fabricate nanoarrays of plant light-harvesting LHCII complexes. The site-specific immobilization and the preserved functionality of the LHCII complexes were confirmed by fluorescence emission spectroscopy. Nanopatterned LHCII trimers could be reversibly switched between fluorescent and quenched states by controlling the detergent concentration in the imaging buffer. A 3-fold quenching of the average fluorescence intensity was accompanied by a decrease in the average (amplitude-weighted) fluorescence lifetime from approximately 2.24 ns to approximately 0.4 ns, attributed to the intrinsic ability of LHCII to switch between fluorescent and quenched states upon changes in its conformational state. The nanopatterning methodology was extended by immobilizing a second protein, the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), onto LHCII-free areas of the chemically patterned surfaces. This very simple surface chemistry, which allows simultaneous selective immobilization and therefore sorting of the two types of protein molecules on the surface, is a key underpinning step toward the integration of LHCII into switchable biohybrid antenna constructs. PMID:24988144

  11. APPROXIMATING SYMMETRIC POSITIVE SEMIDEFINITE TENSORS OF EVEN ORDER*

    PubMed Central

    BARMPOUTIS, ANGELOS; JEFFREY, HO; VEMURI, BABA C.

    2012-01-01

    Tensors of various orders can be used for modeling physical quantities such as strain and diffusion as well as curvature and other quantities of geometric origin. Depending on the physical properties of the modeled quantity, the estimated tensors are often required to satisfy the positivity constraint, which can be satisfied only with tensors of even order. Although the space P02m of 2mth-order symmetric positive semi-definite tensors is known to be a convex cone, enforcing positivity constraint directly on P02m is usually not straightforward computationally because there is no known analytic description of P02m for m > 1. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for enforcing the positivity constraint on even-order tensors by approximating the cone P02m for the cases 0 < m < 3, and presenting an explicit characterization of the approximation ?2m ? ?2m for m ? 1, using the subset ?2m?P02m of semi-definite tensors that can be written as a sum of squares of tensors of order m. Furthermore, we show that this approximation leads to a non-negative linear least-squares (NNLS) optimization problem with the complexity that equals the number of generators in ?2m. Finally, we experimentally validate the proposed approach and we present an application for computing 2mth-order diffusion tensors from Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Images. PMID:23285313

  12. Integrability and Vesture for Axially Symmetric Harmonic Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beheshti, Shabnam; Tahvildar-Zadeh, Shadi

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the interrelationship between integrability, inverse-scattering (ISM), and vesture for harmonic maps into symmetric spaces. Motivated by the application of ISM to the Einstein Equations in the case of stationary, axisymmetric metrics, we show that the equations for an axially symmetric harmonic map of R3 into a symmetric space G/K are completely integrable. Furthermore, new solutions for these equations can be generated starting from a given seed solution. As an application to General Relativity, we consider the problem of finding N-solitonic harmonic maps into the noncompact Grassmann manifolds SU(p, q)/S(U(p) U(q)) and find it is completely reducible via dressing to a problem in linear algebra. We indicate directions for further investigation.

  13. Plane symmetric thin-shell wormholes: Solutions and stability

    SciTech Connect

    Lemos, Jose P. S.; Lobo, Francisco S. N.

    2008-08-15

    Using the cut-and-paste procedure, we construct static and dynamic, plane symmetric wormholes by surgically grafting together two spacetimes of plane symmetric vacuum solutions with a negative cosmological constant. These plane symmetric wormholes can be interpreted as domain walls connecting different universes, having planar topology, and upon compactification of one or two coordinates, cylindrical topology or toroidal topology, respectively. A stability analysis is carried out for the dynamic case by taking into account specific equations of state, and a linearized stability analysis around static solutions is also explored. It is found that thin-shell wormholes made of a dark energy fluid or of a cosmological constant fluid are stable, while thin-shell wormholes made of phantom energy are unstable.

  14. Staggered parity-time-symmetric ladders with cubic nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ambroise, Jennie; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Malomed, Boris A.

    2015-03-01

    We introduce a ladder-shaped chain with each rung carrying a parity-time- (PT -) symmetric gain-loss dimer. The polarity of the dimers is staggered along the chain, meaning alternation of gain-loss and loss-gain rungs. This structure, which can be implemented as an optical waveguide array, is the simplest one which renders the system PT -symmetric in both horizontal and vertical directions. The system is governed by a pair of linearly coupled discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equations with self-focusing or defocusing cubic onsite nonlinearity. Starting from the analytically tractable anticontinuum limit of uncoupled rungs and using the Newton's method for continuation of the solutions with the increase of the inter-rung coupling, we construct families of PT -symmetric discrete solitons and identify their stability regions. Waveforms stemming from a single excited rung and double ones are identified. Dynamics of unstable solitons is investigated too.

  15. Staggered parity-time-symmetric ladders with cubic nonlinearity.

    PubMed

    D'Ambroise, Jennie; Kevrekidis, P G; Malomed, Boris A

    2015-03-01

    We introduce a ladder-shaped chain with each rung carrying a parity-time- (PT-) symmetric gain-loss dimer. The polarity of the dimers is staggered along the chain, meaning alternation of gain-loss and loss-gain rungs. This structure, which can be implemented as an optical waveguide array, is the simplest one which renders the system PT-symmetric in both horizontal and vertical directions. The system is governed by a pair of linearly coupled discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equations with self-focusing or defocusing cubic onsite nonlinearity. Starting from the analytically tractable anticontinuum limit of uncoupled rungs and using the Newton's method for continuation of the solutions with the increase of the inter-rung coupling, we construct families of PT-symmetric discrete solitons and identify their stability regions. Waveforms stemming from a single excited rung and double ones are identified. Dynamics of unstable solitons is investigated too. PMID:25871238

  16. Temporal linear mode complexity as a surrogate measure of the effect of remifentanil on the central nervous system in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Byung-Moon; Shin, Da-Huin; Noh, Moon-Ho; Kim, Young-Hac; Jeong, Yong-Bo; Lee, Soo-Han; Lee, Eun-Kyung; Noh, Gyu-Jeong

    2011-01-01

    AIMS Previously, electroencephalographic approximate entropy (ApEn) effectively described both depression of central nervous system (CNS) activity and rebound during and after remifentanil infusion. ApEn is heavily dependent on the record length. Linear mode complexity, which is algorithmatically independent of the record length, was investigated to characterize the effect of remifentanil on the CNS using the combined effect and tolerance, feedback and sigmoid Emax models. METHODS The remifentanil blood concentrations and electroencephalographic data obtained in our previous study were used. With the recording of the electroencephalogram, remifentanil was infused at a rate of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8 µg kg−1 min−1 for 15–20 min. The areas below (AUCeffect) or above (AACrebound) the effect vs. time curve of temporal linear mode complexity (TLMC) and ApEn were calculated to quantitate the decrease of the CNS activity and rebound. The coefficients of variation (CV) of median baseline (E0), maximal (Emax), and individual median E0 minus Emaxvalues of TLMC were compared with those of ApEn. The concentration–TLMC relationship was characterized by population analysis using non-linear mixed effects modelling. RESULTS Median AUCeffectand AACreboundwere 1016 and 5.3 (TLMC), 787 and 4.5 (ApEn). The CVs of individual median E0 minus Emax were 35.6, 32.5% (TLMC, ApEn). The combined effect and tolerance model demonstrated the lowest Akaike information criteria value and the highest positive predictive value of rebound in tolerance. CONCLUSIONS The combined effect and tolerance model effectively characterized the time course of TLMC as a surrogate measure of the effect of remifentanil on the CNS. PMID:21223358

  17. Linear coding of complex sound spectra by discharge rate in neurons of the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) and its inputs

    PubMed Central

    Koka, Kanthaiah; Tollin, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    The interaural level difference (ILD) cue to sound location is first encoded in the lateral superior olive (LSO). ILD sensitivity results because the LSO receives excitatory input from the ipsilateral cochlear nucleus and inhibitory input indirectly from the contralateral cochlear nucleus via glycinergic neurons of the ipsilateral medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB). It is hypothesized that in order for LSO neurons to encode ILDs, the sound spectra at both ears must be accurately encoded via spike rate by their afferents. This spectral-coding hypothesis has not been directly tested in MNTB, likely because MNTB neurons have been mostly described and studied recently in regards to their abilities to encode temporal aspects of sounds, not spectral. Here, we test the hypothesis that MNTB neurons and their inputs from the cochlear nucleus and auditory nerve code sound spectra via discharge rate. The Random Spectral Shape (RSS) method was used to estimate how the levels of 100-ms duration spectrally stationary stimuli were weighted, both linearly and non-linearly, across a wide band of frequencies. In general, MNTB neurons, and their globular bushy cell inputs, were found to be well-modeled by a linear weighting of spectra demonstrating that the pathways through the MNTB can accurately encode sound spectra including those resulting from the acoustical cues to sound location provided by head-related directional transfer functions (DTFs). Together with the anatomical and biophysical specializations for timing in the MNTB-LSO complex, these mechanisms may allow ILDs to be computed for complex stimuli with rapid spectrotemporally-modulated envelopes such as speech and animal vocalizations and moving sound sources. PMID:25565971

  18. Prior Distributions on Symmetric Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Jayanti; Damien, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Fully and partially ranked data arise in a variety of contexts. From a Bayesian perspective, attention has focused on distance-based models; in particular, the Mallows model and extensions thereof. In this paper, a class of prior distributions, the "Binary Tree," is developed on the symmetric group. The attractive features of the class are: it

  19. Parametric separation of symmetric pure quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solís-Prosser, M. A.; Delgado, A.; Jiménez, O.; Neves, L.

    2016-01-01

    Quantum state separation is a probabilistic map that transforms a given set of pure states into another set of more distinguishable ones. Here we investigate such a map acting onto uniparametric families of symmetric linearly dependent or independent quantum states. We obtained analytical solutions for the success probability of the maps—which is shown to be optimal—as well as explicit constructions in terms of positive operator valued measures. Our results can be used for state discrimination strategies interpolating continuously between minimum-error and unambiguous (or maximum-confidence) discrimination, which, in turn, have many applications in quantum information protocols. As an example, we show that quantum teleportation through a nonmaximally entangled quantum channel can be accomplished with higher probability than the one provided by unambiguous (or maximum-confidence) discrimination and with higher fidelity than the one achievable by minimum-error discrimination. Finally, an optical network is proposed for implementing parametric state separation.

  20. Decomposition of separable and symmetric convex templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dong; Ritter, Gerhard X.

    1990-11-01

    Convolutions are a fundamental tool in image processing. Classical examples of 2-dimensional linear convolutions include image correlation the mean filter the discrete Fourier transform and a multitude of edge mask filers. Nonlinear convolutions are used in such operations as the median filter the medial axis transform and erosions and dilations as defined in mathematical morphology. For large convolution mask the computation cost resulting from implementation can be prohibitive. However in many instances this cost can be significantly reduced by decomposing the masks or templates into a sequence of smaller templates. In addition such decompositions can often be made architecture specific and thus resulting in optimal transform performance. In this paper the issues of template decomposition are discussed in the context of the image algebra. Necessary and sufficient conditions as well as some efficient methods for decomposing rectangular symmetric convex and spherical templates are presented.

  1. SymmRef: a Flexible Refinement Method for Symmetric Multimers

    PubMed Central

    Mashiach-Farkash, Efrat; Nussinov, Ruth; Wolfson, Haim J.

    2011-01-01

    Symmetric protein complexes are abundant in the living cell. Predicting their atomic structure can shed light on the mechanism of many important biological processes. Symmetric docking methods aim to predict the structure of these complexes given the unbound structure of a single monomer, or its model. Symmetry constraints reduce the search-space of these methods and make the prediction easier compared to asymmetric protein-protein docking. However the challenge of modeling the conformational changes that the monomer might undergo is a major obstacle. In this paper we present SymmRef, a novel method for refinement and re-ranking of symmetric docking solutions. The method models backbone and side-chain movements and optimizes the rigid-body orientations of the monomers. The backbone movements are modeled by normal modes minimization and the conformations of the side-chains are modeled by selecting optimal rotamers. Since solved structures of symmetric multimers show asymmetric side-chain conformations, we do not use symmetry constraints in the side-chain optimization procedure. The refined models are re-ranked according to an energy score. We tested the method on a benchmark of unbound docking challenges. The results show that the method significantly improves the accuracy and the ranking of symmetric rigid docking solutions. SymmRef is available for download at http://bioinfo3d.cs.tau.ac.il/SymmRef/download.html. PMID:21721046

  2. On the complex non-linear interaction between bacteria and redox dynamics in sediments and its effects on water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Vila, X.; Rubol, S.; Fernandez-Garcia, D.

    2011-12-01

    Despite the fact that the prognoses on the availability of resources related to different climate scenarios have been already formulated, the complex hydrological and biogeochemical reactions taking place in different compartments in natural environmental media are poorly understood, especially regarding the interactions between water bodies, and the reactions taking place at soil-water interfaces. Amongst them, the inter-relationship between hydrology, chemistry and biology has important implications in natural (rivers, lakes) and man-made water facilities (lagoons, artificial recharge pounds, reservoirs, slow infiltration systems, etc). The consequences involve environment, economic, social and health-risk aspects. At the current stage, only limited explanations are available to understand the implications of these relationships on ecosystem services, water quality and water quantity. Therefore, there is an urgent need to seek a full understanding of these physical-biogeochemical processes in water-bodies, sediments and biota and its implications in ecological and health risk. We present a soil column experiment and a mathematical model which aim to study the mutual interplay between water and bacteria activity in porous media, the corresponding dynamics and the feedback on nutrient cycling by using a multidisciplinary approach.

  3. Molecular detection of targeted major histocompatibility complex I-bound peptides using a probabilistic measure and nanospray MS3 on a hybrid quadrupole-linear ion trap.

    PubMed

    Reinhold, Bruce; Keskin, Derin B; Reinherz, Ellis L

    2010-11-01

    A nanospray MS(3) method deployed on a quadrupole linear ion trap hybrid can detect targeted peptides with high dynamic range and high sensitivity from complex mixtures without separations. The method uses a recognition algorithm that is a modification of the relative (Kullback-Leibler, KL) entropy characterization of probabilistic distance to detect if reference MS(3) fragmentation patterns are components of acquired MS(3) spectra. The recognition reflects the probabilistic structure of physical MS measurements unlike the Euclidean or inner product metrics widely used for comparing spectra. It capably handles spectra with a significant chemical ion background in contrast to the Euclidean metric or the direct relative entropy. The full nanospray MS(3) method allows both the detection and quantitation of targets without the need to obtain isotopically labeled standards. By avoiding chromatographic separations and its associated surface losses, the detection can be applied to complex samples on a very limited material scale. The methodology is illustrated by applications to the medically important problem of detecting targeted major histocompatibility complex (MHC) I associated peptides extracted from limited cell numbers. PMID:20932029

  4. Linear electric field mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    McComas, David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Nordholt, Jane E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01

    A mass spectrometer and methods for mass spectrometry. The apparatus is compact and of low weight and has a low power requirement, making it suitable for use on a space satellite and as a portable detector for the presence of substances. High mass resolution measurements are made by timing ions moving through a gridless cylindrically symmetric linear electric field.

  5. Linear electric field mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    McComas, D.J.; Nordholt, J.E.

    1992-12-01

    A mass spectrometer and methods for mass spectrometry are described. The apparatus is compact and of low weight and has a low power requirement, making it suitable for use on a space satellite and as a portable detector for the presence of substances. High mass resolution measurements are made by timing ions moving through a gridless cylindrically symmetric linear electric field. 8 figs.

  6. Bunch-Kaufman factorization for real symmetric indefinite banded matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Mark T.; Patrick, Merrell L.

    1989-01-01

    The Bunch-Kaufman algorithm for factoring symmetric indefinite matrices was rejected for banded matrices because it destroys the banded structure of the matrix. Herein, it is shown that for a subclass of real symmetric matrices which arise in solving the generalized eigenvalue problem using Lanczos's method, the Bunch-Kaufman algorithm does not result in major destruction of the bandwidth. Space time complexities of the algorithm are given and used to show that the Bunch-Kaufman algorithm is a significant improvement over LU factorization.

  7. {PT}-symmetrically deformed shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavaglia, Andrea; Fring, Andreas

    2012-11-01

    We investigate for a large class of nonlinear wave equations, which allow for shock wave formations, how these solutions behave when they are {PT}-symmetrically deformed. For real solutions we find that they are transformed into peaked solutions with a discontinuity in the first derivative instead. The systems we investigate include the {PT}-symmetrically deformed inviscid Burgers equation recently studied by Bender and Feinberg, for which we show that it does not develop any shocks, but peaks instead. In this case we exploit the rare fact that the {PT}-deformation can be provided by an explicit map found by Curtright and Fairlie together with the property that the undeformed equation can be solved by the method of characteristics. We generalise the map and observe this type of behaviour for all integer values of the deformation parameter ?. The peaks are formed as a result of mapping the multi-valued self-avoiding shock profile to a multi-valued self-crossing function by means of the {PT}-deformation. For some deformation parameters we also investigate the deformation of complex solutions and demonstrate that in this case the deformation mechanism leads to discontinuities. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to Quantum physics with non-Hermitian operators.

  8. Benign symmetric lipomatosis (Madelung's disease).

    PubMed

    Smith, P D; Stadelmann, W K; Wassermann, R J; Kearney, R E

    1998-12-01

    Benign symmetric lipomatosis, also known as Madelung's disease, is a rare condition characterized by massive fatty deposits arranged symmetrically around the neck, shoulders, and arms. These patients might present for liposuction and body contouring. Although infrequently encountered in the average plastic surgeon's practice, this condition should be considered when evaluating candidates for these procedures. The deformity is associated with chronic alcohol use and also with malignant tumors of the upper airways. The deformity is prone to recurrence and its surgical treatment often results in less than optimal aesthetic outcomes. Despite this fact, surgical removal via either direct excision or suction-assisted lipectomy provides the only real hope of palliation. This report describes a patient with this deformity and a review of the literature. PMID:9869144

  9. PT-symmetric phonon laser.

    PubMed

    Jing, Hui; zdemir, S K; L, Xin-You; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Lan; Nori, Franco

    2014-08-01

    By exploiting recent developments associated with coupled microcavities, we introduce the concept of the PT-symmetric phonon laser with balanced gain and loss. This is accomplished by introducing gain to one of the microcavities such that it balances the passive loss of the other. In the vicinity of the gain-loss balance, a strong nonlinear relation emerges between the intracavity-photon intensity and the input power. This then leads to a giant enhancement of both optical pressure and mechanical gain, resulting in a highly efficient phonon-lasing action. These results provide a promising approach for manipulating optomechanical systems through PT-symmetric concepts. Potential applications range from enhancing mechanical cooling to designing phonon-laser amplifiers. PMID:25126921

  10. Homogeneous solvation controlled photoreduction of cobalt(III) complexes in aqueous 2-methyl-2-propanol solutions linear solvation energy relationship and cyclic voltammetric analyses.

    PubMed

    Anbalagan, K; Lydia, I Sharmila

    2008-03-01

    The effect of solvent participation on the ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT, L-->Co(III)) reduction of the of Co(III)(en)(2)Br(RC(6)H(4)NH(2))(2+) where R=m-OCH(3), p-F, H, m-CH(3), p-CH(3,)p-OC(2)H(5) and p-OCH(3) were examined in aqueous 2-methyl-2-propanol (Bu(t)OH) solutions. The change in the reduction behavior of Co(III) centre was also examined through cyclic voltammetric studies. The observed reduction in quantum yield due to LMCT excitation can mainly be accounted using linear solvation energy relationship (LSER) comprising model correlation equations. These consist of empirical parameters such as Grunwald-Winstein's solvent ionizing power, Y, Dimroth-Richardt's solvent micro-polarity parameter, E(T)(N), Gutmann's donor number, DN(N), along with Kamlet-Taft's solvatochromic parameters (hydrogen bond acceptor acidity/basicity alpha/beta and solvent dipolarity/polarizability, pi*). The origin of solvent effect is found to be due to microscopic interaction between the solvent donor and the nitrogen-bound hydrogen of the ligand. Cyclic voltammograms show an irreversible reduction of Co(III) in DMF using Glassy Carbon Electrode, GCE, the redox peaks for the aniline complexes appear at -0.20 and 0.525V. Irradiation of the complexes with UV light (lambda=254nm) in binary mixtures produce Co(II)(aq) and the concentration of this species are highly dependent on x(alc) (x(alc)=mole fraction of alcohol). The observed quantum yield (logPhi(Co(II))) is found to be linearly related to mole fraction of organic co-solvent added in the mixture, therefore, logPhi(Co(II))=26.41 x 10(-2) when x(2)=0.0094 and 43.75 x 10(-2) when x(2)=0.076 for a typical complex Co(III)(en)(2)Br(p-OCH(3)C(6)H(4)NH(2))(2+) in aqueous 2-methyl-2-propanol at 300K. Cyclic voltammetry and LSER analyses illustrate the variation of reduction property of Co(III) by the aryl ligand and homogeneous solvation of the excited state of the complex Co(III)(en)(2)Br(RC(6)H(4)NH(2))(2+) in H(2)O/Bu(t)OH mixtures. PMID:17698408

  11. Homogeneous solvation controlled photoreduction of cobalt(III) complexes in aqueous 2-methyl-2-propanol solutions. Linear solvation energy relationship and cyclic voltammetric analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbalagan, K.; Lydia, I. Sharmila

    2008-03-01

    The effect of solvent participation on the ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT, L ? Co III) reduction of the of Co III(en) 2Br(RC 6H 4NH 2) 2+ where R = m-OCH 3, p-F, H, m-CH 3, p-CH 3,p-OC 2H 5 and p-OCH 3 were examined in aqueous 2-methyl-2-propanol (Bu tOH) solutions. The change in the reduction behavior of Co III centre was also examined through cyclic voltammetric studies. The observed reduction in quantum yield due to LMCT excitation can mainly be accounted using linear solvation energy relationship (LSER) comprising model correlation equations. These consist of empirical parameters such as Grunwald-Winstein's solvent ionizing power, Y, Dimroth-Richardt's solvent micro-polarity parameter, ETN, Gutmann's donor number, DN N, along with Kamlet-Taft's solvatochromic parameters (hydrogen bond acceptor acidity/basicity ?/ ? and solvent dipolarity/polarizability, ?*). The origin of solvent effect is found to be due to microscopic interaction between the solvent donor and the nitrogen-bound hydrogen of the ligand. Cyclic voltammograms show an irreversible reduction of Co III in DMF using Glassy Carbon Electrode, GCE, the redox peaks for the aniline complexes appear at -0.20 and 0.525 V. Irradiation of the complexes with UV light ( ? = 254 nm) in binary mixtures produce Co IIaq and the concentration of this species are highly dependent on xalc ( xalc = mole fraction of alcohol). The observed quantum yield (log ?Co(II)) is found to be linearly related to mole fraction of organic co-solvent added in the mixture, therefore, log ?Co(II) = 26.41 10 -2 when x2 = 0.0094 and 43.75 10 -2 when x2 = 0.076 for a typical complex Co III(en) 2Br( p-OCH 3C 6H 4NH 2) 2+ in aqueous 2-methyl-2-propanol at 300 K. Cyclic voltammetry and LSER analyses illustrate the variation of reduction property of Co(III) by the aryl ligand and homogeneous solvation of the excited state of the complex Co III(en) 2Br(RC 6H 4NH 2) 2+ in H 2O/Bu tOH mixtures.

  12. R-symmetric gauge mediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lope Amigo, Santiago; Blechman, Andrew E.; Fox, Patrick J.; Poppitz, Erich

    2009-01-01

    We present a version of Gauge Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking which preserves an R-symmetrythe gauginos are Dirac particles, the A-terms are zero, and there are four Higgs doublets. This offers an alternative way for gauginos to acquire mass in the supersymmetry-breaking models of Intriligator, Seiberg, and Shih. We investigate the possibility of using R-symmetric gauge mediation to realize the spectrum and large sfermion mixing of the model of Kribs, Poppitz, and Weiner.

  13. Accessing the exceptional points of parity-time symmetric acoustics.

    PubMed

    Shi, Chengzhi; Dubois, Marc; Chen, Yun; Cheng, Lei; Ramezani, Hamidreza; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Parity-time (PT) symmetric systems experience phase transition between PT exact and broken phases at exceptional point. These PT phase transitions contribute significantly to the design of single mode lasers, coherent perfect absorbers, isolators, and diodes. However, such exceptional points are extremely difficult to access in practice because of the dispersive behaviour of most loss and gain materials required in PT symmetric systems. Here we introduce a method to systematically tame these exceptional points and control PT phases. Our experimental demonstration hinges on an active acoustic element that realizes a complex-valued potential and simultaneously controls the multiple interference in the structure. The manipulation of exceptional points offers new routes to broaden applications for PT symmetric physics in acoustics, optics, microwaves and electronics, which are essential for sensing, communication and imaging. PMID:27025443

  14. Canonical distributions on Riemannian homogeneous k-symmetric spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balashchenko, Vitaly V.

    2015-01-01

    It is known that distributions generated by almost product structures are applicable, in particular, to some problems in the theory of Monge-Ampre equations. In this paper, we characterize canonical distributions defined by canonical almost product structures on Riemannian homogeneous k-symmetric spaces in the sense of types AF (anti-foliation), F (foliation), TGF (totally geodesic foliation). Algebraic criteria for all these types on k-symmetric spaces of orders k = 4, 5, 6 were obtained. Note that canonical distributions on homogeneous k-symmetric spaces are closely related to special canonical almost complex structures and f-structures, which were recently applied by I. Khemar to studying elliptic integrable systems.

  15. Linear analysis of a force reflective teleoperator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biggers, Klaus B.; Jacobsen, Stephen C.; Davis, Clark C.

    1989-01-01

    Complex force reflective teleoperation systems are often very difficult to analyze due to the large number of components and control loops involved. One mode of a force reflective teleoperator is described. An analysis of the performance of the system based on a linear analysis of the general full order model is presented. Reduced order models are derived and correlated with the full order models. Basic effects of force feedback and position feedback are examined and the effects of time delays between the master and slave are studied. The results show that with symmetrical position-position control of teleoperators, a basic trade off must be made between the intersystem stiffness of the teleoperator, and the impedance felt by the operator in free space.

  16. Explosive condensation in symmetric mass transport models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, Yu-Xi; Connaughton, Colm; Grosskinsky, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    We study the dynamics of condensation in a misanthrope process with nonlinear jump rates and factorized stationary states. For large enough density, it is known that such models have a phase separated state, with a non-zero fraction of the total mass concentrating in a single lattice site. It has been established in [B Waclaw and M R Evans, Phys. Rev. Lett., 108(7):070601, 2012] for asymmetric dynamics that such processes exhibit explosive condensation, where the time to reach the stationary state vanishes with increasing system size. This constitutes a spatially extended version of instantaneous gelation which has previously been studied only in mean-field coagulation models. We show that this phenomenon also occurs for symmetric dynamics in one dimension if the non-linearity is strong enough, and we find a coarsening regime where the time to stationarity diverges with the system size for weak non-linearity. In higher space dimensions explosive condensation is expected to be generic for all parameter values. Our results are based on heuristic mean field arguments which are confirmed by simulation data.

  17. Skyrmions and vector mesons: a symmetric approach

    SciTech Connect

    Caldi, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    We propose an extension of the effective, low-energy chiral Lagrangian known as the Skyrme model, to one formulated by a non-linear sigma model generalized to include vector mesons in a symmetric way. The model is based on chiral SU(6) x SU(6) symmetry spontaneously broken to static SU(6). The rho and other vector mesons are dormant Goldstone bosons since they are in the same SU(6) multiplet as the pion and other pseudoscalars. Hence the manifold of our generalized non-linear sigma model is the coset space (SU(6) x SU(6))/Su(6). Relativistic effects, via a spin-dependent mass term, break the static SU(6) and give the vectors a mass. The model can then be fully relativistic and covariant. The lowest-lying Skyrmion in this model is the whole baryonic 56-plet, which splits into the octet and decuplet in the presence of relativistic SU(6)-breaking. Due to the built-in SU(6) and the presence of vector mesons, the model is expected to have better phenomenological results, as well as providing a conceptually more unified picture of mesons and baryons. 29 references.

  18. LUBAC-Recruited CYLD and A20 Regulate Gene Activation and Cell Death by Exerting Opposing Effects on Linear Ubiquitin in Signaling Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Draber, Peter; Kupka, Sebastian; Reichert, Matthias; Draberova, Helena; Lafont, Elodie; deMiguel, Diego; Spilgies, Lisanne; Surinova, Silvia; Taraborrelli, Lucia; Hartwig, Torsten; Rieser, Eva; Martino, Luigi; Rittinger, Katrin; Walczak, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Summary Ubiquitination and deubiquitination are crucial for assembly and disassembly of signaling complexes. LUBAC-generated linear (M1) ubiquitin is important for signaling via various immune receptors. We show here that the deubiquitinases CYLD and A20, but not OTULIN, are recruited to the TNFR1- and NOD2-associated signaling complexes (TNF-RSC and NOD2-SC), at which they cooperate to limit gene activation. Whereas CYLD recruitment depends on its interaction with LUBAC, but not on LUBACs M1-chain-forming capacity, A20 recruitment requires this activity. Intriguingly, CYLD and A20 exert opposing effects on M1 chain stability in the TNF-RSC and NOD2-SC. While CYLD cleaves M1 chains, and thereby sensitizes cells to TNF-induced death, A20 binding to them prevents their removal and, consequently, inhibits cell death. Thus, CYLD and A20 cooperatively restrict gene activation and regulate cell death via their respective activities on M1 chains. Hence, the interplay between LUBAC, M1-ubiquitin, CYLD, and A20 is central for physiological signaling through innate immune receptors. PMID:26670046

  19. Sequential karyotyping in Burkitt lymphoma reveals a linear clonal evolution with increase in karyotype complexity and a high frequency of recurrent secondary aberrations.

    PubMed

    Aukema, Sietse M; Theil, Laura; Rohde, Marius; Bauer, Benedikt; Bradtke, Jutta; Burkhardt, Birgit; Bonn, Bettina R; Claviez, Alexander; Gattenlhner, Stefan; Makarova, Olga; Nagel, Inga; Oschlies, Ilske; Pott, Christiane; Szczepanowski, Monika; Traulsen, Arne; Kluin, Philip M; Klapper, Wolfram; Siebert, Reiner; Murga Penas, Eva M

    2015-09-01

    Typical Burkitt lymphoma is characterized by an IG-MYC translocation and overall low genomic complexity. Clinically, Burkitt lymphoma has a favourable prognosis with very few relapses. However, the few patients experiencing disease progression and/or relapse have a dismal outcome. Here we report cytogenetic findings of seven cases of Burkitt lymphoma in which sequential karyotyping was performed at time of diagnosis and/or disease progression/relapse(s). After case selection, karyotype re-review and additional molecular analyses were performed in six paediatric cases, treated in Berlin-Frankfurt-Mnster-Non-Hodgkin lymphoma study group trials, and one additional adult patient. Moreover, we analysed 18 cases of Burkitt lymphoma from the Mitelman database in which sequential karyotyping was performed. Our findings show secondary karyotypes to have a significant increase in load of cytogenetic aberrations with a mean number of 2, 5 and 8 aberrations for primary, secondary and third investigations. Importantly, this increase in karyotype complexity seemed to result from recurrent secondary chromosomal changes involving mainly trisomy 21, gains of 1q and 7q, losses of 6q, 11q, 13q, and 17p. In addition, our findings indicate a linear clonal evolution to be the predominant manner of cytogenetic evolution. Our data may provide a biological framework for the dismal outcome of progressive and relapsing Burkitt lymphoma. PMID:26104998

  20. Mutations in NDUFB11, encoding a complex I component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, cause microphthalmia with linear skin defects syndrome.

    PubMed

    van Rahden, Vanessa A; Fernandez-Vizarra, Erika; Alawi, Malik; Brand, Kristina; Fellmann, Florence; Horn, Denise; Zeviani, Massimo; Kutsche, Kerstin

    2015-04-01

    Microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome is an X-linked male-lethal disorder also known as MIDAS (microphthalmia, dermal aplasia, and sclerocornea). Additional clinical features include neurological and cardiac abnormalities. MLS syndrome is genetically heterogeneous given that heterozygous mutations in HCCS or COX7B have been identified in MLS-affected females. Both genes encode proteins involved in the structure and function of complexes III and IV, which form the terminal segment of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC). However, not all individuals with MLS syndrome carry a mutation in either HCCS or COX7B. The majority of MLS-affected females have severe skewing of X chromosome inactivation, suggesting that mutations in HCCS, COX7B, and other as-yet-unidentified X-linked gene(s) cause selective loss of cells in which the mutated X chromosome is active. By applying whole-exome sequencing and filtering for X-chromosomal variants, we identified a de novo nonsense mutation in NDUFB11 (Xp11.23) in one female individual and a heterozygous 1-bp deletion in a second individual, her asymptomatic mother, and an affected aborted fetus of the subject's mother. NDUFB11 encodes one of 30 poorly characterized supernumerary subunits of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, known as complex I (cI), the first and largest enzyme of the MRC. By shRNA-mediated NDUFB11 knockdown in HeLa cells, we demonstrate that NDUFB11 is essential for cI assembly and activity as well as cell growth and survival. These results demonstrate that X-linked genetic defects leading to the complete inactivation of complex I, III, or IV underlie MLS syndrome. Our data reveal an unexpected role of cI dysfunction in a developmental phenotype, further underscoring the existence of a group of mitochondrial diseases associated with neurocutaneous manifestations. PMID:25772934

  1. Highly symmetric networks derived from cubane-related octametallic complexes of a new oxyanion of carbon, C4O7(4-), each molecule attached to eight neighbors by 24 equivalent hydrogen bonds.

    PubMed

    Abrahams, Brendan F; Hudson, Timothy A; Robson, Richard

    2004-07-21

    Aqueous reaction mixtures containing dihydroxyfumaric acid, M2+ (M = Zn, Co, Fe, and Mg) and acetate ion at room temperature give crystals, suitable for single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies, of composition [(MII)8(C4O7)4(H2O)12].24H2O, in which the C4O74- component is the alkoxide-tricarboxylate tetra-anionic species -OC(CO2-)3, a new oxyanion of carbon. All four compounds crystallize in the body-centered space group I3m with cell dimensions a approximately 15.0 A. Discrete electrically neutral [(MII)8(C4O7)4(H2O)12] molecules are present, with a cubane-like core consisting of four trigonal prismatic metal centers and four mu3-alkoxo bridges from separate -OC(CO2-)3 ligands. The octametallic molecule is highly symmetrical, with four fac tri-aqua octahedral metal centers tetrahedrally appended to the central cubane-based [(MII)8(C4O7)4 ]8- unit. The molecules assemble in the crystal in a body-centered cubic fashion, each being attached to its eight neighbors by 24 equivalent hydrogen bonds-an extreme example of self-complementarity. PMID:15250694

  2. Symmetric and antisymmetric nonlinear modes supported by dual local gain in lossy lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, K. W.; Ding, Edwin; Malomed, B. A.; Tang, A. Y. S.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a discrete lossy system, into which a double "hot spot" (HS) is inserted, i.e., two mutually symmetric sites carrying linear gain and cubic nonlinearity. The system can be implemented as an array of optical or plasmonic waveguides, with a pair of amplified nonlinear cores embedded into it. We focus on the case of self-defocusing nonlinearity and cubic losses acting at the HSs. Symmetric localized modes pinned to the double HS are constructed in an implicit analytical form, which is done separately for the cases of odd and even numbers of intermediate sites between the HSs. In the former case, some stationary solutions feature a W-like shape, with a low peak at the central site, added to tall peaks at the positions of the embedded HSs. The special case of two adjacent HSs is considered too. Stability of the solution families against small perturbations is investigated in a numerical form, which reveals stable and unstable subfamilies. The instability generated by an isolated positive eigenvalue leads to a spontaneous transformation into a co-existing stable antisymmetric mode, while a pair of complex-conjugate eigenvalues gives rise to persistent breathers. This article is a contribution to the volume dedicated to Professor Helmut Brand on the occasion of his 60th birhday.

  3. Spherically symmetric canonical quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahma, Suddhasattwa

    2015-06-01

    Canonical quantization of spherically symmetric space-times is carried out, using real-valued densitized triads and extrinsic curvature components, with specific factor-ordering choices ensuring in an anomaly free quantum constraint algebra. Comparison with previous work [Nucl. Phys. B399, 211 (1993)] reveals that the resulting physical Hilbert space has the same form, although the basic canonical variables are different in the two approaches. As an extension, holonomy modifications from loop quantum gravity are shown to deform the Dirac space-time algebra, while going beyond "effective" calculations.

  4. Postural stability in symmetrical gaits.

    PubMed

    Zielińska, Teresa; Trojnacki, Maciej

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the method of stability analysis of dynamic symmetrical gaits is discussed. The problem of dynamic postural equilibrium, taking into account the role of compliant feet, is solved. The equilibrium conditions are split between the foot attachment points and the points within the foot-end area. The present method is useful for motion synthesis, taking into account robot parameters. It also helps in the robot foot design. As an illustrative example a four-legged diagonal gait is considered. The theoretical results were verified by implementing and observing the diagonal gait in four-legged machine with and without feet. PMID:19839558

  5. CLOPPA-IPPP analysis of cooperative effects in hydrogen-bonded molecular complexes. Application to intermolecular 2hJ(N,C) spin-spin coupling constants in linear (CNH)n complexes.

    PubMed

    Giribet, Claudia G; Aza, Martn C Ruiz de

    2008-05-01

    The cooperative effects on NMR indirect nuclear coupling constants are analyzed by means of the IPPP-CLOPPA approach (where CLOPPA is the Contributions from Localized Orbitals within the Polarization Propagator Approach and IPPP is the Inner Projections of the Polarization Propagator). The decomposition of the J coupling allows one to classify these effects as those due to changes in the geometric structure and those that directly involve the transmission mechanisms. This latter contribution admits a further classification, taking into account its electronic origin. As an example, the cooperative effects on intermolecular 2hJ(N,C) couplings of the linear complexes (CNH)n (n = 2, 3, 4) are discussed. PMID:18410158

  6. Influence of boundary conditions and plate geometries on buckling optimization of symmetric laminate plates

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, H.T.

    1995-12-31

    The buckling resistance of symmetrically laminated plates with a given material system and subjected to uniaxial compression is maximized with respect to fiber orientations by using a sequential linear programming method together with a simple move-limit strategy. Significant influence of plate thicknesses, aspect ratios, central circular cutouts and end conditions on the optimal fiber orientations and the associated optimal buckling loads of symmetrically laminated plates has been shown through this investigation.

  7. Cycles in symmetric sequence processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metz, Fernando L.; Theumann, Walter K.

    2007-02-01

    The competition between pattern reconstruction and sequence processing is studied here in an exactly solvable feed-forward layered neural network model of binary units and patterns near saturation. We show results for both symmetric and asymmetric sequence processing, either one competing with pattern reconstruction represented by a Hebbian interaction, in order to compare these two kinds of sequence processing. Phase diagrams of stationary states are obtained and a new phase of cycles of period two is found for a weak Hebbian term in the case of symmetric sequence processing, independently of the number of condensed patterns c which have macroscopic overlaps with the states of the network. In contrast, the stability of these cycles depends strongly on c. These results are in contrast with those for the competition between a Hebbian interaction and an asymmetric sequence processing interaction, in which the period of the cycles is c and the stability of these solutions does not depend on c. The dynamics of the macroscopic overlaps in the stationary cyclic phase is analyzed in both models.

  8. On the characterization of dynamic supramolecular systems: a general mathematical association model for linear supramolecular copolymers and application on a complex two-component hydrogen-bonding system.

    PubMed

    Odille, Fabrice G J; Jónsson, Stefán; Stjernqvist, Susann; Rydén, Tobias; Wärnmark, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    A general mathematical model for the characterization of the dynamic (kinetically labile) association of supramolecular assemblies in solution is presented. It is an extension of the equal K (EK) model by the stringent use of linear algebra to allow for the simultaneous presence of an unlimited number of different units in the resulting assemblies. It allows for the analysis of highly complex dynamic equilibrium systems in solution, including both supramolecular homo- and copolymers without the recourse to extensive approximations, in a field in which other analytical methods are difficult. The derived mathematical methodology makes it possible to analyze dynamic systems such as supramolecular copolymers regarding for instance the degree of polymerization, the distribution of a given monomer in different copolymers as well as its position in an aggregate. It is to date the only general means to characterize weak supramolecular systems. The model was fitted to NMR dilution titration data by using the program Matlab, and a detailed algorithm for the optimization of the different parameters has been developed. The methodology is applied to a case study, a hydrogen-bonded supramolecular system, salen 4+porphyrin 5. The system is formally a two-component system but in reality a three-component system. This results in a complex dynamic system in which all monomers are associated to each other by hydrogen bonding with different association constants, resulting in homo- and copolymers 4n5m as well as cyclic structures 6 and 7, in addition to free 4 and 5. The system was analyzed by extensive NMR dilution titrations at variable temperatures. All chemical shifts observed at different temperatures were used in the fitting to obtain the DeltaH degrees and DeltaS degrees values producing the best global fit. From the derived general mathematical expressions, system 4+5 could be characterized with respect to above-mentioned parameters. PMID:17868169

  9. Modeling and analysis of the in-plane vibration of a complex cable-stayed bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, D. Q.; Song, M. T.; Zhu, W. D.; Tucker, R. W.; Wang, C. H.-T.

    2012-12-01

    The in-plane vibration of a complex cable-stayed bridge that consists of a simply-supported four-cable-stayed deck beam and two rigid towers is studied. The nonlinear and linear partial differential equations that govern transverse and longitudinal vibrations of the cables and transverse vibrations of segments of the deck beam, respectively, are derived, along with their boundary and matching conditions. The undamped natural frequencies and mode shapes of the linearized model of the cable-stayed bridge are determined, and orthogonality relations of the mode shapes are established. Numerical analysis of the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the cable-stayed bridge is conducted for various symmetrical and non-symmetrical bridge cases with regards to the sizes of the components of the bridge and the initial sags of the cables. The results show that there are very close natural frequencies when the bridge model is symmetrical and/or partially symmetrical, and the mode shapes tend to be more localized when the bridge model is less symmetrical. The relationships between the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the cable-stayed bridge and those of a single fixed-fixed cable and the single simply-supported deck beam are analyzed. The results, which are validated by commercial finite element software, demonstrate some complex classical resonance behavior of the cable-stayed bridge.

  10. PT-symmetric phase in kagome-based photonic lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chern, Gia-Wei; Saxena, Avadh

    2015-12-01

    Kagome lattice is a two-dimensional network of corner-sharing triangles and is often associated with geometrical frustration. In particular, the frustrated coupling between waveguide modes in a kagome array leads to a dispersionless flat band consisting of spatially localized modes. Here we propose a complex photonic lattice by placing $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric dimers at the kagome lattice points. Each dimer corresponds to a pair of strongly coupled waveguides. With balanced arrangement of gain and loss on individual dimers, the system exhibits a $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric phase for finite gain/loss parameter up to a critical value. The beam evolution in this complex kagome waveguide array exhibits a novel oscillatory rotation of optical power along the propagation distance. Long-lived local chiral structures originating from the nearly flat bands of the kagome structure are observed when the lattice is subject to a narrow beam excitation.

  11. Perturbation theory of a symmetric center within Linard equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franoise, Jean-Pierre; Xiao, Dongmei

    2015-09-01

    In this article, we introduce the use of Lambert function to develop further the global perturbation theory of an integrable Linard equation which displays a symmetric center. We prove a global Morse lemma for the first integral and deduce the existence of an associated Picard-Fuchs system. We revisit previous contributions to first-order perturbation theory with the help of these new analytic techniques and in particular, we check that the fundamental integrals are linearly independent. The Lambert function allows to find an expansion formula for these integrals. We also study the possibility to develop a higher-order perturbation theory. The algorithm of the successive derivatives works in general in the class of analytic functions on the domain D where the level sets of the first integral are ovals. We end the article with some results on the first integral of a symmetric Linard equation deduced from the algorithm of successive derivatives.

  12. Rotation moment invariants for recognition of symmetric objects.

    PubMed

    Flusser, Jan; Suk, Toms

    2006-12-01

    In this paper, a new set of moment invariants with respect to rotation, translation, and scaling suitable for recognition of objects having N-fold rotation symmetry are presented. Moment invariants described earlier cannot be used for this purpose because most moments of symmetric objects vanish. The invariants proposed here are based on complex moments. Their independence and completeness are proven theoretically and their performance is demonstrated by experiments. PMID:17153951

  13. Symmetrical mixtures in external fields.

    PubMed

    Materniak, S; Patrykiejew, A

    2013-07-01

    We have studied the behavior of symmetrical binary mixtures of Lennard-Jones particles in contact with strongly adsorbing walls using Monte Carlo simulation methods in the grand canonical and semi-grand canonical ensembles. Two types of the surface potential have been applied. The first depends on the distance from the surface only, while the second involves periodic modulations in the directions parallel to the wall. In the latter case, it has been assumed that the solid substrate is a fcc crystal with the surface being the (100) face. We have considered the systems in which the surface potential is strong enough to induce the layer-by-layer adsorption at low temperatures and discussed the interplay between the demixing transition and the structure of thin films for several systems characterized by different parameters describing the interactions in the system. PMID:23822318

  14. Strong orientational coordinates and orientational order parameters for symmetric objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haji-Akbari, Amir; Glotzer, Sharon C.

    2015-12-01

    Recent advancements in the synthesis of anisotropic macromolecules and nanoparticles have spurred an immense interest in theoretical and computational studies of self-assembly. The cornerstone of such studies is the role of shape in self-assembly and in inducing complex order. The problem of identifying different types of order that can emerge in such systems can, however, be challenging. Here, we revisit the problem of quantifying orientational order in systems of building blocks with non-trivial rotational symmetries. We first propose a systematic way of constructing orientational coordinates for such symmetric building blocks. We call the arising tensorial coordinates strong orientational coordinates (SOCs) as they fully and exclusively specify the orientation of a symmetric object. We then use SOCs to describe and quantify local and global orientational order, and spatiotemporal orientational correlations in systems of symmetric building blocks. The SOCs and the orientational order parameters developed in this work are not only useful in performing and analyzing computer simulations of symmetric molecules or particles, but can also be utilized for the efficient storage of rotational information in long trajectories of evolving many-body systems.

  15. Synthesis, characterization of N,N?-bis(2-hydroxynaphthalidene)phenylene-1,2-diamine with M(II)(M = Ni, Zn and Fe) Schiff-base complexes and their non-linear optical studies by z-scan technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampath Kumar, H. C.; Ramachandra Bhat, B.; Rudresha, B. J.; Ravindra, R.; Philip, Reji

    2010-07-01

    Schiff-base complexes of N, N'-bis(2-hydroxynaphthalidene)phenylene-1,2-diamine ligand with metal M (M = Ni(II), Zn(II) and Fe(II)) have been synthesized and characterized by their UV, FT-IR, NMR, elemental analysis and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Non-linear optical measurements carried out using nanosecond laser pulses at 532 nm show that these complexes can be used for optical limiting applications.

  16. A theoretical investigation of the energetics and spectroscopic properties of the gas-phase linear proton-bound cation-molecule complexes, XCH(+)-N2 (X=O, S).

    PubMed

    Begum, Samiyara; Subramanian, Ranga

    2016-01-01

    The structural features, spectroscopic properties, and interaction energies of the linear proton-bound complexes of OCH(+) and its sulfur analog SCH(+) with N2 were investigated using the high-level ab initio methods MP2 and CCSD(T) as well as density functional theory with the aug-cc-pVXZ (X=D,T) basis sets. The rotational constants along with the vibrational frequencies of the cation-molecule complexes are reported here. A comparison of the interaction energies of the OCH(+)-N2 and SCH(+)-N2 complexes with those of the OCH(+)-CO and OCH(+)-OC complexes was also performed. The energies of all the complexes were determined at the complete basis set (CBS) limit. CS shows higher proton affinity at the C site than CO does, so the complex OCH(+)-N2 is relatively strongly bound and has a higher interaction energy than the SCH(+)-N2 complex. Symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) was used to decompose the total interaction energies of the complexes into the attractive electrostatic interaction energy (E elst), induction energy (E ind), dispersion energy (E disp), and repulsive exchange energy (E exch). We found that the ratio of E ind to E disp is large for these linear proton-bound complexes, meaning that inductive effects are favored in these complexes. The bonding characteristics of the linear complexes were elucidated using natural bond orbital (NBO) theory. NBO analysis showed that the attractive interaction is caused by NBO charge transfer from the lone pair on N to the ?*(C-H) antibonding orbital in XCH(+)-N2 (X=O, S). The quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) was used to analyze the strengths of the various bonds within and between the cation and molecule in each of these proton-bound complexes in terms of the electron density at bond critical points (BCP). Graphical Abstract Linear proton-bound complexes of OCH(+)-N2 and SCH(+)-N2. In these complexes, inductive effect is favored over dispersive effect. The attractive interaction is the NBO charge transfer from N-lone pair of N2 to CH ?* antibonding orbital of XCH(+) (X=O, S). PMID:26645810

  17. Organometallic complexes of bulky, optically active, C3-symmetric tris(4S-isopropyl-5,5-dimethyl-2-oxazolinyl)phenylborate (ToP*)

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Songchen; Magoon, Yitzhak; Reinig, Regina R.; Schmidt, Bradley M.; Ellern, Arkady; Sadow, Aaron D.

    2015-07-16

    A bulky, optically active monoanionic scorpionate ligand, tris(4S-isopropyl-5,5-dimethyl-2-oxazolinyl)phenylborate (ToP*), is synthesized from the naturally occurring amino acid l-valine as its lithium salt, Li[ToP*] (1). That compound is readily converted to the thallium complex Tl[ToP*] (2) and to the acid derivative H[ToP*] (3). Group 7 tricarbonyl complexes ToP*M(CO)3 (M = Mn (4), Re (5)) are synthesized by the reaction of MBr(CO)5 and Li[ToP*] and are crystallographically characterized. The νCO bands in their infrared spectra indicate that π back-donation in the rhenium compounds is greater with ToP* than with non-methylated tris(4S-isopropyl-2-oxazolinyl)phenylborate (ToP). The reaction of H[ToP*] and ZnEt2 gives ToP*ZnEt (6), while ToP*ZnCl (7) is synthesized from Li[ToP*] and ZnCl2. The reaction of ToP*ZnCl and KOtBu followed by addition of PhSiH3 provides the zinc hydride complex ToP*ZnH (8). In this study, compound 8 is the first example of a crystallographically characterized optically active zinc hydride. We tested its catalytic reactivity in the cross-dehydrocoupling of silanes and alcohols, which provided Si-chiral silanes with moderate enantioselectivity.

  18. Linear Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Sidorin, Anatoly

    2010-01-05

    In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.

  19. Linear Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorin, Anatoly

    2010-01-01

    In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.

  20. The generalized sidelobe canceller based on quaternion widely linear processing.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jian-wu; Chang, Wen-xiu

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the problem of quaternion beamforming based on widely linear processing. First, a quaternion model of linear symmetric array with two-component electromagnetic (EM) vector sensors is presented. Based on array's quaternion model, we propose the general expression of a quaternion semiwidely linear (QSWL) beamformer. Unlike the complex widely linear beamformer, the QSWL beamformer is based on the simultaneous operation on the quaternion vector, which is composed of two jointly proper complex vectors, and its involution counterpart. Second, we propose a useful implementation of QSWL beamformer, that is, QSWL generalized sidelobe canceller (GSC), and derive the simple expressions of the weight vectors. The QSWL GSC consists of two-stage beamformers. By designing the weight vectors of two-stage beamformers, the interference is completely canceled in the output of QSWL GSC and the desired signal is not distorted. We derive the array's gain expression and analyze the performance of the QSWL GSC in the presence of one type of interference. The advantage of QSWL GSC is that the main beam can always point to the desired signal's direction and the robustness to DOA mismatch is improved. Finally, simulations are used to verify the performance of the proposed QSWL GSC. PMID:24955425

  1. The Generalized Sidelobe Canceller Based on Quaternion Widely Linear Processing

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Jian-wu; Chang, Wen-xiu

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the problem of quaternion beamforming based on widely linear processing. First, a quaternion model of linear symmetric array with two-component electromagnetic (EM) vector sensors is presented. Based on array's quaternion model, we propose the general expression of a quaternion semiwidely linear (QSWL) beamformer. Unlike the complex widely linear beamformer, the QSWL beamformer is based on the simultaneous operation on the quaternion vector, which is composed of two jointly proper complex vectors, and its involution counterpart. Second, we propose a useful implementation of QSWL beamformer, that is, QSWL generalized sidelobe canceller (GSC), and derive the simple expressions of the weight vectors. The QSWL GSC consists of two-stage beamformers. By designing the weight vectors of two-stage beamformers, the interference is completely canceled in the output of QSWL GSC and the desired signal is not distorted. We derive the array's gain expression and analyze the performance of the QSWL GSC in the presence of one type of interference. The advantage of QSWL GSC is that the main beam can always point to the desired signal's direction and the robustness to DOA mismatch is improved. Finally, simulations are used to verify the performance of the proposed QSWL GSC. PMID:24955425

  2. Critical binding and electron scattering by symmetric-top polar molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, W. R.

    2014-10-28

    Quantum treatments of electron interactions with polar symmetric-top rotor molecules show features not present in the treatment of the linear-polar-rotor model. For symmetric tops possessing non-zero angular momentum about the symmetry axis, a new critical dipole can be defined that guarantees an infinite set of dipole-bound states independent of the values of the components of the inertial tensor. Additionally, for this same class, the scattering cross section diverges for all nonzero values of dipole moments and inertial moments, similar to solutions for the fixed linear dipole. Additional predictions are presented for electron affinities and rotational resonances of these systems.

  3. Critical binding and electron scattering by symmetric-top polar molecules.

    PubMed

    Garrett, W R

    2014-10-28

    Quantum treatments of electron interactions with polar symmetric-top rotor molecules show features not present in the treatment of the linear-polar-rotor model. For symmetric tops possessing non-zero angular momentum about the symmetry axis, a new critical dipole can be defined that guarantees an infinite set of dipole-bound states independent of the values of the components of the inertial tensor. Additionally, for this same class, the scattering cross section diverges for all nonzero values of dipole moments and inertial moments, similar to solutions for the fixed linear dipole. Additional predictions are presented for electron affinities and rotational resonances of these systems. PMID:25362310

  4. Continuity and Separation in Symmetric Topologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, J.; Lynch, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this note, it is shown that in a symmetric topological space, the pairs of sets separated by the topology determine the topology itself. It is then shown that when the codomain is symmetric, functions which separate only those pairs of sets that are already separated are continuous, generalizing a result found by M. Lynch.

  5. Baryon symmetric big bang cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1978-01-01

    Both the quantum theory and Einsteins theory of special relativity lead to the supposition that matter and antimatter were produced in equal quantities during the big bang. It is noted that local matter/antimatter asymmetries may be reconciled with universal symmetry by assuming (1) a slight imbalance of matter over antimatter in the early universe, annihilation, and a subsequent remainder of matter; (2) localized regions of excess for one or the other type of matter as an initial condition; and (3) an extremely dense, high temperature state with zero net baryon number; i.e., matter/antimatter symmetry. Attention is given to the third assumption, which is the simplest and the most in keeping with current knowledge of the cosmos, especially as pertains the universality of 3 K background radiation. Mechanisms of galaxy formation are discussed, whereby matter and antimatter might have collided and annihilated each other, or have coexisted (and continue to coexist) at vast distances. It is pointed out that baryon symmetric big bang cosmology could probably be proved if an antinucleus could be detected in cosmic radiation.

  6. Recursive partitioned inversion of large (1500 x 1500) symmetric matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putney, B. H.; Brownd, J. E.; Gomez, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    A recursive algorithm was designed to invert large, dense, symmetric, positive definite matrices using small amounts of computer core, i.e., a small fraction of the core needed to store the complete matrix. The described algorithm is a generalized Gaussian elimination technique. Other algorithms are also discussed for the Cholesky decomposition and step inversion techniques. The purpose of the inversion algorithm is to solve large linear systems of normal equations generated by working geodetic problems. The algorithm was incorporated into a computer program called SOLVE. In the past the SOLVE program has been used in obtaining solutions published as the Goddard earth models.

  7. Using scaling to compute moments of inertia of symmetric objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricardo, Bernard

    2015-09-01

    Moment of inertia is a very important property in the study of rotational mechanics. The concept of moment of inertia is analogous to mass in the linear motion, and its calculation is routinely done through integration. This paper provides an alternative way to compute moments of inertia of rigid bodies of regular shape using their symmetrical property. This approach will be very useful and preferred for teaching rotational mechanics at the undergraduate level, as it does not require the knowledge or the application of calculus. The seven examples provided in this paper will help readers to understand clearly how to use the method.

  8. Diagonalization of the symmetrized discrete i th right shift operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuentes, Marc

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the symmetric part of the so-called ith right shift operator. We determine its eigenvalues as also the associated eigenvectors in a complete and closed form. The proposed proof is elementary, using only basical skills such as Trigonometry, Arithmetic and Linear algebra. The first section is devoted to the introduction of the tackled problem. Second and third parts contain almost all the ?technical? stuff of the proofE Afterwards, we continue with the end of the proof, provide a graphical illustration of the results, as well as an application on the polyhedral ?sandwiching? of a special compact of arising in Signal theory.

  9. Linear-scaling Cholesky decomposition.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, Sabine; Kussmann, Jörg; Doser, Bernd; Ochsenfeld, Christian

    2008-04-30

    We present linear-scaling routines for the calculation of the Cholesky decomposition of a symmetric positive-definite matrix and its inverse. As an example, we consider the inversion of the overlap matrix of DNA and amylose fragments as well as of linear alkanes, where the largest system corresponds to a 21,442 x 21,442 matrix. The efficiency and the scaling behavior are discussed and compared to standard LAPACK routines. Our Cholesky routines are publicly available on the web. PMID:17999386

  10. Replication of avocado sunblotch viroid: evidence for a symmetric pathway with two rolling circles and hammerhead ribozyme processing.

    PubMed

    Dars, J A; Marcos, J F; Hernndez, C; Flores, R

    1994-12-20

    The structure of a series of RNAs extracted from avocado infected by the 247-nt avocado sunblotch viroid (ASBVd) was investigated. The identification of multistranded complexes containing circular ASBVd RNAs of (+) and (-) polarity suggests that replication of ASBVd proceeds through a symmetric pathway with two rolling circles where these two circular RNAs are the templates. This is in contrast to the replication of potato spindle tuber viroid and probably of most of its related viroids, which proceeds via an asymmetric pathway where circular (+)-strand and linear multimeric (-)-strand RNAs are the two templates. Linear (+) and (-) ASBVd RNAs of subgenomic length (137 nt and about 148 nt, respectively) and one linear (+)-strand ASBVd RNA of supragenomic length (383-384 nt) were also found in viroid-infected tissue. The two linear (+)-strand RNAs have the same 5'- and 3'-terminal sequences, with the supragenomic species being a fusion product of the monomeric and subgenomic (+)-strand ASBVd RNAs. The 3' termini of these two (+)-strand molecules, which at least in the subgenomic RNA has an extra nontemplate cytidylate residue, could represent sites of either premature termination of the (+)-strands or specific initiation of the (-)-strands. The 5' termini of sub- and supragenomic (+)-strand and the 5' terminus of the subgenomic (-)-strand ASBVd RNA are identical to those produced in the in vitro self-cleavage reactions of (+) and (-) dimeric ASBVd RNAs, respectively. These observations strongly suggest that the hammerhead structures which mediate the in vitro self-cleavage reactions are also operative in vivo. PMID:7809126

  11. Continuous-time symmetric Hopfield nets are computationally universal.

    PubMed

    Sma, Jir; Orponen, Pekka

    2003-03-01

    We establish a fundamental result in the theory of computation by continuous-time dynamical systems by showing that systems corresponding to so-called continuous-time symmetric Hopfield nets are capable of general computation. As is well known, such networks have very constrained Lyapunov-function controlled dynamics. Nevertheless, we show that they are universal and efficient computational devices, in the sense that any convergent synchronous fully parallel computation by a recurrent network of n discrete-time binary neurons, with in general asymmetric coupling weights, can be simulated by a symmetric continuous-time Hopfield net containing only 18n + 7 units employing the saturated-linear activation function. Moreover, if the asymmetric network has maximum integer weight size w(max) and converges in discrete time t*, then the corresponding Hopfield net can be designed to operate in continuous time Theta(t*/epsilon) for any epsilon > 0 such that w(max)2(12n) symmetric Hopfield nets. PMID:12620163

  12. Nontotally symmetric trifurcation of an SN 2 reaction pathway.

    PubMed

    Harabuchi, Yu; Ono, Yuriko; Maeda, Satoshi; Taketsugu, Tetsuya; Keipert, Kristopher; Gordon, Mark S

    2016-02-15

    A new type of reaction pathway which involves a nontotally symmetric trifurcation was found and investigated for a typical SN 2-type reaction, NC(-) ?+?CH3 X ? NC?CH3 ?+?X(-) (X?=?F, Cl). A nontotally symmetric valley-ridge inflection (VRI) point was located along the C3 v reaction path. For X?=?F, the minimum energy path (MEP) starting from the transition state (TS) leads to a second-order saddle point with C3 v symmetry, which connects three product minima of Cs symmetry. For X?=?Cl, four product minima have been observed, of which three belong to Cs symmetry and one to C3 v symmetry. The branching path from the VRI point to the lower symmetry minima was determined by a linear interpolation technique. The branching mechanism is discussed based on the reaction path curvature and net atomic charges, and the possibility of a nonotally symmetric n-furcation is discussed. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26511597

  13. Observation of optical solitons in PT-symmetric lattices

    PubMed Central

    Wimmer, Martin; Regensburger, Alois; Miri, Mohammad-Ali; Bersch, Christoph; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.; Peschel, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Controlling light transport in nonlinear active environments is a topic of considerable interest in the field of optics. In such complex arrangements, of particular importance is to devise strategies to subdue chaotic behaviour even in the presence of gain/loss and nonlinearity, which often assume adversarial roles. Quite recently, notions of parity-time (PT) symmetry have been suggested in photonic settings as a means to enforce stable energy flow in platforms that simultaneously employ both amplification and attenuation. Here we report the experimental observation of optical solitons in PT-symmetric lattices. Unlike other non-conservative nonlinear arrangements where self-trapped states appear as fixed points in the parameter space of the governing equations, discrete PT solitons form a continuous parametric family of solutions. The possibility of synthesizing PT-symmetric saturable absorbers, where a nonlinear wave finds a lossless path through an otherwise absorptive system is also demonstrated. PMID:26215165

  14. Observation of optical solitons in PT-symmetric lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wimmer, Martin; Regensburger, Alois; Miri, Mohammad-Ali; Bersch, Christoph; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.; Peschel, Ulf

    2015-07-01

    Controlling light transport in nonlinear active environments is a topic of considerable interest in the field of optics. In such complex arrangements, of particular importance is to devise strategies to subdue chaotic behaviour even in the presence of gain/loss and nonlinearity, which often assume adversarial roles. Quite recently, notions of parity-time (PT) symmetry have been suggested in photonic settings as a means to enforce stable energy flow in platforms that simultaneously employ both amplification and attenuation. Here we report the experimental observation of optical solitons in PT-symmetric lattices. Unlike other non-conservative nonlinear arrangements where self-trapped states appear as fixed points in the parameter space of the governing equations, discrete PT solitons form a continuous parametric family of solutions. The possibility of synthesizing PT-symmetric saturable absorbers, where a nonlinear wave finds a lossless path through an otherwise absorptive system is also demonstrated.

  15. {\\cal CPT} -symmetric spin-orbit-coupled condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartashov, Y. V.; Konotop, V. V.; Zezyulin, D. A.

    2014-09-01

    We consider a mean-field model of a spin-orbit-coupled atomic system (Bose-Einstein condensate) accounting for pumping and removal of atoms from the two ground states. This model introduces a concept of charge-parity-time ({\\cal CPT}) -symmetric system with a complex potential featuring a purely real spectrum. The introduced spin-orbit-coupled BEC possesses properties such as control of the stability by the external trap, singular {\\cal CPT} symmetry phase breaking, the existence of stable nonlinear modes with nonzero currents in repulsive and attractive condensates, multiply re-entrant {\\cal CPT} -symmetric phase, splitting of nonlinear modes into sets of solitons (wave packets) moving with different velocities and in different directions in the condensate released from the trap.

  16. A linear Hf isotope-age array despite different granitoid sources and complex Archean geodynamics: Example from the Pietersburg block (South Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Oscar; Zeh, Armin

    2015-11-01

    Combined U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope data from zircon populations are widely used to constrain Hadean-Archean crustal evolution. Linear Hf isotope-age arrays are interpreted to reflect the protracted, internal reworking of crust derived from the (depleted) mantle during a short-lived magmatic event, and related 176Lu/177Hf ratios are used to constrain the composition of the reworked crustal reservoir. Results of this study, however, indicate that Hf isotope-age arrays can also result from complex geodynamic processes and crust-mantle interactions, as shown by U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope analyses of zircons from well characterized granitoids of the Pietersburg Block (PB), northern Kaapvaal Craton (South Africa). Apart from scarce remnants of Paleoarchean crust, most granitoids of the PB with ages between 2.94 and 2.05 Ga (n = 32) define a straight Hf isotope-age array with low 176Lu/177Hf of 0.0022, although they show a wide compositional range, were derived from various sources and emplaced successively in different geodynamic settings. The crustal evolution occurred in five stages: (I) predominately mafic crust formation in an intra-oceanic environment (3.4-3.0 Ga); (II) voluminous TTG crust formation in an early accretionary orogen (3.0-2.92 Ga); (III) internal TTG crust reworking and subduction of TTG-derived sediments in an Andean-type setting (2.89-2.75 Ga); (IV) (post-)collisional high-K magmatism from both mantle and crustal sources (2.71-2.67 Ga); and (V) alkaline magmatism in an intra-cratonic environment (2.05-2.03 Ga). The inferred array results from voluminous TTG crust formation during stage II, and involvement of this crust during all subsequent stages by two different processes: (i) internal crust reworking through both partial melting and assimilation at 2.89-2.75 Ga, leading to the formation of biotite granites coeval with minor TTGs, and (ii) subduction of TTG-derived sediments underneath the PB, causing enrichment of the mantle that subsequently became source for high-K granitoids and mafic rocks at 2.68 and 2.05 Ga. Some scatter along the array might have resulted either from significant assimilation of ancient crust, intracrustal Lu/Hf fractionation or melting of heterogeneous mantle sources. Those results show that without any information about the nature and composition of zircon-hosting granitoids, Hf isotope-age data are of limited use to constrain Hadean-Archean magmatogenesis and geodynamics.

  17. Dirac-Lorentz Equation in Symmetrized Electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Meter, J. R.; Hartemann, F. V.; Chen, P.

    1998-11-01

    Motivated by considerations regarding high field electrodynamics and the classical limit of QED(M. Zolotorev, private communication, AAC 1998), the fundamental equations of classical electrodynamics are symmetrized to include magnetic charges. A double 4-potential formalism is introduced, in terms of which the field tensor and its dual are employed to symmetrize Maxwell's equations and the Lorentz force equation in covariant form. Within this framework, the symmetrized Dirac-Lorentz force equation is derived, giving the radiation reaction (self-force) for a particle possessing both electric and magnetic charge.

  18. Nonlinearly PT-symmetric systems: Spontaneous symmetry breaking and transmission resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Miroshnichenko, Andrey E.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Malomed, Boris A.

    2011-07-15

    We consider a class of PT-symmetric systems which include mutually matched nonlinear loss and gain (in other words, a class of PT-invariant Hamiltonians in which both the harmonic and anharmonic parts are non-Hermitian). For a basic system in the form of a dimer, symmetric and asymmetric eigenstates, including multistable ones, are found analytically. We demonstrate that, if coupled to a linear chain, such a nonlinear PT-symmetric dimer generates previously unexplored types of nonlinear Fano resonances, with completely suppressed or greatly amplified transmission, as well as a regime similar to the electromagnetically induced transparency. The implementation of the systems is possible in various media admitting controllable linear and nonlinear amplification of waves.

  19. Linear Collisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walkiewicz, T. A.; Newby, N. D., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A discussion of linear collisions between two or three objects is related to a junior-level course in analytical mechanics. The theoretical discussion uses a geometrical approach that treats elastic and inelastic collisions from a unified point of view. Experiments with a linear air track are described. (Author/TS)

  20. An application of eigenspace methods to symmetric flutter suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fennell, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    An eigenspace assignment approach to the design of parameter insensitive control laws for linear multivariable systems is presented. The control design scheme utilizes flexibility in eigenvector assignments to reduce control system sensitivity to changes in system parameters. The methods involve use of the singular value decomposition to provide an exact description of allowable eigenvectors in terms of a minimum number of design parameters. In a design example, the methods are applied to the problem of symmetric flutter suppression in an aeroelastic vehicle. In this example the flutter mode is sensitive to changes in dynamic pressure and eigenspace methods are used to enhance the performance of a stabilizing minimum energy/linear quadratic regulator controller and associated observer. Results indicate that the methods provide feedback control laws that make stability of the nominal closed loop systems insensitive to changes in dynamic pressure.

  1. Martingale Rosenthal inequalities in symmetric spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Astashkin, S V

    2014-12-31

    We establish inequalities similar to the classical Rosenthal inequalities for sequences of martingale differences in general symmetric spaces; a central role is played here by the predictable quadratic characteristic of a martingale. Bibliography: 26 titles.

  2. Symmetric states: Their nonlocality and entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zizhu; Markham, Damian

    2014-12-04

    The nonlocality of permutation symmetric states of qubits is shown via an extension of the Hardy paradox and the extension of the associated inequality. This is achieved by using the Majorana representation, which is also a powerful tool in the study of entanglement properties of symmetric states. Through the Majorana representation, different nonlocal properties can be linked to different entanglement properties of a state, which is useful in determining the usefulness of different states in different quantum information processing tasks.

  3. Lax Operator for Macdonald Symmetric Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarov, Maxim; Sklyanin, Evgeny

    2015-07-01

    Using the Lax operator formalism, we construct a family of pairwise commuting operators such that the Macdonald symmetric functions of infinitely many variables and of two parameters q, t are their eigenfunctions. We express our operators in terms of the Hall-Littlewood symmetric functions of the variables and of the parameter t corresponding to the partitions with one part only. Our expression is based on the notion of Baker-Akhiezer function.

  4. A two-step design method for high compact rotationally symmetric optical system for LED surface light source.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xianglong; Li, Hongtao; Han, Yanjun; Luo, Yi

    2014-03-10

    A two-step optimization method is proposed to design a compact single-surface far-field illumination system, satisfying the requirements of illuminance uniformity and light control efficiency with h/D less than 3:1. In the first step, the conventional tailored edge-ray design (TED) method is employed to generate prescribed illumination distribution for the rotationally symmetric optical system, and an optimization process is added to reach a balance between illuminance uniformity and light control efficiency. Based on the improved TED method, we can construct an initial optical system more accurate than that obtained by point source assumption. In the second step, an iterative feedback modification process is employed to optimize the initial optical system, so that the degradation of performance due to insufficient control of skew rays is mitigated. Because the initial optical system constructed in the first step is accurate enough, the second-step feedback modification can converge to a satisfactory result within several iterations. As an example, a free-form rotationally symmetric lens with the height of h = 25 mm is designed for a discoidal LED source with the diameter of D = 10 mm. Both high illuminance uniformity of 0.75 and high light control efficiency of 0.86 are obtained simultaneously. The method can be further used to achieve more complex non-uniform illumination distributions. The design of an optical system with h/D = 2.5:1 and a circular linear illumination distribution is demonstrated. PMID:24800279

  5. A two-step design method for high compact rotationally symmetric optical system for LED surface light source.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xianglong; Li, Hongtao; Han, Yanjun; Luo, Yi

    2014-03-10

    A two-step optimization method is proposed to design a compact single-surface far-field illumination system, satisfying the requirements of illuminance uniformity and light control efficiency with h/D less than 3:1. In the first step, the conventional tailored edge-ray design (TED) method is employed to generate prescribed illumination distribution for the rotationally symmetric optical system, and an optimization process is added to reach a balance between illuminance uniformity and light control efficiency. Based on the improved TED method, we can construct an initial optical system more accurate than that obtained by point source assumption. In the second step, an iterative feedback modification process is employed to optimize the initial optical system, so that the degradation of performance due to insufficient control of skew rays is mitigated. Because the initial optical system constructed in the first step is accurate enough, the second-step feedback modification can converge to a satisfactory result within several iterations. As an example, a free-form rotationally symmetric lens with the height of h = 25 mm is designed for a discoidal LED source with the diameter of D = 10 mm. Both high illuminance uniformity of 0.75 and high light control efficiency of 0.86 are obtained simultaneously. The method can be further used to achieve more complex non-uniform illumination distributions. The design of an optical system with h/D = 2.5:1 and a circular linear illumination distribution is demonstrated. PMID:24922232

  6. The Stark Effect in Linear Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinett, R. W.

    2010-01-01

    We examine the Stark effect (the second-order shifts in the energy spectrum due to an external constant force) for two one-dimensional model quantum mechanical systems described by linear potentials, the so-called quantum bouncer (defined by V(z) = Fz for z greater than 0 and V(z) = [infinity] for z less than 0) and the symmetric linear potential

  7. The Stark Effect in Linear Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinett, R. W.

    2010-01-01

    We examine the Stark effect (the second-order shifts in the energy spectrum due to an external constant force) for two one-dimensional model quantum mechanical systems described by linear potentials, the so-called quantum bouncer (defined by V(z) = Fz for z greater than 0 and V(z) = [infinity] for z less than 0) and the symmetric linear potential…

  8. Computational design of a self-assembling symmetrical β-propeller protein.

    PubMed

    Voet, Arnout R D; Noguchi, Hiroki; Addy, Christine; Simoncini, David; Terada, Daiki; Unzai, Satoru; Park, Sam-Yong; Zhang, Kam Y J; Tame, Jeremy R H

    2014-10-21

    The modular structure of many protein families, such as β-propeller proteins, strongly implies that duplication played an important role in their evolution, leading to highly symmetrical intermediate forms. Previous attempts to create perfectly symmetrical propeller proteins have failed, however. We have therefore developed a new and rapid computational approach to design such proteins. As a test case, we have created a sixfold symmetrical β-propeller protein and experimentally validated the structure using X-ray crystallography. Each blade consists of 42 residues. Proteins carrying 2-10 identical blades were also expressed and purified. Two or three tandem blades assemble to recreate the highly stable sixfold symmetrical architecture, consistent with the duplication and fusion theory. The other proteins produce different monodisperse complexes, up to 42 blades (180 kDa) in size, which self-assemble according to simple symmetry rules. Our procedure is suitable for creating nano-building blocks from different protein templates of desired symmetry. PMID:25288768

  9. Two-dimensional solitons in conservative and parity-time-symmetric triple-core waveguides with cubic-quintic nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feijoo, David; Zezyulin, Dmitry A.; Konotop, Vladimir V.

    2015-12-01

    We analyze a system of three two-dimensional nonlinear Schrdinger equations coupled by linear terms and with the cubic-quintic (focusing-defocusing) nonlinearity. We consider two versions of the model: conservative and parity-time (PT ) symmetric. These models describe triple-core nonlinear optical waveguides, with balanced gain and losses in the PT -symmetric case. We obtain families of soliton solutions and discuss their stability. The latter study is performed using a linear stability analysis and checked with direct numerical simulations of the evolutional system of equations. Stable solitons are found in the conservative and PT -symmetric cases. Interactions and collisions between the conservative and PT -symmetric solitons are briefly investigated, as well.

  10. The first near-linear bis(amide) f-block complex: a blueprint for a high temperature single molecule magnet.

    PubMed

    Chilton, Nicholas F; Goodwin, Conrad A P; Mills, David P; Winpenny, Richard E P

    2015-01-01

    We report the first near-linear bis(amide) 4f-block compound and show that this novel structure, if implemented with dysprosium(III), would have unprecedented single molecule magnet (SMM) properties with an energy barrier, Ueff, for reorientation of magnetization of 1800 cm(-1). PMID:25384179

  11. The Topology of Three-Dimensional Symmetric Tensor Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavin, Yingmei; Levy, Yuval; Hesselink, Lambertus

    1994-01-01

    We study the topology of 3-D symmetric tensor fields. The goal is to represent their complex structure by a simple set of carefully chosen points and lines analogous to vector field topology. The basic constituents of tensor topology are the degenerate points, or points where eigenvalues are equal to each other. First, we introduce a new method for locating 3-D degenerate points. We then extract the topological skeletons of the eigenvector fields and use them for a compact, comprehensive description of the tensor field. Finally, we demonstrate the use of tensor field topology for the interpretation of the two-force Boussinesq problem.

  12. Level crossings in a PT-symmetric double well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giachetti, Riccardo; Grecchi, Vincenzo

    2016-03-01

    We consider the eigenvalues (levels) and the eigenfunctions (states) of a one-parameter family of Hamiltonians {H}{{\\hslash }} with a PT-symmetric double well. We call nodes the zeros of the states that are stable in the free limit of an associated perturbation theory. For large positive parameter {{\\hslash }}, the m-nodes state {\\psi }m({{\\hslash }}) is PT-symmetric and the corresponding level {E}m({{\\hslash }}) is positive. For small {{\\hslash }} there are j-nodes states {\\psi }j+/- ({{\\hslash }}), localized about one of the two wells, namely one of the two stationary points of the potential which are real. The corresponding levels {E}j+/- ({{\\hslash }}) are non-real. We prove the existence of a crossing of each pair of levels ({E}2n+1({{\\hslash }}),{E}2n({{\\hslash }})) at a parameter {{{\\hslash }}}n\\gt 0, giving, for smaller parameters, the pair of complex levels ({E}n+({{\\hslash }}),{E}n-({{\\hslash }})). The connection between the states ({\\psi }2n+1({{\\hslash }}),{\\psi }2n({{\\hslash }})) is given by the instability of the imaginary node of {\\psi }2n+1({{\\hslash }}). We extend the analysis of the level crossings to the complex plane of the parameter and we propose a through understanding of the full process by considering the Stokes complex and the nodes.

  13. Symmetric Galerkin boundary formulations employing curved elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kane, J. H.; Balakrishna, C.

    1993-01-01

    Accounts of the symmetric Galerkin approach to boundary element analysis (BEA) have recently been published. This paper attempts to add to the understanding of this method by addressing a series of fundamental issues associated with its potential computational efficiency. A new symmetric Galerkin theoretical formulation for both the (harmonic) heat conduction and the (biharmonic) elasticity problem that employs regularized singular and hypersingular boundary integral equations (BIEs) is presented. The novel use of regularized BIEs in the Galerkin context is shown to allow straightforward incorporation of curved, isoparametric elements. A symmetric reusable intrinsic sample point (RISP) numerical integration algorithm is shown to produce a Galerkin (i.e., double) integration strategy that is competitive with its counterpart (i.e., singular) integration procedure in the collocation BEA approach when the time saved in the symmetric equation solution phase is also taken into account. This new formulation is shown to be capable of employing hypersingular BIEs while obviating the requirement of C 1 continuity, a fact that allows the employment of the popular continuous element technology. The behavior of the symmetric Galerkin BEA method with regard to both direct and iterative equation solution operations is also addressed. A series of example problems are presented to quantify the performance of this symmetric approach, relative to the more conventional unsymmetric BEA, in terms of both accuracy and efficiency. It is concluded that appropriate implementations of the symmetric Galerkin approach to BEA indeed have the potential to be competitive with, if not superior to, collocation-based BEA, for large-scale problems.

  14. Gaussian-type light bullets in power-law nonlinear media with PT-symmetric potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi-Xiang; Dai, Chao-Qing

    2015-03-01

    The (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schrdinger equation with power-law nonlinearities in two kinds of PT-symmetric potentials is investigated, and two kinds of Gaussian-type light bullet (LB) solutions are analytically derived. Based on these analytical solutions, the powers, power-flow densities and the phase switches are discussed. The linear stability analysis and the direct numerical simulation show that LB solutions are stable only when the imaginary parts of PT-symmetric potentials are below some thresholds in the focusing power-law nonlinear media, while they are always unstable in the defocusing power-law nonlinear media.

  15. Synthesis and physical properties of symmetrical and non-symmetrical triacylglycerols containing two palmitic fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both the amounts of and specific structures of the triacylglycerols (TAG) present in the oil phase of a margarine or spread are considered responsible for such properties as its spreadability, resistance to water/oil loss, and melting characteristics. A series of symmetrical and non-symmetrical TAG...

  16. Symmetric and anti-symmetric LS hyperon potentials from lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Noriyoshi; Murano, Keiko; Nemura, Hidekatsu; Sasaki, Kenji; Inoue, Takashi; HAL QCD Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    We present recent results of odd-parity hyperon-hyperon potentials from lattice QCD. By using HAL QCD method, we generate hyperon-hyperon potentials from Nambu-Bethe-Salpeter (NBS) wave functions generated by lattice QCD simulation in the flavor SU(3) limit. Potentials in the irreducible flavor SU(3) representations are combined to make a Lambda-N potential which has a strong symmetric LS potential and a weak anti-symmetric LS potential. We discuss a possible cancellation between symmetric and anti-symmetric LS (Lambda-N) potentials after the coupled Sigma-N sector is integrated out. We present recent results of odd-parity hyperon-hyperon potentials from lattice QCD. By using HAL QCD method, we generate hyperon-hyperon potentials from Nambu-Bethe-Salpeter (NBS) wave functions generated by lattice QCD simulation in the flavor SU(3) limit. Potentials in the irreducible flavor SU(3) representations are combined to make a Lambda-N potential which has a strong symmetric LS potential and a weak anti-symmetric LS potential. We discuss a possible cancellation between symmetric and anti-symmetric LS (Lambda-N) potentials after the coupled Sigma-N sector is integrated out. This work is supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 25400244.

  17. CAST: Contraction Algorithm for Symmetric Tensors

    SciTech Connect

    Rajbhandari, Samyam; NIkam, Akshay; Lai, Pai-Wei; Stock, Kevin; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Sadayappan, Ponnuswamy

    2014-09-22

    Tensor contractions represent the most compute-intensive core kernels in ab initio computational quantum chemistry and nuclear physics. Symmetries in these tensor contractions makes them difficult to load balance and scale to large distributed systems. In this paper, we develop an efficient and scalable algorithm to contract symmetric tensors. We introduce a novel approach that avoids data redistribution in contracting symmetric tensors while also avoiding redundant storage and maintaining load balance. We present experimental results on two parallel supercomputers for several symmetric contractions that appear in the CCSD quantum chemistry method. We also present a novel approach to tensor redistribution that can take advantage of parallel hyperplanes when the initial distribution has replicated dimensions, and use collective broadcast when the final distribution has replicated dimensions, making the algorithm very efficient.

  18. Communication-avoiding symmetric-indefinite factorization

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ballard, Grey Malone; Becker, Dulcenia; Demmel, James; Dongarra, Jack; Druinsky, Alex; Peled, Inon; Schwartz, Oded; Toledo, Sivan; Yamazaki, Ichitaro

    2014-11-13

    We describe and analyze a novel symmetric triangular factorization algorithm. The algorithm is essentially a block version of Aasen's triangular tridiagonalization. It factors a dense symmetric matrix A as the product A=PLTLTPT where P is a permutation matrix, L is lower triangular, and T is block tridiagonal and banded. The algorithm is the first symmetric-indefinite communication-avoiding factorization: it performs an asymptotically optimal amount of communication in a two-level memory hierarchy for almost any cache-line size. Adaptations of the algorithm to parallel computers are likely to be communication efficient as well; one such adaptation has been recently published. As a result,more » the current paper describes the algorithm, proves that it is numerically stable, and proves that it is communication optimal.« less

  19. On symmetric and upwind TVD schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, H. C.

    1985-01-01

    A class of explicit and implicit total variation diminishing (TVD) schemes for the compressible Euler and Navier-Stokes equations was developed. They do not generate spurious oscillations across shocks and contact discontinuities. In general, shocks can be captured within 1 to 2 grid points. For the inviscid case, these schemes are divided into upwind TVD schemes and symmetric (nonupwind) TVD schemes. The upwind TVD scheme is based on the second-order TVD scheme. The symmetric TVD scheme is a generalization of Roe's and Davis' TVD Lax-Wendroff scheme. The performance of these schemes on some viscous and inviscid airfoil steady-state calculations is investigated. The symmetric and upwind TVD schemes are compared.

  20. Communication-avoiding symmetric-indefinite factorization

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, Grey Malone; Becker, Dulcenia; Demmel, James; Dongarra, Jack; Druinsky, Alex; Peled, Inon; Schwartz, Oded; Toledo, Sivan; Yamazaki, Ichitaro

    2014-11-13

    We describe and analyze a novel symmetric triangular factorization algorithm. The algorithm is essentially a block version of Aasen's triangular tridiagonalization. It factors a dense symmetric matrix A as the product A=PLTLTPT where P is a permutation matrix, L is lower triangular, and T is block tridiagonal and banded. The algorithm is the first symmetric-indefinite communication-avoiding factorization: it performs an asymptotically optimal amount of communication in a two-level memory hierarchy for almost any cache-line size. Adaptations of the algorithm to parallel computers are likely to be communication efficient as well; one such adaptation has been recently published. As a result, the current paper describes the algorithm, proves that it is numerically stable, and proves that it is communication optimal.

  1. All-optical symmetric ternary logic gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay

    2010-09-01

    Symmetric ternary number (radix=3) has three logical states (1, 0, 1). It is very much useful in carry free arithmetical operation. Beside this, the logical operation using this type of number system is also effective in high speed computation and communication in multi-valued logic. In this literature all-optical circuits for three basic symmetrical ternary logical operations (inversion, MIN and MAX) are proposed and described. Numerical simulation verifies the theoretical model. In this present scheme the different ternary logical states are represented by different polarized state of light. Terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) based interferometric switch has been used categorically in this manuscript.

  2. On symmetric and upwind TVD schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, H. C.

    1986-01-01

    The performance of the upwind and symmetric total variation diminishing (TVD) schemes in viscous and inviscid airfoil steady-state calculations is considered, and the extension of the implicit second-order-accurate TVD scheme for hyperbolic systems of conservative laws in curvilinear coordinates is discussed. For two-dimensional steady-state applications, schemes are implemented in a conservative noniterative alternating direction implicit form, and results illustrate that the algorithm produces a fairly good solution for an RAE2822 airfoil calculation. The study demonstrates that the symmetric TVD scheme is as accurate as the upwind TVD scheme, while requiring less computational effort than it.

  3. Self-bending symmetric cusp beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Lei; Liu, Wei-Wei; Ren, Yu-Xuan; Lu, Yao; Li, Yin-Mei

    2015-12-01

    A type of self-bending symmetric cusp beams with four accelerating intensity maxima is theoretically and experimentally presented. Distinguished from the reported regular polygon beams, the symmetric cusp beams simultaneously exhibit peculiar features of natural autofocusing and self-acceleration during propagation. Further, such beams take the shape of a fine longitudinal needle-like structure at the focal region and possess the strong ability of self-healing over obstacles. All these intriguing properties were verified experimentally. Particularly, the spatial profile of the reconstructed beam exhibits spatially sculpted optical structure with four siamesed curved arms. Thus, we anticipate that the structured beam will benefit optical guiding and optofluidics in surprising ways.

  4. Observational tests of Baryon symmetric cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1982-01-01

    Observational evidence for Baryon symmetric (matter/antimatter) cosmology and future observational tests are reviewed. The most significant consequences of Baryon symmetric cosmology lie in the prediction of an observable cosmic background of gamma radiation from the decay of pi(0)-mesons produced in nucleon-antinucleon annihilations. Equations for the prediction of the amma ray background spectrum for the case of high redshifts are presented. The theoretical and observational plots of the background spectrum are shown to be in good agreement. Measurement of cosmic ray antiprotons and the use of high energy neutrino astronomy to look for antimatter elsewhere in the universe are also addressed.

  5. Multipartite maximally entangled states in symmetric scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzlez-Guilln, Carlos E.

    2012-08-01

    We consider the class of (N+1)-partite states suitable for protocols where there is a powerful party, the authority, and the other N parties play the same role, namely, the state of their system lies in the symmetric Hilbert space. We show that, within this scenario, there is a maximally entangled state that can be transform by a local operations and classical communication protocol into any other state. In addition, we show how to use the protocol efficiently, including the construction of the state, and discuss security issues for possible applications to cryptographic protocols. As an immediate consequence we recover a sequential protocol that implements the 1-to-N symmetric cloning.

  6. The effects of linear assembly of two carbazole groups on acid-base and DNA-binding properties of a ruthenium(II) complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi; Xue, Long-Xin; Ju, Chun-Chuan; Wang, Ke-Zhi

    2013-07-01

    A novel Ru(II) complex of [Ru(bpy)2(Hbcpip)](ClO4)2 {where bpy = 2,2-bipyridine, Hbcpip = 2-(4-(9H-3,9'-bicarbazol-9-yl)phenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline} is synthesized and characterized. Calf-thymus DNA-binding properties of the complex were studied by UV-vis absorption and luminescence titrations, steady-state emission quenching by [Fe(CN)6]4-, DNA competitive binding with ethidium bromide, thermal denaturation and DNA viscosity measurements. The results indicate that the complex partially intercalated into the DNA with a binding constant of (5.5 1.4) 105 M-1 in buffered 50 mM NaCl. The acid-base properties of the complex were also studied by UV-visible and luminescence spectrophotometric pH titrations, and ground- and excited-state acidity ionization constant values were derived.

  7. The effects of linear assembly of two carbazole groups on acid-base and DNA-binding properties of a ruthenium(II) complex.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Xue, Long-Xin; Ju, Chun-Chuan; Wang, Ke-Zhi

    2013-07-01

    A novel Ru(II) complex of [Ru(bpy)2(Hbcpip)](ClO4)2 {where bpy=2,2-bipyridine, Hbcpip=2-(4-(9H-3,9'-bicarbazol-9-yl)phenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline} is synthesized and characterized. Calf-thymus DNA-binding properties of the complex were studied by UV-vis absorption and luminescence titrations, steady-state emission quenching by [Fe(CN)6](4-), DNA competitive binding with ethidium bromide, thermal denaturation and DNA viscosity measurements. The results indicate that the complex partially intercalated into the DNA with a binding constant of (5.51.4)10(5) M(-1) in buffered 50 mM NaCl. The acid-base properties of the complex were also studied by UV-visible and luminescence spectrophotometric pH titrations, and ground- and excited-state acidity ionization constant values were derived. PMID:23639737

  8. An almost symmetric Strang splitting scheme for nonlinear evolution equations?

    PubMed Central

    Einkemmer, Lukas; Ostermann, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we consider splitting methods for the time integration of parabolic and certain classes of hyperbolic partial differential equations, where one partial flow cannot be computed exactly. Instead, we use a numerical approximation based on the linearization of the vector field. This is of interest in applications as it allows us to apply splitting methods to a wider class of problems from the sciences. However, in the situation described, the classic Strang splitting scheme, while still being a method of second order, is not longer symmetric. This, in turn, implies that the construction of higher order methods by composition is limited to order three only. To remedy this situation, based on previous work in the context of ordinary differential equations, we construct a class of Strang splitting schemes that are symmetric up to a desired order. We show rigorously that, under suitable assumptions on the nonlinearity, these methods are of second order and can then be used to construct higher order methods by composition. In addition, we illustrate the theoretical results by conducting numerical experiments for the Brusselator system and the KdV equation. PMID:25844017

  9. {P}{T}-Symmetric Dimer in a Generalized Model of Coupled Nonlinear Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuevas-Maraver, Jess; Khare, Avinash; Kevrekidis, Panayotis G.; Xu, Haitao; Saxena, Avadh

    2015-11-01

    In the present work, we explore the case of a general {P}{T}-symmetric dimer in the context of two both linearly and nonlinearly coupled cubic oscillators. To obtain an analytical handle on the system, we first explore the rotating wave approximation converting it into a discrete nonlinear Schrdinger type dimer. In the latter context, the stationary solutions and their stability are identified numerically but also wherever possible analytically. Solutions stemming from both symmetric and anti-symmetric special limits are identified. A number of special cases are explored regarding the ratio of coefficients of nonlinearity between oscillators over the intrinsic one of each oscillator. Finally, the considerations are extended to the original oscillator model, where periodic orbits and their stability are obtained. When the solutions are found to be unstable their dynamics is monitored by means of direct numerical simulations.

  10. Real-time detection of DNA cleavage induced by [M(2,2'-bipyridine)2(NO3)](NO3) (M=Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II)) complexes using linear dichroism technique.

    PubMed

    Park, Hee-Jin; Kwon, Ji Hye; Cho, Tae-Sub; Kim, Jong Moon; Hwang, In Hong; Kim, Cheal; Kim, Soojin; Kim, Jinheung; Kim, Seog K

    2013-10-01

    The catalytic effect of [M(2,2'-bipyridine)2(NO3)](NO3) (M(bpy)2, M=Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II)) on the super-coiled and double stranded DNA (scDNA and dsDNA) was examined by electrophoresis and a real-time detection linear dichroism (LD) technique. Although the Cu(bpy)2 complex effectively cleaved both types of DNA, the other two complexes were inactive. This was explained by the electrochemical properties of the metal complexes. The Cu(bpy)2 complex exhibited a redox potential at -0.222V with a peak to peak separation of 0.201V, whereas the other two metal complexes did not undergo any redox reaction. Both electrophoresis and LD measurements revealed the superoxide radical, O2(-), to be responsible for DNA cleavage. A kinetic study using the LD technique showed that the cleavage of dsDNA consisted of two first order reactions. The fast reaction is believed to reflect the cleavage of one strand, whereas the slow reaction involves the cleavage of the complementary strand at or near the first cleaved site. PMID:23850668

  11. Calculating vibrational spectra without determining excited eigenstates: Solving the complex linear equations of damped response theory for vibrational configuration interaction and vibrational coupled cluster states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godtliebsen, Ian H.; Christiansen, Ove

    2015-10-01

    It is demonstrated how vibrational IR and Raman spectra can be calculated from damped response functions using anharmonic vibrational wave function calculations, without determining the potentially very many eigenstates of the system. We present an implementation for vibrational configuration interaction and vibrational coupled cluster, and describe how the complex equations can be solved using iterative techniques employing only real trial vectors and real matrix-vector transformations. Using this algorithm, arbitrary frequency intervals can be scanned independent of the number of excited states. Sample calculations are presented for the IR-spectrum of water, Raman spectra of pyridine and a pyridine-silver complex, as well as for the infra-red spectrum of oxazole, and vibrational corrections to the polarizability of formaldehyde.

  12. Stabilization and rovibronic spectra of the T-shaped and linear ground-state conformers of a weakly bound rare-gas-homonuclear dihalogen complex: He...Br2.

    PubMed

    Boucher, David S; Strasfeld, David B; Loomis, Richard A; Herbert, John M; Ray, Sara E; McCoy, Anne B

    2005-09-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence spectra of Br(2) entrained in a He supersonic expansion have been recorded in the Br(2) B-X, 8-0, 12-0, and 21-0 spectral regions at varying downstream distances, and thus different temperature regimes. Features associated with transitions of the T-shaped and linear He...Br(2)(X,nu(") = 0) complexes are identified. The changes in the relative intensities of the T-shaped and linear features with cooling in the expansion indicate that the linear conformer is energetically more stable than the T-shaped conformer. A He + Br(2)(X,nu(") = 0) ab initio potential-energy surface, computed at the coupled cluster level of theory with a large, flexible basis set, is used to calculate the binding energies of the two conformers, 15.8 and 16.5 cm(-1) for the T-shaped and linear complexes, respectively. This potential and an excited-state potential [M. P. de Lara-Castells, A. A. Buchachenko, G. Delgado-Barrio, and P. Villareal, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 2182 (2004)] are used to calculate the excitation spectra of He...(79)Br(2)(X,nu(") = 0) in the Br(2) B-X, 12-0 region. The calculated spectra are used to make spectral assignments and to determine the energies of the excited-state intermolecular vibrational levels accessed in the observed transitions. Temperature-dependent laser-induced fluorescence spectra and a simple thermodynamic model [D. S. Boucher, J. P. Darr, M. D. Bradke, R. A. Loomis, and A. B. McCoy, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 6, 5275 (2004)] are used to estimate that the linear conformer is 0.4(2) cm(-1) more strongly bound than the T-shaped conformer. Two-laser action spectroscopy experiments reveal that the binding energy of the linear He...(79)Br(2)(X,nu(") = 0) conformer is 17.0(8) cm(-1), and that of the T-shaped He...(79)Br(2)(X,nu(") = 0) conformer is then 16.6(8) cm(-1), in good agreement with the calculated values. PMID:16178602

  13. Designing new symmetrical facial oligothiophene amphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Janeliunas, Dainius; Eelkema, Rienk; Nieto-Ortega, Beln; Ramrez Aguilar, Francisco J; Lpez Navarrete, Juan T; van der Mee, Lars; Stuart, Marc C A; Casado, Juan; van Esch, Jan H

    2013-12-28

    In this study we designed a new class of symmetrical facial oligothiophene amphiphiles, which could be obtained in fewer steps than for previously reported analogues, but still possess the specific substituent sequence to control their backbone curvature. This novel design allows the late-stage introduction of hydrophilic groups, aiding both purification and ease of structure variation. Following the new synthetic scheme, symmetrical ter- and sexi-thiophenes were synthesized, analysed and their properties were compared to their non-symmetrical analogues. Surprisingly, the self-assembly behaviour in water, aggregate morphologies and photo-physical properties turned out to be significantly different despite the same ratio of hydrophilic and hydrophobic substituents. The new substitution pattern resulted in a drastic decrease of the critical aggregation concentration and an increase of the aggregate size. The symmetrical positioning of the substituents also heavily influenced the photo-physical properties. The changes were observed as large blue shifts in the absorption and emission spectra in water when compared to similar regio-regular oligothiophene amphiphiles. PMID:24196136

  14. Super-symmetric informationally complete measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Huangjun

    2015-11-01

    Symmetric informationally complete measurements (SICs in short) are highly symmetric structures in the Hilbert space. They possess many nice properties which render them an ideal candidate for fiducial measurements. The symmetry of SICs is intimately connected with the geometry of the quantum state space and also has profound implications for foundational studies. Here we explore those SICs that are most symmetric according to a natural criterion and show that all of them are covariant with respect to the Heisenberg-Weyl groups, which are characterized by the discrete analog of the canonical commutation relation. Moreover, their symmetry groups are subgroups of the Clifford groups. In particular, we prove that the SIC in dimension 2, the Hesse SIC in dimension 3, and the set of Hoggar lines in dimension 8 are the only three SICs up to unitary equivalence whose symmetry groups act transitively on pairs of SIC projectors. Our work not only provides valuable insight about SICs, Heisenberg-Weyl groups, and Clifford groups, but also offers a new approach and perspective for studying many other discrete symmetric structures behind finite state quantum mechanics, such as mutually unbiased bases and discrete Wigner functions.

  15. Cylindrically symmetric solutions in conformal gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Brihaye, Y.; Verbin, Y.

    2010-06-15

    Cylindrically symmetric solutions in conformal gravity are investigated and several new solutions are presented and discussed, among them a family of vacuum solutions, generalizations of the Melvin solution, and cosmic strings of the Abelian Higgs model. The Melvin-like solutions have finite energy per unit length, while the stringlike solutions do not.

  16. Symmetric irrotational water waves are traveling waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogelbauer, Florian

    2015-11-01

    We show that a spatially periodic solution to the irrotational two-dimensional gravity water wave problem, with the property that the horizontal velocity component at the surface, as well as the wave profile is symmetric, necessarily defines a traveling wave. The proof makes use of maximum principles for harmonic functions and structural properties of the governing equations for nonlinear water waves.

  17. Symmetrical parametrizations of the lepton mixing matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Rodejohann, W.; Valle, J. W. F.

    2011-10-01

    Advantages of the original symmetrical form of the parametrization of the lepton mixing matrix are discussed. It provides a conceptually more transparent description of neutrino oscillations and lepton number violating processes like neutrinoless double beta decay, clarifying the significance of Dirac and Majorana phases. It is also ideal for parametrizing scenarios with light sterile neutrinos.

  18. Massive NGT and spherically symmetric systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    The arguments leading to the introduction of the massive Nonsymmetric Gravitational action are reviewed [J. W. Moffat, J. Math. Phys. 36, 3722 (1995), Phys. Lett. B 355, 447 (1995)], leading to an action that gives asymptotically well-behaved perturbations on General Relativity (GR) backgrounds. Through the analysis of spherically symmetric perturbations about GR (Schwarzschild) and Nonsymmetric Gravitational Theory (NGT) (Wyman-type) static backgrounds, it is shown that spherically symmetric systems are not guaranteed to be static, and hence Birkhoff's theorem is not valid in NGT. This implies that in general one must consider time dependent exteriors when looking at spherically symmetric systems in NGT. For the surviving monopole mode considered here there is no energy flux as it is short ranged by construction. Further work on the spherically symmetric case will be motivated through a discussion of the possibility that there remain additional modes that do not show up in weak field situations, but nonetheless exist in the full theory and may again result in bad global asymptotics. A presentation of the action and field equations in a general frame is given in the course of the paper, providing an alternative approach to dealing with the algebraic complications inherent in NGT, as well as offering a more general framework for discussing the physics of the antisymmetric sector.

  19. The deuterium puzzle in the symmetric universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leroy, B.; Nicolle, J. P.; Schatzman, E.

    1973-01-01

    An attempt was made to use deuterium abundance in the symmetric universe to prove that no nucleosynthesis takes place during annihilation and therefore neutrons were loss before nucleosynthesis. Data cover nucleosynthesis during the radiative era, cross section estimates, maximum abundance of He-4 at the end of nucleosynthesis area, and loss rate.

  20. On integrability of strings on symmetric spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulff, Linus

    2015-09-01

    In the absence of NSNS three-form flux the bosonic string on a symmetric space is described by a symmetric space coset sigma-model. Such models are known to be classically integrable. We show that the integrability extends also to cases with non-zero NSNS flux (respecting the isometries) provided that the flux satisfies a condition of the form H abc H cde R abde . We then turn our attention to the type II Green-Schwarz superstring on a symmetric space. We prove that if the space preserves some supersymmetry there exists a truncation of the full superspace to a supercoset space and derive the general form of the superisometry algebra. In the case of vanishing NSNS flux the corresponding supercoset sigma-model for the string is known to be integrable. We prove that the integrability extends to the full string by augmenting the supercoset Lax connection with terms involving the fermions which are not captured by the supercoset model. The construction is carried out to quadratic order in these fermions. This proves the integrability of strings on symmetric spaces supported by RR flux which preserve any non-zero amount of supersymmetry. Finally we also construct Lax connections for some supercoset models with non-zero NSNS flux describing strings in AdS 2,3 S 2,3 S 2,3 T 2,3,4 backgrounds preserving eight supersymmetries.

  1. Conformal cylindrically symmetric spacetimes in modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trkoglu, Murat Metehan; Dogru, Melis Ulu

    2015-11-01

    We investigate cylindrically symmetric spacetimes in the context of f(R) gravity. We firstly attain conformal symmetry of the cylindrically symmetric spacetime. We obtain solutions to use features of the conformal symmetry, field equations and their solutions for cylindrically symmetric spacetime filled with various cosmic matters such as vacuum state, perfect fluid, anisotropic fluid, massive scalar field and their combinations. With the vacuum state solutions, we show that source of the spacetime curvature is considered as Casimir effect. Casimir force for given spacetime is found using Walds axiomatic analysis. We expose that the Casimir force for Boulware, Hartle-Hawking and Unruh vacuum states could have attractive, repulsive and ineffective features. In the perfect fluid state, we show that matter form of the perfect fluid in given spacetime must only be dark energy. Also, we offer that potential of massive and massless scalar field are developed as an exact solution from the modified field equations. All solutions of field equations for vacuum case, perfect fluid and scalar field give a special f(R) function convenient to ?-CDM model. In addition to these solutions, we introduce conformal cylindrical symmetric solutions in the cases of different f(R) models. Finally, geometrical and physical results of the solutions are discussed.

  2. Propagation features of beams with axially symmetric polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesterov, A. V.; Niziev, V. G.

    2001-04-01

    The general solution of the wave equation for axially symmetric polarized (ASP) beams consists of two independent solutions: an azimuthally polarized beam and a beam with longitudinal and radial field components. The maximum of the longitudinal field is at the beam axis where the transverse component is equal to zero. While the longitudinal component is maximum in the waist it does not contribute to beam divergence here, and therefore the wavefront of ASP-beams is flat in the focal plane. The ASP-beams are free from polarization aberrations, which are inherent for linearly polarized beams passing through a lens with large annular apertures, and these beams are prospective for experiments on obtaining `diffraction-free' beams. The formulae and their electromagnetic field analysis in the case of sharp focusing of ASP-beams in the Debye approximation are presented.

  3. Two loop QCD vertices at the symmetric point

    SciTech Connect

    Gracey, J. A.

    2011-10-15

    We compute the triple gluon, quark-gluon and ghost-gluon vertices of QCD at the symmetric subtraction point at two loops in the MS scheme. In addition we renormalize each of the three vertices in their respective momentum subtraction schemes, MOMggg, MOMq and MOMh. The conversion functions of all the wave functions, coupling constant and gauge parameter renormalization constants of each of the schemes relative to MS are determined analytically. These are then used to derive the three loop anomalous dimensions of the gluon, quark, Faddeev-Popov ghost and gauge parameter as well as the {beta} function in an arbitrary linear covariant gauge for each MOM scheme. There is good agreement of the latter with earlier Landau gauge numerical estimates of Chetyrkin and Seidensticker.

  4. Alfvén modes in the Madison Symmetric Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M.; Breizman, B. N.; Zheng, L. J.; Lin, L.; Ding, W. X.; Brower, D. L.

    2014-08-01

    This work presents a theoretical and computational analysis of core-localized energetic particle driven modes observed near the magnetic axis in the Madison Symmetric Torus [L. Lin, W. X. Ding, D. L. Brower et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 030701 (2013)]. Using measured safety factor and plasma pressure profiles as input, the linear ideal MHD code Adaptive EiGenfunction Independent Solution (AEGIS) [L. J. Zheng and M. Kotschenreuther, J. Comput. Phys. 211, 748 (2006)] reveals Alfvénic modes close to the measured frequencies. The AEGIS results together with a reduced analytical model demonstrate that the modes are essentially "cylindrical" and dominated by a single poloidal component (m = 1). The modes are localized at the plasma core where the magnetic shear is weak and continuum damping is minimal. Detailed analysis establishes constraints on the safety factor and plasma pressure, under which two modes can exist simultaneously.

  5. Symmetric nonnegative matrix factorization: algorithms and applications to probabilistic clustering.

    PubMed

    He, Zhaoshui; Xie, Shengli; Zdunek, Rafal; Zhou, Guoxu; Cichocki, Andrzej

    2011-12-01

    Nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) is an unsupervised learning method useful in various applications including image processing and semantic analysis of documents. This paper focuses on symmetric NMF (SNMF), which is a special case of NMF decomposition. Three parallel multiplicative update algorithms using level 3 basic linear algebra subprograms directly are developed for this problem. First, by minimizing the Euclidean distance, a multiplicative update algorithm is proposed, and its convergence under mild conditions is proved. Based on it, we further propose another two fast parallel methods: ?-SNMF and ? -SNMF algorithms. All of them are easy to implement. These algorithms are applied to probabilistic clustering. We demonstrate their effectiveness for facial image clustering, document categorization, and pattern clustering in gene expression. PMID:22042156

  6. Tight frame 6-band symmetric wavelets with limited redundancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelnour, Farras

    2011-09-01

    We consider the design of 6-channel tight frame symmetric wavelet with scaling factor M = 4. The lowpass filter is designed using either Grobner bases or truncated Taylor series methods. The bandpass and highpass filters are then designed using Grobner bases. The resulting filters have linear phase, smooth limit functions, and reduced redundancy. It was possible to obtain filterbanks with K0 (zeros at z = 1 and z = +/-j for the lowpass filter) up to 5 and Kmin (zeros at z = 1 for bandpass/highpass filters) of 1 or greater. The proposed filterbanks generate five wavelets and a scaling function with the underlying filters related as follows: H5-i(z) = Hi(-z), i = 0... 5.

  7. Solute-atom segregation to <110> symmetric tilt grain boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Rittner, J.D.; Seidman, D.N.

    1997-08-01

    Segregation of substitutional oversized solute atoms to both equilibrium and metastable structures of twenty-one <110> symmetric tilt grain boundaries (GBs) in an f.c.c. binary alloy is investigated with atomistic simulations. The Monte Carlo technique is employed to determine the interfacial excess and the solute distribution in GB structures for a bulk solute concentration of 4 at.%. Results from these simulations are used to demonstrate the shortcomings of simple geometric GB parameters for predicting variations in the interfacial excess from GB to GB. The interfacial excess is also found to vary from one structure to another for the same GB. An example of a segregation-induced congruent GB phase transition is also presented. Accurate segregation free energies for individual sites in GBS are calculated with the overlapping distributions Monte Carlo technique. Segregation entropies are determined and are found to be a linear function of the segregation internal energies for the same GB sites.

  8. Linear dichroism in triplet singlet difference spectra of photosynthetic pigment protein complexes, monitored with absorbance-detected magnetic resonance: correction for non-ideal optical effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louwe, R. J. W.; Vrieze, J.; van der Vos, R.; Aartsma, T. J.; Hoff, A. J.

    1999-06-01

    The non-sinusoidal modulation of the photo-elastic modulator used for measurements of the linear dichroism in absorption-detected magnetic resonance (LD-AMDR) causes an experimental error in determining the angles of the triplet spin-sublevel axes relative to the optical dipole transition moment that can be be as large as 20. We have obtained an analytical correction for this error. The error analysis was applied to LD-ADMR experiments on the carotenoidless mutant R26 of Rhodobacter (Rb.) sphaeroides. The corrected angles of the triplet x- and y-axis with respect to the optical transition dipole moment at 896 nm of R26 are 864 and 223, respectively.

  9. A Mn(III)-superoxo complex of a zwitterionic calix[4]arene with an unprecedented linear end-on Mn(III)-O2 arrangement and good catalytic performance for alkene epoxidation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei-Lei; Li, Hong-Xi; Wan, Li-Min; Ren, Zhi-Gang; Wang, Hui-Fang; Lang, Jian-Ping

    2011-10-21

    Reactions of [H(4)L][PF(6)](4) with 4 equiv. of Mn(OAc)(2)4H(2)O in the presence of air gave rise to a mononuclear Mn(III)-superoxo complex [Mn(III)L(O(2))(H(2)O)](PF(6))(2), which contains a bowl-shaped cationic structure with a D(4d) symmetry. It has an unprecedented linear end-on Mn(III)-O(2) unit and exhibited good efficiency and selectivity in the catalytic oxidation of alkenes with O(2) plus isobutyraldehyde under mild conditions. PMID:21892451

  10. Exact expression of the ground-state energy for the symmetric anderson model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakami, Norio; Okiji, Ayao

    1981-12-01

    The exact expression of the ground-state energy for the symmetric Anderson model is obtained with the use of the Wiegmann approach. It is found that some of the quasi-momenta appearing in Wiegmann's paper are necessarily complex to obtain the expression of the ground-state energy.

  11. Clay content analysis across landscape by means of linear and non-linear empirical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langella, G.; Minieri, L.; Terribile, F.

    2009-04-01

    In soil science literature there exist many applications that deals with the spatial prediction of soil features by means of a set of statistical techniques. In this work the amount of clay content at level of soil horizon was put in a spatial framework and analyzed using four alternative models for describing its variability in a geopedological complex landscape such as Telese valley (Campania, South Italy) study area. Three statistical models were involved, that is (i) the multiple linear regression (MLR), (ii) the multicollocated ordinary cokriging (MOCOK), and (iii) a two-layers FFBP (FeedForward Back-Propagation) neural network with topology 6 : 1 (ANN). Apart from these technologies (neurocomputing, and multivariate regression and geostatistics) a polygonal soil map (UDP) was also used for the sake of comparing complex and sometimes cumbersome models with the standard approach of representing the soil spatial distribution. Clay data was splitted in calibration/validation subsets in order to unbiasedly compare the four models (in order of complexity UDP, MLR, MOCOK, ANN). Comparison was based on multi-criteria assessment using six measures of performance: RMSE (root mean square error), MBE (mean bias error), Pearson's correlation (r), an efficiency index (eff), SMAPE (symmetrical mean absolute percent error), and Wilmott's agreement index (D). Generally all indicators seem to demonstrate that the more complex (from UDP to ANN) the models the better their performance in representing the spatial variability of some pedological parameters. Despite such statement much endeavour should be spent in model comparison by considering also the cost/profit trade off incorporating a cost function.

  12. Symmetric Key Structural Residues in Symmetric Proteins with Beta-Trefoil Fold

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yanzhao; Xiao, Yi

    2010-01-01

    To understand how symmetric structures of many proteins are formed from asymmetric sequences, the proteins with two repeated beta-trefoil domains in Plant Cytotoxin B-chain family and all presently known beta-trefoil proteins are analyzed by structure-based multi-sequence alignments. The results show that all these proteins have similar key structural residues that are distributed symmetrically in their structures. These symmetric key structural residues are further analyzed in terms of inter-residues interaction numbers and B-factors. It is found that they can be distinguished from other residues and have significant propensities for structural framework. This indicates that these key structural residues may conduct the formation of symmetric structures although the sequences are asymmetric. PMID:21152439

  13. Application of non-linear angle synchronous spectrofluorimetry to the determination of complex mixtures of drugs in urine: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo Pulgarín, J. A.; Alañón Molina, A.; Boras, N.

    2012-12-01

    Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) is a rapid, sensitive and non-destructive method suitable for the analysis of multifluorophoric mixtures. In this study non linear variable angle synchronous spectrofluorimetry was applied to the determination of three fluoroquinololes in urine. Although this technique provides very good results, total resolution of multicomponent mixtures is not always achieved when the spectral profiles strongly overlap. Partial least-squares regression (PLS-1) was utilized to a develop calibration model that related synchronous fluorescence spectra to the analytical concentration of fluoroquinolones in the presence of urine. The same multicomponent mixture was determined using excitation emission matrix fluorescence (EEMF) along with N-way partial least squares regression (N-PLS and U-PLS). The determination was carried out in micellar medium 0.01 M with a pH of 4.8 provided by 0.2 M sodium acetate/acetic acid buffer. A central composite design was selected to obtain a calibration matrix of 25 standards plus a blank sample. The proposed methods were validated by application to a test set of synthetic samples. The results show that SFS with PLS-1 is a better method compared to EEMF with N-PLS or U-PLS because of the low RMSEP values of the former.

  14. Infrared linear dichroism studies of DNA-drug complexes: quantitative determination of the drug-induced restriction of the B-A transition.

    PubMed Central

    Fritzsche, H

    1994-01-01

    The B-A transition of films or fibers of NaDNA occurs at a relative humidity of 75-85%. The fraction of DNA that changed the conformation from B to A form can be determined quantitatively by infrared linear dichroism. DNA-binding drugs can 'freeze' a fraction of DNA in the B form. This fraction of DNA is in the B form and cannot be converted to A-DNA even at a reduced relative humidity of 54%. The 'freezing' potentiality of various drugs can be described by the 'freezing' index, FI, expressed in base pairs per added drug. Drugs with a high value of FI (more than eight base pairs per drug) were observed among both intercalating and groove-binding drugs. High values of FI imply restriction of the conformational flexibility of DNA significantly going beyond the binding site of the drug. This long-range effect of drugs on the conformational flexibility of DNA may be connected with the molecular mechanism of drug action. The freezing index FI is a new quantitative parameter of drug-DNA interaction that should be considered as a valuable tool for drug design. PMID:8139919

  15. Single-molecule magnet behavior and magnetocaloric effect in ferromagnetically coupled Ln(III)-Ni(II)-Ni(II)-Ln(III) (Ln(III) = Dy(III) and Gd(III)) linear complexes.

    PubMed

    Meseguer, Carlos; Titos-Padilla, Silvia; Hnninen, Mikko M; Navarrete, R; Mota, A J; Evangelisti, Marco; Ruiz, Jos; Colacio, Enrique

    2014-11-17

    New types of linear tetranuclear Ln(III)-Ni(II)-Ni(II)-Ln(III) (Ln(III) = Dy (1), Gd (2)) complexes have been prepared using the multidentate ligand N,N'-bis(3-methoxysalicylidene)-1,3-diaminobenzene, which has two sets of NO and OO' coordination pockets that are able to selectively accommodate Ni(II) and Ln(III) ions, respectively. The X-ray structure analysis reveals that the Ni(II) ions are bridged by phenylenediimine groups forming a 12-membered metallacycle in the central body of the complex, whereas the Ln(III) ions are located at both sides of the metallacycle and linked to the Ni(II) ions by diphenoxo bridging groups. Phenylenediimine and diphenoxo bridging groups transmit ferromagnetic exchange interactions between the two Ni(II) ions and between the Ni(II) and the Ln(III) ions, respectively. Complex 1 shows slow relaxation of the magnetization at zero field and a thermal energy barrier Ueff = 7.4 K with HDC = 1000 Oe, whereas complex 2 exhibits an S = 9 ground state and significant magnetocaloric effect (-?Sm = 18.5 J kg(-1) K(-1) at T = 3 K and ?B = 5 T). PMID:25350578

  16. Molecular structure and tautomerization of the 1:1 complex of luteoskyrin and rugulosin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guang-Xiong; Mo, Shun-Yan; He, Hui-Xiao; Shi, Jian-Gong; Ye, Wen-Cai; Liu, Zhong; Jiang, Ren-Wang

    2010-08-01

    A novel 1:1 natural product complex ( 1) containing luteoskyrin ( 2) and rugulosin ( 3) was isolated from the acetone extract of culture broth of Myrothecium sp. In DMSO solution, the 1H and 13C NMR spectra showed only half proton and carbon signals indicating that both compounds exist as a symmetric enol-enol form. In contrast, in the solid state, X-ray analysis revealed that 2 bound 3 with high specificity through intermolecular hydrogen bonds and ?-? interactions, and both 2 and 3 tautomerized to a non-symmetric enol-ketone form due to the strong linear hydrogen bonding between the ketone group and the alcoholic hydroxyl group. In addition, complex 1 showed potent cytotoxic activity against cell lines KB (human epidermoid carcinoma cell), HT-29 (human colon cancer cell) and 3T3 (mouse embryonic fibroblast cell) with IC 50 values of 0.57, 3.11 and 5.83 ?M, respectively.

  17. Replication of avocado sunblotch viroid: evidence for a symmetric pathway with two rolling circles and hammerhead ribozyme processing.

    PubMed Central

    Dars, J A; Marcos, J F; Hernndez, C; Flores, R

    1994-01-01

    The structure of a series of RNAs extracted from avocado infected by the 247-nt avocado sunblotch viroid (ASBVd) was investigated. The identification of multistranded complexes containing circular ASBVd RNAs of (+) and (-) polarity suggests that replication of ASBVd proceeds through a symmetric pathway with two rolling circles where these two circular RNAs are the templates. This is in contrast to the replication of potato spindle tuber viroid and probably of most of its related viroids, which proceeds via an asymmetric pathway where circular (+)-strand and linear multimeric (-)-strand RNAs are the two templates. Linear (+) and (-) ASBVd RNAs of subgenomic length (137 nt and about 148 nt, respectively) and one linear (+)-strand ASBVd RNA of supragenomic length (383-384 nt) were also found in viroid-infected tissue. The two linear (+)-strand RNAs have the same 5'- and 3'-terminal sequences, with the supragenomic species being a fusion product of the monomeric and subgenomic (+)-strand ASBVd RNAs. The 3' termini of these two (+)-strand molecules, which at least in the subgenomic RNA has an extra nontemplate cytidylate residue, could represent sites of either premature termination of the (+)-strands or specific initiation of the (-)-strands. The 5' termini of sub- and supragenomic (+)-strand and the 5' terminus of the subgenomic (-)-strand ASBVd RNA are identical to those produced in the in vitro self-cleavage reactions of (+) and (-) dimeric ASBVd RNAs, respectively. These observations strongly suggest that the hammerhead structures which mediate the in vitro self-cleavage reactions are also operative in vivo. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7809126

  18. Ferromagnetic behavior in linear charge-transfer complexes. Structural and magnetic characterization of octamethylferrocene salts: (Fe(C sub 5 Me sub 4 H) sub 2 ) sup sm bullet + (A) sup sm bullet minus (A = TCNE, TCNQ)

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.S.; Glatzhofer, D.T.; O'Hare, D.M. ); Reiff, W.M. ); Chakraborty, A.; Epstein, A.J. )

    1989-07-26

    The reaction of Fe{sup II}({eta}{sup 5}-C{sub 5}Me{sub 4}H){sub 2} with cyano acceptors A (A = TCNE (tetracyanoethylene), TCNQ (7,7,8,8-tetracyano-p-quanodimethane), n-C{sub 4}(CN){sub 6} (n-hexacyanobutadiene), C{sub 6}(CN){sub 6} (tris(dicyanomethylene)cyclopropane), DDQ (2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyanobenzoquinone), TCNQF{sub 4} (perfluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyano-p-quinodimethane) results in formation of 1:1 charge-transfer salts of (Fe{sup III})(C{sub 5}Me{sub 4}H){sub 2}){sup {sm bullet}+}(A){sup {sm bullet}{minus}} composition. The TCNE and TCNQ complexes have been structurally characterized. The high-temperature magnetic susceptibility for polycrystalline samples of these complexes can be fit by the Curie-Qeiss law, {chi} = C(T-{theta}){sup {minus}1}, with {theta} = +0.5 {plus minus} 2.2 K, and {mu}{sub eff} ranges from 2.71 to 3.97 {mu}{sub B}, suggesting that the polycrystalline samples measured had varying degrees of orientation. The 7.0 K EPR spectrum of the radical cation exhibits an axially symmetric powder pattern with g{sub {parallel}} = 4.11 and g{sub {perpendicular}} = 1.42, and the EPR parameters are essentially identical with those reported for ferrocenium and decamethylferrocenium. No EPR spectrum is observed at 78 K. Akin to the (Fe(C{sub 5}Me{sub 5}){sub 2}){sup {sm bullet}+} salts, these salts have {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectra consistent with complete charge transfer; however, unlike the case for the former complexes, quadrupole splittings of 0.30 and 0.220 mm/s are observed at 4.8 and 298 K, respectively. The absence of strong interionic magnetic coupling for the (Fe(C{sub 5}Me{sub 4}H){sub 2}){sup {sm bullet}+} salts contrasts with the behavior of the (Fe(C{sub 5}Me{sub 5}){sub 2}){sup {sm bullet}+} salts. 26 refs., 13 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. Symmetric tensor decomposition description of fermionic many-body wave functions.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Wataru; Sugino, Osamu

    2012-12-21

    The configuration interaction (CI) is a versatile wave function theory for interacting fermions, but it involves an extremely long CI series. Using a symmetric tensor decomposition method, we convert the CI series into a compact and numerically tractable form. The converted series encompasses the Hartree-Fock state in the first term and rapidly converges to the full-CI state, as numerically tested by using small molecules. Provided that the length of the symmetric tensor decomposition CI series grows only moderately with the increasing complexity of the system, the new method will serve as one of the alternative variational methods to achieve full CI with enhanced practicability. PMID:23368456

  20. Towards an exact theory of linear absorbance and circular dichroism of pigment-protein complexes: Importance of non-secular contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinh, Thanh-Chung; Renger, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A challenge for the theory of optical spectra of pigment-protein complexes is the equal strength of the pigment-pigment and the pigment-protein couplings. Treating both on an equal footing so far can only be managed by numerically costly approaches. Here, we exploit recent results on a normal mode analysis derived spectral density that revealed the dominance of the diagonal matrix elements of the exciton-vibrational coupling in the exciton state representation. We use a cumulant expansion technique that treats the diagonal parts exactly, includes an infinite summation of the off-diagonal parts in secular and Markov approximations, and provides a systematic perturbative way to include non-secular and non-Markov corrections. The theory is applied to a model dimer and to chlorophyll (Chl) a and Chl b homodimers of the reconstituted water-soluble chlorophyll-binding protein (WSCP) from cauliflower. The model calculations reveal that the non-secular/non-Markov effects redistribute oscillator strength from the strong to the weak exciton transition in absorbance and they diminish the rotational strength of the exciton transitions in circular dichroism. The magnitude of these corrections is in a few percent range of the overall signal, providing a quantitative explanation of the success of time-local convolution-less density matrix theory applied earlier. A close examination of the optical spectra of Chl a and Chl b homodimers in WSCP suggests that the opening angle between Qy transition dipole moments in Chl b homodimers is larger by about 9∘ than for Chl a homodimers for which a crystal structure of a related WSCP complex exists. It remains to be investigated whether this change is due to a different mutual geometry of the pigments or due to the different electronic structures of Chl a and Chl b.

  1. Towards an exact theory of linear absorbance and circular dichroism of pigment-protein complexes: Importance of non-secular contributions

    SciTech Connect

    Dinh, Thanh-Chung; Renger, Thomas

    2015-01-21

    A challenge for the theory of optical spectra of pigment-protein complexes is the equal strength of the pigment-pigment and the pigment-protein couplings. Treating both on an equal footing so far can only be managed by numerically costly approaches. Here, we exploit recent results on a normal mode analysis derived spectral density that revealed the dominance of the diagonal matrix elements of the exciton-vibrational coupling in the exciton state representation. We use a cumulant expansion technique that treats the diagonal parts exactly, includes an infinite summation of the off-diagonal parts in secular and Markov approximations, and provides a systematic perturbative way to include non-secular and non-Markov corrections. The theory is applied to a model dimer and to chlorophyll (Chl) a and Chl b homodimers of the reconstituted water-soluble chlorophyll-binding protein (WSCP) from cauliflower. The model calculations reveal that the non-secular/non-Markov effects redistribute oscillator strength from the strong to the weak exciton transition in absorbance and they diminish the rotational strength of the exciton transitions in circular dichroism. The magnitude of these corrections is in a few percent range of the overall signal, providing a quantitative explanation of the success of time-local convolution-less density matrix theory applied earlier. A close examination of the optical spectra of Chl a and Chl b homodimers in WSCP suggests that the opening angle between Q{sub y} transition dipole moments in Chl b homodimers is larger by about 9{sup ?} than for Chl a homodimers for which a crystal structure of a related WSCP complex exists. It remains to be investigated whether this change is due to a different mutual geometry of the pigments or due to the different electronic structures of Chl a and Chl b.

  2. Four-coordinate nickel(II) and copper(II) complex based ONO tridentate Schiff base ligands: synthesis, molecular structure, electrochemical, linear and nonlinear properties, and computational study.

    PubMed

    Novoa, Nstor; Roisnel, Thierry; Hamon, Paul; Kahlal, Samia; Manzur, Carolina; Ngo, Hoang Minh; Ledoux-Rak, Isabelle; Saillard, Jean-Yves; Carrillo, David; Hamon, Jean-Ren

    2015-11-01

    We report the synthesis, characterization, crystal structures, nonlinear-optical (NLO) properties, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations of nickel(ii) and copper(ii) complex based ONO tridentate Schiff base ligands: two mononuclear compounds, [Ni(An-ONO)(NC5H5)] (5) and [Cu(An-ONO)(4-NC5H4C(CH3)3)] (6), and two heterobimetallic species, [M(Fc-ONO)(NC5H5)] (M = Ni, 7; Cu, 8), where An-ONOH2 (3) and Fc-ONOH2 (4) are the 1?:?1 condensation products of 2-aminophenol and p-anisoylacetone and ferrocenoylacetone, respectively. These compounds were characterised by microanalysis, FT-IR and X-ray crystallography in the solid state and in solution by UV-vis and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The crystal structures of 3-5, 7 and 8 have been determined and show for Schiff base complexes 5, 7 and 8 a four-coordinated square-planar environment for nickel and copper ions. The electrochemical behavior of all derivatives 3-8 was investigated by cyclic voltammetry in dichloromethane, and discussed on the basis of DFT-computed electronic structures of the neutral and oxidized forms of the compounds. The second-order NLO responses of 3-8 have been determined by harmonic light scattering measurements using a 10(-2) M solution of dichloromethane and working with a 1.91 ?m incident wavelength, giving rather high ?1.91 values of 350 and 290 10(-30) esu for the mononuclear species 5 and 6, respectively. The assignment and the nature of the electronic transitions observed in the UV-vis spectra were analyzed using time-dependent (TD) DFT calculations. They are dominated by LMCT, MLCT and ?-?* transitions. PMID:26412689

  3. All-optical PT-symmetric conversion of amplitude (phase) modulation to phase (amplitude) modulation.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Oscar Ignacio Zaragoza; Mendoza, Luis Felipe Salinas; Rodríguez-Lara, B M

    2016-02-22

    We study electromagnetic field propagation through a planar three-waveguide coupler with linear gain or loss in a configuration that is the optical analog of a quantum PT-symmetric system. This model is experimentally feasible on at least four proven architectures: lossy waveguide couplers, pumped waveguides couplers, non-Hermitian electronics and coupled pumped whispering gallery mode resonators. We show that our device provides all-optical amplitude (phase) to phase (amplitude) conversion in the PT-symmetric regime at given propagation lenghts. The device has a π amplitude to phase conversion range if an extra binary phase is allowed in the reference signal, and a phase to amplitude conversion range that depends linearly on the gain-to-coupling ratio of the system. Our scheme may prove valuable in implementing phase shift keying formats, which have longer unrepeated transmission distance than intensity modulation schemes. PMID:26907051

  4. Spherically symmetric random walks in noninteger dimension

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, C.M. ); Boettcher, S. ); Moshe, M. )

    1994-09-01

    A previous article proposed a new kind of random walk on a spherically symmetric lattice in arbitrary noninteger dimension [ital D]. Such a lattice avoids the problems associated with a hypercubic lattice in noninteger dimension. This article examines the nature of spherically symmetric random walks in detail. A large-time asymptotic analysis of these random walks is performed and the results are used to determine the Hausdorff dimension of the process. Exact results are obtained in terms of Hurwitz functions (incomplete zeta functions) for the probability of a walker going from one region of the spherical lattice to another. Finally, it is shown that the probability that the paths of [ital K] independent random walkers will intersect vanishes in the continuum limit if [ital D][gt]2[ital K]/([ital K][minus]1).

  5. Symmetrical Peripheral Gangrene Following Snake Bite

    PubMed Central

    Shastri, Minal; Parikh, Mital; Patel, Dwijal; Chudasma, Ketan

    2014-01-01

    SPG (Symmetrical peripheral gangrene) is defined as symmetrical distal ischemic damage at two or more sites in the absence of large vessels obstruction. It has been ascribed to a number of infectious and non infectious conditions including connective tissue, cardiovascular, neoplastic and iatrogenic causes. We report a unique case of SPG in a 35-year-old Indian female who developed spontaneous gangrene of the distal phalanges of the right and left index, middle, ring and little fingers and the distal phalanges of all toes of the right and left foot following a snake bite. There have been very few cases of peripheral gangrene and acute renal failure associated with snake bite in literature. PMID:25386476

  6. Parity-time-symmetric plasmonic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaeian, Hadiseh; Dionne, Jennifer A.

    2014-03-01

    We theoretically investigate the optical properties of parity-time (PT)-symmetric three-dimensional metamaterials composed of strongly coupled planar plasmonic waveguides. By tuning the loss-gain balance, we show how the initially isotropic material becomes both asymmetric and unidirectional. Investigation of the band structure near the material's exceptional point reveals several interesting optical properties, including double negative refraction, Bloch power oscillations, unidirectional invisibility, and reflection and transmission coefficients that are simultaneously equal to or greater than unity. The highly tunable optical dispersion of PT-symmetric metamaterials provides a foundation for designing an unconventional class of three-dimensional bulk synthetic media, with applications ranging from lossless subdiffraction-limited optical lenses to nonreciprocal nanophotonic devices.

  7. PT symmetric Aubry-Andre model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuce, C.

    2014-06-01

    PT symmetric Aubry-Andre model describes an array of N coupled optical waveguides with position-dependent gain and loss. We show that the reality of the spectrum depends sensitively on the degree of quasi-periodicity for small number of lattice sites. We obtain the Hofstadter butterfly spectrum and discuss the existence of the phase transition from extended to localized states. We show that rapidly changing periodical gain/loss materials almost conserve the total intensity.

  8. Wave equation on spherically symmetric Lorentzian metrics

    SciTech Connect

    Bokhari, Ashfaque H.; Al-Dweik, Ahmad Y.; Zaman, F. D.; Kara, A. H.; Karim, M.

    2011-06-15

    Wave equation on a general spherically symmetric spacetime metric is constructed. Noether symmetries of the equation in terms of explicit functions of {theta} and {phi} are derived subject to certain differential constraints. By restricting the metric to flat Friedman case the Noether symmetries of the wave equation are presented. Invertible transformations are constructed from a specific subalgebra of these Noether symmetries to convert the wave equation with variable coefficients to the one with constant coefficients.

  9. Symmetric space description of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caselle, Michele; Magnea, Ulrika

    2006-01-01

    Using an innovative technique arising from the theory of symmetric spaces, we obtain an approximate analytic solution of the Dorokhov-Mello-Pereyra-Kumar (DMPK) equation in the insulating regime of a metallic carbon nanotube with symplectic symmetry and an odd number of conducting channels. This symmetry class is characterized by the presence of a perfectly conducting channel in the limit of infinite length of the nanotube. The derivation of the DMPK equation for this system has recently been performed by Takane, who also obtained the average conductance both analytically and numerically. Using the Jacobian corresponding to the transformation to radial coordinates and the parametrization of the transfer matrix given by Takane, we identify the ensemble of transfer matrices as the symmetric space of negative curvature SO*(4m + 2)/[SU(2m + 1) × U(1)] belonging to the DIII-odd Cartan class. We rederive the leading-order correction to the conductance of the perfectly conducting channel \\langle \\ln \\delta g \\rangle and its variance Var(ln δg). Our results are in complete agreement with Takane's. In addition, our approach based on the mapping to a symmetric space enables us to obtain new universal quantities: a universal group theoretical expression for the ratio \\mathrm {Var}(\\ln \\delta g)/\\langle \\ln \\delta g\\rangle , and as a by-product a novel expression for the localization length for the most general case of a symmetric space with BCm root system, in which all three types of roots are present.

  10. Active tokamak limiters; symmetrizing the edge plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Motley, R.W.

    1981-02-01

    The surface layers of tokamak plasmas are strongly unstable to low frequency oscillations. The limiter, by imposing a non-axisymmetric state in the plasma scrape-off layer, may be the source of the free energy driving the instabilities. An active, two-faced sandwich limiter is proposed to symmetrize the scrape-off layer, thereby minimizing the mismatch between the inner and outer tokamak states.

  11. Compensator configurations for load currents' symmetrization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusinaru, D.; Manescu, L. G.; Dinu, R. C.

    2016-02-01

    This paper approaches aspects regarding the mitigation effects of asymmetries in 3-phase 3-wire networks. The measure consisting in connecting of load current symmetrization devices at the load coupling point is presented. A time-variation of compensators parameters is determined as a function of the time-recorded electrical values. The general sizing principle of the load current symmetrization reactive components is based on a simple equivalent model of the unbalanced 3-phase loads. By using these compensators a certain control of the power components transits is ensured in the network. The control is based on the variations laws of the compensators parameters as functions of the recorded electrical values: [B] = [T]·[M]. The link between compensator parameters and measured values is ensured by a transformation matrix [T] for each operation conditions of the supply network. Additional conditions for improving of energy and efficiency performance of the compensator are considered: i.e. reactive power compensation. The compensator sizing algorithm was implemented into a MATLAB environment software, which generate the time-evolution of the parameters of load current symmetrization device. The input data of application takes into account time-recording of the electrical values. By using the compensator sizing software, some results were achieved for the case of a consumer connected at 20 kV busbar of a distribution substation, during 24 hours measurement session. Even the sizing of the compensators aimed some additional network operation aspects (power factor correction) correlated with the total or major load symmetrizations, the harmonics aspects of the network values were neglected.

  12. Oblique-incidence-induced phase transition in parity-time symmetric optical bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Rui-Peng; Wu, Li-Ting; Cao, Xue-Wei; Chen, Jing

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the scattering of optical waves from one-dimensional parity-time ({ P }{ T }) symmetric structures of arbitrary complexity. We prove that it is feasible to observe the transition from an unbroken { P }{ T }-symmetric phase to a broken one when the angle of incidence increases. Analytical formulae are developed that emphasize the key roles played by the interference between the exponential increase and decayed fields in the gain and loss media, and the phase shifts when reflected/transmitted from the gain-loss boundary. A specific layer thickness is proposed. Distributions of field and energy flux under both phases are studied. This investigation shows that we can observe optical { P }{ T }-symmetric phase transition in a single structure that obeys the causality principle.

  13. 14 CFR 23.331 - Symmetrical flight conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Symmetrical flight conditions. 23.331... Flight Loads § 23.331 Symmetrical flight conditions. (a) The appropriate balancing horizontal tail load... inertia loads corresponding to any of the symmetrical flight conditions specified in §§ 23.333 through...

  14. 14 CFR 23.331 - Symmetrical flight conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Symmetrical flight conditions. 23.331... Flight Loads § 23.331 Symmetrical flight conditions. (a) The appropriate balancing horizontal tail load... inertia loads corresponding to any of the symmetrical flight conditions specified in §§ 23.333 through...

  15. 14 CFR 23.331 - Symmetrical flight conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Symmetrical flight conditions. 23.331... Flight Loads § 23.331 Symmetrical flight conditions. (a) The appropriate balancing horizontal tail load... inertia loads corresponding to any of the symmetrical flight conditions specified in §§ 23.333 through...

  16. The relationship between levitation force and stiffness in symmetrical and unsymmetrical applied fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, H. H.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, S. Y.; DeHaas, O.; Ren, Z. Y.; Wang, X. R.; Wang, X. Z.; Zheng, J.; Zhao, Y.

    2005-02-01

    The two key parameters for levitation performance over a permanent magnet (PM) guideway are the levitation force and the stiffness of the high temperature superconductor (HTS) YBaCuO bulk. Their distributions along a lateral displacement (LD) were measured in zero-field-cooling (ZFC) and in field-cooling (FC) conditions. There are two cases of applied magnetic field for a single HTS bulk: symmetrical or unsymmetrical about the bulk axis. Although the levitation force has a linear relationship with the applied field in the symmetrical case, such a linear relationship disappears once the applied field becomes unsymmetrical. Furthermore, the levitation stiffness is measured in FC, and they still change more drastically than the levitation force in ZFC. In particular, the levitation stiffness has a linear relationship with the associated levitation force, whether the applied field is symmetrical or unsymmetrical. Its lateral distribution at a gap of 20 mm in FC agrees with the levitation force distribution at a gap of 10 mm in ZFC.

  17. General theory for multiple input-output perturbations in complex molecular systems. 1. Linear QSPR electronegativity models in physical, organic, and medicinal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Gonzlez-Daz, Humberto; Arrasate, Sonia; Gmez-SanJuan, Asier; Sotomayor, Nuria; Lete, Esther; Besada-Porto, Lina; Ruso, Juan M

    2013-01-01

    In general perturbation methods starts with a known exact solution of a problem and add "small" variation terms in order to approach to a solution for a related problem without known exact solution. Perturbation theory has been widely used in almost all areas of science. Bhor's quantum model, Heisenberg's matrix mechanincs, Feyman diagrams, and Poincare's chaos model or "butterfly effect" in complex systems are examples of perturbation theories. On the other hand, the study of Quantitative Structure-Property Relationships (QSPR) in molecular complex systems is an ideal area for the application of perturbation theory. There are several problems with exact experimental solutions (new chemical reactions, physicochemical properties, drug activity and distribution, metabolic networks, etc.) in public databases like CHEMBL. However, in all these cases, we have an even larger list of related problems without known solutions. We need to know the change in all these properties after a perturbation of initial boundary conditions. It means, when we test large sets of similar, but different, compounds and/or chemical reactions under the slightly different conditions (temperature, time, solvents, enzymes, assays, protein targets, tissues, partition systems, organisms, etc.). However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no QSPR general-purpose perturbation theory to solve this problem. In this work, firstly we review general aspects and applications of both perturbation theory and QSPR models. Secondly, we formulate a general-purpose perturbation theory for multiple-boundary QSPR problems. Last, we develop three new QSPR-Perturbation theory models. The first model classify correctly >100,000 pairs of intra-molecular carbolithiations with 75-95% of Accuracy (Ac), Sensitivity (Sn), and Specificity (Sp). The model predicts probabilities of variations in the yield and enantiomeric excess of reactions due to at least one perturbation in boundary conditions (solvent, temperature, temperature of addition, or time of reaction). The model also account for changes in chemical structure (connectivity structure and/or chirality paterns in substrate, product, electrophile agent, organolithium, and ligand of the asymmetric catalyst). The second model classifies more than 150,000 cases with 85-100% of Ac, Sn, and Sp. The data contains experimental shifts in up to 18 different pharmacological parameters determined in >3000 assays of ADMET (Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination, and Toxicity) properties and/or interactions between 31723 drugs and 100 targets (metabolizing enzymes, drug transporters, or organisms). The third model classifies more than 260,000 cases of perturbations in the self-aggregation of drugs and surfactants to form micelles with Ac, Sn, and Sp of 94-95%. The model predicts changes in 8 physicochemical and/or thermodynamics output parameters (critic micelle concentration, aggregation number, degree of ionization, surface area, enthalpy, free energy, entropy, heat capacity) of self-aggregation due to perturbations. The perturbations refers to changes in initial temperature, solvent, salt, salt concentration, solvent, and/or structure of the anion or cation of more than 150 different drugs and surfactants. QSPR-Perturbation Theory models may be useful for multi-objective optimization of organic synthesis, physicochemical properties, biological activity, metabolism, and distribution profiles towards the design of new drugs, surfactants, asymmetric ligands for catalysts, and other materials. PMID:23889050

  18. Reaction Cycle of Chaperonin GroEL via Symmetric "Football" Intermediate.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Hideki

    2015-09-11

    Chaperonin GroEL is an essential chaperone that assists in protein folding in the cell. Since one GroEL ring binds one GroES heptamer, the GroEL double ring permits the formation of two types of GroEL:GroES complexes: asymmetric 1:1 "bullet"-shaped and symmetric 1:2 "football"-shaped GroEL:GroES2 complexes. There have been continuing debates about the mechanism and which complex is critical to the chaperonin-assisted folding. In this review, I summarize the recent progress on the football complex. PMID:25900372

  19. Ordinary versus PT-symmetric Φ³ quantum field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, Carl M.; Branchina, Vincenzo; Messina, Emanuele

    2012-04-02

    A quantum-mechanical theory is PT-symmetric if it is described by a Hamiltonian that commutes with PT, where the operator P performs space reflection and the operator T performs time reversal. A PT-symmetric Hamiltonian often has a parametric region of unbroken PT symmetry in which the energy eigenvalues are all real. There may also be a region of broken PT symmetry in which some of the eigenvalues are complex. These regions are separated by a phase transition that has been repeatedly observed in laboratory experiments. This paper focuses on the properties of a PT-symmetric igΦ³ quantum field theory. This quantum field theory is the analog of the PT-symmetric quantum-mechanical theory described by the Hamiltonian H=p²+ix³, whose eigenvalues have been rigorously shown to be all real. This paper compares the renormalization group properties of a conventional Hermitian gΦ³ quantum field theory with those of the PT-symmetric igΦ³ quantum field theory. It is shown that while the conventional gΦ³ theory in d=6 dimensions is asymptotically free, the igΦ³ theory is like a gΦ⁴ theory in d=4 dimensions; it is energetically stable, perturbatively renormalizable, and trivial.

  20. Ordinary versus PT-symmetric Φ³ quantum field theory

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bender, Carl M.; Branchina, Vincenzo; Messina, Emanuele

    2012-04-02

    A quantum-mechanical theory is PT-symmetric if it is described by a Hamiltonian that commutes with PT, where the operator P performs space reflection and the operator T performs time reversal. A PT-symmetric Hamiltonian often has a parametric region of unbroken PT symmetry in which the energy eigenvalues are all real. There may also be a region of broken PT symmetry in which some of the eigenvalues are complex. These regions are separated by a phase transition that has been repeatedly observed in laboratory experiments. This paper focuses on the properties of a PT-symmetric igΦ³ quantum field theory. This quantum fieldmore » theory is the analog of the PT-symmetric quantum-mechanical theory described by the Hamiltonian H=p²+ix³, whose eigenvalues have been rigorously shown to be all real. This paper compares the renormalization group properties of a conventional Hermitian gΦ³ quantum field theory with those of the PT-symmetric igΦ³ quantum field theory. It is shown that while the conventional gΦ³ theory in d=6 dimensions is asymptotically free, the igΦ³ theory is like a gΦ⁴ theory in d=4 dimensions; it is energetically stable, perturbatively renormalizable, and trivial.« less

  1. An application of eigenspace methods to symmetric flutter suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fennell, Robert E.; Adams, William M., Jr.; Christhilf, David M.

    1988-01-01

    An eigenspace assignment approach to the design of parameter insensitive control laws for linear multivariable systems is presented. The control design scheme utilizes constrained optimization techniques to exploit the flexibility in eigenvector assignments to reduce control system sensitivity to changes in system parameters while maintaining performance requirements; it thus provides a systematic approach for choosing values for eigensystem design variables. The methods involve use of the singular value decomposition to provide an exact description of allowable eigenvectors in terms of a minimum number of design parameters. In a design example, the methods are applied to the problem of symmetric flutter suppression in an aeroelastic vehicle. In this example the flutter mode is sensitive to changes in dynamic pressure and eigenspace methods are used to enhance the performance of a stabilizing minimum energy/linear quadratic regulator controller and associated observer. Numerical results indicate that the methods provide feedback control laws that make the stability of the nominal closed loop systems less sensitive to changes in dynamic pressure, while maintaining acceptable control power and robustness constraints.

  2. Shear flow behavior of a dynamically symmetric polymeric bicontinuous microemulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ning

    2005-03-01

    Soft materials with complex internal structure often exhibit fascinating rheological behavior. For example, under flow the poly (ethylethylene) (PEE)/poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS)/PEE-PDMS polymeric bicontinuous microemulsion (B?E) showed shear-induced macrophase separation.^ 1 This was tentatively attributed to the extreme dynamical asymmetry of the two homopolymers, i.e., their viscosities differed by three orders of magnitude. To understand the role of the dynamic symmetry of a B?E when subjected to shear flow, we have developed a new ternary polymer blend system poly(butylene oxide) (PBO)/ poly(ethylenepropylene) (PEP)/PEP-PBO, which is dynamically almost symmetric. We will report on the shear flow behavior of this new B?E. Reference: [1] Krishnan et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2001, 87, 098301

  3. Symmetric Active/Active Replication for Dependent Services

    SciTech Connect

    Engelmann, Christian; Scott, Stephen L; Leangsuksun, Chokchai; He, X.

    2008-01-01

    During the last several years, we have established the symmetric active/active replication model for service-level high availability and implemented several proof-of-concept prototypes. One major deficiency of our model is its inability to deal with dependent services, since its original architecture is based on the client-service model. This paper extends our model to dependent services using its already existing mechanisms and features. The presented concept is based on the idea that a service may also be a client of another service, and multiple services may be clients of each other. A high-level abstraction is used to illustrate dependencies between clients and services, and to decompose dependencies between services into respective client-service dependencies. This abstraction may be used for providing high availability in distributed computing systems with complex service-oriented architectures.

  4. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in the S 3-symmetric scalar sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmanuel-Costa, D.; Ogreid, O. M.; Osland, P.; Rebelo, M. N.

    2016-02-01

    We present a detailed study of the vacua of the S 3-symmetric three-Higgs-doublet potential, specifying the region of parameters where these minimisation solutions occur. We work with a CP conserving scalar potential and analyse the possible real and complex vacua with emphasis on the cases in which the CP symmetry can be spontaneously broken. Results are presented both in the reducible-representation framework of Derman, and in the irreducible-representation framework. Mappings between these are given. Some of these implementations can in principle accommodate dark matter and for that purpose it is important to identify the residual symmetries of the potential after spontaneous symmetry breakdown. We are also concerned with constraints from vacuum stability.

  5. Forced baroclinic ocean motions. III - The linear equatorial basin case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, M. A.; Sarachik, E. S.

    1979-01-01

    The linear response to simple wind stress of an equatorial ocean described by baroclinic shallow water equations is studied. Three types of basin are considered in treating the linear spin-up of the equatorial ocean: a symmetric basin with zonal walls distant from the equator (compared to the equatorial radius of deformation); a symmetric basin with zonal walls near the equator; and an asymmetric basin with one wall near the equator and one distant. The approach to the steady (Sverdrup) solutions is analyzed, with special attention given to the fast planetary response. Numerical treatments of spin-up for various winds in each type of basin are also presented.

  6. Nonthermal and geometric effects on the symmetric and anti-symmetric surface waves in a Lorentzian dusty plasma slab

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Myoung-Jae; Jung, Young-Dae

    2015-02-15

    The nonthermal and geometric effects on the propagation of the surface dust acoustic waves are investigated in a Lorentzian dusty plasma slab. The symmetric and anti-symmetric dispersion modes of the dust acoustic waves are obtained by the plasma dielectric function with the spectral reflection conditions the slab geometry. The variation of the nonthermal and geometric effects on the symmetric and the anti-symmetric modes of the surface plasma waves is also discussed.

  7. Nonlinear reversal of the PT -symmetric phase transition in a system of coupled semiconductor microring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Absar U.; Hodaei, Hossein; Miri, Mohammad-Ali; Khajavikhan, Mercedeh; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.

    2015-12-01

    A system of two coupled semiconductor-based resonators is studied when lasing around an exceptional point. We show that the presence of nonlinear saturation effects can have important ramifications on the transition behavior of this system. In sharp contrast with linear PT -symmetric configurations, nonlinear processes are capable of reversing the order in which the symmetry breaking occurs. Yet, even in the nonlinear regime, the resulting non-Hermitian states still retain the structural form of the corresponding linear eigenvectors expected above and below the phase-transition point. The conclusions of our analysis are in agreement with experimental data.

  8. Feature Surfaces in Symmetric Tensor Fields Based on Eigenvalue Manifold.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Jonathan; Yeh, Harry; Wang, Wenping; Zhang, Yue; Laramee, Robert S; Sharma, Ritesh; Schultz, Thomas; Zhang, Eugene

    2016-03-01

    Three-dimensional symmetric tensor fields have a wide range of applications in solid and fluid mechanics. Recent advances in the (topological) analysis of 3D symmetric tensor fields focus on degenerate tensors which form curves. In this paper, we introduce a number of feature surfaces, such as neutral surfaces and traceless surfaces, into tensor field analysis, based on the notion of eigenvalue manifold. Neutral surfaces are the boundary between linear tensors and planar tensors, and the traceless surfaces are the boundary between tensors of positive traces and those of negative traces. Degenerate curves, neutral surfaces, and traceless surfaces together form a partition of the eigenvalue manifold, which provides a more complete tensor field analysis than degenerate curves alone. We also extract and visualize the isosurfaces of tensor modes, tensor isotropy, and tensor magnitude, which we have found useful for domain applications in fluid and solid mechanics. Extracting neutral and traceless surfaces using the Marching Tetrahedra method can cause the loss of geometric and topological details, which can lead to false physical interpretation. To robustly extract neutral surfaces and traceless surfaces, we develop a polynomial description of them which enables us to borrow techniques from algebraic surface extraction, a topic well-researched by the computer-aided design (CAD) community as well as the algebraic geometry community. In addition, we adapt the surface extraction technique, called A-patches, to improve the speed of finding degenerate curves. Finally, we apply our analysis to data from solid and fluid mechanics as well as scalar field analysis. PMID:26441450

  9. Spatial-frequency Fourier polarimetry of the complex degree of mutual anisotropy of linear and circular birefringence in the diagnostics of oncological changes in morphological structure of biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushenko, Yu A.; Gorskii, M. P.; Dubolazov, A. V.; Motrich, A. V.; Ushenko, V. A.; Sidor, M. I.

    2012-08-01

    Theory of polarisation-correlation analysis of laser images of histological sections of biopsy material from cervix tissue based on spatial frequency selection of linear and circular birefringence mechanisms is formulated. Comparative results of measuring the coordinate distributions of the complex degree of mutual anisotropy (CDMA), produced by fibrillar networks formed by myosin and collagen fibres of cervix tissue in different pathological conditions, namely, pre-cancer (dysplasia) and cancer (adenocarcinoma), are presented. The values and variation ranges of statistical (moments of the first fourth order), correlation (excess-autocorrelation functions), and fractal (slopes of approximating curves and dispersion of extrema of logarithmic dependences of power spectra) parameters of the CDMA coordinate distributions are studied. Objective criteria for pathology diagnostics and differentiation of its severity degree are determined.

  10. Spatial-frequency Fourier polarimetry of the complex degree of mutual anisotropy of linear and circular birefringence in the diagnostics of oncological changes in morphological structure of biological tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Ushenko, Yu A; Gorskii, M P; Dubolazov, A V; Motrich, A V; Ushenko, V A; Sidor, M I

    2012-08-31

    Theory of polarisation-correlation analysis of laser images of histological sections of biopsy material from cervix tissue based on spatial frequency selection of linear and circular birefringence mechanisms is formulated. Comparative results of measuring the coordinate distributions of the complex degree of mutual anisotropy (CDMA), produced by fibrillar networks formed by myosin and collagen fibres of cervix tissue in different pathological conditions, namely, pre-cancer (dysplasia) and cancer (adenocarcinoma), are presented. The values and variation ranges of statistical (moments of the first - fourth order), correlation (excess-autocorrelation functions), and fractal (slopes of approximating curves and dispersion of extrema of logarithmic dependences of power spectra) parameters of the CDMA coordinate distributions are studied. Objective criteria for pathology diagnostics and differentiation of its severity degree are determined. (image processing)

  11. Symmetrical band-pass loudspeaker systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matusiak, Grzegorz Piotr

    2001-12-01

    Loudspeaker systems are analyzed in a doctoral dissertation. The dissertation concerns loudspeaker systems, which are known as subwoofers or band-pass loudspeaker systems. Their advantages include: high- quality sound reproduction in the low-frequency range, small dimensions, small nonlinear distortions and the fact that they can be placed anywhere in a room or car. Band-pass loudspeaker systems are used widely in the so- called Home Theatre as well as to provide sound in cinema, theatre, concert, discotheque, opera, operetta, philharmonic and amphitheater halls, at open-air concerts, and so on. Various designs are mass-produced by a large number of manufacturers. The study covers an analysis of band-pass loudspeaker systems to which the frequency transformation, i.e. the reactance transformation, has been applied. Since this is a symmetrical transformation, amplitude frequency responses of the studied band-pass systems are also symmetrical (logarithmic scale of a frequency). As a result, the high-pass loudspeaker system design method, known as the Thiele-Small, Benson analysis, can be employed. The investigations include the formulation of band-pass system equations (fourth, sixth and eighth-order polynomials) and the subsequent derivation of relations for the calculation of system parameters. The obtained results enable the calculation of optimum designs for prescribed alignments, e.g. (Chebyshev) equal-ripple, (Butterworth) maximally flat, or quasi-maximally flat (QB). The analysis covers fourth, sixth and eighth-order symmetrical systems. Eighth-order systems have been divided into three kinds according to three ways of physical realization. The doctoral dissertation includes band-pass loudspeaker systems, which can be designed with active or passive filters or without the filter. Designed systems consist of a loudspeaker whose front of a diaphragm is loaded with a Helmholtz resonator, i.e. an enclosure with a vent, which radiates sound outwards. The back is loaded with a closed-box or the Helmholtz resonator.

  12. A synthetic method to access symmetric and non-symmetric 2-(N,N'-disubstituted)guanidinebenzothiazoles.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Alejandro; Padilla-Martnez, Itzia I; Garca-Bez, Efrn V

    2012-01-01

    Symmetric and non-symmetric 2-(N-H, N-methyl, N-ethylenyl and N-aryl)guanidinebenzothiazoles were synthesized from the reaction of ammonia, methylamine, pyrrolidine and aniline with dimethyl benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl-carbonodithioimidate as intermediate. The products were characterized by H-, C-NMR spectroscopy and three of them by X-ray diffraction analysis. HN-phenyl protons formed intramolecular hydrogen bonds that assist the stereochemistry of the second substituent, whereas the HN-alkyl protons were involved in intermolecular hydrogen bonding. PMID:22922286

  13. Symmetrical and anti-symmetrical coherent perfect absorption for acoustic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Pengjiang; Croënne, Charles; Tak Chu, Sai; Li, Jensen

    2014-03-24

    We investigate tunable acoustic absorption enabled by the coherent control of input waves. It relies on coherent perfect absorption originally proposed in optics. By designing appropriate acoustic metamaterial structures with resonating effective bulk modulus or density, we show that complete absorption of incident waves impinging on the metamaterial can be achieved for either symmetrical or anti-symmetrical inputs in the forward and backward directions. By adjusting the relative phase between the two incident beams, absorption can be tuned effectively from unity to zero, making coherent control useful in applications like acoustic modulators, noise controllers, transducers, and switches.

  14. Symmetric functions and the Vandermonde matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oruc, Halil; Akmaz, Hakan K.

    2004-11-01

    This work deduces the lower and the upper triangular factors of the inverse of the Vandermonde matrix using symmetric functions and combinatorial identities. The L and U matrices are in turn factored as bidiagonal matrices. The elements of the upper triangular matrices in both the Vandermonde matrix and its inverse are obtained recursively. The particular value xi=1+q+...+qi-1 in the indeterminates of the Vandermonde matrix is investigated and it leads to q-binomial and q-Stirling matrices. It is also shown that q-Stirling matrices may be obtained from the Pascal matrix.

  15. Symmetric Toeplitz-Structured Compressed Sensing Matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Tao; Fan, Yi-Zheng; Zhu, Ming

    2015-11-01

    How to construct a suitable measurement matrix is an important topic in compressed sensing. A significant part of the recent work is that the measurement matrices are not completely random on the entries but exhibit some considerable structures. In this paper, we proved that a symmetric Toeplitz matrix and its variant can be used as measurement matrices and recovery signal with high probability. Compared with random matrices (e.g. Gaussian and Bernoulli matrices) and some structured matrices (e.g. Toeplitz and circulant matrices), we need to generate fewer independent entries to obtain the measurement matrix while the effectiveness of the recovery keeps good.

  16. Single mode PT symmetric large area lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodaei, Hossein; Miri, Mohammad-Ali; Heinrich, Matthias; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.; Khajavikhan, Mercedeh

    2014-09-01

    We experimentally demonstrate single longitudinal mode operation in microring laser using the concept of PT symmetry. A PT-symmetric coupled resonator arrangement can considerably enhance the maximum achievable gain of single mode microring cavity. The method is broadband thus work well for inhomogenously broadened gain mediums. It doesn't rely on any additional component to ensure its mode selective performance, and it is robust with respect to fabrication inaccuracies. This result may pave the way for a novel way of designing integrated laser sources based on PT symmetry.

  17. Free Vibration of Symmetrically Laminated Skew Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, W.; Dickinson, S. M.

    1997-12-01

    A Ritz approach, developed for the analysis of the vibration of thin, laminated, rectangular plates, is extended to apply to symmetrically laminated, composite, skew plates. There is relatively little information available on the vibration of such skew plates, despite their increasing use in the aerospace industry. A convergence study and comparisons with results available from the literature indicate that the approach presented is reliable and accurate. A fairly extensive set of numerical results is given in graphical form, illustrating the influence of different lamination lay-ups, skew angles and edge conditions on the natural frequencies and nodal patterns of a selection of plates.

  18. Hoop conjecture in spherically symmetric spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khuri, Marcus A.

    2009-12-01

    We give general sufficient conditions for the existence of trapped surfaces due to concentration of matter in spherically symmetric initial data sets satisfying the dominant energy condition. These results are novel in that they apply and are meaningful for arbitrary spacelike slices, that is, they do not require any auxiliary assumptions such as maximality, time symmetry, or special extrinsic foliations, and most importantly they can easily be generalized to the nonspherical case once an existence theory for a modified version of the Jang equation is developed. Moreover, our methods also yield positivity and monotonicity properties of the Misner-Sharp energy.

  19. Dual frame symmetric wavelets with limited redundancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelnour, Farras

    2009-08-01

    In this paper we explore the design of 5-band dual frame (overcomplete) wavelets with a dilation factor M = 4. The resulting limit functions are significantly smoother than their orthogonal counterparts at the same dilation factor. An advantage of the proposed filters over the dyadic filterbanks (M = 2) is that the proposed filterbanks result in a reduced redundancy when compared with dyadic frames, while maintaining smoothness. The proposed filterbanks are symmetric and generate four wavelets and a scaling function for each the synthesis and analysis limit functions. All wavelets are equipped with at least one vanishing moment each.

  20. Optical design with rotationally symmetric NURBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chase, Holden

    2002-12-01

    The standard aspheric surface, a conic surface figured with a polynomial expansion, provides excellent correction in many optical design problems. But there are problems where this set of basis functions does not provide the best solution. This paper discusses a parametric curve alternative called Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS). NURBS are used extensively in the computer aided geometric design industry (CAGD) because they offer a rational segmented polynomial curve with the flexibility of setting both the order of the B-spline segments and the locations of the knots, or joints, between the B-spline segments providing local curve control. In addition, they are numerically stable and they have geometric intuitive control points for manipulating the curve. The advantages and disadvantages of using NURBS in optical design applications are discussed. Brief explanations of NURBS curve mathematics, properties, and design techniques are presented. The paper concludes with an optical design example comparing the optical performance between rotationally symmetric NURBS surfaces and standard aspheric surface. Note that all of the aspheric surfaces discussed in this paper are rotationally symmetric.

  1. Electroweak Baryogenesis in R-symmetric Supersymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Fok, R.; Kribs, Graham D.; Martin, Adam; Tsai, Yuhsin

    2013-03-01

    We demonstrate that electroweak baryogenesis can occur in a supersymmetric model with an exact R-symmetry. The minimal R-symmetric supersymmetric model contains chiral superfields in the adjoint representation, giving Dirac gaugino masses, and an additional set of "R-partner" Higgs superfields, giving R-symmetric \\mu-terms. New superpotential couplings between the adjoints and the Higgs fields can simultaneously increase the strength of the electroweak phase transition and provide additional tree-level contributions to the lightest Higgs mass. Notably, no light stop is present in this framework, and in fact, we require both stops to be above a few TeV to provide sufficient radiative corrections to the lightest Higgs mass to bring it up to 125 GeV. Large CP-violating phases in the gaugino/higgsino sector allow us to match the baryon asymmetry of the Universe with no constraints from electric dipole moments due to R-symmetry. We briefly discuss some of the more interesting phenomenology, particularly of the of the lightest CP-odd scalar.

  2. Cyclicity of some symmetric nilpotent centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Isaac A.

    2016-03-01

    In this work we present techniques for bounding the cyclicity of a wide class of monodromic nilpotent singularities of symmetric polynomial planar vector fields. The starting point is identifying a broad family of nilpotent symmetric fields for which existence of a center is equivalent to existence of a local analytic first integral, which, unlike the degenerate case, is not true in general for nilpotent singularities. We are able to relate so-called "focus quantities" to the "Poincaré-Lyapunov quantities" arising from the Poincaré first return map. When we apply the method to concrete examples, we show in some cases that the upper bound is sharp. Our approach is based on computational algebra methods for determining a minimal basis (constructed by focus quantities instead of by Poincaré-Lyapunov quantities because of the easier computability of the former) of the associated polynomial Bautin ideal in the parameter space of the family. The case in which the Bautin ideal is not radical is also treated.

  3. Spherically Symmetric Solutions of Light Galileon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momeni, D.; Houndjo, M. J. S.; Güdekli, E.; Rodrigues, M. E.; Alvarenga, F. G.; Myrzakulov, R.

    2016-02-01

    We have been studied the model of light Galileon with translational shift symmetry ϕ → ϕ + c. The matter Lagrangian is presented in the form {L}_{φ }= -η (partial φ )2+β G^{μ ν }partial _{μ }φ partial _{ν }φ . We have been addressed two issues: the first is that, we have been proven that, this type of Galileons belong to the modified matter-curvature models of gravity in type of f(R,R^{μ ν }T_{μ ν }m). Secondly, we have been investigated exact solution for spherically symmetric geometries in this model. We have been found an exact solution with singularity at r = 0 in null coordinates. We have been proven that the solution has also a non-divergence current vector norm. This solution can be considered as an special solution which has been investigated in literature before, in which the Galileon's field is non-static (time dependence). Our scalar-shift symmetrized Galileon has the simple form of ϕ = t, which it is remembered by us dilaton field.

  4. Fast numerical determination of symmetric sparsity patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.G.

    1994-08-01

    The author considers a function g: {Re}{sup n} {yields} {Re}{sup n} for which the Jacobian is symmetric and sparse. Such functions often arise, for instance, in numerical optimization, where g is the gradient of some objective function f so that the Jacobian of g is the Hessian of f. In many such applications one can generate extremely efficient algorithms by taking advantage of the sparsity structure of the problem if this pattern is known a priori. Unfortunately, determining such sparsity structures by hand is often difficult and prone to error. If one suspects a mistake has been made, or if g is a {open_quotes}black box{close_quotes} so that the true structure is completely unknown, one often has no alternative but to compute the entire matrix by finite differences - a prohibitively expensive task for large problems. The author shows that it is possible to numerically determine symmetric sparsity patterns using a relatively small number of g evaluations. Numerical results are shown for n up to 100,000 in which all nonzeros in the Jacobian are correctly identified in about one-hundredth of the time required to estimate the sparsity structure by a full finite difference calculation. When a good initial guess for the sparsity structure is available, numerical results are presented for n up to 500,000, in which all missing nonzeros are correctly located almost five-thousand times faster than would be possible with a full finite difference calculation.

  5. Multi-frequency EIT system with radially symmetric architecture: KHU Mark1.

    PubMed

    Oh, Tong In; Woo, Eung Je; Holder, David

    2007-07-01

    We describe the development of a multi-frequency electrical impedance tomography (EIT) system (KHU Mark1) with a single balanced current source and multiple voltmeters. It was primarily designed for imaging brain function with a flexible strategy for addressing electrodes and a frequency range from 10 Hz-500 kHz. The maximal number of voltmeters is 64, and all of them can simultaneously acquire and demodulate voltage signals. Each voltmeter measures a differential voltage between a pair of electrodes. All voltmeters are configured in a radially symmetric architecture in order to optimize the routing of wires and minimize cross-talk. We adopted several techniques from existing EIT systems including digital waveform generation, a Howland current generator with a generalized impedance converter (GIC), digital phase-sensitive demodulation and tri-axial cables. New features of the KHU Mark1 system include multiple GIC circuits to maximize the output impedance of the current source at multiple frequencies. The voltmeter employs contact impedance measurements, data overflow detection, spike noise rejection, automatic gain control and programmable data averaging. The KHU Mark1 system measures both in-phase and quadrature components of trans-impedances. By using a script file describing an operating mode, the system setup can be easily changed. The performance of the developed multi-frequency EIT system was evaluated in terms of a common-mode rejection ratio, signal-to-noise ratio, linearity error and reciprocity error. Time-difference and frequency-difference images of a saline phantom with a banana object are presented showing a frequency-dependent complex conductivity of the banana. Future design of a more innovative system is suggested including miniaturization and wireless techniques. PMID:17664635

  6. An Approximate Solution and Master Curves for Buckling of Symmetrically Laminated Composite Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Nondimensional linear-bifurcation buckling equations for balanced, symmetrically laminated cylinders with negligible shell-wall anisotropies and subjected to uniform axial compression loads are presented. These equations are solved exactly for the practical case of simply supported ends. Nondimensional quantities are used to characterize the buckling behavior that consist of a stiffness-weighted length-to-radius parameter, a stiffness-weighted shell-thinness parameter, a shell-wall nonhomogeneity parameter, two orthotropy parameters, and a nondimensional buckling load. Ranges for the nondimensional parameters are established that encompass a wide range of laminated-wall constructions and numerous generic plots of nondimensional buckling load versus a stiffness-weighted length-to-radius ratio are presented for various combinations of the other parameters. These plots are expected to include many practical cases of interest to designers. Additionally, these plots show how the parameter values affect the distribution and size of the festoons forming each response curve and how they affect the attenuation of each response curve to the corresponding solution for an infinitely long cylinder. To aid in preliminary design studies, approximate formulas for the nondimensional buckling load are derived, and validated against the corresponding exact solution, that give the attenuated buckling response of an infinitely long cylinder in terms of the nondimensional parameters presented herein. A relatively small number of "master curves" are identified that give a nondimensional measure of the buckling load of an infinitely long cylinder as a function of the orthotropy and wall inhomogeneity parameters. These curves reduce greatly the complexity of the design-variable space as compared to representations that use dimensional quantities as design variables. As a result of their inherent simplicity, these master curves are anticipated to be useful in the ongoing development of buckling-design technology.

  7. Solitary Waves of a $$\\mathcal {P}$$ $$\\mathcal {T}$$-Symmetric Nonlinear Dirac Equation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cuevas-Maraver, Jesus; Kevrekidis, Panayotis G.; Saxena, Avadh; Cooper, Fred; Khare, Avinash; Comech, Andrew; Bender, Carl M.

    2015-10-06

    In our study we consider we consider a prototypical example of a mathcalP mathcalT-symmetric Dirac model. We discuss the underlying linear limit of the model and identify the threshold of the mathcalP mathcalT -phase transition in an analytical form. We then focus on the examination of the nonlinear model. We consider the continuation in the mathcalP mathcalT -symmetric model of the solutions of the corresponding Hamiltonian model and find that the solutions can be continued robustly as stable ones all the way up to the mathcalP mathcalT-transition threshold. In the latter, they degenerate into linear waves. We also examine themore » dynamics of the model. Given the stability of the waveforms in the mathcalP mathcalT-exact phase, we consider them as initial conditions for parameters outside of that phase. We also find that both oscillatory dynamics and exponential growth may arise, depending on the size of the corresponding “quench”. The former can be characterized by an interesting form of bifrequency solutions that have been predicted on the basis of the SU symmetry. Finally, we explore some special, analytically tractable, but not mathcalP mathcalT-symmetric solutions in the massless limit of t- e model.« less

  8. Requirements for linear collider instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, M.

    1993-05-01

    Instrumentation performs a critical role in the operation of a linear collider. New acquisition and data processing techniques are required for feedback, tuning procedures and performance monitoring. For example, many collider systems are initially tuned using complex bootstrap procedures whose convergence rate will depend on the speed and performance of several instrumentation systems. Furthermore, mechanical and electrical tolerances are computed assuming the success of this process. In this paper we review the performance of specific instrumentation systems, wire scanners and beam position monitor based feedback, at the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC). Particular attention is paid to the application the lessons learned at SLC will have for future Linear Colliders.

  9. The Caenorhabditis elegans septin complex is nonpolar

    PubMed Central

    John, Corinne M; Hite, Richard K; Weirich, Christine S; Fitzgerald, Daniel J; Jawhari, Hatim; Faty, Mahamadou; Schlpfer, Dominik; Kroschewski, Ruth; Winkler, Fritz K; Walz, Tom; Barral, Yves; Steinmetz, Michel O

    2007-01-01

    Septins are conserved GTPases that form heteromultimeric complexes and assemble into filaments that play a critical role in cell division and polarity. Results from budding and fission yeast indicate that septin complexes form around a tetrameric core. However, the molecular structure of the core and its influence on the polarity of septin complexes and filaments is poorly defined. The septin complex of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is formed entirely by the core septins UNC-59 and UNC-61. We show that UNC-59 and UNC-61 form a dimer of coiled-coil-mediated heterodimers. By electron microscopy, this heterotetramer appears as a linear arrangement of four densities representing the four septin subunits. Fusion of GFP to the N termini of UNC-59 and UNC-61 and subsequent electron microscopic visualization suggests that the sequence of septin subunits is UNC-59/UNC-61/UNC-61/UNC-59. Visualization of GFP extensions fused to the extremity of the C-terminal coiled coils indicates that these extend laterally from the heterotetrameric core. Together, our study establishes that the septin core complex is symmetric, and suggests that septins form nonpolar filaments. PMID:17599066

  10. Tunneling control using classical non-linear oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Kar, Susmita; Bhattacharyya, S. P.

    2014-04-24

    A quantum particle is placed in symmetric double well potential which is coupled to a classical non-linear oscillator via a coupling function. With different spatial symmetry of the coupling and under various controlling fashions, the tunneling of the quantum particle can be enhanced or suppressed, or totally destroyed.

  11. Group Lifting Structures For Multirate Filter Banks, II: Linear Phase Filter Banks

    SciTech Connect

    Brislawn, Christopher M

    2008-01-01

    The theory of group lifting structures is applied to linear phase lifting factorizations for the two nontrivial classes of two-channel linear phase perfect reconstruction filter banks, the whole-and half-sample symmetric classes. Group lifting structures defined for the reversible and irreversible classes of whole-and half-sample symmetric filter banks are shown to satisfy the hypotheses of the uniqueness theorem for group lifting structures. It follows that linear phase lifting factorizations of whole-and half-sample symmetric filter banks are therefore independent of the factorization methods used to compute them. These results cover the specification of user-defined whole-sample symmetric filter banks in Part 2 of the ISO JPEG 2000 standard.

  12. BioClips of symmetric and asymmetric cell division.

    PubMed

    Lu, Fong-Mei; Eliceiri, Kevin W; White, John G

    2007-05-01

    Animations have long been used as tools to illustrate complex processes in such diverse fields as mechanical engineering, astronomy, bacteriology and physics. Animations in biology hold particular educational promise for depicting complex dynamic processes, such as photosynthesis, motility, viral replication and cellular respiration, which cannot be easily explained using static two-dimensional images. However, these animations have often been restrictive in scope, having been created for a specific classroom or research audience. In recent years, a new type of animation has emerged called the BioClip (http://www.bioclips.com) that strives to present science in an interactive multimedia format, which is, at once, informative and entertaining, by combining animations, text descriptions and music in one portable cross-platform document. In the present article, we illustrate the educational value of this new electronic resource by reviewing in depth two BioClips our group has created which describe the processes of symmetric and asymmetric cell division (http://www.wormclassroom.org/cb/bioclip). PMID:17437407

  13. Symmetry-restrained flexible fitting for symmetric EM maps

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kwok-Yan; Gumbart, James; McGreevy, Ryan; Watermeyer, Jean M.; Sewell, B. Trevor; Schulten, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Summary Many large biological macromolecules have inherent structural symmetry, being composed of a few distinct subunits, repeated in a symmetric array. These complexes are often not amenable to traditional high-resolution structural determination methods, but can be imaged in functionally relevant states using cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). A number of methods for fitting atomic-scale structures into cryo-EM maps have been developed, including the molecular dynamics flexible fitting (MDFF) method. However, quality and resolution of the cryo-EM map are the major determinants of a methods success. In order to incorporate knowledge of structural symmetry into the fitting procedure, we developed the symmetry-restrained MDFF method. The new method adds to the cryo-EM map-derived potential further restraints on the allowed conformations of a complex during fitting, thereby improving the quality of the resultant structure. The benefit of using symmetry-based restraints during fitting, particularly for medium to low-resolution data, is demonstrated for three different systems. PMID:21893283

  14. A microscopic derivation of nuclear collective rotationvibration model, axially symmetric case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulshani, P.

    2016-01-01

    We derive a microscopic version of the successful phenomenological hydrodynamic model of Bohr-Davydov-Faessler-Greiner for collective rotation-vibration motion of an axially symmetric deformed nucleus. The derivation is not limited to small oscillation amplitude. The nuclear Schrodinger equation is canonically transformed the to collective co-ordinates, which is then linearized using a constrained variational method. The associated constraints are imposed on the wavefunction rather than on the particle co-ordinates. The approach yields three self-consistent, time-reversal invariant, cranking-type Schrodinger equations for the rotation-vibration and intrinsic motions, and a self-consistency equation. For harmonic oscillator mean-field potentials, these equations are solved in closed forms and applied to the ground-state rotational bands in some axially-symmetric nuclei. The results are compared with the measured data.

  15. Cutting Force Predication Based on Integration of Symmetric Fuzzy Number and Finite Element Method

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhanli; Hu, Yanjuan; Wang, Yao; Dong, Chao; Pang, Zaixiang

    2014-01-01

    In the process of turning, pointing at the uncertain phenomenon of cutting which is caused by the disturbance of random factors, for determining the uncertain scope of cutting force, the integrated symmetric fuzzy number and the finite element method (FEM) are used in the prediction of cutting force. The method used symmetric fuzzy number to establish fuzzy function between cutting force and three factors and obtained the uncertain interval of cutting force by linear programming. At the same time, the change curve of cutting force with time was directly simulated by using thermal-mechanical coupling FEM; also the nonuniform stress field and temperature distribution of workpiece, tool, and chip under the action of thermal-mechanical coupling were simulated. The experimental result shows that the method is effective for the uncertain prediction of cutting force. PMID:24790556

  16. Error reduction in retrievals of atmospheric species from symmetrically measured lidar sounding absorption spectra.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jeffrey R; Numata, Kenji; Wu, Stewart T

    2014-10-20

    We report new methods for retrieving atmospheric constituents from symmetrically-measured lidar-sounding absorption spectra. The forward model accounts for laser line-center frequency noise and broadened line-shape, and is essentially linearized by linking estimated optical-depths to the mixing ratios. Errors from the spectral distortion and laser frequency drift are substantially reduced by averaging optical-depths at each pair of symmetric wavelength channels. Retrieval errors from measurement noise and model bias are analyzed parametrically and numerically for multiple atmospheric layers, to provide deeper insight. Errors from surface height and reflectance variations are reduced to tolerable levels by "averaging before log" with pulse-by-pulse ranging knowledge incorporated. PMID:25401639

  17. Spherically symmetric solutions in f(R) theories of gravity obtained using the first order formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barraco, D. E.; Hamity, V. H.

    2000-08-01

    The solutions of a class of theories obtained when we apply the first order formalism are studied. In the linear approximation we obtain the Green function and we prove that the field is independent of the size and internal stresses of the source. We show that the solutions of the field equations for a mass point are also the exterior solutions for an arbitrary spherically symmetric mass distribution. We construct the solutions of the field equation, without any approximation, for the spherically symmetric matter distribution, and prove that the exterior solutions match correctly with the interior solutions. We also prove that one of the exterior solutions is always the Schwarzschild solution. Finally, in the same case, we show that Birkhoff's theorem is satisfied. All the above results are quite similar to general relativity but are very different from the results of the fourth order theories; then we have shown that the first order formalism theories have better classical properties than fourth order theories.

  18. Theory of the acoustical properties of symmetric multilayer structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, B. G.

    1989-09-01

    A theoretical investigation has been made of the acoustical properties of symmetrical multilayer structures. Acoustic symmetric multilayers (ASMs) exhibit behavior analogous to that of optical symmetric multilayers. For a three-layer ASM, a range of effective acoustic impedances is possible merely by varying the thickness of the middle layer for a given frequency. This has the advantage that one can design an antireflection coating for virtually any substrate impedance. Some illustrative examples are given.

  19. Anti- (conjugate) linearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlmann, Armin

    2016-03-01

    This is an introduction to antilinear operators. In following Wigner the terminus antilinear is used as it is standard in Physics. Mathematicians prefer to say conjugate linear. By restricting to finite-dimensional complex-linear spaces, the exposition becomes elementary in the functional analytic sense. Nevertheless it shows the amazing differences to the linear case. Basics of antilinearity is explained in sects. 2, 3, 4, 7 and in sect. 1.2: Spectrum, canonical Hermitian form, antilinear rank one and two operators, the Hermitian adjoint, classification of antilinear normal operators, (skew) conjugations, involutions, and acq-lines, the antilinear counterparts of 1-parameter operator groups. Applications include the representation of the Lagrangian Grassmannian by conjugations, its covering by acq-lines. As well as results on equivalence relations. After remembering elementary Tomita-Takesaki theory, antilinear maps, associated to a vector of a two-partite quantum system, are defined. By allowing to write modular objects as twisted products of pairs of them, they open some new ways to express EPR and teleportation tasks. The appendix presents a look onto the rich structure of antilinear operator spaces.

  20. A permanent magnet tubular linear generator for wave energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haitao; Liu, Chunyuan; Yuan, Bang; Hu, Minqiang; Huang, Lei; Zhou, Shigui

    2012-04-01

    A novel three-phase permanent magnet tubular linear generator (PMTLG) with Halbach array is proposed for the sea wave energy conversion. Non-linear axi-symmetrical finite element method (FEM) is implemented to calculate the magnetic fields along air-gap for different Halbach arrays of PMTLGs. The PMTLG characteristics are analyzed and the simulation results are validated by the experiment. An assistant tooth is implemented to greatly minimize the end and cogging effects which cause the oscillatory detent force.

  1. Design and Synthesis of C2-Symmetric N-Heterocyclic Carbene Precursors and Metal Carbenoids

    PubMed Central

    Albright, Abigail; Eddings, Daniel; Black, Regina; Welch, Christopher J.; Gerasimchuk, Nikolay N.; Gawley, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Chiral, C2-symmetric imidazolium and imidazolinium ions, as well as the corresponding copper or silver bound carbenoids, have been prepared. Structural study of these compounds by X-ray crystallography reveals a chiral pocket that surrounds the putative carbene site or the metal-carbene bond, at carbon 2, in three of the four ligands prepared. Preliminary investigation into the application of these complexes has shown one of them to be highly enantioselective in the hydrosilylation of acetophenone. PMID:21823580

  2. Highly symmetric POVMs and their informational power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    S?omczy?ski, Wojciech; Szymusiak, Anna

    2015-11-01

    We discuss the dependence of the Shannon entropy of normalized finite rank-1 POVMs on the choice of the input state, looking for the states that minimize this quantity. To distinguish the class of measurements where the problem can be solved analytically, we introduce the notion of highly symmetric POVMs and classify them in dimension 2 (for qubits). In this case, we prove that the entropy is minimal, and hence, the relative entropy (informational power) is maximal, if and only if the input state is orthogonal to one of the states constituting a POVM. The method used in the proof, employing the Michel theory of critical points for group action, the Hermite interpolation, and the structure of invariant polynomials for unitary-antiunitary groups, can also be applied in higher dimensions and for other entropy-like functions. The links between entropy minimization and entropic uncertainty relations, the Wehrl entropy, and the quantum dynamical entropy are described.

  3. Consistency of PT-symmetric quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brody, Dorje C.

    2016-03-01

    In recent reports, suggestions have been put forward to the effect that parity and time-reversal (PT) symmetry in quantum mechanics is incompatible with causality. It is shown here, in contrast, that PT-symmetric quantum mechanics is fully consistent with standard quantum mechanics. This follows from the surprising fact that the much-discussed metric operator on Hilbert space is not physically observable. In particular, for closed quantum systems in finite dimensions there is no statistical test that one can perform on the outcomes of measurements to determine whether the Hamiltonian is Hermitian in the conventional sense, or PT-symmetric—the two theories are indistinguishable. Nontrivial physical effects arising as a consequence of PT symmetry are expected to be observed, nevertheless, for open quantum systems with balanced gain and loss.

  4. Minimal Left-Right Symmetric Dark Matter.

    PubMed

    Heeck, Julian; Patra, Sudhanwa

    2015-09-18

    We show that left-right symmetric models can easily accommodate stable TeV-scale dark matter particles without the need for an ad hoc stabilizing symmetry. The stability of a newly introduced multiplet either arises accidentally as in the minimal dark matter framework or comes courtesy of the remaining unbroken Z_{2} subgroup of B-L. Only one new parameter is introduced: the mass of the new multiplet. As minimal examples, we study left-right fermion triplets and quintuplets and show that they can form viable two-component dark matter. This approach is, in particular, valid for SU(2)SU(2)U(1) models that explain the recent diboson excess at ATLAS in terms of a new charged gauge boson of mass 2 TeV. PMID:26430988

  5. Minimal Left-Right Symmetric Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heeck, Julian; Patra, Sudhanwa

    2015-09-01

    We show that left-right symmetric models can easily accommodate stable TeV-scale dark matter particles without the need for an ad hoc stabilizing symmetry. The stability of a newly introduced multiplet either arises accidentally as in the minimal dark matter framework or comes courtesy of the remaining unbroken Z2 subgroup of B -L . Only one new parameter is introduced: the mass of the new multiplet. As minimal examples, we study left-right fermion triplets and quintuplets and show that they can form viable two-component dark matter. This approach is, in particular, valid for S U (2 )×S U (2 )×U (1 ) models that explain the recent diboson excess at ATLAS in terms of a new charged gauge boson of mass 2 TeV.

  6. Pseudo-Z symmetric space-times

    SciTech Connect

    Mantica, Carlo Alberto; Suh, Young Jin

    2014-04-15

    In this paper, we investigate Pseudo-Z symmetric space-time manifolds. First, we deal with elementary properties showing that the associated form A{sub k} is closed: in the case the Ricci tensor results to be Weyl compatible. This notion was recently introduced by one of the present authors. The consequences of the Weyl compatibility on the magnetic part of the Weyl tensor are pointed out. This determines the Petrov types of such space times. Finally, we investigate some interesting properties of (PZS){sub 4} space-time; in particular, we take into consideration perfect fluid and scalar field space-time, and interesting properties are pointed out, including the Petrov classification. In the case of scalar field space-time, it is shown that the scalar field satisfies a generalized eikonal equation. Further, it is shown that the integral curves of the gradient field are geodesics. A classical method to find a general integral is presented.

  7. Quasiaxially symmetric stellarators with three field periods

    SciTech Connect

    Garabedian, P.; Ku, L.

    1999-03-01

    Compact hybrid configurations with two field periods have been studied recently as candidates for a proof of principle experiment at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. This project has led us to the discovery of a family of quasiaxially symmetric stellarators with three field periods that have significant advantages, although their aspect ratios are a little larger. They have reversed shear and perform better in a local analysis of ballooning modes. Nonlinear equilibrium and stability calculations predict that the average beta limit will be at least as high as 4{percent} if the bootstrap current turns out to be as big as that expected in comparable tokamaks. The concept relies on a combination of helical fields and bootstrap current to achieve adequate rotational transform at low aspect ratio. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Symmetric Satellite Swarms and Choreographic Crystals.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Latham; Khoo, Jun Yong; Smith, Kendrick

    2016-01-01

    In this Letter, we introduce a natural dynamical analogue of crystalline order, which we call choreographic order. In an ordinary (static) crystal, a high degree of symmetry may be achieved through a careful arrangement of the fundamental repeated elements. In the dynamical analogue, a high degree of symmetry may be achieved by having the fundamental elements perform a carefully choreographed dance. For starters, we show how to construct and classify all symmetric satellite constellations. Then we explain how to generalize these ideas to construct and classify choreographic crystals more broadly. We introduce a quantity, called the "choreography" of a given configuration. We discuss the possibility that some (naturally occurring or artificial) many-body or condensed-matter systems may exhibit choreographic order, and suggest natural experimental signatures that could be used to identify and characterize such systems. PMID:26799028

  9. Cosmic ray antimatter and baryon symmetric cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.; Protheroe, R. J.; Kazanas, D.

    1982-01-01

    The relative merits and difficulties of the primary and secondary origin hypotheses for the observed cosmic-ray antiprotons, including the new low-energy measurement of Buffington, et al. We conclude that the cosmic-ray antiproton data may be evidence for antimatter galaxies and baryon symmetric cosmology. The present bar P data are consistent with a primary extragalactic component having /p=/equiv 1+/- 3.2/0.7x10 = to the -4 independent of energy. We propose that the primary extragalactic cosmic ray antiprotons are most likely from active galaxies and that expected disintegration of bar alpha/alpha ban alpha/alpha. We further predict a value for ban alpha/alpha =/equiv 10 to the -5, within range of future cosmic ray detectors.

  10. Cracked shells under skew-symmetric loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lelale, F.

    1982-01-01

    A shell containing a through crack in one of the principal planes of curvature and under general skew-symmetric loading is considered. By employing a Reissner type shell theory which takes into account the effect of transverse shear strains, all boundary conditions on the crack surfaces are satisfied separately. Consequently, unlike those obtained from the classical shell theory, the angular distributions of the stress components around the crack tips are shown to be identical to the distributions obtained from the plane and antiplane elasticity solutions. Extensive results are given for axially and circumferentially cracked cylindrical shells, spherical shells, and toroidal shells under uniform inplane shearing, out of plane shearing, and torsion. The effect of orthotropy on the results is also studied.

  11. VACUUM calculation in azimuthally symmetric geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Chance, M.S.

    1996-11-01

    A robustly accurate and effective method is presented to solve Laplace`s equation in general azimuthally symmetric geometry for the magnetic scalar potential in the region surrounding a plasma discharge which may or may not contain external conducting shells. These shells can be topologically toroidal or spherical, and may have toroidal gaps in them. The solution is incorporated into the various MHD stability codes either through the volume integrated perturbed magnetic energy in the vacuum region or through the continuity requirements for the normal component of the perturbed magnetic field and the total perturbed pressure across the unperturbed plasma-vacuum boundary. The method is based upon using Green`s second identity and the method of collocation. As useful byproducts, the eddy currents and the simulation of Mirnov loop measurements are calculated.

  12. Highly symmetric POVMs and their informational power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Słomczyński, Wojciech; Szymusiak, Anna

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the dependence of the Shannon entropy of normalized finite rank-1 POVMs on the choice of the input state, looking for the states that minimize this quantity. To distinguish the class of measurements where the problem can be solved analytically, we introduce the notion of highly symmetric POVMs and classify them in dimension 2 (for qubits). In this case, we prove that the entropy is minimal, and hence, the relative entropy (informational power) is maximal, if and only if the input state is orthogonal to one of the states constituting a POVM. The method used in the proof, employing the Michel theory of critical points for group action, the Hermite interpolation, and the structure of invariant polynomials for unitary-antiunitary groups, can also be applied in higher dimensions and for other entropy-like functions. The links between entropy minimization and entropic uncertainty relations, the Wehrl entropy, and the quantum dynamical entropy are described.

  13. Symmetric Satellite Swarms and Choreographic Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, Latham; Khoo, Jun Yong; Smith, Kendrick

    2016-01-01

    In this Letter, we introduce a natural dynamical analogue of crystalline order, which we call choreographic order. In an ordinary (static) crystal, a high degree of symmetry may be achieved through a careful arrangement of the fundamental repeated elements. In the dynamical analogue, a high degree of symmetry may be achieved by having the fundamental elements perform a carefully choreographed dance. For starters, we show how to construct and classify all symmetric satellite constellations. Then we explain how to generalize these ideas to construct and classify choreographic crystals more broadly. We introduce a quantity, called the "choreography" of a given configuration. We discuss the possibility that some (naturally occurring or artificial) many-body or condensed-matter systems may exhibit choreographic order, and suggest natural experimental signatures that could be used to identify and characterize such systems.

  14. Painlev transcendents and {P}{T}-symmetric Hamiltonians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Carl M.; Komijani, Javad

    2015-11-01

    Unstable separatrix solutions for the first and second Painlev transcendents are studied both numerically and analytically. For a fixed initial condition, say y(0)=0, there is a discrete set of initial slopes y\\prime (0)={b}n that give rise to separatrix solutions. Similarly, for a fixed initial slope, say y(0) = 0, there is a discrete set of initial values y(0)={c}n that give rise to separatrix solutions. For Painlev I the large-n asymptotic behavior of b n is {b}n? {B}{{I}}{n}3/5 (n\\to ? ) and that of c n is {c}n? {C}{{I}}{n}2/5 (n\\to ? ), and for Painlev II the large-n asymptotic behavior of b n is {b}n? {B}{{II}}{n}2/3 (n\\to ? ) and that of c n is {c}n? {C}{{II}}{n}1/3 (n\\to ? ). The constants {B}{{I}}, {C}{{I}}, {B}{{II}}, and {C}{{II}}, which are the coefficients in these asymptotic behaviors, are first determined numerically. Then, by using asymptotic methods, they are found analytically by reducing the nonlinear equations to the linear eigenvalue problems associated with the cubic and quartic {P}{T}-symmetric Hamiltonians H=\\frac{1}{2}{p}2+2{{i}}{x}3 and H=\\frac{1}{2}{p}2-\\frac{1}{2}{x}4.

  15. Optimal low symmetric dissipation Carnot engines and refrigerators.

    PubMed

    de Toms, C; Hernndez, A Calvo; Roco, J M M

    2012-01-01

    A unified optimization criterion for Carnot engines and refrigerators is proposed. It consists of maximizing the product of the heat absorbed by the working system times the efficiency per unit time of the device, either the engine or the refrigerator. This criterion can be applied to both low symmetric dissipation Carnot engines and refrigerators. For engines the criterion coincides with the maximum power criterion and then the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency ?(CA)=1-?T(c)/T(h) is recovered, where T(h) and T(c) are the temperatures of the hot and cold reservoirs, respectively [Esposito, Kawai, Lindenberg, and Van den Broeck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 150603 (2010)]. For refrigerators the criterion provides the counterpart of Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency for refrigerators ?(CA)=[1/(?1-(T(c)/T(h))]-1, first derived by Yan and Chen for the particular case of an endoreversible Carnot-type refrigerator with linear (Newtonian) finite heat transfer laws [Yan and Chen, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 23, 136 (1990)]. PMID:22400500

  16. Local Polynomial Regression for Symmetric Positive Definite Matrices.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ying; Zhu, Hongtu; Lin, Weili; Marron, J S

    2012-09-01

    Local polynomial regression has received extensive attention for the nonparametric estimation of regression functions when both the response and the covariate are in Euclidean space. However, little has been done when the response is in a Riemannian manifold. We develop an intrinsic local polynomial regression estimate for the analysis of symmetric positive definite (SPD) matrices as responses that lie in a Riemannian manifold with covariate in Euclidean space. The primary motivation and application of the proposed methodology is in computer vision and medical imaging. We examine two commonly used metrics, including the trace metric and the Log-Euclidean metric on the space of SPD matrices. For each metric, we develop a cross-validation bandwidth selection method, derive the asymptotic bias, variance, and normality of the intrinsic local constant and local linear estimators, and compare their asymptotic mean square errors. Simulation studies are further used to compare the estimators under the two metrics and to examine their finite sample performance. We use our method to detect diagnostic differences between diffusion tensors along fiber tracts in a study of human immunodeficiency virus. PMID:23008683

  17. Topological Analyses of Symmetric Eruptive Prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panasenco, O.; Martin, S. F.

    Erupting prominences (filaments) that we have analyzed from H? Doppler data at Helio Research and from SOHO/EIT 304 , show strong coherency between their chirality, the direction of the vertical and lateral motions of the top of the prominences, and the directions of twisting of their legs. These coherent properties in erupting prominences occur in two patterns of opposite helicity; they constitute a form of dynamic chirality called the ``roll effect." Viewed from the positive network side as they erupt, many symmetrically-erupting dextral prominences develop rolling motion toward the observer along with right-hand helicity in the left leg and left-hand helicity in the right leg. Many symmetricaly-erupting sinistral prominences, also viewed from the positive network field side, have the opposite pattern: rolling motion at the top away from the observer, left-hand helical twist in the left leg, and right-hand twist in the right leg. We have analysed the motions seen in the famous movie of the ``Grand Daddy" erupting prominence and found that it has all the motions that define the roll effect. From our analyses of this and other symmetric erupting prominences, we show that the roll effect is an alternative to the popular hypothetical configuration of an eruptive prominence as a twisted flux rope or flux tube. Instead we find that a simple flat ribbon can be bent such that it reproduces nearly all of the observed forms. The flat ribbon is the most logical beginning topology because observed prominence spines already have this topology prior to eruption and an initial long magnetic ribbon with parallel, non-twisted threads, as a basic form, can be bent into many more and different geometrical forms than a flux rope.

  18. Resonance and antiresonance of symmetric and asymmetric cantilevered piezoelectric flexors.

    PubMed

    Smits, J G; Choi, W S; Ballato, A

    1997-01-01

    The resonances of dynamically excited symmetric piezoelectric bimorphs have been determined from the equations of state. Under the effect of sinusoidal stimuli: a moment exerted at the tip M, a force exerted perpendicular to the plane of the bimorph also applied at the tip F, a uniformly applied pressure p, and an electrode voltage V, they respond with a sinusoidal tip rotation alpha, tip deflection delta, volume displacement nu, and electrode charge Q. All of the former are related to all of the latter through a dynamic admittance matrix B. The antiresonance frequency of the capacitance C have been found while also antiresonance in off-diagonal elements have been determined. The latter indicate that at these frequencies the bimorph does not work as an actuator or sensor in the particular domain of the off-diagonal. The mode shape at these antiresonance frequencies has been determined. The antiresonance of b(14) determines that for this frequency the tip has deflection but no rotation, while the antiresonance of b(24 ) indicates that the tip has rotation but no deflection. No antiresonance in the volume displacement is found, indicating that the bimorph is a pressure converter (microphone) at all frequencies. Micromachined piezoelectric heterogeneous bimorphs have been fabricated using the techniques of I.C. fabrication. Their deflections have been measured as a function of frequency and applied voltage, while these have been compared with the theoretical predictions. An anomalously large quadratic deflection has been found, superimposed on the linear piezoelectric behavior. The agreement between the linear part of the experimental deflection and the theory was quite good. PMID:18244123

  19. Nonlinear dynamic analysis of quasi-symmetric anisotropic structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Peters, Jeanne M.

    1987-01-01

    An efficient computational method for the nonlinear dynamic analysis of quasi-symmetric anisotropic structures is proposed. The application of mixed models simplifies the analytical development and improves the accuracy of the response predictions, and operator splitting allows the reduction of the analysis model of the quasi-symmetric structure to that of the corresponding symmetric structure. The preconditoned conjugate gradient provides a stable and effective technique for generating the unsymmetric response of the structure as the sum of a symmetrized response plus correction modes. The effectiveness of the strategy is demonstrated with the example of a laminated anisotropic shallow shell of quadrilateral planform subjected to uniform normal loading.

  20. Entanglement equivalence of N-qubit symmetric states

    SciTech Connect

    Mathonet, P.; Krins, S.; Bastin, T.; Godefroid, M.; Solano, E.

    2010-05-15

    We study the interconversion of multipartite symmetric N-qubit states under stochastic local operations and classical communication (SLOCC). We demonstrate that if two symmetric states can be connected with a nonsymmetric invertible local operation (ILO), then they belong necessarily to the separable, W, or Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entanglement class, establishing a practical method of discriminating subsets of entanglement classes. Furthermore, we prove that there always exists a symmetric ILO connecting any pair of symmetric N-qubit states equivalent under SLOCC, simplifying the requirements for experimental implementations of local interconversion of those states.

  1. Covariant approach for perturbations of rotationally symmetric spacetimes

    SciTech Connect

    Clarkson, Chris

    2007-11-15

    We present a covariant decomposition of Einstein's field equations which is particularly suitable for perturbations of spherically symmetric - and general locally rotationally symmetric - spacetimes. Based upon the utility of the 1+3 covariant approach to perturbation theory in cosmology, the semi-tetrad, 1+1+2 approach presented here should be useful for analyzing perturbations of a variety of systems in a covariant and gauge-invariant manner. Such applications range from stellar objects to cosmological models such as the spherically symmetric Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi solutions or the class of locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi models.

  2. Microscopic symmetric bifurcation condition of cellular solids based on a homogenization theory of finite deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, N.; Okumura, D.; Noguchi, H.

    2002-05-01

    In this paper, we establish a homogenization framework to analyze the microscopic symmetric bifurcation buckling of cellular solids subjected to macroscopically uniform compression. To this end, describing the principle of virtual work for infinite periodic materials in the updated Lagrangian form, we build a homogenization theory of finite deformation, which satisfies the principle of material objectivity. Then, we state a postulate that at the onset of microscopic symmetric bifurcation, microscopic velocity becomes spontaneous, yet changing the sign of such spontaneous velocity has no influence on the variation in macroscopic states. By applying this postulate to the homogenization theory, we derive the conditions to be satisfied at the onset of microscopic symmetric bifurcation. The resulting conditions are verified by analyzing numerically the in-plane biaxial buckling of an elastic hexagonal honeycomb. It is thus shown that three kinds of experimentally observed buckling modes of honeycombs i.e., uniaxial, biaxial and flower-like modes, are attained and classified as microscopic symmetric bifurcation. It is also shown that the multiplicity of bifurcation gives rise to the complex cell-patterns in the biaxial and flower-like modes.

  3. Various scattering properties of a new PT-symmetric non-Hermitian potential

    SciTech Connect

    Ghatak, Ananya; Mandal, Raka Dona Ray; Mandal, Bhabani Prasad

    2013-09-15

    We complexify a 1-d potential V(x)=V{sub 0}cosh{sup 2}?(tanh[(x??d)/d]+tanh(?)){sup 2} which exhibits bound, reflecting and free states to study various properties of a non-Hermitian system. This potential turns out a PT-symmetric non-Hermitian potential when one of the parameters (?,d) becomes imaginary. For the case of ??i?, we have an entire real bound state spectrum. Explicit scattering states are constructed to show reciprocity at certain discrete values of energy even though the potential is not parity symmetric. Coexistence of deep energy minima of transmissivity with the multiple spectral singularities (MSS) is observed. We further show that this potential becomes invisible from the left (or right) at certain discrete energies. The penetrating states in the other case (d?id) are always reciprocal even though it is PT-invariant and no spectral singularity (SS) is present in this case. The presence of MSS and reflectionlessness is also discussed for the free states in the later case. -- Highlights: Existence of multiple spectral singularities (MSS) in PT-symmetric non-Hermitian system is shown. Reciprocity is restored at discrete positive energies even for parity non-invariant complex system. Co-existence of MSS with deep energy minima of transitivity is obtained. Possibilities of both unidirectional and bidirectional invisibility are explored for a non-Hermitian system. Penetrating states are shown to be reciprocal for all energies for PT-symmetric system.

  4. Three-Dimensional Structures of the Spatiotemporal Nonlinear Schrdinger Equation with Power-Law Nonlinearity in PT-Symmetric Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Chao-Qing; Wang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    The spatiotemporal nonlinear Schrdinger equation with power-law nonlinearity in -symmetric potentials is investigated, and two families of analytical three-dimensional spatiotemporal structure solutions are obtained. The stability of these solutions is tested by the linear stability analysis and the direct numerical simulation. Results indicate that solutions are stable below some thresholds for the imaginary part of -symmetric potentials in the self-focusing medium, while they are always unstable for all parameters in the self-defocusing medium. Moreover, some dynamical properties of these solutions are discussed, such as the phase switch, power and transverse power-flow density. The span of phase switch gradually enlarges with the decrease of the competing parameter k in -symmetric potentials. The power and power-flow density are all positive, which implies that the power flow and exchange from the gain toward the loss domains in the cell. PMID:24983624

  5. Vibration control of large linear quadratic symmetric systems. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeon, G. J.

    1983-01-01

    Some unique properties on a class of the second order lambda matrices were found and applied to determine a damping matrix of the decoupled subsystem in such a way that the damped system would have preassigned eigenvalues without disturbing the stiffness matrix. The resulting system was realized as a time invariant velocity only feedback control system with desired poles. Another approach using optimal control theory was also applied to the decoupled system in such a way that the mode spillover problem could be eliminated. The procedures were tested successfully by numerical examples.

  6. A natural symmetrization for the plummer potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitoh, Takayuki R.; Makino, Junichiro

    2012-02-01

    We propose a symmetrized form of the softened gravitational potential which is a natural extension of the Plummer potential. The gravitational potential at the position of particle i( xi, yi, zi), induced by particle j at ( xj, yj, zj), is given by: ϕij=-{Gmj}/{|rij2+ɛi2+ɛj2|}, where G is the gravitational constant, mj is the mass of particle j, rij = ∣( xi - xj) 2 + ( yi - yj) 2 + ( zi - zj) 2∣ 1/2 and ɛi and ɛj are the gravitational softening lengths of particles i and j, respectively. This form is formally an extension of the Newtonian potential to five dimensions. The derivative of this equation in the x, y, and z directions correspond to the gravitational accelerations in these directions and they are always symmetric between two particles. When one applies this potential to a group of particles with different softening lengths, as in the case with a tree code, an averaged gravitational softening length for the group can be used. We find that the most suitable averaged softening length for a group of particles is <ɛj2>=∑jNmjɛj2/M, where M=∑jNmj and N are the mass and number of all particles in the group, respectively. The leading error related to the softening length is O∑jδrjδ ɛj2/rij3, where δrj is the distance between particle j and the center of mass of the group and δɛj2=ɛj2-<ɛj2>. Using this averaged gravitational softening length with the tree method, one can use a single tree to evaluate the gravitational forces for a system of particles with a wide variety of gravitational softening lengths. Consequently, this will reduce the calculation cost of the gravitational force for such a system with different softenings without the need for complicated forms of softening. We present the result of simple numerical tests. We found that our modification of the Plummer potential works well.

  7. Symmetric solutions of a multi-point boundary value problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosmatov, Nickolai

    2005-09-01

    We apply the fixed point theorem of Avery and Peterson to the nonlinear second-order multi-point boundary value problem where , [mu]i>0 for i=1,...,n with , n[greater-or-equal, slanted]2. We show that under the appropriate growth conditions on the inhomogeneous term symmetric about the problem has triple symmetric solutions.

  8. Reduction Formulae for Symmetric Products of Spin Matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Palash B.

    2016-02-01

    We show that, for SU(2) generators of arbitrary dimension D there exist identities that express the completely symmetric product of D matrices in terms of completely symmetric products of fewer number of matrices. We also indicate why such identities are important in characterizing electromagnetic interactions of particles.

  9. 47 CFR 51.711 - Symmetrical reciprocal compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Symmetrical reciprocal compensation. 51.711 Section 51.711 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... Traffic § 51.711 Symmetrical reciprocal compensation. (a) Rates for transport and termination of...

  10. 14 CFR 25.331 - Symmetric maneuvering conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Symmetric maneuvering conditions. 25.331 Section 25.331 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Flight Maneuver and Gust Conditions § 25.331 Symmetric maneuvering conditions....

  11. Bilateral Symmetrical Congenital Giant Becker's Nevus: A Rare Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Angoori Gnaneshwar

    2015-01-01

    Becker's nevus is a focal epidermal hypermelanotic disorder. It morphologically presents as unilateral, hyperpigmented, hypertrichotic patch on upper trunk, proximal upper extremities and arms. However, Becker's nevus presenting as bilateral, symmetrical patches is rare. Herein, we report a rare case of giant Becker's nevus with bilateral symmetrical presentation in an adult male. PMID:26538733

  12. Progressive symmetric erythrokeratodermia with delayed intellectual milestones and convulsions.

    PubMed

    Verma, Shyam B; Wollina, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    Progressive symmetric erythrokeratoderma is an uncommon genodermatosis and is thought to arise due to mutations in the connexin gene, however, genetic heterogenicity has been described. Very few cases of neurological involvement have been described in this unusual entity. We report a case of progressive symmetric erythrokeratoderma, with convulsions and delayed intellectual milestones. PMID:23130266

  13. Symmetric informationally complete positive-operator-valued measures: A new computer study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, A. J.; Grassl, M.

    2010-04-01

    We report on a new computer study of the existence of d2 equiangular lines in d complex dimensions. Such maximal complex projective codes are conjectured to exist in all finite dimensions and are the underlying mathematical objects defining symmetric informationally complete measurements in quantum theory. We provide numerical solutions in all dimensions d ?67 and, moreover, a putatively complete list of Weyl-Heisenberg covariant solutions for d ?50. A symmetry analysis of this list leads to new algebraic solutions in dimensions d =24, 35, and 48, which are given together with algebraic solutions for d =4,,15, and 19.

  14. Bicriterion seriation methods for skew-symmetric matrices.

    PubMed

    Brusco, Michael J; Stahl, Stephanie

    2005-11-01

    The decomposition of an asymmetric proximity matrix into its symmetric and skew-symmetric components is a well-known principle in combinatorial data analysis. The seriation of the skew-symmetric component can emphasize information corresponding to the sign or absolute magnitude of the matrix elements, and the choice of objective criterion can have a profound impact on the ordering. In this research note, we propose a bicriterion approach for seriation of a skew-symmetric matrix incorporating both sign and magnitude information. Two numerical demonstrations reveal that the bicriterion procedure is an effective alternative to direct seriation of the skew-symmetric matrix, facilitating favourable trade-offs among sign and magnitude information. PMID:16293204

  15. Dinuclear complexes containing linear M-F-M [M = Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II)] bridges: trends in structures, antiferromagnetic superexchange interactions, and spectroscopic properties.

    PubMed

    Reger, Daniel L; Pascui, Andrea E; Smith, Mark D; Jezierska, Julia; Ozarowski, Andrew

    2012-11-01

    The reaction of M(BF(4))(2)xH(2)O, where M is Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), and Cd(II), with the new ditopic ligand m-bis[bis(3,5-dimethyl-1-pyrazolyl)methyl]benzene (L(m)*) leads to the formation of monofluoride-bridged dinuclear metallacycles of the formula [M(2)(?-F)(?-L(m)*)(2)](BF(4))(3). The analogous manganese(II) species, [Mn(2)(?-F)(?-L(m)*)(2)](ClO(4))(3), was isolated starting with Mn(ClO(4))(2)6H(2)O using NaBF(4) as the source of the bridging fluoride. In all of these complexes, the geometry around the metal centers is trigonal bipyramidal, and the fluoride bridges are linear. The (1)H, (13)C, and (19)F NMR spectra of the zinc(II) and cadmium(II) compounds and the (113)Cd NMR of the cadmium(II) compound indicate that the metallacycles retain their structure in acetonitrile and acetone solution. The compounds with M = Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II) are antiferromagnetically coupled, although the magnitude of the coupling increases dramatically with the metal as one moves to the right across the periodic table: Mn(II) (-6.7 cm(-1)) < Fe(II) (-16.3 cm(-1)) < Co(II) (-24.1 cm(-1)) < Ni(II) (-39.0 cm(-1)) ? Cu(II) (-322 cm(-1)). High-field EPR spectra of the copper(II) complexes were interpreted using the coupled-spin Hamiltonian with g(x) = 2.150, g(y) = 2.329, g(z) = 2.010, D = 0.173 cm(-1), and E = 0.089 cm(-1). Interpretation of the EPR spectra of the iron(II) and manganese(II) complexes required the spin Hamiltonian using the noncoupled spin operators of two metal ions. The values g(x) = 2.26, g(y) = 2.29, g(z) = 1.99, J = -16.0 cm(-1), D(1) = -9.89 cm(-1), and D(12) = -0.065 cm(-1) were obtained for the iron(II) complex and g(x) = g(y) = g(z) = 2.00, D(1) = -0.3254 cm(-1), E(1) = -0.0153, J = -6.7 cm(-1), and D(12) = 0.0302 cm(-1) were found for the manganese(II) complex. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the exchange integrals and the zero-field splitting on manganese(II) and iron(II) ions were performed using the hybrid B3LYP functional in association with the TZVPP basis set, resulting in reasonable agreement with experiment. PMID:23043562

  16. Spherically symmetric conformal gravity and ``gravitational bubbles''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezin, V. A.; Dokuchaev, V. I.; Eroshenko, Yu. N.

    2016-01-01

    The general structure of the spherically symmetric solutions in the Weyl conformal gravity is described. The corresponding Bach equations are derived for the special type of metrics, which can be considered as the representative of the general class. The complete set of the pure vacuum solutions is found. It consists of two classes. The first one contains the solutions with constant two-dimensional curvature scalar of our specific metrics, and the representatives are the famous Robertson-Walker metrics. One of them we called the ``gravitational bubbles'', which is compact and with zero Weyl tensor. Thus, we obtained the pure vacuum curved space-times (without any material sources, including the cosmological constant) what is absolutely impossible in General Relativity. Such a phenomenon makes it easier to create the universe from ``nothing''. The second class consists of the solutions with varying curvature scalar. We found its representative as the one-parameter family. It appears that it can be conformally covered by the thee-parameter Mannheim-Kazanas solution. We also investigated the general structure of the energy-momentum tensor in the spherical conformal gravity and constructed the vectorial equation that reveals clearly some features of non-vacuum solutions. Two of them are explicitly written, namely, the metrics à la Vaidya, and the electrovacuum space-time metrics.

  17. PELDOR in rotationally symmetric homo-oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Giannoulis, Angeliki; Ward, Richard; Branigan, Emma; Naismith, James H.; Bode, Bela E.

    2013-01-01

    Nanometre distance measurements by pulsed electronelectron double resonance (PELDOR) spectroscopy have become an increasingly important tool in structural biology. The theoretical underpinning of the experiment is well defined for systems containing two nitroxide spin-labels (spin pairs); however, recently experiments have been reported on homo-oligomeric membrane proteins consisting of up to eight spin-labelled monomers. We have explored the theory behind these systems by examining model systems based on multiple spins arranged in rotationally symmetric polygons. The results demonstrate that with a rising number of spins within the test molecule, increasingly strong distortions appear in distance distributions obtained from an analysis based on the simple spin pair approach. These distortions are significant over a range of system sizes and remain so even when random errors are introduced into the symmetry of the model. We present an alternative approach to the extraction of distances on such systems based on a minimisation that properly treats multi-spin correlations. We demonstrate the utility of this approach on a spin-labelled mutant of the heptameric Mechanosensitive Channel of Small Conductance of E. coli. PMID:24954956

  18. Spherically symmetric inhomogeneous model with Chaplygin gas

    SciTech Connect

    Panigrahi, D.; Chatterjee, S. E-mail: chat_sujit1@yahoo.com

    2011-10-01

    We investigate the late time acceleration with a Chaplygin type of gas in spherically symmetric inhomogeneous model. At the early phase we get Einstien-de Sitter type of solution generalised to inhomogeneous spacetime. But at late stage of the evolution our solutions admit the accelerating nature of the universe. For a large scale factor our model behaves like a ?CDM model. We calculate the deceleration parameter for this anisotropic model, which, unlike its homogeneous counterpart, shows that the flip is not synchronous occurring early at the outer shells. This is in line with other physical processes in any inhomogeneous models. Depending upon initial conditions our solution also gives bouncing universe. In the absence of inhomogeneity our solution reduces to wellknown solutions in homogeneous case. We have also calculated the effective deceleration parameter in terms of Hubble parameter. The whole situation is later discussed with the help of wellknown Raychaudhury equation and the results are compared with the previous case. This work is an extension of our recent communication where an attempt was made to see if the presence of extra dimensions and/or inhomogeneity can trigger an inflation in a matter dominated Lematre Tolman Bondi model.

  19. Phase Behavior of Symmetric Sulfonated Block Copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Moon Jeong; Balsara, Nitash P.

    2008-08-21

    Phase behavior of poly(styrenesulfonate-methylbutylene) (PSS-PMB) block copolymers was studied by varying molecular weight, sulfonation level, and temperature. Molecular weights of the copolymers range from 2.9 to 117 kg/mol. Ordered lamellar, gyroid, hexagonally perforated lamellae, and hexagonally packed cylinder phases were observed in spite of the fact that the copolymers are nearly symmetric with PSS volume fractions between 0.45 and 0.50. The wide variety of morphologies seen in our copolymers is inconsistent with current theories on block copolymer phase behavior such as self-consistent field theory. Low molecular weight PSS-PMB copolymers (<6.2 kg/mol) show order-order and order-disorder phase transitions as a function of temperature. In contrast, the phase behavior of high molecular weight PSS-PMB copolymers (>7.7 kg/mol) is independent of temperature. Due to the large value of Flory-Huggins interaction parameter, x, between the sulfonated and non-sulfonated blocks, PSS-PMB copolymers with PSS and PMB molecular weights of 1.8 and 1.4 kg/mol, respectively, show the presence of an ordered gyroid phase with a 2.5 nm diameter PSS network. A variety of methods are used to estimate x between PSS and PMB chains as a function of sulfonation level. Some aspects of the observed phase behavior of PSS-PMB copolymers can be rationalized using x.

  20. Self-Diffusion of Symmetric Star Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frischknecht, Amalie; Milner, Scott T.

    2000-03-01

    We use a recent theory of arm retraction in star polymers, which successfully describes their distinctive rheology, to calculate the self-diffusion constant of symmetric stars. Star polymers can only take a diffusive step when an arm fully retracts to the center. Due to the wide separation of relaxation times along the star arms, star polymers obey dynamic dilution, in which the effective entanglement network dilutes as portions of the star arms relax. This implies a picture of self-diffusion in which the junction point hops a distance of order the dilated tube diameter ad associated with the diluted network, rather than a distance of order the original ``skinny'' tube diameter a0 defined by the entanglement molecular weight. The difference is substantial, since ad scales with arm length N as a_0N^2/7. However, comparing our results to self-diffusion data of Bartels et. al.,(C. R. Bartels, B. Crist, Jr., L. J. Fetters, and W. W. Graessley, Macromolecules 19), 785, 1986. we find that the data is more consistent with diffusive hops of a length scale a0 rather than a_d.

  1. Microtearing Simulations in the Madison Symmetric Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmody, Daniel; Pueschel, M. J.; Terry, P. W.

    2012-10-01

    Recent studies of improved confinement discharges in reversed field pinch (RFP) plasmas have revealed the need for greater understanding of the role that microinstabilities may be playing in these devices. In this work, the gyrokinetic codes GYRO and GENE are used to investigate the characteristics of these instabilities in an RFP-type equilibrium. Microtearing is found to have large growth rates across a range of scales for the parameter regime of the Madison Symmetric Torus and may be especially relevant to high-beta PPCD discharges, where large scale tearing mode activity is suppressed and microturbulence is believed to play a greater role in transport. Important features of the mode, such as critical values for beta and electron temperature gradient, are studied for a number of geometric parameters, including flux surface radius and RFP ?. The dependence on collisionality, which plays an important role in this instability, is explored using a Lorentz operator. We find that the RFP microtearing mode is unstable across a range of collisional frequency, and parameter scans show different responses at low versus moderate/high collisionality, possible evidence for different physical drive mechanisms. The source of these drives is explored and compared with existing theory.

  2. SIMULATION OF STRAIN INDUCED INTERFACE MIGRATION IN SYMMETRIC TILT GRAIN BOUNDARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Namilae, Sirish; Radhakrishnan, Balasubramaniam; Gorti, Sarma B

    2007-01-01

    Grain boundary migration of flat symmetric tilt grain boundaries is simulated using molecular dynamics. The driving force for migration is achieved by applying uniaxial strain on one of the grains in the bicrystal, enabling the growth of strain free grain at the expense of strained grain. Arrhenius dependence of grain boundary mobility on temperature and a linear relation between mobility and grain boundary velocity are observed. Simulations suggest that the mechanism of migration is dependent on vacancy diffusion combined with local reshuffling of atoms near the grain boundary.

  3. Interacting fermionic atoms in optical lattices diffuse symmetrically upwards and downwards in a gravitational potential.

    PubMed

    Mandt, Stephan; Rapp, Akos; Rosch, Achim

    2011-06-24

    We consider a cloud of fermionic atoms in an optical lattice described by a Hubbard model with an additional linear potential. While homogeneous interacting systems mainly show damped Bloch oscillations and heating, a finite cloud behaves differently: It expands symmetrically such that gains of potential energy at the top are compensated by losses at the bottom. Interactions stabilize the necessary heat currents by inducing gradients of the inverse temperature 1/T, with T<0 at the bottom of the cloud. An analytic solution of hydrodynamic equations shows that the width of the cloud increases with t^{1/3} for long times consistent with results from our Boltzmann simulations. PMID:21770621

  4. Fast axis servo for the fast and precise machining of non-rotational symmetric optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Fujing; Yin, Ziqiang; Li, Shengyi

    2014-08-01

    A new long range tool servo-fast axis servo is developed, which is used for fabricating the non-rotational symmetric optics surface with millimeters' sag. The mechanism design, motion modeling and development of FAS device were studied. The FAS consists of a linear motor, aerostatic bearings, high-resolution encoder and a motion controller. A control strategy consists of a proportional, integral and derivative (PID) feedback controller and velocity/acceleration feedforward controller is implemented to accommodate the system control performance. Experimental tests have been carried out to verify the performance of the FAS system.

  5. Molecular-dynamic investigation of the interaction of vacancies with symmetrical tilt grain boundaries in aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weckman, A. V.; Demyanov, B. F.; Dragunov, A. S.

    2015-06-01

    The molecular-dynamic method has been used to study the interaction of lattice vacancies with symmetrical grain boundaries (GBs) in aluminum. The fraction of trapped vacancies has been found to depend linearly on the distance to the GB plane. The average velocity of the vacancy migration toward the boundary decreases exponentially with an increase in the distance between the GB plane and vacancy. The radius of the region of trapping of a vacancy by the boundary is limited to two to three lattice parameters and grows with an increase in temperature. Four types of boundaries, which are characterized by different capability for the trapping of vacancies, have been determined.

  6. Ballooning Stability of the Compact Quasiaxially Symmetric Stellarator

    SciTech Connect

    M.H. Redi; J. Canik; R.L. Dewar; J.L. Johnson; S. Klasky; W.A. Cooper; W. Kerbichler

    2001-09-19

    The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) ballooning stability of a compact, quasiaxially symmetric stellarator (QAS), expected to achieve good stability and particle confinement is examined with a method that can lead to estimates of global stability. Making use of fully 3D, ideal-MHD stability codes, the QAS beta is predicted to be limited above 4% by ballooning and high-n kink modes. Here MHD stability is analyzed through the calculation and examination of the ballooning mode eigenvalue isosurfaces in the 3-space [s, alpha, theta(subscript ''k'')]; s is the edge normalized toroidal flux, alpha is the field line variable, and theta(subscript ''k'') is the perpendicular wave vector or ballooning parameter. Broken symmetry, i.e., deviations from axisymmetry, in the stellarator magnetic field geometry causes localization of the ballooning mode eigenfunction, with new types of nonsymmetric, eigenvalue isosurfaces in both the stable and unstable spectrum. The isosurfaces around the most unstable points i n parameter space (well above marginal) are topologically spherical. In such cases, attempts to use ray tracing to construct global ballooning modes lead to a k-space runaway. Introduction of a reflecting cutoff in k(perpendicular) to model numerical truncation or finite Larmor radius (FLR) yields chaotic ray paths ergodically filling the allowed phase space, indicating that the global spectrum must be described using the language of quantum chaos theory. However, the isosurface for marginal stability in the cases studied are found to have a more complex topology, making estimation of FLR stabilization more difficult.

  7. Symmetric interactions and interference between pitch and timbre.

    PubMed

    Allen, Emily J; Oxenham, Andrew J

    2014-03-01

    Variations in the spectral shape of harmonic tone complexes are perceived as timbre changes and can lead to poorer fundamental frequency (F0) or pitch discrimination. Less is known about the effects of F0 variations on spectral shape discrimination. The aims of the study were to determine whether the interactions between pitch and timbre are symmetric, and to test whether musical training affects listeners' ability to ignore variations in irrelevant perceptual dimensions. Difference limens (DLs) for F0 were measured with and without random, concurrent, variations in spectral centroid, and vice versa. Additionally, sensitivity was measured as the target parameter and the interfering parameter varied by the same amount, in terms of individual DLs. Results showed significant and similar interference between pitch (F0) and timbre (spectral centroid) dimensions, with upward spectral motion often confused for upward F0 motion, and vice versa. Musicians had better F0DLs than non-musicians on average, but similar spectral centroid DLs. Both groups showed similar interference effects, in terms of decreased sensitivity, in both dimensions. Results reveal symmetry in the interference effects between pitch and timbre, once differences in sensitivity between dimensions and subjects are controlled. Musical training does not reliably help to overcome these effects. PMID:24606275

  8. Microfabricated linear Paul-Straubel ion trap

    DOEpatents

    Mangan, Michael A.; Blain, Matthew G.; Tigges, Chris P.; Linker, Kevin L.

    2011-04-19

    An array of microfabricated linear Paul-Straubel ion traps can be used for mass spectrometric applications. Each ion trap comprises two parallel inner RF electrodes and two parallel outer DC control electrodes symmetric about a central trap axis and suspended over an opening in a substrate. Neighboring ion traps in the array can share a common outer DC control electrode. The ions confined transversely by an RF quadrupole electric field potential well on the ion trap axis. The array can trap a wide array of ions.

  9. SL(2,R) duality-symmetric action for electromagnetic theory with electric and magnetic sources

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Choonkyu; School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul 130-722 ; Min, Hyunsoo

    2013-12-15

    For the SL(2,R) duality-invariant generalization of Maxwell electrodynamics in the presence of both electric and magnetic sources, we formulate a local, manifestly duality-symmetric, Zwanziger-type action by introducing a pair of four-potentials A{sup ?} and B{sup ?} in a judicious way. On the two potentials A{sup ?} and B{sup ?} the SL(2,R) duality transformation acts in a simple linear manner. In quantum theory including charged source fields, this action can be recast as a SL(2,Z)-invariant action. Also given is a Zwanziger-type action for SL(2,R) duality-invariant BornInfeld electrodynamics which can be important for D-brane dynamics in string theory. -- Highlights: We formulate a local, manifestly duality-symmetric, Zwanziger-type action. Maxwell electrodynamics is generalized to include dilaton and axion fields. SL(2,R) symmetry is manifest. We formulate a local, manifestly duality-symmetric, nonlinear BornInfeld action with SL(2,R) symmetry.

  10. Numerical experiments with a symmetric high-resolution shock-capturing scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, H. C.

    1986-01-01

    Characteristic-based explicit and implicit total variation diminishing (TVD) schemes for the two-dimensional compressible Euler equations have recently been developed. This is a generalization of recent work of Roe and Davis to a wider class of symmetric (non-upwind) TVD schemes other than Lax-Wendroff. The Roe and Davis schemes can be viewed as a subset of the class of explicit methods. The main properties of the present class of schemes are that they can be implicit, and, when steady-state calculations are sought, the numerical solution is independent of the time step. In a recent paper, a comparison of a linearized form of the present implicit symmetric TVD scheme with an implicit upwind TVD scheme originally developed by Harten and modified by Yee was given. Results favored the symmetric method. It was found that the latter is just as accurate as the upwind method while requiring less computational effort. Currently, more numerical experiments are being conducted on time-accurate calculations and on the effect of grid topology, numerical boundary condition procedures, and different flow conditions on the behavior of the method for steady-state applications. The purpose here is to report experiences with this type of scheme and give guidelines for its use.

  11. Using Hill's Equation to Solve PT-Symmetric Periodic Differential Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Kevin

    2003-04-01

    Quantum mechanics is considered a scientific triumph of the twentieth century. It is a major hurdle to our application of this theory that there are so few analytically-solvable problems. However, using the ideas and techniques of supersymmetry (SUSY)---a method that factors the one-dimensional Schrodinger equation---many systems have been recently discovered and successfully solved. In addition, there is increasing interest in a class of problems involving complex, PT-symmetric potentials since they yield real energy spectra. We have constructed PT-symmetric periodic potentials with Jacobi Elliptic functions because they have a periodicity parameter that provides a tunable potential that can be tailored to a specific application. In solving for the states of these potentials, we realized that 19th century mathematicians have already solved many periodic differential equations, some involving Jacobi Elliptic functions.

  12. PT restoration via increased loss and gain in the PT-symmetric Aubry-Andr model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Charles H.; Scott, Derek D.; Joglekar, Yogesh N.

    2014-03-01

    In systems with "balanced loss and gain," the PT symmetry is broken by increasing the non-Hermiticity or the loss-gain strength. We show that finite lattices with oscillatory, PT-symmetric potentials exhibit unexpected PT-symmetry breaking and restoration. We obtain the PT phase diagram as a function of potential periodicity, which also controls the location complex eigenvalues in the lattice spectrum. We show that the sum of PT potentials with nearby periodicities leads to PT-symmetry restoration, where the system goes from a PT-broken state to a PT-symmetric state as the average loss-gain strength is increased. We discuss the implications of this transition for the propagation of a light in an array of coupled waveguides.

  13. Non-Vacuum Plane Symmetric Solutions and their Energy Contents in f ( R) Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amir, M. Jamil; Maqsood, Sidra

    2016-02-01

    The exact vacuum solutions of static plane symmetric spacetimes in four, five, six and n-dimensions in metric approach of f ( R) theory of gravity have already been found and are available in literature. In this paper, we extend the work done by Sharif and Farasat for the case of vacuum static plane symmetric solutions in f ( R) theory of gravity to non-vacuum case. Two non-vacuum solutions have been determined by using constant Ricci scalar assumption. Moreover, for some specific choices of f ( R) models, the energy distribution of these solutions has been explored by applying the generalized Landau-Lifshitz energy-momentum complex in the context of f ( R) theory of gravity. In addition, we discuss the stability conditions for these solutions.

  14. Complexity and Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, Jeanette Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    A central feature of complexity is that it is based on non-linear, recursive relations. However, in most current accounts of complexity such relations, while non-linear, are based on the reductive relations of a Newtonian onto-epistemological framework. This means that the systems that are emergent from the workings of such relations are a

  15. Mssbauer spectroscopy as a probe of magnetization dynamics in the linear iron(I) and iron(II) complexes [Fe(C(SiMe3)3)2](1-/0.).

    PubMed

    Zadrozny, Joseph M; Xiao, Dianne J; Long, Jeffrey R; Atanasov, Mihail; Neese, Frank; Grandjean, Fernande; Long, Gary J

    2013-11-18

    The iron-57 Mssbauer spectra of the linear, two-coordinate complexes, [K(crypt-222)][Fe(C(SiMe3)3)2], 1, and Fe(C(SiMe3)3)2, 2, were measured between 5 and 295 K under zero applied direct current (dc) field. These spectra were analyzed with a relaxation profile that models the relaxation of the hyperfine field associated with the inversion of the iron cation spin. Because of the lifetime of the measurement (10(-8) to 10(-9) s), iron-57 Mssbauer spectroscopy yielded the magnetization dynamics of 1 and 2 on a significantly faster time scale than was previously possible with alternating current (ac) magnetometry. From the modeling of the Mssbauer spectral profiles, Arrhenius plots between 5 and 295 K were obtained for both 1 and 2. The high-temperature regimes revealed Orbach relaxation processes with U(eff) = 246(3) and 178(9) cm(-1) for 1 and 2, respectively, effective relaxation barriers which are in agreement with magnetic measurements and supporting ab initio calculations. In 1, two distinct high-temperature regimes of magnetic relaxation are observed with mechanisms that correspond to two distinct single-excitation Orbach processes within the ground-state spin-orbit coupled manifold of the iron(I) ion. For 2, Mssbauer spectroscopy yields the temperature dependence of the magnetic relaxation in zero applied dc field, a relaxation that could not be observed with zero-field ac magnetometry. The ab initio calculated Mssbauer hyperfine parameters of both 1 and 2 are in excellent agreement with the observed hyperfine parameters. PMID:24175913

  16. The lack of large compact symmetric objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augusto, P.

    2009-02-01

    In recent years, `baby' (< 103 yr) and `young' (103-105 yr) radio galaxies have been found and classified, although their numbers are still small (tens). Also, they have many different names, depending on the type of survey and scientific context in which they were found: compact steep spectrum sources (CSS), giga-Hertz peaked spectrum sources (GPS) and compact-medium symmetric objects (C-MSO). The latter have the radio galaxy structure more obvious and correspond to the `babies' (CSOs; < 1 kpc) and `young' (MSOs; 1-15 kpc) radio galaxies. The log-size distribution of CSOs shows a sharp drop at 0.3 kpc. This trend continues through flat-spectrum MSOs (over the full 1-15 kpc size range). In order to find out if this lack of large CSOs and flat-spectrum MSOs is due to poor sampling (lack of surveys that probe efficiently the 0.3-15 kpc size range) and/or has physical meaning (e.g. if the lobes of CSOs expand as they grow and age, they might become CSSs, `disappearing' from the flat-spectrum MSO statistics), we have built a sample of 157 flat-spectrum radio sources with structure on 0.3-15 kpc scales. We are using new, archived and published data to produce and inspect hundreds of multi-frequency multi-instrument maps and models. We have already found 13 new secure CSO/MSOs. We expect to uncover 30-40 new CSOs and MSOs, most on the 0.3-15 kpc size range, when our project is complete.

  17. Recent advances in symmetric and network dynamics.

    PubMed

    Golubitsky, Martin; Stewart, Ian

    2015-09-01

    We summarize some of the main results discovered over the past three decades concerning symmetric dynamical systems and networks of dynamical systems, with a focus on pattern formation. In both of these contexts, extra constraints on the dynamical system are imposed, and the generic phenomena can change. The main areas discussed are time-periodic states, mode interactions, and non-compact symmetry groups such as the Euclidean group. We consider both dynamics and bifurcations. We summarize applications of these ideas to pattern formation in a variety of physical and biological systems, and explain how the methods were motivated by transferring to new contexts René Thom's general viewpoint, one version of which became known as "catastrophe theory." We emphasize the role of symmetry-breaking in the creation of patterns. Topics include equivariant Hopf bifurcation, which gives conditions for a periodic state to bifurcate from an equilibrium, and the H/K theorem, which classifies the pairs of setwise and pointwise symmetries of periodic states in equivariant dynamics. We discuss mode interactions, which organize multiple bifurcations into a single degenerate bifurcation, and systems with non-compact symmetry groups, where new technical issues arise. We transfer many of the ideas to the context of networks of coupled dynamical systems, and interpret synchrony and phase relations in network dynamics as a type of pattern, in which space is discretized into finitely many nodes, while time remains continuous. We also describe a variety of applications including animal locomotion, Couette-Taylor flow, flames, the Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction, binocular rivalry, and a nonlinear filter based on anomalous growth rates for the amplitude of periodic oscillations in a feed-forward network. PMID:26428565

  18. Recent advances in symmetric and network dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubitsky, Martin; Stewart, Ian

    2015-09-01

    We summarize some of the main results discovered over the past three decades concerning symmetric dynamical systems and networks of dynamical systems, with a focus on pattern formation. In both of these contexts, extra constraints on the dynamical system are imposed, and the generic phenomena can change. The main areas discussed are time-periodic states, mode interactions, and non-compact symmetry groups such as the Euclidean group. We consider both dynamics and bifurcations. We summarize applications of these ideas to pattern formation in a variety of physical and biological systems, and explain how the methods were motivated by transferring to new contexts René Thom's general viewpoint, one version of which became known as "catastrophe theory." We emphasize the role of symmetry-breaking in the creation of patterns. Topics include equivariant Hopf bifurcation, which gives conditions for a periodic state to bifurcate from an equilibrium, and the H/K theorem, which classifies the pairs of setwise and pointwise symmetries of periodic states in equivariant dynamics. We discuss mode interactions, which organize multiple bifurcations into a single degenerate bifurcation, and systems with non-compact symmetry groups, where new technical issues arise. We transfer many of the ideas to the context of networks of coupled dynamical systems, and interpret synchrony and phase relations in network dynamics as a type of pattern, in which space is discretized into finitely many nodes, while time remains continuous. We also describe a variety of applications including animal locomotion, Couette-Taylor flow, flames, the Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction, binocular rivalry, and a nonlinear filter based on anomalous growth rates for the amplitude of periodic oscillations in a feed-forward network.

  19. Reconstruction of symmetric Dirac-Maxwell equations using nonassociative algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalauni, Pushpa; Barata, J. C. A.

    2015-01-01

    In the presence of sources, the usual Maxwell equations are neither symmetric nor invariant with respect to the duality transformation between electric and magnetic fields. Dirac proposed the existence of magnetic monopoles for symmetrizing the Maxwell equations. In the present work, we obtain the fully symmetric Dirac-Maxwell's equations (i.e. with electric and magnetic charges and currents) as a single equation by using 4 × 4 matrix presentation of fields and derivative operators. This matrix representation has been derived with the help of the algebraic properties of quaternions and octonions. Such description gives a compact representation of electric and magnetic counterparts of the field in a single equation.

  20. (M-theory-)Killing spinors on symmetric spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hustler, Noel; Lischewski, Andree

    2015-08-01

    We show how the theory of invariant principal bundle connections for reductive homogeneous spaces can be applied to determine the holonomy of generalised Killing spinor covariant derivatives of the form D = ? + ? in a purely algebraic and algorithmic way, where ? : TM ? ??(TM) is a left-invariant homomorphism. Specialising this to the case of symmetric M-theory backgrounds (i.e., (M, g, F) with (M, g) an eleven-dimensional Lorentzian (locally) symmetric space and F an invariant closed 4-form), we derive several criteria for such a background to preserve some supersymmetry and consequently find all supersymmetric symmetric M-theory backgrounds.

  1. Geometric characteristics of aberrations of plane-symmetric optical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Lijun; Deng Zhiyong

    2009-12-20

    The geometric characteristics of aberrations of plane-symmetric optical systems are studied in detail with a wave-aberration theory. It is dealt with as an extension of the Seidel aberrations to realize a consistent aberration theory from axially symmetric to plane-symmetric systems. The aberration distribution is analyzed with the spot diagram of a ray and an aberration curve. Moreover, the root-mean-square value and the centroid of aberration distribution are discussed. The numerical results are obtained with the focusing optics of a toroidal mirror at grazing incidence.

  2. Polarization-independent characteristics of the metasurfaces with the symmetrical axis’s orientation angle of 45° or 135°

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Guo, Zhongyi; Ran, Lingling; Sun, Yongxuan; Shen, Fei; Li, Yan; Mao, Xiaoqin; Wang, Benyang; Fan, Guanghua; Qu, Shiliang

    2016-03-01

    A series of symmetrical nanoantennas with a symmetrical axis orientation angle of 45° or 135°, which are suitable for both X/Y linear and circular polarizations incidences simultaneously, have been designed and investigated in detail. We have deduced the transmitted matrix of the metasurface structure by rigorous mathematical theory, and found that the essential reason for the polarization-independence characteristics is that there are the same transmitted amplitudes and phases under the incidences of X/Y linear and circular polarization lights due to metasurface structure with the symmetrical axis’s orientation angles of 45° or 135°. Based on the V-shaped, C-shaped, U-shaped and elliptical slit nanoantennas, we have verified the proposed theory fully by numerical simulations. The independence of the incident polarizations is very important for the practical applications and developments of the metasurfaces.

  3. Communication complexity and information complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratov, Denis

    Information complexity enables the use of information-theoretic tools in communication complexity theory. Prior to the results presented in this thesis, information complexity was mainly used for proving lower bounds and direct-sum theorems in the setting of communication complexity. We present three results that demonstrate new connections between information complexity and communication complexity. In the first contribution we thoroughly study the information complexity of the smallest nontrivial two-party function: the AND function. While computing the communication complexity of AND is trivial, computing its exact information complexity presents a major technical challenge. In overcoming this challenge, we reveal that information complexity gives rise to rich geometrical structures. Our analysis of information complexity relies on new analytic techniques and new characterizations of communication protocols. We also uncover a connection of information complexity to the theory of elliptic partial differential equations. Once we compute the exact information complexity of AND, we can compute exact communication complexity of several related functions on n-bit inputs with some additional technical work. Previous combinatorial and algebraic techniques could only prove bounds of the form theta( n). Interestingly, this level of precision is typical in the area of information theory, so our result demonstrates that this meta-property of precise bounds carries over to information complexity and in certain cases even to communication complexity. Our result does not only strengthen the lower bound on communication complexity of disjointness by making it more exact, but it also shows that information complexity provides the exact upper bound on communication complexity. In fact, this result is more general and applies to a whole class of communication problems. In the second contribution, we use self-reduction methods to prove strong lower bounds on the information complexity of two of the most studied functions in the communication complexity literature: Gap Hamming Distance (GHD) and Inner Product mod 2 (IP). In our first result we affirm the conjecture that the information complexity of GHD is linear even under the uniform distribution. This strengthens the O(n) bound shown by Kerenidis et al. (2012) and answers an open problem by Chakrabarti et al. (2012). We also prove that the information complexity of IP is arbitrarily close to the trivial upper bound n as the permitted error tends to zero, again strengthening the O(n) lower bound proved by Braverman and Weinstein (2011). More importantly, our proofs demonstrate that self-reducibility makes the connection between information complexity and communication complexity lower bounds a two-way connection. Whereas numerous results in the past used information complexity techniques to derive new communication complexity lower bounds, we explore a generic way, in which communication complexity lower bounds imply information complexity lower bounds in a black-box manner. In the third contribution we consider the roles that private and public randomness play in the definition of information complexity. In communication complexity, private randomness can be trivially simulated by public randomness. Moreover, the communication cost of simulating public randomness with private randomness is well understood due to Newman's theorem (1991). In information complexity, the roles of public and private randomness are reversed: public randomness can be trivially simulated by private randomness. However, the information cost of simulating private randomness with public randomness is not understood. We show that protocols that use only public randomness admit a rather strong compression. In particular, efficient simulation of private randomness by public randomness would imply a version of a direct sum theorem in the setting of communication complexity. This establishes a yet another connection between the two areas. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  4. Extended modified Korteweg - de Vries equation for internal gravity waves in a symmetric three-layer fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polukhina, Oxana; Kurkin, Andrey; Vladykina, Ekaterina

    2010-05-01

    Three-layer stratification is proved to be a proper approximation of sea water density and background current profiles in some basins in the World Ocean with specific hydrological conditions. Such a medium is interesting from the point of view of internal gravity wave dynamics, because, in the symmetric about mid-depth case (equal thicknesses of the lower and the upper layers, equal small density jumps on the interfaces), it leads to disappearing of quadratic nonlinearity when described in the framework of weakly nonlinear evolutionary models, which are derived through the asymptotic expansion in small parameters of nonlinearity and dispersion. In this situation the nonlinear transformation of the internal wave disturbances, as is customary, is determined by the influence of the next-order - cubic - nonlinear term in asymptotic series, and for three-layer fluid model the cubic nonlinearity coefficient can have either sign depending on the layer depths (in contrast to traditional two-layer approximation, for which cubic nonlinearity is always negative). Appropriate nonlinear evolutionary equation is modified Korteweg - de Vries equation (mKdV). It is well-known integrable equation of KdV-type, providing solitary wave and breather solutions for positive cubic nonlinearity. The property of sign change for cubic nonlinear coefficient in the mKdV for internal gravity waves in symmetric three-layer fluid requires taking into account next-order nonlinear term (or terms), therefore higher-order extensions of mKdV equation are necessary to provide improved description of internal wave processes. In the present study we derive nonlinear evolution equations for both interfaces in symmetric three-layer fluid (under Boussinesq approximation) up to the fourth order in small parameters of nonlinearity (epsilon) and dispersion (?). Applying mKdV-scaling for ratio of these parameters (? = epsilon2) we obtain high-order mKdV equations for interfaces (they have different signs of even-power nonlinear and nonlinear dispersion terms). These equations include additional terms of nonlinearity (fourh and fifth power), nonlinear dispersion and linear dispersion (fifth derivative). Coefficients of these equations are found in the explicit form as functions of medium parameters (layer depths, densities), their signs are analyzed. But the equations derived are too complex for the analysis of the nonlinear wave dynamics, therefore a simplifying asymptotic nonlinear transformation of wavefield is suggested, which reduces these equations to a simpler equation having a form of mKdV equation with additional fourth and fifth power nonlinear terms. But for the particular case of three-layer symmetric fluid fourth power nonlinear correction has zero coefficient, and final equation has only one additional term: fifth power nonlinearity. Its coefficient after the transformation is negative for symmetric three-layer stratification. It is worth to notice that equations for both interfaces are reduced to the same equation, but the asymptotic transformations for the displacements of the interfaces differ by the sign of one term proportional to the square of the displacement amplitude. Thus, the asymptotic transformation introduces an asymmetry of the interfacial displacements in a clear, explicit form in contrast to complex high-order equations. Next, we considered the equation obtained after transformation (we call it 'extended mKdV'), and found its one-soliton solutions for positive cubic nonlinearity. These solitary waves can have either polarity, as well as solitons of mKdV equation, but they have amplitude limit, and while their amplitude grows up to this limit, solitons become wider in much the same manner as the solitons of Gardner equation (extended KdV equation with quadratic and cubic nonlinear terms) in a case of negative cubic nonlinearity (corresponding to internal waves in two-layer fluid). The solitary wave solutions of the improved weakly nonlinear theory are compared to the fully nonlinear solitary-like waves numerically simulated in the framework of Euler equations for slightly smoothed symmetric three-layer fluid with small density jumps. Qualitatively both solutions are in good agreement, but quantitative estimates show that improved weakly nonlinear theory underestimates limiting amplitude of solitary waves for about 30%.

  5. International Workshop on Linear Colliders 2010

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    IWLC2010 International Workshop on Linear Colliders 2010ECFA-CLIC-ILC joint meeting: Monday 18 October - Friday 22 October 2010Venue: CERN and CICG (International Conference Centre Geneva, Switzerland)This year, the International Workshop on Linear Colliders organized by the European Committee for Future Accelerators (ECFA) will study the physics, detectors and accelerator complex of a linear collider covering both CLIC and ILC options.Contact Workshop SecretariatIWLC2010 is hostedby CERN

  6. International Workshop on Linear Colliders 2010

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    IWLC2010 International Workshop on Linear Colliders 2010ECFA-CLIC-ILC joint meeting: Monday 18 October - Friday 22 October 2010Venue: CERN and CICG (International Conference Centre Geneva, Switzerland) This year, the International Workshop on Linear Colliders organized by the European Committee for Future Accelerators (ECFA) will study the physics, detectors and accelerator complex of a linear collider covering both CLIC and ILC options.Contact Workshop Secretariat  IWLC2010 is hosted by CERN

  7. Bound states, scattering states, and resonant states in PT -symmetric open quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garmon, Savannah; Gianfreda, Mariagiovanna; Hatano, Naomichi

    2015-08-01

    We study a simple open quantum system with a PT -symmetric defect potential as a prototype in order to illustrate a number of general features of PT -symmetric open quantum systems; however, the potential itself could be mimicked by a number of PT systems that have been experimentally studied quite recently. One key feature is the resonance in continuum (RIC), which appears in both the discrete spectrum and the scattering spectrum of such systems. The RIC wave function forms a standing wave extending throughout the spatial extent of the system and in this sense represents a resonance between the open environment associated with the leads of our model and the central PT -symmetric potential. We also illustrate that as one deforms the system parameters, the RIC may exit the continuum by splitting into a bound state and a virtual bound state at the band edge, a process which should be experimentally observable. We also study the exceptional points appearing in the discrete spectrum at which two eigenvalues coalesce; we categorize these as either EP2As, at which two real-valued solutions coalesce before becoming complex-valued, and EP2Bs, for which the two solutions are complex on either side of the exceptional point. The EP2As are associated with PT -symmetry breaking; we argue that these are more stable against parameter perturbation than the EP2Bs. We also study complex-valued solutions of the discrete spectrum for which the wave function is nevertheless spatially localized, something that is not allowed in traditional open quantum systems; we illustrate that these may form quasibound states in continuum under some circumstances. We also study the scattering properties of the system, including states that support invisible propagation and some general features of perfect transmission states. We finally use our model as a prototype for the construction of scattering states that satisfy PT -symmetric boundary conditions; while these states do not conserve the traditional probability current, we introduce the PT current which is preserved. The perfect transmission states appear as a special case of the PT -symmetric scattering states.

  8. Symmetric and asymmetric squarylium dyes as noncovalent protein labels: a study by fluorimetry and capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Welder, Frank; Paul, Beverly; Nakazumi, Hiroyuki; Yagi, Shigeyuki; Colyer, Christa L

    2003-08-01

    Noncovalent interactions between two squarylium dyes and various model proteins have been explored. NN127 and SQ-3 are symmetric and asymmetric squarylium dyes, respectively, the fluorescence emissions of which have been shown to be enhanced upon complexation with proteins such as bovine serum albumin (BSA), human serum albumin (HSA), beta-lactoglobulin A, and trypsinogen. Although these dyes are poorly soluble in aqueous solution, they can be dissolved first in methanol followed by dilution with aqueous buffer without precipitation, and are then suitable for use as fluorescent labels in protein determination studies. The nature of interactions between these dyes and proteins was studied using a variety of buffer systems, and it was found that electrostatic interactions are involved but not dominant. Dye/protein stoichiometries in the noncovalent complexes were found to be 1:1 for SQ-3, although various possible stoichiometries were found for NN127 depending upon pH and protein. Association constants on the order of 10(5) and 10(7) were found for noncovalent complexes of SQ-3 and NN127, respectively, with HSA, indicating stronger interactions of the symmetric dye with proteins. Finally, HSA complexes with NN127 were determined by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (CE-LIF). In particular, NN127 shows promise as a reagent capable of fluorescently labeling analyte proteins for analysis by CE-LIF without itself being significantly fluorescent under the aqueous solution conditions studied herein. PMID:12880857

  9. The concept of trajectories in the data analysis of non-axially symmetric nuclear quadrupole interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butz, Tilman

    2010-06-01

    The conventional analysis of non-axially symmetric nuclear quadrupole interaction data requires two adjustable parameters, namely Vzz and the asymmetry parameter ?, and these two parameters are plotted separately versus an external parameter, e.g. temperature. Thus 2N parameters are fitted for N temperature points. In this way, possible interdependencies of electric field gradient tensor components are ignored. The correct strategy for the data analysis would be to analyze the data conventionally, plot the data in the Czjzek-plot, and for a linear trajectory perform a simultaneous fit of all data with N + 2 adjustable parameters (N values of a control parameter plus a scale factor plus the slope) in a second tier. The concept of trajectories can be extended to non-linear trajectories.

  10. Flow-separation patterns on symmetric forebodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keener, Earl R.

    1986-01-01

    Flow-visualization studies of ogival, parabolic, and conical forebodies were made in a comprehensive investigation of the various types of flow patterns. Schlieren, vapor-screen, oil-flow, and sublimation flow-visualization tests were conducted over an angle-of-attack range from 0 deg. to 88 deg., over a Reynolds-number range from 0.3X10(6) to 2.0X10(6) (based on base diameter), and over a Mach number range from 0.1 to 2. The principal effects of angle of attack, Reynolds number, and Mach number on the occurrence of vortices, the position of vortex shedding, the principal surface-flow-separation patterns, the magnitude of surface-flow angles, and the extent of laminar and turbulent flow for symmetric, asymmetric, and wake-like flow-separation regimes are presented. It was found that the two-dimensional cylinder analogy was helpful in a qualitative sense in analyzing both the surface-flow patterns and the external flow field. The oil-flow studies showed three types of primary separation patterns at the higher Reynolds numbers owing to the influence of boundary-layer transition. The effect of angle of attack and Reynolds number is to change the axial location of the onset and extent of the primary transitional and turbulent separation regions. Crossflow inflectional-instability vortices were observed on the windward surface at angles of attack from 5 deg. to 55 deg. Their effect is to promote early transition. At low angles of attack, near 10 deg., an unexpected laminar-separation bubble occurs over the forward half of the forebody. At high angles of attack, at which vortex asymmetry occurs, the results support the proposition that the principal cause of vortex asymmetry is the hydrodynamic instability of the inviscid flow field. On the other hand, boundary-layer asymmetries also occur, especially at transitional Reynolds numbers. The position of asymmetric vortex shedding moves forward with increasing angle of attack and with increasing Reynolds number, and moves rearward with increasing Mach number.

  11. Enhanced Sensitivity of Anti-Symmetrically Structured Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors with Zinc Oxide Intermediate Layers

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Yi-Chen; Huang, Teng-Yi; Chiu, Nan-Fu

    2014-01-01

    We report a novel design wherein high-refractive-index zinc oxide (ZnO) intermediary layers are used in anti-symmetrically structured surface plasmon resonance (SPR) devices to enhance signal quality and improve the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the SPR reflectivity curve. The surface plasmon (SP) modes of the ZnO intermediary layer were excited by irradiating both sides of the Au film, thus inducing a high electric field at the Au/ZnO interface. We demonstrated that an improvement in the ZnO (002) crystal orientation led to a decrease in the FWHM of the SPR reflectivity curves. We optimized the design of ZnO thin films using different parameters and performed analytical comparisons of the ZnO with conventional chromium (Cr) and indium tin oxide (ITO) intermediary layers. The present study is based on application of the Fresnel equation, which provides an explanation and verification for the observed narrow SPR reflectivity curve and optical transmittance spectra exhibited by (ZnO/Au), (Cr/Au), and (ITO/Au) devices. On exposure to ethanol, the anti-symmetrically structured showed a huge electric field at the Au/ZnO interface and a 2-fold decrease in the FWHM value and a 1.3-fold larger shift in angle interrogation and a 4.5-fold high-sensitivity shift in intensity interrogation. The anti-symmetrically structured of ZnO intermediate layers exhibited a wider linearity range and much higher sensitivity. It also exhibited a good linear relationship between the incident angle and ethanol concentration in the tested range. Thus, we demonstrated a novel and simple method for fabricating high-sensitivity, high-resolution SPR biosensors that provide high accuracy and precision over relevant ranges of analyte measurement. PMID:24361929

  12. Amino acid N-acetylation: metabolic elimination of symmetric dimethylarginine as symmetric N(?)-acetyldimethylarginine, determined in human plasma and urine by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Martens-Lobenhoffer, Jens; Bode-Bger, Stefanie M

    2015-01-15

    Symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) is considered as a parameter for renal insufficiency superior to the established creatinine. Its applicability for this purpose may be hampered by the fact that SDMA is not exclusively eliminated via the renal route but is also metabolized. In this work, we present a method for the quantification of the metabolite symmetric N?-acetyldimethylarginine (Ac-SDMA) by LC-MS/MS in human plasma and urine. D6-Ac-SDMA was used as internal standard. After simple protein precipitation and in-line clean up, the analytes were separated on a porous graphitic carbon column. Calibration functions were linear in the ranges of 0.2-80 nM for plasma and 10-4000 nM for urine. The quantification was matrix independent and the precisions and accuracies were better than 8% at all concentration levels. Concentration found in human plasma and urine was 3.51 nM and 558 nM, respectively, with marked inter-individual differences. PMID:25438244

  13. 14 CFR 23.331 - Symmetrical flight conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... inertia loads corresponding to any of the symmetrical flight conditions specified in 23.333 through 23... angular inertia of the airplane in a rational or conservative manner. (c) Mutual influence of...

  14. 14 CFR 23.331 - Symmetrical flight conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... inertia loads corresponding to any of the symmetrical flight conditions specified in 23.333 through 23... angular inertia of the airplane in a rational or conservative manner. (c) Mutual influence of...

  15. A parallel algorithm for the non-symmetric eigenvalue problem

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, J.; Sidani, M. . Dept. of Computer Science Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1991-12-01

    This paper describes a parallel algorithm for computing the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a non-symmetric matrix. The algorithm is based on a divide-and-conquer procedure and uses an iterative refinement technique.

  16. Topological States in Partially-PT -Symmetric Azimuthal Potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V.; Konotop, Vladimir V.; Torner, Lluis

    2015-11-01

    We introduce partially-parity-time (p PT ) -symmetric azimuthal potentials composed from individual PT -symmetric cells located on a ring, where two azimuthal directions are nonequivalent in a sense that in such potential excitations carrying topological dislocations exhibit different dynamics for different directions of energy circulation in the initial field distribution. Such nonconservative ratchetlike structures support rich families of stable vortex solitons in cubic nonlinear media, whose properties depend on the sign of the topological charge due to the nonequivalence of azimuthal directions. In contrast, oppositely charged vortex solitons remain equivalent in similar fully-P T -symmetric potentials. The vortex solitons in the p P T - and P T -symmetric potentials are shown to feature qualitatively different internal current distributions, which are described by different discrete rotation symmetries of the intensity profiles.

  17. 47 CFR 51.711 - Symmetrical reciprocal compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Symmetrical reciprocal compensation. 51.711 Section 51.711 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Reciprocal Compensation for Transport and Termination of...

  18. Symmetric polynomials in information theory: Entropy and subentropy

    SciTech Connect

    Jozsa, Richard; Mitchison, Graeme

    2015-06-15

    Entropy and other fundamental quantities of information theory are customarily expressed and manipulated as functions of probabilities. Here we study the entropy H and subentropy Q as functions of the elementary symmetric polynomials in the probabilities and reveal a series of remarkable properties. Derivatives of all orders are shown to satisfy a complete monotonicity property. H and Q themselves become multivariate Bernstein functions and we derive the density functions of their Levy-Khintchine representations. We also show that H and Q are Pick functions in each symmetric polynomial variable separately. Furthermore, we see that H and the intrinsically quantum informational quantity Q become surprisingly closely related in functional form, suggesting a special significance for the symmetric polynomials in quantum information theory. Using the symmetric polynomials, we also derive a series of further properties of H and Q.

  19. Symmetrical ilial pseudofractures: A complication of chronic renal failure

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, C.N. Jr.

    1982-08-01

    A patient with chronic renal failure and progressive symmetrical ilial pseudofractures (Looser zones, Milkman's syndrome) is presented. The literature is reviewed in light of the findings in this patient, and possible mechanisms of pseudofracture formation are discussed.

  20. Robustness of linear quadratic state feedback designs in the presence of system uncertainty. [application to Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft flare control autopilot design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, R. V.; Toda, M.; Sridhar, B.

    1977-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of expressing the robustness (stability) property of a linear quadratic state feedback (LQSF) design quantitatively in terms of bounds on the perturbations (modeling errors or parameter variations) in the system matrices so that the closed-loop system remains stable. Nonlinear time-varying and linear time-invariant perturbations are considered. The only computation required in obtaining a measure of the robustness of an LQSF design is to determine the eigenvalues of two symmetric matrices determined when solving the algebraic Riccati equation corresponding to the LQSF design problem. Results are applied to a complex dynamic system consisting of the flare control of a STOL aircraft. The design of the flare control is formulated as an LQSF tracking problem.

  1. A possible method for non-Hermitian and Non-PT-symmetric Hamiltonian systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun-Qing; Miao, Yan-Gang; Xue, Zhao

    2014-01-01

    A possible method to investigate non-Hermitian Hamiltonians is suggested through finding a Hermitian operator ?+ and defining the annihilation and creation operators to be ?+ -pseudo-Hermitian adjoint to each other. The operator ?+ represents the ?+ -pseudo-Hermiticity of Hamiltonians. As an example, a non-Hermitian and non-PT-symmetric Hamiltonian with imaginary linear coordinate and linear momentum terms is constructed and analyzed in detail. The operator ?+ is found, based on which, a real spectrum and a positive-definite inner product, together with the probability explanation of wave functions, the orthogonality of eigenstates, and the unitarity of time evolution, are obtained for the non-Hermitian and non-PT-symmetric Hamiltonian. Moreover, this Hamiltonian turns out to be coupled when it is extended to the canonical noncommutative space with noncommutative spatial coordinate operators and noncommutative momentum operators as well. Our method is applicable to the coupled Hamiltonian. Then the first and second order noncommutative corrections of energy levels are calculated, and in particular the reality of energy spectra, the positive-definiteness of inner products, and the related properties (the probability explanation of wave functions, the orthogonality of eigenstates, and the unitarity of time evolution) are found not to be altered by the noncommutativity. PMID:24896084

  2. Implementation of a symmetric boundary integral formulation for cohesive cracks in homogeneous media and at interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Tavara, Luis; Mantic, Vladislav; Salvadori, Alberto; Gray, Leonard J; Paris, Federico

    2009-01-01

    A symmetric boundary integral formulation for cohesive cracks growing in the interior of homogeneous linear elastic isotropic media and/or at interfaces between these media is developed and implemented in a numerical code. The solution of a problem that includes cohesive cracks depends on the cohesive law adopted. In the present work, models based on the concept of free energy density per unit undeformed area are considered. The corresponding constitutive cohesive equations present a softening branch which induces to the problem a potential instability. Thus, the development and implementation of a suitable solution algorithm capable of following the growth of the cohesive zone becomes an important issue. An arc-length control combined with a Newton-Raphson algorithm for iterative solution of nonlinear equations is used. The Boundary Element Method is very attractive for modeling cohesive crack problems as all nonlinearities are located on the boundaries (including the crack boundaries) of linear elastic domains. A Galerkin approximation scheme, applied to a suitable symmetric integral formulation, ensures an easy treatment of cracks in homogeneous media and excellent convergence behavior of the numerical solution. Numerical results for the wedge split test are presented and compared with experimental results available in the literature.

  3. A Possible Method for Non-Hermitian and Non-PT-Symmetric Hamiltonian Systems

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun-Qing; Miao, Yan-Gang; Xue, Zhao

    2014-01-01

    A possible method to investigate non-Hermitian Hamiltonians is suggested through finding a Hermitian operator ?+ and defining the annihilation and creation operators to be ?+ -pseudo-Hermitian adjoint to each other. The operator ?+ represents the ?+ -pseudo-Hermiticity of Hamiltonians. As an example, a non-Hermitian and non-PT-symmetric Hamiltonian with imaginary linear coordinate and linear momentum terms is constructed and analyzed in detail. The operator ?+ is found, based on which, a real spectrum and a positive-definite inner product, together with the probability explanation of wave functions, the orthogonality of eigenstates, and the unitarity of time evolution, are obtained for the non-Hermitian and non-PT-symmetric Hamiltonian. Moreover, this Hamiltonian turns out to be coupled when it is extended to the canonical noncommutative space with noncommutative spatial coordinate operators and noncommutative momentum operators as well. Our method is applicable to the coupled Hamiltonian. Then the first and second order noncommutative corrections of energy levels are calculated, and in particular the reality of energy spectra, the positive-definiteness of inner products, and the related properties (the probability explanation of wave functions, the orthogonality of eigenstates, and the unitarity of time evolution) are found not to be altered by the noncommutativity. PMID:24896084

  4. QUANTUM OPTICS. Universal linear optics.

    PubMed

    Carolan, Jacques; Harrold, Christopher; Sparrow, Chris; Martín-López, Enrique; Russell, Nicholas J; Silverstone, Joshua W; Shadbolt, Peter J; Matsuda, Nobuyuki; Oguma, Manabu; Itoh, Mikitaka; Marshall, Graham D; Thompson, Mark G; Matthews, Jonathan C F; Hashimoto, Toshikazu; O'Brien, Jeremy L; Laing, Anthony

    2015-08-14

    Linear optics underpins fundamental tests of quantum mechanics and quantum technologies. We demonstrate a single reprogrammable optical circuit that is sufficient to implement all possible linear optical protocols up to the size of that circuit. Our six-mode universal system consists of a cascade of 15 Mach-Zehnder interferometers with 30 thermo-optic phase shifters integrated into a single photonic chip that is electrically and optically interfaced for arbitrary setting of all phase shifters, input of up to six photons, and their measurement with a 12-single-photon detector system. We programmed this system to implement heralded quantum logic and entangling gates, boson sampling with verification tests, and six-dimensional complex Hadamards. We implemented 100 Haar random unitaries with an average fidelity of 0.999 ± 0.001. Our system can be rapidly reprogrammed to implement these and any other linear optical protocol, pointing the way to applications across fundamental science and quantum technologies. PMID:26160375

  5. Crossing symmetric potential model of pion-nucleon scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Blankleider, B.; Skawronski, T.; Kvinikhidze, A. N.

    2010-07-27

    A crossing symmetric {pi}N scattering amplitude is constructed through a complete attachment of two external pions to the dressed nucleon propagator of an underlying {pi}N potential model. Our formulation automatically provides expressions also for the crossing symmetric and gauge invariant pion photoproduction and Compton scattering amplitudes. We show that our amplitudes are unitary if they coincide on-shell with the amplitudes obtained by attaching one pion to the dressed {pi}NN vertex of the same potential model.

  6. On projective invariants of spherically symmetric Finsler spaces in Rn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghzadeh, Nasrin; Hesamfar, Maedeh

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we study projective invariants of spherically symmetric Finsler metrics in Rn. We find the necessary and sufficient conditions for the metrics to be Weyl, Douglas and generalized Douglas-Weyl (GDW) types. In particular, we find the necessary and sufficient condition for the metrics to be of scalar flag curvature. Also we show that two classes of GDW and Douglas spherically symmetric Finsler metrics coincide.

  7. Linear dependencies in Weyl-Heisenberg orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Hoan Bui; Blanchfield, Kate; Bengtsson, Ingemar; Appleby, D. M.

    2013-11-01

    Five years ago, Lane Hughston showed that some of the symmetric informationally complete positive operator valued measures (SICs) in dimension 3 coincide with the Hesse configuration (a structure well known to algebraic geometers, which arises from the torsion points of a certain elliptic curve). This connection with elliptic curves is signalled by the presence of linear dependencies among the SIC vectors. Here we look for analogous connections between SICs and algebraic geometry by performing computer searches for linear dependencies in higher dimensional SICs. We prove that linear dependencies will always emerge in Weyl-Heisenberg orbits when the fiducial vector lies in a certain subspace of an order 3 unitary matrix. This includes SICs when the dimension is divisible by 3 or equal to 8 mod 9. We examine the linear dependencies in dimension 6 in detail and show that smaller dimensional SICs are contained within this structure, potentially impacting the SIC existence problem. We extend our results to look for linear dependencies in orbits when the fiducial vector lies in an eigenspace of other elements of the Clifford group that are not order 3. Finally, we align our work with recent studies on representations of the Clifford group.

  8. Robustness of differentiation cascades with symmetric stem cell division

    PubMed Central

    Snchez-Taltavull, Daniel; Alarcn, Toms

    2014-01-01

    Stem cells (SCs) perform the task of maintaining tissue homeostasis by both self-renewal and differentiation. While it has been argued that SCs divide asymmetrically, there is also evidence that SCs undergo symmetric division. Symmetric SC division has been speculated to be key for expanding cell numbers in development and regeneration after injury. However, it might lead to uncontrolled growth and malignancies such as cancer. In order to explore the role of symmetric SC division, we propose a mathematical model of the effect of symmetric SC division on the robustness of a population regulated by a serial differentiation cascade and we show that this may lead to extinction of such population. We examine how the extinction likelihood depends on defining characteristics of the population such as the number of intermediate cell compartments. We show that longer differentiation cascades are more prone to extinction than systems with less intermediate compartments. Furthermore, we have analysed the possibility of mixed symmetric and asymmetric cell division against invasions by mutant invaders in order to find optimal architecture. Our results show that more robust populations are those with unfrequent symmetric behaviour. PMID:24718457

  9. Immunoblot analysis of linear polyubiquitination of NEMO.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Yoshiteru; Fujita, Hiroaki; Nakai, Misa; Iwai, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Stimulation with inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1 activates the canonical NF-κB pathway through the activation of the IKK complex. The mechanism underlying IKK activation has been extensively studied and the involvement of the ubiquitin system has been well documented. We have recently reported that a novel ubiquitin ligase complex, LUBAC is involved in the activation of the IKK complex. LUBAC consists of one catalytic subunit, HOIP and two accessory molecules, HOIL-1L and SHARPIN and activates the IKK complex by conjugating the linear polyubiquitin chains to NEMO (IKKγ), the regulatory subunit of IKK complex. In this chapter, we describe the protocol for the detection of the linear polyubiquitination of NEMO by the immunoblotting using anti-linear ubiquitin antibody. PMID:25736756

  10. Linear Back-Drive Differentials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waydo, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Linear back-drive differentials have been proposed as alternatives to conventional gear differentials for applications in which there is only limited rotational motion (e.g., oscillation). The finite nature of the rotation makes it possible to optimize a linear back-drive differential in ways that would not be possible for gear differentials or other differentials that are required to be capable of unlimited rotation. As a result, relative to gear differentials, linear back-drive differentials could be more compact and less massive, could contain fewer complex parts, and could be less sensitive to variations in the viscosities of lubricants. Linear back-drive differentials would operate according to established principles of power ball screws and linear-motion drives, but would utilize these principles in an innovative way. One major characteristic of such mechanisms that would be exploited in linear back-drive differentials is the possibility of designing them to drive or back-drive with similar efficiency and energy input: in other words, such a mechanism can be designed so that a rotating screw can drive a nut linearly or the linear motion of the nut can cause the screw to rotate. A linear back-drive differential (see figure) would include two collinear shafts connected to two parts that are intended to engage in limited opposing rotations. The linear back-drive differential would also include a nut that would be free to translate along its axis but not to rotate. The inner surface of the nut would be right-hand threaded at one end and left-hand threaded at the opposite end to engage corresponding right- and left-handed threads on the shafts. A rotation and torque introduced into the system via one shaft would drive the nut in linear motion. The nut, in turn, would back-drive the other shaft, creating a reaction torque. Balls would reduce friction, making it possible for the shaft/nut coupling on each side to operate with 90 percent efficiency.

  11. The symmetric quartic map for trajectories of magnetic field lines in elongated divertor tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Morgin; Wadi, Hasina; Ali, Halima; Punjabi, Alkesh

    2009-04-15

    The coordinates of the area-preserving map equations for integration of magnetic field line trajectories in divertor tokamaks can be any coordinates for which a transformation to ({psi}{sub t},{theta},{phi}) coordinates exists [A. Punjabi, H. Ali, T. Evans, and A. Boozer, Phys. Lett. A 364, 140 (2007)]. {psi}{sub t} is toroidal magnetic flux, {theta} is poloidal angle, and {phi} is toroidal angle. This freedom is exploited to construct the symmetric quartic map such that the only parameter that determines magnetic geometry is the elongation of the separatrix surface. The poloidal flux inside the separatrix, the safety factor as a function of normalized minor radius, and the magnetic perturbation from the symplectic discretization are all held constant, and only the elongation is {kappa} varied. The width of stochastic layer, the area, and the fractal dimension of the magnetic footprint and the average radial diffusion coefficient of magnetic field lines from the stochastic layer; and how these quantities scale with {kappa} is calculated. The symmetric quartic map gives the correct scalings which are consistent with the scalings of coordinates with {kappa}. The effects of m=1, n={+-}1 internal perturbation with the amplitude that is expected to occur in tokamaks are calculated by adding a term [H. Ali, A. Punjabi, A. H. Boozer, and T. Evans, Phys. Plasmas 11, 1908 (2004)] to the symmetric quartic map. In this case, the width of stochastic layer scales as 0.35 power of {kappa}. The area of the footprint is roughly constant. The average radial diffusion coefficient of field lines near the X-point scales linearly with {kappa}. The low mn perturbation changes the quasisymmetric structure of the footprint, and reorganizes it into a single, large scale, asymmetric structure. The symmetric quartic map is combined with the dipole map [A. Punjabi, H. Ali, and A. H. Boozer, Phys. Plasmas 10, 3992 (2003)] to calculate the effects of magnetic perturbation from a current carrying coil. The coil position and coil current coil are constant. The dipole perturbation enhances the magnetic shear. The width of the stochastic layer scales exponentially with {kappa}. The area of the footprint decreases as the {kappa} increases. The radial diffusion coefficient of field lines scales exponentially with {kappa}. The dipole perturbation changes the topology of the footprint. It breaks up the toroidally spiraling footprint into a number of separate asymmetric toroidal strips. Practical applications of the symmetric quartic map to elongated divertor tokamak plasmas are suggested.

  12. Pairing in 4-component fermion systems: The bulk limit of SU(4)-symmetric Hamiltonians

    SciTech Connect

    Bertsch, G.F.; Dukelsky, J.; Errea, B.; Esebbag, C.

    2010-07-15

    Fermion systems with more than two components can exhibit pairing condensates of a much more complex structure than the well-known single BCS condensate of spin-up and spin-down fermions. In the framework of the exactly solvable SO(8) Richardson-Gaudin (RG) model with SU(4)-symmetric Hamiltonians, we show that the BCS approximation remains valid in the thermodynamic limit of large systems for describing the ground-state energy and the canonical and quasiparticle excitation gaps. Correlations beyond BCS pairing give rise to a spectrum of collective excitations, but these do not affect the bulk energy and quasiparticle gaps.

  13. Energy Distribution for a Power Model of the Plane Symmetric Spacetime in f(R) Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morteza, Yavari

    2013-09-01

    The study of the energy localization in f(R) theories of gravity has attracted much interest in recent years. In this paper, the vacuum solutions of the modified field equations for a power model of plane symmetric metric are studied in metric f(R) gravity with the assumption of constant Ricci scalar. Next, we determine the energy-momentum complexes in f(R) theories of gravity for this spacetime for some important models. We also show that these models satisfy the stability and constant curvature conditions.

  14. Families of Particles with Different Masses in PT-Symmetric Quantum Field Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, Carl M.; Klevansky, S. P.

    2010-07-16

    An elementary field-theoretic mechanism is proposed that allows one Lagrangian to describe a family of particles having different masses but otherwise similar physical properties. The mechanism relies on the observation that the Dyson-Schwinger equations derived from a Lagrangian can have many different but equally valid solutions. Nonunique solutions to the Dyson-Schwinger equations arise when the functional integral for the Green's functions of the quantum field theory converges in different pairs of Stokes' wedges in complex-field space, and the solutions are physically viable if the pairs of Stokes' wedges are PT symmetric.

  15. A linear programming manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuey, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Computer solutions of linear programming problems are outlined. Information covers vector spaces, convex sets, and matrix algebra elements for solving simultaneous linear equations. Dual problems, reduced cost analysis, ranges, and error analysis are illustrated.

  16. Powerful Electromechanical Linear Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowan, John R.; Myers, William N.

    1994-01-01

    Powerful electromechanical linear actuator designed to replace hydraulic actuator. Cleaner, simpler, and needs less maintenance. Features rotary-to-linear-motion converter with antibacklash gearing and position feedback via shaft-angle resolvers, which measure rotary motion.

  17. Electrothermal linear actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derr, L. J.; Tobias, R. A.

    1969-01-01

    Converting electric power into powerful linear thrust without generation of magnetic fields is accomplished with an electrothermal linear actuator. When treated by an energized filament, a stack of bimetallic washers expands and drives the end of the shaft upward.

  18. A multi-level method for sparse linear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Shapira, Y.

    1997-09-01

    A multi-level method for the solution of sparse linear systems is introduced. The definition of the method is based on data from the coefficient matrix alone. An upper bound for the condition number is available for certain symmetric positive definite (SPD) problems. Numerical experiments confirm the analysis and illustrate the efficiency of the method for diffusion problems with discontinuous coefficients with discontinuities which are not aligned with the coarse meshes.

  19. All-optical amplification in metallic subwavelength linear waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomeriki, Ramaz; Leon, Jrme

    2013-05-01

    The proposed all-optical amplification scenario is based on the properties of light propagation in two coupled subwavelength metallic slab waveguides where, for a particular choice of waveguide parameters, two eigenmodes coexist: propagating (symmetric) and nonpropagating (antisymmetric). For such a setup incident beams realize boundary conditions for forming a stationary state as a superposition of the mentioned eigenmodes. It is shown both analytically and numerically that the amplification rate in this completely linear mechanism diverges for small signal values.

  20. Linear-Algebra Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, C. L.; Krogh, F. T.; Gold, S. S.; Kincaid, D. R.; Sullivan, J.; Williams, E.; Hanson, R. J.; Haskell, K.; Dongarra, J.; Moler, C. B.

    1982-01-01

    The Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS) library is a collection of 38 FORTRAN-callable routines for performing basic operations of numerical linear algebra. BLAS library is portable and efficient source of basic operations for designers of programs involving linear algebriac computations. BLAS library is supplied in portable FORTRAN and Assembler code versions for IBM 370, UNIVAC 1100 and CDC 6000 series computers.