These are representative sample records from related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at

Wide-Awake Wrist Arthroscopy and Open TFCC Repair  

PubMed Central

The wide-awake approach to hand surgery entails the use of local infiltration anesthesia using lidocaine with epinephrine and no tourniquet. The technique provides practitioners with an option to perform advanced hand surgical care in an ambulatory setting, without the need for general or regional anesthetics. We present our results using wide-awake approach in wrist surgery, both open and arthroscopic. Between June and August 2011, the wide-awake approach was used in nine elective wrist surgery cases; three arthroscopic procedures, four open triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) repairs, and two combined arthroscopy/open surgery (eight men/one woman). The arthroscopic patients were anesthetized using dorsal infiltration of lidocaine with epinephrine (20?mL) with an additional intra-articular 5?mL injection 30 minutes before surgery. The open surgery patients received 40?mL of lidocaine with epinephrine around the ulnar aspect of the forearm, from 8-cm proximal to 3-cm distal to the distal radioulnar joint. Standard diagnostic radio- and midcarpal arthroscopies were performed, where one patient had a loose body removed and two patients underwent TFCC debridements due to central TFCC tears. The six open cases were all due to TFCC foveal disruptions, which were reinserted using osteosutures in the distal ulna. Following placement of the ligament sutures, a preliminary knot allowed active and passive motion testing of pronosupination, to determine the adequate amount of tension in the ligaments. The wide-awake approach to wrist surgery is a plausible and reliable technique that eliminates the need for general anesthesia, removes the need of a tourniquet, and provides a cost-efficient and safe approach to wrist surgery. The ability to control ligament reconstructions using active motion may additionally enhance the rehabilitation of these patients, both through early proprioceptive awareness and adequate tensioning of soft tissues. PMID:23904980

Hagert, Elisabet; Lalonde, Donald H.



[Pathology of wrist ligaments. 32 lesions of the carpal triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC). Prognostic significance of associated luno-triquetral lesions].  


Trauma of the wrist is often responsible for multiple ligament injuries. We wanted to know if the association of a luno-triquetral ligament lesion and a triangular fibrocartilage disc lesion has a poor prognosis. We reviewed 32 patients with a traumatic injury of the triangular ligament, with a mean age of 35 years, and 32 months of follow up. The functional scores used were the Modified Mayo Wrist score, the Quick DASH score, and the Herzberg score. Patients were classified according to the severity of luno-triquetral lesions, in conformity with the Geissler's classification. Ten patients had a healthy ligament, 11 a stable lesion stage 1 and 11 an unstable lesion stage 2, 3 or 4. The joint mobility averages were 59.5° in flexion, 64.2° in extension, a pronation of 71.3°, a supination of 74.1°, an ulnar inclination of 33.8° and a radial inclination of 16.8°. The Modified Mayo Wrist score average was 75/100, the Herzberg score average was 81.5/100 and the average of the Quick DASH 8/100. The patients were all very satisfied or satisfied with their intervention. There was no statistically significant difference between the three groups studied regarding mobility and functional scores. In this study, an associated luno-triquetral ligament injury does not seem to worsen the functional outcome after surgery, provided appropriate treatment had been performed. However, a larger patient sample is needed to verify these findings. PMID:23182183

Gaumet, G; Fontes, D; Wavreille, G; Limousin, M



Wrist arthroscopy for the treatment of ligament and triangular fibrocartilage complex injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of arthroscopy was evaluated in 47 patients who were treated for suspected triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) tears, scapholunate (SL) tears, and\\/or lunotriquetral (LT) tears. Wrist arthroscopy was performed using traction and standard portals. Any TFCC tear found was debrided to a stable rim. SL and LT tears were debrided to bleeding bone. The range of follow-up was 1.5

JG Westkaemper; G Mitsionis; PN Giannakopoulos; DG Sotereanos



Another light in the dark: review of a new method for the arthroscopic repair of triangular fibrocartilage complex.  


The triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) is an anatomically and biomechanically important structure. Repair of radial-sided TFCC tear has previously been challenging. We designed a new method of radial-sided TFCC tear repair and found that it was also applicable for ulnar-sided TFCC tear repair. From October 2006 to December 2010, 10 patients underwent this operation and were reviewed: 9 men and 1 woman, with a mean age of 33.9 years. Average postoperative follow-up was 8 months. We graded results according to the Mayo modified wrist score. We rated 2 of the 10 patients (20%) as "excellent," 3 (30%) as "good," and 5 (50%) as "fair." The 5 patients who were rated as "fair" returned to regular jobs or had restricted employment. Based on this small sample, we recommend that this technique be considered an alternative method for TFCC repair. PMID:22624787

Tang, Chris Y K; Fung, B; Rebecca, Chan; Lung, C P



TADIXS ocean network plain. A proposal for the FCC-to-TFCC satellite linkage via TADIXS for each FCC area of operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to develop an ocean network plan to show (1) the Tactical Data Information Exchange System (TADIXS) ocean coverage assigned to each Fleet Command Center (FCC) and (2) the communications concepts required to assure FCC-to-TFCC linkage throughout the ocean area responsibility of each FCC. A network plan was developed that allows FCC-TFCC communication for all

J. L. Dodd; C. T. Ogata; W. J. Pomper



Revision Wrist Arthroscopy after Failed Primary Arthroscopic Treatment  

PubMed Central

Background?The etiologies and outcomes of cases of failed therapeutic wrist arthroscopy have not been well-described to date. Purpose?The purposes of this study were to identify common preventable patterns of failure in wrist arthroscopy and to report outcomes of a series of revision arthroscopy cases. Patients and Methods?Retrospective review of 237 wrist arthroscopies revealed 21 patients with a prior arthroscopy for the same symptoms, of which 16 were assessed by questionnaires and physical exam for this study. Results?Six of sixteen patients (38%) had unrecognized dynamic ulnar impaction after débridement of triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) tears, which resolved with arthroscopic wafer resection. Five (31%) had persistent distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) instability after initial treatment of TFCC tears, requiring arthroscopic repair at revision. Four (25%) experienced diffuse dorsal wrist pain initially diagnosed as TFCC tears, but dynamic scapholunate ligament injuries were found and addressed with radiofrequency (RF) shrinkage at reoperation. Two (13%) required further resection of the radial styloid, after initial débridement was insufficient to correct radioscaphoid impingement. At a mean of 4.8 years after repeat arthroscopy (range, 1.5–13.4 years), this cohort had significant improvements in pain and satisfaction with outcomes after revision arthroscopy. Conclusions?The most common indications for repeat wrist arthroscopy were ligamentous instability (of the DRUJ or scapholunate ligament) and osteoarthritis (from dynamic ulnar impaction or radioscaphoid impingement). Although revision wrist arthroscopy may yield acceptable outcomes, careful assessment of stability and cartilage wear at index procedure is crucial. Level of Evidence:?Level IV Therapeutic. PMID:24533243

Jang, Eugene; Danoff, Jonathan R.; Rajfer, Rebecca A.; Rosenwasser, Melvin P.



A Comparison of Ulnar Shortening Osteotomy Alone Versus Combined Arthroscopic Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex Debridement and Ulnar Shortening Osteotomy for Ulnar Impaction Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background This study compared the results of patients treated for ulnar impaction syndrome using an ulnar shortening osteotomy (USO) alone with those treated with combined arthroscopic debridement and USO. Methods The results of 27 wrists were reviewed retrospectively. They were divided into three groups: group A (USO alone, 10 cases), group B (combined arthroscopic debridement and USO, 9 cases), and group C (arthroscopic triangular fibrocartilage complex [TFCC] debridement alone, 8 cases). The wrist function was evaluated using the modified Mayo wrist score, disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) score and Chun and Palmer grading system. Results The modified Mayo wrist score in groups A, B, and C was 74.5 ± 8.9, 73.9 ± 11.6, and 61.3 ± 10.2, respectively (p < 0.05). The DASH score in groups A, B, and C was 15.6 ± 11.8, 19.3 ± 11.9, and 33.2 ± 8.5, respectively (p < 0.05). The average Chun and Palmer grading score in groups A and B was 85.7 ± 8.9 and 84.7 ± 6.7, respectively. The difference in the Mayo wrist score, DASH score and Chun and Palmer grading score between group A and B was not significant (p > 0.05). Conclusions Both USO alone and combined arthroscopic TFCC debridement with USO improved the wrist function and reduced the level of pain in the patients treated for ulnar impaction syndrome. USO alone may be the preferred method of treatment in patients if the torn flap of TFCC is not unstable. PMID:21909465

Song, Hyun Seok



Ulnar-sided wrist pain. II. Clinical imaging and treatment  

PubMed Central

Pain at the ulnar aspect of the wrist is a diagnostic challenge for hand surgeons and radiologists due to the small and complex anatomical structures involved. In this article, imaging modalities including radiography, arthrography, ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), CT arthrography, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and MR arthrography are compared with regard to differential diagnosis. Clinical imaging findings are reviewed for a more comprehensive understanding of this disorder. Treatments for the common diseases that cause the ulnar-sided wrist pain including extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) tendonitis, flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) tendonitis, pisotriquetral arthritis, triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) lesions, ulnar impaction, lunotriquetral (LT) instability, and distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) instability are reviewed. PMID:20012039

Watanabe, Atsuya; Souza, Felipe; Vezeridis, Peter S.; Blazar, Philip



Neurosurgical treatment of tuberous sclerosis complex lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominantly inherited syndrome. Renal disease is the main cause of death.\\u000a Brain disorders are the origin of more frequent and severe problems, such as tumors, epilepsy, and mental retardation. Participation\\u000a of neurosurgeons in the study and especially in the treatment of TSC patients is often required.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Two types of pathological conditions

Ignacio Pascual-Castroviejo



The beauty of stability: distal radioulnar joint stability in arthroscopic triangular fibrocartilage complex repair.  


The triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) has an important role in the stability of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) stability. We designed a new method of TFCC tear repair that has satisfactory post-operative DRUJ stability. From May 2004 to August 2010, 14 patients who underwent this operation were reviewed. The average post-operative follow-up period was 8.2 months; 66.7% of the patients with TFCC tear in sigmoid notch had clinical DRUJ instability, while only 50% of tear in fovea and 16.7% of tear in base of ulnar styloid had clinical DRUJ instability. Transosseous suture via inside-outside technique was used for repair. At the final follow-up, all 14 patients have soft end point with < 5 mm translations of the DRUJ shown by the stress test. Based on this small sample with satisfactory outcome assessed by the Mayo modified wrist score and DRUJ stability, we recommend TFCC tear in sigmoid notch, which has a higher chance of DRUJ instability, to be repaired by transosseous suture. PMID:23413845

Tang, Chris; Fung, Boris; Chan, Rebecca; Fok, Margaret



[Use of antiseptic dekasan in complex treatment of peritonitis].  


Experience in treatment of 91 patients with peritonitis on various genesis using antiseptic Dekasan are presented. A marked clinical efficacy compared with that of other antiseptics in the complex treatment of peritonitis was noted. PMID:24923145

Nazirov, F N; Aripova, N U; Makhkamova, M N; Dzhamalov, S I; Pulatov, M M; Magzumov, I Kh; Isroilov, B N



Peripheral tears of triangular fibrocartilage complex: results of primary repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 16 patients with ulnar wrist pain, we performed primary arthroscopic or open repair of the peripheral rim tears of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) (14 ulnar, 4 volar, and 3 radial tears). The wrist function was assessed before and 1 year after the repair using the Mayo-modified wrist score. The average pain score improved from 9.1NJ.0 to 21.2Lj.5, the

Chen-Hsi Chou; Tu-Sheng Lee




Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Many water streams, both wastewater effluents and drinking8 water sources, contain pollutants that cannot be removed or destroyed\\u000a by conventional physical or biological treatment processes. In such cases it is necessary to seek alternatives. One approach\\u000a is to destroy the pollutant by application of a strong oxidizing agent. Chlorine is one candidate reagent, but it can produce\\u000a undesirable reaction products,



The Role of Syntactic Complexity in Treatment of Sentence Deficits in Agrammatic Aphasia: The Complexity Account of Treatment Efficacy (CATE)  

PubMed Central

This experiment examined the hypothesis that training production of syntactically complex sentences results in generalization to less complex sentences that have processes in common with treated structures. Using a single subject experimental design, 4 individuals with agrammatic aphasia were trained to comprehend and produce filler-gap sentences with wh-movement, including, from least to most complex, object-extracted who-questions, object clefts, and sentences with object-relative clausal embedding. Two participants received treatment first on the least complex structure (who-questions), and 2 received treatment first on the most complex form (object-relative constructions), while untrained sentences and narrative language samples were tested for generalization. When generalization did not occur across structures, each was successively entered into treatment. Results showed no generalization across sentence types when who-questions were trained; however, as predicted, object-relative training resulted in robust generalization to both object clefts and who-questions. These findings support those derived from previous work, indicating not only that generalization occurs across structures that are linguistically related, but also that generalization is enhanced when the direction of treatment is from more complex to less complex constructions. This latter finding supports the authors' newly coined “complexity account of treatment efficacy” (CATE). PMID:14696988

Shapiro, Lewis P.; Kiran, Swathi; Sobecks, Jana



Treatment and Generalization of Complex Sentence Production in Agrammatism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study, with five adults diagnosed with Broca's aphasia with agrammatism, evaluated the acquisition and generalization of complex-sentence production using Linguistic Specific Treatment (LST) and the utility of syntactic theory in evaluating treatment effects. The study's findings support the use of LST, which applies syntactic theory to…

Ballard, Kirrie J.; Thompson, Cynthia K.



Aesthetic treatment considerations for the eyebrows and periorbital complex.  


The periorbital complex is a critical cosmetic unit. Treatments for this region range from topical prescriptions to enhance the brow hair to topical cosmeceuticals that improve the tone and texture of the skin. Lasers, radiofrequency, botulinum toxins, fillers, and a host of other treatments are used to treat the periorbital region. Judicious use of these treatments, alone or in combination, can greatly alter the appearance of the region. However, adverse events may also be associated with these treatments, and the clinician and patients need to consider both the risks and the benefits of treatment prior to embarking upon a regimen. PMID:24385127

Beer, Kenneth R; Bayers, Stephanie; Beer, Jacob



76 FR 49491 - Medicare Program; Section 3113: The Treatment of Certain Complex Diagnostic Laboratory Tests...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Section 3113: The Treatment of Certain Complex Diagnostic Laboratory Tests Demonstration...temporary code under the Treatment of Certain Complex Diagnostic Laboratory Tests Demonstration...participate in the Treatment of Certain Complex Diagnostic Laboratory Tests...



Treatment of refractory complex partial seizures: role of vigabatrin  

PubMed Central

Vigabatrin (VGB) is an antiepileptic drug that was designed to inhibit GABA-transaminase, and increase levels of ?-amino-butyric acid (GABA), a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. VGB has demonstrated efficacy as an adjunctive antiepileptic drug for refractory complex partial seizures (CPS) and for infantile spasms (IS). This review focuses on its use for complex partial seizures. Although VGB is well tolerated, there have been significant safety concerns about intramyelinic edema and visual field defects. VGB is associated with a risk of developing bilateral concentric visual field defects. Therefore, the use of VGB for complex partial seizures should be limited to those patients with seizures refractory to other treatments. Patients must have baseline and follow-up monitoring of visual fields, early assessment of its efficacy, and ongoing evaluation of the benefits and risks of VGB therapy. PMID:19851518

Waterhouse, Elizabeth J; Mims, Kimberly N; Gowda, Soundarya N



Treatment of bipolar disorder: a complex treatment for a multi-faceted disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Manic-depression or bipolar disorder (BD) is a multi-faceted illness with an inevitably complex treatment. Methods This article summarizes the current status of our knowledge and practice of its treatment. Results It is widely accepted that lithium is moderately useful during all phases of bipolar illness and it might possess a specific effectiveness on suicidal prevention. Both first and second generation antipsychotics are widely used and the FDA has approved olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine, ziprasidone and aripiprazole for the treatment of acute mania. These could also be useful in the treatment of bipolar depression, but only limited data exists so far to support the use of quetiapine monotherapy or the olanzapine-fluoxetine combination. Some, but not all, anticonvulsants possess a broad spectrum of effectiveness, including mixed dysphoric and rapid-cycling forms. Lamotrigine may be effective in the treatment of depression but not mania. Antidepressant use is controversial. Guidelines suggest their cautious use in combination with an antimanic agent, because they are supposed to induce switching to mania or hypomania, mixed episodes and rapid cycling. Conclusion The first-line psychosocial intervention in BD is psychoeducation, followed by cognitive-behavioral therapy. Other treatment options include Electroconvulsive therapy and transcranial magnetic stimulation. There is a gap between the evidence base, which comes mostly from monotherapy trials, and clinical practice, where complex treatment regimens are the rule. PMID:17925035

Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Vieta, Eduard; Siamouli, Melina; Valenti, Marc; Magiria, Stamatia; Oral, Timucin; Fresno, David; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; Kaprinis, George S



Potential for treatment of severe autism in tuberous sclerosis complex  

PubMed Central

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved two mechanism-based treatments for tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)-everolimus and vigabatrin. However, these treatments have not been systematically studied in individuals with TSC and severe autism. The aim of this review is to identify the clinical features of severe autism in TSC, applicable preclinical models, and potential barriers that may warrant strategic planning in the design phase of clinical trial development. A comprehensive search strategy was formed and searched across PubMed, Embase and SCOPUS from their inception to 2/21/12, 3/16/12, and 3/12/12 respectively. After the final search date, relevant, updated articles were selected from PubMed abstracts generated electronically and emailed daily from PubMed. The references of selected articles were searched, and relevant articles were selected. A search of was completed using the search term “TSC” and “tuberous sclerosis complex”. Autism has been reported in as many as 60% of individuals with TSC; however, review of the literature revealed few data to support clear classification of the severity of autism in TSC. Variability was identified in the diagnostic approach, assessment of cognition, and functional outcome among the reviewed studies and case reports. Objective outcome measures were not used in many early studies; however, diffusion tensor imaging of white matter, neurophysiologic variability in infantile spasms, and cortical tuber subcategories were examined in recent studies and may be useful for objective classification of TSC in future studies. Mechanism-based treatments for TSC are currently available. However, this literature review revealed two potential barriers to successful design and implementation of clinical trials in individuals with severe autism-an unclear definition of the population and lack of validated outcome measures. Recent studies of objective outcome measures in TSC and further study of applicable preclinical models present an opportunity to overcome these barriers. PMID:25254170

Gipson, Tanjala T; Gerner, Gwendolyn; Wilson, Mary Ann; Blue, Mary E; Johnston, Michael V



[Sanation of biliary system using antiseptic decasan in complex treatment of cholangitis].  


Experience of treatment of 17 patients, suffering cholangitis of various genesis, using antiseptic Decasan, is presented. Clinical efficacy of the preparation in complex treatment of cholangitis, confirmed by results of the bile bacteriological investigation, was noted. PMID:24923115

Aripova, N U; Magzumov, I Kh



Modern Palliative Radiation Treatment: Do Complexity and Workload Contribute to Medical Errors?  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To examine whether treatment workload and complexity associated with palliative radiation therapy contribute to medical errors. Methods and Materials: In the setting of a large academic health sciences center, patient scheduling and record and verification systems were used to identify patients starting radiation therapy. All records of radiation treatment courses delivered during a 3-month period were retrieved and divided into radical and palliative intent. 'Same day consultation, planning and treatment' was used as a proxy for workload and 'previous treatment' and 'multiple sites' as surrogates for complexity. In addition, all planning and treatment discrepancies (errors and 'near-misses') recorded during the same time frame were reviewed and analyzed. Results: There were 365 new patients treated with 485 courses of palliative radiation therapy. Of those patients, 128 (35%) were same-day consultation, simulation, and treatment patients; 166 (45%) patients had previous treatment; and 94 (26%) patients had treatment to multiple sites. Four near-misses and 4 errors occurred during the audit period, giving an error per course rate of 0.82%. In comparison, there were 10 near-misses and 5 errors associated with 1100 courses of radical treatment during the audit period. This translated into an error rate of 0.45% per course. An association was found between workload and complexity and increased palliative therapy error rates. Conclusions: Increased complexity and workload may have an impact on palliative radiation treatment discrepancies. This information may help guide the necessary recommendations for process improvement for patients who require palliative radiation therapy.

D'Souza, Neil, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada) [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Holden, Lori [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada) [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Robson, Sheila [Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Mah, Kathy; Di Prospero, Lisa; Wong, C. Shun; Chow, Edward; Spayne, Jacqueline [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada) [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)



[Use of decamethoxine in the complex treatment of chronic bronchitis].  


Seventy-two patients with chronic bronchitis were examined and divided into 3 groups. Group I consisted of patients with chronic catarrhal bronchitis (CCB) group II of those with chronic purulent bronchitis (CPB), group III of subjects with bronchitis associated with purulent destructive pulmonary diseases. All the patients received combined treatment with decamethoxin as an antibacterial modality. It was found that decamethoxin promotes elimination of the infection of the bronchial secretion in 60% of chronic bronchitis suffers, the incidence of microorganisms resistent to several antibiotics reduced 2-fold. Local use of decamethoxin as an antibacterial and antiinflammatory drug in multimodality treatment of chronic purulent bronchitis proved highly effective. PMID:2335954

Iukhimets, V A; Pilipchuk, V N



Boundary treatments for 2D elliptic mesh generation in complex geometries  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This paper presents a boundary treatment method for 2D elliptic mesh generation in complex geometries. Corresponding to Neumann- Dirichlet boundary conditions (sliding boundary conditions), the proposed method aims at achieving orthogonal and smooth nodal distribution along irregular boundaries. In ...


Comparison of Chemical Composition of Complex Disinfection Byproduct (DBP) Mixtures Produced by Different Treatment Methods - slides  

EPA Science Inventory

Analyses of the chemical composition of complex DBP mixtures, produced by different drinking water treatment processes, are essential to generate toxicity data required for assessing their risks to humans. For mixture risk assessments, whole mixture toxicology studies generally a...


Comparison of Chemical Composition of Complex Disinfection Byproduct (DBP) Mixtures Produced by Different Treatment Methods  

EPA Science Inventory

Analyses of the chemical composition of complex DBP mixtures, produced by different drinking water treatment processes, are essential to generate toxicity data required for assessing their risks to humans. For mixture risk assessments, whole mixture toxicology studies generally a...


Manipulative assessment and treatment of the shoulder complex: case reports  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To describe a unique method of evaluation and a conservative management plan for patients with shoulder dysfunction of mechanical origin. Possible causes for this clinical presentation and a brief review of the literature are offered. Clinical Features In the 3 cases described here, symptoms included acute shoulder pain, limitation of movement, positive orthopedic tests, palpable tenderness, muscle spasm and muscle weakness. The 3 cases all resulted in differing diagnoses. Intervention and Outcome Following the use of a proposed joint dysfunction isolation test, thrusting forms of manual adjusting procedures, electrical modalities and soft tissue therapy were applied. Three cases representing different common shoulder problems (an acute episode of a chronic problem, a progressive problem resulting in capsulitis, and a occult problem associated with a motor vehicle accident) responded favorably to treatment. Conclusions There is the need for a non-surgical, conservative approach to treatment of shoulder problems before considering the more aggressive treatment approaches that carry greater iatrogenic risks. The patients’ signs and symptoms responded to a unique method of evaluation and manipulative therapy when other approaches had failed. The risk/benefit ratio suggests that conservative care be considered a potential option for similar conditions. PMID:19674612

Donahue, Thomas; Bergmann, Thomas; Donahue, Sara; Dody, Michael



Effective Treatment of Complex Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Early Attachment Trauma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on and disagreements regarding the appropriate treatments for various types of traumas have existed throughout the history of psychotherapy. While approaches have differed over the years, current research suggests that prolonged exposure therapy, long considered the most efficacious treatment for single incident trauma, may be at best ineffectual for treating the condition known as Complex Post Traumatic Stress Disorder,

Emily R Murphrey



Complex regional pain syndrome: which treatments show promise?  


Treatments for CRPS type 1 supported by evidence of efficacy and little likelihood for harm are: topical DMSO cream (B), IV bisphosphonates (A) and limited courses of oral corticosteroids (B). Despite some contradictory evidence, physical therapy and calcitonin (intranasal or intramuscular) are likely to benefit patients with CRPS type 1 (B). Due to modest benefits and the invasiveness of the therapies, epidural clonidine injection, intravenous regional sympathetic block with bretylium and spinal cord stimulation should be offered only after careful counseling (B). Therapies to avoid due to lack of efficacy, lack of evidence, or a high likelihood of adverse outcomes are IV regional sympathetic blocks with anything but bretylium, sympathetic ganglion blocks with local anesthetics, systemic IV sympathetic inhibition, acupuncture, and sympathectomy (B). PMID:16009087

Quisel, Anna; Gill, James M; Witherell, Peter



Quantification of beam complexity in intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatment plans  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Excessive complexity in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans increases the dose uncertainty, prolongs the treatment time, and increases the susceptibility to changes in patient or target geometry. To date, the tools for quantitative assessment of IMRT beam complexity are still lacking. In this study, The authors have sought to develop metrics to characterize different aspects of beam complexity and investigate the beam complexity for IMRT plans of different disease sites. Methods: The authors evaluated the beam complexity scores for 65 step-and-shoot IMRT plans from three sites (prostate, head and neck, and spine) and 26 volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans for the prostate. On the basis of the beam apertures and monitor unit weights of all segments, the authors calculated the mean aperture area, extent of aperture shape irregularity, and degree of beam modulation for each beam. Then the beam complexity values were averaged to obtain the complexity metrics of the IMRT plans. The authors studied the correlation between the beam complexity metrics and the quality assurance (QA) results. Finally, the effects of treatment planning parameters on beam complexity were studied. Results: The beam complexity scores were not uniform among the prostate IMRT beams from different gantry angles. The lateral beams had larger monitor units and smaller shape irregularity, while the anterior-posterior beams had larger modulation values. On average, the prostate IMRT plans had the smallest aperture irregularity, beam modulation, and normalized monitor units; the head and neck IMRT plans had large beam irregularity and beam modulation; and the spine stereotactic radiation therapy plans often had small beam apertures, which may have been associated with the relatively large discrepancies between planned and QA measured doses. There were weak correlations between the beam complexity scores and the measured dose errors. The prostate VMAT beams showed greater complexity than the prostate step-and-shoot IMRT beams. In the treatment planning process, the beam complexity increased as the minimum segment area decreased and as the number of optimization iterations and the maximum number of segments increased. Conclusions: The proposed metrics were effective in characterizing the beam complexity of different disease sites and for different treatment modalities. Efforts should be made to reduce the unnecessary complexity of IMRT beams to minimize the radiation dose uncertainties.

Du, Weiliang, E-mail:; Cho, Sang Hyun; Zhang, Xiaodong; Kudchadker, Rajat J. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Hoffman, Karen E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)



Retroperitoneal laparoscopic technique in treatment of complex renal stones: 75 cases  

PubMed Central

Background In most hospitals, several options for the management of renal stones are available: shockwave lithotripsy, endourologic treatment, or surgery. Choice of treatment is based on the anatomic characteristics of the patient, and the location and size of the stones. In this study we assessed a retroperitoneal laparoscopic technique for treatment of complex renal stones. Methods Seventy-five patients, including 53 men and 22 women with a mean age of 47.8 years (range 18–74 y), underwent retroperitoneal laparoscopy for the treatment of complex renal stones between July 2006 and November 2012 in our hospital. Results The retroperitoneal laparoscopic procedures for treatment of complex renal stones were completely successful in 73 cases, while 2 cases converted to open surgery. The operative time was 85–190 min with a mean of 96 min. The estimated blood lost was 20–400 mL with a mean of 80 mL. After the operation 7 patients experienced urinary leakage. Ultrasonography, x-ray of the kidney, ureter and bladder, and intravenous urography were reviewed at post-procedural follow-up at 6–82 months. No hydronephrosis aggravation was found, and there was no calculus recurrence. Conclusion The merits of retroperitoneal laparoscopy for the treatment of complex renal stones include sparing the nephron, less bleeding, short hospitalization, quick postoperative recovery, and controllable procedure after training Success depends on the experience of surgeons and judicious selection of cases. PMID:24491207



Laser therapy and phototherapy in complex treatment of children's oncological diseases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of the laser therapy and phototherapy with utilization of High Intensive Impulse Laser Therapeutic Unit and High Intensive Impulse Light Therapeutic Unit has created new side prospects in treatment of side-effects and complications when treating oncological diseases and a great number of non-tumoral diseases of adults as well as children. The application of the laser therapy and phototherapy in complex treatment of children's oncological diseases has shown that this method has a significant antiinflammatory and anaesthetic effect as well as powerful regenerative influence on tissues. Its application decreases considerably the duration of treatment of complications when treating children's malignant tumors and enables to keep to scheduled terms of complex treatment.

Tsigankin, V. I.; Balakirev, S. A.; Atroshchenko, V. I.; Belousov, N. N.; Ivanov, Andrei V.



Platinum(II)-gadolinium(III) complexes as potential single-molecular theranostic agents for cancer treatment.  


Theranostic agents are emerging multifunctional molecules capable of simultaneous therapy and diagnosis of diseases. We found that platinum(II)-gadolinium(III) complexes with the formula [{Pt(NH3)2Cl}2GdL](NO3)2 possess such properties. The Gd center is stable in solution and the cytoplasm, whereas the Pt centers undergo ligand substitution in cancer cells. The Pt units interact with DNA and significantly promote the cellular uptake of Gd complexes. The cytotoxicity of the Pt-Gd complexes is comparable to that of cisplatin at high concentrations (?0.1?mM), and their proton relaxivity is higher than that of the commercial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent Gd-DTPA. T1-weighted MRI on B6 mice demonstrated that these complexes can reveal the accumulation of platinum drugs in vivo. Their cytotoxicity and imaging capabilities make the Pt-Gd complexes promising theranostic agents for cancer treatment. PMID:25255766

Zhu, Zhenzhu; Wang, Xiaoyong; Li, Tuanjie; Aime, Silvio; Sadler, Peter J; Guo, Zijian



Complex vulnerabilities as barriers to treatment for illicit drug users with high prevalence mental health co-morbidities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Drug treatment clients are significantly more likely to remain in treatment if ancillary life issues and complex needs are addressed.Aim: to document and analyse the complex needs (‘complex vulnerabilities’) of people experiencing both problems with drug dependence and common mental health problems, with a particular focus on barriers and incentives to drug treatment.Method: A qualitative interview-based study of 77

Carla Treloar; Martin Holt



Complex Psychiatric Comorbidity of Treatment-Seeking Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Anxiety Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This descriptive study examines the complexity of psychiatric comorbidity in treatment-seeking youth with ASD and anxiety symptoms. Forty-two parents of youth with ASD and anxiety (ages 8-14) completed a structured diagnostic interview (Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version). Youth…

Hepburn, Susan L.; Stern, Jessica A.; Blakeley-Smith, Audrey; Kimel, Lila K.; Reaven, Judith A.



Radiotherapy Planning Complexity and Survival after Treatment of Advanced Stage Lung Cancer in the Elderly  

PubMed Central

Purpose Complex radiotherapy (RT) planning is increasingly common in the treatment of lung cancer though it remains unclear if these treatments are associated with better outcomes. We evaluated the association between the complexity of RT planning simulation with survival among elderly Stage IIIB non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods We included all patients aged >65 years with histologically confirmed Stage IIIB NSCLC diagnosed between 1992 and 2002 receiving chemotherapy and RT from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry linked to Medicare claims. Patients were divided into simple, intermediate, and complex RT planning groups using Medicare physician codes. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression were used to compare overall and lung cancer-specific survival rates across groups. Results We identified 1,733 patients: 148 (8%), 1,138 (66%), and 447 (26%) were classified as having received simple, intermediate and complex RT planning, respectively. Baseline characteristics were similar across groups. Increasing complexity of RT planning was significantly associated with better overall survival (p=0.0002). Multivariate analyses showed that intermediate (HR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.62 to 0.91) and complex planning (HR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.55 to 0.86) were associated with better overall survival compared to simple RT planning. Similar results were observed for lung cancer-specific survival analyses. Toxicities were comparable across groups. Conclusions The use of more complex RT planning and simulation methods is associated with better survival in elderly patients with Stage IIIB NSCLC. Although these results should be further validated in prospective clinical trials, this data suggests that complex planning may improve the outcomes of these patients. PMID:21423827

Goldsmith, Benjamin; Cesaretti, Jamie; Wisnivesky, Juan P.



[Paraendocervical route for metronidazole administration in complex treatment of chronic Trichomonas endocervicitis].  


The data on paraendocervical administration of metronidazole in the treatment of patients with relapsing Trichomonas endocervicitis are presented. Metronidazole was administered as 0.5% solution in a dose of 0.04 g once a day for 8-10 days in complex traditional therapy including oral use of metronidazole and immunocorrigating and local treatment. It was shown that paraendocervical administration of the protistocidal agent provided earlier regression of the urogenital symptoms and 2.8 times lower frequency of the relapses. PMID:15285407

Churakov, A A; Skatin, A V; Borisova, L V; Malykhina, Z V; Kulichenko, A N; Suvorov, A P



Intrinsic brain networks normalize with treatment in pediatric complex regional pain syndrome  

PubMed Central

Pediatric complex regional pain syndrome (P-CRPS) offers a unique model of chronic neuropathic pain as it either resolves spontaneously or through therapeutic interventions in most patients. Here we evaluated brain changes in well-characterized children and adolescents with P-CRPS by measuring resting state networks before and following a brief (median = 3 weeks) but intensive physical and psychological treatment program, and compared them to matched healthy controls. Differences in intrinsic brain networks were observed in P-CRPS compared to controls before treatment (disease state) with the most prominent differences in the fronto-parietal, salience, default mode, central executive, and sensorimotor networks. Following treatment, behavioral measures demonstrated a reduction of symptoms and improvement of physical state (pain levels and motor functioning). Correlation of network connectivities with spontaneous pain measures pre- and post-treatment indicated concomitant reductions in connectivity in salience, central executive, default mode and sensorimotor networks (treatment effects). These results suggest a rapid alteration in global brain networks with treatment and provide a venue to assess brain changes in CRPS pre- and post-treatment, and to evaluate therapeutic effects. PMID:25379449

Becerra, Lino; Sava, Simona; Simons, Laura E.; Drosos, Athena M.; Sethna, Navil; Berde, Charles; Lebel, Alyssa A.; Borsook, David



Factors that lessen the burden of treatment in complex patients with chronic conditions: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Purpose Patients with multiple chronic conditions (multimorbidity) often require ongoing treatment and complex self-care. This workload and its impact on patient functioning and well-being are, together, known as treatment burden. This study reports on factors that patients with multimorbidity draw on to lessen perceptions of treatment burden. Patients and methods Interviews (n=50) and focus groups (n=4 groups, five to eight participants per group) were conducted with patients receiving care in a large academic medical center or an urban safety-net hospital. Interview data were analyzed using qualitative framework analysis methods, and themes and subthemes were used to identify factors that mitigate burden. Focus groups were held to confirm these findings and clarify any new issues. This study was part of a larger program to develop a patient-reported measure of treatment burden. Results Five major themes emerged from the interview data. These included: 1) problem-focused strategies, like routinizing self-care, enlisting support of others, planning for the future, and using technology; 2) emotion-focused coping strategies, like maintaining a positive attitude, focusing on other life priorities, and spirituality/faith; 3) questioning the notion of treatment burden as a function of adapting to self-care and comparing oneself to others; 4) social support (informational, tangible, and emotional assistance); and 5) positive aspects of health care, like coordination of care and beneficial relationships with providers. Additional subthemes arising from focus groups included preserving autonomy/independence and being proactive with providers. Conclusion Patients attempt to lessen the experience of treatment burden using a variety of personal, social, and health care resources. Assessing these factors in tandem with patient perceptions of treatment burden can provide a more complete picture of how patients fit complex self-care into their daily lives. PMID:24672228

Ridgeway, Jennifer L; Egginton, Jason S; Tiedje, Kristina; Linzer, Mark; Boehm, Deborah; Poplau, Sara; de Oliveira, Djenane Ramalho; Odell, Laura; Montori, Victor M; Eton, David T



Drug susceptibility testing and pharmacokinetics question current treatment regimens in Mycobacterium simiae complex disease.  


The Mycobacterium simiae complex bacteria can cause opportunistic infections in humans. In the case of definite disease, there are no evidence-based treatment regimens and outcomes are very disappointing. To increase the evidence base underpinning treatment regimens for M. simiae complex disease, drug susceptibility patterns and rifampicin/ethambutol synergy were assessed retrospectively in 69 clinical M. simiae complex isolates from 60 patients (22 patients with M. simiae, 24 with Mycobacterium lentiflavum, 8 with Mycobacterium triplex, 5 with Mycobacterium parascrofulaceum and 1 with Mycobacterium stomatepiae) submitted to the mycobacteriology laboratory at National Jewish Health (Denver, CO). Quantitative drug susceptibility testing (DST) was performed using the radiometric BacTec 460 macrodilution method. Results were related to pharmacokinetic (PK) measurements, where available. All M. simiae complex species proved susceptible to clarithromycin and, to a lesser extent, rifabutin, clofazimine, streptomycin and moxifloxacin. Synergy or additive action between rifampicin and ethambutol was observed for all species except M. simiae. Mycobacterium simiae is poorly susceptible in vitro to rifampicin and ethambutol alone as well as in combination; PK measurements support the limited efficacy of these drugs against M. simiae. The triple-drug regimen of a rifamycin, ethambutol and a macrolide may be advised to treat disease caused by M. lentiflavum, M. triplex, M. parascrofulaceum and M. stomatepiae; for M. simiae, this regimen appears less active. These findings may partly explain the limited treatment results in M. simiae disease. A treatment regimen including a macrolide, moxifloxacin and one or two additional drugs based on DST results may be advisable; clofazimine and amikacin or streptomycin are potential candidates. PMID:22099521

van Ingen, Jakko; Totten, Sarah E; Heifets, Leonid B; Boeree, Martin J; Daley, Charles L



Development of polyion complex membranes based on cellulose acetate modified by oxygen plasma treatment for pervaporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellulose acetate (CA) membrane was modified with ultra-thin polyion complex (PIC) layers, and the pervaporation performance for water–ethanol mixture was investigated. Introduction of oxygen-containing anionic groups onto the surface of the CA membrane was attempted by the oxygen plasma treatment, and was confirmed by the electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA). The formation of an ultra-thin PIC layer on the

Samuel P Kusumocahyo; Toshiyuki Kanamori; Takashi Iwatsubo; Kimio Sumaru; Toshio Shinbo



Ultrasound-responsive thrombus treatment with zinc-stabilized gelatin nano-complexes of tissue-type plasminogen activator  

E-print Network

#12;Ultrasound-responsive thrombus treatment with zinc-stabilized gelatin nano-complexes of tissue complexes Key words: t-PA, thrombolytic therapy, gelatin, metal ions, ultrasound #12;1 ABSTRACT This study is undertaken to design zinc-stabilized gelatin nano-complexes of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t

Takada, Shoji


Treatment of angiofibromas in tuberous sclerosis complex: the effect of topical rapamycin and concomitant laser therapy.  


Facial angiofibromas are the most troublesome cutaneous manifestations of the tuberous sclerosis complex and are difficult to treat. Lasers are most commonly used to treat these skin lesions, but results are disappointing with frequent recurrences. Recently, treatment of facial angiofibromas with topical rapamycin has been reported to yield promising results. We observed the need of laser ablation in addition to topical rapamycin to get best results for the treatment of angiofibromas in 4 cases. The result showed that topical rapamycin ointment was enough when the papules were yet small in size, i.e. less than a few millimeters, but additional laser ablation was needed for large papules approximately larger than 4 mm. Considering the natural course of facial angiofibromas, we believe that topical rapamycin can be best used in childhood patients. In adults, topical rapamycin was useful for treating the still present small papules and for preventing recurrences after laser treatment. PMID:24401865

Park, Jin; Yun, Seok-Kweon; Cho, Yong-Sun; Song, Ki-Hun; Kim, Han-Uk



Amphiphilic Antimony(V) Complexes for Oral Treatment of Visceral Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

The need for daily parenteral administration is an important limitation in the clinical use of pentavalent antimonial drugs against leishmaniasis. In this study, amphiphilic antimony(V) complexes were prepared from alkylmethylglucamides (L8 and L10, with carbon chain lengths of 8 and 10, respectively), and their potential for the oral treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was evaluated. Complexes of Sb and ligand at 1:3 (SbL8 and SbL10) were obtained from the reaction of antimony(V) with L8 and L10, as evidenced by elemental and electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) analyses. Fluorescence probing of hydrophobic environment and negative-staining transmission electron microscopy showed that SbL8 forms kinetically stabilized nanoassemblies in water. Pharmacokinetic studies with mice in which the compound was administered by the oral route at 200 mg of Sb/kg of body weight indicated that the SbL8 complex promoted greater and more sustained Sb levels in serum and liver than the levels obtained for the conventional antimonial drug meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime [Glu]). The efficacy of SbL8 and SbL10 administered by the oral route was evaluated in BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania infantum after a daily dose of 200 mg of Sb/kg for 20 days. Both complexes promoted significant reduction in the liver and spleen parasite burdens in relation to those in the saline-treated control group. The extent of parasite suppression (>99.96%) was similar to that achieved after Glu given intraperitoneally at 80 mg of Sb/kg/day. As expected, there was no significant reduction in the parasitic load in the group treated orally with Glu at 200 mg of Sb/(kg day). In conclusion, amphiphilic antimony(V) complexes emerge as an innovative and promising strategy for the oral treatment of VL. PMID:23796930

Fernandes, Flaviana R.; Ferreira, Weverson A.; Campos, Mariana A.; Ramos, Guilherme S.; Kato, Kelly C.; Almeida, Gregório G.; Corrêa, José D.; Melo, Maria N.; Demicheli, Cynthia



Amphiphilic antimony(V) complexes for oral treatment of visceral leishmaniasis.  


The need for daily parenteral administration is an important limitation in the clinical use of pentavalent antimonial drugs against leishmaniasis. In this work, amphiphilic antimony(V) complexes were prepared from alkylmethylglucamides (L8 and L10, with carbon chain length of C8 and C10, respectively) and their potential for the oral treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has been evaluated. 1:3 Sb-ligand complexes (SbL8 and SbL10) were obtained from the reaction of antimony(V) with L8 and L10, as evidenced by elemental and ESI-MS analyses. Fluorescence probing of hydrophobic environment and negative staining transmission electron microscopy showed that SbL8 forms kinetically-stabilized nanoassemblies in water. Pharmacokinetic studies in mice by the oral route at 200 mg Sb/kg indicated that SbL8 complex promoted greater and more sustained Sb levels in serum and liver, when compared to the conventional antimonial drug Glucantime® (Glu). The efficacy of SbL8 and SbL10 was evaluated by the oral route in BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania infantum after daily dose of 200 mg Sb/kg for 20 days. Both complexes promoted significant reduction in the liver and spleen parasite burdens, in relation to saline-treated control group. The extent of parasite supression (> 99.96%) was similar to that achieved after Glu given intraperitoneally at 80 mg Sb/(kg day). As expected, there was no significant reduction in the parasitic load in the group treated orally with Glu at 200 mg Sb/(kg day). In conclusion, amphiphilic antimony(V) complexes emerge as an innovative and promising strategy for the oral treatment of VL. PMID:23796930

Fernandes, Flaviana R; Ferreira, Weverson A; Campos, Mariana A; Ramos, Guilherme S; Kato, Kelly C; Almeida, Gregório G; Corrêa, José D; Melo, Maria N; Demicheli, Cynthia; Frézard, Frédéric



Treatment compliance and effectiveness in complex PTSD patients with co-morbid personality disorder undergoing stabilizing cognitive behavioral group treatment: a preliminary study  

PubMed Central

Background In the empirical and clinical literature, complex posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and personality disorders (PDs) are suggested to be predictive of drop-out or reduced treatment effectiveness in trauma-focused PTSD treatment. Objective In this study, we aimed to investigate if personality characteristics would predict treatment compliance and effectiveness in stabilizing complex PTSD treatment. Method In a randomized controlled trial on a 20-week stabilizing group cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) for child-abuse-related complex PTSD, we included 71 patients of whom 38 were randomized to a psycho-educational and cognitive behavioral stabilizing group treatment. We compared the patients with few PD symptoms (adaptive) (N=14) with the non-adaptive patients (N=24) as revealed by a cluster analysis. Results We found that non-adaptive patients compared to the adaptive patients showed very low drop-out rates. Both non-adaptive patients, classified with highly different personality profiles “withdrawn” and “aggressive,” were equally compliant. With regard to symptom reduction, we found no significant differences between subtypes. Post-hoc, patients with a PD showed lower drop-out rates and higher effect sizes in terms of complex PTSD severity, especially on domains that affect regulation and interpersonal problems. Conclusions Contrary to our expectations, these preliminary findings indicate that this treatment is well tolerated by patients with a variety of personality pathology. Larger sample sizes are needed to study effectiveness for subgroups of complex PTSD patients. PMID:24224077

Dorrepaal, Ethy; Thomaes, Kathleen; Smit, Johannes H.; Veltman, Dick J.; Hoogendoorn, Adriaan W.; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.; Draijer, Nel



2-Nitroimidazole-ruthenium polypyridyl complex as a new conjugate for cancer treatment and visualization.  


A novel long-lifetime highly luminescent ruthenium polypyridyl complex containing 2-nitroimidazole moiety [Ru(dip)2(bpy-2-nitroIm)]Cl2 (dip=4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline, bpy-2-nitroIm=4-[3-(2-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)propyl]-2,2'-bipyridine) has been designed cancer treatment and imaging. The luminescence properties of the synthesized compound strongly depend on the oxygen concentration. Under oxygen-free conditions quantum yield of luminescence and the average lifetime of emission were found to be 0.034 and 1.9 ?s, respectively, which is ca. three times higher in comparison to values obtained in air-equilibrated solution. The binding properties of the investigated ruthenium complex to human serum albumin have been studied and the apparent binding constant for the formation of the protein-ruthenium adduct was determined to be 1.1×10(5)M(-1). The quantum yield and the average lifetime of emission are greatly enhanced upon binding of ruthenium compound to the protein. The DNA binding studies revealed two distinguished binding modes which lead to a decrease in luminescence intensity of ruthenium complex up to 60% for [DNA]/[Ru]<2, and enhancement of emission for [DNA]/[Ru]>80. Preliminary biological studies confirmed fast and efficient accumulation of the ruthenium complex inside cells. Furthermore, the ruthenium complex was found to be relatively cytotoxic with LD50 of 12 and 13 ?M for A549 and CT26 cell lines, respectively, under normoxic conditions. The retention and cellular uptake of ruthenium complex is enhanced under hypoxic conditions and its LD50 decreases to 8 ?M for A549 cell line. PMID:24571925

Mazuryk, Olga; Maciuszek, Monika; Stochel, Gra?yna; Suzenet, Franck; Brindell, Ma?gorzata



Ferrous sulfate versus iron polymaltose complex for treatment of iron deficiency anemia in children.  


We assessed the clinical response and side effects of Ferrous sulfate (FS) and Iron polymaltose complex (IPC) in 118 children with Iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Subjects were randomized to receive therapy with either oral IPC (Group A, n=59) or oral FS (Group B, n=59); all were given elemental iron in three divided doses of 6 mg/kg/day. One hundred and six children could be followed up; 53 in each group. Children who received ferrous sulfate were having higher hemoglobin level, and less residual complaints as compared to those who had received iron polymaltose complex. Our study suggests ferrous sulfate has a better clinical response and less significant adverse effects during treatment of IDA in children. PMID:19430060

Bopche, Ankur Vikas; Dwivedi, Rashmi; Mishra, Rakesh; Patel, G S



Increasing complexity: which drug class to choose for treatment of hypertension in the elderly?  

PubMed Central

Treatment of hypertension in the elderly is expected to become more complex in the coming decades. Based on the current landscape of clinical trials, guideline recommendations remain inconclusive. The present review discusses the latest evidence derived from studies available in 2013 and investigates optimal blood pressure (BP) and preferred treatment substances. Three common archetypes are discussed that hamper the treatment of hypertension in the very elderly. In addition, this paper presents the current recommendations of the NICE 2011, JNC7 2013-update, ESH/ESC 2013, CHEP 2013, JNC8 and ASH/ISH guidelines for elderly patients. Advantages of the six main substance classes, namely diuretics, beta-blockers (BBs), calcium channel blockers (CCBs), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and direct renin inhibitors (DRIs) are discussed. Medical and economic implications of drug administration in the very elderly are presented. Avoidance of treatment-related adverse effects has become increasingly relevant. Current substance classes are equally effective, with similar effects on cardiovascular outcomes. Selection of substances should therefore also be based on collateral advantages of drugs that extend beyond BP reduction. The combination of ACEIs and diuretics appears to be favorable in managing systolic/diastolic hypertension. Diuretics are a preferred and cheap combination drug, and the combination with CCBs is recommended for patients with isolated systolic hypertension. ACEIs and CCBs are favorable for patients with dementia, while CCBs and ARBs imply substantial cost savings due to high adherence. PMID:24711696

Kaiser, Edelgard Anna; Lotze, Ulrich; Schäfer, Hans Hendrik



Evidence-based treatment for adult women with child abuse-related Complex PTSD: a quantitative review  

PubMed Central

Introduction Effective first-line treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are well established, but their generalizability to child abuse (CA)-related Complex PTSD is largely unknown. Method A quantitative review of the literature was performed, identifying seven studies, with treatments specifically targeting CA-related PTSD or Complex PTSD, which were meta-analyzed, including variables such as effect size, drop-out, recovery, and improvement rates. Results Only six studies with one or more cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) treatment conditions and one with a present centered therapy condition could be meta-analyzed. Results indicate that CA-related PTSD patients profit with large effect sizes and modest recovery and improvement rates. Treatments which include exposure showed greater effect sizes especially in completers’ analyses, although no differential results were found in recovery and improvement rates. However, results in the subgroup of CA-related Complex PTSD studies were least favorable. Within the Complex PTSD subgroup, no superior effect size was found for exposure, and affect management resulted in more favorable recovery and improvement rates and less drop-out, as compared to exposure, especially in intention-to-treat analyses. Conclusion Limited evidence suggests that predominantly CBT treatments are effective, but do not suffice to achieve satisfactory end states, especially in Complex PTSD populations. Moreover, we propose that future research should focus on direct comparisons between types of treatment for Complex PTSD patients, thereby increasing generalizability of results.

Dorrepaal, Ethy; Thomaes, Kathleen; Hoogendoorn, Adriaan W.; Veltman, Dick J.; Draijer, Nel; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.



Stabilizing Group Treatment for Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Related to Childhood Abuse Based on Psycho-Education and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study tests a Stabilizing Group Treatment protocol, designed for the management of the long-term sequelae of child abuse, that is, Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (Complex PTSD). Evidence-based treatment for this subgroup of PTSD patients is largely lacking. This stabilizing treatment aims at improving Complex PTSD using…

Dorrepaal, Ethy; Thomaes, Kathleen; Smit, Johannes H.; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.; van Dyck, Richard; Veltman, Dick J.; Draijer, Nel



Enhancement of Auditory Fear Conditioning after Housing in a Complex Environment Is Attenuated by Prior Treatment with Amphetamine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prior exposure to drugs of abuse has been shown to occlude the structural plasticity associated with living in a complex environment. Amphetamine treatment may also occlude some cognitive advantages normally associated with living in a complex environment. To test this hypothesis we examined the influence of prior exposure to amphetamine on fear…

Briand, Lisa A.; Robinson, Terry E.; Maren, Stephen



Effect of polysaccharide charge on formation and properties of biopolymer nanoparticles created by heat treatment of b-lactoglobulinpectin complexes  

E-print Network

by heat treatment of b-lactoglobulin­pectin complexes Owen G. Jones a , Uri Lesmes a , Paul Dubin b 2009 Keywords: b-lactoglobulin Pectin Complexation Nanoparticles Biopolymers a b s t r a c t Biopolymer-lactoglobulin) and anionic polysaccharides (high and low methoxyl pectin) were prepared. Micro-electrophoresis, dynamic light

Dubin, Paul D.


Successful treatment of complex cholangiolithiasis following orthotopic liver transplantation with interventional radiology.  


Bile duct stones are a serious and the third most common complication of the biliary system that can occur following liver transplantation. The incidence rate of bile duct stones after liver transplantation is 1.8%-18%. The management of biliary stones is usually performed with endoscopic techniques; however, the technique may prove to be challenging in the treatment of the intrahepatic bile duct stones. We herein report a case of a 40-year-old man with rare, complex bile duct stones that were successfully eliminated with percutaneous interventional techniques. The complex bile duct stones were defined as a large number of bile stones filling the intra- and extrahepatic bile tracts, resulting in a cast formation within the biliary tree. Common complications such as hemobilia and acute pancreatitis were not present during the perioperative period. The follow-up period was 20 mo long. During the postoperative period, the patient maintained normal temperature, and normal total bilirubin and direct bilirubin levels. The patient is now living a high quality life. This case report highlights the safety and efficacy of the percutaneous interventional approach in the removal of complex bile duct stones following liver transplantation. PMID:25684970

Zhou, Chuan-Guo; Wei, Bao-Jie; Gao, Kun; Dai, Ding-Ke; Zhai, Ren-You



Successful treatment of complex cholangiolithiasis following orthotopic liver transplantation with interventional radiology  

PubMed Central

Bile duct stones are a serious and the third most common complication of the biliary system that can occur following liver transplantation. The incidence rate of bile duct stones after liver transplantation is 1.8%-18%. The management of biliary stones is usually performed with endoscopic techniques; however, the technique may prove to be challenging in the treatment of the intrahepatic bile duct stones. We herein report a case of a 40-year-old man with rare, complex bile duct stones that were successfully eliminated with percutaneous interventional techniques. The complex bile duct stones were defined as a large number of bile stones filling the intra- and extrahepatic bile tracts, resulting in a cast formation within the biliary tree. Common complications such as hemobilia and acute pancreatitis were not present during the perioperative period. The follow-up period was 20 mo long. During the postoperative period, the patient maintained normal temperature, and normal total bilirubin and direct bilirubin levels. The patient is now living a high quality life. This case report highlights the safety and efficacy of the percutaneous interventional approach in the removal of complex bile duct stones following liver transplantation.

Zhou, Chuan-Guo; Wei, Bao-Jie; Gao, Kun; Dai, Ding-Ke; Zhai, Ren-You



THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 135, 094304 (2011) "Adiabatic-hindered-rotor" treatment of the parahydrogen-water complex  

E-print Network

THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 135, 094304 (2011) "Adiabatic-hindered-rotor" treatment of the parahydrogen-water complex Tao Zeng,1 Hui Li,2 Robert J. Le Roy,1 and Pierre-Nicholas Roy1,a) 1 Department 1 September 2011) Inspired by a recent successful adiabatic-hindered-rotor treatment

Le Roy, Robert J.


Narrative exposure therapy: an evidence-based treatment for multiple and complex trauma  

PubMed Central

Narrative exposure therapy (NET) is a recently developed, short-term treatment for patients with a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a result of multiple trauma. NET can be applied very successfully in patients with complex trauma complaints (Jongedijk, 2014; Schauer, Neuner, & Elbert, 2011). An important feature of NET is that trauma processing is never an isolated event but is always embedded in the context of a traumatic event and in the life history as a whole. At the start, the lifeline is laid. The lifeline is made up of a rope, with flowers (happy events), stones (traumatic events), sometimes candles (grief), or recently also sticks for aggressive acts (NET for offenders; see Stenmark, Cuneyt Guzey, Elbert, & Holen, 2014). These symbols are laid down along the rope, in chronological order. Subsequently, in the subsequent therapy sessions the lifeline is processed in chronological order, giving attention to all the important events a person has experienced in his or her life, both the adverse as well as the pleasurable ones. The narration ends with a written testimony. To date, there is good evidence NET is effective in the treatment of PTSD patients, with support from 18 RCTs (N=950). For culturally diverse populations, NET is recommended as the most evidence-based trauma treatment, besides culturally adapted CBT. NET has been investigated in different populations in Africa, Europe, and Asia. In Asia, research has been carried out in Sri Lanka as well as in China. In China, NET was conducted and investigated with survivors of the Sichuan earthquake (Zang, Hunt, & Cox, 2013, 2014). NET is understandable, even appealing and also supportive for patients with multiple trauma. In this presentation, the treatment principles and the practice of NET will be explained. PMID:25511727

Jongedijk, Ruud A.



Narrative exposure therapy: an evidence-based treatment for multiple and complex trauma.  


Narrative exposure therapy (NET) is a recently developed, short-term treatment for patients with a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a result of multiple trauma. NET can be applied very successfully in patients with complex trauma complaints (Jongedijk, 2014; Schauer, Neuner, & Elbert, 2011). An important feature of NET is that trauma processing is never an isolated event but is always embedded in the context of a traumatic event and in the life history as a whole. At the start, the lifeline is laid. The lifeline is made up of a rope, with flowers (happy events), stones (traumatic events), sometimes candles (grief), or recently also sticks for aggressive acts (NET for offenders; see Stenmark, Cuneyt Guzey, Elbert, & Holen, 2014). These symbols are laid down along the rope, in chronological order. Subsequently, in the subsequent therapy sessions the lifeline is processed in chronological order, giving attention to all the important events a person has experienced in his or her life, both the adverse as well as the pleasurable ones. The narration ends with a written testimony. To date, there is good evidence NET is effective in the treatment of PTSD patients, with support from 18 RCTs (N=950). For culturally diverse populations, NET is recommended as the most evidence-based trauma treatment, besides culturally adapted CBT. NET has been investigated in different populations in Africa, Europe, and Asia. In Asia, research has been carried out in Sri Lanka as well as in China. In China, NET was conducted and investigated with survivors of the Sichuan earthquake (Zang, Hunt, & Cox, 2013, 2014). NET is understandable, even appealing and also supportive for patients with multiple trauma. In this presentation, the treatment principles and the practice of NET will be explained. PMID:25511727

Jongedijk, Ruud A



Treatment of complex infantile haemangioma in a resource-poor setting.  


Infantile haemangiomas affect approximately 5% of the population and usually do not require treatment. However, complex cutaneous haemangiomas can cause disabling disfigurement, while haemangiomas in the brain, airway or gastrointestinal tract can cause life-threatening complications. Although children with infantile haemangiomas are often first brought to general practitioners and paediatricians by parents for care, they are thought of as a surgical problem and usually referred to specialty care. We present a case of an infant from a resource-poor setting in rural Indonesia with disfiguring facial haemangiomas, as well as a probable airway haemangioma causing stridor at rest. The infant was treated with oral propranolol with marked involution of the cutaneous haemangioma, resolution of stridor and increase in weight. PMID:25053694

Natawidjaja, Ronald; Wang, Ewen



The use of TPA in combination with alcohol in the treatment of the recurrent complex hydrocele  

PubMed Central

A hydrocele is an abnormal collection of serous fluid in the space between the parietal and visceral layers of the tunica vaginalis. Hydrocele is the most common cause of painless scrotal swelling which affects about 1% of men. Generally, adult hydroceles are idiopathic in origin; however, inguinal surgery, varicocelectomy, infection, trauma and a patent processus vaginalis are each associated with the subsequent development of a hydrocele. Surgical removal of hydroceles is the gold standard of care. However, multiple cases have reported high success rates (ranging from 85% to 96%) using a combination of aspiration and sclerotherapy. We present a case of a patient with recurring complex hydrocele and effective treatment utilizing a combination of thrombolytic therapy, catheter drainage and subsequent alcohol ablation. PMID:25024803

Metcalfe, Michael J.; Spouge, Rebecca J.; Spouge, David J.; Hoag, Chris C.



Endovascular treatment of complex dural arteriovenous fistula using the dual-microcatheter technique.  


A 71-year-old woman presented with headache and dilated vessels on CTA. Angiography demonstrated a complex dural arteriovenous fistula with retrograde cortical venous hypertension, supplied by branches of internal and external carotids bilaterally into a fistulous pouch paralleling the left transverse and sigmoid sinuses, which was occluded at the jugular bulb. The patient refused treatment and was lost to follow-up, returning with sudden confusion and hemianopsia from left temporo-occipital hemorrhage. Transvenous endovascular embolization was performed using the dual-microcatheter technique with a combination of coiling and Onyx copolymer, completely occluding the sinus and fistula while preserving normal venous drainage. The video can be found here: . PMID:24983721

Levitt, Michael R; Osbun, Joshua W; Nerva, John D; Kim, Louis J



A highly effective photochemical system for complex treatment of heavily contaminated wastewaters.  


Significant efforts have been committed to the research and development of many advanced oxidation processes, including photocatalytic oxidations with titanium dioxide or the hydrogen peroxide and ferrous/ferric ion (H2O2/Fe2+(Fe3+)/UV (photo-assisted Fenton) process. This study reports the development of a novel photochemical system for complex treatment of heavily contaminated wastewaters based on the use of UV-C light and H2O2. Special attention was focused on the technology employed, including the reactor design, process controls, and performance optimization. The effects of process parameters were studied using 4-chlorophenol (4CP) as model compound, and verification of this treatment technology was assessed using actual contaminated water. Among the most influential parameters were the 4CP concentration, reaction mixture volume, H2O2 concentration, and irradiation intensity. In contrast, for H2O2 dosing (proportional continuous or cumulative one-time), the flow rate did not significantly affect process efficacy. PMID:25509526

Krystynik, Pavel; Kluson, Petr; Hejda, Stanislav; Masin, Pavel; Tito, Duarte Novaes



Anaerobic filter reactor performance for the treatment of complex dairy wastewater at industrial scale.  


The wastewaters discharged by raw milk quality control laboratories are more complex than the ones commonly generated by dairy factories because of the presence of certain chemicals such as sodium azide or chloramphenicol, which are used for preserving milk before analysis. The treatment of these effluents has been carried out in a full-scale plant comprising a 12 m(3) anaerobic filter (AF) reactor and a 28 m(3) sequential batch reactor (SBR). After more than 2 years of operation, a successful anaerobic treatment of these effluents was achieved, without fat removal prior to the anaerobic reactor. The organic loading rates maintained in the AF reactor were 5-6 kg COD/m(3) d, with COD removal being higher than 90%. No biomass washout was observed, and most of the fat contained in the wastewaters was successfully degraded. The addition of alkalinity is crucial for the maintenance of a proper buffer medium to ensure pH stability. The effluent of the AF reactor was successfully treated in the SBR reactor, and a final effluent with a COD content below 200 mg/l and total nitrogen below 10mg N/l was obtained. PMID:12946891

Omil, Francisco; Garrido, Juan M; Arrojo, Belén; Méndez, Ramón



Erythrocytes: Better Tolerance of Iron Polymaltose Complex Compared with Ferrous Sulphate in the Treatment of Anaemia.  


BackgroundAbsolute iron deficiency, irrespective of aetiology, remains a major and worldwide cause of morbidity. After correction of the causative lesion, reconstitution of haemoglobin level and body iron stores is traditionally achieved with oral administration of ferrous salts. The latter have significant gastrointestinal tract side-effects that, in the short-term, may impair compliance. With protracted administration these products can cause lipid peroxidation which, in turn, may accelerate atherogenesis. An alternative formulation is an iron polymaltose complex where animal data supported a promoting effect of glycerophosphate. Setting and Trial Design This was a single-centre, open, randomised, multidose four treatment parallel group study. A standard dose of ferric polymaltose complex with two differing levels of glycerophosphate was compared with an equivalent amount of iron supplied as ferrous sulphate in anaemic volunteer blood donors. The endpoints were rate of haemoglobin rise and re-expansion of body iron stores reflected in blood ferritin concentration, as well as percentage saturation of transferrin. Secondary observations were changes in the proportion of hypochromic red cells during the course of treatment, erythropoietin levels and tolerability of the two formulations. Results Outcome in the rat model suggested that the utilisation of iron from polymaltose might be enhanced by glycerophosphate. However, in donors this difference was not evident and, accordingly, the data from the three polymaltose groups combined and compared to those receiving ferrous sulphate. The rate at which haemoglobin level improved, red cell indices returned to normal, and the number of hypochromic and microcytic red cells fell was not significantly different between the groups. Similarly the serum iron, percentage saturation of transferrin and red cell ferritin were comparable. In contrast the serum ferritin levels were higher for those receiving ferrous sulphate. Additionally, side-effects were significantly more frequently encountered with the latter preparation. Conclusion These data demonstrate that the addition of glycerophosphate, observed to be beneficial in rats, did not occur in humans. Secondly, in the blood donors, equivalent amounts of iron provided as the polymaltose, with or without glycerophosphate or ferrous sulphate, corrected haemoglobin concentration and morphologically abnormal erythropoiesis at comparable rates. Similarly iron stores are replenished to an equivalent extent as seen in the matching percentage saturation of transferrin and red cell ferritin levels. Interestingly, there is a discrepancy in the serum ferritin which is higher with the salt and this may reflect oxidative stress. Thirdly, corresponding efficacy can be achieved with better patient tolerance for the complex. Finally it is postulated that the iron polymaltose complex formulation more closely approximates the way in which enterocytes handle dietary iron and thus physiologic regulatory mechanisms would be expected to reciprocally slow down absorption as stores expand. Logically, therefore and, if confirmed, the latter finding suggests that this formulation may have a potential role in longer-term supplementation programmes. PMID:11399604

Jacobs, PETER; Wood, LUCILLE; Bird, ARTHUR R.



Antianxiety medications for the treatment of complex agoraphobia: pharmacological interventions for a behavioral condition  

PubMed Central

Background Although there are controversial issues (the “American view” and the “European view”) regarding the construct and definition of agoraphobia (AG), this syndrome is well recognized and it is a burden in the lives of millions of people worldwide. To better clarify the role of drug therapy in AG, the authors summarized and discussed recent evidence on pharmacological treatments, based on clinical trials available from 2000, with the aim of highlighting pharmacotherapies that may improve this complex syndrome. Methods A systematic review of the literature regarding the pharmacological treatment of AG was carried out using MEDLINE, EBSCO, and Cochrane databases, with keywords individuated by MeSH research. Only randomized, placebo-controlled studies or comparative clinical trials were included. Results After selection, 25 studies were included. All the selected studies included patients with AG associated with panic disorder. Effective compounds included selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants, selective noradrenergic reuptake inhibitors, and benzodiazepines. Paroxetine, sertraline, citalopram, escitalopram, and clomipramine showed the most consistent results, while fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, and imipramine showed limited efficacy. Preliminary results suggested the potential efficacy of inositol; D-cycloserine showed mixed results for its ability to improve the outcome of exposure-based cognitive behavioral therapy. More studies with the latter compounds are needed before drawing definitive conclusions. Conclusion No studies have been specifically oriented toward evaluating the effect of drugs on AG; in the available studies, the improvement of AG might have been the consequence of the reduction of panic attacks. Before developing a “true” psychopharmacology of AG it is crucial to clarify its definition. There may be several potential mechanisms involved, including fear-learning processes, balance system dysfunction, high light sensitivity, and impaired visuospatial abilities, but further studies are warranted. PMID:22090798

Perna, Giampaolo; Daccò, Silvia; Menotti, Roberta; Caldirola, Daniela



Anaerobic treatment of complex wastewater and waste activated sludge - Appl. of an upflow anaerobic solid removal (UASR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of one phase anaerobic wastewater systems for the treatment of complex wastewaters containing high amounts of suspended solids or lipids is usually limited by accumulation of these compounds in the sludge bed. This accumulation reduces the solid retention time and methanogenic activity of the sludge. The aim of the presented research was to achieve removal of suspended solids

G. Zeeman; W. T. M. Sanders; K. Y. Wang; G. Lettinga



Ruthenium Complex with Benznidazole and Nitric Oxide as a New Candidate for the Treatment of Chagas Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Chagas disease remains a serious medical and social problem in Latin America and is an emerging concern in nonendemic countries as a result of population movement, transfusion of infected blood or organs and congenital transmission. The current treatment of infected patients is unsatisfactory due to strain-specific drug resistance and the side effects of the current medications. For this reason, the discovery of safer and more effective chemotherapy is mandatory for the successful treatment and future eradication of Chagas disease. Methods and Findings We investigated the effect of a ruthenium complex with benznidazole and nitric oxide (RuBzNO2) against Trypanosoma cruzi both in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrated that RuBzNO2 was more effective than the same concentrations of benznidazole (Bz) in eliminating both the extracellular trypomastigote and the intracellular amastigote forms of the parasite, with no cytotoxic effect in mouse cells. In vivo treatment with the compound improved the survival of infected mice, inhibiting heart damage more efficiently than Bz alone. Accordingly, tissue inflammation and parasitism was significantly diminished after treatment with RuBzNO2 in a more effective manner than that with the same concentrations of Bz. Conclusions The complexation of Bz with ruthenium and nitric oxide (RuBzNO2) increases its effectiveness against T. cruzi and enables treatment with lower concentrations of the compound, which may reduce the side effects of Bz. Our findings provide a new potential candidate for the treatment of Chagas disease. PMID:25275456

Sesti-Costa, Renata; Carneiro, Zumira A.; Silva, Maria C.; Santos, Maíta; Silva, Grace K.; Milanezi, Cristiane; da Silva, Roberto S.; Silva, João S.



Computer-aided patch planning for treatment of complex coarctation of the aorta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between five and eight percent of all children born with congenitally malformed hearts suffer from coarctations of the aorta. Some severe coarctations can only be treated by surgical repair. Untreated, this defect can cause serious damage to organ development or even lead to death. Patch repair requires open surgery. It can affect patients of any age: newborns with severe coarctation and/or hypoplastic aortic arch as well as older patients with late diagnosis of coarctation of the aorta. Another patient group are patients of varying age with re-coarctation of the aorta or hypoplastic aortic arch after surgical and/or interventional repair. If anatomy is complex and interventional treatment by catheterization, balloon angioplasty or stent placement is not possible, surgery is indicated. The choice of type of surgery depends not only on the given anatomy but also on the experience the surgical team has with each method. One surgical approach is patch repair. A patch of a suitable shape and size is sewed into the aorta to expand the aortic lumen at the site of coarctation. At present, the shape and size of the patch are estimated intra-operatively by the surgeon. We have developed a software application that allows planning of the patch pre-operatively on the basis of magnetic resonance angiographic data. The application determines the diameter of the coarctation and/or hypoplastic segment and constructs a patch proposal by calculating the difference to the normal vessel diameter pre-operatively. Evaluation of MR angiographic datasets from 12 test patients with different kinds of aortic arch stenosis shows a divergence of only (1.5+/-1.2) mm in coarctation diameters between manual segmentations and our approach, with comparable time expenditure. Following this proposal the patch can be prepared and adapted to the patient's anatomy pre-operatively. Ideally, this leads to shorter operation times and a better long-term outcome with a reduced rate of residual stenosis and re-stenosis and aneurysm formation.

Rietdorf, Urte; Riesenkampff, Eugénie; Kuehne, Titus; Huebler, Michael; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Wolf, Ivo



Formulation, characterization and evaluation of cyclodextrin-complexed bendamustine-encapsulated PLGA nanospheres for sustained delivery in cancer treatment.  


Abstract PLGA nanospheres are considered to be promising drug carrier in the treatment of cancer. Inclusion complex of bendamustine (BM) with epichlorohydrin beta cyclodextrin polymer was prepared by freeze-drying method. Phase solubility study revealed formation of AL type complex with stability constant (Ks?=?645?M(-1)). This inclusion complex was encapsulated into PLGA nanospheres using solid-in-oil-in-water (S/O/W) technique. The particle size and zeta potential of PLGA nanospheres loaded with cyclodextrin-complexed BM were about 151.4?±?2.53?nm and?-?31.9?±?(-3.08)?mV. In-vitro release study represented biphasic release pattern with 20% burst effect and sustained slow release. DSC studies indicated that inclusion complex incorporated in PLGA nanospheres was not in a crystalline state but existed in an amorphous or molecular state. The cytotoxicity experiment was studied in Z-138 cells and IC50 value was found to be 4.3?±?0.11?µM. Cell viability studies revealed that the PLGA nanospheres loaded with complex exerts a more pronounced effect on the cancer cells as compared to the free drug. In conclusion, PLGA nanospheres loaded with inclusion complex of BM led to sustained drug delivery. The nanospheres were stable after 3 months of storage conditions with slight change in their particle size, zeta potential and entrapment efficiency. PMID:25391288

Gidwani, Bina; Vyas, Amber



Quality assurance for high dose rate brachytherapy treatment planning optimization: using a simple optimization to verify a complex optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As dose optimization for high dose rate brachytherapy becomes more complex, it becomes increasingly important to have a means of verifying that optimization results are reasonable. A method is presented for using a simple optimization as quality assurance for the more complex optimization algorithms typically found in commercial brachytherapy treatment planning systems. Quality assurance tests may be performed during commissioning, at regular intervals, and/or on a patient specific basis. A simple optimization method is provided that optimizes conformal target coverage using an exact, variance-based, algebraic approach. Metrics such as dose volume histogram, conformality index, and total reference air kerma agree closely between simple and complex optimizations for breast, cervix, prostate, and planar applicators. The simple optimization is shown to be a sensitive measure for identifying failures in a commercial treatment planning system that are possibly due to operator error or weaknesses in planning system optimization algorithms. Results from the simple optimization are surprisingly similar to the results from a more complex, commercial optimization for several clinical applications. This suggests that there are only modest gains to be made from making brachytherapy optimization more complex. The improvements expected from sophisticated linear optimizations, such as PARETO methods, will largely be in making systems more user friendly and efficient, rather than in finding dramatically better source strength distributions.

Deufel, Christopher L.; Furutani, Keith M.



Complex regional pain syndrome: A review of evidence-supported treatment options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex regional pain syndrome consists of pain and other symptoms that are unexpectedly severe or protracted after an injury.\\u000a In type II complex regional pain syndrome, major nerve injury, often with motor involvement, is the cause; in complex regional\\u000a pain syndrome I, the culprit is a more occult lesion, often a lesser injury that predominantly affects unmyelinated axons.\\u000a In florid

E. Daniela Hord; Anne Louise Oaklander



[Local use of recombinant interleukin-1 beta in the complex treatment of patients with acute lung abscess].  


An analysis of results of examination and treatment of 59 patients with a prolonged duration of acute abscesses of the lungs has shown the influence of immune disorders on the dynamics of the development and outcome of pyo-destructive disease in the lung. The indications to local immunosubstituting therapy were determined. A new original method of administration and a scheme of prescription of the medicine Betaleukin are proposed. Clinical efficiency of the method proposed is shown. The local immunocorrection used in the complex treatment of patients with acute abscesses of the lungs allows to get recovery of 89% of the patients. PMID:11517783

Bisenkov, L N; Simbirtsev, A S; Zolotarev, D V; Salamatov, A V; Variushina, E A



[Complex pathogenetic treatment schemes of vascular dyscirculatory disorders in the remote period after exposure to low dose radiation].  


Complex studies including modern methods of investigation of structures and functions of nervous system: electroencephalograsphy (EEG), coherent analysis, neuropsychological study and methods of neuroimaging were performed in 517 participants in liquidation of consequences of the accident (LCA) at the Chernobyl NPP in 1986-1987. Dyscirculatory metabolic encephalopathy was revealed to be the main pathology with the etiological mechanism based on dyscirculatorhypoxic and metabolic disorders. Complexity of the revealed symptoms testified to an early organism aging in remote periods after exposure to low dose radiation. Pathogenetic schemes were developed for treatment of dyscirculatory encephalopathy in liquidators, which include drugs improving blood supply, antiaggregants, antioxidants and metabolites of the brains in various combinations. Taking into consideration that early appearance of vascular dyscirculatory disorders observed in liquidators is the sign of early aging of the organism, geroprotectors were added to treatment schemes. PMID:25434175

Holodova, N B; Zhavoronkova, L A; Ryzhov, B N



[Complex pathogenetic treatment schemes of vascular dyscirculatory disorders in the remote period after exposure to low dose radiation].  


Complex studies including modern methods of investigation of structures and functions of nervous system: electroencephalograsphy (EEG), coherent analysis, neuropsychological study and methods of neuroimaging were performed in 517 participants in liquidation of consequences of the accident (LCA) at the Chernobyl NPP in 1986-1987. Dyscirculatory metabolic encephalopathy was revealed to be the main pathology with the etiological mechanism based on dyscirculatorhypoxic and metabolic disorders. Complexity of the revealed symptoms testified to an early organism aging in remote periods after exposure to low dose radiation. Pathogenetic schemes were developed for treatment of dyscirculatory encephalopathy in liquidators, which include drugs improving blood supply, antiaggregants, antioxidants and metabolites of the brains in various combinations. Taking into consideration that early appearance of vascular dyscirculatory disorders observed in liquidators is the sign of early aging of the organism, geroprotectors were added to treatment schemes. PMID:25507773



Autologous fibrin glue in the treatment of rectovaginal and complex fistulas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This nonrandomized series reports the use of autologous fibrin glue to treat complex rectovaginal and anorectal fistulas. The use of an autologous source to prepare fibrin glue eliminates the risk of disease transmission. Ten patients, six women and four men, with complex fistulas were treated with autologous fibrin glue application. Five patients had rectovaginal fistulas; one of them had Crohn's

Michael E. Abel; Yanek S. Y. Chiu; Thomas R. Russell; Peter A. Volpe



Theoretical treatment of double photoionization of helium using a B -spline implementation of exterior complex scaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calculations of absolute triple-differential and single-differential cross sections for helium double photoionization are performed using an implementation of exterior complex scaling in B -splines. Results for cross sections, well converged in partial waves, are presented and compared with both experiment and earlier theoretical calculations. These calculations establish the practicality and effectiveness of the complex B -spline approach to calculations of

C. W. McCurdy; D. A. Horner; T. N. Rescigno; F. Martín



[Efficacy of the immunomodulating therapy in complex treatment of gastric cancer complicated by acute hemorrhage using radical operations].  


The results of radical operative treatment of 10 patients, suffering gastric cancer, complicated by an acute hemorrhage, using immunomodulating therapy, were presented. The immunomodulator application have promoted the natural cells-killers cytological activity raising, the tumoral antigens (AG) elimination, as well as to enhance the neutrophils bactericidal and phagocytic activity, the circulating immune complexes (AG+IgG), (AG+IgM) formation and their deducing from an organism. PMID:21846027

Shepet'ko, E N; Bychkova, N G; Garmash, D A; Kurbanov, A K



Predicting stabilizing treatment outcomes for complex posttraumatic stress disorder and dissociative identity disorder: an expertise-based prognostic model.  


The purpose of this study was to develop an expertise-based prognostic model for the treatment of complex posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID). We developed a survey in 2 rounds: In the first round we surveyed 42 experienced therapists (22 DID and 20 complex PTSD therapists), and in the second round we surveyed a subset of 22 of the 42 therapists (13 DID and 9 complex PTSD therapists). First, we drew on therapists' knowledge of prognostic factors for stabilization-oriented treatment of complex PTSD and DID. Second, therapists prioritized a list of prognostic factors by estimating the size of each variable's prognostic effect; we clustered these factors according to content and named the clusters. Next, concept mapping methodology and statistical analyses (including principal components analyses) were used to transform individual judgments into weighted group judgments for clusters of items. A prognostic model, based on consensually determined estimates of effect sizes, of 8 clusters containing 51 factors for both complex PTSD and DID was formed. It includes the clusters lack of motivation, lack of healthy relationships, lack of healthy therapeutic relationships, lack of other internal and external resources, serious Axis I comorbidity, serious Axis II comorbidity, poor attachment, and self-destruction. In addition, a set of 5 DID-specific items was constructed. The model is supportive of the current phase-oriented treatment model, emphasizing the strengthening of the therapeutic relationship and the patient's resources in the initial stabilization phase. Further research is needed to test the model's statistical and clinical validity. PMID:21240739

Baars, Erik W; van der Hart, Onno; Nijenhuis, Ellert R S; Chu, James A; Glas, Gerrit; Draijer, Nel



Typicality of Inanimate Category Exemplars in Aphasia Treatment: Further Evidence for Semantic Complexity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The typicality treatment approach on improving naming was investigated within 2 inanimate categories ("furniture" and "clothing") using a single-subject experimental design across participants and behaviors in 5 patients with aphasia. Method: Participants received a semantic feature treatment to improve naming of either typical or…

Kiran, Swathi



Decisions on multiple sclerosis immunotherapy: New treatment complexities urge patient engagement  

Microsoft Academic Search

For patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) involvement in treatment decisions becomes ever more imperative. Recently new therapeutic options have become available for the treatment of MS and more will be licensed in the near future. Although more efficacious and easier to administer, the new drugs pose increased risks of severe side effects. Also, new diagnostic criteria lead to more and

Christoph Heesen; Alessandra Solari; Andrea Giordano; Jürgen Kasper; Sascha Köpke



Dose calculation methodology for irradiation treatment of complex-shaped foods  

E-print Network

of the treated product falls within some specified range. The Monte Carlo electron transport simulation and computer tomography (CT) scan technology were used to predict the dose distribution in complex shaped foods, an apple phantom composed of paraffin wax...

Kim, Jongsoon



Metal complexes designed to bind to amyloid-? for the diagnosis and treatment of Alzheimer's disease.  


Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of age-related neurodegenerative dementia. The disease is characterised by the presence of plaques in the cerebral cortex. The major constituent of these plaques is aggregated amyloid-? peptide. This review focuses on the molecular aspects of metal complexes designed to bind to amyloid-?. The development of radioactive metal-based complexes of copper and technetium designed as diagnostic imaging agents to detect amyloid burden in the brain is discussed. Separate sections of the review discuss the use of luminescent metal complexes to act as non-conventional probes of amyloid formation and recent research into the use of metal complexes as inhibitors of amyloid formation and toxicity. PMID:24671229

Hayne, David J; Lim, SinChun; Donnelly, Paul S



Effects of the medical resonance therapy music in the complex treatment of epileptic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Medical Resonance Therapy Music (MRT-Music) as a psycho-physiological\\u000a method for the treatment of epilepsy in severe epileptic patients, whose attacks persevered despite comprehensive drug treatments.\\u000a Under investigation were frequency and severity of epileptic attacks, the subjective state, the dynamics of the inter-paroxysmal\\u000a symptoms and the individual parameters of the

V. N. Sidorenko



Preliminary application of hybrid operation in the treatment of carotid artery stenosis in patients with complex ischemic cerebrovascular diseases  

PubMed Central

Along with the recent development of intraluminal interventional techniques and correlated imaging methods, one-stop hybrid operation has become a new focus in clinical settings. The aim of this study is to discuss the clinical significance of the one-stop hybrid endarterectomy surgery in the treatment of complex ischemic cerebrovascular diseases. In this study, clinical data from 10 patients with complex ischemic cerebrovascular diseases (including multi-vessel severe stenosis of the internal extracranial carotid artery, single vessel series stenosis of the internal extracranial carotid artery, in-stent restenosis, complete occlusion of the common carotid or the internal carotid artery) admitted to Beijing Xuanwu Hospital and Liaocheng Brain Hospital, were retrospectively analyzed. All enrolled subjects underwent three types of hybrid operations. The clinical efficacy of this surgery was subsequently assessed in this clinical trial. The results indicated that no related surgical complications were noted during the perioperative period. Intraoperative and postoperative imaging revealed no signs of vascular stenosis, the blood supply recovered, and clinical symptoms were alleviated. The follow-up lasted for 6 to 12 months. Imaging re-examination showed no evidence of re-stenosis and good blood circulation was present in the recanalized blood vessels. Favorable treatment efficacy was achieved. The intracranial blood supply was significantly improved postoperatively. In conclusion, one-stop hybrid operation plays an important role in treating complex stenosis cerebrovascular diseases. PMID:25197423

Zhang, Liyong; Xing, Tao; Geng, Fenyang; Du, Lixin; Wang, Jiyue



Towards a density functional treatment of chemical reactions in complex media  

SciTech Connect

We discuss two techniques involving density functional theory (i.e., ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and frozen density functional theory) which show promise for applications directed towards understanding reactions in complex media. Preliminary results for the simulation of the conformational dynamics of an isolated analogue of alanine dipeptide and for the interaction between F{sup -} and H{sub 2}O are included. These results represent the first steps towards a combined theoretical approach of reactions in complex media. 23 refs., 4 figs.

Berard, D.R.; Wei, D. [Centre de Recherche en Calcul Applique, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Salahub, D.R. [Universite de Montreal, Quebec (Canada); [Centre de Recherche en Calcul Applique, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)



Harnessing the complexity of DNA-damage response pathways to improve cancer treatment outcomes.  


The DNA-damage response (DDR) pathways consist of interconnected components that respond to DNA damage to allow repair and promote cell survival. The DNA repair pathways and downstream cellular responses have diverged in cancer cells compared with normal cells because of genetic alterations that underlie drug resistance, disabled repair and resistance to apoptosis. Consequently, abrogating DDR pathways represents an important mechanism for enhancing the therapeutic index of DNA-damaging anticancer agents. In this review, we discuss the DDR pathways that determine antitumor effects of DNA-damaging agents with a specific focus on treatment outcomes in tumors carrying a defective p53 pathway. Finely tuned survival and death pathways govern the cellular responses downstream of the cytotoxic insults inherent in anticancer treatment. The significance and relative contributions of cellular responses including apoptosis, mitotic catastrophe and senescence are discussed in relation to the web of molecular interactions that affect such outcomes. We propose that promising combinations of DNA-damaging anticancer treatments with DDR-pathway inhibition would be further enhanced by activating downstream apoptotic pathways. The proposed rationale ensures that actual cell death is the preferred outcome of cancer treatment instead of other responses, including reversible cell cycle arrest, autophagy or senescence. Finally, to better measure the contribution of different cellular responses to anticancer treatments, multiplex in vivo assessments of therapy-induced response pathways such as cell death, senescence and mitotic catastrophe is desirable rather than the current reliance on the measurement of a single response pathway such as apoptosis. PMID:20818418

Al-Ejeh, F; Kumar, R; Wiegmans, A; Lakhani, S R; Brown, M P; Khanna, K K



Complex I Disorders: Causes, Mechanisms, and Development of Treatment Strategies at the Cellular Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) represents the final step in the conversion of nutrients into cellular energy. Genetic defects in the OXPHOS system have an incidence between 1:5,000 and 1:10,000 live births. Inherited isolated deficiency of the first complex (CI) of this system, a multisubunit assembly of 45 different proteins,…

Valsecchi, Federica; Koopman, Werner J. H.; Manjeri, Ganesh R.; Rodenburg, Richard J.; Smeitink, Jan A. M.; Willems, Peter H. G. M.



Symposium for dental treatment of medically complex children: Practice based culminating experience a continuing education course  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this Continuing Education Course is to provide oral health professionals with information to address the unique dental needs of medically complex children. The objective is to train dentists to treat special needs patients so these children have more access to oral healthcare. ^ Under the auspice of Dell Children Hospital of Austin, Lisa Jacob DDS MS is

Ayman Bizra



The complexity of ADHD: diagnosis and treatment of the adult patient with comorbidities.  


Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an impairing but usually treatable condition. Popular culture propagates the myth that ADHD recedes with age; this is not the case. Although it is common, <20% of adults with ADHD are diagnosed or treated. Adults with ADHD show significant comorbidities with depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, substance use, oppositional defiant disorder, personality disorders, sleep problems, and learning disabilities. However, symptoms that result from ADHD, such as mood symptoms or lability, are often mistaken for comorbid disorders. Comorbidity with ADHD impacts treatment compliance, treatment response, and patient insight. Insufficient data on the interaction between ADHD and comorbidities impedes proper diagnosis and treatment. Better clinical tools for assessing these conditions are needed. Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacologic treatments for adult ADHD include stimulants, dexmethylphenidate, and the nonstimulant atomoxetine. Effect sizes of approved medicines at approved doses are half those seen in children. Adults may also need longer duration of medication effects than children. Short-acting stimulants are likely to result in poorer adherence and have a higher risk for diversion or abuse. Risk of abuse is a major concern; stimulant treatments are controlled substances, and children with ADHD show increased risk of substance abuse. Psychosocial interventions may be beneficial in treating both ADHD and comorbidities.In this expert roundtable supplement, Margaret Weiss, MD, PhD, presents a comprehensive overview of complications surrounding differential diagnosis in adults with ADHD. Next, Mark A. Stein, PhD, reviews evaluation, comorbidity, and development of a treatment plan in this population. Finally, Jeffrey H. Newcorn, MD, provides a discussion on the pharmacologic options available for adults with ADHD, considering dosages specific to adults and common comorbidities. PMID:17667893

Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Weiss, Margaret; Stein, Mark A



When is the right time? complex issues around withdrawing life-sustaining treatment in children.  


When should one withdraw treatment in children? The challenge is to recognise when a decision needs to be made. Parents may be in denial, and deciding which questions to ask may be difficult. Ethically, the guiding principle should be the child's best interests. May the parents or primary caregiver decide what the child's best interests are? Legislation in South Africa prevents a parent or caregiver from refusing treatment that professionals deem to be in the child's best interests. This article discusses the ethical and legal aspects around the decision to palliate in children. PMID:25298992

Ambler, J



CdS thin films obtained by thermal treatment of cadmium(II) complex precursor deposited by MAPLE technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin films of [Cd{SSi(O-Bu t) 3}(S 2CNEt 2)] 2, precursor for semiconducting CdS layers, were deposited on silicon substrates by Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique. Structural analysis of the obtained films by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the viability of the procedure. After the deposition of the coordination complex, the layers are manufactured by appropriate thermal treatment of the system (thin film and substrate), according to the thermal analysis of the compound. Surface morphology of the thin films was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and spectroscopic-ellipsometry (SE) measurements.

Rotaru, Andrei; Mietlarek-Kropid?owska, Anna; Constantinescu, Catalin; Sc?ri?oreanu, Nicu; Dumitru, Marius; Strankowski, Michal; Rotaru, Petre; Ion, Valentin; Vasiliu, Cristina; Becker, Barbara; Dinescu, Maria



Progression of Language Complexity during Treatment with the Lidcombe Program for Early Stuttering Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Lidcombe Program is an operant treatment for early stuttering. Outcomes indicate that the program is effective; however, the underlying mechanisms leading to a successful reduction of stuttering remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine whether fluency achieved with the Lidcombe Program was accompanied by concomitant reduction…

Lattermann, Christina; Shenker, Rosalee C.; Thordardottir, Elin



Fibromyalgia and the complex regional pain syndrome: similarities in pathophysiology and treatment  

E-print Network

signals--and both apparently respond to treatment with ketamine, an anesthetic-analgesic agent whose actions include blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Ketamine's widespread illegal use of a prior injury or surgical procedure. Given ketamine's psychotropic effects, this drug is not an optimal

Wurtman, Richard


Simple and Complex Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Strategies for Comprehensive Treatment in Clinical Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book delivers state-of-the-art techniques and information for practitioners to help individuals, groups, families, and communities suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It addresses concerns about the efficacy of critical incident stress debriefing, examines the value of a variety of innovative treatment methods, and explores…

Williams, Mary Beth; Sommer, John F., Jr.


The Role of Semantic Complexity in Treatment of Naming Deficits: Training Semantic Categories in Fluent Aphasia by Controlling Exemplar Typicality  

PubMed Central

The effect of typicality of category exemplars on naming was investigated using a single subject experimental design across participants and behaviors in 4 patients with fluent aphasia. Participants received a semantic feature treatment to improve naming of either typical or atypical items within semantic categories, while generalization was tested to untrained items of the category. The order of typicality and category trained was counterbalanced across participants. Results indicated that patients trained on naming of atypical exemplars demonstrated generalization to naming of intermediate and typical items. However, patients trained on typical items demonstrated no generalized naming effect to intermediate or atypical examples. Furthermore, analysis of errors indicated an evolution of errors throughout training, from those with no apparent relationship to the target to primarily semantic and phonemic paraphasias. Performance on standardized language tests also showed changes as a function of treatment. Theoretical and clinical implications regarding the impact of considering semantic complexity on rehabilitation of naming deficits in aphasia are discussed. PMID:12959459

Kiran, Swathi; Thompson, Cynthia K.



Treatment of Complex Dissociative Disorders: A Comparison of Interventions Reported by Community Therapists versus Those Recommended by Experts.  


There is a paucity of empirical data to assist clinicians in choosing interventions to use with patients with complex dissociative disorder (DD; i.e., dissociative identity disorder and dissociative disorder not otherwise specified) at different stages in treatment. This study compared interventions used by a sample of international outpatient therapists treating DD clients in the 1st 2 stages of treatment with those recommended by expert DD therapists. There were many similarities between therapists' and experts' interventions, including the use of several emotion regulation and dissociation-focused interventions. However, community therapists reported significantly less focus on relationally oriented interventions, teaching and using grounding and containment skills, and stabilizing patients after revictimization by alleged perpetrators. This study has important implications for the development and implementation of training opportunities for DD therapists. PMID:25365637

Myrick, Amie C; Chasson, Gregory S; Lanius, Ruth A; Leventhal, Barry; Brand, Bethany L



Transfundal stent placement for treatment of complex basilar tip aneurysm: technical note.  


We describe a case where a complex unruptured basilar tip aneurysm was treated with a unique method of stent-assisted coil embolization. The aneurysm was considered to have a complex anatomy since both the left posterior cerebral artery and left superior cerebellar artery originated from the dome of the aneurysm. Also, the right posterior cerebral artery was incorporated in the aneurysm neck and needed to be protected prior to coil embolization. This case describes placement of a stent across the span of the aneurysm fundus in order to preserve the two branches arising from it, and the aneurysm dome was coiled without any complication. Using modifications of existing strategies for stent-assisted coil embolization, the aneurysm was treated without any complications and all of the vessels at risk were preserved. PMID:25336546

Vasquez, Ciro; Hubbard, Molly; Jagadeesan, Bharathi Dasan; Tummala, Ramachandra Prasad



Transfundal stent placement for treatment of complex basilar tip aneurysm: technical note.  


We describe a case where a complex unruptured basilar tip aneurysm was treated with a unique method of stent-assisted coil embolization. The aneurysm was considered to have a complex anatomy since both the left posterior cerebral artery and left superior cerebellar artery originated from the dome of the aneurysm. Also, the right posterior cerebral artery was incorporated in the aneurysm neck and needed to be protected prior to coil embolization. This case describes placement of a stent across the span of the aneurysm fundus in order to preserve the two branches arising from it, and the aneurysm dome was coiled without any complication. Using modifications of existing strategies for stent-assisted coil embolization, the aneurysm was treated without any complications and all of the vessels at risk were preserved. PMID:25352580

Vasquez, Ciro; Hubbard, Molly; Jagadeesan, Bharathi Dasan; Tummala, Ramachandra Prasad



Density functional treatment of water-carbon dioxide van der Waals complex  

SciTech Connect

LCGTO-LSD and LCGTO-NLSD methods have been tested for the study of water-carbon dioxide weakly bound binary complex. Different local and nonlocal exchange-correlation energy functionals and many grid radial points have been used. Results show that both nonlocal corrections and a large number of radial points in the grid are mandatory for well reproducing then experimental data. 19 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Abashkin, Y.; Mele, F.; Russo, N.; Toscano, M. [Universita della Calabria, Arcavacata di Rende (Italy)



Outcomes of Zilver PTX stent implantation for the treatment of complex femoropopliteal artery disease.  


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Zilver PTX, the first drug-eluting stent, in patients with complex femoropopliteal (FP) artery disease. Between July 2012 and March 2013, 60 consecutive patients (39 males; mean age: 72.5 ± 8.6 years) with complex risk factors including TASC II C/D lesions, in-stent restenosis (ISR) and/or on haemodialysis underwent successful Zilver PTX implantation for symptomatic FP artery disease. The primary outcome was primary patency, which was defined as freedom from restenosis at 12 months, as verified by duplex ultrasound. Secondary outcomes included the technical success rate, the freedom from target lesion revascularisation (TLR) rate and the amputation-free survival (AFS) rate. The average follow-up period was 13.2 ± 5.3 months. 62 % of the patients had TASC II C/D lesions, 35.0 % experienced ISR, and 41.6 % were on haemodialysis. The mean lesion length was 188 ± 96 mm. The technical success rate was 98.3 %. The primary patency rate was 50.2 %, the freedom from clinically driven TLR rate was 68.6 %, and the AFS rate was 83.2 % at 12 months. In conclusion, Zilver PTX stent implantation for complex FP artery disease did not affect long-term durability. PMID:25351136

Fujihara, Masahiko; Utsunomiya, Makoto; Higashimori, Akihiro; Yokoi, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Masato



[The experience of complex treatment of children with bilateral cleft lip and palate].  


Three grades of premaxilla deformation were revealed in children with bilateral cleft lip and palate. All patients with grade I and some children with grade II deformation received early orthopedic treatment by Sharova appliance while in patients with grade III deformation orthodontic devices with bone fixation with microimplants were used or microimplants alone for orthodontic anchorage. This approach allowed achieving full side contact of premaxilla and maxillary fragments in 1-2 months thus creating favorable conditions for surgical procedure. PMID:25588345

Supiev, T K; Mamedov, A A; Negametzianov, N G; Nurmaganov, S B; Utepov, D K; Katasonova, E S; Kozhabekov, E M



Optimizing Treatment for Complex Cases of Childhood Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: A Preliminary Trial  

PubMed Central

Objective Family factors such as conflict, blame, and poor cohesion have been found to attenuate response to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for pediatric obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). This study examined the feasibility and acceptability of a brief, personalized intervention for cases of pediatric OCD complicated by these family features. Method Twenty youth with a primary DSM-IV diagnosis of OCD (mean age = 12.50 years; 55% male; 60% Caucasian) and their families participated. To be included in the study, families were required to evidence poor functioning on measures of blame, conflict, and/or cohesion. Eligible families were randomly assigned to either standard treatment (ST) with 12 weeks of individual child CBT that included weekly parent check ins and psychoeducation or to Positive Family Interaction Therapy (PFIT), which consisted of 12 weeks of individual child CBT plus an additional six sessions of family treatment aimed at shifting family dynamics. Clinical outcomes were determined by blind independent evaluators using the Clinician's Global Impressions-Improvement (CGI-I) scale. Results All families completed the study. High levels of satisfaction were reported among participants in both arms of the study, despite the added burden of attending the PFIT sessions. Both mothers and fathers attended 95% of the PFIT family sessions. Families in the ST condition demonstrated a 40% response rate on the CGI-I; families in the PFIT condition demonstrated a 70% response rate. Treatment gains were maintained in both conditions at 3-month follow-up. Conclusions Preliminary data suggest that PFIT is acceptable and feasible. Further testing and treatment development are needed to optimize outcomes for complicated cases of pediatric OCD. PMID:22548378

Peris, Tara S.; Piacentini, John



Single-use NPWT for the treatment of complex orthopaedic surgical and trauma wounds.  


Orthopaedic limb reconstruction patients often have wounds that are difficult to heal either due to the underlying problems, their surgery, underlying comorbidities or a combination of these factors. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is a useful tool with which to manage these wounds; however, many systems are not ideal for use in the patient's home, due in part to size and complexity. There are also staff training issues if transferring patients to an area which does not routinely use negative pressure systems. This paper reports the outcomes for some of the patients who were treated with a novel, single-use NPWT device in a orthopaedic trauma/limb reconstruction unit. PMID:24142141

Sharp, E



Early adjunct treatment with topical lidocaine results in improved pain and function in a patient with complex regional pain syndrome.  


Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a pain disorder characterized by sensory, motor, trophic and autonomic dysfunction. The hallmark of the disorder is pain out of proportion of the inciting event. CRPS is difficult for clinicians to manage as there is no gold standard for diagnosis or treatment. Patients with CRPS are at risk of developing contractures, tissue atrophy, joint dislocation and severe chronic pain. While CRPS is thought to be due to peripheral and central nervous system dysfunction, there is limited understanding of the pathophysiology of CRPS. The proposed mechanisms are multifactorial and consequently, so are the proposed treatments. These treatments can be invasive, such as intrathecal drug delivery or sympathectomy, which have poor evidence for efficacy. Thus, highlighting the need for a safe, effective, and early intervention. We present a case of topical 5% lidocaine ointment as a non-invasive, inexpensive and effective adjunct treatment in the management of pain in a spinal cord injured patient presenting with early CRPS. The clinically important effect of topical lidocaine for reducing severe allodynia allowed the patient to participate in rehabilitation strategies to further manage the debilitating consequences of her CRPS, including decreased range of motion (ROM) and function. The immediate pain relief from topical lidocaine allowed the patient to tolerate physical therapy sessions directed at her CRPS. A successful outcome was measured subjectively and objectively by our patient's reduction in symptoms and improvement in ROM and function, respectively. This case study provides preliminary support for improved pain and functional outcome with early adjunct treatment of CRPS with topical lidocaine. PMID:25247913

Hanlan, Amy K L; Mah-Jones, Dianna; Mills, Patricia B



Treatment of the aorto-iliac segment in complex lower extremity arterial occlusive disease.  


Endovascular treatment of the aortoiliac segment in occlusive disease has an established role especially in TASC A and B lesions. Recent studies with modern stent technology have shown excellent results with one-year primary patency above 95%. Regarding different endovascular approaches, there is level Ib evidence supporting provisional stenting in stenosed arteries, and primary stenting in occlusion. While open surgery shows higher patency rates in direct comparison to endovascular techniques, the latter show significantly lower complication rates and lower mortality. The recommendations reserving TASC C and D lesions exclusively to surgery are currently challenged, especially in poor surgical candidates. PMID:25475917

Wressnegger, A; Kinstner, C; Funovics, M



Alternative Techniques for Treatment of Complex Below-the Knee Arterial Occlusions in Diabetic Patients With Critical Limb Ischemia  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to describe alternative endovascular (EV) techniques and assess their feasibility and efficacy in minimizing failure rates in limb salvage for the treatment of complex below-the knee (BTK) occlusions that could not be crossed with a conventional antegrade access. Between December 2007 and November 2010, 1,035 patients (557 male) underwent EV treatment for critical limb ischemia in our institution. In 124 (12% [83 male], mean age 68.2 {+-} 0.5 years) patients, transfemoral antegrade revascularization attempt failed, and an alternative approach was used. Follow-up was performed at 1 and 6 months. Results were compared with 56 patients treated between November 2002 and November 2007, in whom conventional technique was unsuccessful and unconventional techniques were not adopted. Technical success was achieved in 119 (96%) patients. The limb-salvage rates were 96.8% and 83% at 1- and 6-month follow-up, respectively. Sixteen (12.9%) and 33 (26.6%) patients underwent reintervention at 1- and 6-month follow-up, respectively. Transcutaneous oxygen tension increased at 1 month (44.7 {+-} 1.1 vs. 15.7 {+-} 0.8 mmHg; p < 0.001) and remained stable at follow-up. Twenty (16.1%) patients required major amputation. Thirteen (10.4%) patients died during follow-up. In our previous experience, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty failure, amputation, and death rates were 10.9, 39.2, and 23.2%, respectively. Alternative techniques allowed a significant decrease of major amputation and death rates (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.02, respectively). The use of alternative techniques seems feasible in case of a failed antegrade BTK revascularization attempt and could minimize failure rates in the treatment of complex occlusions while providing satisfying clinical success rates at 6 months.

Gandini, Roberto [IRCCS Policlinico di Tor Vergata, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Interventional Radiology, Radiotherapy, and Nuclear Medicine (Italy)] [IRCCS Policlinico di Tor Vergata, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Interventional Radiology, Radiotherapy, and Nuclear Medicine (Italy); Uccioli, Luigi [IRCCS Policlinico di Tor Vergata, Department of Internal Medicine (Italy)] [IRCCS Policlinico di Tor Vergata, Department of Internal Medicine (Italy); Spinelli, Alessio; Del Giudice, Costantino, E-mail:; Ros, Valerio Da; Volpi, Tommaso [IRCCS Policlinico di Tor Vergata, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Interventional Radiology, Radiotherapy, and Nuclear Medicine (Italy)] [IRCCS Policlinico di Tor Vergata, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Interventional Radiology, Radiotherapy, and Nuclear Medicine (Italy); Meloni, Marco [IRCCS Policlinico di Tor Vergata, Department of Internal Medicine (Italy)] [IRCCS Policlinico di Tor Vergata, Department of Internal Medicine (Italy); Simonetti, Giovanni [IRCCS Policlinico di Tor Vergata, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Interventional Radiology, Radiotherapy, and Nuclear Medicine (Italy)] [IRCCS Policlinico di Tor Vergata, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Interventional Radiology, Radiotherapy, and Nuclear Medicine (Italy)



Endovascular treatment of a complex bilobed left superior hypophyseal internal carotid artery aneurysm: a case illustration.  


We report the case of a 62-year-old female who presented for stent-assistant coiling of an incidental 11-mm complex bilobed left superior hypophyseal internal carotid artery aneurysm. A microcatheter was navigated into the aneurysm and trapped by a 37-mm stent. Using three-dimensional and two-dimensional coils, the elongated aneurysm was coiled. The bigger lobe was coiled first followed by the smaller lobe. Minimal residual filling of the smaller lobe will be re-evaluated at 6-month follow up. The patient tolerated the procedure well and no complications were encountered. The video can be found here: . PMID:24983719

Hamade, Youssef J; El Tecle, Najib E; Zammar, Samer G; El Ahmadieh, Tarek Y; Yip, Byron K; Bendok, Bernard R



Ketamine treatment for intractable pain in a patient with severe refractory complex regional pain syndrome: a case report.  


In this case report, we describe the effect of ketamine infusion in a case of severe refractory complex regional pain syndrome I (CRPS I). The patient was initially diagnosed with CRPS I in her right upper extremity. Over the next 6 years, CRPS was consecutively diagnosed in her thoracic region, left upper extremity, and both lower extremities. The severity of her pain, combined with the extensive areas afflicted by CRPS, caused traumatic emotional problems for this patient. Conventional treatments, including anticonvulsants, bisphosphonates, oral steroids and opioids, topical creams, dorsal column spinal cord stimulation, spinal morphine infusion, sympathetic ganglion block, and sympathectomy, failed to provide long-term relief from pain. An N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist inhibitor, ketamine, was recently suggested to be effective at resolving intractable pain. The patient was then given several infusions of intravenous ketamine. After the third infusion, the edema, discoloration, and temperature of the affected areas normalized. The patient became completely pain-free. At one-year of follow-up, the patient reported that she has not experienced any pain since the last ketamine infusion. Treatment with intravenous ketamine appeared to be effective in completely resolving intractable pain caused by severe refractory CRPS I. Future research on this treatment is needed. PMID:18523505

Shirani, Peyman; Salamone, Alicia R; Schulz, Paul E; Edmondson, Everton A



Direct access to the middle meningeal artery for embolization of complex dural arteriovenous fistula: a hybrid treatment approach.  


Endovascular embolization has become increasingly favored over microsurgical resection for treatment of complex dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs). However, endovascular treatment can be restricted by tortuous transarterial access and a transvenous approach is not always feasible. We present a Borden III DAVF treated by direct access to the middle meningeal artery (MMA) and Onyx embolization performed in a hybrid operating room-angiography suite. A middle-aged patient with pulsatile headaches was found to have left transverse sinus occlusion and DAVF with retrograde cortical venous drainage fed by multiple external carotid artery (ECA) feeders. Endovascular attempts via conventional transvenous and transarterial routes were unsuccessful, and the major MMA feeder was accessed directly after temporal craniotomy was performed under neuronavigation. Onyx embolization was performed; complete occlusion of the fistula was achieved. Three-month follow-up angiography showed no residual filling; the patient remains complication-free. A combined surgical-endovascular technique in a hybrid operating room-angiography suite can be an effective treatment for DAVFs complicated by inaccessible arterial and transvenous approaches. PMID:24916414

Lin, Ning; Brouillard, Adam M; Mokin, Maxim; Natarajan, Sabareesh K; Snyder, Kenneth V; Levy, Elad I; Siddiqui, Adnan H



Direct access to the middle meningeal artery for embolization of complex dural arteriovenous fistula: a hybrid treatment approach.  


Endovascular embolization has become increasingly favored over microsurgical resection for treatment of complex dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs). However, endovascular treatment can be restricted by tortuous transarterial access and a transvenous approach is not always feasible. We present a Borden III DAVF treated by direct access to the middle meningeal artery (MMA) and Onyx embolization performed in a hybrid operating room-angiography suite. A middle-aged patient with pulsatile headaches was found to have left transverse sinus occlusion and DAVF with retrograde cortical venous drainage fed by multiple external carotid artery (ECA) feeders. Endovascular attempts via conventional transvenous and transarterial routes were unsuccessful, and the major MMA feeder was accessed directly after temporal craniotomy was performed under neuronavigation. Onyx embolization was performed; complete occlusion of the fistula was achieved. Three-month follow-up angiography showed no residual filling; the patient remains complication-free. A combined surgical-endovascular technique in a hybrid operating room-angiography suite can be an effective treatment for DAVFs complicated by inaccessible arterial and transvenous approaches. PMID:24903968

Lin, Ning; Brouillard, Adam M; Mokin, Maxim; Natarajan, Sabareesh K; Snyder, Kenneth V; Levy, Elad I; Siddiqui, Adnan H



Surgical treatment of the "parachute mitral valve" complex in infancy (report of a case).  


The case is presented of a 15-month-old male, affected by severe mitral valve regurgitation associated to aortic coarctation. The surgical treatment consisted in replacement of the mitral valve by a Hancock prosthesis followed, at a second state, by resection of the coarctation. The mitral insufficiency was secondary to an anomaly of the subvalvular apparatus of the "Parachute Valve" type. The incidence of defects associated to congenital mitral insufficiency is commented. The surgical indications for replacement or repair of these anomalies in infancy are discussed, and the surgical results achieved to data are analysed. Emphasis is made on the convenience, in case the corrective procedure requires valvular replacement, of implanting a low-profile biological prosthesis, which does not require anticoagulant therapy. PMID:681446

Nojek, C; Agosti, J; Castro, A; Valles, F; Figuera, D



Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel folic acid receptor-targeted, ?-cyclodextrin-based drug complexes for cancer treatment.  


Drug targeting is an active area of research and nano-scaled drug delivery systems hold tremendous potential for the treatment of neoplasms. In this study, a novel cyclodextrin (CD)-based nanoparticle drug delivery system has been assembled and characterized for the therapy of folate receptor-positive [FR(+)] cancer. Water-soluble folic acid (FA)-conjugated CD carriers (FACDs) were successfully synthesized and their structures were confirmed by 1D/2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF-MS), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and circular dichroism. Drug complexes of adamatane (Ada) and cytotoxic doxorubicin (Dox) with FACD were readily obtained by mixed solvent precipitation. The average size of FACD-Ada-Dox was 1.5-2.5 nm. The host-guest association constant K a was 1,639 M(-1) as determined by induced circular dichroism and the hydrophilicity of the FACDs was greatly enhanced compared to unmodified CD. Cellular uptake and FR binding competitive experiments demonstrated an efficient and preferentially targeted delivery of Dox into FR-positive tumor cells and a sustained drug release profile was seen in vitro. The delivery of Dox into FR(+) cancer cells via endocytosis was observed by confocal microscopy and drug uptake of the targeted nanoparticles was 8-fold greater than that of non-targeted drug complexes. Our docking results suggest that FA, FACD and FACD-Ada-Dox could bind human hedgehog interacting protein that contains a FR domain. Mouse cardiomyocytes as well as fibroblast treated with FACD-Ada-Dox had significantly lower levels of reactive oxygen species, with increased content of glutathione and glutathione peroxidase activity, indicating a reduced potential for Dox-induced cardiotoxicity. These results indicate that the targeted drug complex possesses high drug association and sustained drug release properties with good biocompatibility and physiological stability. The novel FA-conjugated ?-CD based drug complex might be promising as an anti-tumor treatment for FR(+) cancer. PMID:23658721

Yin, Juan-Juan; Sharma, Sonali; Shumyak, Stepan P; Wang, Zhi-Xin; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Zhang, Yangde; Guo, Peixuan; Li, Chen-Zhong; Kanwar, Jagat R; Yang, Tianxin; Mohapatra, Shyam S; Liu, Wanqing; Duan, Wei; Wang, Jian-Cheng; Li, Qi; Zhang, Xueji; Tan, Jun; Jia, Lee; Liang, Jun; Wei, Ming Q; Li, Xiaotian; Zhou, Shu-Feng



A boundary collocation meshfree method for the treatment of Poisson problems with complex morphologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new meshfree method based on a discrete transformation of Green's basis functions is introduced to simulate Poisson problems with complex morphologies. The proposed Green's Discrete Transformation Method (GDTM) uses source points that are located along a virtual boundary outside the problem domain to construct the basis functions needed to approximate the field. The optimal number of Green's functions source points and their relative distances with respect to the problem boundaries are evaluated to obtain the best approximation of the partition of unity condition. A discrete transformation technique together with the boundary point collocation method is employed to evaluate the unknown coefficients of the solution series via satisfying the problem boundary conditions. A comprehensive convergence study is presented to investigate the accuracy and convergence rate of the GDTM. We will also demonstrate the application of this meshfree method for simulating the conductive heat transfer in a heterogeneous materials system and the dissolved aluminum ions concentration in the electrolyte solution formed near a passive corrosion pit.

Soghrati, Soheil; Mai, Weijie; Liang, Bowen; Buchheit, Rudolph G.



Novel dual drug-loaded block ionomer complex micelles for enhancing the efficacy of chemotherapy treatments.  


Combination of two or more drugs has emerged as a promising strategy to elicit synergistic therapeutic responses that can overcome multidrug resistance of cancer cells at various stages of the growth cycle. In the current study, we investigated the efficacy of two drugs, mitoxantrone (MTX) and doxorubicin (DOX), co-encapsulated in a polyethylene oxide-b-polyacrylic acid polymer. The resulting block ionomer complex (BIC)-based combination chemotherapy provides a novel method for enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of chemotherapies. The BIC micelles were very stable at physiological pH, and showed a temporally sequenced release profile for the co-encapsulated drugs at tumor pH. This suggests that the micelles can deliver chemotherapeutic agents at the appropriate cellular stage. At a predetermined and carefully controlled ratio (MTX:DOX = 2:1), the two drugs worked synergistically within A549 small lung cancer cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that the synergistic activity of ratiometrically controlled drug combinations can enhance their chemotherapeutic action and overall therapeutic index. PMID:24804551

Ramasamy, Thiruganesh; Kim, Jeonghwan; Choi, Han-Gon; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jong Oh



Use of the Environmental Simulation Program (ESP) to Simulate Complex Waste Treatment Processes  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Simulation Program is a process simulator designed for aqueous based chemical processes. ESP, which is produced by OLI Systems, Inc., utilizes sophisticated activity coefficient models and predictive equations that result in the ability to simulate very complex electrolyte systems (OLI, 2002). The software comes with databanks of regressed parameters for a large number of aqueous, vapor, and solid species covering most of the elements. ESP has been used extensively at the U. S. Department of Energy Hanford Site to predict nuclear waste slurry vapor-liquid-solid equilibrium. It has and is being used to model leaching and washing of nuclear waste sludges, evaporation of nuclear waste solutions, crystallization of salts, precipitation of plutonium and other metals from waste solutions, and other processing of dilute and concentrated aqueous solutions, sludges, and slurries. The software is also used extensively to rationalize the characterization of nuclear wastes using limited data from analyses of waste samples. The OLI provided databanks suffer from a legacy interaction model that limits the accuracy when neutral solutes are important. Also, the nitrate-nitrite systems typically found in nuclear wastes are not properly parameterized in ESP databases because of the existence of sodium nitrate and nitrite ion pairs. Properties databanks for ESP have been developed at Flour Federal Services that eliminate the legacy model and provide more accurate simulation results than the OLI supplied databases for such concentrated solutions and slurries.

MacLean, G. T.; Ho, Q. T.; Berger, S. R. K.



Ligation of intersphincteric fistula tract and its modification: Results from treatment of complex fistula  

PubMed Central

AIM: To compare healing rates between intersphincteric fistula tract (LIFT) and LIFT plus partial fistulectomy procedures. METHODS: A study of complex fistula-in-ano patients was carried out from 1st March 2010 to 31th January 2012. All operations were done by colorectal surgeons at a referral center in a Ministry of Public Health hospital. Data collected included patients’ demographic details, fistula type determined by endorectal-ultrasonography, preoperative and postoperative continence status, previous operations, time between diagnosis of fistula-in-ano and operation, type of surgery, healing rates, recurrence rates, and types of failure examined by endorectal-ultrasosnography, re-operation in recurrence or failure cases, and complications. RESULTS: The study involved 41 patients whose average age was 40.78 ± 11.84 years (range: 21-71 years). The major fistula type was high-transsphincteric type fistula. The median follow-up period was 24 wk. The overall success rate was 83%: in the LIFT (Ligation intersphincteric fistula tract) group the success rate was 81% and in the LIFT plus (LIFT with partial coreout fistulectomy) group it was 85% (P = 0.529). The median wound-healing time was 4 wk in both groups (P = 0.262). The median time to recurrence was 12 wk. Neither group had incontinence (Wexner incontinence score-0) and the difference in healing rates between the two groups was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: There was no difference in results between LIFT and LIFT plus operations. The LIFT procedure is a good option for maintaining continence in management of fistula-in-ano. PMID:23671739

Sirikurnpiboon, Siripong; Awapittaya, Burin; Jivapaisarnpong, Paiboon



Impact of reclamation treatment on the biological activity of soils of the solonetz complex in Western Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The abundance and activity of the soil microflora were studied in a field experiment with the use of green manure crops to assess the impact of reclamation measures on the biological activity of soils of the solonetz complex. The number of microorganisms in the plow soil horizon increased in the background of the green fallows as compared to the black ones. Coefficients of mineralization, immobilization, and transformation of organic compounds were calculated for different variants of the soil treatment. The value of the mineralization coefficient indicates the intense decomposition of the green manure that entered the soil. In the first year, peas were actively decomposed, while oats, in the second year (aftereffect). The activity of the soil enzymes (invertase, urease, and catalase) was determined. A close relationship between the catalase activity and the intensity of the microbiological processes in the soils was revealed.

Berezin, L. V.; Khamova, O. F.; Paderina, E. V.; Gindemit, A. M.



The complexity of biosorption treatments for oxyanions in a multi-element mine effluent.  


Selenium (Se) is a contaminant in effluents from coal mines and coal-fired power stations, where it is encountered as the oxyanion selenate (SeO4(2-), hereafter Se(VI)). Se(VI) can be removed from solution with Fe-treated biosorbents, but the efficacy of these treatments in effluents with multiple contaminants is unclear. This study investigates the interactions between Se(VI) and the oxyanions SO4(2-) and NO3(-). We produce a sustainable biosorbent, Gracilaria Modified Biochar (GMB), by treating a waste product generated after the commercial extraction of agar from cultivated seaweeds with ferric chloride (FeCl3) and converting it to biochar through pyrolysis. We then test interactions between Se(VI) and competing oxyanions in mock solutions and a real-world mine effluent with high concentrations of SO4(2-) and NO3(-). GMB immediately removed 98% of the Se(VI) from the mock solution, but only 3% from the mine effluent with the same initial Se(VI) concentration. Notably, 83-89% of the Se(VI) was removed by GMB when concentrations of Se(VI) and SO4(2-) were less than or equimolar in mock solutions. Higher concentrations of SO4(2-) reduced the uptake of Se(VI). There was no interference from NO3(-) on the biosorption of Se(VI). GMB is a successful biosorbent for Se(VI), however, high concentrations of SO4(2-) will compromise the biosorption of Se(VI). PMID:25590609

Johansson, Charlotte L; Paul, Nicholas A; de Nys, Rocky; Roberts, David A



A Pilot Study of Trans-Arterial Injection of 166Holmium-Chitosan Complex for Treatment of Small Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Percutaneous approaches, such as percutaneous ethanol injection and radiofrequency ablation, have been most widely used for hepatocellular carcinoma patients who were not eligible for surgery. New technologies to improve the efficacy are currently needed. 166Holmium is a neutron activated radionuclide, and has several beneficial radiophysical characteristics for internal radiation therapy. 166Holmium-Chitosan complex, in which chitosan is chelated with 166Holmium, was developed as a radiopharmaceutical for cancer therapy. We have conducted a pilot study to evaluate the clinical efficacy of transarterial administration of 166Holmium-Chitosan complex in patients with a single and small (< 3 cm) hepatocellular carcinoma. 166Holmium-Chitosan complex, at a dose of 20 mCi per cm of tumor mass-diameter, was administered through the artery that directly fed the tumor. Twelve patients were treated with a median follow-up duration of 26 (range: 12-61) months. The tumor diameter ranged between 1.5 and 2.5 cm. Ten patients (83%) had complete response and two (17%) had partial response. The median complete response duration was not reached. The median AFP level declined from 83.8 to 8.3 ng/mL within 2 months after treatment. No grade III/IV toxicity was observed. Grade I and II toxicities were observed in four patients (2 abdominal pain, 1 fever, and 1 AST/ALT elevation). No toxic death occurred. This preliminary study shows a promising and durable complete response rate with an acceptable safety profile. Further studies with greater accrual of patients are warranted. PMID:16385656

Cho, Byoung Chul; Kim, Eun Hee; Choi, Hye Jin; Kim, Joo Hang; Roh, Jae Kyung; Chung, Hyun Cheol; Ahn, Joong Bae; Lee, Jong Doo; Lee, Jong Tae; Yoo, Nae Choon



Biofilm-Grown Burkholderia cepacia Complex Cells Survive Antibiotic Treatment by Avoiding Production of Reactive Oxygen Species  

PubMed Central

The presence of persister cells has been proposed as a factor in biofilm resilience. In the present study we investigated whether persister cells are present in Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) biofilms, what the molecular basis of antimicrobial tolerance in Bcc persisters is, and how persisters can be eradicated from Bcc biofilms. After treatment of Bcc biofilms with high concentrations of various antibiotics often a small subpopulation survived. To investigate the molecular mechanism of tolerance in this subpopulation, Burkholderia cenocepacia biofilms were treated with 1024 µg/ml of tobramycin. Using ROS-specific staining and flow cytometry, we showed that tobramycin increased ROS production in treated sessile cells. However, approximately 0.1% of all sessile cells survived the treatment. A transcriptome analysis showed that several genes from the tricarboxylic acid cycle and genes involved in the electron transport chain were downregulated. In contrast, genes from the glyoxylate shunt were upregulated. These data indicate that protection against ROS is important for the survival of persisters. To confirm this, we determined the number of persisters in biofilms formed by catalase mutants. The persister fraction in ?katA and ?katB biofilms was significantly reduced, confirming the role of ROS detoxification in persister survival. Pretreatment of B. cenocepacia biofilms with itaconate, an inhibitor of isocitrate lyase (ICL), the first enzyme in the glyoxylate shunt, reduced the persister fraction approx. 10-fold when the biofilms were subsequently treated with tobramycin. In conclusion, most Bcc biofilms contain a significant fraction of persisters that survive treatment with high doses of tobramycin. The surviving persister cells downregulate the TCA cycle to avoid production of ROS and at the same time activate an alternative pathway, the glyoxylate shunt. This pathway may present a novel target for combination therapy. PMID:23516582

Van Acker, Heleen; Sass, Andrea; Bazzini, Silvia; De Roy, Karen; Udine, Claudia; Messiaen, Thomas; Riccardi, Giovanna; Boon, Nico; Nelis, Hans J.; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar; Coenye, Tom



Oral treatment of pressure ulcers with polaprezinc (zinc L-carnosine complex): 8-week open-label trial.  


Polaprezinc (zinc L-carnosine complex) is a tablet commonly prescribed for gastric ulcers in Japan. Recently, we reported the effects of polaprezinc on pressure ulcer healing at 4-week follow-up. We aimed to further evaluate the efficacy and safety of polaprezinc in 8-week treatment for chronic pressure ulcers. Patients with stage II-IV pressure ulcers for ? 8 weeks received 150 mg/day polaprezinc (containing 116 mg L-carnosine and 34 mg zinc) per os for a maximum of 8 weeks. We measured the severity of pressure ulcers weekly using the Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing (PUSH) score and monitored blood biochemistry. Fourteen patients (nine men; 68.4?±?11.8 years) were enrolled. Pressure ulcer stages were II (one patient; 7 %), III (nine; 64 %), and IV (four; 29 %). The PUSH score improved significantly from 8.1 [95 % CI, 6.0-10.3] at baseline to -1.4 [-4.0 to 1.1] after 8 weeks (P?treatment of pressure ulcers and could be a candidate for their oral treatment. PMID:24691900

Sakae, Kensaku; Yanagisawa, Hiroyuki



Bortezomib (PS-341) Treatment Decreases Inflammation and Partially Rescues the Expression of the Dystrophin-Glycoprotein Complex in GRMD Dogs  

PubMed Central

Golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) is a genetic myopathy corresponding to Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) in humans. Muscle atrophy is known to be associated with degradation of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC) via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. In the present study, we investigated the effect of bortezomib treatment on the muscle fibers of GRMD dogs. Five GRMD dogs were examined; two were treated (TD- Treated dogs) with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, and three were control dogs (CD). Dogs were treated with bortezomib using the same treatment regimen used for multiple myeloma. Pharmacodynamics were evaluated by measuring the inhibition of 20S proteasome activity in whole blood after treatment and comparing it to that in CD. We performed immunohistochemical studies on muscle biopsy specimens to evaluate the rescue of dystrophin and dystrophin-associated proteins in the muscles of GRMD dogs treated with bortezomib. Skeletal tissue from TD had lower levels of connective tissue deposition and inflammatory cell infiltration than CD as determined by histology, collagen morphometry and ultrastructural analysis. The CD showed higher expression of phospho-NF?B and TGF-?1, suggesting a more pronounced activation of anti-apoptotic factors and inflammatory molecules and greater connective tissue deposition, respectively. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that dystrophin was not present in the sarcoplasmic membrane of either group. However, bortezomib-TD showed higher expression of ?- and ?-dystroglycan, indicating an improved disease histopathology phenotype. Significant inhibition of 20S proteasome activity was observed 1 hour after bortezomib administration in the last cycle when the dose was higher. Proteasome inhibitors may thus improve the appearance of GRMD muscle fibers, lessen connective tissue deposition and reduce the infiltration of inflammatory cells. In addition, proteasome inhibitors may rescue some dystrophin-associated proteins in the muscle fiber membrane. PMID:23579193

Araujo, Karla P. C.; Bonuccelli, Gloria; Duarte, Caio N.; Gaiad, Thais P.; Moreira, Dayson F.; Feder, David; Belizario, José E.; Miglino, Maria A.; Lisanti, Michael P.; Ambrosio, Carlos E.



Effects of iron polymaltose complex, ferrous fumarate and ferrous sulfate treatments in anemic pregnant rats, their fetuses and placentas.  


Although oral iron preparations are widely prescribed to prevent and to treat iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy, comparative data on their effects to the mother, fetus and placenta are limited. In this study, the effects of oral iron polymaltose complex (IPC), ferrous fumarate (FF) and ferrous sulfate (FS) were compared in anemic pregnant rats, their fetuses and placentas. Hematological variables and oxidative stress markers in the liver, heart and kidneys of the dams and fetuses as well as the markers for oxidative stress, inflammation and hypoxia in placentas were assessed. Pregnancy outcome was measured by number of fetuses, and by neonate and placental weight. All therapies were comparably effective in correcting anemia. FS and FF, but not IPC, resulted in liver damage in dams and oxidative stress in dams, fetuses and placentas. FS group presented the highest catalase and GPx levels in dams, fetuses and placentas. IPC, but not FF or FS, restored normal TNF-? and IL6 expression levels in placentas whereas FS-treated animals presented the highest cytokine levels, suggesting a local inflammatory reaction. Anemia-induced high levels of HIF-1? were partially lowered by IPC and FF but further elevated by FS. Most of the negative effects associated with IDA were resolved by IPC treatment. Especially FS treatment was found to elicit hepatic damage in the dams, oxidative stress in the dams, fetuses and placenta as well as inflammation and high levels of HIF-1? in the placenta. Pregnancy outcome of FFand FS-treated animals was worse than that of IPC-treated animals. PMID:23547731

Toblli, Jorge E; Cao, Gabriel; Oliveri, Leda; Angerosa, Margarita




Microsoft Academic Search

Arthroscopic treatment of TFCC traumatic lesions. Preliminary study. SUMMARY TFCC lesions are the frequent but unknown cause of dorso-ulnar persistent pain in wrist trauma. In such cases, arthroscopy proves to be a crucial aid both for diagnosis and for therapy. Palmer subdivides the traumatic lesions in 4 classes and provides specific repairing techniques for each one of them. This preliminary



Current indications for and the technique of wrist arthroscopy.  


Since its introduction more than 30 years ago, wrist arthroscopy has become an essential diagnostic and therapeutic tool in hand surgery. This procedure minimizes exposures and allows access to otherwise remotely located anatomic regions with minimal morbidity. Advances in anatomic understanding and wrist scope technology have standardized the procedure and expanded indications. Current applications are diagnostic staging of various wrist pathologies where arthroscopy allows for a direct, magnified, and tactile-assisted examination. This includes injuries to the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC), osteochondral lesion of the carpus, and dynamic assessment of carpal instability and radiocarpal arthritis. Therapeutic applications have continued to expand and include arthroscopic-assisted fracture reductions, treatment of radiocarpal synovitis and arthritis, TFCC repairs, and arthroscopic management of soft tissue pathologies such as ganglion excisions and release of contractures. PMID:24754550

Wagner, Jennifer; Ipaktchi, Kyros; Livermore, Meryl; Banegas, Rodrigo



2-Deoxy-D-glucose treatment changes the Golgi apparatus architecture without blocking synthesis of complex lipids.  


The classic Golgi apparatus organization, an arrangement of highly ordered cisternal stacks with tubular-vesicular membrane specializations on both sides, is the functional image of a continuous flow of contents and membranes with input, metabolization, and output in a dynamic steady state. In response to treatment with 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG), which lowers the cellular ATP level by about 70 % within minutes, this organization is rapidly replaced by tubular-glomerular membrane convolutes described as Golgi networks and bodies. 2-DG is a non-metabolizable glucose analogue and competitive inhibitor of glycolysis, which has become attractive in the context of therapeutic approaches for several kinds of tumors specifically targeting glycolysis in cancer. With the question of whether the functions of the Golgi apparatus in lipid synthesis would be influenced by the 2-DG-induced Golgi apparatus reorganization, we focused on lipid metabolism within the Golgi bodies. For this, we applied a fluorophore-labeled short-chain ceramide (BODIPY-Cer) in various combinations with 2-DG treatment to HepG2 cell cultures and followed uptake, enrichment and metabolization to higher ordered lipids. The cellular ATP status in each experiment was controlled with a bioluminescence assay, and the response of the Golgi apparatus was tracked by immunostaining of the trans-Golgi network protein TGN46. For electron microscopy, the fluorescent BODIPY-Cer signals were converted into electron-dense precipitates by photooxidation of diaminobenzidine (DAB); DAB precipitates labeled trans-Golgi areas in control cultures but also compartments at the periphery of the Golgi bodies formed in response to 2-DG treatment, thus indicating that concentration of ceramide takes place in spite of the Golgi apparatus reorganization. Lipid analyses by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) performed in parallel showed that BODIPY-Cer is not only concentrated in compartments of the 2-DG-induced Golgi bodies but is partly metabolized to BODIPY-sphingomyelin. Both, uptake and condensation of BODIPY-Cer and its conversion to complex lipids indicate that functions of the Golgi apparatus in the cellular lipid metabolism persist although the classic Golgi apparatus organization is abolished. PMID:25422148

Ranftler, Carmen; Meisslitzer-Ruppitsch, Claudia; Stangl, Herbert; Röhrl, Clemens; Fruhwürth, Stefanie; Neumüller, Josef; Pavelka, Margit; Ellinger, Adolf



Surgery for complex perineal fistula following rectal cancer treatment using biological mesh combined with gluteal perforator flap.  


Three patients with complex perineal fistula after extensive pelvic surgery and radiotherapy underwent surgical treatment combining a biological mesh for pelvic floor reconstruction and a unilateral superior gluteal artery perforator (SGAP) flap for filling of the perineal defect. All patients had both fecal and urinary diversion. Two fistulas originated from the small bowel, necessitating parenteral feeding, and one from the bladder. Symptoms included severe sacral pain and skin maceration. After laparotomy with complete debridement of the pelvic cavity, the pelvic floor was reconstructed by stitching a biological mesh at the level of the pelvic outlet. Subsequently, patients were turned to prone position, and perineal reconstruction was completed by rotating a SGAP flap into the defect between the biomesh and the perineal skin. Operating time ranged from 10 to 12.5 h, and hospital stay lasted from 9 to 23 days. The postoperative course was uneventful in all three patients. Reconstruction of large pelvic defects with a combination of biological mesh and SGAP flap is a viable alternative to a rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap and may be preferable after extensive pelvic surgery with ostomy. PMID:24913972

Musters, G D; Lapid, O; Bemelman, W A; Tanis, P J



The complex actions of statins in brain and their relevance for Alzheimer's disease treatment: an analytical review.  


In view that several studies have shown a positive correlation between high cholesterol and an increase in the risk for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) statins have been proposed as alternative drugs for its treatment and/or prevention. However, the potential benefits of statins remain controversial. Although they have lipid-lowering properties, statins also have pleiotropic effects that are unrelated to cholesterol reduction and have a wide range of biological implications whose consequences in brain function have not been fully characterized. In this work we analyze different studies that have reported both, beneficial and toxic effects for statins in the central nervous system (CNS), and we revise the literature that claims their potential for treating AD. First, we present an overview of the cholesterol metabolism and its regulation in the brain in order to provide the framework for understanding the pathological association between altered cholesterol and AD. Then, we describe the cholesterol-lowering and pleiotropic properties of statins that have been reported in vivo and in in vitro models. We conclude that the effects of statins in the brain are broad and complex and that their use for treating several diseases including AD should be carefully analyzed given their multiple and broad effects. PMID:25274112

Mendoza-Oliva, Aydé; Zepeda, Angélica; Arias, Clorinda



Endovascular treatment of venous graft stenosis in the inferior vena cava and the left hepatic vein after complex liver tumor resection.  


Endovascular treatment has been reported for a variety of conditions that result in venous obstruction in the iliocaval territory. The present report describes a patient who underwent a complex resection of a tumor that infiltrated the retrohepatic segment of the inferior vena cava (IVC), necessitating replacement of the IVC with a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) graft. Postoperatively, symptomatic venous obstruction occurred in the graft and the left hepatic vein. Treatment required stent placement bridging native veins and the graft. The patient underwent placement of a self-expanding stent within the IVC and the PTFE graft with treatment of the hepatic vein stenosis via jugular vein access. PMID:19097806

Brechtel, Klaus; Tepe, Gunnar; Heller, Stephan; Schmehl, Joerg; Kueper, Markus; Claussen, Claus D; Wiskirchen, Jakub



[Experience of using phytopreparation Alba (root extract of the Potentilla alba) in complex treatment of thyroid pathology in children and adolescents].  


This article presents the background for including phytopreparation Alba (root extract of the Potentilla alba) into complex treatment of thyroid pathology. The findings confirm visible reduction of size of the thyroid gland and normalizing its functions in children and adults with the thyroid gland with normal or enhanced function treated by Alba per oral. PMID:25286612

Turchaninova, L I



Comparing Two Service Delivery Models for Homeless Individuals With Complex Behavioral Health Needs: Preliminary Data From Two SAMHSA Treatment for Homeless Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) and the Comprehensive, Continuous, Integrated System of Care (CCISC) are two models for delivering services to homeless persons with complex behavioral health needs. This quasi-experimental study presents preliminary data comparing these two programs. The first program was based out of a community mental health center and utilized the ACT model of care with supported housing (ACT-SH),

M. Scott Young; Colleen Clark; Kathleen Moore; Blake Barrett



Antiproliferative and Proapoptotic Activities of Methanolic Extracts from Ligustrum vulgare L. as an Individual Treatment and in Combination with Palladium Complex  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study is to examine the growth inhibitory effects of methanolic leaf and fruit extracts of L. vulgare on HCT-116 cells over different time periods and their synergistic effect with a Pd(apox) complex. The antiproliferative activity of plant extracts alone or in combination with the Pd(apox) complex was determined using MTT cell viability assay, where the IC50 value was used as a parameter of cytotoxicity. Results show that antiproliferative effects of L. vulgare extracts increase with extension of exposure time, with decreasing IC50 values, except for 72 h where the IC50 values for methanolic leaf extract were lower than for the fruit extract. The Pd(apox) complex alone had a weak antiproliferative effect, but combination with L. vulgare extracts caused stronger effects with lower IC50 values than with L. vulgare extracts alone. The type of cell death was explored by fluorescence microscopy using the acridin orange/ethidium bromide method. Treatments with plant extracts caused typical apoptotic morphological changes in HCT-116 cells and co-treatments with Pd(apox) complex caused higher levels of apoptotic cells than treatment with plant extracts alone. The results indicate that L. vulgare is a considerable source of natural bioactive substances with antiproliferative activity on HCT-116 cells and which have a substantial synergistic effect with the Pd(apox) complex. PMID:22408469

?ur?i?, Milena G.; Stankovi?, Milan S.; Mrkali?, Emina M.; Matovi?, Zoran D.; Bankovi?, Dragi? D.; Cvetkovi?, Danijela M.; ?a?i?, Dragana S.; Markovi?, Snežana D.



Treatment of nickel containing industrial effluents with a hybrid process comprising of polymer complexation–ultrafiltration–electrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process was studied at the laboratory level and on a pre-industrial pilot for pollutant removal from industrial waste waters containing nickel cations. Five successive steps are involved: (1) complexation of the metal by means of polymeric ligands; (2) ultrafiltration of the complex, which produced a purified effluent and a concentrated metal complex solution; (3) decomplexation by acidification; (4) ultrafiltration

P. Baticle; C. Kiefer; N. Lakhchaf; O. Leclerc; M. Persin; J. Sarrazin



Control point analysis comparison for 3 different treatment planning and delivery complexity levels using a commercial 3-dimensional diode array.  


To investigate the use of "Control Point Analysis" (Sun Nuclear Corporation, Melbourne, FL) to analyze and compare delivered volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans for 3 different treatment planning complexity levels. A total of 30 patients were chosen and fully anonymized for the purpose of this study. Overall, 10 lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), 10 head-and-neck (H&N), and 10 prostate VMAT plans were generated on Pinnacle(3) and delivered on a Varian linear accelerator (LINAC). The delivered dose was measured using ArcCHECK (Sun Nuclear Corporation, Melbourne, FL). Each plan was analyzed using "Sun Nuclear Corporation (SNC) Patient 6" and "Control Point Analysis." Gamma passing percentage was used to assess the differences between the measured and planned dose distributions and to assess the role of various control point binning combinations. Of the different sites considered, the prostate cases reported the highest gamma passing percentages calculated with "SNC Patient 6" (97.5% to 99.2% for the 3%, 3mm) and "Control Point Analysis" (95.4% to 98.3% for the 3%, 3mm). The mean percentage of passing control point sectors for the prostate cases increased from 51.8 ± 7.8% for individual control points to 70.6 ± 10.5% for 5 control points binned together to 87.8 ± 11.0% for 10 control points binned together (2%, 2-mm passing criteria). Overall, there was an increasing trend in the percentage of sectors passing gamma analysis with an increase in the number of control points binned together in a sector for both the gamma passing criteria (2%, 2mm and 3%, 3mm). Although many plans passed the clinical quality assurance criteria, plans involving the delivery of high Monitor Unit (MU)/control point (SBRT) and plans involving high degree of modulation (H&N) showed less delivery accuracy per control point compared with plans with low MU/control point and low degree of modulation (prostate). PMID:24480374

Abdellatif, Ady; Gaede, Stewart



Reversal of brain metabolic abnormalities following treatment of AIDS dementia complex with 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (AZT, zidovudine): a PET-FDG study  

SciTech Connect

Brain glucose metabolism was evaluated in four patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) dementia complex using (/sup 18/F)fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and positron emission tomography (PET) scans at the beginning of therapy with 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (AZT, zidovudine), and later in the course of therapy. In two patients, baseline, large focal cortical abnormalities of glucose utilization were reversed during the course of therapy. In the other two patients, the initial PET study did not reveal pronounced focal alterations, while the post-treatment scans showed markedly increased cortical glucose metabolism. The improved cortical glucose utilization was accompanied in all patients by immunologic and neurologic improvement. PET-FDG studies can detect cortical metabolic abnormalities associated with AIDS dementia complex, and may be used to monitor the metabolic improvement in response to AZT treatment.

Brunetti, A.; Berg, G.; Di Chiro, G.; Cohen, R.M.; Yarchoan, R.; Pizzo, P.A.; Broder, S.; Eddy, J.; Fulham, M.J.; Finn, R.D.



Operation of a two-stage treatment train for the remediation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a complex air stream  

SciTech Connect

The use of aqueous biological systems to remove contaminants from waste streams has been well documented. However, in complex waste streams containing compounds of varying chemical properties, the use of only one type of treatment system may not be the best alternative. When treating a complex waste stream, the use of treatment trains, or coupled systems, may be advantageous when compared with any single technology. The purpose of this project was to design and operate a treatment train for the effective removal and biodegradation of a complex mixture of VOCs with varying chemical properties. A bench-scale system was designed consisting of a liquid bioreactor coupled to a biofilter for removal of acetone, methanol, methyl ethyl ketone, naphthalene, alpha-pinene, and toluene. The liquid bioreactor contained an aqueous medium and an inert solid support (polystyrene bioballs) which immobilized a characterized microbial population. The biofiltration portion of the system utilized the same microbial inoculum, but employed Douglas fir bark as its solid support. As the air stream bubbled into the liquid bioreactor, the VOCs were made available to the bacteria for destruction in the aqueous medium or on the polystyrene solid support. The fugitive VOCs from the liquid bioreactor were then subsequently treated by the biofiltration unit. The six-compound VOC mixture was added to the air stream via in-line syringe pump injection. Concentrations of the VOC mixture in the main influent air stream, the effluent air stream from the liquid bioreactor, the aqueous medium in the liquid bioreactor, and the effluent air stream from the biofilter were monitored on a regular basis via an on-line gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Successful biodegradation of the complex VOC mixture was accomplished with this treatment train, the average total VOC removal efficiency being 96.2% ({+-}2.6).

Manninen, M.R.; Kleinheinz, G.T.; Niemi, B.A.; Hose, J.T.



A phase I\\/IIa study on intra-articular injection of holmium-166-chitosan complex for the treatment of knee synovitis of rheumatoid arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous animal studies have established that the intra-articular injection of holmium-166-chitosan complex (DW-166HC) causes effective necrosis of the inflamed synovium with little leakage of radioactivity from the injected joint. Based on these findings, we conducted a phase I\\/IIa study to examine the biodistribution of DW-166HC and to assess the safety of DW-166HC for the treatment of knee synovitis in patients

Jungsik Song; Chang Hee Suh; Yong Beom Park; Seung Hoon Lee; Nae Chun Yoo; Jong Doo Lee; Kyoung Hwan Kim; Soo Kon Lee



The effect of multileaf collimator leaf width on the radiosurgery planning for spine lesion treatment in terms of the modulated techniques and target complexity  

PubMed Central

Purpose We aim to evaluate the effects of multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf width (5 mm vs. 2.5 mm) on the radiosurgery planning for the treatment of spine lesions according to the modulated techniques (intensity-modulated radiotherapy [IMRT] vs. volumetric-modulated arc therapy [VMAT]) and the complexity of the target shape. Methods For this study, artificial spinal lesions were contoured and used for treatment plans. Three spinal levels (C5, T5, and L2 spines) were selected, and four types of target shapes reflecting the complexity of lesions were contoured. The treatment plans were performed using 2.5-mm and 5-mm MLCs, and also using both static IMRT and VMAT. In total, 48 treatment plans were established. The efficacy of each treatment plan was compared using target volume coverage (TVC), conformity index (CI), dose gradient index (GI), and V30%. Results When the 5-mm MLC was replaced by the 2.5-mm MLC, TVC and GI improved significantly by 5.68% and 6.25%, respectively, while CI did not improve. With a smaller MLC leaf width, the improvement ratios of the TVC were larger in IMRT than VMAT (8.38% vs. 2.97%). In addition, the TVC was improved by 14.42-16.74% in target type 4 compared to the other target types. These improvements were larger in IMRT than in VMAT (27.99% vs. 6.34%). The V30% was not statistically different between IMRT and VMAT according to the MLC leaf widths and the types of target. Conclusion The smaller MLC leaf width provided improved target coverage in both IMRT and VMAT, and its improvement was larger in IMRT than in VMAT. In addition, the smaller MLC leaf width was more effective for complex-shaped targets. PMID:24606890



Functional outcome of arthroscopic assisted fixation of distal radius fractures  

PubMed Central

Background: Many studies in literature have supported the role of wrist arthroscopy as an adjunct to the stable fixation of unstable intraarticular distal radial fractures. This article focuses on the surgical technique, indications, advantages, and results using wrist arthroscopy to assess articular reduction and evaluates the treatment of carpal ligament injuries and triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) injuries in conjunction with the stable fixation of distal radial fractures. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 27 patients (16 males and 11 females), who underwent stable fixation of intraarticular distal radial fractures with arthroscopic evaluation of the articular reduction and repair of associated carpal injuries. As per the AO classification, they were 9 C 1, 12 C2, 2 C3, 3 B 1, and 1 B2 fractures. The final results were evaluated by modified Mayo wrist scoring system. The average age was 41 years (range: 18-68 years). The average followup was of 26 months (range 24-52 months). Results: Five patients needed modification of the reduction and fixation after arthroscopic joint evaluation. Associated ligament lesions found during the wrist arthroscopy were TFCC tears (n=17), scapholunate ligament injury (n=8), and luno-triquetral ligament injury (n=1). Five patients had combined injuries i.e. included TFCC tear, scapholunate and/or lunotriquetral ligament tear. There were 20 excellent, 3 good, and 4 fair results using this score. Conclusion: The radiocarpal and mid carpal arthroscopy is a useful adjunct to stable fixation of distal radial fractures. PMID:23798761

Khanchandani, Prakash; Badia, Alejandro



Acceptance-based treatment for persons with complex, long standing chronic pain: a preliminary analysis of treatment outcome in comparison to a waiting phase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of acceptance is receiving increased attention as an alternate approach to the suffering that is often associated with persistent and disabling pain. This approach differs from established treatments in that it does not principally focus on reducing pain, but on reducing the distressing and disabling influences of pain as they concern important areas in patients’ lives. The present

Lance M. McCracken; Kevin E. Vowles; Christopher Eccleston



Theoretical treatment of double photoionization of helium using a B-spline implementation of exterior complex scaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calculations of absolute triple differential and single differential cross sections for helium double photoionization are performed using an implementation of exterior complex scaling in B-splines. Results for cross sections, well-converged in partial waves, are presented and compared with both experiment and earlier theoretical calculations. These calculations establish the practicality and effectiveness of the complex B-spline approach to calculations of double

C. William McCurdy; Daniel A. Horner; Thomas N. Rescigno; Fernando Martin



Theoretical treatment of double photoionization of helium using a B-spline implementation of exterior complex scaling  

SciTech Connect

Calculations of absolute triple differential and single differential cross sections for helium double photoionization are performed using an implementation of exterior complex scaling in B-splines. Results for cross sections, well-converged in partial waves, are presented and compared with both experiment and earlier theoretical calculations. These calculations establish the practicality and effectiveness of the complex B-spline approach to calculations of double ionization of atomic and molecular systems.

McCurdy, C. William; Horner, Daniel A.; Rescigno, Thomas N.; Martin, Fernando



Safety and Efficacy of Reteplase for the Treatment of Acute Arterial Occlusion: Complexity of Underlying Lesion Predicts Outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated both the safety and efficacy of reteplase for treatment of acute arterial occlusion as well as outcomes based on treatment of the underlying lesion. From November 2000 to February 2004, reteplase was used to treat arterial occlusions in 81 patients. Catheter-directed intrathrombus thrombolysis was performed with reteplase (0.5 units\\/hr) continuous infusion. Percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy (Angiojet®) was performed in

Tod M. Hanover; Corey A. Kalbaugh; Bruce H. Gray; Eugene M. Langan III; Spence M. Taylor; Mark P. Androes; W. Tracey Jones; Dawn W. Blackhurst



Comparative effectiveness of a complex Ayurvedic treatment and conventional standard care in osteoarthritis of the knee – study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Traditional Indian Ayurvedic medicine uses complex treatment approaches, including manual therapies, lifestyle and nutritional advice, dietary supplements, medication, yoga, and purification techniques. Ayurvedic strategies are often used to treat osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee; however, no systematic data are available on their effectiveness in comparison with standard care. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of complex Ayurvedic treatment in comparison with conventional methods of treating OA symptoms in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Methods and design In a prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled trial, 150 patients between 40 and 70 years, diagnosed with osteoarthritis of the knee, following American College of Rheumatology criteria and an average pain intensity of ?40 mm on a 100 mm visual analog scale in the affected knee at baseline will be randomized into two groups. In the Ayurveda group, treatment will include tailored combinations of manual treatments, massages, dietary and lifestyle advice, consideration of selected foods, nutritional supplements, yoga posture advice, and knee massage. Patients in the conventional group will receive self-care advice, pain medication, weight-loss advice (if overweight), and physiotherapy following current international guidelines. Both groups will receive 15 treatment sessions over 12 weeks. Outcomes will be evaluated after 6 and 12 weeks and 6 and 12 months. The primary endpoint is a change in the score on the Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) after 12 weeks. Secondary outcome measurements will use WOMAC subscales, a pain disability index, a visual analog scale for pain and sleep quality, a pain experience scale, a quality-of-life index, a profile of mood states, and Likert scales for patient satisfaction, patient diaries, and safety. Using an adapted PRECIS scale, the trial was identified as lying mainly in the middle of the efficacy-effectiveness continuum. Discussion This trial is the first to compare the effectiveness of a complex Ayurvedic intervention with a complex conventional intervention in a Western medical setting in patients with knee osteoarthritis. During the trial design, aspects of efficacy and effectiveness were discussed. The resulting design is a compromise between rigor and pragmatism. Trial registration NCT01225133 PMID:23701973



Complex application of preparation containing ultralow doses of antibodies for the treatment of anemia caused by pubertal uterine bleedings.  


Poetam and anaferon (pediatric formulation) administered in combination with iron preparation to patients with anemia induce pronounced positive shifts in metabolic and morphological status of mature erythrocytes: the number of sulfhydryl groups and lipoprotein complexes in cell membranes and dry weight of erythrocytes increased, while the number of forms at different stages of degeneration decreased. PMID:20396724

Sotnikova, L S; Shevtsova, N M; Sherstoboev, E Yu; Zhdanov, V V; Dygai, A M



The Role of Semantic Complexity in Treatment of Naming Deficits: Training Semantic Categories in Fluent Aphasia by Controlling Exemplar Typicality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of typicality of category exemplars on naming was investigated using a single subject experimental design across participants and behaviors in 4 patients with fluent aphasia. Participants received a semantic feature treatment to improve naming of either typical or atypical items within semantic categories, while generalization was tested to untrained items of the category. The order of typicality and

Swathi Kiran; Cynthia K. Thompson



The clover technique for the treatment of complex tricuspid valve insufficiency: midterm clinical and echocardiographic results in 66 patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study assesses the results of the ‘clover technique’ (suturing together the middle point of the free edges of the tricuspid leaflets) for the treatment of tricuspid regurgitation (TR) due to severe prolapse or tethering. Methods: From 2001, 66 patients with severe TR due to prolapsing or tethered leaflets underwent ‘clover repair’. Annuloplasty was associated in 64 patients (97%).

Elisabetta Lapenna; Michele De Bonis; Alessandro Verzini; Giovanni La Canna; David Ferrara; Maria Chiara Calabrese; Maurizio Taramasso; Ottavio Alfieri



Thermal treatment effects imposed on solid DNA cationic lipid complex with hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride, observed by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DNA cationic lipid complexes are materials of properties required for applications in organic electronics and optoelectronics. Often, their thermal stability demonstrated by thermogravimetry is cited in the literature as important issue. However, little is known about processes occurring in heated solid DNA cationic lipid complexes. In frame of this work, thin films of Deoxyribonucleic acid-hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DNA-CTMA) were deposited on silicon wafers. Samples were thermally annealed, and simultaneously, their optical functions were measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry. At lower temperatures, thermal expansion coefficient of solid DNA-CTMA was negative, but at higher temperatures positive. Thermally induced modification of absorption spectrum in UV-vis was observed. It occurred at a range of temperatures higher than this of DNA denaturation in solution. The observed phenomenon was irreversible, at least in time scale of the experiment (one day).

Nizio?, Jacek



Treatment of complex intracranial aneurysms using flow-diverting silk® stents. An analysis of 32 consecutive patients.  


This study describes the peri-procedural and late complications and angiographic follow-up results of 32 patients with 34 complex aneurysms treated with flow diverter Silk stents in a single centre. In this retrospective study, 40 Silk stents (SS) were implanted in 34 complex intracranial aneurysms in 32 patients. In our series, 20 (58.8%) carotid-ophthalmic internal carotid artery (ICA), six (17.6%) cavernous ICA, two (5.9%) supraclinoid ICA, two (5.9%) petrosal ICA (the same patient- bilateral) and four (11.8%) posterior circulation aneurysms were treated. One of the posterior circulation lesions was a fenestrated-type aneurysm. Twenty wide-necked, saccular; eight neck remnant; four fusiform and two blister-like aneurysms were included in our series. SS were successfully implanted in all patients (100%). Misdeployment occurred in 17.6% of patients. In two of these patients adequate stent openness was achieved via Hyperglide balloon dilatation. Coil embolization in addition to SS placement was utilized in four aneurysms. One patient (3%) experienced transient morbidity due to a thromboembolic event and there was one mortality (3%) due to remote intraparenchymal haemorrhage. Complete occlusion of 27/33 (81.8 %) and 29/33 (87.9 %) aneurysms was achieved six and 12 months after the procedure, respectively. In-stent intimal hyperplasia was detected in 6.1 % patients. Flow-diverter Silk stent implantation is an effective method of treating complex aneurysms with acceptable mortality and morbidity rates. Complete occlusion is achieved in most of the complex aneurysms. PMID:25496683

Buyukkaya, Ramazan; Kocaeli, Hasan; Yildirim, Nalan; Cebeci, Hakan; Erdogan, Cüneyt; Hakyemez, Bahattin



Successful treatment with low-dose thalidomide in a patient with both Behçet's disease and complex regional pain syndrome type I: case report.  


Thalidomide is a recognized treatment of Behçet's disease. Low-dose thalidomide seems to be effective in the treatment of orogenital ulcers and is potentially safer with a lower incidence of adverse effects than higher doses. We wish to report a case of Behçet's disease in a 33-year-old woman who responded well to thalidomide 50 mg 2 to 4 times per week. Her disease manifestations (severe orogenital ulceration, pseudofolliculitis, mild thrombophlebitis, positive pathergy response, and fatigue) were previously resistant to courses of prednisone, dapsone, colchicine, various types of mouthwash, and topical steroid preparations. She also gave a history of complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS 1) over her left patella (severe pain, intermittent edema, hyperalgesia, allodynia, cold skin, and loss of movement) after a fall onto her left knee 6 years previously. This had only partially responded to a variety of treatment modalities. After starting thalidomide for her Behçet's disease, the pain in her left knee unexpectedly disappeared. There are rat experiments showing that thalidomide improves neuropathic pain, probably by selectively blocking tumor necrosis factor-alpha production in activated macrophages. We believe this is the first report of successful use of thalidomide in a human being with CRPS 1, and we therefore recommend that thalidomide should be considered in the treatment of CRPS 1. PMID:17041438

Ching, Daniel W T; McClintock, Alan; Beswick, Frances



[Antimicrobial efficacy of systemic antibiotics of different groups in the complex treatment of patients with chronic periodontal disease].  


Among microorganisms found in the oral cavity there are several kinds of periodontopathogenic bacteria having higher adhesive, invasive and toxic properties. Eighty patients with moderate and severe chronic generalized periodontitis were included in the study. The choice of treatment regimen depended on real-time PCR values of pathogenic microorganisms in periodontal pockets. Data on composition of periodontal pockets microflora by moderate and severe periodontal disease allow prompt target antimicrobial therapy. PMID:25588333

Zorina, O A; Berkutova, I S; Basova, A A



Theoretical study of (e ,2e) from outer- and inner-valence orbitals of CH4: A complex Kohn treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Triply differential cross sections for electron-impact ionization of the 1t2 and 2a1 orbitals of methane are calculated using the complex Kohn variational method. The calculations are carried out for scattered electron energies of 500 eV and coplanar asymmetric kinematics far from the Bethe ridge, where previous experiment and theory are available for comparison. The present results are in reasonably good agreement with experiment for 1t2 ionization and in excellent agreement for 2a1 ionization, in contrast with previous theory.

Lin, Chih-Yuan; McCurdy, C. W.; Rescigno, T. N.



Comparative study of tolerability and efficacy of iron protein succinylate versus iron hydroxide polymaltose complex in the treatment of iron deficiency in children.  


One-hundred children, 48 males and 52 females, mean age +/- SD 39.9 +/- 28.2 months (range 12 to 113) with sideropenia or sideropenic anemia were randomly divided into 2 groups of 50 patients each (groups A and B) and were treated with iron protein succinylate (group A) or iron hydroxide polymaltose complex (group B). Patients of both groups received 4 mg/kg elemental iron, maximally 80 mg daily, for 2 months. Side-effects of therapy and laboratory values (RBC, hematocrit, hemoglobin, MCV, serum iron, total iron binding capacity, and ferritin) were registered before treatment, 30 days after the beginning of therapy as well as after 60 days in order to evaluate tolerability and efficacy of the drugs. Both drugs were well tolerated and showed only few adverse reactions, which were comparable in severity and frequency. Iron protein succinylate led not only to a faster increase of hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV, serum iron, and ferritin than iron hydroxide polymaltose complex, but the laboratory values remained higher in group A than in B even after 2 months of treatment. PMID:9660039

Haliotis, F A; Papanastasiou, D A



[Efficacy of vascular therapy in complex of treatment of purulent necrotic foot ulcers in patients with diabetes mellitus].  


The result of treatment of purulent-necrotic affection of foot (PNAF) in 151 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) was estimated. The conduction of preoperative medicinal therapy is mandatory for the general status of patient stabilization only. After prescribing of heparin, no-spa, papaverin, rheopolyglucinum, solcoseryl, aspirin the foot tissues blood supply is changing nonvitally, the foot tissues blood supply while the alprostan intravenous infusion improves significantly. The alprostan prescription during performance of operative intervention on foot in patients with PNAF, caused by DM, and in the collateral blood flow decompensation of the leg and foot arteries is mandatory. PMID:11482020

Podpriatov, S Ie; Lisovets', V V; Huch, A O; Tovkun, V K; Slobodeniuk, I M; Hupalo, Iu M



Successful treatment of surgical abdominal wounds complicated by multiple bowel fistulas with a combination of total parenteral nutrition, hyaluronan-iodine complex and delayed surgery: results of a monocentric experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Abdominal catastrophe, suture leakage and wound dehiscence are seri- ous complications of surgical procedures. Wound infection is a frequent complication and the mor- tality is high due to long and difficult treatment procedures. Treatment is often difficult as a result of fistula formation, presence of necrotic and infected tissue, and complex surgical management. Long-term nutritional support is necessary between



Vanadium and cancer treatment: antitumoral mechanisms of three oxidovanadium(IV) complexes on a human osteosarcoma cell line.  


We report herein the antitumor actions of three oxidovanadium(IV) complexes on MG-63 human osteosarcoma cell line. The three complexes: VO(oda), VO(oda)bipy and VO(oda)phen (oda=oxodiacetate), caused a concentration dependent inhibition of cell viability. The antiproliferative action of VO(oda)phen could be observed in the whole range of concentrations (at 2.5 ?M), while VO(oda)bipy and VO(oda) showed a decrease of cell viability only at higher concentrations (at 50 and 75 ?M, respectively) (p<0.01). Moreover, VO(oda)phen caused a decrease of lysosomal and mitochondrial activities at 2.5 ?M, while VO(oda) and VO(oda)bipy affected neutral red uptake and mitochondrial metabolism at 50 ?M (p<0.01). On the other hand, no DNA damage studied by the Comet assay could be observed in MG-63 cells treated with VO(oda) at 2.5-10 ?M. Nevertheless, VO(oda)phen and VO(oda)bipy induced DNA damage at 2.5 and 10 ?M, respectively (p<0.01). The generation of reactive oxygen species increased at 10 ?M of VO(oda)phen and only at 100 ?M of VO(oda) and VO(oda)bipy (p<0.01). Besides, VO(oda)phen and VO(oda)bipy triggered apoptosis as determined by externalization of the phosphatidylserine. The determination of DNA cleavage by agarose gel electrophoresis showed that the ability of VO(oda)(bipy) is similar to that of VO(oda), while VO(oda)(phen) showed the highest nuclease activity in this series. Overall, our results showed a good relationship between the bioactivity of the complexes and their structures since VO(oda)phen presented the most potent antitumor action in human osteosarcoma cells followed by VO(oda)bipy and then by VO(oda) according to the number of intercalating heterocyclic moieties. PMID:24199985

León, I E; Butenko, N; Di Virgilio, A L; Muglia, C I; Baran, E J; Cavaco, I; Etcheverry, S B



Relationship between rectal temperature at first treatment for bovine respiratory disease complex in feedlot calves and the probability of not finishing the production cycle.  


OBJECTIVE-To determine the relationship between rectal temperature at first treatment for bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) in feedlot calves and the probability of not finishing the production cycle. DESIGN-Retrospective data analysis. ANIMALS-344,982 calves identified as having BRDC from 19 US feedlots from 2000 to 2009. PROCEDURES-For each calf, data for rectal temperature at initial treatment for BRDC and various performance and outcome variables were analyzed. A binary variable was created to identify calves that did not finish (DNF) the production cycle (died or culled prior to cohort slaughter). A mixed general linear model and receiver operating characteristic curve were created to evaluate associations of rectal temperature, number of days in the feedlot at time of BRDC diagnosis, body weight, quarter of year at feedlot arrival, sex, and all 2-way interactions with rectal temperature with the probability that calves DNF. RESULTS-27,495 of 344,982 (7.97%) calves DNF. Mean rectal temperature at first treatment for BRDC was 40.0°C (104°F). As rectal temperature increased, the probability that a calf DNF increased; however, that relationship was not linear and was influenced by quarter of year at feedlot arrival, sex, and number of days in the feedlot at time of BRDC diagnosis. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for correct identification of a calf that DNF was 0.646. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Rectal temperature of feedlot calves at first treatment for BRDC had limited value as a prognostic indicator of whether those calves would finish the production cycle. PMID:25406709

Theurer, Miles E; White, Brad J; Larson, Robert L; Holstein, Krista K; Amrine, David E



The Auditory Brain-Stem Response to Complex Sounds: A Potential Biomarker for Guiding Treatment of Psychosis  

PubMed Central

Cognitive deficits limit psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia. For many patients, cognitive remediation approaches have yielded encouraging results. Nevertheless, therapeutic response is variable, and outcome studies consistently identify individuals who respond minimally to these interventions. Biomarkers that can assist in identifying patients likely to benefit from particular forms of cognitive remediation are needed. Here, we describe an event-related potential (ERP) biomarker – the auditory brain-stem response (ABR) to complex sounds (cABR) – that appears to be particularly well-suited for predicting response to at least one form of cognitive remediation that targets auditory information processing. Uniquely, the cABR quantifies the fidelity of sound encoded at the level of the brainstem and midbrain. This ERP biomarker has revealed auditory processing abnormalities in various neurodevelopmental disorders, correlates with functioning across several cognitive domains, and appears to be responsive to targeted auditory training. We present preliminary cABR data from 18 schizophrenia patients and propose further investigation of this biomarker for predicting and tracking response to cognitive interventions. PMID:25352811

Tarasenko, Melissa A.; Swerdlow, Neal R.; Makeig, Scott; Braff, David L.; Light, Gregory A.



Advanced monitoring and supervision of biological treatment of complex dairy effluents in a full-scale plant.  


The operation of a wastewater treatment plant treating effluents from a dairy laboratory was monitored by an advanced system. This plant comprises a 12 m(3) anaerobic filter (AF) reactor and a 28 m(3) sequential batch reactor (SBR) coupled in series and is equipped with the following on-line measurement devices: biogas flow meter, feed and recycling flow meters, temperature sensor, dissolved oxygen analyzer, and redox meter. Other parameters such as chemical oxygen demand (COD), volatile fatty acids (VFA), etc. were determined off-line. The plant has been in operation for 634 days, the influent flow rate being 6-8 m(3)/d. COD concentration of the influent ranged between 8 and 12 kg COD/m(3), resulting in COD values in the effluent around 50-200 mg/L. The behavior of the system was studied using the set of measurements collected by the data acquisition program especially developed for this purpose. Monitoring of variables such as anaerobic reactor temperature permitted the detection and prevention of several failures such as temperature shocks in the AF reactor. Besides, off-line measurements such as the alkalinity or the VFA content, together with the on-line measurements, provided immediate information about the state of the plant and the detection of several anomalies, such as organic overloads in the SBR, allowing the implementation of several fast control actions. PMID:15176911

Carrasco, Eugenio F; Omil, Francisco; Garrido, Juan M; Arrojo, Belén; Méndez, Ramón



IL-2/Anti-IL-2 Antibody Complex Treatment Inhibits the Development but Not the Progression of Herpetic Stromal Keratitis.  


The IL-2/anti-IL-2 Ab immunocomplex has recently been shown to expand the naturally occurring pool of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs). In this study, we show that administration of the IL-2/anti-IL-2 Ab immunocomplex to C57BL/6 mice, prior to corneal HSV-1 infection, significantly increased the pool of Foxp3(+) Tregs when measured at early time points postinfection. Increased numbers of Foxp3(+) Tregs on days 2 and 4 postinfection resulted in a marked reduction in the development of severe herpetic stromal keratitis (HSK). When compared with corneas from the control group, corneas from the immunocomplex-treated group showed a significant reduction in the amount of infectious virus on day 2 but not on day 4 postinfection. Reduced viral load was associated with a 2-fold increase in NK cell numbers in corneas from the immunocomplex-treated group of mice. Moreover, a dramatic reduction in the influx of CD4 T cells in inflamed corneas was determined on days 7 and 16 postinfection in the immunocomplex-treated group of infected mice. Immunocomplex treatment given on days 5, 6, and 7 postinfection significantly increased Foxp3(+) Tregs in draining lymph nodes and in the spleen but failed to reduce the severity of HSK. In terms of the influx of CD4 T cells and granulocytes into inflamed corneas, no significant differences were noted between both groups of mice on day 16 postinfection. Our findings demonstrate that increasing Foxp3(+) Tregs early but not late postinfection in secondary lymphoid tissues is more efficacious in controlling the severity of HSK. PMID:25411200

Gaddipati, Subhash; Estrada, Kathleen; Rao, Pushpa; Jerome, Andrew David; Suvas, Susmit



Delamination technique together with longitudinal incisions for treatment of Chiari I/syringomyelia complex: a prospective clinical study  

PubMed Central

Background Treatment modalities in Chiari malformation type 1(CMI) accompanied by syringomyelia have not yet been standardized. Pathologies such as a small posterior fossa and thickened dura mater have been discussed previously. Various techniques have been explored to enlarge the foramen magnum and to expand the dura. The aim of this clinical study was to explore a new technique of excision of the external dura accompanied by widening the cisterna magna and making longitudinal incisions in the internal dura, without disturbing the arachnoid. Methods Ten patients with CMI and syringomyelia, operated between 2004 and 2006, formed this prospective series. All cases underwent foramen magnum decompression of 3 × 3 cm area with C1–C2 (partial) laminectomy, resection of foramen magnum fibrous band, excision of external dura, delamination and widening of internal dura with longitudinal incisions. Results Patients were aged between 25 and 58 years and occipital headache was the most common complaint. The mean duration of preoperative symptoms was 4 years and the follow-up time was 25 months. Clinical progression was halted for all patients; eight patients completely recovered and two reported no change. In one patient, there was a transient cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistula that was treated with tissue adhesive. While syringomyelia persisted radiologically with radiological stability in five patients; for three patients the syringomyelic cavity decreased in size, and for the remaining two it regressed completely. Conclusion Removal of the fibrous band and the outer dural layer, at level of foramen magnum, together with the incision of inner dural layer appears to be good technique in adult CMI patients. The advantages are short operation time, no need for duraplasty, sufficient posterior fossa decompression, absence of CSF fistulas as a result of extra arachnoidal surgery, and short duration of hospitalization. Hence this surgical technique has advantages compared to other techniques. PMID:19545443

Kotil, Kadir; Ton, Tu?rul; Tari, Rabia; Savas, Yildiray



Actinide immobilization in the subsurface environment by in-situ treatment with a hydrolytically unstable organophosphorus complexant: Uranyl uptake by calcium phytate  

SciTech Connect

In addition to naturally occurring uranium and thorium, actinide ions exist in the subsurface environment as a result of accidental releases and intentional disposal practices associated with nuclear weapons production. These species present a significant challenge to cost-effective remediation of contaminated environments. An attractive approach to decreasing the probability of actinide migration in the subsurface is to transform the ions into a less mobile form by remote treatment. We have under development a process which relies on a polyfunctional organophosphorus complexant to sequester the mobile metal ions by complexation/cation exchange in the near term, and to subsequently decompose, transforming the actinides into insoluble phosphate mineral forms in the long term. Studies to date include identification of a suitable organophosphorus reagent, profiling of its decomposition kinetics, verification of the formation of phosphate mineral phases upon decomposition of the reagent, and extensive comparison of the actinide uptake ability of the calcium salt of the reagent as compared with hydroxyapatite. In this report, we briefly describe the process with focus on the cation exchange behavior of the calcium salt of the organophosphorus sequestrant.

Nash, K.L.; Jensen, M.P.; Schmidt, M.A.



Comparison of Efficacy, Tolerability, and Cost of Iron Polymaltose Complex With Ferrous Sulphate in the Treatment of Iron Deficiency Anemia in Pregnant Women  

PubMed Central

Background The efficacy of iron polymaltose complex (IPC) in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) during pregnancy has not been well established, and the evidence is inconclusive. Aims The aim of the study was to compare efficacy, safety, compliance, and cost-effectiveness of IPC with ferrous sulphate (FS) in pregnant patients. Settings and Designs The randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study was conducted in the Department of Pharmacology in collaboration with the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India. Methods One hundred pregnant women aged 20–40 years at14 to 27 weeks' gestation, with hemoglobin (Hb) < 9 g/dL, and serum ferritin < 12 mcg/L, were classified into 2 groups. One group received IPC (100 mg elemental iron), and the other group received FS (120 mg elemental iron) daily for 8 weeks. At Week 0 and Week 8, Hb, packed cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), serum iron, and serum ferritin were measured. Compliance with study medication was determined by pill counting at each visit. Cost minimization analysis was done to compare the costs of the 2 treatments. Statistical Analysis Data are expressed as mean ± SD. Paired and unpaired ‘t’ test were used to analyze differences within groups and between groups. Chi-square (x2) test was used to analyze primary efficacy parameters and adverse drug reactions (ADR). Results Statistically significant increases in Hb, PCV, MCV, MCH, MCHC, serum iron, and serum ferritin levels were seen at the end of 8 weeks of treatment in both groups. The overall adverse effects were more common in the FS group compared with the IPC group [41 (78%) vs 15 (31%), P < .001]. The compliance rate was significantly (P < .05) higher for the IPC (91%) group than for the FS (87%) group. The average total cost (direct + indirect) of treatment of anemia was comparable between the 2 groups. Conclusion The results of the present study suggest that IPC can be considered as a useful alternative formulation for the treatment of IDA during pregnancy for those patients who cannot tolerate other iron preparations (ferrous form); this is an important finding, as compliance is a significant concern during pregnancy. PMID:17435611

Saha, Lekha; Pandhi, Promila; Gopalan, Sarala; Malhotra, Samir; Saha, Pradip kumar



Constructing a Theory- and Evidence-Based Treatment Rationale for Complex eHealth Interventions: Development of an Online Alcohol Intervention Using an Intervention Mapping Approach  

PubMed Central

Background Due to limited reporting of intervention rationale, little is known about what distinguishes a good intervention from a poor one. To support improved design, there is a need for comprehensive reports on novel and complex theory-based interventions. Specifically, the emerging trend of just-in-time tailoring of content in response to change in target behavior or emotional state is promising. Objective The objective of this study was to give a systematic and comprehensive description of the treatment rationale of an online alcohol intervention called Balance. Methods We used the intervention mapping protocol to describe the treatment rationale of Balance. The intervention targets at-risk drinking, and it is delivered by email, mobile phone text messaging, and tailored interactive webpages combining text, pictures, and prerecorded audio. Results The rationale of the current treatment was derived from a self-regulation perspective, and the overarching idea was to support continued self-regulation throughout the behavior change process. Maintaining the change efforts over time and coping adaptively during critical moments (eg, immediately before and after a lapse) are key factors to successful behavior change. Important elements of the treatment rationale to achieving these elements were: (1) emotion regulation as an inoculation strategy against self-regulation failure, (2) avoiding lapses by adaptive coping, and (3) avoiding relapse by resuming the change efforts after a lapse. Two distinct and complementary delivery strategies were used, including a day-to-day tunnel approach in combination with just-in-time therapy. The tunnel strategy was in accordance with the need for continuous self-regulation and it functions as a platform from which just-in-time therapy was launched. Just-in-time therapy was used to support coping during critical moments, and started when the client reports either low self-efficacy or that they were drinking above target levels. Conclusions The descriptions of the treatment rationale for Balance, the alcohol intervention reported herein, provides an intervention blueprint that will aid in interpreting the results from future program evaluations. It will ease comparisons of program rationales across interventions, and may assist intervention development. By putting just-in-time therapy within a complete theoretical and practical context, including the tunnel delivery strategy and the self-regulation perspective, we have contributed to an understanding of how multiple delivery strategies in eHealth interventions can be combined. Additionally, this is a call for action to improve the reporting practices within eHealth research. Possible ways to achieve such improvement include using a systematic and structured approach, and for intervention reports to be published after peer-review and separately from evaluation reports. PMID:23612478

Johansen, Ayna; Nesvåg, Sverre; Kok, Gerjo; Duckert, Fanny



Delta III reverse shoulder arthroplasty in the treatment of complex 3- and 4-part fractures of the proximal humerus: 6 to 42 months of follow up  

PubMed Central

Background There is a growing tendency for complex proximal humerus fractures (PHF) in osteoporotic patients to be treated with reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA). It has been proposed that RSA has more benefits than other treatment options. The aim of our study was to investigate preoperative characteristics as well as clinical and radiological outcomes in patients with complex 3- or 4-part PHF who had undergone primary RSA. Methods Patients with a minimum follow-up of 6 months who had undergone a primary RSA after 3- or 4-part PHF in the period between 2008 and 2011 were eligible for the study. Clinical records, X-rays and CT-scans were investigated and a clinical examination was performed. Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score and Constant-Murley score (CMS) were calculated. Sixteen patients were examined as part of the study. The mean follow-up was 20 months (range 6-42 months). According to Codman-Hertel classification we encountered 15 Hertel “12” and 1 Hertel “8” type fractures. Results Thirty-two patients (27 female – 84.4%) with a mean age of 72 years underwent operations to treat complex 3- and 4-part fractures of the proximal humerus. Sixteen patients were reexamined. In 14 cases the dominant upper extremity was on the right, in 2 cases it was on the left, in 6 cases the right side was affected and in 10 cases the left side was affected. The mean CMS was 54.8 (range 18-95) and the mean DASH was 37.5 (range 2.9-81). A trend was established between the CMS and dominance of the affected shoulder. The CMS was better if the affected shoulder was on the non-dominant side (p-value 0.051). No statistical difference was noted between age and clinical outcome. Conclusions Our mid-term follow-up shows satisfying results in terms of the treatment of severe displaced fractures in elderly patients with RSA. RSA can provide immediate relief and good shoulder function in elderly patients. Nevertheless, the question of longevity of these implants remains to be observed. PMID:23924060



Pilot Quasi-Randomized Controlled Study of Herbal Medicine Hochuekkito as an Adjunct to Conventional Treatment for Progressed Pulmonary Mycobacterium avium Complex Disease  

PubMed Central

Introduction Hochuekkito, a traditional herbal medicine, is occasionally prescribed in Japan to treat patients with a poor general condition. We aimed to examine whether this medicine was beneficial and tolerable for patients with progressed pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease. Methods This pilot open-label quasi-randomized controlled trial enrolled 18 patients with progressed pulmonary MAC disease who had initiated antimycobacterial treatment over one year ago but were persistently culture-positive or intolerant. All patients continued their baseline treatment regimens with (n?=?9) or without (n?=?9) oral Hochuekkito for 24 weeks. Results Baseline characteristics were generally similar between the groups. Most patients were elderly (median age 70 years), female, had a low body mass index (<20 kg/m2), and a long-term disease duration (median approximately 8 years). After the 24-week treatment period, no patient achieved sputum conversion. Although the number of colonies in sputum tended to increase in the control group, it generally remained stable in the Hochuekkito group. Radiological disease control was frequently observed in the Hochuekkito group than the control group (8/9 vs. 3/9; p?=?0.05). Patients in the Hochuekkito group tended to experience increase in body weight and serum albumin level compared with those in the control group (median body weight change: +0.4 kg vs. ?0.8 kg; median albumin change: +0.2 g/dl vs. ±0.0 g/dl). No severe adverse events occurred. Conclusions Hochuekkito could be an effective, feasible adjunct to conventional therapy for patients with progressed pulmonary MAC disease. Future study is needed to explore this possibility. Trial Registration UMIN Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000009920 PMID:25093868

Enomoto, Yasunori; Hagiwara, Eri; Komatsu, Shigeru; Nishihira, Ryuichi; Baba, Tomohisa; Kitamura, Hideya; Sekine, Akimasa; Nakazawa, Atsuhito; Ogura, Takashi



Vincristine Lipid Complex Injection  


Vincristine lipid complex is used to treat a certain type of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; a type of cancer ... least two different treatments with other medications. Vincristine lipid complex is in a class of medications called ...


Doxorubicin Lipid Complex Injection  


Doxorubicin lipid complex is used to treat ovarian cancer that has not improved or that has worsened after treatment with other medications. Doxorubicin lipid complex is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma ( ...


Ulnar shortening after TFCC suture repair of Palmer type 1B lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The objective of this study was to determine functional and subjective outcomes of an ulnar shortening procedure elected by\\u000a patients who experienced persistent ulno-carpal symptoms following arthroscopic suture repair of a Palmer type 1B lesion.\\u000a All patients had a dynamic ulna positive variance.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Five patients (3 males and 2 females) with arthroscopic repair of Palmer type 1B tears who subsequently

Maya B. Wolf; Markus W. Kroeber; Andreas Reiter; Susanne B. Thomas; Peter Hahn; Raymund E. Horch; Frank Unglaub



Space Complexity Algorithms & Complexity  

E-print Network

Space Complexity Algorithms & Complexity Space Complexity Nicolas Stroppa Patrik Lambert - CA313@Dublin City University. 2008-2009. December 4, 2008 #12;Space Complexity Hierarchy of problems #12;Space Complexity NP-intermediate Languages If P = NP, then are there languages which neither in P

Way, Andy


Increased Survivorship and Altered Cytokine Profile from Treatment of Influenza A H1N1-Infected Mice with Ekybion: A Drug Complex of Natural Extracts and Inorganic Compounds  

PubMed Central

Ekybion is a drug complex of 16 natural extracts and inorganic compounds designed to treat a variety of respiratory pathogens of bacterial and viral origin. It is licensed throughout Europe for the treatment of respiratory tract infections from equine parainfluenza type 3 and equine herpes virus type 1 in equine stables. The purpose of this paper was to test the efficacy of Ekybion on a well-developed animal model of influenza A infection and determine a mode of action. Experiments were performed with Balb/c mice infected with a lethal dose of influenza A/PR/8/34 H1N1 virus and treated with nebulized Ekybion every 8?h in a time-dependant or dose-dependant fashion. These experiments showed that mice treated prior to infection with Ekybion had a higher survival rates (~46%) compared with untreated animals (~0%). Paradoxically, these mice showed no significant difference in lung virus titer or weight loss. There was, however, a decrease in the level of GM-CSF, IL-6, and G-CSF cytokines in the lungs of Ekybion-treated, infected mice. It is possible that decreases in proinflammatory cytokines may have contributed to increased survivorship in Ekybion-treated influenza-infected mice. PMID:20981272

Lupfer, Christopher; Besnouin, Didier; Tepper, Samuel E.; Maselko, Maciej; Patton, Kristin M.; Pastey, Manoj



Guideline-concordant administration of prothrombin complex concentrate and vitamin K is associated with decreased mortality in patients with severe bleeding under vitamin K antagonist treatment (EPAHK study)  

PubMed Central

Introduction In vitamin K antagonist (VKA)-treated patients with severe hemorrhage, guidelines recommend prompt VKA reversal with prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) and vitamin K. The aim of this observational cohort study was to evaluate the impact of guideline concordant administration of PCC and vitamin K on seven-day mortality. Methods Data from consecutive patients treated with PCC were prospectively collected in 44 emergency departments. Type of hemorrhage, coagulation parameters, type of treatment and seven-day mortality mortality were recorded. Guideline-concordant administration of PCC and vitamin K (GC-PCC-K) were defined by at least 20 IU/kg factor IX equivalent PCC and at least 5 mg of vitamin K performed within a predefined time frame of eight hours after admission. Multivariate analysis was used to assess the effect of appropriate reversal on seven-day mortality in all patients and in those with intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). Results Data from 822 VKA-treated patients with severe hemorrhage were collected over 14 months. Bleeding was gastrointestinal (32%), intracranial (32%), muscular (13%), and “other” (23%). In the whole cohort, seven-day mortality was 13% and 33% in patients with ICH. GC-PCC-K was performed in 38% of all patients and 44% of ICH patients. Multivariate analysis showed a two-fold decrease in seven-day mortality in patients with GC-PCC-K (odds ratio (OR)?=?2.15 (1.20 to 3.88); P?=?0.011); this mortality reduction was also observed when only ICH was considered (OR?=?3.23 (1.53 to 6.79); P?=?0.002). Conclusions Guideline-concordant VKA reversal with PCC and vitamin K within eight hours after admission was associated with a significant decrease in seven-day mortality. PMID:24762166



An evaluation of bovine respiratory disease complex in feedlot cattle: Impact on performance and carcass traits using treatment records and lung lesion scores.  


The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) complex on economically important production traits with the use of health records in combination with lung lesion scores obtained at slaughter. Records from 5,976 animals were used in this study from cattle that were managed in Midwestern feedlots. Average daily gain for 3 different feeding periods (acclimation, on-test, and overall test) along with final BW were evaluated as performance measures. Hot carcass weight, LM area, subcutaneous fat cover, and marbling score were collected at slaughter. All calves were monitored by experienced feedlot personnel and treated according to the specific health protocol of each feedlot. Incidence of BRD was observed at a rate of 8.17%, and lung lesions at slaughter were present in 61.9% of cattle from a subpopulation (n = 1,665). From this group of cattle, the overall incidence of BRD, which was defined as cattle that had lung lesions, that were treated for BRD in the feedlot, or both, was 64.4%. Incidence of BRD in the feedlot decreased ADG during both the acclimation period (0.37 +/- 0.03 kg) and the overall test period (0.07 +/- 0.01 kg). Incidence of BRD also had significant effects on HCW and marbling score with reduction of 8.16 +/- 1.38 kg and 0.13 +/- 0.04, respectively, in treated cattle. The adverse effects on production traits tended to increase as the number of treatments increased. Potential decrease in performance and carcass merit observed in this study were associated with a decline of $23.23, $30.15, and $54.01 in carcass value when comparing cattle never treated with cattle treated once, twice, or 3 or more times, respectively. The presence of lung lesions did not have a significant effect on any of the traits; however, there was an association between the presence of active bronchial lymph nodes and less productivity of feedlot cattle. PMID:19181770

Schneider, M J; Tait, R G; Busby, W D; Reecy, J M




Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic wastewater treatment differs from conventional aerobic treatment. The absence of oxygen leads to controlled conversion of complex organic pollutions, mainly to carbon dioxide and methane. Anaerobic treatment has favourable effects like removal of higher organic loading, low sludge production, high pathogen removal, biogas gas production and low energy consumption. Psychrophilic anaerobic treatment can be an attractive option to conventional

B. Mrowiec; J. Suschka


Complex wounds.  


Complex wound is the term used more recently to group those well-known difficult wounds, either chronic or acute, that challenge medical and nursing teams. They defy cure using conventional and simple "dressings" therapy and currently have a major socioeconomic impact. The purpose of this review is to bring these wounds to the attention of the health-care community, suggesting that they should be treated by multidisciplinary teams in specialized hospital centers. In most cases, surgical treatment is unavoidable, because the extent of skin and subcutaneous tissue loss requires reconstruction with grafts and flaps. New technologies, such as the negative pressure device, should be introduced. A brief review is provided of the major groups of complex wounds--diabetic wounds, pressure sores, chronic venous ulcers, post-infection soft-tissue gangrenes, and ulcers resulting from vasculitis. PMID:17187095

Ferreira, Marcus Castro; Tuma, Paulo; Carvalho, Viviane Fernandes; Kamamoto, Fábio



Principles of Treatment Addiction treatment must assist the individual with  

E-print Network

TREATMENT Principles of Treatment Addiction treatment must assist the individual with 1. stopping in the family, at work and in society. Guidelines of Effective Treatment Viewing addiction as a complex of using a variety of approaches in addiction treatment. Behavioral therapies such as individual and group

Polly, David


Phase II study of (glycolate- O,O? ) diammineplatinum(II), a novel platinum complex, in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A total of 68 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer who either had not previously been treated (38) or had undergone prior\\u000a therapy (30) were treated in a phase II study of (glycolate-O,O?) diammineplatinum(II) (NSC 375 101D; 254-S), a new platinum complex. The drug was given as a single intravenous infusion\\u000a at a dose of 100 mg\\/m2 every 4 weeks. All

Masaaki Fukuda; Tetsu Shinkai; Kenji Eguchi; Yasutsuna Sasaki; Tomohide Tamural; Yuichiro Ohet; Akira Kojima; Fumihiro Oshita; Kohei Hara; Nagahiro Saijo



New ethanol and propylene glycol free gel formulations containing a minoxidil-methyl-?-cyclodextrin complex as promising tools for alopecia treatment.  


Abstract New topical totally aqueous formulations that improve the low water solubility of minoxidil and realize an adequate permeability of drug in the skin are proposed. These formulations are lacking in propylene glycol and alcohol that are the principal irritant ingredients present in minoxidil commercial solutions. In order to enhance poor water solubility of minoxidil randomly methyl-?-cyclodextrin was used, and four hydrogels such as, calcium alginate, sodium alginate, carbopol 934 and hydroxyethylcellulose were utilized to ensure a prolonged time of contact with the scalp. The inclusion complex minoxidil/methyl-?-cyclodextrin with a molar ratio 1:1 was obtained by freeze drying and evaluated by NMR, FT-IR and DSC analysis. An apparent stability constant of formed inclusion complex was calculated by phase solubility diagram and its value was 400?M(-1). The solid inclusion complex was used to prepare gel formulations with similar dose to minoxidil commercial solution. The gels were evaluated for various technological parameters including rheological behavior, in vitro drug release and ex vivo permeation through pig skin. The best performance was observed for the calcium alginate formulation. PMID:24650036

Lopedota, Angela; Cutrignelli, Annalisa; Denora, Nunzio; Laquintana, Valentino; Lopalco, Antonio; Selva, Stefano; Ragni, Lorella; Tongiani, Serena; Franco, Massimo



Incontinence Treatment: Surgical Treatments  


... Stories Who We Are Contact Us Donate Incontinence Treatment: Surgical Treatments Jump to Topic Lifestyle changes Dietary changes Medication ... July 8, 2014 at 09:36:27 AM Treatment Lifestyle Changes Dietary Tips Medication Bowel Management Biofeedback ...


A Prospective Study on the Initial Results of a Low Profile Ulna Shortening Osteotomy System  

PubMed Central

Extra-articular ulna shortening osteotomy, in principle, is an accepted treatment option for symptomatic degenerative and traumatic triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) tears. Despite the benefits of this surgical approach, potential disadvantages include risk of nonunion, soft tissue irritation, and the need for future hardware removal. A recently introduced low profile ulna shortening system was designed to decrease these potential complications. A single-surgeon prospective study was performed to evaluate this system. Ten consecutive patients undergoing ulna shortening for ulnar-sided wrist pain compatible with TFCC pathology participated in the study. Subjective, objective, and radiographic assessments were performed preoperatively and up to 24 weeks postoperatively. Based on visual analog scale (VOS) ratings (0 to 10), pain scores significantly improved (p?

Howard, Susan B.; Gulkin, Daniel



A comparison between intravenous iron polymaltose complex (Ferrum Hausmann) and oral ferrous fumarate in the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia in pregnancy.  


Anaemia is the most common medical disorder in pregnancy with iron deficiency anaemia accounting for the majority of cases. Over 90% of the iron deficiency anaemia is due to red cell iron deficiency associated with depleted iron stores and deficient intake. The two main modalities of treating iron deficiency anaemia are oral or parenteral iron. Ferrous Hausmann (iron dextrin) is the latest iron preparation which can be used for intravenous parenteral administration as a total dose infusion. This study compares the efficacy of Ferrum Hausmann with oral ferrous fumarate therapy in the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia in pregnancy. Our study shows that treatment with intravenous Ferrum Hausmann (iron dextrin) resulted in a significantly better level and rate of increase of haemoglobin (p<0.001). Serum ferritin, which is the best indicator of iron stores, was significantly higher (p<0.001) in the intravenous group. Other indices of iron status such as serum iron, serum transferrin and zinc protoporphyrin also showed a significant improvement in the intravenous group compared to those given oral iron. The results suggest that intravenous iron as a total dose infusion is able to replenish iron stores more efficiently, completely and at a faster rate than oral iron therapy, thus providing the fuel for stimulation of full erythopoiesis compared to oral iron. There were also no reports of any adverse reactions with intravenous iron dextrin, whereas there were a considerable proportion of women on oral iron therapy who reported side effects. In conclusion, intravenous iron therapy with Ferrous Hausmann (iron dextrin) is a suitable, effective and safe alternative to oral iron therapy in the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia in pregnancy. PMID:9508353

Singh, K; Fong, Y F; Kuperan, P



Land Treatment Digital Library  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey to catalog legacy land treatment information on Bureau of Land Management lands in the western United States. The LTDL can be used by federal managers and scientists for compiling information for data-calls, producing maps, generating reports, and conducting analyses at varying spatial and temporal scales. The LTDL currently houses thousands of treatments from BLM lands across 10 states. Users can browse a map to find information on individual treatments, perform more complex queries to identify a set of treatments, and view graphs of treatment summary statistics.

Pilliod, David S.; Welty, Justin L.



Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction  


... on effective treatment approaches for drug abuse and addiction. If you are seeking treatment, please call the ... found online at . Drug addiction is a complex illness characterized by intense and, ...


Packaged Waste Treatment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Jacksonville, Florida, apartment complex has a wastewater treatment system which clears the water, removes harmful microorganisms and reduces solid residue to ash. It is a spinoff from spacecraft waste management and environmental control technology.



Improved Prevention, Screening & Treatment

Cancers develop through a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors. By identifying and understanding this process, we can often develop preventive interventions or use tailored screening and treatment approaches for individuals at increased risk of developing cancer.


About Alzheimer's Disease: Treatment  


... being researched? What are clinical trials? How is Alzheimer's disease treated? Alzheimer's disease is complex, and it is unlikely that any ... better to one drug than another. See also: Alzheimer's Disease Medications Fact Sheet Are there treatments available for ...


Efficacy of treatment with the iron (III) complex of diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid in mice and primates inoculated with live lethal dose 100 Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

The iron (III) complex of diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA iron [III]) protected mice and baboons from the lethal effects of an infusion with live LD100 Escherichia coli. In mice, optimal results were obtained when DTPA iron (III) was administered two or more hours after infection. Prevention of death occurred in spite of the fact that the adverse effects of TNF-alpha were well underway in the mouse model. The half-life of DTPA iron (III) was 51 +/- 9 min in normal baboons; primary clearance was consistent with glomerular filtration. In septic baboons, survival was observed after administration of two doses of DTPA iron (III) at 2.125 mg/kg, the first one given before, or as late as 2 h after, severe hypotension. Administration of DTPA iron (III) did not alter mean systemic arterial pressure, but did protect baboons in the presence of high levels of TNF-alpha and free radical overproduction. Furthermore, exaggerated production of nitric oxide was attenuated. The mechanism of protection with DTPA iron (III) is not obvious. Because of its ability to interact in vitro with free radicals, its poor cell permeability, and its short half-life, we postulate that DTPA iron (III) and/or its reduced form may have protected the mice and baboons by sequestration and subsequent elimination of free radicals (including nitric oxide) from their systems. PMID:8690793

Molina, L; Studenberg, S; Wolberg, G; Kazmierski, W; Wilson, J; Tadepalli, A; Chang, A C; Kosanke, S; Hinshaw, L



Comparison of a combination ferrous fumarate product and a polysaccharide iron complex as oral treatments of iron deficiency anemia: a Taiwanese study.  


Despite efforts to improve iron supplements for iron deficiency anemia, there is no consensus on products that balance efficacy, safety and tolerability, and cost. Ferrous products are effective, but they are associated with more gastrointestinal side effects than ferric products. Ferric products tend to have lower absorption. We present results from a 12-week study that randomized 72 people with uncomplicated iron deficiency anemia to receive a ferrous iron supplement (Ferall, a combination of ferrous fumarate with ascorbic acid, folic acid, and cyanocobalamin) or a ferric iron polysaccharide complex (Niferex, ferro-glycine sulfate) plus ascorbic acid. The ferrous product was significantly more effective, the primary and secondary endpoints including changes in levels of hemoglobin and serum ferritin. There was a slightly higher frequency of gastrointestinal side effects in patients taking the ferrous product, but both supplements were well tolerated. No participant withdrew from the study because of side effects. We concluded that the ferrous product is safe and effective for use in uncomplicated iron deficiency anemia. The lack of direct comparison between single-agent ferrous fumarate and the combination ferrous product limited interpretation of results in terms of possible effects due to other components, such as ascorbic acid. PMID:15646652

Liu, Ta-Chih; Lin, Shen-Fung; Chang, Chao-Sung; Yang, Wen-Chi; Chen, Tyen-Po



Complex regional pain syndrome.  


Complex regional pain syndrome is a chronic pain syndrome that is often instigated by postoperative or post-traumatic events. The disease process can progress through three stages, the first of which tends to respond best to treatment. A review of the literature is presented, followed by a report of a patient who developed symptoms of complex regional pain syndrome following a water-skiing accident. PMID:10546427

Hernandez, W; Raja, A; Capuano, C



In Vitro and Murine Efficacy and Toxicity Studies of Nebulized SCC1, a Methylated Caffeine-Silver(I) Complex, for Treatment of Pulmonary Infections ?  

PubMed Central

The expanding clinical challenge of respiratory tract infections due to resistant bacteria necessitates the development of new forms of therapy. The development of a compound composed of silver coupled to a methylated caffeine carrier (silver carbene complex 1 [SCC1]) that demonstrated in vitro efficacy against bacteria, including drug-resistant organisms, isolated from patients with respiratory tract infections was described previously. The findings of current in vitro studies now suggest that bactericidal concentrations of SCC1 are not toxic to airway epithelial cells in primary culture. Thus, it was hypothesized that SCC1 could be administered by the aerosolized route to concentrate delivery to the lung while minimizing systemic toxicity. In vivo, aerosolized SCC1 delivered to mice resulted in mild aversion behavior, but it was otherwise well tolerated and did not cause lung inflammation following administration over a 5-day period. The therapeutic efficacy of SCC1 compared to that of water was shown in a 3-day prophylaxis protocol, in which mice infected with a clinical strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa had increased survival, decreased amounts of bacteria in the lung, and a lower prevalence of bacteremia. Similarly, by using an airway infection model in which bacteria were impacted in the airways by agarose beads, the administration of SCC1 was significantly superior to water in decreasing the lung bacterial burden and the levels of bacteremia and markers of airway inflammation. These observations indicate that aerosolized SCC1, a novel antimicrobial agent, warrants further study as a potential therapy for bacterial respiratory tract infections. PMID:19451294

Cannon, Carolyn L.; Hogue, Lisa A.; Vajravelu, Ravy K.; Capps, George H.; Ibricevic, Aida; Hindi, Khadijah M.; Kascatan-Nebioglu, Aysegul; Walter, Michael J.; Brody, Steven L.; Youngs, Wiley J.



High resolution spectroscopy and channel-coupling treatment of the A 1Sigma+-b 3[Pi] complex of NaRb  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents the study of the fully mixed A 1Sigma+-b 3Pi complex of the NaRb molecule based on high-resolution sub-Doppler spectroscopy and intensity measurements, ab initio relativistic calculations of energies, transition moments and spin-orbit interactions, as well as an inverted channel-coupling approach (ICCA) deperturbation analysis. A two-laser V-type pump-probe excitation scheme was employed to obtain A[left arrow]X transition frequencies to 16 A-state vibrational levels from v=6 to v=21 with J from 8 to 23. Additionally, relative intensities in laser-induced A[right arrow]X fluorescence spectra have been recorded, including progressions with all observable transitions to the ground state vibronic levels, the latter yielding unambiguous v assignment of the A-state levels observed. All experimental rovibronic term values and all measured intensity distributions were embedded in a direct simultaneous weighted nonlinear fitting in the framework of an elaborated ICCA allowing us to obtain deperturbed relativistic diabatic potentials of the interacting A 1Sigma+ and b 3Pi states. To make this possible, ab initio structure calculations of the spin-orbit singlet-triplet coupling parameter, the spin-orbit splitting of the b 3Pi state, the transition dipole moments, and the electronic energy differences for internuclear distance 3.0-7.0 A have been performed using second order many-body multipartitioning perturbation theory. The developed ICCA is proved to be appropriate for deperturbation analysis of strongly coupled electronic states provided that accurate nonadiabatic matrix elements are known. This allows unambiguous assignment of the vibrational levels of the b 3Pi0 state, which is not directly observed.

Tamanis, M.; Ferber, R.; Zaitsevskii, A.; Pazyuk, E. A.; Stolyarov, A. V.; Chen, Hongmin; Qi, Jianbing; Wang, Henry; Stwalley, William C.



A Phase I Trial of Samarium-153-Lexidronam Complex for Treatment of Clinically Nonmetastatic High-Risk Prostate Cancer: First Report of a Completed Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We completed a Phase I trial to determine the maximum tolerated dose of samarium-153 EDTMP ({sup 153}Sm) with hormonal therapy (HT) and radiation therapy (RT) in high-risk clinically nonmetastatic prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: High-risk M0 prostate cancer patients (prostate-specific antigen >20 ng/mL, Gleason score >7, or >T3) were eligible for this prospective trial of dose-escalated radioactive {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP (.25-2.0 mCi/kg) as primary or postoperative therapy. After 1 month of HT, we administered {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP followed by 4 more months of HT, 46.8 Gy to the pelvic region and 23.4 Gy to the prostate target (TD = 70.2 Gy). The primary endpoint was Grade III toxicity or higher by the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria. Results: Twenty-nine patients enrolled (median prostate-specific antigen = 8.2 ng/mL, 27/29 (93%) T stage {>=}T2b, 24/29 (83%) had Gleason >7) and received {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP (.25 mCi/kg, 4 patients; 0.5 mCi/kg, 4 patients; 0.75 mCi/kg, 6 patients; 1.0 mCi/kg, 6 patients; 1.5 mCi/kg, 5 patients; 2.0mCi/kg, 4 patients). Twenty-eight patients underwent all planned therapy without delays (1 patient required surgery before the start of RT). With a median follow-up time of 23 months, there were 2 patients (7 %) experiencing Grade III hematologic toxicity. There were no other Grade III or IV side effects. Conclusions: Our trial demonstrates that 2 mCi/kg {sup 153}Sm -EDTMP with HT and RT was safe and feasible in men with high-risk M0 prostate cancer. A Phase II study to test this treatment is currently underway by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group.

Valicenti, Richard K., E-mail: richard.valicenti@ucdmc.ucdavis.ed [Department Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA (United States); Trabulsi, Edouard [Department of Urology, Thomas Jefferson University, Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Intenzo, Charles [Department of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson University, Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Lavarino, Jorosali [Department Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA (United States); Xu Yihuan; Chervoneva, Inna [Department of Pharmacology, Thomas Jefferson University, Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA (United States)



Complex Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a short study guide from the University of Maryland's Physics Education Research Group on introducing, interpreting, and using complex numbers. Mathematical equations are included to help students understand the nature of complex numbers.



Carney Complex  


... Ephelides (freckles) LAMB syndrome – Lentigines, Atrial Myxoma, and Blue nevi What causes Carney complex? Carney complex is ... melanotic schwannoma, meaning tumors that grow on nerves Blue nevi, which are blue-black moles Osteochondromyxoma (bone ...


Complexity Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine whether consensus existed among teachers about the complexity of common classroom materials, a survey was administered to 66 pre-service and in-service kindergarten and prekindergarten teachers. Participants were asked to rate 14 common classroom materials as simple, complex, or super-complex. Simple materials have one obvious part,…

Gordon, Sandra L.; Anderson, Beth C.



EPA Science Inventory

The waste effluent from operation of the Tuscaloosa, Alabama, plant of Reichhold Chemicals, Inc., results from both batch and continuous operations, contains both organic and inorganic wastes and varies both in composition and concentration. This report describes development of a...


Complex Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The objective of this lesson is to gain a better understanding of complex numbers and their graphs Situation: The Swiss Mathemation, Jean Robert Argand developed a means to graphically represent complex numbers. This led to solving problems related to altenating electrical current, which provides current day luxuries. Could you do the same? Current Knowledge: Use your knowledge of complex number and the coordinate system and with your partner, ...

Mrs. Pierce



Complex derivatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intrinsic complexity of the financial derivatives market has emerged as both an incentive to engage in it, and a key source of its inherent instability. Regulators now faced with the challenge of taming this beast may find inspiration in the budding science of complex systems.

Battiston, Stefano; Caldarelli, Guido; Georg, Co-Pierre; May, Robert; Stiglitz, Joseph



Ulnar Impaction Syndrome: A case series investigating the appropriate diagnosis, management, and post-operative considerations  

PubMed Central

Ulnar sided wrist pain is a common site for upper extremity disability. Ulnar impaction syndrome results in a spectrum of triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) injuries and associated lunate, triquetrum, and ligamentous damage. Patients commonly present with insidious ulnar sided wrist pain and clicking, and a history of trauma or repetitive axial loading and rotation. In this case series, three patients presented to a sports chiropractor for evaluation and were subsequently diagnosed with ulnar impaction syndrome. Treatment strategies consist of conservative management, arthroscopic debridement or repair, arthroscopic wafer procedure, or ulnar shortening osteotomy. For the athlete, intervention should be individualized and sport-specific, considering athletic priorities, healing potential, return to play, and long-term health concerns.

Woitzik, Erin; deGraauw, Chris; Easter, Brock



Ulnar Impaction Syndrome: A case series investigating the appropriate diagnosis, management, and post-operative considerations.  


Ulnar sided wrist pain is a common site for upper extremity disability. Ulnar impaction syndrome results in a spectrum of triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) injuries and associated lunate, triquetrum, and ligamentous damage. Patients commonly present with insidious ulnar sided wrist pain and clicking, and a history of trauma or repetitive axial loading and rotation. In this case series, three patients presented to a sports chiropractor for evaluation and were subsequently diagnosed with ulnar impaction syndrome. Treatment strategies consist of conservative management, arthroscopic debridement or repair, arthroscopic wafer procedure, or ulnar shortening osteotomy. For the athlete, intervention should be individualized and sport-specific, considering athletic priorities, healing potential, return to play, and long-term health concerns. PMID:25550665

Woitzik, Erin; deGraauw, Chris; Easter, Brock



Complexity International  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Complexity International (CI) is an electronic journal devoted to "the field of complex systems, the generation of complex behaviour from the interaction of multiple parallel processes." The journal covers a wide variety of topics, including genetic algorithms, neural networks, and chaos theory. Because much of the focus is based on technological imitation of biological processes, some of the papers are closely tied to the life sciences. Volumes are added to on a continual basis as papers are accepted. Due to the lengthy acceptance process, it is especially useful that the CI Web site offers drafts of current submissions.


Treatment of unwanted pigment.  


Disorders of skin pigmentation pose significant challenges to both patients and physicians, as they have the unfortunate duality of being both common and difficult to treat conditions. This article reviews the etiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and treatment options for melasma and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. A thorough understanding of the disease process itself, expected agent efficacy, risks, and benefits of various treatments is crucial while treating these complex conditions. PMID:24488633

Chance, Elizabeth W



MR Arthrography of the Wrist: Controversies and Concepts  

PubMed Central

Magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) has become the preferred modality for imaging patients with internal derangement of the wrist. However, several aspects of MRA use need to be clarified before a standardized approach to the imaging of internal derangement of the wrist can be developed. The objective of the study is to evaluate the efficiency of different magnetic resonance (MR) sequences in the detection of lesions of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) and scapholunate and lunotriquetral ligaments on direct MRA. Thirty-one consecutive direct magnetic resonance arthrographic examinations of the wrist using a wrist surface coil were performed for the assessment of the TFCC and intrinsic ligaments on a 1.5-T MR imaging system (Signa; 16 channel, Excite, GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI, USA). All patients had wrist pain, and in six cases, there was associated clinical carpal instability. The presence, location, and extent of TFCC, scapholunate ligament (SLL), and lunotriquetral ligament (LTL) lesions on T1 fat-saturated, multiplanar gradient recalled (MPGR) and short tau inversion recovery (STIR) images were identified, compared, and analyzed. Forty-one lesions of the TFCC, SLL, and LTL were visualized on contrast-sensitive (T1 fat-saturated) images in 23/31 (74.2%) patients. Twenty-one lesions of the TFCC and intrinsic ligaments were visualized on noncontrast-sensitive (MPGR and STIR) images (15 tears of the TFCC and six tears of the SLL and LTL). All of these lesions were seen on T1 fat-saturated images; 48.8% (20/41) lesions seen on T1 fat-saturated images (eight tears of TFCC and 12 tears of SLL and LTT) were not seen on MPGR and/or STIR images. Superior contrast resolution, joint distention, and the flow of contrast facilitate the diagnosis of lesions of the TFCC and intrinsic ligaments on contrast-sensitive sequences making MRA the preferred modality for imaging internal derangements of the wrist. Little agreement exists regarding the value and location of perforations of the intrinsic ligaments given that both traumatic and degenerative perforations may be symptomatic. Noncommunicating defects of the ulnar attachments of the triangular fibrocartilage (TFC), tears of the dorsal segment of the SLL, and defects at the lunate attachment of the SLL have a higher likelihood of being symptomatic and caused by trauma rather than by degenerative perforation. Although no consensus exists, it would appear that most arthrographies should be started with a radiocarpal injection. Injection into the distal radioulnar joint should be added if no communicational defects are visualized following radiocarpal injection in patients with ulnar-sided wrist pain. PMID:19048349

Brown, Jacqueline A.; Clement, Jason J.; Grebenyuk, Julia; Fenton, David M.; Smith, Donna E.; Jacobson, Jon A.



Complex Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt and Jason Starck, this chapter of All About Circuit's second volume on Alternating Current describes complex numbers: "In order to successfully analyze AC circuits, we need to work with mathematical objects and techniques capable of representing these multi-dimensional quantities. Here is where we need to abandon scalar numbers for something better suited: complex numbers." In addition to the introduction and credits to contributors, the chapter has seven sections: Vectors and AC waveforms, Simple vector addition, Complex vector addition, Polar and rectangular notation, Complex number arithmetic, More on AC "polarity," and Some examples with AC circuits. Each section has clear illustrations and a concise, bulleted review of what was covered at the end.

Kuphaldt, Tony R.



Stroke Treatments  


Stroke Treatments Updated:Jan 7,2015 A stroke occurs when a vessel in the brain ruptures or ... Save Lives Ischemic Stroke Treatment Hemorrhagic Stroke Treatment Stroke Prevention The good news is that 80 percent ...


On Complexity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under the generic label "complexity", this chapter includes 3 related contributions of different natures. The first one (C1) is a synthetic exposition by Vincent Schächter of James P. Crutchfield's attempt [1] at a general computational representation of the notion of complexity; the second one (C2) is an account of a CeSEF-session devoted to a general discussion of this attempt; the third contribution (C3) consists of a brief note by Vincent Schächter, on the construction of complexity measures, within the framework of the method of relativized conceptualization exposed in the second part of this volume. Considered globally, the sequence indicated above should convey an illustration of the way in which, accordingly to the aim announced in the general introduction, we try to extract from modern scientific representations, methodological essences to be progressively incorporated in the researched formalized epistemology. In the following, Crutchfield is denoted by Cr.

Schächter, Vincent


Complex chimerism  

PubMed Central

Thousands of women with organ transplantation have undergone successful pregnancies, however little is known about how the profound immunologic changes associated with pregnancy might influence tolerance or rejection of the allograft. Pregnant women with a solid organ transplant are complex chimeras with multiple foreign cell populations from the donor organ, fetus, and mother of the pregnant woman. We consider the impact of complex chimerism and pregnancy-associated immunologic changes on tolerance of the allograft both during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Mechanisms of allograft tolerance are likely dynamic during pregnancy and affected by the influx of fetal microchimeric cells, HLA relationships (between the fetus, pregnant woman and/or donor), peripheral T cell tolerance to fetal cells, and fetal minor histocompatibility antigens. Further research is necessary to understand the complex immunology during pregnancy and the postpartum period of women with a solid organ transplant. PMID:23974274

Ma, Kimberly K.; Petroff, Margaret G.; Coscia, Lisa A.; Armenti, Vincent T.; Adams Waldorf, Kristina M.



Incontinence Treatment: Newer Treatment Options  


... Stories Who We Are Contact Us Donate Incontinence Treatment: Newer Treatment Options Jump to Topic Lifestyle changes Dietary changes ... November 19, 2014 at 04:33:10 PM Treatment Lifestyle Changes Dietary Tips Medication Bowel Management Biofeedback ...


fimbriata complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ceratocystis fimbriata is a widely distributed, plant pathogenic fungus that causes wilts and cankers on many woody hosts. Earlier phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences revealed three geographic clades within the C. fimbriata complex that are centered respectively in North America, Latin America and Asia. This study looked for cryptic species within the North American clade. The internal transcribed spacer regions

Jason A. Johnson; Thomas C. Harrington; C. J. B. Engelbrecht


Cellulose synthesis: a complex complex.  


Cellulose is the world's most abundant biopolymer and a key structural component of the plant cell wall. Cellulose is comprised of hydrogen-bonded beta-1,4-linked glucan chains that are synthesized at the plasma membrane by large cellulose synthase (CESA) complexes. Recent advances in visualization of fluorescently labelled complexes have facilitated exploration of regulatory modes of cellulose production. For example, several herbicides, such as isoxaben and 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile that inhibit cellulose production appear to affect different aspects of synthesis. Dual-labelling of cytoskeletal components and CESAs has revealed dynamic feedback regulation between cellulose synthesis and microtubule orientation and organization. In addition, fluorescently tagged CESA2 subunits may substitute for another subunit, CESA6, which suggests both plasticity and specificity for one of the components of the CESA complex. PMID:18485800

Mutwil, Marek; Debolt, Seth; Persson, Staffan



Complex regional pain syndrome  

PubMed Central

Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) previously known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy is a chronic neurological disorder involving the limbs characterized by disabling pain, swelling, vasomotor instability, sudomotor abnormality, and impairment of motor function. CRPS is not uncommon after hand surgery and may complicate post-operative care. There is no specific diagnostic test for CRPS and the diagnosis is based on history, clinical examination, and supportive laboratory findings. Recent modifications to diagnostic criteria have enabled clinicians to diagnose this disease more consistently. This review gives a synopsis of CRPS and discusses the diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment options based on the limited evidence in the literature. PMID:22022040

Sebastin, Sandeep J



Psychological Treatment  


... Alternative Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments Take Part in Online Studies News You Can Use Living With IBS Relationships and IBS Pregnancy and IBS Travel and IBS IBS Patients' Experience and Unmet Needs ...


Treatment Horizon  


What We Know Today Major Milestones Treatment Horizon Earlier Diagnosis Prevention Treatment Horizon "The science of Alzheimer's has advanced to show potential underlying drivers of the disease. And we have candidate ...


Water Treatment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Water treatment on a large scale enables the supply of clean drinking water to communities. In this activity, learners develop methods to clean a polluted water sample, describe components of a water treatment process, and learn how humans impact Earth's freshwater supply. The activity simulates methods used in real water treatment including aeration, coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection. This activity would be an excellent adjunct to a guided tour of a local water treatment plant.

Jersey, New; Center, Liberty S.; Coalition, New J.



Managing complexity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the\\u000abehavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological\\u000asystems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today's most\\u000achallenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed\\u000aeconomic control problem. Indeed, economically-based control of large-scale\\u000asystems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g.,\\u000aauctions, markets)

David P. Chassin; Christian POSSE; Joel MALARD



Dorsal Capsuloplasty for Dorsal Instability of the Distal Ulna  

PubMed Central

Background?Dorsal instability of the distal ulna can lead to chronic wrist pain and loss of function. Structural changes to the dorsal radioulnar ligaments (DRUL) of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) and the dorsal capsule around the ulnar head with or without foveal detachment can lead to volar subluxation of the distal radius e.g., dorsal instability of the distal ulna. Purpose?Is to evaluate the post-operative results of reinstituting distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) stability through reefing of the dorsal capsule and dorsal radioulnar ligaments, with and without a foveal reattachment of the TFCC. Methods?A total of 37 patients were included in this retrospective study. Diagnosis and treatment was based strictly on dry wrist arthroscopy. In 17 patients isolated reefing of the DRUL and their collateral tissue extension was performed. In 20 patients an additional foveal reinsertion was performed. Postoperative results were evaluated with the DASH questionnaire, VAS scores, grip strength and range of motion. These findings were extrapolated in the Mayo wrist score. The two subgroups were compared. Results?Mayo wrist scores of the whole population had a mean of 73. There was no difference between the group that was treated with reefing of the DRUL only and the group that was treated with a combined foveal reinsertion. Conclusion?This relatively simple 'dorsal reefing' procedure, with foveal reinsertion when indicated, is a reliable method to restore volar-dorsal DRUJ stability with a significant decrease in pain sensation, good DASH scores and restoration of functional grip strength and ROM. Type of Study/Level of Evidence?Therapeutic, Level IV. PMID:24436811

Kouwenhoven, S.T.P.; de Jong, T.; Koch, A.R.



Geometry of pseudo-complex General Relativity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A first approach towards a geometric formulation of pseudo-complex General Relativity is presented. We review the mathematics of pseudo-complex numbers and functions and show how several concepts from real differential geometry can be generalized to the pseudo-complex case. It is shown that the main feature of such a pseudo-complex geometry is a product structure, which allows a separate treatment of all mathematical objects in two different sectors, respectively. In order to obtain a new theory, one needs new principles to connect both sectors and to define a real physical space-time embedded into the pseudo-complex manifold.

Schäfer, M.; Hess, P. O.; Greiner, W.



[Midfacial fractures. Diagnosis and treatment].  


The clinical diagnosis and treatment of midfacial fractures have been optimized by modern computer tomography and the development of plate osteosynthesis. Even complex fractures involving the orbit and scull base can be accurately reconstructed and stabilized. The use of titanium mini- and micro-plates as well as resorbable materials allows customized treatment of this esthetically and functionally important area. The preservation of basic functions such as vision, scent, speech, occlusion and swallowing, in addition to aesthetic aspects, should be the primary goals of surgical treatment. In general, reconstruction is not required immediately and polytrauma patients will need interdisciplinary care. Conservative treatment of midfacial fractures should be the exception. PMID:22012484

Bärmann, M; Stasche, N



Enhanced analgesic properties and reduced ulcerogenic effect of a mononuclear copper(II) complex with fenoprofen in comparison to the parent drug: promising insights in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases.  


Analgesic and ulcerogenic properties have been studied for the copper(II) coordination complex of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug Fenoprofen and imidazole [Cu(fen)2(im)2] (Cu: copper(II) ion; fen: fenoprofenate anion from Fenoprofen, im: imidazole). A therapeutic dose of 28 mg/kg was tested for [Cu(fen)2(im)2] and 21 mg/kg was employed for Fenoprofen calcium, administered by oral gavage in female mice to compare the therapeutic properties of the new entity. The acetic acid induced writhing test was employed to study visceral pain. The percentage of inhibition in writhing and stretching was 78.9% and 46.2% for the [Cu(fen)2(im)2] and Fenoprofen calcium, respectively. This result indicates that the complex could be more effective in diminishing visceral pain. The formalin test was evaluated to study the impact of the drugs over nociceptive and inflammatory pain. The complex is a more potent analgesic on inflammatory pain than the parent drug. Ulcerogenic effects were evaluated using a model of gastric lesions induced by hypothermic-restraint stress. Fenoprofen calcium salt caused an ulcer index of about 79 mm(2) while the one caused by [Cu(fen)2(im)2] was 22 mm(2). The complex diminished the development of gastric mucosal ulcers in comparison to the uncomplexed drug. Possible mechanisms of action related to both therapeutic properties have been discussed. PMID:25050353

Agotegaray, Mariela; Gumilar, Fernanda; Boeris, Mónica; Toso, Ricardo; Minetti, Alejandra



Enhanced Analgesic Properties and Reduced Ulcerogenic Effect of a Mononuclear Copper(II) Complex with Fenoprofen in Comparison to the Parent Drug: Promising Insights in the Treatment of Chronic Inflammatory Diseases  

PubMed Central

Analgesic and ulcerogenic properties have been studied for the copper(II) coordination complex of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug Fenoprofen and imidazole [Cu(fen)2(im)2] (Cu: copper(II) ion; fen: fenoprofenate anion from Fenoprofen, im: imidazole). A therapeutic dose of 28?mg/kg was tested for [Cu(fen)2(im)2] and 21?mg/kg was employed for Fenoprofen calcium, administered by oral gavage in female mice to compare the therapeutic properties of the new entity. The acetic acid induced writhing test was employed to study visceral pain. The percentage of inhibition in writhing and stretching was 78.9% and 46.2% for the [Cu(fen)2(im)2] and Fenoprofen calcium, respectively. This result indicates that the complex could be more effective in diminishing visceral pain. The formalin test was evaluated to study the impact of the drugs over nociceptive and inflammatory pain. The complex is a more potent analgesic on inflammatory pain than the parent drug. Ulcerogenic effects were evaluated using a model of gastric lesions induced by hypothermic-restraint stress. Fenoprofen calcium salt caused an ulcer index of about 79?mm2 while the one caused by [Cu(fen)2(im)2] was 22?mm2. The complex diminished the development of gastric mucosal ulcers in comparison to the uncomplexed drug. Possible mechanisms of action related to both therapeutic properties have been discussed. PMID:25050353

Gumilar, Fernanda; Boeris, Mónica; Toso, Ricardo; Minetti, Alejandra



ICD Complex Operations and Maintenance Plan  

SciTech Connect

This Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Plan describes how the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) conducts operations, winterization, and startup of the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (ICDF) Complex. The ICDF Complex is the centralized INL facility responsible for the receipt, storage, treatment (as necessary), and disposal of INL Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation waste.

Gibson, P. L.



Psychodynamic treatment of depression.  


Findings reviewed in this article show that PT should be included in treatment guidelines for depression. BPT in particular has been found to be superior to control conditions, equally effective as other active psychological treatments, with treatment effects that are often maintained in the long run, conferring resistance to relapse. Moreover, BPT is as effective as pharmacotherapy in the acute treatment of mild to moderate depression, and, either as monotherapy or combined with medication, BPT is associated with better long-term outcome compared with pharmacotherapy alone. PT is accepted by many depressed patients as a viable and preferred treatment. Furthermore, LTPT and PA have shown promise in treating patients with complex psychological disorders characterized by mood problems, often with comorbid personality problems. Finally, although studies suggest that effects of PT may be achieved somewhat slower compared with other forms of psychotherapy as well as medication in the acute treatment of depression, LTPT appears to be more clinically effective and perhaps more cost effective in the long run, particularly for chronically depressed patients. As noted, these conclusions need to be interpreted within the context of important limitations. Compared with other treatments, the evidence base for PT in depression remains relatively small, despite a respectable research tradition supporting psychodynamic assumptions with regard to the causation of depression. Moreover, and perhaps most importantly, although more studies now include longer follow-up assessments, our knowledge about the long-term effects of so-called evidence-based treatments of depression remains sketchy at best. In this context, the growing evidence for the efficacy and effectiveness of LTPT is promising. Overall, it is clear that the future of the treatment of depression may lie in a combined disorder- and person-centered, tailored-made approach, which takes into account, particularly in chronic depression, the broader interpersonal context and life history of the individual. It is clear that psychodynamic therapies have an important role to play in this respect. PMID:22370494

Luyten, Patrick; Blatt, Sidney J



Bypasses and Reconstruction for Complex Brain Aneurysms  

PubMed Central

Microsurgery for brain aneurysms is a current relevant technique, as advances in endovascular and stent-assisted coiling have not solved many of the difficulties inherent in the management of complex brain aneurysms. The following review highlights the importance of microsurgical bypass techniques for the management of complex cerebrovascular aneurysms and emphasizes, through two clinical cases, the technical difficulties and indications for bypass surgery. These cases demonstrate that in selected scenarios, bypass microsurgery still offers the only viable treatment for complex aneurysms.

da Silva, Harley Brito; Messina-Lopez, Mario; Sekhar, Laligam N.



Surgical Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Tumor resection principally remains the mainstay of treatment and a prerequisite of cure in most cases of pediatric liver\\u000a tumors. While in the past tumor biopsies were taken by open surgery before treatment, this can now be done percutaneously\\u000a with a tru-cut needle. Treatment of hepatoblastoma without a biopsy is reserved to selected cases. The international SIOPEL\\u000a group recommends, as

Piotr Czauderna; Dietrich von Schweinitz


Window treatments  

SciTech Connect

This book includes basic material as well as information the professional needs for designing appropriate window treatments for residential and nonresidential buildings: site, orientation, climate, energy efficiency, sound-proofing, privacy, protection, view, ventilation and interior and exterior aesthetics. Also includes a guide to the window treatment industry, a list of manufacturers, distributors, and retailers, information on window treatment fibers and fabrics, three glossaries, an extensive bibliography, and over 800 illustrations.

Nielson, K.J.



Wastewater Treatment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces students to the basics of wastewater treatment. Topics include the variety of materials that enter the wastewater system, septic tanks, and municpal treatment systems. Students can review online resources that describe the processes of wastewater treatment and septic tank operation in detail, and listen to a National Publc Radio (NPR) show that discusses the use of treated wastewater to make snow at a ski resort in Maine. The lesson includes an activity in which students participate in virtual tours of wastewater treatment facilities and answer questions about what they see.

Laposata, Mark


The Treatment of Melioidosis  

PubMed Central

Melioidosis is a complex bacterial infection, treatment of which combines the urgency of treating rapidly fatal Gram negative septicaemia with the need for eradication of long-term persistent disease in pulmonary, soft tissue, skeletal and other organ systems. Incremental improvements in treatment have been made as a result of multicentre collaboration across the main endemic region of Southeast Asia and northern Australia. There is an emerging consensus on the three main patterns of antimicrobial chemotherapy; initial (Phase 1) treatment, subsequent eradication (Phase 2) therapy and most recently post-exposure (Phase 0) prophylaxis. The combination of agents used, duration of therapy and need for adjunct modalities depends on the type, severity and antimicrobial susceptibility of infection. New antibiotic and adjunct therapies are at an investigational stage but on currently available data are unlikely to make a significant impact on this potentially fatal infection.

Inglis, Timothy J.J.



Why study treatment outcome?  


Concern about the spiraling cost of mental health care has increased the need for reliable data about the outcomes of such care. Treatment outcome studies, although difficult to design and carry out, are essential in demonstrating the efficacy of psychiatric treatment, rationalizing clinical decision making, and encouraging public support for the availability of appropriate, cost-effective care for the mentally ill. Ideally, outcome studies should focus not only on clinical symptomatology but also on patients' social, interpersonal, and occupational adjustment as well as on factors that, taken together, shape the quality of life. The authors discuss these issues and some of the impediments to collecting useful outcome data, including the complexity of the mental health service delivery system and problems related to patient selection, study design, and how treatment is defined. PMID:1959890

Mirin, S M; Namerow, M J



Complex partial seizures in adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a Many disorders can mimic complex partial seizure (CPS), and clinicians must be careful to make an accurate diagnosis. Complex\\u000a partial seizures must be distinguished from generalized-onset seizures (such as absence seizures), which require a different\\u000a treatment regimen.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a Treatment of CPS should begin with monotherapy with a standard antiepileptic drug (AED), such as phenytoin or carbamazepine.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – 

Michael D. Privitera; Jerzy P. Szaflarski



Syphilis Treatment  


... is easy to cure in its early stages. Penicillin, an antibiotic, injected into the muscle, is the ... treatment for syphilis. If you are allergic to penicillin, your healthcare provider may give you another antibiotic ...


Sores -- Treatment  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... thorough method of debridement. But, it can cause pain and bleeding. It can be done with traditional ... be treated. Without treatment, infection can lead to pain, difficulty healing, and even amputation. An infected sore ...


Acne Treatment  


... Adult: 18-21 yrs. Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Safety & Prevention ... System Obesity Skin Treatments View all Injuries & Emergencies Sports Injuries Vaccine Preventable Diseases Diphtheria Haemophilus influenzae type ...


Anthrax: Treatment  


... Confirming Anthrax Through the Laboratory Response Network Laboratory Testing - FAQs Collecting Specimens Recommended Specimens Information for Specific Groups Laboratory Professionals People Who Work with Animal Products Exposure to Hides/Drums Treatment of Products ...


Rotavirus Treatment  


... Rotavirus Vaccine Program American Academy of Pediatrics Treatment Language: English Español (Spanish) Share Compartir Español: Tratamiento There ... PATH's Rotavirus Vaccine Program American Academy of Pediatrics Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I ...


Systemic treatment.  


In the last years the management of patients with liver cancer has been improved. The BCLC staging/treatment strategy identifies the optimal candidates for each treatment option and sorafenib is the only effective systemic treatment. Others (sunitinib, brivanib, linifanib, everolimus, ramucirumab) have failed in terms of safety/survival benefit. Some patients at intermediate/early stage, may be considered for systemic therapy when options of higher priority may have failed or not be feasible. The 800 mg/day is the recommended starting dose. Close follow-up and easy access for the patients so that they can report any adverse event and implement dose adjustments is the key point in the management of them. Development of early dermatologic adverse events has been correlated with better outcome and the pattern of radiologic progression characterizes better the prognosis/outcome of these patients. Treatment beyond progression may be considered if there is no option for a second line research trial. PMID:25260318

Reig, Maria; Gazzola, Alessia; Di Donato, Roberto; Bruix, Jordi



Wastewater Treatment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Before this activity the students will have heard about groundwater and water resources through lecture to give them a background on where our drinking water comes from. The activity involves a tour of the local wastewater treatment plant where the students told about the treatment processes and shown the treatment facility. They are also introduced to the water quality testing done at the plans and they learn about the energy usage/management at the plant. As part of the activity they write up a paper on the processes in the treatment process from the time water enters the plant until it exits. The students are encouraged before hand to ask questions to ensure that they gather the needed information. This always means that each tour has a slightly different content based on these questions.

Bianca Pedersen


Electrospinning of complex oxide nanofibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrospinning is a versatile process for drawing fibers of diverse materials including polymers, ceramics, and composites. We demonstrate here its application in the synthesis of complex ceramic oxide materials. The phase formation and morphology of BaTiO3 nanofibers synthesized via electrospinning is investigated as a function of heat treatment conditions. Fully crystallized BaTiO3 nanofibers with the perovskite structure are obtained after

Junhan Yuh; Louis Perez; Wolfgang M. Sigmund; Juan C. Nino



Integrated nonthermal treatment system study  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a study of nonthermal treatment technologies. The study consisted of a systematic assessment of five nonthermal treatment alternatives. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The alternatives considered were innovative nonthermal treatments for organic liquids and sludges, process residue, soil and debris. Vacuum desorption or various washing approaches are considered for treatment of soil, residue and debris. Organic destruction methods include mediated electrochemical oxidation, catalytic wet oxidation, and acid digestion. Other methods studied included stabilization technologies and mercury separation of treatment residues. This study is a companion to the integrated thermal treatment study which examined 19 alternatives for thermal treatment of MLLW waste. The quantities and physical and chemical compositions of the input waste are based on the inventory database developed by the US Department of Energy. The Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) systems were evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 pounds per hour) as the Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems (ITTS). 48 refs., 68 figs., 37 tabs.

Biagi, C.; Bahar, D.; Teheranian, B.; Vetromile, J. [Morrison Knudsen Corp. (United States); Quapp, W.J. [Nuclear Metals (United States); Bechtold, T.; Brown, B.; Schwinkendorf, W. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Swartz, G. [Swartz and Associates (United States)



The effects of infrared laser therapy and weightbath traction hydrotherapy as components of complex physical treatment in disorders of the lumbar spine: a controlled pilot study with follow-up  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: The therapeutic modalities available for the conservative management of chronic lumbar pain included infrared laser therapy and underwater traction, which usefulness is not universally acknowledged. This study was intended to ascertain any beneficial impact of infrared laser therapy and weightbath treatment on the clinical parameters and quality of life of patients with lumbar discopathy. Material and methods: The study population comprised 54 randomised subjects. I. group of 18 patents received only infrared laser therapy to lumbar region and painful Valley points. II. group of 18 subjects each received underwater traction therapy of lumbar spine with add-on McKenzie exercise and iontophoresis. The remaining III. group treated with exercise and iontophoresis, served as control. VAS, Oswestry index, SF36 scores, range of motion, neurological findings and thermography were monitored to appraise therapeutic afficacy in lumbar discopathy. A CT or MRI scan was done at baseline and after 3 months follow-up. Result:Infrared laser therapy and underwater traction for discopathy achieved significant improvement of all study parameters, which was evident 3 months later. Among the controls, significant improvement of only a single parameter was seen in patients with lumbar discopathy. Conclusions: Infrared laser therapy and underwater traction treatment effectively mitigate pain, muscle spasms, enhance joint flexibility, and improve the quality of life of patients with lumbar discopathy.

Oláh, Csaba; Oláh, Mihály; Demeter, Béla; Jancsó, Zoltán; Páll, Valéria; Bender, Tamás



The Treatment of Trigeminal Neuralgia  

PubMed Central

The etiology of trigeminal neuralgia has yet to be elucidated. Thus it is not surprising that no ideal treatment is currently available. The current treatment of choice is medical; Pharmacologic management should be tried to its fullest extent. Increasing dosages and using combination drug therapies are recommended before considering a surgical approach. If drug therapy does not alleviate the pain, a surgical approach may be indicated, although 100% effectivity is not expected. Until the true etiology of trigeminal neuralgia is established, controversy will remain in the treatment of this complex disorder. PMID:3326429

Busch, Randall L.



The Mycobacterium avium complex.  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease emerged early in the epidemic of AIDS as one of the common opportunistic infections afflicting human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. However, only over the past few years has a consensus developed about its significance to the morbidity and mortality of AIDS. M. avium was well known to mycobacteriologists decades before AIDS, and the MAC was known to cause disease, albeit uncommon, in humans and animals. The early interest in the MAC provided a basis for an explosion of studies over the past 10 years largely in response to the role of the MAC in AIDS opportunistic infection. Molecular techniques have been applied to the epidemiology of MAC disease as well as to a better understanding of the genetics of antimicrobial resistance. The interaction of the MAC with the immune system is complex, and putative MAC virulence factors appear to have a direct effect on the components of cellular immunity, including the regulation of cytokine expression and function. There now is compelling evidence that disseminated MAC disease in humans contributes to both a decrease in the quality of life and survival. Disseminated disease most commonly develops late in the course of AIDS as the CD4 cells are depleted below a critical threshold, but new therapies for prophylaxis and treatment offer considerable promise. These new therapeutic modalities are likely to be useful in the treatment of other forms of MAC disease in patients without AIDS. The laboratory diagnosis of MAC disease has focused on the detection of mycobacteria in the blood and tissues, and although the existing methods are largely adequate, there is need for improvement. Indeed, the successful treatment of MAC disease clearly will require an early and rapid detection of the MAC in clinical specimens long before the establishment of the characteristic overwhelming infection of bone marrow, liver, spleen, and other tissue. Also, a standard method of susceptibility testing is of increasing interest and importance as new effective antimicrobial agents are identified and evaluated. Antimicrobial resistance has already emerged as an important problem, and methods for circumventing resistance that use combination therapies are now being studied. Images PMID:8358707

Inderlied, C B; Kemper, C A; Bermudez, L E



Improvement in the suspension-culture production of recombinant adeno-associated virus-LacZ in HEK-293 cells using polyethyleneimine-DNA complexes in combination with hypothermic treatment.  


rAAV (recombinant adeno-associated virus) has become a very useful gene-delivery vector for gene therapy. However, it is very difficult to generate rAAV using triple transfection on a commercial scale, owing to its low transfection efficiency. An optimal procedure for transfection in suspension-culture mode was developed for rAAV-LacZ production in suspension-cultured HEK-293 (human embryonic kidney-293) cells mediated by PEI (polyethyleneimine)-DNA complexes in combination with transient severe hypothermia at 4 degrees C for 1 h in the present study (LacZ is the product of the reporter gene lacZ, which codes for beta-D-galactosidase). It showed that the PEI/DNA ratio, cell density at the beginning of transfection and cell-cycle arrest in G2/M-phase were key factors affecting suspension-culture triple-transfection efficiency and rAAV-LacZ productivity. After incubation at 4 degrees C for 1 h and re-warming at 37 degrees C for 18 h, HEK-293 cells at 1x10(6) cells/ml were transfected with PEI-DNA complexes at a PEI/DNA ratio of 5:1 (w/w) with final concentrations of 30 mug/ml 25 kDa linear PEI and 6 mug/ml plasmid DNA in culture. After 6 h incubation for transfection, an equal volume of medium was added to the culture for additional 48 h growth until harvest. Finally, the high transfection efficiency of some 75% and rAAV-LacZ titre of (7.48+/-0.59)x10(11) physical particles or 1.86+/-0.96x10(10) infectious particles were achieved in 250 ml shake flasks with 60 ml working volume, indicating a promising application for scale-up. PMID:17880281

Feng, Lei; Guo, Meijin; Zhang, Shuxiang; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping; Zhang, Siliang



Acetic acid treatment in S. cerevisiae creates significant energy deficiency and nutrient starvation that is dependent on the activity of the mitochondrial transcriptional complex Hap2-3-4-5  

PubMed Central

Metabolic pathways play an indispensable role in supplying cellular systems with energy and molecular building blocks for growth, maintenance and repair and are tightly linked with lifespan and systems stability of cells. For optimal growth and survival cells rapidly adopt to environmental changes. Accumulation of acetic acid in stationary phase budding yeast cultures is considered to be a primary mechanism of chronological aging and induction of apoptosis in yeast, which has prompted us to investigate the dependence of acetic acid toxicity on extracellular conditions in a systematic manner. Using an automated computer controlled assay system, we investigated and model the dynamic interconnection of biomass yield- and growth rate-dependence on extracellular glucose concentration, pH conditions and acetic acid concentration. Our results show that toxic concentrations of acetic acid inhibit glucose consumption and reduce ethanol production. In absence of carbohydrates uptake, cells initiate synthesis of storage carbohydrates, trehalose and glycogen, and upregulate gluconeogenesis. Accumulation of trehalose and glycogen, and induction of gluconeogenesis depends on mitochondrial activity, investigated by depletion of the Hap2-3-4-5 complex. Analyzing the activity of glycolytic enzymes, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), pyruvate kinase (PYK), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) we found that while high acetic acid concentration increased their activity, lower acetic acids concentrations significantly inhibited these enzymes. With this study we determined growth and functional adjustment of metabolism to acetic acid accumulation in a complex range of extracellular conditions. Our results show that substantial acidification of the intracellular environment, resulting from accumulation of dissociated acetic acid in the cytosol, is required for acetic acid toxicity, which creates a state of energy deficiency and nutrient starvation. PMID:23050242

Kitanovic, Ana; Bonowski, Felix; Heigwer, Florian; Ruoff, Peter; Kitanovic, Igor; Ungewiss, Christin; Wölfl, Stefan



On State Complexes and Special Cube Complexes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This thesis presents the first steps toward a classification of non-positively curved cube complexes called state complexes. A "state complex" is a configuration space for a "reconfigurable system," i.e., an abstract system in which local movements occur in some discrete manner. Reconfigurable systems can be used to describe, for example,…

Peterson, Valerie J.



Multidisciplinary treatment of dental phobia.  


Using contributions from different schools of psychotherapy provides a range of treatment options for the complex needs of dental fear patients. A single case study of a severely phobic patient explores the advantages of the team approach, strategies of fear reduction and the evolution of a patient coping with the symptoms of dental phobia. PMID:7687272

Mazey, K A; Mito, R S



System Complexity and Its Measures: How Complex Is Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The last few decades of physics, chemistry, biology, computer science, engineering, and social sciences have been marked by\\u000a major developments of views on cognitive systems, dynamical systems, complex systems, complexity, self-organization, and emergent\\u000a phenomena that originate from the interactions among the constituent components (agents) and with the environment, without\\u000a any central authority. How can measures of complexity capture the intuitive

Witold Kinsner


Sewage Treatment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stennis Space Center's aquaculture research program has led to an attractive wastewater treatment for private homes. The system consists of a septic tank or tanks for initial sewage processing and a natural secondary treatment facility for further processing of septic tanks' effluent, consisting of a narrow trench, which contains marsh plants and rocks, providing a place for microorganisms. Plants and microorganisms absorb and digest, thus cleansing partially processed wastewater. No odors are evident and cleaned effluent may be discharged into streams or drainage canals. The system is useful in rural areas, costs about $1,900, and requires less maintenance than mechanical systems.



Audits for advanced treatment dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation therapy has advanced rapidly over the last few decades, progressing from 3D conformal treatment to image-guided intensity modulated therapy of several different flavors, both 3D and 4D and to adaptive radiotherapy. The use of intensity modulation has increased the complexity of quality assurance and essentially eliminated the physicist's ability to judge the validity of a treatment plan, even approximately, on the basis of appearance and experience. Instead, complex QA devices and procedures are required at the institutional level. Similarly, the assessment of treatment quality through remote and on-site audits also requires greater sophistication. The introduction of 3D and 4D dosimetry into external audit systems must follow, to enable quality assurance systems to perform meaningful and thorough audits.

Ibbott, G. S.; Thwaites, D. I.



Biomechanical analysis of the acetabular buttress-plate: are complex acetabular fractures in the quadrilateral area stable after treatment with anterior construct plate-1/3 tube buttress plate fixation?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The acetabular buttress-plate has been widely used in treating difficult cases with satisfying clinical results. However, the biomechanical properties of a postoperative acetabular fracture fixed by the buttress-plate are not clear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical properties of stability after the anterior tube buttress-plate fixation of complex acetabular fractures in the quadrilateral area. METHODS: A construct was proposed based on anterior construct plate - 1/3 tube buttress plate fixation for acetabular both-column fractures. Two groups of six formalin-preserved cadaveric pelvises were analyzed: (1) group A, the normal pelvis and (2) group B, anterior construct plate-1/3 tube buttress plate with quadrilateral area fixation. The displacements were measured, and cyclical loads were applied in both standing and sitting simulations. RESULTS: As the load was added, the displacements were A

Wu, Yong-De; Cai, Xian-Hua; Liu, Xi-Ming; Zhang, Hong-Xi



Alcoholism Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevailing for more than a half century in the United States, the medical model labels alcoholism as a disease and offers abstinence as the sole predominant cure. In 1990, a panel representing the American National Academy of Sciences' Institute of Medicine concluded that most drinking problems were not serious enough to justify America's intensive one-size-fits-all hospital treatment programs. Great Britain,

James T. Decker; Kyra McCormill; Charles Lowe; Willie Elliott



Surface Treatment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple surface treatment process is provided which offers a high performance surface for a variety of applications at low cost. This novel surface treatment, which is particularly useful for Ti-6Al-4V alloys, is achieved by forming oxides on the surface with a two-step chemical process and without mechanical abrasion. First, after solvent degreasing, sulfuric acid is used to generate a fresh titanium surface. Next, an alkaline perborate solution is used to form an oxide on the surface. This acid-followed-by-base treatment is cost effective and relatively safe to use in commercial applications. In addition, it is chromium-free, and has been successfully used with a sol-gel coating to afford a strong adhesive bond that exhibits excellent durability after the bonded specimens have been subjected to a harsh 72 hour water boil immersion. Phenylethynyl containing adhesives were used to evaluate this surface treatment with a novel coupling agent containing both trialkoxysilane and phenylethynyl groups. 8 Claims, 16 Drawing Sheets

Park, Cheol (Inventor); Lowther, Sharon E. (Inventor); St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)



Complexity analysis of angiogenesis vasculature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tumor vasculature has a high degree of irregularity as compared to normal vasculature. The quantification of the morphometric complexity in tumor images can be useful in diagnosis. Also, it is desirable in several other medical applications to have an automated complexity analysis to aid in diagnosis and prognosis under treatment. e.g. in diabetic retinopathy and in arteriosclerosis. In addition, prior efforts at segmentation of the tumor vasculature using matched filtering, template matching and splines have been hampered by the irregularity of these vessels. We try to solve both problems by introducing a novel technique for vessel detection, followed by a tracing-independent complexity analysis based on a combination of ideas. First, the vessel cross-sectional profile is modeled using a continuous and everywhere differentiable family of super-Gaussian curves. This family generates rectangular profiles that can accurately localize the vessel boundaries in microvasculature images. Second, a robust non-linear regression algorithm based on M-estimators is used to estimate the parameters that optimally characterize the vessel"s shape. A framework for the quantitative analysis of the complexity of the vasculature based on the vessel detection is presented. A set of measures that quantify the complexity are proposed viz. Squared Error, Entropy-based and Minimum Description Length-based Shape Complexities. They are completely automatic and can deal with complexities of the entire vessel unlike existing tortuousity measures which deal only with vessel centerlines. The results are validated using carefully constructed phantom and real image data with ground truth information from an expert observer.

Mahadevan, Vijay; Tyrell, James A.; Tong, Ricky T.; Brown, Edward B.; Jain, Rakesh K.; Roysam, Badrinath



On the use of explicitly correlated treatment methods for the generation of accurate polyatomic -He/H2 interaction potential energy surfaces: The case of C3-He complex and generalization.  


Through the study of the C3(X1?g (+)) (1)?g (+)) + He((1)S) astrophysical relevant system using standard (CCSD(T)) and explicitly correlated (CCSD(T)-F12) coupled cluster approaches, we show that the CCSD(T)-F12/aug-cc-pVTZ level represents a good compromise between accuracy and low computational cost for the generation of multi-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) over both intra- and inter-monomer degrees of freedom. Indeed, the CCSD(T)-F12/aug-cc-pVTZ 2D-PES for linear C3 and the CCSD(T)-F12/aug-cc-pVTZ 4D-PES for bent C3 configurations gently approach those mapped at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVXZ (X = T,Q) + bond functions level, whereas a strong reduction of computational effort is observed. After exact dynamical computations, the pattern of the rovibrational levels of the intermediate C3-He complex and the rotational and rovibrational (de-) excitation of C3 by He derived using both sets of PESs agree quite well. Since C3 shows a floppy character, the interaction PES is defined in four dimensions to obtain realistic collisional parameters. The C-C-C bending mode, which fundamental lies at 63 cm(-1) and can be excited at very low temperatures is explicitly considered as independent coordinate. Our work suggests hence that CCSD(T)-F12/aug-cc-pVTZ methodology is the key method for the generation of accurate polyatomic - He/H2 multi-dimensional PESs. PMID:25084911

Al Mogren, M M; Denis-Alpizar, O; Ben Abdallah, D; Stoecklin, T; Halvick, P; Senent, M-L; Hochlaf, M



Complexes of clusters and complexes of stars  

E-print Network

Most star complexes are in fact complexes of stars, clusters and gas clouds; term "star complexes" was introduced as general one disregarding the preferential content of a complex. Generally the high rate of star formation in a complex is accompanied by the high number of bound clusters, including massive ones, what was explained by the high gas pressure in such regions. However, there are also complexes, where clusters seems to be more numerous in relation to stars than in a common complex. The high rate of clusters - but not isolated stars - formation seems to be typical for many isolated bursts of star formation, but deficit of stars might be still explained by the observational selection. The latter cannot, however, explain the complexes or the dwarf galaxies, where the high formation rate of only stars is observed. The possibility of the very fast dissolution of parental clusters just in such regions should itself be explained. Some difference in the physical conditions (turbulence parameters ?) within the initial gas supercloud might be a reason for the high or low stars/clusters number ratio in a complex.

Yu. N. Efremov



Antimicrobials Treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of antimicrobials is a common practice for preservation of foods. Incorporation, in a food recipe, of chemical antimicrobials towards inhibition of spoilage and pathogenic micro-organisms results in the compositional modification of food. This treatment is nowadays undesirable for the consumer, who likes natural products. Scientific community reflecting consumers demand for natural antimicrobials has made efforts to investigate the possibility to use natural antimicrobials such us bacteriocins and essential oils of plant origin to inhibit microbial growth.

Drosinos, Eleftherios H.; Skandamis, Panagiotis N.; Mataragas, Marios


Hyper Space Complex Number  

E-print Network

A new kind of numbers called Hyper Space Complex Numbers and its algebras are defined and proved. It is with good properties as the classic Complex Numbers, such as expressed in coordinates, triangular and exponent forms and following the associative and commutative laws of addition and multiplication. So the classic Complex Number is developed from in complex plane with two dimensions to in complex space with N dimensions and the number system is enlarged also.

Shanguang Tan



Complex Regional Pain Syndrome  


... any treatment? Because there is no cure for CRPS, treatment is aimed at relieving painful symptoms. Doctors may prescribe topical analgesics, antidepressants, corticosteroids, and opioids to relieve pain. ...


Simplifying complexity: a review of complexity theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complexity theory has captured the attention of the scientific community to the extent where its proponents tout it as a dominant scientific trend. Geographers, and environmental, human, and regional planners have applied complexity theory to topics ranging from cultural transmission and economic growth to the braiding of rivers. While such a wide array of applications is heartening because it speaks

Steven M. Manson



Sewage Treatment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the early 1970's, National Space Technology Laboratories discovered that water hyacinths literally thrive on sewage; they absorb and digest nutrients and minerals from wastewater, converting sewage effluents to clean water. They offer a means of purifying water at a fraction of the cost of a conventional sewage treatment plant, and provide a bonus value in byproducts. Hyacinths must be harvested at intervals; the harvested plants are used as fertilizers, high-protein animal feed and a source of energy. Already serving a number of small towns, the "aquaculture" technique has significantly advanced with its adoption by a major U.S. city.



Malaria Treatment (United States)  


... Severe Malaria Treatment algorithm Treatment summary in decision tree form [PDF, 38 KB, 1 page] Treatment Guidelines ... to Reduce Malaria's Impact Case Management (Diagnosis & Treatment) Insecticide-Treated Nets (ITNs) Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria ...


Cyanobacterial NADPH dehydrogenase complexes  

SciTech Connect

Cyanobacteria possess functionally distinct multiple NADPH dehydrogenase (NDH-1) complexes that are essential to CO2 uptake, photosystem-1 cyclic electron transport and respiration. The unique nature of cyanobacterial NDH-1 complexes is the presence of subunits involved in CO2 uptake. Other than CO2 uptake, chloroplastic NDH-1 complex has similar role as cyanobacterial NDH-1 complexes in photosystem-1 cyclic electron transport and respiration (chlororespiration). In this mini-review we focus on the structure and function of cyanobacterial NDH-1 complexes and their phylogeny. The function of chloroplastic NDH-1 complex and characteristics of plants defective in NDH-1 are also described forcomparison.

Ogawa, Teruo; Mi, Hualing



Computational complexity of the quantum separability problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ever since entanglement was identified as a computational and cryptographic resource, researchers have sought efficient ways to tell whether a givendensity matrix represents an unentangled, or separable, state. This paper gives the first systematic and com- prehensive treatment of this (bipartite) quantum separability problem, focusing on its deterministic (as opposed to randomized) computational complexity. First, I review the one-sided tests

Lawrence M. Ioannou



Complex Elliptic Pendulum  

E-print Network

This paper briefly summarizes previous work on complex classical mechanics and its relation to quantum mechanics. It then introduces a previously unstudied area of research involving the complex particle trajectories associated with elliptic potentials.

Carl M. Bender; Daniel W. Hook; Karta Kooner



Oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes  

SciTech Connect

Synthesis, characterization, and reactivity studies of oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes, namely those of fulvalene, tercyclopentadienyl, quatercyclopentadienyl, and pentacyclopentadienyl(cyclopentadienyl) are the subject of this account. Thermal-, photo-, and redox chemistries of homo- and heteropolynuclear complexes are described.

de Azevedo, Cristina G.; Vollhardt, K. Peter C.



Daunorubicin Lipid Complex Injection  


Daunorubicin lipid complex is used to treat advanced Kaposi's sarcoma (a type of cancer that causes abnormal tissue to ... body) related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Daunorubicin lipid complex is in a class of medications called ...


Quantum Complex Minkowski Space  

E-print Network

The complex Minkowski phase space has the physical interpretation of the phase space of the scalar massive conformal particle. The aim of the paper is the construction and investigation of the quantum complex Minkowski space.

Grzegorz Jakimowicz; Anatol Odzijewicz



Diagnosis and Treatment of Delirium  

PubMed Central

Delirium is not a clinical entity but a symptom-complex of manifold etiology. Its presence signifies acute cerebral insufficiency and often represents a medical and/or psychiatric emergency. Though some forms of delirium have distinctive features, the fundamental phenomena are common to all, with clouding of consciousness the sine qua non. The condition has two major components: (1) the basic “acute brain syndrome” and (2) associated release phenomena. Clinicians must first make the vital differentiation between delirium and “functional” mental disorder, then proceed with the elucidation of the underlying diagnosis and the concurrent organization of symptomatic and etiologic treatment. Proper treatment combines management of the acute brain syndrome with general and specific procedures for control of the underlying condition. Dealing with the symptom-complex itself involves the principles and practice of sedation, hydration, and nutrition, nursing care and supportive measures. Provided the basic organic condition is treatable, the prognosis today is usually good. PMID:5844423

Henry, W. Desmond; Mann, Alan M.



Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Aerobic Treatment Unit  

E-print Network

. Onsite wastewater treatment systems Single-compartment trash tank Chlorinator Aerobic treatment unit Spray heads Pump tank Bruce Lesikar Professor and Extension Agricultural Engineer The Texas A&M System Aerobic treatment units, which are certified...

Lesikar, Bruce J.



[Veterinary dentistry (11). Feline gingivitis-stomatitis-pharyngitis complex. Chronic/recurrent stomatitis in cats].  


This is the fourth article in a series on veterinary dentistry in cats. This article describes the clinical signs, possible investigations, and differential diagnosis of the gingivitis-stomatitis pharyngitis complex (GSP complex), a complex and frequently occurring disease. Strategies for the treatment of feline chronic stomatitis complex, which is frequently idiopathic, are presented. PMID:7482475

van Foreest, A



Treatment of Congenital Club Foot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital club foot is a complex deformity that is difficult to correct. It has a tendency to recur until the age of six or seven years. While there may be a so-called recurrence in an adolescent, this is usually associated with incomplete correction rather than being secondary to growth alone. The deformity has four components: equinus,varus,adductus,and cavus.The goal of treatment




Complexity, creativity and computers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creativity, one of the hallmarks of the human spirit, has yet to travel deep into the domain of artificial intelligence and computers. We argue that creativity intrinsically requires and exploits complexity. The dynamic multilevel properties of complex systems give us a natural way of scaling creative solutions, from the everyday to the paradigm shift. In particular, the complexity model implies

T. R. J. Bossomaier; A. W. Snyder


Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Diagnostic Criteria Update: Recommendations of the 2012 International Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Consensus Conference  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Tuberous sclerosis complex is highly variable in clinical presentation and findings. Disease manifestations continue to develop over the lifetime of an affected individual. Accurate diagnosis is fundamental to implementation of appropriate medical surveillance and treatment. Although significant advances have been made in the past 15 years in the understanding and treatment of tuberous sclerosis complex, current clinical diagnostic criteria have not been critically evaluated or updated since the last clinical consensus conference in 1998. METHODS The 2012 International Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Consensus Group, comprising 79 specialists from 14 countries, was organized into 12 subcommittees, each led by a clinician with advanced expertise in tuberous sclerosis complex and the relevant medical subspecialty. Each subcommittee focused on a specific disease area with important diagnostic implications and was charged with reviewing prevalence and specificity of disease-associated clinical findings and their impact on suspecting and confirming the diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis complex. RESULTS Clinical features of tuberous sclerosis complex continue to be a principal means of diagnosis. Key changes compared with 1998 criteria are the new inclusion of genetic testing results and reducing diagnostic classes from three (possible, probable, and definite) to two (possible, definite). Additional minor changes to specific criterion were made for additional clarification and simplification. CONCLUSIONS The 2012 International Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Diagnostic Criteria provide current, updated means using best available evidence to establish diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis complex in affected individuals. PMID:24053982

Northrup, Hope; Krueger, Darcy A.



Complex-I-ty in aging.  


The role of mitochondrial complex I in aging has been studied in both C. elegans and Drosophila, where RNAi knock down of specific complex I subunits has been shown to extend lifespan. More recently, studies in Drosophila have shown that an increase in mitochondrial activity, including complex I-like activity, can also slow aging. In this review, we discuss this apparent paradox. Improved maintenance of mitochondrial activity, mitochondrial homeostasis, may be responsible for lifespan extension in both cases. Decreased electron transport chain activity caused by reducing complex I subunit expression prompts an increase in stress response signaling that leads to enhanced mitochondrial homeostasis during aging. Increased complex I activity, as well as mitochondrial biogenesis, is expected to both directly counteract the decline in mitochondrial health that occurs during aging and may also increase cellular NAD(+) levels, which have been linked to mitochondrial homeostatic mechanisms through activation of sirtuins. We suggest that manipulations that increase or decrease complex I activity both converge on improved mitochondrial homeostasis during aging, resulting in prolonged lifespan. PMID:24961226

Hur, Jae H; Stork, Devon A; Walker, David W



Brain metastasis and treatment  

PubMed Central

Despite major therapeutic advances in the management of patients with systemic malignancies, management of brain metastases remains a significant challenge. These patients often require multidisciplinary care that includes surgical resection, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapies. Complex decisions about the sequencing of therapies to control extracranial and intracranial disease require input from neurosurgeons, radiation oncologists, and medical/neuro-oncologists. With advances in understanding of the biology of brain metastases, molecularly defined disease subsets and the advent of targeted therapy as well as immunotherapeutic agents offer promise. Future care of these patients will entail tailoring treatment based on host (performance status and age) and tumor (molecular cytogenetic characteristics, number of metastases, and extracranial disease status) factors. Considerable work involving preclinical models and better clinical trial designs that focus not only on effective control of tumor but also on quality of life and neurocognition needs to be done to improve the outcome of these patients. PMID:25580268

Ahluwalia, Manmeet S.; Vogelbaum, Michael V.; Chao, Samuel T.



Characterisation of alkane ?-complexes.  


Alkane ?-complexes have evolved from a curious phenomenon to an intermediate of intense interest, fuelling research into the area. Over the last fifteen years, metal alkane complex characterisation has evolved to incorporate reports employing UV/Vis, IR and NMR spectroscopy, and X-ray and neutron diffractometry. Previously, due to the sparse geometric characterisation of alkane ?-complexes, assumptions regarding bonding geometries and selectivities were made by comparison to related ?-complexes, or by analysis of C-H activation products. This minireview assembles relevant literature that illuminates the metrics of alkane-metal bonding, and critically analyses the binding mode, selectivity and stability of alkane complexes. PMID:25196671

Young, Rowan D



Imprinted Polymers in Wastewater Treatment  

SciTech Connect

In wastewater treatment, a method that specifically recognizes a variety of impurities in a flexible manner would be useful for treatment facilities with varying needs. Current purification techniques (i.e. bacteria, oxidation, reduction, precipitation and filtration) are nonspecific and difficult to control in complex mixtures. Heavy metal removal is particularly important in improving the efficiency of wastewater treatment, as they inhibit or even destroy the bacteria used for filtration. Imprinting polymerization is a technique that allows for the efficient removal of specific compounds and has been used in purification of enantiomers. It has potential to be applied in wastewater systems with the impurities acting as the template for the imprinting polymerization. The polymer with the bound impurities intact can then be removed via precipitation. After removal of the impurity the polymer can be reused. Data for the imprinting polymerization of polyacrylates and polyacrylamides for several metal complexes will be presented. Imprinting polymerization in combination with emulsion polymerization to improve the removal of hydrophobic contaminants will be described. Removal efficiencies will be presented and compared with conventional wastewater treatment methods.

Eastman, Christopher; Goodrich, Scott; Gartner, Isabelle; Mueller, Anja



Optimising hydraulic fracture treatments in reservoirs under complex conditions.  

E-print Network

??Growing global energy demand has prompted the exploitation of non-conventional resources such as Coal Bed Methane (CBM) and conventional resources such as gas-condensate reservoirs. Exploitation… (more)

Valencia, Karen Joy



Successful treatment of Mycobacterium terrae complex infection of the knee.  


Mycobacterium terrae is an unusual, ubiquitous organism that can cause clinical disease in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts and can be difficult to diagnose and treat. We report a case of a 61-year-old man with a septic knee whose arthroscopy cultures grew M. terrae. The patient was successfully treated using a 6-month regimen of clarithromycin and sulfamethoxazole. Mycobacterium terrae should be considered in the differential diagnoses for monoarticular swelling and pain of unknown etiology, especially in the setting of initially negative routine microbiological cultures. PMID:23047536

Lembo, Giancarlo; Goldstein, Ellie J C; Troum, Orin; Mandelbaum, Bert



Non pharmacological treatments in fibromyalgia.  


Fibromyalgia is a complex syndrome associated with significant impairment in quality of life and function and with substantial financial costs. Once the diagnosis is made, providers should aim to increase patients' function and minimize pain. Fibromyalgia patients frequently use alternative therapies, strongly indicating both their dissatisfaction with and the substantial ineffectiveness of traditional medical therapy, especially pharmacological treatments. At present, pharmacological treatments for fibromyalgia have a rather discouraging cost/benefit ratio in terms of poor symptom control and high incidence of side effects. The interdisciplinary treatment programs have been shown to improve subjective pain with greater success than monotherapy. Physical therapies, rehabilitation and alternative therapies are generally perceived to be more "natural," to have fewer adverse effects, and in some way, to be more effective. In this review, physical exercise and multimodal cognitive behavioural therapy are presented as the more accepted and beneficial forms of nonpharmacological therapy. PMID:18852909

Casale, R; Cazzola, M; Arioli, G; Gracely, R H; Ceccherelli, F; Atzeni, F; Stisi, S; Cassisi, G; Altomonte, L; Alciati, A; Leardini, G; Gorla, R; Marsico, A; Torta, R; Giamberardino, M A; Buskila, D; Spath, M; Marinangeli, F; Bazzichi, L; Di Franco, M; Biasi, G; Salaffi, F; Carignola, R; Sarzi-Puttini, P



Glenohumeral instability associated with Buford complex.  


Buford complex is described as a normal anatomical variant of the anterosuperior part of the glenoid consisting of the absence of the anterosuperior labrum with the presence of a cord-like middle glenohumeral ligament. Traditionally, reattachment to the glenoid has been discouraged. We present a case of a Buford complex associated with glenohumeral instability. The patient was operated for recurrent instability without a preoperative diagnosis of Buford complex. The diagnosis was made during shoulder arthroscopy and reattachment to the glenoid was performed with a satisfactory outcome. Here, we discuss the relationship of the Buford complex with intraarticular pathology and the surgical treatment in cases when this variant is associated with instability. PMID:19629434

del Rey, Fernando Canillas; Vázquez, Diego García-Germán; López, Daniel Nieto



Labile sulfide and sulfite in phytochelatin complexes  

SciTech Connect

Heavy metals such as cadmium induce tomato cell cultures to synthesize the metal binding polypeptides ({gamma}-Glu-Cys){sub 3} and ({gamma}-Glu-Cys){sub 4}-Gly (phytochelatins). Tomato cells selected for growth on normally lethal concentrations of CdCl{sub 2} synthesize higher quantities of these polypeptides. Cd{sup r} cells are not cross-resistant to other heavy metals, and recent work suggests that metal detoxification by these peptides may be Cd-specific. The occurrence of labile sulfur as a component of the metal complex raises questions concerning possible functions of phytochelatins besides that of Cd binding. The presence of acid-labile sulfide ion in phytochelatin complexes has been reported by several groups. We report the additional finding that labile sulfite is also present in these complexes and in higher amounts than sulfide. Sulfide and sulfite are both released from the metal binding complex by acidification or by treatment with EDTA.

Eannetta, N.T.; Steffens, J.C. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))



Surprising Titanium Complexes Bearing 2-Pyrazolato Ligands: Synthesis, Structure, and  

E-print Network

Surprising Titanium Complexes Bearing 2-Pyrazolato Ligands: Synthesis, Structure, and Molecular the synthesis and characterization of several homoleptic pz com- plexes of titanium(IV). These species complexes should be common in early to middle transition metals. Treatment of tetrakis(dimethylamido)titanium

Schlegel, H. Bernhard


Comparison of simple and complex liver intensity modulated radiotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) may allow improvement in plan quality for treatment of liver cancer, however increasing radiation modulation complexity can lead to increased uncertainties and requirements for quality assurance. This study assesses whether target coverage and normal tissue avoidance can be maintained in liver cancer intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans by systematically reducing the complexity of the delivered fluence. METHODS:

Mark T Lee; Thomas G Purdie; Cynthia L Eccles; Michael B Sharpe; Laura A Dawson



Silver iodide burn complex and silver phosphate effects oh methanogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weather modification nucleating agents may accumulate in anaerobic environments such as aquatic muds and anaerobic sewage treatment facilities. Silver iodide burn complex and silver phosphate effects on methanogenesis were investigated to assess the possible ecological impacts of these agents. Enriched cultures of methanogenic organisms did not significantly alter methanogenesis when seeding generator burn complexes of silver iodide?ammonium iodide, silver iodide?titanium

Domenic Castignetti; Donald A. Klein



Dream disorders and treatment.  


Consensus does not exist regarding what should constitute a "dream disorder." Conditions with disordered dreaming may be thought of as primary (ie, arising from changes in dreaming per se) or secondary to extrinsic disorders that impinge on structures involved in dreaming. The major primary disorder of dreaming, nightmare disorder, is covered in depth in this article. Definition of nightmare, diagnostic criteria for nightmare disorder, and differential diagnosis are discussed. The value of a sleep-disorders perspective on nightmares, and the possible exacerbating effects of sleep disorders that cause arousals, are indicated. The importance of a perspective that appreciates nightmares as richly and personally meaningful, with links to complex psychological factors present and past, is emphasized. Two types of treatment approaches are discussed: approaches that target the symptom of nightmares in relative isolation, and approaches that aim at working out psychological issues viewed as causing nightmares and a variety of other interconnected symptoms and problems. The former type of treatment includes the cognitive-behavioral approach "imagery rehearsal therapy," and the medication prazosin. The latter approach entails exploratory or psychodynamic psychotherapies. The approaches are seen as so different in scope, aim, and conceptual framework as to defy ready comparison. I think that a thorough psychological/psychiatric evaluation is essential for informed consideration in conjunction with the patient's choice of treatment approach. Sleep terrors are discussed as a non-rapid eye movement sleep arousal disorder that at times may be linked to broader psychological issues warranting consideration of psychotherapy. Brief summaries are provided of dream disorders secondary to other sleep disorders, drug and alcohol effects, medical disorders, and organic brain damage. PMID:17716595

Eiser, Alan S



Compact Fuzzy Rules Induction and Feature Extraction Using SVM with Particle Swarms for Breast Cancer Treatments  

E-print Network

Cancer Treatments Shang-Ming Zhou, Robert I. John, Xiao-Ying Wang, Jonathan M. Garibaldi, and Ian O. Ellis Abstract-- Developing a treatment plan for breast cancer patient is a very complex process. It is widely accepted that developing a treatment plan for a breast cancer patient is a very complex process

Aickelin, Uwe


Visual computing for medical diagnosis and treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diagnostic algorithms and efficient visualization techniques are of major importance for preoperative decisions, intra-operative imaging and image-guided surgery. Complex diagnostic decisions are characterized by a high information flow and fast decisions, requiring efficient and intuitive presentation of complex medical data and precision in the visualization. For intra-operative medical treatment, the pre-operative visualization results of the diagnostic systems have to be

Jan Klein; Ola Friman; Markus Hadwiger; Bernhard Preim; Felix Ritter; Anna Vilanova; Gabriel Zachmann; Dirk Bartz



Complex B-splines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a complex generalization of Schoenberg's cardinal splines. To this end, we go back to the Fourier domain definition of the B-splines and extend it to complex-valued degrees. We show that the resulting complex B-splines are piecewise modulated polynomials, and that they retain most of the important properties of the classical ones: smoothness, recurrence, and two-scale relations, Riesz basis

Brigitte Forster; Thierry Blu; Michael Unser



Complex Algebras of Arithmetic  

E-print Network

An 'arithmetic circuit' is a labeled, acyclic directed graph specifying a sequence of arithmetic and logical operations to be performed on sets of natural numbers. Arithmetic circuits can also be viewed as the elements of the smallest subalgebra of the complex algebra of the semiring of natural numbers. In the present paper, we investigate the algebraic structure of complex algebras of natural numbers, and make some observations regarding the complexity of various theories of such algebras.

Düntsch, Ivo



Highly Emissive Europium Complexes.  

E-print Network

??One commercial application of emissive lanthanide complexes is in fluoroimmunoassays, which combine FRET with time-resolved detection of emission to glean information on biological interactions. Herein… (more)




Complex Spectra in Fusion Plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for quantitative evaluation of complex line emission spectra as observed in hot fusion plasmas initiated a challenging development of sophisticated interpretation tools based on integrating advanced atomic modelling with detailed treatment of the plasma environment. The successful merging of the two worlds has led to routine diagnostic procedures which have contributed enormously to the understanding of underlying plasma processes and also to a wide acceptance of spectroscopy as a reliable diagnostic method. In this paper three characteristic types of spectra of current and continuing interest are presented. The first is that of medium/heavy species with many ionisation stages revealed in survey VUV and XUV spectra. Such species occur as control gases, as wall materials, as ablated heavy species and possible as layered wall dopants for monitoring erosion. The spectra are complex with line-like and quasi-continuum regions and are amenable to advanced `pattern recognition' methods. The second type is of few electron, highly ionised systems observed as line-of-sight integrated passive emission spectra in the soft x-ray region. They are analysed successfully in terms of plasma parameters through matching of observation with predicted synthetic spectra. Examples used here include highly resolved helium-like emission spectra of argon, iron and titanium observed on the tokamaks TEXTOR and Tore Supra. The third type, and the emphasis of this work, comprises spectra linked to active beam spectroscopy, that is, charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) and beam emission spectroscopy (BES). In this case, a complex spectrum is again composed of a (usually) dominating active spectrum and an underlying passive emission spectrum. Its analysis requires modelling of both active and passive features. Examples used here are from the CXRS diagnostic at JET and TEXTOR. They display characteristic features of the main light impurity ions (C+6, He+2, N+7, Ne+10 and Ar+18), as well as that of the bulk plasma ions, H+, D+ and T+. A main conclusion is that spectral complexity is not necessarily negative, but that `complex structures' can provide a rich source of information on the plasma and its parameters—provided it is matched with integrated analysis—and that the methods can have universal applicability. In the present preparatory phase of the next generation fusion experiment ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) the concepts and expectations of complex spectra and integrated data analysis play an important role in the design and optimisation procedure of the ITER diagnostic assembly.

von Hellermann, M. G.; Bertschinger, G.; Biel, W.; Giroud, C.; Jaspers, R.; Jupen, C.; Marchuk, O.; O'Mullane, M.; Summers, H. P.; Whiteford, A.; Zastrow, K.-D.



Poor response to treatment: beyond medication  

PubMed Central

In psychiatry, one of the main factors contributing to poor response to pharmacological treatment is adherence. Noncompliance with maintenance treatments for chronic illnesses such as schizophrenia and affective disorders can exceed 50%, Poor adherence can be due to drug-related factors (tolerance, complexity of prescription, side effects, or cost), patient-related variables (illness symptoms, comorbidity, insight capacity, belief system, or sociocultural environment), and physician-related factors (communication or psychoeducational style). Psychosocial treatments must be used in conjunction with medication during the maintenance phase to improve adherence to treatment and to achieve - through the management of psychological variables - better social, work, and family functioning. This article reviews the concepts of adherence and noncompliance, and their impact on maintenance treatments, as well as the effect of dealing with psychosocial factors in psychiatric treatment. PMID:22034452

Carvajal, César



Polymeric complexes of isonicotinic acid hydrazide with antituberculosis effects.  


We studied the effects of an analogue of isonicotinic acid hydrazide on the treatment course of experimental tuberculosis. Complex analysis has demonstrated the efficiency of isonicotinic acid hydrazide immobilized on a carrier that consisted of water-soluble cation-active analogue of chitosan (N-chlorohydroxypropyl chitosan) in a complex with cobalt ions in the therapy of experimental tuberculosis. Immunostimulating activity of the polymeric metal complex was revealed. The obtained data can be used for the development of highly effective methods for tuberculosis treatment. PMID:24288761

Slivkin, A I; Lapenko, V L; Bychuk, A I; Suslina, S N; Slivkin, D A; Kornienko, S V; Belenova, A S



Properties of Nucleoprotein Complexes Containing Replicating Polyoma DNA  

PubMed Central

Short-lived nucleoprotein complexes (r-py complex) containing replicating polyoma DNA were isolated from infected cells after lysis with Triton X-100. The Triton lysing procedure of Green, Miller, and Hendler (1971) releases most complexes containing supercoiled viral DNA (py complex) from nuclei, but liberates only a portion of r-py complexes. r-py Complexes are associated more strongly with nuclear sites but can be extracted by prolonged incubation of nuclei in lysing solution. Complexes containing replicating polyoma DNA appear to be precursors to stable complexes containing supercoiled DNA. Sedimentation and buoyant density studies indicate that protein is bound to both r-py complexes and py complexes at a ratio of protein to DNA of about 1 to 2/1. Both types of complexes sediment as if the viral DNA is more compact than free DNA and both undergo major reversible configurational changes with increased salt concentration. Changes resulting from enzymatic and chemical treatment indicate that there may be two or more protein components in both r-py complex and py complex. One component is digested by Pronase and trypsin while another is resistant to the enzymes but released by deoxycholate. The abundance and similarity in chemical and physical properties of protein bound to all forms of polyoma DNA suggest that part of the protein molecules may serve in a structural capacity. PMID:4359957

Goldstein, David A.; Hall, Mark R.; Meinke, William



Cardiorenal Syndrome: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Clinical Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathophysiologic interactions that link the heart and kidney are multiple and complex, and have been grouped under the\\u000a umbrella term “cardiorenal syndrome.” In the setting of acute decompensated heart failure, worsening renal function has been\\u000a directly associated with poor clinical prognosis and complicates treatment. However, the pathophysiology underlying acute\\u000a cardiorenal syndrome remains incompletely understood and treatment options remain limited.

Kevin Shrestha; W. H. Wilson Tang



U1A Complex  

SciTech Connect

Some of the most sophisticated experiments in the stockpile stewardship program are conducted in an environmentally safe manner, nearly 1000 feet below the ground at the site. The U1a complex a sprawling underground laboratory and tunnel complex is home to a number of unique capabilities.




Bacterial formate hydrogenlyase complex.  


Under anaerobic conditions, Escherichia coli can carry out a mixed-acid fermentation that ultimately produces molecular hydrogen. The enzyme directly responsible for hydrogen production is the membrane-bound formate hydrogenlyase (FHL) complex, which links formate oxidation to proton reduction and has evolutionary links to Complex I, the NADH:quinone oxidoreductase. Although the genetics, maturation, and some biochemistry of FHL are understood, the protein complex has never been isolated in an intact form to allow biochemical analysis. In this work, genetic tools are reported that allow the facile isolation of FHL in a single chromatographic step. The core complex is shown to comprise HycE (a [NiFe] hydrogenase component termed Hyd-3), FdhF (the molybdenum-dependent formate dehydrogenase-H), and three iron-sulfur proteins: HycB, HycF, and HycG. A proportion of this core complex remains associated with HycC and HycD, which are polytopic integral membrane proteins believed to anchor the core complex to the cytoplasmic side of the membrane. As isolated, the FHL complex retains formate hydrogenlyase activity in vitro. Protein film electrochemistry experiments on Hyd-3 demonstrate that it has a unique ability among [NiFe] hydrogenases to catalyze production of H2 even at high partial pressures of H2. Understanding and harnessing the activity of the FHL complex is critical to advancing future biohydrogen research efforts. PMID:25157147

McDowall, Jennifer S; Murphy, Bonnie J; Haumann, Michael; Palmer, Tracy; Armstrong, Fraser A; Sargent, Frank



Freestanding Complex Optical Scanners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A complex freestanding optical mark recognition (OMR) scanner is one which is not on-line to an external processor; it has intelligence stemming from an internal processor located within the unit or system. The advantages and disadvantages of a complex OMR can best be assessed after identifying the scanning needs and constraints of the potential…

Frisbie, David A.


Stability and Complexity in  

E-print Network

Stability and Complexity in Model Ecosystems Robert M. May What makes popu- lations stabilize? What- sic. Trained as a theoretical physicist, May used mathematical modeling to investigate the stability in power. Stability and Complexity in Model Ecosystems played a key role in introducing nonlinear

Landweber, Laura


U1A Complex  


Some of the most sophisticated experiments in the stockpile stewardship program are conducted in an environmentally safe manner, nearly 1000 feet below the ground at the site. The U1a complex a sprawling underground laboratory and tunnel complex is home to a number of unique capabilities.




Complexity in Picture Books  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the key requirements of Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in English Language Arts is that students are able to read and access complex texts across all grade levels. The CCSS authors emphasize both the limitations and lack of accuracy in the current CCSS model of text complexity, calling for the development of new frameworks. In response…

Sierschynski, Jarek; Louie, Belinda; Pughe, Bronwyn



Complexity and Relations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A central feature of complexity is that it is based on non-linear, recursive relations. However, in most current accounts of complexity such relations, while non-linear, are based on the reductive relations of a Newtonian onto-epistemological framework. This means that the systems that are emergent from the workings of such relations are a…

Lancaster, Jeanette Elizabeth



Syntactic Complexity Formula.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to measure by quantifiable means syntactic complexity component of readability, the Syntactic Complexity Formula is based on the theory that syntactic patterns frequently found in the language of children might be a more valid criterion than sentence length for controlling syntax. The Formula's analysis is based on transformational…

Botel, Morton; Granowsky, Alvin


Minimum complexity density estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors introduce an index of resolvability that is proved to bound the rate of convergence of minimum complexity density estimators as well as the information-theoretic redundancy of the corresponding total description length. The results on the index of resolvability demonstrate the statistical effectiveness of the minimum description-length principle as a method of inference. The minimum complexity estimator converges to

Andrew R. Barron; Thomas M. Cover




EPA Science Inventory

The enormous complexity of ecosystems is generally obvious under even the most cursory examination. In the modern world, this complexity is further augmented by the linkage of ecosystems to economic and social systems through the human use of the environment for technological pu...


Underground Coal Thermal Treatment  

SciTech Connect

The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coalâ??s carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO{sub 2} sequestration. Efforts focused on: â?¢ Constructing a suite of three different coal pyrolysis reactors. These reactors offer the ability to gather heat transfer, mass transfer and kinetic data during coal pyrolysis under conditions that mimic in situ conditions (Subtask 6.1). â?¢ Studying the operational parameters for various underground thermal treatment processes for oil shale and coal and completing a design matrix analysis for the underground coal thermal treatment (UCTT). This analysis yielded recommendations for terms of targeted coal rank, well orientation, rubblization, presence of oxygen, temperature, pressure, and heating sources (Subtask 6.2). â?¢ Developing capabilities for simulating UCTT, including modifying the geometry as well as the solution algorithm to achieve long simulation times in a rubblized coal bed by resolving the convective channels occurring in the representative domain (Subtask 6.3). â?¢ Studying the reactive behavior of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with limestone, sandstone, arkose (a more complex sandstone) and peridotite, including mineralogical changes and brine chemistry for the different initial rock compositions (Subtask 6.4). Arkose exhibited the highest tendency of participating in mineral reactions, which can be attributed to the geochemical complexity of its initial mineral assemblage. In experiments with limestone, continuous dissolution was observed with the release of CO{sub 2} gas, indicated by the increasing pressure in the reactor (formation of a gas chamber). This occurred due to the lack of any source of alkali to buffer the solution. Arkose has the geochemical complexity for permanent sequestration of CO{sub 2} as carbonates and is also relatively abundant. The effect of including NH{sub 3} in the injected gas stream was also investigated in this study. Precipitation of calcite and trace amounts of ammonium zeolites was observed. A batch geochemical model was developed using Geochemists Workbench (GWB). Degassing effect in the experiments was corrected using the sliding fugacity model in GWB. Experimental and simulation results were compared and a reasonable agreement between the two was observed.

P. Smith; M. Deo; E. Eddings; A. Sarofim; K. Gueishen; M. Hradisky; K. Kelly; P. Mandalaparty; H. Zhang



Ectopic pregnancy after infertility treatment  

PubMed Central

Early pregnancy complications are more common in women who conceive after infertility treatment. Most of these occur before 12 weeks of gestation and include miscarriage, vaginal bleeding, intrauterine hematoma, vanishing twin, and ectopic pregnancy (EP). The incidence of EPs following infertility treatment is much higher compared with that in spontaneous pregnancies. The occurrence of an EP is very distressing to an infertile couple, who has lots of hopes pinned on the treatment outcome, especially because of the cost incurred and the physical and mental trauma both have gone through during the treatment process. The association between infertility and EP is complex, as it can be a consequence of infertility as well as a cause. The two principal risk factors for an EP are genital tract infections and tubal surgeries. Though several etiologies are proposed, but patients with tubal factor infertility are at an increased risk of an EP. Earlier diagnosis of EP helps to improve prognosis and optimize subsequent fertility. It is pivotal to evaluate the likelihood of subsequent occurrence of an EP and be too vigilant when treating. The correct choice of the treatment modality should be made to prevent the recurrence. The early prediction of the pregnancy outcome therefore has great importance for both the couple and clinician. Today with the help of sensitive beta human chorionic gonadotropin (?-hCG) assays and transvaginal sonography, one can diagnose an EP prior to symptoms, and conservative treatment for the preservation of the fallopian tube is possible. Conservative management in the form of expectant and medical management should be considered as a first-line treatment modality, provided that the overall clinical picture suggests that it is safe to do so. If not, laparoscopic management of EPs appears to be the favored approach of management as compared to laparotomy. PMID:23162353

Patil, Madhuri



Selenophene transition metal complexes  

SciTech Connect

This research shows that selenophene transition metal complexes have a chemistry that is similar to their thiophene analogs. Selenophene coordination has been demonstrated and confirmed by molecular structure in both the {eta}{sup 5}- and the {eta}{sup 1}(Se)-coordination modes. The reaction chemistry of selenophene complexes closely resembles that of the analogous thiophene complexes. One major difference, however, is that selenophene is a better donor ligand than thiophene making the selenophene complexes more stable than the corresponding thiophene complexes. The {sup 77}Se NMR chemical shift values for selenophene complexes fall within distinct regions primarily depending on the coordination mode of the selenophene ligand. In the final paper, the C-H bond activation of {eta}{sup 1}(S)-bound thiophenes, {eta}{sup 1}(S)-benzothiophene and {eta}{sup 1}(Se)-bound selenophenes has been demonstrated. The deprotonation and rearrangement of the {eta}{sup 1}(E)-bound ligand to the carbon bound L-yl complex readily occurs in the presence of base. Reprotonation with a strong acid gives a carbene complex that is unreactive towards nucleophilic attack at the carbene carbon and is stable towards exposure to air. The molecular structure of [Cp(NO)(PPh{sub 3})Re(2-benzothioenylcarbene)]O{sub 3}SCF{sub 3} was determined and contains a Re-C bond with substantial double bond character. Methyl substitution for the thienylcarbene or selenylcarbene gives a carbene that rearranges thermally to give back the {eta}{sup 1}(E)-bound complex. Based on these model reactions, a new mechanism for the H/D exchange of thiophene over the hydrodesulfurization catalyst has been proposed.

White, C.J.



Specific inflammasomes in complex diseases.  


Blocking the cytokines Interleukin-1beta (IL-1?) and Interleukin-18 (IL-18) benefits a diverse range of inflammatory pathologies. In each of these diseases, different cytoplasmic innate immune receptors nucleate individual protein complexes known as inflammasomes, to regulate the production of active IL-1? or IL-18. This review will outline the complex diseases where these cytokines are pathogenic, and explain which inflammasome(s) may be responsible. For example, inflammasomes nucleated by NLRP3 and NLRP6 integrate signals from metabolic and commensal systems contributing to metabolic dysfunction and type 2 diabetes. On the other hand, NLRP1 and AIM2 are more broadly implicated in autoimmunity and allergy. Furthermore, each inflammasome has unique roles in pathogen recognition, which may determine the outcome of polymicrobial infection and link different infectious co-morbidities to chronic inflammatory disease. We can now imagine a time when targeted inflammasome inhibitors will be employed in the clinic, tailoring treatments to particular diseases, and perhaps individual patients. PMID:23294928

Masters, Seth L



Controllability of Complex Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review recent work on controllability of complex systems. We also discuss the interplay of our results with questions of synchronization, and point out key directions of future research.[4pt] Work done in collaboration with Yang-Yu Liu, Center for Complex Network Research and Departments of Physics, Computer Science and Biology, Northeastern University and Center for Cancer Systems Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute; and Albert-László Barabási, Center for Complex Network Research and Departments of Physics, Computer Science and Biology, Northeastern University; Center for Cancer Systems Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute; and Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School.

Slotine, Jean-Jacques



Afterglow Complex Plasma  

SciTech Connect

The review of the first detailed experimental and theoretical studies of complex plasma in RF discharge afterglow is presented. The studies have been done in a frame of FAST collaborative research project between Complex Plasma Laboratory of the University of Sydney and the GREMI laboratory of Universite d'Orleans. We examined the existing models of plasma decay, presents experimental observations of dust dynamics under different afterglow complex plasma conditions, presents the experimental data obtained (in particular the presence of positively charged particles in discharge afterglow), discusses the use of dust particles as a probe to study the diffusion losses in afterglow plasmas.

Samarian, A. A. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Boufendi, L.; Mikikian, M. [GREMI, CNRS/Universite d'Orleans, 14 rue d'Issoudun, BP6744, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Coueedel, L. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); GREMI, CNRS/Universite d'Orleans, 14 rue d'Issoudun, BP6744, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France)



Pubic "Crab" Lice Treatment  


... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...


Head Lice: Treatment  


... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...


Body Lice Treatment  


... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...


[Role of enterosorbents in treatment of complicated varicose disease].  


Results of treatment of 43 patients, suffering varicose disease, complicated by trophic disorders, were analyzed. To the patients a complex was prescribed, including sorpents, angioprotectors, locally - ointments. There were operated 14 patients. PMID:25252553

Biliaieva, O O; Korzhyk, N P; Myronov, O M; Balins'ka, M I; Iemets', V V



Water Treatment Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students can follow a drop of water from the source through the treatment process. Stop at each treatment point and unscramble the words to show where the water is along the treatment path. Click on each treatment point on the image to view the unscrambled answer and a little information about that treatment point. The treatment points are: coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, disinfection, and storage.


Locus of Control in Alcoholics Undergoing Treatment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alcoholism is a complex behavior pattern. Social learning theory, which is concerned with the analysis of why individuals behave in certain ways and the effects of reinforcement patterns in their behaviors, offers an alternative to traditional treatments of alcoholics. Among alcoholics, drinking is a control issue. Locus of control is viewed as a…

Haley, Shirley C.


The ?-Catenin Destruction Complex  

PubMed Central

The Wnt/?-catenin pathway is highly regulated to insure the correct temporal and spatial activation of its target genes. In the absence of a Wnt stimulus, the transcriptional coactivator ?-catenin is degraded by a multiprotein “destruction complex” that includes the tumor suppressors Axin and adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), the Ser/Thr kinases GSK-3 and CK1, protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), and the E3-ubiquitin ligase ?-TrCP. The complex generates a ?-TrCP recognition site by phosphorylation of a conserved Ser/Thr-rich sequence near the ?-catenin amino terminus, a process that requires scaffolding of the kinases and ?-catenin by Axin. Ubiquitinated ?-catenin is degraded by the proteasome. The molecular mechanisms that underlie several aspects of destruction complex function are poorly understood, particularly the role of APC. Here we review the molecular mechanisms of destruction complex function and discuss several potential roles of APC in ?-catenin destruction. PMID:23169527

Stamos, Jennifer L.; Weis, William I.



Complex Regional Pain Syndrome  


Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition. It causes intense pain, usually in the arms, hands, legs, or feet. ... in skin temperature, color, or texture Intense burning pain Extreme skin sensitivity Swelling and stiffness in affected ...


Complex Line Integrals I  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Lang More of the Connected Curriculum Project, the purpose of this module is to investigate the behavior of complex line integrals. This is one lesson within a much larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Moore, Lang


Complex Ruelle Operator and  

E-print Network

School of Human and Environmental Studies Kyoto University and Applications". 1. Decomposition of Complex Ruelle operator __ __ Let R : |C decomposition of holomorphic functions. The direct sum in the theorem means the uniqueness of the decomposition

Ushiki, Shigehiro


Observability of complex systems  

E-print Network

A quantitative description of a complex system is inherently limited by our ability to estimate the system’s internal state from experimentally accessible outputs. Although the simultaneous measurement of all internal ...

Liu, Yang-Yu


Reconstruction Using Witness Complexes  

PubMed Central

We present a novel reconstruction algorithm that, given an input point set sampled from an object S, builds a one-parameter family of complexes that approximate S at different scales. At a high level, our method is very similar in spirit to Chew’s surface meshing algorithm, with one notable difference though: the restricted Delaunay triangulation is replaced by the witness complex, which makes our algorithm applicable in any metric space. To prove its correctness on curves and surfaces, we highlight the relationship between the witness complex and the restricted Delaunay triangulation in 2d and in 3d. Specifically, we prove that both complexes are equal in 2d and closely related in 3d, under some mild sampling assumptions. PMID:21643440

Oudot, Steve Y.



Complex and unpredictable Cardano  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This purely recreational paper is about one of the most colorful characters of the Italian Renaissance, Girolamo Cardano, and the discovery of two basic ingredients of quantum theory, probability and complex numbers.

Ekert, Artur



Complex System Classification  

E-print Network

The use of terms such as “Engineering Systems”, “System of systems” and others have been coming into greater use over the past decade to denote systems of importance but with implied higher complexity than for the term ...

Magee, Christopher



Pigment-protein complexes  

SciTech Connect

The photosynthetically-active pigment protein complexes of procaryotes and eucaryotes include chlorophyll proteins, carotenochlorophyll proteins, and biliproteins. They are either integral components or attached to photosynthetic membranes. Detergents are frequently required to solubilize the pigment-protein complexes. The membrane localization and detergent solubilization strongly suggest that the pigment-protein complexes are bound to the membranes by hydrophobic interactions. Hydrophobic interactions of proteins are characterized by an increase in entropy. Their bonding energy is directly related to temperature and ionic strength. Hydrophobic-interaction chromatography, a relatively new separation procedure, can furnish an important method for the purification of pigment-protein complexes. Phycobilisome purification and properties provide an example of the need to maintain hydrophobic interactions to preserve structure and function.

Siegelman, H W



Sustainable treatment of landfill leachate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landfill leachate is a complex liquid that contains excessive concentrations of biodegradable and non-biodegradable products including organic matter, phenols, ammonia nitrogen, phosphate, heavy metals, and sulfide. If not properly treated and safely disposed, landfill leachate could be an impending source to surface and ground water contamination as it may percolate throughout soils and subsoils, causing adverse impacts to receiving waters. Lately, various types of treatment methods have been proposed to alleviate the risks of untreated leachate. However, some of the available techniques remain complicated, expensive and generally require definite adaptation during process. In this article, a review of literature reported from 2008 to 2012 on sustainable landfill leachate treatment technologies is discussed which includes biological and physical-chemical techniques, respectively.

Kamaruddin, Mohamad Anuar; Yusoff, Mohd. Suffian; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Hung, Yung-Tse



Objective evaluation of radiation treatment plans.  


The evaluation of radiation treatment plans involves making trade-offs among doses delivered to the tumor volumes and nearby normal tissues. Evaluating state-of-the-art three-dimensional (3D) plans is a difficult task because of the huge amount of planning data that needs to be deciphered. Multiattribute utility theory provides a methodology for specifying trade-offs and selecting the optimal plan from many competing plans. Using multiattribute utility theory, we are developing a clinically meaningful objective plan-evaluation model for 3D radiation treatment plans. Our model incorporates three of the factors involved in radiation treatment evaluation--treatment preferences of the radiation oncologist, clinical condition of the patient, and complexity of the treatment plan. PMID:8130449

Jain, N L; Kahn, M G



Complex Networks and Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about complex networks and how to represent them using graphs. They also learn that graph theory is a useful mathematical tool for studying complex networks in diverse applications of science and engineering, such as neural networks in the brain, biochemical reaction networks in cells, communication networks, such as the internet, and social networks. Topics covered include set theory, defining a graph, as well as defining the degree of a node and the degree distribution of a graph.



The Psychopharmaceutical Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter presents sociological critiques of biopsychiatry, including Beck’s critique in Risk Society. Interactions between drug companies, researchers, government agencies, and medical organizations are framed within Breggin’s\\u000a construct of the psychopharmaceutical complex. The construction of knowledge formed by the processes of the psychopharmaceutical complex implicates pharmaceutical companies\\u000a in the systematic promotion of drugs for a burgeoning number of psychiatric disorders,

Brian Kean


How evolution guides complexity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long?standing debates about the role of natural selection in the growth of biological complexity over geological time scales are difficult to resolve from the paleobiological record. Using an evolutionary model—a computational ecosystem subjected to natural selection—we investigate evolutionary trends in an information?theoretic measure of the complexity of the neural dynamics of artificial agents inhabiting the model. Our results suggest that

Larry S. Yaeger



Complex Numbers and Trigonometry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Complex numbers have applications in many applied sciences. This online text begins with an introduction to trigonometry, which serves as a starting point for additional discussion about complex numbers (also known as imaginary numbers). The drawings and figures are the only notable downside to this excellent resource, because many of them are somewhat crude; however, they are still fairly easy to follow. The book can be read online or downloaded for offline viewing.

Alexanderson, Gerald L.; Hillman, Abraham P.; Newton, Mervin E.



Complex Numbers and Trigonometry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Complex numbers have applications in many applied sciences. This online text begins with an introduction to trigonometry, which serves as a starting point for additional discussion about complex numbers (also known as imaginary numbers). The drawings and figures are the only notable downside to this excellent resource, because many of them are somewhat crude; however, they are still fairly easy to follow. The book can be read online or downloaded for offline viewing.

Alexanderson, Gerald L.; Hillman, Abraham P.; Newton, Mervin E.


Geoengineering treatment of methane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane is a significant GHG, and substantial reservoirs are vulnerable to instability due to AGW. Excursions, from permafrost and clathrates especially, act a positive feedback to AGW. Existing concentrations of well-mixed atmospheric methane substantially exceed pre-industrial levels. Various geoengineering methods are herein proposed for containment of methane, and/or accelerated oxidation to CO2 (a gas with a lower GWP over all timescales). A basic qualitative analysis of each technique is undertaken, to direct further study. Consideration is also given to the potential capacity of each technique to treat the total likely excursions of methane expected as a result of AGW. Proposed techniques: Section 0 SRM (comparison option) Section 1 Pre-emptive treatment of methane reservoirs Soil heating (polytunnels, heat pumps); Soil aeration; Mining of clathrates; Burning of clathrates Section 2 Remediation of aquatic methane excursions Lake sealing; Mixing of aquatic strata; Bubble capture; Lake aeration; Biological oxidation in aquatic environments Section 3 Remediation of concentrated atmospheric methane Regenerative thermal oxidation; Electrical ignition; Thermal ignition; Using incendiary munitions Section 4 Remediation of diffuse atmospheric methane Thermal oxidation by concentrated solar power; Compression ignition; Chemical degradation Assessment criteria: Infrastructure/implementation cost; Energy cost; Expected efficacy; Complexity/development path; Environmental impacts; Potential for CCS

Lockley, Andrew; Gardian, Alan



Obesity and Family Systems: A Family FIRO Approach to Assessment and Treatment Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents model for conceptualizing interactional patterns in families presenting for treatment of obesity and method for organizing assessment and for prioritizing treatment strategies. Uses the Family FIRO Model as a framework to organize complex assessment issues, to assign priorities for treatment of issues, and to select appropriate treatment

Doherty, William J.; Harkaway, Jill Elka



Wastewater treatment of pulp and paper industry: a review.  


Pulp and paper industries generate varieties of complex organic and inorganic pollutants depending upon the type of the pulping process. A state-of-art of treatment processes and efficiencies of various wastewater treatment is presented and critically reviewed in this paper. Process description, source of wastewater and their treatment is discussed in detail. Main emphasis is given to aerobic and anaerobic wastewater treatment. In pulp and paper mill wastewater treatment aerobic treatment includes activated sludge process, aerated lagoons and aerobic biological reactors. UASB, fluidized bed, anaerobic lagoon and anaerobic contact reactors are the main technologies for anaerobic wastewater treatment. It is found that the combination of anaerobic and aerobic treatment processes is much efficient in the removal of soluble biodegradable organic pollutants. Color can be removed effectively by fungal treatment, coagulation, chemical oxidation, and ozonation. Chlorinated phenolic compounds and adsorable organic halides (AOX) can be efficiently reduced by adsorption, ozonation and membrane filtration techniques. PMID:23033705

Kansal, Ankur; Siddiqui, Nihalanwar; Gautam, Ashutosh



The trimeric model: a new model of periodontal treatment planning.  


Treatment of periodontal disease is a complex and multidisciplinary procedure, requiring periodontal, surgical, restorative, and orthodontic treatment modalities. Several authors attempted to formulate models for periodontal treatment that orders the treatment steps in a logical and easy to remember manner. In this article, we discuss two models of periodontal treatment planning from two of the most well-known textbook in the specialty of periodontics internationally. Then modify them to arrive at a new model of periodontal treatment planning, The Trimeric Model. Adding restorative and orthodontic interrelationships with periodontal treatment allows us to expand this model into the Extended Trimeric Model of periodontal treatment planning. These models will provide a logical framework and a clear order of the treatment of periodontal disease for general practitioners and periodontists alike. PMID:25177662

Azouni, Khalid G; Tarakji, Bassel



The Trimeric Model: A New Model of Periodontal Treatment Planning  

PubMed Central

Treatment of periodontal disease is a complex and multidisciplinary procedure, requiring periodontal, surgical, restorative, and orthodontic treatment modalities. Several authors attempted to formulate models for periodontal treatment that orders the treatment steps in a logical and easy to remember manner. In this article, we discuss two models of periodontal treatment planning from two of the most well-known textbook in the specialty of periodontics internationally. Then modify them to arrive at a new model of periodontal treatment planning, The Trimeric Model. Adding restorative and orthodontic interrelationships with periodontal treatment allows us to expand this model into the Extended Trimeric Model of periodontal treatment planning. These models will provide a logical framework and a clear order of the treatment of periodontal disease for general practitioners and periodontists alike. PMID:25177662

Tarakji, Bassel



Cell complexes through time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history of cell complexes is closely related to the birth and development of topology in general. Johann Benedict Listing (1802 - 1882) introduced the term 'topology' into mathematics in a paper published in 1847, and he also defined cell complexes for the first time in a paper published in 1862. Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777 - 1855) is often cited as the one who initiated these ideas, but he did not publish either on topology or on cell complexes. The pioneering work of Leonhard Euler (1707 - 1783) on graphs is also often cited as the birth of topology, and Euler's work was cited by Listing in 1862 as a stimulus for his research on cell complexes. There are different branches in topology which have little in common: point set topology, algebraic topology, differential topology etc. Confusion may arise if just 'topology' is specified, without clarifying the used concept. Topological subjects in mathematics are often related to continuous models, and therefore quite irrelevant to computer based solutions in image analysis. Compared to this, only a minority of topology publications in mathematics addresses discrete spaces which are appropriate for computer-based image analysis. In these cases, often the notion of a cell complex plays a crucial role. This paper briefly reports on a few of these publications. This paper is not intended to cover the very lively progress in cell complex studies within the context of image analysis during the last two decades. Basically it stops its historic review at the time when this subject in image analysis research gained speed in 1980 - 1990. As a general point of view, the paper indicates that image analysis contributes to a fusion of topological concepts, the geometric and the abstract cell structure approach and point set topology, which may lead towards new problems for the study of topologies defined on geometric or abstract cell complexes.

Klette, Reinhard



Pulling complexes out of complex diseases  

PubMed Central

Spinocerebellar ataxia 7 (SCA7) is an incurable disease caused by expansion of CAG trinucleotide sequences within the Ataxin-7 gene. This elongated CAG tract results in an Ataxin-7 protein bearing an expanded polyglutamine (PolyQ) repeat. SCA7 disease is characterized by progressive neural and retinal degeneration leading to ataxia and blindness. Evidence gathered from investigating SCA7 and other PolyQ diseases strongly suggest that misregulation of gene expression contributes to neurodegeneration. In fact, Ataxin-7 is a subunit of the essential Spt-Ada-Gcn5-Acetltransferase (SAGA) chromatin modifying complex that regulates expression of a large number of genes. Here we discuss recent insights into Ataxin-7 function and, considering these findings, propose a model for how polyglutamine expansion of Ataxin-7 may affect Ataxin-7 function to alter chromatin modifications and gene expression. PMID:25054097

Mohan, Ryan D; Abmayr, Susan M; Workman, Jerry L



Quantum Complexity in Graphene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon has a unique position among elements in the periodic table. It produces an allotrope, graphene, a mechanically robust two dimensional semimetal. The multifarious properties that graphene exhibits has few parallels among elemental metals. From simplicity, namely carbon atoms connected by pure sp2 bonds, a wealth of novel quantum properties emerge. In classical complex systems such as a spin glass or a finance market, several competing agents or elements are responsible for unanticipated and difficult to predict emergent properties. The complex (sic) structure of quantum mechanics is responsbile for an unanticipated set of emergent properties in graphene. We call this quantum complexity. In fact, most quantum systems, phenomena and modern quantum field theory could be viewed as examples of quantum complexity. After giving a brief introduction to the quantum complexity we focus on our own work, which indicates the breadth in the type of quantum phenomena that graphene could support. We review our theoretical suggestions of, (i) spin-1 collective mode in netural graphene, (ii) relativistic type of phenomena in crossed electric and magnetic fields, (iii) room temperature superconductivity in doped graphene and (iv) composite Fermi sea in neutral graphene in uniform magnetic field and (v) two-channel Kondo effect. Except for the relativistic type of phenomena, the rest depend in a fundamental way on a weak electron correlation that exists in the broad two-dimensional band of graphene.

Baskaran, G.


Hydridomethyl iridium complex  


A process for functionalizing methane comprising: (a) reacting methane with a hydridoalkyl metal complex of the formula: CpIr[P(R.sub.1).sub.3 ]H(R.sub.2) wherein Cp represents a cyclopentadienyl or alkylcyclopentadienyl radical having from 1 to 5 carbon atoms; Ir represents an iridium atom; P represents a phosphorus atom; R.sub.1 represents an alkyl group; R.sub.2 represents an alkyl group having at least two carbon atoms; and H represents a hydrogen atom, in the presence of a liquid alkane R.sub.3 H having at least three carbon atoms to form a hydridomethyl complex of the formula: CpIr[P(R.sub.1).sub.3 ]HMe where Me represents a methyl radical. (b) reacting said hydridomethyl complex with an organic halogenating agent such as a tetrahalomethane or a haloform of the formulas: CX'X"X'"X"" or CHX'X"X'"; wherein X', X", X"', and X"" represent halogens selected from bromine, iodine and chlorine, to halomethyl complex of step (a) having the formula: CpIr[P(R.sub.1).sub.3 ]MeX: (c) reacting said halomethyl complex with a mercuric halide of the formula HgX.sub.2 to form a methyl mercuric halide of the formula HgMeX; and (d) reacting said methyl mercuric halide with a molecular halogen of the formula X.sub.2 to form methyl halide.

Bergman, Robert G. (P.O. Box 7141, San Francisco, CA 94120-7141); Buchanan, J. Michael (P.O. Box 7141, San Francisco, CA 94120-7141); Stryker, Jeffrey M. (P.O. Box 7141, San Francisco, CA 94120-7141); Wax, Michael J. (P.O. Box 7141, San Francisco, CA 94120-7141)



Mitochondrial complex I.  


Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is crucial for respiration in many aerobic organisms. In mitochondria, it oxidizes NADH from the tricarboxylic acid cycle and ?-oxidation, reduces ubiquinone, and transports protons across the inner membrane, contributing to the proton-motive force. It is also a major contributor to cellular production of reactive oxygen species. The redox reaction of complex I is catalyzed in the hydrophilic domain; it comprises NADH oxidation by a flavin mononucleotide, intramolecular electron transfer along a chain of iron-sulfur clusters, and ubiquinone reduction. Redox-coupled proton translocation in the membrane domain requires long-range energy transfer through the protein complex, and the molecular mechanisms that couple the redox and proton-transfer half-reactions are currently unknown. This review evaluates extant data on the mechanisms of energy transduction and superoxide production by complex I, discusses contemporary mechanistic models, and explores how mechanistic studies may contribute to understanding the roles of complex I dysfunctions in human diseases. PMID:23527692

Hirst, Judy



Knitted Complex Networks  

E-print Network

To a considerable extent, the continuing importance and popularity of complex networks as models of real-world structures has been motivated by scale free degree distributions as well as the respectively implied hubs. Being related to sequential connections of edges in networks, paths represent another important, dual pattern of connectivity (or motif) in complex networks (e.g., paths are related to important concepts such as betweeness centrality). The present work proposes a new supercategory of complex networks which are organized and/or constructed in terms of paths. Two specific network classes are proposed and characterized: (i) PA networks, obtained by star-path transforming Barabasi-Albert networks; and (ii) PN networks, built by performing progressive paths involving all nodes without repetition. Such new networks are important not only from their potential to provide theoretical insights, but also as putative models of real-world structures. The connectivity structure of these two models is investig...

Costa, Luciano da Fontoura



Synchronization in complex networks  

SciTech Connect

Synchronization processes in populations of locally interacting elements are in the focus of intense research in physical, biological, chemical, technological and social systems. The many efforts devoted to understand synchronization phenomena in natural systems take now advantage of the recent theory of complex networks. In this review, we report the advances in the comprehension of synchronization phenomena when oscillating elements are constrained to interact in a complex network topology. We also overview the new emergent features coming out from the interplay between the structure and the function of the underlying pattern of connections. Extensive numerical work as well as analytical approaches to the problem are presented. Finally, we review several applications of synchronization in complex networks to different disciplines: biological systems and neuroscience, engineering and computer science, and economy and social sciences.

Arenas, A.; Diaz-Guilera, A.; Moreno, Y.; Zhou, C.; Kurths, J.



Complex Systems: A Survey  

E-print Network

A complex system is a system composed of many interacting parts, often called agents, which displays collective behavior that does not follow trivially from the behaviors of the individual parts. Examples include condensed matter systems, ecosystems, stock markets and economies, biological evolution, and indeed the whole of human society. Substantial progress has been made in the quantitative understanding of complex systems, particularly since the 1980s, using a combination of basic theory, much of it derived from physics, and computer simulation. The subject is a broad one, drawing on techniques and ideas from a wide range of areas. Here I give a survey of the main themes and methods of complex systems science and an annotated bibliography of resources, ranging from classic papers to recent books and reviews.

Newman, M E J



Luminescent macrocyclic lanthanide complexes  


The present invention provides a novel class of macrocyclic compounds as well as complexes formed between a metal (e.g., lanthanide) ion and the compounds of the invention. Preferred complexes exhibit high stability as well as high quantum yields of lanthanide ion luminescence in aqueous media without the need for secondary activating agents. Preferred compounds incorporate hydroxy-isophthalamide moieties within their macrocyclic structure and are characterized by surprisingly low, non-specific binding to a variety of polypeptides such as antibodies and proteins as well as high kinetic stability. These characteristics distinguish them from known, open-structured ligands.

Raymond, Kenneth N; Corneillie, Todd M; Xu, Jide



Luminescent macrocyclic lanthanide complexes  


The present invention provides a novel class of macrocyclic compounds as well as complexes formed between a metal (e.g., lanthanide) ion and the compounds of the invention. Preferred complexes exhibit high stability as well as high quantum yields of lanthanide ion luminescence in aqueous media without the need for secondary activating agents. Preferred compounds incorporate hydroxy-isophthalamide moieties within their macrocyclic structure and are characterized by surprisingly low, non-specific binding to a variety of polypeptides such as antibodies and proteins as well as high kinetic stability. These characteristics distinguish them from known, open-structured ligands.

Raymond, Kenneth N. (Berkeley, CA); Corneillie, Todd M. (Campbell, CA); Xu, Jide (Berkeley, CA)



Planning Complex Projects Automatically  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automated Manifest Planner (AMP) computer program applies combination of artificial-intelligence techniques to assist both expert and novice planners, reducing planning time by orders of magnitude. Gives planners flexibility to modify plans and constraints easily, without need for programming expertise. Developed specifically for planning space shuttle missions 5 to 10 years ahead, with modifications, applicable in general to planning other complex projects requiring scheduling of activities depending on other activities and/or timely allocation of resources. Adaptable to variety of complex scheduling problems in manufacturing, transportation, business, architecture, and construction.

Henke, Andrea L.; Stottler, Richard H.; Maher, Timothy P.



Simulations with Complex Measure  

E-print Network

A method is proposed to handle the sign problem in the simulation of systems having indefinite or complex-valued measures. In general, this new approach, which is based on renormalisation blocking, is shown to yield statistical errors smaller than the crude Monte Carlo method using absolute values of the original measures. The improved method is applied to the 2D Ising model with temperature generalised to take on complex values. It is also adapted to implement Monte Carlo Renormalisation Group calculations of the magnetic and thermal critical exponents.

J. F. Markham; T. D. Kieu



Theories of Complexity Common Denominators of Complex Systems  

E-print Network

Theories of Complexity Common Denominators of Complex Systems Complexity scientists often express of complex systems. Among these, the most prominent attempt is probably Per Bak's "self-organized criticality systems share deep commonalities although they seem very different from each other to a superficial

Kent, University of


In pursuit of homoleptic actinide alkyl complexes.  


This Forum Article describes the pursuit of isolable homoleptic actinide alkyl complexes, starting with the pioneering work of Gilman during the Manhattan project. The initial reports in this area suggested that homoleptic uranium alkyls were too unstable to be isolated, but Wilkinson demonstrated that tractable uranium alkyls could be generated by purposeful "ate" complex formation, which serves to saturate the uranium coordination sphere and provide the complexes with greater kinetic stability. More recently, we reported the solid-state molecular structures of several homoleptic uranium alkyl complexes, including [Li(THF)4][U(CH2(t)Bu)5], [Li(TMEDA)]2[UMe6], [K(THF)]3[K(THF)2][U(CH2Ph)6]2, and [Li(THF)4][U(CH2SiMe3)6], by employing Wilkinson's strategy. Herein, we describe our attempts to extend this chemistry to thorium. The treatment of ThCl4(DME)2 with 5 equiv of LiCH2(t)Bu or LiCH2SiMe3 at -25 °C in THF affords [Th(CH2(t)Bu)5] (1) and [Li(DME)2][Th(CH2SiMe3)5 (2), respectively, in moderate yields. Similarly, the treatment of ThCl4(DME)2 with 6 equiv of K(CH2Ph) produces [K(THF)]2[Th(CH2Ph)6] (3), in good yield. Complexes 1-3 have been fully characterized, while the structures of 1 and 3 were confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Additionally, the electronic properties of 1 and 3 were explored by density functional theory. PMID:22716022

Seaman, Lani A; Walensky, Justin R; Wu, Guang; Hayton, Trevor W



Updated treatment algorithm of pulmonary arterial hypertension.  


The demands on a pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) treatment algorithm are multiple and in some ways conflicting. The treatment algorithm usually includes different types of recommendations with varying degrees of scientific evidence. In addition, the algorithm is required to be comprehensive but not too complex, informative yet simple and straightforward. The type of information in the treatment algorithm are heterogeneous including clinical, hemodynamic, medical, interventional, pharmacological and regulatory recommendations. Stakeholders (or users) including physicians from various specialties and with variable expertise in PAH, nurses, patients and patients' associations, healthcare providers, regulatory agencies and industry are often interested in the PAH treatment algorithm for different reasons. These are the considerable challenges faced when proposing appropriate updates to the current evidence-based treatment algorithm.The current treatment algorithm may be divided into 3 main areas: 1) general measures, supportive therapy, referral strategy, acute vasoreactivity testing and chronic treatment with calcium channel blockers; 2) initial therapy with approved PAH drugs; and 3) clinical response to the initial therapy, combination therapy, balloon atrial septostomy, and lung transplantation. All three sections will be revisited highlighting information newly available in the past 5 years and proposing updates where appropriate. The European Society of Cardiology grades of recommendation and levels of evidence will be adopted to rank the proposed treatments. PMID:24355643

Galiè, Nazzareno; Corris, Paul A; Frost, Adaani; Girgis, Reda E; Granton, John; Jing, Zhi Cheng; Klepetko, Walter; McGoon, Michael D; McLaughlin, Vallerie V; Preston, Ioana R; Rubin, Lewis J; Sandoval, Julio; Seeger, Werner; Keogh, Anne



Internal Architecture of Mitochondrial Complex I from Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

The NADH dehydrogenase complex (complex I) of the respiratory chain has unique features in plants. It is the main entrance site for electrons into the respiratory electron transfer chain, has a role in maintaining the redox balance of the entire plant cell and additionally comprises enzymatic side activities essential for other metabolic pathways. Here, we present a proteomic investigation to elucidate its internal structure. Arabidopsis thaliana complex I was purified by a gentle biochemical procedure that includes a cytochrome c–mediated depletion of other respiratory protein complexes. To examine its internal subunit arrangement, isolated complex I was dissected into subcomplexes. Controlled disassembly of the holo complex (1000 kD) by low-concentration SDS treatment produced 10 subcomplexes of 550, 450, 370, 270, 240, 210, 160, 140, 140, and 85 kD. Systematic analyses of subunit composition by mass spectrometry gave insights into subunit arrangement within complex I. Overall, Arabidopsis complex I includes at least 49 subunits, 17 of which are unique to plants. Subunits form subcomplexes analogous to the known functional modules of complex I from heterotrophic eukaryotes (the so-called N-, Q-, and P-modules), but also additional modules, most notably an 85-kD domain including ?-type carbonic anhydrases. Based on topological information for many of its subunits, we present a model of the internal architecture of plant complex I. PMID:20197505

Klodmann, Jennifer; Sunderhaus, Stephanie; Nimtz, Manfred; Jänsch, Lothar; Braun, Hans-Peter



Complexity in Cultural Identity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite their diverse national backgrounds, 28 interviewees speak similarly about the complexity of the cultural realities with which they live, and refuse to be pinned down to specific cultural types. While nation is of great importance, unless personally inspiring, it tends to be an external force which is in conflict with a wide variety of…

Holliday, Adrian



Complexity in Math  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 7-minute video Ian Byrd offers suggestions for increasing the complexity of math problems in order to provide an appropriate challenge level for gifted students. When confronted with tasks in their Zone of Proximal Development, students are forced to develop strategies and skills that they can apply to more challenging work.

Byrd, Ian



Computational Complexity Salil Vadhan  

E-print Network

Computational Complexity Salil Vadhan School of Engineering & Applied Sciences Harvard University resource studied in computational com- plexity is running time -- the number of basic "steps" taken factoring or primality testing (see primality test). For an n-bit num- ber, trial division can take time up

Vadhan, Salil


Complex Transcendental Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Lang Moore for the Connected Curriculum Project, the purpose of this module is to provide an introduction to the elementary complex transcendental functions -- the exponential, sine, and cosine functions. This is one resource within a much larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Moore, Lang


Complex Digital Visual Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article identifies possibilities for data visualization as art educational research practice. The author presents an analysis of the relationship between works of art and digital visual culture, employing aspects of network analysis drawn from the work of Barabási, Newman, and Watts (2006) and Castells (1994). Describing complex network…

Sweeny, Robert W.



Automatic complexity analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

One way to analyse programs is to to derive expressions for their computational behaviour. A time bound function (or worst-cae complexity) gives an upper bound for the computation time as a function of the size of input. We describe a system to derive such time bounds automatically using abstract interpretation. The semantics-based setting makes it possible to prove the correctness

Mads Rosendahl



Bath Institute Complex Systems  

E-print Network

area of computational cell biology where complex, publicly available genomic data is being examined in any single human cell and it is thought that major aspects of development, and disease, can of the cell, genes are important because the mRNA that they create goes on to produce proteins, and proteins

Burton, Geoffrey R.


E Complex groundbreaking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Representatives from NASA, Orbital Sciences Corp. and Aerojet participate in a ribbon-cutting ceremony for construction of a flame deflector trench at Stennis Space Center's E Test Complex. Participants included Orbital CEO J.R. Thompson (center, left) and Stennis Space Center Director Gene Goldman (center, right).



RICHARD SAMUELS The Complexity  

E-print Network

, not merely for low-level perceptual processes but also for various ``higher'' cognitive tasks7 RICHARD SAMUELS The Complexity of Cognition Tractability Arguments for Massive Modularity A core--paradigmatically, involving reasoning and decision-making--that would traditionally be viewed as parts of central cognition

Samuels, Richard


Climate: A Complex Interaction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article continues an examination of each of the seven essential principles of climate literacy on which the online magazine Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle is structured. Principle 2 covers the complex interactions among the components of the Earth system. The author discusses the scientific concepts underlying the interactions and expands the discussion with diagrams, photos, and online resources.

Lightle, Kimberly



Restricting Grammatical Complexity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theories of natural language syntax often characterize grammatical knowledge as a form of abstract computation. This paper argues that such a characterization is correct, and that fundamental properties of grammar can and should be understood in terms of restrictions on the complexity of possible grammatical computation, when defined in terms of…

Frank, Robert



Launching Complex Tasks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mathematics lessons can take a variety of formats. In this article, the authors discuss lessons organized around complex mathematical tasks. These lessons usually unfold in three phases. First, the task is introduced to students. Second, students work on solving the task. Third, the teacher "orchestrates" a concluding whole-class discussion in…

Jackson, Kara J.; Shahan, Emily C.; Gibbons, Lynsey K.; Cobb, Paul A.



Quantum Circuit Complexity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study a complexity model of quantum circuits analogous to the standard (acyclic)Boolean circuit model. It is shown that any function computable in polynomial time by aquantum Turing machine has a polynomial-size quantum circuit. This result also enablesus to construct a universal quantum computer which can simulate, with a polynomialfactor slowdown, a broader class of quantum machines than that considered

Andrew Chi-chih Yao



Major Histocompatibility Complex: Disease  

E-print Network

Major Histocompatibility Complex: Disease Associations Chester A Alper, Harvard Medical School at least a third of normal European Caucasian MHC haplotypes and contribute most of the MHC disease susceptibility genetic markers. Whereas this has facilitated the detection of MHC gene-disease association

Alper, Chester A.


Leisure and Cultural Complexity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the early 1980s, the first author (Chick) was the University of Illinois representative to the Human Relations Area Files (HRAF), Inc. At an HRAF meeting in New Haven, Mel Ember recommended the examination of leisure, or aspects of leisure, against a backdrop of cultural complexity because “it correlates with everything.” For its part, leisure has been understudied in time

Garry Chick; Xiangyou Sharon Shen




EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes the current state of EPA's Complex Terrain Disperson Model (CTDM), which has been under development during the past five years. The CTDM employs the concept of a dividing streamline height (a function of wind and temperature profiles), below which plume segmen...


Irreducible Complexity Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Michael Behe's concept of irreducible complexity, and in particular his use of this concept to critique Darwinism, continues to come under heavy fire from the biological community. The problem with Behe, so Darwinists inform us, is that he has created a problem where there is no problem. Far from constituting an obstacle to the Darwinian mechanism of random variation and

William A. Dembski




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Novel silicone polymers containing pendant phosphonate groups have been synthesized. A new silicone monomer, (CH3O)2CH3Si(CH2)3P=O(OCH2CH3)2 has been copolymerized with dimethyldimethoxysilane to form polymers capable of binding metal salts. The viscous liquids can complex a variety of metals, inc...


Complex lymphatic anomalies.  


Complex lymphatic anomalies include several diagnoses with overlapping patterns of clinical symptoms, anatomic location, imaging features, hematologic alterations, and complications. Lymphatic malformations likely arise through anomalous embryogenesis of the lymphatic system. Analysis of clinical, imaging, histologic, and hematologic features is often needed to reach a diagnosis. Aspiration of fluid collections can readily define fluid as chylous or not. The presence of chyle indicates dysfunction at the mesenteric or retroperitoneal level or above the cisterna chyli due to reflux. The imaging patterns of generalized lymphatic anomaly (GLA) and Gorham-Stout disease have been segregated with distinctive bone lesions and peri-osseous features. More aggressive histology (spindled lymphatic endothelial cells), clinical progression, hemorrhage, or moderate hematologic changes should raise suspicion for kaposiform lymphangiomatosis. Biopsy may be needed for diagnosis, though avoidance of rib biopsy is advised to prevent iatrogenic chronic pleural effusion. Lymphangiography can visualize the anatomy and function of the lymphatic system and may identify dysfunction of the thoracic duct in central conducting lymphatic anomalies. Local control and symptom relief are targeted by resection, laser therapy, and sclerotherapy. Emerging data suggest a role for medical therapies for complications of complex lymphatic anomalies. Outcomes include recurrent effusion, infection, pain, fracture, mortality, and rarely, malignancy. Complex lymphatic anomalies present significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Results from a phase 2 study of sirolimus in these and other conditions are expected in 2014. Improved characterization of natural history, predictors of poor outcomes, responses to therapy, and further clinical trials are needed for complex lymphatic anomalies. PMID:25241096

Trenor, Cameron C; Chaudry, Gulraiz



Coordination Complexes of Cobalt.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is an experiment involving the synthesis and spectral studies of cobalt complexes that not only give general chemistry students an introduction to inorganic synthesis but allows them to conduct a systematic study on the effect of different ligands on absorption spectra. Background information, procedures, and experimental results are…

Williams, Gregory M.; And Others



[Psychological treatment of gambling].  


Pathological gambling is of serious public health concern with major implications for society and the individual. Brief intervention, motivational interviewing and cognitive and behaviour therapy are effective treatments. Treatment could be delivered in individual or group-format. Most studies proposed abstinence-based treatments. It appears, however, that controlled gambling is also a viable treatment goal. Although effective therapies exist, their uptake is limited to a small part of the target population. Screening procedure will be encouraged and followed by a tailored treatment. New interventions aiming to improve treatment accessibility have to be implemented and evaluated. PMID:20963957

Khazaal, Y



Pharmacologic treatment of paraphilias.  


The treatment of paraphilias remains a challenge in the mental health field. Combined pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic treatment is associated with better efficacy. The gold standard treatment of severe paraphilias in adult males is antiandrogen treatment with cognitive behavioral therapy. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have been used in mild types of paraphilia and in cases of sexual compulsions and juvenile paraphilias. Antiandrogen treatments seem to be effective in severe paraphilic subjects committing sexual offenses. In particular, gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs have shown high efficacy working in a similar way to physical castration but being reversible at any time. Treatment recommendations, side effects, and contraindications are discussed. PMID:24877704

Assumpção, Alessandra Almeida; Garcia, Frederico Duarte; Garcia, Heloise Delavenne; Bradford, John M W; Thibaut, Florence



Complex Systems and Brain Sciences  

E-print Network

Center for Complex Systems and Brain Sciences Charles E. Schmidt College of Science #12;Center for Complex Systems and Brain Sciences Our Mission The mission of the Center for Complex Systems and Brain Sciences is to understand the principles and mechanisms underlying complex behavior

Fernandez, Eduardo


Complexity in Biological Signaling Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Biological signaling pathways interact with one another to form complex networks. Complexity arises from the large number of components, many with isoforms that have partially overlapping functions; from the connections among components; and from the spatial relationship between components. The origins of the complex behavior of signaling networks and analytical approaches to deal with the emergent complexity are discussed here.

Gezhi Weng (Mount Sinai School of Medicine; Department of Pharmacology)



Infliximab in the treatment of Crohn's disease.  


The recent introduction of infliximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody against tumor necrosis factor-alpha, has greatly modified the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD). Data from the literature show encouraging results after intravenous infusion both for closure of intestinal or perianal fistulas and for induction and maintenance of remission in patients with moderate to severe intestinal disease unresponsive to other treatments. However, some contraindications such as fibrostenosing CD and sepsis have been identified. In addition, the data on long-term outcomes and safety is still limited. Our initial experience showed that in selected cases local injection of infliximab is effective in the treatment of complex perianal disease offering the possibility of using such treatment even in small bowel obstructing disease with minimal systemic effects. This paper analyzes the state of the use of both intravenous and local injection of infliximab in patients with CD. PMID:18360638

Poggioli, Gilberto; Laureti, Silvio; Campieri, Massimo; Pierangeli, Filippo; Gionchetti, Paolo; Ugolini, Federica; Gentilini, Lorenzo; Bazzi, Piero; Rizzello, Fernando; Coscia, Maurizio



HIV Treatment: The Basics  


... for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents From the Department of Veterans Affairs: Treatment Decisions From the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Treatment of HIV Infection


Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma infection) Treatment  


... please visit this page: About . Parasites - Toxoplasmosis ( Toxoplasma infection) Parasites Home Share Compartir Treatment On ... Healthy people (nonpregnant) Most healthy people recover from toxoplasmosis without treatment. Persons who are ill can be ...


Pharmacologic and Biologic Treatments  


... thistle as a treatment for people with cancer. Mistletoe Extracts (PDQ®) [ patient ] [ health professional ] Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of mistletoe extracts as a treatment for people with cancer. ...


Treatment Options for Scoliosis  


... physical therapy to address your specific needs. Will chiropractic treatment help? Chiropractic is a controversial method of treatment that seems ... do not seem effectively managed by long-term chiropractic care. Patients who have scoliosis and choose chiropractic ...


IBS Treatment Options  


... Alternative Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments Take Part in Online Studies News You Can Use Living With IBS Relationships and IBS Pregnancy and IBS Travel and IBS IBS Patients' Experience and Unmet Needs ...


Sleep Disorders Treatment Survey  

E-print Network

examiner registered by the National Registry of Certified Medical Examiners to be eligible to drive once diagnosed with a sleep disorder. Several treatments are offered to alleviate the symptoms of sleep disorders. The standard form of treatment requires...

Spann, Stephanie



Antimicrobial Treatments and Efficacy  

EPA Science Inventory

To limit exposure to indoor biological contamination a risk-management approach which employs various antimicrobial treatments can effectively control contaminants and reduce exposure. Antimicrobial treatment of biological contaminants, especially mold in buildings, it is often n...


Overview of Treatment

Preventing local recurrence is a major goal in the treatment of DCIS and is an appropriate endpoint, as 70 percent of women surveyed indicate that risk of recurrence is the greatest factor influencing their treatment decisions.


Medical Treatments for Fibroids  


... Clinical Trials Resources and Publications En Español Medical Treatments for Fibroids Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... the symptoms of fibroids. Once you stop the treatment, fibroids often grow back and symptoms return. Medications are ...


The Treatment of Addiction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes sociological and medical treatment appropriate to young drug experimenters and addicts. Discusses role of teachers, probation officers, school medical services, and general practitioners. Indicates necessity for long treatment period. Considers whether dependence is a disease of delinquent behavior. (AL)

Chapple, P. A. L.




EPA Science Inventory

The paper summarizes findings of a 10-week pilot plant study of gray iron foundry wastewater treatment. Treatment technologies studied included lime softening, lime/soda ash softening, polymer addition, flocculation/sedimentation, and dual media filtration. Results indicate that ...


Treatments for Alzheimer's Disease  


... 3900 Find your chapter: search by state Home > Alzheimer's Disease > Treatments Overview What Is Dementia? What Is Alzheimer's? ... and move closer to a cure. Treatments for Alzheimer's disease Get weekly e-news Take the Brain Tour ...


[Preprosthetic orthodontic treatments].  


The objective of a preprosthetic orthodontic treatment is to position the teeth in such a way that a treatment with (fixed) dental prostheses is made possible or simplified or to affect the result of this treatment positively. Conceivable preprosthetic orthodontic treatments are: correcting primary orthodontic anomalies, closing or reducing interdental spaces and correcting the migration of teeth. In the case of unfavourable maxillomandibular relations, a preprosthetic surgical treatment is usually needed together with a preprosthetic orthodontic treatment. For children with agenesis and/or early loss of teeth and/or aberrant morphology of teeth, a treatment with fixed dental prostheses, either implant-supported or not, may be indicated after the tooth development or in some cases earlier. Until that time, preprosthetic orthodontic treatments may be indicated to offer an aesthetically sound provisional solution and to achieve optimal teeth positions for the final fixed dental prostheses. PMID:24684136

Prahl-Andersen, B; Prahl, C; de Baat, C; Creugers, N H J



Water Treatment Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive diagram allows the user to follow a drop of water from the source through the treatment process. Water may be treated differently in different communities depending on the quality of the water which enters the plant. Groundwater is water located under ground and typically requires less treatment than water from lakes, rivers, and streams. Users are invited to click on each treatment point on the image to see a little information about that treatment point.


Complex Regional Pain Syndrome  


... pain reliever) into certain nerves to block the pain signals. If the injection works, it may be repeated. Physical therapy and psychological counseling are also helpful. However, a treatment that works for ... pain syndrome from getting worse. Sometimes the condition improves. ...


Guideline 3: Psychosocial Treatment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The third in seven sets of guidelines based on the consensus of experts in the treatment of psychiatric and behavioral problems in mental retardation (MR) focuses on psychosocial treatment. Guidelines cover general principles, choosing among psychosocial treatments, severity of MR and psychiatric/behavior symptoms, diagnosable disorders, target…

American Journal on Mental Retardation, 2000



Seed Treatment. Manual 92.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual provides information needed to meet minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the seed treatment category. The text discusses pests commonly associated with seeds; seed treatment pesticides; labels; chemicals and seed treatment equipment; requirements of federal and state seed laws;…

Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.


Complex recanalization techniques for complex femoro-popliteal lesions: how to optimize outcomes.  


Complex lesions within the femoro-popliteal vascular territory, amongst others, include more than 15 cm long or heavily calcified occlusions of the superficial femoral artery (SFA) or total occlusions of the popliteal artery (PA). For those type-C/-D lesions TASC-II recommendations originating from 2007 advocate bypass surgery as the therapy of choice if the patient is a suitable candidate for this. Against the background of evolving endovascular techniques which often allow recanalization of even long and calcified lesions as well as improved patency rates after endovascular treatment of such complex lesions, many vascular specialists go for an endovascular-first approach for the treatment of challenging lesions, last but not least in those patients unfit for surgery or in those lacking an adequate conduit or distal target vessel segment. This review focuses on two important aspects of treating complex femoro-popliteal lesions by an endovascular approach. The first part covers techniques to pass a complex lesion with a guidewire, while the second discusses strategies to improve the outcome of the endovascular reconstruction in terms of patency and clinical success. PMID:25335942

Goltz, J P; Kleemann, M



Simple theories of complex lattices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the theory of solitons has been very successful for continuous systems, very few nonlinear discrete lattices are amenable to an exact analytical treatment. In these “complex lattices” discreteness can be hostile to the solitons, preventing them to move due to the lack of translational invariance or even to exist as localized excitations. On the other hand, lattice discreteness can sometimes be very helpful. It can stabilize solutions that otherwise would split apart as in the discrete sine-Gordon lattice, or even allow the existence of localized oscillatory modes as exact solutions in systems where they would decay in the continuum limit. It is interesting that many of these phenomena can be understood qualitatively, and sometimes quantitatively, with very simple theories that rely on the usual concepts of linear wave propagation, resonances, linear stability of waves, for instance. There are, however, phenomena specific to discrete nonlinear lattices which allow the build up of large amplitude localized excitations, sometimes out of thermal fluctuations, which are more resistant to simple approaches and could deserve further interest because they may be relevant for various physical systems.

Peyrard, Michel



Remediation of manufactured gas plant soils contaminated with free and complex cyanide  

SciTech Connect

Cyanide is one of the main contaminants present in soil from manufactured gas plants (MGP) . Several treatment methods including thermal treatment, chemical treatment, ultraviolet irradiation, and biological treatment were evaluated for their ability to degrade the cyanide present in these soils. In the thermal treatment, raising the temperature of the purified waste to 2000--3000C resulted in complete removal of complex cyanide from the soil; however, the cyanide emitted was in a the toxic gaseous HCN form. Chemical treatment, using the oxidant Fenton`s reagent in a 10% soil slurry, resulted in the destruction of 80% of the free cyanide but little, if any, complex cyanide. Ultraviolet irradiation of the basic leachate from MGP wastes in the presence of the chelating agent EDTA yielded 90% degradation of the complex cyanide. For biological treatment, using an aerobic mixed culture, almost 60% of the free cyanide disappeared from the system with minimal degradation of the complex cyanide. Each treatment has its limitations. Thus, a combined physical-chemical-biological treatment in which the complex cyanide is degraded to free cyanide by photodegradation under alkaline conditions, the free cyanide then chemically (by Fenton`s reagent) or biologically converted to NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2}, is proposed for the removal of cyanide from MGP sites.

Maka, A.; Aronstein, B.N.; Srivastava, V.J. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Theis, T.L.; Young, T.C. [Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY (United States)



Acne vulgaris: pathogenesis, treatment, and needs assessment.  


Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition with substantial cutaneous and psychologic disease burden. Studies suggest that the emotional impact of acne is comparable to that experienced by patients with systemic diseases, like diabetes and epilepsy. In conjunction with the considerable personal burden experienced by patients with acne, acne vulgaris also accounts for substantial societal and health care burden. The pathogenesis and existing treatment strategies for acne are complex. This article discusses the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of acne vulgaris. The burden of disease in the United States and future directions in the management of acne are also addressed. PMID:22117871

Knutsen-Larson, Siri; Dawson, Annelise L; Dunnick, Cory A; Dellavalle, Robert P



Gold complexes with  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reactions of methane with the gold complexes [Au(OH)]?, [Au(OCH3)4]?, [Au(O(CO)2O2]? and [Au(O2CH)2]+, [AuI(acac)], [AuIII(acac)2]+ (acac-acetylacetonato) were studied using the DFT\\/PBE method with the SBK basis set. High activation barriers were obtained for\\u000a the electrophilic substitution in [Au(OH)]?, [Au(OCH3)4]?, [Au(O(CO)2O)2]-and [AuIII(acac)2]+ complexes, which excludes the possibility that these reactions might proceed under mild conditions. The reactions of the\\u000a [Au(HCO2)2]+ and

DA Pichugina; NE Kuz'menko; AF Shestakov



Visualizing Immune System Complexity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO) meeting "Visualizing Immune System Complexity," held in January 2009, covered multiple scales, from imaging single molecules to imaging whole animals. In addition to experimental details, there was an emphasis on modeling both for data analysis and as a predictive tool to support experimental design. Imaging technologies discussed included total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, two-photon laser scanning microscopy, and magnetic resonance imaging. The biological systems included basic aspects of adaptive and innate immunity. The type 1 diabetes model was used to illustrate how a human disease was dissected at all the scales, from single-molecule analysis of the interactions of T cell receptors with peptide-loaded major histocompatibility complexes to dynamics of immune cell infiltrates by intravital microscopy, as well as the application of imaging diagnostics in humans.

Michael L. Dustin (New York University;Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine REV)



Processes on Complex Networks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Building on their understanding of graphs, students are introduced to random processes on networks. They walk through an illustrative example to see how a random process can be used to represent the spread of an infectious disease, such as the flu, on a social network of students. This demonstrates how scientists and engineers use mathematics to model and simulate random processes on complex networks. Topics covered include random processes and modeling disease spread, specifically the SIR (susceptible, infectious, resistant) model.



Engineering Complex Tissues  

PubMed Central

This article summarizes the views expressed at the third session of the workshop “Tissue Engineering—The Next Generation,” which was devoted to the engineering of complex tissue structures. Antonios Mikos described the engineering of complex oral and craniofacial tissues as a “guided interplay” between biomaterial scaffolds, growth factors, and local cell populations toward the restoration of the original architecture and function of complex tissues. Susan Herring, reviewing osteogenesis and vasculogenesis, explained that the vascular arrangement precedes and dictates the architecture of the new bone, and proposed that engineering of osseous tissues might benefit from preconstruction of an appropriate vasculature. Jennifer Elisseeff explored the formation of complex tissue structures based on the example of stratified cartilage engineered using stem cells and hydrogels. Helen Lu discussed engineering of tissue interfaces, a problem critical for biological fixation of tendons and ligaments, and the development of a new generation of fixation devices. Rita Kandel discussed the challenges related to the re-creation of the cartilage-bone interface, in the context of tissue engineered joint repair. Frederick Schoen emphasized, in the context of heart valve engineering, the need for including the requirements derived from “adult biology” of tissue remodeling and establishing reliable early predictors of success or failure of tissue engineered implants. Mehmet Toner presented a review of biopreservation techniques and stressed that a new breakthrough in this field may be necessary to meet all the needs of tissue engineering. David Mooney described systems providing temporal and spatial regulation of growth factor availability, which may find utility in virtually all tissue engineering and regeneration applications, including directed in vitro and in vivo vascularization of tissues. Anthony Atala offered a clinician’s perspective for functional tissue regeneration, and discussed new biomaterials that can be used to develop new regenerative technologies. PMID:17518671




NDT for Complex Projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-destructive testing of structures composed of various types of materials is performed using a variety of methods. Most commonly, electromagnetic and acoustic methods are used to perform this task. Advances in computer software and electro-mechanical hardware have resulted in semi-automated systems for performing simple low-cost in-situ concrete testing. These systems are designed to be operated by anyone who can read a manual and push the right buttons. Although useful in many circumstances, we ask: "What happens when concrete structures are not simple and are too complex to be analyzed by these semi-automated systems and, most importantly, by minimally trained operators?" Many infrastructure projects are boldly pushing the limit of traditional engineering design. As structures become more complex, the methods and techniques used to evaluate these structures must also evolve. A first step towards adapting geophysical methods to evaluate complex structures is to develop pre-investigation conceptual models of possible responses that structures will have to available geophysical methods. This approach is important for designing the geometry and data acquisition parameters necessary for achieving the desired results. Examples of case by case assessments of the application of GPR to concrete investigations are examined. These include complex concrete wall structures, soil tunnel structures, and airport runways. HGI's adaption of ground penetrating radar (GPR) and seismic methods for assessing the substrate of a heavily reinforced concrete structure up to seven feet thick is reviewed. A range of GPR antenna frequencies were used to image the concrete and the underlying material. Time and frequency domain GPR analyses where used in the assessment. A multi-channel seismic survey using a roll-along data collection technique was used to assess the resonant frequency of the concrete structure, the nature of the underlying medium, and behavior of the structural system.

Carnevale, Mario



Algorithms and Their Complexity  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this book we often describe and analyze algorithms on digraphs. We concentrate more on graph-theoretical aspects of these\\u000a algorithms than on their actual implementation on a computer. Thus, in many cases only the most basic knowledge on algorithms\\u000a and complexity is required and many readers are familiar with it. However, sometimes we use less familiar terminology and\\u000a notation. In

Jørgen Bang-Jensen; Gregory Z. Gutin


Complexity in Dynamical Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of chaos has shown us that deterministic systems can have a kind of unpredictability, based on a limited knowledge of their initial conditions; after a finite time, the motion appears essentially random. This observation has inspired a general interest in the subject of unpredictability, and more generally, complexity; how can we characterize how "complex" a dynamical system is?. In this thesis, we attempt to answer this question with a paradigm of complexity that comes from computer science, we extract sets of symbol sequences, or languages, from a dynamical system using standard methods of symbolic dynamics; we then ask what kinds of grammars or automata are needed a generate these languages. This places them in the Chomsky heirarchy, which in turn tells us something about how subtle and complex the dynamical system's behavior is. This gives us insight into the question of unpredictability, since these automata can also be thought of as computers attempting to predict the system. In the culmination of the thesis, we find a class of smooth, two-dimensional maps which are equivalent to the highest class in the Chomsky heirarchy, the turning machine; they are capable of universal computation. Therefore, these systems possess a kind of unpredictability qualitatively different from the usual "chaos": even if the initial conditions are known exactly, questions about the system's long-term dynamics are undecidable. No algorithm exists to answer them. Although this kind of unpredictability has been discussed in the context of distributed, many-degree-of -freedom systems (for instance, cellular automata) we believe this is the first example of such phenomena in a smooth, finite-degree-of-freedom system.

Moore, Cristopher David


New hexanuclear group?11 pyrazolate complexes: synthesis and photophysical features.  


The treatment of 2,2'-di(1,2-pyrazol-3-yl)-1,1'-binaphthyl with two equivalents of appropriate monovalent group 11 precursors in the presence of a base leads to a complete exchange of the pyrazole NH protons with M(+) cations. Structural characterisation of the copper(I) complex revealed a hexanuclear complex with a pelton-wheel-like arrangement of the binaphthyl unit. As indicated by their spectroscopic data, all three complexes are isostructural. The complexes show a complex fluorescence behaviour that can be partially related to the ligand system and also to the metal sites, as indicated by the position of the fluorescence peaks and their temperature dependence and lifetimes. PMID:21341327

Jozak, Thomas; Sun, Yu; Schmitt, Yvonne; Lebedkin, Sergei; Kappes, Manfred; Gerhards, Markus; Thiel, Werner R



[VGKC-complex antibodies].  


Various antibodies are associated with voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs). Representative antibodies to VGKCs were first identified by radioimmunoassays using radioisotope-labeled alpha-dendrotoxin-VGKCs solubilized from rabbit brain. These antibodies were detected only in a proportion of patients with acquired neuromyotonia (Isaacs' syndrome). VGKC antibodies were also detected in patients with Morvan's syndrome and in those with a form of autoimmune limbic encephalitis. Recent studies indicated that the "VGKC" antibodies are mainly directed toward associated proteins (for example LGI-1 and CASPR-2) that complex with the VGKCs themselves. The "VGKC" antibodies are now commonly known as VGKC-complex antibodies. In general, LGI-1 antibodies are most commonly detected in patients with limbic encephalitis with syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. CASPR-2 antibodies are present in the majority of patients with Morvan's syndrome. These patients develop combinations of CNS symptoms, autonomic dysfunction, and peripheral nerve hyperexcitability. Furthermore, VGKC-complex antibodies are tightly associated with chronic idiopathic pain. Hyperexcitability of nociceptive pathways has also been implicated. These antibodies may be detected in sera of some patients with neurodegenerative diseases (for example, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease). PMID:23568988

Watanabe, Osamu



Keynes, Hayek and Complexity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the spirit of the overall topic of the conference, in this paper I consider the extent to which economic theory includes elements of the complex systems approach. I am setting to one side here the developments over the past decade in applying complex systems analysis to economic problems. This is not because this recent work is not important. It most certainly is. But I want to argue that there is a very distinct tradition of what we would now describe as a complex systems approach in the works of two of the greatest economists of the 20th century. There is of course a dominant intellectual paradigm within economics, that known as `neo-classical'economics. This paradigm is by no means an empty box, and is undoubtedly useful in helping to understand how some aspects of the social and economic worlds work. But even in its heyday, neo-classical economics never succeeded by its empirical success in driving out completely other theoretical approaches, for its success was simply not sufficient to do so. Much more importantly, economics over the past twenty or thirty years has become in an increasing state of flux.

Ormerod, Paul


Observability of complex systems  

PubMed Central

A quantitative description of a complex system is inherently limited by our ability to estimate the system’s internal state from experimentally accessible outputs. Although the simultaneous measurement of all internal variables, like all metabolite concentrations in a cell, offers a complete description of a system’s state, in practice experimental access is limited to only a subset of variables, or sensors. A system is called observable if we can reconstruct the system’s complete internal state from its outputs. Here, we adopt a graphical approach derived from the dynamical laws that govern a system to determine the sensors that are necessary to reconstruct the full internal state of a complex system. We apply this approach to biochemical reaction systems, finding that the identified sensors are not only necessary but also sufficient for observability. The developed approach can also identify the optimal sensors for target or partial observability, helping us reconstruct selected state variables from appropriately chosen outputs, a prerequisite for optimal biomarker design. Given the fundamental role observability plays in complex systems, these results offer avenues to systematically explore the dynamics of a wide range of natural, technological and socioeconomic systems. PMID:23359701

Liu, Yang-Yu; Slotine, Jean-Jacques; Barabási, Albert-László



Treatment of hepatitis C: Perspectives.  


The treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has significantly improved in the last 2 decades. The association of pegylated interferon alfa and ribavirin (PR) has allowed a sustained virologic response (SVR) for nearly 15years i.e. a viral cure of the infection for 45% of genotype 1-, 65% of genotype 4-, 70% of genotype 3- and around 85% of genotype 2-infected patients. A better understanding of the HCV life cycle has led to the development of direct-acting antiviral drugs (DAAs) targeted against viral proteins (NS3/4A protease, NS5B polymerase with nucleotide and non-nucleotide inhibitors, NS5A viral replication complex). The combination of first-generation protease inhibitors with PR demonstrated a high antiviral effectiveness (75% of SVR but restricted to genotypes 1) with substantial adverse effects for the first-generation protease inhibitors, which obtained market approval in 2011 (telaprevir and boceprevir), recommendations for use in HCV monoinfected patients in 2012, and in HCV/HIV coinfected in 2013. Then, the combination of second-generation protease inhibitors with PR increased SVR rates from 75 to 90%, while reducing treatment duration, adverse effects, and the number of pills. The next step will be using an interferon and ribavirin-free combination of DAAs; it should become the standard of care in 2015. These excellent results in "easy-to-treat" patients and in small populations in the first studies were confirmed in phase III studies and in "difficult-to-treat" patients (treatment - especially protease inhibitors - previously treated patients, cirrhotic patients, liver and renal transplant patients, HIV coinfected patients, and multi-drug treated patients, at increased risk of drug interaction). The high antiviral potency of these new combinations has changed the definition of "difficult-to-treat patients". These unique achievements in drug history make any previous publication on hepatitis C treatment obsolete. PMID:25174659

Pol, S; Corouge, M



Extension of HPL to complex arguments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we describe the extension of the Mathematica package HPL to treat harmonic polylogarithms of complex arguments. The harmonic polylogarithms have been introduced by Remiddi and Vermaseren [E. Remiddi, J.A.M. Vermaseren, Int. J. Modern Phys. A 15 (2000) 725, hep-ph/9905237] and have many applications in high energy particle physics. New version program summaryProgram title: HPL Catalogue identifier: ADWX_v2_0 Program summary URL: Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 13 610 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 055 706 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica 7/8. Computer: All computers running Mathematica. Operating system: Operating systems running Mathematica. Supplementary material: Additional "high weight" MinimalSet files available. Classification: 4.7. Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADWX_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 174 (2006) 222 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Computer algebraic treatment of the harmonic polylogarithms which appear in the evaluation of Feynman diagrams. Solution method: Mathematica implementation. Reasons for new version: Added treatment of complex arguments. Details in arXiv:hep-ph/0703052. Summary of revisions: Added treatment of complex arguments. Details in arXiv:hep-ph/0703052. Running time: A few seconds for each function.

Maître, Daniel



Drinking Water Treatment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides an introduction to the treatment of drinking water to remove harmful or distasteful substances. Topics include the history of treatment and a brief listing of treatment processes. Students can examine a selection of online resources for more detailed information on modern treatment methods and potential contaminants. The lesson includes an activity in which they construct a model treatment plant and treat water that they have 'contaminated' themselves in order to observe firsthand the steps involved in purifying water for human consumption.

Laposata, Matt


Solid waste management complex site development plan  

SciTech Connect

The main purpose of this Solid Waste Management Complex Site Development Plan is to optimize the location of future solid waste treatment and storage facilities and the infrastructure required to support them. An overall site plan is recommended. Further, a series of layouts are included that depict site conditions as facilities are constructed at the SWMC site. In this respect the report serves not only as the siting basis for future projects, but provides siting guidance for Project W-112, as well. The plan is intended to function as a template for expected growth of the site over the next 30 years so that future facilities and infrastructure will be properly integrated.

Greager, T.M.



Linking social complexity and vocal complexity: a parid perspective  

PubMed Central

The Paridae family (chickadees, tits and titmice) is an interesting avian group in that species vary in important aspects of their social structure and many species have large and complex vocal repertoires. For this reason, parids represent an important set of species for testing the social complexity hypothesis for vocal communication—the notion that as groups increase in social complexity, there is a need for increased vocal complexity. Here, we describe the hypothesis and some of the early evidence that supported the hypothesis. Next, we review literature on social complexity and on vocal complexity in parids, and describe some of the studies that have made explicit tests of the social complexity hypothesis in one parid—Carolina chickadees, Poecile carolinensis. We conclude with a discussion, primarily from a parid perspective, of the benefits and costs of grouping and of physiological factors that might mediate the relationship between social complexity and changes in signalling behaviour. PMID:22641826

Krams, Indrikis; Krama, Tatjana; Freeberg, Todd M.; Kullberg, Cecilia; Lucas, Jeffrey R.



Shapes of interacting RNA complexes.  


Shapes of interacting RNA complexes are studied using a filtration via their topological genus. A shape of an RNA complex is obtained by (iteratively) collapsing stacks and eliminating hairpin loops. This shape projection preserves the topological core of the RNA complex, and for fixed topological genus there are only finitely many such shapes. Our main result is a new bijection that relates the shapes of RNA complexes with shapes of RNA structures. This allows for computing the shape polynomial of RNA complexes via the shape polynomial of RNA structures. We furthermore present a linear time uniform sampling algorithm for shapes of RNA complexes of fixed topological genus. PMID:25075750

Fu, Benjamin M M; Reidys, Christian M



Interfaces between orthodontic and periodontal treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contextual relationships between orthodontics and periodontology are diverse and complex. While the consequences of orthodontic\\u000a tooth movements are discussed in terms of possible damage and improvements in the long-term health of periodontal tissues\\u000a orthodontic treatment of adults is a routine clinical procedure nowadays, even in patients presenting already-damaged periodontal\\u000a tissues. As developments in both fields have been so rapid,

Christoph Reichert; Martin Hagner; Søren Jepsen; Andreas Jäger




E-print Network

APPENDIX F. TRANSFORMS, COMPLEX ANALYSIS 1 Appendix F Transforms, Complex Analysis This appendix discusses Fourier and Laplace transforms as they are used in plasma physics and this book. Also, key properties of complex variable theory that are needed for understanding and inverting these transforms

Callen, James D.


Not so Complex: Iteration in the Complex Plane  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The simple process of iteration can produce complex and beautiful figures. In this article, Robin O'Dell presents a set of tasks requiring students to use the geometric interpretation of complex number multiplication to construct linear iteration rules. When the outputs are plotted in the complex plane, the graphs trace pleasing designs…

O'Dell, Robin S.



Nuclear Weapons Complex reconfiguration study  

SciTech Connect

Shortly after assuming duties as Secretary of Energy, I reviewed the Nuclear Weapons Complex Modernization Report'' submitted to the Congress in January 1989 as required by the National Defense Authorization Act of 1988 and 1989. My review showed that several of the report's assumptions needed to be re-evaluated. During this eighteen-month review, dramatic world changes forced further reassessments of the future Nuclear Weapons Complex. These changes are reflected in the new report. The new report presents a plan to achieve a reconfigured complex, called Complex-21. Complex-21 would be smaller, less diverse, and less expensive to operated than the Complex of today. Complex-21 would be able to safely and reliability support nuclear deterrent stockpile objectives set forth by the President and funded by the Congress. It would be consistent with realities of the emerging international security environment and flexible enough to accommodate the likely range of deterrent contingencies. In addition, Complex-21 would be constructed and operated to comply with all applicable federal, state, and local laws, regulations, and orders. Achieving Complex-21 will require significant resources. This report provides and organized approach toward selecting the most appropriate configuration for Complex-21, satisfying environmental requirements, and minimizing costs. The alternative -- to continue to use piecemeal fixes to run an antiquated complex -- will be more expensive and provide a less reliable Nuclear Weapons Complex. As a consequence, implementation of the Complex-21 plan is considered necessary to ensure continued viability of our nuclear deterrent.

Not Available



Treatment of bipolar disorder  

PubMed Central

We review recent developments in the acute and long-term treatment of bipolar disorder and identify promising future routes to therapeutic innovation. Overall, advances in drug treatment remain quite modest. Antipsychotic drugs are effective in the acute treatment of mania; their efficacy in the treatment of depression is variable with the clearest evidence for quetiapine. Despite their widespread use, considerable uncertainty and controversy remains about the use of antidepressant drugs in the management of depressive episodes. Lithium has the strongest evidence for long-term relapse prevention; the evidence for anticonvulsants such as divalproex and lamotrigine is less robust and there is much uncertainty about the longer term benefits of antipsychotics. Substantial progress has been made in the development and assessment of adjunctive psychosocial interventions. Long-term maintenance and possibly acute stabilisation of depression can be enhanced by the combination of psychosocial treatments with drugs. The development of future treatments should consider both the neurobiological and psychosocial mechanisms underlying the disorder. We should continue to repurpose treatments and to recognise the role of serendipity. We should also investigate optimum combinations of pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments at different stages of the illness. Clarification of the mechanisms by which different treatments affect sleep and circadian rhythms and their relation with daily mood fluctuations is likely to help with the treatment selection for individual patients. To be economically viable, existing psychotherapy protocols need to be made briefer and more efficient for improved scalability and sustainability in widespread implementation. PMID:23663953



Rationale for Seeding Grass on the Stanislaus Complex Burnt1  

E-print Network

Rationale for Seeding Grass on the Stanislaus Complex Burnt1 Earl C. Ruby2 Abstract: An emergency seeding grass as an emergency watershed treatment. The evaluation used site specific data to determine where to seed or not seed grass, and concluded that seeding grass on the flood source areas could

Standiford, Richard B.


Introduction The management of infectious diseases is complex,  

E-print Network

Review Introduction The management of infectious diseases is complex, especially in an intensive review the development of such models applied to infectious disease management. We use the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases Any diagnosis, including that of an infectious disease, is based

Lucas, Peter


Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy In Chronic And Complex Wounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Unfocused, low energy Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy (ESWT) has been shown to be a feasible treatment option in acute and chronic non-healing wounds with complete heal- ing rates of up to 75%. 1 We report our preliminary experience with soft-focused low energy (SFLE) ESWT in complex non-healing leg and foot ulcer patients.

Dieter Mayer; Devdas T. Inderbitzin; Zoran Rancic; Mario Lachat


Genomics of bovine respiratory disease complex at USMARC  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Selection for genetic resistance/resilience bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) would significantly increase the efficiency of beef production in the U.S. through decreased treatment costs, productivity, and death loss. Unfortunately, selection for resistance to BRDC is challenging to implemen...


Tourette's disorder and associated complex behaviors: a case report.  

PubMed Central

A case of a man with Tourette's disorder associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder, multiple sexual paraphilias, and aggressive behavior is described. Treatment with haloperidol led to improvement in the characteristic tics of Tourette's disorder as well as to improvement in these three complex-associated behaviors. After haloperidol was discontinued, an exacerbation of tics and the associated behaviors occurred. PMID:2238716

McDougle, C. J.; Southwick, S. M.; Rohrbaugh, R. M.



Schoolchildren with Dysphagia Associated with Medically Complex Conditions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This article reviews population trends and general characteristics of children with dysphagia in schools, provides an overview of dysphagia teams and the roles of the speech-language pathologist (SLP) in school and hospital settings, and describes assessment and treatment of swallowing and feeding problems in children with complex medical…

Lefton-Greif, Maureen A.; Arvedson, Joan C.



Removal of cyanides by complexation with ferrous compounds  

SciTech Connect

Alkaline chlorination, an oxidation process with chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) or hypochlorite (ClO{sup {minus}}), is the most widely accepted method of cyanide treatment. However, removal of cyanide from wastewater to the extent required by the effluent limits imposed by Federal and State regulatory authorities is practically impossible, especially when the majority of the cyanide is present as an iron-cyanide complex. One potential treatment method being further investigated uses ferrous (Fe{sup 2+}) compounds to react with free and complex cyanide ions and produce insoluble iron-cyanide complexes. However, sludges generated by this treatment method contain cyanide wastes which may be considered a hazardous waste by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). The studies reported in this paper demonstrate that ferrous (Fe{sup 2+}) precipitation can remove cyanide ions (both free and complex) to a concentration within the range of 1 to 2 mg/L. The wastewaters utilized in these tests were collected from a coke plant facility. Synthetic cyanide solutions were used in the studied as well. Ferrous compounds used in the studies included commercial-grade ferrous sulfate, commercial-grade ferrous chloride, and spent pickle liquor (containing ferrous ion). The desired effluent quality was successfully attained in the treatment of the above-mentioned wastewaters by using ferrous compounds as well as spent pickle liquor.

Varuntanya, C.P.; Zabban, W. [Chester Environmental, Moon Township, PA (United States)



Complex-Valued Autoencoders  

PubMed Central

Autoencoders are unsupervised machine learning circuits, with typically one hidden layer, whose learning goal is to minimize an average distortion measure between inputs and outputs. Linear autoencoders correspond to the special case where only linear transformations between visible and hidden variables are used. While linear autoencoders can be defined over any field, only real-valued linear autoencoders have been studied so far. Here we study complex-valued linear autoencoders where the components of the training vectors and adjustable matrices are defined over the complex field with the L2 norm. We provide simpler and more general proofs that unify the real-valued and complex-valued cases, showing that in both cases the landscape of the error function is invariant under certain groups of transformations. The landscape has no local minima, a family of global minima associated with Principal Component Analysis, and many families of saddle points associated with orthogonal projections onto sub-space spanned by sub-optimal subsets of eigenvectors of the covariance matrix. The theory yields several iterative, convergent, learning algorithms, a clear understanding of the generalization properties of the trained autoencoders, and can equally be applied to the hetero-associative case when external targets are provided. Partial results on deep architecture as well as the differential geometry of autoencoders are also presented. The general framework described here is useful to classify autoencoders and identify general properties that ought to be investigated for each class, illuminating some of the connections between autoencoders, unsupervised learning, clustering, Hebbian learning, and information theory. PMID:22622264

Baldi, Pierre; Lu, Zhiqin



Vitiligo: Diagnosis, Treatment and Outcome  


... Diseases and treatments U - W Vitiligo Diagnosis, treatment Vitiligo: Diagnosis, treatment, and outcome How do dermatologists diagnose vitiligo? If your dermatologist suspects that you have vitiligo, ...


Shingles: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Outcome  


... Diseases and treatments Q - T Shingles Diagnosis, treatment Shingles: Diagnosis, treatment, and outcome How do dermatologists diagnose shingles? To diagnose shingles, a dermatologist will look at ...


Macroevolution of complex retroviruses.  


Retroviruses can leave a "fossil record" in their hosts' genomes in the form of endogenous retroviruses. Foamy viruses, complex retroviruses that infect mammals, have been notably absent from this record. We have found an endogenous foamy virus within the genomes of sloths and show that foamy viruses were infecting mammals more than 100 million years ago and codiverged with their hosts across an entire geological era. Our analysis highlights the role of evolutionary constraint in maintaining viral genome structure and indicates that accessory genes and mammalian mechanisms of innate immunity are the products of macroevolutionary conflict played out over a geological time scale. PMID:19762636

Katzourakis, Aris; Gifford, Robert J; Tristem, Michael; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Pybus, Oliver G



Complexity Science for Simpletons  

E-print Network

In this article, we shall describe some of the most interesting topics in the subject of Complexity Science for a general audience. Anyone with a solid foundation in high school mathematics (with some calculus) and an elementary understanding of computer programming will be able to follow this article. First, we shall explain the significance of the P versus NP problem and solve it. Next, we shall describe two other famous mathematics problems, the Collatz 3n+1 Conjecture and the Riemann Hypothesis, and show how both Chaitin's incompleteness theorem and Wolfram's notion of "computational irreducibility" are important for understanding why no one has, as of yet, solved these two problems.

Craig Alan Feinstein



Overactive Bladder: Pharmacologic Treatments in the Neurogenic Population  

PubMed Central

Patients with neurologic disease commonly develop overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms of urgency, frequency, and/or urge incontinence. Although treatment for idiopathic OAB has been extensively studied, therapy for those individuals with neurogenic-mediated OAB has not been thoroughly evaluated. Included in the present article is a description of micturition neurophysiology and a neurourologic evaluation scheme. The pharmacologic treatment options for neurogenic OAB, mainly antimuscarinics and chemical denervation, are reviewed and important studies are discussed. Management of OAB in the neurogenic population is a complex issue with no uniform treatment strategy, and individualized treatment with first-line pharmacologic therapy is often recommended. PMID:18836537

Kennelly, Michael J; DeVoe, William B



Complex Algebraic Geometry Jean Gallier  

E-print Network

Complex Algebraic Geometry Jean Gallier and Stephen S. Shatz Department of Computer is Geometry & What is Complex Algebraic Geometry? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.2 Local Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 2.3 Hodge I, Analytic Preliminaries

Gallier, Jean


Complex time paths for semiclassical wave packet propagation with complex trajectories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of complex-valued trajectories in semiclassical wave packet methods can lead to problems that prevent calculation of the wave function in certain regions of the configuration space. We investigate this so-called bald spot problem in the context of generalized Gaussian wave packet dynamics. The analysis shows that the bald spot phenomenon is essentially due to the complex nature of the initial conditions for the trajectories. It is, therefore, expected to be a general feature of several semiclassical methods that rely on trajectories with such initial conditions. A bald region is created when a trajectory, needed to calculate the wave function at a given time, reaches a singularity of the potential energy function in the complex plane at an earlier, real time. This corresponds to passage of a branch point singularity across the real axis of the complex time plane. The missing portions of the wave function can be obtained by deforming the time path for the integration of the equations of motion into the complex plane so that the singularity is circumvented. We present examples of bald spots, singularity times, and suitable complex time paths for one-dimensional barrier transmission in the Eckart and Gaussian systems. Although the bald regions for the Eckart system are often localized, they are found to be semi-infinite for the Gaussian system. For the case of deep tunneling, the bald regions for both systems may encompass the entire portion of space occupied by the transmitted wave packet. Thus, the use of complex time paths becomes essential for a treatment of barrier tunneling.

Petersen, Jakob; Kay, Kenneth G.



Canberra Deep Dish Communications Complex  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

View of Canberra 70m (230 ft.) antenna with flags from the three Deep Space Network sites. The Canberra Deep Space Communications Complex, located outside Canberra, Australia, is one of the three complexes which comprise NASA's Deep Space Network. The other complexes are located in Goldstone, California, and Madrid, Spain.



Euler's number II: Complex exponentials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We express the exponential function of an imaginary variable in terms of sine and cosine. The "complex exponentials" that result trace out a circle in the complex plane. Pointing to one of the positions in the complex plane, we obtain the identity exp(i pi) = -1.



Institutional Complexity and Organizational Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organizations face institutional complexity whenever they confront incompatible prescriptions from multiple institutional logics. Our interest is in how plural institutional logics, refracted through field-level structures and processes, are experienced within organizations and how organizations respond to such complexity. We draw on a variety of cognate literatures to discuss the field-level structural characteristics and organizational attributes that shape institutional complexity. We

Royston Greenwood; Mia Raynard; Farah Kodeih; Evelyn R. Micelotta; Michael Lounsbury



Complex Semantic Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Verbal language is a dynamic mental process. Ideas emerge by means of the selection of words from subjective and individual characteristics throughout the oral discourse. The goal of this work is to characterize the complex network of word associations that emerge from an oral discourse from a discourse topic. Because of that, concepts of associative incidence and fidelity have been elaborated and represented the probability of occurrence of pairs of words in the same sentence in the whole oral discourse. Semantic network of words associations were constructed, where the words are represented as nodes and the edges are created when the incidence-fidelity index between pairs of words exceeds a numerical limit (0.001). Twelve oral discourses were studied. The networks generated from these oral discourses present a typical behavior of complex networks and their indices were calculated and their topologies characterized. The indices of these networks obtained from each incidence-fidelity limit exhibit a critical value in which the semantic network has maximum conceptual information and minimum residual associations. Semantic networks generated by this incidence-fidelity limit depict a pattern of hierarchical classes that represent the different contexts used in the oral discourse.

Teixeira, G. M.; Aguiar, M. S. F.; Carvalho, C. F.; Dantas, D. R.; Cunha, M. V.; Morais, J. H. M.; Pereira, H. B. B.; Miranda, J. G. V.


BTA copper complexes.  


Cupric oxide is one of the most important additives used (a) to catalyze decomposition reactions in gas generators to obtain cooler reaction gases, (b) as burning enhancer for ammonium perchlorate-based composite propellants, and (c) as coloring agent in pyrotechnics. In this context, the reaction of Cu(2+) ions in aqueous ammonia solution with bis(tetrazolyl)amine (H(2)bta) was investigated. Depending on the reaction conditions three complexes were obtained: Cu(bta)(NH(3))(2) (1), Cu(bta)(NH(3))(2).H(2)O (2), and (NH(4))(2)Cu(bta)(2).2.5H(2)O (3). The crystal structures of 1 and 2 are discussed with respect to the coordination mode of the dianion of N,N-bis(1(2)H-tetrazol-5-yl)-amine (bta), which mediates in the case of 1 and 2 weak superexchange interactions between the adjacent magnetic transition-metal Cu(II) cations. These antiferromagnetic interactions result from 1D copper chains over an hidden azide end-to-end bridge. Interestingly, the structural arrangement of 1 completely changes in the presence of crystal-bound water. Moreover, some physicochemical properties (e.g., heat of formation, friction, and impact sensitivity, DSC) of these complexes with respect to high-energetic materials are discussed. PMID:16241154

Friedrich, Manfred; Gálvez-Ruiz, Juan Carlos; Klapötke, Thomas M; Mayer, Peter; Weber, Birgit; Weigand, Jan J



Complex aperture networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A complex network approach is proposed for studying the shear behavior of a rough rock joint. Similarities between aperture profiles are established, and a functional complex network-in each shear displacement-is constructed in two directions: parallel and perpendicular to the shear direction. We find that the growth of the clustering coefficient and that of the number of edges are approximately scaled with the development of shear strength and hydraulic conductivity, which could possibly be utilized to estimate and formulate a friction law and the evolution of shear distribution over asperities. Moreover, the frictional interface is mapped in the global-local parameter space of the corresponding functional friction network, showing the evolution path and, eventually, the residual stage. Furthermore, we show that with respect to shear direction, parallel aperture patches are more adaptable to environmental stimuli than perpendicular profiles. We characterize the pure-contact profiles using the same approach. Unlike the first case, the later networks show a growing trend while in the residual stage; a saturation of links is encoded in contact networks.

Ghaffari, H. O.; Sharifzadeh, M.; Young, R. Paul



Demystifying water treatment  

SciTech Connect

Increasingly accountable for the environmental quality and cost of managing their waste and process water streams, customers require more precise data about the constituents in their water. This has forced suppliers to unlock some of the secrets of water treatment. In the open exchange of information, users are trading in esoteric formulations for products that are more chemical efficient and environmentally benign. Factoring more prominently in the water treatment equation are service and supply. This paper reviews some of these simpler treatments.

Hairston, D.



Systematic and Evolutionary Studies in the Dichanthelium acuminatum (Poaceae:Paniceae) Complex  

E-print Network

by Hitchcock and Chase (1910). In this treatment Gould and Clark recognized eight varieties in the D. acuminatum complex: D. acuminatum vars. villosum, acuminatum, thurowii, implicatum, wrightianum, densiflorum, lindheimeri, and longiligulatum. Gould...

Hammer, Ricky Lee



Reactivity of ruthenium vinylidene complexes containing indenyl/dppe ligands and unsaturated bonds at C? with trimethylsilyl azide.  


This study presents a new reaction of cationic vinylidene complexes with Me?SiN? (TMSN?), which yields N-coordinated nitrile complexes 3. Treatment of a ruthenium acetylide precursor containing indenyl and dppe ligands with a series of organic halides produced the corresponding vinylidene complexes 2 in good yield. Further reaction of 2 with TMSN? at room temperature produced N-coordinated ruthenium nitrile complexes 3. Unlike the reaction of cyclopropenylruthenium complexes with TMSN?, which yielded different products depending on the substituent at C?, the vinylidene complexes containing unsaturated bonds at Cd yielded similar N-coordinated nitrile complexes. This transformation did not seemingly occur in the reaction of ruthenium vinylidene complexes containing Cp and PPh? ligands with TMSN?. Deprotonation of these vinylidene complexes yielded cyclopropenyl or thermodynamic furylruthenium complexes, depending on the substitute at C?. Subsequent reactions of the cyclopropenyl or furylruthenium complexes with TMSN? afforded different products. PMID:22805505

Sung, Hui-Ling; Her, Tze-Min; Su, Wen-Hsien; Cheng, Chin-Pao



Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Treatment  


... Contact CDC-INFO Pinworm Infection General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Information For: Travelers ...


Treatment of hyperpigmentation.  


Disorders of hyperpigmentation encompass a plethora of pigmentary problems that can range from inherited to acquired. This article focuses on two prevalent disorders of hyperpigmentation and their treatment: melasma and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Each represents an acquired disorder of dyspigmentation with multifactorial etiology, which preferentially affects darker phototypes. Treatment can require a combination of medical, surgical, and laser modalities, as well as patience by both physician and patient. Treatment is limited mainly by the skin phototype of the patient, as darker skin types are more susceptible to adverse effects of treatment. PMID:21763992

Rossi, Anthony M; Perez, Maritza I



Treatment information assessment project.  


Project Inform recently published the final report of the Treatment Information Assessment Project (TIAP). The project was developed with the Kaiser Family Foundation to investigate the types of treatment concerns reported by callers to Project Inform's National HIV/AIDS Treatment Hotline. Differences in the types of questions by callers of different genders, ethnicities, age, and geographic locations were assessed. The study has found that the primary motivations of the discussions are the amount of time a person has been infected with HIV, and their treatment experience. Contact information is provided for ordering a full copy of the report. PMID:11366739



[Cryotherapy in treatment of skin demodecosis].  


Demodecosis is wide spread chronic skin disorder caused by the mite - Demodex folliculorum. It frequently involves the mid facial region: nasolabial folder, the nose, the chin and eyes. The treatment depends on the severity of the inflammatory skin disorder and includes complex of oral and topical drug treatment. The aim of the study was to determine the efficiency of criotherapy in complex treatment of demodecosis. We have observed 38 patients of both sexes aged 19-54. The patients were divided into two groups - "A" and "B". Patients with erythematosquamose form of the disease were treated with Trichopol peros and oral antibiotics in case of inflammatory lesions. For topical treatment in group "A" Rosamet cream was used. In group "B" Rosamet cream and criotherapy were used. The results of our study have demonstrated effectiveness of criotherapy in combination with Rosamet cream. A significantly faster decrease of inflammatory lesions and reduce the erythema was observed in group "B". Therefore the usage of criotherapy with Rosamet cream is recommended to get quick therapeutic effect. PMID:19556638

Beridze, L R; Katsitadze, A G; Katsitadze, T G



Lasers for the treatment of psoriasis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Psoriasis is a chronic, genetically-determined disease, characterized by an immuno-mediated pathogenesis. Treatment of psoriasis is often complicated and remains a challenge. Along with the many new immunomodulatory approaches, various laser systems have been employed for chronic plaque psoriasis treatment. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the light produced by xenon-chloride excimers (generated by sophisticated devices with peak emission of 308 nm) is effective in the treatment of several psoriasis forms. We treated patients, ranging in age from 35 to 55 years, affected by plaque-type psoriasis vulgaris with monochromatic excimer light (MEL). We used MEL in a complex with basic treatment. Therapy was administered three times a week. At the end of the 3th week of treatment all patients showed an improvement, as evidenced by flattening of plaques, decreased scaling and erythema, and decreased vesicle and pustule formation. Unwanted side effects such as pain, blistering was not observed. Minimal erythema and a hyperpigmentation were noted in some patients. It was concluded that the MEL therapy may be a valuable option for treatment of plaque-type psoriasis vulgaris in shorter time compare with traditional NB UVB, with exposure to lower cumulative doses

Piruzian, A.; Korsunskaya, I.; Goldenkova, I.; Hertsen, A.; Sarkisova, M.; Egorenkova, L.



Plasma Treatments and Biomass Gasification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exploitation of forest resources for energy production includes various methods of biomass processing. Gasification is one of the ways to recover energy from biomass. Syngas produced from biomass can be used to power internal combustion engines or, after purification, to supply fuel cells. Recent studies have shown the potential to improve conventional biomass processing by coupling a plasma reactor to a pyrolysis cyclone reactor. The role of the plasma is twofold: it acts as a purification stage by reducing production of tars and aerosols, and simultaneously produces a rich hydrogen syngas. In a first part of the paper we present results obtained from plasma treatment of pyrolysis oils. The outlet gas composition is given for various types of oils obtained at different experimental conditions with a pyrolysis reactor. Given the complexity of the mixtures from processing of biomass, we present a study with methanol considered as a model molecule. This experimental method allows a first modeling approach based on a combustion kinetic model suitable to validate the coupling of plasma with conventional biomass process. The second part of the paper is summarizing results obtained through a plasma-pyrolysis reactor arrangement. The goal is to show the feasibility of this plasma-pyrolysis coupling and emphasize more fundamental studies to understand the role of the plasma in the biomass treatment processes.

Luche, J.; Falcoz, Q.; Bastien, T.; Leninger, J. P.; Arabi, K.; Aubry, O.; Khacef, A.; Cormier, J. M.; Lédé, J.



Lagrangian treatment of magnetic dielectrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A general Lagrangian-based long-wavelength theory of ordered magnetic dielectric crystals (ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, and ferrimagnetic) is formulated. Our classical treatment of intrinsic spin uses the anticommuting Grassmann algebra G3 developed by Berezin and Marinov and by Casalbuoni. The Grassmann formulation of classical spin gives by the Dirac quantization procedure the usual nonrelativistic spin-1/2 quantum theory. The treatment begins at the microscopic level before a long-wavelength limit is performed to obtain a macroscopic theory so as to incorporate all long-wavelength modes of motion (acoustic, optic, electromagnetic, and spin) and their interaction to all orders of nonlinearity. The crystals can have any symmetry, anisotropy, and structural complexity. The equations of motion for all the modes are obtained and the energy, momentum, pseudomomentum, angular momentum, and spin conservation laws are found. The magnetizations arising from spin and from the motion of bound charge are found to enter the energy conservation law distinguishably. This theory should be particularly useful for the study of magneto-optical phenomena.

Nelson, D. F.; Chen, B.



Altitude illness: update on prevention and treatment.  


Altitude illness is a broad category of disease encompassing acute mountain sickness (AMS), high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE), and high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) that can affect persons who travel to altitude without adequate acclimatization. Initial symptoms of AMS and the more serious HACE or HAPE can be subtle, and it is important that the practitioner be able to recognize and differentiate between these diagnoses because they can progress rapidly and be fatal if untreated. There are well-established criteria and many proven therapies both for prophylaxis and treatment of altitude illness; however, despite intense research efforts, the specific mechanisms of these complex diseases remain elusive. Adequate acclimatization via controlled ascent remains the most important factor in preventing altitude illness, although prophylactic pharmacotherapy also may be useful. Rapid descent remains the most important treatment factor, although treatment at altitude with various therapies is possible for mild cases with adequate resources. PMID:22580489

Eide, Richard P; Asplund, Chad A



Scabies: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Outcome  


... treatments Q - T Scabies Diagnosis, treatment Scabies: Diagnosis, treatment, and outcome How do dermatologists diagnose scabies? A ... only available with a doctor’s prescription. Who needs treatment? The person diagnosed with scabies and everyone who ...


Complex primary total hip arthroplasty.  


Although total hip arthroplasty is now a classic procedure that is well controlled by orthopedic surgeons, some cases remain complex. Difficulties may be due to co-morbidities: obesity, skin problems, muscular problems, a history of neurological disease or associated morphological bone deformities. Obese patients must be informed of their specific risks and a surgical approach must be used that obtains maximum exposure. Healing of incisions is not a particular problem, but adhesions must be assessed. Neurological diseases may require tenotomy and the use of implants that limit instability. Specific techniques or implants are necessary to respect hip biomechanics (offset, neck-shaft angle) in case of a large lever arm or coxa vara. In case of arthrodesis, before THA can be performed, the risk of infection must be specifically evaluated if the etiology is infection, and the strength of the gluteal muscles must be determined. Congenital hip dysplasia presents three problems: the position and coverage of the cup, placement of a specific or custom made femoral stem, with an osteotomy if necessary, and finally lowering the femoral head into the cup by freeing the soft tissues or a shortening osteotomy. Acetabular dysplasia should not be underestimated in the presence of significant bone defect (BD), and reconstruction with a bone graft can be proposed. Sequelae from acetabular fractures presents a problem of associated BD. Internal fixation hardware is rarely an obstacle but the surgical approach should take this into account. Treatment of acetabular protrusio should restore a normal center of rotation, and prevent recurrent progressive protrusion. The use of bone grafts and reinforcement rings are indispensible. Femoral deformities may be congenital or secondary to trauma or osteotomy. They must be evaluated to restore hip biomechanics that are as close to normal as possible. Fixation of implants should restore anteversion, length and the lever arm. Most problems that can make THA a difficult procedure may be anticipated with proper understanding of the case and thorough preoperative planning. PMID:23375960

Boisgard, S; Descamps, S; Bouillet, B



Complexity in scalable computing.  

SciTech Connect

The rich history of scalable computing research owes much to a rapid rise in computing platform scale in terms of size and speed. As platforms evolve, so must algorithms and the software expressions of those algorithms. Unbridled growth in scale inevitably leads to complexity. This special issue grapples with two facets of this complexity: scalable execution and scalable development. The former results from efficient programming of novel hardware with increasing numbers of processing units (e.g., cores, processors, threads or processes). The latter results from efficient development of robust, flexible software with increasing numbers of programming units (e.g., procedures, classes, components or developers). The progression in the above two parenthetical lists goes from the lowest levels of abstraction (hardware) to the highest (people). This issue's theme encompasses this entire spectrum. The lead author of each article resides in the Scalable Computing Research and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, CA. Their co-authors hail from other parts of Sandia, other national laboratories and academia. Their research sponsors include several programs within the Department of Energy's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research and its National Nuclear Security Administration, along with Sandia's Laboratory Directed Research and Development program and the Office of Naval Research. The breadth of interests of these authors and their customers reflects in the breadth of applications this issue covers. This article demonstrates how to obtain scalable execution on the increasingly dominant high-performance computing platform: a Linux cluster with multicore chips. The authors describe how deep memory hierarchies necessitate reducing communication overhead by using threads to exploit shared register and cache memory. On a matrix-matrix multiplication problem, they achieve up to 96% parallel efficiency with a three-part strategy: intra-node multithreading, non-blocking inter-node message passing, and a dedicated communications thread to facilitate concurrent communications and computations. On a quantum chemistry problem, they spawn multiple computation threads and communication threads on each node and use one-sided communications between nodes to minimize wait times. They reduce software complexity by evolving a multi-threaded factory pattern in C++ from a working, message-passing program in C.

Rouson, Damian W. I.



The Quadrantid meteoroid complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Quadrantids, one of the more active of the annual meteor showers, is unusual for its strong but brief maximum within a broader background of activity. It is also notable for its recent onset, the first observation having been likely made in 1835. Until recently, no parent with a similar orbit had been observed and previous investigators concluded that the stream was quite old, with the stream's recent appearance and sharp peak attributed to a fortuitous convergence of meteoroid orbits. The discovery of the near-Earth Asteroid 2003 EH1 on an orbit very similar to that of the Quadrantids has probably unveiled the parent body of this stream [Jenniskens and Marsden, 2003. 2003 EH1 and the Quadrantids. IAU Circ. 8252]. From simulations of the orbit of this body and of meteoroids released from it at different intervals in the past, we find that both the sharp peak and recent appearance of the Quadrantids can most easily be explained by a release of meteoroids from 2003 EH1 near 1800 AD. This is supported by three lines of evidence. First, the evolution of the observed solar longitude of the Quadrantids over time is consistent with release from 2003 EH1 approximately 200 years ago. Second, numerical simulations of meteoroids released from this parent body at this time match the basic orbital characteristics of the Quadrantid stream well. Finally, these simulations also reveal that the Quadrantid core is well reproduced by a single outburst at perihelion circa 1800, whereas earlier releases result in the shower's appearance in our skies significantly prior to 1835. These results apply to the concentrated central core of the stream: the extended background was likely produced at earlier times. In fact, we find that 2003 EH1 is in a state of Kozai circulation along with a number of other comets and NEAs which may form a larger Quadrantid complex. Using the current total duration of the broader background Quadrantid activity compared to our simulations, we suggest a minimum age of ˜3500 years for the stream as a whole. This also represents the approximate lower limit for the age of the complex. We have further identified five comets as well as nine additional NEAs which may be part of the aforementioned complex, the latter all having Tisserand parameters less than three, further suggesting that the are extinct comet nuclei.

Wiegert, Paul; Brown, Peter



Strand-Specific Supercoiled DNA-Protein Relaxation Complexes: Comparison of the Complexes of Bacterial Plasmids ColE1 and ColE2  

PubMed Central

Certain bacterial plasmids can be isolated as unique complexes of supercoiled circular DNA and protein. These complexes are distinguished by the conversion of the supercoiled DNA to the relaxed or open-circular DNA form upon treatment with ionic detergents, proteases, or alkali. This report demonstrates that the open-circular DNA resulting from the pronase-induced relaxation of the complexes of colicinogenic factors E1 (ColE1) and E2 (ColE2) possesses a strand-specific break. In each case this break is found in the heavy strand of the DNA as defined by CsCl centrifugation in the presence of poly(U,G). In addition, the ColE1 and ColE2 complexes exhibit certain properties that are plasmid specific. Heat treatment, and to a lesser extent pronase treatment, inactivates the ColE2 complex, making it insensitive to agents that formerly were capable of inducing relaxation (conversion of the DNA to the open-circular form). In contrast, the ColE1 complex is not inactivated by these treatments. The potential role of these strand-specific relaxation complexes in DNA replication is discussed. PMID:4924969

Blair, D. G.; Clewell, D. B.; Sheratt, D. J.; Helinski, D. R.



Transitional lumbosacral osseous complex  

SciTech Connect

The weight of the head and trunk is transferred to the lower extremities through that segment of the spine articulating either directly or indirectly with the ilii. When a lumbosacral transitional vertebra is present the position of the weight-bearing platform usually changes. A bony entity is formed delineated superiorly by the top of the transitional vertebra and inferiorly by the lower level of the sacroiliac joints. This segment is designated as the transitional lumbosacral osseous complex. Measurements of its length in the three phylogenetic categories in man, including measurements of the articulating portion of the sacrum in the human mode, showed a range of 68 mm to 157 mm and variations from 2.0 to 3.7 in vertebral lengths.

Wigh, R.E.



Complexity, Metastability and Nonextensivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Work and heat fluctuations in systems with deterministic and stochastic forces / E. G. D. Cohen and R. Van Zon -- Is the entropy S[symbol] extensive or nonextensive? / C. Tsallis -- Superstatistics: recent developments and applications / C. Beck -- Two stories outside Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics: Mori's Q-phase transitions and glassy dynamics at the onset of chaos / A. Robledo, F. Baldovin and E. Mayoral -- Time-averages and the heat theorem / A. Carati -- Fundamental formulae and numerical evidences for the central limit theorem in Tsallis statistics / H. Suyari -- Generalizing the Planck distribution / A. M. C. Soma and C. Tsallis -- The physical roots of complexity: renewal or modulation? / P. Grigolini -- Nonequivalent ensembles and metastability / H. Touchette and R. S. Ellis -- Statistical physics for cosmic structures / L. Pietronero and F. Sylos Labini -- Metastability and anomalous behavior in the HMF model: connections to nonextensive thermodynamics and glassy dynamics / A. Pluchino, A. Rapisarda and V. Latora -- Vlasov analysis of relaxation and meta-equilibrium / C. Anteneodo and R. O. Vallejos -- Weak chaos in large conservative systems - infinite-range coupled standard maps / L. G. Moyano, A. P. M