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Sample records for complex tfcc treatment

  1. The Traumatized TFCC: An Illustrated Review of the Anatomy and Injury Patterns of the Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex.

    PubMed

    Skalski, Matthew R; White, Eric A; Patel, Dakshesh B; Schein, Aaron J; RiveraMelo, Hector; Matcuk, George R

    2016-01-01

    The triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) plays an important role in wrist biomechanics and is prone to traumatic and degenerative injury, making it a common source of ulnar-sided wrist pain. Because of this, the TFCC is frequently imaged, and a detailed understanding of its anatomy and injury patterns is critical in generating an accurate report to help guide treatment. In this review, we provide a detailed overview of TFCC anatomy, its normal appearance on magnetic resonance imaging, the spectrum of TFCC injuries based on the Palmer classification system, and pitfalls in accurate assessment. PMID:26117527

  2. Mini dorsal incision to the triangular fibrocartilage complex: a new surgical approach.

    PubMed

    Murray, David; Javed, Saqib; Hayton, Mike

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a mini dorsal approach to the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC). We describe a mini incision approach which aims to preserve the structure and proprioception of the primary and secondary stabilisers of the wrist joint. This approach requires less dissection and provides adequate exposure to the distal aspect of the TFCC and allows visualisation of the distal radial ulna joint (DRUJ) with complete TFCC lesions. PMID:26568729

  3. Arthroscopic direct repair for radial tear of the triangular fibrocartilage complex.

    PubMed

    Cho, Chul-Hyun; Lee, Young-Kuk; Sin, Hong-Kwan

    2012-01-01

    Although various repair techniques for Palmer type 1B lesions of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) have been introduced, arthroscopic repair techniques for Palmer type 1D lesions are still being honed. Until recently, inside-out techniques have commonly been used to repair radial tears of the TFCC. However, that technique has the disadvantages of a requirement for an extra skin incision, pain resulting from prominent subcutaneous suture knot stacks, and peripheral nerve injury. We describe an all-arthroscopic direct-repair technique using a suture hook with 2-0 polydioxanone that is relatively simple and safe and is thus a useful alternative for radial tears of the TFCC. PMID:23061960

  4. Multifunctional carbon nanohorn complexes for cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Chechetka, Svetlana A; Pichon, Benoit; Zhang, Minfang; Yudasaka, Masako; Bégin-Colin, Sylvie; Bianco, Alberto; Miyako, Eijiro

    2015-01-01

    Multifunctional carbon nanohorn (CNH) complexes were synthesized using oxidized CNH, magnetite (MAG) nanoparticles, and polyethyleneimine (PEI). The ferromagnetic MAG nanoparticles were loaded onto CNH (MAG-CNH) using iron(II) acetate and subsequent heat treatment. Chemical functionalization of the MAG-CNH complexes with PEI improved their water-dispersibility and allowed further conjugation with a fluorophore. The application of an external magnetic field significantly intensified the targeted vectorization of CNH complexes into human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells. Following cell uptake, laser irradiation of the cells showed a significant enhancement in the photothermal effects of CNHs leading to cell death. We have confirmed that the photothermal properties and ferromagnetic characteristics of CNH complexes show efficient cell elimination. The present study is an essential step toward the development of an innovative cancer therapy and a highly sensitive detection of cancer cells at the single-cell level. PMID:25319234

  5. Hanford Waste Treatment Complex Foundation for Success

    SciTech Connect

    BOSTON, H.L.

    2001-02-01

    The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) River Protection Project (RPP) is to build and operate a Waste Treatment Complex to complete the cleanup of the Hanford Site's highly radioactive tank waste. As directed by Congress in Section 3139 of the Strom Thurmond National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1999, DOE established ORP at the Hanford Site in eastern Washington State to manage RPP (formerly the Tank Waste Remediation System). This is DOE's largest and most complex environmental cleanup project. ORP is responsible for safe storage, retrieval, treatment, and disposal of 53 million gallons of highly toxic, high-level radioactive waste stored in 177 underground tanks located within seven miles of the Columbia River. One hundred forty-nine of these tanks have a single steel liner inside the concrete tanks and are decades beyond their design life. Sixty-seven have leaked an estimated one million gallons of waste into the soil. Some of this waste has reached the groundwater, threatening the Columbia River. It is urgent that this waste be vitrified (turned to glass) and stored or disposed of in a more secure location before more leaks occur and before tanks and infrastructure deteriorate to the point where the cost and schedule for cleanup becomes prohibitive. This cleanup must occur in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-efficient manner. The cleanup also must comply with the comprehensive cleanup and compliance agreement among DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology, signed on May 15, 1989. The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, or Tri-Party Agreement, is an agreement for achieving compliance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 remedial action provisions and with the Resource Conservation and Recover Act of 1976 treatment, storage, and disposal unit regulations and corrective action provisions. The RPP is managed as a single, integrated Waste Treatment Complex. A RPP management team consisting of ORP, Tank Farm Contractor (CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc.), and the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Contractor (Bechtel Washington) execute the mission. The role each organization plays in laying out the foundations for success of the Waste Treatment Complex will be further identified in the paper.

  6. 3 A simple treatment of complexity: cosmological

    E-print Network

    Lineweaver, Charles H.

    , 2008; McShea & Bran- don, 2010. I will not try to unify these mildly-compatible definitions systems are far-from- equilibrium-dissipative systems (Prigogine, 1978). Thus, we are far from equilibrium (i.e. far from random) but we are also far from order. If simplicity is the opposite of complexity

  7. 12. NORTHEAST VIEW OF THE WASTE WATER TREATMENT COMPLEX FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. NORTHEAST VIEW OF THE WASTE WATER TREATMENT COMPLEX FOR THE PRIMARY AND 22 BAR MILLS. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Auxiliary Buildings & Shops, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  8. Autism Phenotypes in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex: Diagnostic and Treatment Considerations.

    PubMed

    Gipson, Tanjala T; Poretti, Andrea; Thomas, Emily A; Jenkins, Kosunique T; Desai, Sonal; Johnston, Michael V

    2015-12-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex is a multisystem, chronic genetic condition characterized by systemic growth of benign tumors and often accompanied by epilepsy, autism spectrum disorders, and intellectual disability. Nonetheless, the neurodevelopmental phenotype of these patients is not often detailed. The authors describe 3 individuals with tuberous sclerosis complex who share common characteristics that can help to identify a distinct profile of autism spectrum disorder. These findings include typical cognitive development, expressive and pragmatic language deficits, and anxiety. The authors also describe features specific to tuberous sclerosis complex that require consideration before diagnosing an autism spectrum disorder. Identifying distinct profiles of autism spectrum disorder in tuberous sclerosis complex can help optimize treatment across the life span. PMID:26303410

  9. Clearing the complexity: immune complexes and their treatment in lupus nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Toong, Catherine; Adelstein, Stephen; Phan, Tri Giang

    2011-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a classic antibody-mediated systemic autoimmune disease characterised by the development of autoantibodies to ubiquitous self-antigens (such as antinuclear antibodies and antidouble-stranded DNA antibodies) and widespread deposition of immune complexes in affected tissues. Deposition of immune complexes in the kidney results in glomerular damage and occurs in all forms of lupus nephritis. The development of nephritis carries a poor prognosis and high risk of developing end-stage renal failure despite recent therapeutic advances. Here we review the role of DNA-anti-DNA immune complexes in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis and possible new treatment strategies aimed at their control. PMID:21694945

  10. [Cytokines in complex treatment of posttraumatic empyema of the pleura].

    PubMed

    Abakumov, M M; Danielian, Sh N; Bulava, G V

    2005-01-01

    Results of treatment of 114 patients with posttraumatic empyema of the pleura (EP) after closed injury of the thorax (62), stab-incised (43) and missile (9) wounds are presented. In complex treatment of 25 patients one of cytokines - recombinant interleukin-1v (betaleukin) -- was administered intravenously (10 patients) and intrapleurally (15 patients). Control group consisted of 35 similar patients treated with traditional methods including drainage and sanitation of empyema's cavity with protheolytic enzymes, antibacterial and detoxication therapy. Comparative analysis has demonstrated that patients of the study group showed fast normalization of immunogram's parameters, decrease of duration of purulent process (51+/-4 days, on the average, in the control group and 28+/-3 days in the study group) due to fast obliteration of purulent cavity, and decrease of rate of chronic forms of EP (from 20 to 4%) which required surgical treatment. PMID:15798721

  11. [The dentofacial complex in hormonal treatment for growth retardation].

    PubMed

    Van Erum, R; Mulier, M G; Carels, C; François, I; de Zegher, F

    1994-01-01

    The greater availability of growth hormone (GH) and the increasing knowledge of growth hormone physiology have led to a wider application of growth hormone treatment. GH is approved for use in the treatment of pituitary deficiency syndromes and, when properly administered at an early stage, is capable of inducing normal skeletal and muscular development. It has also been successfully used to augment growth in patients with Turner syndrome and the effect on the abnormal craniofacial skeleton of these patients is favourable. The not yet generally approved indications for GH therapy are small children after intrauterine growth retardation, patients with renal insufficiency and patients with osteoporosis. Research is done on effects and possible side-effects into different systems e.g. the craniofacial complex. Dentists and orthodontists who treat growth retarded patients must realize that most of these children have a delay in dentofacial development and in dental maturation and that the facial proportions can be thoroughly different from normal patients. The effect of GH therapy on the craniofacial complex and the dental maturation must also be taken into consideration while planning orthodontic or dental treatment. PMID:7899617

  12. 76 FR 49491 - Medicare Program; Section 3113: The Treatment of Certain Complex Diagnostic Laboratory Tests...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ...Program; Section 3113: The Treatment of Certain Complex Diagnostic...submitting supporting information to request a temporary code under the Treatment of Certain Complex Diagnostic...submitting supporting information to request a temporary code under...

  13. Potential for treatment of severe autism in tuberous sclerosis complex

    PubMed Central

    Gipson, Tanjala T; Gerner, Gwendolyn; Wilson, Mary Ann; Blue, Mary E; Johnston, Michael V

    2013-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved two mechanism-based treatments for tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)-everolimus and vigabatrin. However, these treatments have not been systematically studied in individuals with TSC and severe autism. The aim of this review is to identify the clinical features of severe autism in TSC, applicable preclinical models, and potential barriers that may warrant strategic planning in the design phase of clinical trial development. A comprehensive search strategy was formed and searched across PubMed, Embase and SCOPUS from their inception to 2/21/12, 3/16/12, and 3/12/12 respectively. After the final search date, relevant, updated articles were selected from PubMed abstracts generated electronically and emailed daily from PubMed. The references of selected articles were searched, and relevant articles were selected. A search of clinicaltrials.gov was completed using the search term “TSC” and “tuberous sclerosis complex”. Autism has been reported in as many as 60% of individuals with TSC; however, review of the literature revealed few data to support clear classification of the severity of autism in TSC. Variability was identified in the diagnostic approach, assessment of cognition, and functional outcome among the reviewed studies and case reports. Objective outcome measures were not used in many early studies; however, diffusion tensor imaging of white matter, neurophysiologic variability in infantile spasms, and cortical tuber subcategories were examined in recent studies and may be useful for objective classification of TSC in future studies. Mechanism-based treatments for TSC are currently available. However, this literature review revealed two potential barriers to successful design and implementation of clinical trials in individuals with severe autism-an unclear definition of the population and lack of validated outcome measures. Recent studies of objective outcome measures in TSC and further study of applicable preclinical models present an opportunity to overcome these barriers. PMID:25254170

  14. Activated carbon/enhanced biological treatment of a complex groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Pugh, L.B.; Rediske, R.R.; Rogers, D.R.; Peden, D.H.

    1996-12-31

    Impacted groundwater at the Ott/Story/Cordova Superfund site near Muskegon, Michigan contains a complex mixture of organic compounds and nitrogen. The remediation plan for the site calls for extraction and treatment of 4,600 cubic meters per day of groundwater, estimated to contain 1,500 mg/L of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 80 mg/L of ammonia-nitrogen. Approximately 30% of the COD is comprised of a mixture of 50 Appendix IX compounds, including halogenated and aromatic orcanics. The remaining COD is contributed by an unidentified group of process intermediates and degradation products related to historical production at this former chemical production facility. The objectives for discharge of the treated Groundwater to a local surface water body included removal of known organic compounds and ammonia-nitrogen, as well as numerous unidentified compounds in the site groundwater. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of two activated carbon-enhanced biological treatment systems: granular activated Carbon/fluidized bed (GAC/FB) and powdered activated carbon treatment (PACT{reg_sign}) for achieving the expected standards for surface water discharge. GAC/FB and PACT were initially evaluated using laboratory-scale reactors. The GAC/FB reactor achieved consistent, high removals of all organic compounds; however, consistent nitrification could not be maintained. The two-stage PACT system achieved nearly complete removal of all organic compounds and ammonia. A 9.5-L/minute pilot system was subsequently operated at the site to provide additional performance information for the two-stage PACT process. Three of the most highly impacted site wells were used to supply groundwater to the pilot system. Excellent removal of all known and unknown organic compounds, and nearly complete nitrification was consistently achieved. As a result of the on-site pilot study, a two-stage PACT system is being implemented at the site.

  15. [Complex treatment of dental plexalgia using physiotherapeutic methods].

    PubMed

    Sharov, M N; Grechko, V E; Puzin, M N

    1988-01-01

    A total of 66 patients with dental plexalgia have been examined and treated at the neurological dentistry department. A multiple-modality scheme for the treatment of this condition is suggested, whose basic methods are physiotherapeutic ones: longitudinal physiotherapy, diadynamic currents with a narcotic mixture, trimecain or lydase + analgin electrophoresis. The treatment was effective in the majority of patients. PMID:3259772

  16. Investigating the reproducibility of a complex multifocal radiosurgery treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niebanck, M.; Juang, T.; Newton, J.; Adamovics, J.; Wang, Z.; Oldham, M.

    2013-06-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery has become a widely used technique to treat solid tumors and secondary metastases of the brain. Multiple targets can be simultaneously treated with a single isocenter in order to reduce the set-up time to improve patient comfort and workflow. In this study, a 5-arc multifocal RapidArc treatment was delivered to multiple PRESAGE® dosimeters in order to explore the repeatability of the treatment. The three delivery measurements agreed well with each other, with less than 3% standard deviation of dose in the target. The deliveries also agreed well with the treatment plan, with gamma passing rates greater than 90% (5% dose-difference, and 2 mm distance-to-agreement criteria). The optical-CT PRESAGE® system provided a reproducible measurement for treatment verification, provided measurements were made immediately following treatment.

  17. Modern Palliative Radiation Treatment: Do Complexity and Workload Contribute to Medical Errors?

    SciTech Connect

    D'Souza, Neil; Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario ; Holden, Lori; Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario ; Robson, Sheila; Mah, Kathy; Di Prospero, Lisa; Wong, C. Shun; Chow, Edward; Spayne, Jacqueline; Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To examine whether treatment workload and complexity associated with palliative radiation therapy contribute to medical errors. Methods and Materials: In the setting of a large academic health sciences center, patient scheduling and record and verification systems were used to identify patients starting radiation therapy. All records of radiation treatment courses delivered during a 3-month period were retrieved and divided into radical and palliative intent. 'Same day consultation, planning and treatment' was used as a proxy for workload and 'previous treatment' and 'multiple sites' as surrogates for complexity. In addition, all planning and treatment discrepancies (errors and 'near-misses') recorded during the same time frame were reviewed and analyzed. Results: There were 365 new patients treated with 485 courses of palliative radiation therapy. Of those patients, 128 (35%) were same-day consultation, simulation, and treatment patients; 166 (45%) patients had previous treatment; and 94 (26%) patients had treatment to multiple sites. Four near-misses and 4 errors occurred during the audit period, giving an error per course rate of 0.82%. In comparison, there were 10 near-misses and 5 errors associated with 1100 courses of radical treatment during the audit period. This translated into an error rate of 0.45% per course. An association was found between workload and complexity and increased palliative therapy error rates. Conclusions: Increased complexity and workload may have an impact on palliative radiation treatment discrepancies. This information may help guide the necessary recommendations for process improvement for patients who require palliative radiation therapy.

  18. Comparison of Chemical Composition of Complex Disinfection Byproduct (DBP) Mixtures Produced by Different Treatment Methods - slides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analyses of the chemical composition of complex DBP mixtures, produced by different drinking water treatment processes, are essential to generate toxicity data required for assessing their risks to humans. For mixture risk assessments, whole mixture toxicology studies generally a...

  19. Comparison of Chemical Composition of Complex Disinfection Byproduct (DBP) Mixtures Produced by Different Treatment Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analyses of the chemical composition of complex DBP mixtures, produced by different drinking water treatment processes, are essential to generate toxicity data required for assessing their risks to humans. For mixture risk assessments, whole mixture toxicology studies generally a...

  20. Dose calculation methodology for irradiation treatment of complex-shaped foods 

    E-print Network

    Kim, Jongsoon

    2009-06-02

    Dose calculation methodology was developed for irradiation treatment of complex-shaped foods. To obtain satisfactory electron beam irradiation of food products, a strict process control is required to ensure that the dose ...

  1. Complexity of Pain, Nurses' Knowledge, and Treatment Options.

    PubMed

    Holl, Rita M; Carmack, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The complexity of pain requires nurses to conduct in-depth assessments, be knowledgeable about influential factors (ie, age, culture, health status), and treat pain with the least harmful and most beneficial interventions. The monotherapy use of analgesics, the fifth vital sign, and a 1-dimensional scale have fallen short of satisfactory results. Pain is the most frequent reason individuals seek health care and cost billions of dollars. Nurses are pivotal in the management of pain. Nurses who are knowledgeable about pain and pain management improve patient outcomes and patient satisfaction scores. Research results indicate the need to advance nurses' knowledge in pain management through various educational offerings. PMID:26465627

  2. Successful treatment of pegaspargase-induced acute hepatotoxicity with vitamin B complex and L-carnitine

    PubMed Central

    Karur, Vinit; Herrington, Jon D.; Walker, Mary G.

    2016-01-01

    Pegaspargase is a chemotherapy drug used in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). One of the adverse effects of pegaspargase is hepatotoxicity, which can rapidly lead to liver failure and death. We report a patient with ALL who developed pegaspargase-induced severe hepatotoxicity that was rescued by treatment with vitamin B complex and L-carnitine. Our patient had a quicker response than prior reported cases, suggesting this treatment might be a better regimen. PMID:26722167

  3. Treatment of complex regional pain syndrome type I with bisphosphonates

    PubMed Central

    Giusti, Andrea; Bianchi, Gerolamo

    2015-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) is a common and disabling disorder affecting a peripheral limb, usually developing after a trauma to an extremity. CRPS-I is characterised by presence of spontaneous pain, allodynia and hyperalgesia, disproportionate to the inciting event and by a variety of autonomic disturbances and trophic abnormalities. The pathophysiology of CRPS-I has not been fully understood. Experimental models have suggested that an initial triggering event may produce the release of proinflammatory neuropeptides and cytokines, generating a sort of neurogenic inflammation. Thereafter, increased microvascular permeability and intramedullary pressure, reduced oxygen extraction and cellular hypoxia maintain and make the disease worse, producing metabolic tissue acidosis. In this context, it is probable that, far from being a key player, the sympathetic nervous system contributes interacting with these mechanisms and producing vasomotor disturbances. Bisphosphonates (BPs) are potent inhibitors of osteoclastic activity widely used for the management of osteoporosis and other metabolic bone diseases. Their primary pharmacological action is the reduction of bone turnover. An enhanced osteoclastic activity has never been clearly demonstrated in CRPS-I. Therefore, it is likely that the positive effects of BPs in this condition are not related to their antiresorptive properties, but to a more complex interaction between these pharmacological agents and the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying CRPS-I. Results of several clinical trials have suggested the potential beneficial effects of BPs in CRPS-I. In five randomised controlled trials, oral and intravenous alendronate and intravenous clodronate, pamidronate and neridronate demonstrated to be effective in reducing pain and improving physical function in patients presenting with CRPS-I, with a good profile of safety and tolerability. Although these trials have a number of limitations, including the small samples enrolled, there is sufficient evidence to support the use of BPs as agents of choice in the management of CRPS-I. PMID:26557377

  4. Increasing model complexity in simulating phosphorus dynamics in a large treatment wetland: does it matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paudel, R.; Jawitz, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    As the structure of ecological models grows more complex, it becomes increasingly important to identify the appropriate level of complexity for reliable process description and prediction. Here, a suite of mechanistic biogeochemical models with increasing level of complexity for representing phosphorus cycling processes was developed and tested against observations from a large treatment wetland. The study site was the 147-ha Cell 4 of Stormwater Treatment Area 1 West, which was designed to help protect the greater Everglades, FL, USA from nutrient over-enrichment. The biogeochemical models were coupled with a pre-calibrated two-dimensional hydrodynamic model of Cell 4. We provide guidance for evaluating a set of models with varying level of process complexity using key model attributes that influence the suitability of a model or a set of models. Considerations of model accuracy, complexity, and explanatory depth are combined into a single indicator of model effectiveness. Results revealed that the most complex model structure may not necessarily the most effective in simulating the dynamics of total phosphorus concentrations in the wetland. The rate of improvement in the model performance decreased as model complexity increased. Although the most complex model reproduced the field observations best, the marginal improvement in model performance compared to simpler models was outweighed by the higher costs of increased complexity. Highly detailed representations of system structures may not be useful to simulate total phosphorus dynamics in treatment wetlands if comprehensive data sets are not available to constrain each pathway in the model. It is crucial for model developers and users to evaluate model structures of differing complexity to identify the optimal level of model complexity for given data and questions of interest.

  5. Quantification of beam complexity in intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatment plans

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Weiliang Cho, Sang Hyun; Zhang, Xiaodong; Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Hoffman, Karen E.

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Excessive complexity in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans increases the dose uncertainty, prolongs the treatment time, and increases the susceptibility to changes in patient or target geometry. To date, the tools for quantitative assessment of IMRT beam complexity are still lacking. In this study, The authors have sought to develop metrics to characterize different aspects of beam complexity and investigate the beam complexity for IMRT plans of different disease sites. Methods: The authors evaluated the beam complexity scores for 65 step-and-shoot IMRT plans from three sites (prostate, head and neck, and spine) and 26 volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans for the prostate. On the basis of the beam apertures and monitor unit weights of all segments, the authors calculated the mean aperture area, extent of aperture shape irregularity, and degree of beam modulation for each beam. Then the beam complexity values were averaged to obtain the complexity metrics of the IMRT plans. The authors studied the correlation between the beam complexity metrics and the quality assurance (QA) results. Finally, the effects of treatment planning parameters on beam complexity were studied. Results: The beam complexity scores were not uniform among the prostate IMRT beams from different gantry angles. The lateral beams had larger monitor units and smaller shape irregularity, while the anterior-posterior beams had larger modulation values. On average, the prostate IMRT plans had the smallest aperture irregularity, beam modulation, and normalized monitor units; the head and neck IMRT plans had large beam irregularity and beam modulation; and the spine stereotactic radiation therapy plans often had small beam apertures, which may have been associated with the relatively large discrepancies between planned and QA measured doses. There were weak correlations between the beam complexity scores and the measured dose errors. The prostate VMAT beams showed greater complexity than the prostate step-and-shoot IMRT beams. In the treatment planning process, the beam complexity increased as the minimum segment area decreased and as the number of optimization iterations and the maximum number of segments increased. Conclusions: The proposed metrics were effective in characterizing the beam complexity of different disease sites and for different treatment modalities. Efforts should be made to reduce the unnecessary complexity of IMRT beams to minimize the radiation dose uncertainties.

  6. Treating complex trauma among veterans: three stage-based treatment models.

    PubMed

    Landes, Sara J; Garovoy, Natara D; Burkman, Kristine M

    2013-05-01

    This article addresses the issue of complex trauma in veterans and treatments for symptom presentations resulting from complex trauma exposure. While various definitions have been proposed for complex trauma, the clinical issues related to it are relevant for veterans as they are at risk for cumulative trauma exposures such as multiple combat deployments and military sexual trauma. Several treatments were either developed to address and/or implemented with complex trauma. This article discusses three of these treatments that share a stage-based approach, focusing on the present (e.g., skills training and psychoeducation), which can then be followed, if needed, with a past-focused (e.g., exposure-based) treatment: Dialectical Behavior Therapy (Linehan, 1993), Seeking Safety (Najavits, 2002), Skills Training in Affective and Interpersonal Regulation (STAIR) Narrative Therapy (Cloitre, Cohen, & Koenen, 2006). This article also discusses what is currently being done to address symptom presentations resulting from complex trauma exposure and challenges and possible solutions to implementing this care. PMID:23529776

  7. Complex Psychiatric Comorbidity of Treatment-Seeking Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Anxiety Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepburn, Susan L.; Stern, Jessica A.; Blakeley-Smith, Audrey; Kimel, Lila K.; Reaven, Judith A.

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive study examines the complexity of psychiatric comorbidity in treatment-seeking youth with ASD and anxiety symptoms. Forty-two parents of youth with ASD and anxiety (ages 8-14) completed a structured diagnostic interview (Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version). Youth…

  8. The sweet spot of forward osmosis: Treatment of produced water, drilling wastewater, and other complex and difficult liquid streams

    E-print Network

    common treatment technologies ineffective. Treatment and reuse of O&G wastewater, and other complex inThe sweet spot of forward osmosis: Treatment of produced water, drilling wastewater, and other November 2013 Accepted 6 November 2013 Available online xxxx Keywords: Forward osmosis Wastewater treatment

  9. Cancer treatment decision-making processes for older patients with complex needs: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Jane; Farrington, Naomi; Richardson, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Although older people can experience complex health and social care needs alongside a primary cancer diagnosis, little is understood about how cancer treatment decisions are made for this population. This study aimed to investigate how cancer treatment decisions are formulated for older people with complex health and social care needs and the factors that shape these processes. Design Qualitative study involving semistructured interviews and non-participant observations. Framework approach used for data analysis. Setting Breast and colorectal cancer services in five English NHS hospital trusts. Participants Interviews: purposive sample of 22 clinicians directly involved in a face-to-face clinical role with patients regarding cancer treatment and care, maximising variation across clinical roles, tumour types and trusts. Observations: purposive sample of five cancer multidisciplinary meetings, maximising variation across location, team size and tumour type. Results The initial stages of cancer treatment decision-making are team-based, medically dominated and focused on the cancer. For patients with complex health and social care needs that extend beyond cancer pathology, later and less visible stages in the decision-making process are more haphazard and may result in less effective and workable treatment plans, as individual clinicians struggle to devise and deliver these plans without breaching time-based targets. Conclusions Service targets that focus resources solely on the presenting disease can disadvantage older patients with complex health and social care needs that extend beyond this primary diagnosis. Care should be taken to ensure time-based targets do not disincentivise thorough and timely assessment that can lead to the formulation of treatment plans tailored to individual needs and circumstances. PMID:26667015

  10. The potential of sarcospan in adhesion complex replacement therapeutics for the treatment of muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Jamie L.; Kwok, Yukwah; McMorran, Brian; Baum, Linda G.; Crosbie-Watson, Rachelle H.

    2013-01-01

    Three adhesion complexes span the sarcolemma and facilitate critical connections between the extracellular matrix and the actin cytoskeleton: the dystrophin- and utrophin-glycoprotein complexes and ?7?1 integrin. Loss of individual protein components results in a loss of the entire protein complex and muscular dystrophy. Muscular dystrophy is a progressive, lethal wasting disease characterized by repetitive cycles of myofiber degeneration and regeneration. Protein replacement therapy offers a promising approach for the treatment of muscular dystrophy. Recently, we demonstrated that sarcospan facilitates protein-protein interactions amongst the adhesion complexes and is an important therapeutic target. Here, we review current protein replacement strategies, discuss the potential benefits of sarcospan expression, and identify important experiments that must be addressed for sarcospan to move to the clinic. PMID:23601082

  11. Amputation as an Unusual Treatment for Therapy-Resistant Complex Regional Pain Syndrome, Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Kashy, Babak K.; Abd-Elsayed, Alaa A.; Farag, Ehab; Yared, Maria; Vakili, Roya; Esa, Wael Ali Sakr

    2015-01-01

    Background Complex regional pain syndrome, type 1 (CRPS-1) causes severe pain that can be resistant to multiple treatment modalities. Amputation as a form of long-term treatment for therapy-resistant CRPS-1 is controversial. Case Report We report the case of a 38-year-old man who failed all treatment modalities for CRPS-1, including medication, steroid injections, and spinal cord stimulator implantation. Below-the-knee amputation to relieve intractable foot and ankle pain resulted in a favorable outcome for this patient. Conclusion Select patients with severe CRPS-1 who are unresponsive to all forms of treatment for pain may benefit from amputation as a last option for relief of suffering. Larger studies are needed to prove the efficacy of amputation.

  12. Intrinsic brain networks normalize with treatment in pediatric complex regional pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Becerra, Lino; Sava, Simona; Simons, Laura E.; Drosos, Athena M.; Sethna, Navil; Berde, Charles; Lebel, Alyssa A.; Borsook, David

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric complex regional pain syndrome (P-CRPS) offers a unique model of chronic neuropathic pain as it either resolves spontaneously or through therapeutic interventions in most patients. Here we evaluated brain changes in well-characterized children and adolescents with P-CRPS by measuring resting state networks before and following a brief (median = 3 weeks) but intensive physical and psychological treatment program, and compared them to matched healthy controls. Differences in intrinsic brain networks were observed in P-CRPS compared to controls before treatment (disease state) with the most prominent differences in the fronto-parietal, salience, default mode, central executive, and sensorimotor networks. Following treatment, behavioral measures demonstrated a reduction of symptoms and improvement of physical state (pain levels and motor functioning). Correlation of network connectivities with spontaneous pain measures pre- and post-treatment indicated concomitant reductions in connectivity in salience, central executive, default mode and sensorimotor networks (treatment effects). These results suggest a rapid alteration in global brain networks with treatment and provide a venue to assess brain changes in CRPS pre- and post-treatment, and to evaluate therapeutic effects. PMID:25379449

  13. Factors that lessen the burden of treatment in complex patients with chronic conditions: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Ridgeway, Jennifer L; Egginton, Jason S; Tiedje, Kristina; Linzer, Mark; Boehm, Deborah; Poplau, Sara; de Oliveira, Djenane Ramalho; Odell, Laura; Montori, Victor M; Eton, David T

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Patients with multiple chronic conditions (multimorbidity) often require ongoing treatment and complex self-care. This workload and its impact on patient functioning and well-being are, together, known as treatment burden. This study reports on factors that patients with multimorbidity draw on to lessen perceptions of treatment burden. Patients and methods Interviews (n=50) and focus groups (n=4 groups, five to eight participants per group) were conducted with patients receiving care in a large academic medical center or an urban safety-net hospital. Interview data were analyzed using qualitative framework analysis methods, and themes and subthemes were used to identify factors that mitigate burden. Focus groups were held to confirm these findings and clarify any new issues. This study was part of a larger program to develop a patient-reported measure of treatment burden. Results Five major themes emerged from the interview data. These included: 1) problem-focused strategies, like routinizing self-care, enlisting support of others, planning for the future, and using technology; 2) emotion-focused coping strategies, like maintaining a positive attitude, focusing on other life priorities, and spirituality/faith; 3) questioning the notion of treatment burden as a function of adapting to self-care and comparing oneself to others; 4) social support (informational, tangible, and emotional assistance); and 5) positive aspects of health care, like coordination of care and beneficial relationships with providers. Additional subthemes arising from focus groups included preserving autonomy/independence and being proactive with providers. Conclusion Patients attempt to lessen the experience of treatment burden using a variety of personal, social, and health care resources. Assessing these factors in tandem with patient perceptions of treatment burden can provide a more complete picture of how patients fit complex self-care into their daily lives. PMID:24672228

  14. Surgical Treatment for a Complex Congenital Arteriovenous Malformation of the Lower Limb

    PubMed Central

    Ozcan, Ali Vefa; Boysan, Emre; Isikli, Osman Yasar; Goksin, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Arteriovenous fistula is defined as an abnormal communication between the arterial and venous systems. The complexity of congenital arteriovenous malformations makes treatment challenging. We present the case of a 23-year-old woman who had a complex congenital arteriovenous malformation in her left leg and a history of 2 unsuccessful coil-embolization procedures. We ligated all the feeding arteries of the arteriovenous malformation in the region of the superficial femoral artery, and the surgery was successful without sequelae. The patient returned 2 years later with thrombosis of the great saphenous vein and underwent a second operation. The thrombosed vein and all varicosities were excised successfully. Surgery can be an effective method for correcting complex congenital arteriovenous malformations, especially in the lower limbs. A 2-staged surgical approach like ours might be a good option in suitable patients. PMID:24391339

  15. Treatment of Complex Fistula in Ano with Cable-Tie Seton: A Prospective Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Memon, Ayaz Ahmad; Murtaza, Ghulam; Azami, Rizwan; Zafar, Hasnain; Chawla, Tabish; Laghari, Altaf Ali

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To determine the fecal incontinence and recurrence rate in patients with complex fistula in ano managed with cable tie seton at a tertiary care teaching hospital. Methods. This is a prospective case series of patients with complex anal fistula i.e. recurrent fistula or encircling >30% of external anal sphincter, managed with cable tie seton from March 2003 to March 2009. Patients were seen in the clinic after 72 hours of seton insertion under anesthesia and then every other week. Each time the cable-tie was tightened if found loose without anesthesia and incontinence was inquired according to wexner's score. Results. Seventy nine patients were treated during the study period with the age (mean ± standard deviation) of 41 ± 10.6 years and. The seton was tightened with a median of six times (3–15 times range). Complete healing was achieved in 11.2 ± 5.7 weeks. All the patients were followed for a minimum period of one year and none of the patients had any incontinence. Recurrence was found in 4 (5%) patients. Conclusion. The cable tie seton is safe, cost effective and low morbidity option for the treatment of complex fistulae-in-ano. It can, therefore, be recommended as the standard of treatment for complex fistulae-in-ano requiring the placement of a seton. PMID:22084768

  16. Pulsed radiofrequency treatment of complex regional pain syndrome: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Djuric, Vlad

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Various forms of sympathetic chain neurolysis (sympathectomy) have, at one time or another, held promise as effective treatment options for complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Complications, such as worsening pain and the development of new pain syndromes, have prevented sympathectomy from emerging as a standard intervention. In an effort to avoid poor outcomes associated with neurolysis, pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) has been proposed as a potential treatment alternative for a number of chronic neuropathic pain states, including some forms of CRPS. METHODS: The present report describes three cases in which patients diagnosed with lower extremity CRPS type I obtained substantial and lasting intervals of pain relief following PRF of the lumbar sympathetic chain. Over a period of four years, 14 fluoroscopically guided procedures using PRF lesioning of the lumbar sympathetic chain at L2, L3 and L4 were performed in three individuals with CRPS type I of the lower limb. Outcome measures included pre- and post-treatment self-reported pain and medication requirements. RESULTS: Substantial pain relief (>50%) was achieved in 91.7% of PRF applications at three months and 83.3% at six months, with some treatments resulting in persistent relief well beyond 12 months. Medication use decreased to a comparable degree, with discontinuation of opiates after all but three treatments. CONCLUSIONS: PRF lesioning of the lumbar sympathetic chain can be an effective treatment for patients with CRPS type I of the lower extremity, with the potential to provide ?6 months of substantial pain relief. PMID:24945285

  17. Emerging treatments for complex perianal fistula in Crohn’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Taxonera, Carlos; Schwartz, David A; García-Olmo, Damián

    2009-01-01

    Complex perianal fistulas have a negative impact on the quality of life of sufferers and should be treated. Correct diagnosis, characterization and classification of the fistulas are essential to optimize treatment. Nevertheless, in the case of patients whose fistulas are associated with Crohn’s disease, complete closure is particularly difficult to achieve. Systemic medical treatments (antibiotics, thiopurines and other immunomodulatory agents, and, more recently, anti-tumor necrosis factor-? agents such as infliximab) have been tried with varying degrees of success. Combined medical (including infliximab) and less aggressive surgical therapy (drainage and seton placement) offer the best outcomes in complex Crohn’s fistulas while more aggressive surgical procedures such as fistulotomy or fistulectomy may increase the risk of incontinence. This review will focus on emerging novel treatments for perianal disease in Crohn’s patients. These include locally applied infliximab or tacrolimus, fistula plugs, instillation of fibrin glue and the use of adult expanded adipose-derived stem cell injection. More well-designed controlled studies are required to confirm the effectiveness of these emerging treatments. PMID:19750568

  18. Neurocognitive considerations in the treatment of attachment and complex trauma in children.

    PubMed

    Zilberstein, Karen

    2014-07-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that children suffering deprivation and maltreatment at critical times in their development often pay a cognitive toll. While children vary to the extent that neurocognitive domains are affected, those factors influence how children process, manage and understand traumatic and attachment experiences as well as how they respond to treatment. Current research on trauma and attachment favor some aspects of cognition over others. The literature discusses attention, memory, cognitive biases, internal working models, beliefs and attributions as ways that impact an individual's understanding of experience. Other categories such as working memory, processing speed, verbal, auditory or perceptual processing, metacognitive skills, and cognitive rigidity or flexibility rarely surface. This paper examines what is and is not known about the interface of cognition with attachment and complex trauma and how that knowledge can inform treatment. It explores existing research and offers a case vignette as an example of how that knowledge can be integrated into treatment strategies. PMID:23661787

  19. Treatment of plutonium-bearing solutions: A brief survey of the DOE complex

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, C.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Chen, L.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1995-03-01

    With the abrupt shutdown of some DOE facilities, a significant volume of in-process material was left in place and still requires treatment for interim storage. Because the systems containing these process streams have deteriorated since shutdown, a portable system for treating the solutions may be useful. A brief survey was made of the DOE complex on the need for a portable treatment system to treat plutonium-bearing solutions. A survey was completed to determine (1) the compositions and volumes of solutions and heels present, (2) the methods that have been used to treat these solutions and heels in the past, and (3) the potential problems that exist in removing and treating these solutions. Based on the surveys and on the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 94-1, design criteria for a portable treatment system were generated.

  20. DRESS syndrome presenting after initiation of mycobacterium avium complex osteomyelitis treatment.

    PubMed

    Blair, Paul W; Herrin, Douglas; Abaalkhail, Nawaf; Fiser, Wesley

    2015-01-01

    Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is characterised by fever, rash, eosinophilia and organ damage that develops 2-6?weeks after the initiation of a medication. We report a case of DRESS syndrome in a 79-year-old man that developed after the introduction of rifabutin, ethambutol and clarithromycin used to treat Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) vertebral osteomyelitis. This case highlights treatment and management challenges in a patient with known MAC vertebral osteomyelitis requiring prolonged steroids. Steroids are the mainstays of treatment for moderate to severe cases of DRESS syndrome. Initiation of steroids for the treatment of DRESS syndrome among patients with concomitant infections requires multidisciplinary collaboration for optimal management. PMID:26438676

  1. Ammonium chloride complex formation during downstream microwave ammonia plasma treatment of parylene-C

    SciTech Connect

    Pruden, K.G.; Beaudoin, S.P.

    2005-11-15

    In this work, parylene-C is exposed to the effluent from a microwave ammonia plasma with a goal of producing primary amine groups on the parylene-C. These amine groups are desired as sites for the attachment of various biomolecules that will influence the biocompatibility of the parylene-C. Ammonia plasma treatment is an effective approach for creating amine species on polymers. In this work, attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy studies showed that no primary amine groups resulted from this treatment of parylene-C. Instead, reactive nitrogen-bearing radicals from the plasma appear to have been complexed by chlorine in the polymer. The formation of these complexes scavenged nitrogen-bearing radicals from the plasma and prevented the formation of nitrogenous species, such as the desired primary amines, on the parylene-C. These results are consistent with results of ammonia plasma treatment of other chlorinated polymers and suggest that alternative approaches are required to create nitrogen-bearing species on parylene-C.

  2. The assessment and treatment of a complex geriatric patient by an interprofessional primary care team

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Stephanie H; Tracy, C Shawn; Upshur, Ross E G

    2011-01-01

    Mr K is an 89-year-old married man with a number of comorbid conditions and multiple recent falls. He was referred to the IMPACT clinic (Interprofessional Model of Practice for Aging and Complex Treatments) as his primary care physician was concerned about his declining health and the growing care giver burden on his wife. Mr K’s condition was deteriorating while the complexity of his case was increasing; therefore, an in-depth team assessment was sought to determine the best management plan and to assess his capacity to remain at home (his expressed preference). The IMPACT team met with Mr K and his wife for a 2 h interprofessional assessment. A comprehensive care plan was developed including specific recommendations for implementing change. After the visit to the IMPACT clinic, Mr K’s care was returned to his regular family physician. PMID:22698900

  3. A dual wavelength-activatable gold nanorod complex for synergistic cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacardo, Dennis B.; Neupane, Bhanu; Rikard, S. Michaela; Lu, Yue; Mo, Ran; Mishra, Sumeet R.; Tracy, Joseph B.; Wang, Gufeng; Ligler, Frances S.; Gu, Zhen

    2015-07-01

    A multifunctional gold nanorod (AuNR) complex is described with potential utility for theranostic anticancer treatment. The AuNR was functionalized with cyclodextrin for encapsulation of doxorubicin, with folic acid for targeting, and with a photo-responsive dextran-azo compound for intracellular controlled drug release. The interaction of a AuNR complex with HeLa cells was facilitated via a folic acid targeting ligand as displayed in the dark-field images of cells. Enhanced anticancer efficacy was demonstrated through the synergistic combination of promoted drug release upon ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation and photothermal therapy upon infrared (IR) irradiation. This multifunctional AuNR-based system represents a novel theranostic strategy for spatiotemporal delivery of anticancer therapeutics.A multifunctional gold nanorod (AuNR) complex is described with potential utility for theranostic anticancer treatment. The AuNR was functionalized with cyclodextrin for encapsulation of doxorubicin, with folic acid for targeting, and with a photo-responsive dextran-azo compound for intracellular controlled drug release. The interaction of a AuNR complex with HeLa cells was facilitated via a folic acid targeting ligand as displayed in the dark-field images of cells. Enhanced anticancer efficacy was demonstrated through the synergistic combination of promoted drug release upon ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation and photothermal therapy upon infrared (IR) irradiation. This multifunctional AuNR-based system represents a novel theranostic strategy for spatiotemporal delivery of anticancer therapeutics. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01568e

  4. Treatment of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) using low dose naltrexone (LDN).

    PubMed

    Chopra, Pradeep; Cooper, Mark S

    2013-06-01

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a neuropathic pain syndrome, which involves glial activation and central sensitization in the central nervous system. Here, we describe positive outcomes of two CRPS patients, after they were treated with low-dose naltrexone (a glial attenuator), in combination with other CRPS therapies. Prominent CRPS symptoms remitted in these two patients, including dystonic spasms and fixed dystonia (respectively), following treatment with low-dose naltrexone (LDN). LDN, which is known to antagonize the Toll-like Receptor 4 pathway and attenuate activated microglia, was utilized in these patients after conventional CRPS pharmacotherapy failed to suppress their recalcitrant CRPS symptoms. PMID:23546884

  5. Staged Mucosal Advancement Flap versus Staged Fibrin Sealant in the Treatment of Complex Perianal Fistulas

    PubMed Central

    van der Hagen, S. J.; Baeten, C. G.; Soeters, P. B.; van Gemert, W. G.

    2011-01-01

    Background. In this prospective randomised study, the staged mucosal advancement flap is compared with staged fibrin sealant application in the treatment of perianal fistulas. Methods. All patients with high complex cryptoglandular fistulas were randomised to closure of the internal opening by a mucosal advancement flap (MF) or injection with fibrin sealant (FS) after treatment with setons. Recurrence rate and incontinence disorders were explored. Results. The MF group (5 females and 10 males) with a median age of 51 years and a median followup of 52 months. The FS group (4 females and 11 males) with a median age of 45 years and a median followup of 49 months. Three (20%) patients of the MF group had a recurrent fistula compared to 9 (60%) of the FS group (P = 0.03). No new continence disorders developed. Conclusion. Staged FS injection has a much lower success rate compared to MF. PMID:21808642

  6. Increasing complexity: which drug class to choose for treatment of hypertension in the elderly?

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Edelgard Anna; Lotze, Ulrich; Schäfer, Hans Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of hypertension in the elderly is expected to become more complex in the coming decades. Based on the current landscape of clinical trials, guideline recommendations remain inconclusive. The present review discusses the latest evidence derived from studies available in 2013 and investigates optimal blood pressure (BP) and preferred treatment substances. Three common archetypes are discussed that hamper the treatment of hypertension in the very elderly. In addition, this paper presents the current recommendations of the NICE 2011, JNC7 2013-update, ESH/ESC 2013, CHEP 2013, JNC8 and ASH/ISH guidelines for elderly patients. Advantages of the six main substance classes, namely diuretics, beta-blockers (BBs), calcium channel blockers (CCBs), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and direct renin inhibitors (DRIs) are discussed. Medical and economic implications of drug administration in the very elderly are presented. Avoidance of treatment-related adverse effects has become increasingly relevant. Current substance classes are equally effective, with similar effects on cardiovascular outcomes. Selection of substances should therefore also be based on collateral advantages of drugs that extend beyond BP reduction. The combination of ACEIs and diuretics appears to be favorable in managing systolic/diastolic hypertension. Diuretics are a preferred and cheap combination drug, and the combination with CCBs is recommended for patients with isolated systolic hypertension. ACEIs and CCBs are favorable for patients with dementia, while CCBs and ARBs imply substantial cost savings due to high adherence. PMID:24711696

  7. Evidence-based treatment for adult women with child abuse-related Complex PTSD: a quantitative review

    PubMed Central

    Dorrepaal, Ethy; Thomaes, Kathleen; Hoogendoorn, Adriaan W.; Veltman, Dick J.; Draijer, Nel; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Effective first-line treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are well established, but their generalizability to child abuse (CA)-related Complex PTSD is largely unknown. Method A quantitative review of the literature was performed, identifying seven studies, with treatments specifically targeting CA-related PTSD or Complex PTSD, which were meta-analyzed, including variables such as effect size, drop-out, recovery, and improvement rates. Results Only six studies with one or more cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) treatment conditions and one with a present centered therapy condition could be meta-analyzed. Results indicate that CA-related PTSD patients profit with large effect sizes and modest recovery and improvement rates. Treatments which include exposure showed greater effect sizes especially in completers’ analyses, although no differential results were found in recovery and improvement rates. However, results in the subgroup of CA-related Complex PTSD studies were least favorable. Within the Complex PTSD subgroup, no superior effect size was found for exposure, and affect management resulted in more favorable recovery and improvement rates and less drop-out, as compared to exposure, especially in intention-to-treat analyses. Conclusion Limited evidence suggests that predominantly CBT treatments are effective, but do not suffice to achieve satisfactory end states, especially in Complex PTSD populations. Moreover, we propose that future research should focus on direct comparisons between types of treatment for Complex PTSD patients, thereby increasing generalizability of results. PMID:25563302

  8. Stabilizing Group Treatment for Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Related to Childhood Abuse Based on Psycho-Education and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorrepaal, Ethy; Thomaes, Kathleen; Smit, Johannes H.; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.; van Dyck, Richard; Veltman, Dick J.; Draijer, Nel

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study tests a Stabilizing Group Treatment protocol, designed for the management of the long-term sequelae of child abuse, that is, Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (Complex PTSD). Evidence-based treatment for this subgroup of PTSD patients is largely lacking. This stabilizing treatment aims at improving Complex PTSD using…

  9. Enhancement of Auditory Fear Conditioning after Housing in a Complex Environment Is Attenuated by Prior Treatment with Amphetamine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briand, Lisa A.; Robinson, Terry E.; Maren, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Prior exposure to drugs of abuse has been shown to occlude the structural plasticity associated with living in a complex environment. Amphetamine treatment may also occlude some cognitive advantages normally associated with living in a complex environment. To test this hypothesis we examined the influence of prior exposure to amphetamine on fear…

  10. Successful treatment of complex cholangiolithiasis following orthotopic liver transplantation with interventional radiology.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chuan-Guo; Wei, Bao-Jie; Gao, Kun; Dai, Ding-Ke; Zhai, Ren-You

    2015-02-14

    Bile duct stones are a serious and the third most common complication of the biliary system that can occur following liver transplantation. The incidence rate of bile duct stones after liver transplantation is 1.8%-18%. The management of biliary stones is usually performed with endoscopic techniques; however, the technique may prove to be challenging in the treatment of the intrahepatic bile duct stones. We herein report a case of a 40-year-old man with rare, complex bile duct stones that were successfully eliminated with percutaneous interventional techniques. The complex bile duct stones were defined as a large number of bile stones filling the intra- and extrahepatic bile tracts, resulting in a cast formation within the biliary tree. Common complications such as hemobilia and acute pancreatitis were not present during the perioperative period. The follow-up period was 20 mo long. During the postoperative period, the patient maintained normal temperature, and normal total bilirubin and direct bilirubin levels. The patient is now living a high quality life. This case report highlights the safety and efficacy of the percutaneous interventional approach in the removal of complex bile duct stones following liver transplantation. PMID:25684970

  11. Study of edema reduction patterns during the treatment phase of complex decongestive physiotherapy for extremity lymphedema.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, T; Todo, Y; Kaneuchi, M; Handa, Y; Watanabe, K; Yamamoto, R

    2008-06-01

    Shortening the treatment phase of complex decongestive physiotherapy (CDP) is extremely important both for individual patients and medical economics. In 83 patients with stage II unilateral secondary extremity lymphedema (31 upper extremities and 52 lower extremities), the daily changes in the volume of affected extremities during the treatment phase of CDP were prospectively investigated. For the upper extremity lymphedemas, the biggest change was seen between days 1 (100% residual edema rate) and 2 (46.0 +/- 2.7%; mean +/- SD) of therapy with a 54.0% reduction (p < 0.0001). Between days 2 and 3 (38.0 +/- 2.6%) of therapy, there was an 8.0% reduction (p < 0.05). From days 3 to 6 of therapy, slight changes ranging from 0.2 to 3.2%/day were seen. For the lower extremity lymphedemas, the biggest change was seen between days 1 (100%) and 2 (44.5 +/- 2.1%) of therapy with a 55.5% reduction (p < 0.0001). Between days 2 and 3 (33.5 +/- 2.6%) of therapy, there was an 11.0% reduction (p < 0.001). The daily volume changes from days 4 to 6 were slight, ranging from 0.1 to 1.0%/day. During the treatment phase of CDP, the largest volume changes were seen soon after the start of therapy. PMID:18720915

  12. Bee Venom Pharmacopuncture: An Effective Treatment for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Min; Jeon, Hyung-Joon; Kim, Hyun-Ji; Cho, Chong-Kwan; Yoo, Hwa-Seung

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Treating complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is difficult because it still does not have a recommended therapy. A 29-year-old man was diagnosed with CRPS after surgery on his 4th and 5th left toes 7 years ago. Though he had undergone diverse pain treatment, the symptoms persisted, so he visited Dunsan Korean Medicine Hospital of Daejeon University. This case report presents results on the effect of bee venom pharmacopuncture in treating patient with CRPS. Methods: Bee venom pharmacopuncture (BVP), 0.15 to 0.4 mL dosage, was administered at GB43. The treatment was applied each week for a total 14 times. The symptoms were evaluated using a numeric rating scale (NRS) and the dosage of pain medicine. Results: On the first visit, he was taking an anticonvulsant, a trycyclic antidepressant, and an analgesic. On the NRS the worst pain in the toes received a score of 8. He also complained of severe pain and hypersensitivity when the 4th and the 5th toes were touched just slightly. Other complaint included dyspepsia, rash, and depression. After treatment, on the NRS, the score for toe pain was 0, and he no longer needed to take pain medication. During the 4-months follow-up period, he has remained without pain; neither have additional symptoms appeared nor adverse events occurred. Conclusion: BVP may have potential benefits for treating patients with CRPS. PMID:25780722

  13. Finalizing a measurement framework for the burden of treatment in complex patients with chronic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Eton, David T; Ridgeway, Jennifer L; Egginton, Jason S; Tiedje, Kristina; Linzer, Mark; Boehm, Deborah H; Poplau, Sara; Ramalho de Oliveira, Djenane; Odell, Laura; Montori, Victor M; May, Carl R; Anderson, Roger T

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The workload of health care and its impact on patient functioning and well-being is known as treatment burden. The purpose of this study was to finalize a conceptual framework of treatment burden that will be used to inform a new patient-reported measure of this construct. Patients and methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 50 chronically ill patients from a large academic medical center (n=32) and an urban safety-net hospital (n=18). We coded themes identifying treatment burden, with the themes harmonized through discussion between multiple coders. Four focus groups, each with five to eight participants with chronic illness, were subsequently held to confirm the thematic structure that emerged from the interviews. Results Most interviewed patients (98%) were coping with multiple chronic conditions. A preliminary conceptual framework using data from the first 32 interviews was evaluated and was modified using narrative data from 18 additional interviews with a racially and socioeconomically diverse sample of patients. The final framework features three overarching themes with associated subthemes. These themes included: 1) work patients must do to care for their health (eg, taking medications, keeping medical appointments, monitoring health); 2) challenges/stressors that exacerbate perceived burden (eg, financial, interpersonal, provider obstacles); and 3) impacts of burden (eg, role limitations, mental exhaustion). All themes and subthemes were subsequently confirmed in focus groups. Conclusion The final conceptual framework can be used as a foundation for building a patient self-report measure to systematically study treatment burden for research and analytical purposes, as well as to promote meaningful clinic-based dialogue between patients and providers about the challenges inherent in maintaining complex self-management of health. PMID:25848328

  14. Narrative exposure therapy: an evidence-based treatment for multiple and complex trauma.

    PubMed

    Jongedijk, Ruud A

    2014-01-01

    Narrative exposure therapy (NET) is a recently developed, short-term treatment for patients with a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a result of multiple trauma. NET can be applied very successfully in patients with complex trauma complaints (Jongedijk, 2014; Schauer, Neuner, & Elbert, 2011). An important feature of NET is that trauma processing is never an isolated event but is always embedded in the context of a traumatic event and in the life history as a whole. At the start, the lifeline is laid. The lifeline is made up of a rope, with flowers (happy events), stones (traumatic events), sometimes candles (grief), or recently also sticks for aggressive acts (NET for offenders; see Stenmark, Cuneyt Guzey, Elbert, & Holen, 2014). These symbols are laid down along the rope, in chronological order. Subsequently, in the subsequent therapy sessions the lifeline is processed in chronological order, giving attention to all the important events a person has experienced in his or her life, both the adverse as well as the pleasurable ones. The narration ends with a written testimony. To date, there is good evidence NET is effective in the treatment of PTSD patients, with support from 18 RCTs (N=950). For culturally diverse populations, NET is recommended as the most evidence-based trauma treatment, besides culturally adapted CBT. NET has been investigated in different populations in Africa, Europe, and Asia. In Asia, research has been carried out in Sri Lanka as well as in China. In China, NET was conducted and investigated with survivors of the Sichuan earthquake (Zang, Hunt, & Cox, 2013, 2014). NET is understandable, even appealing and also supportive for patients with multiple trauma. In this presentation, the treatment principles and the practice of NET will be explained. PMID:25511727

  15. Resolution of Crohn's disease and complex regional pain syndrome following treatment of paratuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Kuenstner, J Todd; Chamberlin, William; Naser, Saleh A; Collins, Michael T; Dow, Coad Thomas; Aitken, John M; Weg, Stuart; Telega, Grzegorz; John, Kuruvilla; Haas, David; Eckstein, Torsten M; Kali, Maher; Welch, Christine; Petrie, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A cohort of family members with various chronic diseases including Crohn’s disease, asthma, complex regional pain syndrome, hypothyroidism, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and lymphangiomatosis and/or evidence of infection by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) are described in this series of case reports. MAP was cultured from the blood of three members affected by the first five diseases and there was accompanying elevated anti-MAP IgG in two members. The patient affected by the sixth disease has a markedly elevated anti-MAP titer. The two patients affected by the first four diseases have been treated with a combination of anti-MAP antibiotics and ultraviolet blood irradiation therapy with resolution of the disease symptomatology and inability to culture MAP in post treatment blood samples. These case reports of patients with MAP infections provide supportive evidence of a pathogenic role of MAP in humans. PMID:25852293

  16. Low-intensity laser radiation in complex treatment of inflammatory diseases of parodontium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolova, Irina A.; Erina, Stanislava V.

    1995-04-01

    The problem of complex treatment of inflammatory disease of parodontium has become very acute and actual at the moment. The diseases of inflammatory nature are considered to be the most vital issues of the day. The state of the local immune system of oral cavity plays the most important role in the complicated mechanism of inflammatory process development in the tissues of parodontium. Recently physical factors have become predominant in the system of complex therapy of parodontitis. The application of low-intense laser radiation (LLR) is considered to be the most important and up-to-date method in the preventive dentistry. There were 60 patients of average damage rate suffering from chronic generalizing parodontitis at the age of 25 up to 55 under observation. The major goal of examination was to get the objective results of the following methods' application: parodontium index (Russel, 1956), hygiene index (Fyodorov, Volodkina, 1971), Bacterioscopy of dental-gingival pockets content, simple and broadened stomatoscopy (Kunin, 1970), SIgA level determination in mixed saliva (Manchini et all, 1965) and R-protein level in gingival blood (Kulberg, 1990). All the patients were split into 2 groups. The first group (30 patients) has undergone the laser therapy course while the second group of 30 patients couldn't get it (LLR). Despite the kind of therapy they have undergone, all the patients have got the local anti-inflammatory medicamental therapy. The results of clinical observations have proved the fact that laser therapy application makes it possible to shorten the course of treatment in 1.5 times. The shifts of oral cavity local resistance take place in case of chronic generalizing parodontitis. The direct immunostimulating effect could be observed as a result of LLR- therapy application. The close connection of both anti-inflammatory medicamental and LLR-therapy has proved the possibility of purposeful local immune status correction in case of parodontitis.

  17. Staff Engagement During Complex Pediatric Medical Care: The Role of Patient, Family, and Treatment Variables

    PubMed Central

    Meltzer, Lisa J.; Steinmiller, Elizabeth; Simms, Steve; Grossman, Michael; Li, Yuelin

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the role of patient, family, and treatment variables on self-reported engagement for physicians and nurses working with pediatric complex care patients. Methods Sixty-eight physicians and 85 registered nurses at a children’s hospital reviewed eight case scenarios that varied by the patient and patient’s family (each cooperative vs. difficult) and the length of hospitalization (<30 vs. >30 days). Participants rated their engagement from highly engaged/responsive to distancing/disconnected behaviors. Results Nurses were more likely than physicians to engage in situations with a difficult patient/cooperative family but less likely to engage in situations with a cooperative patient/difficult family. Nurses were more likely to consult a colleague regarding the care of a difficult patient/difficult family, while physicians were more likely to refer a difficult patient/difficult family to a psychosocial professional. Conclusions Differences were found for engagement with “difficult” patients/families, with physicians more likely to distance themselves or refer to a psychosocial professional, while nurses were more likely to consult with a colleague. Practice Implications Communication between health care team members is essential for optimal family centered health care. Thus, interventions are needed that focus on communication and support for health care teams working with pediatric complex care patients and their families. PMID:19209401

  18. Efficacy of a pectin-lecithin complex for treatment and prevention of gastric ulcers in horses.

    PubMed

    Sanz, M G; Viljoen, A; Saulez, M N; Olorunju, S; Andrews, F M

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a commercial feed supplement containing pectin-lecithin on squamous mucosa ulceration in horses exposed to an experimental ulceration model. Five mares were treated while five mares were controls for this crossover, blinded study. The mares were fed concentrates and hay and were stabled with a two-hour turn out per day for a period of four weeks. The pectin-lecithin complex was fed for the duration of the study on the treated group. At the end of a four-week period, all mares underwent a seven-day alternating feed deprivation (week 5). The study was repeated again after a four-week washout period. Gastroscopy was performed on days 1, 28 and 35 of the study and was digitally recorded. Independent evaluation of the recordings and scoring of the lesions using the Equine Gastric Ulcer Syndrome (EGUS), severity and number scores were performed by three experienced gastroscopists. The prevalence and severity of squamous ulcers significantly increased after intermittent feed deprivation (P<0.001). No significant effect of the treatment was observed (P>0.05). In this study, the addition of a commercially available pectin-lecithin complex to the feed of horses for five weeks did not prevent or minimise the risk for gastric ulceration of the squamous mucosa. PMID:24821856

  19. A new concept: the use of vanadium complexes in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Hiromu

    2002-01-01

    In the 21st century, patients suffering from diabetes mellitus (DM), a lifestyle-related disease, will increase more than in the 20th century. DM is threatening because of the development of many severe secondary complications, including atherosclerosis, microangiopathy, renal dysfunction and failure, cardiac abnormalities, diabetic retinopathy, and ocular disorders. Generally, DM is classified as either insulin-dependent type 1 or noninsulin-dependent type 2 DM. Type 1 DM is treated only by daily insulin injections; type 2 DM is treated by several types of synthetic therapeutic substances together with a controlled diet and physical exercise. Even with these measures, the daily necessity for several insulin injections can be painful both physically and mentally, whereas the synthetic therapeutic substances used over the long term often have side effects. For those reasons, the creation and development of a new class of pharmaceuticals for treatment of DM in the 21st century would be extremely desirable. In the last half of the 20th century, investigations of the relationships among diseases and micronutrients, such as iron, copper, zinc, and selenium, have been numerous. Research into the development of metallopharmaceuticals involving the platinum-containing anticancer drug, cisplatin, and the gold-containing rheumatoid arthritis drug, auranofin, has also been widespread. Such important findings prompted us to develop therapeutic reagents based on a new concept to replace either insulin injections or the use of synthetic drugs. After many trials, we noticed that vanadium might be very useful in the treatment of DM. Before the discovery of insulin by Banting and Best in 1921 and its clinical trial for treating DM, the findings in 1899, in which orally administered sodium vanadate (NaVO(3)) was reported to improve human DM, gave us the idea to use vanadium to treat DM. However, it has taken a long time to obtain a scientific explanation as to why the metal ion exhibits insulin-mimetic or blood-glucose lowering effects in in vitro and in vivo experiments. After investigations from many perspectives involving biochemistry and bioinorganic chemistry, vanadyl sulfate (VOSO(4)) and its complexes with several types of ligands have been proposed as useful for treating DM in experimental diabetic animals. On the basis of a mechanistic study, this article reports on recent progress regarding the development of antidiabetic vanadyl complexes, emphasizing that the vanadyl ion and its complexes are effective not only in treating or relieving both types of DM but also in preventing the onset of DM. PMID:12203906

  20. Risk Factors for Recurrence after Successful Treatment of Mycobacterium avium Complex Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bo Young; Kim, Sunyoung; Hong, YoonKi; Lee, Sang-Do; Kim, Woo Sung; Kim, Dong Soon; Shim, Tae Sun

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed the recurrence rate and risk factors for recurrence of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease in patients successfully treated for this disease. The medical records of 158 patients successfully treated for MAC lung disease at a tertiary referral center in South Korea between March 2000 and December 2009 were retrospectively analyzed. Recurrence was recorded, and factors associated with recurrence were analyzed. The mean age of the 158 patients was 60.7 ± 11.1 years. The etiologic agent was Mycobacterium avium in 77 patients (48.7%) and Mycobacterium intracellulare in 81 patients (51.3%). Radiographic features included nodular bronchiectatic disease in 95 (60.1%), fibrocavitary disease in 49 (31.0%), and an unclassifiable form in 14 (8.9%) patients. Almost all (98.7%, 156/158) patients had been previously treated with a macrolide-containing regimen, and 68 (43.0%) patients had received treatment with an aminoglycoside. During a median follow-up of 43.8 months after completion of therapy, 50 patients (31.6%) experienced recurrence, at a median of 11.9 months after treatment completion. Multivariate analysis showed that only the nodular bronchiectatic form of the disease (hazard ratio, 2.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.19 to 4.81) was independently associated with an increased risk of recurrence. Recurrence after successful treatment is frequent in patients with MAC lung disease. The recurrence rate was significantly higher in patients with the nodular bronchiectatic form than in those with the fibrocavitary form or an unclassifiable form of the disease. PMID:25753634

  1. Differentiating the mTOR inhibitors everolimus and sirolimus in the treatment of tuberous sclerosis complex.

    PubMed

    MacKeigan, Jeffrey P; Krueger, Darcy A

    2015-12-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic autosomal dominant disorder characterized by benign tumor-like lesions, called hamartomas, in multiple organ systems, including the brain, skin, heart, kidneys, and lung. These hamartomas cause a diverse set of clinical problems based on their location and often result in epilepsy, learning difficulties, and behavioral problems. TSC is caused by mutations within the TSC1 or TSC2 genes that inactivate the genes' tumor-suppressive function and drive hamartomatous cell growth. In normal cells, TSC1 and TSC2 integrate growth signals and nutrient inputs to downregulate signaling to mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), an evolutionarily conserved serine-threonine kinase that controls cell growth and cell survival. The molecular connection between TSC and mTOR led to the clinical use of allosteric mTOR inhibitors (sirolimus and everolimus) for the treatment of TSC. Everolimus is approved for subependymal giant cell astrocytomas and renal angiomyolipomas in patients with TSC. Sirolimus, though not approved for TSC, has undergone considerable investigation to treat various aspects of the disease. Everolimus and sirolimus selectively inhibit mTOR signaling with similar molecular mechanisms, but with distinct clinical profiles. This review differentiates mTOR inhibitors in TSC while describing the molecular mechanisms, pathogenic mutations, and clinical trial outcomes for managing TSC. PMID:26289591

  2. Treatment of a complex thoracoabdominal aneurysm and dissection with a branched graft.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Kristen M; Black, James H; Glebova, Natalia O

    2015-12-01

    This article describes the management of a patient with a complex symptomatic thoracoabdominal aneurysm and discusses the branched graft approach to surgical repair of complex aortic aneurysms. The case highlights the importance of a team approach during a complex, high-risk surgery and the perioperative period. PMID:26595694

  3. Building a measurement framework of burden of treatment in complex patients with chronic conditions: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Eton, David T; Ramalho de Oliveira, Djenane; Egginton, Jason S; Ridgeway, Jennifer L; Odell, Laura; May, Carl R; Montori, Victor M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Burden of treatment refers to the workload of health care as well as its impact on patient functioning and well-being. We set out to build a conceptual framework of issues descriptive of burden of treatment from the perspective of the complex patient, as a first step in the development of a new patient-reported measure. Methods: We conducted semistructured interviews with patients seeking medication therapy management services at a large, academic medical center. All patients had a complex regimen of self-care (including polypharmacy), and were coping with one or more chronic health conditions. We used framework analysis to identify and code themes and subthemes. A conceptual framework of burden of treatment was outlined from emergent themes and subthemes. Results: Thirty-two patients (20 female, 12 male, age 26–85 years) were interviewed. Three broad themes of burden of treatment emerged including: the work patients must do to care for their health; problem-focused strategies and tools to facilitate the work of self-care; and factors that exacerbate the burden felt. The latter theme encompasses six subthemes including challenges with taking medication, emotional problems with others, role and activity limitations, financial challenges, confusion about medical information, and health care delivery obstacles. Conclusion: We identified several key domains and issues of burden of treatment amenable to future measurement and organized them into a conceptual framework. Further development work on this conceptual framework will inform the derivation of a patient-reported measure of burden of treatment. PMID:23185121

  4. Computer-aided patch planning for treatment of complex coarctation of the aorta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rietdorf, Urte; Riesenkampff, Eugénie; Kuehne, Titus; Huebler, Michael; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Wolf, Ivo

    2009-02-01

    Between five and eight percent of all children born with congenitally malformed hearts suffer from coarctations of the aorta. Some severe coarctations can only be treated by surgical repair. Untreated, this defect can cause serious damage to organ development or even lead to death. Patch repair requires open surgery. It can affect patients of any age: newborns with severe coarctation and/or hypoplastic aortic arch as well as older patients with late diagnosis of coarctation of the aorta. Another patient group are patients of varying age with re-coarctation of the aorta or hypoplastic aortic arch after surgical and/or interventional repair. If anatomy is complex and interventional treatment by catheterization, balloon angioplasty or stent placement is not possible, surgery is indicated. The choice of type of surgery depends not only on the given anatomy but also on the experience the surgical team has with each method. One surgical approach is patch repair. A patch of a suitable shape and size is sewed into the aorta to expand the aortic lumen at the site of coarctation. At present, the shape and size of the patch are estimated intra-operatively by the surgeon. We have developed a software application that allows planning of the patch pre-operatively on the basis of magnetic resonance angiographic data. The application determines the diameter of the coarctation and/or hypoplastic segment and constructs a patch proposal by calculating the difference to the normal vessel diameter pre-operatively. Evaluation of MR angiographic datasets from 12 test patients with different kinds of aortic arch stenosis shows a divergence of only (1.5+/-1.2) mm in coarctation diameters between manual segmentations and our approach, with comparable time expenditure. Following this proposal the patch can be prepared and adapted to the patient's anatomy pre-operatively. Ideally, this leads to shorter operation times and a better long-term outcome with a reduced rate of residual stenosis and re-stenosis and aneurysm formation.

  5. Systems Pharmacology Dissecting Holistic Medicine for Treatment of Complex Diseases: An Example Using Cardiocerebrovascular Diseases Treated by TCM

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yonghua; Zheng, Chunli; Huang, Chao; Li, Yan; Chen, Xuetong; Wu, Ziyin; Wang, Zhenzhong; Xiao, Wei; Zhang, Boli

    2015-01-01

    Holistic medicine is an interdisciplinary field of study that integrates all types of biological information (protein, small molecules, tissues, organs, external environmental signals, etc.) to lead to predictive and actionable models for health care and disease treatment. Despite the global and integrative character of this discipline, a comprehensive picture of holistic medicine for the treatment of complex diseases is still lacking. In this study, we develop a novel systems pharmacology approach to dissect holistic medicine in treating cardiocerebrovascular diseases (CCDs) by TCM (traditional Chinese medicine). Firstly, by applying the TCM active ingredients screened out by a systems-ADME process, we explored and experimentalized the signed drug-target interactions for revealing the pharmacological actions of drugs at a molecule level. Then, at a/an tissue/organ level, the drug therapeutic mechanisms were further investigated by a target-organ location method. Finally, a translational integrating pathway approach was applied to extract the diseases-therapeutic modules for understanding the complex disease and its therapy at systems level. For the first time, the feature of the drug-target-pathway-organ-cooperations for treatment of multiple organ diseases in holistic medicine was revealed, facilitating the development of novel treatment paradigm for complex diseases in the future. PMID:26101539

  6. Transdermal delivery of the in situ hydrogels of curcumin and its inclusion complexes of hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin for melanoma treatment.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yunbo; Du, Lina; Liu, Yangpu; Li, Xin; Li, Miao; Jin, Yiguang; Qian, Xiaohong

    2014-07-20

    Curcumin (Cur) is a hydrophobic polyphenol with diverse pharmacological effects, especially for cancer treatment. However, its weak water solubility and stability was the major obstacle for the formulation research of Cur. The complexation of Cur and hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP-?-CD) was done by grinding. The increasing solubility of Cur was achieved due to complexation and the photochemical stability of Cur was improved. The inclusion of Cur could happen when two ends of Cur were embedded into the cavity of the HP-?-CD rings. The in situ hydrogels (ISGs) of Cur and its inclusion complexes were prepared using poloxamers 407 and 188 as the matrix. The extent of drug's in vitro release from the ISGs depended on the dissolution of drugs. Both of the ISGs had transdermal effect and cytotoxicity on B16-F10 cells. However, the effects of the ISGs containing Cur inclusion complexes were much higher than those of Cur ISGs because of the improved Cur solubility in the former. The cytotoxicity of Cur on melanoma cells was related to blocking of cellular proliferation in the G2/M stage followed by cellular apoptosis. The ISGs of Cur inclusion complexes are a promising formulation for melanoma treatment. PMID:24746691

  7. Technology Evaluation for the Big Spring Water Treatment System at the Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Becthel Jacobs Company LLC

    2002-11-01

    The Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) is an active manufacturing and developmental engineering facility that is located on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation. Building 9201-2 was one of the first process buildings constructed at the Y-12 Complex. Construction involved relocating and straightening of the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) channel, adding large quantities of fill material to level areas along the creek, and pumping of concrete into sinkholes and solution cavities present within the limestone bedrock. Flow from a large natural spring designated as ''Big Spring'' on the original 1943 Stone & Webster Building 9201-2 Field Sketch FS6003 was captured and directed to UEFPC through a drainpipe designated Outfall 51. The building was used from 1953 to 1955 for pilot plant operations for an industrial process that involved the use of large quantities of elemental mercury. Past operations at the Y-12 Complex led to the release of mercury to the environment. Significant environmental media at the site were contaminated by accidental releases of mercury from the building process facilities piping and sumps associated with Y-12 Complex mercury handling facilities. Releases to the soil surrounding the buildings have resulted in significant levels of mercury in these areas of contamination, which is ultimately transported to UEFPC, its streambed, and off-site. Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) is the DOE-Oak Ridge Operations prime contractor responsible for conducting environmental restoration activities at the Y-12 Complex. In order to mitigate the mercury being released to UEFPC, the Big Spring Water Treatment System will be designed and constructed as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act action. This facility will treat the combined flow from Big Spring feeding Outfall 51 and the inflow now being processed at the East End Mercury Treatment System (EEMTS). Both discharge to UEFPC adjacent to Bldg. 9201-2. The EEMTS treats mercury-contaminated groundwater that collects in sumps in the basement of Bldg. 9201-2. A pre-design study was performed to investigate the applicability of various treatment technologies for reducing mercury discharges at Outfall 51 in support of the design of the Big Spring Water Treatment System. This document evaluates the results of the pre-design study for selection of the mercury removal technology for the treatment system.

  8. Strength and Formability Improvement of Al-Cu-Mn Aluminum Alloy Complex Parts by Thermomechanical Treatment with Sheet Hydroforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi-Zhe; Liu, Wei; Yuan, Shi-Jian

    2015-05-01

    Normally, the strength and formability of aluminum alloys can be increased largely by severe plastic deformation and heat treatment. However, many plastic deformation processes are more suitable for making raw material, not for formed parts. In this article, an experimental study of the thermomechanical treatment by using the sheet hydroforming process was developed to improve both mechanical strength and formability for aluminum alloys in forming complex parts. The limiting drawing ratio, thickness, and strain distribution of complex parts formed by sheet hydroforming were investigated to study the formability and sheet-deformation behavior. Based on the optimal formed parts, the tensile strength, microhardness, grain structure, and strengthening precipitates were analyzed to identify the strengthening effect of thermomechanical treatment. The results show that in the solution state, the limiting drawing ratio of cylindrical parts could be increased for 10.9% compared with traditional deep drawing process. The peak values of tensile stress and microhardness of formed parts are 18.0% and 12.5% higher than that in T6 state. This investigation shows that the thermomechanical treatment by sheet hydroforming is a potential method for the products manufacturing of aluminum alloy with high strength and good formability.

  9. Typicality of Inanimate Category Exemplars in Aphasia Treatment: Further Evidence for Semantic Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiran, Swathi

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The typicality treatment approach on improving naming was investigated within 2 inanimate categories ("furniture" and "clothing") using a single-subject experimental design across participants and behaviors in 5 patients with aphasia. Method: Participants received a semantic feature treatment to improve naming of either typical or…

  10. [The role of intraoperative photodynamic therapy in complex treatment of cerebral metastases].

    PubMed

    Kurzhupov, M I; Zaitsev, A M; Loshakov, V A; Filonenko, E V

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral metastases are the most common brain tumors in adults and are characterized by poor prognosis. Despite application of modern methods of treatment (microsurgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy) survival rates of these patients remain low. This fact triggers development of new therapeutic options which are able to increase recurrence-free period and consequently overall survival. The article contains review of literature dealing with photodynamic therapy which is a newly introduced technique for treatment of cerebral metastases. PMID:21254577

  11. Intermittent pneumatic compression acts synergistically with manual lymphatic drainage in complex decongestive physiotherapy for breast cancer treatment-related lymphedema.

    PubMed

    Szolnoky, G; Lakatos, B; Keskeny, T; Varga, E; Varga, M; Dobozy, A; Kemény, L

    2009-12-01

    The application of intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) as a part of complex decongestive physiotherapy (CDP) remains controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the combination of IPC with manual lymph drainage (MLD) could improve CDP treatment outcomes in women with secondary lymphedema after breast cancer treatment. A randomized study was undertaken with 13 subjects receiving MLD (60 min) and 14 receiving MLD (30 min) plus IPC (30 min) followed by standardized components of CDP including multilayered compression bandaging, physical exercise, and skin care 10 times in a 2-week-period. Efficacy of treatment was evaluated by limb volume reduction and a subjective symptom questionnaire at end of the treatment, and one and two months after beginning treatment. The two groups had similar demographic and clinical characteristics. Mean reductions in limb volumes for each group at the end of therapy, and at one and two months were 7.93% and 3.06%, 9.02% and 2.9%, and 9.62% and 3.6%, respectively (p < 0.05 from baseline for each group and also between groups at each measurement). Although a significant decrease in the subjective symptom survey was found for both groups compared to baseline, no significant difference between the groups was found at any time point. The application of IPC with MLD provides a synergistic enhancement of the effect of CDP in arm volume reduction. PMID:20218087

  12. Complex I Disorders: Causes, Mechanisms, and Development of Treatment Strategies at the Cellular Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valsecchi, Federica; Koopman, Werner J. H.; Manjeri, Ganesh R.; Rodenburg, Richard J.; Smeitink, Jan A. M.; Willems, Peter H. G. M.

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) represents the final step in the conversion of nutrients into cellular energy. Genetic defects in the OXPHOS system have an incidence between 1:5,000 and 1:10,000 live births. Inherited isolated deficiency of the first complex (CI) of this system, a multisubunit assembly of 45 different proteins,…

  13. The Prescribed Pediatric Center: A Medical Day Treatment Program for Children with Complex Medical Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruppert, Elizabeth S.; Karst, Thomas O.; Brogan, Mark G.

    1998-01-01

    The Prescribed Pediatric Center (Toledo, Ohio) is a community-based, multidisciplinary program for infants and children with chronic, complex medical conditions. This article describes program beginnings; the planning process; and the program's growth, development, and components. Initial program evaluation indicates positive effects on some…

  14. Efficacy of transcranial magnetotherapy in the complex treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Staroverov, A T; Zhukov, O B; Raigorodskii, Yu M

    2009-11-01

    A total of 54 patients with alcoholism were studied during abstinence. Of these, 29 patients in the experimental group received basal therapy supplemented with physical treatment consisting of transcranial dynamic magnetotherapy (TcDMT), while the control group of 25 patients received only basal therapy. Comparison of the status of patients in the experimental and control groups during treatment demonstrated advantages of TcDMT in relation to improving the functional state of the CNS, memory, and attention, the autonomic nervous system, and the psychoemotional status of the patients (with decreases in the severity of anxiety and depression). PMID:19830574

  15. [Complex treatment of patients with purulent-necrotic complications of diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Dmytriiev, B I; Demydov, V M; Kotik, Iu M

    2001-08-01

    Biochemical, immunological investigations were performed in dynamics for identification of pathogenic microorganisms in the wound in 375 patients with complicated diabetes mellitus. Content of the APUD-system hormones was determined using radioimmune method. Conservative treatment included administration of insulinum pro injectionibus, plasm, albumin, rheopolyglycine, vitamins, antihypoxants, antibiotics, metronidazole, immunotherapy, dalargin, sandostatinum, D-phenylalanine. In preoperative and postoperative periods were widely applied measures of organism detoxication, physiotherapeutic methods. Original method of xenoskin was applied for closure of the wound and ulcerative defect. Application of proposed method of treatment had permitted to improve its result. PMID:11794096

  16. Treatment of complex dissociative disorders: a comparison of interventions reported by community therapists versus those recommended by experts.

    PubMed

    Myrick, Amie C; Chasson, Gregory S; Lanius, Ruth A; Leventhal, Barry; Brand, Bethany L

    2015-01-01

    There is a paucity of empirical data to assist clinicians in choosing interventions to use with patients with complex dissociative disorder (DD; i.e., dissociative identity disorder and dissociative disorder not otherwise specified) at different stages in treatment. This study compared interventions used by a sample of international outpatient therapists treating DD clients in the 1st 2 stages of treatment with those recommended by expert DD therapists. There were many similarities between therapists' and experts' interventions, including the use of several emotion regulation and dissociation-focused interventions. However, community therapists reported significantly less focus on relationally oriented interventions, teaching and using grounding and containment skills, and stabilizing patients after revictimization by alleged perpetrators. This study has important implications for the development and implementation of training opportunities for DD therapists. PMID:25365637

  17. Simple and Complex Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Strategies for Comprehensive Treatment in Clinical Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Mary Beth; Sommer, John F., Jr.

    This book delivers state-of-the-art techniques and information for practitioners to help individuals, groups, families, and communities suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It addresses concerns about the efficacy of critical incident stress debriefing, examines the value of a variety of innovative treatment methods, and explores…

  18. Transcranial magnetotherapy in the complex treatment of affective disorders in patients with alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Staroverov, A T; Vil'yanov, V B; Raigorodskii, Yu M; Rogozina, M A

    2009-06-01

    Transcranial magnetotherapy (TMT) was used in 32 patients with alcoholism (study group) on the background of basal treatment (nootropes, hepatoprotectors, vitamin/mineral formulations, etc.). The influence of this treatment was compared with a control group (30 subjects), in which TMT was replaced with an appropriate (placebo) procedure. All patients, who were aged from 35 to 64 years, had second-degree alcoholism with disease durations of 4-12 years. Patients were in a post-abstinence state during the treatment period. Courses of TMT consisted of 10 daily procedures with exposures of 10-20 min. Somatic, neurological, and laboratory studies were performed before and after treatment and included cardiointervalography, electroencephalography, assessments of the state of the autonomic nervous system, and use of psychometric scales to evaluate levels of anxiety and depression. TMT was followed by improvements in wellbeing, mood, and sleep, with increases in physical exercise tolerance and decreases in alcohol craving in 75% of patients in the study group and 30% of patients in the control group. Improvements in patients' status were supported by paraclinical investigations (electrophysiological, measures of the state of the autonomic nervous system, etc.) and psychometric scales. PMID:19430982

  19. Modified Plug Repair with Limited Sphincter Sparing Fistulectomy in the Treatment of Complex Anal Fistulas

    PubMed Central

    Köckerling, Ferdinand; von Rosen, Thomas; Jacob, Dietmar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: New technical approaches involving biologically derived products have been used to treat complex anal fistulas in order to avoid the risk of fecal incontinence. The least invasive methods involve filling out the fistula tract with fibrin glue or introduction of an anal fistula plug into the fistula canal following thorough curettage. A review shows that the new techniques involving biologically derived products do not confer any significant advantages. Therefore, the question inevitably arises as to whether the combination of a partial or limited fistulectomy, i.e., of the extrasphincteric portion of the fistula, and preservation of the sphincter muscle by repairing the section of the complex anal fistula running through the sphincter muscle and filling it with a fistula plug produces better results. Methods: A modified plug technique was used, in which the extrasphincteric portion of the complex anal fistula was removed by means of a limited fistulectomy and the remaining section of the fistula in the sphincter muscle was repaired using the fistula plug with fixing button. Results: Of the 52 patients with a complex anal fistula, who had undergone surgery using a modified plug repair with limited fistulectomy of the extrasphincteric part of the fistula and use of the fistula plug with fixing button, there are from 40 patients (follow-up rate: 77%) some kind of follow-up informations, after a mean of 19.32?±?6.9?months. Thirty-two were men and eight were women, with a mean age of 52.97?±?12.22?years. Surgery was conducted to treat 36 transsphincteric, 1 intersphincteric, and 3 rectovaginal fistulas. In 36 of 40 patients (90%), the complex anal fistulas or rectovaginal fistulas were completely healed without any sign of recurrence. None of these patients complained about continence problems. Conclusion: A modification of the plug repair of complex anal fistulas with limited fistulectomy of the extrasphincteric part of the fistula and use of the plug with fixing button seems to increase the healing rate in comparison to the standard plug technique. PMID:25593941

  20. Comparing two treatment methods for post mastectomy lymphedema: complex decongestive therapy alone and in combination with intermittent pneumatic compression.

    PubMed

    Haghighat, S; Lotfi-Tokaldany, M; Yunesian, M; Akbari, M E; Nazemi, F; Weiss, J

    2010-03-01

    There is no cure for breast cancer related lymphedema. This study was conducted to compare two treatment methods for postmastectomy lymphedema: Complex Decongestive Therapy (CDT) and Modified CDT (MCDT) combined with Intermittent Pneumatic Compression (IPC). One hundred and twelve patients referred to the Lymphedema Clinic of the Iranian Center for Breast Cancer in 2008, were included in a randomized clinical trial. They were randomly allocated into two equal groups receiving daily CDT alone or in combination with IPC. The volume reduction of the upper limb was measured by water displacement volumetry. No statistically significant differences in demographic and clinical variables between the two groups were observed. During the intensive phase (phase I) of treatment, CDT alone yielded a significantly higher mean volume reduction than the combination modality (43.1% vs. 37.5%; p = 0.036). Limb volume measured three months following treatment, showed 16.9% volume reduction by CDT alone, and 7.5% reduction by MCDT plus IPC. This study demonstrated that the use of CDT alone, or in combination with IPC significantly reduced limb volume in patients with post mastectomy lymphedema. CDT alone provided better results in both treatment phases. Further studies will help to define the role of multidisciplinary approaches in the management of postmastectomy lymphedema. PMID:20552817

  1. Finite element modeling of endovascular coiling and flow diversion enables hemodynamic prediction of complex treatment strategies for intracranial aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Damiano, Robert J; Ma, Ding; Xiang, Jianping; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Snyder, Kenneth V; Meng, Hui

    2015-09-18

    Endovascular interventions using coil embolization and flow diversion are becoming the mainstream treatment for intracranial aneurysms (IAs). To help assess the effect of intervention strategies on aneurysm hemodynamics and treatment outcome, we have developed a finite-element-method (FEM)-based technique for coil deployment along with our HiFiVS technique for flow diverter (FD) deployment in patient-specific IAs. We tested four clinical intervention strategies: coiling (1-8 coils), single FD, FD with adjunctive coils (1-8 coils), and overlapping FDs. By evaluating post-treatment hemodynamics using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), we compared the flow-modification performance of these strategies. Results show that a single FD provides more reduction in inflow rate than low packing density (PD) coiling, but less reduction in average velocity inside the aneurysm. Adjunctive coils add no additional reduction of inflow rate beyond a single FD until coil PD exceeds 11%. This suggests that the main role of FDs is to divert inflow, while that of coils is to create stasis in the aneurysm. Overlapping FDs decreases inflow rate, average velocity, and average wall shear stress (WSS) in the aneurysm sac, but adding a third FD produces minimal additional reduction. In conclusion, our FEM-based techniques for virtual coiling and flow diversion enable recapitulation of complex endovascular intervention strategies and detailed hemodynamics to identify hemodynamic factors that affect treatment outcome. PMID:26169778

  2. Density functional treatment of water-carbon dioxide van der Waals complex

    SciTech Connect

    Abashkin, Y.; Mele, F.; Russo, N.; Toscano, M.

    1994-12-31

    LCGTO-LSD and LCGTO-NLSD methods have been tested for the study of water-carbon dioxide weakly bound binary complex. Different local and nonlocal exchange-correlation energy functionals and many grid radial points have been used. Results show that both nonlocal corrections and a large number of radial points in the grid are mandatory for well reproducing then experimental data. 19 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  3. Simple and complex movements off and on treatment in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Benecke, R; Rothwell, J C; Dick, J P; Day, B L; Marsden, C D

    1987-01-01

    The performance of a 15 degrees elbow flexion and a 30N hand squeeze was studied in nine normal subjects and in five patients with Parkinson's disease. The patients were studied when immobile after 12-18 hours withdrawal from antiparkinsonian drug therapy (OFF) and when more mobile after drugs (ON). Subjects performed each movement separately (simple movements) and both movements either simultaneously or sequentially (complex movements). The duration of both movements and the time between the onset of each movement in the sequential task (interonset latency) were measured. The patients OFF therapy had longer movement times than normal for both movements; these improved after levodopa but still were not normal. When the patients performed complex movements there was an extra slowness, over and above that seen for simple movements, in both movements of the simultaneous task and in the second movement of the sequential task. In addition, the interonset latency in the sequential task was longer than normal. After levodopa there was a more striking improvement in the movement times of complex movements than there had been for simple movements. The interonset latency in the sequential task was shorter than before therapy though still was not the same as in normal subjects. It is suggested that the basal ganglia are not only involved in the execution of simple motor programmes, but also play some role in the superimposition and sequencing of motor programmes. PMID:3559611

  4. [Effectivity of detoxification preparation reamberin in complex treatment of the patients with chronic cholecystitis combined with chronic pancreatitis on background of HCV-infection].

    PubMed

    Sotskaia, Ia A; Frolov, V M; Kruglova, O V; Sanzharevskaia, I V

    2011-01-01

    Effectivity of detoxic preparation reamberin at complex treatment of the patients with acuting of chronic cholecystitis combined with chronic pancreatitis on background of HCV-infection was detected. It was set that before treatment took place increase "average molecules", lipid peroxidation products--malondialdehyde and dien conjugates and increase of circulatory immune complexes in serum. Including of reamberin provided to normalization clinical-biochemical indexes. PMID:22768740

  5. [Effect of complex sanatorium treatment including magnetotherapy on hemodynamics in patients with arterial hypertension].

    PubMed

    Efremushkin, G G; Duruda, N V

    2003-01-01

    Forty nine patients with arterial hypertension of stage I-II received combined sanatorium treatment. Of them, 21 had adjuvant total magnetotherapy. All the patients were examined for parameters of central, cerebral hemodynamics and microcirculation. The adjuvant magnetotherapy produced a beneficial effect on hypertension: clinical symptoms attenuated, arterial pressure became more stable, hemodynamics improved, duration of hospitalization reduced, requirement in hypotensive drugs diminished. PMID:12852007

  6. [Pathogenetic aspects of complex treatment of Dupuytren's contracture in patients with chronic hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Iskra, N I; Hur'iev, S O; Kuz'min, V Iu; Kukuruz, Ia S

    2011-03-01

    The results of Dupuytren's contracture treatment in patients, suffering chronic hepatitis with the hand deformity grade II and III, in the injured persons and liquidators of the Chernobyl disaster consequences, conducted in 2000-2010 yrs., were adduced. Beginning from the third week, when an active movements had emerged, the patients were treated locally, including lidase and solution, which consisted of dimexid, isotonic saline and furazolidon. PMID:21695974

  7. [Use of adaptogens for antioxidant system correction in complex treatment of mandibular fractures].

    PubMed

    Ushnitsky, I D; Terenteva, Z V; Kerschengolts, B M; Vinocurov, M M; Voronov, I V; Egorova, L I

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidatic protection has been studied in 84 patients with mandibular fractures between the ages of 21 and 40; the patients were divided into two groups. Activation of lipid peroxidation in both groups was revealed. The increase of antioxidant's activity system in 37.18% in the main study group that along with traditional treatment received Epsorin was determined. No complications in the main group during the post-surgery period were recorded. PMID:26271700

  8. COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING IN PATIENTS WITH COMPLEX ABSENCE FOLLOWING TREATMENT WITH SODIUM VALPROATE

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Shobini L.; Satischandra, P.; Devi, M. Gourie

    1993-01-01

    SUMMARY The association of sodium valproate with cognitive functions was studied in 29 patients with complex absence seizures. Seventeen patients were on monotherapy and twelve on polypharmacy with sodium valproate. Cognitive functions assessed were attention, speech, visuo-speciat perception, memory and intelligence. Behavioral disturbances were also assessed. Two assessments were made six months apart; in the first assessment, attention and speech were adequate, while memory, visuo-spatial perception, and behavioral functioning were impaired. Intelligence was lower in the polypharmacy group, while other functions were similar. In the second assessment, intelligence and visual memory improved in the monotherapy group, while no changes were present in the polypharmacy group. PMID:21776171

  9. DIAGNOSIS AND SURGICAL TREATMENT OF A COMPLEX ANGULAR HIND LIMB DEFORMITY IN A SERVAL (FELIS SERVAL).

    PubMed

    Summa, Noémie M; Eshar, David; Bichot, Sylvain; Smith, Dale A; Moens, Noel M M

    2015-09-01

    A 2-yr-old neutered male pet serval (Felis serval) was presented for progressive hind limb lameness that started at 6 mo of age. Previous therapy included only nutritional supplementation. Direct and video gait analysis confirmed bilateral hind limb lameness, more severe on the right. Physical examination and radiography revealed a multifocal complex bilateral angular deformity with a significant rotational component. A right tibial corrective osteotomy was followed by internal rotation and stabilization with a 2.7-mm eight-hole locking compression plate and locking screws. Other deformities were not corrected. Clinical improvement was noted immediately and has been maintained over the 16-mo follow-up. PMID:26352971

  10. Activated prothrombin complex concentrate (FEIBA®) for the treatment and prevention of bleeding in patients with acquired haemophilia: A sequential study.

    PubMed

    Zanon, Ezio; Milan, Marta; Gamba, Gabriella; Ambaglio, Chiara; Saggiorato, Graziella; Spiezia, Luca; Montani, Nadia; Prandoni, Paolo

    2015-12-01

    Despite anti-haemorrhagic therapy with proper doses of activated prothrombin complex concentrate (aPCC, Feiba®), patients with acquired haemophilia A (AHA) have a considerable risk of recurrent bleeding complications. Evidence in support of the benefit-to-risk ratio of prevention strategies with the use of lower doses of aPCC following the end of the initial treatment period is scarce and inconclusive. We report our experience in the management of 18 consecutive patients with AHA admitted to two Haemophilia centres in Italy. We managed the first 11 according to current guidelines (e.g., with conventional aPCC doses until bleeding resolution). Then, we decided to prolong the treatment beyond bleeding resolution with lower doses of the same concentrate (short-term prophylaxis) in the 7 additional patients. In these patients, the treatment was continued for as long as the titre of FVIII inhibitor was found to decrease by at least 50% when compared to the baseline one. We observed six relapses of bleeding in patients in whom aPCC was confined to the treatment of the qualifying bleeding episode, and none in patients to whom lower doses were administered until the pre-specified decrease in the titre of FVIII inhibitor was achieved. No patients experienced thrombotic complications during the study period. Prolonging the treatment with lower doses of aPCC beyond the initial phase in patients with AHA in whom the titre of FVIII inhibitor is still high is likely to safely prevent further bleeding complications. PMID:26505666

  11. Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... States, smallpox vaccine, antivirals, and vaccinia immune globulin (VIG) can be used. Learn more about smallpox vaccine, antivirals, and VIG treatments . Resource CDC's Smallpox Vaccine Information for the ...

  12. Combination treatment with atorvastatin plus niacin provides effective control of complex dyslipidemias: a literature review.

    PubMed

    McKenney, James M

    2012-01-01

    Patients with dyslipidemia receive a cardiovascular benefit from lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Atorvastatin is currently one of the most effective approved medications for lowering LDL-C, and has been shown to significantly reduce cardiovascular risk in many patient groups. However, even with substantial lowering of LDL-C with atorvastatin, patients still have a residual risk for coronary heart disease. Elevated triglyceride levels and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels may contribute to this risk. Approved medications targeting these secondary lipid parameters include fibrates, omega-3 fatty acids, and niacin. Among these medications, niacin provides the optimal increase in HDL-C levels and has efficacy similar to the other medications in lowering triglyceride levels. However, there are challenges to adherence with niacin treatment. The most common challenge during niacin treatment is flushing, although it typically decreases with ongoing use and can be ameliorated by pretreatment with aspirin and counseling by the prescriber. A combination of atorvastatin and niacin may provide more complete normalization of the lipid profile and increased cardiovascular benefits. A literature review of the PubMed and Embase databases was conducted for clinical studies that reported on the lipid-modifying efficacy of the atorvastatin plus niacin combination. Identified studies involved patients at risk for coronary heart disease and patients with established coronary heart disease. Overall, the studies were small but indicated that atorvastatin in combination with niacin was efficacious in normalizing lipid parameters. Larger lipid studies as well as studies evaluating cardiovascular outcomes during atorvastatin plus niacin treatment are warranted. PMID:22314110

  13. Alternative Techniques for Treatment of Complex Below-the Knee Arterial Occlusions in Diabetic Patients With Critical Limb Ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Gandini, Roberto; Uccioli, Luigi; Spinelli, Alessio; Del Giudice, Costantino Ros, Valerio Da; Volpi, Tommaso; Meloni, Marco; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2013-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to describe alternative endovascular (EV) techniques and assess their feasibility and efficacy in minimizing failure rates in limb salvage for the treatment of complex below-the knee (BTK) occlusions that could not be crossed with a conventional antegrade access. Between December 2007 and November 2010, 1,035 patients (557 male) underwent EV treatment for critical limb ischemia in our institution. In 124 (12% [83 male], mean age 68.2 {+-} 0.5 years) patients, transfemoral antegrade revascularization attempt failed, and an alternative approach was used. Follow-up was performed at 1 and 6 months. Results were compared with 56 patients treated between November 2002 and November 2007, in whom conventional technique was unsuccessful and unconventional techniques were not adopted. Technical success was achieved in 119 (96%) patients. The limb-salvage rates were 96.8% and 83% at 1- and 6-month follow-up, respectively. Sixteen (12.9%) and 33 (26.6%) patients underwent reintervention at 1- and 6-month follow-up, respectively. Transcutaneous oxygen tension increased at 1 month (44.7 {+-} 1.1 vs. 15.7 {+-} 0.8 mmHg; p < 0.001) and remained stable at follow-up. Twenty (16.1%) patients required major amputation. Thirteen (10.4%) patients died during follow-up. In our previous experience, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty failure, amputation, and death rates were 10.9, 39.2, and 23.2%, respectively. Alternative techniques allowed a significant decrease of major amputation and death rates (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.02, respectively). The use of alternative techniques seems feasible in case of a failed antegrade BTK revascularization attempt and could minimize failure rates in the treatment of complex occlusions while providing satisfying clinical success rates at 6 months.

  14. Efficacy investigation of transpostceliac single-port 3-channel laparoscope in the treatment of complex renal cyst

    PubMed Central

    Mai, Haixing; Liu, Junle; Zhao, Li; Qu, Nan; Wang, Yalin; Huang, Cheng; Chen, Biao; Li, Yanshuai; Chen, Lijun; Zhang, Xu

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the surgical method and long-term efficacy of transpostceliac single-port 3-channel laparoscope in the treatment of complex renal cyst. A retrospective analysis was performed towards the 37 patients who underwent renal cyst unroofing decompression with single-port laparoscope from Jun. 2012 to Jul. 2013. The surgery was performed through the postceliac approach, a 2.5 cm incision was made 4-5 cm away from the iliac spine of midaxillary line, the Olympus single-port TriPort was then implanted, with the laparoscopic channel and the other two operation channels all as 5 mm. The operation was completed with the forceps and scissors which had flexible fronts. The cysts of the 37 patients were performed the appropriate surgical treatments according to their subtype grouping, on case was transferred to the open surgery, and there was no blood transfusion case. The operation time was 11-42 min, with the mean time as 23 min; the bleeding volume was 10-50 ml, with the mean volume as 26 ml; the postoperative follow-up was 1-6 months, and the ultrasound review did not find the recurrence of cyst; the postoperative lumbar scar was approximately 2.5 cm, and the patients could leave the bed and perform some acts on the exact day of the surgery; the hospitalization time was 1-2 d, with the average time as 1.2 d. The efficacy of the transpostceliac single-port 3-channel laparoscope in the treatment of complex renal cyst was positive, with low recurrence rate, and worthy of further promotion. PMID:26309695

  15. Minors' rights to consent to treatment: navigating the complexity of State laws.

    PubMed

    Vukadinovich, David M

    2004-01-01

    State laws recognize that a competent adult patient has the right to consent to or refuse medical treatment. While the law is clear with regard to the right of competent adults, state statutes are more complicated when the patient is a minor. While the law should, and does, attempt to balance the rights and obligations of parents and guardians against the access and privacy rights of minors, complicated state statutory schemes often fail to simultaneously address those contrasting goals in a consistent and uniform manner. The result is a confusing set of seemingly arbitrary and sometimes conflicting provisions that require the detailed attention of healthcare providers to ensure legal compliance. With the aim of helping healthcare practitioners meet their legal obligations, this Article examines state laws governing minor's consent rights byfocusing on the instances in which a minor's parent, guardian, or other authorized adult is permitted to consent to treatment on behalf of a minor and the instances in which a minor is authorized to act independent of adult intervention. PMID:15732567

  16. Direct access to the middle meningeal artery for embolization of complex dural arteriovenous fistula: a hybrid treatment approach.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ning; Brouillard, Adam M; Mokin, Maxim; Natarajan, Sabareesh K; Snyder, Kenneth V; Levy, Elad I; Siddiqui, Adnan H

    2015-07-01

    Endovascular embolization has become increasingly favored over microsurgical resection for treatment of complex dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs). However, endovascular treatment can be restricted by tortuous transarterial access and a transvenous approach is not always feasible. We present a Borden III DAVF treated by direct access to the middle meningeal artery (MMA) and Onyx embolization performed in a hybrid operating room-angiography suite. A middle-aged patient with pulsatile headaches was found to have left transverse sinus occlusion and DAVF with retrograde cortical venous drainage fed by multiple external carotid artery (ECA) feeders. Endovascular attempts via conventional transvenous and transarterial routes were unsuccessful, and the major MMA feeder was accessed directly after temporal craniotomy was performed under neuronavigation. Onyx embolization was performed; complete occlusion of the fistula was achieved. Three-month follow-up angiography showed no residual filling; the patient remains complication-free. A combined surgical-endovascular technique in a hybrid operating room-angiography suite can be an effective treatment for DAVFs complicated by inaccessible arterial and transvenous approaches. PMID:24916414

  17. Complex PTSD: research directions for nosology/assessment, treatment, and public health

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Julian D.

    2015-01-01

    Complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) in children and adolescents extends beyond the core PTSD symptoms to dysregulation in three psychobiological domains: (1) emotion processing, (2) self-organization (including bodily integrity), and (3) relational functioning. CPTSD research directions for the next decade and beyond are identified in three areas: (1) diagnostic classification (establishing the empirical integrity of CPTSD as a distinct form of psychopathology) and psychometric assessment [validation and refinement of measures of childhood polyvictimization and developmental trauma disorder (DTD)], (2) rigorous evaluation and refinement of interventions (and algorithms for their delivery) developed or adapted for CPTSD and DTD, and (3) the epidemiology of CPTSD and DTD, and their public health and safety impact, across the lifespan and intergenerationally, for populations, nations, and cultures. PMID:25994023

  18. Complex PTSD: research directions for nosology/assessment, treatment, and public health.

    PubMed

    Ford, Julian D

    2015-01-01

    Complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) in children and adolescents extends beyond the core PTSD symptoms to dysregulation in three psychobiological domains: (1) emotion processing, (2) self-organization (including bodily integrity), and (3) relational functioning. CPTSD research directions for the next decade and beyond are identified in three areas: (1) diagnostic classification (establishing the empirical integrity of CPTSD as a distinct form of psychopathology) and psychometric assessment [validation and refinement of measures of childhood polyvictimization and developmental trauma disorder (DTD)], (2) rigorous evaluation and refinement of interventions (and algorithms for their delivery) developed or adapted for CPTSD and DTD, and (3) the epidemiology of CPTSD and DTD, and their public health and safety impact, across the lifespan and intergenerationally, for populations, nations, and cultures. PMID:25994023

  19. Numerical optimization of targeted delivery of charged nanoparticles to the ostiomeatal complex for treatment of rhinosinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Jinxiang; Yuan, Jiayao Eddie; Si, Xiuhua April; Hasbany, James

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the prevalence of rhinosinusitis that affects 10%–15% of the population, current inhalation therapy shows limited efficacy. Standard devices deliver <5% of the drugs to the sinuses due to the complexity of nose structure, secluded location of the sinus, poor ventilation, and lack of control of particle motions inside the nasal cavity. Methods An electric-guided delivery system was developed to guide charged particles to the ostiomeatal complex (OMC). Its performance was numerically assessed in an MRI-based nose–sinus model. Key design variables related to the delivery device, drug particles, and patient breathing were determined using sensitivity analysis. A two-stage optimization of design variables was conducted to obtain the best performance of the delivery system using the Nelder-Mead algorithm. Results and discussion The OMC delivery system exhibited high sensitivity to the applied electric field and electrostatic charges carried by the particles. Through the synthesis of electric guidance and point drug release, the new delivery system eliminated particle deposition in the nasal valve and turbinate regions and significantly enhanced the OMC doses. An OMC delivery efficiency of 72.4% was obtained with the optimized design, which is one order of magnitude higher than the standard nasal devices. Moreover, optimization is imperative to achieve a sound delivery protocol because of the large number of design variables. The OMC dose increased from 45.0% in the baseline model to 72.4% in the optimized system. The optimization framework developed in this study can be easily adapted for the delivery of drugs to other sites in the nose such as the ethmoid sinus and olfactory region. PMID:26257521

  20. Initial experience with transluminally placed endovascular grafts for the treatment of complex vascular lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Marin, M L; Veith, F J; Cynamon, J; Sanchez, L A; Lyon, R T; Levine, B A; Bakal, C W; Suggs, W D; Wengerter, K R; Rivers, S P

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Complex arterial occlusive, traumatic, and aneurysmal lesions may be difficult or impossible to treat successfully by standard surgical techniques when severe medical or surgical comorbidities exist. The authors describe a single center's experience over a 2 1/2-year period with 96 endovascular graft procedures performed to treat 100 arterial lesions in 92 patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-three patients had 36 large aortic and/or peripheral artery aneurysms, 48 had 53 multilevel limb-threatening aortoiliac and/or femoropopliteal occlusive lesions, and 11 had traumatic arterial injuries (false aneurysms and arteriovenous fistulas). Endovascular grafts were placed through remote arteriotomies under local (16[17%]), epidural (42[43%]), or general (38[40%]) anesthesia. RESULTS: Technical and clinical successes were achieved in 91% of the patients with aneurysms, 91% with occlusive lesions, and 100% with traumatic arterial lesions. These patients and grafts have been followed from 1 to 30 months (mean, 13 months). The primary and secondary patency rates at 18 months for aortoiliac occlusions were 77% and 95%, respectively. The 18-month limb salvage rate was 98%. Immediately after aortic aneurysm exclusion, a total of 6 (33%) perigraft channels were detected; 3 of these closed within 8 weeks. Endovascular stented graft procedures were associated with a 10% major and a 14% minor complication rate. The overall 30-day mortality rate for this entire series was 6%. CONCLUSIONS: This initial experience with endovascular graft repair of complex arterial lesions justifies further use and careful evaluation of this technique for major arterial reconstruction. Images Figure 1. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. Figure 9. Figure 11. PMID:7574926

  1. Multimodal treatment strategies for complex pediatric cerebral arteriovenous fistulas: contemporary case series at Barrow Neurological Institute.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Hasan A; Kalani, M Yashar S; Spetzler, Robert F; McDougall, Cameron G; Albuquerque, Felipe C

    2015-06-01

    OBJECT Pediatric cerebral arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are rare but potentially lethal vascular lesions. Management strategies for these lesions have undergone considerable evolution in the last decade with the advent of new endovascular, surgical, and radiosurgical technologies. This study sought to review current treatment strategies and long-term clinical outcomes at a high-volume cerebrovascular institute. METHODS A retrospective chart review was performed on patients with a diagnosis of cerebral AVF from 1999 to 2012. Patients with carotid-cavernous fistulas, vein of Galen malformations, and age > 18 years were excluded from final analysis. Medical history, surgical and nonsurgical treatment, and clinical outcomes were documented. Pre- and postoperative angiograms were analyzed to assess for obliteration of the fistula. RESULTS Seventeen patients with pial AVFs (29.4%), dural AVFs (64.7%), or mixed pial/dural AVFs (5.9%) were identified. The majority of lesions were paramedian (70.6%) and supratentorial (76.5%). The study population had a mean age of 6.4 years, with a slight male predominance (52.9%), and the most common presenting symptoms were seizures (23.5%), headaches (17.6%), congestive heart failure (11.7%), and enlarging head circumference (11.7%). Among patients who underwent intervention (n = 16), 56.3% were treated with endovascular therapy alone, 6.3% were treated with open surgery alone, and 37.5% required a multimodal approach. Overall, 93.8% of the treated patients received endovascular treatment, 43.8% received open surgery, and 12.5% received radiosurgery. Endovascular embolysates included Onyx (n = 5), N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA; n = 4), or coil embolization (n = 7) with or without balloon assistance (n = 2). Complete angiographic obliteration was achieved in 87.5% at the last follow-up evaluation (mean follow-up 3.1 years). One infant with incomplete AVF obliteration died of congestive heart failure, and 1 patient with complete obliteration died of acute sinus thrombosis, with an overall complication rate of 18.8%. CONCLUSIONS Pediatric cerebral AVFs are challenging neurosurgical lesions. Although advancements in endovascular therapy in the last decade have greatly changed the natural course of this disease, a multidisciplinary approach remains necessary for a large subset of patients. Surgeon experience with a thorough analysis of preoperative imaging is paramount to achieving acceptable clinical outcomes. PMID:25815632

  2. [Creative-work therapy as an essential method in the complex treatment of neuroses].

    PubMed

    Kulawik, H; Weder, H C

    1982-11-01

    A specialized psychotherapy of neurotic developments should take aim at elucidating the more or less unconscious intrapsychic roots of these disorders. A clinical task in the medical psychotherapy is to facilitate and to promote the abilities of the patient to experience himself more adequate. We attribute to the experience a central role in the treatment. In this sense the creative work therapy is a valuable supplementing method in the group-psychotherapy by means of loosening instinctive impulses, making more transparent intrapsychic conflicts and facilitating to deal with these conflicts in a constructive way. This psychotherapeutic method furthermore stimulates the self-experience of the patient by improving his ways of communicating. By this better preconditions and stimulations for a constructive way of coping with the social milieu are created. Methods and techniques are represented in detail. PMID:7170324

  3. Effects of the Medical Resonance Therapy Music in the complex treatment of epileptic patients.

    PubMed

    Sidorenko, V N

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Medical Resonance Therapy Music (MRT-Music) as a psycho-physiological method for the treatment of epilepsy in severe epileptic patients, whose attacks persevered despite comprehensive drug treatments. Under investigation were frequency and severity of epileptic attacks, the subjective state, the dynamics of the inter-paroxysmal symptoms and the individual parameters of the functional asymmetry of the brain (IPFA). Frequency and severity of the paroxysms changed positively in 80 percent of the cases: frequency of attacks were reduced by 75 percent and many attacks manifested in the form of abortive variants. The paroxysmal component, the degree of amnesia and the polymorphism of the attacks were reduced. Such positive changes were 4 times less frequent in the control group. Changes in subjective state were 90 percent positive: the patients felt more healthy, were calmer, had a better mood and fewer ups and downs in mood, released tension, and reduced unrest, wrath, and irritation. The evaluation of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) showed clear improvements in the inter-paroxysmal clinical picture, particularly in those parameters that characterise the general degree of sickness, psychasthenic and paranoid traits, hypochondria, aggression and depressive states. Similar positive changes in the control group were observed two times less frequently. The changes of the IPFA-values were positive in 73.3 percent of the patients (27.8 percent in controls), had differently directed shiftings, were dependent on the initial level, and were determined by the location of the epileptic focus. PMID:11286374

  4. "In reality, it is complex and difficult": UK nurses' perspectives on "treatment as prevention" within HIV care.

    PubMed

    Evans, Catrin; Bennett, Juliet; Croston, Michelle; Brito-Ault, Nathaniel; Bruton, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Globally, clinical guidelines for HIV treatment are being altered to reflect new research showing that successful treatment with antiretroviral therapies (ART) can prevent the onward transmission of HIV. As a result, health care services are being challenged to find ways to roll out "treatment as prevention" (TasP) as a public health measure. In theory, TasP requires individuals to start ART as soon as they are diagnosed - for public health reasons - which may be some time before ART for that individual is required for clinical reasons. There is currently little research on the acceptability of TasP from a patient or provider perspective. This paper reports findings from a qualitative study that sought to explore UK nurses' views and experiences of TasP in HIV care. Ten HIV specialist nurses, purposively selected from across the country, were interviewed. Results suggest that, although positive about TasP in principle, nurses hold several reservations about its implementation in practice. Perceived benefits of TasP include reassurance for patients that their loved ones are protected and that immediate care is available. Concerns include the possibility of sexual dis-inhibition or coercion within sexual relationships. In the UK context, decisions around TasP are still being made on a highly individualised patient by patient basis, within a philosophy of holistic care and partnership working. As such, the research participants called for more resources to support information giving, risk assessment and decision-making. The results show that translating a public health treatment approach into individual patient care is complex, potentially time-consuming and may alter traditional provider-patient dynamics. The findings from this study suggest that in-depth research is needed to understand better the patient, community and provider experience as TasP becomes more widely rolled out. PMID:25650545

  5. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel folic acid receptor-targeted, ?-cyclodextrin-based drug complexes for cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Yin, Juan-Juan; Sharma, Sonali; Shumyak, Stepan P; Wang, Zhi-Xin; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Zhang, Yangde; Guo, Peixuan; Li, Chen-Zhong; Kanwar, Jagat R; Yang, Tianxin; Mohapatra, Shyam S; Liu, Wanqing; Duan, Wei; Wang, Jian-Cheng; Li, Qi; Zhang, Xueji; Tan, Jun; Jia, Lee; Liang, Jun; Wei, Ming Q; Li, Xiaotian; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Drug targeting is an active area of research and nano-scaled drug delivery systems hold tremendous potential for the treatment of neoplasms. In this study, a novel cyclodextrin (CD)-based nanoparticle drug delivery system has been assembled and characterized for the therapy of folate receptor-positive [FR(+)] cancer. Water-soluble folic acid (FA)-conjugated CD carriers (FACDs) were successfully synthesized and their structures were confirmed by 1D/2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF-MS), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and circular dichroism. Drug complexes of adamatane (Ada) and cytotoxic doxorubicin (Dox) with FACD were readily obtained by mixed solvent precipitation. The average size of FACD-Ada-Dox was 1.5-2.5 nm. The host-guest association constant K a was 1,639 M(-1) as determined by induced circular dichroism and the hydrophilicity of the FACDs was greatly enhanced compared to unmodified CD. Cellular uptake and FR binding competitive experiments demonstrated an efficient and preferentially targeted delivery of Dox into FR-positive tumor cells and a sustained drug release profile was seen in vitro. The delivery of Dox into FR(+) cancer cells via endocytosis was observed by confocal microscopy and drug uptake of the targeted nanoparticles was 8-fold greater than that of non-targeted drug complexes. Our docking results suggest that FA, FACD and FACD-Ada-Dox could bind human hedgehog interacting protein that contains a FR domain. Mouse cardiomyocytes as well as fibroblast treated with FACD-Ada-Dox had significantly lower levels of reactive oxygen species, with increased content of glutathione and glutathione peroxidase activity, indicating a reduced potential for Dox-induced cardiotoxicity. These results indicate that the targeted drug complex possesses high drug association and sustained drug release properties with good biocompatibility and physiological stability. The novel FA-conjugated ?-CD based drug complex might be promising as an anti-tumor treatment for FR(+) cancer. PMID:23658721

  6. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Folic Acid Receptor-Targeted, ?-Cyclodextrin-Based Drug Complexes for Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Juan-Juan; Sharma, Sonali; Shumyak, Stepan P.; Wang, Zhi-Xin; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Zhang, Yangde; Guo, Peixuan; Li, Chen-Zhong; Kanwar, Jagat R.; Yang, Tianxin; Mohapatra, Shyam S.; Liu, Wanqing; Duan, Wei; Wang, Jian-Cheng; Li, Qi; Zhang, Xueji; Tan, Jun; Jia, Lee; Liang, Jun; Wei, Ming Q.; Li, Xiaotian; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Drug targeting is an active area of research and nano-scaled drug delivery systems hold tremendous potential for the treatment of neoplasms. In this study, a novel cyclodextrin (CD)-based nanoparticle drug delivery system has been assembled and characterized for the therapy of folate receptor-positive [FR(+)] cancer. Water-soluble folic acid (FA)-conjugated CD carriers (FACDs) were successfully synthesized and their structures were confirmed by 1D/2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF-MS), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and circular dichroism. Drug complexes of adamatane (Ada) and cytotoxic doxorubicin (Dox) with FACD were readily obtained by mixed solvent precipitation. The average size of FACD-Ada-Dox was 1.5–2.5 nm. The host-guest association constant Ka was 1,639 M?1 as determined by induced circular dichroism and the hydrophilicity of the FACDs was greatly enhanced compared to unmodified CD. Cellular uptake and FR binding competitive experiments demonstrated an efficient and preferentially targeted delivery of Dox into FR-positive tumor cells and a sustained drug release profile was seen in vitro. The delivery of Dox into FR(+) cancer cells via endocytosis was observed by confocal microscopy and drug uptake of the targeted nanoparticles was 8-fold greater than that of non-targeted drug complexes. Our docking results suggest that FA, FACD and FACD-Ada-Dox could bind human hedgehog interacting protein that contains a FR domain. Mouse cardiomyocytes as well as fibroblast treated with FACD-Ada-Dox had significantly lower levels of reactive oxygen species, with increased content of glutathione and glutathione peroxidase activity, indicating a reduced potential for Dox-induced cardiotoxicity. These results indicate that the targeted drug complex possesses high drug association and sustained drug release properties with good biocompatibility and physiological stability. The novel FA-conjugated ?-CD based drug complex might be promising as an anti-tumor treatment for FR(+) cancer. PMID:23658721

  7. Use of the Environmental Simulation Program (ESP) to Simulate Complex Waste Treatment Processes

    SciTech Connect

    MacLean, G. T.; Ho, Q. T.; Berger, S. R. K.

    2003-02-26

    The Environmental Simulation Program is a process simulator designed for aqueous based chemical processes. ESP, which is produced by OLI Systems, Inc., utilizes sophisticated activity coefficient models and predictive equations that result in the ability to simulate very complex electrolyte systems (OLI, 2002). The software comes with databanks of regressed parameters for a large number of aqueous, vapor, and solid species covering most of the elements. ESP has been used extensively at the U. S. Department of Energy Hanford Site to predict nuclear waste slurry vapor-liquid-solid equilibrium. It has and is being used to model leaching and washing of nuclear waste sludges, evaporation of nuclear waste solutions, crystallization of salts, precipitation of plutonium and other metals from waste solutions, and other processing of dilute and concentrated aqueous solutions, sludges, and slurries. The software is also used extensively to rationalize the characterization of nuclear wastes using limited data from analyses of waste samples. The OLI provided databanks suffer from a legacy interaction model that limits the accuracy when neutral solutes are important. Also, the nitrate-nitrite systems typically found in nuclear wastes are not properly parameterized in ESP databases because of the existence of sodium nitrate and nitrite ion pairs. Properties databanks for ESP have been developed at Flour Federal Services that eliminate the legacy model and provide more accurate simulation results than the OLI supplied databases for such concentrated solutions and slurries.

  8. Deciphering the complexities of atopic dermatitis: shifting paradigms in treatment approaches.

    PubMed

    Leung, Donald Y M; Guttman-Yassky, Emma

    2014-10-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common chronic inflammatory skin disease. It often precedes the development of food allergy and asthma. Recent insights into AD reveal abnormalities in terminal differentiation of the epidermal epithelium leading to a defective stratum corneum, which allows enhanced allergen penetration and systemic IgE sensitization. Atopic skin is also predisposed to colonization or infection by pathogenic microbes, most notably Staphylococcus aureus and herpes simplex virus. Causes of this abnormal skin barrier are complex and driven by a combination of genetic, environmental, and immunologic factors. These factors likely account for the heterogeneity of AD onset and the severity and natural history of this skin disease. Recent studies suggest prevention of AD can be achieved through early interventions to protect the skin barrier. Onset of lesional AD requires effective control of local and systemic immune activation for optimal management. Early intervention might improve long-term outcomes for AD and reduce the systemic allergen sensitization that leads to associated allergic diseases in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tract. PMID:25282559

  9. Deciphering the Complexities of Atopic Dermatitis: Shifting Paradigms in Treatment Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Donald Y. M.; Guttman-Yassky, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common chronic inflammatory skin disease. It often precedes the development of food allergy and asthma. Recent insights into AD reveal abnormalities in terminal differentiation of the epidermal epithelium leading to a defective stratum corneum, which allows enhanced allergen penetration and systemic IgE sensitization. Atopic skin is also predisposed to colonization or infection by pathogenic microbes, most notably Staphylococcus aureus and herpes simplex virus (HSV). Causes of this abnormal skin barrier are complex and driven by a combination of genetic, environmental and immunologic factors. These factors likely account for the heterogeneity of AD onset, severity and natural history of this skin disease. Recent studies suggest prevention of AD can be achieved by early interventions protecting the skin barrier. Onset of lesional AD requires effective control of local and systemic immune activation for optimal management. Early intervention may improve long term outcomes for AD and reduce the systemic allergen sensitization leading to associated allergic diseases in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tract. PMID:25282559

  10. Comparative performance of UASB and anaerobic hybrid reactors for the treatment of complex phenolic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Anushuya; Surampalli, Rao Y

    2012-11-01

    The performance of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and an anaerobic hybrid reactor (AHR) was investigated for the treatment of simulated coal wastewater containing toxic phenolics at different hydraulic retention times (0.75-0.33d). Fast start-up and granulation of biomass could be achieved in an AHR (45d) than UASB (58d) reactor. Reduction of HRT from 1.5 to 0.33d resulted in a decline in phenolics removal efficiency from 99% to 77% in AHR and 95% to 68% in UASB reactor respectively. AHR could withstand 2.5 times the selected phenolics loading compared to UASB reactor that could not withstand even 1.2 times the selected phenolics loading. Residence time distribution (RTD) study revealed a plug flow regime in the AHR and completely mixed regime in UASB reactor respectively. Energy economics of the reactors revealed that 12,159MJd(-1) more energy can be generated using AHR than UASB reactor. PMID:22940341

  11. Clinical application of operative hysteroscopy in treatment of complex hydrosalpinx prior to IVF

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Hong-Chu; Wang, Mei-Mei; Wang, Xin-Rong; Wang, Wen-Juan; Hao, Cui-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Background: In vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) is the best option for patients with hydrosalpinx. However, if hydrosalpinges is not pre-treated, the therapeutic outcomes of IVF-ET would be compromised. Objective: This study aims to investigate the safety and effects of operative hysteroscopy in the treatment of patients with hydrosalpinx prior to IVF-ET, who were not indicated for laparotomy due to extensive pelvic adhesion. Materials and Methods: The study analyses retrospectively data from 10 women with hydrosalpinx, who were unable to undergo laparotomy due to extensive pelvic adhesion and treated by operative hysteroscopy prior to IVF-ET, and was assessed the effects and safety of the procedure. Results: Postoperative Hystero-salpingography demonstrated complete tubal occlusion of the diseased side in all cases. Being applied with IVF-ET for fertility after their hysteroscopy operation, 5 out of 10 patients acquired clinical pregnancy. Conclusion: Hysteroscopic tubal occlusion of the proximal part of the hydrosalpinx can effectively prevent the hydrops backflow to endometrial cavity and benefit subsequent implantation in the course of assisted reproduction without significant complications. PMID:26221131

  12. Impact of reclamation treatment on the biological activity of soils of the solonetz complex in Western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezin, L. V.; Khamova, O. F.; Paderina, E. V.; Gindemit, A. M.

    2014-11-01

    The abundance and activity of the soil microflora were studied in a field experiment with the use of green manure crops to assess the impact of reclamation measures on the biological activity of soils of the solonetz complex. The number of microorganisms in the plow soil horizon increased in the background of the green fallows as compared to the black ones. Coefficients of mineralization, immobilization, and transformation of organic compounds were calculated for different variants of the soil treatment. The value of the mineralization coefficient indicates the intense decomposition of the green manure that entered the soil. In the first year, peas were actively decomposed, while oats, in the second year (aftereffect). The activity of the soil enzymes (invertase, urease, and catalase) was determined. A close relationship between the catalase activity and the intensity of the microbiological processes in the soils was revealed.

  13. Preliminary engineering evaluation of heat and digest treatment for in-tank removal of radionuclides from complexed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Klem, M.J.

    1995-09-29

    This report uses laboratory data from low temperature-ambient pressure digestion of actual complexed supernatant to evaluate digestion as a pretreatment method for waste in double-shell tanks 241-AN-102, 241-AN-107 and 241-AY-101. Digestion time requirements were developed at 100 degrees celsius to remove organic and meet NRC Class C criterion for TRU elements and NRC Class B criterion for 90Sr. The incidental waste ruling will establish the need for removal of 90Sr. Digestion pretreatment precipitates non radioactive metal ions and produces additional high-level waste solids and canisters of high level glass. This report estimates the amount of additional high-level waste produced and preliminary capital and operating costs for in-tank digestion of waste. An overview of alternative in-tank treatment methods is included

  14. Ligation of intersphincteric fistula tract and its modification: Results from treatment of complex fistula

    PubMed Central

    Sirikurnpiboon, Siripong; Awapittaya, Burin; Jivapaisarnpong, Paiboon

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To compare healing rates between intersphincteric fistula tract (LIFT) and LIFT plus partial fistulectomy procedures. METHODS: A study of complex fistula-in-ano patients was carried out from 1st March 2010 to 31th January 2012. All operations were done by colorectal surgeons at a referral center in a Ministry of Public Health hospital. Data collected included patients’ demographic details, fistula type determined by endorectal-ultrasonography, preoperative and postoperative continence status, previous operations, time between diagnosis of fistula-in-ano and operation, type of surgery, healing rates, recurrence rates, and types of failure examined by endorectal-ultrasosnography, re-operation in recurrence or failure cases, and complications. RESULTS: The study involved 41 patients whose average age was 40.78 ± 11.84 years (range: 21-71 years). The major fistula type was high-transsphincteric type fistula. The median follow-up period was 24 wk. The overall success rate was 83%: in the LIFT (Ligation intersphincteric fistula tract) group the success rate was 81% and in the LIFT plus (LIFT with partial coreout fistulectomy) group it was 85% (P = 0.529). The median wound-healing time was 4 wk in both groups (P = 0.262). The median time to recurrence was 12 wk. Neither group had incontinence (Wexner incontinence score-0) and the difference in healing rates between the two groups was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: There was no difference in results between LIFT and LIFT plus operations. The LIFT procedure is a good option for maintaining continence in management of fistula-in-ano. PMID:23671739

  15. Multidimensional treatment of stochastic solvent dynamics in photoinduced proton-coupled electron transfer processes: Sequential, concerted, and complex branching mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soudackov, Alexander V.; Hazra, Anirban; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2011-10-01

    A theoretical approach for the multidimensional treatment of photoinduced proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) processes in solution is presented. This methodology is based on the multistate continuum theory with an arbitrary number of diabatic electronic states representing the relevant charge distributions in a general PCET system. The active electrons and transferring proton(s) are treated quantum mechanically, and the electron-proton vibronic free energy surfaces are represented as functions of multiple scalar solvent coordinates corresponding to the single electron and proton transfer reactions involved in the PCET process. A dynamical formulation of the dielectric continuum theory is used to derive a set of coupled generalized Langevin equations of motion describing the time evolution of these collective solvent coordinates. The parameters in the Langevin equations depend on the solvent properties, such as the dielectric constants, relaxation time, and molecular moment of inertia, as well as the solute properties. The dynamics of selected intramolecular nuclear coordinates, such as the proton donor-acceptor distance or a torsional angle within the PCET complex, may also be included in this formulation. A surface hopping method in conjunction with the Langevin equations of motion is used to simulate the nonadiabatic dynamics on the multidimensional electron-proton vibronic free energy surfaces following photoexcitation. This theoretical treatment enables the description of both sequential and concerted mechanisms, as well as more complex processes involving a combination of these mechanisms. The application of this methodology to a series of model systems corresponding to collinear and orthogonal PCET illustrates fundamental aspects of these different mechanisms and elucidates the significance of proton vibrational relaxation and nonequilibrium solvent dynamics.

  16. The complexity of biosorption treatments for oxyanions in a multi-element mine effluent.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Charlotte L; Paul, Nicholas A; de Nys, Rocky; Roberts, David A

    2015-03-15

    Selenium (Se) is a contaminant in effluents from coal mines and coal-fired power stations, where it is encountered as the oxyanion selenate (SeO4(2-), hereafter Se(VI)). Se(VI) can be removed from solution with Fe-treated biosorbents, but the efficacy of these treatments in effluents with multiple contaminants is unclear. This study investigates the interactions between Se(VI) and the oxyanions SO4(2-) and NO3(-). We produce a sustainable biosorbent, Gracilaria Modified Biochar (GMB), by treating a waste product generated after the commercial extraction of agar from cultivated seaweeds with ferric chloride (FeCl3) and converting it to biochar through pyrolysis. We then test interactions between Se(VI) and competing oxyanions in mock solutions and a real-world mine effluent with high concentrations of SO4(2-) and NO3(-). GMB immediately removed 98% of the Se(VI) from the mock solution, but only 3% from the mine effluent with the same initial Se(VI) concentration. Notably, 83-89% of the Se(VI) was removed by GMB when concentrations of Se(VI) and SO4(2-) were less than or equimolar in mock solutions. Higher concentrations of SO4(2-) reduced the uptake of Se(VI). There was no interference from NO3(-) on the biosorption of Se(VI). GMB is a successful biosorbent for Se(VI), however, high concentrations of SO4(2-) will compromise the biosorption of Se(VI). PMID:25590609

  17. [New aspects of complex chronic tinnitus. I: Assessment of a multi-modality behavioral medicine treatment concept].

    PubMed

    Goebel, G; Keeser, W; Fichter, M; Rief, W

    1991-01-01

    "Complex tinnitus" is a diagnostic term denoting a disturbance pattern where the patient hears highly annoying and painful noises or sounds that do not originate from a recognisable external source and can be described only by the patient himself. It seems that the suffering mainly depends upon the extent to which the tinnitus is experienced as a phenomenon that is beyond control. Part I reports on an examination of the treatment success achieved with 28 consecutive patients who had been treated according to an integrative multimodal behavioural medicine concept. This resulted--despite continual loudness--in a decrease in the degree of unpleasantness of the tinnitus, by 17% (p less than 0.01) with corresponding normalisation of decisive symptom factors in Hopkins Symptom-Check-List (SCL-90-R) and Freiburg Personality-Inventary (FPI-R). On the whole, 19 out of the total of 28 patients showed essential to marked improvement of the disturbance pattern. Part II presents a multidimensional tinnitus model and the essential psychotherapeutic focal points of a multimodal psychotherapy concept in complex chronic tinnitus, as well as the parallel phenomena in the chronic pain syndrome. PMID:2057545

  18. Pain exposure physical therapy (PEPT) compared to conventional treatment in complex regional pain syndrome type 1: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Barnhoorn, Karlijn J; van de Meent, Henk; van Dongen, Robert T M; Klomp, Frank P; Groenewoud, Hans; Samwel, Han; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G; Frölke, Jan Paul M; Staal, J Bart

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the effectiveness of pain exposure physical therapy (PEPT) with conventional treatment in patients with complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS-1) in a randomised controlled trial with a blinded assessor. Setting The study was conducted at a level 1 trauma centre in the Netherlands. Participants 56 adult patients with CRPS-1 participated. Three patients were lost to follow-up. Interventions Patients received either PEPT in a maximum of five treatment sessions, or conventional treatment following the Dutch multidisciplinary guideline. Measurements Outcomes were assessed at baseline and at 3, 6 and 9?months after randomisation. The primary outcome measure was the Impairment level Sum Score—Restricted Version (ISS-RV), consisting of visual analogue scale for pain (VAS-pain), McGill Pain Questionnaire, active range of motion (AROM) and skin temperature. Secondary outcome measures included Pain Disability Index (PDI); muscle strength; Short Form 36 (SF-36); disability of arm, shoulder and hand; Lower Limb Tasks Questionnaire (LLTQ); 10?m walk test; timed up-and-go test (TUG) and EuroQol-5D. Results The intention-to-treat analysis showed a clinically relevant decrease in ISS-RV (6.7 points for PEPT and 6.2 points for conventional treatment), but the between-group difference was not significant (0.96, 95% CI ?1.56 to 3.48). Participants allocated to PEPT experienced a greater improvement in AROM (between-group difference 0.51, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.94; p=0.02). The per protocol analysis showed larger and significant between-group effects on ISS-RV, VAS-pain, AROM, PDI, SF-36, LLTQ and TUG. Conclusions We cannot conclude that PEPT is superior to conventional treatment for patients with CRPS-1. Further high-quality research on the effects of PEPT is warranted given the potential effects as indicated by the per protocol analysis. Trial registration numbers NCT00817128 and NTR 2090. PMID:26628523

  19. [Dynamics of clinical changes and healing of purulent wounds in application of nanocapsules of phosphatidylcholine in complex of treatment of patients, suffering the oral cavity floor phlegmon].

    PubMed

    Avetikov, D S; Kuong, Vu Vyet; Stavytskiy, S O; Lokes, K P; Voloshyna, L I

    2015-03-01

    Substantiation of expediency for nanocapsules of phosphatidylcholine (lipin) application, owing antihypoxant, antioxydant and immunostimulating action in complex of treatment of patients, suffering odontogenic phlegmon of oral cavity floor (OPHOCF), is presented. The preparation application have promoted a trustworthy reduction of exudation of purulent content, as well as more rapid occurrence of granulations and the wound epithelization. PMID:26072543

  20. Regulation of hippocampal Fas receptor and death-inducing signaling complex after kainic acid treatment in mice.

    PubMed

    Keller, Benjamin; García-Sevilla, Jesús A

    2015-12-01

    Kainic acid (KA)-induced brain neuronal cell death (especially in the hippocampus) was shown to be mainly mediated by the intrinsic (mitochondrial) apoptotic pathway. This study investigated the regulation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway mediated by Fas ligand/Fas receptor and components of the indispensable death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) in the hippocampus (marked changes) and cerebral cortex (modest changes) of KA-treated mice. KA (45mg/kg) induced a severe behavioral syndrome with recurrent motor seizures (scores; maximal at 60-90min; minimal at 72h) with activation of hippocampal pro-apoptotic JNK (+2.5 fold) and increased GFAP (+57%) and nuclear PARP-1 fragmentation (+114%) 72h post-treatment (delayed neurotoxicity). In the extrinsic apoptotic pathway (hippocampus), KA (72h) reduced Fas ligand (-92%) and Fas receptor aggregates (-24%). KA (72h) also altered the contents of major DISC components: decreased FADD adaptor (-44%), reduced activation of initiator caspase-8 (-47%) and increased survival FLIP-S (+220%). Notably, KA (72h) upregulated the content of anti-apoptotic p-Ser191 FADD (+41%) and consequently the expression of p-FADD/FADD ratio (+1.9-fold), a neuroplastic index. Moreover, the p-FADD dependent transcription factor NF-?B was also increased (+61%) in the hippocampus after KA (72h). The convergent adaptation of the extrinsic apoptotic machinery 72h after KA in mice (with otherwise normal gross behavior) is a novel finding which suggests the induction of survival mechanisms to partly counteract the delayed neuronal death in the hippocampus. PMID:26044520

  1. IL-2/anti-IL-2 antibody complex treatment inhibits the development but not the progression of herpetic stromal keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Gaddipati, Subhash; Estrada, Kathleen; Rao, Pushpa; Jerome, Andrew David; Suvas, Susmit

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and anti-IL-2 antibody immune complex has recently been shown to expand the naturally occurring pool of CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Foxp3+ Tregs). In this report, we showed that administration of IL-2/anti-IL-2 antibody immunocomplex to C57BL/6 mice, prior to corneal herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) infection, significantly increased the pool of Foxp3+ Tregs when measured at early time-points post-infection. Increased numbers of Foxp3+ Tregs on day 2 and day 4 post-infection resulted in a marked reduction in the development of severe HSK. When compared to corneas from the control group, corneas from the immunocomplex-treated group showed a significant reduction in the amount of infectious virus on day 2 but not on day 4 post-infection. Reduced viral load was associated with two-fold increase in NK cell numbers in corneas from the immunocomplex-treated group of mice. Moreover, a dramatic reduction in the influx of CD4 T cells in inflamed corneas was determined on days 7 and 16 post-infection in the immunocomplex-treated group of infected mice. Immunocomplex treatment given on days 5, 6 and 7 post-infection significantly increased Foxp3+ Tregs in draining lymph nodes and in the spleen but failed to reduce the severity of HSK. In terms of the influx of CD4 T cells and granulocytes into inflamed corneas, no significant differences were noted between both groups of mice on day 16 post-infection. Our findings demonstrate that increasing Foxp3+ Tregs early but not late after infection in secondary lymphoid tissues is more efficacious in controlling the severity of HSK. PMID:25411200

  2. Reversal of brain metabolic abnormalities following treatment of AIDS dementia complex with 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (AZT, zidovudine): a PET-FDG study

    SciTech Connect

    Brunetti, A.; Berg, G.; Di Chiro, G.; Cohen, R.M.; Yarchoan, R.; Pizzo, P.A.; Broder, S.; Eddy, J.; Fulham, M.J.; Finn, R.D.

    1989-05-01

    Brain glucose metabolism was evaluated in four patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) dementia complex using (/sup 18/F)fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and positron emission tomography (PET) scans at the beginning of therapy with 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (AZT, zidovudine), and later in the course of therapy. In two patients, baseline, large focal cortical abnormalities of glucose utilization were reversed during the course of therapy. In the other two patients, the initial PET study did not reveal pronounced focal alterations, while the post-treatment scans showed markedly increased cortical glucose metabolism. The improved cortical glucose utilization was accompanied in all patients by immunologic and neurologic improvement. PET-FDG studies can detect cortical metabolic abnormalities associated with AIDS dementia complex, and may be used to monitor the metabolic improvement in response to AZT treatment.

  3. Control Point Analysis comparison for 3 different treatment planning and delivery complexity levels using a commercial 3-dimensional diode array

    SciTech Connect

    Abdellatif, Ady; Gaede, Stewart

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the use of “Control Point Analysis” (Sun Nuclear Corporation, Melbourne, FL) to analyze and compare delivered volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans for 3 different treatment planning complexity levels. A total of 30 patients were chosen and fully anonymized for the purpose of this study. Overall, 10 lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), 10 head-and-neck (H and N), and 10 prostate VMAT plans were generated on Pinnacle{sup 3} and delivered on a Varian linear accelerator (LINAC). The delivered dose was measured using ArcCHECK (Sun Nuclear Corporation, Melbourne, FL). Each plan was analyzed using “Sun Nuclear Corporation (SNC) Patient 6” and “Control Point Analysis.” Gamma passing percentage was used to assess the differences between the measured and planned dose distributions and to assess the role of various control point binning combinations. Of the different sites considered, the prostate cases reported the highest gamma passing percentages calculated with “SNC Patient 6” (97.5% to 99.2% for the 3%, 3 mm) and “Control Point Analysis” (95.4% to 98.3% for the 3%, 3 mm). The mean percentage of passing control point sectors for the prostate cases increased from 51.8 ± 7.8% for individual control points to 70.6 ± 10.5% for 5 control points binned together to 87.8 ± 11.0% for 10 control points binned together (2%, 2-mm passing criteria). Overall, there was an increasing trend in the percentage of sectors passing gamma analysis with an increase in the number of control points binned together in a sector for both the gamma passing criteria (2%, 2 mm and 3%, 3 mm). Although many plans passed the clinical quality assurance criteria, plans involving the delivery of high Monitor Unit (MU)/control point (SBRT) and plans involving high degree of modulation (H and N) showed less delivery accuracy per control point compared with plans with low MU/control point and low degree of modulation (prostate)

  4. Clinical Health Outcomes Initiative in Comparative Effectiveness for Bipolar Disorder (Bipolar CHOICE): A Pragmatic Trial of Complex Treatment for a Complex Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Nierenberg, Andrew A.; Sylvia, Louisa G.; Leon, Andrew C.; Reilly-Harrington, Noreen; Shesler, Leah W.; McElroy, Susan L.; Friedman, Edward S.; Thase, Michael E.; Shelton, Richard C.; Bowden, Charles; Tohen, Mauricio; Singh, Vivek; Deckersbach, Thilo; Ketter, Terence; Kocsis, James; McInnis, Melvin G.; Schoenfeld, David; Bobo, William V.; Calabrese, Joseph R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Classic and second generation antipsychotic mood stabilizers are recommended for treatment of bipolar disorder, yet there are no randomized comparative effectiveness studies that have examined the “real-world” advantages and disadvantages of these medications Purpose We describe the strategic decisions in the design of the Clinical and Health Outcomes Initiative in Comparative Effectiveness for Bipolar Disorder (Bipolar CHOICE). This paper outlines the key issues and solutions the investigators faced in designing a clinical trial that would maximize generalizability and inform real-world clinical treatment of bipolar disorder. Methods Bipolar CHOICE was a 6-month, multi-site, prospective, randomized clinical trial of outpatients with bipolar disorder. This study compares the effectiveness of quetiapine versus lithium, each with adjunctive personalized treatments. The co-primary outcomes selected are the overall benefits and harms of the study medications (as measured by the Clinical Global Impression-Efficacy Index) and the Necessary Clinical Adjustments (a measure of the number of medication changes). Secondary outcomes are continuous measures of mood, the Framingham General Cardiovascular Risk Score and the Longitudinal Interval Follow up Evaluation Range of Impaired Functioning Tool. Results The final study design consisted of a single-blind, randomized comparative effectiveness trial of quetiapine versus lithium, plus adjunctive personalized treatment (APT), across ten sites. Other important study considerations included limited exclusion criteria to maximize generalizability, flexible dosing of APT medications to mimic real-world treatment, and an intent-to-treat analysis plan. 482 participants were randomized to the study and 364 completed. Limitations The potential limitations of the study include the heterogeneity of APT, selection of study medications, lack of a placebo-control group, and participants’ ability to pay for study medications. Conclusion We expect that this study will inform our understanding of the benefits and harms of lithium, a classic mood stabilizer, compared to quetiapine, a second generation antipsychotic with broad-spectrum activity in bipolar disorder and will provide an example of a well-designed and well-conducted randomized comparative effectiveness clinical trial. PMID:24346608

  5. Budesonide-hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin inclusion complex in binary poloxamer 407/403 system for ulcerative colitis treatment: A physico-chemical study from micelles to hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Santos Akkari, Alessandra Cristina; Ramos Campos, Estefânia Vangelie; Keppler, Artur Franz; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes; de Paula, Eneida; Tófoli, Giovana Radomille; de Araujo, Daniele Ribeiro

    2016-02-01

    Budesonide (BUD) is a glucocorticoid widely used for the treatment of ulcerative colitis. In this work, we propose the study of the system BUD-HP-?-CD inclusion complex incorporated into PL 407 and PL407-PL403 thermoreversible hydrogels, considering physico-chemical and pharmaceutical aspects. Complexation between BUD and HP-?-CD was confirmed by phase solubility studies (1:1 stoichiometry, Kc=8662.8M(-1)), DSC, FTIR and microscopy analyzes. BUD solubility in simulated upper and lower colon fluids was improved in a dependence of HP-?-CD and PL 407 or PL407-PL403 association. Micellar hydrodynamic diameter studies showed the interaction between HP-?-CD and PL blocks, as well as the reorganization of the micellar system in the presence of BUD and its inclusion complex. Micellization temperature (Tm) was not shifted, but sol-gel phase transition studies showed that in the presence of BUD, HP-?-CD or BUD:HP-?-CD complex, the association PL407-PL403 favored the gel formation close to the physiological temperature. Physico-chemical and in vitro release assays studies revealed no competitive displacement of BUD from the HP-?-CD cavity evoked by PL407 or PL407-PL403 addition. These findings point out the BUD-HP-?-CD in PL-based hydrogels as strategies for future investigations on development of new pharmaceutical formulations for the treatment of ulcerative colitis. PMID:26674842

  6. Prophylactic lithium treatment and cognitive performance in patients with a long history of bipolar illness: no simple answers in complex disease-treatment interplay.

    PubMed

    Pfennig, Andrea; Alda, Martin; Young, Trevor; MacQueen, Glenda; Rybakowski, Janusz; Suwalska, Aleksandra; Simhandl, Christian; König, Barbara; Hajek, Tomas; O'Donovan, Claire; Wittekind, Dirk; von Quillfeldt, Susanne; Ploch, Jana; Sauer, Cathrin; Bauer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive impairment in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) is not restricted to symptomatic phases. It is also present in euthymia. There is evidence of differences in the brain's structure between bipolar patients and healthy individuals, as well as changes over time in patients. Lithium constitutes the gold standard in long-term prophylactic treatment. Appropriate therapy that prevents new episodes improves the disease's course and reduces the frequency of harmful outcomes. Interestingly, preclinical data suggest that lithium has a (additional) neuroprotective effect. There is limited data on its related effects in humans and even less on its long-term application. In this multi-center cross-sectional study from the International Group for the Study of Lithium-treated Patients (IGSLi), we compared three groups: bipolar patients without long-term lithium treatment (non-Li group; <3 months cumulative lithium exposure, ?24 months ago), bipolar patients with long-term lithium treatment (Li group, ongoing treatment ?24 months), and healthy subjects (controls). Strict inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined; the inclusion criteria for patients were diagnosis of BD types I or II, duration of illness ?10 years, ?5 episodes in patient's history and a euthymic mood state. Neurocognitive functioning was assessed using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), and a visual backward masking (VBM) task. A total of 142 subjects were included, 31 in the non-Li and 58 in the Li group, as well as 53 healthy controls. Treated patients with long-standing BD and controls did not differ significantly in overall cognitive functioning and verbal learning, recall, and recognition; regardless of whether lithium had been part of the treatment. Patients, however, demonstrated poorer early visual information processing than healthy controls, with the lithium-treated patients performing worse than those without. Our data suggest that bipolar patients with a long illness history and effective prophylactic treatment do not reveal significantly impaired general cognitive functioning or verbal learning and memory. However, they are worse at processing early visual information. Accompanying volumetric and spectroscopic data suggest cell loss in patients not treated with lithium that may be counterbalanced by long-term lithium treatment. PMID:25540718

  7. Colletotrichum truncatum species complex: Treatment considerations and review of the literature for an unusual pathogen causing fungal keratitis and endophthalmitis

    PubMed Central

    Squissato, Victoria; Yucel, Yeni H.; Richardson, Susan E.; Alkhotani, Alaa; Wong, David T.; Nijhawan, Navdeep; Chan, Clara C.

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of Colletotrichum truncatum species complex fungal keratitis and endophthalmitis in an 87-year-old immunocompetent male in whom oral triazole antifungals were contraindicated. The patient had recently returned from 4 months in Jamaica with a one month history of progressively increasing pain and inflammation in his left eye. Corneal samples grew a filamentous fungus and internal transcribed spacer sequencing polymerase chain reaction confirmed the presence of C. truncatum species complex. Samples showed no microbial growth. PMID:26137437

  8. Colletotrichum truncatum species complex: Treatment considerations and review of the literature for an unusual pathogen causing fungal keratitis and endophthalmitis.

    PubMed

    Squissato, Victoria; Yucel, Yeni H; Richardson, Susan E; Alkhotani, Alaa; Wong, David T; Nijhawan, Navdeep; Chan, Clara C

    2015-09-01

    We present a case of Colletotrichum truncatum species complex fungal keratitis and endophthalmitis in an 87-year-old immunocompetent male in whom oral triazole antifungals were contraindicated. The patient had recently returned from 4 months in Jamaica with a one month history of progressively increasing pain and inflammation in his left eye. Corneal samples grew a filamentous fungus and internal transcribed spacer sequencing polymerase chain reaction confirmed the presence of C. truncatum species complex. Samples showed no microbial growth. PMID:26137437

  9. Healing of an Extensive Periradicular Lesion Subsequent to a Proper Endodontic Treatment of a Mandibular First Premolar with Complex Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Hengameh; Paymanpour, Payam; Bidabadi, Maryam Mojtahed; Hajrezai, Reihaneh

    2013-01-01

    Long-term success of endodontic treatment is strictly dependent on proper shaping and cleaning of the root canal system followed by obturation of entire prepared space. Anatomical variations should be considered during radiographic and clinical evaluation as parts of endodontic treatment. A mandibular premolar with three canals is quite rare and such a tooth requires special canal preparation and obturation techniques. An astute clinician should identify different canal configurations and treat them endodontically well, because presence of an untreated canal could be a reason for failure of endodontic treatment. This paper describes the conventional orthograde endodontic therapy on an unusual mandibular first premolar with three root canals. PMID:24383015

  10. Comparative effectiveness of a complex Ayurvedic treatment and conventional standard care in osteoarthritis of the knee – study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Traditional Indian Ayurvedic medicine uses complex treatment approaches, including manual therapies, lifestyle and nutritional advice, dietary supplements, medication, yoga, and purification techniques. Ayurvedic strategies are often used to treat osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee; however, no systematic data are available on their effectiveness in comparison with standard care. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of complex Ayurvedic treatment in comparison with conventional methods of treating OA symptoms in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Methods and design In a prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled trial, 150 patients between 40 and 70 years, diagnosed with osteoarthritis of the knee, following American College of Rheumatology criteria and an average pain intensity of ?40 mm on a 100 mm visual analog scale in the affected knee at baseline will be randomized into two groups. In the Ayurveda group, treatment will include tailored combinations of manual treatments, massages, dietary and lifestyle advice, consideration of selected foods, nutritional supplements, yoga posture advice, and knee massage. Patients in the conventional group will receive self-care advice, pain medication, weight-loss advice (if overweight), and physiotherapy following current international guidelines. Both groups will receive 15 treatment sessions over 12 weeks. Outcomes will be evaluated after 6 and 12 weeks and 6 and 12 months. The primary endpoint is a change in the score on the Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) after 12 weeks. Secondary outcome measurements will use WOMAC subscales, a pain disability index, a visual analog scale for pain and sleep quality, a pain experience scale, a quality-of-life index, a profile of mood states, and Likert scales for patient satisfaction, patient diaries, and safety. Using an adapted PRECIS scale, the trial was identified as lying mainly in the middle of the efficacy-effectiveness continuum. Discussion This trial is the first to compare the effectiveness of a complex Ayurvedic intervention with a complex conventional intervention in a Western medical setting in patients with knee osteoarthritis. During the trial design, aspects of efficacy and effectiveness were discussed. The resulting design is a compromise between rigor and pragmatism. Trial registration NCT01225133 PMID:23701973

  11. Complex decongestive physical therapy and low-level laser therapy for the treatment of pediatric congenital lymphedema: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Woon Taek; Chung, Sin Ho; Lee, Ju Sang

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] We report the case of a pediatric patient with congenital lymphedema treated with complex decongestive physical therapy and low-level laser therapy. [Subjects and Methods] The patient was a 2?year-old girl who had lymphedema in the left upper limb since birth. Complex decongestive physical therapy and low-level laser therapy were administered for 7 sessions. [Results] The circumferences of the middle of the forearm, elbow joint, wrist, and hand of the left upper limb decreased 0.5, 3, 0.5, and 2?cm, respectively. The moisture content of the left upper limb decreased 70?mL (6.66%), while moisture ratio increased by 0.007%. [Conclusion] Complex decongestive physical therapy and low-level laser therapy are effective for reducing lymphedema in pediatric patients. PMID:26180372

  12. Complex decongestive physical therapy and low-level laser therapy for the treatment of pediatric congenital lymphedema: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Woon Taek; Chung, Sin Ho; Lee, Ju Sang

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] We report the case of a pediatric patient with congenital lymphedema treated with complex decongestive physical therapy and low-level laser therapy. [Subjects and Methods] The patient was a 2?year-old girl who had lymphedema in the left upper limb since birth. Complex decongestive physical therapy and low-level laser therapy were administered for 7 sessions. [Results] The circumferences of the middle of the forearm, elbow joint, wrist, and hand of the left upper limb decreased 0.5, 3, 0.5, and 2?cm, respectively. The moisture content of the left upper limb decreased 70?mL (6.66%), while moisture ratio increased by 0.007%. [Conclusion] Complex decongestive physical therapy and low-level laser therapy are effective for reducing lymphedema in pediatric patients. PMID:26180372

  13. Alternative hybrid and staged interventional treatment of congenital heart defects in critically ill children with complex and non-cardiac problems

    PubMed Central

    Chojnicki, Maciej; Jaworski, Rados?aw; Steffens, Mariusz; Szofer-Sendrowska, Aneta; Paczkowski, Konrad; Kwa?niak, Ewelina; Zieli?ski, Jacek; Gierat-Haponiuk, Katarzyna; Leszczy?ska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction An individually designed strategy of comprehensive alternative hybrid and staged interventional treatment (AHASIT) can be a reasonable alternative to conventional treatment of congenital heart defects, reduce the risk of cardiac surgery or interventions performed separately, and give an additional chance for critically ill children. Aim To present our experience and the results of AHASIT of severely ill or borderline children referred for surgery with the diagnosis of congenital heart defects. Material and methods A group of 22 patients with complex cardiac and non-cardiac pathologies was retrospectively selected and analyzed. An individual preoperative severity scale was established for AHASIT patients, with one point for each of the following preoperative complications: prematurity, low body weight, cyanosis, intolerance to drug therapy, failed interventional treatment prior to admission, mechanical ventilation prior to the procedure, chronic respiratory failure and non-cardiac, mainly congenital malformations (congenital diaphragmatic hernia, lower extremity agenesia, duodenal atresia) and acquired problems (newborn edema, necrotic enterocolitis, intracranial hemorrhage, liver and renal failure, anemia and thrombocytopenia, infections or colonization with drug-resistant pathogens). Results The analysis of the postoperative course showed that the patients with 5 AHASIT points or more had a more complicated postoperative course than the patients with 1 to 4 AHASIT points. Conclusions The AHASIT of pediatric congenital heart defects with complex and non-cardiac problems appeared to be an attractive option for selected severely ill patients. The strategy was found to be effective in selected neonates suffering from complex and accompanying non-cardiac pathologies, with positive final results of both cardiological intervention and planned surgery. PMID:26240625

  14. WE-F-16A-06: Using 3D Printers to Create Complex Phantoms for Dose Verification, Quality Assurance, and Treatment Planning System Commissioning in Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kassaee, A; Ding, X; McDonough, J; Reiche, M; Witztum, A; Teo, B

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To use 3D printers to design and construct complex geometrical phantoms for commissioning treatment planning systems, dose calculation algorithms, quality assurance (QA), dose delivery, and patient dose verifications. Methods: In radiotherapy, complex geometrical phantoms are often required for dose verification, dose delivery and calculation algorithm validation. Presently, fabrication of customized phantoms is limited due to time, expense and challenges in machining of complex shapes. In this work, we designed and utilized 3D printers to fabricate two phantoms for QA purposes. One phantom includes hills and valleys (HV) for verification of intensity modulated radiotherapy for photons, and protons (IMRT and IMPT). The other phantom includes cylindrical cavities (CC) of various sizes for dose verification of inhomogeneities. We evaluated the HV phantoms for an IMPT beam, and the CC phantom to study various inhomogeneity configurations using photon, electron, and proton beams. Gafcromic ™ films were used to quantify the dose distributions delivered to the phantoms. Results: The HV phantom has dimensions of 12 cm × 12 cm and consists of one row and one column of five peaks with heights ranging from 2 to 5 cm. The CC phantom has a size 10 cm × 14 cm and includes 6 cylindrical cavities with length of 7.2 cm and diameters ranging from 0.6 to 1.2 cm. The IMPT evaluation using the HV phantom shows good agreement as compared to the dose distribution calculated with treatment planning system. The CC phantom also shows reasonable agreements for using different algorithms for each beam modalities. Conclusion: 3D printers with submillimiter resolutions are capable of printing complex phantoms for dose verification and QA in radiotherapy. As printing costs decrease and the technology becomes widely available, phantom design and construction will be readily available to any clinic for testing geometries that were not previously feasible.

  15. Azide vs Alkyne Functionalization in Pt(II) Complexes for Post-treatment Click Modification: Solid-State Structure, Fluorescent Labeling, and Cellular Fate.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Regina; White, Jonathan D; Moghaddam, Alan D; Ginzburg, Aurora L; Zakharov, Lev N; Haley, Michael M; DeRose, Victoria J

    2015-12-01

    Tracking of Pt(II) complexes is of crucial importance toward understanding Pt interactions with cellular biomolecules. Post-treatment fluorescent labeling of functionalized Pt(II)-based agents using the bioorthogonal Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction has recently been reported as a promising approach. Here we describe an azide-functionalized Pt(II) complex, cis-[Pt(2-azidobutyl)amido-1,3-propanediamine)Cl2] (1), containing the cis geometry and difunctional reactivity of cisplatin, and present a comparative study with its previously described alkyne-functionalized congener. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction reveals a dramatic change in the solid-state arrangement with exchange of the alkyne for an azide moiety wherein 1 is dominated by a pseudo-chain of Pt-Pt dimers and antiparallel alignment of the azide substituents, in comparison with a circular arrangement supported by CH/?(C?C) interactions in the alkyne version. In vitro studies indicate similar DNA binding and click reactivity of both congeners observed by fluorescent labeling. Interestingly, complex 1 shows in vitro enhanced click reactivity in comparison to a previously reported azide-appended Pt(II) complex. Despite their similar behavior in vitro, preliminary in cellulo HeLa studies indicate a superior imaging potential of azide-functionalized 1. Post-treatment fluorescent labeling of 1 observed by confocal fluorescence microscopy shows nuclear and intense nucleolar localization. These results demonstrate the potential of 1 in different cell line localization studies and for future isolation and purification of Pt-bound targets. PMID:26512733

  16. Biospecific haemosorbents based on proteinase inhibitor. II. Efficiency of biospecific antiproteinase haemosorbent 'Ovosorb' in complex treatment of experimental generalized purulent peritonitis and acute destructive pancreatitis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Platé, N A; Kirkovsky, V V; Antiperovich, O F; Nicolaichik, V V; Valueva, T A; Sinilo, S B; Moin, V M; Lobacheva, G A

    1994-03-01

    The biospecific antiproteinase haemosorbent (BAH) 'Ovosorb' containing, in the bulk of polyacryamide gel, the ovomucoid from whites of duck eggs, was used for a complex treatment of the experimental generalized purulent peritonitis and acute destructive pancreatitis in dogs. The efficiency of BAH was manifested in the significant reduction of lethality of the experimental animals, a more rapid liquidation of proteinasaemia, normalization in plasma of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor and protein metabolism. Thus, by eliminating proteinases from circulation, Ovosorb contributes to the cessation of imbalance in the proteinase-inhibitor system and is efficient in the therapy of pathological states related to this imbalance. PMID:8031989

  17. Materials and Fuels Complex Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Storage and Treatment Permit Reapplication, Environmental Protection Agency Number ID4890008952

    SciTech Connect

    Holzemer, Michael J.; Hart, Edward

    2015-04-01

    Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Storage and Treatment Permit Reapplication for the Idaho National Laboratory Materials and Fuels Complex Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Partial Permit, PER-116. This Permit Reapplication is required by the PER-116 Permit Conditions I.G. and I.H., and must be submitted to the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality in accordance with IDAPA 58.01.05.012 [40 CFR §§ 270.10 and 270.13 through 270.29].

  18. Autologous adipose-tissue derived regenerative cells for the treatment of complex cryptoglandular fistula-in-ano: a report of three cases

    PubMed Central

    Borowski, David W; Gill, Talvinder S; Agarwal, Anil K; Bhaskar, Pudhupalayam

    2012-01-01

    The treatment of complex fistulae-in-ano is challenging and often includes a number of operations due to high rates of recurrence. We report the successful treatment of three consecutive patients with long-standing cryptoglandular fistula-in-ano with a novel combination of mucosal advancement flap and adipose-tissue derived regenerative cells (ADRCs) from the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) obtained from a simple lipoaspiration procedure, using Celution technology. There was no operative morbidity; one patient who had a colostomy for faecal diversion has since undergone restoration of bowel continuity. All thee fistulae remain healed at 2–3-year follow-up. Lipofilling of cryptoglandular fistulae-in-ano with ADRC-enhanced lipofilling appears feasible and safe, and may add to the range of procedures that can be used to treat this difficult problem. PMID:23144344

  19. Additive Complex Ayurvedic Treatment in Patients with Fibromyalgia Syndrome Compared to Conventional Standard Care Alone: A Nonrandomized Controlled Clinical Pilot Study (KAFA Trial)

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Christian S.; Meier, Larissa; Stapelfeldt, Elmar; Schütte, Silvia; Duda, Joachim; Michalsen, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Background. Fibromyalgia (FMS) is a challenging condition for health care systems worldwide. Only limited trial data is available for FMS for outcomes of complex treatment interventions of complementary and integrative (CIM) approaches. Methods. We conducted a controlled, nonrandomized feasibility study that compared outcomes in 21 patients treated with Ayurveda with those of 11 patients treated with a conventional approach at the end of a two-week inpatient hospital stay. Primary outcome was the impact of fibromyalgia on patients as assessed by the FIQ. Secondary outcomes included scores of pain intensity, pain perception, depression, anxiety, and quality of sleep. Follow-up assessments were done after 6 months. Results. At 2 weeks, there were comparable and significant improvements in the FIQ and for most of secondary outcomes in both groups with no significant in-between-group differences. The beneficial effects for both treatment groups were partly maintained for the main outcome and a number of secondary outcomes at the 6-month followup, again with no significant in-between-group differences. Discussion. The findings of this feasibility study suggest that Ayurvedic therapy is noninferior to conventional treatment in patients with severe FMS. Since Ayurveda was only used as add-on treatment, RCTs on Ayurveda alone are warranted to increase model validity. This trial is registered with NCT01389336. PMID:24073008

  20. Thermal treatment effects imposed on solid DNA cationic lipid complex with hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride, observed by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizio?, Jacek

    2014-12-01

    DNA cationic lipid complexes are materials of properties required for applications in organic electronics and optoelectronics. Often, their thermal stability demonstrated by thermogravimetry is cited in the literature as important issue. However, little is known about processes occurring in heated solid DNA cationic lipid complexes. In frame of this work, thin films of Deoxyribonucleic acid-hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DNA-CTMA) were deposited on silicon wafers. Samples were thermally annealed, and simultaneously, their optical functions were measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry. At lower temperatures, thermal expansion coefficient of solid DNA-CTMA was negative, but at higher temperatures positive. Thermally induced modification of absorption spectrum in UV-vis was observed. It occurred at a range of temperatures higher than this of DNA denaturation in solution. The observed phenomenon was irreversible, at least in time scale of the experiment (one day).

  1. Thermal treatment effects imposed on solid DNA cationic lipid complex with hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride, observed by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry

    SciTech Connect

    Nizio?, Jacek

    2014-12-21

    DNA cationic lipid complexes are materials of properties required for applications in organic electronics and optoelectronics. Often, their thermal stability demonstrated by thermogravimetry is cited in the literature as important issue. However, little is known about processes occurring in heated solid DNA cationic lipid complexes. In frame of this work, thin films of Deoxyribonucleic acid-hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DNA-CTMA) were deposited on silicon wafers. Samples were thermally annealed, and simultaneously, their optical functions were measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry. At lower temperatures, thermal expansion coefficient of solid DNA-CTMA was negative, but at higher temperatures positive. Thermally induced modification of absorption spectrum in UV-vis was observed. It occurred at a range of temperatures higher than this of DNA denaturation in solution. The observed phenomenon was irreversible, at least in time scale of the experiment (one day)

  2. Ab initio treatment of the chemical reaction precursor complex Br(2P)-HCN. 1. Adiabatic and diabatic potential surfaces.

    PubMed

    Fishchuk, Anna V; Merritt, Jeremy M; van der Avoird, Ad

    2007-08-01

    The three adiabatic potential surfaces of the Br(2P)-HCN complex that correlate to the 2P ground state of the Br atom were calculated ab initio. With the aid of a geometry-dependent diabatic mixing angle, also calculated ab initio, these adiabatic potential surfaces were transformed into a set of four diabatic potential surfaces required to define the full 3 x 3 matrix of diabatic potentials. Each of these diabatic potential surfaces was expanded in terms of the appropriate spherical harmonics in the atom-linear molecule Jacobi angle theta. The dependence of the expansion coefficients on the distance R between Br and the HCN center of mass and on the CH bond length was fit to an analytic form. For HCN in its equilibrium geometry, the global minimum with De = 800.4 cm(-1) and Re = 6.908a0 corresponds to a linear Br-NCH geometry, with an electronic ground state of Sigma symmetry. A local minimum with De = 415.1 cm-1, Re = 8.730a0, and a twofold degenerate Pi ground state is found for the linear Br-HCN geometry. The binding energy, De, depends strongly on the CH bond length for the Br-HCN complex and much less strongly for the Br-NCH complex, with a longer CH bond giving stronger binding for both complexes. Spin-orbit coupling was included and diabatic states were constructed that correlate to the ground 2P3/2 and excited 2P1/2 spin-orbit states of the Br atom. For the ground spin-orbit state with electronic angular momentum j = (3/2) the minimum in the potential for projection quantum number omega = +/-(3/2) coincides with the local minimum for linear Br-HCN of the spin-free case. The minimum in the potential for projection quantum number omega = +/-(1/2) occurs for linear Br-NCH but is considerably less deep than the global minimum of the spin-free case. According to the lowest spin-orbit coupling included adiabatic potential the two linear isomers, Br-NCH and Br-HCN, are about equally stable. In the subsequent paper, we use these potentials in calculations of the rovibronic states of the Br-HCN complex. PMID:17567108

  3. Complex-Scaling Treatment for Doubly Excited Inter-Shell Resonances in H- Interacting with Screened Coulomb (Yukawa) Potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Y. K.; Kar, S.

    2012-10-01

    The doubly-excited inter-shell resonance states of the hydrogen negative ion with screened Coulomb potentials are investigated in the framework of complex-scaling method. Highly correlated wave functions with terms up to 1078 in Hylleraas coordinates are used. The resonance parameters for the 2 s3 s 1 S e associated with the H ( N = 2) threshold and the 3 s4 s 1 S e state associated with the H ( N = 3) threshold for various screening strengths are reported. Comparisons are made with other available data in the literature.

  4. A Case Report of Renal Sympathetic Denervation for the Treatment of Polymorphic Ventricular Premature Complexes: Expanding Horizons.

    PubMed

    Kiuchi, Márcio Galindo; Vitorio, Frederico Puppim; Silva, Gustavo Ramalho da; Paz, Luis Marcelo Rodrigues; Souto, Gladyston Luiz Lima

    2015-12-01

    Premature ventricular complexes are very common, appearing most frequently in patients with hypertension, obesity, sleep apnea, and structural heart disease. Sympathetic hyperactivity plays a critical role in the development, maintenance, and aggravation of ventricular arrhythmias. Recently, Armaganijan et al reported the relevance of sympathetic activation in patients with ventricular arrhythmias and suggested a potential role for catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation in reducing the arrhythmic burden.In this report, we describe a 32-year-old hypertensive male patient presenting with a high incidence of polymorphic premature ventricular complexes on a 24?hour Holter monitor. Beginning 1 year prior, the patient experienced episodes of presyncope, syncope, and tachycardia palpitations. The patient was taking losartan 100?mg/day, which kept his blood pressure (BP) under control, and sotalol 160?mg twice daily. Bisoprolol 10?mg/day was used previously but was not successful for controlling the episodes. The 24?hour Holter performed after the onset of sotalol 160?mg twice daily showed a heart rate ranging between 48 (minimum)-78 (average)-119 (maximum) bpm; 14,286 polymorphic premature ventricular complexes; 3 episodes of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, the largest composed of 4 beats at a rate of 197 bpm; and 14 isolated atrial ectopic beats. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium perfusion performed at rest and under pharmacological stress with dipyridamole showed increased left atrial internal volume, preserved systolic global biventricular function, and an absence of infarcted or ischemic areas. The patient underwent bilateral renal sympathetic denervation.The only drug used postprocedure was losartan 25?mg/day. Three months after the patient underwent renal sympathetic denervation, the mean BP value dropped to 132/86?mmHg, the mean systolic/diastolic 24?hour ambulatory BP measurement was reduced to 128/83?mmHg, and the 24?hour Holter monitor showed a heart rate ranging between 51 (minimum)-67 (average)-108 (maximum) bpm, 854 polymorphic premature ventricular complexes, and no episodes of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia. PMID:26683960

  5. [Value and place of tenolysis of the flexors of the fingers in the complex treatment of tenogenic contractures].

    PubMed

    Kolonta?, Iu Iu; Bely?, S I

    1989-07-01

    Having analysed their experience in the treatment of 102 patients with tendogenic contractures of the hand fingers the authors have proposed a test for prognosis of the recovery of the slipping function of the flexor tendons after suturing and tendoplasty. In cases of ineffective conservative therapy it is recommended to make tenolysis at the early stages of rehabilitation. Indications and contraindications, the operative technique including application of microsurgical technique and the authors' devices have been determined. The principles of postoperative management of this category of patients have been elucidated. It has been noted that tenolysis at the early stages allows to considerably reduce the terms of rehabilitation. PMID:2682432

  6. Intramedullary Allograft Fibula as a Reduction and Fixation Tool for Treatment of Complex Proximal Humerus Fractures with Diaphyseal Extension.

    PubMed

    Berkes, Marschall B; Little, Milton Tm; Lazaro, Lionel E; Cymerman, Rachel M; Pardee, Nadine C; Helfet, David L; Dines, Joshua S; Lorich, Dean G

    2013-05-15

    SUMMARY:: In this study, we present a novel technique for reduction and fixation of complex, unstable, proximal humerus fractures with diaphyseal extension with the assistance of fibula allograft. We treated 14 patients using this technique since 2009 and found that it improves the reduction and enhances fixation while making the surgical procedure technically more manageable, and allows for early postoperative motion. In the first part of this study, we describe in detail the indications and surgical technique applied to these fractures. In the second part, we review the clinical and radiographic outcomes of these patients. Using this new technique, we have achieved an excellent union rate with minimal incidence of complications when treating these challenging fractures. PMID:23681414

  7. Effect of solution properties, competing ligands, and complexing metal on sorption of tetracyclines on Al-based drinking water treatment residuals.

    PubMed

    Punamiya, Pravin; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Rakshit, Sudipta; Datta, Rupali

    2015-05-01

    In the current batch study, we investigated the effect of solution properties, competing ligands (phosphate (P(V)) and sulfate), and complexing metal (calcium (Ca(2+))) on tetracycline (TTC) and oxytetracycline (OTC) sorption by Al-based drinking water treatment residuals (Al-WTR). The sorption behavior for both TTC and OTC on Al-WTR was pH dependent. The sorption in absence of competing ligands and complexing metal increased with increasing pH up to circum-neutral pH and then decreased at higher pH. The presence of P(V) when added simultaneously had a significant negative effect (p??0.1). The presence of sulfate had a minimal/negligible effect on the sorption of TCs by Al-WTR. A significant negative effect (p?complex formation. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis indicated the possibility of inner-sphere-type bonding by the functional groups of OTC/TTC on Al-WTR surface. Results from the batch sorption study indicate high affinity of Al-WTR for TCs in the pH range 4-8 (majorly encountered pH in the environment) in the presence of competing ligands and complexing metal. PMID:25647490

  8. HIV-1 Group O Origin, Evolution, Pathogenesis, and Treatment: Unraveling the Complexity of an Outlier 25 Years Later.

    PubMed

    Bush, Shannon; Tebit, Denis M

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-five years ago, an aberrant HIV-1 (now classified as HIV-1 group O) was described from a Cameroonian HIV patient living in Belgium. The epicenter of group O was later found to be in Central Africa, overlapping with the geographical location of the central chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) and western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), the likely original hosts of group O. Although the prevalence of group O has remained low at 1-2% in Cameroon, some European countries (France, Spain, Belgium) with strong colonial ties to Central Africa have reported the highest prevalence out of Africa. The sequence diversity between HIV-1 group O and M strains is huge, reaching 50 and 30% in the envelope and pol, respectively. This diversity has hindered diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment of group O-infected patients. Due to the intrinsic presence of the C181 mutation in group O, more than 60% of the approximately 30,000 individuals that live with this virus are faced with the challenge of drug resistance to some currently used antiretroviral therapies, notably the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Despite its susceptibility to most antiretroviral therapies, some group Os show a high variable baseline susceptibility to enfuvirtide (T20) and maraviroc. Group O strains are the least fit among all HIV-1 and -2 and restrict tetherin using their Nef but not Vpu as reported for group M. Although limited follow-up studies indicate that the natural course of group O is similar to that of M, these viruses are dominantly CCR5 tropic even late in infection, suggesting slow disease progression. This review summarizes important findings that marked the discovery, origin, spread, evolution, pathogenesis, and treatment of group O within the last 25 years. PMID:26450803

  9. Accurate Treatment of Large Supramolecular Complexes by Double-Hybrid Density Functionals Coupled with Nonlocal van der Waals Corrections.

    PubMed

    Calbo, Joaquín; Ortí, Enrique; Sancho-García, Juan C; Aragó, Juan

    2015-03-10

    In this work, we present a thorough assessment of the performance of some representative double-hybrid density functionals (revPBE0-DH-NL and B2PLYP-NL) as well as their parent hybrid and GGA counterparts, in combination with the most modern version of the nonlocal (NL) van der Waals correction to describe very large weakly interacting molecular systems dominated by noncovalent interactions. Prior to the assessment, an accurate and homogeneous set of reference interaction energies was computed for the supramolecular complexes constituting the L7 and S12L data sets by using the novel, precise, and efficient DLPNO-CCSD(T) method at the complete basis set limit (CBS). The correction of the basis set superposition error and the inclusion of the deformation energies (for the S12L set) have been crucial for obtaining precise DLPNO-CCSD(T)/CBS interaction energies. Among the density functionals evaluated, the double-hybrid revPBE0-DH-NL and B2PLYP-NL with the three-body dispersion correction provide remarkably accurate association energies very close to the chemical accuracy. Overall, the NL van der Waals approach combined with proper density functionals can be seen as an accurate and affordable computational tool for the modeling of large weakly bonded supramolecular systems. PMID:26579747

  10. New fly ash TiO2 composite for the sustainable treatment of wastewater with complex pollutants load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visa, Maria; Isac, Luminita; Duta, Anca

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this paper was to develop a new composite obtained in mild hydrothermal conditions starting from fly ash (a waste raising significant environmental problems), and TiO2. The composite was characterized through XRD, SEM/EDX, AFM, and BET surface measurements. The composite was further used for the advanced treatment of wastewaters with multiple-pollutants load. The photocatalytic efficiency of the powder composite was tested on synthetic solutions containing a heavy metal cation (copper), a dye (methyl orange), and a surfactant (sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate), under UV and simulated solar radiation. Comparative experiments were done in systems with and without H2O2 showing a significant increase in efficiency for methyl orange removal from mono-, bi-, and tri-pollutants solutions. The process parameters were optimized and the adsorption mechanisms are discussed, outlining that adsorption is the limiting step. Experiments also outlined that homogeneous photocatalysis (using H2O2) is less efficient then the heterogeneous process using the novel composite, both under UV and simulated solar radiation.

  11. Complex interactions among nutrients, chlorophyll-a, and microcystins in three stormwater wet detention basins with floating treatment wetlands.

    PubMed

    Hartshorn, Nicholas; Marimon, Zachary; Xuan, Zhemin; Cormier, Jessica; Chang, Ni-Bin; Wanielista, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Stormwater wet detention ponds hold a permanent pool of water and offer many beneficial uses including flood mitigation, pollution prevention, downstream erosion control, increased aesthetics, and recreational uses. Although the removal of nutrients is generally low for stormwater wet detention ponds in urban areas, floating treatment wetlands (FTWs) can be installed to offer an innovative solution toward naturally removing excess nutrients and aiding in stormwater management. To improve the stormwater reuse potential, this study assessed nutrient, microcystin, and chlorophyll-a interactions in three Florida stormwater wet detention ponds with recently implemented FTWs. Both episodic (storm events) and routine (non-storm events) sampling campaigns were carried out at the three ponds located in Ruskin, Gainesville, and Orlando. The results showed a salient negative correlation between total phosphorus and microcystin concentrations for both storm and non-storm events across all three ponds. The dominant nutrient species in correlation seemed to be total phosphorus, which correlated positively with chlorophyll-a concentrations at all ponds and sampling conditions, with the exception of Orlando non-storm events. These results showed a correlation conditional to the candidate pond and sampling conditions for microcystin and chlorophyll-a concentrations. PMID:26386430

  12. Lenalidomide in the context of complex karyotype or interrupted treatment: case reviews of del(5q)MDS patients with unexpected responses

    PubMed Central

    Haase, Sabine; Heinsch, Michael; Göhring, Gudrun; Schlegelberger, Brigitte; Aul, Carlo

    2006-01-01

    Lenalidomide has particular activity in patients with transfusion-dependent del(5q) myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), but mechanistic information is limited regarding the relationship between erythroid and cytogenetic responses. We reviewed medical records from three distinct subgroups of del(5q) MDS patients who had unexpected effects with lenalidomide treatment: 1. two patients with complex karyotypes who achieved both cytogenetic remissions and transfusion independence; 2. two patients with 5q- syndrome who took lenalidomide for less than 12 weeks but remained transfusion independent for 15+ months still displaying del(5q) metaphases after 6 and 12 months; and 3. one patient who was a non-responder on lenalidomide during treatment but became transfusion independent for 13+ months after discontinuation. All but the latter patient in this series had reduction of affected metaphases, suggesting that erythroid responses might be mediated by result from partial or complete suppression of the malignant clone, either directly or indirectly through modulation of the bone marrow microenvironment. These clinical observations illustrate the heterogeneity of del(5q)MDS pathogenesis and the diversity of lenalidomide responses within this patient subset. PMID:17111142

  13. Delta III reverse shoulder arthroplasty in the treatment of complex 3- and 4-part fractures of the proximal humerus: 6 to 42 months of follow up

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a growing tendency for complex proximal humerus fractures (PHF) in osteoporotic patients to be treated with reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA). It has been proposed that RSA has more benefits than other treatment options. The aim of our study was to investigate preoperative characteristics as well as clinical and radiological outcomes in patients with complex 3- or 4-part PHF who had undergone primary RSA. Methods Patients with a minimum follow-up of 6 months who had undergone a primary RSA after 3- or 4-part PHF in the period between 2008 and 2011 were eligible for the study. Clinical records, X-rays and CT-scans were investigated and a clinical examination was performed. Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score and Constant-Murley score (CMS) were calculated. Sixteen patients were examined as part of the study. The mean follow-up was 20 months (range 6-42 months). According to Codman-Hertel classification we encountered 15 Hertel “12” and 1 Hertel “8” type fractures. Results Thirty-two patients (27 female – 84.4%) with a mean age of 72 years underwent operations to treat complex 3- and 4-part fractures of the proximal humerus. Sixteen patients were reexamined. In 14 cases the dominant upper extremity was on the right, in 2 cases it was on the left, in 6 cases the right side was affected and in 10 cases the left side was affected. The mean CMS was 54.8 (range 18-95) and the mean DASH was 37.5 (range 2.9-81). A trend was established between the CMS and dominance of the affected shoulder. The CMS was better if the affected shoulder was on the non-dominant side (p-value 0.051). No statistical difference was noted between age and clinical outcome. Conclusions Our mid-term follow-up shows satisfying results in terms of the treatment of severe displaced fractures in elderly patients with RSA. RSA can provide immediate relief and good shoulder function in elderly patients. Nevertheless, the question of longevity of these implants remains to be observed. PMID:23924060

  14. Targeting oxidative injury and cytokines' activity in the treatment with anti-tumor necrosis factor-? antibody for complex regional pain syndrome 1.

    PubMed

    Miclescu, Adriana A; Nordquist, Lena; Hysing, Eva-Britt; Butler, Stephen; Basu, Samar; Lind, Anne-Li; Gordh, Torsten

    2013-11-01

    Cytokines and oxygen free radicals have been implicated in the potential pathogenic development of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). We aimed to analyze the relationship between clinical status, circulating levels of cytokines, and markers of oxidative damage during the treatment with anti-TNF? antibodies. The patient chosen for treatment had not had improvement through a number of conventional therapies and fulfilled the current diagnostic criteria for CRPS-1. We investigated the clinical variables before and after systemic administration of 1.4 mg/kg anti-TNF? antibody (infliximab), repeated after 1 month in a dose of 3 mg/kg. Blood samples were collected before and after anti-TNF? antibodies administration, and plasma was analyzed for 8-isoprostane-prostaglandin F2? (8-iso-PGF2?, a marker of oxidative injury) and cytokines (TNF-?, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17A). Plasma concentrations of 8-iso-PGF2? were measured with radioimmunoassay (RIA), and the kinetics of cytokines were detected in plasma by antibody-based proximity ligation (PLA). Pathologically high levels of 8-iso-PGF2? were found in the patient. Immediately after each administration of infliximab, the levels of 8-iso-PGF2? decreased. Although the patient showed an improvement of the cutaneous dystrophic symptoms and diminished pain associated with these lesions, the levels of circulating TNF? increased after the administration of anti-TNF? antibodies. In a patient with CRPS-1 treated with anti-TNF? antibodies, we report increased levels of circulating TNF? and a temporary mitigation of oxidative stress as measured by plasma F2 -isoprostane. This case report provides evidence 2 supporting the indication of monitoring the oxidative stress biomarkers during treatment with anti-TNF? antibodies in CRPS 1. PMID:23336526

  15. Complications of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor anticancer treatment among patients with tuberous sclerosis complex are common and occasionally life-threatening.

    PubMed

    Trelinska, Joanna; Dachowska, Iwona; Kotulska, Katarzyna; Fendler, Wojciech; Jozwiak, Sergiusz; Mlynarski, Wojciech

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the most common adverse events (AEs) linked to everolimus therapy, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, in children and adolescents with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) hospitalized in one medical center. The study group included 18 patients with a diagnosis of subependymal giant cell astrocytoma or renal angiomyolipoma related to TSC. The median duration of therapy was 15 months. All clinical symptoms and laboratory abnormalities including complete blood count, fasting lipid profile, glucose level, and liver and kidney function tests were analyzed as potential AEs. The most common AEs of everolimus therapy were laboratory abnormalities (100% of patients) and infection complications (83 episodes in 15 patients). Infectious episodes of pharyngitis (67%), diarrhea (44%), stomatitis (39%), and bronchitis (39%) were the most common infections. They were mostly mild or moderate in severity (grade 1-2). In two cases, life-threatening conditions related to mTOR inhibitor treatment were encountered. The first was classified as grade 4 pleuropneumonia and Streptococcus pneumoniae sepsis, whereas the second was classified as death related to AE (grade 5) Escherichia coli sepsis. The most common laboratory abnormalities were hypercholesterolemia (13/18 patients - 72%) and hypertriglyceridemia (12/18 patients - 66%). Neutropenia (12/18 patents - 66%) and anemia (8/18 patients - 44%) were the most common hematologic toxicities. Everolimus treatment in TSC patients may lead to life-threatening outcomes, including sepsis and death. Long-lasting effects of everolimus treatment in the context of high incidences of different laboratory abnormalities found in TSC patients are another subject that should be researched further. PMID:25719621

  16. Vincristine Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    Vincristine lipid complex is used to treat a certain type of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; a type of cancer ... least two different treatments with other medications. Vincristine lipid complex is in a class of medications called ...

  17. Doxorubicin Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    Doxorubicin lipid complex is used to treat ovarian cancer that has not improved or that has worsened after treatment with other medications. Doxorubicin lipid complex is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma ( ...

  18. Fast and accurate Monte Carlo modeling of a kilovoltage X-ray therapy unit using a photon-source approximation for treatment planning in complex media

    PubMed Central

    Zeinali-Rafsanjani, B.; Mosleh-Shirazi, M. A.; Faghihi, R.; Karbasi, S.; Mosalaei, A.

    2015-01-01

    To accurately recompute dose distributions in chest-wall radiotherapy with 120 kVp kilovoltage X-rays, an MCNP4C Monte Carlo model is presented using a fast method that obviates the need to fully model the tube components. To validate the model, half-value layer (HVL), percentage depth doses (PDDs) and beam profiles were measured. Dose measurements were performed for a more complex situation using thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) placed within a Rando phantom. The measured and computed first and second HVLs were 3.8, 10.3 mm Al and 3.8, 10.6 mm Al, respectively. The differences between measured and calculated PDDs and beam profiles in water were within 2 mm/2% for all data points. In the Rando phantom, differences for majority of data points were within 2%. The proposed model offered an approximately 9500-fold reduced run time compared to the conventional full simulation. The acceptable agreement, based on international criteria, between the simulations and the measurements validates the accuracy of the model for its use in treatment planning and radiobiological modeling studies of superficial therapies including chest-wall irradiation using kilovoltage beam. PMID:26170553

  19. Fast and accurate Monte Carlo modeling of a kilovoltage X-ray therapy unit using a photon-source approximation for treatment planning in complex media.

    PubMed

    Zeinali-Rafsanjani, B; Mosleh-Shirazi, M A; Faghihi, R; Karbasi, S; Mosalaei, A

    2015-01-01

    To accurately recompute dose distributions in chest-wall radiotherapy with 120 kVp kilovoltage X-rays, an MCNP4C Monte Carlo model is presented using a fast method that obviates the need to fully model the tube components. To validate the model, half-value layer (HVL), percentage depth doses (PDDs) and beam profiles were measured. Dose measurements were performed for a more complex situation using thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) placed within a Rando phantom. The measured and computed first and second HVLs were 3.8, 10.3 mm Al and 3.8, 10.6 mm Al, respectively. The differences between measured and calculated PDDs and beam profiles in water were within 2 mm/2% for all data points. In the Rando phantom, differences for majority of data points were within 2%. The proposed model offered an approximately 9500-fold reduced run time compared to the conventional full simulation. The acceptable agreement, based on international criteria, between the simulations and the measurements validates the accuracy of the model for its use in treatment planning and radiobiological modeling studies of superficial therapies including chest-wall irradiation using kilovoltage beam. PMID:26170553

  20. Increased Survivorship and Altered Cytokine Profile from Treatment of Influenza A H1N1-Infected Mice with Ekybion: A Drug Complex of Natural Extracts and Inorganic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Lupfer, Christopher; Besnouin, Didier; Tepper, Samuel E.; Maselko, Maciej; Patton, Kristin M.; Pastey, Manoj

    2011-01-01

    Ekybion is a drug complex of 16 natural extracts and inorganic compounds designed to treat a variety of respiratory pathogens of bacterial and viral origin. It is licensed throughout Europe for the treatment of respiratory tract infections from equine parainfluenza type 3 and equine herpes virus type 1 in equine stables. The purpose of this paper was to test the efficacy of Ekybion on a well-developed animal model of influenza A infection and determine a mode of action. Experiments were performed with Balb/c mice infected with a lethal dose of influenza A/PR/8/34 H1N1 virus and treated with nebulized Ekybion every 8?h in a time-dependant or dose-dependant fashion. These experiments showed that mice treated prior to infection with Ekybion had a higher survival rates (~46%) compared with untreated animals (~0%). Paradoxically, these mice showed no significant difference in lung virus titer or weight loss. There was, however, a decrease in the level of GM-CSF, IL-6, and G-CSF cytokines in the lungs of Ekybion-treated, infected mice. It is possible that decreases in proinflammatory cytokines may have contributed to increased survivorship in Ekybion-treated influenza-infected mice. PMID:20981272

  1. Ab Initio Treatment of the Chemical Reaction Precursor Complex Cl(2P)-HF. 1. Three-Dimensional Diabatic Potential Energy Surfaces

    E-print Network

    Waals complexes in entrance channels of neutral chemical reactions has been fully recognized.1-5 One three adiabatic potential energy surfaces of this complex that correlate with the chlorine atom in its 2

  2. IL-2 / ?-IL-2 Complex Treatment Cannot Be Substituted for the Adoptive Transfer of Regulatory T cells to Promote Bone Marrow Engraftment.

    PubMed

    Mahr, Benedikt; Unger, Lukas; Hock, Karin; Pilat, Nina; Baranyi, Ulrike; Schwarz, Christoph; Maschke, Svenja; Farkas, Andreas Michael; Wekerle, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Cell therapy with recipient Tregs achieves engraftment of allogeneic bone marrow (BM) without the need for cytoreductive conditioning (i.e., without irradiation or cytotoxic drugs). Thereby mixed chimerism and transplantation tolerance are established in recipients conditioned solely with costimulation blockade and rapamycin. However, clinical translation would be substantially facilitated if Treg-stimulating pharmaceutical agents could be used instead of individualized cell therapy. Recently, it was shown that interleukin-2 (IL-2) complexed with a monoclonal antibody (mAb) (clone JES6-1A12) against IL-2 (IL-2 complexes) potently expands and activates Tregs in vivo. Therefore, we investigated whether IL-2 complexes can replace Treg therapy in a costimulation blockade-based and irradiation-free BM transplantation (BMT) model. Unexpectedly, the administration of IL-2 complexes at the time of BMT (instead of Tregs) failed to induce BM engraftment in non-irradiated recipients (0/6 with IL-2 complexes vs. 3/4 with Tregs, p<0.05). Adding IL-2 complexes to an otherwise effective regimen involving recipient irradiation (1Gy) but no Treg transfer indeed actively triggered donor BM rejection at higher doses (0/8 with IL-2 complexes vs. 9/11 without, p<0.01) and had no detectable effect at two lower doses (3/5 vs. 9/11, p>0.05). CD8 T cells and NK cells of IL-2 complex-treated naïve mice showed an enhanced proliferative response towards donor antigens in vitro despite the marked expansion of Tregs. However, IL-2 complexes also expanded conventional CD4 T cells, CD8 T cells, NK cells, NKT cells and notably even B cells, albeit to a lesser extent. Notably, IL-2 complex expanded Tregs featured less potent suppressive functions than in vitro activated Tregs in terms of T cell suppression in vitro and BM engraftment in vivo. In conclusion, these data suggest that IL-2 complexes are less effective than recipient Tregs in promoting BM engraftment and in contrast actually trigger BM rejection, as their effect is not sufficiently restricted to Tregs but rather extends to several other lymphocyte populations. PMID:26731275

  3. Use of Cone-beam Computed Tomography during Retreatment of a 2-rooted Maxillary Central Incisor: Case Report of a Complex Diagnosis and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Levin, Avi; Shemesh, Avi; Katzenell, Vered; Gottlieb, Ayelet; Ben Itzhak, Joe; Solomonov, Michael

    2015-12-01

    A double-rooted maxillary incisor is an extremely rare anatomic variation. Only a few case reports describe this abnormal anatomy. In recent decades, cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) imaging has become more common for endodontic purposes. This case report describes the retreatment of double-rooted maxillary central incisors using CBCT imaging. In 2012, a 20-year-old man was referred to our department because of asymptomatic periapical lesions in teeth #8, #9, and #10. During the evaluation of a periapical radiograph, a rare anatomic variation, in the form of an additional root of tooth #9, was detected, and it was impossible to decide about the source of the lesion between teeth #9 and #10. During retreatment, after gutta-percha removal, CBCT imaging was performed; this allowed proper treatment of the additional root and a final diagnosis of normal periapical tissue of tooth #10 with no treatment needed. The 18-month follow-up revealed a healing lesion in tooth #9 and normal periapical tissue in tooth #10. During the treatment of teeth with an anatomic variation, CBCT imaging can serve as an auxiliary tool for 3-dimensional evaluation that influences treatment steps and techniques. CBCT scanning can be very useful in assessing the actual location of a periapical lesion, which influences diagnosis and treatment planning. PMID:26478437

  4. Synthesis and characterization of Cu(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes of a number of sulfadrug azodyes and their application for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    El-Baradie, K; El-Sharkawy, R; El-Ghamry, H; Sakai, K

    2014-01-01

    The azodye ligand (HL(1)) was synthesized from the coupling of sulfaguanidine diazonium salt with 2,4-dihydroxy-benzaldehyde while the two ligands, HL(2) and HL(3), were prepared by the coupling of sulfadiazine diazonium salt with salicylaldehyde (HL(2)) and 2,4-dihydroxy-benzaldehyde (HL(3)). The prepared ligands were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, (1)H NMR and mass spectra. Cu(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes of the prepared ligands have been synthesized and characterized by various spectroscopic techniques like IR, UV-Visible as well as magnetic and thermal (TG and DTA) measurements. It was found that all the ligands behave as a monobasic bidentate which coordinated to the metal center through the azo nitrogen and ?-hydroxy oxygen atoms in the case of HL(1) and HL(3). HL(2) coordinated to the metal center through sulfonamide oxygen and pyrimidine nitrogen. The applications of the prepared complexes in the oxidative degradation of indigo carmine dye exhibited good catalytic activity in the presence of H2O2 as an oxidant. The reactions followed first-order kinetics and the rate constants were determined. The degradation reaction involved the catalytic action of the azo-dye complexes toward H2O2 decomposition, which can lead to the generation of HO radicals as a highly efficient oxidant attacking the target dye. The detailed kinetic studies and the mechanism of these catalytic reactions are under consideration in our group. PMID:24239761

  5. Land Treatment Digital Library

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilliod, David S.; Welty, Justin L.

    2013-01-01

    The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey to catalog legacy land treatment information on Bureau of Land Management lands in the western United States. The LTDL can be used by federal managers and scientists for compiling information for data-calls, producing maps, generating reports, and conducting analyses at varying spatial and temporal scales. The LTDL currently houses thousands of treatments from BLM lands across 10 states. Users can browse a map to find information on individual treatments, perform more complex queries to identify a set of treatments, and view graphs of treatment summary statistics.

  6. Effects of complex decongestive physiotherapy on the oedema and the quality of life of lower unilateral lymphoedema following treatment for gynecological cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, S-J; Park, Y-D

    2008-09-01

    There is increasing interest in the health-related quality of life (QOL) of patients with chronic lymphoedema. The purpose of the present study was to ascertain whether or not complex decongestive physiotherapy (CDP) for 57 gynecological cancer patients with unilateral lymphedema results in a measurable change in the oedema and QOL, and % excess volume correlated with change in QOL. % excess volume was significantly (P<0.05) decreased after CDP. The QOL scores were significantly (P<0.05) higher than the scores at baseline, indicating an improvement in the QOL. The change in % excess volume was associated with a change in physical functioning, social functioning, role-physical, bodily pain and general health at baseline and 1 month (P<0.05). This study suggests that significant improvements are made in the QOL of gynecological cancer patients with unilateral lymphoedema after CDP, which is necessarily correlated with limb reduction. PMID:18637114

  7. The complex differential diagnosis between thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and the atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome: Laboratory weapons and their impact on treatment choice and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Mannucci, P M; Cugno, M

    2015-11-01

    Thrombocytopenia and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia are the hallmark of the thrombotic microangiopathies (TMAs) thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). TTP, inherited or autoimmune, is mainly caused by the plasma deficiency of the von Willebrand factor cleaving protease ADAMTS13, owing to gene mutations or autoantibodies. Typical HUS is often caused by infections with Shiga-Toxin-producing Escherichia coli and thus is called STEC-HUS. The rarer atypical form of HUS is often associated with complement dysregulation, owing to the inherited deficiency or dysfunction of factor H or other complement proteins. In the past the distinction between these TMAs was almost exclusively based on clinical grounds, the term TTP being used for cases with predominant neurological involvement, STEC HUS for cases presenting with bloody diarrhea and atypical HUS identifying patients with severe renal damage. However the clinical presentation may not easily distinguish TTP from atypical HUS. A more accurate differential diagnosis has clinical implications, because plasma exchange (the treatment of choice in TTP) is much less effective in atypical HUS, which shows dramatic short- and long-term therapeutic benefits from eculizumab, a monoclonal antibody that inhibits complement activation. This article will point out that the measurement of ADAMTS13 is able to diagnose accurately the majority of TTP cases, and that very simple tests such as the platelet count and serum creatinine can predict the deficiency of the protease with a good degree of accuracy. In atypical HUS, new methods were recently developed that not only demonstrate the activation of the complement system, i.e., the main disease mechanism, but also help to tailor the short- and long-term treatment with eculizumab. PMID:26386489

  8. About Alzheimer's Disease: Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... National Alzheimer's Project Act (NAPA) About ADEAR About Alzheimer's Disease: Treatment How is Alzheimer's disease treated? What ... being researched? What are clinical trials? How is Alzheimer's disease treated? Alzheimer's disease is complex, and it ...

  9. Packaged Waste Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This Jacksonville, Florida, apartment complex has a wastewater treatment system which clears the water, removes harmful microorganisms and reduces solid residue to ash. It is a spinoff from spacecraft waste management and environmental control technology.

  10. Deperturbation treatment of the A?+1-b?3 complex of NaRb and prospects for ultracold molecule formation in X?+1(v=0;J=0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Docenko, O.; Tamanis, M.; Ferber, R.; Pazyuk, E. A.; Zaitsevskii, A.; Stolyarov, A. V.; Pashov, A.; Knöckel, H.; Tiemann, E.

    2007-04-01

    High resolution Fourier transform spectra (FTS) of laser induced fluorescence (LIF) of C?+1;D?1?A?+1-b?3 and A?+1-b?3?X?+1 transitions in Na85Rb and Na87Rb were obtained. An analysis of the direct LIF spectra together with the rotational relaxation satellites provided highly accurate rovibronic term values for (4?J?163) of the A?+1-b?3 complex, covering about 1950 mostly singlet levels 0?vA?49 and a considerable number (>360) of the predominantly triplet b?0,13 sublevels. The direct deperturbation analysis of the singlet-triplet A-b complex was performed by means of the inverted channel-coupling approach with Hund’s coupling case a basis functions. The electronic matrix elements of the model 4×4 Hamiltonian were defined as piecewise analytical functions of the internuclear distance. Besides the Born-Oppenheimer potential energy curves of the mutually perturbed states and the off-diagonal spin-orbit (SO) A-b coupling function, the SO splitting of the b?3 state was determined due to the pronounced electronic-rotation interaction between the b?03 and b?13 components observed for high J levels. Overall, 24 mass-invariant fitting parameters have been required to reproduce about 2300 experimental term values of both isotopomers with a standard deviation of 0.012cm-1 , which is consistent with the uncertainty of the FTS experiment. An analytical mapping procedure based on a reduced variable representation of the radial coordinate was used to diminish the computational effort for the uniform finite-difference grid solution of the coupled-channel equations. The derived nonadiabatic A-b wave functions were used to evaluate the A?+1-b?3-D?1 , a?+3 , X?+1 rovibronic transition probabilities. The relative intensity distributions predicted for the D?A-b and A-b?X LIF progressions agree with their experimental counterparts within the accuracy of the measurements. The calculated A-b-a , X transition probabilities were applied for simulation of the stimulated Raman a?A-b?X processes, which can lead to efficient formation of ultracold NaRb molecules in the ground level vX=0 ; JX=0 .

  11. Improvement of hyperglycaemia and metabolic syndromes in type 2 diabetic KKAy mice by oral treatment with [meso-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl) porphyrinato]oxovanadium(IV)(4-) complex.

    PubMed

    Saha, Tapan Kumar; Yoshikawa, Yutaka; Sakurai, Hiromu

    2007-03-01

    Recently, we reported that [meso-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrinato]oxovanadium(IV)(4-), VO(tpps), shows in-vitro insulin-mimetic and in-vivo anti-diabetic activity in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic mice. This result prompted us to examine its ability in type 2 diabetic model KKA(y) mice with insulin resistance. We studied the in-vivo anti-diabetic activity of VO(tpps), compared with that of vanadium(IV) oxide sulfate, VS, as control. Both compounds were orally administered at doses of 5-10 mg (0.1-0.2 mmol) V/kg body weight to the KKA(y) mice for 28 days. VO(tpps) normalized the hyperglycaemia within 15 days, while VS lowered the blood glucose concentration only by a small degree. In addition, metabolic syndromes characterized by insulin and leptin resistance were significantly improved in VO(tpps)-treated KKA(y) mice compared with those treated with VS. The improvement in diabetes was validated by oral glucose tolerance test and decrease in HbA(1c) concentration. Based on these observations, VO(tpps) is proposed to be an orally active oxovanadium(IV)-porphyrin complex for treating not only type 2 diabetes but also metabolic syndromes in animals. PMID:17331348

  12. [Carpal injuries associated with distal radius fractures. Diagnosis and therapy].

    PubMed

    Rappold, G; Leixnering, M; Pezzei, C

    2001-07-01

    The frequency of carpal injuries associated with distal radius fractures is often underestimated. Diagnosis of such lesions can be difficult. Important diagnostic steps include conventional X-rays, cinematography of the wrist, MRI, and arthroscopy. Different procedures such as wrist arthrography and CT are of secondary value. An early diagnosis of ligament injuries and instabilities can be obtained through cinematographic examination, whereas injuries to the TFCC are mainly diagnosed by MRI. Arthroscopy provides exact diagnosis as well as therapy, including arthroscopically controlled reposition of centrally depressed fragments of the articular surface of the radius and even treatment of TFCC lesions. PMID:11518981

  13. Hyaluronic acid co-functionalized gold nanoparticle complex for the targeted delivery of metformin in the treatment of liver cancer (HepG2 cells).

    PubMed

    Kumar, C Senthil; Raja, M D; Sundar, D Sathish; Gover Antoniraj, M; Ruckmani, K

    2015-09-01

    In this study, green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was achieved using the extract of eggplant as a reducing agent. Hyaluronic acid (HA) serves as a capping and targeting agent. Metformin (MET) was successfully loaded on HA capped AuNPs (H-AuNPs) and this formulation binds easily on the surface of the liver cancer cells. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer, HR-TEM, particle size analyser and zeta potential measurement. Toxicity studies of H-AuNPs in zebra fish confirmed the in vivo safety of the AuNPs. The in vitro cytotoxicity results showed that the amount of MET-H-AuNPs enough to achieve 50% inhibition (IC50) was much lower than free MET. Flow cytometry analysis showed the significant reduction in G2/M phase after treatment with MET-H-AuNPs, and molecular level apoptosis were studied using western blotting. The novelty of this study is the successful synthesis of AuNPs with a higher MET loading and this formulation exhibited better targeted delivery as well as increased regression activity than free MET in HepG2 cells. PMID:26005140

  14. [Clinical guidelines as part of total quality management. Analysis of heterogenous treatment concepts of sepsis in various clinics with computer assisted generation, logical testing and complexity assessment of clinical algorithms].

    PubMed

    Sitter, H; Dietz, W; Stinner, B; Geks, J; Bauhofer, A; Celik, I; Prünte, H; Lorenz, W

    1999-01-01

    Generation, local tailoring, implementation and evaluation of clinical guidelines is an integral part of quality management. Clinical guidelines are intimately related to the independency of physicians' decisions. By this the physicians should be responsible for guideline development and guarantee the use of adequate methods of total quality management and outcome assessment. Formal consensus finding and transparency of evidence are necessary to guarantee the use of guidelines. Clinical algorithms are highly formalized and they are well suited for generation and analysis by the software ALGO. Determination of complexity and comparison of the clinical contents of algorithms is done by the scores CASA (Clinical Algorithm Structural Analysis) and CAPA (Clinical Algorithm Patient Abstraction). In a study of 22 clinical departments on treatment management concepts in sepsis following anastomotic insufFiciency in colorectal carcinoma a considerable heterogeneity was shown using this program. PMID:10355087

  15. [Complex decongestive physiotherapy (CDP)].

    PubMed

    Sato, Kayoko

    2005-01-01

    Complex decongestive physiotherapy (CDP) is a representative conservative treatment for lymph edema symptoms conducted by combination of various physical therapies. In the mid-twentieth century, Dr. Michael Foeldi structured CDP. Regular treatments by CDP will relieve lymph edema symptoms as well as mental and physical distress, leading to enhancement of ADL and QOL. In Europe, CDP is served by close tie-up of physiotherapists and massotherapists under supervision of medical doctors. For effective CDP, early start of the treatment and full guidance of life style are recommended. PMID:15675334

  16. Ulnar Impaction Syndrome: A case series investigating the appropriate diagnosis, management, and post-operative considerations

    PubMed Central

    Woitzik, Erin; deGraauw, Chris; Easter, Brock

    2014-01-01

    Ulnar sided wrist pain is a common site for upper extremity disability. Ulnar impaction syndrome results in a spectrum of triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) injuries and associated lunate, triquetrum, and ligamentous damage. Patients commonly present with insidious ulnar sided wrist pain and clicking, and a history of trauma or repetitive axial loading and rotation. In this case series, three patients presented to a sports chiropractor for evaluation and were subsequently diagnosed with ulnar impaction syndrome. Treatment strategies consist of conservative management, arthroscopic debridement or repair, arthroscopic wafer procedure, or ulnar shortening osteotomy. For the athlete, intervention should be individualized and sport-specific, considering athletic priorities, healing potential, return to play, and long-term health concerns. PMID:25550665

  17. Carney Complex

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ephelides (freckles) LAMB syndrome – Lentigines, Atrial Myxoma, and Blue nevi What causes Carney complex? Carney complex is ... melanotic schwannoma, meaning tumors that grow on nerves Blue nevi, which are blue-black moles Osteochondromyxoma (bone ...

  18. Complexity Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sandra L.; Anderson, Beth C.

    To determine whether consensus existed among teachers about the complexity of common classroom materials, a survey was administered to 66 pre-service and in-service kindergarten and prekindergarten teachers. Participants were asked to rate 14 common classroom materials as simple, complex, or super-complex. Simple materials have one obvious part,…

  19. Communication complexity and information complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratov, Denis

    Information complexity enables the use of information-theoretic tools in communication complexity theory. Prior to the results presented in this thesis, information complexity was mainly used for proving lower bounds and direct-sum theorems in the setting of communication complexity. We present three results that demonstrate new connections between information complexity and communication complexity. In the first contribution we thoroughly study the information complexity of the smallest nontrivial two-party function: the AND function. While computing the communication complexity of AND is trivial, computing its exact information complexity presents a major technical challenge. In overcoming this challenge, we reveal that information complexity gives rise to rich geometrical structures. Our analysis of information complexity relies on new analytic techniques and new characterizations of communication protocols. We also uncover a connection of information complexity to the theory of elliptic partial differential equations. Once we compute the exact information complexity of AND, we can compute exact communication complexity of several related functions on n-bit inputs with some additional technical work. Previous combinatorial and algebraic techniques could only prove bounds of the form theta( n). Interestingly, this level of precision is typical in the area of information theory, so our result demonstrates that this meta-property of precise bounds carries over to information complexity and in certain cases even to communication complexity. Our result does not only strengthen the lower bound on communication complexity of disjointness by making it more exact, but it also shows that information complexity provides the exact upper bound on communication complexity. In fact, this result is more general and applies to a whole class of communication problems. In the second contribution, we use self-reduction methods to prove strong lower bounds on the information complexity of two of the most studied functions in the communication complexity literature: Gap Hamming Distance (GHD) and Inner Product mod 2 (IP). In our first result we affirm the conjecture that the information complexity of GHD is linear even under the uniform distribution. This strengthens the O(n) bound shown by Kerenidis et al. (2012) and answers an open problem by Chakrabarti et al. (2012). We also prove that the information complexity of IP is arbitrarily close to the trivial upper bound n as the permitted error tends to zero, again strengthening the O(n) lower bound proved by Braverman and Weinstein (2011). More importantly, our proofs demonstrate that self-reducibility makes the connection between information complexity and communication complexity lower bounds a two-way connection. Whereas numerous results in the past used information complexity techniques to derive new communication complexity lower bounds, we explore a generic way, in which communication complexity lower bounds imply information complexity lower bounds in a black-box manner. In the third contribution we consider the roles that private and public randomness play in the definition of information complexity. In communication complexity, private randomness can be trivially simulated by public randomness. Moreover, the communication cost of simulating public randomness with private randomness is well understood due to Newman's theorem (1991). In information complexity, the roles of public and private randomness are reversed: public randomness can be trivially simulated by private randomness. However, the information cost of simulating private randomness with public randomness is not understood. We show that protocols that use only public randomness admit a rather strong compression. In particular, efficient simulation of private randomness by public randomness would imply a version of a direct sum theorem in the setting of communication complexity. This establishes a yet another connection between the two areas. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  20. Psoriasis: evolving treatment for a complex disease.

    PubMed

    Villaseñor-Park, Jennifer; Wheeler, David; Grandinetti, Lisa

    2012-06-01

    The cutaneous manifestations of psoriasis can vary in morphology and severity, and therapy should be tailored accordingly. Biologic agents are important new options for treating patients with the most severe forms of the disease. All physicians should be aware that severe psoriasis may increase cardiovascular morbidity and the risk of death, and preventive strategies for patients with severe disease should be considered. PMID:22660873

  1. Complementary Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... treatment Medications for Motor Symptoms Surgical Treatment Options Exercise Complementary Treatment Clinical Studies and Clinical Trials You Can Make A Difference Your donation to the National Parkinson Foundation goes directly to support and develop treatments ...

  2. Hyperbaric treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amoroso, Michael T.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on hyperbaric treatment are presented. Topics covered include: hyperbaric treatment - purpose; decompression sickness; sources of decompression sickness; physical description; forms of decompression sickness; hyperbaric treatment of decompression sickness; and duration of treatment.

  3. Softball Complex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Jim

    1977-01-01

    The Parks and Recreation Department of Montgomery, Alabama, has developed a five-field softball complex as part of a growing community park with facilities for camping, golf, aquatics, tennis, and picnicking. (MJB)

  4. Cancer: Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... about your treatment. If something is on your mind, ask about it. By getting answers to your ... treatment. Working during treatment can help keep your mind on things other than your cancer. You may ...

  5. Dorsal Capsuloplasty for Dorsal Instability of the Distal Ulna

    PubMed Central

    Kouwenhoven, S.T.P.; de Jong, T.; Koch, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    Background?Dorsal instability of the distal ulna can lead to chronic wrist pain and loss of function. Structural changes to the dorsal radioulnar ligaments (DRUL) of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) and the dorsal capsule around the ulnar head with or without foveal detachment can lead to volar subluxation of the distal radius e.g., dorsal instability of the distal ulna. Purpose?Is to evaluate the post-operative results of reinstituting distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) stability through reefing of the dorsal capsule and dorsal radioulnar ligaments, with and without a foveal reattachment of the TFCC. Methods?A total of 37 patients were included in this retrospective study. Diagnosis and treatment was based strictly on dry wrist arthroscopy. In 17 patients isolated reefing of the DRUL and their collateral tissue extension was performed. In 20 patients an additional foveal reinsertion was performed. Postoperative results were evaluated with the DASH questionnaire, VAS scores, grip strength and range of motion. These findings were extrapolated in the Mayo wrist score. The two subgroups were compared. Results?Mayo wrist scores of the whole population had a mean of 73. There was no difference between the group that was treated with reefing of the DRUL only and the group that was treated with a combined foveal reinsertion. Conclusion?This relatively simple 'dorsal reefing' procedure, with foveal reinsertion when indicated, is a reliable method to restore volar-dorsal DRUJ stability with a significant decrease in pain sensation, good DASH scores and restoration of functional grip strength and ROM. Type of Study/Level of Evidence?Therapeutic, Level IV. PMID:24436811

  6. [Orthodontic treatment for adults].

    PubMed

    Kuitert, R B

    2000-04-01

    The number of adults undergoing orthodontic treatment has increased strongly and the average age that adult patients undergo orthodontic treatment increased steadily although 3/4 is still younger than 27 years. In adults the facial skeletal pattern can only be changed in a very confined way, consequently in case of an abnormal skeletal pattern one has to choose between a combined orthodontic-surgical approach (which is the case in 18% of the patients) and a compromised orthodontic treatment, if necessary combined with other disciplines. It is still controversial whether tooth movement in adults is slower and more difficult than in adolescents. The same holds true for the risk for loss of periodontal support, for root resorption, for gnathologic problems and for relapse. As related to these variables there appears to be a large individual variation. Many adults show one or more problems in their dentition that may influence their orthodontic treatment. About 60% of the adult patients need a multidisciplinary approach. The development of implantology and of bone regeneration and bone grafting has lead to more combined treatments. The risks of such complex treatment plans are generally larger than those for more simple kinds of treatment. A very careful treatment planning and good communication between the different specialists is essential. Moreover the treatment plan with all its (dis)advantages has to be extensively discussed with the patient. PMID:11382973

  7. Treatment of Mitochondrial Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Avula, Sreenivas; Parikh, Sumit; Demarest, Scott; Kurz, Jonathan; Gropman, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Opinion statement While numerous treatments for mitochondrial disorders have been suggested, relatively few have undergone controlled clinical trials. Treatment of these disorders is challenging, as only symptomatic therapy is available. In this review we will focus on newer drugs and treatment trials in mitochondrial diseases, with a special focus on medications to avoid in treating epilepsy and ICU patient with mitochondrial disease, which has not been included in such a review. Readers are also referred to the opinion statement in A Modern Approach to the Treatment of Mitochondrial Disease published in Current Treatment Options in Neurology 2009. Many of the supplements used for treatment were reviewed in the previous abstract, and dosing guidelines were provided. The focus of this review is on items not previously covered in depth, and our discussion includes more recently studied compounds as well as any relevant updates on older compounds. We review a variety of vitamins and xenobiotics, including dichloroacetate (DCA), arginine, coenzyme Q10, idebenone, EPI-743, and exercise training. Treatment of epilepsy, which is a common feature in many mitochondrial phenotypes, warrants special consideration due to the added toxicity of certain medications, and we provide a discussion of these unique treatment challenges. Interesting, however, with only a few exceptions, the treatment strategies for epilepsy in mitochondrial cytopathies are the same as for epilepsy without mitochondrial dysfunction. We also discuss intensive care management, building upon similar reviews, adding new dimensions, and demonstrating the complexity of overall care of these patients. PMID:24700433

  8. Grasping Complexity

    E-print Network

    A. N. Gorban; G. S. Yablonsky

    2013-03-15

    The century of complexity has come. The face of science has changed. Surprisingly, when we start asking about the essence of these changes and then critically analyse the answers, the result are mostly discouraging. Most of the answers are related to the properties that have been in the focus of scientific research already for more than a century (like non-linearity). This paper is Preface to the special issue "Grasping Complexity" of the journal "Computers and Mathematics with Applications". We analyse the change of era in science, its reasons and main changes in scientific activity and give a brief review of the papers in the issue.

  9. [Treatment of limbs lymphedema].

    PubMed

    Vaillant, Loïc; Müller, Christine; Goussé, Pascal

    2010-12-01

    The treatment of lymphedema aims to reduce the volume and prevent infectious and joints mobility complications. This treatment rarely cure and is usually symptomatic; thus it should be continued throughout the life. The erysipelas and lymphangitis are common complications of lymphedema. Erysipela is always of streptococcal origin and requires systemic antibiotics. The risk of recurrent erysipelas on lymphedema is high. In case of large swelling associated with significant dermal sclerosis, it may lead to decrease joint mobility and functional impairment. The skin cares, manual lymph drainage, compression therapy with bandages and exercises are the four pillars of the complex decongestive therapy of limb lymphedema. Compression is the most important treatment. Lymphedema can be improved by only bandages, but a sustained improvement of lymphedema cannot be seen without bandages. The effectiveness of treatment must be evaluated by objective methods, measuring the perimeters of members or volumes. The management of lymphedema includes three phases: attack or initial treatment that aims to reduce volume of the lymphedema and maintenance phase to maintain the result and finally withdrawal phase. In the attack phase, we use complex decongestive therapy, mainly multilayer inelastic bandaging and manual lymphatic drainage (MLD). In the maintenance phase, we use elastic compression (stockings or sleeves) possibly associated with MLD. At all stages skin care and exercises are used. Adjuvant treatments may be useful (intermittent pneumatic compression, drug treatment). Surgery is rarely used except for genital lymphedema. The therapeutic management of lymphedema is difficult but has a variety of techniques. The complex decongestive therapy is very effective to restore a better quality of life even though it does not provide a cure for lymphedema. PMID:20850261

  10. Carney complex: an update.

    PubMed

    Correa, Ricardo; Salpea, Paraskevi; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2015-10-01

    Carney complex (CNC) is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome, characterized by pigmented lesions of the skin and mucosa, cardiac, cutaneous and other myxomas and multiple endocrine tumors. The disease is caused by inactivating mutations or large deletions of the PRKAR1A gene located at 17q22-24 coding for the regulatory subunit type I alpha of protein kinase A (PKA) gene. Most recently, components of the complex have been associated with defects of other PKA subunits, such as the catalytic subunits PRKACA (adrenal hyperplasia) and PRKACB (pigmented spots, myxomas, pituitary adenomas). In this report, we review CNC, its clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and molecular etiology, including PRKAR1A mutations and the newest on PRKACA and PRKACB defects especially as they pertain to adrenal tumors and Cushing's syndrome. PMID:26130139

  11. Managing Complexity

    SciTech Connect

    Chassin, David P.; Posse, Christian; Malard, Joel M.

    2004-08-01

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today’s most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically-based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This paper explores the state of the art in the use physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and to deriving stable and robust control strategies for them. In particular we review and discussion applications of some analytic methods based on the thermodynamic metaphor according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood.

  12. [Lymphedema--treatment].

    PubMed

    Strössenreuther, R H K; Dax, I; Emde, C

    2004-01-22

    Treatment of lymphedema utilizes complex physical (or decongestive) therapy (CDT), so-called. This covers a number of measures including compression, lymph drainage, skin care and individualized exercises. CDT is divided into two phases--an intensive phase during which daily treatment is applied over a period of two to four weeks, and a maintenance phase in which especially compression therapy is continued in order to secure the positive effects achieved during the first phase. Treatment should be initiated in an early stage of the condition, and the aim is to return the patient to the symptom-free latency stage. Neither isolated manual lymph drainage nor equipment-based decongestion is considered for the treatment of lymphedema. To date, the efficacy of various drugs, including selenium, has not been confirmed. PMID:15035445

  13. Complex posterior urethral injury

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Sanjay B.; Joshi, Pankaj M.; Hunter, Craig; Surana, Sandesh; Shahrour, Walid; Alhajeri, Faisal

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess treatment strategies for seven different scenarios for treating complex pelvic fracture urethral injury (PFUI), categorised as repeat surgery for PFUI, ischaemic bulbar urethral necrosis (BUN), repair in boys and girls aged ?12 years, in patients with a recto-urethral fistula, or bladder neck incontinence, or with a double block at the bulbomembranous urethra and bladder neck/prostate region. Patients and methods We retrospectively reviewed the success rates and surgical procedures of these seven complex scenarios in the repair of PFUI at our institution from 2000 to 2013. Results In all, >550 PFUI procedures were performed at our centre, and 308 of these patients were classified as having a complex PFUI, with 225 patients available for follow-up. The overall success rates were 81% and 77% for primary and repeat procedures respectively. The overall success rate of those with BUN was 76%, using various methods of novel surgical techniques. Boys aged ?12 years with PFUI required a transpubic/abdominal approach 31% of the time, compared to 9% in adults. Young girls with PFUI also required a transpubic/abdominal urethroplasty, with a success rate of 66%. In patients with a recto-urethral fistula the success rate was 90% with attention to proper surgical principles, including a three-stage procedure and appropriate interposition. The treatment of bladder neck incontinence associated with the tear-drop deformity gave a continence rate of 66%. Children with a double block at the bulbomembranous urethra and at the bladder neck-prostate junction were all continent after a one-stage transpubic/abdominal procedure. Conclusion An understanding of complex pelvic fractures and their appropriate management can provide successful outcomes. PMID:26019978

  14. Complexed iron removal from groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Munter, R.; Ojaste, H.; Sutt, J.

    2005-07-01

    The paper demonstrates an intensive work carried out and results obtained on the pilot plant of the City of Kogalym Water Treatment Station (Tjumen, Siberia, Russian Federation) to elaborate on a contemporary nonreagent treatment technology for the local iron-rich groundwater. Several filter materials (Birm, Pyrolox, hydroanthracite, Everzit, granulated activated carbon) and chemical oxidants (ozone, chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, oxygen, and potassium permanganate) were tested to solve the problem with complexed iron removal from groundwater. The final elaborated technology consists of raw water intensive aeration in the gas-degas treatment unit followed by sequential filtration through hydroanthracite and the special anthracite Everzit.

  15. Cholera Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Cholera - Vibrio cholerae infection Share Compartir Treatment See the following videos: ... proportion, about 5-10%, of persons infected with Vibrio cholerae O1 may have illness requiring treatment at a ...

  16. Patient Complexity: More Than Comorbidity. The Vector Model of Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Allison, Jeroan J.; Kiefe, Catarina I.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND The conceptualization of patient complexity is just beginning in clinical medicine. OBJECTIVES This study aims (1) to propose a conceptual approach to complex patients; (2) to demonstrate how this approach promotes achieving congruence between patient and provider, a critical step in the development of maximally effective treatment plans; and (3) to examine availability of evidence to guide trade-off decisions and assess healthcare quality for complex patients. METHODS/RESULTS The Vector Model of Complexity portrays interactions between biological, socioeconomic, cultural, environmental and behavioral forces as health determinants. These forces are not easily discerned but exert profound influences on processes and outcomes of care for chronic medical conditions. Achieving congruence between patient, physician, and healthcare system is essential for effective, patient-centered care; requires assessment of all axes of the Vector Model; and, frequently, requires trade-off decisions to develop a tailored treatment plan. Most evidence-based guidelines rarely provide guidance for trade-off decisions. Quality measures often exclude complex patients and are not designed explicitly to assess their overall healthcare. CONCLUSIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS We urgently need to expand the evidence base to inform the care of complex patients of all kinds, especially for the clinical trade-off decisions that are central to tailoring care. We offer long- and short-term strategies to begin to incorporate complexity into quality measurement and performance profiling, guided by the Vector Model. Interdisciplinary research should lay the foundation for a deeper understanding of the multiple sources of patient complexity and their interactions, and how provision of healthcare should be harmonized with complexity to optimize health. PMID:18026806

  17. Treatment of Thoracolumbar Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byung-Guk; Shin, Dong-Eun

    2015-01-01

    The most common fractures of the spine are associated with the thoracolumbar junction. The goals of treatment of thoracolumbar fracture are leading to early mobilization and rehabilitation by restoring mechanical stability of fracture and inducing neurologic recovery, thereby enabling patients to return to the workplace. However, it is still debatable about the treatment methods. Neurologic injury should be identified by thorough physical examination for motor and sensory nerve system in order to determine the appropriate treatment. The mechanical stability of fracture also should be evaluated by plain radiographs and computed tomography. In some cases, magnetic resonance imaging is required to evaluate soft tissue injury involving neurologic structure or posterior ligament complex. Based on these physical examinations and imaging studies, fracture stability is evaluated and it is determined whether to use the conservative or operative treatment. The development of instruments have led to more interests on the operative treatment which saves mobile segments without fusion and on instrumentation through minimal invasive approach in recent years. It is still controversial for the use of these treatments because there have not been verified evidences yet. However, the morbidity of patients can be decreased and good clinical and radiologic outcomes can be achieved if the recent operative treatments are used carefully considering the fracture pattern and the injury severity. PMID:25705347

  18. Platinum complexes as potential photochemotherapeutic agents 

    E-print Network

    Farley, Sarah J.

    2010-01-01

    A major challenge of platinum anticancer therapy lies in overcoming the severe side-effects associated with treatment. Photoactivatable PtIV azido complexes, which are stable in the dark and reduced to cytotoxic PtII ...

  19. [Complex decongestive therapy].

    PubMed

    Heinig, B; Wollina, U

    2015-11-01

    The amount of physical pressure plays an important role in complex decongestive therapy (CDT). As a function of pressure, microcirculation takes place between blood vessels and tissue. As part of the total lymphatic system, lymphatic vessels transport the lymphatic load from the interstitial space to the blood stream. The lymphatic vessel system, characterized by specific anatomical conditions like initial lymphatic vessels, precollectors, collectors, and lymphatic strains, is the therapeutic target of complex decongestive therapy. Components of CDT include manual lymphatic drainage, compression therapy, decongestive kinesitherapy, and good skin care, which increase the transport capacity of the lymphatic vessel system. Currently, CDT is acknowledged as the main conservative treatment of lymphedema of primary and secondary genesis, lipolymphedema, and phlebolymphedema. In clinical practice, we are increasingly confronted with edema of multifactorial genesis requiring a critical discussion and stocktaking of comprehensive clinical findings in terms of the indication for CDT. Therapeutic success depends on a joint application of all CDT components and patient compliance. To an increasing extent, medical research tries to combine successfully CDT with adjunct treatment options. PMID:26315101

  20. Cosmic Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    What explains the extraordinary complexity of the observed universe, on all scales from quarks to the accelerating universe? My favorite explanation (which I certainty did not invent) ls that the fundamental laws of physics produce natural instability, energy flows, and chaos. Some call the result the Life Force, some note that the Earth is a living system itself (Gaia, a "tough bitch" according to Margulis), and some conclude that the observed complexity requires a supernatural explanation (of which we have many). But my dad was a statistician (of dairy cows) and he told me about cells and genes and evolution and chance when I was very small. So a scientist must look for me explanation of how nature's laws and statistics brought us into conscious existence. And how is that seemll"!gly Improbable events are actually happening a!1 the time? Well, the physicists have countless examples of natural instability, in which energy is released to power change from simplicity to complexity. One of the most common to see is that cooling water vapor below the freezing point produces snowflakes, no two alike, and all complex and beautiful. We see it often so we are not amazed. But physlc!sts have observed so many kinds of these changes from one structure to another (we call them phase transitions) that the Nobel Prize in 1992 could be awarded for understanding the mathematics of their common features. Now for a few examples of how the laws of nature produce the instabilities that lead to our own existence. First, the Big Bang (what an insufficient name!) apparently came from an instability, in which the "false vacuum" eventually decayed into the ordinary vacuum we have today, plus the most fundamental particles we know, the quarks and leptons. So the universe as a whole started with an instability. Then, a great expansion and cooling happened, and the loose quarks, finding themselves unstable too, bound themselves together into today's less elementary particles like protons and neutrons, liberating a little energy and creating complexity. Then, the expanding universe cooled some more, and neutrons and protons, no longer kept apart by immense temperatures, found themselves unstable and formed helium nuclei. Then, a little more cooling, and atomic nuclei and electrons were no longer kept apart, and the universe became transparent. Then a little more cooling, and the next instability began: gravitation pulled matter together across cosmic distances to form stars and galaxies. This instability is described as a "negative heat capadty" in which extracting energy from a gravitating system makes it hotter -- clearly the 2nd law of thermodynamics does not apply here! (This is the physicist's part of the answer to e e cummings' question: what is the wonder that's keeping the stars apart?) Then, the next instability is that hydrogen and helium nuclei can fuse together to release energy and make stars burn for billions of years. And then at the end of the fuel source, stars become unstable and explode and liberate the chemical elements back into space. And because of that, on planets like Earth, sustained energy flows support the development of additional instabilities and all kinds of complex patterns. Gravitational instability pulls the densest materials into the core of the Earth, leaving a thin skin of water and air, and makes the interior churn incessantly as heat flows outwards. And the heat from the sun, received mostly near the equator and flowing towards the poles, supports the complex atmospheric and oceanic circulations. And because or that, the physical Earth is full of natural chemical laboratories, concentrating elements here, mixing them there, raising and lowering temperatures, ceaselessly experimenting with uncountable events where new instabilities can arise. At least one of them was the new experiment called life. Now that we know that there are at least as many planets as there are stars, it is hard to imagine that nature's ceasess experimentation would not be able to produce life elsewhere

  1. Complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bruehl, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome is a chronic pain condition characterized by autonomic and inflammatory features. It occurs acutely in about 7% of patients who have limb fractures, limb surgery, or other injuries. Many cases resolve within the first year, with a smaller subset progressing to the chronic form. This transition is often paralleled by a change from "warm complex regional pain syndrome," with inflammatory characteristics dominant, to "cold complex regional pain syndrome" in which autonomic features dominate. Multiple peripheral and central mechanisms seem to be involved, the relative contributions of which may differ between individuals and over time. Possible contributors include peripheral and central sensitization, autonomic changes and sympatho-afferent coupling, inflammatory and immune alterations, brain changes, and genetic and psychological factors. The syndrome is diagnosed purely on the basis of clinical signs and symptoms. Effective management of the chronic form of the syndrome is often challenging. Few high quality randomized controlled trials are available to support the efficacy of the most commonly used interventions. Reviews of available randomized trials suggest that physical and occupational therapy (including graded motor imagery and mirror therapy), bisphosphonates, calcitonin, subanesthetic intravenous ketamine, free radical scavengers, oral corticosteroids, and spinal cord stimulation may be effective treatments. Multidisciplinary clinical care, which centers around functionally focused therapies is recommended. Other interventions are used to facilitate engagement in functional therapies and to improve quality of life. PMID:26224572

  2. ICD Complex Operations and Maintenance Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, P. L.

    2007-06-25

    This Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Plan describes how the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) conducts operations, winterization, and startup of the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (ICDF) Complex. The ICDF Complex is the centralized INL facility responsible for the receipt, storage, treatment (as necessary), and disposal of INL Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation waste.

  3. SCFA lead lab technical assistance at Oak Ridge Y-12 nationalsecurity complex: Evaluation of treatment and characterizationalternatives of mixed waste soil and debris at disposal area remedialaction DARA solids storage facility (SSF)

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, Terry

    2002-08-26

    On July 17-18, 2002, a technical assistance team from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA) met with the Bechtel Jacobs Company Disposal Area Remedial Action (DARA) environmental project leader to review treatment and characterization options for the baseline for the DARA Solids Storage Facility (SSF). The technical assistance request sought suggestions from SCFA's team of technical experts with experience and expertise in soil treatment and characterization to identify and evaluate (1) alternative treatment technologies for DARA soils and debris, and (2) options for analysis of organic constituents in soil with matrix interference. Based on the recommendations, the site may also require assistance in identifying and evaluating appropriate commercial vendors.

  4. Enhanced Analgesic Properties and Reduced Ulcerogenic Effect of a Mononuclear Copper(II) Complex with Fenoprofen in Comparison to the Parent Drug: Promising Insights in the Treatment of Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gumilar, Fernanda; Boeris, Mónica; Toso, Ricardo; Minetti, Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    Analgesic and ulcerogenic properties have been studied for the copper(II) coordination complex of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug Fenoprofen and imidazole [Cu(fen)2(im)2] (Cu: copper(II) ion; fen: fenoprofenate anion from Fenoprofen, im: imidazole). A therapeutic dose of 28?mg/kg was tested for [Cu(fen)2(im)2] and 21?mg/kg was employed for Fenoprofen calcium, administered by oral gavage in female mice to compare the therapeutic properties of the new entity. The acetic acid induced writhing test was employed to study visceral pain. The percentage of inhibition in writhing and stretching was 78.9% and 46.2% for the [Cu(fen)2(im)2] and Fenoprofen calcium, respectively. This result indicates that the complex could be more effective in diminishing visceral pain. The formalin test was evaluated to study the impact of the drugs over nociceptive and inflammatory pain. The complex is a more potent analgesic on inflammatory pain than the parent drug. Ulcerogenic effects were evaluated using a model of gastric lesions induced by hypothermic-restraint stress. Fenoprofen calcium salt caused an ulcer index of about 79?mm2 while the one caused by [Cu(fen)2(im)2] was 22?mm2. The complex diminished the development of gastric mucosal ulcers in comparison to the uncomplexed drug. Possible mechanisms of action related to both therapeutic properties have been discussed. PMID:25050353

  5. Complex sleep apnea syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juan; Wang, Yan; Feng, Jing; Chen, Bao-yuan; Cao, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Complex sleep apnea syndrome (CompSAS) is a distinct form of sleep-disordered breathing characterized as central sleep apnea (CSA), and presents in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients during initial treatment with a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device. The mechanisms of why CompSAS occurs are not well understood, though we have a high loop gain theory that may help to explain it. It is still controversial regarding the prevalence and the clinical significance of CompSAS. Patients with CompSAS have clinical features similar to OSA, but they do exhibit breathing patterns like CSA. In most CompSAS cases, CSA events during initial CPAP titration are transient and they may disappear after continued CPAP use for 4~8 weeks or even longer. However, the poor initial experience of CompSAS patients with CPAP may not be avoided, and nonadherence with continued therapy may often result. Treatment options like adaptive servo-ventilation are available now that may rapidly resolve the disorder and relieve the symptoms of this disease with the potential of increasing early adherence to therapy. But these approaches are associated with more expensive and complicated devices. In this review, the definition, potential plausible mechanisms, clinical characteristics, and treatment approaches of CompSAS will be summarized. PMID:23861580

  6. Computational Complexity and Knowledge Complexity \\Lambda

    E-print Network

    Goldreich, Oded

    Computational Complexity and Knowledge Complexity \\Lambda Oded Goldreich y Rafail Ostrovsky z Erez Petrank x March 20, 1995 Abstract We study the computational complexity of languages which have interactive proofs of logarithmic knowledge complexity. We show that all such languages can be recog­ nized

  7. Psoas abscess: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, R; Srikanth, A; Rutter, S M; Butcher, C J; Snape, J

    2006-01-01

    Psoas abscess is an uncommon presentation on the acute medical take. However recognition and appropriate treatment is essential. This review is designed to highlight the clinical features, microbiology, diagnostic tests and treatment for this condition. In order to illustrate some of the pitfalls and complexities in the management of psoas abscess we have included a case history of a patient who was recently treated in our department. PMID:21655500

  8. Sewage Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A million gallon-a-day sewage treatment plant in Huntington Beach, CA converts solid sewage to activated carbon which then treats incoming waste water. The plant is scaled up 100 times from a mobile unit NASA installed a year ago; another 100-fold scale-up will be required if technique is employed for widespread urban sewage treatment. This unique sewage-plant employed a serendipitous outgrowth of a need to manufacture activated carbon for rocket engine insulation. The process already exceeds new Environmental Protection Agency Standards Capital costs by 25% compared with conventional secondary treatment plants.

  9. Therapeutic Doll Making in Art Psychotherapy for Complex Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stace, Sonia M.

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic doll making can hold diverse functions for clients in therapy, particularly for those clients who are working through complex trauma histories. Recent literature pertaining to the treatment of complex trauma suggests that talking treatments have their limits; supplementary therapeutic approaches that focus on sensory, physical,…

  10. Rotavirus Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Rotavirus Vaccine Program American Academy of Pediatrics Treatment Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... PATH's Rotavirus Vaccine Program American Academy of Pediatrics Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I ...

  11. Wastewater Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoltek, J., Jr.; Melear, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) process application; (2) coagulation and solids separation; (3) adsorption; (4) ion exchange; (5) membrane processes; and (6) oxidation processes. A list of 123 references is also presented. (HM)

  12. Stroke Treatments

    MedlinePLUS

    ... weakened blood vessels that also cause hemorrhagic stroke: aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Treatment differs depending on ... the leg or arm, then guided to the aneurysm or AVM ; it then deposits a mechanical agent, ...

  13. Norovirus Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Norovirus Infection, National Institutes of Health NoroCORE Food Virology Treatment Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... Norovirus Infection, National Institutes of Health NoroCORE Food Virology Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How ...

  14. Scabies: Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites - Scabies Parasites Home Share Compartir Treatment On this Page Suggested ... Cases Publications Information For: Institutions Travelers Related Links Parasites A-Z Index Parasites Glossary Neglected Tropical Diseases ...

  15. Complex regional pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Greta

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Complex regional pain syndrome is an uncommon chronic pain condition. It develops spontaneously or following an injury. The features are limb pain, allodynia, hypersensitivity, hyperalgesia, abnormalities of the vasomotor, sudomotor and motor systems, and trophic changes, with reduced use of the affected limb. The diagnosis is clinical and one of exclusion. The emphasis of therapy is graded rehabilitation and movement of the limb with physiotherapy and occupational therapy. Psychological therapies should be offered if a patient is making no or slow progress in the acute phase, and to all patients in the chronic phase as depression can occur. The goal of pharmacotherapy is to assist functional improvement. The early phase may be managed with simple analgesia. Antineuropathic drugs including tricyclic antidepressants and antiepileptic drugs may be added. Other treatments with some evidence of effectiveness include corticosteroids, calcitonin and bisphosphonates. Vitamin C has been used for primary prevention after wrist fracture and upper and lower limb surgery. There is no evidence that it is effective for treating established complex regional pain syndrome. PMID:26648626

  16. Integrated nonthermal treatment system study

    SciTech Connect

    Biagi, C.; Bahar, D.; Teheranian, B.; Vetromile, J.; Quapp, W.J.; Bechtold, T.; Brown, B.; Schwinkendorf, W.; Swartz, G.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study of nonthermal treatment technologies. The study consisted of a systematic assessment of five nonthermal treatment alternatives. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The alternatives considered were innovative nonthermal treatments for organic liquids and sludges, process residue, soil and debris. Vacuum desorption or various washing approaches are considered for treatment of soil, residue and debris. Organic destruction methods include mediated electrochemical oxidation, catalytic wet oxidation, and acid digestion. Other methods studied included stabilization technologies and mercury separation of treatment residues. This study is a companion to the integrated thermal treatment study which examined 19 alternatives for thermal treatment of MLLW waste. The quantities and physical and chemical compositions of the input waste are based on the inventory database developed by the US Department of Energy. The Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) systems were evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 pounds per hour) as the Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems (ITTS). 48 refs., 68 figs., 37 tabs.

  17. Antitumor effects of electrochemical treatment

    PubMed Central

    González, Maraelys Morales; Zamora, Lisset Ortíz; Cabrales, Luis Enrique Bergues; Sierra González, Gustavo Victoriano; de Oliveira, Luciana Oliveira; Zanella, Rodrigo; Buzaid, Antonio Carlos; Parise, Orlando; Brito, Luciana Macedo; Teixeira, Cesar Augusto Antunes; Gomes, Marina das Neves; Moreno, Gleyce; Feo da Veiga, Venicio; Telló, Marcos; Holandino, Carla

    2013-01-01

    Electrochemical treatment is an alternative modality for tumor treatment based on the application of a low intensity direct electric current to the tumor tissue through two or more platinum electrodes placed within the tumor zone or in the surrounding areas. This treatment is noted for its great effectiveness, minimal invasiveness and local effect. Several studies have been conducted worldwide to evaluate the antitumoral effect of this therapy. In all these studies a variety of biochemical and physiological responses of tumors to the applied treatment have been obtained. By this reason, researchers have suggested various mechanisms to explain how direct electric current destroys tumor cells. Although, it is generally accepted this treatment induces electrolysis, electroosmosis and electroporation in tumoral tissues. However, action mechanism of this alternative modality on the tumor tissue is not well understood. Although the principle of Electrochemical treatment is simple, a standardized method is not yet available. The mechanism by which Electrochemical treatment affects tumor growth and survival may represent more complex process. The present work analyzes the latest and most important research done on the electrochemical treatment of tumors. We conclude with our point of view about the destruction mechanism features of this alternative therapy. Also, we suggest some mechanisms and strategies from the thermodynamic point of view for this therapy. In the area of Electrochemical treatment of cancer this tool has been exploited very little and much work remains to be done. Electrochemical treatment constitutes a good therapeutic option for patients that have failed the conventional oncology methods. PMID:23592904

  18. The effects of infrared laser therapy and weightbath traction hydrotherapy as components of complex physical treatment in disorders of the lumbar spine: a controlled pilot study with follow-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oláh, Csaba; Oláh, Mihály; Demeter, Béla; Jancsó, Zoltán; Páll, Valéria; Bender, Tamás

    2010-02-01

    Introduction: The therapeutic modalities available for the conservative management of chronic lumbar pain included infrared laser therapy and underwater traction, which usefulness is not universally acknowledged. This study was intended to ascertain any beneficial impact of infrared laser therapy and weightbath treatment on the clinical parameters and quality of life of patients with lumbar discopathy. Material and methods: The study population comprised 54 randomised subjects. I. group of 18 patents received only infrared laser therapy to lumbar region and painful Valley points. II. group of 18 subjects each received underwater traction therapy of lumbar spine with add-on McKenzie exercise and iontophoresis. The remaining III. group treated with exercise and iontophoresis, served as control. VAS, Oswestry index, SF36 scores, range of motion, neurological findings and thermography were monitored to appraise therapeutic afficacy in lumbar discopathy. A CT or MRI scan was done at baseline and after 3 months follow-up. Result:Infrared laser therapy and underwater traction for discopathy achieved significant improvement of all study parameters, which was evident 3 months later. Among the controls, significant improvement of only a single parameter was seen in patients with lumbar discopathy. Conclusions: Infrared laser therapy and underwater traction treatment effectively mitigate pain, muscle spasms, enhance joint flexibility, and improve the quality of life of patients with lumbar discopathy.

  19. BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF HIGH STRENGTH PETROCHEMICAL WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biological treatment of a complex petrochemical wastewater containing high concentrations of organic chlorides, nitrates, and amines was initially studied using a sequence of anaerobic methanogenesis and oxygen activated sludge. Bench-scale and pilot-plant treatability studie...

  20. The Mycobacterium avium complex.

    PubMed Central

    Inderlied, C B; Kemper, C A; Bermudez, L E

    1993-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease emerged early in the epidemic of AIDS as one of the common opportunistic infections afflicting human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. However, only over the past few years has a consensus developed about its significance to the morbidity and mortality of AIDS. M. avium was well known to mycobacteriologists decades before AIDS, and the MAC was known to cause disease, albeit uncommon, in humans and animals. The early interest in the MAC provided a basis for an explosion of studies over the past 10 years largely in response to the role of the MAC in AIDS opportunistic infection. Molecular techniques have been applied to the epidemiology of MAC disease as well as to a better understanding of the genetics of antimicrobial resistance. The interaction of the MAC with the immune system is complex, and putative MAC virulence factors appear to have a direct effect on the components of cellular immunity, including the regulation of cytokine expression and function. There now is compelling evidence that disseminated MAC disease in humans contributes to both a decrease in the quality of life and survival. Disseminated disease most commonly develops late in the course of AIDS as the CD4 cells are depleted below a critical threshold, but new therapies for prophylaxis and treatment offer considerable promise. These new therapeutic modalities are likely to be useful in the treatment of other forms of MAC disease in patients without AIDS. The laboratory diagnosis of MAC disease has focused on the detection of mycobacteria in the blood and tissues, and although the existing methods are largely adequate, there is need for improvement. Indeed, the successful treatment of MAC disease clearly will require an early and rapid detection of the MAC in clinical specimens long before the establishment of the characteristic overwhelming infection of bone marrow, liver, spleen, and other tissue. Also, a standard method of susceptibility testing is of increasing interest and importance as new effective antimicrobial agents are identified and evaluated. Antimicrobial resistance has already emerged as an important problem, and methods for circumventing resistance that use combination therapies are now being studied. Images PMID:8358707

  1. On State Complexes and Special Cube Complexes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Valerie J.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents the first steps toward a classification of non-positively curved cube complexes called state complexes. A "state complex" is a configuration space for a "reconfigurable system," i.e., an abstract system in which local movements occur in some discrete manner. Reconfigurable systems can be used to describe, for example,…

  2. Sewage Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Stennis Space Center's aquaculture research program has led to an attractive wastewater treatment for private homes. The system consists of a septic tank or tanks for initial sewage processing and a natural secondary treatment facility for further processing of septic tanks' effluent, consisting of a narrow trench, which contains marsh plants and rocks, providing a place for microorganisms. Plants and microorganisms absorb and digest, thus cleansing partially processed wastewater. No odors are evident and cleaned effluent may be discharged into streams or drainage canals. The system is useful in rural areas, costs about $1,900, and requires less maintenance than mechanical systems.

  3. Audits for advanced treatment dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibbott, G. S.; Thwaites, D. I.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy has advanced rapidly over the last few decades, progressing from 3D conformal treatment to image-guided intensity modulated therapy of several different flavors, both 3D and 4D and to adaptive radiotherapy. The use of intensity modulation has increased the complexity of quality assurance and essentially eliminated the physicist's ability to judge the validity of a treatment plan, even approximately, on the basis of appearance and experience. Instead, complex QA devices and procedures are required at the institutional level. Similarly, the assessment of treatment quality through remote and on-site audits also requires greater sophistication. The introduction of 3D and 4D dosimetry into external audit systems must follow, to enable quality assurance systems to perform meaningful and thorough audits.

  4. Surface Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Cheol (Inventor); Lowther, Sharon E. (Inventor); St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A simple surface treatment process is provided which offers a high performance surface for a variety of applications at low cost. This novel surface treatment, which is particularly useful for Ti-6Al-4V alloys, is achieved by forming oxides on the surface with a two-step chemical process and without mechanical abrasion. First, after solvent degreasing, sulfuric acid is used to generate a fresh titanium surface. Next, an alkaline perborate solution is used to form an oxide on the surface. This acid-followed-by-base treatment is cost effective and relatively safe to use in commercial applications. In addition, it is chromium-free, and has been successfully used with a sol-gel coating to afford a strong adhesive bond that exhibits excellent durability after the bonded specimens have been subjected to a harsh 72 hour water boil immersion. Phenylethynyl containing adhesives were used to evaluate this surface treatment with a novel coupling agent containing both trialkoxysilane and phenylethynyl groups. 8 Claims, 16 Drawing Sheets

  5. PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS TREATMENT.

    PubMed

    Shikanai-Yasuda, Maria Aparecida

    2015-09-01

    SUMMARYConsidered to be an emerging endemic mycosis in Latin America, paracoccidioidomycosis is characterized by a chronic course and involvement of multiple organs in immunocompromised hosts. Infection sequelae are mainly related to pulmonary and adrenal insufficiency. The host-parasite interaction results in different expressions of the immune response depending on parasite pathogenicity, fungal load and genetic characteristics of the host. A few controlled and case series reports have shown that azoles and fast-acting sulfa derivatives are useful treatment alternatives in milder forms of the disease. For moderate/severe cases, more prolonged treatments or even parenteral routes are required especially when there is involvement of the digestive tract mucosa, resulting in poor drug absorption. Although comparative studies have reported that shorter treatment regimens with itraconazole are able to induce cure in chronically-infected patients, there are still treatment challenges such as the need for more controlled studies involving acute cases, the search for new drugs and combinations, and the search for compounds capable of modulating the immune response in severe cases as well as the paradoxical reactions. PMID:26465367

  6. Mycobacterium abscessus Complex Infections in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Meng-Rui; Sheng, Wang-Huei; Hung, Chien-Ching; Yu, Chong-Jen; Lee, Li-Na

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus complex comprises a group of rapidly growing, multidrug-resistant, nontuberculous mycobacteria that are responsible for a wide spectrum of skin and soft tissue diseases, central nervous system infections, bacteremia, and ocular and other infections. M. abscessus complex is differentiated into 3 subspecies: M. abscessus subsp. abscessus, M. abscessus subsp. massiliense, and M. abscessus subsp. bolletii. The 2 major subspecies, M. abscessus subsp. abscessus and M. abscessus subsp. massiliense, have different erm(41) gene patterns. This gene provides intrinsic resistance to macrolides, so the different patterns lead to different treatment outcomes. M. abscessus complex outbreaks associated with cosmetic procedures and nosocomial transmissions are not uncommon. Clarithromycin, amikacin, and cefoxitin are the current antimicrobial drugs of choice for treatment. However, new treatment regimens are urgently needed, as are rapid and inexpensive identification methods and measures to contain nosocomial transmission and outbreaks. PMID:26295364

  7. Biomechanical analysis of the acetabular buttress-plate: are complex acetabular fractures in the quadrilateral area stable after treatment with anterior construct plate-1/3 tube buttress plate fixation?

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yong-De; Cai, Xian-Hua; Liu, Xi-Ming; Zhang, Hong-Xi

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The acetabular buttress-plate has been widely used in treating difficult cases with satisfying clinical results. However, the biomechanical properties of a postoperative acetabular fracture fixed by the buttress-plate are not clear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical properties of stability after the anterior tube buttress-plate fixation of complex acetabular fractures in the quadrilateral area. METHODS: A construct was proposed based on anterior construct plate - 1/3 tube buttress plate fixation for acetabular both-column fractures. Two groups of six formalin-preserved cadaveric pelvises were analyzed: (1) group A, the normal pelvis and (2) group B, anterior construct plate-1/3 tube buttress plate with quadrilateral area fixation. The displacements were measured, and cyclical loads were applied in both standing and sitting simulations. RESULTS: As the load was added, the displacements were A

  8. Current status of cannabis treatment of multiple sclerosis with an illustrative case presentation of a patient with MS, complex vocal tics, paroxysmal dystonia, and marijuana dependence treated with dronabinol.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Stephen I; Rosse, Richard B; Connor, Julie M; Burket, Jessica A; Murphy, Mary E; Fox, Fiona J

    2008-05-01

    Pain, spasticity, tremor, spasms, poor sleep quality, and bladder and bowel dysfunction, among other symptoms, contribute significantly to the disability and impaired quality of life of many patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Motor symptoms referable to the basal ganglia, especially paroxysmal dystonia, occur rarely and contribute to the experience of distress. A substantial percentage of patients with MS report subjective benefit from what is often illicit abuse of extracts of the Cannabis sativa plant; the main cannabinoids include delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC) and cannabidiol. Clinical trials of cannabis plant extracts and synthetic delta9-THC provide support for therapeutic benefit on at least some patient self-report measures. An illustrative case is presented of a 52-year-old woman with MS, paroxysmal dystonia, complex vocal tics, and marijuana dependence. The patient was started on an empirical trial of dronabinol, an encapsulated form of synthetic delta9-THC that is usually prescribed as an adjunctive medication for patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy. The patient reported a dramatic reduction of craving and illicit use; she did not experience the "high" on the prescribed medication. She also reported an improvement in the quality of her sleep with diminished awakenings during the night, decreased vocalizations, and the tension associated with their emission, decreased anxiety and a decreased frequency of paroxysmal dystonia. PMID:18496477

  9. Computational Complexity and the Existence of Complexity Gaps

    E-print Network

    Borodin, Allan

    Computational Complexity and the Existence of Complexity Gaps A. BORODIN University of Toronto are inves- tigated. Complexity classes of recursive functions are introduced analogous to the Hartmanis complexity hierarchy. KEY WORDS AND PHRASES: computational complexity, measures of complexity, recursive func

  10. Family Therapy in Complex Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Boll, Pamela G.; Mercuri, Louis G.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to offer the oral and maxillofacial surgeon a collaborative approach to the treatment of complex temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction. Through a positive relationship with a family therapist, the oral and maxillofacial surgeon in this case reports family therapy intervention as an additive solution to resolving apparent recurrent surgical failures. After three surgical procedures, the oral and maxillofacial surgeon noted continued muscle hyperactivity brought on by family environmental stress and arranged for family therapy treatment before a fourth surgical procedure. This paper presents a complicated TMJ case history, documentation for including the family in treatment of pain problems, collaborative efforts necessary for acceptance of referral for psychological intervention, and a family therapy approach to treatment in complex TMJ dysfunction. PMID:3166348

  11. Basic Complexity Eric Allender

    E-print Network

    Allender, Eric

    we would like complexity theory to do, it may be best to start by considering a "dream result Zealand. Lecture 1 presents the goals of computational complexity theory. We discuss (a) what complexity. In Lecture 3 we present a few of the most beautiful results in computational complexity theory. In particular

  12. Complexes of clusters and complexes of stars

    E-print Network

    Yu. N. Efremov

    2005-12-12

    Most star complexes are in fact complexes of stars, clusters and gas clouds; term "star complexes" was introduced as general one disregarding the preferential content of a complex. Generally the high rate of star formation in a complex is accompanied by the high number of bound clusters, including massive ones, what was explained by the high gas pressure in such regions. However, there are also complexes, where clusters seems to be more numerous in relation to stars than in a common complex. The high rate of clusters - but not isolated stars - formation seems to be typical for many isolated bursts of star formation, but deficit of stars might be still explained by the observational selection. The latter cannot, however, explain the complexes or the dwarf galaxies, where the high formation rate of only stars is observed. The possibility of the very fast dissolution of parental clusters just in such regions should itself be explained. Some difference in the physical conditions (turbulence parameters ?) within the initial gas supercloud might be a reason for the high or low stars/clusters number ratio in a complex.

  13. Complex Multiplicative Calculus

    E-print Network

    Bashirov, Agamirza

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper we extend the concepts of multiplicative de- rivative and integral to complex-valued functions of complex variable. Some drawbacks, arising with these concepts in the real case, are explained satis- factorily. Properties of complex multiplicative derivatives and integrals are studied. In particular, the fundamental theorem of complex multiplicative calculus, relating these concepts, is proved. It is shown that complex multi- plicative calculus is not just another realization of the ordinary calculus. In particular, the Cauchy formula of complex calculus disappears in multiplicative complex calculus.

  14. Nonsurgical treatment of recurrent glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Gallego, O.

    2015-01-01

    Standard treatment for glioblastoma multiforme is surgery followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy, generally with temozolomide. However, disease recurs in almost all patients. Diagnosis of progression is complex given the possibility of pseudoprogression. The Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology criteria increase the sensitivity for detecting progression. Most patients will not be candidates for new surgery or re-irradiation, and anticancer drugs are the most common approach for second-line treatment, if the patient’s condition allows. Antiangiogenics, inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor, nitrosoureas, and re-treatment with temozolomide have been studied in the second line, but a standard therapy has not yet been established. This review considers currently available medical treatment options for patients with glioblastoma recurrence. PMID:26300678

  15. Hyper Space Complex Number

    E-print Network

    Shanguang Tan

    2007-04-23

    A new kind of numbers called Hyper Space Complex Numbers and its algebras are defined and proved. It is with good properties as the classic Complex Numbers, such as expressed in coordinates, triangular and exponent forms and following the associative and commutative laws of addition and multiplication. So the classic Complex Number is developed from in complex plane with two dimensions to in complex space with N dimensions and the number system is enlarged also.

  16. Bypasses and Reconstruction for Complex Brain Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Harley Brito; Messina-Lopez, Mario; Sekhar, Laligam N.

    2014-01-01

    Microsurgery for brain aneurysms is a current relevant technique, as advances in endovascular and stent-assisted coiling have not solved many of the difficulties inherent in the management of complex brain aneurysms. The following review highlights the importance of microsurgical bypass techniques for the management of complex cerebrovascular aneurysms and emphasizes, through two clinical cases, the technical difficulties and indications for bypass surgery. These cases demonstrate that in selected scenarios, bypass microsurgery still offers the only viable treatment for complex aneurysms. PMID:25624977

  17. Protein Complexes in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Caufield, J. Harry; Abreu, Marco; Wimble, Christopher; Uetz, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale analyses of protein complexes have recently become available for Escherichia coli and Mycoplasma pneumoniae, yielding 443 and 116 heteromultimeric soluble protein complexes, respectively. We have coupled the results of these mass spectrometry-characterized protein complexes with the 285 “gold standard” protein complexes identified by EcoCyc. A comparison with databases of gene orthology, conservation, and essentiality identified proteins conserved or lost in complexes of other species. For instance, of 285 “gold standard” protein complexes in E. coli, less than 10% are fully conserved among a set of 7 distantly-related bacterial “model” species. Complex conservation follows one of three models: well-conserved complexes, complexes with a conserved core, and complexes with partial conservation but no conserved core. Expanding the comparison to 894 distinct bacterial genomes illustrates fractional conservation and the limits of co-conservation among components of protein complexes: just 14 out of 285 model protein complexes are perfectly conserved across 95% of the genomes used, yet we predict more than 180 may be partially conserved across at least half of the genomes. No clear relationship between gene essentiality and protein complex conservation is observed, as even poorly conserved complexes contain a significant number of essential proteins. Finally, we identify 183 complexes containing well-conserved components and uncharacterized proteins which will be interesting targets for future experimental studies. PMID:25723151

  18. Sewage Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In the early 1970's, National Space Technology Laboratories discovered that water hyacinths literally thrive on sewage; they absorb and digest nutrients and minerals from wastewater, converting sewage effluents to clean water. They offer a means of purifying water at a fraction of the cost of a conventional sewage treatment plant, and provide a bonus value in byproducts. Hyacinths must be harvested at intervals; the harvested plants are used as fertilizers, high-protein animal feed and a source of energy. Already serving a number of small towns, the "aquaculture" technique has significantly advanced with its adoption by a major U.S. city.

  19. Rhabdomyolysis: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Patrick A.; Helmstetter, John A.; Kaye, Adam M.; Kaye, Alan David

    2015-01-01

    Background Rhabdomyolysis is a complex medical condition involving the rapid dissolution of damaged or injured skeletal muscle. Methods This review focuses on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, causes, presentation, diagnosis, complications, management, and anesthetic considerations related to rhabdomyolysis. Results Any form of muscle damage––and by extension any entity that causes muscle damage––can initiate rhabdomyolysis. One of the most important treatment goals when rhabdomyolysis is suspected is avoiding acute kidney injury. Conclusion All clinicians should be aware of common causes, diagnosis, and treatment options. PMID:25829882

  20. Cyanobacterial NADPH dehydrogenase complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Teruo; Mi, Hualing

    2007-07-01

    Cyanobacteria possess functionally distinct multiple NADPH dehydrogenase (NDH-1) complexes that are essential to CO2 uptake, photosystem-1 cyclic electron transport and respiration. The unique nature of cyanobacterial NDH-1 complexes is the presence of subunits involved in CO2 uptake. Other than CO2 uptake, chloroplastic NDH-1 complex has similar role as cyanobacterial NDH-1 complexes in photosystem-1 cyclic electron transport and respiration (chlororespiration). In this mini-review we focus on the structure and function of cyanobacterial NDH-1 complexes and their phylogeny. The function of chloroplastic NDH-1 complex and characteristics of plants defective in NDH-1 are also described forcomparison.

  1. School Phobia: Understanding a Complex Behavioural Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitiyo, Morgan; Wheeler, John J.

    2006-01-01

    School phobia affects about 5% of the school-age population. If left untreated, school phobia can have devastating long-term consequences in children challenged by this condition. Various treatment approaches have been used to explore this complex behavioural response, major among them being the psychoanalytic, psychodynamic, pharmacological and…

  2. Diagnosis and Treatment of Delirium

    PubMed Central

    Henry, W. Desmond; Mann, Alan M.

    1965-01-01

    Delirium is not a clinical entity but a symptom-complex of manifold etiology. Its presence signifies acute cerebral insufficiency and often represents a medical and/or psychiatric emergency. Though some forms of delirium have distinctive features, the fundamental phenomena are common to all, with clouding of consciousness the sine qua non. The condition has two major components: (1) the basic “acute brain syndrome” and (2) associated release phenomena. Clinicians must first make the vital differentiation between delirium and “functional” mental disorder, then proceed with the elucidation of the underlying diagnosis and the concurrent organization of symptomatic and etiologic treatment. Proper treatment combines management of the acute brain syndrome with general and specific procedures for control of the underlying condition. Dealing with the symptom-complex itself involves the principles and practice of sedation, hydration, and nutrition, nursing care and supportive measures. Provided the basic organic condition is treatable, the prognosis today is usually good. PMID:5844423

  3. Polytopal complexes: maps, chain complexes and... necklaces

    E-print Network

    Meunier, Frédéric

    2008-01-01

    The notion of polytopal map between two polytopal complexes is defined. Surprisingly, this definition is quite simple and extends naturally those of simplicial and cubical maps. It is then possible to define an induced chain map between the associated chain complexes. Finally, we use this new tool to give the first combinatorial proof of the splitting necklace theorem of Alon. The paper ends with open questions, such as the existence of Sperner's lemma for a polytopal complex or the existence of a cubical approximation theorem.

  4. Oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes

    SciTech Connect

    de Azevedo, Cristina G.; Vollhardt, K. Peter C.

    2002-01-18

    Synthesis, characterization, and reactivity studies of oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes, namely those of fulvalene, tercyclopentadienyl, quatercyclopentadienyl, and pentacyclopentadienyl(cyclopentadienyl) are the subject of this account. Thermal-, photo-, and redox chemistries of homo- and heteropolynuclear complexes are described.

  5. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NINDS Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Information Page Synonym(s): Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Syndrome, Causalgia Condensed from Complex Regional ... Tel: 813-907-2312 Fax: 813-830-7446 Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Syndrome Association (RSDSA) P.O. Box ...

  6. Complex Elliptic Pendulum

    E-print Network

    Carl M. Bender; Daniel W. Hook; Karta Kooner

    2009-12-31

    This paper briefly summarizes previous work on complex classical mechanics and its relation to quantum mechanics. It then introduces a previously unstudied area of research involving the complex particle trajectories associated with elliptic potentials.

  7. Daunorubicin Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    Daunorubicin lipid complex is used to treat advanced Kaposi's sarcoma (a type of cancer that causes abnormal tissue to ... body) related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Daunorubicin lipid complex is in a class of medications called ...

  8. Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Diagnostic Criteria Update: Recommendations of the 2012 International Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Consensus Conference

    PubMed Central

    Northrup, Hope; Krueger, Darcy A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Tuberous sclerosis complex is highly variable in clinical presentation and findings. Disease manifestations continue to develop over the lifetime of an affected individual. Accurate diagnosis is fundamental to implementation of appropriate medical surveillance and treatment. Although significant advances have been made in the past 15 years in the understanding and treatment of tuberous sclerosis complex, current clinical diagnostic criteria have not been critically evaluated or updated since the last clinical consensus conference in 1998. METHODS The 2012 International Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Consensus Group, comprising 79 specialists from 14 countries, was organized into 12 subcommittees, each led by a clinician with advanced expertise in tuberous sclerosis complex and the relevant medical subspecialty. Each subcommittee focused on a specific disease area with important diagnostic implications and was charged with reviewing prevalence and specificity of disease-associated clinical findings and their impact on suspecting and confirming the diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis complex. RESULTS Clinical features of tuberous sclerosis complex continue to be a principal means of diagnosis. Key changes compared with 1998 criteria are the new inclusion of genetic testing results and reducing diagnostic classes from three (possible, probable, and definite) to two (possible, definite). Additional minor changes to specific criterion were made for additional clarification and simplification. CONCLUSIONS The 2012 International Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Diagnostic Criteria provide current, updated means using best available evidence to establish diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis complex in affected individuals. PMID:24053982

  9. Assessment and Treatment of Personality Disorders: A Behavioral Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson-Gray, Rosemery O.; Lootens, Christopher M.; Mitchell, John T.; Robertson, Christopher D.; Hundt, Natalie E.; Kimbrel, Nathan A.

    2009-01-01

    Personality disorders are complex and highly challenging to treatment providers; yet, for clients with these problems, there exist very few treatment options that have been supported by research. Given the lack of empirically-supported therapies for personality disorders, it can be difficult to make treatment decisions for this population. The…

  10. 133238 171114 Isambard Complex

    E-print Network

    Martin, Ralph R.

    Security 133238 171114 Isambard Complex A. North B. Meadow C. Michael Bevis D. Concourse E. Stephen Hall Bishop Complex 8 Bishop Hall 9 Kilmorey Hall 10 Lacy Hall 11 St Margarets Hall 12 Faraday Complex Michael Sterling Wilfred Brown Zone D Antonin Artaud Howell Joseph Lowe Medical Centre Tower A Tower B

  11. Simply Complex by Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Harold G.

    2007-01-01

    Reality--real life--is complex, more complex than can be imagined. The majority of our most pressing issues confronted in the management of organizations are overwhelmingly complex. I make the case for a systems design approach as a remedy. Examples introduced in this paper illuminate conceptual tools that advance how people transform their…

  12. 133238 171114 Isambard Complex

    E-print Network

    Martin, Ralph R.

    Security 133238 171114 Isambard Complex A. North B. Meadow C. Michael Bevis D. Concourse E. Stephen Bragg F. West G. Maurice Kogan H. David Neave I. Central J. East K. Runnymede L. George Shipp M. Trevor Hall Bishop Complex 8 Bishop Hall 9 Kilmorey Hall 10 Lacy Hall 11 St Margarets Hall 12 Faraday Complex

  13. CELL-PERMEABLE PROTEIN THERAPY FOR COMPLEX I DYSFUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Pepe, Salvatore; Mentzer, Robert M.; Gottlieb, Roberta A.

    2015-01-01

    Complex I deficiency is difficult to treat because of the size and complexity of the multi-subunit enzyme complex. Mutations or deletions in the mitochondrial genome are not amenable to gene therapy. However, animal studies have shown that yeast-derived internal NADH quinone oxidoreductase (Ndi1) can be delivered as a cell-permeable recombinant protein (Tat-Ndi1) that can functionally replace complex I damaged by ischemia/reperfusion. Current and future treatment of disorders affecting complex I are discussed, including the use of Tat-Ndi1. PMID:25005682

  14. Imprinted Polymers in Wastewater Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Eastman, Christopher; Goodrich, Scott; Gartner, Isabelle; Mueller, Anja

    2004-03-31

    In wastewater treatment, a method that specifically recognizes a variety of impurities in a flexible manner would be useful for treatment facilities with varying needs. Current purification techniques (i.e. bacteria, oxidation, reduction, precipitation and filtration) are nonspecific and difficult to control in complex mixtures. Heavy metal removal is particularly important in improving the efficiency of wastewater treatment, as they inhibit or even destroy the bacteria used for filtration. Imprinting polymerization is a technique that allows for the efficient removal of specific compounds and has been used in purification of enantiomers. It has potential to be applied in wastewater systems with the impurities acting as the template for the imprinting polymerization. The polymer with the bound impurities intact can then be removed via precipitation. After removal of the impurity the polymer can be reused. Data for the imprinting polymerization of polyacrylates and polyacrylamides for several metal complexes will be presented. Imprinting polymerization in combination with emulsion polymerization to improve the removal of hydrophobic contaminants will be described. Removal efficiencies will be presented and compared with conventional wastewater treatment methods.

  15. Trauma-focused CBT for youth with complex trauma

    PubMed Central

    Mannarino, Anthony P.; Kliethermes, Matthew; Murray, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Many youth develop complex trauma, which includes regulation problems in the domains of affect, attachment, behavior, biology, cognition, and perception. Therapists often request strategies for using evidence-based treatments (EBTs) for this population. This article describes practical strategies for applying Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) for youth with complex trauma. Methods TF-CBT treatment phases are described and modifications of timing, proportionality and application are described for youth with complex trauma. Practical applications include a) dedicating proportionally more of the model to the TF-CBT coping skills phase; b) implementing the TF-CBT Safety component early and often as needed throughout treatment; c) titrating gradual exposure more slowly as needed by individual youth; d) incorporating unifying trauma themes throughout treatment; and e) when indicated, extending the TF-CBT treatment consolidation and closure phase to include traumatic grief components and to generalize ongoing safety and trust. Results Recent data from youth with complex trauma support the use of the above TF-CBT strategies to successfully treat these youth. Conclusions The above practical strategies can be incorporated into TF-CBT to effectively treat youth with complex trauma. Practice implications Practical strategies include providing a longer coping skills phase which incorporates safety and appropriate gradual exposure; including relevant unifying themes; and allowing for an adequate treatment closure phase to enhance ongoing trust and safety. Through these strategies therapists can successfully apply TF-CBT for youth with complex trauma. PMID:22749612

  16. Child health in complex emergencies.

    PubMed Central

    Moss, William J.; Ramakrishnan, Meenakshi; Storms, Dory; Henderson Siegle, Anne; Weiss, William M.; Lejnev, Ivan; Muhe, Lulu

    2006-01-01

    Coordinated and effective interventions are critical for relief efforts to be successful in addressing the health needs of children in situations of armed conflict, population displacement, and/or food insecurity. We reviewed published literature and surveyed international relief organizations engaged in child health activities in complex emergencies. Our aim was to identify research needs and improve guidelines for the care of children. Much of the literature details the burden of disease and the causes of morbidity and mortality; few interventional studies have been published. Surveys of international relief organizations showed that most use World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and ministry of health guidelines designed for use in stable situations. Organizations were least likely to have formal guidelines on the management of asphyxia, prematurity, and infection in neonates; diagnosis and management of children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection; active case-finding and treatment of tuberculosis; paediatric trauma; and the diagnosis and management of mental-health problems in children. Guidelines often are not adapted to the different types of health-care workers who provide care in complex emergencies. Evidence-based, locally adapted guidelines for the care of children in complex emergencies should be adopted by ministries of health, supported by WHO and UNICEF, and disseminated to international relief organizations to ensure appropriate, effective, and uniform care. PMID:16501716

  17. B Plant complex treatment, storage, and disposal units inspection plan

    SciTech Connect

    Beam, T.G.

    1994-10-01

    Owners or operators of facilities that treat, store, and/or dispose of dangerous waste and/or mixed waste as defined by WAC 173-303, {open_quotes}Dangerous Waste Regulations,{close_quotes} must inspect their facilities to prevent malfunctions and deteriorations, operator errors, and discharges that may cause or lead to the release of hazardous waste constituents to the environment and/or cause a threat to human health. The WAC regulations require a written inspection schedule be developed, implemented, and kept at the facility.

  18. The Evolution of Privatization at Hanford Tank Waste Treatment Complex

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN, N.R.

    2001-02-01

    Privatization acquisition strategies embody substantial contract reform principles-private financing and ownership, competition, fixed prices, and payment only upon delivery of services-which in time became the recipe for privatization of Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) cleanup projects. Privatization changes the federal government's approach from traditional cost-plus contracting, where the federal government pays the contractor as the project progresses, to a strategy where the federal government pays for products or services as they are delivered. To be successful, the privatization requires additional risk taking by the contractor. This paper focuses on why the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) pursued privatization, how the TWRS Privatization Project matured, and why the privatization project moved to an alternate path. The paper is organized as follows: a description of the TWRS-Privatization framework, how the project changed from the original request for proposal through the decision not to proceed to Part B-2, and the lessons learned during evolution of the effort, including what worked as well as what went wrong and how such negative outcomes might be prevented in the future.

  19. Surprising Titanium Complexes Bearing 2-Pyrazolato Ligands: Synthesis, Structure, and

    E-print Network

    Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    Surprising Titanium Complexes Bearing 2-Pyrazolato Ligands: Synthesis, Structure, and Molecular the synthesis and characterization of several homoleptic pz com- plexes of titanium(IV). These species complexes should be common in early to middle transition metals. Treatment of tetrakis(dimethylamido)titanium

  20. Glenohumeral instability associated with Buford complex.

    PubMed

    del Rey, Fernando Canillas; Vázquez, Diego García-Germán; López, Daniel Nieto

    2009-12-01

    Buford complex is described as a normal anatomical variant of the anterosuperior part of the glenoid consisting of the absence of the anterosuperior labrum with the presence of a cord-like middle glenohumeral ligament. Traditionally, reattachment to the glenoid has been discouraged. We present a case of a Buford complex associated with glenohumeral instability. The patient was operated for recurrent instability without a preoperative diagnosis of Buford complex. The diagnosis was made during shoulder arthroscopy and reattachment to the glenoid was performed with a satisfactory outcome. Here, we discuss the relationship of the Buford complex with intraarticular pathology and the surgical treatment in cases when this variant is associated with instability. PMID:19629434

  1. Assessing physiological complexity.

    PubMed

    Burggren, W W; Monticino, M G

    2005-09-01

    Physiologists both admire and fear complexity, but we have made relatively few attempts to understand it. Inherently complex systems are more difficult to study and less predictable. However, a deeper understanding of physiological systems can be achieved by modifying experimental design and analysis to account for complexity. We begin this essay with a tour of some mathematical views of complexity. After briefly exploring chaotic systems, information theory and emergent behavior, we reluctantly conclude that, while a mathematical view of complexity provides useful perspectives and some narrowly focused tools, there are too few generally practical take-home messages for physiologists studying complex systems. Consequently, we attempt to provide guidelines as to how complex systems might be best approached by physiologists. After describing complexity based on the sum of a physiological system's structures and processes, we highlight increasingly refined approaches based on the pattern of interactions between structures and processes. We then provide a series of examples illustrating how appreciating physiological complexity can improve physiological research, including choosing experimental models, guiding data collection, improving data interpretations and constructing more rigorous system models. Finally, we conclude with an invitation for physiologists, applied mathematicians and physicists to collaborate on describing, studying and learning from studies of physiological complexity. PMID:16109885

  2. Quantum Computational Complexity

    E-print Network

    John Watrous

    2008-04-21

    This article surveys quantum computational complexity, with a focus on three fundamental notions: polynomial-time quantum computations, the efficient verification of quantum proofs, and quantum interactive proof systems. Properties of quantum complexity classes based on these notions, such as BQP, QMA, and QIP, are presented. Other topics in quantum complexity, including quantum advice, space-bounded quantum computation, and bounded-depth quantum circuits, are also discussed.

  3. Does complex learning require complex connectivity?

    E-print Network

    Guerra Hernández, Alejandro

    - proach different issues in behavior based Artificial Intelligence (AI) that usually have been ill defined when performing complex learning. 1 Introduction Behavior based AI [6, 21, 23] claims the necessity [27], autonomy [7], or even the epigenetic [13, 14], are ill defined or even are used with different

  4. Treatment of binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Wilson, G Terence

    2011-12-01

    The two specialty psychological therapies of CBT and IPT remain the treatments of choice for the full range of BED patients, particularly those with high levels of specific eating disorder psychopathology such as overvaluation of body shape and weight. They produce the greatest degree of remission from binge eating as well as improvement in specific eating disorder psychopathology and associated general psychopathology such as depression. The CBT protocol evaluated in the research summarized above was the original manual from Fairburn and colleagues. Fairburn has subsequently developed a more elaborate and sophisticated form of treatment, namely, enhanced CBT (CBT-E) for eating disorders. Initial research suggests that CBT-E may be more effective than the earlier version with bulimia nervosa and Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified patients. CBT-E has yet to be evaluated for the treatment of BED, although it would currently be the recommended form of CBT. Of relevance in this regard is that the so-called broad form of the new protocol includes 3 optional treatment modules that could be used to address more complex psychopathology in BED patients. One of the modules targeted at interpersonal difficulties is IPT, as described earlier in this chapter. Thus, the broader protocol could represent a combination of the two currently most effective therapies for BED. Whether this combined treatment proves more effective than either of the components alone, particularly for a subset of BED patients with more complex psychopathology, remains to be tested. CBT-E also includes a module designed to address what Fairburn terms “mood intolerance” (problems in coping with negative affect) that can trigger binge eating and purging. The content and strategies of this mood intolerance module overlap with the emotional regulation and distress tolerance skills training of Linehan's dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). Two randomized controlled trials have tested the efficacy of an adaptation of DBT for the treatment of BED (DBT-BED) featuring mindfulness, emotion regulation, and distress tolerance training. A small study by Telch and colleagues found that modified DBT-BED was more effective than a wait list control in eliminating binge eating. A second study showed that DBT-BED resulted in a significantly greater remission rate from binge eating at posttreatment than a group comparison treatment designed to control for nonspecific therapeutic factors such as treatment alliance and expectations.50 This difference between the two treatments disappeared over a 12-month follow-up, indicating the absence of DBT-BED-specific influences on long-term outcomes. Both CBT and IPT have been shown to be more effective in eliminating binge eating than BWL in controlled, comparative clinical trials. Nonetheless, BWL has been effective in reducing binge eating and associated eating problems in BED patients in some studies and might be suitable for treatment of BED patients without high levels of specific eating disorder psychopathology. A finding worthy of future research is the apparent predictive value of early treatment response to BWL, indicating when BWL is likely to prove effective or not. No evidence supports the concern that BWL's emphasis on moderate caloric restriction either triggers or exacerbates binge eating in individuals with BED. Initially, CBTgsh was recommended as a feasible first-line treatment that might be sufficient treatment for a limited subset of patients in a stepped care approach. More recent research, however, has shown that CBTgsh seems to be as effective as a specialty therapy, such as IPT, with a majority of BED patients. The subset of patients that did not respond well to CBTgsh in this research were those with a high level of specific eating disorder psychopathology, as noted. A plausible explanation for this moderator effect is that the original Fairburn CBTgsh manual does not include an explicit emphasis on body shape and weight concerns. Subsequent implementation of this treatment has incorporated a module that dire

  5. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    P. Smith; M. Deo; E. Eddings; A. Sarofim; K. Gueishen; M. Hradisky; K. Kelly; P. Mandalaparty; H. Zhang

    2011-10-30

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coalâ??s carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO{sub 2} sequestration. Efforts focused on: â?¢ Constructing a suite of three different coal pyrolysis reactors. These reactors offer the ability to gather heat transfer, mass transfer and kinetic data during coal pyrolysis under conditions that mimic in situ conditions (Subtask 6.1). â?¢ Studying the operational parameters for various underground thermal treatment processes for oil shale and coal and completing a design matrix analysis for the underground coal thermal treatment (UCTT). This analysis yielded recommendations for terms of targeted coal rank, well orientation, rubblization, presence of oxygen, temperature, pressure, and heating sources (Subtask 6.2). â?¢ Developing capabilities for simulating UCTT, including modifying the geometry as well as the solution algorithm to achieve long simulation times in a rubblized coal bed by resolving the convective channels occurring in the representative domain (Subtask 6.3). â?¢ Studying the reactive behavior of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with limestone, sandstone, arkose (a more complex sandstone) and peridotite, including mineralogical changes and brine chemistry for the different initial rock compositions (Subtask 6.4). Arkose exhibited the highest tendency of participating in mineral reactions, which can be attributed to the geochemical complexity of its initial mineral assemblage. In experiments with limestone, continuous dissolution was observed with the release of CO{sub 2} gas, indicated by the increasing pressure in the reactor (formation of a gas chamber). This occurred due to the lack of any source of alkali to buffer the solution. Arkose has the geochemical complexity for permanent sequestration of CO{sub 2} as carbonates and is also relatively abundant. The effect of including NH{sub 3} in the injected gas stream was also investigated in this study. Precipitation of calcite and trace amounts of ammonium zeolites was observed. A batch geochemical model was developed using Geochemists Workbench (GWB). Degassing effect in the experiments was corrected using the sliding fugacity model in GWB. Experimental and simulation results were compared and a reasonable agreement between the two was observed.

  6. Acute Migraine Treatment in Adults.

    PubMed

    Becker, Werner J

    2015-06-01

    There are many options for acute migraine attack treatment, but none is ideal for all patients. This study aims to review current medical office-based acute migraine therapy in adults and provides readers with an organized approach to this important facet of migraine treatment. A general literature review includes a review of several recent published guidelines. Acetaminophen, 4 nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (ibuprofen, acetylsalicylic acid [ASA], naproxen sodium, and diclofenac potassium), and 7 triptans (almotriptan, eletriptan, frovatriptan, naratriptan, rizatriptan, sumatriptan, and zolmitriptan) have good evidence for efficacy and form the core of acute migraine treatment. NSAID-triptan combinations, dihydroergotamine, non-opioid combination analgesics (acetaminophen, ASA, and caffeine), and several anti-emetics (metoclopramide, domperidone, and prochlorperazine) are additional evidence-based options. Opioid containing combination analgesics may be helpful in specific patients, but should not be used routinely. Clinical features to be considered when choosing an acute migraine medication include usual headache intensity, usual rapidity of pain intensity increase, nausea, vomiting, degree of disability, patient response to previously used medications, history of headache recurrence with previous attacks, and the presence of contraindications to specific acute medications. Available acute medications can be organized into 4 treatment strategies, including a strategy for attacks of mild to moderate severity (strategy one: acetaminophen and/or NSAIDs), a triptan strategy for patients with severe attacks and for attacks not responding to strategy one, a refractory attack strategy, and a strategy for patients with contraindications to vasoconstricting drugs. Acute treatment of migraine attacks during pregnancy, lactation, and for patients with chronic migraine is also discussed. In chronic migraine, it is particularly important that medication overuse is eliminated or avoided. Migraine treatment is complex, and treatment must be individualized and tailored to the patient's clinical features. Clinicians should make full use of available medications and formulations in an organized approach. PMID:25877672

  7. South Campus Recreation Complex

    E-print Network

    McLaughlin, Richard M.

    Basketball Court Navy Field Tennis Court E. Tennis Court W. COEC Play Field Branson Basketball Court Navy Field Volleyball Court South Campus Recreation Complex Basketball Half Court Sand Court Kenan Stadium Field North Campus Recreation Complex Belk Track Hooker Fields Basketball Half Court Basketball

  8. Complexity and Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, Jeanette Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    A central feature of complexity is that it is based on non-linear, recursive relations. However, in most current accounts of complexity such relations, while non-linear, are based on the reductive relations of a Newtonian onto-epistemological framework. This means that the systems that are emergent from the workings of such relations are a…

  9. Complex Materials Research Profile

    E-print Network

    Giger, Christine

    , and the co-assembly of particles, droplets and bubbles in complex suspensions for 3D printing and other ­ Composites with complex reinforcement architectures ­ Bioinspired composites ­ 3D Printing ­ Fracture inno- vative ways to integrate the organic and inorganic worlds into bioinspired hybrid systems

  10. Schools and Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trombly, Christopher E.

    2014-01-01

    As schools, districts, and the overall education system are complex entities, both the approaches taken to improve them and the methods used to study them must be similarly complex. Simple solutions imposed with no regard for schools' or districts' unique contexts hold little promise, while seemingly insignificant differences between those…

  11. Complex Organic Interstellar Molecules

    E-print Network

    van Dishoeck, Ewine F.

    Complex Organic Interstellar Molecules Eric Herbst1 and Ewine F. van Dishoeck2 1 Departments complex by astronomers if not by chemists, all contain the element carbon and so can be called organic and a solid phase of tiny dust particles. The dense interstellar matter can be found in small individual

  12. Complexity in Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierschynski, Jarek; Louie, Belinda; Pughe, Bronwyn

    2015-01-01

    One of the key requirements of Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in English Language Arts is that students are able to read and access complex texts across all grade levels. The CCSS authors emphasize both the limitations and lack of accuracy in the current CCSS model of text complexity, calling for the development of new frameworks. In response…

  13. Gold trifluoromethyl complexes.

    PubMed

    Gil-Rubio, Juan; Vicente, José

    2015-12-01

    This article reviews the synthesis, reactivity and applications of gold trifluoromethyl complexes, which are the only isolated perfluoroalkyl complexes of gold. The most reported examples are neutral Au(i) complexes of the type [Au(CF3)L], whereas only two Au(ii) trifluoromethyl complexes have been reported, both being diamagnetic and containing a strong Au-Au bond. A number of Au(iii) trifluoromethyl complexes have been prepared by oxidative addition of halogens or iodotrifluoromethane to Au(i) complexes or, in a few cases, by transmetallation reactions. Owing to the limitations of the available synthetic methods, a lower number of examples is known, particularly for the oxidation states (ii) and (iii). Gold trifluoromethyl complexes present singular characteristics, such as thermal stability, strong Au-C bonds and, in some cases, reactive ?-C-F bonds. Some of the Au(iii) complexes reported, show unusually easy reductive elimination reactions of trifluoromethylated products which could be applied in the development of gold-catalyzed processes for the trifluoromethylation of organic compounds. PMID:26169553

  14. U1A Complex

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-28

    Some of the most sophisticated experiments in the stockpile stewardship program are conducted in an environmentally safe manner, nearly 1000 feet below the ground at the site. The U1a complex a sprawling underground laboratory and tunnel complex is home to a number of unique capabilities.

  15. U1A Complex

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2015-01-09

    Some of the most sophisticated experiments in the stockpile stewardship program are conducted in an environmentally safe manner, nearly 1000 feet below the ground at the site. The U1a complex a sprawling underground laboratory and tunnel complex is home to a number of unique capabilities.

  16. UNCORRECTEDPROOF Springer Complexity

    E-print Network

    Breakspear, Michael

    the best research and academic-level teaching on both fundamental and applied aspects of complex systems, medicine, neuroscience, social and computer science. Complex Systems are systems that comprise many automata, adaptive systems, genetic al- gorithms and computational intelligence. The two major book

  17. Performance Improvement Assuming Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Gordon

    2007-01-01

    Individual performers, work teams, and organizations may be considered complex adaptive systems, while most current human performance technologies appear to assume simple determinism. This article explores the apparent mismatch and speculates on future efforts to enhance performance if complexity rather than simplicity is assumed. Included are…

  18. Freestanding Complex Optical Scanners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisbie, David A.

    A complex freestanding optical mark recognition (OMR) scanner is one which is not on-line to an external processor; it has intelligence stemming from an internal processor located within the unit or system. The advantages and disadvantages of a complex OMR can best be assessed after identifying the scanning needs and constraints of the potential…

  19. Bacterial formate hydrogenlyase complex

    PubMed Central

    McDowall, Jennifer S.; Murphy, Bonnie J.; Haumann, Michael; Palmer, Tracy; Armstrong, Fraser A.; Sargent, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Under anaerobic conditions, Escherichia coli can carry out a mixed-acid fermentation that ultimately produces molecular hydrogen. The enzyme directly responsible for hydrogen production is the membrane-bound formate hydrogenlyase (FHL) complex, which links formate oxidation to proton reduction and has evolutionary links to Complex I, the NADH:quinone oxidoreductase. Although the genetics, maturation, and some biochemistry of FHL are understood, the protein complex has never been isolated in an intact form to allow biochemical analysis. In this work, genetic tools are reported that allow the facile isolation of FHL in a single chromatographic step. The core complex is shown to comprise HycE (a [NiFe] hydrogenase component termed Hyd-3), FdhF (the molybdenum-dependent formate dehydrogenase-H), and three iron-sulfur proteins: HycB, HycF, and HycG. A proportion of this core complex remains associated with HycC and HycD, which are polytopic integral membrane proteins believed to anchor the core complex to the cytoplasmic side of the membrane. As isolated, the FHL complex retains formate hydrogenlyase activity in vitro. Protein film electrochemistry experiments on Hyd-3 demonstrate that it has a unique ability among [NiFe] hydrogenases to catalyze production of H2 even at high partial pressures of H2. Understanding and harnessing the activity of the FHL complex is critical to advancing future biohydrogen research efforts. PMID:25157147

  20. COMPLEXITY IN ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The enormous complexity of ecosystems is generally obvious under even the most cursory examination. In the modern world, this complexity is further augmented by the linkage of ecosystems to economic and social systems through the human use of the environment for technological pu...

  1. [Complexity: an introduction].

    PubMed

    Gómez, Carlos Alberto Palacio; Jaramillo, Francisco Luis Ochoa

    2011-01-01

    Complexity appears in the twentieth century as a way to understand many phenomena that are perceived as chaotic and complex from classical thought, which still persist in our way of explaining the world. Its purpose is to study the complex and adaptive systems that are sensitive to initial conditions. Some of the characteristics of complex thought are systemic perspective, autopoiesis, self-organization, emergent properties, unpredictability of the systems, analogic thought, and the complementarity of the phenomena, among others. Living systems respond to a complex logic, and in that sense, our vision of human populations and patients, and how we try to solve problems and human diseases, should be open to the possibilities that arise from this form of understand the world. PMID:21503430

  2. Leading healthcare in complexity.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Jeffrey

    2014-12-01

    Healthcare institutions and providers are in complexity. Networks of interconnections from relationships and technology create conditions in which interdependencies and non-linear dynamics lead to surprising, unpredictable outcomes. Previous effective approaches to leadership, focusing on top-down bureaucratic methods, are no longer effective. Leading in complexity requires leaders to accept the complexity, create an adaptive space in which innovation and creativity can flourish and then integrate the successful practices that emerge into the formal organizational structure. Several methods for doing adaptive space work will be discussed. Readers will be able to contrast traditional leadership approaches with leading in complexity. They will learn new behaviours that are required of complexity leaders, along with challenges they will face, often from other leaders within the organization. PMID:25815410

  3. ICDF Complex Remedial Action Report

    SciTech Connect

    W. M. Heileson

    2007-09-26

    This Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (ICDF) Remedial Action Report has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of Section 6.2 of the INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility Remedial Action Work Plan. The agency prefinal inspection of the ICDF Staging, Storage, Sizing, and Treatment Facility (SSSTF) was completed in June of 2005. Accordingly, this report has been developed to describe the construction activities completed at the ICDF along with a description of any modifications to the design originally approved for the facility. In addition, this report provides a summary of the major documents prepared for the design and construction of the ICDF, a discussion of relevant requirements and remedial action objectives, the total costs associated with the development and operation of the facility to date, and identification of necessary changes to the Agency-approved INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility Remedial Action Work Plan and the ICDF Complex Operations and Maintenance Plan.

  4. Nanocrystalline Complex Oxides Prepared by Mechanochemical Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Sepelak, V.; Bergmann, I.; Indris, S.; Subrt, J.; Heitjans, P.; Becker, K.-D.

    2010-07-13

    The preparation of complex oxides by the conventional solid-state (ceramic) route requires a number of stages, including homogenization of the powder precursors, compaction of the reactants, and finally prolonged heat treatment at considerably elevated temperatures under controlled oxygen fugacity. One goal of modern materials research and development has been to identify simpler processing schemes that do not rely upon high-temperature treatments for inducing solid-state reactions. At present, mechanochemical methods become widely used for the preparation of nanocrystalline materials due to their relative simplicity and availability. In this work, selected examples of the preparation of nanoscale complex oxides via single-step mechanochemical routes are presented. Nuclear spectroscopic methods are employed to follow the mechanically induced formation of nanooxides and to characterize the nonequilibrium structural state of the resulting nanophases at the atomic level.

  5. Ankle Sprain Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Ankle Sprain Treatment Article Body Acute ankle and foot injuries are common in athletes and ... Pediatrics summarizing the treatment phases of rehabilitation for ankle sprain. Phase Summary Description I Phase I treatment ...

  6. Tetanus: Diagnosis and Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Links Tetanus Vaccination Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus Elimination Diagnosis and Treatment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... should be given along with treatment. Related Page Diagnosis/Treatment for Clinicians Related Links Tetanus Vaccination Maternal ...

  7. Body Lice Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  8. Head Lice: Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  9. Pubic "Crab" Lice Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  10. DECENTRALIZED WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    E-print Network

    Walter, M.Todd

    DECENTRALIZED WASTEWATER TREATMENT: A SENSIBLE SOLUTION Many communities are considering decentralized wastewater treatment and the economic and environmental advantages these types of systems can-scale treatment, and can also offer many additional benefits to communities. WHAT IS DECENTRALIZED WASTEWATER

  11. Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... treatment for leukemia: chemotherapy, radiation, and stem cell transplant. Chemotherapy uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, either ... treatment for leukemia: chemotherapy, radiation, and stem cell ... of a single drug, Gleevec (imatinib mesylate), for treatment of chronic myeloid ...

  12. Why Adoptees Search: An Existential Treatment Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jago Krueger, Mary J.; Hanna, Fred J.

    1997-01-01

    Frames the adult adoptee's search for biological roots in an existential treatment perspective. This perspective is proposed as a practical approach to understanding the complexities of the adoption experience and an adoptee's desire to search. Reviews adoption practices, existential perspectives (e.g., death), and clinical implications. Provides…

  13. Selenophene transition metal complexes

    SciTech Connect

    White, C.J.

    1994-07-27

    This research shows that selenophene transition metal complexes have a chemistry that is similar to their thiophene analogs. Selenophene coordination has been demonstrated and confirmed by molecular structure in both the {eta}{sup 5}- and the {eta}{sup 1}(Se)-coordination modes. The reaction chemistry of selenophene complexes closely resembles that of the analogous thiophene complexes. One major difference, however, is that selenophene is a better donor ligand than thiophene making the selenophene complexes more stable than the corresponding thiophene complexes. The {sup 77}Se NMR chemical shift values for selenophene complexes fall within distinct regions primarily depending on the coordination mode of the selenophene ligand. In the final paper, the C-H bond activation of {eta}{sup 1}(S)-bound thiophenes, {eta}{sup 1}(S)-benzothiophene and {eta}{sup 1}(Se)-bound selenophenes has been demonstrated. The deprotonation and rearrangement of the {eta}{sup 1}(E)-bound ligand to the carbon bound L-yl complex readily occurs in the presence of base. Reprotonation with a strong acid gives a carbene complex that is unreactive towards nucleophilic attack at the carbene carbon and is stable towards exposure to air. The molecular structure of [Cp(NO)(PPh{sub 3})Re(2-benzothioenylcarbene)]O{sub 3}SCF{sub 3} was determined and contains a Re-C bond with substantial double bond character. Methyl substitution for the thienylcarbene or selenylcarbene gives a carbene that rearranges thermally to give back the {eta}{sup 1}(E)-bound complex. Based on these model reactions, a new mechanism for the H/D exchange of thiophene over the hydrodesulfurization catalyst has been proposed.

  14. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... works, it may be repeated. Physical therapy and psychological counseling are also helpful. However, a treatment that ... my pain? If my injury has healed, why am I still in pain? Do I need any tests? What is the best treatment option for me? ...

  15. Nipple areola complex sparing mastectomy

    PubMed Central

    Mingozzi, Matteo; Curcio, Annalisa; Buggi, Federico; Folli, Secondo

    2015-01-01

    Breast conservative therapy (BCT) is established as a safe option for most women with early breast cancer (BC). The best conservative mastectomy that can be performed, when mastectomy is unavoidable, is nipple-areola-complex sparing mastectomy (NSM), which allows the complete glandular dissection preserving the skin envelope and the nipple areola complex. In the treatment of BC, the cosmetic outcomes have become fundamental goals, as well as oncologic control. NSM is nowadays considered an alternative technique to improve the overall quality of life for women allowing excellent cosmetic results because it provides a natural appearing breast. The breast surgeon must pay attention to details and skin incision must be planned to minimize vascular impairment to the skin and the nipple. Preservation of the blood supply to the nipple is one of the most important concern during NSM because nipple or areolar necrosis is a well-described complication of this surgery. Another issue associated with the nipple preservation and the surgical technique is oncological safety related to nipple-areola-complex (NAC) involvement in patients with invasive BC. The authors present their experience on 252 NSM performed in the Breast Surgery Unit in Forlì. Careful selection of patients for this surgical procedure is imperative and many patients are not ideal candidates for this procedure because of concerns about nipple-areolar viability as women with significant large/ptotic breast, pre-existing breast scars and history of active cigarette smoking. To extend the benefits of nipple preservation to patients who are perceived to be at higher risk for nipple necrosis the authors describe technical modifications of NSM to allow nipple preservation and obtain good cosmetic outcomes. PMID:26645007

  16. Synchronization in complex dynamical networks coupled with complex chaotic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Qiang; Xie, Cheng-Jun; Wang, Bo

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates synchronization in complex dynamical networks with time delay and perturbation. The node of complex dynamical networks is composed of complex chaotic system. A complex feedback controller is designed to realize different component of complex state variable synchronize up to different scaling complex function when complex dynamical networks realize synchronization. The synchronization scaling function is changed from real field to complex field. Synchronization in complex dynamical networks with constant delay and time-varying coupling delay are investigated, respectively. Numerical simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. Monitoring treatment and managing adherence in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Marder, Stephen R

    2013-10-01

    The majority of patients with schizophrenia will be nonadherent at some point during their treatment, which is why clinicians must assess adherence at each visit and promptly address any barriers. Treatment adherence can be negatively impacted by substance use, cognitive impairment, complex treatment regimens, and antipsychotic-induced adverse effects. Clinicians must monitor these risk factors, particularly metabolic, neurologic, and other side effects, not only to improve adherence but also to protect patients from dangerous health conditions. Interventions that can address some barriers to treatment adherence include adjusting medications as necessary, implementing lifestyle changes, using long-acting injectable antipsychotics, educating patients and their families, and implementing psychosocial therapy. With the appropriate interventions and support, patients with schizophrenia can maintain their treatment regimens and avoid relapse. PMID:24229761

  18. Complexity and forensic pathology.

    PubMed

    Jones, Richard Martin

    2015-12-01

    It has become increasingly apparent that nonlinearity and complexity are the norm in human physiological systems, the relevance of which is informing an enhanced understanding of basic pathological processes such as inflammation, the host response to severe trauma, and critical illness. This article will explore how an understanding of nonlinear systems and complexity might inform the study of the pathophysiology of deaths of medicolegal interest, and how 'complexity thinking' might usefully be incorporated into modern forensic medicine and forensic pathology research, education and practice. PMID:26372537

  19. Controllability of Complex Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slotine, Jean-Jacques

    2013-03-01

    We review recent work on controllability of complex systems. We also discuss the interplay of our results with questions of synchronization, and point out key directions of future research. Work done in collaboration with Yang-Yu Liu, Center for Complex Network Research and Departments of Physics, Computer Science and Biology, Northeastern University and Center for Cancer Systems Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute; and Albert-László Barabási, Center for Complex Network Research and Departments of Physics, Computer Science and Biology, Northeastern University; Center for Cancer Systems Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute; and Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School.

  20. Afterglow Complex Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Samarian, A. A.; Boufendi, L.; Mikikian, M.

    2008-09-07

    The review of the first detailed experimental and theoretical studies of complex plasma in RF discharge afterglow is presented. The studies have been done in a frame of FAST collaborative research project between Complex Plasma Laboratory of the University of Sydney and the GREMI laboratory of Universite d'Orleans. We examined the existing models of plasma decay, presents experimental observations of dust dynamics under different afterglow complex plasma conditions, presents the experimental data obtained (in particular the presence of positively charged particles in discharge afterglow), discusses the use of dust particles as a probe to study the diffusion losses in afterglow plasmas.

  1. Complexity and robustness

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, J. M.; Doyle, John

    2002-01-01

    Highly optimized tolerance (HOT) was recently introduced as a conceptual framework to study fundamental aspects of complexity. HOT is motivated primarily by systems from biology and engineering and emphasizes, (i) highly structured, nongeneric, self-dissimilar internal configurations, and (ii) robust yet fragile external behavior. HOT claims these are the most important features of complexity and not accidents of evolution or artifices of engineering design but are inevitably intertwined and mutually reinforcing. In the spirit of this collection, our paper contrasts HOT with alternative perspectives on complexity, drawing on real-world examples and also model systems, particularly those from self-organized criticality. PMID:11875207

  2. The complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Oaklander, Anne Louise; Horowitz, Steven H

    2015-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is the current consensus-derived name for a syndrome usually triggered by limb trauma. Required elements include prolonged, disproportionate distal-limb pain and microvascular dysregulation (e.g., edema or color changes) or altered sweating. CRPS-II (formerly "causalgia") describes patients with identified nerve injuries. CRPS-I (formerly "reflex sympathetic dystrophy") describes most patients who lack evidence of specific nerve injuries. Diagnosis is clinical and the pathophysiology involves combinations of small-fiber axonopathy, microvasculopathy, inflammation, and brain plasticity/sensitization. Females have much higher risk and workplace accidents are a well-recognized cause. Inflammation and dysimmunity, perhaps facilitated by injury to the blood-nerve barrier, may contribute. Most patients, particularly the young, recover gradually, but treatment can speed healing. Evidence of efficacy is strongest for rehabilitation therapies (e.g., graded-motor imagery), neuropathic pain medications, and electric stimulation of the spinal cord, injured nerve, or motor cortex. Investigational treatments include ketamine, botulinum toxin, immunoglobulins, and transcranial neuromodulation. Nonrecovering patients should be re-evaluated for neurosurgically treatable causal lesions (nerve entrapment, impingement, infections, or tumors) and treatable potentiating medical conditions, including polyneuropathy and circulatory insufficiency. Earlier impressions that CRPS represents malingering or psychosomatic illness have been replaced by evidence that CRPS is a rare complication of limb injury in biologically susceptible individuals. PMID:26563805

  3. Tuberous Sclerosis Complex: Perioperative Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Rabito, Matthew J.; Kaye, Alan David

    2014-01-01

    Background Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), also known as Bourneville disease, is an inherited, progressive neurocutaneous disorder characterized by the potential for hamartoma formation throughout the body. TSC is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder, but more than two-thirds of cases are sporadic. Methods Clinical manifestations and treatment options are discussed. Both surgical and anesthetic perioperative considerations are described in this review. Results Routine monitoring is appropriate for minor surgical procedures for patients with TSC who have mild disease manifestations. More extensive monitoring is indicated for major procedures that have the potential for significant blood loss and for patients with more severe pathology. Postoperatively, TSC patients should be admitted for monitoring and treatment after more extensive procedures or if significant organ dysfunction occurs. Postoperative complications, which may be related to either the surgery or the TSC pathology itself, may have origins in many different organs and may include seizures, severe hypertension, and bradyarrhythmias. Conclusion TSC is a rare disease with a highly variable clinical presentation and provides a multitude of challenges for the patient, the family, and the healthcare team. PMID:24940133

  4. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition. It causes intense pain, usually in the arms, hands, legs, or feet. ... in skin temperature, color, or texture Intense burning pain Extreme skin sensitivity Swelling and stiffness in affected ...

  5. Complex System Classification

    E-print Network

    Magee, Christopher

    2004-07-24

    The use of terms such as “Engineering Systems”, “System of systems” and others have been coming into greater use over the past decade to denote systems of importance but with implied higher complexity than for the term ...

  6. Complex Flow Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-05-01

    This report documents findings from a workshop on the impacts of complex wind flows in and out of wind turbine environments, the research needs, and the challenges of meteorological and engineering modeling at regional, wind plant, and wind turbine scales.

  7. Reconstruction Using Witness Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Oudot, Steve Y.

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel reconstruction algorithm that, given an input point set sampled from an object S, builds a one-parameter family of complexes that approximate S at different scales. At a high level, our method is very similar in spirit to Chew’s surface meshing algorithm, with one notable difference though: the restricted Delaunay triangulation is replaced by the witness complex, which makes our algorithm applicable in any metric space. To prove its correctness on curves and surfaces, we highlight the relationship between the witness complex and the restricted Delaunay triangulation in 2d and in 3d. Specifically, we prove that both complexes are equal in 2d and closely related in 3d, under some mild sampling assumptions. PMID:21643440

  8. A complex legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Cristopher

    2011-11-01

    In his tragically short life, Alan Turing helped define what computing machines are capable of, and where they reach inherent limits. His legacy is still felt every day, in areas ranging from computational complexity theory to cryptography and quantum computing.

  9. Cytarabine Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    Cytarabine lipid complex is used to treat lymphomatous meningitis (a type of cancer in the covering of ... to take.tell your doctor if you have meningitis. Your doctor will probably not want you to ...

  10. Proteins and Complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Joelle; Gibbon, Dana; Runyon, Alissa; Bajracharya, Arun

    2015-03-01

    A protein's tertiary structure determines its function in living organisms. The different functions proteins serve necessitate variety in native structures. How is variation in tertiary structure created from a common set of amino acids and molecular forces? In other words, what generates complexity in structures across all types of native proteins? To explore this question, a simple HP model of protein folding was explored for evidence of self-organized criticality, a potential generator of complexity.

  11. Treatment Option Overview (Myelodysplastic Syndromes)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Patient Myelo-proliferative Neoplasms Patient Myelodysplastic Syndromes Treatment Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Health Professional Myelodysplastic ...

  12. Treatment Options for Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Patient Myelo-proliferative Neoplasms Patient Myelodysplastic Syndromes Treatment Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Health Professional Myelodysplastic ...

  13. Group 4 Metalloporphyrin diolato Complexes and Catalytic Application of Metalloporphyrins and Related Transition Metal Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Guodong Du

    2004-12-19

    In this work, the first examples of group 4 metalloporphyrin 1,2-diolato complexes were synthesized through a number of strategies. In general, treatment of imido metalloporphyrin complexes, (TTP)M=NR, (M = Ti, Zr, Hf), with vicinal diols led to the formation of a series of diolato complexes. Alternatively, the chelating pinacolate complexes could be prepared by metathesis of (TTP)MCl{sub 2} (M = Ti, Hf) with disodium pinacolate. These complexes were found to undergo C-C cleavage reactions to produce organic carbonyl compounds. For titanium porphyrins, treatment of a titanium(II) alkyne adduct, (TTP)Ti({eta}{sup 2}-PhC{triple_bond}CPh), with aromatic aldehydes or aryl ketones resulted in reductive coupling of the carbonyl groups to produce the corresponding diolato complexes. Aliphatic aldehydes or ketones were not reactive towards (TTP)Ti({eta}{sup 2}-PhC{triple_bond}CPh). However, these carbonyl compounds could be incorporated into a diolato complex on reaction with a reactive precursor, (TTP)Ti[O(Ph){sub 2}C(Ph){sub 2}O] to provide unsymmetrical diolato complexes via cross coupling reactions. In addition, an enediolato complex (TTP)Ti(OCPhCPhO) was obtained from the reaction of (TTP)Ti({eta}{sup 2}-PhC{triple_bond}CPh) with benzoin. Titanium porphyrin diolato complexes were found to be intermediates in the (TTP)Ti=O-catalyzed cleavage reactions of vicinal diols, in which atmospheric oxygen was the oxidant. Furthermore, (TTP)Ti=O was capable of catalyzing the oxidation of benzyl alcohol and {alpha}-hydroxy ketones to benzaldehyde and {alpha}-diketones, respectively. Other high valent metalloporphyrin complexes also can catalyze the oxidative diol cleavage and the benzyl alcohol oxidation reactions with dioxygen. A comparison of Ti(IV) and Sn(IV) porphyrin chemistry was undertaken. While chelated diolato complexes were invariably obtained for titanium porphyrins on treatment with 1,2-diols, the reaction of vicinal diols with tin porphyrins gave a number of products, including mono-, bis-alkoxo, and chelating diolato complexes, depending on the identity of diols and the stoichiometry employed. It was also found that tin porphyrin complexes promoted the oxidative cleavage of vicinal diols and the oxidation of {alpha}-ketols to {alpha}-diketones with dioxygen. In extending the chemistry of metalloporphyrins and analogous complexes, a series of chiral tetraaza macrocyclic ligands and metal complexes were designed and synthesized. Examination of iron(II) complexes showed that they were efficient catalysts for the cyclopropanation of styrene by diazo reagents. Good yields and high diastereoselectivity were obtained with modest enantioselectivity. A rationalization of the stereoselectivity was presented on the basis of structural factors in a carbene intermediate.

  14. Cocaine Treatment and Outcome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunes-Dinis, Maria; Barth, Richard P.

    1993-01-01

    Describes dimensions of current cocaine problem in United States, drug treatment models, and cocaine treatment effectiveness and outcome. Analyzes research on effectiveness of specific drug treatments, including women-sensitive services. Notes that recommended treatment approaches incorporate variety of rehabilitative services and call for social…

  15. Cell complexes through time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klette, Reinhard

    2000-10-01

    The history of cell complexes is closely related to the birth and development of topology in general. Johann Benedict Listing (1802 - 1882) introduced the term 'topology' into mathematics in a paper published in 1847, and he also defined cell complexes for the first time in a paper published in 1862. Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777 - 1855) is often cited as the one who initiated these ideas, but he did not publish either on topology or on cell complexes. The pioneering work of Leonhard Euler (1707 - 1783) on graphs is also often cited as the birth of topology, and Euler's work was cited by Listing in 1862 as a stimulus for his research on cell complexes. There are different branches in topology which have little in common: point set topology, algebraic topology, differential topology etc. Confusion may arise if just 'topology' is specified, without clarifying the used concept. Topological subjects in mathematics are often related to continuous models, and therefore quite irrelevant to computer based solutions in image analysis. Compared to this, only a minority of topology publications in mathematics addresses discrete spaces which are appropriate for computer-based image analysis. In these cases, often the notion of a cell complex plays a crucial role. This paper briefly reports on a few of these publications. This paper is not intended to cover the very lively progress in cell complex studies within the context of image analysis during the last two decades. Basically it stops its historic review at the time when this subject in image analysis research gained speed in 1980 - 1990. As a general point of view, the paper indicates that image analysis contributes to a fusion of topological concepts, the geometric and the abstract cell structure approach and point set topology, which may lead towards new problems for the study of topologies defined on geometric or abstract cell complexes.

  16. [Role of surgery in the treatment of lymphedema].

    PubMed

    Vignes, S; Trévidic, P

    2002-06-01

    Treatment of lymphedema includes essentially complex decongestive physiotherapy. Surgical methods are various but the main problem is to select patients. Genital organs may benefit from excisional procedures. Results of surgery in upper or lower limb lymphedema are variable. Secondary lymphedema is considered as the best indication using microlymphaticovenous anastomosis. Surgery in lymphedema should be considered as an additional tool of treatment. PMID:12162208

  17. Treatment of a Gastric Lactobezoar with N-Acetylcysteine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Lactobezoars are a rare finding with potentially serious sequelae in pediatric patients with feeding intolerance. Aggressive treatment may be preferred to traditional treatments to avoid complications in medically complex patients. In our patient, N-acetylcysteine lavage was a safe and effective alternative that resulted in rapid resolution of his feeding intolerance. PMID:25505999

  18. The Cleft Lip Nose: Primary and Secondary Treatment.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Stephen Anthony; Nathan, Nirmal R; MacArthur, Ian R

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the cleft lip nasal deformity and its treatment. The complex pathologic changes to normal nasal anatomy are described, and treatment strategies for both unilateral and bilateral cleft lip patients are presented. The surgical technique for management of the cleft lip nasal deformity is discussed as it pertains to both primary and secondary correction. PMID:26616709

  19. Six Questions on Complex Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symons, John F.; Sanayei, Ali

    2011-09-01

    This paper includes an interview with John F. Symons regarding some important questions in "complex systems" and "complexity". In addition, he has stated some important open problems concerning complex systems in his research area from a philosophical point of view.

  20. Complex Systems Kunihiko Kaneko, Prof.

    E-print Network

    Kaneko, Kunihiko

    of Adaptive Response in Biological Systems ----2009 Life: An Introduction to Complex Systems Biology () () Complex Systems Kunihiko Kaneko, Prof, Springer 2006 ) () 1996 Complex Systems: Chaos and Beyond, Springer 2001 ()2001 () 1998 Theory

  1. ICDF Complex Remedial Action Work Plan

    SciTech Connect

    W. M. Heileson

    2006-12-01

    This Remedial Action Work Plan provides the framework for operation of the Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Disposal Facility Complex (ICDF). This facility includes (a) an engineered landfill that meets the substantial requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle C, Idaho Hazardous Waste Management Act, and Toxic Substances Control Act polychlorinated biphenyl landfill requirements; (b) centralized receiving, inspections, administration, storage/staging, and treatment facilities necessary for CERCLA investigation-derived, remedial, and removal waste at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) prior to final disposition in the disposal facility or shipment off-Site; and (c) an evaporation pond that has been designated as a corrective action management unit. The ICDF Complex, including a buffer zone, will cover approximately 40 acres, with a landfill disposal capacity of approximately 510,000 yd3. The ICDF Complex is designed and authorized to accept INL CERCLA-generated wastes, and includes the necessary subsystems and support facilities to provide a complete waste management system. This Remedial Action Work Plan presents the operational approach and requirements for the various components that are part of the ICDF Complex. Summaries of the remedial action work elements are presented herein, with supporting information and documents provided as appendixes to this work plan that contain specific detail about the operation of the ICDF Complex. This document presents the planned operational process based upon an evaluation of the remedial action requirements set forth in the Operable Unit 3-13 Final Record of Decision.

  2. Selective inhibition of deactivated mitochondrial complex I by biguanides.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Satoshi; Humphries, Kenneth M

    2015-03-24

    Biguanides are widely used antihyperglycemic agents for diabetes mellitus and prediabetes treatment. Complex I is the rate-limiting step of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC), a major source of mitochondrial free radical production, and a known target of biguanides. Complex I has two reversible conformational states, active and de-active. The deactivated state is promoted in the absence of substrates but is rapidly and fully reversed to the active state in the presence of NADH. The objective of this study was to determine the relative sensitivity of active/de-active complex I to biguanide-mediated inhibition and resulting superoxide radical (O?(•?)) production. Using isolated rat heart mitochondria, we show that deactivation of complex I sensitizes it to metformin and phenformin (4- and 3-fold, respectively), but not to other known complex I inhibitors, such as rotenone. Mitochondrial O?(•?) production by deactivated complex I was measured fluorescently by NADH-dependent 2-hydroxyethidium formation at alkaline pH to impede reactivation. Superoxide production was 260.4% higher than in active complex I at pH 9.4. However, phenformin treatment of de-active complex I decreased O?(•?) production by 14.9%, while rotenone increased production by 42.9%. Mitochondria isolated from rat hearts subjected to cardiac ischemia, a condition known to induce complex I deactivation, were sensitized to phenformin-mediated complex I inhibition. This supports the idea that the effects of biguanides are likely to be influenced by the complex I state in vivo. These results demonstrate that the complex I active and de-active states are a determinant in biguanide-mediated inhibition. PMID:25719498

  3. Complexity: The bigger picture

    E-print Network

    Vicsek, Tamás

    2010-01-01

    If a concept is not well defined, there are grounds for its abuse. This is particularly true of complexity, an inherently interdisciplinary concept that has penetrated very different fields of intellectual activity from physics to linguistics, but with no underlying, unified theory. Complexity has become a popular buzzword used in the hope of gaining attention or funding -- institutes and research networks associated with complex systems grow like mushrooms. Why and how did it happen that this vague notion has become a central motif in modern science? Is it only a fashion, a kind of sociological phenomenon, or is it a sign of a changing paradigm of our perception of the laws of nature and of the approaches required to understand them? Because virtually every real system is inherently extremely complicated, to say that a system is complex is almost an empty statement - couldn't an Institute of Complex Systems just as well be called an Institute for Almost Everything? Despite these valid concerns, the world is ...

  4. Exponential random simplicial complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuev, Konstantin; Eisenberg, Or; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2015-11-01

    Exponential random graph models have attracted significant research attention over the past decades. These models are maximum-entropy ensembles subject to the constraints that the expected values of a set of graph observables are equal to given values. Here we extend these maximum-entropy ensembles to random simplicial complexes, which are more adequate and versatile constructions to model complex systems in many applications. We show that many random simplicial complex models considered in the literature can be casted as maximum-entropy ensembles under certain constraints. We introduce and analyze the most general random simplicial complex ensemble {\\boldsymbol{? }} with statistically independent simplices. Our analysis is simplified by the observation that any distribution {{P}}(O) on any collection of objects {O}=\\{O\\}, including graphs and simplicial complexes, is maximum-entropy subject to the constraint that the expected value of -{ln}{{P}}(O) is equal to the entropy of the distribution. With the help of this observation, we prove that ensemble {\\boldsymbol{? }} is maximum-entropy subject to the two types of constraints which fix the expected numbers of simplices and their boundaries.

  5. Controllability of Complex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Slotine, Jean-Jacques; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    2011-03-01

    The ultimate proof of our understanding of natural or technological systems is reflected in our ability to control them. While control theory offers mathematical tools to steer engineered systems towards a desired state, we lack a general framework to control complex self-organized systems, like the regulatory network of a cell or the Internet. Here we develop analytical tools to study the controllability of an arbitrary complex directed network, identifying the set of driver nodes whose time-dependent control can guide the system's dynamics. We apply these tools to real and model networks, finding that sparse inhomogeneous networks, which emerge in many real complex systems, are the most difficult to control. In contrast, dense and homogeneous networks can be controlled via a few driver nodes. Counterintuitively, we find that in both model and real systems the driver nodes tend to avoid the hubs. We show that the robustness of control to link failure is determined by a core percolation problem, helping us understand why many complex systems are relatively insensitive to link deletion. The developed approach offers a framework to address the controllability of an arbitrary network, representing a key step towards the eventual control of complex systems.

  6. Complexes and imagination.

    PubMed

    Kast, Verena

    2014-11-01

    Fantasies as imaginative activities are seen by Jung as expressions of psychic energy. In the various descriptions of active imagination the observation of the inner image and the dialogue with inner figures, if possible, are important. The model of symbol formation, as Jung describes it, can be experienced in doing active imagination. There is a correspondence between Jung's understanding of complexes and our imaginations: complexes develop a fantasy life. Complex episodes are narratives of difficult dysfunctional relationship episodes that have occurred repeatedly and are internalized with episodic memory. This means that the whole complex episode (the image for the child and the image for the aggressor, connected with emotions) is internalized and can get constellated in everyday relationship. Therefore inner dialogues do not necessarily qualify as active imaginations, often they are the expression of complex-episodes, very similar to fruitless soliloquies. If imaginations of this kind are repeated, new symbols and new possibilities of behaviour are not found. On the contrary, old patterns of behaviour and fantasies are perpetuated and become cemented. Imaginations of this kind need an intervention by the analyst. In clinical examples different kinds of imaginations are discussed. PMID:25331506

  7. Catalytic organometallic anticancer complexes

    PubMed Central

    Dougan, Sarah J.; Habtemariam, Abraha; McHale, Sarah E.; Parsons, Simon; Sadler, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Organometallic complexes offer chemistry that is not accessible to purely organic molecules and, hence, potentially new mechanisms of drug action. We show here that the presence of both an iodido ligand and a ?-donor/?-acceptor phenylazopyridine ligand confers remarkable inertness toward ligand substitution on the half-sandwich “piano-stool” ruthenium arene complexes [(?6-arene)Ru(azpy)I]+ (where arene = p-cymene or biphenyl, and azpy = N,N-dimethylphenyl- or hydroxyphenyl-azopyridine) in aqueous solution. Surprisingly, despite this inertness, these complexes are highly cytotoxic to human ovarian A2780 and human lung A549 cancer cells. Fluorescence-trapping experiments in A549 cells suggest that the cytotoxicity arises from an increase in reactive oxygen species. Redox activity of these azopyridine RuII complexes was confirmed by electrochemical measurements. The first one-electron reduction step (half-wave potential ?0.2 to ?0.4 V) is assignable to reduction of the azo group of the ligand. In contrast, the unbound azopyridine ligands are not readily reduced. Intriguingly the ruthenium complex acted as a catalyst in reactions with the tripeptide glutathione (?-l-Glu-l-Cys-Gly), a strong reducing agent present in cells at millimolar concentrations; millimolar amounts of glutathione were oxidized to glutathione disulfide in the presence of micromolar ruthenium concentrations. A redox cycle involving glutathione attack on the azo bond of coordinated azopyridine is proposed. Such ligand-based redox reactions provide new concepts for the design of catalytic drugs. PMID:18687892

  8. Hydridomethyl iridium complex

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Robert G. (P.O. Box 7141, San Francisco, CA 94120-7141); Buchanan, J. Michael (P.O. Box 7141, San Francisco, CA 94120-7141); Stryker, Jeffrey M. (P.O. Box 7141, San Francisco, CA 94120-7141); Wax, Michael J. (P.O. Box 7141, San Francisco, CA 94120-7141)

    1989-01-01

    A process for functionalizing methane comprising: (a) reacting methane with a hydridoalkyl metal complex of the formula: CpIr[P(R.sub.1).sub.3 ]H(R.sub.2) wherein Cp represents a cyclopentadienyl or alkylcyclopentadienyl radical having from 1 to 5 carbon atoms; Ir represents an iridium atom; P represents a phosphorus atom; R.sub.1 represents an alkyl group; R.sub.2 represents an alkyl group having at least two carbon atoms; and H represents a hydrogen atom, in the presence of a liquid alkane R.sub.3 H having at least three carbon atoms to form a hydridomethyl complex of the formula: CpIr[P(R.sub.1).sub.3 ]HMe where Me represents a methyl radical. (b) reacting said hydridomethyl complex with an organic halogenating agent such as a tetrahalomethane or a haloform of the formulas: CX'X"X'"X"" or CHX'X"X'"; wherein X', X", X"', and X"" represent halogens selected from bromine, iodine and chlorine, to halomethyl complex of step (a) having the formula: CpIr[P(R.sub.1).sub.3 ]MeX: (c) reacting said halomethyl complex with a mercuric halide of the formula HgX.sub.2 to form a methyl mercuric halide of the formula HgMeX; and (d) reacting said methyl mercuric halide with a molecular halogen of the formula X.sub.2 to form methyl halide.

  9. Synchronization in complex networks

    SciTech Connect

    Arenas, A.; Diaz-Guilera, A.; Moreno, Y.; Zhou, C.; Kurths, J.

    2007-12-12

    Synchronization processes in populations of locally interacting elements are in the focus of intense research in physical, biological, chemical, technological and social systems. The many efforts devoted to understand synchronization phenomena in natural systems take now advantage of the recent theory of complex networks. In this review, we report the advances in the comprehension of synchronization phenomena when oscillating elements are constrained to interact in a complex network topology. We also overview the new emergent features coming out from the interplay between the structure and the function of the underlying pattern of connections. Extensive numerical work as well as analytical approaches to the problem are presented. Finally, we review several applications of synchronization in complex networks to different disciplines: biological systems and neuroscience, engineering and computer science, and economy and social sciences.

  10. The Complexity of Divisibility

    E-print Network

    Johannes Bausch; Toby Cubitt

    2014-11-26

    We address two sets of long-standing open questions in probability theory, from a computational complexity perspective: divisibility of stochastic maps, and divisibility and decomposability of probability distributions. We prove that finite divisibility of stochastic maps is an NP-complete problem, and extend this result to nonnegative matrices, and completely-positive trace-preserving maps, i.e. the quantum analogue of stochastic maps. We further prove a complexity hierarchy for the divisibility and decomposability of probability distributions, showing that finite distribution divisibility is in P, but decomposability is NP-hard. For the former, we give an explicit polynomial-time algorithm. All results on distributions extend to weak-membership formulations, proving that the complexity of these problems is robust to perturbations.

  11. Toward stratified treatments for bipolar disorders.

    PubMed

    Hasler, Gregor; Wolf, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    In bipolar disorders, there are unclear diagnostic boundaries with unipolar depression and schizophrenia, inconsistency of treatment guidelines, relatively long trial-and-error phases of treatment optimization, and increasing use of complex combination therapies lacking empirical evidence. These suggest that the current definition of bipolar disorders based on clinical symptoms reflects a clinically and etiologically heterogeneous entity. Stratification of treatments for bipolar disorders based on biomarkers and improved clinical markers are greatly needed to increase the efficacy of currently available treatments and improve the chances of developing novel therapeutic approaches. This review provides a theoretical framework to identify biomarkers and summarizes the most promising markers for stratification regarding beneficial and adverse treatment effects. State and stage specifiers, neuropsychological tests, neuroimaging, and genetic and epigenetic biomarkers will be discussed with respect to their ability to predict the response to specific pharmacological and psychosocial psychotherapies for bipolar disorders. To date, the most reliable markers are derived from psychopathology and history-taking, while no biomarker has been found that reliably predicts individual treatment responses. This review underlines both the importance of clinical diagnostic skills and the need for biological research to identify markers that will allow the targeting of treatment specifically to sub-populations of bipolar patients who are more likely to benefit from a specific treatment and less likely to develop adverse reactions. PMID:25595029

  12. In pursuit of homoleptic actinide alkyl complexes.

    PubMed

    Seaman, Lani A; Walensky, Justin R; Wu, Guang; Hayton, Trevor W

    2013-04-01

    This Forum Article describes the pursuit of isolable homoleptic actinide alkyl complexes, starting with the pioneering work of Gilman during the Manhattan project. The initial reports in this area suggested that homoleptic uranium alkyls were too unstable to be isolated, but Wilkinson demonstrated that tractable uranium alkyls could be generated by purposeful "ate" complex formation, which serves to saturate the uranium coordination sphere and provide the complexes with greater kinetic stability. More recently, we reported the solid-state molecular structures of several homoleptic uranium alkyl complexes, including [Li(THF)4][U(CH2(t)Bu)5], [Li(TMEDA)]2[UMe6], [K(THF)]3[K(THF)2][U(CH2Ph)6]2, and [Li(THF)4][U(CH2SiMe3)6], by employing Wilkinson's strategy. Herein, we describe our attempts to extend this chemistry to thorium. The treatment of ThCl4(DME)2 with 5 equiv of LiCH2(t)Bu or LiCH2SiMe3 at -25 °C in THF affords [Th(CH2(t)Bu)5] (1) and [Li(DME)2][Th(CH2SiMe3)5 (2), respectively, in moderate yields. Similarly, the treatment of ThCl4(DME)2 with 6 equiv of K(CH2Ph) produces [K(THF)]2[Th(CH2Ph)6] (3), in good yield. Complexes 1-3 have been fully characterized, while the structures of 1 and 3 were confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Additionally, the electronic properties of 1 and 3 were explored by density functional theory. PMID:22716022

  13. Is Communication Complexity Physical?

    E-print Network

    Marcovitch, Samuel

    2007-01-01

    Recently, Brassard et. al. conjectured that the fact that the maximal possible correlations between two non-local parties are the quantum-mechanical ones is linked to a reasonable restriction on communication complexity. We provide further support for the conjecture in the multipartite case. We show that any multipartite communication complexity problem could be reduced to triviality, had Nature been more non-local than quantum-mechanics by a quite small gap for any number of parties. Intriguingly, the multipartite nonlocal-box that we use to show the result corresponds to the generalized Bell inequality that manifests maximal violation in respect to a local hidden-variable theory.

  14. Complex Gaussian multiplicative chaos

    E-print Network

    Hubert Lacoin; Rémi Rhodes; Vincent Vargas

    2015-02-15

    In this article, we study complex Gaussian multiplicative chaos. More precisely, we study the renormalization theory and the limit of the exponential of a complex log-correlated Gaussian field in all dimensions (including Gaussian Free Fields in dimension 2). Our main working assumption is that the real part and the imaginary part are independent. We also discuss applications in 2D string theory; in particular we give a rigorous mathematical definition of the so-called Tachyon fields, the conformally invariant operators in critical Liouville Quantum Gravity with a c=1 central charge, and derive the original KPZ formula for these fields.

  15. Luminescent macrocyclic lanthanide complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, Kenneth N; Corneillie, Todd M; Xu, Jide

    2014-05-20

    The present invention provides a novel class of macrocyclic compounds as well as complexes formed between a metal (e.g., lanthanide) ion and the compounds of the invention. Preferred complexes exhibit high stability as well as high quantum yields of lanthanide ion luminescence in aqueous media without the need for secondary activating agents. Preferred compounds incorporate hydroxy-isophthalamide moieties within their macrocyclic structure and are characterized by surprisingly low, non-specific binding to a variety of polypeptides such as antibodies and proteins as well as high kinetic stability. These characteristics distinguish them from known, open-structured ligands.

  16. Luminescent macrocyclic lanthanide complexes

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, Kenneth N. (Berkeley, CA); Corneillie, Todd M. (Campbell, CA); Xu, Jide (Berkeley, CA)

    2012-05-08

    The present invention provides a novel class of macrocyclic compounds as well as complexes formed between a metal (e.g., lanthanide) ion and the compounds of the invention. Preferred complexes exhibit high stability as well as high quantum yields of lanthanide ion luminescence in aqueous media without the need for secondary activating agents. Preferred compounds incorporate hydroxy-isophthalamide moieties within their macrocyclic structure and are characterized by surprisingly low, non-specific binding to a variety of polypeptides such as antibodies and proteins as well as high kinetic stability. These characteristics distinguish them from known, open-structured ligands.

  17. Planning Complex Projects Automatically

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henke, Andrea L.; Stottler, Richard H.; Maher, Timothy P.

    1995-01-01

    Automated Manifest Planner (AMP) computer program applies combination of artificial-intelligence techniques to assist both expert and novice planners, reducing planning time by orders of magnitude. Gives planners flexibility to modify plans and constraints easily, without need for programming expertise. Developed specifically for planning space shuttle missions 5 to 10 years ahead, with modifications, applicable in general to planning other complex projects requiring scheduling of activities depending on other activities and/or timely allocation of resources. Adaptable to variety of complex scheduling problems in manufacturing, transportation, business, architecture, and construction.

  18. Prospects for Geometric Complexity Theory Prospects for Geometric Complexity Theory

    E-print Network

    Bürgisser, Peter

    connection between pure math and computer science! #12;Prospects for Geometric Complexity Theory Two majorProspects for Geometric Complexity Theory Prospects for Geometric Complexity Theory Peter B¨urgisser University of Paderborn 27th IEEE Conference on Computational Complexity Porto, June 28, 2012 #12;Prospects

  19. COMPLEX ADAPTIVE SYSTEMS Use and Analysis of Complex

    E-print Network

    Hartvigsen, Gregg

    COMPLEX ADAPTIVE SYSTEMS Use and Analysis of Complex Adaptive Systems in Ecosystem Science complex adaptive systems (CAS) theory. CAS theory is an extension of traditional systems theory [for-level re- sponses. To introduce this Special Section, we distin- guish systems theory and complex adaptive

  20. [Research methods in dentistry 10. Assessment of orthodontic treatment need].

    PubMed

    Kuijpers, M A R; Kiekens, R M A

    2005-06-01

    Approximately one third of the Dutch population has an objective need for orthodontic treatment. Yet, patients mostly seek treatment because of aesthetic reasons. Recent social developments and the increased attention for aesthetics ask for ways to objectively measure treatment need. This is not only important because of the risks of orthodontic treatment, but also because of financial reasons. In this article indices to verify treatment need, i.e. the Index for Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN), de Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) en de Index of Complexity, Outcome and Need (ICON), are discussed. All three indices seem to lead to a reduction of treatment need, especially in borderline cases. They can serve as 'neutral' instruments to discuss treatment need with patients and as instruments to allocate financial resources for orthodontic care. PMID:15981692

  1. Pharmacologic treatment of paraphilias.

    PubMed

    Assumpção, Alessandra Almeida; Garcia, Frederico Duarte; Garcia, Heloise Delavenne; Bradford, John M W; Thibaut, Florence

    2014-06-01

    The treatment of paraphilias remains a challenge in the mental health field. Combined pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic treatment is associated with better efficacy. The gold standard treatment of severe paraphilias in adult males is antiandrogen treatment with cognitive behavioral therapy. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have been used in mild types of paraphilia and in cases of sexual compulsions and juvenile paraphilias. Antiandrogen treatments seem to be effective in severe paraphilic subjects committing sexual offenses. In particular, gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs have shown high efficacy working in a similar way to physical castration but being reversible at any time. Treatment recommendations, side effects, and contraindications are discussed. PMID:24877704

  2. [Surgical treatment of patients with severe fecal incontinence].

    PubMed

    Frolov, S A; Titov, A Iu; Poletov, N N; Kostarev, I V; Fomenko, O Iu

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study is improvement of clinical and functional results of surgical treatment of patients with severe fecal incontinence. 79 patients with complete fecal incontinence were included in the study. The technique of surgical intervention was choosed in depending on the localization of structural and functional disorders of the rectum closing apparatus. Complex treatment in pre-operative and post-operative periods was directed on the improvement of functional results. Long-term results (6-24 months) were traced in 63 patients after surgical treatment and complex post-operative rehabilitation. Good and satisfactory results were identified in 57 (90.5%) patients, unsatisfactory results - in 6 (9.5%) patients. Choice of surgical technique in depending on the localization of structural and functional disorders of the rectum closing apparatus and combination of surgical correction with complex functional rehabilitation allow to increase treatment efficiency. Also it improves closing function in the most patients. PMID:24816384

  3. Unifying Complexity and Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Da-Guan

    2013-04-01

    Complex systems, arising in many contexts in the computer, life, social, and physical sciences, have not shared a generally-accepted complexity measure playing a fundamental role as the Shannon entropy H in statistical mechanics. Superficially-conflicting criteria of complexity measurement, i.e. complexity-randomness (C-R) relations, have given rise to a special measure intrinsically adaptable to more than one criterion. However, deep causes of the conflict and the adaptability are not much clear. Here I trace the root of each representative or adaptable measure to its particular universal data-generating or -regenerating model (UDGM or UDRM). A representative measure for deterministic dynamical systems is found as a counterpart of the H for random process, clearly redefining the boundary of different criteria. And a specific UDRM achieving the intrinsic adaptability enables a general information measure that ultimately solves all major disputes. This work encourages a single framework coving deterministic systems, statistical mechanics and real-world living organisms.

  4. Complex Digital Visual Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeny, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    This article identifies possibilities for data visualization as art educational research practice. The author presents an analysis of the relationship between works of art and digital visual culture, employing aspects of network analysis drawn from the work of Barabási, Newman, and Watts (2006) and Castells (1994). Describing complex network…

  5. Chemical Complexity in Galaxies

    E-print Network

    Jean L. Turner; David S. Meier

    2007-08-10

    ALMA will be able to detect a broad spectrum of molecular lines in galaxies. Current aperture synthesis observations indicate that the molecular line emission from galaxies is remarkably variable, even on kpc scales. Imaging spectroscopy at resolutions of an arcsecond or better will reduce the chemical complexity by allowing regions of physical conditions to be defined and classified.

  6. Chemical Complexity in Galaxies

    E-print Network

    Turner, Jean L

    2007-01-01

    ALMA will be able to detect a broad spectrum of molecular lines in galaxies. Current aperture synthesis observations indicate that the molecular line emission from galaxies is remarkably variable, even on kpc scales. Imaging spectroscopy at resolutions of an arcsecond or better will reduce the chemical complexity by allowing regions of physical conditions to be defined and classified.

  7. Accessibility in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travençolo, B. A. N.; da F. Costa, L.

    2008-12-01

    This Letter describes a method for the quantification of the diversity of non-linear dynamics in complex networks as a consequence of self-avoiding random walks. The methodology is analyzed in the context of theoretical models and illustrated with respect to the characterization of the accessibility in urban streets.

  8. Complexity eory Michael Strevens

    E-print Network

    Strevens, Michael

    in its broadest sense is the body of work in #12;science, mathematics, and philosophy that aims not cover everything, but it covers a lot, and a lot of what's covered is complex: rocks, gases, organ- isms variables, as most gases roughly obey the ideal gas law PV = kT, or most organisms obey Kleiber's law

  9. Coordination Complexes of Cobalt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Gregory M.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Described is an experiment involving the synthesis and spectral studies of cobalt complexes that not only give general chemistry students an introduction to inorganic synthesis but allows them to conduct a systematic study on the effect of different ligands on absorption spectra. Background information, procedures, and experimental results are…

  10. COMPLEX TERRAIN DISPERSION MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes the current state of EPA's Complex Terrain Disperson Model (CTDM), which has been under development during the past five years. The CTDM employs the concept of a dividing streamline height (a function of wind and temperature profiles), below which plume segmen...

  11. Surface complexation modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adsorption-desorption reactions are important processes that affect the transport of contaminants in the environment. Surface complexation models are chemical models that can account for the effects of variable chemical conditions, such as pH, on adsorption reactions. These models define specific ...

  12. Managing Complex Dynamical Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, John C.; Webster, Robert L.; Curry, Jeanie A.; Hammond, Kevin L.

    2011-01-01

    Management commonly engages in a variety of research designed to provide insight into the motivation and relationships of individuals, departments, organizations, etc. This paper demonstrates how the application of concepts associated with the analysis of complex systems applied to such data sets can yield enhanced insights for managerial action.

  13. The Complexity of Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Steve; Ting, Hermia

    2014-01-01

    The profession of teaching is unique because of the extent to which a teacher becomes involved in the lives of their "clients". The level of care required to support students well can be intense, confusing, and overwhelming. Relationships co-evolve within an ever-changing process and care is considered an essential aspect of complex relationships…

  14. Major Histocompatibility Complex: Disease

    E-print Network

    Alper, Chester A.

    Major Histocompatibility Complex: Disease Associations Chester A Alper, Harvard Medical School at least a third of normal European Caucasian MHC haplotypes and contribute most of the MHC disease susceptibility genetic markers. Whereas this has facilitated the detection of MHC gene-disease association

  15. Efficiently Evaluating Complex Boolean

    E-print Network

    Fontoura, Marcus F.

    Net AdvNet age IN {young, old} AND interest IN {NFL, NBA} Friday, May 28, 2010 #12;More complex IN {high} Net Net AdvNet age IN {young, old} AND interest IN {NFL, NBA} Friday, May 28, 2010 #12;More, NBA} Friday, May 28, 2010 #12;Other examples · Automatic targeting in display advertising · e

  16. E Complex groundbreaking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Representatives from NASA, Orbital Sciences Corp. and Aerojet participate in a ribbon-cutting ceremony for construction of a flame deflector trench at Stennis Space Center's E Test Complex. Participants included Orbital CEO J.R. Thompson (center, left) and Stennis Space Center Director Gene Goldman (center, right).

  17. Complex Event Recognition Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, William A.; Firby, R. James

    2009-01-01

    Complex Event Recognition Architecture (CERA) is the name of a computational architecture, and software that implements the architecture, for recognizing complex event patterns that may be spread across multiple streams of input data. One of the main components of CERA is an intuitive event pattern language that simplifies what would otherwise be the complex, difficult tasks of creating logical descriptions of combinations of temporal events and defining rules for combining information from different sources over time. In this language, recognition patterns are defined in simple, declarative statements that combine point events from given input streams with those from other streams, using conjunction, disjunction, and negation. Patterns can be built on one another recursively to describe very rich, temporally extended combinations of events. Thereafter, a run-time matching algorithm in CERA efficiently matches these patterns against input data and signals when patterns are recognized. CERA can be used to monitor complex systems and to signal operators or initiate corrective actions when anomalous conditions are recognized. CERA can be run as a stand-alone monitoring system, or it can be integrated into a larger system to automatically trigger responses to changing environments or problematic situations.

  18. METAL COMPLEXING SILOXANE POLYMERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Novel silicone polymers containing pendant phosphonate groups have been synthesized. A new silicone monomer, (CH3O)2CH3Si(CH2)3P=O(OCH2CH3)2 has been copolymerized with dimethyldimethoxysilane to form polymers capable of binding metal salts. The viscous liquids can complex a variety of metals, inc...

  19. Complex Impedance Electronic Filters

    E-print Network

    Vickers, James

    Complex Impedance 12.6 Electronic Filters Electronic filters are used widely, for example with the frequency of the input voltage. A filter must have at least one component with has an impedance that varies with frequency. The impedance is given by the time dependent ratio of voltage across the component to current

  20. Effects of chemical and enzymatic modifications on starch-oleic acid complex formation.

    PubMed

    Arijaje, Emily Oluwaseun; Wang, Ya-Jane

    2015-04-29

    The solubility of starch-inclusion complexes affects the digestibility and bioavailability of the included molecules. Acetylation with two degrees of substitution, 0.041 (low) and 0.091 (high), combined without or with a ?-amylase treatment was employed to improve the yield and solubility of the inclusion complex between debranched potato starch and oleic acid. Both soluble and insoluble complexes were recovered and analyzed for their degree of acetylation, complexation yields, molecular size distributions, X-ray diffraction patterns, and thermal properties. Acetylation significantly increased the amount of recovered soluble complexes as well as the complexed oleic acid in both soluble and insoluble complexes. High-acetylated debranched-only starch complexed the highest amount of oleic acid (38.0 mg/g) in the soluble complexes; low-acetylated starch with or without the ?-amylase treatment resulted in the highest complexed oleic acid in the insoluble complexes (37.6-42.9 mg/g). All acetylated starches displayed the V-type X-ray pattern, and the melting temperature generally decreased with acetylation. The results indicate that starch acetylation with or without the ?-amylase treatment can improve the formation and solubility of the starch-oleic acid complex. PMID:25877005

  1. [Drug therapy in complex regional pain syndrome type I].

    PubMed

    Von Eisenhart-Rothe, R; Rittmeister, M

    2004-07-01

    Pharmacologic treatment options for complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type I are discussed and drug effectiveness is graded according to the level of evidence available. Various drug strategies in the treatment of CRPS type I, i.e. NSAIDs, corticosteroids, free radical scavengers, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, local anesthetics, opioid analgesics, clonidine, capsaicin, NMDA receptor antagonists, calcitonin, bisphosphonates, GABA(B)-agonists, alpha-blockers, IVRA (bretylium/ketanserin), IVRA (clonidine), IVRSB, local anesthetics sympathetic blockade, GLOA and iloprost are discussed. PMID:15150686

  2. Computational Complexity: A Conceptual Perspective

    E-print Network

    Goldreich, Oded

    Computational Complexity: A Conceptual Perspective Oded Goldreich Department of Computer Science as Complexity Theory). 1 Complexity Theory is a central field of the theoretical foundations of Computer Science, science and engineering in which the computational tasks arise. In contrast, Complexity Theory typically

  3. Putting Grammatical Complexity in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmer, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    Effective writing is to some degree characterised by the ability to use complex grammatical structures. However, grammatical complexity is poorly defined in linguistics and related disciplines such as literacy. This empirical study examined the notion of grammatical complexity and its relevance to literacy. Complexity is multifaceted, so for…

  4. Antimicrobial Treatments and Efficacy

    EPA Science Inventory

    To limit exposure to indoor biological contamination a risk-management approach which employs various antimicrobial treatments can effectively control contaminants and reduce exposure. Antimicrobial treatment of biological contaminants, especially mold in buildings, it is often n...

  5. UPGRADING FOUNDRY WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper summarizes findings of a 10-week pilot plant study of gray iron foundry wastewater treatment. Treatment technologies studied included lime softening, lime/soda ash softening, polymer addition, flocculation/sedimentation, and dual media filtration. Results indicate that ...

  6. The Treatment of Addiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapple, P. A. L.

    1970-01-01

    Describes sociological and medical treatment appropriate to young drug experimenters and addicts. Discusses role of teachers, probation officers, school medical services, and general practitioners. Indicates necessity for long treatment period. Considers whether dependence is a disease of delinquent behavior. (AL)

  7. Plague Diagnosis and Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Officials Veterinarians Prevention History of Plague Resources FAQ Diagnosis and Treatment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Detailed Diagnosis and Treatment Recommendations Diagnosis Doctors examining a bubo caused by plague. Plague ...

  8. Diphtheria Diagnosis and Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Action Coalition (IAC) Diphtheria and the Alaskan Iditarod Diagnosis and Treatment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Getting treatment for diphtheria quickly is important. Diagnosis of diphtheria is usually made based on signs ...

  9. Chickenpox Prevention and Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... receiving steroid therapy some groups of pregnant women Acyclovir, an antiviral medication, is licensed for treatment of chickenpox. For more information, see Acyclovir Treatment . Other antiviral medications that may also work ...

  10. Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma infection) Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites - Toxoplasmosis ( Toxoplasma infection) Parasites Home Share Compartir Treatment On ... Healthy people (nonpregnant) Most healthy people recover from toxoplasmosis without treatment. Persons who are ill can be ...

  11. Treatment of HIV Infection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Treatment of HIV Infection Photo of a variety of different drug ... drugs in order to maintain their health quality. HIV/AIDS Treatment Research NIAID is focused on finding ...

  12. Spasmodic Torticollis: Treatment Options

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treatment Options Patient Support Treatment Options Medications Botulinum Toxin Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) Selective Denervation Surgery Physical ... Chemodenervation which involves injections using BOTOX®, (a botulinum toxin Type A manufactured by Allergan Inc.), DYSPORTt® (a ...

  13. Medical Treatments for Fibroids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Medical Treatments for Fibroids Skip sharing on social media ... Page Content Your health care provider may suggest medical treatments to reduce the symptoms of fibroids or ...

  14. Research Areas: Treatment

    Cancer.gov

    The development of more effective and less toxic treatments is fundamental to improving outcomes for patients with cancer. NCI is leading efforts on several fronts to develop and evaluate new cancer treatments.

  15. Hair Treatments and Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    Hair Treatments and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to hair treatments may increase the risk for birth defects ...

  16. Shoulder Impingement Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... summarizing treatment phases and goals for shoulder impingement. Phases and Goals of Shoulder Impingement Treatment Treating shoulder ... the underlying causes have been identified and corrected. Phase Goals Methods Comments I Pain control Limit overhead ...

  17. Unsupervised Analysis of the Effects of a Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent on the Fathead Minnow Ovarian Transcriptome

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents contain complex mixtures of chemicals, potentially including endocrine active chemicals (EACs), pharmaceuticals, and other contaminants of emerging concern (CECs). Due to the complex and variable nature of effluents, biological monitori...

  18. Treatment of Pediculosis Capitis.

    PubMed

    Verma, Prashant; Namdeo, Chaitanya

    2015-01-01

    An endeavour to delineate the salient details of the treatment of head lice infestation has been made in the present article. Treatment modalities including over the counter permethrin and pyrethrin, and prescription medicines, including malathion, lindane, benzyl alcohol, spinosad are discussed. Salient features of alternative medicine and physical treatment modalities are outlined. The problem of resistance to treatment has also been taken cognizance of. PMID:26120148

  19. Treatment of Pediculosis Capitis

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Prashant; Namdeo, Chaitanya

    2015-01-01

    An endeavour to delineate the salient details of the treatment of head lice infestation has been made in the present article. Treatment modalities including over the counter permethrin and pyrethrin, and prescription medicines, including malathion, lindane, benzyl alcohol, spinosad are discussed. Salient features of alternative medicine and physical treatment modalities are outlined. The problem of resistance to treatment has also been taken cognizance of. PMID:26120148

  20. Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Aerobic Treatment Unit 

    E-print Network

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2008-10-31

    Aerobic units treat wastewater using the same process, only scaled down, as municipal wastewater treatment systems. This publication explains how aerobic units work, what their design requirements are, and how to maintain them....

  1. Acupuncture and addiction treatment.

    PubMed

    Moner, S E

    1996-01-01

    Acupuncture has been advocated as a safe effective treatment for addictive diseases. This review highlights clinical trials using acupuncture in drug treatment. Clinical trials selected were those conducted for efficacy of acupuncture treatment with opiate, alcohol, cocaine and nicotine dependence. PMID:8842852

  2. Diabetic Retinopathy Treatment

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Is an Ophthalmologist? Your Eyes & the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Diabetic Retinopathy Treatment Tweet The best treatment for diabetic retinopathy is to prevent it. Strict control of your blood sugar will significantly reduce the long-term risk of vision loss. Treatment usually won't cure ...

  3. The Treatment Philosophy Snowballs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hern, Matt

    1998-01-01

    Students who respond to the ludicrous environments of schooling with behaviors and demeanor that do not fit school criteria frequently are given a medical label and drug treatment. The fact that Ritalin is given to 2.8% of all American children reflects a "treatment philosophy" in which professionals define problems and prescribe treatments for a…

  4. Guideline 3: Psychosocial Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal on Mental Retardation, 2000

    2000-01-01

    The third in seven sets of guidelines based on the consensus of experts in the treatment of psychiatric and behavioral problems in mental retardation (MR) focuses on psychosocial treatment. Guidelines cover general principles, choosing among psychosocial treatments, severity of MR and psychiatric/behavior symptoms, diagnosable disorders, target…

  5. Emergency Medical Treatment Required

    E-print Network

    McQuade, D. Tyler

    Emergency Medical Treatment Required Non-Emergency Medical Treatment Required If possible, get help present if possible AmeriSys will complete the "First Report of Injury or Illness" and authorize medical Investigation Report" to Environmental Health & Safety within 48 hours Emergency Medical Treatment Required

  6. Remediation of manufactured gas plant soils contaminated with free and complex cyanide

    SciTech Connect

    Maka, A.; Aronstein, B.N.; Srivastava, V.J.; Theis, T.L.; Young, T.C.

    1992-12-31

    Cyanide is one of the main contaminants present in soil from manufactured gas plants (MGP) . Several treatment methods including thermal treatment, chemical treatment, ultraviolet irradiation, and biological treatment were evaluated for their ability to degrade the cyanide present in these soils. In the thermal treatment, raising the temperature of the purified waste to 2000--3000C resulted in complete removal of complex cyanide from the soil; however, the cyanide emitted was in a the toxic gaseous HCN form. Chemical treatment, using the oxidant Fenton`s reagent in a 10% soil slurry, resulted in the destruction of 80% of the free cyanide but little, if any, complex cyanide. Ultraviolet irradiation of the basic leachate from MGP wastes in the presence of the chelating agent EDTA yielded 90% degradation of the complex cyanide. For biological treatment, using an aerobic mixed culture, almost 60% of the free cyanide disappeared from the system with minimal degradation of the complex cyanide. Each treatment has its limitations. Thus, a combined physical-chemical-biological treatment in which the complex cyanide is degraded to free cyanide by photodegradation under alkaline conditions, the free cyanide then chemically (by Fenton`s reagent) or biologically converted to NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2}, is proposed for the removal of cyanide from MGP sites.

  7. Easily Adaptable Complexity Measure for Finite Time Series

    E-print Network

    Da-Guan Ke; Qin-Ye Tong

    2008-11-25

    We present a complexity measure for any finite time series. This measure has invariance under any monotonic transformation of the time series, has a degree of robustness against noise, and has the adaptability of satisfying almost all the widely accepted but conflicting criteria for complexity measurements. Surprisingly, the measure is developed from Kolmogorov complexity, which is traditionally believed to represent only randomness and to satisfy one criterion to the exclusion of the others. For familiar iterative systems, our treatment may imply a heuristic approach to transforming symbolic dynamics into permutation dynamics and vice versa.

  8. Simple theories of complex lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyrard, Michel

    1998-11-01

    While the theory of solitons has been very successful for continuous systems, very few nonlinear discrete lattices are amenable to an exact analytical treatment. In these “complex lattices” discreteness can be hostile to the solitons, preventing them to move due to the lack of translational invariance or even to exist as localized excitations. On the other hand, lattice discreteness can sometimes be very helpful. It can stabilize solutions that otherwise would split apart as in the discrete sine-Gordon lattice, or even allow the existence of localized oscillatory modes as exact solutions in systems where they would decay in the continuum limit. It is interesting that many of these phenomena can be understood qualitatively, and sometimes quantitatively, with very simple theories that rely on the usual concepts of linear wave propagation, resonances, linear stability of waves, for instance. There are, however, phenomena specific to discrete nonlinear lattices which allow the build up of large amplitude localized excitations, sometimes out of thermal fluctuations, which are more resistant to simple approaches and could deserve further interest because they may be relevant for various physical systems.

  9. Community Detection in Quantum Complex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faccin, Mauro; Migda?, Piotr; Johnson, Tomi H.; Bergholm, Ville; Biamonte, Jacob D.

    2014-10-01

    Determining community structure is a central topic in the study of complex networks, be it technological, social, biological or chemical, static or in interacting systems. In this paper, we extend the concept of community detection from classical to quantum systems—a crucial missing component of a theory of complex networks based on quantum mechanics. We demonstrate that certain quantum mechanical effects cannot be captured using current classical complex network tools and provide new methods that overcome these problems. Our approaches are based on defining closeness measures between nodes, and then maximizing modularity with hierarchical clustering. Our closeness functions are based on quantum transport probability and state fidelity, two important quantities in quantum information theory. To illustrate the effectiveness of our approach in detecting community structure in quantum systems, we provide several examples, including a naturally occurring light-harvesting complex, LHCII. The prediction of our simplest algorithm, semiclassical in nature, mostly agrees with a proposed partitioning for the LHCII found in quantum chemistry literature, whereas our fully quantum treatment of the problem uncovers a new, consistent, and appropriately quantum community structure.

  10. Debating complexity in modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Randall J.; Zheng, Chunmiao

    1999-01-01

    As scientists trying to understand the natural world, how should our effort be apportioned? We know that the natural world is characterized by complex and interrelated processes. Yet do we need to explicitly incorporate these intricacies to perform the tasks we are charged with? In this era of expanding computer power and development of sophisticated preprocessors and postprocessors, are bigger machines making better models? Put another way, do we understand the natural world better now with all these advancements in our simulation ability? Today the public's patience for long-term projects producing indeterminate results is wearing thin. This increases pressure on the investigator to use the appropriate technology efficiently. On the other hand, bringing scientific results into the legal arena opens up a new dimension to the issue: to the layperson, a tool that includes more of the complexity known to exist in the real world is expected to provide the more scientifically valid answer.

  11. NDT for Complex Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnevale, Mario

    2013-04-01

    Non-destructive testing of structures composed of various types of materials is performed using a variety of methods. Most commonly, electromagnetic and acoustic methods are used to perform this task. Advances in computer software and electro-mechanical hardware have resulted in semi-automated systems for performing simple low-cost in-situ concrete testing. These systems are designed to be operated by anyone who can read a manual and push the right buttons. Although useful in many circumstances, we ask: "What happens when concrete structures are not simple and are too complex to be analyzed by these semi-automated systems and, most importantly, by minimally trained operators?" Many infrastructure projects are boldly pushing the limit of traditional engineering design. As structures become more complex, the methods and techniques used to evaluate these structures must also evolve. A first step towards adapting geophysical methods to evaluate complex structures is to develop pre-investigation conceptual models of possible responses that structures will have to available geophysical methods. This approach is important for designing the geometry and data acquisition parameters necessary for achieving the desired results. Examples of case by case assessments of the application of GPR to concrete investigations are examined. These include complex concrete wall structures, soil tunnel structures, and airport runways. HGI's adaption of ground penetrating radar (GPR) and seismic methods for assessing the substrate of a heavily reinforced concrete structure up to seven feet thick is reviewed. A range of GPR antenna frequencies were used to image the concrete and the underlying material. Time and frequency domain GPR analyses where used in the assessment. A multi-channel seismic survey using a roll-along data collection technique was used to assess the resonant frequency of the concrete structure, the nature of the underlying medium, and behavior of the structural system.

  12. Engineering Complex Tissues

    PubMed Central

    MIKOS, ANTONIOS G.; HERRING, SUSAN W.; OCHAREON, PANNEE; ELISSEEFF, JENNIFER; LU, HELEN H.; KANDEL, RITA; SCHOEN, FREDERICK J.; TONER, MEHMET; MOONEY, DAVID; ATALA, ANTHONY; VAN DYKE, MARK E.; KAPLAN, DAVID; VUNJAK-NOVAKOVIC, GORDANA

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes the views expressed at the third session of the workshop “Tissue Engineering—The Next Generation,” which was devoted to the engineering of complex tissue structures. Antonios Mikos described the engineering of complex oral and craniofacial tissues as a “guided interplay” between biomaterial scaffolds, growth factors, and local cell populations toward the restoration of the original architecture and function of complex tissues. Susan Herring, reviewing osteogenesis and vasculogenesis, explained that the vascular arrangement precedes and dictates the architecture of the new bone, and proposed that engineering of osseous tissues might benefit from preconstruction of an appropriate vasculature. Jennifer Elisseeff explored the formation of complex tissue structures based on the example of stratified cartilage engineered using stem cells and hydrogels. Helen Lu discussed engineering of tissue interfaces, a problem critical for biological fixation of tendons and ligaments, and the development of a new generation of fixation devices. Rita Kandel discussed the challenges related to the re-creation of the cartilage-bone interface, in the context of tissue engineered joint repair. Frederick Schoen emphasized, in the context of heart valve engineering, the need for including the requirements derived from “adult biology” of tissue remodeling and establishing reliable early predictors of success or failure of tissue engineered implants. Mehmet Toner presented a review of biopreservation techniques and stressed that a new breakthrough in this field may be necessary to meet all the needs of tissue engineering. David Mooney described systems providing temporal and spatial regulation of growth factor availability, which may find utility in virtually all tissue engineering and regeneration applications, including directed in vitro and in vivo vascularization of tissues. Anthony Atala offered a clinician’s perspective for functional tissue regeneration, and discussed new biomaterials that can be used to develop new regenerative technologies. PMID:17518671

  13. Manufacturing complexity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delionback, L. M.

    1977-01-01

    The analysis of the complexity of a typical system is presented. Starting with the subsystems of an example system, the step-by-step procedure for analysis of the complexity of an overall system is given. The learning curves for the various subsystems are determined as well as the concurrent numbers of relevant design parameters. Then trend curves are plotted for the learning curve slopes versus the various design-oriented parameters, e.g. number of parts versus slope of learning curve, or number of fasteners versus slope of learning curve, etc. Representative cuts are taken from each trend curve, and a figure-of-merit analysis is made for each of the subsystems. Based on these values, a characteristic curve is plotted which is indicative of the complexity of the particular subsystem. Each such characteristic curve is based on a universe of trend curve data taken from data points observed for the subsystem in question. Thus, a characteristic curve is developed for each of the subsystems in the overall system.

  14. Emergent Complex Network Geometry

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhihao; Menichetti, Giulia; Rahmede, Christoph; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2015-01-01

    Networks are mathematical structures that are universally used to describe a large variety of complex systems such as the brain or the Internet. Characterizing the geometrical properties of these networks has become increasingly relevant for routing problems, inference and data mining. In real growing networks, topological, structural and geometrical properties emerge spontaneously from their dynamical rules. Nevertheless we still miss a model in which networks develop an emergent complex geometry. Here we show that a single two parameter network model, the growing geometrical network, can generate complex network geometries with non-trivial distribution of curvatures, combining exponential growth and small-world properties with finite spectral dimensionality. In one limit, the non-equilibrium dynamical rules of these networks can generate scale-free networks with clustering and communities, in another limit planar random geometries with non-trivial modularity. Finally we find that these properties of the geometrical growing networks are present in a large set of real networks describing biological, social and technological systems. PMID:25985280

  15. Emergent Complex Network Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhihao; Menichetti, Giulia; Rahmede, Christoph; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2015-05-01

    Networks are mathematical structures that are universally used to describe a large variety of complex systems such as the brain or the Internet. Characterizing the geometrical properties of these networks has become increasingly relevant for routing problems, inference and data mining. In real growing networks, topological, structural and geometrical properties emerge spontaneously from their dynamical rules. Nevertheless we still miss a model in which networks develop an emergent complex geometry. Here we show that a single two parameter network model, the growing geometrical network, can generate complex network geometries with non-trivial distribution of curvatures, combining exponential growth and small-world properties with finite spectral dimensionality. In one limit, the non-equilibrium dynamical rules of these networks can generate scale-free networks with clustering and communities, in another limit planar random geometries with non-trivial modularity. Finally we find that these properties of the geometrical growing networks are present in a large set of real networks describing biological, social and technological systems.

  16. New Concepts in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tajerian, Maral; Clark, John David

    2016-02-01

    Despite the severe pain and disability associated with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), the lack of understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms supporting this enigmatic condition prevents the rational design of new therapies, a situation that is frustrating to both the physician and the patient. The review highlights some of the mechanisms thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of CRPS in preclinical models and CRPS patients, with the ultimate goal that understanding these mechanisms will lead to the design of efficacious, mechanism-based treatments available to the clinic. PMID:26611388

  17. Cell co-operation and hapten--carrier complexes.

    PubMed

    Snippe, H; Kamp, E

    1975-10-01

    The co-operation of spleen cells of carrier- and hapten--carrier-primed mice in antibody formation against the hapten part of complexes was studied in 550 rad whole body irradiated mice. Hapten--carrier complexes were prepared with the 2,4-dinitrophenyl group (DNP) as a hapten and heterologous bovine serum albumin (BSA) and isologous mouse immunoglobulin (MIg) as carriers. Priming of donor mice with carrier alone did not prepare for a secondary (IgG) response in the recipients of hapten--carrier. Priming of donors and challenge of recipients with the same hapten--carrier complex resulted in high IgG responses. Whereas donor and recipient immunization with complexes differing in the carrier did not give a secondary response, addition of cells of donors immunized with the carrier of the complex used for challenge, resulted in a secondary response. This was only possible when at least one of the complexes had an intermediate hapten:carrier ratio. Only an IgM or a low IgG response was obtained if both complexes had a high hapten:carrier ratio. Three determinants, namely hapten and carrier groups and new antigenic determinant (NAD), are suggested for antibody formation against hapten--protein complexes. In vivo treatment of donor cells with anti-thymocyte serum (ATS) or anti-plasma cell serum (APCS) and complement (C) suggested that: (1) T-cell epitopes are present on the carrier; (2) DNP groups are B-cell epitopes; (3) NAD and possibly DNP are T-cell epitopes; (4) synergism exists in the collaborative antibody response of B cells recongnizing DNP, T cell recognizing carrier and T cells recognizing NAD. Mitomycin treatment of donor cells was used to test whether cell division was mandatory. While the B cells were sensitive to mitomycin treatment, no effect of this drug was found on the helper activity of T cells. PMID:52618

  18. Method for preparing radiopharmaceutical complexes

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Alun G. (Newton Centre, MA); Davison, Alan (Needham, MA); Abrams, Michael J. (Westchester, PA)

    1989-05-02

    A method for preparing radiopharmaceutical complexes that are substantially free of the reaction materials used to produce the radiopharmaceutical complex is disclosed. The method involves admixing in a suitable first solvent in a container a target seeking ligand or salt or metal adduct thereof, a radionuclide label, and a reducing agent for said radionuclide, thereby forming said radiopharmaceutical complex; coating the interior walls of the container with said pharmaceutical complex; discarding the solvent containing by-products and unreacted starting reaction materials; and removing the radiopharmaceutical complex from said walls by dissolving it in a second solvent, thereby obtaining said radiopharmaceutical complex substantially free of by-products and unreacted starting materials.

  19. Treatment planning processes in dental schools.

    PubMed

    Hook, Charles R; Comer, Robert W; Trombly, Robert M; Guinn, John W; Shrout, Michael K

    2002-01-01

    Treatment planning is a critical aspect of clinical education in the dental school curriculum. It is surprising, therefore, that so little attention has been given to this subject in the dental literature. The importance of treatment planning is reinforced in the standards and the tests that clearly present methods and necessity for treatment planning. However, there is minimal evidence about how these treatment planning courses have been evaluated, how they were incorporated into the curriculum, or how they have been integrated into treatment planning in the academic clinical setting. The purpose of this study was to survey and profile current treatment planning processes in U.S. dental schools. A questionnaire consisting of twenty-nine items relating to treatment plan preparation, process, and outcomes was mailed to fifty-four U.S. dental schools. The primary topics included patient assignments, treatment planning, plan sequencing, plan presentation, informed consent, and plan modifications. Forty-seven of the fifty-four U.S. dental schools (87 percent) completed and returned the surveys. Profiling the treatment planning process in dental schools reveals many similarities. Typically, the schools screen patients prior to assignment to students and expect the student diagnostician to complete the planning process as well as comprehensive care. The patient's welfare is the primary determinant of the content of the plan in 92 percent of U.S. dental schools. Secondly, though current accreditation standards are concentrated on competencies, the treatment plans are influenced by quantitative requirements. Third, the plan is usually completed during the second patient visit after screening. Fourth, the approaches vary among the schools when a multidisciplinary or complex treatment plan is appropriate. Some depend on a panel of experts, whereas others do not have interactive planning with specialists. A significant number of schools decentralize treatment planning and delegate part of the plan to disciplines or group practice leaders. Fifth, the treatment plans and treatment risks are presented in accordance with the intent of the accreditation guidelines; however, fewer than half the schools explain the risk of procedures to patients at the time of plan presentation. Finally, plans change frequently, but the modifications are generally considered to be minor. PMID:12358102

  20. Shingles: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Outcome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Diseases and treatments Q - T Shingles Diagnosis, treatment Shingles: Diagnosis, treatment, and outcome How do dermatologists diagnose shingles? To diagnose shingles, a dermatologist will look at ...

  1. Treatment of bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We review recent developments in the acute and long-term treatment of bipolar disorder and identify promising future routes to therapeutic innovation. Overall, advances in drug treatment remain quite modest. Antipsychotic drugs are effective in the acute treatment of mania; their efficacy in the treatment of depression is variable with the clearest evidence for quetiapine. Despite their widespread use, considerable uncertainty and controversy remains about the use of antidepressant drugs in the management of depressive episodes. Lithium has the strongest evidence for long-term relapse prevention; the evidence for anticonvulsants such as divalproex and lamotrigine is less robust and there is much uncertainty about the longer term benefits of antipsychotics. Substantial progress has been made in the development and assessment of adjunctive psychosocial interventions. Long-term maintenance and possibly acute stabilisation of depression can be enhanced by the combination of psychosocial treatments with drugs. The development of future treatments should consider both the neurobiological and psychosocial mechanisms underlying the disorder. We should continue to repurpose treatments and to recognise the role of serendipity. We should also investigate optimum combinations of pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments at different stages of the illness. Clarification of the mechanisms by which different treatments affect sleep and circadian rhythms and their relation with daily mood fluctuations is likely to help with the treatment selection for individual patients. To be economically viable, existing psychotherapy protocols need to be made briefer and more efficient for improved scalability and sustainability in widespread implementation. PMID:23663953

  2. A consistent modelling methodology for secondary settling tanks in wastewater treatment

    E-print Network

    Bürger, Raimund

    A consistent modelling methodology for secondary settling tanks in wastewater treatment Raimund Bu in wastewater treatment by combining classical concepts with results from applied mathematics, and partly was chosen as a case since this is one of the most complex processes in a wastewater treatment plant

  3. Trauma-Focused CBT for Youth with Complex Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Kliethermes, Matthew; Murray, Laura A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Many youth develop complex trauma, which includes regulation problems in the domains of affect, attachment, behavior, biology, cognition, and perception. Therapists often request strategies for using evidence-based treatments (EBTs) for this population. This article describes practical strategies for applying Trauma-Focused Cognitive…

  4. Real and Complex Analysis Unit code: MATH20101

    E-print Network

    Sidorov, Nikita

    Teaching period(s): Semester 1 Offered by School of Mathematics Available as a free choice unit?: N and Functions B (Compulsory) MATH10121 - Calculus and Vectors A (Compulsory) MATH10131 - Calculus and Vectors) and their rigorous treatment, and then to introduce the basic elements of complex analysis, with particular emphasis

  5. Tourette's disorder and associated complex behaviors: a case report.

    PubMed Central

    McDougle, C. J.; Southwick, S. M.; Rohrbaugh, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    A case of a man with Tourette's disorder associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder, multiple sexual paraphilias, and aggressive behavior is described. Treatment with haloperidol led to improvement in the characteristic tics of Tourette's disorder as well as to improvement in these three complex-associated behaviors. After haloperidol was discontinued, an exacerbation of tics and the associated behaviors occurred. PMID:2238716

  6. Genomics of bovine respiratory disease complex at USMARC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selection for genetic resistance/resilience bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) would significantly increase the efficiency of beef production in the U.S. through decreased treatment costs, productivity, and death loss. Unfortunately, selection for resistance to BRDC is challenging to implemen...

  7. Rationale for Seeding Grass on the Stanislaus Complex Burnt1

    E-print Network

    Rationale for Seeding Grass on the Stanislaus Complex Burnt1 Earl C. Ruby2 Abstract: An emergency seeding grass as an emergency watershed treatment. The evaluation used site specific data to determine where to seed or not seed grass, and concluded that seeding grass on the flood source areas could

  8. Schoolchildren with Dysphagia Associated with Medically Complex Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefton-Greif, Maureen A.; Arvedson, Joan C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article reviews population trends and general characteristics of children with dysphagia in schools, provides an overview of dysphagia teams and the roles of the speech-language pathologist (SLP) in school and hospital settings, and describes assessment and treatment of swallowing and feeding problems in children with complex medical…

  9. Theories of Complexity Common Denominators of Complex Systems

    E-print Network

    Kent, University of

    research, often referred to as the "science of complexity," emerged from the interplay of physics" as Bak [1] coins it). One of the most important methods of the science of complexity is the use foundation of the science of complexity by addressing the much-discussed issue of the possible future

  10. 1 Complexity and Cost measuring complexity: big-oh

    E-print Network

    Verschelde, Jan

    Jan Verschelde, 20 March 2015 Intro to Computer Science (MCS 260) complexity and cost L-29 20 March to Computer Science (MCS 260) complexity and cost L-29 20 March 2015 2 / 49 #12;what you want to say is From. Johnson, Bell Laboratories, 1979. Intro to Computer Science (MCS 260) complexity and cost L-29 20 March

  11. Syntactic Complexity as an Aspect of Text Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frantz, Roger S.; Starr, Laura E.; Bailey, Alison L.

    2015-01-01

    Students' ability to read complex texts is emphasized in the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for English Language Arts and Literacy. The standards propose a three-part model for measuring text complexity. Although the model presents a robust means for determining text complexity based on a variety of features inherent to a text as well as…

  12. DESCRIPTION OF A COMPLEX DISEASE: CORN STUNT COMPLEX

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The corn stunt disease complex is considered to be caused by two or more of a complex of maize rayado fino virus, corn stunt spiroplasma, and maize bushy stunt phytoplasma, and is also known by the names achaparramiento, maize stunt, and red stunt, among others. This complex appears to be restricte...

  13. Not so Complex: Iteration in the Complex Plane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dell, Robin S.

    2014-01-01

    The simple process of iteration can produce complex and beautiful figures. In this article, Robin O'Dell presents a set of tasks requiring students to use the geometric interpretation of complex number multiplication to construct linear iteration rules. When the outputs are plotted in the complex plane, the graphs trace pleasing designs…

  14. Nuclear Weapons Complex reconfiguration study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Shortly after assuming duties as Secretary of Energy, I reviewed the Nuclear Weapons Complex Modernization Report'' submitted to the Congress in January 1989 as required by the National Defense Authorization Act of 1988 and 1989. My review showed that several of the report's assumptions needed to be re-evaluated. During this eighteen-month review, dramatic world changes forced further reassessments of the future Nuclear Weapons Complex. These changes are reflected in the new report. The new report presents a plan to achieve a reconfigured complex, called Complex-21. Complex-21 would be smaller, less diverse, and less expensive to operated than the Complex of today. Complex-21 would be able to safely and reliability support nuclear deterrent stockpile objectives set forth by the President and funded by the Congress. It would be consistent with realities of the emerging international security environment and flexible enough to accommodate the likely range of deterrent contingencies. In addition, Complex-21 would be constructed and operated to comply with all applicable federal, state, and local laws, regulations, and orders. Achieving Complex-21 will require significant resources. This report provides and organized approach toward selecting the most appropriate configuration for Complex-21, satisfying environmental requirements, and minimizing costs. The alternative -- to continue to use piecemeal fixes to run an antiquated complex -- will be more expensive and provide a less reliable Nuclear Weapons Complex. As a consequence, implementation of the Complex-21 plan is considered necessary to ensure continued viability of our nuclear deterrent.

  15. 40 CFR 133.105 - Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...establish CBOD5 limitations for a treatment works subject to this section, the NPDES permitting...operation and maintenance of the treatment works, based on an analysis of the past performance of the treatment works, would enable the treatment works...

  16. 40 CFR 133.105 - Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...establish CBOD5 limitations for a treatment works subject to this section, the NPDES permitting...operation and maintenance of the treatment works, based on an analysis of the past performance of the treatment works, would enable the treatment works...

  17. Complex-Valued Autoencoders

    PubMed Central

    Baldi, Pierre; Lu, Zhiqin

    2012-01-01

    Autoencoders are unsupervised machine learning circuits, with typically one hidden layer, whose learning goal is to minimize an average distortion measure between inputs and outputs. Linear autoencoders correspond to the special case where only linear transformations between visible and hidden variables are used. While linear autoencoders can be defined over any field, only real-valued linear autoencoders have been studied so far. Here we study complex-valued linear autoencoders where the components of the training vectors and adjustable matrices are defined over the complex field with the L2 norm. We provide simpler and more general proofs that unify the real-valued and complex-valued cases, showing that in both cases the landscape of the error function is invariant under certain groups of transformations. The landscape has no local minima, a family of global minima associated with Principal Component Analysis, and many families of saddle points associated with orthogonal projections onto sub-space spanned by sub-optimal subsets of eigenvectors of the covariance matrix. The theory yields several iterative, convergent, learning algorithms, a clear understanding of the generalization properties of the trained autoencoders, and can equally be applied to the hetero-associative case when external targets are provided. Partial results on deep architecture as well as the differential geometry of autoencoders are also presented. The general framework described here is useful to classify autoencoders and identify general properties that ought to be investigated for each class, illuminating some of the connections between autoencoders, unsupervised learning, clustering, Hebbian learning, and information theory. PMID:22622264

  18. Treatment of Nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Thurtell, Matthew J

    2015-10-01

    Acquired and congenital forms of nystagmus are commonly encountered in the course of clinical practice. Although some patients are asymptomatic, many others describe disabling oscillopsia that impairs visual function, social function, and quality of life. Such patients may present to the neurologist to request treatment. Numerous treatment approaches for nystagmus have been proposed, including medical, surgical, and optical treatments. Some of the treatments aim to reduce nystagmus slow-phase speed, whereas others aim to negate the visual consequences of the nystagmus. The approach must be tailored depending on the type of nystagmus, its characteristics, and in some cases, its cause. In this review, the treatment approach for acquired and congenital forms of nystagmus is summarized with an emphasis on treatments that have been evaluated in well-designed clinical trials. Novel approaches that have not yet been evaluated in clinical trials are also discussed. PMID:26444397

  19. [Risks of orthodontic treatment].

    PubMed

    van Beek, H

    2009-06-01

    Risks of orthodontic treatment identified in the literature are: enamel damage, root resorption, periodontal damage, temporomandibular disorders, tooth devitalization, treatment failure, and relapse. Enamel damage in the form of irreversible demineralization can take place during treatment with fixed appliances in the absence of adequate oral hygiene. Root resorption occurs, but seldom to the point of clinical relevance. Individual susceptibility and genetics are determining factors. Periodontal damage occurs as gingival recessions. Temporomandibular disorders and tooth devitalization hardly occur. Treatment failure is related to the assessed pre-treatment goals and dependent on the knowledge and skills of the care provider, patient-cooperation, and factors beyond anyone's control. Relapse is a common feature, but does not constitute a treatment risk. The greatest risk is a failure to adequately inform the patient concerning all of the (im)possibilities and their consequences. PMID:19585883

  20. Gravity and complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaspar, Y.; Acquaviva, G.

    2012-06-01

    We present a heuristic analysis of the dynamics of general solutions to the Einstein Field Equations which highlights the possibility that such systems could possess a degree of unpredictability stronger than that which characterises chaotic systems. Questions regarding features of the complex dynamics of such cosmological models can be undecidable. These systems could be qualitatively compared with Turing machines in the sense that even if initial conditions for a dynamical system associated to general solutions to the Einstein Field Equations were known exactly, then the subsequent evolution could still be unpredictable.

  1. Physics and complexity

    PubMed Central

    Sherrington, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with complex macroscopic behaviour arising in many-body systems through the combinations of competitive interactions and disorder, even with simple ingredients at the microscopic level. It attempts to indicate and illustrate the richness that has arisen, in conceptual understanding, in methodology and in application, across a large range of scientific disciplines, together with a hint of some of the further opportunities that remain to be tapped. In doing so, it takes the perspective of physics and tries to show, albeit rather briefly, how physics has contributed and been stimulated. PMID:20123753

  2. Complexity Science for Simpletons

    E-print Network

    Craig Alan Feinstein

    2012-06-25

    In this article, we shall describe some of the most interesting topics in the subject of Complexity Science for a general audience. Anyone with a solid foundation in high school mathematics (with some calculus) and an elementary understanding of computer programming will be able to follow this article. First, we shall explain the significance of the P versus NP problem and solve it. Next, we shall describe two other famous mathematics problems, the Collatz 3n+1 Conjecture and the Riemann Hypothesis, and show how both Chaitin's incompleteness theorem and Wolfram's notion of "computational irreducibility" are important for understanding why no one has, as of yet, solved these two problems.

  3. Macroevolution of complex retroviruses.

    PubMed

    Katzourakis, Aris; Gifford, Robert J; Tristem, Michael; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Pybus, Oliver G

    2009-09-18

    Retroviruses can leave a "fossil record" in their hosts' genomes in the form of endogenous retroviruses. Foamy viruses, complex retroviruses that infect mammals, have been notably absent from this record. We have found an endogenous foamy virus within the genomes of sloths and show that foamy viruses were infecting mammals more than 100 million years ago and codiverged with their hosts across an entire geological era. Our analysis highlights the role of evolutionary constraint in maintaining viral genome structure and indicates that accessory genes and mammalian mechanisms of innate immunity are the products of macroevolutionary conflict played out over a geological time scale. PMID:19762636

  4. Proteins : paradigms of complexity /

    SciTech Connect

    Frauenfelder, Hans,

    2001-01-01

    Proteins are the working machines of living systems. Directed by the DNA, of the order of a few hundred building blocks, selected from twenty different amino acids, are covalently linked into a linear polypeptide chain. In the proper environment, the chain folds into the working protein, often a globule of linear dimensions of a few nanometers. The biologist considers proteins units from which living systems are built. Many physical scientists look at them as systems in which the laws of complexity can be studied better than anywhere else. Some of the results of such studies will be sketched.

  5. Complex networks and economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souma, Wataru; Fujiwara, Yoshi; Aoyama, Hideaki

    2003-06-01

    As the first step toward a study of complex networks in economics, we consider business networks categorized into bipartite networks. Through empirical study we show the possibility that business networks will fall into the scale-free category. To have an idea about the clustering coefficient and the averaged path length for bipartite networks, we perform a one-mode reduction. We calculate the quantities for networks constructed by banks and companies before/after a merger among banks, and quantitatively show that the merger among banks increases the cliquishness of companies and decreases the typical separation between two companies.

  6. Drying of complex suspensions

    E-print Network

    Lei Xu; Alexis Bergés; Peter J. Lu; André R. Studart; Andrew B. Schofield; Hidekazu Oki; Simon Davies; David A. Weitz

    2010-03-31

    We investigate the 3D structure and drying dynamics of complex mixtures of emulsion droplets and colloidal particles, using confocal microscopy. Air invades and rapidly collapses large emulsion droplets, forcing their contents into the surrounding porous particle pack at a rate proportional to the square of the droplet radius. By contrast, small droplets do not collapse, but remain intact and are merely deformed. A simple model coupling the Laplace pressure to Darcy's law correctly estimates both the threshold radius separating these two behaviors, and the rate of large-droplet evacuation. Finally, we use these systems to make novel hierarchical structures.

  7. A Response to Simplifying Complexity 

    E-print Network

    Reitsma, Femke

    2003-01-01

    In a recent issue of Geoforum, Steven Manson (2001)presented a timely review of Complexity Theory in order to orient the unversed reader in a framework of Complexity Theory’s key concepts. Manson begins with an overview ...

  8. Complex time paths for semiclassical wave packet propagation with complex trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Jakob; Kay, Kenneth G.

    2014-08-01

    The use of complex-valued trajectories in semiclassical wave packet methods can lead to problems that prevent calculation of the wave function in certain regions of the configuration space. We investigate this so-called bald spot problem in the context of generalized Gaussian wave packet dynamics. The analysis shows that the bald spot phenomenon is essentially due to the complex nature of the initial conditions for the trajectories. It is, therefore, expected to be a general feature of several semiclassical methods that rely on trajectories with such initial conditions. A bald region is created when a trajectory, needed to calculate the wave function at a given time, reaches a singularity of the potential energy function in the complex plane at an earlier, real time. This corresponds to passage of a branch point singularity across the real axis of the complex time plane. The missing portions of the wave function can be obtained by deforming the time path for the integration of the equations of motion into the complex plane so that the singularity is circumvented. We present examples of bald spots, singularity times, and suitable complex time paths for one-dimensional barrier transmission in the Eckart and Gaussian systems. Although the bald regions for the Eckart system are often localized, they are found to be semi-infinite for the Gaussian system. For the case of deep tunneling, the bald regions for both systems may encompass the entire portion of space occupied by the transmitted wave packet. Thus, the use of complex time paths becomes essential for a treatment of barrier tunneling.

  9. Lasers for the treatment of psoriasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piruzian, A.; Korsunskaya, I.; Goldenkova, I.; Hertsen, A.; Sarkisova, M.; Egorenkova, L.

    2005-08-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, genetically-determined disease, characterized by an immuno-mediated pathogenesis. Treatment of psoriasis is often complicated and remains a challenge. Along with the many new immunomodulatory approaches, various laser systems have been employed for chronic plaque psoriasis treatment. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the light produced by xenon-chloride excimers (generated by sophisticated devices with peak emission of 308 nm) is effective in the treatment of several psoriasis forms. We treated patients, ranging in age from 35 to 55 years, affected by plaque-type psoriasis vulgaris with monochromatic excimer light (MEL). We used MEL in a complex with basic treatment. Therapy was administered three times a week. At the end of the 3th week of treatment all patients showed an improvement, as evidenced by flattening of plaques, decreased scaling and erythema, and decreased vesicle and pustule formation. Unwanted side effects such as pain, blistering was not observed. Minimal erythema and a hyperpigmentation were noted in some patients. It was concluded that the MEL therapy may be a valuable option for treatment of plaque-type psoriasis vulgaris in shorter time compare with traditional NB UVB, with exposure to lower cumulative doses

  10. Current and future treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Schlachterman, Alexander; Craft Jr, Willie W; Hilgenfeldt, Eric; Mitra, Avir; Cabrera, Roniel

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents a unique challenge for physicians and patients. There is no definitively curative treatment. Rather, many treatment and management modalities exist with differing advantages and disadvantages. Both current guidelines and individual patient concerns must be taken into account in order to properly manage HCC. In addition, quality of life issues are particularly complex in patients with HCC and these concerns must also be factored into treatment strategies. Thus, considering all the options and their various pros and cons can quickly become complex for both clinicians and patients. In this review, we systematically discuss the current treatment modalities available for HCC, detailing relevant clinical data, risks and rewards and overall outcomes for each approach. Surgical options discussed include resection, transplantation and ablation. We also discuss the radiation modalities: conformal radiotherapy, yttrium 90 microspheres and proton and heavy ion radiotherapy. The biologic agent Sorafenib is discussed as a promising new approach, and recent clinical trials are reviewed. We then detail currently described molecular pathways implicated in the initiation and progression of HCC, and we explore the potential of each pathway as an avenue for drug exploitation. We hope this comprehensive and forward-looking review enables both clinicians and patients to understand various options and thereby make more informed decisions regarding this disease. PMID:26229392

  11. Treatment and Recovery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and Assessment Treatment and Recovery Caregiving Symptom Management Life After TBI Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center Crisis Intervention (24/7) Department of Veterans Affairs Military & ...

  12. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Contact CDC-INFO Pinworm Infection General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Information For: Travelers ...

  13. The evolution of brachytherapy treatment planning

    SciTech Connect

    Rivard, Mark J.; Venselaar, Jack L. M.; Beaulieu, Luc

    2009-06-15

    Brachytherapy is a mature treatment modality that has benefited from technological advances. Treatment planning has advanced from simple lookup tables to complex, computer-based dose-calculation algorithms. The current approach is based on the AAPM TG-43 formalism with recent advances in acquiring single-source dose distributions. However, this formalism has clinically relevant limitations for calculating patient dose. Dose-calculation algorithms are being developed based on Monte Carlo methods, collapsed cone, and solving the linear Boltzmann transport equation. In addition to improved dose-calculation tools, planning systems and brachytherapy treatment planning will account for material heterogeneities, scatter conditions, radiobiology, and image guidance. The AAPM, ESTRO, and other professional societies are working to coordinate clinical integration of these advancements. This Vision 20/20 article provides insight into these endeavors.

  14. Acne Scars: Treatment and Outcome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... treatments A - D Acne scars Treatment and outcome Acne scars: Treatment and outcome Safe and effective treatment ... be best for you. How do dermatologists treat acne scars? If you and your dermatologist believe that ...

  15. Vitiligo: Diagnosis, Treatment and Outcome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... more treatments often gives the best results. Treatment Q&A Q: Can a child with vitiligo be treated? A: ... a dermatologist may recommend narrowband UVB light treatments. Q: Are researchers looking for more effective treatment? Yes. ...

  16. Computational Complexity: A Conceptual Perspective

    E-print Network

    Goldreich, Oded

    Computational Complexity: A Conceptual Perspective Oded Goldreich Department of Computer Science Theory). 1 Complexity Theory is a central field of the theoretical foundations of Computer Science of mathematics, science and engineering in which the computational tasks arise. In contrast, Complexity Theory

  17. Researching Classrooms: Complexity and Chaos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, Mike

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a critical review of complexity theory in relation to educational research. The "analytical reductionist" approach is one in which the educational researcher seeks to reduce complex wholes to particular factors and to identify correlations between them and desirable outcomes. Complexity theory shows how this approach in…

  18. Canberra Deep Dish Communications Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    View of Canberra 70m (230 ft.) antenna with flags from the three Deep Space Network sites. The Canberra Deep Space Communications Complex, located outside Canberra, Australia, is one of the three complexes which comprise NASA's Deep Space Network. The other complexes are located in Goldstone, California, and Madrid, Spain.

  19. & Nickel Complexes Monometallic Ni0

    E-print Network

    Bluemel, Janet

    & Nickel Complexes Monometallic Ni0 and Heterobimetallic Ni0 /AuI Complexes of Tripodal Phosphine Bhuvanesh, and Janet Blümel*[a] Abstract: The tridentate chelate nickel complexes [(CO)Ni- {(PPh2CH2)3CMe- lysts,[3] Pd0 /CuI Sonogashira systems for CÀC cross-coupling re- actions,[4] and nickel catalysts

  20. Thermal treatment of magnetite nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Wykowska, Urszula; Satula, Dariusz; Nordblad, Per

    2015-01-01

    Summary This paper presents the results of a thermal treatment process for magnetite nanoparticles in the temperature range of 50–500 °C. The tested magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized using three different methods that resulted in nanoparticles with different surface characteristics and crystallinity, which in turn, was reflected in their thermal durability. The particles were obtained by coprecipitation from Fe chlorides and decomposition of an Fe(acac)3 complex with and without a core–shell structure. Three types of ferrite nanoparticles were produced and their thermal stability properties were compared. In this study, two sets of unmodified magnetite nanoparticles were used where crystallinity was as determinant of the series. For the third type of particles, a Ag shell was added. By comparing the coated and uncoated particles, the influence of the metallic layer on the thermal stability of the nanoparticles was tested. Before and after heat treatment, the nanoparticles were examined using transmission electron microscopy, IR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Based on the obtained results, it was observed that the fabrication methods determine, to some extent, the sensitivity of the nanoparticles to external factors. PMID:26199842

  1. The authority of complexity.

    PubMed

    Stehr, N; Grundmann, R

    2001-06-01

    The assertion about the unique 'complexity' or the peculiarly intricate character of social phenomena has, at least within sociology, a long, venerable and virtually uncontested tradition. At the turn of the last century, classical social theorists, for example, Georg Simmel and Emile Durkheim, made prominent and repeated reference to this attribute of the subject matter of sociology and the degree to which it complicates, even inhibits the develop and application of social scientific knowledge. Our paper explores the origins, the basis and the consequences of this assertion and asks in particular whether the classic complexity assertion still deserves to be invoked in analyses that ask about the production and the utilization of social scientific knowledge in modern society. We present John Maynard Keynes' economic theory and its practical applications as an illustration. We conclude that the practical value of social scientific knowledge is not dependent on a faithful, in the sense of complete, representation of social reality. Instead, social scientific knowledge that wants to optimize its practicality has to attend and attach itself to elements of social situations that can be altered or are actionable. PMID:11440059

  2. Reducing Medication Regimen Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Muir, Andrew J; Sanders, Linda L; Wilkinson, William E; Schmader, Kenneth

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine if a visual intervention (medication grid) delivered to physicians can reduce medication regimen complexity. DESIGN Nonrandomized, controlled trial. SETTING Veterans Affairs medical center. PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS Eight hundred thirty-six patients taking at least 5 medications at the time of admission and the 48 teams of physicians and students on the general medicine inpatient service. INTERVENTION For intervention patients, a medication grid was created that displayed all of the patients' medicines and the times of administration for 1 week. This grid was delivered to the admitting resident soon after admission. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS For the patients of each team of physicians, we calculated the change in the average number of medications and doses from admission to discharge. The number of medications in the intervention group decreased by 0.92 per patient, and increased by 1.65 in the control group (P < .001). The mean number of doses per day in the intervention group decreased by 2.47 per patient and increased by 3.83 in the control group (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS This simple intervention had a significant impact on medication regimen complexity in this population. Apparently, physicians were able to address polypharmacy when the issue was brought to their attention. PMID:11251757

  3. Dislocations in complex materials.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Matthew F; Kumar, Sharvan; Hazzledine, Peter

    2005-02-01

    Deformation of metals and alloys by dislocations gliding between well-separated slip planes is a well-understood process, but most crystal structures do not possess such simple geometric arrangements. Examples are the Laves phases, the most common class of intermetallic compounds and exist with ordered cubic, hexagonal, and rhombohedral structures. These compounds are usually brittle at low temperatures, and transformation from one structure to another is slow. On the basis of geometric and energetic considerations, a dislocation-based mechanism consisting of two shears in different directions on adjacent atomic planes has been used to explain both deformation and phase transformations in this class of materials. We report direct observations made by Z-contrast atomic resolution microscopy of stacking faults and dislocation cores in the Laves phase Cr2Hf. These results show that this complex dislocation scheme does indeed operate in this material. Knowledge gained of the dislocation core structure will enable improved understanding of deformation mechanisms and phase transformation kinetics in this and other complex structures. PMID:15692046

  4. Dislocations in Complex Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chisholm, Matthew F; Kumar, K. S.; Hazzledine, P. M.

    2005-01-01

    Deformation of metals and alloys by dislocations gliding between well-separated slip planes is a well-understood process, but most crystal structures do not possess such simple geometric arrangements. Examples are the Laves phases, the most common class of intermetallic compounds and exist with ordered cubic, hexagonal, and rhombohedral structures. These compounds are usually brittle at low temperatures, and transformation from one structure to another is slow. On the basis of geometric and energetic considerations, a dislocation-based mechanism consisting of two shears in different directions on adjacent atomic planes has been used to explain both deformation and phase transformations in this class of materials. We report direct observations made by Z-contrast atomic resolution microscopy of stacking faults and dislocation cores in the Laves phase Cr{sub 2}Hf. These results show that this complex dislocation scheme does indeed operate in this material. Knowledge gained of the dislocation core structure will enable improved understanding of deformation mechanisms and phase transformation kinetics in this and other complex structures.

  5. The Orpheus complex.

    PubMed

    Dawson, T

    2000-04-01

    This paper examines the possible psychological implications of two adaptations of the myth of Orpheus and Eurydice, both of which were completed in 1997. The first is by a man: 'Deconstructing Harry', a film by Woody Allen. The second is by a woman: 'Eurydice in the Underworld', a short story written by Kathy Acker in the last year of her life. The paper argues that there are only four 'necessary events' in the myth of Orpheus and Eurydice. It defines the sequence of these events as a 'mythic pattern' that represents the experience of loss, unconscious yearning, depression, and psychological inflation. The film is examined as an expression of an 'Orpheus complex', the short story as an expression of an 'Eurydice complex'. The paper suggests a possible reason for the persistence of interest in the myth throughout the twentieth century. Although it notes that women appear to find it easier to free themselves from identification with the mythic pattern, it also provides reasons for thinking that men may be about to do the same. PMID:14533396

  6. Complex bird clocks.

    PubMed Central

    Gwinner, E; Brandstätter, R

    2001-01-01

    The circadian pacemaking system of birds comprises three major components: (i) the pineal gland, which rhythmically synthesizes and secretes melatonin; (ii) a hypothalamic region, possibly equivalent to the mammalian suprachiasmatic nuclei; and (iii) the retinae of the eyes. These components jointly interact, stabilize and amplify each other to produce a highly self-sustained circadian output. Their relative contribution to overt rhythmicity appears to differ between species and the system may change its properties even within an individual depending, for example, on its state in the annual cycle or its photic environment. Changes in pacemaker properties are partly mediated by changes in certain features of the pineal melatonin rhythm. It is proposed that this variability is functionally important, for instance, for enabling high-Arctic birds to retain synchronized circadian rhythms during the low-amplitude zeitgeber conditions in midsummer or for allowing birds to adjust quickly their circadian system to changing environmental conditions during migratory seasons. The pineal melatonin rhythm, apart from being involved in generating the avian pacemaking oscillation, is also capable of retaining day length information after isolation from the animal. Hence, it appears to participate in photoperiodic after-effects. Our results suggest that complex circadian clocks have evolved to help birds cope with complex environments. PMID:11710987

  7. Some problems with treatment: destructive enactments in combined therapy.

    PubMed

    Roth, Bennett E

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The aim and hope of combined therapy is that the arrangement of group and individual treatment affords greater therapeutic effect because of its psychic interactions. For some patients, the modalities together may lead to promising, if often complex, analysis through an open flow of information between the two modalities. However, the two cases I present illustrate problems that may arise in combined treatment. In these two cases, the interaction between the modalities may have prevented important working through and caused an irreparable breach in the therapeutic alliance. The interdependence among complex enactments, my countertransference, and the respective groups' transferences was emotionally complex. In this paper I describe various forms of these enactments, explore some ideas about why enactments occurred, and discuss their impact on the treatment of these patients. PMID:19113972

  8. Habitat complexity facilitates coexistence in a tropical ant community.

    PubMed

    Sarty, M; Abbott, K L; Lester, P J

    2006-09-01

    The role of habitat complexity in the coexistence of ant species is poorly understood. Here, we examine the influence of habitat complexity on coexistence patterns in ant communities of the remote Pacific atoll of Tokelau. The invasive yellow crazy ant, Anoplolepis gracilipes (Smith), exists in high densities on Tokelau, but still coexists with up to seven other epigeic ant species. The size-grain hypothesis (SGH) proposes that as the size of terrestrial walking organisms decreases, the perceived complexity of the environment increases and predicts that: (1) leg length increases allometrically with body size in ants, and (2) coexistence between ant species is facilitated by differential habitat use according to body size. Analysis of morphological variables revealed variation inconsistent with the morphological prediction of the SGH, as leg length increased allometrically with head length only. We also experimentally tested the ability of epigeic ants in the field to discover and dominate food resources in treatments of differing rugosity. A. gracilipes was consistently the first to discover food baits in low rugosity treatments, while smaller ant species were consistently the first to discover food baits in high rugosity treatments. In addition, A. gracilipes dominated food baits in planar treatments, while smaller ant species dominated baits in rugose treatments. We found that the normally predictable outcomes of exploitative competition between A. gracilipes and other ant species were reversed in the high rugosity treatments. Our results support the hypothesis that differential habitat use according to body size provides a mechanism for coexistence with the yellow crazy ant in Tokelau. The SGH may provide a mechanism for coexistence in other ant communities but also in communities of other terrestrial, walking insects that inhabit a complex landscape. PMID:16763839

  9. Managing complexity of aerospace systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaskar, Shashank

    Growing complexity of modern aerospace systems has exposed the limits of conventional systems engineering tools and challenged our ability to design them in a timely and cost effective manner. According to the US Government Accountability Office (GAO), in 2009 nearly half of the defense acquisition programs are expecting 25% or more increase in unit acquisition cost. Increase in technical complexity has been identified as one of the primary drivers behind cost-schedule overruns. Thus to assure the affordability of future aerospace systems, it is increasingly important to develop tools and capabilities for managing their complexity. We propose an approach for managing the complexity of aerospace systems to address this pertinent problem. To this end, we develop a measure that improves upon the state-of-the-art metrics and incorporates key aspects of system complexity. We address the problem of system decomposition by presenting an algorithm for module identification that generates modules to minimize integration complexity. We demonstrate the framework on diverse spacecraft and show the impact of design decisions on integration cost. The measure and the algorithm together help the designer track and manage complexity in different phases of system design. We next investigate how complexity can be used as a decision metric in the model-based design (MBD) paradigm. We propose a framework for complexity enabled design space exploration that introduces the idea of using complexity as a non-traditional design objective. We also incorporate complexity with the component based design paradigm (a sub-field of MBD) and demonstrate it on several case studies. The approach for managing complexity is a small but significant contribution to the vast field of complexity management. We envision our approach being used in concert with a suite of complexity metrics to provide an ability to measure and track complexity through different stages of design and development. This will not only lead to simpler designs but also help the designers calculate the impact of their design decisions on integration cost.

  10. Current approaches to treatments for schizophrenia spectrum disorders, part I: an overview and medical treatments

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Wai Tong; Yip, Annie LK

    2013-01-01

    During the last three decades, an increasing understanding of the etiology, psychopathology, and clinical manifestations of schizophrenia spectrum disorders, in addition to the introduction of second-generation antipsychotics, has optimized the potential for recovery from the illness. Continued development of various models of psychosocial intervention promotes the goal of schizophrenia treatment from one of symptom control and social adaptation to an optimal restoration of functioning and/or recovery. However, it is still questionable whether these new treatment approaches can address the patients’ needs for treatment and services and contribute to better patient outcomes. This article provides an overview of different treatment approaches currently used in schizophrenia spectrum disorders to address complex health problems and a wide range of abnormalities and impairments resulting from the illness. There are different treatment strategies and targets for patients at different stages of the illness, ranging from prophylactic antipsychotics and cognitive–behavioral therapy in the premorbid stage to various psychosocial interventions in addition to antipsychotics for relapse prevention and rehabilitation in the later stages of the illness. The use of antipsychotics alone as the main treatment modality may be limited not only in being unable to tackle the frequently occurring negative symptoms and cognitive impairments but also in producing a wide variety of adverse effects to the body or organ functioning. Because of varied pharmacokinetics and treatment responsiveness across agents, the medication regimen should be determined on an individual basis to ensure an optimal effect in its long-term use. This review also highlights that the recent practice guidelines and standards have recommended that a combination of treatment modalities be adopted to meet the complex health needs of people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. In view of the heterogeneity of the risk factors and the illness progression of individual patients, the use of multifaceted illness management programs consisting of different combinations of physical, psychological, and social interventions might be efficient and effective in improving recovery. PMID:24049446

  11. Transition Metal Complexes of Phosphinous Acids Featuring a Quasichelating Unit: Synthesis, Characterization, and Hetero-bimetallic Complexes.

    PubMed

    Allefeld, Nadine; Bader, Julia; Neumann, Beate; Stammler, Hans-Georg; Ignat'ev, Nikolai; Hoge, Berthold

    2015-08-17

    Diorganophosphane oxides were employed as preligands for the synthesis of catalytically active transition metal complexes of the phosphinous acids (CF3)2POH and (C2F5)2POH. Their reactions with solid PtCl2 and PdCl2 led to the formation of mononuclear phosphinous acid complexes [Cl2M{P(R(f))2OH}2] (M = Pd, Pt; R(f) = C2F5, CF3), which can be crystallized, for example, as its pyridinium salts, 2[HPy](+)[Cl2Pd{P(CF3)2O}2](2-). In vacuo HCl is liberated from the neutral palladium complexes affording mixtures of di- and polynuclear complexes. Moreover, (C2F5)2POH was reacted with several ?-diketonato complexes of palladium, platinum, and nickel yielding air- and moisture-stable complexes [(acac)M{[P(R(f))2O]2H}], featuring a quasichelating phosphinous acid phosphinito unit {P(R(f))2O···H···O(R(f))2P}(-). Treatment of [Ni(Cp)2] (Cp = cyclopentadienyl) and [(cod)RhCl]2 (cod = 1,5-cyclooctadiene) with (C2F5)2POH leads to the substitution of one Cp or chloro ligand by a quasichelating unit. The novel coordination compounds were characterized by NMR and IR spectroscopies, mass spectrometry, and X-ray diffraction analysis. The platinum complex [(acac)Pt{[P(C2F5)2O]2H}] (acac = acetylacetonato) was used for the construction of hetero-bimetallic complexes by the treatment with [(cod)RhCl]2 and [Ni(Cp)2]. The trinuclear bimetallic complex [{(acac)Pt[P(C2F5)2O]2}2Ni] is the first structurally characterized hetero-bimetallic species containing a bis(perfluoroalkyl)phosphinito bridge. PMID:26242286

  12. Complex-extended Bohmian mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Chia-Chun; Wyatt, Robert E.

    2010-04-07

    Complex-extended Bohmian mechanics is investigated by analytically continuing the wave function in polar form into the complex plane. We derive the complex-extended version of the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation and the continuity equation in Bohmian mechanics. Complex-extended Bohmian mechanics recovers the standard real-valued Bohmian mechanics on the real axis. The trajectories on the real axis are in accord with the standard real-valued Bohmian trajectories. The trajectories launched away from the real axis never intersect the real axis, and they display symmetry with respect to the real axis. Trajectories display hyperbolic deflection around nodes of the wave function in the complex plane.

  13. Treatment. Technical Assistance Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    Treatment is one component of a strategy to reduce substance abuse. It can include detoxification; inpatient counseling; outpatient counseling; therapeutic communities; and self help groups. Referrals can take place in settings such as emergency rooms; employee assistance programs; churches; and physicians' offices. Unmet treatment needs can cause…

  14. After Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the amount of protein and calories in your diet. After cancer treatment ends, you can get back to a ... fat and sugar in your diet. A healthy diet will help your body get better after cancer treatment. It's also important for you to get ...

  15. CONNECTICUT SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer of sewage treatment plants in Connecticut. It is a point Shapefile that includes the locations of sewage treatment plants, but not their discharge locations to surface or groundater. The National Pollution Discharge Elimintation Discharge Syste...

  16. EXPANDED BED BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A three-year pilot-scale research investigation at the EPA Lebanon Pilot Plant was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of a unique biological secondary treatment process, designated the Expanded Bed Biological Treatment Process (EBBT). The EBBT process is a three-phase (oxygen/...

  17. Treatment Efficacy: Voice Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramig, Lorraine Olson; Verdolini, Katherine

    1998-01-01

    Reviews research on the efficacy of treatment for voice disorders. Voice disorders are defined, their frequency of occurrence is reported, and their impact on individuals is documented. Treatment related to vocal misuse, medical or physical conditions, and psychogenic disorders are discussed and case studies are presented. (Author/CR)

  18. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zeala...

  19. Treatment of Evolution Inconsistent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    State standards for academic content vary enormously in how well they cover the topic of evolution, with many of those documents either ignoring or giving scant treatment to the core principles of that established scientific theory. This article presents the analysis of Education Week on state's standards treatment of evolution. Nearly all the…

  20. Complementary and Alternative Treatments

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Reading Arnold, L.E. (2002). Treatment Alternatives for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. In P.J. Jensen, & J. Cooper (Eds.), Attention- ... 33. Arnold, L.E. (2002). Treatment Alternatives for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. In P.J. Jensen, & J. Cooper (Eds.), Attention- ...

  1. Offenders: Characteristics and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Judith V.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews what is known about child sex offenders and their treatment. The author discusses the role of paraphilia in child molestation and reviews what is known about juvenile and incest offenders and recidivism rates. What is known about recidivism of untreated offenders and treatment practices is also summarized. Recommendations conclude the…

  2. Seed Treatment. Bulletin 760.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowery, Harvey C.

    This manual gives a definition of seed treatment, the types of seeds normally treated, diseases and insects commonly associated with seeds, fungicides and insecticides used, types of equipment used for seed treatment, and information on labeling and coloring of treated seed, pesticide carriers, binders, stickers, and safety precautions. (BB)

  3. What is an anti-aging treatment?

    PubMed

    Gems, David

    2014-10-01

    Key objectives of biogerontology are to understand the biology of aging and to translate scientific insight into interventions that improve late-life health - or anti-aging treatments. In this context, when considering the problem of how to effect translational research, it is useful to have a clear, consensus view on what exactly constitutes an anti-aging treatment. This essay critically assesses the understanding of this concept common among biogerontologists, and proposes a new definition. A current conception of anti-aging treatment imagines a primary cause of aging that is causally upstream of, and the cause of, all age-related pathology. Intervening in this aging process thus protects against the totality of age-related diseases. However, this underlying aging process remains an abstraction. By contrast, what is demonstrable is that interventions in model organisms can improve late-life health and extend lifespan. Furthermore, a safe deduction is that treatments that extend lifespan do so by reducing age-related pathology, both florid and subtle. What is currently identifiable about aging (i.e. senescence) is that it is a very complex disease syndrome, likely involving a number of biological mechanisms. Treatments that substantially extend lifespan must suppress multiple pathologies that otherwise limit lifespan, but whether they suppress the entire aging process remains undemonstrated. A more pragmatic and realistic definition of anti-aging treatment is any preventative approach to reduce late-life pathology, based on the understanding that senescence is a disease syndrome. This definition would encompass preventative approaches aimed at both broad and narrow spectra of age-related pathologies. Its adoption would facilitate translation, since it would shift the emphasis to medical practice, particularly the introduction of preventative approaches. Narrow spectrum anti-aging treatments (e.g. the cardiovascular polypill) could establish a practice that eventually extends to broader spectrum anti-aging treatments (e.g. dietary restriction mimetics). PMID:25017442

  4. Complex Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2015-04-16

    After a century of study, scientists have come to the realization that the ordinary matter made of atoms is a minority in the universe. In order to explain observations, it appears that there exists a new and undiscovered kind of matter, called dark matter, that is five times more prevalent than ordinary matter. The evidence for this new matter’s existence is very strong, but scientists know only a little about its nature. In today’s video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln talks about an exciting and unconventional idea, specifically that dark matter might have a very complex set of structures and interactions. While this idea is entirely speculative, it is an interesting hypothesis and one that scientists are investigating.

  5. Evolution of Biological Complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Raymond E.

    It is a general rule of nature that larger organisms are more complex, at least as measured by the number of distinct types of cells present. This reflects the fitness advantage conferred by a division of labor among specialized cells over homogeneous totipotency. Yet, increasing size has both costs and benefits, and the search for understanding the driving forces behind the evolution of multicellularity is becoming a very active area of research. This article presents an overview of recent experimental and theoretical work aimed at understanding this biological problem from the perspective of physics. For a class of model organisms, the Volvocine green algae, an emerging hypothesis connects the transition from organisms with totipotent cells to those with terminal germ-soma differentiation to the competition between diffusion and fluid advection created by beating flagella. A number of challenging problems in fluid dynamics, nonlinear dynamics, and control theory emerge when one probes the workings of the simplest multicellular organisms.

  6. Complex pendulum biomass sensor

    DOEpatents

    Hoskinson, Reed L. (Rigby, ID); Kenney, Kevin L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Perrenoud, Ben C. (Rigby, ID)

    2007-12-25

    A complex pendulum system biomass sensor having a plurality of pendulums. The plurality of pendulums allow the system to detect a biomass height and density. Each pendulum has an angular deflection sensor and a deflector at a unique height. The pendulums are passed through the biomass and readings from the angular deflection sensors are fed into a control system. The control system determines whether adjustment of machine settings is appropriate and either displays an output to the operator, or adjusts automatically adjusts the machine settings, such as the speed, at which the pendulums are passed through the biomass. In an alternate embodiment, an entanglement sensor is also passed through the biomass to determine the amount of biomass entanglement. This measure of entanglement is also fed into the control system.

  7. Assessing software upgrades, plan properties and patient geometry using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) complexity metrics

    SciTech Connect

    McGarry, Conor K.; Chinneck, Candice D.; O'Toole, Monica M.; O'Sullivan, Joe M; Prise, Kevin M.; Hounsell, Alan R.

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare the sensitivity of different metrics to detect differences in complexity of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans following upgrades, changes to planning parameters, and patient geometry. Correlations between complexity metrics are also assessed. Method: A program was developed to calculate a series of metrics used to describe the complexity of IMRT fields using monitor units (MUs) and multileaf collimator files: Modulation index (MI), modulation complexity score (MCS), and plan intensity map variation (PIMV). Each metric, including the MUs, was used to assess changes in beam complexity for six prostate patients, following upgrades in the inverse planning optimization software designed to incorporate direct aperture optimization (DAO). All beams were delivered to a 2D ionization chamber array and compared to those calculated using gamma analysis. Each complexity metric was then calculated for all beams, on a different set of six prostate IMRT patients, to assess differences between plans calculated using different minimum field sizes and different maximum segment numbers. Different geometries, including CShape, prostate, and head and neck phantoms, were also assessed using the metrics. Correlations between complexity metrics were calculated for 20 prostate IMRT patients. Results: MU, MCS, MI, and PIMV could all detect reduced complexity following an upgrade to the optimization leaf sequencer, although only MI and MCS could detect a reduction in complexity when one-step optimization (DAO) was employed rather than two-step optimization. All metrics detected a reduction in complexity when the minimum field size was increased from 1 to 4 cm and all apart from PIMV detected reduced complexity when the number of segments was significantly reduced. All metrics apart from MI showed differences in complexity depending on the treatment site. Significant correlations exist between all metrics apart from MI and PIMV for prostate IMRT patients. Treatment deliverability appeared to be more correlated with MI and MCS than MU or PIMV. Conclusions: The application of complexity metrics in the IMRT treatment planning process has been demonstrated. Complexity of treatment plans can vary for different inverse planning software versions and can depend on planning parameters and the treatment site. MCS is most suitable for inclusion within the cost function to limit complexity in IMRT optimization due to its sensitivity to complexity changes and correlation to treatment deliverability.

  8. Complex ankle arthrodesis: Review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Rabinovich, Remy V; Haleem, Amgad M; Rozbruch, S Robert

    2015-01-01

    Complex ankle arthrodesis is defined as an ankle fusion that is at high risk of delayed and nonunion secondary to patient comorbidities and/or local ankle/hindfoot factors. Risk factors that contribute to defining this group of patients can be divided into systemic factors and local factors pertaining to co-existing ankle or hindfoot pathology. Orthopaedic surgeons should be aware of these risk factors and their association with patients’ outcomes after complex ankle fusions. Both external and internal fixations have demonstrated positive outcomes with regards to achieving stable fixation and minimizing infection. Recent innovations in the application of biophysical agents and devices have shown promising results as adjuncts for healing. Both osteoconductive and osteoinductive agents have been effectively utilized as biological adjuncts for bone healing with low complication rates. Devices such as pulsed electromagnetic field bone stimulators, internal direct current stimulators and low-intensity pulsed ultrasound bone stimulators have been associated with faster bone healing and improved outcomes scores when compared with controls. The aim of this review article is to present a comprehensive approach to the management of complex ankle fusions, including the use of biophysical adjuncts for healing and a proposed algorithm for their treatment. PMID:26396936

  9. Complex Tectonism on Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Complex tectonism is evident in these images of Ganymede's surface. The solid state imaging camera on NASA's Galileo spacecraft imaged this region as it passed Ganymede during its second orbit through the Jovian system. The 80 kilometer (50 mile) wide lens-shaped feature in the center of the image is located at 32 degrees latitude and 188 degrees longitude along the border of a region of ancient dark terrain known as Marius Regio, and is near an area of younger bright terrain named Nippur Sulcus. The tectonism that created the structures in the bright terrain nearby has strongly affected the local dark terrain to form unusual structures such as the one shown here. The lens-like appearance of this feature is probably due to shearing of the surface, where areas have slid past each other and also rotated slightly. Note that in several places in these images, especially around the border of the lens-shaped feature, bright ridges appear to turn into dark grooves. Analysis of the geologic structures in areas like this are helping scientists to understand the complex tectonic history of Ganymede.

    North is to the top-left of the image, and the sun illuminates the surface from the southeast. The image covers an area about 63 kilometers (39 miles) by 120 kilometers (75 miles) across at a resolution of 188 meters (627 feet) per picture element. The images were taken on September 6, 1996 at a range of 18,522 kilometers (11,576 miles) by the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  10. Cadmium complexation with bisulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, F.; Tessier, A.

    1999-12-01

    The authors have used in situ dialysis to measure the solubility of CdS(s) in sulfidic solutions. The solubility product for the reaction CdS(s) + H{sup +} {l{underscore}reversible} Cd{sup 2+} + HS{sup {minus}} at 25 C and 1 atm was found to be 10{sup {minus}14.15{+-}0.06} and 10{sup {minus}14.40{+-}0.03} for a crystalline product and to be 10{sup {minus}14.15{+-}0.06} for two precipitates, respectively. They show that the solubility of these three solids at various pH values and sulfide concentrations can be reproduced adequately by the following four bisulfide complexes: CdHS{sup +}, Cd(HS){sub 2}, Cd(HS){sub 3}{sup {minus}}, and Cd(HS){sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}; the log K{sub n} values for the general equation Cd{sup 2+} + nHS{sup {minus}} {r{underscore}reversible} Cd(HS){sub n}{sup 2{minus}n} are 7.38 {+-} 0.68, 14.43 {+-} 0.01, 16026 & 0.58, and 18.43 {+-} 0.05, respectively. The species CdOHS{sup {minus}}, which has been reported previously, does not explain their experimental results. Calculations using estimated concentrations of organic ligands (humic substances and organic thiols) known to be present in natural waters indicate that sulfide complexes largely dominate Cd speciation in natural waters at {Sigma}S(-II) {ge} 10{sup {minus}6} M.

  11. What is a complex graph?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jongkwang; Wilhelm, Thomas

    2008-04-01

    Many papers published in recent years show that real-world graphs G(n,m) ( n nodes, m edges) are more or less “complex” in the sense that different topological features deviate from random graphs. Here we narrow the definition of graph complexity and argue that a complex graph contains many different subgraphs. We present different measures that quantify this complexity, for instance C1e, the relative number of non-isomorphic one-edge-deleted subgraphs (i.e. DECK size). However, because these different subgraph measures are computationally demanding, we also study simpler complexity measures focussing on slightly different aspects of graph complexity. We consider heuristically defined “product measures”, the products of two quantities which are zero in the extreme cases of a path and clique, and “entropy measures” quantifying the diversity of different topological features. The previously defined network/graph complexity measures Medium Articulation and Offdiagonal complexity ( OdC) belong to these two classes. We study OdC measures in some detail and compare it with our new measures. For all measures, the most complex graph G has a medium number of edges, between the edge numbers of the minimum and the maximum connected graph n-1complexity measures are characterized with the help of different example graphs. For all measures the corresponding time complexity is given. Finally, we discuss the complexity of 33 real-world graphs of different biological, social and economic systems with the six computationally most simple measures (including OdC). The complexities of the real graphs are compared with average complexities of two different random graph versions: complete random graphs (just fixed n,m) and rewired graphs with fixed node degrees.

  12. Synthesis, characterization, and crystal structures of the osmium triflate complexes Cp*

    E-print Network

    Girolami, Gregory S.

    Synthesis, characterization, and crystal structures of the osmium triflate complexes Cp* Os Available online 3 June 2006 Abstract Treatment of the osmium(II) hydrides Cp*Os(P­P)H (Cp* = pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) with methyl trifluoromethanesulfonate (MeOTf) affords osmium(II) triflate complexes

  13. A prototype system for economic, environmental and sustainable optimization of a chemical complex

    E-print Network

    Pike, Ralph W.

    ), the chemical industry has gone from end-of-pipe treatment to source reduction, recycling and reuse. PollutionA prototype system for economic, environmental and sustainable optimization of a chemical complex T.A. Hertwig, A. Xu, A.B. Nagy, R.W. Pike, J.R. Hopper, C.L. Yaws Abstract A prototype of a chemical complex

  14. Macrocyclic bis(ureas) as ligands for anion complexation

    PubMed Central

    Kretschmer, Claudia; Dittmann, Gertrud

    2014-01-01

    Summary Two macrocyclic bis(ureas) 1 and 2, both based on diphenylurea, have been synthesized. Compound 1 represents the smaller ring with two ethynylene groups as linkers and 2 the larger ring with two butadiynylene groups. On thermal treatment to 130 °C molecule 1 splits up into two dihydroindoloquinolinone (3) molecules. Both compounds 1 and 2 form adducts with polar molecules such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and dimethylformamide (DMF) and act as complexing agents towards a series of anions (Cl?, Br?, I?, NO3 ?, HSO4 ?). The crystal structures of 3, 2·2DMSO, 2·2DMF, and of the complex NEt4[Br·2] have been determined. Quantitative investigations of the complexation equilibria were performed via 1H NMR titrations. While 1 is a rather weak complexing agent, the large ring of 2 binds anions with association constants up to log K = 7.93 for chloride ions. PMID:25161744

  15. Complex of transferrin with ruthenium for medical applications

    DOEpatents

    Richards, Powell (Bayport, NY); Srivastava, Suresh C. (Setauket, NY); Meinken, George E. (Middle Island, NY)

    1984-05-15

    A novel Ruthenium-transferrin complex, prepared by reacting iron-free human transferrin dissolved in a sodium acetate solution at pH 7 with ruthenium by heating at about 40.degree. C. for about 2 hours, and purifying said complex by means of gel chromotography with pH 7 sodium acetate as eluent. The mono- or di-metal complex produced can be used in nuclear medicine in the diagnosis and/or treatment of tumors and abscesses. Comparative results with Ga-67-citrate, which is the most widely used tumor-localizing agent in nuclear medicine, indicate increased sensitivity of detection and greater tumor uptake with the Ru-transferrin complex.

  16. Complex of transferrin with ruthenium for medical applications

    DOEpatents

    Richards, P.; Srivastava, S.C.; Meinken, G.E.

    1984-05-15

    A novel ruthenium-transferrin complex is disclosed which is prepared by reacting iron-free human transferrin dissolved in a sodium acetate solution at pH 7 with ruthenium by heating at about 40 C for about 2 hours. The complex is purified by means of gel chromotography with pH 7 sodium acetate as eluent. The mono- or di-metal complex produced can be used in nuclear medicine in the diagnosis and/or treatment of tumors and abscesses. Comparative results with Ga-67-citrate, which is the most widely used tumor-localizing agent in nuclear medicine, indicate increased sensitivity of detection and greater tumor uptake with the Ru-transferrin complex. No Drawings

  17. Hydroboration of Alkynes with Zwitterionic Ruthenium-Borate Complexes: Novel Vinylborane Complexes.

    PubMed

    Anju, R S; Mondal, Bijan; Saha, Koushik; Panja, Subir; Varghese, Babu; Ghosh, Sundargopal

    2015-08-01

    Building upon previous studies on the synthesis of bis(sigma)borate and agostic complexes of ruthenium, the chemistry of nido-[(Cp*Ru)2 B3 H9] (1) with other ligand systems was explored. In this regard, mild thermolysis of nido-1 with 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (2-mbzt), 2-mercaptobenzoxazole (2-mbzo) and 2-mercaptobenzimidazole (2-mbzi) ligands were performed which led to the isolation of bis(sigma)borate complexes [Cp*RuBH3 L] (2?a-c) and ?-agostic complexes [Cp*RuBH2 L2] (3?a-c; 2?a, 3?a: L=C7 H4 NS2 ; 2?b, 3?b: L=C7 H4 NSO; 2?c, 3?c: L=C7 H5 N2 S). Further, the chemistry of these novel complexes towards various diphosphine ligands was investigated. Room temperature treatment of 3?a with [PPh2 (CH2 )n PPh2 ] (n=1-3) yielded [Cp*Ru(PPh2 (CH2 )n PPh2 )-BH2 (L2)] (4?a-c; 4?a: n=1; 4?b: n=2; 4?c: n=3; L=C7 H4 NS2). Mild thermolysis of 2?a with [PPh2 (CH2)n PPh2 ] (n=1-3) led to the isolation of [Cp*Ru(PPh2 (CH2)n PPh2 )(L)] (L=C7 H4 NS2 5?a-c; 5?a: n=1; 5?b: n=2; 5?c: n=3). Treatment of 4?a with terminal alkynes causes a hydroboration reaction to generate vinylborane complexes [Cp*Ru(R-C=CH2 )BH(L2)] (6 and 7; 6: R=Ph; 7: R=COOCH3; L=C7 H4 NS2). Complexes 6 and 7 can also be viewed as ?-alkene complexes of ruthenium that feature a dative bond to the ruthenium centre from the vinylinic double bond. In addition, DFT computations were performed to shed light on the bonding and electronic structures of the new compounds. PMID:26118549

  18. Two-stage treatment reduces water/oil ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, F.; Dairymple, D. ); McKown, K.; Matthews, B. )

    1990-09-10

    This paper reports how a treatment of amphoteric polymer followed by chrome-complexed anionic polyacrylamide has successfully decreased the water/oil (WOR) ratio of wells producing from the Arbuckle dolomite formation in central Kansas. This technique, the fractured-matrix, water-control (FMWC) treatment, is designed to alter both primary and secondary permeability to water production. In 10 treated wells, the average WOR was reduced by a factor of five.

  19. ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT ALTERNATIVE TO A CLASS III SUBDIVISION MALOCCLUSION

    PubMed Central

    Janson, Guilherme; de Souza, José Eduardo Prado; Barros, Sérgio Estelita Cavalcante; Andrade, Pedro; Nakamura, Alexandre Yudi

    2009-01-01

    Class III malocclusions are considered one of the most complex and difficult orthodontic problems to diagnose and treat. Skeletal and/or dental asymmetries in patients presenting with Class III malocclusions can worsen the prognosis. Recognizing the dentoalveolar and skeletal characteristics of subdivision malocclusions and their treatment possibilities is essential for a favorable nonsurgical correction. Therefore, this article presents a nonsurgical asymmetric extraction approach to Class III subdivision malocclusion treatment which can significantly improve the occlusal and facial discrepancies. PMID:19668997

  20. Nonpharmacological treatment of epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, V. S.; Nadkarni, V. V.

    2011-01-01

    Nonpharmacological treatment of epilepsy includes surgery, vagal nerve stimulation, ketogenic diet, and other alternative/complementary therapies, e.g., yoga, Ayurveda, electroencephalography (EEG) biofeedback technique, aerobic exercise, music therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation, acupuncture, and herbal remedies (traditional Chinese medicine). Alternative therapies, despite the term, should not be considered as an alternative to antiepileptic medication; they complement accepted drug treatment. Alternative therapies like yoga, through techniques that relax the body and mind, reduce stress, improve seizure control, and also improve quality of life. Ketogenic diet is a safe and effective treatment for intractable epilepsies; it has been recommended since 1921. The diet induces ketosis, which may control seizures. The most successful treatment of epilepsy is with modern antiepileptic drugs, which can achieve control of seizures in 70–80% cases. Patients opt for alternative therapies because they may be dissatisfied with antiepileptic drugs due to their unpleasant side effects, the long duration of treatment, failure to achieve control of seizures, cultural beliefs and, in the case of women, because they wish to get pregnant Surgical treatment may lead to physical and psychological sequelae and is an option only for a minority of patients. This article presents supportive evidence from randomized controlled trials done to assess the benefit of non-pharmacological treatment. PMID:22028523

  1. Complexes of stars and complexes of star clusters

    E-print Network

    Yuri N. Efremov

    2010-11-20

    Most star complexes are in fact complexes of stars, clusters and gas clouds; term "star complexes" was introduced as general one disregarding the preferential content of a complex. Generally the high rate of star formation in a complex is accompanied by the high number of bound clusters, including massive ones, what was explained by the high gas pressure in such regions. However, there are also complexes, where clusters seems to be more numerous in relation to stars than in a common complex. The high rate of clusters - but not isolated stars - formation seems to be typical for many isolated bursts of star formation, but deficit of stars might be still explained by the observational selection. The latter cannot, however, explain the complexes or the dwarf galaxies, where the high formation rate of only stars is observed. The possibility of the very fast dissolution of parental clusters just in such regions should itself be explained. Some difference in the physical conditions (turbulence parameters ?) within the initial gas supercloud might be a reason for the high or low stars/clusters number ratio in a complex.

  2. Land Treatment Digital Library

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilliod, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Across the country, public land managers make hundreds of decisions each year that influence landscapes and ecosystems within the lands they manage. Many of these decisions involve vegetation manipulations known as land treatments. Land treatments include activities such as removal or alteration of plant biomass, seeding burned areas, and herbicide applications. Data on these land treatments are usually stored at local offices, and gathering information across large spatial areas can be difficult. There is a need to centralize and store treatment data for Federal agencies involved in land treatments because these data are useful to land managers for policy and management and to scientists for developing sampling designs and studies. The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to catalog information about land treatments on Federal lands in the western United States for all interested parties. The flexible framework of the library allows for the storage of a wide variety of data in different formats. The LTDL currently stores previously established land treatments or what often are called legacy data. The project was developed and has been refined based on feedback from partner agencies and stakeholders, with opportunity for the library holdings to expand as new information becomes available. The library contains data in text, tabular, spatial, and image formats. Specific examples include project plans and implementation reports, monitoring data, spatial data files from geographic information systems, digitized paper maps, and digital images of land treatments. The data are entered by USGS employees and are accessible through a searchable web site. The LTDL can be used to respond to information requests, conduct analyses and other forms of information syntheses, produce maps, and generate reports for DOI managers and scientists and other authorized users.

  3. Waste Treatment Plant - 12508

    SciTech Connect

    Harp, Benton; Olds, Erik

    2012-07-01

    The Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) will immobilize millions of gallons of Hanford's tank waste into solid glass using a proven technology called vitrification. The vitrification process will turn the waste into a stable glass form that is safe for long-term storage. Our discussion of the WTP will include a description of the ongoing design and construction of this large, complex, first-of-a-kind project. The concept for the operation of the WTP is to separate high-level and low-activity waste fractions, and immobilize those fractions in glass using vitrification. The WTP includes four major nuclear facilities and various support facilities. Waste from the Tank Farms is first pumped to the Pretreatment Facility at the WTP through an underground pipe-in-pipe system. When construction is complete, the Pretreatment Facility will be 12 stories high, 540 feet long and 215 feet wide, making it the largest of the four major nuclear facilities that compose the WTP. The total size of this facility will be more than 490,000 square feet. More than 8.2 million craft hours are required to construct this facility. Currently, the Pretreatment Facility is 51 percent complete. At the Pretreatment Facility the waste is pumped to the interior waste feed receipt vessels. Each of these four vessels is 55-feet tall and has a 375,000 gallon capacity, which makes them the largest vessels inside the Pretreatment Facility. These vessels contain a series of internal pulse-jet mixers to keep incoming waste properly mixed. The vessels are inside the black-cell areas, completely enclosed behind thick steel-laced, high strength concrete walls. The black cells are designed to be maintenance free with no moving parts. Once hot operations commence the black-cell area will be inaccessible. Surrounded by black cells, is the 'hot cell canyon'. The hot cell contains all the moving and replaceable components to remove solids and extract liquids. In this area, there is ultrafiltration equipment, cesium-ion exchange columns, evaporator boilers and recirculation pumps, and various mechanical process pumps for transferring process fluids. During the first phase of pretreatment, the waste will be concentrated using an evaporation process. Solids will be filtered out, and the remaining soluble, highly radioactive isotopes will be removed using an ion-exchange process. The high-level solids will be sent to the High-Level Waste (HLW) Vitrification Facility, and the low activity liquids will be sent to the Low-Activity Waste (LAW) Vitrification Facility for further processing. The high-level waste will be transferred via underground pipes to the HLW Facility from the Pretreatment Facility. The waste first arrives at the wet cell, which rests inside a black-cell area. The pretreated waste is transferred through shielded pipes into a series of melter preparation and feed vessels before reaching the melters. Liquids from various facility processes also return to the wet cell for interim storage before recycling back to the Pretreatment Facility. (authors)

  4. [Current treatment of hypertrichosis].

    PubMed

    Kunte, C; Wolff, H

    2001-11-01

    Facial hypertrichosis and hirsutism may cause severe cosmetic and psychologic problems. In the following, new developments in the treatment of hypertrichosis will be presented. Permanent depilation by photothermolysis is currently the most promising treatment. A new topical treatment of hypertrichosis is eflornithine cream. It inhibits the enzyme ornithine decarboxylase which is essential for the rapidly dividing cells of the hair follicle. Furthermore, other methods of hair removal such as plucking, waxing, chemical depilation by thioglycolates, electrolysis, thermolysis and systemic therapies of hirsutism will be discussed. PMID:11757465

  5. Heat treatment study 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.

    1990-01-01

    The microstructural variations in nickel based superalloys that result from modifications in processing were examined. These superalloys include MAR-M246(HF) and PWA1480. Alternate heat treatments for equiaxed as-cast specimens were studied and a sample matrix of 42 variations in the heat treatments were processed, as well as different directional solidification parameters. Variation in temperature and times for both solution and aging were performed. Photomicrographs were made of the microstructure and volume fraction analysis of primary gamma-prime and aged gamma-prime precipitates were performed. The results of the heat treatment, cooling rate, and directional solidification experiments are discussed.

  6. Treatment of neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Nash, T.E.; Singh, G.; White, A.C.; Rajshekhar, V.; Loeb, J.A.; Proaño, J.V.; Takayanagui, O.M.; Gonzalez, A.E.; Butman, J.A.; DeGiorgio, C.; Del Brutto, O.H.; Delgado-Escueta, A.; Evans, C.A.W.; Gilman, R.H.; Martinez, S.M.; Medina, M.T.; Pretell, E.J.; Teale, J.; Garcia, H.H.

    2010-01-01

    Here we put forward a roadmap that summarizes important questions that need to be answered to determine more effective and safer treatments. A key concept in management of neurocysticercosis is the understanding that infection and disease due to neurocysticercosis are variable and thus different clinical approaches and treatments are required. Despite recent advances, treatments remain either suboptimal or based on poorly controlled or anecdotal experience. A better understanding of basic pathophysiologic mechanisms including parasite survival and evolution, nature of the inflammatory response, and the genesis of seizures, epilepsy, and mechanisms of anthelmintic action should lead to improved therapies. PMID:17030744

  7. Understanding complex chiral plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Xiaoyang; Yue, Song; Liu, Na

    2015-10-01

    Chiral nanoplasmonics exhibits great potential for novel nanooptical devices due to the generation of a strong chiroptical response within nanoscale metallic structures. Recently, a number of different approaches have been utilized to create chiral nanoplasmonic structures. However, particularly for tailoring nanooptical chiral sensing devices, the understanding of the resulting chiroptical response when coupling chiral and achiral structures together is crucial and has not been completely understood to date. Here, we present a thorough and step-by-step experimental study to understand the intriguing chiral-achiral coupling scheme. We set up a hybrid plasmonic system, which bears resemblance to the `host-guest' system in supramolecular chemistry to analyze and explain the complex chiral response both at the chiral and achiral plasmonic resonances. We also provide an elegant and simple analytical model, which can describe, predict, and comprehend the chiroptical spectra in detail. Our study will shed light on designing well-controlled chiral-achiral coupling platforms for reliable chiral sensing.Chiral nanoplasmonics exhibits great potential for novel nanooptical devices due to the generation of a strong chiroptical response within nanoscale metallic structures. Recently, a number of different approaches have been utilized to create chiral nanoplasmonic structures. However, particularly for tailoring nanooptical chiral sensing devices, the understanding of the resulting chiroptical response when coupling chiral and achiral structures together is crucial and has not been completely understood to date. Here, we present a thorough and step-by-step experimental study to understand the intriguing chiral-achiral coupling scheme. We set up a hybrid plasmonic system, which bears resemblance to the `host-guest' system in supramolecular chemistry to analyze and explain the complex chiral response both at the chiral and achiral plasmonic resonances. We also provide an elegant and simple analytical model, which can describe, predict, and comprehend the chiroptical spectra in detail. Our study will shed light on designing well-controlled chiral-achiral coupling platforms for reliable chiral sensing. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04050g

  8. Antitubercular activity of Ru (II) isoniazid complexes.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Inara de; Tavares, Aline; Roveda, Antonio C; da Silva, Augusto C H; Marino, Leonardo B; Lopes, Érica O; Pavan, Fernando R; Lopes, Luiz G F; Franco, Douglas W

    2015-04-01

    Despite the resistance developed by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb) strains, isoniazid (INH) has been recognized as one of the best drug for treatment of Tuberculosis (Tb). The coordination of INH to ruthenium metal centers was investigated as a strategy to enhance the activity of this drug against the sensitive and resistant strains of MTb. The complexes trans-[Ru(NH3)4(L)(INH)](2+) (L=SO2 or NH3) were isolated and their chemical and antituberculosis properties studied. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) data show that [Ru(NH3)5(INH)](2+) was active in both resistant and sensitive strains, whereas free INH (non-coordinated) showed to be active only against the sensitive strain. The coordination of INH to the metal center in both [Ru(NH3)5(INH)](2+) and trans-[Ru(NH3)4(SO2)(INH)](2+) complexes led to a shift in the INH oxidation potential to less positive values compared to free INH. Despite, the ease of oxidation of INH did not lead to an increase in the in vitro INH activity against MTb, it might have provided sensitivity toward resistant strains. Furthermore, ruthenium complexes with chemical structures analogous to those described above were synthesized using the oxidation products of INH as ligands (namely, isonicotinic acid and isonicotinamide). These last compounds were not active against any strains of MTb. Moreover, according to DFT calculations the formation of the acyl radical, a proposed intermediate in the INH oxidation, is favored in the [Ru(NH3)5(INH)](2+) complex by 50.7kcalmol(-1) with respect to the free INH. This result suggests that the stabilization of the acyl radical promoted by the metal center would be a more important feature than the oxidation potential of the INH for the antituberculosis activity against resistant strains. PMID:25638418

  9. Complex Chromosomal Rearrangements Induced in Vivo by Heavy Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durante, M.; Ando, K.; Furusawa, G.; Obe, G.; George, K.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that the ratio complex/simple exchanges can be used as a biomarker of exposure to high-LET radiation. We tested this hypothesis in vivo, by considering data from several studies that measured complex exchanges in peripheral blood from humans exposed to mixed fields of low- and high-LET radiation. In particular, we studied data from astronauts involved in long-term missions in low-Earth-orbit, and uterus cancer patients treated with accelerated carbon ions. Data from two studies of chromosomal aberrations in astronauts used blood samples obtained before and after space flight, and a third study used blood samples from patients before and after radiotherapy course. Similar methods were used in each study, where lymphocytes were stimulated to grow in vitro, and collected after incubation in either colcemid or calyculin A. Slides were painted with whole-chromosome DNA fluorescent probes (FISH), and complex and simple chromosome exchanges in the painted genome were classified separately. Complex-type exchanges were observed at low frequencies in control subjects, and in our test subjects before the treatment. No statistically significant increase in the yield of complex-type exchanges was induced by the space flight. Radiation therapy induced a high fraction of complex exchanges, but no significant differences could be detected between patients treated with accelerated carbon ions or X-rays. Complex chromosomal rearrangements do not represent a practical biomarker of radiation quality in our test subjects. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Sociality influences cultural complexity.

    PubMed

    Muthukrishna, Michael; Shulman, Ben W; Vasilescu, Vlad; Henrich, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Archaeological and ethnohistorical evidence suggests a link between a population's size and structure, and the diversity or sophistication of its toolkits or technologies. Addressing these patterns, several evolutionary models predict that both the size and social interconnectedness of populations can contribute to the complexity of its cultural repertoire. Some models also predict that a sudden loss of sociality or of population will result in subsequent losses of useful skills/technologies. Here, we test these predictions with two experiments that permit learners to access either one or five models (teachers). Experiment 1 demonstrates that naive participants who could observe five models, integrate this information and generate increasingly effective skills (using an image editing tool) over 10 laboratory generations, whereas those with access to only one model show no improvement. Experiment 2, which began with a generation of trained experts, shows how learners with access to only one model lose skills (in knot-tying) more rapidly than those with access to five models. In the final generation of both experiments, all participants with access to five models demonstrate superior skills to those with access to only one model. These results support theoretical predictions linking sociality to cumulative cultural evolution. PMID:24225461

  11. Understanding complex chiral plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiaoyang; Yue, Song; Liu, Na

    2015-10-15

    Chiral nanoplasmonics exhibits great potential for novel nanooptical devices due to the generation of a strong chiroptical response within nanoscale metallic structures. Recently, a number of different approaches have been utilized to create chiral nanoplasmonic structures. However, particularly for tailoring nanooptical chiral sensing devices, the understanding of the resulting chiroptical response when coupling chiral and achiral structures together is crucial and has not been completely understood to date. Here, we present a thorough and step-by-step experimental study to understand the intriguing chiral-achiral coupling scheme. We set up a hybrid plasmonic system, which bears resemblance to the 'host-guest' system in supramolecular chemistry to analyze and explain the complex chiral response both at the chiral and achiral plasmonic resonances. We also provide an elegant and simple analytical model, which can describe, predict, and comprehend the chiroptical spectra in detail. Our study will shed light on designing well-controlled chiral-achiral coupling platforms for reliable chiral sensing. PMID:26274941

  12. Nonisostructural complex oxide heteroepitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Franklin J. Ramanathan, Shriram

    2014-07-01

    The authors present an overview of the fundamentals and representative examples of the growth of epitaxial complex oxide thin films on structurally dissimilar substrates. The authors will delineate how the details of particular crystal structures and symmetry of different oxide surfaces can be employed for a rational approach to the synthesis of nonisostructural epitaxial heterostructures. The concept of oxygen eutaxy can be widely applied. Materials combinations will be split into three categories, and in all cases the films and substrates occur in different crystal structures: (1) common translational and rotational symmetry between the film and substrate planes; (2) translational symmetry mismatch between the substrates and films that is distinct from a simple mismatch in lattice parameters; and (3) rotational symmetry mismatch. In case (1), in principle single-crystalline thin films can be attained despite the films and substrates possessing different crystal structures. In case (2), antiphase boundaries will be prevalent in the thin films. In case (3), thin-film rotational variants that are joined by tilt boundaries will be present. Diffraction techniques to determine crystallographic alignment and epitaxial variants are discussed, and transmission electron microscopy studies to investigate extended defects in the thin films will also be reviewed. The authors end with open problems in this field regarding the structure of oxide interfaces that can be topics for future research.

  13. Fact Sheet: Range Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornelson, C.; Fretter, E.

    2004-01-01

    NASA Ames has a long tradition in leadership with the use of ballistic ranges and shock tubes for the purpose of studying the physics and phenomena associated with hypervelocity flight. Cutting-edge areas of research run the gamut from aerodynamics, to impact physics, to flow-field structure and chemistry. This legacy of testing began in the NACA era of the 1940's with the Supersonic Free Flight Tunnel, and evolved dramatically up through the late 1950s with the pioneering work in the Ames Hypersonic Ballistic Range. The tradition continued in the mid-60s with the commissioning of the three newest facilities: the Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR) in 1964, the Hypervelocity Free Flight Facility (HFFF) in 1965 and the Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) in 1966. Today the Range Complex continues to provide unique and critical testing in support of the Nation's programs for planetary geology and geophysics; exobiology; solar system origins; earth atmospheric entry, planetary entry, and aerobraking vehicles; and various configurations for supersonic and hypersonic aircraft.

  14. Pertussis Diagnosis & Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treatment Prevention Adults Parents-to-be Babies & Children Preteens & Teens Travelers Healthcare Personnel Frequently Asked Questions Photos ... Pregnant Women For Parents of Young Children For Preteens & Teens For Adults For Spanish Speakers Publications Related ...

  15. Assertive Community Treatment (ACT)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... be very effective in the treatment of severe mental illness. ACT is aimed at providing comprehensive multidisciplinary care ... strives to decrease the debilitating symptoms of severe mental illness that affect each individual in different ways. By ...

  16. Treatment of Ganglion Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Fung, B.; Lung, C. P.

    2013-01-01

    Ganglion cysts are soft tissue swellings occurring most commonly in the hand or wrist. Apart from swelling, most cysts are asymptomatic. Other symptoms include pain, weakness, or paraesthesia. The two main concerns patients have are the cosmetic appearance of the cysts and the fear of future malignant growth. It has been shown that 58% of cysts will resolve spontaneously over time. Treatment can be either conservative or through surgical excision. This review concluded that nonsurgical treatment is largely ineffective in treating ganglion cysts. However, it advised to patients who do not surgical treatment but would like symptomatic relief. Compared to surgery, which has a lower recurrence rate but have a higher complication rate with longer recovery period. It has been shown that surgical interventions do not provide better symptomatic relief compared to conservative treatment. If symptomatic relief is the patient's primary concern, a conservative approach is preferred, whilst surgical intervention will decrease the likelihood of recurrence. PMID:24967120

  17. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to 60 Adults Over 60 Babies, Children & Teenagers Computer Usage Diabetes Diet & Nutrition Eye Injuries Eye Screening ... treatment may not be successful. Amblyopia caused by cloudiness of the eye tissue needs to be found ...

  18. Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... does not go away. Tests that examine the head, neck, and the inside of the mouth are used ... team of doctors who are experts in treating head and neck cancer. Your treatment will be overseen by a ...

  19. Tuberculosis (TB): Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 2/13 By Dr. Iseman Michael Iseman, MD Tuberculosis (TB): Treatment Given the many effective medications available ... Calendar Read the News View Daily Pollen Count Tuberculosis Program National Jewish Health is a world-renowned ...

  20. Coronavirus Diagnosis and Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Coronaviruses Diagnosis and Treatment Laboratory tests can detect human coronavirus infection. There are ...